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Sample records for aluminum oxide films

  1. Electrochemical formation of a composite polymer-aluminum oxide film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runge-Marchese, Jude Mary

    1997-10-01

    The formation of polymer films through electrochemical techniques utilizing electrolytes which include conductive polymer is of great interest to the coatings and electronics industries as a means for creating electrically conductive and corrosion resistant finishes. One of these polymers, polyamino-benzene (polyaniline), has been studied for this purpose for over ten years. This material undergoes an insulator-to-metal transition upon doping with protonic acids in an acid/base type reaction. Review of prior studies dealing with polyaniline and working knowledge of aluminum anodization has led to the development of a unique process whereby composite polymer-aluminum oxide films are formed. The basis for the process is a modification of the anodizing electrolyte which results in the codeposition of polyaniline during aluminum anodization. A second process, which incorporates electrochemical sealing of the anodic layer with polyaniline was also developed. The formation of these composite films is documented through experimental processing, and characterized by way of scientific analysis and engineering tests. Analysis results revealed the formation of unique dual phase anodic films with fine microstructures which exhibited full intrusion of the columnar aluminum oxide structure with polyaniline, indicating the polymer was deposited as the metal oxidation proceeded. An aromatic amine derivative of polyaniline with aluminum sulfate was determined to be the reaction product within the aluminum oxide phase of the codeposited films. Scientific characterization determined the codeposition process yields completely chemically and metallurgically bound composite films. Engineering studies determined the films, obtained through a single step, exhibited superior wear and corrosion resistance to conventionally anodized and sealed films processed through two steps, demonstrating the increased manufacturing process efficiency that can be realized with the modification of the

  2. The Effect of Anodic Oxide Films on the Nickel-Aluminum Reaction in Aluminum Braze Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadgell, Colin A.; Wells, Mary A.; Corbin, Stephen F.; Colley, Leo; Cheadle, Brian; Winkler, Sooky

    2017-03-01

    The influence of an anodic oxide surface film on the nickel-aluminum reaction at the surface of aluminum brazing sheet has been investigated. Samples were anodized in a barrier-type solution and subsequently sputtered with nickel. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and metallography were used as the main investigative techniques. The thickness of the anodic film was found to control the reaction between the aluminum substrate and nickel coating. Solid-state formation of nickel-aluminum intermetallic phases occurred readily when a relatively thin oxide film (13 to 25 nm) was present, whereas intermetallic formation was suppressed in the presence of thicker oxides ( 60 nm). At an intermediate oxide film thickness of 35 nm, the Al3Ni phase formed shortly after the initiation of melting in the aluminum substrate. Analysis of DSC traces showed that formation of nickel-aluminum intermetallic phases changed the melting characteristics of the aluminum substrate, and that the extent of this change can be used as an indirect measure of the amount of nickel incorporated into the intermetallic phases.

  3. Preparation of Aluminum Nanomesh Thin Films from an Anodic Aluminum Oxide Template as Transparent Conductive Electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yiwen; Chen, Yulong; Qiu, Mingxia; Yu, Hongyu; Zhang, Xinhai; Sun, Xiao Wei; Chen, Rui

    2016-02-01

    We have employed anodic aluminum oxide as a template to prepare ultrathin, transparent, and conducting Al films with a unique nanomesh structure for transparent conductive electrodes. The anodic aluminum oxide template is obtained through direct anodization of a sputtered Al layer on a glass substrate, and subsequent wet etching creates the nanomesh metallic film. The optical and conductive properties are greatly influenced by experimental conditions. By tuning the anodizing time, transparent electrodes with appropriate optical transmittance and sheet resistance have been obtained. The results demonstrate that our proposed strategy can serve as a potential method to fabricate low-cost TCEs to replace conventional indium tin oxide materials.

  4. RF Magnetron Sputtering Aluminum Oxide Film for Surface Passivation on Crystalline Silicon Wafers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siming Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum oxide films were deposited on crystalline silicon substrates by reactive RF magnetron sputtering. The influences of the deposition parameters on the surface passivation, surface damage, optical properties, and composition of the films have been investigated. It is found that proper sputtering power and uniform magnetic field reduced the surface damage from the high-energy ion bombardment to the silicon wafers during the process and consequently decreased the interface trap density, resulting in the good surface passivation; relatively high refractive index of aluminum oxide film is benefic to improve the surface passivation. The negative-charged aluminum oxide film was then successfully prepared. The surface passivation performance was further improved after postannealing by formation of an SiOx interfacial layer. It is demonstrated that the reactive sputtering is an effective technique of fabricating aluminum oxide surface passivation film for low-cost high-efficiency crystalline silicon solar cells.

  5. Electrophoretic deposition of PTFE particles on porous anodic aluminum oxide film and its tribological properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dongya; Dong, Guangneng; Chen, Yinjuan; Zeng, Qunfeng

    2014-01-01

    Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) composite film was successfully fabricated by depositing PTFE particles into porous anodic aluminum oxide film using electrophoretic deposition (EPD) process. Firstly, porous anodic aluminum oxide film was synthesized by anodic oxidation process in sulphuric acid electrolyte. Then, PTFE particles in suspension were directionally deposited into the porous substrate. Finally, a heat treatment at 300 °C for 1 h was utilized to enhance PTFE particles adhesion to the substrate. The influence of anodic oxidation parameters on the morphology and micro-hardness of the porous anodic aluminum oxide film was studied and the PTFE particles deposited into the pores were authenticated using energy-dispersive spectrometer (EDS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Tribological properties of the PTFE composite film were investigated under dry sliding. The experimental results showed that the composite film exhibit remarkable low friction. The composite film had friction coefficient of 0.20 which deposited in 15% PTFE emulsion at temperature of 15 °C and current density of 3 A/dm2 for 35 min. In addition, a control specimen of porous anodic aluminum oxide film and the PTFE composite film were carried out under the same test condition, friction coefficient of the PTFE composite film was reduced by 60% comparing with the control specimen at 380 MPa and 100 mm/s. The lubricating mechanism was that PTFE particles embedded in porous anodic aluminum oxide film smeared a transfer film on the sliding path and the micro-pores could support the supplement of solid lubricant during the sliding, which prolonged the lubrication life of the aluminum alloys.

  6. Electrophoretic deposition of PTFE particles on porous anodic aluminum oxide film and its tribological properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Dongya; Dong, Guangneng, E-mail: donggn@mail.xjtu.edu.cn; Chen, Yinjuan; Zeng, Qunfeng

    2014-01-30

    Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) composite film was successfully fabricated by depositing PTFE particles into porous anodic aluminum oxide film using electrophoretic deposition (EPD) process. Firstly, porous anodic aluminum oxide film was synthesized by anodic oxidation process in sulphuric acid electrolyte. Then, PTFE particles in suspension were directionally deposited into the porous substrate. Finally, a heat treatment at 300 °C for 1 h was utilized to enhance PTFE particles adhesion to the substrate. The influence of anodic oxidation parameters on the morphology and micro-hardness of the porous anodic aluminum oxide film was studied and the PTFE particles deposited into the pores were authenticated using energy-dispersive spectrometer (EDS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Tribological properties of the PTFE composite film were investigated under dry sliding. The experimental results showed that the composite film exhibit remarkable low friction. The composite film had friction coefficient of 0.20 which deposited in 15% PTFE emulsion at temperature of 15 °C and current density of 3 A/dm{sup 2} for 35 min. In addition, a control specimen of porous anodic aluminum oxide film and the PTFE composite film were carried out under the same test condition, friction coefficient of the PTFE composite film was reduced by 60% comparing with the control specimen at 380 MPa and 100 mm/s. The lubricating mechanism was that PTFE particles embedded in porous anodic aluminum oxide film smeared a transfer film on the sliding path and the micro-pores could support the supplement of solid lubricant during the sliding, which prolonged the lubrication life of the aluminum alloys.

  7. Structural features of anodic oxide films formed on aluminum substrate coated with self-assembled microspheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asoh, Hidetaka [Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Engineering, Kogakuin University, 2665-1 Nakano, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0015 (Japan)], E-mail: asoh@cc.kogakuin.ac.jp; Uchibori, Kota; Ono, Sachiko [Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Engineering, Kogakuin University, 2665-1 Nakano, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0015 (Japan)

    2009-07-15

    The structural features of anodic oxide films formed on an aluminum substrate coated with self-assembled microspheres were investigated by scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. In the first anodization in neutral solution, the growth of a barrier-type film was partially suppressed in the contact area between the spheres and the underlying aluminum substrate, resulting in the formation of ordered dimple arrays in an anodic oxide film. After the subsequent second anodization in acid solution at a voltage lower than that of the first anodization, nanopores were generated only within each dimple. The nanoporous region could be removed selectively by post-chemical etching using the difference in structural dimensions between the porous region and the surrounding barrier region. The mechanism of anodic oxide growth on the aluminum substrate coated with microspheres through multistep anodization is discussed.

  8. Evolution of Surface Oxide Film of Typical Aluminum Alloy During Medium-Temperature Brazing Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程方杰; 赵海微; 王颖; 肖兵; 姚俊峰

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of the surface oxide film along the depth direction of typical aluminum alloy under medium-temperature brazing was investigated by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). For the alloy with Mg content below 2.0wt%, whether under cold rolling condition or during medium-temperature brazing process, the en-richment of Mg element on the surface was not detected and the oxide film was pure Al2O3. However, the oxide film grew obviously during medium-temperature brazing process, and the thickness was about 80 nm. For the alloy with Mg content above 2.0wt%, under cold rolling condition, the original surface oxide film was pure Al2O3. However, the Mg element was significantly enriched on the outermost surface during medium-temperature brazing process, and MgO-based oxide film mixed with small amount of MgAl2O4 was formed with a thickness of about 130 nm. The alloy-ing elements of Mn and Si were not enriched on the surface neither under cold rolling condition nor during medium-temperature brazing process for all the selected aluminum alloy, and the surface oxide film was similar to that of pure aluminum, which was almost entire Al2O3.

  9. The application of the barrier-type anodic oxidation method to thickness testing of aluminum films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianwen; Yao, Manwen; Xiao, Ruihua; Yang, Pengfei; Hu, Baofu; Yao, Xi

    2014-09-01

    The thickness of the active metal oxide film formed from a barrier-type anodizing process is directly proportional to its formation voltage. The thickness of the consumed portion of the metal film is also corresponding to the formation voltage. This principle can be applied to the thickness test of the metal films. If the metal film is growing on a dielectric substrate, when the metal film is exhausted in an anodizing process, because of the high electrical resistance of the formed oxide film, a sudden increase of the recorded voltage during the anodizing process would occur. Then, the thickness of the metal film can be determined from this voltage. As an example, aluminum films are tested and discussed in this work. This method is quite simple and is easy to perform with high precision.

  10. High performance In2O3 thin film transistors using chemically derived aluminum oxide dielectric

    KAUST Repository

    Nayak, Pradipta K.

    2013-07-18

    We report high performance solution-deposited indium oxide thin film transistors with field-effect mobility of 127 cm2/Vs and an Ion/Ioff ratio of 106. This excellent performance is achieved by controlling the hydroxyl group content in chemically derived aluminum oxide (AlOx) thin-film dielectrics. The AlOx films annealed in the temperature range of 250–350 °C showed higher amount of Al-OH groups compared to the films annealed at 500 °C, and correspondingly higher mobility. It is proposed that the presence of Al-OH groups at the AlOx surface facilitates unintentional Al-doping and efficient oxidation of the indium oxide channel layer, leading to improved device performance.

  11. Reaction behavior between the oxide film of LY12 aluminum alloy and the flux

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛松柏; 董健; 吕晓春; 顾文华

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, the brazing mechanism of LY12 aluminum alloy at middle range temperature was presented. The CsF-AlF3 non-corrosive flux was utilized to remove the complex oxide film on the surface of LY12 aluminum alloy. The results revealed that the oxide film was removed by the improved CsF-AlF3 flux accompanied with the occurrence of reaction as well as dissolution and the compounds CsF played an important role to remove the oxide film. Actually, the high activity of flux, say, the ability to remove the oxide film, was due to the presence of the compounds, such as NH4F,NH4AlF4 and composite molten salt. The production of HF was the key issue to accelerate the reaction and enhance to eliminate the oxide film by dissolution. It was found that the rare earth element La at small percentage was not enriched at the interface. Moreover, the rare earth fluoride enhanced the dissolution behavior.

  12. Modelling the growth process of porous aluminum oxide film during anodization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryslanova, E. M.; Alfimov, A. V.; Chivilikhin, S. A.

    2015-11-01

    Currently it has become important for the development of metamaterials and nanotechnology to obtain regular self-assembled structures. One such structure is porous anodic alumina film that consists of hexagonally packed cylindrical pores. In this work we consider the anodization process, our model takes into account the influence of layers of aluminum and electrolyte on the rate of growth of aluminum oxide, as well as the effect of surface diffusion. In present work we consider those effects. And as a result of our model we obtain the minimum distance between centers of alumina pores in the beginning of anodizing process.

  13. Bimodal spatial distribution of pores in anodically oxidized aluminum thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behnke, J. F.; Sands, T.

    2000-12-01

    Though porous anodic aluminum oxide has been the subject of considerable research since the 1950s, little attention has been devoted to the characterization of the self-organization of the pore structures, and fewer of these studies have focused on anodization of thin films. The degree to which these structures self-organize, however, could play a vital role in future applications of porous anodic aluminum oxide. In this study a model is developed to describe pore ordering in thin anodized aluminum films. The model is based on a radial distribution function approach to describe the interpore spacings. Idealized one-dimensional and two-dimensional (2D) radial distribution functions are combined by linear superposition to approximate experimental radial distribution functions. Using these radial distribution functions, an order parameter is developed and an improved definition of pore spacing is constructed. This method confirms that the oxide initially forms with a highly frustrated porous structure and reorganizes toward greater 2D order as the oxide grows into the film.

  14. Synthesis and properties of iridescent Zn-containing anodic aluminum oxide films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jia, Xiaoxuan; Sun, Huiyuan, E-mail: huiyuansun@126.com; Liu, Lihu; Hou, Xue; Liu, Huiyuan

    2015-07-01

    A simple method of fabricating Zn-containing anodic aluminum oxide films for multifunctional anticounterfeit technology is reported. The resulting membranes were characterized with UV–vis illumination studies, natural light illumination color experiments, and electron microscopy analysis. Deposition of Zn in the nanopore region can enhance the color saturation of the thin alumina film with different colors dramatically. Both the anodization time and etching time have great influence on the structural color. The mechanisms for the emergence of this phenomenon are discussed and theoretical analysis further demonstrates the experimental results. - Highlights: • Iridescent PAA@Zn nanocomposite films were successfully fabricated. • A simple organics-assisted method is applied to making a series of fancy and multicolor patterns. • The color varies with the angle of incidence of the light used to view the film as is expected with Bragg–Snell formula. • Such colored films could be used in multifunctional anti-counterfeiting applications.

  15. Photoluminescence emission of nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide films prepared in phosphoric acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nourmohammadi, Abolghasem; Asadabadi, Saeid Jalali; Yousefi, Mohammad Hasan; Ghasemzadeh, Majid

    2012-12-01

    The photoluminescence emission of nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide films formed in phosphoric acid is studied in order to explore their defect-based subband electronic structure. Different excitation wavelengths are used to identify most of the details of the subband states. The films are produced under different anodizing conditions to optimize their emission in the visible range. Scanning electron microscopy investigations confirm pore formation in the produced layers. Gaussian analysis of the emission data indicates that subband states change with anodizing parameters, and various point defects can be formed both in the bulk and on the surface of these nanoporous layers during anodizing.

  16. Chemical Vapor Deposition of Aluminum Oxide Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vohs, Jason K.; Bentz, Amy; Eleamos, Krystal; Poole, John; Fahlman, Bradley D.

    2010-01-01

    Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is a process routinely used to produce thin films of materials via decomposition of volatile precursor molecules. Unfortunately, the equipment required for a conventional CVD experiment is not practical or affordable for many undergraduate chemistry laboratories, especially at smaller institutions. In an effort to…

  17. Characterization of monolayer formation on aluminum-doped zinc oxide thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Crissy L; Lappi, Simon; Fischer, Daniel; Sambasivan, Sharadha; Genzer, Jan; Franzen, Stefan

    2008-01-15

    The optical and electronic properties of aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) thin films on a glass substrate are investigated experimentally and theoretically. Optical studies with coupling in the Kretschmann configuration reveal an angle-dependent plasma frequency in the mid-IR for p-polarized radiation, suggestive of the detection of a Drude plasma frequency. These studies are complemented by oxygen depletion density functional theory studies for the calculation of the charge carrier concentration and plasma frequency for bulk AZO. In addition, we report on the optical and physical properties of thin film adlayers of n-hexadecanethiol (HDT) and n-octadecanethiol (ODT) self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on AZO surfaces using reflectance FTIR spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), contact angle, and near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy. Our characterization of the SAM deposition onto the AZO thin film reveals a range of possible applications for this conducting metal oxide.

  18. Preparation and analysis of anodic aluminum oxide films with continuously tunable interpore distances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Xiufang; Zhang, Jinqiong; Meng, Xiaojuan; Deng, Chenhua; Zhang, Lifang; Ding, Guqiao; Zeng, Hao; Xu, Xiaohong

    2015-02-01

    Nanoporous anodic aluminum oxides are often used as templates for preparation of nanostructures such as nanodot, nanowire and nanotube arrays. The interpore distance of anodic aluminum oxide is the most important parameter in controlling the periodicity of these nanostructures. Herein we demonstrate a simple and yet powerful method to fabricate ordered anodic aluminum oxides with continuously tunable interpore distances. By using mixed solution of citric and oxalic acids with different molar ratio, the range of anodizing voltages within which self-ordered films can be formed were extended to between 40 and 300 V, resulting in the interpore distances change from 100 to 750 nm. Our work realized very broad range of interpore distances in a continuously tunable fashion and the experiment processes are easily controllable and reproducible. The dependence of the interpore distances on acid ratios in mixed solutions was discussed through analysis of anodizing current and it was found that the effective dissociation constant of the mixed acids is of great importance. The interpore distances achieved are comparable to wavelengths ranging from UV to near IR, and may have potential applications in optical meta-materials for photovoltaics and optical sensing.

  19. Flexible aluminum-doped zinc-oxide thin-film transistor fabricated on plastic substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Dedong; Chen, Zhuofa; Zhao, Nannan; Wang, Wei; Huang, Fuqing; Zhang, Shengdong; Zhang, Xing; Wang, Yi

    2014-03-01

    We have studied processing and characteristics of flexible Aluminum-doped Zinc Oxide thin-film transistors (AZO TFTs) fabricated on plastic substrates using radio frequency (rf) magnetron sputtering. To improve the performance of flexible AZO TFT, we studied effects of device structures on characteristics of the aluminum-doped zinc oxide thin film transistors. The electrical properties of top-gate type and bottom-gate type AZO TFTs were investigated, respectively. The top-gate type AZO TFTs shows a threshold voltage of 1.4 V, a Ion/Ioff current ratio of 1.0×107, a field effect mobility of 28.2 cm2/ V•s, a subthreshold swing of 0.19 V/decade. And the bottom-gate type AZO TFTs shows a threshold voltage of 1.7 V, a Ion/Ioff ratio of 1.0×107, a field effect mobility of 209 cm2/ V•s, a subthreshold swing of 0.16 V/decade, and the off current of less than 10-11A at room temperature. Both TFTs show low threshold voltage, high Ion/Ioff ratio and high field effect mobility. By comparison, the bottom-gate type AZO TFTs shows better characteristics. The flexible AZO-TFT is a very promising low-cost optoelectronic device for the next generation of invisible and flexible electronics due to flexible, transparency, high mobility, and low-temperature processing.

  20. Aluminum oxide films deposited in low pressure conditions by reactive pulsed dc magnetron sputtering

    CERN Document Server

    Seino, T

    2002-01-01

    The reactive pulsed dc sputtering technique is widely used for the deposition of oxide films. The operating pressure for sputtering is commonly above 0.13 Pa. In this study, however, aluminum oxide (alumina) films were deposited at operating pressures from 0.06 to 0.4 Pa using a sputtering system equipped with a scanning magnetron cathode and a pulsed dc power supply. The pulsed dc power was found to be useful not only to reduce arcing, but also to sustain the discharge at low pressure. The electrical breakdown field, intrinsic stress, O/Al ratio, refractive index, and surface roughness were investigated. Both a low intrinsic stress and an O/Al ratio around the stoichiometry were required to get the film having a high breakdown field. A low operating pressure of 0.1 Pa was found to provide the necessary stress and O/Al ratio targets. A 50-nm-thick alumina film having a maximum breakdown field of 7.4 MV/cm was obtained.

  1. Stability of Indium Gallium Zinc Aluminum Oxide Thin-Film Transistors with Treatment Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yung-Hao; Lee, Ching-Ting

    2016-10-01

    The indium-gallium-zinc-aluminum-oxide (IGZAO) channel layer of the bottom-gate-type thin-film transistors (TFTs) was deposited on indium tin oxide-coated glass substrates using a magnetron radio frequency co-sputtering system with dual targets of indium gallium zinc oxide and Al. The 3 s orbital of Al cations provided an extra transport pathway and widened the bottom of the conduction band, thus increasing the electron mobility in the IGZAO films. The Al-O bonds could sustain the stability of oxygen of the IGZAO films. The IGZAO TFTs were processed by O2 plasma and post-annealing treatments. Hysteresis analysis was carried out in order to study the stability of the resulting IGZAO TFTs, the positive bias temperature stress (PBTS) performance, and the hot carrier effect were also measured. For the IGZAO TFTs, the threshold voltage shift of the PBTS performance and the hot carrier effect were 0.1 V and 0.06 V, respectively. Overall, the IGZAO TFTs exhibited good stability in this study.

  2. Stability of Indium Gallium Zinc Aluminum Oxide Thin-Film Transistors with Treatment Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yung-Hao; Lee, Ching-Ting

    2017-02-01

    The indium-gallium-zinc-aluminum-oxide (IGZAO) channel layer of the bottom-gate-type thin-film transistors (TFTs) was deposited on indium tin oxide-coated glass substrates using a magnetron radio frequency co-sputtering system with dual targets of indium gallium zinc oxide and Al. The 3 s orbital of Al cations provided an extra transport pathway and widened the bottom of the conduction band, thus increasing the electron mobility in the IGZAO films. The Al-O bonds could sustain the stability of oxygen of the IGZAO films. The IGZAO TFTs were processed by O2 plasma and post-annealing treatments. Hysteresis analysis was carried out in order to study the stability of the resulting IGZAO TFTs, the positive bias temperature stress (PBTS) performance, and the hot carrier effect were also measured. For the IGZAO TFTs, the threshold voltage shift of the PBTS performance and the hot carrier effect were 0.1 V and 0.06 V, respectively. Overall, the IGZAO TFTs exhibited good stability in this study.

  3. Optical Transmittance of Anodically Oxidized Aluminum Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Mitsunori; Shiga, Yasunori; Miyagi, Mitsunobu; Wada, Kenji; Ono, Sachiko

    1995-06-01

    Optical transmittance and anisotropy of anodic oxide films that were made from pure aluminum and an aluminum alloy (A5052) were studied. The alloy oxide film exhibits an enhanced polarization function, particularly when anodization is carried out at a large current density. It was revealed by chemical analysis that the alloy oxide film contains a larger amount of unoxidized aluminum than the pure-aluminum oxide film. The polarization function can be elucidated by considering unoxidized aluminum particles that are arranged in the columnar structure of the alumina film. Electron microscope observation showed that many holes exist in the alloy oxide film, around which columnar cells are arranged irregularly. Such holes and irregular cell arrangement cause the increase in the amount of unoxidized aluminum, and consequently induces scattering loss.

  4. Optical properties of one-dimensional photonic crystals based on porous films of anodic aluminum oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorelik, V. S.; Klimonsky, S. O.; Filatov, V. V.; Napolskii, K. S.

    2016-04-01

    The optical properties of one-dimensional photonic crystals based on porous anodic aluminum oxide films have been studied by measuring transmittance and specular reflectance spectra in the visible and UV spectral regions. Angular dependences of the spectral positions of optical stop bands are obtained. It is shown that the reflectance within the first stop band varies from point to point on the sample surface, reaching a level of 98-99% at some points. The dispersion relation for electromagnetic waves in the model of infinite periodic structure is calculated for the samples under study. The possibility of using models with an infinite or finite number of layers to calculate reflectance spectra near the first optical stop band is discussed.

  5. Growth of porous type anodic oxide films at micro-areas on aluminum exposed by laser irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikuchi, Tatsuya [Graduate School of Engineering, Hokkaido University, N13-W8, Kita-Ku, Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan)], E-mail: kiku@eng.hokudai.ac.jp; Sakairi, Masatoshi [Graduate School of Engineering, Hokkaido University, N13-W8, Kita-Ku, Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan); Takahashi, Hideaki [Asahikawa National College of Technology, Syunkohdai, 2-2, 1-6, Asahikawa 071-8142 (Japan)

    2009-11-30

    Aluminum covered with pore-sealed anodic oxide films was irradiated with a pulsed Nd-YAG laser to remove the oxide film at micro-areas. The specimen was re-anodized for long periods to examine the growth of porous anodic oxide films at the area where substrate had been exposed by measuring current variations and morphological changes in the oxide during the re-anodizing. The chemical dissolution resistance of the pore-sealed anodic oxide films in an oxalic acid solution was also examined by measuring time-variations in rest potentials during immersion. The resistance to chemical dissolution of the oxide film became higher with increasing pore-sealing time and showed higher values at lower solution temperatures. During potentiostatic re-anodizing at five 35-{mu}m wide and 4-mm long lines for 72 h after the film was removed the measured current was found to increase linearly with time. Semicircular columnar-shaped porous type anodic oxide was found to form during the re-anodizing at the laser-irradiated area, and was found to grow radially, thus resulting in an increase in the diameter. After long re-anodizing, the central and top parts of the oxide protruded along the longitudinal direction of the laser-irradiated area. The volume expansion during re-anodizing resulted in the formation of cracks, parallel to the lines, in the oxide film formed during the first anodizing.

  6. Microstructural Effects on the Reactivity of Nano-Aluminum/Iodine (V) Oxide Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Brian; Langhals, Jarred; Emery, Sam; Martinez, Lucas; Welle, Eric; Lindsay, Michael

    2015-06-01

    Recent efforts investigating the self-ignition mechanism of nanoaluminum blended with iodine (V) oxide in the form of powders with and without additives suggests that ignition begins below the decomposition point of either reactant and takes place at the alumina shell surrounding the aluminum nanoparticle. As observed in previous studies of powder composites, microstructural features such as particle morphology are expected to strongly influence properties that govern the combustion behavior of this energetic material (EM). In this study, highly reactive composites containing amorphous and/or crystalline iodine oxide and nano-sized Al was blended with an additive and deposited as films. Physiochemical techniques such as thermal gravimetric analysis, scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction, electron microscopy, high-speed imaging, time of arrival data via photodiodes and planar doppler velocimetry were employed to characterize these EMs with emphasis on correlating the reaction rate (burn rate) with inherent microstructural features (porosity, thickness, TMD, etc). This work was a continuation of efforts to probe the self-ignition mechanism of Al-iodine (V) oxide composites.

  7. Influence of the surface pre-treatment of aluminum on the processes of formation of cerium oxides protective films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreeva, R.; Stoyanova, E.; Tsanev, A.; Stoychev, D.

    2016-03-01

    It is known that there is special interest in the contemporary investigations on conversion treatment of aluminum aimed at promoting its corrosion stability, which is focused on electrolytes on the basis of salts of metals belonging to the group of rare-earth elements. Their application is especially attractive, as it enables a successful substitution of the presently applied highly efficient, but at the same time toxic Cr6+-containing electrolytes. The present paper presents a study on the influence of the preliminary alkaline activation and acidic de-oxidation of the aluminum surface on the processes of immersion formation of protective cerium oxides films on Al 1050. The results obtained show that their deposition from simple electrolytes (containing only salts of Ce3+ ions) on the Al surface, treated only in alkaline solution, occurs at a higher rate, which leads to preparing thicker oxide films having a better protective ability. In the cases when the formation of oxide films is realized in a complex electrolyte (containing salts of Ce3+ and Cu2+ ions), better results are obtained with respect to the morphology and protective action of cerium oxides film on samples that have been consecutively activated in alkaline solution and deoxidized in acidic solution. Electrochemical investigations were carried out in a model corrosion medium (0.1 M NaCl); it was shown that the cerium protective films, deposited by immersion, have a cathodic character with regard to the aluminum support and inhibit the occurrence of the depolarizing corrosion process -- the reaction of oxygen reduction.

  8. Effects of acetic acid on microstructure and electrochemical properties of nano cerium oxide films coated on AA7020-T6 aluminum alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    H. Hasannejad; T. Shahrabi; M. Aliofkhazraei

    2009-01-01

    Nano cerium oxide films were applied on AA7020-T6 aluminum alloy and the effects of acetic acid concentration on the microstructure and electrochemical properties of the coated samples were investigated by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), crack-flee films with well-developed grains were obtained and grain sizes of the films decreased. Elimination of cracks and decreasing grain size of the nano cerium oxide films caused corrosion resistance to increase.

  9. The effect of oxygen flow rate on refractive index of aluminum oxide film deposited by electron beam evaporation technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Shakouri

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The effects of oxygen flow rate on refractive index of aluminum oxide film have been investigated. The Al2O3 films are deposited by electron beam on glass substrate at different oxygen flow rates. The substrate was heated to reach  and the temperature was constant during the thin film growth. The transmittance spectrum of samples was recorded in the wavelength 400-800 nm.  Then, using the maxima and minima of transmittance the refractive index and the extinction coefficient of samples were determined. It has been found that if we reduce the oxygen flow, while the evaporation rate is kept constant, the refractive index of Al2O3 films increases. On the other hand, reduced oxygen pressure causes the Al2O3 films to have some absorption.

  10. Crystal orientation dependent thermoelectric properties of highly oriented aluminum-doped zinc oxide thin films

    KAUST Repository

    Abutaha, Anas I.

    2013-02-06

    We demonstrate that the thermoelectric properties of highly oriented Al-doped zinc oxide (AZO) thin films can be improved by controlling their crystal orientation. The crystal orientation of the AZO films was changed by changing the temperature of the laser deposition process on LaAlO3 (100) substrates. The change in surface termination of the LaAlO3 substrate with temperature induces a change in AZO film orientation. The anisotropic nature of electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient of the AZO films showed a favored thermoelectric performance in c-axis oriented films. These films gave the highest power factor of 0.26 W m−1 K−1 at 740 K.

  11. Facile and environmentally friendly solution-processed aluminum oxide dielectric for low-temperature, high-performance oxide thin-film transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wangying; Wang, Han; Xie, Fangyan; Chen, Jian; Cao, Hongtao; Xu, Jian-Bin

    2015-03-18

    We developed a facile and environmentally friendly solution-processed method for aluminum oxide (AlOx) dielectrics. The formation and properties of AlOx thin films under various annealing temperatures were intensively investigated by thermogravimetric analysis-differential scanning calorimetry (TGA-DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD), spectroscopic ellipsometry, atomic force microscopy (AFM), attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), impedance spectroscopy, and leakage current measurements. The sol-gel-derived AlOx thin film undergoes the decomposition of organic residuals and nitrate groups, as well as conversion of aluminum hydroxides to form aluminum oxide, as the annealing temperature increases. Finally, the AlOx film is used as gate dielectric for a variety of low-temperature solution-processed oxide TFTs. Above all, the In2O3 and InZnO TFTs exhibited high average mobilities of 57.2 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) and 10.1 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1), as well as an on/off current ratio of ∼10(5) and low operating voltages of 4 V at a maximum processing temperature of 300 °C. Therefore, the solution-processable AlOx could be a promising candidate dielectric for low-cost, low-temperature, and high-performance oxide electronics.

  12. Aluminum-doped zinc oxide (ZnO:Al) thin films deposited on glass substrates by chemical spray starting from zinc pentanedionate and aluminum chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olvera, M. de la L, E-mail: molvera@cinvestav.mx [Departamento de Ingenieria Electrica, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politecnico Nacional CINVESTAV-IPN, SEES, Apartado Postal 14740, Mexico, D.F. 07000 (Mexico); Maldonado, A.; Vega-Perez, J. [Departamento de Ingenieria Electrica, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politecnico Nacional CINVESTAV-IPN, SEES, Apartado Postal 14740, Mexico, D.F. 07000 (Mexico); Solorza-Feria, O. [Departamento de Quimica, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politecnico Nacional CINVESTAV-IPN, SEES, Apartado Postal 14740, Mexico, D.F. 07000 (Mexico)

    2010-10-25

    Aluminum-doped zinc oxide thin films (ZnO:Al) were deposited on sodalime glass substrates by the chemical spray technique, starting from zinc pentanedionate and aluminum chloride. The effect of the substrate temperature on the structural, morphological, optical, and electrical properties was studied. A constant [Al]/[Zn] = 3 at.% ratio was used. As the substrate temperature increases, the electrical resistance decreases, reaching a minimum value, in the order of 3 x 10{sup -2} {Omega} cm, for as-grown films deposited at 475 deg. C. The Hall mobility and carrier concentration for these films were around 0.6 cm{sup 2}/(V s), and 3.42 x 10{sup 20} cm{sup -3}, respectively. Further decrease in the resistivity, in the order of 1.5 x 10{sup -2} {Omega} cm, was observed after a heat treatment in vacuum, during 1 h, at 400 deg. C. All the samples were polycrystalline, with a variation in the preferential growth. Samples deposited at 450 deg. C show a (0 0 2) preferential growth whereas films deposited at higher temperatures present a significant contribution of other planes. As the substrate temperature increases, the morphology shows slight changes, since the grain size increases. The transmittance in the visible region (400-700 nm) is high, typically of 85% at 550 nm, and band gap values oscillated around 3.3 eV. These results show that zinc pentanedionate can be a good candidate for the manufacturing of transparent conductive ZnO:Al thin films.

  13. Influence of Surface Oxide Films on Elastic Behaviors of Straight Screw Dislocations Parallel to the Surface of Pure Aluminum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weimin MAO; Dong LI; Yongning YU

    2007-01-01

    The image stress of straight screw dislocations parallel to the medium surface covered by thin heterogeneous films was analyzed and deduced, in order to calculate the image shear stress. The relationship between image stress and distance from the screw dislocation to the interface of pure aluminum and its oxide covering was calculated based on the analysis. It was shown quantitatively that a sign conversion of the image stress appears in the case of thin oxide covering, while dislocation would pile up near the interface because of the possible slips of the screw dislocations induced by the image stress, which might break down the very thin oxide covering. Further investigation on edge dislocations or other dislocation configurations need to be done.

  14. Fabrication of Polymeric Antireflection Film Manufactured by Anodic Aluminum Oxide Template on Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenn-Kai Tsai

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, high energy conversion efficient dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs were successfully fabricated by attaching a double anti-reflection (AR layer, which is composed of a subwavelength moth-eye structured polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA film and a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS film. An efficiency of up to 6.79% was achieved. The moth-eye structured PMMA film was fabricated by using an anodic aluminum oxide (AAO template which is simple, low-cost and scalable. The nano-pattern of the AAO template was precisely reproduced onto the PMMA film. The photoanode was composed of Titanium dioxide (TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs with a diameter of 25 nm deposited on the fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO glass substrate and the sensitizer N3. The double AR layer was proved to effectively improve the short-circuit current density (JSC and conversion efficiency from 14.77 to 15.79 mA/cm2 and from 6.26% to 6.79%, respectively.

  15. Ultrafast carrier dynamics and third order nonlinear optical properties of aluminum doped zinc oxide (AZO) thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Htwe, Zin Maung; Zhang, Yun-Dong; Yao, Cheng-Bao; Li, Hui; Yuan, Ping

    2017-04-01

    Aluminum doped zinc oxide (AZO) thin films were fabricated by simultaneous RF/DC magnetron sputtering technique on sapphire (Al2O3) substrate with different DC sputtering power 2, 6, 8 and 10 W respectively. The sputtered thin films were annealed at 350 °C in order to improve the crystal quality. AZO thin films are systematically analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and UV-VIS spectrometer for structural and optical properties. XRD patterns show that all sputtered thin films are well crystallized with hexagonal wurtzite structure. SEM images reveal the average crystallite sizes are increased after doping Al in ZnO which agreed with the calculated values from XRD. All thin films possess high optical transmittance in visible region and optical band gap values are relatively increased with Al concentration. The ultrafast transient absorption (TA) of AZO was analyzed by femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy. The kinetic TA curves were fitted by tri-exponential decay function and obtained decay time constants are found to be in few picosecond and nanosecond range for ultrafast and slow processes respectively. Third order nonlinear optical absorption and refraction coefficients were investigated by using Z-scan technique. The observed nonlinear coefficients are enhanced with Al concentration in ZnO.

  16. Anodic aluminum oxide films formed in mixed electrolytes of oxalic and sulfuric acid and their optical constants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Li-Rong; Wang, Jian; Li, Yan; Wang, Cheng-Wei; Zhou, Feng; Liu, Wei-Min

    2010-01-01

    Porous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) films were fabricated electrochemically in the mixed electrolytes with various volume ratios of 0.3 M C 2H 2O 4 and 0.3 M H 2SO 4. The transmission spectra with the interference fringes were measured and the modified Swanepoel method was used to determine the optical constants of the free standing AAO films. The calculated thickness agrees well with the measured thickness from the FE-SEM images of the cross section, which indicates that the modified Swanepoel method is very fit for the determination of the optical constants of the free standing AAO films. Meantime, with the decrease of the volume ratio of C 2H 2O 4 and H 2SO 4, the refractive index and thickness of AAO films increase, but the extinction coefficient decreases. The optical band gap is appropriately fitted to the direct transition model proposed by Tauc in the strong-absorption region of investigated films, and is derived from Tauc's extrapolation. The reasons were investigated.

  17. Robust, functionalizable, nanometer-thick poly(acrylic acid) films spontaneously assembled on oxidized aluminum substrates: structures and chemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Eunhae; Yoon, Sungho; Atre, Sundar V; Allara, David L

    2011-04-05

    Immersion of oxidized aluminum substrates in ethanol solutions of poly(acrylic acid) (PAA), followed by extensive solvent immersion, results in tenaciously chemisorbed, nanometer scale, controllable thickness films for a wide range of solution concentrations and molecular weights. Atomic force microscope images reveal isolated polymer globules from adsorption in low-concentration solutions with crossover to conformal, highly uniform, nanometer-thickness films at higher concentrations, an indication that the chemisorbing chains start to overlap and trap underlying segments to form planar chemisorbed films only two or three chains in thickness. Quantitative IR reflection spectroscopy in combination with chemical derivitization on a standard set of 1.0(±0.2) nm thick films reveals a film structure with 5.5(±1) chemisorbed -CO(-)(2) groups/nm(2) and 6.3 unattached -CO(2)H groups/nm(2), with up to ∼3.6/nm(2) available for chemical derivitization, a comparable number to typical self-assembled monolayer coverages of ∼4-5 molecules/nm(2). Thermal treatment of the ∼1 nm chemisorbed films, at even extreme temperatures of ∼150 °C, results in almost no anhydride formation via adjacent -CO(2)H condensation, in strong contrast to bulk PAA, a clear indication that the films have a frozen glass structure with effectively no segment and side group mobility. Overall, these results demonstrate that these limiting thickness nanometer films provide a model surface for understanding the behavior of strongly bound polymer chains at substrates and show potential as a path to creating highly stable, chemically functionalized inorganic substrates with highly variable surface properties.

  18. Energy transfer among rare earth ions induced by annealing process of Tm sbnd Er codoped aluminum oxide thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Zhisong; Zhou, Bo; Xu, Fei; Zhu, Fang; Yan, Lu; Zhang, Feng; Huang, Anping

    2009-02-01

    Er sbnd Tm codoped amorphous aluminum oxide (a-Al 2O 3) thin films have been prepared by pulsed laser deposition. Efficient photoluminescence (PL) in the region of 1400-1700 nm with two peaks centered at 1533 nm and 1620 nm were observed with pumping at the wavelength of 791 nm. The PL performance has been investigated as a function of annealing temperature, which was varied from 650 to 850 °C in air. Infrared emission was improved by annealing, and energy transfer processes occurred obviously for annealing temperatures between 800 and 850 °C. All possible energy transfer channels were investigated and our results suggest that the quasi-resonant energy transfer and cross relaxation between Tm 3+ and Er 3+ play an important role in the evolution of the luminescent response.

  19. Evolution of insoluble eutectic Si particles in anodic oxidation films during adipic-sulfuric acid anodizing processes of ZL114A aluminum alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Lei; Liu, Jian-hua; Li, Song-mei; Yu, Mei; Wang, Lei; Cui, Yong-xin

    2015-03-01

    The effects of insoluble eutectic Si particles on the growth of anodic oxide films on ZL114A aluminum alloy substrates were investigated by optical microscopy (OM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The anodic oxidation was performed at 25°C and a constant voltage of 15 V in a solution containing 50 g/L sulfuric acid and 10 g/L adipic acid. The thickness of the formed anodic oxidation film was approximately 7.13 μm. The interpore distance and the diameters of the major pores in the porous layer of the film were within the approximate ranges of 10-20 nm and 5-10 nm, respectively. Insoluble eutectic Si particles strongly influenced the morphology of the anodic oxidation films. The anodic oxidation films exhibited minimal defects and a uniform thickness on the ZL114A substrates; in contrast, when the front of the oxide oxidation films encountered eutectic Si particles, defects such as pits and non-uniform thickness were observed, and pits were observed in the films.

  20. Studies on the properties of anodic oxidation film on aluminum alloy%铝合金阳极氧化膜的性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许旋; 罗一帆; 林国辉

    2001-01-01

    在硫酸电解液中加入适量由羧酸和有机化合物组成的添加剂,制得铝合金阳极氧化膜。研究了温度对所得氧化膜厚度和硬度和影响,并利用扫描电镜观察了氧化膜的结构。结果表明,高温下形成的氧化膜结构松散,厚度和硬度低,而加入添加剂后,氧化膜溶解减慢,在高温下所形成的氧化膜的厚度和硬度大大增加。%Anodic oxidation film was prepared on aluminum alloy in sulfuricacid electrolyte. An additive was developed which consists of carboxylic acids and organic compounds. The effect of temperature on thickness and hardness of the obtained anodic oxidation film was studied, structure of the oxidation film was analyzed by SEM. The results show that oxidation film obtained at high temperature has loose structure. Thickness and hardness of the film decrease with the increase of temperature, while the addition of the additive reduces the dissolution of the oxidation film, and increases film thickness and hardness greatly at high temperature.

  1. The effect of Bi{sup 3+} and Li{sup +} co-doping on the luminescence characteristics of Eu{sup 3+}-doped aluminum oxide films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padilla-Rosales, I., E-mail: ipadilla@cinvestav.mx [Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Nanociencias y Nanotecnología, Av. IPN 2508, Col. San Pedro Zacatenco, CP 07360 México D.F. (Mexico); Martinez-Martinez, R. [Instituto de Física y Matemáticas, Universidad Tecnológica de la Mixteca, Carretera a Acatlima Km. 2.5, CP 69000 Huajuapan de León, Oax, México (Mexico); Cabañas, G. [Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Nanociencias y Nanotecnología, Av. IPN 2508, Col. San Pedro Zacatenco, CP 07360 México D.F. (Mexico); Falcony, C. [Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Departamento de Física, Av. IPN 2508, Col. San Pedro Zacatenco, CP 07360 México D.F. (Mexico)

    2015-09-15

    The incorporation of Bi{sup 3+} and Li{sup +} as co-dopants in Eu{sup 3+}-doped aluminum oxide films deposited by the ultrasonic spray pyrolysis technique and its effect on the luminescence characteristics of this material are described. Both Bi{sup 3+} and Li{sup +} do not introduce new luminescence features but affect the luminescence intensity of the Eu{sup 3+} related emission spectra as well as the excitation spectra. The introduction of Bi{sup 3+} generates localized states in the aluminum oxide host that result in a quenching of the luminescence intensity, while Li{sup +} and Bi{sup 3+} co-doping increase the luminescence intensity of these films. - Highlights: • Li and Bi co-doping increase the luminescence. • Bi creates localized states in the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} host. • Li was incorporated as a co-activator.

  2. Atomic scale structure of amorphous aluminum oxyhydroxide, oxide and oxycarbide films probed by very high field (27)Al nuclear magnetic resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baggetto, L; Sarou-Kanian, V; Florian, P; Gleizes, A N; Massiot, D; Vahlas, C

    2017-03-15

    The atomic scale structure of aluminum in amorphous alumina films processed by direct liquid injection chemical vapor deposition from aluminum tri-isopropoxide (ATI) and dimethyl isopropoxide (DMAI) is investigated by solid-state (27)Al nuclear magnetic resonance (SSNMR) using a very high magnetic field of 20.0 T. This study is performed as a function of the deposition temperature in the range 300-560 °C, 150-450 °C, and 500-700 °C, for the films processed from ATI, DMAI (+H2O), and DMAI (+O2), respectively. While the majority of the films are composed of stoichiometric aluminum oxide, other samples are partially or fully hydroxylated at low temperature, or contain carbidic carbon when processed from DMAI above 500 °C. The quantitative analysis of the SSNMR experiments reveals that the local structure of these films is built from AlO4, AlO5, AlO6 and Al(O,C)4 units with minor proportions of the 6-fold aluminum coordination and significant amounts of oxycarbides in the films processed from DMAI (+O2). The aluminum coordination distribution as well as the chemical shift distribution indicate that the films processed from DMAI present a higher degree of structural disorder compared to the films processed from ATI. Hydroxylation leads to an increase of the 6-fold coordination resulting from the trend of OH groups to integrate into AlO6 units. The evidence of an additional environment in films processed from DMAI (+O2) by (27)Al SSNMR and first-principle NMR calculations on Al4C3 and Al4O4C crystal structures supports that carbon is located in Al(O,C)4 units. The concentration of this coordination environment strongly increases with increasing process temperature from 600 to 700 °C favoring a highly disordered structure and preventing from crystallizing into γ-alumina. The obtained results are a valuable guide to the selection of process conditions for the CVD of amorphous alumina films with regard to targeted applications.

  3. Influence of Oxygen Gas Ratio on the Properties of Aluminum-Doped Zinc Oxide Films Prepared by Radio Frequency Magnetron Sputtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minha; Jang, Yong-Jun; Jung, Ho-Sung; Song, Woochang; Kang, Hyunil; Kim, Eung Kwon; Kim, Donguk; Yi, Junsin; Lee, Jaehyeong

    2016-05-01

    Aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) thin films were deposited on glass and polyimide substrates using radio frequency magnetron sputtering. We investigated the effects of the oxygen gas ratio on the properties of the AZO films for Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin-film solar cell applications. The structural and optical properties of the AZO thin films were measured using X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), and UV-Visible-NIR spectrophotometry. The oxygen gas ratio played a crucial role in controlling the optical as well as electrical properties of the films. When oxygen gas was added into the film, the surface AZO thin films became smoother and the grains were enlarged while the preferred orientation changed from (0 0 2) to (1 0 0) plane direction of the hexagonal phase. An improvement in the transmittance of the AZO thin films was achieved with the addition of 2.5-% oxygen gas. The electrical resistivity was highly increased even for a small amount of the oxygen gas addition.

  4. Effect of the ion-beam bombardment and annealing temperature on sol-gel derived yttrium aluminum oxide film as liquid crystal alignment layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Hae-Chang; Heo, Gi-Seok; Kim, Eun-Mi; Lee, Ju Hwan; Han, Jeong-Min; Seo, Dae-Shik

    2017-02-01

    We demonstrated a homogeneous liquid-crystal (LC) alignment state on yttrium aluminum oxide (YAlO) films, where the alignment was induced by ion-beam (IB) irradiation. Topographical analysis was performed by atomic force microscopy as a function of annealing temperature. Higher annealing temperatures yielded a smoother surface, accompanied by reduced light scattering. Transparency in the visible region increased on the surface fabricated at higher annealing temperatures. LC alignment mechanism was determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. Moreover, IB-irradiated YAlO films annealed at temperatures greater than 200 °C exhibited good thermal stability and low capacitance-voltage hysteresis. The IB-irradiated YAlO films are suitable as alternative alignment layers in advanced LC display applications.

  5. Effect of the Milling Time of the Precursors on the Physical Properties of Sprayed Aluminum-Doped Zinc Oxide (ZnO:Al Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María De La Luz Olvera

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum doped zinc oxide (ZnO:Al thin films were deposited on soda-lime glass substrates by the chemical spray technique. The atomization of the solution was carried out by ultrasonic excitation. Six different starting solutions from both unmilled and milled Zn and Al precursors, dissolved in a mix of methanol and acetic acid, were prepared. The milling process was carried out using a planetary ball mill at a speed of 300 rpm, and different milling times, namely, 15, 25, 35, 45, and 60 min. Molar concentration, [Al]/[Zn] atomic ratio, deposition temperature and time, were kept at constant values; 0.2 M, 3 at.%, 475 °C, and 10 min, respectively. Results show that, under the same deposition conditions, electrical resistivities of ZnO:Al thin films deposited from milled precursors are lower than those obtained for films deposited from unmilled precursors. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that all films display a polycrystalline structure, fitting well with the hexagonal wurtzite structure. Changes in surface morphology were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM as well, since films deposited from unmilled precursors show triangular shaped grains, in contrast to films deposited from 15 and 35 min milled precursors that display thin slices with hexagonal shapes. The use of milled precursors to prepare starting solutions for depositing ZnO:Al thin films by ultrasonic pyrolysis influences their physical properties.

  6. Aluminum-doped zinc oxide sol–gel thin films: Influence of the sol's water content on the resistivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nehmann, Julia B., E-mail: nehmann@isfh.de [Institute for Solar Energy Research Hamelin (ISFH), Am Ohrberg 1, 31860 Emmerthal (Germany); Ehrmann, Nicole; Reineke-Koch, Rolf [Institute for Solar Energy Research Hamelin (ISFH), Am Ohrberg 1, 31860 Emmerthal (Germany); Bahnemann, Detlef W. [Institute for Technical Chemistry, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz University Hannover, Callinstrasse 3A, 30167 Hannover (Germany)

    2014-04-01

    Thin films of indium tin oxide (ITO) have gained substantial interest due to their optical and electrical properties. Since ITO is an expensive material and indium is a rare element, considerable attempts have been made to replace it by, e.g., aluminum-doped zinc oxide (ZnO:Al). The production of ZnO:Al is less cost-intensive, especially if the sol–gel technique is applied, while its properties are comparable to those of ITO. In this study, we demonstrate that the electrical properties of ZnO:Al thin films can be improved considerably by the addition of small amounts of ultrapure water to the dip coating solution during the preparation. The lowest resistivity obtained with a film prepared from a sol containing 0.2 M water is 2.8·10{sup −3Ω}cm. Optical modeling thus indicates an improvement of the free carrier mobility of films prepared from sols in the presence of additional water. The films prepared have an average thickness of 340 nm and a solar transmittance above 85% after annealing in a forming gas atmosphere. Clearly, the addition of water to the sol has a positive impact on the resistivity of the final ZnO:Al thin film. We suggest the observed increase of the free carrier mobility to be due to an improved electron transfer at the grain boundaries between the spherical nanoparticles. - Highlights: • We prepared ZnO:Al thin films with additional water in the sol by dip coating. • We found a positive impact of the water in the sol on the resistivity of the film. • The free carrier concentration and mobility increased with additional 0.2 M water. • The refractive indices demonstrate a denser structure related to the water content.

  7. Air-Impregnated Nanoporous Anodic Aluminum Oxide Layers for Enhancing the Corrosion Resistance of Aluminum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Chanyoung; Lee, Junghoon; Sheppard, Keith; Choi, Chang-Hwan

    2015-10-13

    Nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide layers were fabricated on aluminum substrates with systematically varied pore diameters (20-80 nm) and oxide thicknesses (150-500 nm) by controlling the anodizing voltage and time and subsequent pore-widening process conditions. The porous nanostructures were then coated with a thin (only a couple of nanometers thick) Teflon film to make the surface hydrophobic and trap air in the pores. The corrosion resistance of the aluminum substrate was evaluated by a potentiodynamic polarization measurement in 3.5 wt % NaCl solution (saltwater). Results showed that the hydrophobic nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide layer significantly enhanced the corrosion resistance of the aluminum substrate compared to a hydrophilic oxide layer of the same nanostructures, to bare (nonanodized) aluminum with only a natural oxide layer on top, and to the latter coated with a thin Teflon film. The hydrophobic nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide layer with the largest pore diameter and the thickest oxide layer (i.e., the maximized air fraction) resulted in the best corrosion resistance with a corrosion inhibition efficiency of up to 99% for up to 7 days. The results demonstrate that the air impregnating the hydrophobic nanopores can effectively inhibit the penetration of corrosive media into the pores, leading to a significant improvement in corrosion resistance.

  8. Electrical transport through single-wall carbon nanotube-anodic aluminum oxide-aluminum heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukkola, Jarmo; Rautio, Aatto; Sala, Giovanni; Pino, Flavio; Tóth, Géza; Leino, Anne-Riikka; Mäklin, Jani; Jantunen, Heli; Uusimäki, Antti; Kordás, Krisztián; Gracia, Eduardo; Terrones, Mauricio; Shchukarev, Andrey; Mikkola, Jyri-Pekka

    2010-01-01

    Aluminum foils were anodized in sulfuric acid solution to form thick porous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) films of thickness ~6 µm. Electrodes of carboxyl-functionalized single-wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT) thin films were inkjet printed on the anodic oxide layer and the electrical characteristics of the as-obtained SWCNT-AAO-Al structures were studied. Nonlinear current-voltage transport and strong temperature dependence of conduction through the structure was measured. The microstructure and chemical composition of the anodic oxide layer was analyzed using transmission and scanning electron microscopy as well as x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Schottky emission at the SWCNT-AAO and AAO-Al interfaces allowed by impurity states in the anodic aluminum oxide film together with ionic surface conduction on the pore walls of AAO gives a reasonable explanation for the measured electrical conduction. Calcined AAO is proposed as a dielectric material for SWCNT-field effect transistors.

  9. Optimization of aluminum-doped zinc oxide films deposited at low temperature by radio-frequency sputtering on flexible substrates for solar cell applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, S. [Departamento de Energias Renovables, Energia Solar Fotovoltaica, Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas (CIEMAT), Avda. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Naranjo, F.B. [Grupo de Ingenieria Fotonica (GRIFO), Departamento de Electronica, Escuela Politecnica Superior, Universidad de Alcala, Campus Universitario, 28871 Alcala de Henares, Madrid (Spain)

    2010-02-15

    Aluminum-doped zinc oxide films were deposited at 100 C on polyethylene terephthalate by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering. The sputtering parameters such as RF power and Argon working pressure were varied from 25 to 125 W and from 1.1 to 0.2 Pa, respectively. The structural properties of as-deposited films were analysed by X-ray diffraction, showing that all the deposited films were polycrystalline, with hexagonal structure and a strong preferred c-axis orientation (0 0 2). Full width at half maximum and grain sizes were around 0.27 and ranged from 24 to 32 nm, respectively. The strain state of the samples was also estimated from X-ray diffraction measurements, obtaining compressive stresses from 0.29 to 0.05 GPa. Resistivity as low as 1.1 x 10{sup -3} {omega} cm was achieved for the film deposited at 75 W and 0.2 Pa, sample that showed a low strain state of -0.06 GPa. High optical transmittance ({proportional_to}80%) was exhibited when films were deposited at RF powers below 100 W. Band gap energies ranged from 3.36 to 3.39 eV and a refractive index of 1.80{+-}0.05, constant in the visible region, was also obtained. (author)

  10. Aluminum doped nickel oxide thin film with improved electrochromic performance from layered double hydroxides precursor in situ pyrolytic route

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jingjing; Lai, Lincong; Zhang, Ping; Li, Hailong; Qin, Yumei; Gao, Yuanchunxue; Luo, Lei; Lu, Jun

    2016-09-01

    Electrochromic materials with unique performance arouse great interest on account of potential application values in smart window, low-power display, automobile anti-glare rearview mirror, and e-papers. In this paper, high-performing Al-doped NiO porous electrochromic film grown on ITO substrate has been prepared via a layered double hydroxides(LDHs) precursor in situ pyrolytic route. The Al3+ ions distributed homogenously within the NiO matrix can significantly influence the crystallinity of Ni-Al LDH and NiO:Al3+ films. The electrochromic performance of the films were evaluated by means of UV-vis absorption spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and chronoamperometry(CA) measurements. In addition, the ratio of Ni3+/Ni2+ also varies with Al content which can lead to different electrochemical performances. Among the as-prepared films, NiO film prepared from Ni-Al (19:1) LDH show the best electrochromic performance with a high transparency of 96%, large optical modulation range (58.4%), fast switching speed (bleaching/coloration times are 1.8/4.2 s, respectively) and excellent durability (30% decrease after 2000 cycles). The improved performance was owed to the synergy of large NiO film specific surface area and porous morphology, as well as Al doping stifled the formation of Ni3+ making bleached state more pure. This LDHs precursor pyrolytic method is simple, low-cost and environmental benign and is feasible for the preparation of NiO:Al and other Al-doped oxide thin film.

  11. Preparation of mesoporous alumina films by anodization: Effect of pretreatments on the aluminum surface and MTBE catalytic oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vazquez, A.L., E-mail: avazquezd@ipn.m [Departamento de Ingenieria Metalurgica, ESIQIE-IPN, AP 75-876, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Programa de Ingenieria Molecular, Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Eje Lazaro Cardenas 152, C.P. 07730, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Carrera, R. [Departamento de Ingenieria Metalurgica, ESIQIE-IPN, AP 75-876, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Programa de Ingenieria Molecular, Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Eje Lazaro Cardenas 152, C.P. 07730, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Arce, E. [Departamento de Ingenieria Metalurgica, ESIQIE-IPN, AP 75-876, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Castillo, N. [CINVESTAV, Departamento de Fisica. Av. IPN 2508, 07360, Mexico, D.F (Mexico); Castillo, S. [Departamento de Ingenieria Metalurgica, ESIQIE-IPN, AP 75-876, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Programa de Ingenieria Molecular, Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Eje Lazaro Cardenas 152, C.P. 07730, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Moran-Pineda, M. [Programa de Ingenieria Molecular, Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Eje Lazaro Cardenas 152, C.P. 07730, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2009-08-26

    Mesoporous materials are both scientifically and technologically important because of the presence of voids of controllable dimensions at atomic, molecular, and nanometric scales. Over the last decade, there has been both an increasing interest and research effort in the synthesis and characterization of these types of materials. The purposes of this work are to study the physical and chemical changes in the properties of mesoporous alumina films produced by anodization in sulphuric acid by different pretreatments on the aluminium surface such as mechanical polishing [MP] and electropolishing [EP]; and to compare their properties such as morphology, structure and catalytic activity with those present in commercial alumina. The morphologic and physical characterizations of the alumina film samples were carried out by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The chemical evaluations were performed by the oxidation of methyl-tert-butyl-ether (MTBE) at 400 deg. C under O{sub 2}/He oxidizing conditions (Praxair, 2.0% O{sub 2}/He balance). According to the results, the samples that presented higher activities than those in Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Al [MP] and commercial alumina in the MTBE oxidation (69%), were those prepared by Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Al [EP]. The average mesoporous diameter was 17 nm, and the morphological shape was equiaxial; thus, that pore distribution was the smallest of all with a homogeneous distribution.

  12. Effect of Pore Size and Film Thickness on Gold-Coated Nanoporous Anodic Aluminum Oxide Substrates for Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassu, Aschalew; Farley, Carlton; Sharma, Anup; Kim, Wonkyu; Guo, Junpeng

    2015-11-30

    A sensitive surface enhanced Raman scattering chemical sensor is demonstrated by using inexpensive gold-coated nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide substrates. To optimize the performance of the substrates for sensing by the Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) technique, the size of the nanopores is varied from 18 nm to 150 nm and the gold film thickness is varied from 30 nm to 120 nm. The sensitivity of gold-coated nanoporous surface enhanced Raman scattering sensor is characterized by detecting low concentrations of Rhodamine 6G laser dye molecules. The morphology of the SERS substrates is characterized by atomic force microscopy. Optical properties of the nanoporous SERS substrates including transmittance, reflectance, and absorbance are also investigated. Relative signal enhancement is plotted for a range of substrate parameters and a detection limit of 10(-6) M is established.

  13. Polarization properties of real aluminum mirrors; I. Influence of the aluminum oxide layer

    CERN Document Server

    van Harten, G; Keller, C U

    2009-01-01

    In polarimetry it is important to characterize the polarization properties of the instrument itself to disentangle real astrophysical signals from instrumental effects. This article deals with the accurate measurement and modeling of the polarization properties of real aluminum mirrors, as used in astronomical telescopes. Main goals are the characterization of the aluminum oxide layer thickness at different times after evaporation and its influence on the polarization properties of the mirror. The full polarization properties of an aluminum mirror are measured with Mueller matrix ellipsometry at different incidence angles and wavelengths. The best fit of theoretical Mueller matrices to all measurements simultaneously is obtained by taking into account a model of bulk aluminum with a thin aluminum oxide film on top of it. Full Mueller matrix measurements of a mirror are obtained with an absolute accuracy of ~1% after calibration. The determined layer thicknesses indicate logarithmic growth in the first few hou...

  14. Impact of aluminum on the oxidation of lipids and enzymatic lipolysis in monomolecular films at the air/water interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corvis, Yohann; Korchowiec, Beata; Brezesinski, Gerald; Follot, Sébastien; Rogalska, Ewa

    2007-03-13

    There is evidence that serious pathologies are associated with aluminum (Al). In the present work, the influence of Al on enzymatic lipolysis was studied with the aim to get more insight into the possible link between the Al-induced membrane modification and the cytotoxicity of the trivalent cation (AlIII). Lipid monolayers were used as model membranes. The monomolecular film technique allowed monitoring the Al-dependent modifications of the lipid monolayer properties and enzyme kinetics. Two enzymes, namely, Candida rugosa lipase and a calcium (CaII)-dependent phospholipase A2 from porcine pancreas, were used to catalyze the lipolysis of triglyceride and phosphoglyceride monolayers, respectively. The results obtained show that Al modifies both the monolayer structure and enzymatic reaction rates. While the enzymes used in this study can be considered as probes detecting lipid membrane properties, it cannot be excluded that in physiological conditions modulation of the enzyme action by the Al-bound membranes is among the reasons for Al toxicity.

  15. Plasma diagnostics during magnetron sputtering of aluminum doped zinc oxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stamate, Eugen; Crovetto, Andrea; Sanna, Simone

    2016-01-01

    Plasma parameters during magnetron sputtering of aluminum-doped zinc oxide are investigated with optical emission spectroscopy, electrostatic probes and mass spectrometry with the aim of understanding the role of negative ions of oxygen during the film growth and improving the uniformity...

  16. Corrosion protection of silver-based telescope mirrors using evaporated anti-oxidation overlayers and aluminum oxide films by atomic layer deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryauf, David M.; Phillips, Andrew C.; Kobayashi, Nobuhiko P.

    2016-09-01

    An urgent demand remains in astronomy for high-reflectivity silver mirrors that can withstand years of exposure in observatory environments. The University of California Observatories Astronomical Coatings Lab has undertaken development of protected silver coatings suitable for telescope mirrors that maintain high reflectivity at wavelengths from 340 nm through the mid-infrared spectrum. We present results on superior protective layers of transparent dielectrics produced by evaporation and atomic layer deposition. Several novel coating recipes have been developed with ion-assisted electron beam deposition (IAEBD) of various fluorides, oxides, and nitrides in combination with conformal layers of aluminum oxide (AlOx) deposited by ALD using trimethylaluminum as a metal precursor and water vapor as a reactant. Extending on our previous results demonstrating the superior durability of ALD-based AlOx top barrier layers over conventionally-deposited AlOx, this work investigates the effects on mirror barrier durability comparing different anti-oxidation materials on Ag with an identical AlOx top barrier layer deposited by ALD. Samples of coating recipes with different anti-oxidation layers undergo aggressive environmental testing, including high temperature/high humidity (HTHH), in which samples are exposed to an environment of 80% humidity at 80°C for ten days in a simple test set-up. While most samples show fairly successful endurance after HTHH testing, visible results suggest that MgAl2O4, Al2O3, and AlN anti-oxidation layers offer enhanced robust protection against chemical corrosion and moisture in an accelerated aging environment, which is attributed to superior adhesion and intermolecular bonding between the Al-based anti-oxidation layers and the AlOx top barrier layer. Mirror samples are further characterized by reflectivity/absorption before and after deposition of oxide coatings. We also show that the performance of the ALD-AlOx barrier layer depends in part

  17. Oxidation kinetics of aluminum diboride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whittaker, Michael L., E-mail: michaelwhittaker2016@u.northwestern.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Utah, 122S. Central Campus Drive, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Sohn, H.Y. [Department of Metallurgical Engineering, University of Utah, 135S 1460 E, Rm 00412, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Cutler, Raymond A. [Ceramatec, Inc., 2425S. 900W., Salt Lake City, UT 84119 (United States)

    2013-11-15

    The oxidation characteristics of aluminum diboride (AlB{sub 2}) and a physical mixture of its constituent elements (Al+2B) were studied in dry air and pure oxygen using thermal gravimetric analysis to obtain non-mechanistic kinetic parameters. Heating in air at a constant linear heating rate of 10 °C/min showed a marked difference between Al+2B and AlB{sub 2} in the onset of oxidation and final conversion fraction, with AlB{sub 2} beginning to oxidize at higher temperatures but reaching nearly complete conversion by 1500 °C. Kinetic parameters were obtained in both air and oxygen using a model-free isothermal method at temperatures between 500 and 1000 °C. Activation energies were found to decrease, in general, with increasing conversion for AlB{sub 2} and Al+2B in both air and oxygen. AlB{sub 2} exhibited O{sub 2}-pressure-independent oxidation behavior at low conversions, while the activation energies of Al+2B were higher in O{sub 2} than in air. Differences in the composition and morphology between oxidized Al+2B and AlB{sub 2} suggested that Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}–B{sub 2}O{sub 3} interactions slowed Al+2B oxidation by converting Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} on aluminum particles into a Al{sub 4}B{sub 2}O{sub 9} shell, while the same Al{sub 4}B{sub 2}O{sub 9} developed a needle-like morphology in AlB{sub 2} that reduced oxygen diffusion distances and increased conversion. The model-free kinetic analysis was critical for interpreting the complex, multistep oxidation behavior for which a single mechanism could not be assigned. At low temperatures, moisture increased the oxidation rate of Al+2B and AlB{sub 2}, but both appear to be resistant to oxidation in cool, dry environments. - Graphical abstract: Isothermal kinetic data for AlB{sub 2} in air, showing a constantly decreasing activation energy with increasing conversion. Model-free analysis allowed for the calculation of global kinetic parameters despite many simultaneous mechanisms occurring concurrently. (a) Time

  18. Orientationally ordered ridge structures of aluminum films on hydrogen terminated silicon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quaade, Ulrich; Pantleon, Karen

    2006-01-01

    Films of aluminum deposited onto Si(100) substrates show a surface structure of parallel ridges. On films deposited on oxidized silicon substrates the direction of the ridges is arbitrary, but on films deposited on hydrogen-terminated Si(100) the ridges are oriented parallel to the < 110 > direct......Films of aluminum deposited onto Si(100) substrates show a surface structure of parallel ridges. On films deposited on oxidized silicon substrates the direction of the ridges is arbitrary, but on films deposited on hydrogen-terminated Si(100) the ridges are oriented parallel to the ... > directions on the silicon substrate. The ridge structure appears when the film thickness is above 500 nm, and increasing the film thickness makes the structure more distinct. Anodic oxidation enhances the structure even further. X-ray diffraction indicates that grains in the film have mostly (110) facets...

  19. Method for Aluminum Oxide Thin Films Prepared through Low Temperature Atomic Layer Deposition for Encapsulating Organic Electroluminescent Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Ying Li

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Preparation of dense alumina (Al2O3 thin film through atomic layer deposition (ALD provides a pathway to achieve the encapsulation of organic light emitting devices (OLED. Unlike traditional ALD which is usually executed at higher reaction n temperatures that may affect the performance of OLED, this application discusses the development on preparation of ALD thin film at a low temperature. One concern of ALD is the suppressing effect of ambient temperature on uniformity of thin film. To mitigate this issue, the pumping time in each reaction cycle was increased during the preparation process, which removed reaction byproducts and inhibited the formation of vacancies. As a result, the obtained thin film had both high uniformity and density properties, which provided an excellent encapsulation performance. The results from microstructure morphology analysis, water vapor transmission rate, and lifetime test showed that the difference in uniformity between thin films prepared at low temperatures, with increased pumping time, and high temperatures was small and there was no obvious influence of increased pumping time on light emitting performance. Meanwhile, the permeability for water vapor of the thin film prepared at a low temperature was found to reach as low as 1.5 × 10−4 g/(m2·day under ambient conditions of 25 °C and 60% relative humidity, indicating a potential extension in the lifetime for the OLED.

  20. THE BAND STRUCTURE AND WORK FUNCTION OF TRANSPARENT CONDUCTING ALUMINUM AND MANGANESE CO-DOPED ZINC OXIDE FILMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    H.T. Cao; Z.L. Pei; X.B. Zhang; J. Gong; C. Sun; L.S. Wen

    2005-01-01

    Al and Mn co-doped-ZnO films have been prepared at room temperature by DC reactive magnetron sputtering technique. The optical absorption coefficient, apparent and fundamental band gap, and work function of the films have been investigated using optical spectroscopy, band structure analyses and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS). ZnO films have direct allowed transition band structure, which has been confirmed by the character of the optical absorption coefficient. The apparent band gap has been found directly proportional to N2/3, showing that the effect of Burstein-Moss shift on the band gap variations dominates over the many-body effect. With only standard cleaning protocols, the work function of ZnO: (Al, Mn) and ZnO: Al films have been measured to be 4.26 and 4.21eV, respectively. The incorporation of Mn element into the matrix of ZnO, as a relatively deep donor, can remove some electrons from the conduction band and deplete the density of occupied states at the Fermi energy, which causes a loss in measured photoemission intensity and an increase in the surface work function. Based on the band gap and work function results, the energy band diagram of the ZnO: (Al, Mn)film near its surface is also given.

  1. Nanostructures Using Anodic Aluminum Oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valmianski, Ilya; Monton, Carlos M.; Pereiro, Juan; Basaran, Ali C.; Schuller, Ivan K.

    2013-03-01

    We present two fabrication methods for asymmetric mesoscopic dot arrays over macroscopic areas using anodic aluminum oxide templates. In the first approach, metal is deposited at 45o to the template axis to partially close the pores and produce an elliptical shadow-mask. In the second approach, now underway, nanoimprint lithography on a polymer intermediary layer is followed by reactive ion etching to generate asymmetric pore seeds. Both these techniques are quantified by an analysis of the lateral morphology and lattice of the pores or dots using scanning electron microscopy and a newly developed MATLAB based code (available for free download at http://ischuller.ucsd.edu). The code automatically provides a segmentation of the measured area and the statistics of morphological properties such as area, diameter, and eccentricity, as well as the lattice properties such as number of nearest neighbors, and unbiased angular and radial two point correlation functions. Furthermore, novel user defined statistics can be easily obtained. We will additionally present several applications of these methods to superconducting, ferromagnetic, and organic nanostructures. This work is supported by AFOSR FA9550-10-1-0409

  2. Electrochemical fabrication of CdS/Co nanowire arrays in porous aluminum oxide templates

    CERN Document Server

    Yoon, C H

    2002-01-01

    A procedure for preparing semiconductor/metal nanowire arrays is described, based on a template method which entails electrochemical deposition into nanometer-wide parallel pores of anodic aluminum oxide films on aluminum. Aligned CdS/Co heterostructured nanowires have been prepared by ac electrodeposition in the anodic aluminum oxide templates. By varying the preparation conditions, a variety of CdS/Co nanowire arrays were fabricated, whose dimensional properties could be adjusted.

  3. Research progress of particle electro-deposition and functional film within the anodic oxide film of aluminum%铝基氧化膜内粒子电沉积及其功能膜的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王梅丰; 倪磊; 陈东初; 常萌蕾; 叶秀芳; 魏红阳

    2015-01-01

    由于铝阳极氧化膜的特殊结构,再加上其制备的功能膜具有一系列独特性能。因此,近年来受到国内外广大科研工作者的广泛关注。本文从溶液组成综述铝基膜内单一粒子和复合粒子电沉积工艺,从电源波形介绍直流、交流和脉冲电沉积工艺,另外也叙述了溶胶凝胶和超声波电沉积工艺。列举了用电沉积方法制备功能性薄膜在催化、光学、太阳能吸收膜以及磁学领域的应用,并对制备功能性氧化膜存在问题与发展方向进行阐述。%Recent years has witnessed worldwide researchers’great attention to Al alloys,due to their excellent properties of anodic oxide film,such as unique properties in functional film as well as special structure. The anodic oxide film of alumi-num within a single particles electro-deposion and composite particles electro-deposion were comprehensively reviewed from the components of the electro-deposion. In addition,the electro-deposition methods were also discussed based on the power supply,such as direct current,alternating current,pulse,sol-gel solution,and ultrasonic. The application of the func-tional film prepared by the electro-deposition method in catalysis,optics,solar energy absorbing coating and magnetic field was introduced. Moreover,the existing problem and the future directions of further study on preparing functional oxide film by the electro-deposition method are also suggested.

  4. Formation of Al-Si Composite Oxide Film by Hydrolysis Precipitation and Anodizing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhe-Sheng Feng; Ying-Jie Xia; Jia Ding; Jin-Ju Chen

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a new technique in the high dielectric constant composite oxide film preparation.On the basis of nanocompsite high dielectric constant aluminum oxide film growth technology, a new idea of adulterating Si oxide species into the aluminum composite film was proposed. As a result, the specific capacitance and withstanding voltage of the composite oxide film formed at the anodizing voltage of 20V are enhanced, and the leakage current of the aluminum composite oxide film is reduced through incorporation of Si oxide species.

  5. Fast electromigration crack in nanoscale aluminum film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emelyanov, O. A.; Ivanov, I. O.

    2014-08-01

    The current-induced breakage of 20 nm thin aluminum layers deposited onto capacitor grade polypropylene (PP) films is experimentally studied. Biexponential current pulses of different amplitude (10-15 A) and duration (0.1-1 μs) were applied to the samples. Breakage occurred after fast development of electromigrating ˜200 nm-wide cracks with initial propagation velocity of ˜1 m/s under a high current density of ˜1012 A/m2. The cracks stopped when their lengths reached 250-450 μm. This behavior is explained by the balance of electromigration and stress-induced atomic fluxes.

  6. Aluminum Oxide Formation On Fecral Catalyst Support By Electro-Chemical Coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang H.S.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available FeCrAl is comprised essentially of Fe, Cr, Al and generally considered as metallic substrates for catalyst support because of its advantage in the high-temperature corrosion resistance, high mechanical strength, and ductility. Oxidation film and its adhesion on FeCrAl surface with aluminum are important for catalyst life. Therefore various appropriate surface treatments such as thermal oxidation, Sol, PVD, CVD has studied. In this research, PEO (plasma electrolytic oxidation process was applied to form the aluminum oxide on FeCrAl surface, and the formed oxide particle according to process conditions such as electric energy and oxidation time were investigated. Microstructure and aluminum oxide particle on FeCrAl surface after PEO process was observed by FE-SEM and EDS with element mapping analysis. The study presents possibility of aluminum oxide formation by electro-chemical coating process without any pretreatment of FeCrAl.

  7. Nanoscale aluminum concaves for light-trapping in organic thin-films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goszczak, Arkadiusz Jaroslaw; Adam, Jost; Cielecki, Pawel Piotr;

    2016-01-01

    Anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) templates, fabricated from oxalic acid and phosphoric acid, lead to non-periodic nanoscale concave structures in their underlying aluminum layer, which are investigated for their field-enhancement properties by applying a thin-film polymer coating based laser ablation...... technique. Local ablation spots, corresponding to field enhancement on the ridge edges of the aluminum concave nanostructures, are observed in surface-covering polymer films, and confirmed with FDTD studies. The field enhancement leads to improved light absorption in the applied polymer layers, which may...

  8. Nanoscale aluminum concaves for light-trapping in organic thin-films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goszczak, Arkadiusz Jarosław; Adam, Jost; Cielecki, Paweł Piotr; Fiutowski, Jacek; Rubahn, Horst-Günter; Madsen, Morten

    2016-07-01

    Anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) templates, fabricated from oxalic acid and phosphoric acid, lead to non-periodic nanoscale concave structures in their underlying aluminum layer, which are investigated for their field-enhancement properties by applying a thin-film polymer coating based laser ablation technique. Local ablation spots, corresponding to field enhancement on the ridge edges of the aluminum concave nanostructures, are observed in surface-covering polymer films, and confirmed with FDTD studies. The field enhancement leads to improved light absorption in the applied polymer layers, which may be used as an efficient method for enhancing the power conversion efficiency of organic solar cells.

  9. Synthesis and characterization of nanoporous anodic oxide film on aluminum in H3PO4 + KMnO4 electrolyte mixture at different anodization conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Naveen; Jindal, Jitender; Singh, Krishan Chander; Mari, Bernabe

    2016-04-01

    The micro structural properties of nanoporous anodic oxide film formed in H3PO4 were highly influenced by addition of a low concentration of KMnO4 (0.0005 M) in 1 M H3PO4 solution. The KMnO4 as additive enhanced the growth rate of oxide film formation as well as thickness of pore walls. Furthermore the growth rate was found increased with increase in applied current density. The increase in temperature and lack of stirring during anodization causes the thinness of pore wall which leads to increase in pore volume. With the decrease in concentration of H3PO4 in anodizing electrolyte from 1M to 0.3 M, keeping all other conditions constant, the decrease in porosity was observed. This might be due to the dissolution of aluminium oxide film in highly concentrated acidic solution.

  10. LC4铝合金表面硬质阳极氧化膜制备及表征%Preparation and Characterization of Hard Anodic Oxidation Film on LC4 Aluminum Alloy Surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王英才; 陈岁元; 刘平平

    2014-01-01

    目的:在 LC4铝合金表面制备硬质阳极氧化膜,讨论工艺参数对膜层厚度和硬度的影响。方法对阳极氧化的时间、温度、电流密度及正负脉冲电流时间比等参数进行优化实验,通过 OM,SEM,XRD 及显微硬度计等对制备的氧化膜层的厚度、硬度、形貌等进行研究。结果工艺优化后的参数为:温度-2~0℃,正脉冲电流密度4 A/ dm2,负脉冲电流密度1 A/ dm2,正负脉冲电流时间比6:1,氧化时间50 min。得到由一系列直径约为50 nm 的管状单元结构组成的氧化膜,其厚度为36μm,硬度为420HV。结论制备的阳极氧化膜具有致密的组织结构和高的硬度值。%Objective The hard anodic oxidation films were prepared on the surface of the LC4 aluminum alloy and the effects of different parameters on the thickness and hardness of the films were discussed. Methods By optimizing parameters of the anodic ox-idation time, temperature, current density and the positive and negative pulse time ratio, the thickness, hardness and microstruc-ture of the films were studied by means of OM, SEM, XRD, and hardness tester. Results The optimized parameters were: a tem-perature of -2 ~ 0 ℃ , a positive pulse current density of 4 A/ dm2 , a negative pulse current density of 1 A/ dm2 , a positive and negative pulse current time ratio of 6 : 1, and an oxidation time of 50 min. The structure of the oxide film on LC4 aluminum alloy was composed of a series of tubular cells with a diameter of 50 nm, the thickness of anodic oxidation film was 36 μm, and the hard-ness was 420HV. Conclusion The anodic oxidation film had fine structure and high hardness.

  11. Improving the Cycling Life of Aluminum and Germanium Thin Films for use as Anodic Materials in Li-Ion Batteries.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudak, Nicholas [Dominican Univ., River Forest, IL (United States); Huber, Dale L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gulley, Gerald [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-09-01

    The cycling of high-capacity electrode materials for lithium-ion batteries results in significant volumetric expansion and contraction, and this leads to mechanical failure of the electrodes. To increase battery performance and reliability, there is a drive towards the use of nanostructured electrode materials and nanoscale surface coatings. As a part of the Visiting Faculty Program (VFP) last summer, we examined the ability of aluminum oxide and gold film surface coatings to improve the mechanical and cycling properties of vapor-deposited aluminum films in lithium-ion batteries. Nanoscale gold coatings resulted in significantly improved cycling behavior for the thinnest aluminum films whereas aluminum oxide coatings did not improve the cycling behavior of the aluminum films. This summer we performed a similar investigation on vapor-deposited germanium, which has an even higher theoretical capacity per unit mass than aluminum. Because the mechanism of lithium-alloying is different for each electrode material, we expected the effects of coating the germanium surface with aluminum oxide or gold to differ significantly from previous observations. Indeed, we found that gold coatings gave only small or negligible improvements in cycling behavior of germanium films, but aluminum oxide (Al2O3) coatings gave significant improvements in cycling over the range of film thicknesses tested.

  12. 21 CFR 73.1015 - Chromium-cobalt-aluminum oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Chromium-cobalt-aluminum oxide. 73.1015 Section 73... LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1015 Chromium-cobalt-aluminum oxide. (a) Identity. The color additive chromium-cobalt-aluminum oxide is a blue-green pigment obtained by calcining...

  13. 基于透射光谱确定溅射Al2O3薄膜的光学常数%Determination of the optical constants of the magnetron sputtered aluminum oxide films from the transmission spectra

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖国进; 骆红; 闫绍峰; 戴晓春; 陈明

    2011-01-01

    By combining Swanepoel's theory and the Wemple-DiDomenico dispersion model, a simple method was established to determine the optical contants of the magnetron sputtered aluminum oxide films directly from the corresponding transmission spectra. The results showed that the magnetron sputtered aluminum oxide films exhibit the optical characteristics of high refractive index of 1. 566-1.76 ( at 550 nm), negligible absorption in spectral region of 4001100 nm, as well as the direct band gap of about 3.91-4. 2 eV. And the specific values of the optical constants strongly depend on the annealing temperature , which is one of the important technological parameters for the magnetron sputtered aluminum oxide films. Moreover, in the weak and medium absorption spectral regions, the calculated values of refractive indices are in satisfactory agreement with the results derived from the high-resolution Tek3000 film - characterization system, indicating the reliability and feasibility of the method in determining the optical constants of Al2O3films.%基于反应磁控溅射Al2O3薄膜的紫外一可见一近红外透射实验光谱,采用Swanepoel方法结合Wemple-DiDomenico色散模型,方便地导出了Al2O3薄膜在200-1100 nm波长范围内的光学常数,包括折射率、色散常数、膜层厚度、吸收系数及能量带隙.研究发现反应磁控溅射Al2O3薄膜具有高折射率(1.556-1.76,测试波长为550nm)、低吸收和直接能量带隙(3.91-4.20 eV)等光学特性,而且其光学常数对薄膜制备过程中的重要工艺参数--膜层后处理温度表现出强烈的依赖性.此外,在膜层的弱吸收和中等吸收光谱区域内,计算得到的折射率色散曲线与分光光度法的测试结果基本符合,说明本实验中所建立的计算方法在确定反应磁控溅射Al2O3薄膜光学常数方面的可靠性.

  14. The thickness of native oxides on aluminum alloys and single crystals

    OpenAIRE

    Evertsson, J.; Bertram, F.; Weissenrieder, J.; Goethelid, Mats; Pan, J; Mikkelsen, A.; Nilsson, J.-O.; Lundgren, E.; Zhang, F.; Rullik, L.; Merte, L. R.; Shipilin, Mikhail; Soldemo, M.; S Ahmadi; Vinogradov, N.

    2015-01-01

    We present results from measurements of the native oxide film thickness on four different industrial aluminum alloys and three different aluminum single crystals. The thicknesses were determined using X-ray reflectivity, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. In addition, atomic force microscopy was used for micro-structural studies of the oxide surfaces. The reflectivity measurements were performed in ultra-high vacuum, vacuum, ambient, nitrogen and liq...

  15. Thermal Effect on Structure of Silver in Ion-Exchanged Soda-Lime Glasses and Aluminum-Doped Zinc Oxide Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul W. Wang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Heat treatment is commonly used during device processing in order to achieve specific functionalities of the devices. How a series of heat treatment applies to accomplish this goal can be found in the literature. However, specific properties of the devices after the treatment are more emphasized than the details of the structural modifications in the industrial applications. In this paper, it is intended to illustrate the fundamental changes in the structure due to heat treatment which result in the desired physical properties of the devices. Two study cases, Ag ion-exchanged soda-lime glasses and aluminum doped ZnO (AZO films, were illustrated. The changes in chemical states, the structural modification during and after heat treatment are explored. By understanding how the metallic Ag formed and accumulated during annealing, an optimum heat treatment to grow the proper size and density of silver quantum dots in the films are possible. Post annealing effect on the AZO films shows that the crystallinity, the peak positions shifts, and grain sizes were changed after annealing. Both illustrated cases indicate thermally induced changes in chemical state, the stress release, and rearrangement of atoms in materials during and after annealing.

  16. Self-lubricated Array Film of Amorphous Carbon Nanorods on an Aluminum Substrate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANGChun-xi; TUJiang-ping; GUOShao-yi; FUMing-fu; ZHAOXin-bing

    2004-01-01

    A self-lubricated array film of amorphous carbon nanorods was prepared by chemical catalytic pyrolysis of acetylene on the anodic aluminum oxide membrane fabricated by two-step anodization of aluminum. The tribological properties of the array film of amorphous carbon nanorods in ambient air were investigated using a ball-on-disk tester at applied loads range from 245 mN to 1960 mN at a sliding velocity of 0.2 m/s. The self-lubricated array film exhibited a small value of the friction coefficient as well as good wear resistance. The friction coefficient of array film of amorphous carbon nanorods decreased gradually with increasing the applied load. The approach proposed demonstrated a new efficient route towards enhanced the friction and wear performances of aluminum.

  17. Formation of Anodic Aluminum Oxide with Branched and Meshed Pores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byeol; Lee, Jin Seok

    2016-06-01

    Anodic aluminum oxide (AAO), with a self-ordered hexagonal array, is important for various applications in nanofabrication including as the fabrication of nanotemplates and other nanostructures. With the consideration, there have been many efforts to control the characteristic parameters of porous anodic alumina by adjustment of the anodizing conditions such as the electrolyte, temperature, applied potential, and Al purity. In particular, impurities in Al are changing the morphology of an alumina film; however, the formation mechanism has not yet been explained. In this work, we anodized a high purity (99.999%, Al(high)) and low purity (99.8%, Al(low)) aluminum foil by a two-step anodization process in an oxalic acid solution or phosphoric acid. It was found that the purity of aluminum foil has influenced the morphology of the alumina film resulting in branched and meshed pores. Also, electrochemical analysis indicated that the branched and meshed pores in the low-purity Al foil formed by the presence of impurities. Impurities act as defects and change the general growth mechanism for pore formation by inducing an electric field imbalance during anodization. This work contributes to the research field of topographical chemistry and applied fields including nanofabrication.

  18. Nanoscale aluminum dimples for light-trapping in organic thin-films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goszczak, Arkadiusz Jaroslaw; Adam, Jost; Cielecki, Pawel Piotr;

    absorption improvement in the active layer of the devices. A prospective, cheap and large-scale compatible method for structuring the electrodes in OSCs arises by the use of anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes. In the present work, aluminum films of high purity and low roughness are formed via e......-beam evaporation of a few nanometers of aluminum followed by a micrometer layer of aluminum formed via sputter deposition. The samples are then anodized to form nano-scale pores of controlled sizes. The anodization of the prepared samples occurs in an electrochemical cell in H2SO4, H2C2O4 and H3PO4 solutions....... Electrolyte solution variation and anodization parameters (sample temperature, voltage) control, allows for AAO pore diameter and interpore distance tuning. The fabricated AAO is selectively etched in H2CrO4/H3PO4 mixtures, in order to reveal the underlying aluminum nanoscale dimples, which are present...

  19. Aluminum induced crystallization of strongly (111) oriented polycrystalline silicon thin film and nucleation analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    A polycrystalline silicon thin film was fabricated on glass substrate by means of aluminum induced crystallization (AIC). Al and α-Si layers were deposited by magnetron sputtering respectively and annealed at 480°C for 1 h to realize layer exchange. The polycrystalline silicon thin film was continuous and strongly (111) oriented. By analyzing the structure variation of the oxidation membrane and lattice mismatch between γ-Al2O3 and Si, it was concluded that aluminum promoted the formation of (111) oriented silicon nucleus by controlling the orientation of γ-Al2O3, which was formed at the early stage of annealing.

  20. Thin film metal-oxides

    CERN Document Server

    Ramanathan, Shriram

    2009-01-01

    Presents an account of the fundamental structure-property relations in oxide thin films. This title discusses the functional properties of thin film oxides in the context of applications in the electronics and renewable energy technologies.

  1. FRICTION PROPERTIES OF OIL-INFILTRATED POROUS AAO FILM ON AN ALUMINUM SUBSTRATE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    C.X. Jiang; J.P. Tu; S.Y. Guo; M.F. Fu; X.B. Zhao

    2005-01-01

    The porous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) film on a pure aluminum substrate was prepared by a two-step anodization in a 0.3M oxalic acid solution and pore-enlargement treatment in the phosphoric acid aqueous solution at 50℃. The diameter of highly ordered pore on the AAO film was about 90nm, and the thickness of the AAO film was 3μm. The mineral oil was infiltrated in the ordered nanometer sized pores of AAO film on an aluminum substrate due to the capillarity effect. The friction coefficient was measured using a ball-on-disk tribotester.The tests were conducted at loads range from 490 to 2450mN and at sliding velocities beably improved the wear resistance. As compared to the porous AAO film, the oil-infiltrated specimen had low friction coefficient. With increasing the applied load and sliding velocity,the friction coefficient of the oil-infiltrated film decreased. It indicates that the oil-infiltrated AAO film produced a new way to modify the friction and wear of aluminum alloy.

  2. Optical properties of double layer thin films zinc oxide doping aluminum (ZnO/Al) were deposited on glass substrates by sol gel method spray coating technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Permatasari, Anes; Sutanto, Heri; Marito Siagian, Sinta

    2017-01-01

    Thin films of double layer of ZnO/Al has succeeded in deposition on a glass substrate using sol-gel method and spray coating techniques. Variations of doping Al as much as 2%, 4%, 6% and 8%. ZnO precursor synthesized using zinc acetate dehydrate (Zn(COOCH3)2.2H2O), isopropanol ((CH3)2CHOH) and monoethanolamine (MEA) were stirred using a magnetic stirrer for 45 minutes. ZnO precursor get homogeneous and then added of aluminum nitrate nonahydrate predetermined doping concentration and stirred again for 15 minutes. Deposition solution is done by the spray on a glass substrate and then heated at a temperature of 450°C. A layer of ZnO/Al deposited over the ZnO to produce a thin layer of a double layer. Optical properties layer of ZnO/Al characterized using UV-Vis spectrophotometer. Based on data from UV-Vis absorbance was determined the value of the energy band gap. Pure and dopped layers has different energy due the Al dopping. For pure ZnO layer has energy band gap of 3.347 eV and decreased to 3.09 eV for ZnO layer with Al dopant.

  3. 阳极氧化法制备多孔氧化铝膜的形成过程研究%Investigation on the growth sequence of porous anodic aluminum oxide films by two-step anodization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘海凤; 路丙强; 梁冬林; 魏水强; 苟凯佩; 王凡; 文衍宣

    2012-01-01

    采用阳极氧化技术,研究了电压对多孔氧化铝膜生长过程的影响.使用扫描电镜( SEM)对在草酸-水-乙醇体系中形成的多孔氧化铝膜形貌进行观测.结果表明,在第二步氧化过程中,在40V氧化电压下,多孔氧化铝膜的有序度和孔径随反应时间延长而降低;在80 V下,经过长时间反应,AAO膜表面腐蚀严重,难以获得平整的多孔结构.预氧化过程所形成的薄氧化层有效保护了多孔氧化铝表面,同时对多孔结构具有短距离诱导作用.改变氧化电压、电解质浓度和反应时间,有序孔排列的结构参数也有所改变.高电场下,孔道的相互作用促进了其生长分化,形成了两种不同的孔道结构.%The detailed growth processes of porous anodic aluminum oxide films influenced by the applied voltage were studied via anodization method. The appearance of the porous anodic aluminum oxide films formed in oxalic acid-water-ethanol solution was studied by SEM. At the second anodization step, the ordering degree and pore size of oxide films decreased at 40 V, while the rough surface of AAO by severe corrosion was obtained at 80 V. Whereas, the surface oxide layer generated by pre-anodization provided effective protection at the early stage of high-voltage anodization, and guided the formation of ordered pores array in short range. The structural parameters of ordered pores array were dependent on the applied voltage, electrolyte concentration and reaction time. At high applied voltage, the cause of interaction forces between neighboring pores enhances the differentiation of pore growth, and hence two different pores growth behaviors in the internal and surface of AAO membrane are observed.

  4. IMPROVEMENT OF THE CRYSTALLINITY AND OPTICAL PARAMETERS OF ZnO FILM WITH ALUMINUM DOPING

    OpenAIRE

    Ilican, Saliha

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the undoped and Aluminum (Al) doped (1% and 3%) zinc oxide (ZnO) films were prepared by sol gel method via spin coating onto glass substrates. To investigate the structural and optical properties of the films, it was used to X-ray diffractometer and UV-vis spectrophotometer, respectively. The prepared ZnO films are polycrystalline with a hexagonal wurtzite structure with a preferential orientation according to the (002) plane. The crystalline quality of ZnO film was improved by...

  5. 铝掺杂氧化锌薄膜的扫描电镜形貌观察条件研究%Study:Conditions for Morphology of Aluminum-doped Zinc Oxide Thin Film by Scanning Electron Microscope

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王琴; 张科; 胡子阳; 诸跃进

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the morphology of transparent conductive aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) thin film is observed using Hitach SU70 Scanning Electron Microscope(SEM). Based upon the characteristics of AZO thin film, the various testing conditions are investigated and the influence of a variety of testing conditions on the morphology of the film is discussed. The results indicate that the accelerating voltage is 5 kV, the work distance is 10mm, the detector is Mix-detector and the electronic strength is set at high mode. Satisfying all the conditions stated afore, the best SEM images will be obtained.%利用日立 SU70场发射扫描电镜对铝掺杂氧化锌(AZO)透明导电薄膜进行形貌观察。针对AZO 薄膜特点,使用多种测试条件探讨了不同测试条件对薄膜形貌的影响。通过测试结果对比,获得了测定薄膜形貌的最佳条件。结果显示:加速电压为5 kV,工作距离为10 mm,探测器为混合探测器(Mix),电子强度为 high 模式时,得到的扫描电镜图片最佳。

  6. Monolithic Approach to Oxide Dispersion Strengthened Aluminum Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Nassau Stern Company is investigating an approach for manufacturing oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) aluminum in bulk rather than powder form. The approach...

  7. Effect of Solid Solution Treatment on Hard Anodic Quality Oxidation Film on Aluminum Alloy 6061%固溶工艺对6061铝合金硬质阳极氧化膜层质量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江涛; 沈健; 闫晓东; 李俊鹏; 杨银

    2011-01-01

    The influence of solid solution treatment on the thickness, hardness, uniformity and densification of hard anodic oxidation film for aluminum alloy 6061 was investigated by hardneS8 tests, optical microscopy and electron microscopy.The results ahowed that the hardness of oxide films increased from the 8urface to the substrate, because electrolyte corrosion between the intemal and external surfacea was different.The change of heal treatment had no obvious effect on the unifonnity of thickness, which was detected by the composition structure of the films.The films which had a good compatibility with aubstrate, no pinhole and loose defect, and no any pitting on surface was grained on condition that the sample was treated at 530℃ for 3h, then quenched with water.Although the strengthening phase M92Si and the second particle could dissolve totally after improving solution temperature, the grain size was uneven extremely because of the coarae grain.Then it caused that the growth rate of oxide film was inconsi8tent in the anodic oxidation process.The microcracks deformed from intemal stress which existed in the place between the fast-growing oxide film and the stow-growing oxide film, made the quality and hardness of the oxidation film decrease.%采用显微硬度测试、金相和扫描电子显微分析,研究了固溶工艺对6061硬质阳极氧化膜层厚度、硬度、均匀性、致密度的影响.结果表明:阳极氧化膜因内外表面受到电解液的腐蚀程度不同而表现为氧化膜的硬度自膜层表面到基体逐渐升高.固溶工艺的改变对阳极氧化膜的厚度均匀性无显著影响,氧化膜自身的成分结构决定了其膜层厚度的均匀性.试样在530℃x3 h下采用水冷的方式所获得的硬质氧化膜与基体结合平整,不存在针孔、疏松等缺陷,表面无孔残蚀现象.提高固溶温度,虽然能使强化相Mg2Si、第二相质点等全部回溶到基体里,但因形成粗晶组织,使晶粒度极为不

  8. Formation of anodic aluminum oxide with serrated nanochannels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dongdong; Zhao, Liang; Jiang, Chuanhai; Lu, Jia G

    2010-08-11

    We report a simple and robust method to self-assemble porous anodic aluminum oxide membranes with serrated nanochannels by anodizing in phosphoric acid solution. Due to high field conduction and anionic incorporation, an increase of anodizing voltage leads to an increase of the impurity levels and also the field strength across barrier layer. On the basis of both experiment and simulation results, the initiation and formation of serrated channels are attributed to the evolution of oxygen gas bubbles followed by plastic deformation in the oxide film. Alternating anodization in oxalic and phosphoric acids is applied to construct multilayered membranes with smooth and serrated channels, demonstrating a unique way to design and construct a three-dimensional hierarchical system with controllable morphology and composition.

  9. Ester oxidation on an aluminum surface using chemiluminescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, William R., Jr.; Meador, Michael A.; Morales, Wilfredo

    1986-01-01

    The oxidation characteristics of a pure ester (trimethyolpropane triheptanoate) were studied by using a chemiluminescence technique. Tests were run in a thin film microoxidation apparatus with an aluminum alloy catalyst. Conditions included a pure oxygen atmosphere and a temperature range of 176 to 206 C. Results indicated that oxidation of the ester (containing .001 M diphenylanthracene as an intensifier) was accompanied by emission of light. The maximum intensity of light emission was a function of the amount of ester, the concentration of intensifier, and the test temperature. The induction period, or the time to reach one-half of maximum intensity was inversely proportional to test temperature. Decreases in light emission at the later stages of a test were caused by depletion of the intensifier.

  10. Rare Earth Oxide Thin Films

    CERN Document Server

    Fanciulli, Marco

    2007-01-01

    Thin rare earth (RE) oxide films are emerging materials for microelectronic, nanoelectronic, and spintronic applications. The state-of-the-art of thin film deposition techniques as well as the structural, physical, chemical, and electrical properties of thin RE oxide films and of their interface with semiconducting substrates are discussed. The aim is to identify proper methodologies for the development of RE oxides thin films and to evaluate their effectiveness as innovative materials in different applications.

  11. Study of Aluminum-doped zinc oxide current spreading layer on P-side up thin-film AlGaInP-based light-emitting diodes by ALD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Ming-Chun; Chen, Chi-Lu; Lai, Nan-Kai; Wuu, Dong-Sing; Lee, Hsin-Ying; Lin, Yu-Chang; Horng, Ray-Hua

    2015-03-01

    A twice wafer-transfer technique can be used to fabricate high-brightness p-side-up thin-film AlGaInP-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with an aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) thin films transparent conductive layer deposited on a GaP window layer. The GaP window layer consist of the two different doping profile, the carbon doped Gap (GaP:C) window layer of 50 nm is on the top of Mg doped GaP window layer of 8 μm. The GaP:C window layer is used to improved the ohmic contact properties of GaP:C/AZO. The AZO with different cycle ratio of Zn:Al (15:1, 20:1 and 25:1) is deposited on GaP:C window layer as current spreading layer by atomic layer deposition. The AZO layer can be used to improve light extraction, which enhances light output power. The output power of p-side-up thin-film AlGaInP LED with an AZO layer of 20:1 cycle ratio has improved up to 19.2 % at injection current of 350 mA, as compared with that of LED without AZO film. The p-side-up thin-film AlGaInP LED with AZO current spreading layer exhibited excellent performance stability, the emission wavelength shift of p-side-up thin-film AlGaInP LED without and with AZO thin film(Zn:Al=20:1) are 17 nm and 3 nm under the injection current increased from 20 mA to 1000mA, respectively. This stability can be attributed to the following factors: 1) Refractive index matching, performed by introducing AZO thin film between the epoxy and the GaP window layer enhances light extraction; and 2) the favorable thermal dissipation of the silicon substrate reduces thermal degradation.

  12. Titanium-zirconium-phosphonate hybrid film on 6061 aluminum alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuanghong WANG; Lei WANG; Changsheng LIU

    2011-01-01

    Three titanium-zirconium-phosphonate hybrid films were formed on AA6061 aluminum alloy by immersing in fluorotitanic acid and fluorozirconic acid based solution containing different phosphonic acids for protective coatings of aluminium alloy. The corrosion resistance of three hybrid films as the substitute for chromate film were evaluated and compared. The neutral salt spray test was explored,the immersion test was conducted and electrochemical test was also executed. The hybrid films exhibited well-pleasing corrosion resistance and adhesion to epoxy resin paints. It was found out that the hybrid films could efficiently be a substitute for chromate based primer over aluminium alloy.

  13. Plasma-enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition of Aluminum Oxide Using Ultrashort Precursor Injection Pulses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dingemans, G.; M. C. M. van de Sanden,; Kessels, W. M. M.

    2012-01-01

    An alternative plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) method is developed and applied for the deposition of high-quality aluminum oxide (AlOx) films. The PECVD method combines a continuous plasma with ultrashort precursor injection pulses. We demonstrate that the modulation of the precurs

  14. Oxidation kinetics of aluminum nitride at different oxidizing atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou Xinmei [Metallurgical and Ecological Engineering School, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Chou, K.-C. [Metallurgical and Ecological Engineering School, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China)], E-mail: kcc126@126.com; Zhong Xiangchong [High Temperature Ceramics Institute, Zhengzhou University, Henan Province 450052 (China); Seetharaman, Seshadri [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2008-10-06

    In the present work, the oxidation kinetics of AlN powder was investigated by using thermogravimetric analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The experiments were carried out both in isothermal as well as non-isothermal modes under two different oxidizing atmospheres. The results showed that the oxidation reaction started at around 1100 K and the rate increased significantly beyond 1273 K forming porous aluminum oxide as the reaction product. The oxidation rate was affected by temperature and oxygen partial pressure. A distinct change in the oxidation mechanism was noticed in the temperature range 1533-1543 K which is attributed to the phase transformation in oxidation product, viz. alumina. Diffusion is the controlling step during the oxidation process. Based on the experimental data, a new model for predicting the oxidation process of AlN powder had been developed, which offered an analytic form expressing the oxidation weight increment as a function of time, temperature and oxygen partial pressure. The application of this new model to this system demonstrated that this model could be used to describe the oxidation behavior of AlN powder.

  15. Properties of multilayer gallium and aluminum doped ZnO(GZO/AZO)transparent thin films deposited by pulsed laser deposition process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin-Hyum SHIN; Dong-Kyun SHIN; Hee-Young LEE; Jai-Yeoul LEE

    2011-01-01

    Multilayer gallium and aluminum doped ZnO (GZO/AZO) films were fabricated by alternative deposition of Ga-doped zinc oxide(GZO) and Al-doped zinc oxide(AZO) thin film by using pulsed laser deposition(PLD) process. The electrical and optical properties of these GZO/AZO thin films were investigated and compared with those of GZO and AZO thin films. The GZO/AZO GZO/AZO thin films linearly decreases with increasing the Al ratio.

  16. Lithography-free transmission filters at ultraviolet frequencies using ultra-thin aluminum films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhongyang; Butun, Serkan; Aydin, Koray

    2016-06-01

    Aluminum allows for significant plasmon responses in ultraviolet (UV) regime of spectrum, where conventional plasmonic materials such as silver and gold lack plasmonic behavior due to their inherent dissipative limitation from lower plasmon frequency and inter-band transition. Such UV plasmonic resonance based on aluminum nanostructures could be challenging due to the smaller feature size of nanoscale resonator and remarkable sensitivity to oxidization. Here we theoretically and experimentally demonstrate lithography-free transmission filters using triple layers of continuous ultra-thin Al and dielectric films. Our proposed transmission filter is a triple-layer Fabry-Perot cavity and operates from 2.5 to 5.5 eV with bandwidth down to 0.5 eV and transmission amplitude up to 50%. Such flat Al ultra-thin film coatings suggest the use of aluminum as low-cost UV filters and UV optoelectronics as well as structural coloring applications.

  17. Nanopatterning of Crystalline Silicon Using Anodized Aluminum Oxide Templates for Photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Tsu-An

    A novel thin film anodized aluminum oxide templating process was developed and applied to make nanopatterns on crystalline silicon to enhance the optical properties of silicon. The thin film anodized aluminum oxide was created to improve the conventional thick aluminum templating method with the aim for potential large scale fabrication. A unique two-step anodizing method was introduced to create high quality nanopatterns and it was demonstrated that this process is superior over the original one-step approach. Optical characterization of the nanopatterned silicon showed up to 10% reduction in reflection in the short wavelength range. Scanning electron microscopy was also used to analyze the nanopatterned surface structure and it was found that interpore spacing and pore density can be tuned by changing the anodizing potential.

  18. Growth behavior of anodic oxide formed by aluminum anodizing in glutaric and its derivative acid electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Daiki; Kikuchi, Tatsuya; Natsui, Shungo; Suzuki, Ryosuke O.

    2014-12-01

    The growth behavior of anodic oxide films formed via anodizing in glutaric and its derivative acid solutions was investigated based on the acid dissociation constants of electrolytes. High-purity aluminum foils were anodized in glutaric, ketoglutaric, and acetonedicarboxylic acid solutions under various electrochemical conditions. A thin barrier anodic oxide film grew uniformly on the aluminum substrate by glutaric acid anodizing, and further anodizing caused the film to breakdown due to a high electric field. In contrast, an anodic porous alumina film with a submicrometer-scale cell diameter was successfully formed by ketoglutaric acid anodizing at 293 K. However, the increase and decrease in the temperature of the ketoglutaric acid resulted in non-uniform oxide growth and localized pitting corrosion of the aluminum substrate. An anodic porous alumina film could also be fabricated by acetonedicarboxylic acid anodizing due to the relatively low dissociation constants associated with the acid. Acid dissociation constants are an important factor for the fabrication of anodic porous alumina films.

  19. Effects of a magnetic field on growth of porous alumina films on aluminum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ispas, Adriana; Bund, Andreas [Technische Universitaet Dresden, Physikalische Chemie und Elektrochemie, 01062 Dresden (Germany); Vrublevsky, Igor, E-mail: vrublevsky@bsuir.edu.b [Belarusian State University of Informatics and Radioelectronics Minsk, Department of Micro and Nanoelectronics, 220013 Minsk (Belarus)

    2010-05-01

    The effects induced by a magnetic field on the oxide film growth on aluminum in sulfuric, oxalic, phosphoric and sulfamic acid, and on current transients during re-anodizing of porous alumina films in the barrier-type electrolyte, were studied. Aluminum films of 100 nm thickness were prepared by thermal evaporation on Si wafer substrates. We could show that the duration of the anodizing process increased by 33% during anodizing in sulfuric acid when a magnetic field was applied (0.7 T), compared to the process without a magnetic field. Interestingly, such a magnetic field effect was not found during anodizing in oxalic and sulfamic acid. The pore intervals were decreased by ca. 17% in oxalic acid. These findings were attributed to variations in electronic properties of the anodic oxide films formed in various electrolytes and interpreted on the basis of the influence of trapped electrons on the mobility of ions migrating during the film growth. The spin dependent tunneling of electrons into the surface layer of the oxide under the magnetic field could be responsible for the shifts of the current transients to lower potentials during re-anodizing of heat-treated oxalic and phosphoric acid alumina films.

  20. Combined in situ PM-IRRAS/QCM studies of water adsorption on plasma modified aluminum oxide/aluminum substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giner, Ignacio; Maxisch, Michael; Kunze, Christian; Grundmeier, Guido

    2013-10-01

    Water adsorption on plasma modified oxyhydroxide covered aluminum surfaces was analyzed by means of a set-up combining in situ photoelastic modulated infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (PM-IRRAS) and quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) in a low-temperature plasma cell. The chemical structure of the surface before and after the plasma treatment was moreover characterized by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis. The surface chemistry of oxide covered aluminum was modified by oxidative and reductive low-temperature plasma pre-treatments. The Ar-plasma treatment reduced the surface hydroxyl density and effectively removed adsorbed organic contaminations. Surface modification by means of a water plasma treatment led to an increased surface hydroxyl density as well as an increase of the thickness of the native oxide film. The adsorption of water at atmospheric pressures on plasma modified aluminum surfaces led to a superimposition of reversible water layer adsorption and a simultaneous increase of the oxyhydroxide film thickness as a result of a chemisorption process. The amount of physisorbed water increased with the surface hydroxyl density whereas the chemisorption process was most significant for the surface after Ar-plasma treatment and almost negligible for the already water plasma treated surface.

  1. Fabrication of Nanostructured PLGA Scaffolds Using Anodic Aluminum Oxide Templates

    CERN Document Server

    Hsueh, Cheng-Chih; Hsu, Shan-Hui; Hung, Huey-Shan

    2008-01-01

    PLGA (poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)) is one of the most used biodegradable and biocompatible materials. Nanostructured PLGA even has great application potentials in tissue engineering. In this research, a fabrication technique for nanostructured PLGA membrane was investigated and developed. In this novel fabrication approach, an anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) film was use as the template ; the PLGA solution was then cast on it ; the vacuum air-extraction process was applied to transfer the nano porous pattern from the AAO membrane to the PLGA membrane and form nanostures on it. The cell culture experiments of the bovine endothelial cells demonstrated that the nanostructured PLGA membrane can double the cell growing rate. Compared to the conventional chemical-etching process, the physical fabrication method proposed in this research not only is simpler but also does not alter the characteristics of the PLGA. The nanostructure of the PLGA membrane can be well controlled by the AAO temperate.

  2. High Temperature Annealing Studies on the Piezoelectric Properties of Thin Aluminum Nitride Films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farrell, R.; Pagan, V.R.; Kabulski, A.; Kuchibhatla, S.; Harman, J.; Kasarla, K.R.; Rodak, L.E.; Hensel, J.P.; Famouri, P.; Korakakis, D.

    2008-01-01

    A Rapid Thermal Annealing (RTA) system was used to anneal sputtered and MOVPE-grown Aluminum Nitride (AlN) thin films at temperatures up to 1000°C in ambient and controlled environments. According to Energy Dispersive X-Ray Analysis (EDAX), the films annealed in an ambient environment rapidly oxidize after five minutes at 1000°C. Below 1000°C the films oxidized linearly as a function of annealing temperature which is consistent with what has been reported in literature [1]. Laser Doppler Vibrometry (LDV) was used to measure the piezoelectric coefficient, d33, of these films. Films annealed in an ambient environment had a weak piezoelectric response indicating that oxidation on the surface of the film reduces the value of d33. A high temperature furnace has been built that is capable of taking in-situ measurements of the piezoelectric response of AlN films. In-situ d33 measurements are recorded up to 300°C for both sputtered and MOVPE-grown AlN thin films. The measured piezoelectric response appears to increase with temperature up to 300°C possibly due to stress in the film.

  3. High Temperature Annealing Studies on the Piezoelectric Properties of Thin Aluminum Nitride Films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Farrell; V. R. Pagan; A. Kabulski; Sridhar Kuchibhatl; J. Harman; K. R. Kasarla; L. E. Rodak; P. Famouri; J. Peter Hensel; D. Korakakis

    2008-05-01

    A Rapid Thermal Annealing (RTA) system was used to anneal sputtered and MOVPE grown Aluminum Nitride (AlN) thin films at temperatures up to 1000°C in ambient and controlled environments. According to Energy Dispersive X-Ray Analysis (EDAX), the films annealed in an ambient environment rapidly oxidize after five minutes at 1000°C. Below 1000°C the films oxidized linearly as a function of annealing temperature which is consistent with what has been reported in literature [1]. Laser Doppler Vibrometry (LDV) was used to measure the piezoelectric coefficient, d33, of these films. Films annealed in an ambient environment had a weak piezoelectric response indicating that oxidation on the surface of the film reduces the value of d33. A high temperature furnace has been built that is capable of taking in-situ measurements of the piezoelectric response of AlN films. In-situ d33 measurements are recorded up to 300°C for both sputtered and MOVPE-grown AlN thin films. The measured piezoelectric response appears to increase with temperature up to 300°C possibly due to stress in the film.

  4. Analysis on film formation mechanism of scanning micro-arc oxidation on aluminum ahoy surface%铝合金表面扫描式微弧氧化成膜机理分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕鹏翔; 韦东波; 李兆龙; 狄士春

    2012-01-01

    以硅酸盐体系为电解液,利用扫描式微弧氧化(SMAO)方法在铝合金2024的表面成功制备出“蛇形”和“HIT”图案的陶瓷膜层.对扫描式和传统微弧氧化工艺进行了对比,采用扫描电镜和X射线衍射研究了SMAO陶瓷膜的结构和相组成.结果表明,与传统微弧氧化放电过程不同,扫描式微弧氧化在沿阴极前进的方向上依次分布着钝化区、阳极氧化区和微弧氧化区,没有观察到弧光放电.经过一次扫描生成的陶瓷膜厚度约为17μm,膜层只有疏松层,且其中的α-Al2O3含量高于γ-Al2O3.对扫描式微弧氧化放电机理的分析表明,电场在阳极表面的梯度变化可能是同一时间内存在不同放电区域的原因,高达2 400 A/dm2的电流密度使扫描式微弧氧化具有高的成膜效率,同时也导致了疏松层内含有大量的α-Al2O3.%The ceramic films with a snake-shape and 'HIT' pattern were successfully prepared on the surface of 2024 aluminum alloy by scanning micro-arc oxidation (SMAO) from a silicate electrolyte. The comparison between SMAO and traditional micro-arc oxidation (MAO) process was made, and the structure and phase composition of SMAO ceramic film were studied by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The results showed that differently from the discharge course for the traditional MAO, for SMAO there sequentially distributed passivation, anodic oxidation, and micro-arc oxidation regions along the cathodic direction, but no arc discharge was observed. The thickness of the ceramic film obtained by single scanning is ca.17 μm, and only a loose layer exists in the film, in which the content of α-Al2O3 is higher than that of γ-Al2O3. The analysis of film formation mechanism of SMAO revealed that the gradual change of electric field on the anodic surface is likely to be the reason for existing different discharge areas at the same time. The current density as high as 2 400 A/dm2 makes the SMAO getting a

  5. Fabrication of anodic aluminum oxide with incorporated chromate ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stępniowski, Wojciech J.; Norek, Małgorzata; Michalska-Domańska, Marta; Bombalska, Aneta; Nowak-Stępniowska, Agata; Kwaśny, Mirosław; Bojar, Zbigniew

    2012-10-01

    The anodization of aluminum in 0.3 M chromic acid is studied. The influence of operating conditions (like anodizing voltage and electrolyte's temperature) on the nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide geometry (including pore diameter, interpore distance, the oxide layer thickness and pores density) is thoroughly investigated. The results revealed typical correlations of the anodic alumina nanopore geometry with operating conditions, such as linear increase of pore diameter and interpore distance with anodizing voltage. The anodic aluminum oxide is characterized by a low pores arrangement, as determined by Fast Fourier transforms analyses of the FE-SEM images, which translates into a high concentration of oxygen vacancies. Moreover, an optimal experimental condition where chromate ions are being successfully incorporated into the anodic alumina walls, have been determined: the higher oxide growth rate the more chromate ions are being trapped. The trapped chromate ions and a high concentration of oxygen vacancies make the anodic aluminum oxide a promising luminescent material.

  6. Damp heat stable doped zinc oxide films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hüpkes, J., E-mail: j.huepkes@fz-juelich.de [IEK5–Photovoltaik, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Owen, J.I. [IEK5–Photovoltaik, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Wimmer, M.; Ruske, F. [Institute of Silicon Photovoltaics, Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie, Kekuléstraße 5, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Greiner, D.; Klenk, R. [Institute for Heterogeneous Materials Systems, Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Zastrow, U. [IEK5–Photovoltaik, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Hotovy, J. [IEK5–Photovoltaik, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology, Slovak University of Technology, Ilkovicova 3, 812 19 Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2014-03-31

    Zinc oxide is widely used as transparent contact in thin film solar cells. We investigate the damp heat stability of aluminum doped ZnO (ZnO:Al) films sputter deposited at different conditions. Increase in resistivity upon damp heat exposure was observed for as-deposited ZnO:Al films and the water penetration was directly linked to this degradation. Deuterium was used as isotopic marker to identify the amount of water taken up by the films. Finally, we applied a special annealing step to prepare highly stable ZnO:Al films with charge carrier mobility of 70 cm{sup 2}/Vs after 1000 h of damp heat treatment. A grain boundary reconstruction model is proposed to explain the high stability of ZnO:Al films after annealing. - Highlights: • Study of damp heat degradation on electrical properties of ZnO:Al • Demonstration of fast water penetration and replacement mechanism • Damp heat stable ZnO:Al films with high mobility after damp heat treatment.

  7. Cerium oxide as conversion coating for the corrosion protection of aluminum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JELENA GULICOVSKI

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available CeO2 coatings were formed on the aluminum after Al surface preparation, by dripping the ceria sol, previously prepared by forced hydrolysis of Ce(NO34. The anticorrosive properties of ceria coatings were investigated by the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS during the exposure to 0.03 % NaCl. The morphology of the coatings was examined by the scanning electron microscopy (SEM. EIS data indicated considerably larger corrosion resistance of CeO2-coated aluminum than for bare Al. The corrosion processes on Al below CeO2 coating are subjected to more pronounced diffusion limitations in comparison to the processes below passive aluminum oxide film, as the consequence of the formation of highly compact protective coating. The results show that the deposition of ceria coatings is an effective way to improve corrosion resistance for aluminum.

  8. Thermal oxidation of the surface of binary aluminum alloys with rare-earth metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akashev, L. A.; Popov, N. A.; Kuznetsov, M. V.; Shevchenko, V. G.

    2015-05-01

    The kinetics of oxidation of the surface of Al alloys with 1-2.5 at % rare-earth metals (REMs) at 400-500°C in air was studied by ellipsometry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The addition (1-2.5 at % REM) of all rare-earth metals to aluminum was shown to increase the thickness of the oxide layer. The addition of surfactant and chemically active REMs (Yb, Sm, La, and Ce) increased the rate of oxidation of solid aluminum most effectively. The oxidation can be accelerated by the polymorphic transformations of the individual REM oxides in the film. The surface activity of Sm with respect to solid Al was confirmed by XRS.

  9. Radiolysis of water with aluminum oxide surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiff, Sarah C.; LaVerne, Jay A.

    2017-02-01

    Aluminum oxide, Al2O3, nanoparticles with water were irradiated with γ-rays and 5 MeV He ions followed by the determination of the production of molecular hydrogen, H2, and characterization of changes in the particle surface. Surface analysis techniques included: diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFT), nitrogen absorption with the Brunauer - Emmett - Teller (BET) methodology for surface area determination, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Production of H2 by γ-ray radiolysis was determined for samples with adsorbed water and for Al2O3 - water slurries. For Al2O3 samples with adsorbed water, the radiation chemical yield of H2 was measured as 80±20 molecules/100 eV (1 molecule/100 eV=1.04×10-7 mol/J). The yield of H2 was observed to decrease as the amount of water present in the Al2O3 - water slurries increased. Surface studies indicated that the α-phase Al2O3 samples changed phase following irradiation by He ions, and that the oxyhydroxide layer, present on the pristine sample, is removed by γ-ray and He ion irradiation.

  10. Oxidation resistant, thoria-dispersed nickel-chromium-aluminum alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranow, S.; Klingler, L. J.

    1973-01-01

    Modified thoria-dispersed nickel-chromium alloy has been developed that exhibits greatly improved resistance to high-temperature oxidation. Additions of aluminum have been made to change nature of protective oxide scale entirely and to essentially inhibit oxidation at temperatures up to 1260 C.

  11. Modeling the ignition of a copper oxide aluminum thermite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kibaek; Stewart, D. Scott; Clemenson, Michael; Glumac, Nick; Murzyn, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    An experimental "striker confinement" shock compression experiment was developed in the Glumac-group at the University of Illinois to study ignition and reaction in composite reactive materials. These include thermitic and intermetallic reactive powders. Sample of materials such as a thermite mixture of copper oxide and aluminum powders are initially compressed to about 80 percent full density. Two RP-80 detonators simultaneously push steel bars into the reactive material and the resulting compression causes shock compaction of the material and rapid heating. At that point one observes significant reaction and propagation of fronts. But the fronts are peculiar in that they are comprised of reactive events that can be traced to the reaction of the initially separated reactants of copper oxide and aluminum that react at their mutual interfaces, that nominally make copper liquid and aluminum oxide products. We discuss our model of the ignition of the copper oxide aluminum thermite in the context of the striker experiment and how a Gibbs formulation model [1], that includes multi-components for liquid and solid phases of aluminum, copper oxide, copper and aluminum oxide, can predict the events observed at the particle scale in the experiments.

  12. The thickness of native oxides on aluminum alloys and single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evertsson, J., E-mail: jonas.evertsson@sljus.lu.se [Division of Synchrotron Radiation Research, Lund University, Box 118, 221 00 Lund (Sweden); Bertram, F. [Division of Synchrotron Radiation Research, Lund University, Box 118, 221 00 Lund (Sweden); Zhang, F. [KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Department of Chemistry, Division of Surface and Corrosion Science, Drottning Kristinas Vg 51, 100 44 Stockholm (Sweden); Rullik, L.; Merte, L.R.; Shipilin, M. [Division of Synchrotron Radiation Research, Lund University, Box 118, 221 00 Lund (Sweden); Soldemo, M.; Ahmadi, S. [KTH Royal Institute of Technology, ICT, Material Physics, 16440 Kista (Sweden); Vinogradov, N.; Carlà, F. [ESRF, B.P. 220, 38043 Grenoble (France); Weissenrieder, J.; Göthelid, M. [KTH Royal Institute of Technology, ICT, Material Physics, 16440 Kista (Sweden); Pan, J. [KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Department of Chemistry, Division of Surface and Corrosion Science, Drottning Kristinas Vg 51, 100 44 Stockholm (Sweden); Mikkelsen, A. [Division of Synchrotron Radiation Research, Lund University, Box 118, 221 00 Lund (Sweden); Nilsson, J.-O. [Sapa Technology, Kanalgatan 1, 612 31 Finspång (Sweden); Lundgren, E. [Division of Synchrotron Radiation Research, Lund University, Box 118, 221 00 Lund (Sweden)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • We have determined the native oxide film thickness on several Al samples. • The results obtained from XRR and XPS show excellent agreement. • The results obtained from EIS show consistently thinner oxide films. • The oxides on the alloys are thicker than the oxides on the single crystals. - Abstract: We present results from measurements of the native oxide film thickness on four different industrial aluminum alloys and three different aluminum single crystals. The thicknesses were determined using X-ray reflectivity, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. In addition, atomic force microscopy was used for micro-structural studies of the oxide surfaces. The reflectivity measurements were performed in ultra-high vacuum, vacuum, ambient, nitrogen and liquid water conditions. The results obtained using X-ray reflectivity and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy demonstrate good agreement. However, the oxide thicknesses determined from the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy show a larger discrepancy from the above two methods. In the present contribution the reasons for this discrepancy are discussed. We also address the effect of the substrate type and the presence of water on the resultant oxide thickness.

  13. Porous and mesh alumina formed by anodization of high purity aluminum films at low anodizing voltage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abd-Elnaiem, Alaa M., E-mail: alaa.abd-elnaiem@science.au.edu.eg [KACST-Intel Consortium Center of Excellence in Nano-manufacturing Applications (CENA), Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Assiut University, Assiut 71516 (Egypt); Mebed, A.M. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Assiut University, Assiut 71516 (Egypt); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Al-Jouf University, Sakaka 2014 (Saudi Arabia); El-Said, Waleed Ahmed [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Assiut University, Assiut 71516 (Egypt); Abdel-Rahim, M.A. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Assiut University, Assiut 71516 (Egypt)

    2014-11-03

    Electrochemical oxidation of high-purity aluminum (Al) films under low anodizing voltages (1–10) V has been conducted to obtain anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) with ultra-small pore size and inter-pore distance. Different structures of AAO have been obtained e.g. nanoporous and mesh structures. Highly regular pore arrays with small pore size and inter-pore distance have been formed in oxalic or sulfuric acids at different temperatures (22–50 °C). It is found that the pore diameter, inter-pore distance and the barrier layer thickness are independent of the anodizing parameters, which is very different from the rules of general AAO fabrication. The brand formation mechanism has been revealed by the scanning electron microscope study. Regular nanopores are formed under 10 V at the beginning of the anodization and then serve as a template layer dominating the formation of ultra-small nanopores. Anodization that is performed at voltages less than 5 V leads to mesh structured alumina. In addition, we have introduced a simple one-pot synthesis method to develop thin walls of oxide containing lithium (Li) ions that could be used for battery application based on anodization of Al films in a supersaturated mixture of lithium phosphate and phosphoric acid as matrix for Li-composite electrolyte. - Highlights: • We develop anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) with small pore size and inter-pore distance. • Applying low anodizing voltages onto aluminum film leads to form mesh structures. • The value of anodizing voltage (1–10 V) has no effect on pore size or inter-pore distance. • Applying anodizing voltage less than 5 V leads to mesh structured AAO. • AAO can be used as a matrix for Li-composite electrolytes.

  14. Hangzhou Jinjiang Group Shanxi Fusheng Aluminum Phase I 800,000 t/a Aluminum Oxide Project Started Operation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>On October 19,the Shanxi Province Pinglu County Phase I 800,000t/a Aluminum Oxide Project of Shanxi Fusheng Aluminum Co.,Ltd,a subordinate of Hangzhou Jinjiang Group,started operation.This is the fourth Aluminum oxide project constructed and operated by Jinjiang Group.

  15. Methods for both coating a substrate with aluminum oxide and infusing the substrate with elemental aluminum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jung-Pyung; Weil, Kenneth Scott

    2016-11-01

    Methods of aluminizing the surface of a metal substrate. The methods of the present invention do not require establishment of a vacuum or a reducing atmosphere, as is typically necessary. Accordingly, aluminization can occur in the presence of oxygen, which greatly simplifies and reduces processing costs by allowing deposition of the aluminum coating to be performed, for example, in air. Embodiments of the present invention can be characterized by applying a slurry that includes a binder and powder granules containing aluminum to the metal substrate surface. Then, in a combined step, a portion of the aluminum is diffused into the substrate and a portion of the aluminum is oxidized by heating the slurry to a temperature greater than the melting point of the aluminum in an oxygen-containing atmosphere.

  16. Control of Defects in Aluminum Gallium Nitride ((Al)GaN) Films on Grown Aluminum Nitride (AlN) Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    like HEMTs . A nanolayer of AlGaN over GaN provides extra 2DEG charge density because of the piezoelectric effect of the AlGaN layer. The higher...Control of Defects in Aluminum Gallium Nitride ((Al) GaN ) Films on Grown Aluminum Nitride (AlN) Substrates by Iskander G. Batyrev, Chi-Chin Wu...Aluminum Gallium Nitride ((Al) GaN ) Films on Grown Aluminum Nitride (AlN) Substrates Iskander G. Batyrev and N. Scott Weingarten Weapons and

  17. A conducting polymer film stronger than aluminum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, G; Jin, S; Xue, G; Li, C

    1995-02-17

    Polythiophene (Pth) was electrochemically deposited onto stainless steel substrate from freshly distilled boron fluoride-ethyl ether containing 10 millimoles of thiophene per liter. The free-standing Pth film obtained at an applied potential of 1.3 volts (versus Ag/AgCl) had a conductivity of 48.7 siemens per centimeter. Its tensile strength (1200 to 1300 kilograms per square centimeter) was greater than that of aluminium (1000 to 1100 kilograms per square centimeter). This Pth film behaves like a metal sheet and can be easily cut into various structures with a knife or a pair of scissors.

  18. Poly-Si films with low aluminum dopant containing by aluminum-induced crystallization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Typically, highly p-doped (2×10 18 cm -3 ) poly-Si films fabricated by the aluminum induced layer exchange (ALILE) process are not suitable for solar cell absorber layers. In this paper, the fabrication of high-quality, continuous polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si) films with lower doping concentrations (2×10 16 cm -3 ) using aluminum-induced crystallization (AIC) is reported. Secondary-ion-mass spectroscopy (SIMS) results showed that annealing at different temperature profiles leads to a variety of Al concentrations. Hall Effect measurements revealed that Al dopant concentration depends on the annealing temperature and temperature profile. Raman spectral analysis indicated that samples prepared via AIC contain some regions with small grains.

  19. Deposition and characterization of silicon thin-films by aluminum-induced crystallization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebil, Ozgenc

    Polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si) as a thin-film solar cell material could have major advantages compared to non-silicon thin-film technologies. In theory, thin-film poly-Si may retain the performance and stability of c-Si while taking advantage of established manufacturing techniques. However, poly-Si films deposited onto foreign substrates at low temperatures typically have an average grain size of 10--50 nm. Such a grain structure presents a potential problem for device performance since it introduces an excessive number of grain boundaries which, if left unpassivated, lead to poor solar cell properties. Therefore, for optimum device performance, the grain size of the poly-Si film should be at least comparable to the thickness of the films. For this project, the objectives were the deposition of poly-Si thin-films with 2--5 mum grain size on glass substrates using in-situ and conventional aluminum-induced crystallization (AIC) and the development of a model for AIC process. In-situ AIC experiments were performed using Hot-Wire Chemical Vapor Deposition (HWCVD) both above and below the eutectic temperature (577°C) of Si-Al binary system. Conventional AIC experiments were performed using a-Si layers deposited on aluminum coated glass substrates by Electron-beam deposition, Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (PECVD) and HWCVD. Continuous poly-Si films with an average grain size of 10 mum on glass substrates were achieved by both in-situ and conventional aluminum-induced crystallization of Si below eutectic temperature. The grain size was determined by three factors; the grain structure of Al layer, the nature of the interfacial oxide, and crystallization temperature. The interface oxide was found to be crucial for AIC process but not necessary for crystallization itself. The characterization of interfacial oxide layer formed on Al films revealed a bilayer structure containing Al2O3 and Al(OH)3 . The effective activation energy for AIC process was determined

  20. Enhanced conductivity of aluminum doped ZnO films by hydrogen plasma treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, H.P. [Department of Electrical Engineering and Graduate Institute of Optoelectronic Engineering, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Wang, F.H., E-mail: fansen@dragon.nchu.edu.t [Department of Electrical Engineering and Graduate Institute of Optoelectronic Engineering, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Wu, J.Y.; Kung, C.Y.; Liu, H.W. [Department of Electrical Engineering and Graduate Institute of Optoelectronic Engineering, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China)

    2010-10-01

    Aluminum doped zinc oxide (AZO) thin films prepared by radio-frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering at various RF power were treated by hydrogen plasma to enhance the characteristics for transparent electrode applications. The hydrogen plasma treatment was carried out at 300 {sup o}C in a plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition system. X-ray diffraction analysis shows that all AZO films have a (002) preferred orientation and film crystallinity seems no significant change after plasma treatment. The plasma treatment not only significantly decreases film resistivity but enhances electrical stability as aging in air ambient. The improved electrical properties are due to desorption of weakly bonded oxygen species, formation of Zn-H type species and passivation of deep-level defects during plasma treatment.

  1. Alginate-magnesium aluminum silicate composite films: effect of film thickness on physical characteristics and permeability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pongjanyakul, Thaned; Puttipipatkhachorn, Satit

    2008-01-04

    The different film thicknesses of the sodium alginate-magnesium aluminum silicate (SA-MAS) microcomposite films were prepared by varying volumes of the composite dispersion for casting. Effect of film thickness on thermal behavior, solid-state crystallinity, mechanical properties, water uptake and erosion, and water vapor and drug permeability of the microcomposite films were investigated. The film thickness caused a small change in thermal behavior of the films when tested using DSC and TGA. The crystallinity of the thin films seemed to increase when compared with the thick films. The thin films gave higher tensile strength than the thick films, whereas % elongation of the films was on the contrary resulted in the lower Young's modulus of the films when the film thickness was increased. This was due to the weaker of the film bulk, suggesting that the microscopic matrix structure of the thick films was looser than that of the thin films. Consequently, water uptake and erosion, water vapor permeation and drug diffusion coefficient of the thick films were higher than those of the thin films. The different types of drug on permeability of the films also showed that a positive charge and large molecule of drug, propranolol HCl, had higher lag time and lower diffusion coefficient that acetaminophen, a non-electrolyte and small molecule. This was because of a higher affinity of positive charge drug on MAS in the films. The findings suggest that the evaporation rate of solvent in different volumes of the composite dispersion used in the preparation method could affect crystallinity and strength of the film surface and film bulk of the microcomposite films. This led to a change in water vapor and drug permeability of the films.

  2. The anodizing behavior of aluminum in malonic acid solution and morphology of the anodic films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jianjun; Zuo, Yu

    2012-11-01

    The anodizing behavior of aluminum in malonic acid solution and morphology of the anodic films were studied. The voltage-time response for galvanostatic anodization of aluminum in malonic acid solution exhibits a conventional three-stage feature but the formation voltage is much higher. With the increase of electrolyte concentration, the electrolyte viscosity increases simultaneously and the high viscosity decreases the film growth rate. With the concentration increase of the malonic acid electrolyte, the critical current density that initiates local "burning" on the sample surface decreases. For malonic acid anodization, the field-assisted dissolution on the oxide surface is relatively weak and the nucleation of pores is more difficult, which results in greater barrier layer thickness and larger cell dimension. The embryo of the porous structure of anodic film has been created within the linear region of the first transient stage, and the definite porous structure has been established before the end of the first transient stage. The self-ordering behavior of the porous film is influenced by the electrolyte concentration, film thickness and the applied current density. Great current density not only improves the cell arrangement order but also brings about larger cell dimension.

  3. Spatial atomic layer deposition on flexible porous substrates: ZnO on anodic aluminum oxide films and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} on Li ion battery electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Kashish [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States); Routkevitch, Dmitri; Varaksa, Natalia [InRedox, Longmont, Colorado 80544 (United States); George, Steven M., E-mail: Steven.George@Colorado.Edu [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309 and Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States)

    2016-01-15

    Spatial atomic layer deposition (S-ALD) was examined on flexible porous substrates utilizing a rotating cylinder reactor to perform the S-ALD. S-ALD was first explored on flexible polyethylene terephthalate polymer substrates to obtain S-ALD growth rates on flat surfaces. ZnO ALD with diethylzinc and ozone as the reactants at 50 °C was the model S-ALD system. ZnO S-ALD was then performed on nanoporous flexible anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) films. ZnO S-ALD in porous substrates depends on the pore diameter, pore aspect ratio, and reactant exposure time that define the gas transport. To evaluate these parameters, the Zn coverage profiles in the pores of the AAO films were measured using energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). EDS measurements were conducted for different reaction conditions and AAO pore geometries. Substrate speeds and reactant pulse durations were defined by rotating cylinder rates of 10, 100, and 200 revolutions per minute (RPM). AAO pore diameters of 10, 25, 50, and 100 nm were utilized with a pore length of 25 μm. Uniform Zn coverage profiles were obtained at 10 RPM and pore diameters of 100 nm. The Zn coverage was less uniform at higher RPM values and smaller pore diameters. These results indicate that S-ALD into porous substrates is feasible under certain reaction conditions. S-ALD was then performed on porous Li ion battery electrodes to test S-ALD on a technologically important porous substrate. Li{sub 0.20}Mn{sub 0.54}Ni{sub 0.13}Co{sub 0.13}O{sub 2} electrodes on flexible metal foil were coated with Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} using 2–5 Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} ALD cycles. The Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} ALD was performed in the S-ALD reactor at a rotating cylinder rate of 10 RPM using trimethylaluminum and ozone as the reactants at 50 °C. The capacity of the electrodes was then tested versus number of charge–discharge cycles. These measurements revealed that the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} S-ALD coating on the electrodes enhanced the capacity stability. This S

  4. Self-ordering behavior of nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) in malonic acid anodization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, W; Nielsch, K; Goesele, U [Max Planck Institute of Microstructure Physics, Weinberg 2, D-06120 Halle (Germany)

    2007-11-28

    The self-ordering behavior of anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) has been investigated for anodization of aluminum in malonic acid (H{sub 4}C{sub 3}O{sub 4}) solution. In the present study it is found that a porous oxide layer formed on the surface of aluminum can effectively suppress catastrophic local events (such as breakdown of the oxide film and plastic deformation of the aluminum substrate), and enables stable fast anodic oxidation under a high electric field of 110-140 V and {approx}100 mA cm{sup -2}. Studies on the self-ordering behavior of AAO indicated that the cell homogeneity of AAO increases dramatically as the anodization voltage gets higher than 120 V. Highly ordered AAO with a hexagonal arrangement of the nanopores could be obtained in a voltage range 125-140 V. The current density (i.e., the electric field strength (E) at the bottom of a pore) is an important parameter governing the self-ordering of the nanopores as well as the interpore distance (D{sub int}) for a given anodization potential (U) during malonic acid anodization.

  5. Impurity-defect structure of anodic aluminum oxide produced by two-sided anodizing in tartaric acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernyakova, K. V.; Vrublevsky, I. A.; Ivanovskaya, M. I.; Kotsikau, D. A.

    2012-03-01

    Porous aluminum oxide is prepared in a 0.4 M aqueous solution of tartaric acid by two-sided anodizing. Fourier Transform IR spectroscopy (FTIR) data reveal the presence, in the alumina, of unoxidized tartarate ions, as well as products of their partial (radical organic products and CO) and complete (CO2) oxidation. Carboxylate ions and elemental carbon contained in the anodic oxide impart a gray color to the films.

  6. Analysis of peel strength of consisting of an aluminum sheet, anodic aluminum oxide and a copper foil laminate composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hyeong-Won; Lee, Hyo-Soo; Jung, Seung-Boo

    2017-01-01

    Laminate composites consisting of an aluminum sheet, anodic aluminum oxide, and copper foil have been used as heat-spreader materials for high-power light-emitting diodes (LEDs). These composites are comparable to the conventional structure comprising an aluminum sheet, epoxy adhesives, and copper foil. The peel strength between the copper foil and anodic aluminum oxide should be more than 1.0 kgf/cm in order to be applied in high-power LED products. We investigated the effect of the anodic aluminum oxide morphology and heat-treatment conditions on the peel strength of the composites. We formed an anodic aluminum oxide layer on a 99.999% pure aluminum sheet using electrochemical anodization. A Ti/Cu seed layer was formed using the sputtering direct bonding copper process in order to form a copper circuit layer on the anodic aluminum oxide layer by electroplating. The developed heat spreader, composed of an aluminum layer, anodic aluminum oxide, and a copper circuit layer, showed peel strengths ranging from 1.05 to 3.45 kgf/cm, which is very suitable for high-power LED applications.

  7. Poly-crystalline thin-film by aluminum induced crystallization on aluminum nitride substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhopal, Muhammad Fahad; Lee, Doo Won; Lee, Soo Hong

    2016-09-01

    Thin-film polycrystalline silicon ( pc-Si) on foreign (non-silicon) substrates has been researched by various research groups for the production of photovoltaic cells. High quality pc-Si deposition on foreign substrates with superior optical properties is considered to be the main hurdle in cell fabrication. Metal induced crystallization (MIC) is one of the renowned techniques used to produce this quality of material. In the current study, an aluminum induced crystallization (AIC) method was adopted to produce pc-Si thin-film on aluminum nitride (AlN) substrate by a seed layer approach. Aluminum and a-Si layer were deposited using an e-beam evaporator. Various annealing conditions were used in order to investigate the AIC grown pc-Si seed layers for process optimization. The effect of thermal annealing on grain size, defects preferentially crystallographic orientation of the grains were analyzed. Surface morphology was studied using an optical microscope. Poly-silicon film with a crystallinity fraction between 95-100% and an FWHM between 5-6 cm-1 is achievable at low temperatures and for short time intervals. A grain size of about 10 micron can be obtained at a low deposition rate on an AIN substrate. Similarly, Focused ion beam (FIB) also showed that at 425 °C sample B and at 400 °C sample A were fully crystallized. The crystalline quality of pc-Si was evaluated using μ-Raman spectroscopy as a function of annealed conditions and Grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD) was used to determine the phase direction of the pc-Si layer. The current study implicates that a poly-silicon layer with good crystallographic orientation and crystallinity fraction is achievable on AIN substrate at low temperatures and short time frames.

  8. Identity of Passive Film Formed on Aluminum in Li-ion BatteryElectrolytes with LiPF6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xueyuan; Devine, T.M.

    2006-09-01

    The passive film that forms on aluminum in 1:1 ethylene carbonate + ethylmethyl carbonate with 1.2M LiPF{sub 6} and 1:1 ethylene carbonate + dimethyl carbonate with 1.0M LiPF{sub 6} was investigated by a combination of electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance measurements (EQCM), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. During anodic polarization of aluminum a film of AlF{sub 3} forms on top of the air-formed oxide, creating a duplex, or two-layered film. The thickness of the AlF{sub 3} increases with the applied potential. Independent measurements of film thickness by EQCM and EIS indicate that at a potential of 5.5V vs. Li/Li{sup +}, the thickness of the AlF{sub 3} is approximately 1 nm.

  9. Magnetic composites based on hybrid spheres of aluminum oxide and superparamagnetic nanoparticles of iron oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braga, Tiago P. [Langmuir - Laboratorio de Adsorcao e Catalise, Departamento de Quimica Analitica e Fisico-Quimica, Universidade Federal do Ceara, CP 6021, CEP 60455-970 Campus do Pici, Fortaleza (Brazil); Vasconcelos, Igor F. [Departamento de Engenharia Metalurgica e de Materiais, Universidade Federal do Ceara, Fortaleza (Brazil); Sasaki, Jose M. [Laboratorio de Raios X, Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Ceara, Campus do Pici, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Fabris, J.D.; Oliveira, Diana Q.L. de [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte (Brazil); Valentini, Antoninho, E-mail: valent@ufc.b [Langmuir - Laboratorio de Adsorcao e Catalise, Departamento de Quimica Analitica e Fisico-Quimica, Universidade Federal do Ceara, CP 6021, CEP 60455-970 Campus do Pici, Fortaleza (Brazil)

    2010-03-15

    Materials containing hybrid spheres of aluminum oxide and superparamagnetic nanoparticles of iron oxides were obtained from a chemical precursor prepared by admixing chitosan and iron and aluminum hydroxides. The oxides were first characterized with scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Moessbauer spectroscopy. Scanning electron microscopy micrographs showed the size distribution of the resulting spheres to be highly homogeneous. The occurrence of nano-composites containing aluminum oxides and iron oxides was confirmed from powder X-ray diffraction patterns; except for the sample with no aluminum, the superparamagnetic relaxation due to iron oxide particles were observed from Moessbauer spectra obtained at 298 and 110 K; the onset six line-spectrum collected at 20 K indicates a magnetic ordering related to the blocking relaxation effect for significant portion of small spheres in the sample with a molar ratio Al:Fe of 2:1.

  10. Thick film fabrication of aluminum nitride microcircuits. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perdieu, L.H.

    1994-03-01

    A new substrate material, aluminum nitride (AlN), and 11 new thick film inks were analyzed to determine their chemical compatibility, their electrical properties, their mechanical properties, and their overall suitability for use in the manufacturing of high-power microcircuits with efficient thermal properties. Because high-power chips emit a great deal of heat in a small surface area, a new substrate material was needed to dissipate that heat faster than the substrate material currently in use. Overall, the new materials were found to be acceptable for accomplishing this purpose.

  11. Ultraviolet optical properties of aluminum fluoride thin films deposited by atomic layer deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hennessy, John, E-mail: john.j.hennessy@jpl.nasa.gov; Jewell, April D.; Balasubramanian, Kunjithapatham; Nikzad, Shouleh [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, California 91109 (United States)

    2016-01-15

    Aluminum fluoride (AlF{sub 3}) is a low refractive index material with promising optical applications for ultraviolet (UV) wavelengths. An atomic layer deposition process using trimethylaluminum and anhydrous hydrogen fluoride has been developed for the deposition of AlF{sub 3} at substrate temperatures between 100 and 200 °C. This low temperature process has resulted in thin films with UV-optical properties that have been characterized by ellipsometric and reflection/transmission measurements at wavelengths down to 200 nm. The optical loss for 93 nm thick films deposited at 100 °C was measured to be less than 0.2% from visible wavelengths down to 200 nm, and additional microstructural characterization demonstrates that the films are amorphous with moderate tensile stress of 42–105 MPa as deposited on silicon substrates. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis shows no signature of residual aluminum oxide components making these films good candidates for a variety of applications at even shorter UV wavelengths.

  12. Low temperature aluminum nitride thin films for sensory applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarar, E.; Hrkac, V.; Zamponi, C.; Piorra, A.; Kienle, L.; Quandt, E.

    2016-07-01

    A low-temperature sputter deposition process for the synthesis of aluminum nitride (AlN) thin films that is attractive for applications with a limited temperature budget is presented. Influence of the reactive gas concentration, plasma treatment of the nucleation surface and film thickness on the microstructural, piezoelectric and dielectric properties of AlN is investigated. An improved crystal quality with respect to the increased film thickness was observed; where full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the AlN films decreased from 2.88 ± 0.16° down to 1.25 ± 0.07° and the effective longitudinal piezoelectric coefficient (d33,f) increased from 2.30 ± 0.32 pm/V up to 5.57 ± 0.34 pm/V for film thicknesses in the range of 30 nm to 2 μm. Dielectric loss angle (tan δ) decreased from 0.626% ± 0.005% to 0.025% ± 0.011% for the same thickness range. The average relative permittivity (ɛr) was calculated as 10.4 ± 0.05. An almost constant transversal piezoelectric coefficient (|e31,f|) of 1.39 ± 0.01 C/m2 was measured for samples in the range of 0.5 μm to 2 μm. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) investigations performed on thin (100 nm) and thick (1.6 μm) films revealed an (002) oriented AlN nucleation and growth starting directly from the AlN-Pt interface independent of the film thickness and exhibit comparable quality with the state-of-the-art AlN thin films sputtered at much higher substrate temperatures.

  13. Influence of additive element on surface oxide film of A356 alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    OUYANG Zhi-ying; LIANG Hong-yu; MAO Xie-min; HONG Mei

    2006-01-01

    The influences of RE-modification and Sr-modification on the hydrogen content and surface oxide film of A356 aluminum alloy melt were investigated. The hydrogen content of the melt was measured by reduce pressure test. The phases in the surface oxide film were analyzed by X-ray diffractometry (XRD), and the morphology of the surface oxide film was observed by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM). The results show that RE-modification reduces the hydrogen content of A356 aluminum alloy greatly.Contrarily, Sr-modification increases the hydrogen content remarkably. After being treated with RE, a large number of LaAl11O18 consisting of Al2O3 and La2O3, are generated in the surface oxide film of A356 alloy. The surface oxide film of Sr-modification is almost composed of Al2SrO4. According to the results of SEM, the surface oxide film of Sr-modification is very easy to crack,destroy the continuity and compactness of surface oxide film, accelerate the vapor diffusing into the melt, consequently, increase the hydrogen content of A356 alloy melt significantly. But RE-modification makes the surface oxide film compact, and restrains the aluminum exposed to water, so reduces the hydrogen content of A356 alloy melt.

  14. Use of aluminum as an oxidation barrier for titanium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unnam, J.; Shenoy, R. N.; Wiedemann, K. E.; Clark, R. K.

    1985-01-01

    A study is conducted of the use of aluminum coatings as oxidation retardants for Ti alloys, using room temperature normal emittance and spectral emittance as bases for the characterization of oxidation properties with and without the coatings. Thermal exposures were conducted in a thermogravimetric analysis apparatus in which specimen weight was continuously monitored. The results obtained indicate that the weight gains are proportional to the square root of the time for uncoated alloys and for 649 C-exposed aluminum-coated alloys. For the 704 C-exposed aluminum-coated alloys, weight gain exhibits a low rate for short and a high rate for long exposure times, implying that the 0.5-micron coating's protection decreases for long exposures at this temperature.

  15. Effect of intermetallic phases on the anodic oxidation and corrosion of 5A06 aluminum alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Song-mei; Li, Ying-dong; Zhang, You; Liu, Jian-hua; Yu, Mei

    2015-02-01

    Intermetallic phases were found to influence the anodic oxidation and corrosion behavior of 5A06 aluminum alloy. Scattered intermetallic particles were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) after pretreatment. The anodic film was investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and its corrosion resistance was analyzed by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and Tafel polarization in NaCl solution. The results show that the size of Al-Fe-Mg-Mn particles gradually decreases with the iron content. During anodizing, these intermetallic particles are gradually dissolved, leading to the complex porosity in the anodic film beneath the particles. After anodizing, the residual particles are mainly silicon-containing phases, which are embedded in the anodic film. Electrochemical measurements indicate that the porous anodic film layer is easily penetrated, and the barrier plays a dominant role in the overall protection. Meanwhile, self-healing behavior is observed during the long immersion time.

  16. Upconversion spectroscopy of erbium in amorphous aluminum oxide microstructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agazzi, L.; Wörhoff, K.; Pollnau, M.

    2012-01-01

    The influence of energy migration and energy-transfer upconversion (ETU) among neighboring erbium ions on luminescence decay and steady-state population densities in amorphous aluminum oxide microstructures is investigated by means of photoluminescence decay measurements under quasi-CW excitation. .

  17. Stratospheric aluminum oxide. [possibly from solid-fuel rocket exhausts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownlee, D. E.; Tomandl, D.; Ferry, G. V.

    1976-01-01

    Balloons and U-2 aircraft were used to collect micrometer-sized stratospheric aerosols. It was discovered that for the past 6 years at least, aluminum oxide spheres have been the major stratospheric particulate in the size range from 3 to 8 micrometers. The most probable source of the spheres is the exhaust from solid-fuel rockets.

  18. 21 CFR 73.3110a - Chromium-cobalt-aluminum oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Chromium-cobalt-aluminum oxide. 73.3110a Section... LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Medical Devices § 73.3110a Chromium-cobalt-aluminum oxide. (a) Identity. The color additive chromium-cobalt-aluminum oxide (Pigment Blue 36) (CAS Reg....

  19. Preparation of titanium dioxide films on etched aluminum foil by vacuum infiltration and anodizing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Lian; Park, Sang-Shik

    2016-12-01

    Al2O3-TiO2 (Al-Ti) composite oxide films are a promising dielectric material for future use in capacitors. In this study, TiO2 films were prepared on etched Al foils by vacuum infiltration. TiO2 films prepared using a sol-gel process were annealed at various temperatures (450, 500, and 550 °C) for different time durations (10, 30, and 60 min) for 4 cycles, and then anodized at 100 V. The specimens were characterized using X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, and field emission transmission electron microscopy. The results show that the tunnels of the specimens feature a multi-layer structure consisting of an Al2O3 outer layer, an Al-Ti composite oxide middle layer, and an aluminum hydrate inner layer. The electrical properties of the specimens, such as the withstanding voltage and specific capacitance, were also measured. Compared to specimens without TiO2 coating, the specific capacitances of the TiO2-coated specimens are increased. The specific capacitance of the anode Al foil with TiO2 coating increased by 42% compared to that of a specimen without TiO2 coating when annealed at 550 °C for 10 min. These composite oxide films could enhance the specific capacitance of anode Al foils used in dielectric materials.

  20. Oxide Films RF Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    should be noted that epitaxial rutile TiO 2 films were observed for C-cut and R-cut sapphire , as well as ( 110)-STO. Figure 2 shows RHEED images, taken...field TEM of the STO substrate grown by Verneuil method. The dark lines correspond to dislocations, their density was estimated at 4.3 x 108/cm2. In the

  1. Pure electron-electron dephasing in percolative aluminum ultrathin film grown by molecular beam epitaxy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shih-Wei; Wu, Yue-Han; Chang, Li; Liang, Chi-Te; Lin, Sheng-Di

    2015-01-01

    We have successfully grown ultrathin continuous aluminum film by molecular beam epitaxy. This percolative aluminum film is single crystalline and strain free as characterized by transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. The weak anti-localization effect is observed in the temperature range of 1.4 to 10 K with this sample, and it reveals that, for the first time, the dephasing is purely caused by electron-electron inelastic scattering in aluminum.

  2. The influence of Ac parameters in the process of micro-arc oxidation film electric breakdown

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Jin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the electric breakdown discharge process of micro-arc oxidation film on the surface of aluminum alloy. Based on the analysis of the AC parameters variation in the micro-arc oxidation process, the following conclusions can be drawn: The growth of oxide film can be divided into three stages, and Oxide film breakdown discharge occurs twice in the micro-arc oxidation process. The first stage is the formation and disruptive discharge of amorphous oxide film, producing the ceramic oxide granules, which belong to solid dielectric breakdown. In this stage the membrane voltage of the oxide film plays a key role; the second stage is the formation of ceramic oxide film, the ceramic oxide granules turns into porous structure oxide film in this stage; the third stage is the growth of ceramic oxide film, the gas film that forms in the oxide film’s porous structure is electric broken-down, which is the second breakdown discharge process, the current density on the oxide film surface could affect the breakdown process significantly.

  3. Spotting 2D atomic layers on aluminum nitride thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekar, Hareesh; Bharadwaj B, Krishna; Vaidyuala, Kranthi Kumar; Suran, Swathi; Bhat, Navakanta; Varma, Manoj; Srinivasan Raghavan

    2015-10-23

    Substrates for 2D materials are important for tailoring their fundamental properties and realizing device applications. Aluminum nitride (AIN) films on silicon are promising large-area substrates for such devices in view of their high surface phonon energies and reasonably large dielectric constants. In this paper epitaxial layers of AlN on 2″ Si wafers have been investigated as a necessary first step to realize devices from exfoliated or transferred atomic layers. Significant thickness dependent contrast enhancements are both predicted and observed for monolayers of graphene and MoS2 on AlN films as compared to the conventional SiO2 films on silicon, with calculated contrast values approaching 100% for graphene on AlN as compared to 8% for SiO2 at normal incidences. Quantitative estimates of experimentally measured contrast using reflectance spectroscopy show very good agreement with calculated values. Transistors of monolayer graphene on AlN films are demonstrated, indicating the feasibility of complete device fabrication on the identified layers.

  4. Progress in Nano-Engineered Anodic Aluminum Oxide Membrane Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerrard Eddy Jai Poinern

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The anodization of aluminum is an electro-chemical process that changes the surface chemistry of the metal, via oxidation, to produce an anodic oxide layer. During this process a self organized, highly ordered array of cylindrical shaped pores can be produced with controllable pore diameters, periodicity and density distribution. This enables anodic aluminum oxide (AAO membranes to be used as templates in a variety of nanotechnology applications without the need for expensive lithographical techniques. This review article is an overview of the current state of research on AAO membranes and the various applications of nanotechnology that use them in the manufacture of nano-materials and devices or incorporate them into specific applications such as biological/chemical sensors, nano-electronic devices, filter membranes and medical scaffolds for tissue engineering.

  5. Effect of processing on structural features of anodic aluminum oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdogan, Pembe; Birol, Yucel

    2012-09-01

    Morphological features of the anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) templates fabricated by electrochemical oxidation under different processing conditions were investigated. The selection of the polishing parameters does not appear to be critical as long as the aluminum substrate is polished adequately prior to the anodization process. AAO layers with a highly ordered pore distribution are obtained after anodizing in 0.6 M oxalic acid at 20 °C under 40 V for 5 minutes suggesting that the desired pore features are attained once an oxide layer develops on the surface. While the pore features are not affected much, the thickness of the AAO template increases with increasing anodization treatment time. Pore features are better and the AAO growth rate is higher at 20 °C than at 5 °C; higher under 45 V than under 40 V; higher with 0.6 M than with 0.3 M oxalic acid.

  6. Passivation effects of atomic-layer-deposited aluminum oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotipalli R.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Atomic-layer-deposited (ALD aluminum oxide (Al2O3 has recently demonstrated an excellent surface passivation for both n- and p-type c-Si solar cells thanks to the presence of high negative fixed charges (Qf ~ 1012−1013 cm-2 in combination with a low density of interface states (Dit. This paper investigates the passivation quality of thin (15 nm Al2O3 films deposited by two different techniques: plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (PE-ALD and Thermal atomic layer deposition (T-ALD. Other dielectric materials taken into account for comparison include: thermally-grown silicon dioxide (SiO2 (20 nm, SiO2 (20 nm deposited by plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD and hydrogenated amorphous silicon nitride (a-SiNx:H (20 nm also deposited by PECVD. With the above-mentioned dielectric layers, Metal Insulator Semiconductor (MIS capacitors were fabricated for Qf and Dit extraction through Capacitance-Voltage-Conductance (C-V-G measurements. In addition, lifetime measurements were carried out to evaluate the effective surface recombination velocity (SRV. The influence of extracted C-V-G parameters (Qf,Dit on the injection dependent lifetime measurements τ(Δn, and the dominant passivation mechanism involved have been discussed. Furthermore we have also studied the influence of the SiO2 interfacial layer thickness between the Al2O3 and silicon surface on the field-effect passivation mechanism. It is shown that the field effect passivation in accumulation mode is more predominant when compared to surface defect passivation.

  7. Passivation effects of atomic-layer-deposited aluminum oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotipalli, R.; Delamare, R.; Poncelet, O.; Tang, X.; Francis, L. A.; Flandre, D.

    2013-09-01

    Atomic-layer-deposited (ALD) aluminum oxide (Al2O3) has recently demonstrated an excellent surface passivation for both n- and p-type c-Si solar cells thanks to the presence of high negative fixed charges (Qf ~ 1012-1013 cm-2) in combination with a low density of interface states (Dit). This paper investigates the passivation quality of thin (15 nm) Al2O3 films deposited by two different techniques: plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (PE-ALD) and Thermal atomic layer deposition (T-ALD). Other dielectric materials taken into account for comparison include: thermally-grown silicon dioxide (SiO2) (20 nm), SiO2 (20 nm) deposited by plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD) and hydrogenated amorphous silicon nitride (a-SiNx:H) (20 nm) also deposited by PECVD. With the above-mentioned dielectric layers, Metal Insulator Semiconductor (MIS) capacitors were fabricated for Qf and Dit extraction through Capacitance-Voltage-Conductance (C-V-G) measurements. In addition, lifetime measurements were carried out to evaluate the effective surface recombination velocity (SRV). The influence of extracted C-V-G parameters (Qf,Dit) on the injection dependent lifetime measurements τ(Δn), and the dominant passivation mechanism involved have been discussed. Furthermore we have also studied the influence of the SiO2 interfacial layer thickness between the Al2O3 and silicon surface on the field-effect passivation mechanism. It is shown that the field effect passivation in accumulation mode is more predominant when compared to surface defect passivation.

  8. Oxidation dynamics of nanophase aluminum clusters : a molecular dynamics study.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogata, S.

    1998-01-27

    Oxidation of an aluminum nanocluster (252,158 atoms) of radius 100{angstrom} placed in gaseous oxygen (530,727 atoms) is investigated by performing molecular-dynamics simulations on parallel computers. The simulation takes into account the effect of charge transfer between Al and O based on the electronegativity equalization principles. We find that the oxidation starts at the surface of the cluster and the oxide layer grows to a thickness of {approximately}28{angstrom}. Evolutions of local temperature and densities of Al and O are investigated. The surface oxide melts because of the high temperature resulting from the release of energy associated with Al-O bondings. Amorphous surface-oxides are obtained by quenching the cluster. Vibrational density-of-states for the surface oxide is analyzed through comparisons with those for crystalline Al, Al nanocluster, and {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}.

  9. Shuttle Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor aluminum oxide investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomshield, Fred S.; Kraeutle, Karl J.; Stalnaker, Richard A.

    1994-10-01

    During the launch of STS-54, a 15 psi pressure blip was observed in the ballistic pressure trace of one of the two Space Shuttle Redesigned Solid Rocket Motors (RSRM). One possible scenario for the observed pressure increase deals with aluminum oxide slag formation in the RSRM. The purpose of this investigation was to examine changes which may have occurred in the aluminum oxide formation in shuttle solid propellant due to changes in the ammonium perchlorate. Aluminum oxide formation from three propellants, all having the same formulation, but containing ammonium perchlorate from different manufacturers, will be compared. Three methods have been used to look for possible differences among the propellants. The first method was to examine window bomb movies of the propellants burning at 100, 300 and 600 psia. The motor operating pressure during the pressure blip was around 600 psia. The second method used small samples of propellant which were fired in a combustion bomb which quenched the burning aluminum particles soon after they left the propellant surface. The bomb was fired in both argon and Nitrogen atmospheres at various pressures. Products from this device were examined by optical microscopy. The third method used larger propellant samples fired into a particle collection device which allowed the aluminum to react and combust more completely. This device was pressurized with Nitrogen to motor operating pressures. The collected products were subdivided into size fractions by screening and sedimentation and analyzed optically with an optical microscope. the results from all three methods indicate very small changes in the size distribution of combustion products.

  10. Characteristic Exoemission From Oxide Covered Aluminum Alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-07-01

    with a Bayart— Alpert pressure gauge during the elongation of a thick, dense oxide on clad Al 2024. Considerable signal was observed that correlated...Principal Investigator 2. 3. T. Dickinson: Assoc. Prof. of Physics, Co—Principal Investigator 3. Larry Larson: Graduate Student (Ph.D. Candidate) 4

  11. Impact of annealing temperature on the mechanical and electrical properties of sputtered aluminum nitride thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillinger, M.; Schneider, M.; Bittner, A.; Nicolay, P.; Schmid, U.

    2015-02-01

    Aluminium nitride (AlN) is a promising material for challenging sensor applications such as process monitoring in harsh environments (e.g., turbine exhaust), due to its piezoelectric properties, its high temperature stability and good thermal match to silicon. Basically, the operational temperature of piezoelectric materials is limited by the increase of the leakage current as well as by enhanced diffusion effects in the material at elevated temperatures. This work focuses on the characterization of aluminum nitride thin films after post deposition annealings up to temperatures of 1000 °C in harsh environments. For this purpose, thin film samples were temperature loaded for 2 h in pure nitrogen and oxygen gas atmospheres and characterized with respect to the film stress and the leakage current behaviour. The X-ray diffraction results show that AlN thin films are chemically stable in oxygen atmospheres for 2 h at annealing temperatures of up to 900 °C. At 1000 °C, a 100 nm thick AlN layer oxidizes completely. For nitrogen, the layer is stable up to 1000 °C. The activation energy of the samples was determined from leakage current measurements at different sample temperatures, in the range between 25 and 300 °C. Up to an annealing temperature of 700 °C, the leakage current in the thin film is dominated by Poole-Frenkel behavior, while at higher annealing temperatures, a mixture of different leakage current mechanisms is observed.

  12. Role of aluminum doping on phase transformations in nanoporous titania anodic oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayata, Fatma [Istanbul Bilgi University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, 34060, Eyup, Istanbul (Turkey); Ürgen, Mustafa, E-mail: urgen@itu.edu.tr [Istanbul Technical University, Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, 34469, Maslak, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2015-10-15

    The role of aluminium doping on anatase to rutile phase transformation of nanoporous titanium oxide films were investigated. For this purpose pure and aluminum doped metal films were deposited on alumina substrates by cathodic arc physical deposition. The nanoporous anodic oxides were prepared by porous anodizing of pure and aluminum doped titanium metallic films in an ethylene glycol + NH{sub 4}F based electrolyte. Nanoporous amorphous structures with 60–80 nm diameter and 2–4 μm length were formed on the surfaces of alumina substrates. The amorphous undoped and Al-doped TiO{sub 2} anodic oxides were heat-treated at different temperatures in the range of 280–720 °C for the investigation of their crystallization behavior. The combined effects of nanoporous structure and Al doping on crystallization behavior of titania were investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and micro Raman analysis. The results indicated that both Al ions incorporated into the TiO{sub 2} structure and the nanoporous structure retarded the rutile formation. It was also revealed that presence or absence of metallic film underneath the nanopores has a major contribution to anatase-rutile transformation. - Highlights: • Al-doped TiO{sub 2} nanopores were grown on alumina substrates using anodization method. • The crystallization behavior of nanoporous Al-doped TiO{sub 2} were investigated. • Al doping into nanoporous TiO{sub 2} retarded the anatase-rutile transformation. • Nanostructuring has significant role in controlling rutile formation temperature. • The absence of the metallic film under the nanopores delayed the rutile formation.

  13. Thermocurrent dosimetry with high purity aluminum oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fullerton, G.D.; Cameron, J.R.; Moran, P.R.

    1976-01-01

    The application of thermocurrent (TC) to ionizing radiation dosimetry was studied. It was shown that TC in alumina (Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/) has properties that are suited to personnel dosimetry and environmental monitoring. TC dosimeters were made from thin disks of alumina. Aluminum electrodes were evaporated on each side: on one face a high voltage electrode and on the opposite face a measuring electrode encircled by a guard ring. Exposure to ionizing radiation resulted in stored electrons and holes in metastable trapping sites. The signal was read-out by heating the dosimeter with a voltage source and picnometer connected in series between the opposite electrodes. The thermally remobilized charge caused a transient TC. The thermogram, TC versus time or temperature, is similar to a TL glow curve. Either the peak current or the integrated current is a measure of absorbed dose. Six grades of alumina were studied from a total of four commercial suppliers. All six materials displayed radiation induced TC signals. Sapphire of uv-grade quality from the Adolf Meller Co. (AM) had the best dosimetry properties of those investigated. Sources of interference were studied. Thermal fading, residual signal and radiation damage do not limit TC dosimetry. Ultraviolet light can induce a TC response but it is readily excluded with uv-opaque cladding. Improper surface preparation prior to electrode evaporation was shown to cause interference. A spurious TC signal resulted from polarization of surface contaminants. Spurious TC was reduced by improved cleaning prior to electrode application. Polished surfaces resulted in blocking electrodes and caused a sensitivity shift due to radiation induced thermally activated polarization. This was not observed with rough cut surfaces.

  14. Radiation induced defects and thermoluminescence mechanism in aluminum oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atobe, K.; Kobayashi, T.; Awata, T. [Naruto Univ. of Education, Tokushima (Japan); Okada, M. [Kyoto Univ., Kumatori, Osaka (Japan). Research Reactor Inst; Nakagawa, M. [Kagawa Univ., Faculty of Education, Takamatsu, Kagawa (Japan)

    2001-01-01

    The thermoluminescence of the irradiated aluminum oxides were measured to study the radiation induced defects and their behaviors. Neutron and {gamma}-ray irradiation were performed for a shingle crystal of the high purity aluminum oxide. The thermoluminescence glow curve and its activation energy were measured. The spectroscopy measurement on the thermoluminescence and the absorption are also carried out. The observed 430 and 340 nm peaks are discussed relating to the F{sup +} and F centers, respectively. Activation state of the F center transits to 3P state through 1P state by emitting phonons. Trapped electron on 3P state emits phonon of 2.9 eV (430 nm) during transition to the ground state. The above reaction can be written by the equation. F{sup +} + e {yields} (F){sup *} {yields} F + h{nu}(2.9 eV, 470 nm). (Katsuta, H.)

  15. Oxide mediated spectral shifting in aluminum resonant optical antennas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, Patrick M; Moosmann, Carola; Dopf, Katja; Eisler, Hans-Jürgen

    2015-10-01

    As a key feature among metals showing good plasmonic behavior, aluminum extends the spectrum of achievable plasmon resonances of optical antennas into the deep ultraviolet. Due to degradation, a native oxide layer gives rise to a metal-core/oxide-shell nanoparticle and influences the spectral resonance peak position. In this work, we examine the role of the underlying processes by applying numerical nanoantenna models that are experimentally not feasible. Finite-difference time-domain simulations are carried out for a large variety of elongated single-arm and two-arm gap nanoantennas. In a detailed analysis, which takes into account the varying surface-to-volume ratio, we show that the overall spectral shift toward longer wavelengths is mainly driven by the higher index surrounding material rather than by the decrease of the initial aluminum volume. In addition, we demonstrate experimentally that this shifting can be minimized by an all-inert fabrication and subsequent proof-of-concept encapsulation.

  16. Development of topologically structured membranes of aluminum oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bankova, A.; Videkov, V.; Tzaneva, B.

    2014-05-01

    In recent years, nanomembranes have become one of the most widely used construction material for ultrasensitive and ultrathin applications in micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) and other sensor structures due to their remarkable mechanical properties. Among these, the mechanical stability is of particular importance. We present an approach to the analysis of the stability of nanostructured anodic aluminum oxide free membranes subjected to mechanical bending. The membranes tested were with a thickness of 500 nm to 15 urn in various topological shapes; we describe the technological schemes of their preparation. Bends were applied to membranes prepared by using a selective process of etching and anodizing. The results of the preparation of the membranes are discussed, together with the influence of the angle of deflection, and the number of bendings. The results obtained can be used in designing MEMS structures and sensors which use nanostructured anodic aluminum oxide.

  17. Thermally stimulated luminescence studies in combustion synthesized polycrystalline aluminum oxide

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K R Nagabhushana; B N Lakshminarasappa; D Revannasiddaiah; Fouran Singh

    2008-08-01

    Synthesis of materials by combustion technique results in homogeneous and fine crystalline product. Further, the technique became more popular since it not only saved time and energy but also was easy to process. Aluminum oxide phosphor was synthesized by using urea as fuel in combustion reaction. Photoluminescence (PL) and thermally stimulated luminescence (TSL) characteristics of -irradiated aluminum oxide samples were studied. A broad PL emission with a peak at ∼ 465 nm and a pair of strong and sharp emissions with peaks at 679 and 695 nm were observed in -rayed samples. The PL intensity was observed to increase with increase in -ray dose. Two prominent and well resolved TSL glows with peaks at 210°C and 365°C were observed in all -irradiated Al2O3 samples. The TSL intensity was also found to increase with increase in -ray dose. The TSL glow curves indicated second order kinetics.

  18. Catalytic Behaviour of Mesoporous Cobalt-Aluminum Oxides for CO Oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankur Bordoloi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ordered mesoporous materials are promising catalyst supports due to their uniform pore size distribution, high specific surface area and pore volume, tunable pore sizes, and long-range ordering of the pore packing. The evaporation-induced self-assembly (EISA process was applied to synthesize mesoporous mixed oxides, which consist of cobalt ions highly dispersed in an alumina matrix. The characterization of the mesoporous mixed cobalt-aluminum oxides with cobalt loadings in the range from 5 to 15 wt% and calcination temperatures of 673, 973, and 1073 K indicates that Co2+ is homogeneously distributed in the mesoporous alumina matrix. As a function of the Co loading, different phases are present comprising poorly crystalline alumina and mixed cobalt aluminum oxides of the spinel type. The mixed cobalt-aluminum oxides were applied as catalysts in CO oxidation and turned out to be highly active.

  19. Effect on thickness of Al layer in poly-crystalline Si thin films using aluminum(Al) induced crystallization method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Chaehwan; Na, Hyeon Sik; Lee, Suk Ho

    2011-02-01

    The polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si) thin films were prepared by aluminum induced crystallization. Aluminum (Al) and amorphous silicon (a-Si) layers were deposited using DC sputtering and plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition method, respectively. For the whole process Al properties of bi-layers can be one of the important factors. In this paper we investigated the structural and electrical properties of poly-crystalline Si thin films with a variation of Al thickness through simple annealing process. All samples showed the polycrystalline phase corresponding to (111), (311) and (400) orientation. Process time, defined as the time required to reach 95% of crystalline fraction, was within 60 min and Al(200 nm)/a-Si(400 nm) structure of bi-layer showed the fast response for the poly-Si films. The conditions with a variation of Al thickness were executed in preparing the continuous poly-Si films for solar cell application.

  20. Tailoring oxidation of aluminum nanoparticles reinforced with carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Manjula; Sharma, Vimal

    2016-05-01

    In this report, the oxidation temperature and reaction enthalpy of Aluminum (Al) nanoparticles has been controlled by reinforcing with carbon nanotubes. The physical mixing method with ultrasonication was employed to synthesize CNT/Al nanocomposite powders. The micro-morphology of nanoconmposite powders has been analysed by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction techniques. The oxidation behavior of nanocomposite powders analyzed by thermogravimetry/differential scanning calorimertry showed improvement in the exothermic enthalpy. Largest exothermic enthalpy of-1251J/g was observed for CNT (4 wt%)/Al nanocomposite.

  1. Negative permittivity of ZnO thin films prepared from aluminum and gallium doped ceramics via pulsed-laser deposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodea, M. A.; Sbarcea, G.; Naik, G. V.

    2013-01-01

    Aluminum and gallium doped zinc oxide thin films with negative dielectric permittivity in the near infrared spectral range are grown by pulsed laser deposition. Composite ceramics comprising ZnO and secondary phase Al2O3 or Ga2O3 are employed as targets for laser ablation. Films deposited on glass...... from dense and small-grained ceramic targets show optical transmission larger than 70 % in the visible and reveal an onset of metallic reflectivity in the near infrared at 1100 nm and a crossover to a negative real part of the permittivity at approximately 1500 nm. In comparison to noble metals, doped...

  2. Negative permittivity of ZnO thin films prepared from aluminum and gallium doped ceramics via pulsed-laser deposition

    OpenAIRE

    M.A. Bodea; Sbarcea, G.; Naik, Gururaj V.; Boltasseva, Alexandra; Klar, T. A.; Pedarnig, J. D.

    2013-01-01

    Aluminum and gallium doped zinc oxide thin films with negative dielectric permittivity in the near infrared spectral range are grown by pulsed laser deposition. Composite ceramics comprising ZnO and secondary phase Al2O3 or Ga2O3 are employed as targets for laser ablation. Films deposited on glass from dense and small-grained ceramic targets show optical transmission larger than 70 % in the visible and reveal an onset of metallic reflectivity in the near infrared at 1100 nm and a crossover to...

  3. Formation and dielectric properties of anodic oxide films on Zr–Al alloys

    OpenAIRE

    Koyama, Shun; Aoki, Yoshitaka; Nagata, Shinji; Habazaki, Hiroki

    2011-01-01

    Zr–Al alloys containing up to 26 at.% aluminum, prepared by magnetron sputtering, have been anodized in 0.1 mol dm−3 ammonium pentaborate electrolyte, and the structure and dielectric properties of the resultant anodic oxide films have been examined by grazing incidence X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy, and AC impedance spectroscopy. The anodic oxide film formed on zirconium consists of monoclinic and tetragonal ZrO2 with the fo...

  4. Study on the Rare Earth Sealing Procedure of the Porous Film of Anodized 2024 Aluminum Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The rare earth sealing procedure of the porous film of anodized aluminum alloy 2024 was studied with the fieldemission scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The results show thatRE solution can form cerium oxide/hydroxides precipitation in the pores of the anodized coating at the beginning ofsealing. At the same time, the spherical deposits formed on the surface of the anodized coating created a barrierto the precipitation of RE solution in the pores. When the pore-structured anodizing film is covered all with thespherical deposits, RE conversion coating will form on the surface of the anodized coating. The reaction of thecoating formation was investigated by employing cyclic voltammetry. The results indicate that accelerator H2O2 actsas the source of O2 by carrying chemical reaction in course of coating formation. In the mean time, it maybe carrieselectrochemical reaction to generate alkaline condition to accelerate the coating formation. The porous structure ofthe film is beneficial to the precipitation of the cerium hydroxides film.

  5. Prediction of new thermodynamically stable aluminum oxides

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Yue; Wang, Shengnan; Zhu, Qiang; Dong, Xiao; Kresse, Georg

    2015-01-01

    Recently, it has been shown that under pressure, unexpected and counterintuitive chemical compounds become stable. Laser shock experiments (A. Rode, unpublished) on alumina (Al2O3) have shown non-equilibrium decomposition of alumina with the formation of free Al and a mysterious transparent phase. Inspired by these observations, with have explored the possibility of the formation of new chemical compounds in the system Al-O. Using the variable-composition structure prediction algorithm USPEX, in addition to the well-known Al2O3, we have found two extraordinary compounds Al4O7 and AlO2 to be thermodynamically stable in the pressure range 330-443 GPa and above 332 GPa, respectively. Both of these compounds at the same time contain oxide O2- and peroxide O22- ions, and both are insulating. Peroxo-groups are responsible for gap states, which significantly reduce the electronic band gap of both Al4O7 and AlO2.

  6. The role of stress in self-ordered porous anodic oxide formation and corrosion of aluminum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capraz, Omer Ozgur

    The phenomenon of plastic flow induced by electrochemical reactions near room temperature is significant in porous anodic oxide (PAO) films, charging of lithium batteries and stress-corrosion cracking (SCC). As this phenomenon is poorly understood, fundamental insight into flow from our work may provide useful information for these problems. In-situ monitoring of the stress state allows direct correlation between stress and the current or potential, thus providing fundamental insight into technologically important deformation and failure mechanisms induced by electrochemical reactions. A phase-shifting curvature interferometry was designed to investigate the stress generation mechanisms on different systems. Resolution of our curvature interferometry was found to be ten times more powerful than that obtained by state-of-art multiple deflectometry technique and the curvature interferometry helps to resolve the conflicting reports in the literature. During this work, formation of surface patterns during both aqueous corrosion of aluminum and formation of PAO films were investigated. Interestingly, for both cases, stress induced plastic flow controls the formation of surface patterns. Pore formation mechanisms during anodizing of the porous aluminum oxide films was investigated . PAO films are formed by the electrochemical oxidation of metals such as aluminum and titanium in a solution where oxide is moderately soluble. They have been used extensively to design numerous devices for optical, catalytic, and biological and energy related applications, due to their vertically aligned-geometry, high-specific surface area and tunable geometry by adjusting process variables. These structures have developed empirically, in the absence of understanding the process mechanism. Previous experimental studies of anodizing-induced stress have extensively focused on the measurement of average stress, however the measurement of stress evolution during anodizing does not provide

  7. Nanosecond laser ablation processes in aluminum-doped zinc-oxide for photovoltaic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canteli, D., E-mail: david.canteli@ciemat.es [Division de Energias Renovables, Energia Solar Fotovoltaica, CIEMAT, Avda. Complutense, 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Fernandez, S. [Division de Energias Renovables, Energia Solar Fotovoltaica, CIEMAT, Avda. Complutense, 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Molpeceres, C. [Centro Laser, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Ctra. de Valencia Km 7.3, 28031 Madrid (Spain); Torres, I.; Gandia, J.J. [Division de Energias Renovables, Energia Solar Fotovoltaica, CIEMAT, Avda. Complutense, 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2012-09-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A study of the ablation of AZO thin films deposited at different temperature conditions with nanosecond UV laser light for photovoltaic devices has been performed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The ablation threshold of AZO thin films was measured and related with the absorption coefficient of the films at the laser wavelength, showing a direct correspondence. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A change in the material structure in the areas closest to the edges of laser grooves made in samples deposited at temperatures below 100 Degree-Sign C was observed and studied. - Abstract: Aiming to a future use in thin film solar modules, the processing of aluminum doped zinc oxide thin films with good optoelectronic properties with a nanosecond-pulsed ultraviolet laser has been studied. The ablation threshold fluence of the films has been determined and associated with the material properties. The ablation process has been optimized and grooves with good properties for photovoltaic devices have been obtained. The morphology of the ablated surfaces has been observed by confocal microscopy and its structure has been characterized by Raman spectroscopy. The influence of ablation parameters like focus distance, pulse energy and repetition frequency in the groove morphology has been studied with special attention to the thermal effects on the material structure.

  8. New roots to formation of nanostructures on glass surface through anodic oxidation of sputtered aluminum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoru Inoue, Song-Zhu Chu, Kenji Wada, Di Li and Hajime Haneda

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available New processes for the preparation of nanostructure on glass surfaces have been developed through anodic oxidation of sputtered aluminum. Aluminum thin film sputtered on a tin doped indium oxide (ITO thin film on a glass surface was converted into alumina by anodic oxidation. The anodic alumina gave nanometer size pore array standing vertically on the glass surface. Kinds of acids used in the anodic oxidation changed the pore size drastically. The employment of phosphoric acid solution gave several tens nanometer size pores. Oxalic acid cases produced a few tens nanometer size pores and sulfuric acid solution provided a few nanometer size pores. The number of pores in a unit area could be changed with varying the applied voltage in the anodization and the pore sizes could be increased by phosphoric acid etching. The specimen consisting of a glass substrate with the alumina nanostructures on the surface could transmit UV and visible light. An etched specimen was dipped in a TiO2 sol solution, resulting in the impregnation of TiO2 sol into the pores of alumina layer. The TiO2 sol was heated at ~400 °C for 2 h, converting into anatase phase TiO2. The specimens possessing TiO2 film on the pore wall were transparent to the light in UV–Visible region. The electro deposition technique was applied to the introduction of Ni metal into pores, giving Ni nanorod array on the glass surface. The removal of the barrier layer alumina at the bottom of the pores was necessary to attain smooth electro deposition of Ni. The photo catalytic function of the specimens possessing TiO2 nanotube array was investigated in the decomposition of acetaldehyde gas under the irradiation of UV light, showing that the rate of the decomposition was quite large.

  9. Radioluminescence of rare-earth doped aluminum oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santiago, M.; Molina, P. [Universidad Nacional del Centro de la Provincia de Buenos Aires, Instituto de Fisica Arroyo Seco, Pinto 399, 7000 Tandil (Argentina); Barros, V. S.; Khoury, H. J.; Elihimas, D. R., E-mail: msantiag@exa.unicen.edu.ar [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Departamento de Energia Nuclear, Av. Prof. Luiz Freire 1000, Recife, PE 50740-540 (Brazil)

    2011-10-15

    Carbon-doped aluminum oxide (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}:C) is one of the most used radioluminescence (Rl) materials for fiberoptic dosimetry due to its high efficiency and commercial availability. However, this compound presents the drawback of emitting in the spectral region, where the spurious radioluminescence of fibers is also important. In this work, the radioluminescence response of rare-earth doped Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} samples has been evaluated. The samples were prepared by mixing stoichiometric amounts of aluminum nitrate, urea and dopants with different amounts of terbium, samarium, cerium and thulium nitrates varying from 0 to 0.15 mo 1%. The influence of the different activators on the Rl spectra has been investigated in order to determine the feasibility of using these compounds for Rl fiberoptic dosimetry. (Author)

  10. Core–Shell Electrospun Hollow Aluminum Oxide Ceramic Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan W. Rajala

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work, core–shell electrospinning was employed as a simple method for the fabrication of composite coaxial polymer fibers that became hollow ceramic tubes when calcined at high temperature. The shell polymer solution consisted of polyvinyl pyrollidone (PVP in ethanol mixed with an aluminum acetate solution to act as a ceramic precursor. The core polymer was recycled polystyrene to act as a sacrificial polymer that burned off during calcination. The resulting fibers were analyzed with X-ray diffraction (XRD and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS to confirm the presence of gamma-phase aluminum oxide when heated at temperatures above 700 °C. The fiber diameter decreased from 987 ± 19 nm to 382 ± 152 nm after the calcination process due to the polymer material being burned off. The wall thickness of these fibers is estimated to be 100 nm.

  11. Aluminum film microdeposition at 775 nm by femtosecond laser-induced forward transfer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Yang; Chingyue Wang; Xiaochang Ni; Yinzhong Wu; Wei Jia; Lu Chai

    2007-01-01

    Micro-deposition of an aluminum film of 500-nm thickness on a quartz substrate was demonstrated by laserinduced forward transfer (LIFT) using a femtosecond laser pulse. With the help of atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), the dependence of the morphology of deposited aluminum film on the irradiated laser pulse energy was investigated. As the laser fluence was slightly above the threshold fluence, the higher pressure of plasma for the thicker film made the free surface of solid phase burst out, which resulted in that not only the solid material was sputtered but also the deposited film in the liquid state was made irregularly.

  12. Interactive effect of cerium and aluminum on the ignition point and the oxidation resistance of magnesium alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin Pengyu [Key Laboratory of Automobile Materials of Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanling Campus of Jilin University, Changchun Jilin 130025 (China)], E-mail: linpengyu2000@yahoo.com.cn; Zhou Hong; Li Wei; Li Wenping; Sun Na [Key Laboratory of Automobile Materials of Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanling Campus of Jilin University, Changchun Jilin 130025 (China); Yang Rong [Public Mathematics Teaching and Research Center, College of Mathematics, Qianwei Campus of Jilin University, Changchun Jilin 130012 (China)

    2008-09-15

    This paper focused on the interactive effect of cerium (Ce) addition and aluminum (Al) content in magnesium alloy on ignition point and oxidation resistance. Ce content played an important role in improving the oxidation resistance of Mg alloy. Ignition point ascended with increasing Ce content. 0.25 wt% Ce content in Mg alloys could greatly improve tightness of the oxide film of Mg alloys. However, when Ce content in the alloy exceeded its solid solubility, ignition point descended. Furthermore, Al content in the alloy also influenced the ignition point. The higher the Al content was, the lower the ignition point.

  13. An Analysis of Mechanical Properties of Anodized Aluminum Film at High Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xixi; Wei, Guoying; Yu, Yundan; Guo, Yuemei; Zhang, Ao

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, a new environmental-friendly electrolyte containing sulfuric acid and tartaric acid has been used as the substitute of chromic acid for anodization. The work discussed the influence of anodizing voltages on the fatigue life of anodized Al 2024-T3 by performing fatigue tests with 0.1 stress ratio (R) at 320 MPa. Meanwhile the fatigue cycles to failure, yield strength, tensile strength and fracture surface of anodic films at different conditions were investigated. The results showed that the fatigue life of anodized and sealed specimens reduced a lot compared to aluminum alloy, which can be attributed to the crack sites initiated at the oxide layer. The fracture surface analyses also revealed that the number of crack initiation sites enlarged with the increase of anodizing voltage.

  14. Oxide ultrathin films science and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Pacchioni, Gianfranco

    2012-01-01

    A wealth of information in one accessible book. Written by international experts from multidisciplinary fields, this in-depth exploration of oxide ultrathin films covers all aspects of these systems, starting with preparation and characterization, and going on to geometrical and electronic structure, as well as applications in current and future systems and devices. From the Contents: Synthesis and Preparation of Oxide Ultrathin FilmsCharacterization Tools of Oxide Ultrathin FilmsOrdered Oxide Nanostructures on Metal SurfacesUnusual Properties of Oxides and Other Insulators in the Ultrathin Li

  15. Standard specification for nuclear-grade aluminum oxide pellets

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 This specification applies to pellets of aluminum oxide that may be ultimately used in a reactor core, for example, as filler or spacers within fuel, burnable poison, or control rods. In order to distinguish between the subject pellets and “burnable poison” pellets, it is established that the subject pellets are not intended to be used as neutron-absorbing material. 1.2 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard.

  16. Microstructure and corrosion behavior of micro-arc oxidation coating on 6061 aluminum alloy pre-treated by high-temperature oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Dejiu, E-mail: sdj217@ysu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Li, Guolong, E-mail: lglysu@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Guo, Changhong [College of Mechanical Engineering, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Zou, Jie [China Aviation Industry Chengdu Engine (Group) Co. Ltd., Chengdu 610503 (China); Cai, Jingrui; He, Donglei; Ma, Haojie; Liu, Fangfei [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China)

    2013-12-15

    In this paper, we investigate the microstructure and corrosion behavior of the micro-arc oxidation (MAO) coating on 6061 aluminum alloy that pre-treated by high-temperature oxidation (HTO). Microstructure, chemical and corrosion behaviors of the fabricated MAO ceramic coatings were studied by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and electrochemical corrosion tests. The results reveal that the pre-fabricated HTO film remarkably affects the formation of the MAO coating, leads to an enriched content of Mg, and decreases the compactness of the coating. The corrosion resistance of the 6061 aluminum alloy has been significantly improved by treatments of HTO, normal MAO (NMAO) and HTO pre-treated MAO (HTO-MAO), and the NMAO coating exhibits the best corrosion performance. The content of Mg in HTO pre-fabricated film is remarkedly higher than that in the substrate, which greatly influences the formation of the MAO coating.

  17. High temperature performance of sputter-deposited piezoelectric aluminum nitride thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillinger, M.; Schneider, M.; Bittner, A.; Nicolay, P.; Schmid, U.

    2015-05-01

    Aluminum nitride (AlN) is a promising material for sensor applications in harsh environments such as turbine exhausts or thermal power plants due to its piezoelectric properties, good thermal match to silicon and high temperature stability. Typically, the usage of piezoelectric materials in high temperature is limited by the Curie-temperature, the increase of the leakage current as well as by enhanced diffusion effects in the materials. In order to exploit the high temperature potential of AlN thin films, post deposition annealing experiments up to 1000°C in both oxygen and nitrogen gas atmospheres for 2 h were performed. X-ray diffraction measurements indicate that the thin films are chemically stable in a pure oxygen atmosphere for 2 h at annealing temperatures of up to 900°C. After a 2 h annealing step at 1000°C in pure oxygen. However, a 100 nm thin AlN film is completely oxidized. In contrast, the layer is stable up to 1000°C in pure nitrogen atmosphere. The surface topology changes significantly at annealing temperatures above 800°C independent of annealing atmosphere. The surface roughness is increased by about one order of magnitude compared to the "as deposited" state. This is predominantly attributed to recrystallization processes occurring during high temperature loading. Up to an annealing temperature of 700°C, a Poole-Frenkel conduction mechanism dominates the leakage current characteristics. Above, a mixture of different leakage current mechanisms is observed.

  18. Light extraction enhancement of organic light-emitting diodes using aluminum zinc oxide embedded anodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Ching-Ming; Lin, Bo-Ting; Zeng, Yin-Xing; Lin, Wei-Ming; Wu, Wen-Tuan

    2014-12-15

    Aluminum zinc oxide (AZO) has been embedded onto indium tin oxide (ITO) anode to enhance the light extraction from an organic light-emitting diode (OLED). The embedded AZO provides deflection and scattering interfaces on the newly generated AZO/organics and AZO/ITO interfaces rather than the conventional ITO/organic interface. The current efficiency of AZO embedded OLEDs was enhanced by up to 64%, attributed to the improved light extraction by additionally created reflection and scattering of emitted light on the AZO/ITO interfaces which was roughed in AZO embedding process. The current efficiency was found to increase with the increasing AZO embedded area ratio, but limited by the accompanying increases in haze and electrical resistance of the AZO embedded ITO film.

  19. Lithium insertion in sputtered vanadium oxide film

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    West, K.; Zachau-Christiansen, B.; Skaarup, S.V.

    1992-01-01

    were oxygen deficient compared to V2O5. Films prepared in pure argon were reduced to V(4) or lower. The vanadium oxide films were tested in solid-state lithium cells. Films sputtered in oxygen showed electrochemical properties similar to crystalline V2O5. The main differences are a decreased capacity...

  20. Thermoluminescence study of aluminum oxide doped with therbium and thulium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barros, V.S.M., E-mail: vdbarros@terra.com.b [Laboratorio de Metrologia das Radiacoes Ionizantes, DEN, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Av. Prof. Luiz Freire 1000, 50740-540, Recife, PE (Brazil); Azevedo, W.M. de [Laboratorio de Quimica do Estado Solido, CCEN, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, BR101 s/n, 50670-901, Recife-PE (Brazil); Khoury, H.J.; Andrade, M.E.A. [Laboratorio de Metrologia das Radiacoes Ionizantes, DEN, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Av. Prof. Luiz Freire 1000, 50740-540, Recife, PE (Brazil); Filho, P. Linhares [Curso de Ciencia dos Materiais, CCEN, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, BR101 s/n, 50670-901, Recife-PE (Brazil)

    2010-03-15

    In this work, {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} doped either with Tb{sup 3+} or Tm{sup 3+} was prepared by combustion synthesis techniques for thermoluminescent (TL) ionizing radiation dosimetry applications. In this method, the reactants (aluminum nitrate, urea and therbium or thulium nitrate) are ignited in a muffle furnace at temperatures as low as 500 {sup o}C. This synthesis route is an alternative technique to the conventional fabrication methods of materials based on {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (Czochralsky, Vernuil), where high melting temperatures and reducing atmospheres are required. After combustion, the samples were annealed at temperatures ranging from 1000 to 1400 {sup o}C for 4 h in order to obtain the pure {alpha}-phase structure and were then irradiated with a Co-60 gamma radiation source. The annealed samples present a well defined TL glow peak with a maximum at approximately 200 {sup o}C and linear TL response in the dose range 0.5-5 Gy. It was observed that a 0.1 mol% concentration of Tb{sup 3+} or Tm{sup 3+} and annealing at 1400 {sup o}C optimize the TL sensitivity. The highest sensitivity was found for Tm{sup 3+} doped samples which were approximately 25 times more sensitive than Tb{sup 3+} doped samples. These results strongly suggest that combustion synthesis is a suitable technique to prepare doped aluminum oxide material and that Tm{sup 3+} doped aluminum oxide is a potential material for TL radiation dosimetry.

  1. Quantitative characterization of morphological evolution in Q=2 Potts model aluminum thin films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alsem, DH; Stach, EA; de Hosson, JTM; Aziz, MJ; Bartelt, NC; Berbezier,; Hannon, JB; Hearne, SJ

    2003-01-01

    In this research, we have focused on the morphological evolution of a model metal film / silicon substrate system. When aluminum (Al) is physical vapor deposited on (100) oriented single crystal silicon (Si) at 280degreesC it grows heteroepitaxially. Crystallographically, the resulting films are a P

  2. Impact of annealing temperature on the mechanical and electrical properties of sputtered aluminum nitride thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillinger, M.; Schneider, M.; Bittner, A.; Schmid, U. [Institute of Sensor and Actuator Systems, Vienna University of Technology, Vienna 1040 (Austria); Nicolay, P. [CTR Carinthian Tech Research AG, Villach 9524 (Austria)

    2015-02-14

    Aluminium nitride (AlN) is a promising material for challenging sensor applications such as process monitoring in harsh environments (e.g., turbine exhaust), due to its piezoelectric properties, its high temperature stability and good thermal match to silicon. Basically, the operational temperature of piezoelectric materials is limited by the increase of the leakage current as well as by enhanced diffusion effects in the material at elevated temperatures. This work focuses on the characterization of aluminum nitride thin films after post deposition annealings up to temperatures of 1000 °C in harsh environments. For this purpose, thin film samples were temperature loaded for 2 h in pure nitrogen and oxygen gas atmospheres and characterized with respect to the film stress and the leakage current behaviour. The X-ray diffraction results show that AlN thin films are chemically stable in oxygen atmospheres for 2 h at annealing temperatures of up to 900 °C. At 1000 °C, a 100 nm thick AlN layer oxidizes completely. For nitrogen, the layer is stable up to 1000 °C. The activation energy of the samples was determined from leakage current measurements at different sample temperatures, in the range between 25 and 300 °C. Up to an annealing temperature of 700 °C, the leakage current in the thin film is dominated by Poole-Frenkel behavior, while at higher annealing temperatures, a mixture of different leakage current mechanisms is observed.

  3. Comparative effects of macro-sized aluminum oxide and aluminum oxide nanoparticles on erythrocyte hemolysis: influence of cell source, temperature, and size

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinardell, M. P., E-mail: mpvinardellmh@ub.edu; Sordé, A. [Universitat de Barcelona, Departament de Fisiologia, Facultat de Farmàcia (Spain); Díaz, J. [Universitat de Barcelona CCiT, Scientific and Technological Centers (Spain); Baccarin, T.; Mitjans, M. [Universitat de Barcelona, Departament de Fisiologia, Facultat de Farmàcia (Spain)

    2015-02-15

    Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} is the most abundantly produced nanomaterial and has been used in diverse fields, including the medical, military, and industrial sectors. As there are concerns about the health effects of nanoparticles, it is important to understand how they interact with cells, and specifically with red blood cells. The hemolysis induced by three commercial nano-sized aluminum oxide particles (nanopowder 13 nm, nanopowder <50 nm, and nanowire 2–6 × 200–400 nm) was compared to aluminum oxide and has been studied on erythrocytes from humans, rats, and rabbits, in order to elucidate the mechanism of action and the influence of size and shape on hemolytic behavior. The concentrations inducing 50 % hemolysis (HC{sub 50}) were calculated for each compound studied. The most hemolytic aluminum oxide particles were of nanopowder 13, followed by nanowire and nanopowder 50. The addition of albumin to PBS induced a protective effect on hemolysis in all the nano-forms of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, but not on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The drop in HC{sub 50} correlated to a decrease in nanomaterial size, which was induced by a reduction of aggregation. Aluminum oxide nanoparticles are less hemolytic than other oxide nanoparticles and behave differently depending on the size and shape of the nanoparticles. The hemolytic behavior of aluminum oxide nanoparticles differs from that of aluminum oxide.

  4. Corrosion evaluation of zirconium doped oxide coatings on aluminum formed by plasma electrolytic oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajat, Jelena; Mišković-Stanković, Vesna; Vasilić, Rastko; Stojadinović, Stevan

    2014-01-01

    The plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) of aluminum in sodium tungstate (Na(2)WO(4) · (2)H(2)O) and Na(2)WO(4) · (2)H(2)O doped with Zr was analyzed in order to obtain oxide coatings with improved corrosion resistance. The influence of current density in PEO process and anodization time was investigated, as well as the influence of Zr, with the aim to find out how they affect the chemical content, morphology, surface roughness, and corrosion stability of oxide coatings. It was shown that the presence of Zr increases the corrosion stability of oxide coatings for all investigated PEO times. Evolution of EIS spectra during the exposure to 3% NaCl, as a strong corrosive agent, indicated the highest corrosion stability for PEO coating formed on aluminum at 70 mA/cm(2) for 2 min in a zirconium containing electrolyte.

  5. Very low surface recombination velocities on p- and n-type c-Si by ultrafast spatial atomic layer deposition of aluminum oxide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werner, F.; Veith, B.; Tiba, V.; Poodt, P.W.G.; Roozeboom, F.; Brendel, R.; Schmidt, J.

    2010-01-01

    Using aluminum oxide (Al2 O3) films deposited by high-rate spatial atomic layer deposition (ALD), we achieve very low surface recombination velocities of 6.5 cm/s on p -type and 8.1 cm/s on n -type crystalline silicon wafers. Using spatially separated reaction zones instead of

  6. The effect of plasma electrolytic oxidation on the mean stress sensitivity of the fatigue life of the 6082 aluminum alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, L.; Morgenstern, R.; Hockauf, K.; Lampke, T.

    2016-03-01

    In this work the mean stress influence on the high cycle fatigue behavior of the plasma electrolytic oxidized (PEO) 6082 aluminum alloy (AlSi1MgMn) is investigated. The present study is focused on the fatigue life time and the susceptibility of fatigue-induced cracking of the oxide coating and their dependence on the applied mean stress. Systematic work is done comparing conditions with and without PEO treatment, which have been tested using three different load ratios. For the uncoated substrate the cycles to failure show a significant dependence on the mean stress, which is typical for aluminum alloys. With increased load ratio and therefore increased mean stress, the fatigue strength decreases. The investigation confirms the well-known effect of PEO treatment on the fatigue life: The fatigue strength is significantly reduced by the PEO process, compared to the uncoated substrate. However, also the mean stress sensitivity of the fatigue performance is reduced. The fatigue limit is not influenced by an increasing mean stress for the PEO treated conditions. This effect is firstly shown in these findings and no explanation for this effect can be found in literature. Supposedly the internal compressive stresses and the micro-cracks in the oxide film have a direct influence on the crack initiation and growth from the oxide film through the interface and in the substrate. Contrary to these findings, the susceptibility of fatigue-induced cracking of the oxide coating is influenced by the load ratio. At tension-tension loading a large number of cracks, which grow partially just in the aluminum substrate, are present. With decreasing load ratio to alternating tension-compression stresses, the crack number and length increases and shattering of the oxide film is more pronounced due to the additional effective compressive part of the load cycle.

  7. Phosphorous and aluminum gettering in Silicon-Film{trademark} Product II material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotter, J.E.; Barnett, A.M.; Hall, R.B. [AstroPower, Inc., Newark, DE (United States)] [and others

    1995-08-01

    Gettering processes are being developed for the Silicon-Film{trademark} Product II solar cell structure. These processes have been developed specifically for films of silicon grown on dissimilar substrates with barrier layers. Gettering with both phosphorous- and aluminum-based processing sequences has resulted in enhancement of minority carrier diffusion length. Long diffusion lengths have allowed the characterization of light trapping in thin films of silicon grown on barrier-coated substrates.

  8. Fabrication and Corrosion Resistance of Superhydrophobic Hydroxide Zinc Carbonate Film on Aluminum Substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Liang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Superhydrophobic hydroxide zinc carbonate (HZC films were fabricated on aluminum substrate through a convenient in situ deposition process. Firstly, HZC films with different morphologies were deposited on aluminum substrates through immersing the aluminum substrates perpendicularly into aqueous solution containing zinc nitrate hexahydrate and urea. Secondly, the films were then modified with fluoroalkylsilane (FAS: CH3(CF26(CH23Si(OCH33 molecules by immersing in absolute ethanol solution containing FAS. The morphologies, hydrophobicity, chemical compositions, and bonding states of the films were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, water contact angle measurement (CA, Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, respectively. It was shown by surface morphological observation that HZC films displayed different microstructures such as microporous structure, rose petal-like structure, block-shaped structure, and pinecone-like structure by altering the deposition condition. A highest water contact angle of 156.2° was obtained after FAS modification. Moreover, the corrosion resistance of the superhydrophobic surface on aluminum substrate was investigated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS measurements. The EIS measurements’ results revealed that the superhydrophobic surface considerably improved the corrosion resistance of aluminum.

  9. Astaxanthin ameliorates aluminum chloride-induced spatial memory impairment and neuronal oxidative stress in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Amin, Md Mamun; Reza, Hasan Mahmud; Saadi, Hasan Mahmud; Mahmud, Waich; Ibrahim, Abdirahman Adam; Alam, Musrura Mefta; Kabir, Nadia; Saifullah, A R M; Tropa, Sarjana Tarannum; Quddus, A H M Ruhul

    2016-04-15

    Aluminum chloride induces neurodegenerative disease in animal model. Evidence suggests that aluminum intake results in the activation of glial cells and generation of reactive oxygen species. By contrast, astaxanthin is an antioxidant having potential neuroprotective activity. In this study, we investigate the effect of astaxanthin on aluminum chloride-exposed behavioral brain function and neuronal oxidative stress (OS). Male Swiss albino mice (4 months old) were divided into 4 groups: (i) control (distilled water), (ii) aluminum chloride, (iii) astaxanthin+aluminum chloride, and (iv) astaxanthin. Two behavioral tests; radial arm maze and open field test were conducted, and OS markers were assayed from the brain and liver tissues following 42 days of treatment. Aluminum exposed group showed a significant reduction in spatial memory performance and anxiety-like behavior. Moreover, aluminum group exhibited a marked deterioration of oxidative markers; lipid peroxidation (MDA), nitric oxide (NO), glutathione (GSH) and advanced oxidation of protein products (AOPP) in the brain. To the contrary, co-administration of astaxanthin and aluminum has shown improved spatial memory, locomotor activity, and OS. These results indicate that astaxanthin improves aluminum-induced impaired memory performances presumably by the reduction of OS in the distinct brain regions. We suggest a future study to determine the underlying mechanism of astaxanthin in improving aluminum-exposed behavioral deficits.

  10. Aluminum powder metallurgy processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flumerfelt, J.F.

    1999-02-12

    The objective of this dissertation is to explore the hypothesis that there is a strong linkage between gas atomization processing conditions, as-atomized aluminum powder characteristics, and the consolidation methodology required to make components from aluminum powder. The hypothesis was tested with pure aluminum powders produced by commercial air atomization, commercial inert gas atomization, and gas atomization reaction synthesis (GARS). A comparison of the GARS aluminum powders with the commercial aluminum powders showed the former to exhibit superior powder characteristics. The powders were compared in terms of size and shape, bulk chemistry, surface oxide chemistry and structure, and oxide film thickness. Minimum explosive concentration measurements assessed the dependence of explosibility hazard on surface area, oxide film thickness, and gas atomization processing conditions. The GARS aluminum powders were exposed to different relative humidity levels, demonstrating the effect of atmospheric conditions on post-atomization processing conditions. The GARS aluminum powders were exposed to different relative humidity levels, demonstrating the effect of atmospheric conditions on post-atomization oxidation of aluminum powder. An Al-Ti-Y GARS alloy exposed in ambient air at different temperatures revealed the effect of reactive alloy elements on post-atomization powder oxidation. The pure aluminum powders were consolidated by two different routes, a conventional consolidation process for fabricating aerospace components with aluminum powder and a proposed alternative. The consolidation procedures were compared by evaluating the consolidated microstructures and the corresponding mechanical properties. A low temperature solid state sintering experiment demonstrated that tap densified GARS aluminum powders can form sintering necks between contacting powder particles, unlike the total resistance to sintering of commercial air atomization aluminum powder.

  11. Deposition and characterization of amorphous aluminum nitride thin films for a gate insulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oikawa, H.; Akiyama, R. [Institute of Materials Science, University of Tsukuba,1-1-1 Tennoudai, Tsukuba, 305-8573 (Japan); Tsukuba Nano-Tech Human Resource Development Program, Graduate School of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennoudai, Tsukuba, 305-8571 (Japan); Kanazawa, K. [Institute of Materials Science, University of Tsukuba,1-1-1 Tennoudai, Tsukuba, 305-8573 (Japan); Kuroda, S., E-mail: kuroda@ims.tsukuba.ac.jp [Institute of Materials Science, University of Tsukuba,1-1-1 Tennoudai, Tsukuba, 305-8573 (Japan); Tsukuba Nano-Tech Human Resource Development Program, Graduate School of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennoudai, Tsukuba, 305-8571 (Japan); Harayama, I. [Institute of Applied Physics, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennoudai, Tsukuba, 305-8573 (Japan); Tsukuba Nano-Tech Human Resource Development Program, Graduate School of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennoudai, Tsukuba, 305-8571 (Japan); Nagashima, K. [Institute of Applied Physics, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennoudai, Tsukuba, 305-8573 (Japan); Sekiba, D. [Institute of Applied Physics, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennoudai, Tsukuba, 305-8573 (Japan); Tandem Accelerator Complex, Research Facility Center for Science and Technology, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennoudai, Tsukuba, 305-8577 (Japan); Ashizawa, Y.; Tsukamoto, A.; Nakagawa, K. [College of Science and Technology, Nihon University, 7-24-1 Narashinodai, Funabashi, 274-8501 (Japan); Ota, N. [Tsukuba Nano-Tech Human Resource Development Program, Graduate School of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennoudai, Tsukuba, 305-8571 (Japan)

    2015-01-01

    Thin films of aluminum nitride (AlN) fabricated by reactive deposition were characterized in order to examine the electrical insulation properties suitable for a gate insulator. For a series of AlN films deposited with a variation of the amount of Al flux at a fixed N flux, compositional and chemical analyses were performed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and elastic recoil detection analysis (ERDA). Combined with the result of current-voltage (I-V) measurement, it is found that the insulation properties are correlated with the compositional ratio between Al and N estimated by the ERDA measurement; a good electrical insulation with a minimal leak current of the order of 10{sup -9} A/cm{sup 2} at a high electric field 1 MV/cm is achieved in the film of nearly stoichiometric compositional ratio of Al/N, in which the dominance of the Al-N bonding state is confirmed in the XPS measurement. On the other hand, the incorporation of oxygen, probably caused by the surface oxidization due to the exposure to the air, has little effect on the electrical properties. - Highlights: • AlN thin films deposited by reactive deposition were characterized for gate insulator. • A good electrical insulation was achieved at nearly stoichiometric composition. • The effects of oxygen incorporation and Al-N bonding state were also investigated. • A minimum leak current density as low as 10{sup -9}A/cm{sup 2} at 1MV/cm was achieved.

  12. Residual stress and texture in Aluminum doped Zinc Oxide layers deposited by reactive radio frequency magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azanza Ricardo, C.L., E-mail: Cristy.Azanza@ing.unitn.it [Department of Civil, Environmental and Mechanical Engineering, University of Trento, 38123 via Mesiano 77, Trento (Italy); Pastorelli, M.; D' Incau, M. [Department of Civil, Environmental and Mechanical Engineering, University of Trento, 38123 via Mesiano 77, Trento (Italy); Aswath, P. [College of Engineering, University of Texas at Arlington, TX (United States); Scardi, P. [Department of Civil, Environmental and Mechanical Engineering, University of Trento, 38123 via Mesiano 77, Trento (Italy)

    2016-04-30

    Aluminum doped Zinc Oxide thin films were deposited on standard soda-lime substrates by reactive radio frequency magnetron sputtering. Residual stress and texture were studied by X-ray diffraction, while X-ray Absorption Near Edge Spectroscopy provided information on the Al environment in the best performing thin films. The influence of deposition parameters on structural and microstructural properties is discussed. A correlation between microstructure and residual stress state with electrical and optical properties is proposed. - Highlights: • Al doped ZnO thin films were obtained by reactive radio frequency magnetron sputtering. • Correlation of stresses and texture with electrical and optical properties is shown. • Homogeneous and stress-free thin-films are the best performing ones. • XANES confirmed the doping mechanism and excluded some spurious phases.

  13. Aluminum-doped Zn O polycrystalline films prepared by co-sputtering of a Zn O-Al target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becerril, M.; Silva L, H.; Guillen C, A.; Zelaya A, O. [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados, Departamento de Fisica, Apdo. Postal 14-740, 07000 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2014-07-01

    Aluminum-doped Zinc oxide polycrystalline thin films (Azo) were grown on 7059 Corning glass substrates at room temperature by co-sputtering from a Zn O-Al target. The target was designed as follows, high purity elemental Aluminum was evaporated onto a Zn O target covering small areas. The structural, optical and electrical properties were analyzed as a function of Al content. The Al doped Zn O polycrystalline films showed an n-type conductivity. It was found that the electrical resistivity drops and the carrier concentration increases as a consequence of Al incorporation within the Zn O lattice. In both cases, the changes are of several orders of magnitude. From the results, we conclude that, using these Zn O-Al targets, n-type Al doped Zn O polycrystalline films with high transmittance and low resistivity can be obtained. The crystalline structure of the films was determined by X-ray diffraction. Atomic Force Microscopy images were obtained with an Auto probe C P (Veeco Metrology Group) Microscope. (Author)

  14. Electrical and mechanical stability of aluminum-doped ZnO films grown on flexible substrates by atomic layer deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luka, G., E-mail: gluka@ifpan.edu.pl [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw (Poland); Witkowski, B.S.; Wachnicki, L.; Jakiela, R. [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw (Poland); Virt, I.S. [University of Rzeszow, Rzeszow (Poland); Drohobych Ivan Franko State Pedagogical University, Drohobych (Ukraine); Andrzejczuk, M.; Lewandowska, M. [Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology, Warsaw (Poland); Godlewski, M. [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw (Poland); Department of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, College of Science, Cardinal Stefan Wyszynski University, Warsaw (Poland)

    2014-08-01

    Highlights: • Transparent and conductive ZnO:Al films were grown by atomic layer deposition. • The films were grown on flexible substrates at low growth temperatures (110–140 °C). • So-obtained films have low resistivities, of the order of 10{sup −3} Ω cm. • Bending tests indicated a critical bending radius of ≈1.2 cm. • Possible sources of the film resistivity changes upon bending are proposed. - Abstract: Aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) films were grown on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates by atomic layer deposition (ALD) at low deposition temperatures (110–140 °C). The films have low resistivities, ∼10{sup −3} Ω cm, and high transparency (∼90%) in the visible range. Bending tests indicated a critical bending radius of ≈1.2 cm, below which the resistivity changes became irreversible. The films deposited on PET with additional buffer layer are more stable upon bending and temperature changes.

  15. Photoluminescence blue shift of indium phosphide nanowire networks with aluminum oxide coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fryauf, David M.; Zhang, Junce; Norris, Kate J.; Diaz Leon, Juan J.; Oye, Michael M.; Kobayashi, Nobuhiko P. [Nanostructured Energy Conversion Technology and Research (NECTAR), Advanced Studies Laboratories, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States); Baskin School of Engineering, University of California Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA (United States); NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA (United States); Wei, Min [Baskin School of Engineering, University of California Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA (United States); School of Micro-Electronics and Solid-Electronics, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu (China)

    2014-07-15

    This paper describes our finding that optical properties of semiconductor nanowires were modified by depositing a thin layer of metal oxide. Indium phosphide nanowires were grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition on silicon substrates with gold catalyst resulting in three-dimensional nanowire networks, and optical properties were obtained from the collective nanowire networks. The networks were coated with an aluminum oxide thin film deposited by plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition. We studied the dependence of the peak wavelength of photoluminescence spectra on the thickness of the oxide coatings. A continuous blue shift in photoluminescence spectra was observed when the thickness of the oxide coating was increased. The observed blue shift is attributed to the Burstein-Moss effect due to increased carrier concentration in the nanowire cores caused by repulsion from intrinsic negative fixed charges located at the inner oxide surface. Samples were further characterized by scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and selective area diffractometry to better understand the physical mechanisms for the blue shift. (copyright 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  16. Nano-oxide thin films deposited via atomic layer deposition on microchannel plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Baojun; Liu, Shulin; Heng, Yuekun

    2015-01-01

    Microchannel plate (MCP) as a key part is a kind of electron multiplied device applied in many scientific fields. Oxide thin films such as zinc oxide doped with aluminum oxide (ZnO:Al2O3) as conductive layer and pure aluminum oxide (Al2O3) as secondary electron emission (SEE) layer were prepared in the pores of MCP via atomic layer deposition (ALD) which is a method that can precisely control thin film thickness on a substrate with a high aspect ratio structure. In this paper, nano-oxide thin films ZnO:Al2O3 and Al2O3 were prepared onto varied kinds of substrates by ALD technique, and the morphology, element distribution, structure, and surface chemical states of samples were systematically investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS), respectively. Finally, electrical properties of an MCP device as a function of nano-oxide thin film thickness were firstly studied, and the electrical measurement results showed that the average gain of MCP was greater than 2,000 at DC 800 V with nano-oxide thin film thickness approximately 122 nm. During electrical measurement, current jitter was observed, and possible reasons were preliminarily proposed to explain the observed experimental phenomenon.

  17. Enhanced photocatalytic activity of electrochemically synthesized aluminum oxide nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathania, Deepak; Katwal, Rishu; Kaur, Harpreet

    2016-03-01

    In this study, aluminum oxide (Al2O3) nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized via an electrochemical method. The effects of reaction parameters such as supporting electrolytes, solvent, current and electrolysis time on the shape and size of the resulting NPs were investigated. The Al2O3 NPs were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis/differential thermal analysis, energy-dispersive X-ray analysis, and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. Moreover, the Al2O3 NPs were explored for photocatalytic degradation of malachite green (MG) dye under sunlight irradiation via two processes: adsorption followed by photocatalysis; coupled adsorption and photocatalysis. The coupled process exhibited a higher photodegradation efficiency (45%) compared to adsorption followed by photocatalysis (32%). The obtained kinetic data was well fitted using a pseudo-first-order model for MG degradation.

  18. Solid propellant exhausted aluminum oxide and hydrogen chloride - Environmental considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cofer, W. R., III; Winstead, E. L.; Purgold, G. C.; Edahl, R. A.

    1993-01-01

    Measurements of gaseous hydrogen chloride (HCl) and particulate aluminum oxide (Al2O3) were made during penetrations of five Space Shuttle exhaust clouds and one static ground test firing of a shuttle booster. Instrumented aircraft were used to penetrate exhaust clouds and to measure and/or collect samples of exhaust for subsequent analyses. The focus was on the primary solid rocket motor exhaust products, HCl and Al2O3, from the Space Shuttle's solid boosters. Time-dependent behavior of HCl was determined for the exhaust clouds. Composition, morphology, surface chemistry, and particle size distributions were determined for the exhausted Al2O3. Results determined for the exhaust cloud from the static test firing were complicated by having large amounts of entrained alkaline ground debris (soil) in the lofted cloud. The entrained debris may have contributed to neutralization of in-cloud HCl.

  19. Fabrication of YBCO nanowires with anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) template

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dadras, Sedigheh, E-mail: dadras@alzahra.ac.ir; Aawani, Elaheh

    2015-10-15

    We have fabricated YBCO nanowires by using anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) template and sol–gel method, to investigate the fundamental properties of the one-dimensional nanostructure YBCO high-temperature superconductor and enhance its applications. The field-emission scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction pattern results have shown forming of Y-123 nanowires in the template. As an outcome, the YBCO nanowires, prepared by dipping AAO template into YBCO sol method, have average diameter of about 38 nm and length of 1 μm; this is an optimum nanowire sample with larger diameter and length. The resistance–temperature measurement indicates that the onset critical temperature of these samples occurs at 91 K, and the resistance of the optimum sample at onset transition is 10 times lower than the other sample.

  20. Electrochromism in copper oxide thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richardson, T.J.; Slack, J.L.; Rubin, M.D.

    2000-08-15

    Transparent thin films of copper(I) oxide prepared on conductive SnO2:F glass substrates by anodic oxidation of sputtered copper films or by direct electrodeposition of Cu2O transformed reversibly to opaque metallic copper films when reduced in alkaline electrolyte. In addition, the same Cu2O films transform reversibly to black copper(II) oxide when cycled at more anodic potentials. Copper oxide-to-copper switching covered a large dynamic range, from 85% and 10% photopic transmittance, with a coloration efficiency of about 32 cm2/C. Gradual deterioration of the switching range occurred over 20 to 100 cycles. This is tentatively ascribed to coarsening of the film and contact degradation caused by the 65% volume change on conversion of Cu to Cu2O. Switching between the two copper oxides (which have similar volumes) was more stable and more efficient (CE = 60 cm2/C), but covered a smaller transmittance range (60% to 44% T). Due to their large electrochemical storage capacity and tolerance for alkaline electrolytes, these cathodically coloring films may be useful as counter electrodes for anodically coloring electrode films such as nickel oxide or metal hydrides.

  1. Bonding of sapphire to sapphire by eutectic mixture of aluminum oxide and zirconium oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deluca, J. J. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    An element comprising sapphire, ruby or blue sapphire can be bonded to another element of such material with a eutectic mixture of aluminum oxide and zirconium oxide. The bonding mixture may be applied in the form of a distilled water slurry or by electron beam vapor deposition. In one embodiment the eutectic is formed in situ by applying a layer of zirconium oxide and then heating the assembly to a temperature above the eutectic temperature and below the melting point of the material from which the elements are formed. The formation of a sapphire rubidium maser cell utilizing eutectic bonding is shown.

  2. Ultralyophobic oxidized aluminum surfaces exhibiting negligible contact angle hysteresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hozumi, Atsushi; McCarthy, Thomas J

    2010-02-16

    Ultralyophobic oxidized aluminum surfaces exhibiting negligible contact angle hysteresis for probe liquids were prepared by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of bis((tridecafluoro-1,1,2,2,-tetrahydrooctyl)-dimethylsiloxy)methylsilane (CF(3)(CF(2))(5)CH(2)CH(2)Si(CH(3))(2)O)(2)SiCH(3)H, (R(F)Si(Me)(2)O)(2)SiMeH). Oxidized aluminum surfaces were prepared by photooxidation/cleaning of sputter-coated aluminum on silicon wafers (Si/Al(Al(2)(O(3)))) using oxygen plasma. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) confirmed that this facile CVD method produces a monolayer with a thickness of 1.1 nm on the Si/Al(Al(2)(O(3))) surface without a discernible change in surface morphology. After monolayer deposition, the hydrophilic Si/Al(Al(2)(O(3))) surface became both hydrophobic and oleophobic and exhibited essentially no contact angle hysteresis for water and n-hexadecane (advancing/receding contact angles (theta(A)/theta(R)) = 110 degrees/109 degrees and 52 degrees/50 degrees, respectively). Droplets move very easily on this surface and roll off of slightly tilted surfaces, independently of the contact angle (which is a practical definition of ultralyophobic). A conventional fluoroalkylsilane monolayer was also prepared from 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorodecyltrimethoxysilane (CF(3)(CF(2))(7)CH(2)CH(2)Si(OCH(3))(3), R(F)Si(OMe)(3)) for comparison. The theta(A)/theta(R) values for water and n-hexadecane are 121 degrees/106 degrees and 76 degrees/71 degrees, respectively. The larger hysteresis values indicate the "pinning" of probe liquids, even though advancing contact angles are larger than those of the (R(F)Si(Me)(2)O)(2)SiMeH-derived monolayers. The (R(F)Si(Me)(2)O)(2)SiMeH-derived monolayers have excellent hydrolytic stability in water. We propose that the (R(F)Si(Me)(2)O)(2)SiMeH-derived monolayers are flexible and liquidlike and that drops in contact with these surfaces experience very low energy barriers between metastable states, leading to the

  3. Enhanced Elastic Modulus of Regenerated Silk Fibroin by Geometric Confinement in Anodized Aluminum Oxide Templates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiankang; Li, Liang

    2017-02-01

    Geometric confinement is a promising method for the reconstruction of silk fibroin to form diversified structures with excellent mechanical properties. To accomplish geometric confinement, a water vapor assistant embossing process is used with porous anodic aluminum oxide templates, yielding silk fibroin nanopillars with diameters ranging from 40 nm to 130 nm. The elastic modulus of the regenerated silk fibroin nanopillars is investigated with atomic force microscopy nanoindentation analysis. Compared to films with the same treatment conditions, geometric confinement provided a twofold increase in elastic modulus in embossed silk fibroin nanopillars, indicating that β-sheet crystal ordering occurred during the water vapor assistant embossing process. These results demonstrate the feasibility and mechanical property enhancement of the embossing method to fabricate silk nanostructures, and will be useful in designing miniaturized devices.

  4. Measurement of quasiparticle transport in aluminum films using tungsten transition-edge sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yen, J. J., E-mail: jeffyen@stanford.edu; Shank, B.; Cabrera, B.; Moffatt, R.; Redl, P. [Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Young, B. A.; Tortorici, E. C. [Department of Physics, Santa Clara University, Santa Clara, California 95053 (United States); Brink, P. L.; Cherry, M.; Tomada, A. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Kreikebaum, J. M. [Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Department of Physics, Santa Clara University, Santa Clara, California 95053 (United States)

    2014-10-20

    We report on experimental studies of phonon sensors which utilize quasiparticle diffusion in thin aluminum films connected to tungsten transition-edge-sensors (TESs) operated at 35 mK. We show that basic TES physics and a simple physical model of the overlap region between the W and Al films in our devices enables us to accurately reproduce the experimentally observed pulse shapes from x-rays absorbed in the Al films. We further estimate quasiparticle loss in Al films using a simple diffusion equation approach. These studies allow the design of phonon sensors with improved performance.

  5. Measurement Of Quasiparticle Transport In Aluminum Films Using Tungsten Transition-Edge Sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Yen, J J; Young, B A; Cabrera, B; Brink, P L; Cherry, M; Kreikebaum, J M; Moffatt, R; Redl, P; Tomada, A; Tortorici, E C

    2014-01-01

    We report new experimental studies to understand the physics of phonon sensors which utilize quasiparticle diffusion in thin aluminum films into tungsten transition-edge-sensors (TESs) operated at 35 mK. We show that basic TES physics and a simple physical model of the overlap region between the W and Al films in our devices enables us to accurately reproduce the experimentally observed pulse shapes from x-rays absorbed in the Al films. We further estimate quasiparticle loss in Al films using a simple diffusion equation approach.

  6. Preparation and Properties of Al-Ni Composite Anodic Films on Aluminum Surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Xuhui; YE Hao; ZHANG Xiaofeng; ZUO Yu

    2012-01-01

    Ni element was introduced to aluminum surface by a simple chemical immersion method,and Al-Ni composite anodic films were obtained by following anodizing.The morphology,structure and composition of the Al-Ni anodic films were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM),energy disperse spectroscopy (EDS) and atomic force microscopy(AFM).The electrochemical behaviors of the films were studied by means of polarization measurement and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS).The experimental results show that the A1-Ni composite anodic film is more compact with smaller pore diameters than that of the Al anodic film.The introduction of nickel increases the impedances of both the barrier layer and the porous layer of the anodic films.In NaCl solutions,the Al-Ni composite anodic films show higher impedance values and better corrosion resistance.

  7. Water clustering on nanostructured iron oxide films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merte, Lindsay Richard; Bechstein, Ralf; Peng, G.;

    2014-01-01

    , but it is not well-understood how these hydroxyl groups and their distribution on a surface affect the molecular-scale structure at the interface. Here we report a study of water clustering on a moire-structured iron oxide thin film with a controlled density of hydroxyl groups. While large amorphous monolayer...... islands form on the bare film, the hydroxylated iron oxide film acts as a hydrophilic nanotemplate, causing the formation of a regular array of ice-like hexameric nanoclusters. The formation of this ordered phase is localized at the nanometre scale; with increasing water coverage, ordered and amorphous...

  8. Aluminum surface layer strengthening using intense pulsed beam radiation of substrate film system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klopotov, A. A.; Ivanov, Yu F.; Vlasov, V. A.; Kondratyuk, A. A.; Teresov, A. D.; Shugurov, V. V.; Petrikova, E. A.

    2016-11-01

    The paper presents formation of the substrate film system (Zr-Ti-Cu/Al) by electric arc spraying of cathode having the appropriate composition. It is shown that the intense beam radiation of the substrate film system is accompanied by formation of the multi-phase state, the microhardness of which exceeds the one of pure A7 aluminum by ≈4.5 times.

  9. Low Temperature Reactive Sputtering of Thin Aluminum Nitride Films on Metallic Nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadan, Khaled Sayed Elbadawi; Evoy, Stephane

    2015-01-01

    Piezoelectric aluminum nitride thin films were deposited on aluminum-molybdenum (AlMo) metallic nanocomposites using reactive DC sputtering at room temperature. The effect of sputtering parameters on film properties was assessed. A comparative study between AlN grown on AlMo and pure aluminum showed an equivalent (002) crystallographic texture. The piezoelectric coefficients were measured to be 0.5±0.1 C m(-2) and 0.9±0.1 C m(-2), for AlN deposited on Al/0.32Mo and pure Al, respectively. Films grown onto Al/0.32Mo however featured improved surface roughness. Roughness values were measured to be 1.3nm and 5.4 nm for AlN films grown on AlMo and on Al, respectively. In turn, the dielectric constant was measured to be 8.9±0.7 for AlN deposited on Al/0.32Mo seed layer, and 8.7±0.7 for AlN deposited on aluminum; thus, equivalent within experimental error. Compatibility of this room temperature process with the lift-off patterning of the deposited AlN is also reported.

  10. Effect of contact metals on the piezoelectric properties of aluminum nitride thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harman, J.P.; Kabulski, A. (West Virginia U., Morgantown, WV); Pagan, V.R. (West Virginia U., Morgantown, WV); Famouri, K. (West Virginia U., Morgantown, WV); Kasarla, K.R.; Rodak, L.E. (West Virginia U., Morgantown, WV); Hensel, J.P.; Korakakis, D.

    2008-07-01

    The converse piezoelectric response of aluminum nitride evaluated using standard metal insulator semiconductor structures has been found to exhibit a linear dependence on the work function of the metal used as the top electrode. The apparent d33 of the 150–1100 nm films also depends on the dc bias applied to the samples.

  11. Effect of contact metals on the piezoelectric properties of aluminum nitride thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harman, J.; Kabulski, A.; Pagán, V. R.; Famouri, P.; Kasarla, K. R.; Rodak, L. E.; Peter Hensel, J.; Korakakis, D.

    2008-01-01

    The converse piezoelectric response of aluminum nitride evaluated using standard metal insulator semiconductor structures has been found to exhibit a linear dependence on the work function of the metal used as the top electrode. The apparent d33 of the 150–1100 nm films also depends on the dc bias applied to the samples.

  12. Characterization of chitosan-magnesium aluminum silicate nanocomposite films for buccal delivery of nicotine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pongjanyakul, Thaned; Khunawattanakul, Wanwisa; Strachan, Clare J

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to prepare and characterize chitosan-magnesium aluminum silicate (CS-MAS) nanocomposite films as a buccal delivery system for nicotine (NCT). The effects of the CS-MAS ratio on the physicochemical properties, release and permeation, as well as on the mucoadhesive...

  13. Fabrication of aluminum foam from aluminum scrap Hamza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Osman1 ,

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study the optimum parameters affecting the preparation of aluminum foam from recycled aluminum were studied, these parameters are: temperature, CaCO3 to aluminum scrap wt. ratio as foaming agent, Al2O3 to aluminum scrap wt. ratio as thickening agent, and stirring time. The results show that, the optimum parameters are the temperature ranged from 800 to 850oC, CaCO3 to aluminum scrap wt. ratio was 5%, Al2O3 to aluminum scrap wt. ratio was 3% and stirring time was 45 second with stirring speed 1200 rpm. The produced foam apparent densities ranged from 0.40-0.60 g/cm3. The microstructure of aluminum foam was examined by using SEM, EDX and XRD, the results show that, the aluminum pores were uniformly distributed along the all matrices and the cell walls covered by thin oxide film.

  14. In-process oxidation protection in fluxless brazing or diffusion bonding of aluminum alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okelly, K. P.; Featherston, A. B.

    1974-01-01

    Aluminum is cleaned of its oxide coating and is sealed immediately with polymeric material which makes it suitable for fluxless brazing or diffusion bonding. Time involved between cleaning and brazing is no longer critical factor.

  15. Field Emission From Ordered Nano-array Structures Based on Porous Aluminum Oxide Templates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@ This thesis reports my research work of fabricating nanostructures by using nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) templates and their field emission properties in the past few years. Some important results obtained are as follows: 1. We first proposed a new concept of fabricating field emitters with ordered nanostructures based on porous aluminum oxide templates such as AAO/Al, metal/AAO, PANI/AAO, CNTs/AAO, Si/AAO and did a lot of research in this field.

  16. Nanoporous Pirani sensor based on anodic aluminum oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Gwang-Jae; Kim, Woo Young; Shim, Hyun Bin; Lee, Hee Chul

    2016-09-01

    A nanoporous Pirani sensor based on anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) is proposed, and the quantitative relationship between the performance of the sensor and the porosity of the AAO membrane is characterized with a theoretical model. The proposed Pirani sensor is composed of a metallic resistor on a suspended nanoporous membrane, which simultaneously serves as the sensing area and the supporting structure. The AAO membrane has numerous vertically-tufted nanopores, resulting in a lower measurable pressure limit due to both the increased effective sensing area and the decreased effective thermal loss through the supporting structure. Additionally, the suspended AAO membrane structure, with its outer periphery anchored to the substrate, known as a closed-type design, is demonstrated using nanopores of AAO as an etch hole without a bulk micromachining process used on the substrate. In a CMOS-compatible process, a 200 μm × 200 μm nanoporous Pirani sensor with porosity of 25% was capable of measuring the pressure from 0.1 mTorr to 760 Torr. With adjustment of the porosity of the AAO, the measurable range could be extended toward lower pressures of more than one decade compared to a non-porous membrane with an identical footprint.

  17. Ellipsometric investigation of anodic zirconium oxide films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patrito, E.M.; Macagno, V.A. (Univ. Nacional de Cordoba, Cordoba (Argentina). Dept. de Fisicoquimica)

    1993-06-01

    The anodic oxidation of zirconium was studied by in situ ellipsometry together with capacity measurements. The oxides were grown under potentiodynamic, galvanostatic, and potentiostatic conditions up to final potentials of 100 V in 0.5M H[sub 2]SO[sub 4] solution. The refractive index of the oxides changes depending on the growth current. The films were slightly absorbing but their absorption coefficient was independent of the oxide growth conditions. Different methods of surface preparation including etching in hydrofluoric acid-based mixtures, electropolishing and mechanical polishing were used. The surfaces and oxides were characterized by SEM examination and XPS measurements. The surface pretreatment affects both the substrate and the oxide optical constants as well as the rate of oxide growth. The density and dielectric constant of the oxides were calculated performing simultaneous ellipsometric, coulometric, and capacity measurements.

  18. Fractal dimension analysis of aluminum oxide particle for sandblasting dental use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshida, Y; Munoz, C A; Winkler, M M; Hashem, A; Itoh, M

    1993-01-01

    Aluminum oxide particles are commonly used as a sandblasting media, particularly in dentistry, for multiple purposes including divesting the casting investment materials and increasing effective surface area for enhancing the mechanical retention strengths of succeedingly applied fired porcelain or luting cements. Usually fine aluminum oxide particles are recycled within the sandblasting machine. Ceramics such as aluminum oxides are brittle, therefore, some portions of recycling aluminum oxide particles might be brittle fractured. If fractured sandblasting particles are involved in the recycling media, it might result in irregularity metallic materials surface as well as the recycling sandblasting media itself be contaminated. Hence, it is necessary from both clinical and practical reasons to monitor the particle conditions in terms of size/shape and effectiveness of sandblasting, so that sandblasting dental prostheses can be fabricated in optimum and acceptable conditions. In the present study, the effect of recycling aluminum oxide particles on the surface texture of metallic materials was evaluated by Fractal Dimension Analysis (FDA). Every week the alumina powder was sampled and analyzed for weight fraction and contaminants. Surface texture of sandblasted standard samples was also characterized by FDA. Results indicate very little change in particle size, while the fractal dimension increased. Fractal dimension analysis showed that the aluminum oxide particle as a sandblasting media should be replaced after 30 or 40 min of total accumulated operation time.

  19. Influences of different oxidants on the characteristics of HfAlOx films deposited by atomic layer deposition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fan Ji-Bin; Liu Hong-Xia; Ma Fei; Zhuo Qing-Qing; Hao Yue

    2013-01-01

    A comparative study of two kinds of oxidants (H2O and O3) with the combinations of two metal precursors [trimethylaluminum (TMA) and tetrakis(ethylmethylamino) hafnium (TEMAH)] for atomic layer deposition (ALD) hafnium aluminum oxide (HfAlOx) films is carried out.The effects of different oxidants on the physical properties and electrical characteristics of HfAlOx films are studied.The preliminary testing results indicate that the impurity level of HfAlOx films grown with both H2O and O3 used as oxidants can be well controlled,which has significant effects on the dielectric constant,valence band,electrical properties,and stability of HfAlOx film.Additional thermal annealing effects on the properties of HfAlOx films grown with different oxidants are also investigated.

  20. Atomic layer deposition as pore diameter adjustment tool for nanoporous aluminum oxide injection molding masks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miikkulainen, Ville; Rasilainen, Tiina; Puukilainen, Esa; Suvanto, Mika; Pakkanen, Tapani A

    2008-05-06

    The wetting properties of polypropylene (PP) surfaces were modified by adjusting the dimensions of the surface nanostructure. The nanostructures were generated by injection molding with nanoporous anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) as the mold insert. Atomic layer deposition (ALD) of molybdenum nitride film was used to control the pore diameters of the AAO inserts. The original 50-nm pore diameter of AAO was adjusted by depositing films of thickness 5, 10, and 15 nm on AAO. Bis(tert-butylimido)-bis(dimethylamido)molybdenum and ammonia were used as precursors in deposition. The resulting pore diameters in the nitride-coated AAO inserts were 40, 30, and 20 nm, respectively. Injection molding of PP was conducted with the coated inserts, as well as with the non-coated insert. Besides the pore diameter, the injection mold temperature was varied with temperatures of 50, 70, and 90 degrees C tested. Water contact angles of PP casts were measured and compared with theoretical contact angles calculated from Wenzel and Cassie-Baxter theories. The highest contact angle, 140 degrees , was observed for PP molded with the AAO mold insert with 30-nm pore diameter. The Cassie-Baxter theory showed better fit than the Wenzel theory to the experimental values. With the optimal AAO mask, the nanofeatures in the molded PP pieces were 100 nm high. In explanation of this finding, it is suggested that some sticking and stretching of the nanofeatures occurs during the molding. Increase in the mold temperature increased the contact angle.

  1. Sprayed lanthanum doped zinc oxide thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouznit, Y., E-mail: Bouznit80@gmail.com [Laboratory of Materials Study, Jijel University, Jijel 18000 (Algeria); Beggah, Y. [Laboratory of Materials Study, Jijel University, Jijel 18000 (Algeria); Ynineb, F. [Laboratory of Thin Films and Interface, University Mentouri, Constantine 25000 (Algeria)

    2012-01-15

    Lanthanum doped zinc oxide thin films were deposited on soda-lime glass substrates using a pneumatic spray pyrolysis technique. The films were prepared using different lanthanum concentrations at optimum deposition parameters. We studied the variations in structural, morphological and optical properties of the samples due to the change of doping concentration in precursor solutions. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns show that pure and La-doped ZnO thin films are highly textured along c-axis perpendicular to the surface of the substrate. Scanning electron micrographs show that surface morphology of ZnO films undergoes a significant change according to lanthanum doping. All films exhibit a transmittance higher than 80% in the visible region.

  2. Sprayed lanthanum doped zinc oxide thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouznit, Y.; Beggah, Y.; Ynineb, F.

    2012-01-01

    Lanthanum doped zinc oxide thin films were deposited on soda-lime glass substrates using a pneumatic spray pyrolysis technique. The films were prepared using different lanthanum concentrations at optimum deposition parameters. We studied the variations in structural, morphological and optical properties of the samples due to the change of doping concentration in precursor solutions. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns show that pure and La-doped ZnO thin films are highly textured along c-axis perpendicular to the surface of the substrate. Scanning electron micrographs show that surface morphology of ZnO films undergoes a significant change according to lanthanum doping. All films exhibit a transmittance higher than 80% in the visible region.

  3. Graphene oxide film as solid lubricant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Hongyu; Bu, Yongfeng; Zhang, Junyan; Cao, Zhongyue; Liang, Aimin

    2013-07-10

    As a layered material, graphene oxide (GO) film is a good candidate for improving friction and antiwear performance of silicon-based MEMS devices. Via a green electrophoretic deposition (EPD) approach, GO films with tunable thickness in nanoscale are fabricated onto silicon wafer in a water solution. The morphology, microstructure, and mechanical properties as well as the friction coefficient and wear resistance of the films were investigated. The results indicated that the friction coefficient of silicon wafer was reduced to 1/6 its value, and the wear volume was reduced to 1/24 when using GO film as solid lubricant. These distinguished tribology performances suggest that GO films are expected to be good solid lubricants for silicon-based MEMS/NEMS devices.

  4. Solution-Processed Indium Oxide Based Thin-Film Transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wangying

    Oxide thin-film transistors (TFTs) have attracted considerable attention over the past decade due to their high carrier mobility and excellent uniformity. However, most of these oxide TFTs are usually fabricated using costly vacuum-based techniques. Recently, the solution processes have been developed due to the possibility of low-cost and large-area fabrication. In this thesis, we have carried out a detailed and systematic study of solution-processed oxide thin films and TFTs. At first, we demonstrated a passivation method to overcome the water susceptibility of solution-processed InZnO TFTs by utilizing octadecylphosphonic acid (ODPA) self-assembled monolayers (SAMs). The unpassivated InZnO TFTs exhibited large hysteresis in their electrical characteristics due to the adsorbed water at the semiconductor surface. Formation of a SAM of ODPA on the top of InZnO removed water molecules weakly absorbed at the back channel and prevented water diffusion from the surroundings. Therefore the passivated devices exhibited significantly reduced hysteretic characteristics. Secondly, we developed a simple spin-coating approach for high- k dielectrics (Al2O3, ZrO2, Y 2O3 and TiO2). These materials were used as gate dielectrics for solution-processed In2O3 or InZnO TFTs. Among the high-k dielectrics, the Al2O3-based devices showed the best performance, which is attributed to the smooth dielectric/semiconductor interface and the low interface trap density besides its good insulating property. Thirdly, the formation and properties of Al2O3 thin films under various annealing temperatures were intensively studied, revealing that the sol-gel-derived Al2O3 thin film undergoes the decomposition of organic residuals and nitrate groups, as well as conversion of aluminum hydroxides to form aluminum oxide. Besides, the Al2O 3 film was used as gate dielectric for solution-processed oxide TFTs, resulting in high mobility and low operating voltage. Finally, we proposed a green route for

  5. Silicon and aluminum doping effects on the microstructure and properties of polymeric amorphous carbon films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xiaoqiang, E-mail: lxq_suse@sina.com [Material Corrosion and Protection Key Laboratory of Sichuan province, Sichuan University of Science and Engineering, Zigong 643000 (China); Hao, Junying, E-mail: jyhao@licp.cas.cn [State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Xie, Yuntao [Material Corrosion and Protection Key Laboratory of Sichuan province, Sichuan University of Science and Engineering, Zigong 643000 (China)

    2016-08-30

    Highlights: • Evolution of nanostructure and properties of the polymeric amorphous carbon films were firstly studied. • Si doping enhanced polymerization of the hydrocarbon chains and Al doping resulted in increase in the ordered carbon clusters of polymeric amorphous carbon films. • Soft polymeric amorphous carbon films exhibited an unconventional frictional behaviors with a superior wear resistance. • The mechanical and vacuum tribological properties of the polymeric amorphous carbon films were significantly improved by Si and Al co-doping. - Abstract: Polymeric amorphous carbon films were prepared by radio frequency (R.F. 13.56 MHz) magnetron sputtering deposition. The microstructure evolution of the deposited polymeric films induced by silicon (Si) and aluminum(Al) doping were scrutinized through infrared spectroscopy, multi-wavelength Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The comparative results show that Si doping can enhance polymerization and Al doping results in an increase in the ordered carbon clusters. Si and Al co-doping into polymeric films leads to the formation of an unusual dual nanostructure consisting of cross-linked polymer-like hydrocarbon chains and fullerene-like carbon clusters. The super-high elasticity and super-low friction coefficients (<0.002) under a high vacuum were obtained through Si and Al co-doping into the films. Unconventionally, the co-doped polymeric films exhibited a superior wear resistance even though they were very soft. The relationship between the microstructure and properties of the polymeric amorphous carbon films with different elements doping are also discussed in detail.

  6. Aluminum-Doped Zinc Oxide as Highly Stable Electron Collection Layer for Perovskite Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xingyue; Shen, Heping; Zhang, Ye; Li, Xin; Zhao, Xiaochong; Tai, Meiqian; Li, Jingfeng; Li, Jianbao; Li, Xin; Lin, Hong

    2016-03-01

    Although low-temperature, solution-processed zinc oxide (ZnO) has been widely adopted as the electron collection layer (ECL) in perovskite solar cells (PSCs) because of its simple synthesis and excellent electrical properties such as high charge mobility, the thermal stability of the perovskite films deposited atop ZnO layer remains as a major issue. Herein, we addressed this problem by employing aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) as the ECL and obtained extraordinarily thermally stable perovskite layers. The improvement of the thermal stability was ascribed to diminish of the Lewis acid-base chemical reaction between perovskite and ECL. Notably, the outstanding transmittance and conductivity also render AZO layer as an ideal candidate for transparent conductive electrodes, which enables a simplified cell structure featuring glass/AZO/perovskite/Spiro-OMeTAD/Au. Optimization of the perovskite layer leads to an excellent and repeatable photovoltaic performance, with the champion cell exhibiting an open-circuit voltage (Voc) of 0.94 V, a short-circuit current (Jsc) of 20.2 mA cm(-2), a fill factor (FF) of 0.67, and an overall power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 12.6% under standard 1 sun illumination. It was also revealed by steady-state and time-resolved photoluminescence that the AZO/perovskite interface resulted in less quenching than that between perovskite and hole transport material.

  7. A colorimetric sensor based on anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) substrate for the detection of nitroaromatics.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Y.; Wang, H. H.; Indacochea, J. E.; Wang, M. L. (Materials Science Division); (Northeastern Univ.); (Univ. of Illinois at Chicago)

    2011-12-15

    Simple and low cost colorimetric sensors for explosives detection were explored and developed. Anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) with large surface area through its porous structure and light background color was utilized as the substrate for colorimetric sensors. Fabricated thin AAO films with thickness less than {approx} 500 nm allowed us to observe interference colors which were used as the background color for colorimetric detection. AAO thin films with various thickness and pore-to-pore distance were prepared through anodizing aluminum foils at different voltages and times in dilute sulfuric acid. Various interference colors were observed on these samples due to their difference in structures. Accordingly, suitable anodization conditions that produce AAO samples with desired light background colors for optical applications were obtained. Thin film interference model was applied to analyze the UV-vis reflectance spectra and to estimate the thickness of the AAO membranes. We found that the thickness of produced AAO films increased linearly with anodization time in sulfuric acid. In addition, the growth rate was higher for AAO anodized using higher voltages. The thin film interference formulism was further validated with a well established layer by layer deposition technique. Coating poly(styrene sulfonate) sodium salt (PSS) and poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH) layer by layer on AAO thin film consistently shifted its surface color toward red due to the increase in thickness. The red shift of UV-vis reflectance was correlated quantitatively to the number of layers been assembled. This sensitive red shift due to molecular attachment (increase in thickness) on AAO substrate was applied toward nitroaromatics detection. Aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (APTS) which can be attached onto AAO nanowells covalently through silanization and attract TNT molecules was coated and applied for TNT detection. UV-vis spectra of AAO with APTS shifted to the longer wavelength side due to

  8. Chemical interaction at the buried silicon/zinc oxide thin-film solar cell interface as revealed by hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wimmer, M., E-mail: mark.wimmer@helmholtz-berlin.de [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Gerlach, D.; Wilks, R.G.; Scherf, S.; Félix, R. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Lupulescu, C. [Institute for Optics and Atomic Physics, Technische Universität Berlin, Hardenbergstr. 36, 10623 Berlin (Germany); Ruske, F.; Schondelmaier, G.; Lips, K. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Hüpkes, J. [Institute for Energy Research, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Leo-Brandt-Straße, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Gorgoi, M. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Eberhardt, W. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Institute for Optics and Atomic Physics, Technische Universität Berlin, Hardenbergstr. 36, 10623 Berlin (Germany); Rech, B. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Bär, M., E-mail: marcus.baer@helmholtz-berlin.de [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Institut für Physik und Chemie, Brandenburgische Technische Universität Cottbus, Konrad-Wachsmann-Allee 1, 03046 Cottbus (Germany)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: •We used HAXPES to identify chemical interactions at the buried silicon/aluminum-doped zinc oxide thin-film solar cell interface. •The results indicate a diffusion of zinc and aluminum into the silicon upon annealing procedures which are part of the solar cell processing. •The contamination of the silicon may be detrimental for the solar cell performance. -- Abstract: Hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HAXPES) is used to identify chemical interactions (such as elemental redistribution) at the buried silicon/aluminum-doped zinc oxide thin-film solar cell interface. Expanding our study of the interfacial oxidation of silicon upon its solid-phase crystallization (SPC), in which we found zinc oxide to be the source of oxygen, in this investigation we address chemical interaction processes involving zinc and aluminum. In particular, we observe an increase of zinc- and aluminum-related HAXPES signals after SPC of the deposited amorphous silicon thin films. Quantitative analysis suggests an elemental redistribution in the proximity of the silicon/aluminum-doped zinc oxide interface – more pronounced for aluminum than for zinc – as explanation. Based on these insights the complex chemical interface structure is discussed.

  9. Aluminum thin film enhanced IR nanosecond laser-induced frontside etching of transparent materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto, Daniel; Cambronero, Ferran; Flores-Arias, María Teresa; Farid, Nazar; O'Connor, Gerard M.

    2017-01-01

    Laser processing of glass is of significant commercial interest for microfabrication of precision optical engineering devices. In this work, a laser ablation enhancement mechanism for microstructuring of glass materials is presented. The method consists of depositing a thin film of aluminum on the front surface of the glass material to be etched. The laser beam modifies the glass material by being incident on this front-side. The influence of ablation fluence in the nanosecond regime, in combination with the deposition of the aluminum layer of various thicknesses, is investigated by determining the ablation threshold for different glass materials including soda-lime, borosilicate, fused silica and sapphire. Experiments are performed using single laser pulse per shot in an air environment. The best enhancement in terms of threshold fluence reduction is obtained for a 16 nm thick aluminum layer where a reduction of two orders of magnitude in the ablation threshold fluence is observed for all the glass samples investigated in this work.

  10. Recording and tribological properties of CoNi magnetic films on chemically textured aluminum rigid disk substrates (abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuya, N.; Tokushima, T.; Hirayama, Y.; Oka, Y.

    1991-04-01

    In a rigid disk a very smooth surface is desirable for high density recording, while it tends to stick to the magnetic head. To avoid this difficulty, the mechanical texturing (M/T) is widely used. Unfortunately very low flying height can't be achieved with the M/T. To improve the flying height, authors have developed a new texturing process using anodically oxidized aluminum substrates named chemical texturing (C/T).1 Aluminum anodic oxide films have a regularly arranged honeycomb structure and uniform and roughness-controlled surfaces were formed by etching process of chemical texturing. In the present research, the relation between the recording and tribological properties and the etching conditions were investigated. On C/T substrates Cr, a longitudinal magnetic layer CoNi, C were sputtered in an inline sputtering equipment. The surface of the sputtered layer was flat (Rawrite, modulation and so on) were examined. In spite of isotropy on the disk surfaces, the modulation caused by the inline sputtering was not observed, and high coercive force of 1200 Oe was obtained. Tribological properties (gride height, CSS, friction) were measured. Gride height was lower than 0.1 μm, and CSS more than 30 000 cycles. In semi-pilot plant production, thousands of C/T disks were prepared. Yield of disks having less than 5 missing and/or extra pulses was higher than 95%.

  11. Formation and Morphology of Anodic Oxide Films of Ti

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The morphology and structure of the oxide films of Ti in H3PO4 were investigated by galvanostatic anodization, SEM and XRD. The oxide film grew from some pores in the grooves to layered microdomains as increasing anodizing voltage. The crystallinity of the oxide films decreased with the increase of the concentration of the electrolyte. The model has been proposed for the growth of the oxide films by two steps, i.e. by uniform thickening and by local deposition.

  12. A perspective of microplasma oxidation (MPO) and vapor deposition coatings in surface engineering of aluminum alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AWAD Samir Hamid; QIAN Han-cheng

    2004-01-01

    Over the past years, great achievements have been made in the development of coating technologies for surface improvement of aluminum alloys. Despite these achievements, the role in the market strongly depends on the ability of surface coating technology under technical and economic considerations to meet the increased demands for heavy tribological applications of aluminum alloys. Microplasma oxidation (MPO) technology has recently been studied as a novel and effective means to provide thick and hard ceramic coating with improved properties such as excellent load-bearing and wear resistance properties on aluminum alloys. The present work covers the evaluation of the performances of current single and duplex coatings combining MPO, physical vapor deposition (PVD), and plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition (PACVD) coatings on aluminum alloys. It suggests that the MPO coating is a promising candidate for design engineers to apply aluminum alloys to heavy load-bearing applications. The prospective future for the research on MPO coatings is introduced as well.

  13. Dielectric Properties of Polyimide Hybrid Film Doped with Nano Zirconium/Aluminum Oxide%纳米锆/铝氧化物杂化聚酰亚胺薄膜的介电性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁征; 范勇; 陈昊; 韩笑笑

    2011-01-01

    采用热液法制备了一系列不同Zr和Al比例的纳米粒子分散液,用原位聚合法分别制备了无机纳米杂化聚酰亚胺薄膜,并进行了SEM分析、电气强度和耐电晕测试.结果表明:Zr和A1的掺杂比例对杂化薄膜的耐电晕寿命及击穿场强影响较大,其耐电晕寿命最大可达Kapton100CR薄膜的4倍.%A series of nano-dispersions with different ratio of Zr and Al was prepared by hydrothermal method, and the corresponding inorganic nano-hybrid polyimide films were prepared through in-situ polymerization method. The hybrid film was characterized by SEM, electric strength and corona-resistant test. The results show that the doping ratio of Al and Zr has great effects on the corona-resistant life and breakdown strength of the hybrid film, and the maximum corona-resistant life is 4 times of that of Kapton 100 CR film.

  14. Thin-Film Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xin; Wu, Nai-Juan; Ignatiev, Alex

    2009-01-01

    The development of thin-film solid oxide fuel cells (TFSOFCs) and a method of fabricating them have progressed to the prototype stage. This can result in the reduction of mass, volume, and the cost of materials for a given power level.

  15. Study on the fabrication of back surface reflectors in nano-crystalline silicon thin-film solar cells by using random texturing aluminum anodization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Kang Sik; Jang, Eunseok; Cho, Jun-Sik; Yoo, Jinsu; Park, Joo Hyung; Byungsung, O.

    2015-09-01

    In recent decades, researchers have improved the efficiency of amorphous silicon solar cells in many ways. One of the easiest and most practical methods to improve solar-cell efficiency is adopting a back surface reflector (BSR) as the bottom layer or as the substrate. The BSR reflects the incident light back to the absorber layer in a solar cell, thus elongating the light path and causing the so-called "light trapping effect". The elongation of the light path in certain wavelength ranges can be enhanced with the proper scale of BSR surface structure or morphology. An aluminum substrate with a surface modified by aluminum anodizing is used to improve the optical properties for applications in amorphous silicon solar cells as a BSR in this research due to the high reflectivity and the low material cost. The solar cells with a BSR were formed and analyzed by using the following procedures: First, the surface of the aluminum substrate was degreased by using acetone, ethanol and distilled water, and it was chemically polished in a dilute alkali solution. After the cleaning process, the aluminum surface's morphology was modified by using a controlled anodization in a dilute acid solution to form oxide on the surface. The oxidized film was etched off by using an alkali solution to leave an aluminum surface with randomly-ordered dimple-patterns of approximately one micrometer in size. The anodizing conditions and the anodized aluminum surfaces after the oxide layer had been removed were systematically investigated according to the applied voltage. Finally, amorphous silicon solar cells were deposited on a modified aluminum plate by using dc magnetron sputtering. The surfaces of the anodized aluminum were observed by using field-emission scanning electron microscopy. The total and the diffuse reflectances of the surface-modified aluminum sheets were measured by using UV spectroscopy. We observed that the diffuse reflectances increased with increasing anodizing voltage. The

  16. Semitransparent polymer-based solar cells with aluminum-doped zinc oxide electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilken, Sebastian; Wilkens, Verena; Scheunemann, Dorothea; Nowak, Regina-Elisabeth; von Maydell, Karsten; Parisi, Jürgen; Borchert, Holger

    2015-01-14

    With the use of two transparent electrodes, organic polymer-fullerene solar cells are semitransparent and may be combined to parallel-connected multijunction devices or used for innovative applications like power-generating windows. A challenging issue is the optimization of the electrodes, to combine high transparency with adequate electric properties. In the present work, we study the potential of sputter-deposited aluminum-doped zinc oxide as an alternative to the widely used but relatively expensive indium tin oxide (ITO) as cathode material in semitransparent polymer-fullerene solar cells. Concerning the anode, we utilized an insulator-metal-insulator structure based on ultrathin Au films embedded between two evaporated MoO3 layers, with the outer MoO3 film (capping layer) serving as a light coupling layer. The performance of the ITO-free semitransparent polymer-fullerene solar cells was systematically studied as dependent on the thickness of the capping layer and the active layer as well as the illumination direction. These variations were found to have strong impact on the obtained photocurrent densities. We performed optical simulations of the electric field distribution within the devices using the transfer-matrix method, to analyze the origin of the current density variations in detail and provide deep insight into the device physics. With the conventional absorber materials studied here, optimized ITO-free and semitransparent devices reached 2.0% power conversion efficiency and a maximum optical transmission of 60%, with the device concept being potentially transferable to other absorber materials.

  17. Aluminum microstructures on anodic alumina for aluminum wiring boards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Himendra; Kikuchi, Tatsuya; Sakairi, Masatoshi; Takahashi, Hideaki

    2010-03-01

    The paper demonstrates simple methods for the fabrication of aluminum microstructures on the anodic oxide film of aluminum. The aluminum sheets were first engraved (patterned) either by laser beam or by embossing to form deep grooves on the surface. One side of the sheet was then anodized, blocking the other side by using polymer mask to form the anodic alumina. Because of the lower thickness at the bottom part of the grooves, the part was completely anodized before the complete oxidation of the other parts. Such selectively complete anodizing resulted in the patterns of metallic aluminum on anodic alumina. Using the technique, we fabricated microstructures such as line patterns and a simple wiring circuit-board-like structure on the anodic alumina. The aluminum microstructures fabricated by the techniques were embedded in anodic alumina/aluminum sheet, and this technique is promising for applications in electronic packaging and devices.

  18. Sputtered tin oxide and titanium oxide thin films as alternative transparent conductive oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boltz, Janika

    2011-12-12

    Alternative transparent conductive oxides to tin doped indium oxide have been investigated. In this work, antimony doped tin oxide and niobium doped titanium oxide have been studied with the aim to prepare transparent and conductive films. Antimony doped tin oxide and niobium doped titanium oxide belong to different groups of oxides; tin oxide is a soft oxide, while titanium oxide is a hard oxide. Both oxides are isolating materials, in case the stoichiometry is SnO{sub 2} and TiO{sub 2}. In order to achieve transparent and conductive films free carriers have to be generated by oxygen vacancies, by metal ions at interstitial positions in the crystal lattice or by cation doping with Sb or Nb, respectively. Antimony doped tin oxide and niobium doped titanium oxide films have been prepared by reactive direct current magnetron sputtering (dc MS) from metallic targets. The process parameters and the doping concentration in the films have been varied. The films have been electrically, optically and structurally analysed in order to analyse the influence of the process parameters and the doping concentration on the film properties. Post-deposition treatments of the films have been performed in order to improve the film properties. For the deposition of transparent and conductive tin oxide, the dominant parameter during the deposition is the oxygen content in the sputtering gas. The Sb incorporation as doping atoms has a minor influence on the electrical, optical and structural properties. Within a narrow oxygen content in the sputtering gas highly transparent and conductive tin oxide films have been prepared. In this study, the lowest resistivity in the as deposited state is 2.9 m{omega} cm for undoped tin oxide without any postdeposition treatment. The minimum resistivity is related to a transition to crystalline films with the stoichiometry of SnO{sub 2}. At higher oxygen content the films turn out to have a higher resistivity due to an oxygen excess. After post

  19. High optical transmittance of aluminum ultrathin film with hexagonal nanohole arrays as transparent electrode

    KAUST Repository

    Du, Qing Guo

    2016-02-24

    We fabricate samples of aluminum ultrathin films with hexagonal nanohole arrays and characterize the transmission performance. High optical transmittance larger than 60% over a broad wavelength range from 430 nm to 750 nm is attained experimentally. The Fano-type resonance of the excited surface plasmon plaritons and the directly transmitted light attribute to both of the broadband transmission enhancement and the transmission suppression dips. © 2016 Optical Society of America.

  20. Luminescent down shifting effect of Ce-doped yttrium aluminum garnet thin films on solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shao, Guojian; Lou, Chaogang; Kang, Jian; Zhang, Hao [School of Electronic Science and Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096, Jiangsu Province (China)

    2015-12-21

    Ce-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG:Ce) thin films as luminescent down shifting (LDS) materials are introduced into the module of crystalline silicon solar cells. The films are deposited by RF magnetron sputtering on the lower surface of the quartz glass. They convert ultraviolet and blue light into yellow light. Experiments show that the introduction of YAG:Ce films improves the conversion efficiency from 18.45% of the cells to 19.27% of the module. The increasing efficiency is attributed to LDS effect of YAG:Ce films and the reduced reflection of short wavelength photons. Two intentionally selected samples with similar reflectivities are used to evaluate roughly the effect of LDS alone on the solar cells, which leads to a relative increase by 2.68% in the conversion efficiency.

  1. Preparation of Chromium Oxide Coatings on Aluminum Borate Whiskers by a Hydrothermal Deposition Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Aluminum borate whiskers (9Al2O32B2O3) can be used to reinforce aluminum alloys to produce light and strong composites. However, the adverse interfacial reactions between the whiskers and the aluminum alloys inhibit their practical uses; therefore, a protective coating is needed on whiskers. In this work, aluminum borate whiskers were coated with chromium-coating deposits in a hydrothermal solution containing CrCl3, Na2C4H4O6, NaPH2O2, and H3BO3. The presence of the impurity P in the hydrothermal deposits can be avoided by reducing the amount of NaPH2O2 in the coating solution. Thermodynamic analysis was used to discuss the behavior of ions in the coating process. The subsequent heating of the hydrothermal products in air at 800 ℃ yielded smooth Cr2O3 films with a thickness of 0.060.07 μm.

  2. Anomalous hexagonal superstructure of aluminum oxide layer grown on NiAl(110) surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krukowski, Pawel; Chaunchaiyakul, Songpol; Minagawa, Yuto; Yajima, Nami; Akai-Kasaya, Megumi; Saito, Akira; Kuwahara, Yuji

    2016-11-01

    A modified method for the fabrication of a highly crystallized layer of aluminum oxide on a NiAl(110) surface is reported. The fabrication method involves the multistep selective oxidation of aluminum atoms on a NiAl(110) surface resulting from successive oxygen deposition and annealing. The surface morphology and local electronic structure of the novel aluminum oxide layer were investigated by high-resolution imaging using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and current imaging tunneling spectroscopy. In contrast to the standard fabrication method of aluminum oxide on a NiAl(110) surface, the proposed method produces an atomically flat surface exhibiting a hexagonal superstructure. The superstructure exhibits a slightly distorted hexagonal array of close-packed bright protrusions with a periodicity of 4.5 ± 0.2 nm. Atomically resolved STM imaging of the aluminum oxide layer reveals a hexagonal arrangement of dark contrast spots with a periodicity of 0.27 ± 0.02 nm. On the basis of the atomic structure of the fabricated layer, the formation of α-Al2O3(0001) on the NiAl(110) surface is suggested.

  3. Aluminum thin film growth on a Ru(0001) surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceballos, G.; Theis, M.; Pelzer, Th.; Schick, M.; Rangelov, G.; Wandelt, K.

    1995-07-01

    The growth of thin Al films on a Ru(0001) substrate has been investigated by means of AES, LEED, TDS, and PAX measurements. A plot of the Ru and Al AES intensities versus evaporation time for a deposition temperature of 300 K reveals a distinct break at θAl = 1, while for higher coverages the Ru intensity decays exponentially indicating a three-dimensional growth of Al clusters. From this behavior we deduce a Stranski-Krastanov growth mechanism. This behavior persists up to 650 K. For higher deposition temperatures a diffusion of Al into the substrate and a partial desorption of the Al film is found. At low Al coverage the LEED pattern reveals an initial film growth with Al(111) structure and an expansion of the interatomic spacing of 2% compared to the Al(111) bulk plane. This superstructure persisted up to ˜ 2.5 ML. In the submonolayer regime CO and Xe TD-spectra as well as Xe 4d PAX-spectra suggest together with LEED an island growth.

  4. Controlling the resistivity gradient in chemical vapor deposition-deposited aluminum-doped zinc oxide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ponomarev, M. V.; Verheijen, M. A.; Keuning, W.; M. C. M. van de Sanden,; Creatore, M.

    2012-01-01

    Aluminum-doped ZnO (ZnO:Al) grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) generally exhibit a major drawback, i.e., a gradient in resistivity extending over a large range of film thickness. The present contribution addresses the plasma-enhanced CVD deposition of ZnO: Al layers by focusing on the control

  5. Efficient Confinement of Ultraviolet Light into the Self-Assembled, Dielectric Colloidal Monolayer on a Flat Aluminum Film

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Seungwoo

    2014-01-01

    Here we propose the efficient confinement of ultraviolet (UV) light into the plasmonic-photonic crystal hybrid, which can be practically developed by the self-assembly of dielectric colloidal nanosphere monolayer onto a flat aluminum (Al) film. Using a numerical approach, we analyzed modal characteristics of each different resonant mode at the UV wavelengths including surface plasmon polariton (SPP) mode and waveguided (WG) mode and tuned these resonant modes from deep to far UV simply by adjusting the size of dielectric colloidal nanosphere. The calculated quality-factor (Q-factor) of such plasmonic-photonic crystal hybrid is at least one order of magnitude higher than that of the existing Al nanostructures (Al nanoparticles, nanodisks, nanovoids, or nanogratings) standing on the dielectric substrate. Also, we systematically studied how the amount of native oxide, which can be generated during the general process for the deposition of Al, can influence on both the SPP and WG modes of such plasmonic-photonic ...

  6. Synthesis of aluminum nitride thin films and their potential applications in solid state thermoluminescence dosimeters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choudhary, R.K., E-mail: rupeshkr@barc.gov.in [Materials Processing Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Soni, A. [Radiological Physics and Advisory Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Mishra, P. [Materials Processing Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Mishra, D.R.; Kulkarni, M.S. [Radiological Physics and Advisory Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India)

    2014-11-15

    In this work, aluminum nitride thin films were deposited on Si (1 1 1) substrate by magnetron sputtering. The obtained film was studied for thermoluminescence after irradiating it to various doses of γ-rays. Thermoluminescence measurement showed photon emission at an irradiation dose of 100 Gy or higher. Deconvolution of the experimental glow curve indicated that recombination centers in AlN were present below 2 eV trap depth. Irradiated AlN films showed less than 2% fading of TL signals on storage for 1 month in dark conditions and for the same period, light induced fading was also less than 4%. A linear variation of integrated thermoluminescence counts with absorbed dose has been observed up to an irradiation dose of 10 kGy. The deposited film was also characterized by grazing incidence X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy and secondary ion mass spectroscopy. Grazing incidence X-ray diffraction measurement of the obtained film has shown formation of polycrystalline wurtzite AlN having preferred orientation along (1 0 0) plane. Secondary ion mass spectroscopy analysis revealed the presence of oxygen in the film. - Highlights: • TL emission in sputter deposited AlN thin films when irradiated to gamma rays. • Linear dose–response up to 10 kGy irradiation dose. • Negligible fading of TL signals on storage. • Nominal light induced TL fading. • AlN thin films found potentially suitable for high dose dosimetry applications.

  7. Quaternary polymethacrylate-magnesium aluminum silicate films: molecular interactions, mechanical properties and tackiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rongthong, Thitiphorn; Sungthongjeen, Srisagul; Siepmann, Juergen; Pongjanyakul, Thaned

    2013-12-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of the addition of magnesium aluminum silicate (MAS), a natural clay, on the properties of polymeric films based on quaternary polymethacrylates (QPMs). Two commercially available aqueous QPM dispersions were studied: Eudragit(®) RS 30D and Eudragit(®) RL 30D (the dry copolymers containing 5 and 10% quaternary ammonium groups, respectively). The composite QPM-MAS films were prepared by casting. Importantly, QPM interacted with MAS and formed small flocculates prior to film formation. Continuous films were obtained up to MAS contents of 19% (referred to the QPM dry mass). ATR-FTIR and PXRD revealed that the positively charged quaternary ammonium groups of QPM interacted with negatively charged SiO(-) groups of MAS, creating nanocomposite materials. This interaction led to improved thermal stability of the composite films. The puncture strength and elongation at break of dry systems decreased with increasing MAS content. In contrast, the puncture strength of the wet QPM-MAS films (upon exposure to acidic or neutral media) increased with increasing MAS content. Furthermore, incorporation of MAS into QPM films significantly decreased the latter's tackiness in the dry and wet state. These findings suggest that nanocomposite formation between QPM and MAS in the systems can enhance the strength of wet films and decrease their tackiness. Thus, MAS offers an interesting potential as novel anti-tacking agent for QPM coatings.

  8. Photoconduction in silicon rich oxide films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luna-Lopez, J A; Carrillo-Lopez, J; Flores-Gracia, F J; Garcia-Salgado, G [CIDS-ICUAP, Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla. Ed. 103 D and C, col. San Manuel, Puebla, Pue. Mexico 72570 (Mexico); Aceves-Mijares, M; Morales-Sanchez, A, E-mail: jluna@buap.siu.m, E-mail: jluna@inaoep.m [INAOE, Luis Enrique Erro No. 1, Apdo. 51, Tonantzintla, Puebla, Mexico 72000 (Mexico)

    2009-05-01

    Photoconduction of silicon rich oxide (SRO) thin films were studied by current-voltage (I-V) measurements, where ultraviolet (UV) and white (Vis) light illumination were applied. SRO thin films were deposited by low pressure chemical vapour deposition (LPCVD) technique, using SiH{sub 4} (silane) and N{sub 2}O (nitrous oxide) as reactive gases at 700 {sup 0}. The gas flow ratio, Ro = [N{sub 2}O]/[SiH{sub 4}] was used to control the silicon excess. The thickness and refractive index of the SRO films were 72.0 nm, 75.5 nm, 59.1 nm, 73.4 nm and 1.7, 1.5, 1.46, 1.45, corresponding to R{sub o} = 10, 20, 30 and 50, respectively. These results were obtained by null ellipsometry. Si nanoparticles (Si-nps) and defects within SRO films permit to obtain interesting photoelectric properties as a high photocurrent and photoconduction. These effects strongly depend on the silicon excess, thickness and structure type. Two different structures (Al/SRO/Si and Al/SRO/SRO/Si metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS)-like structures) were fabricated and used as devices. The photocurrent in these structures is dominated by the generation of carriers due to the incident photon energies ({approx}3.0-1.6 eV and 5 eV). These structures showed large photoconductive response at room temperature. Therefore, these structures have potential applications in optoelectronics devices.

  9. Electrical analysis of niobium oxide thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graça, M.P.F., E-mail: mpfg@ua.pt [I3N & Physics Department, Aveiro University, Campus Universitário de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Saraiva, M. [I3N & Physics Department, Aveiro University, Campus Universitário de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Freire, F.N.A. [Mechanics Engineering Department, Ceará Federal University, Fortaleza (Brazil); Valente, M.A.; Costa, L.C. [I3N & Physics Department, Aveiro University, Campus Universitário de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal)

    2015-06-30

    In this work, a series of niobium oxide thin films was deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering. The total pressure of Ar/O{sub 2} was kept constant at 1 Pa, while the O{sub 2} partial pressure was varied up to 0.2 Pa. The depositions were performed in a grounded and non-intentionally heated substrate, resulting in as-deposited amorphous thin films. Raman spectroscopy confirmed the absence of crystallinity. Dielectric measurements as a function of frequency (40 Hz–110 MHz) and temperature (100 K–360 K) were performed. The dielectric constant for the film samples with thickness (d) lower than 650 nm decreases with the decrease of d. The same behaviour was observed for the conductivity. These results show a dependence of the dielectric permittivity with the thin film thickness. The electrical behaviour was also related with the oxygen partial pressure, whose increment promotes an increase of the Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} stoichiometry units. - Highlights: • Niobium oxide thin films were deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering. • XRD showed a phase change with the increase of the P(O{sub 2}). • Raman showed that increasing P(O{sub 2}), Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} amorphous increases. • Conductivity tends to decrease with the increase of P(O{sub 2}). • Dielectric analysis indicates the inexistence of preferential grow direction.

  10. Combined optical gain and degradation measurements in DCM2 doped Tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum thin-films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čehovski, Marko; Döring, Sebastian; Rabe, Torsten; Caspary, Reinhard; Kowalsky, Wolfgang

    2016-04-01

    Organic laser sources offer the opportunity to integrate flexible and widely tunable lasers in polymer waveguide circuits, e.g. for Lab-on-Foil applications. Therefore, it is necessary to understand gain and degradation processes for long-term operation. In this paper we address the challenge of life-time (degradation) measurements of photoluminescence (PL) and optical gain in thin-film lasers. The well known guest-host system of aluminum-chelate Alq3 (Tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum) as host material and the laser dye DCM2 (4-(Dicyanomethylene)-2- methyl-6-julolidyl-9-enyl-4H-pyran) as guest material is employed as laser active material. Sample layers have been built up by co-evaporation in an ultrahigh (UHV) vacuum chamber. 200nm thick films of Alq3:DCM2 with different doping concentrations have been processed onto glass and thermally oxidized silicon substrates. The gain measurements have been performed by the variable stripe length (VSL) method. This measurement technique allows to determine the thin-film waveguide gain and loss, respectively. For the measurements the samples were excited with UV irradiation (ƛ = 355nm) under nitrogen atmosphere by a passively Q-switched laser source. PL degradation measurements with regard to the optical gain have been done at laser threshold (approximately 3 μJ/cm2), five times above laser threshold and 10 times above laser threshold. A t50-PL lifetime of > 107 pulses could be measured at a maximum excitation energy density of 32 μJ/cm2. This allows for a detailed analysis of the gain degradation mechanism and therefore of the stimulated cross section. Depending on the DCM2 doping concentration C the stimulated cross section was reduced by 35 %. Nevertheless, the results emphasizes the necessity of the investigation of degradation processes in organic laser sources for long-term applications.

  11. Photoluminescence and energy transfer processes in rare earth ion doped oxide thin films with substrate heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Zhisong; Zhou, Bo; Yan, Lu; Zhu, Fang; Zhang, Feng; Huang, Anping

    2010-02-01

    Tm-Er codoped amorphous aluminum oxide thin films were prepared by pulsed laser deposition. Broadband photoluminescence in the wavelength region of 1400-1700 nm comprised of two emissions at around 1532 and 1620 nm was observed. PL performance was investigated as a function of the substrate-heating temperature. Possible energy transfer processes involved in the heat treatment were discussed and nonradiative decay rates were evaluated, by comparing the inverse of measured lifetimes with the calculated radiative decay rates. Our results suggest that Tm-Er codoped Al 2O 3 thin film might be potential candidate as broadband light sources and amplifiers.

  12. Liquid crystal alignment in nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide layer for LCD panel applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Chitsung; Tang, Tsung-Ta; Hung, Chi-Yu; Pan, Ru-Pin; Fang, Weileun

    2010-07-16

    This paper reports the implementation and integration of a self-assembled nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide (np-AAO) film and liquid crystal (LC) on an ITO-glass substrate for liquid crystal display (LCD) panel applications. An np-AAO layer with a nanopore array acts as the vertical alignment layer to easily and uniformly align the LC molecules. Moreover, the np-AAO nanoalignment layer provides outstanding material properties, such as being inorganic with good transmittance, and colorless on ITO-glass substrates. In this application, an LCD panel, with the LC on the np-AAO nanoalignment layer, is successfully implemented on an ITO-glass substrate, and its performance is demonstrated. The measurements show that the LCD panel, consisting of an ITO-glass substrate and an np-AAO layer, has a transmittance of 60-80%. In addition, the LCD panel switches from a black state to a bright state at 3 V(rms), with a response time of 62.5 ms. In summary, this paper demonstrates the alignment of LC on an np-AAO layer for LCD applications.

  13. Growth control of carbon nanotubes using by anodic aluminum oxide nano templates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yong Seob; Choi, Won Seek; Yi, Junsin; Lee, Jaehyeong

    2014-05-01

    Anodic Aluminum Oxide (AAO) template prepared in acid electrolyte possess regular and highly anisotropic porous structure with pore diameter range from five to several hundred nanometers, and with a density of pores ranging from 10(9) to 10(11) cm(-2). AAO can be used as microfilters and templates for the growth of CNTs and metal or semiconductor nanowires. Varying anodizing conditions such as temperature, electrolyte, applied voltage, anodizing and widening time, one can control the diameter, the length, and the density of pores. In this work, we deposited Al thin film by radio frequency magnetron sputtering method to fabricate AAO nano template and synthesized multi-well carbon nanotubes on a glass substrate by microwave plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (MPECVD). AAO nano-porous templates with various pore sizes and depths were introduced to control the dimension and density of CNT arrays. The AAO nano template was synthesize on glass by two-step anodization technique. The average diameter and interpore distance of AAO nano template are about 65 nm and 82 nm. The pore density and AAO nano template thickness are about 2.1 x 10(10) pores/cm2 and 1 microm, respectively. Aligned CNTs on the AAO nano template were synthesized by MPECVD at 650 degrees C with the Ni catalyst layer. The length and diameter of CNTs were grown 2 microm and 50 nm, respectively.

  14. Ru nanostructure fabrication using an anodic aluminum oxide nanotemplate and highly conformal Ru atomic layer deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Woo-Hee; Park, Sang-Joon; Son, Jong-Yeog; Kim, Hyungjun

    2008-01-30

    We fabricated metallic nanostructures directly on Si substrates through a hybrid nanoprocess combining atomic layer deposition (ALD) and a self-assembled anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) nanotemplate. ALD Ru films with Ru(DMPD)(EtCp) as a precursor and O(2) as a reactant exhibited high purity and low resistivity with negligible nucleation delay and low roughness. These good growth characteristics resulted in the excellent conformality for nanometer-scale vias and trenches. Additionally, AAO nanotemplates were fabricated directly on Si and Ti/Si substrates through a multiple anodization process. AAO nanotemplates with various hole sizes (30-100 nm) and aspect ratios (2:1-20:1) were fabricated by controlling the anodizing process parameters. The barrier layers between AAO nanotemplates and Si substrates were completely removed by reactive ion etching (RIE) using BCl(3) plasma. By combining the ALD Ru and the AAO nanotemplate, Ru nanostructures with controllable sizes and shapes were prepared on Si and Ti/Si substrates. The Ru nanowire array devices as a platform for sensor devices exhibited befitting properties of good ohmic contact and high surface/volume ratio.

  15. Volatile organic compound gas sensor based on aluminum-doped zinc oxide with nanoparticle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Nak-Jin; Lee, Hyung-Kun; Moon, Seung Eon; Yang, Woo Seok; Kim, Jongdae

    2013-08-01

    Thick film semiconductor gas sensors based on aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) with nanoparticle size were fabricated to detect volatile organic compound (VOC) existed in building, especially, formaldehyde (HCHO) gas which was known as the cause of sick building syndrome. The sensing materials for screen printing were prepared using roll milling process with binder. The crystallite sizes of prepared materials were about 15 nm through X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Gas response characteristics were examined for formaldehyde (HCHO), benzene, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide gas existing in building. In particular, the sensors showed responses to HCHO gas at sub ppm as a function of operating temperatures and gas concentrations. Also, we investigated sensitivity, repeativity, selectivity, and response time of sensor. The transients were very sharp, taking less than 2 s for 90% response. The sensor has shown very stable response at 350 degrees C and followed a very good behavior and showed 60% response in 50 ppb HCHO concentration at 350 degrees C operating temperatures.

  16. Electrically conducting polymer nanostructures confined in anodized aluminum oxide templates (AAO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Blaszczyk-Lezak

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Intrinsically or extrinsically conducting polymers are considered good candidates for replacement of metals in specific applications. In order to further expand their applications, it seems necessary to examine the influence of confinement effects on the electric properties of nanostructured conducting polymers in comparison to the bulk. The present study reports a novel way to fabricate and characterize high quality and controllable one-dimensional (1D polymer nanostructures with promising electrical properties, with the aid of two examples polyaniline (PANI and poly(vinylidene fluoride with multiwall carbon nanotubes (PVDF-MWCNT as representative of intrinsically and extrinsically conducting polymers, respectively. In this work, porous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO templates have been used both as a nanoreactor to synthesize 1D PANI nanostructures by polymerization of the ANI monomer and as a nanomold to prepare 1D PVDFMWCNT nanorods by melt infiltration of the precursor PVDF-MWCNT film. The obtained polymer nanostructures were morphologically and chemically characterized by SEM and Confocal Raman Spectroscopy, respectively, and the electrical properties determined by Broadband Dielectric Spectroscopy (BDS in a non-destructive way. SEM study allowed to establish the final nanostructure of PANI and PVDF-MWCNT and confirmed, in both cases, the well-aligned and uniform rodlike polymer nanostructures. Confocal Raman Microscopy has been performed to study the formation of the conducting emeraldine salt of PANI through all the length of AAO nanocavities. Finally, the electrical conductivity of both types of polymer nanostructures was easily evaluated by means of Dielectric Spectroscopy.

  17. Homojunction solution-processed metal oxide thin-film transistors using passivation-induced channel definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung Hyun; Rim, You Seung; Kim, Hyun Jae

    2014-04-09

    A simple method of channel passivation and physical definition of solution-processed metal oxide thin-film transistors (TFTs) has been developed for aluminum oxide (AlOx) and indium oxide (InOx) thin films. A photoresist-free-based ultraviolet (UV) patterning process was used to define an InOx layer as the source/drain region and an AlOx layer as a passivation layer on the InOx layer. The Al diffused into the patterned InOx thin film during a thermal annealing step. As an electrode, the patterned InOx thin film had low resistivity, and as a channel, the Al-diffused InOx thin film had a low carrier concentration. Furthermore, the diffused Al behaved as a carrier suppressor by reducing oxygen vacancies within the InOx thin film. We succeeded in forming a coplanar homojunction-structured metal oxide TFT that used the passivation-induced channel-defining (PCD) method with an AlOx/InOx bilayer. The PCD TFT had a field-effect mobility of 0.02 cm(2)/V·s, a threshold voltage of -1.88 V, a subthreshold swing of 0.73 V/decade, and an on/off current ratio of 2.75 × 10(6) with a width/length (W/L) of 2000 μm/400 μm.

  18. Field Emission From Ordered Nano-array Structures Based on Porous Aluminum Oxide Templates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; ChengWei

    2001-01-01

    This thesis reports my research work of fabricating nanostructures by using nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) templates and their field emission properties in the past few years. Some important results obtained are as follows:  1. We first proposed a new concept of fabricating field emitters with ordered nanostructures based on porous aluminum oxide templates such as AAO/Al, metal/AAO, PANI/AAO, CNTs/AAO, Si/AAO and did a lot of research in this field.  ……

  19. Porous Nickel Oxide Film Sensor for Formaldehyde

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cindemir, U.; Topalian, Z.; Österlund, L.; Granqvist, C. G.; Niklasson, G. A.

    2014-11-01

    Formaldehyde is a volatile organic compound and a harmful indoor pollutant contributing to the "sick building syndrome". We used advanced gas deposition to fabricate highly porous nickel oxide (NiO) thin films for formaldehyde sensing. The films were deposited on Al2O3 substrates with prefabricated comb-structured electrodes and a resistive heater at the opposite face. The morphology and structure of the films were investigated with scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Porosity was determined by nitrogen adsorption isotherms with the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller method. Gas sensing measurements were performed to demonstrate the resistive response of the sensors with respect to different concentrations of formaldehyde at 150 °C.

  20. Porous Spherical Cellulose Composites Coated by Aluminum (Ⅲ) Oxide and Silicone: Preparation,Characterization and Adsorption Behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Porous spherical cellulose composite (PSCA) coated by aluminum (Ⅲ) oxide was prepared andmodified by organosilicone. SEM images of the surface morphology of the bead cellulose shows that it hasspherical shape and abundant porous structure on its surface. The mapping images of aluminum and silicon ofthe composite (PSCAS) present aluminum( Ⅲ ) oxide and silicone are uniformly dispersed on the surface. Theadsorption behavior of PSCAS toward metal ions was determined.

  1. Mismatched wear couple zirconium oxide and aluminum oxide in total hip arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morlock, M; Nassutt, R; Janssen, R; Willmann, G; Honl, M

    2001-12-01

    A patient complained about a squeaking noise in his total hip arthroplasty. Clinical evaluation revealed good function, and there were no signs of loosening on the radiograph. Physiotherapy did not alter this phenomenon, and ultimately a revision was performed 42 months after the first surgery. The analysis of the retrievals revealed that a zirconium oxide ceramic head had been paired with a monolithic alumina ceramic cup. The cup showed large deviations from an ideal sphere but minor wear signs. The head exhibited heavy local damage in the articulation zone. This damage might have been caused by the observed unsatisfactory fit between cup and ball, resulting in high stress concentrations and increased wear of the zirconium head. The characteristics of the zirconium and aluminum ceramics pairing might have worsened the process. The combination of implants used in this retrieved wear couple was never approved. To prevent such problems, components of different manufacturers should never be mixed and matched unless explicitly stated.

  2. Structure Analysis of Oxidation Film of Ignition-Inhibition AZ91D Ma gnesium Alloy Added with Cerium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄晓锋; 周宏; 何镇明

    2003-01-01

    The effect of cerium on ignition temperature of AZ91D magnesium alloy was studied. By the addition of cerium of 1%, the ignition temperature is raised by 180 ℃, so the magnesium alloy added with cerium can be melted in air. The burning temperature increases with the increasing of cerium. The structure and chemical compositions of the surface oxide film were investigated by XRD and Auger electron spectrometry(AES). The results of XRD indicate that the oxide film of the surface of ignition-inhibition magnesium alloy can change from loose structure of simple magnesia to compact composite structure consisting of magnesia, cerium oxide, Mg17 A112 and aluminum oxide, which has excellent ignition-inhibition effect. AES depth profile analysis shows that the oxide film can be divided into three layers. The outside layer is mainly made up of magnesia, the middle layer, which consists of cerium oxide, magnesia, and aluminum oxide, is compound and compact. Thermodynamic analysis indicates that the structure of the surface oxide film is accordant to the change of free energy and high vapor pressure of magnesium.

  3. Synthesis and Characterization of Aluminum Doped Zinc Oxide Nanostructures via Hydrothermal Route

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Alkahlout

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Stable crystalline aluminum doped zinc oxide (AZO nanopowders were synthesized using hydrothermal treatment processing. Three different aluminum precursors have been used. The Al-precursors were found to affect the morphology of the obtained nanopowders. AZO nanoparticles based on zinc acetate and aluminum nitrate have been prepared with different Al/Zn molar ratios. XRD investigations revealed that all the obtained powders have single phase zincite structure with purity of about 99%. The effect of aluminum doping ratio in AZO nanoparticles (based on Al-nitrate precursor on structure, phase composition, and particle size has been investigated. The incorporation of Al in ZnO was confirmed by UV-Vis spectroscopy revealing a blue shift due to Burstein-Moss effect.

  4. Characterization and Tribological Properties of Hard Anodized and Micro Arc Oxidized 5754 Quality Aluminum Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ovundur

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was initiated to compare the tribological performances of a 5754 quality aluminum alloy after hard anodic oxidation and micro arc oxidation processes. The structural analyses of the coatings were performed using XRD and SEM techniques. The hardness of the coatings was determined using a Vickers micro-indentation tester. Tribological performances of the hard anodized and micro arc oxidized samples were compared on a reciprocating wear tester under dry sliding conditions. The dry sliding wear tests showed that the wear resistance of the oxide coating generated by micro arc oxidation is remarkably higher than that of the hard anodized alloy.

  5. Development of aluminum-doped ZnO films for a-Si∶H/μc-Si∶H solar cell applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei Zhifang; Chen Guangyu; Gu Shibin; Dai Lingling; Yang Rong; Meng Yuan; Guo Ted

    2013-01-01

    This study deals with the optimization of direct current (DC) sputtered aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) thin films and their incorporation into a-Si∶H/μc-Si∶H tandem junction thin film solar cells aiming for high conversion efficiency.Electrical and optical properties of AZO films,i.e.mobility,carrier density,resistivity,and transmittance,were comprehensively characterized and analyzed by varying sputtering deposition conditions,including chamber pressure,substrate temperature,and sputtering power.The correlations between sputtering processes and AZO thin film properties were first investigated.Then,the AZO films were textured by diluted hydrochloric acid wet etching.Through optimization of deposition and texturing processes,AZO films yield excellent electrical and optical properties with a high transmittance above 81% over the 380-1100 nm wavelength range,low sheet resistance of 11 Ω/□ and high haze ratio of 41.3%.In preliminary experiments,the AZO films were applied to a-Si∶H/μc-Si∶H tandem thin film solar cells as front contact electrodes,resulting in an initial conversion efficiency of 12.5% with good current matching between subcells.

  6. Water Clustering on Nanostructured Iron Oxide Films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merte, L. R.; Bechstein, Ralf; Peng, Guowen; Rieboldt, Felix; Farberow, Carrie A.; Zeuthen, Helene; Knudsen, Jan; Laegsgaard, E.; Wendt, Stefen; Mavrikakis, Manos; Besenbacher, Fleming

    2014-06-30

    The adhesion of water to solid surfaces is characterized by the tendency to balance competing molecule–molecule and molecule–surface interactions. Hydroxyl groups form strong hydrogen bonds to water molecules and are known to substantially influence the wetting behaviour of oxide surfaces, but it is not well-understood how these hydroxyl groups and their distribution on a surface affect the molecular-scale structure at the interface. Here we report a study of water clustering on a moire´-structured iron oxide thin film with a controlled density of hydroxyl groups. While large amorphous monolayer islands form on the are film, the hydroxylated iron oxide film acts as a hydrophilic nanotemplate, causing the formation of a regular array of ice-like hexameric nanoclusters. The formation of this ordered phase is localized at the nanometre scale; with increasing water coverage, ordered and amorphous water are found to coexist at adjacent hydroxylated and hydroxyl-free domains of the moire´ structure.

  7. PEALD YSZ-based bilayer electrolyte for thin film-solid oxide fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wonjong; Cho, Gu Young; Hong, Soonwook; Lee, Yeageun; Kim, Young Beom; An, Jihwan; Cha, Suk Won

    2016-10-01

    Yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) thin film electrolyte deposited by plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD) was investigated. PEALD YSZ-based bi-layered thin film electrolyte was employed for thin film solid oxide fuel cells on nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide substrates, whose electrochemical performance was compared to the cell with sputtered YSZ-based electrolyte. The cell with PEALD YSZ electrolyte showed higher open circuit voltage (OCV) of 1.0 V and peak power density of 182 mW cm-2 at 450 °C compared to the one with sputtered YSZ electrolyte(0.88 V(OCV), 70 mW cm-2(peak power density)). High OCV and high power density of the cell with PEALD YSZ-based electrolyte is due to the reduction in ohmic and activation losses as well as the gas and electrical current tightness.

  8. Transparent Conductive Oxides for Thin-Film Silicon Solar Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loeffler, J.

    2005-04-25

    This thesis describes research on thin-film silicon solar cells with focus on the transparent conductive oxide (TCO) for such devices. In addition to the formation of a transparent and electrically conductive front electrode for the solar cell allowing photocurrent collection with low ohmic losses, the front TCO plays an important role for the light enhancement of thin-film silicon pin type solar cells. If the TCO is rough, light scattering at rough interfaces in the solar cell in combination with a highly reflective back contact leads to an increase in optical path length of the light. Multiple (total) internal reflectance leads to virtual 'trapping' of the light in the solar cell structure, allowing a further decrease in absorber thickness and thus thin-film silicon solar cell devices with higher and more stable efficiency. Here, the optical mechanisms involved in the light trapping in thin-film silicon solar cells have been studied, and two types of front TCO materials have been investigated with respect to their suitability as front TCO in thin-film silicon pin type solar cells. Undoped and aluminum doped zinc oxide layers have been fabricated for the first time by the expanding thermal plasma chemical vapour deposition (ETP CVD) technique at substrate temperatures between 150C and 350C, and successfully implemented as a front electrode material for amorphous silicon pin superstrate type solar cells. Solar cells with efficiencies comparable to cells on Asahi U-type reference TCO have been reproducibly obtained. A higher haze is needed for the ZnO samples studied here than for Asahi U-type TCO in order to achieve comparable long wavelength response of the solar cells. This is attributed to the different angular distribution of the scattered light, showing higher scattering intensities at large angles for the Asahi U-type TCO. A barrier at the TCO/p interface and minor collection problems may explain the slightly lower fill factors obtained for the

  9. Transparent conductive oxides for thin-film silicon solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löffler, J.

    2005-04-01

    This thesis describes research on thin-film silicon solar cells with focus on the transparent conductive oxide (TCO) for such devices. In addition to the formation of a transparent and electrically conductive front electrode for the solar cell allowing photocurrent collection with low ohmic losses, the front TCO plays an important role for the light enhancement of thin-film silicon pin type solar cells. If the TCO is rough, light scattering at rough interfaces in the solar cell in combination with a highly reflective back contact leads to an increase in optical path length of the light. Multiple (total) internal reflectance leads to virtual 'trapping' of the light in the solar cell structure, allowing a further decrease in absorber thickness and thus thin-film silicon solar cell devices with higher and more stable efficiency. Here, the optical mechanisms involved in the light trapping in thin-film silicon solar cells have been studied, and two types of front TCO materials have been investigated with respect to their suitability as front TCO in thin-film silicon pin type solar cells. Undoped and aluminum doped zinc oxide layers have been fabricated for the first time by the expanding thermal plasma chemical vapour deposition (ETP CVD) technique at substrate temperatures between 150 º C and 350 º C, and successfully implemented as a front electrode material for amorphous silicon pin superstrate type solar cells. Solar cells with efficiencies comparable to cells on Asahi U-type reference TCO have been reproducibly obtained. A higher haze is needed for the ZnO samples studied here than for Asahi U-type TCO in order to achieve comparable long wavelength response of the solar cells. This is attributed to the different angular distribution of the scattered light, showing higher scattering intensities at large angles for the Asahi U-type TCO. A barrier at the TCO/p interface and minor collection problems may explain the slightly lower fill factors obtained for the cells

  10. Potentiostatic Deposition and Characterization of Cuprous Oxide Thin Films

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Electrodeposition technique was employed to deposit cuprous oxide Cu2O thin films. In this work, Cu2O thin films have been grown on fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) transparent conducting glass as a substrate by potentiostatic deposition of cupric acetate. The effect of deposition time on the morphologies, crystalline, and optical quality of Cu2O thin films was investigated.

  11. Addressing the Limit of Detectability of Residual Oxide Discontinuities in Friction Stir Butt Welds of Aluminum using Phased Array Ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, P. H.

    2008-01-01

    This activity seeks to estimate a theoretical upper bound of detectability for a layer of oxide embedded in a friction stir weld in aluminum. The oxide is theoretically modeled as an ideal planar layer of aluminum oxide, oriented normal to an interrogating ultrasound beam. Experimentally-measured grain scattering level is used to represent the practical noise floor. Echoes from naturally-occurring oxides will necessarily fall below this theoretical limit, and must be above the measurement noise to be potentially detectable.

  12. Core–Shell Electrospun Hollow Aluminum Oxide Ceramic Fibers

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    In this work, core–shell electrospinning was employed as a simple method for the fabrication of composite coaxial polymer fibers that became hollow ceramic tubes when calcined at high temperature. The shell polymer solution consisted of polyvinyl pyrollidone (PVP) in ethanol mixed with an aluminum acetate solution to act as a ceramic precursor. The core polymer was recycled polystyrene to act as a sacrificial polymer that burned off during calcination. The resulting fibers were analyzed wit...

  13. Ruthenium oxide films for selective coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales-Ortiz, Ulises; Hugo Lara C., V. [Depto. Quimica, Area Electroquimica, U.A.M. Iztapalapa, A. P. 55-534, 09340 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Avila-Garcia, Alejandro [Departamento de Ingenieria Electrica, Seccion de Electronica del Estado Solido, CINVESTAV del I.P.N., Ap. Postal 14-740, Mexico 07360, D.F. (Mexico)

    2006-04-14

    Although commercial selective surfaces are already available, investigation on different deposition methods and materials still goes on at many laboratories. In this work, ruthenium oxide films upon metallic substrates are assessed for this usage. Deposition of the films was made at room temperature by either spraying or dipping method in a ruthenium chloride alcoholic solution. After deposited on titanium substrates, the films were heat-treated at temperatures between 450 and 500{sup o}C. When deposited on no-polished substrates, such films not only exhibit a high solar absorptance ({alpha}{approx}0.98), but also a high infrared emittance ({epsilon}{approx}0.8), which yield a low selectivity (S={alpha}/{epsilon}=1.2). By deposition of similar films on polished substrates, absorptance decreases ({alpha}{approx}0.74), but emittance significantly decreases as well ({epsilon}{approx}0.12), resulting in a net selectivity increase (S{approx}6). On the other hand, evaporating a thin ({approx}20nm) gold film upon the surface of a coating on a no-polished substrate also improves noticeably its emittance value ({epsilon}{approx}0.16) and a lower decrease in absorptance is achieved ({alpha}{approx}0.91), resulting in a selectivity increase (S{approx}5.7). These preliminary promising results indicate the high potential for using these films as solar selective coatings, but in order to optimize such selectivity values, further work to establish a close control on the deposition parameters and the substrate roughness value, should be done. (author)

  14. Corrosion resistance and durability of siloxane ceramic/polymer films for aluminum alloys in marine environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusada, Kentaro

    The objective of this study is to evaluate corrosion resistance and durability of siloxane ceramic/polymer films for aluminum alloys in marine environments. Al5052-H3 and Al6061-T6 were selected as substrates, and HCLCoat11 and HCLCoat13 developed in the Hawaii Corrosion Laboratory were selected for the siloxane ceramic/polymer coatings. The HCLCoat11 is a quasi-ceramic coating that has little to no hydrocarbons in its structure. The HCLCoat13 is formulated to incorporate more hydrocarbons to improve adhesion to substrate surfaces with less active functionalities. In this study, two major corrosion evaluation methods were used, which were the polarization test and the immersion test. The polarization tests provided theoretical corrosion rates (mg/dm 2/day) of bare, HCLCoat11-coated, and HCLCoat13-coated aluminum alloys in aerated 3.15wt% sodium chloride solution. From these results, the HCLCoat13-coated Al5052-H3 was found to have the lowest corrosion rate which was 0.073mdd. The next lowest corrosion rate was 0.166mdd of the HCLCoat11-coated Al5052-H3. Corrosion initiation was found to occur at preexisting breaches (pores) in the films by optical microscopy and SEM analysis. The HCLCoat11 film had many preexisting breaches of 1-2microm in diameter, while the HCLCoat13 film had much fewer preexisting breaches of less than 1microm in diameter. However, the immersion tests showed that the seawater immersion made HCLCoat13 film break away while the HCLCoat11 film did not apparently degrade, indicating that the HCLCoat11 film is more durable against seawater than the HCLCoat13. Raman spectroscopy revealed that there was some degradation of HCLCoat11 and HCLCoat13. For the HCLCoat11 film, the structure relaxation of Si-O-Si linkages was observed. On the other hand, seawater generated C-H-S bonds in the HCLCoat13 film resulting in the degradation of the film. In addition, it was found that the HCLCoat11 coating had anti-fouling properties due to its high water contact

  15. Metallic Thin-Film Bonding and Alloy Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryer, Jack Merrill (Inventor); Campbell, Geoff (Inventor); Peotter, Brian S. (Inventor); Droppers, Lloyd (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Diffusion bonding a stack of aluminum thin films is particularly challenging due to a stable aluminum oxide coating that rapidly forms on the aluminum thin films when they are exposed to atmosphere and the relatively low meting temperature of aluminum. By plating the individual aluminum thin films with a metal that does not rapidly form a stable oxide coating, the individual aluminum thin films may be readily diffusion bonded together using heat and pressure. The resulting diffusion bonded structure can be an alloy of choice through the use of a carefully selected base and plating metals. The aluminum thin films may also be etched with distinct patterns that form a microfluidic fluid flow path through the stack of aluminum thin films when diffusion bonded together.

  16. Large area Germanium Tin nanometer optical film coatings on highly flexible aluminum substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Lichuan; Zhang, Dainan; Zhang, Huaiwu; Fang, Jue; Liao, Yulong; Zhou, Tingchuan; Liu, Cheng; Zhong, Zhiyong; Harris, Vincent G.

    2016-09-01

    Germanium Tin (GeSn) films have drawn great interest for their visible and near-infrared optoelectronics properties. Here, we demonstrate large area Germanium Tin nanometer thin films grown on highly flexible aluminum foil substrates using low-temperature molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). Ultra-thin (10–180 nm) GeSn film-coated aluminum foils display a wide color spectra with an absorption wavelength ranging from 400–1800 nm due to its strong optical interference effect. The light absorption ratio for nanometer GeSn/Al foil heterostructures can be enhanced up to 85%. Moreover, the structure exhibits excellent mechanical flexibility and can be cut or bent into many shapes, which facilitates a wide range of flexible photonics. Micro-Raman studies reveal a large tensile strain change with GeSn thickness, which arises from lattice deformations. In particular, nano-sized Sn-enriched GeSn dots appeared in the GeSn coatings that had a thickness greater than 50 nm, which induced an additional light absorption depression around 13.89 μm wavelength. These findings are promising for practical flexible photovoltaic and photodetector applications ranging from the visible to near-infrared wavelengths.

  17. Monolayer-directed Assembly and Magnetic Properties of FePt Nanoparticles on Patterned Aluminum Oxide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yildirim, Oktay; Gang, Tian; Kinge, Sachin; Reinhoudt, David N.; Blank, Dave H.; Wiel, van der Wilfred G.; Rijnders, Guus; Huskens, Jurriaan

    2010-01-01

    FePt nanoparticles (NPs) were assembled on aluminum oxide substrates, and their ferromagnetic properties were studied before and after thermal annealing. For the first time, phosph(on)ates were used as an adsorbate to form self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on alumina to direct the assembly of NPs ont

  18. In-situ measurement of the electrical conductivity of aluminum oxide in HFIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zinkle, S.J.; White, D.P.; Snead, L.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [and others

    1996-10-01

    A collaborative DOE/Monbusho irradiation experiment has been completed which measured the in-situ electrical resistivity of 12 different grades of aluminum oxide during HFIR neutron irradiation at 450{degrees}C. No evidence for bulk RIED was observed following irradiation to a maximum dose of 3 dpa with an applied dc electric field of 200 V/mm.

  19. Standard specification for nuclear-grade aluminum oxide-boron carbide composite pellets

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2005-01-01

    1.1 This specification applies to pellets composed of mixtures of aluminum oxide and boron carbide that may be ultimately used in a reactor core, for example, in neutron absorber rods. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information only.

  20. Spectroscopy of photonic band gaps in mesoporous one-dimensional photonic crystals based on aluminum oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorelik, V. S.; Voinov, Yu. P.; Shchavlev, V. V.; Bi, Dongxue; Shang, Guo Liang; Fei, Guang Tao

    2016-12-01

    Mesoporous one-dimensional photonic crystals based on aluminum oxide have been synthesized by electrochemical etching method. Reflection spectra of the obtained mesoporous samples in a wide spectral range that covers several band gaps are presented. Microscopic parameters of photonic crystals are calculated and corresponding reflection spectra for the first six band gaps are presented.

  1. Versatile (Bio)Functionalization of Bromo-Terminated Phosphonate-Modified Porous Aluminum Oxide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Debrassi, A.; Roeven, E.; Thijssen, S.; Scheres, L.M.W.; Vos, de W.M.; Wennekes, T.; Zuilhof, H.

    2015-01-01

    Porous aluminum oxide (PAO) is a nanoporous material used for various (bio)technological applications, and tailoring its surface properties via covalent modification is a way to expand and refine its application. Specific and complex chemical modification of the PAO surface requires a stepwise appro

  2. The Oxidation Products of Aluminum Hydride and Boron Aluminum Hydride Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-04

    diborane, hydrogen, and a white solid. Whatley et al.8 studied the products of diborane oxidation. Roth and co-workers9 found HOBO to be the main...product during the oxidation of diborane. Roth and Bauer10 proposed that the formation of HOBO severely inhibits the oxidation of boranes by breaking...Whatley and R. N . Pease, J. Am. Chem. Soc, 76, 1997 (1954). 9 W. Roth and W. H. Bauer, J. Phys. Chem, 60, 639 (1956). 10 W. Roth , and W. H. Bauer

  3. Electron Mobility in Tris(8—Hydroxyquinolinolato)Aluminum Thin Film Based on Silicium①②

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENBaijun; ZHANGTieqiao; 等

    1997-01-01

    We have measured the mobilities of electrons in thin,vapor-deposited films of tris(8-hydroxyquinolinolato)aluminum(Alq3)based on silicium using a time-of-flight(TOF)technique.The drift of electron mobility is strongly electric field and temperature dependent.At room temperature and an electric field of 2×105V·cm-1,the effective mobility of electron is 1.0×10-5cm2·V-1·s-1 for 200nm thick sample.

  4. Correlation between texture and mechanical stress durability of thin aluminum films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nüssl, R., E-mail: rudolf.nuessl@uct.ac.za [Institut für Physik, Universität der Bundeswehr München, Werner-Heisenberg-Weg 39, 85579 Neubiberg (Germany); Jewula, T.; Ruile, W. [TDK Corporation, Systems, Acoustics, Waves Business Group, Anzingerstraße 13, 81617 Munich (Germany); Sulima, T.; Hansch, W. [Institut für Physik, Universität der Bundeswehr München, Werner-Heisenberg-Weg 39, 85579 Neubiberg (Germany)

    2014-04-01

    In this article, differently textured aluminum (Al) metallizations of surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices have been exposed to cyclic mechanical stress in order to investigate a potential correlation between their texture and their mechanical stress durability. Samples of SAW devices with differently textured Al thin film electrodes have been manufactured, and texture measurements have been carried out on all samples with electron backscatter diffraction. Subsequently, the SAW devices have been operated at heavy electrical load until a defined mechanical fatigue of its Al electrodes occurred. SAW devices with highly textured Al electrodes showed almost 20 times higher power durability than SAW devices with untextured Al electrodes. We show that this increase in electrical power durability has to be fully attributed to the strongly enhanced mechanical stress durability of highly textured Al films. Furthermore, a positive correlation between the Al films' texture and its electrical conductivity has been found. - Highlights: • We show highly textured growth of thin Al films on a clean, monocrystalline LiTaO{sub 3} • Highly textured Al growth gets disturbed by prior photolithographic process steps • Power durability of a SAW device increases with texture of its metallization • Texture and mechanical stress durability of a thin Al film are tightly correlated.

  5. Polyene Formation Catalyzed by Phosphotungstic Acid and Aluminum Chloride in Thin Films of Poly(Vinyl Alcohol)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tretinnikov, O. N.; Sushko, N. I.; Maly, A. B.

    2016-01-01

    Formation of linear polyenes -(CH=CH) n - during thermal dehydration of thin layers (9-20 μm) of poly(vinyl alcohol) containing phosphotungstic-acid and aluminum-chloride catalysts was investigated. It was found that the concentration of long-chain ( n ≥ 8) polyenes in films containing phosphotungstic acid increased smoothly with increasing annealing time although the kinetics of the dehydration were independent of the film thickness. The polyene ( n ≥ 8) formation rate in films containing aluminum chloride dropped quickly with decreasing film thickness and increasing annealing time. As a result, long-chain polyenes practically did not form regardless of the annealing time for a film thickness of 11 μm.

  6. Atomic scale simulation of oxide and metal film growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lazić, I.

    2009-01-01

    Improvement of wear resistant and tribological properties of materials is of great technological importance and is the main relevance of the current oxide coatings study. Aluminum oxide is especially interesting because of its very rapid self-repair capacity. As a second subject of this thesis, Cu f

  7. Laser sintering of magnesia with nanoparticles of iron oxide and aluminum oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García, L.V.; Mendivil, M.I.; Roy, T.K. Das; Castillo, G.A. [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Av. Pedro de Alba s/n, Cd. Universitaria, San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon 66451 (Mexico); Shaji, S., E-mail: sshajis@yahoo.com [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Av. Pedro de Alba s/n, Cd. Universitaria, San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon 66451 (Mexico); CIIDIT, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Apodaca, Nuevo Leon (Mexico)

    2015-05-01

    Highlights: • Laser sintered MgO pellets with nanoparticles of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}. • Characterized these pellets by XRD, SEM and XPS. • Spinel formations were observed in both cases. • Changes in morphology and structure were analyzed. - Abstract: Nanoparticles of iron oxide (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, 20–40 nm) and aluminum oxide (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, 50 nm) were mixed in different concentrations (3, 5 and 7 wt%) in a magnesium oxide (MgO) matrix. The mixture pellet was irradiated with 532 nm output from a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser using different laser fluence and translation speed for sintering. The refractory samples obtained were analyzed using X-ray diffraction technique, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results showed that the samples irradiated at translation speed of 110 μm/s and energy fluence of 1.7 J/cm{sup 2} with a concentration of 5 and 7 wt% of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} presented the MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel-type phase. With the addition of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles, at a translation speed of 110 μm/s and energy fluence of 1.7 J/cm{sup 2}, there were the formations of MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel phase. The changes in morphologies and microstructure due to laser irradiation were analyzed.

  8. Formation of linear polyenes in poly(vinyl alcohol) films catalyzed by phosphotungstic acid, aluminum chloride, and hydrochloric acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tretinnikov, O. N.; Sushko, N. I.; Malyi, A. B.

    2016-07-01

    Formation of linear polyenes-(CH=CH)n-via acid-catalyzed thermal dehydration of polyvinyl alcohol in 9- to 40-µm-thick films of this polymer containing hydrochloric acid, aluminum chloride, and phosphotungstic acid as dehydration catalysts was studied by electronic absorption spectroscopy. The concentration of long-chain ( n ≥ 8) polyenes in films containing phosphotungstic acid is found to monotonically increase with the duration of thermal treatment of films, although the kinetics of this process is independent of film thickness. In films containing hydrochloric acid and aluminum chloride, the formation rate of polyenes with n ≥ 8 rapidly drops as film thickness decreases and the annealing time increases. As a result, at a film thickness of less than 10-12 µm, long-chain polyenes are not formed at all in these films no matter how long thermal duration is. The reason for this behavior is that hydrochloric acid catalyzing polymer dehydration in these films evaporates from the films during thermal treatment, the evaporation rate inversely depending on film thickness.

  9. Wetting behavior and drag reduction of superhydrophobic layered double hydroxides films on aluminum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haifeng; Yin, Liang; Liu, Xiaowei; Weng, Rui; Wang, Yang; Wu, Zhiwen

    2016-09-01

    We present a novel method to fabricate Zn-Al LDH (layered double hydroxides) film with 3D flower-like micro-and nanostructure on the aluminum foil. The wettability of the Zn-Al LDH film can be easily changed from superhydrophilic to superhydrophobic with a simple chemical modification. The as-prepared superhydrophobic surfaces have water CAs (contact angles) of 165 ± 2°. In order to estimate the drag reduction property of the surface with different adhesion properties, the experimental setup of the liquid/solid friction drag is proposed. The drag reduction ratio for the as-prepared superhydrophobic sample is 20-30% at low velocity. Bearing this in mind, we construct superhydrophobic surfaces that have numerous technical applications in drag reduction field.

  10. Several braze filler metals for joining an oxide-dispersion-strengthened nickel-chromium-aluminum alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyorgak, C. A.

    1975-01-01

    An evaluation was made of five braze filler metals for joining an aluminum-containing oxide dispersion-strengthened (ODS) alloy, TD-NiCrAl. All five braze filler metals evaluated are considered suitable for joining TD-NiCrAl in terms of wettability and flow. Also, the braze alloys appear to be tolerant of slight variations in brazing procedures since joints prepared by three sources using three of the braze filler metals exhibited similar brazing characteristics and essentially equivalent 1100 C stress-rupture properties in a brazed butt-joint configuration. Recommendations are provided for brazing the aluminum-containing ODS alloys.

  11. Oxidative addition of the C-I bond on aluminum nanoclusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Turbasu; Das, Susanta; Pal, Sourav

    2015-07-01

    Energetics and the in-depth reaction mechanism of the oxidative addition step of the cross-coupling reaction are studied in the framework of density functional theory (DFT) on aluminum nanoclusters. Aluminum metal in its bulk state is totally inactive towards carbon-halogen bond dissociation but selected Al nanoclusters (size ranging from 3 to 20 atoms) have shown a significantly lower activation barrier towards the oxidative addition reaction. The calculated energy barriers are lower than the gold clusters and within a comparable range with the conventional and most versatile Pd catalyst. Further investigations reveal that the activation energies and other reaction parameters are highly sensitive to the geometrical shapes and electronic structures of the clusters rather than their size, imposing the fact that comprehensive studies on aluminum clusters can be beneficial for nanoscience and nanotechnology. To understand the possible reaction mechanism in detail, the reaction pathway is investigated with the ab initio Born Oppenheimer Molecular Dynamics (BOMD) simulation and the Natural Bond Orbital (NBO) analysis. In short, our theoretical study highlights the thermodynamic and kinetic details of C-I bond dissociation on aluminum clusters for future endeavors in cluster chemistry.Energetics and the in-depth reaction mechanism of the oxidative addition step of the cross-coupling reaction are studied in the framework of density functional theory (DFT) on aluminum nanoclusters. Aluminum metal in its bulk state is totally inactive towards carbon-halogen bond dissociation but selected Al nanoclusters (size ranging from 3 to 20 atoms) have shown a significantly lower activation barrier towards the oxidative addition reaction. The calculated energy barriers are lower than the gold clusters and within a comparable range with the conventional and most versatile Pd catalyst. Further investigations reveal that the activation energies and other reaction parameters are highly

  12. The oxidation of aluminum at high temperature studied by Thermogravimetric Analysis and Differential Scanning Calorimetry.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coker, Eric Nicholas

    2013-10-01

    The oxidation in air of high-purity Al foil was studied as a function of temperature using Thermogravimetric Analysis with Differential Scanning Calorimetry (TGA/DSC). The rate and/or extent of oxidation was found to be a non-linear function of the temperature. Between 650 and 750 ÀC very little oxidation took place; at 850 ÀC oxidation occurred after an induction period, while at 950 ÀC oxidation occurred without an induction period. At oxidation temperatures between 1050 and 1150 ÀC rapid passivation of the surface of the aluminum foil occurred, while at 1250 ÀC and above, an initial rapid mass increase was observed, followed by a more gradual increase in mass. The initial rapid increase was accompanied by a significant exotherm. Cross-sections of oxidized specimens were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM); the observed alumina skin thicknesses correlated qualitatively with the observed mass increases.

  13. Combined flame and electrodeposition synthesis of energetic coaxial tungsten-oxide/aluminum nanowire arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Zhizhong; Al-Sharab, Jafar F; Kear, Bernard H; Tse, Stephen D

    2013-09-11

    A nanostructured thermite composite comprising an array of tungsten-oxide (WO2.9) nanowires (diameters of 20-50 nm and lengths of >10 μm) coated with single-crystal aluminum (thickness of ~16 nm) has been fabricated. The method involves combined flame synthesis of tungsten-oxide nanowires and ionic-liquid electrodeposition of aluminum. The geometry not only presents an avenue to tailor heat-release characteristics due to anisotropic arrangement of fuel and oxidizer but also eliminates or minimizes the presence of an interfacial Al2O3 passivation layer. Upon ignition, the energetic nanocomposite exhibits strong exothermicity, thereby being useful for fundamental study of aluminothermic reactions as well as enhancing combustion characteristics.

  14. Effects of aluminum and extremely low frequency electromagnetic radiation on oxidative stress and memory in brain of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yuanxin; Zhang, Yanwen; Jia, Shujie; Liu, Junkang; Liu, Yanxia; Xu, Weiwei; Liu, Lei

    2013-12-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the effect of aluminum and extremely low-frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MF) on oxidative stress and memory of SPF Kunming mice. Sixty male SPF Kunming mice were divided randomly into four groups: control group, ELF-MF group (2 mT, 4 h/day), load aluminum group (200 mg aluminum/kg, 0.1 ml/10 g), and ELF-MF + aluminum group (2 mT, 4 h/day, 200 mg aluminum/kg). After 8 weeks of treatment, the mice of three experiment groups (ELF-MF group, load aluminum group, and ELF-MF + aluminum group) exhibited firstly the learning memory impairment, appearing that the escaping latency to the platform was prolonged and percentage in the platform quadrant was reduced in the Morris water maze (MWM) task. Secondly are the pathologic abnormalities including neuronal cell loss and overexpression of phosphorylated tau protein in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex. On the other hand, the markers of oxidative stress were determined in mice brain and serum. The results showed a statistically significant decrease in superoxide dismutase activity and increase in the levels of malondialdehyde in the ELF-MF group (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01), load aluminum group (P < 0.01), and ELF-MF + aluminum group (P < 0.01). However, the treatment with ELF-MF + aluminum induced no more damage than ELF-MF and aluminum did, respectively. In conclusion, both aluminum and ELF-MF could impact on learning memory and pro-oxidative function in Kunming mice. However, there was no evidence of any association between ELF-MF exposure with aluminum loading.

  15. XPS Depth Study on the Liquid Oxidation of Sn-Bi-Zn-X(Al/P Alloy and the Effect of Al/P on the Film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. J. Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS was used to study the properties of liquid oxidation of Sn-Bi-Zn (SBZ solder alloys and the effect of Al/P on the oxide film. The results showed that the oxidation film on SBZ surface was in high concentration of both oxygen and zinc. Adding trace amount of Al/P to SBZ alloys (SBZA/ABZP decreased the ratio of O/M (M could be Sn, Bi, and Al/P and changed the film compositions. Layers near the free surface of oxidation film mostly contained Zn2+ and Al3+ oxides for SBZA. From the half quantitative analysis result, the aluminum had a surface enrichment behavior in liquid solder, so did phosphorus and zinc. Therefore, the Al/P addition changed their stoichiometry such as the ratio of O/M near film surface.

  16. Wettability and photochromic behaviour of Molybdenum oxide thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allogho, Guy-Germain, E-mail: guy-germain.allogho@umoncton.ca; Ashrit, P.V., E-mail: pandurang.ashrit@umoncton.ca

    2012-01-01

    The temporal wettability (hydrophobic-hydrophilic) behaviour of thermally evaporated Molybdenum oxide thin films is examined via water droplet contact angle and water droplet lifetime measurements. Super-hydrophilic state is quickly achieved in these films and the rapidity of this conversion depends strongly on the film preparation conditions. It is found that film microstructure, humidity content and UV irradiation have a profound influence on the wettability behaviour of these films. The ensuing photochromic effect under UV irradiation is also followed through the optical changes occurring in the film. Films deposited at higher chamber pressure have a generally smaller initial contact angle and lifetime.

  17. Aluminum cladding oxidation of prefilmed in-pile fueled experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcum, W. R.; Wachs, D. M.; Robinson, A. B.; Lillo, M. A.

    2016-04-01

    A series of fueled irradiation experiments were recently completed within the Advanced Test Reactor Full size plate In center flux trap Position (AFIP) and Gas Test Loop (GTL) campaigns. The conduct of the AFIP experiments supports ongoing efforts within the global threat reduction initiative (GTRI) to qualify a new ultra-high loading density low enriched uranium-molybdenum fuel. This study details the characterization of oxide growth on the fueled AFIP experiments and cross-correlates the empirically measured oxide thickness values to existing oxide growth correlations and convective heat transfer correlations that have traditionally been utilized for such an application. This study adds new and valuable empirical data to the scientific community with respect to oxide growth measurements of highly irradiated experiments, of which there is presently very limited data. Additionally, the predicted oxide thickness values are reconstructed to produce an oxide thickness distribution across the length of each fueled experiment (a new application and presentation of information that has not previously been obtainable in open literature); the predicted distributions are compared against experimental data and in general agree well with the exception of select outliers.

  18. Tribological properties of solid lubricating film/microarc oxidation coating on Al alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Zhuang-zi; ZHANG Zhao-zhu; LIU Wei-min; TIAN Jun

    2005-01-01

    A process for preparation of solid lubricating films on micro-arc oxidation(MAO) coating was introduced to provide self-lubricating and wear-resistant multilayer coatings for aluminum alloys. The friction and wear behavior of various burnished and bonded solid lubricating films on the as-deposited and polished micro-arc oxidation coatings sliding against steel and ceramic counterparts was evaluated with a Timken tester and a reciprocating friction and wear tester, respectively. The burnished and bonded solid lubricating films on the polished micro-arc oxidation coatings are superior to the as-deposited ones in terms of the wear resistant behavior, because they lead to strengthened interfacial adhesion between the soft lubricating top-film and the hard polished MAO sub-coating, which helps increase the wear resistance of the solid lubricating film on multilayer coating. Thus the multilayer coatings are potential candidates as self-lubricating and wear-resistant coatings for Al alloy parts in engineering applications.

  19. Optical properties of aluminum nitride thin films grown by direct-current magnetron sputtering close to epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stolz, A. [Institut d' Electronique de Microélectronique et de Nanotechnologie (IEMN), UMR CNRS 8520, PRES Lille, Université Nord de France, Avenue Poincaré, 59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France); Soltani, A., E-mail: ali.soltani@iemn.univ-lille1.fr [Institut d' Electronique de Microélectronique et de Nanotechnologie (IEMN), UMR CNRS 8520, PRES Lille, Université Nord de France, Avenue Poincaré, 59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France); Abdallah, B. [Department of Materials Physics, Atomic Energy Commission of Syria, Damascus, P.O. Box 6091 (Syrian Arab Republic); Charrier, J. [Fonctions Optiques pour les Technologies de l' informatiON (FOTON), UMR CNRS 6082, 6, rue de Kerampont CS 80518, 22305 Lannion Cedex (France); Deresmes, D. [Institut d' Electronique de Microélectronique et de Nanotechnologie (IEMN), UMR CNRS 8520, PRES Lille, Université Nord de France, Avenue Poincaré, 59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France); Jouan, P.-Y.; Djouadi, M.A. [Institut des Matériaux Jean Rouxel – IMN, UMR CNRS 6502, 2, rue de la Houssinère BP 32229, 44322 Nantes (France); Dogheche, E.; De Jaeger, J.-C. [Institut d' Electronique de Microélectronique et de Nanotechnologie (IEMN), UMR CNRS 8520, PRES Lille, Université Nord de France, Avenue Poincaré, 59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France)

    2013-05-01

    Low-temperature Aluminum Nitride (AlN) thin films with a thickness of 3 μm were deposited by Direct-Current magnetron sputtering on sapphire substrate. They present optical properties similar to those of epitaxially grown films. Different characterization methods such as X-Ray Diffraction, Transmission Electron Microscopy and Atomic Force Microscopy were used to determine the structural properties of the films such as its roughness and crystallinity. Newton interferometer was used for stress measurement of the films. Non-destructive prism-coupling technique was used to determine refractive index and thickness homogeneity by a mapping on the whole sample area. Results show that AlN films grown on AlGaN layer have a high crystallinity close to epitaxial films, associated to a low intrinsic stress for low thickness. These results highlight that it is possible to grow thick sample with microstructure and optical properties close to epitaxy, even on a large surface. - Highlights: ► Aluminum Nitride sputtering technique with a low temperature growth process ► Epitaxial quality of two microns sputtered Aluminum Nitride film ► Optics as a non-destructive accurate tool for acoustic wave investigation.

  20. Generation of fast propagating combustion and shock waves with copper oxide/aluminum nanothermite composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apperson, S.; Shende, R. V.; Subramanian, S.; Tappmeyer, D.; Gangopadhyay, S.; Chen, Z.; Gangopadhyay, K.; Redner, P.; Nicholich, S.; Kapoor, D.

    2007-12-01

    Nanothermite composites containing metallic fuel and inorganic oxidizer are gaining importance due to their outstanding combustion characteristics. In this paper, the combustion behaviors of copper oxide/aluminum nanothermites are discussed. CuO nanorods were synthesized using the surfactant-templating method, then mixed or self-assembled with Al nanoparticles. This nanoscale mixing resulted in a large interfacial contact area between fuel and oxidizer. As a result, the reaction of the low density nanothermite composite leads to a fast propagating combustion, generating shock waves with Mach numbers up to 3.

  1. Fabrication of SERS-active substrates using silver nanofilm-coated porous anodic aluminum oxide for detection of antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing; Feng, Shaolong; Gao, Fang; Grant, Edward; Xu, Jie; Wang, Shuo; Huang, Qian; Lu, Xiaonan

    2015-04-01

    We have developed a silver nanofilm-coated porous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) as a surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)-active substrate for the detection of trace level of chloramphenicol, a representative antibiotic in food systems. The ordered aluminum template generated during the synthesis of AAO serves as a patterned matrix on which a coated silver film replicates the patterned AAO matrix to form a 2-dimensional ordered nanostructure. We used atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy images to determine the morphology of this nanosubstrate, and characterized its localized surface plasmon resonance by ultraviolet-visible reflection. We gauged the SERS effect of this nanosubstrate by confocal micro-Raman spectroscopy (782-nm laser), finding a satisfactory and consistent performance with enhancement factors of approximately 2 × 10(4) and a limit of detection for chloramphenicol of 7.5 ppb. We applied principal component analysis to determine the limit of quantification for chloramphenicol of 10 ppb. Using electromagnetic field theory, we developed a detailed mathematical model to explain the mechanism of Raman signal enhancement of this nanosubstrate. With simple sample pretreatment and separation steps, this silver nanofilm-coated AAO substrate could detect 50 ppb chloramphenicol in milk, indicating good potential as a reliable SERS-active substrate for rapid detection of chemical contaminants in agricultural and food products.

  2. Hysteresis in Lanthanide Aluminum Oxides Observed by Fast Pulse CV Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun Zhao

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Oxide materials with large dielectric constants (so-called high-k dielectrics have attracted much attention due to their potential use as gate dielectrics in Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistors (MOSFETs. A novel characterization (pulse capacitance-voltage method was proposed in detail. The pulse capacitance-voltage technique was employed to characterize oxide traps of high-k dielectrics based on the Metal Oxide Semiconductor (MOS capacitor structure. The variation of flat-band voltages of the MOS structure was observed and discussed accordingly. Some interesting trapping/detrapping results related to the lanthanide aluminum oxide traps were identified for possible application in Flash memory technology. After understanding the trapping/detrapping mechanism of the high-k oxides, a solid foundation was prepared for further exploration into charge-trapping non-volatile memory in the future.

  3. Nanofiber of ultra-structured aluminum and zirconium oxide hybrid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hae-Won; Kim, Hyoun-Ee

    2006-02-01

    An internally ultrastructured Al- and Zr-oxide hybrid was developed into a nanofiber. As a precursor for the generation of nanofiber, a hybridized sol was prepared using the Pechini-type sol-gel process, whereby the Al- and Zr-metallic ions were to be efficiently distributed and stabilized within the polymeric network. The hybridized sol was subsequently electrospun and heat treated to a nanofiber with diameters of tens to hundreds of nanometers. The internal structure of the nanofiber was organized at the molecular level, with the Al- and Zr-oxide regions being interspaced at distances of less than ten nanometers. This ultrastructured Al- and Zr-oxide hybrid nanofiber is considered to be potentially applicable in numerous fields.

  4. Simultaneous chromizing and aluminizing using chromium oxide and aluminum: (II) on austenitic stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heo, N.H.; Kim, M.T.; Shin, J.H.; Kim, C.Y. [Korea Electr. Power Res. Inst., Taejon (Korea). Machinery and Mater. Group

    2000-02-01

    For pt.I see ibid., vol.123, p.227-30, 2000. The codeposition of Cr and Al on 304 stainless steel has been investigated, using the conversion reaction of Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} to halide. An increase in ratio of Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} to Al in the pack composition tends to form a chromide coating, which is very poor in high temperature oxidation resistance. A codeposited coating layer, which shows high oxidation resistance, is mainly characterized by three zones: an outer layer of iron aluminide, a nickel-rich iron aluminide, and an interdiffusion zone consisting of alpha ferrite and nickel aluminide precipitates. Oxidation resistance increased as the thickness of the outer iron aluminide layer increased. This means that the aluminum in the outer layer, rather than that in nickel aluminide precipitates or alpha ferrite, acts as a strong aluminum source forming a protective Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} scale at the coating surface. Using a pack mixture containing 10 wt.% Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} and 10 wt.% Al, a coating, which shows excellent oxidation resistance at 1100 C, was obtained after codeposition of aluminum and chromium on 304 stainless steel at 1050 C for about 6-8 h. (orig.)

  5. Large pore volume mesoporous aluminum oxide synthesized via nano-assembly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    A new nano-assembly approach has been proposed for the preparation of macropore volume mesoporous aluminum oxide supports. Secondary nano-assembly and a frame structure mechanism for large pore volume mesoporous supports have been proposed. In a primary nano-assembly supersoluble micelle,aluminum hydroxide nanoparticles were precipitated in situ in surfactants with a volume balance (VB) less than 1,followed by secondary nano-assembly in linear and cylindrical shapes. The secondary nano-assembly of cylindrical aluminum hydroxides was calcined to form nano cylindrical aluminum oxides. For the formation of macropore volume mesoporous supports,we utilized a frame structure mechanism of mesoporous support,in which the exterior surface of the carrier may not be continuous. This macropore volume support has been used for the hydrotreatment of a residual oil catalyst,which possesses the following physical characteristics:pore volume 1.8―2.7 mL·g-1,specific surface area 180―429 m2·g-1,average pore diameter 17―57 nm,average pore diameter more than 10 nm (81%―94%),porosity 87%―93%,and crush strength 7.7―25 N·mm-1.

  6. Chitosan–silver oxide nanocomposite film: Preparation and antimicrobial activity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Shipra Tripathi; G K Mehrotra; P K Dutta

    2011-02-01

    The chitosan–silver oxide encapsulated nanocomposite film was prepared by solution casting method. The prepared film was characterized by FTIR, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermal studies, and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The elemental composition of the film was studied by energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX). The antibacterial activity of the composite film against pathogenic bacteria viz. Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa was measured by agar diffusion method. Our observations suggest that chitosan as biomaterial based nanocomposite film containing silver oxide has an excellent antibacterial ability for food packaging applications.

  7. Magnetotransport in an aluminum thin film on a GaAs substrate grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Sheng-Di

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Magnetotransport measurements are performed on an aluminum thin film grown on a GaAs substrate. A crossover from electron- to hole-dominant transport can be inferred from both longitudinal resistivity and Hall resistivity with increasing the perpendicular magnetic field B. Also, phenomena of localization effects can be seen at low B. By analyzing the zero-field resistivity as a function of temperature T, we show the importance of surface scattering in such a nanoscale film.

  8. Thick and hard anodized aluminum film with large pores for surface composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hui; WANG Hao-wei

    2004-01-01

    Al-base surface self-lubricating composites need thick and hard alumina membranes with large pores to add lubricants easily. This kind of porous alumina layer was fabricated in additive-containing, phosphoric acid-based solution. The effects of additive containing organic carboxylic acid and Ce salt on the properties of the oxide film and mechanism were investigated in detail with SEM and EDAX analyses. The results show that the pore diameter is about 100 nm, the film thickness increases by 4 -5 times, and the Vickers hardness improves by about 50% through adding some amount of organic carboxylic acid and Ce salt. Such an improvement in properties is explained in terms of a lower film dissolving velocity and better film quality in compound solution.

  9. Characterization of gadolinium and lanthanum oxide films on Si (100)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, X.; Landheer, D.; Sproule, G. I.; Quance, T.; Graham, M. J.; Botton, G. A.

    2002-05-01

    High-resolution transmission electron microscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, and Auger electron spectroscopy, were used to study gadolinium and lanthanum oxide films deposited on Si (100) substrates using electron-beam evaporation from pressed-powder targets. As-deposited films consist of a crystalline oxide layer and an amorphous interfacial layer. A complicated distinct multilayer structure consisting of oxide layers, silicate layers, and SiO2-rich layers in thick (~30 nm) annealed films has been observed for both gadolinium and lanthanum films. For thinner annealed films (~8 nm), there is no longer a crystalline oxide layer but an amorphous gadolinium or lanthanum silicate layer and an interfacial SiO2-rich layer. The formation of the lanthanum silicate by annealing lanthanum oxide is found to be thermodynamically more favorable than the formation of gadolinium silicate.

  10. Effects of Iron and Aluminum Oxides and Kaolinite on Adsorpion and Activities on Invertase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANGQIAOYUN; JIANGMINGHUA; 等

    1998-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to study the influences of synthetic bayerite,non-crystalline aluminum oxide(N-AlOH) ,geoethite,non-crystalline iron oxide (N-FeOH) and kaolinite on the adsorption,activity,kinetics and thermal stability of invertase.Adsorption of invertase on iron,aluminum oxides fitted Langmuir equation,The amount of invertase held on the minerals followed the sequence kaolinite>goethite>N-AlOH>bayerite>N-FeOH.No correlation was found between enzyme adsorption and the specific surface area of minerals exmined.The differences in the surface structure of minerals and the arrangement of enzymatic molecules on mineral surfaces led to the different capacities of minerals for enzyme adsorption. The adsorption of invertase on bayerite,N-AlOH,goethite ,H-FeOH and kaolinite was differently affected by pH.The order for the activity of invertase adsorbed on minerals was N-FeOH>N-AlOH>bayerite> goethite> kalinite.The inhibition effect of minerals on enzyme activity was kaolinite> crystalline oxides> non -crystalline oxides.The pH optimum of iron oxide-and aluminum oxide-invertase complexes was sililar to that of free enzyme(pH4.0),whereas the pH optimum of kaolinite-invertase complex was one pH unit highr than that of free enzyme.The affinity to substrate and the maximum reaction velocity as well as the thermal stability of combined inverthase were lower than those of the free enzyme.

  11. Standard test methods for chemical, mass spectrometric, and spectrochemical analysis of nuclear-grade aluminum oxide and aluminum oxide-boron carbide composite pellets

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1994-01-01

    1.1 These test methods cover procedures for the chemical, mass spectrometric, and spectrochemical analysis of nuclear-grade aluminum oxide and aluminum oxide-boron carbide composite pellets to determine compliance with specifications. 1.2 The analytical procedures appear in the following order: Sections Boron by Titrimetry 7 to 13 Separation of Boron for Mass Spectrometry 14 to 19 Isotopic Composition by Mass Spectrometry 20 to 23 Separation of Halides by Pyrohydrolysis 24 to 27 Fluoride by Ion-Selective Electrode 28 to 30 Chloride, Bromide, and Iodide by Amperometric Microtitrimetry 31 to 33 Trace Elements by Emission Spectroscopy 34 to 46 1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. (F...

  12. Heavy-duty automotive aluminum tank anti-corrosion film%重型汽车铝水箱的防腐蚀成膜研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王庆国; 白培谦

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates and analyzes the Shaanxi Auto heavy truck aluminum tank corrosion leakage, through the experimental analysis of aluminum alloy corrosion inhibitor in different, to promote the film-forming agent, pH, and other conditions, as well as a variety of membranes in the salt spray, salt watercorrosion test under the soaking conditions. The results showed that: in acidic solution, molybdate is satisfied that good inhibition of aluminum corrosion inhibition mechanism of the radical ion adsorbed on the surface of the aluminum to prevent the dissolution of the aluminum, play a protective role. In addition, molybdate weak oxidants, aluminum reduction in acid solution, to generate dark blue molybdenum blue, molybdenum blue also adsorbed onto the aluminum surface, thus inhibiting the anodic reaction [1]; its anti-corrosion effect, the aluminum tank leaking prevention and treatment provides a viable solution.%本文调查分析了陕汽重卡铝水箱腐蚀渗漏情况,通过实验分析了铝合金在不同缓蚀剂、促进剂、pH值等条件下的成膜情况,以及各种膜在盐雾、盐水浸泡等条件下的腐蚀实验。结果表明:在酸性溶液中,钼酸纳对铝有着良好的缓蚀作用,其缓蚀机理主要是酸根离子会吸附在铝的表面,阻止了铝的溶解,起到保护的作用。另外钼酸盐是弱氧化剂,在酸溶液中被铝还原,生成深蓝色的钼蓝,钼蓝也会吸附到铝的表面,从而抑制阳极反应[1];其防腐效果明显,给铝水箱漏水防治提供了可行方案。

  13. Fabrication of polymeric nano-batteries array using anodic aluminum oxide templates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qiang; Cui, Xiaoli; Chen, Ling; Liu, Ling; Sun, Zhenkun; Jiang, Zhiyu

    2009-02-01

    Rechargeable nano-batteries were fabricated in the array pores of anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) template, combining template method and electrochemical method. The battery consisted of electropolymerized PPy electrode, porous TiO2 separator, and chemically polymerized PAn electrode was fabricated in the array pores of two-step anodizing aluminum oxide (AAO) membrane, based on three-step assembling method. It performs typical electrochemical battery behavior with good charge-discharge ability, and presents a capacity of 25 nAs. AFM results show the hexagonal array of nano-batteries' top side. The nano-battery may be a promising device for the development of Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS), and Nano-Electro-Mechanical Systems (NEMS).

  14. Functional doped metal oxide films. Zinc oxide (ZnO) as transparent conducting oxide (TCO) titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) as thermographic phosphor and protective coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nebatti Ech-Chergui, Abdelkader

    2011-07-29

    Metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) was used in the present work. Un-doped and Al-doped ZnO films were developed using two reactors: Halogen Lamp Reactor (HLR) (a type of Cold Wall Reactor) and Hot Wall Reactor (HWR), and a comparison was made between them in terms of the film properties. Zinc acetylacetonate was used as precursor for ZnO films while aluminum acetylacetonate was used for doping. The amount of Al doping can be controlled by varying the gas flow rate. Well ordered films with aluminum content between 0 and 8 % were grown on borosilicate glass and silicon. The films obtained are 0.3 to 0.5 {mu}m thick, highly transparent and reproducible. The growth rate of ZnO films deposited using HLR is less than HWR. In HLR, the ZnO films are well oriented along c-axis ((002) plane). ZnO films are commonly oriented along the c-axis due to its low surface free energy. On the other hand, the HWR films are polycrystalline and with Al doping these films aligned along the a-axis ((100) plane) which is less commonly observed. The best films were obtained with the HLR method showing a minimum electrical resistivity of 2.4 m{omega}cm and transmittance of about 80 % in the visible range. The results obtained for Al-doped films using HLR are promising to be used as TCOs. The second material investigated in this work was un-doped and doped titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) films- its preparation and characterization. It is well known that thermographic phosphors can be used as an optical method for the surface temperature measurement. For this application, the temperature-dependent luminescence properties of europium (III)-doped TiO{sub 2} thin films were studied. It was observed that only europium doped anatase films show the phosphorescence. Rutile phase do not show phosphorescence. The films were prepared by the sol-gel method using the dip coating technique. The structures of the films were determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The excitation and the emission

  15. Protective film formation on AA2024-T3 aluminum alloy by leaching of lithium carbonate from an organic coating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Y.; Visser, P.; Zhou, X.; Lyon, S.B.; Hashimoto, T.; Curioni, M.; Gholinia, A.; Thompson, G.E.; Smyth, G.; Gibbon, S.R.; Graham, D.; Mol, J.M.C.; Terryn, H.A.

    2015-01-01

    An investigation into corrosion inhibition properties of a primer coating containing lithium carbonate as corrosion inhibitive pigment for AA2024 aluminum alloy was conducted. It was found that, during neutral salt spray exposure, a protective film of about 0.2 to 1.5 μm thickness formed within the

  16. 铝基超疏水表面的制备及其耐蚀性%Preparation and corrosion resistance of superhydrophobic film on aluminum substrate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李杨; 王立达; 刘贵昌

    2012-01-01

    对铝基进行恒电流阳极氧化后,采用正辛基三乙氧基硅烷化学改性,制得超疏水膜.采用接触角测试仪、扫描电镜、红外光谱仪、电化学工作站等,研究了所得超疏水膜的静态接触角、表面形貌、结构及耐蚀性.结果表明,经阳极氧化后,铝基构建了粗糙的微纳米结构,再硅烷化处理后,铝基表面的疏水性增强,静态接触角大于150°.超疏水膜使铝在质量分数为3.5%的NaCl溶液中的自腐蚀电位正移0.11 V,腐蚀电流密度降低4个数量级,有效地提高了铝的耐蚀性.%A superhydrophobic film was prepared on aluminum substrate by anodic oxidation under constant current followed by chemical modification using n-octyltriethoxysilane. The static contact angle, surface morphology, structure, and corrosion resistance of the superhydrophobic film were studied using contact angle meter, scanning electron microscope, infrared spectroscope, and electrochemical workstation, respectively. The results showed that micro/nanostructures are formed on aluminum substrate by anodic oxidation. The hydrophobicity of the aluminum surface is enhanced through anodic oxidation followed by silanization, with a static contact angle being above 150°. The free corrosion potential of the superhydrophobic film is shifted positively by 0.11 V in 3.5wt% NaC1 solution, and the corrosion current density is decreased by 4 orders of magnitude, thus improving the corrosion resistance of aluminum effectively.

  17. Tantalum oxide thin films as protective coatings for sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Carsten; Reus, Roger De; Bouwstra, Siebe

    1999-01-01

    Reactively sputtered tantalum oxide thin films have been investigated as protective coatings for aggressive media exposed sensors. Tantalum oxide is shown to be chemically very robust. The etch rate in aqueous potassium hydroxide with pH 11 at 140°C is lower than 0.008 Å h-l. Etching in liquids...... annealing O2 in the residual thin-film stress can be altered from compressive to tensile and annealing at 450°C for 30 minutes gives a stress-free film. The step coverage of the sputter deposited amorphous tantalum oxide is reasonable, but metallization lines are hard to cover. Sputtered tantalum oxide...

  18. Molecular layer deposition of aluminum alkoxide polymer films using trimethylaluminum and glycidol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Younghee; Yoon, Byunghoon; Cavanagh, Andrew S; George, Steven M

    2011-12-20

    Molecular layer deposition (MLD) of aluminum alkoxide polymer films was examined using trimethlyaluminum (TMA) and glycidol (GLY) as the reactants. Glycidol is a high vapor pressure heterobifunctional reactant with both hydroxyl and epoxy chemical functionalites. These two different functionalities help avoid "double reactions" that are common with homobifuctional reactants. A variety of techniques, including in situ Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) measurements, were employed to study the film growth. FTIR measurements at 100 and 125 °C observed the selective reaction of the GLY hydroxyl group with the AlCH(3) surface species during GLY exposure. Epoxy ring-opening and methyl transfer from TMA to the surface epoxy species were then monitored during TMA exposure. This epoxy ring-opening reaction is dependent on strong Lewis acid-base interactions between aluminum and oxygen. The QCM experiments observed linear growth with self-limiting surface reactions at 100-175 °C under certain growth conditions. With a sufficient purge time of 20 s after TMA and GLY exposures at 125 °C, the mass gain per cycle (MGPC) was 19.8 ng/cm(2)-cycle. The individual mass gains after the TMA and GLY exposures were also consistent with a TMA/GLY stoichiometry of 4:3 in the MLD film. This TMA/GLY stoichiometry suggests the presence of Al(2)O(2) dimeric core species. The MLD films resulting from these TMA and GLY exposures also evolved with annealing temperature to form thinner conformal porous films with increased density. Non-self-limiting growth was a problem at shorter purge times and lower temperatures. With shorter purge times of 10 s at 125 °C, the MPGC increased dramatically to 134 ng/cm(2)-cycle. The individual mass gains after the TMA and GLY exposures in the CVD regime were consistent with a TMA/GLY stoichiometry of 1:1. The MGPC decreased progressively versus purge time. This behavior was attributed to the removal of

  19. Structure and properties of ceramic coatings formed on aluminum alloys by microarc oxidation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Wan-hui; BAO Ai-lian; LIU Rong-xiang; WU Wan-liang

    2006-01-01

    The thick and hard ceramic coatings were deposited on 2024 Al alloy by microarc oxidation in the electrolytic solution.Microstructure, phase composition and wear resistance of the oxide coatings were investigated by SEM, XRD and friction and wear tester. The microhardness and thickness of the oxide coatings were measured. The results show that the ceramic coating is mainly composed of α-Al2O3 and γ-Al2O3. During oxidation, the temperature in the microarc discharge channel is very high to make the local coating molten. From the surface to interior of the coating, microhardness increases gradually. The microhardness of the ceramic coating is HV1 800, and the microarc oxidation coatings greatly improve the antiwear properties of aluminum alloys.

  20. Thin films for micro solid oxide fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckel, D.; Bieberle-Hütter, A.; Harvey, A.; Infortuna, A.; Muecke, U. P.; Prestat, M.; Rupp, J. L. M.; Gauckler, L. J.

    Thin film deposition as applied to micro solid oxide fuel cell (μSOFC) fabrication is an emerging and highly active field of research that is attracting greater attention. This paper reviews thin film (thickness ≤1 μm) deposition techniques and components relevant to SOFCs including current research on nanocrystalline thin film electrolyte and thin-film-based model electrodes. Calculations showing the geometric limits of μSOFCs and first results towards fabrication of μSOFCs are also discussed.

  1. Biodegradable amylose films reinforced by graphene oxide and polyvinyl alcohol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Yongqiang [Department of Applied Chemistry, Yuncheng University, Yuncheng 044000 (China); School of Science, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Wang, Xingrui [School of Science, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Wu, Di [Huanhu Hospital, Tianjin 300060 (China); Gong, Qiaojuan [Department of Applied Chemistry, Yuncheng University, Yuncheng 044000 (China); Qiu, Haixia, E-mail: qhx@tju.edu.cn [School of Science, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Liu, Yue; Wu, Tao; Ma, Junkui [School of Science, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Gao, Jianping, E-mail: jianpinggaols@126.com [School of Science, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2013-10-01

    Graphene oxide/amylose (GO/amylose) composite films with different amounts of graphene oxide (GO), glycerol and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) were prepared by a solution casting method. The structure, morphologies, and properties of the films were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, thermal gravimetric analysis, UV–vis spectroscopy and tensile tests. The results indicated good dispersion of the GO nanosheets in the GO/amylose composite films and consequently a significant improvement in their mechanical properties. The addition of GO increased the tensile strength of the GO/amylose films, significantly. When glycerol was used as a plasticizer, the elongation at break of the films increased. When PVA was also added to the composite films, the films were mechanically strong and flexible. The incorporation of GO also decreased the moisture absorbability and UV transmittance of the films. The stability of the GO/amylose films in acidic and alkaline solutions was also studied and the films had excellent stability in both acidic and alkaline aqueous mediums. - Highlights: • GO/amylose composite films were prepared by a solution casting method. • GO/amylose composite films had good dispersion of GO in the composite. • GO/amylose composite films had a significant improvement in mechanical properties. • GO/amylose composite films were stable in both acidic and alkaline aqueous mediums.

  2. Substrate-dependent thermal conductivity of aluminum nitride thin-films processed at low temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belkerk, B. E., E-mail: boubakeur.belkerk@gmail.com [Institut des Matériaux Jean Rouxel (IMN), University of Nantes, 2 rue de la Houssinière BP 32229, 44322 Nantes cedex 3 (France); Universités de Constantine, Laboratoire Microsystèmes et Instrumentation (LMI), Université Constantine 1, Faculté des Sciences de la Technologie, Route de Ain El Bey, Constantine 25017 (Algeria); Bensalem, S.; Soussou, A.; Carette, M.; Djouadi, M. A.; Scudeller, Y. [Institut des Matériaux Jean Rouxel (IMN), University of Nantes, 2 rue de la Houssinière BP 32229, 44322 Nantes cedex 3 (France); Al Brithen, H. [Department of Physics and Astronomy at College of Science, King Saud University at Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, we report on investigation concerning the substrate-dependent thermal conductivity (k) of Aluminum Nitride (AlN) thin-films processed at low temperature by reactive magnetron sputtering. The thermal conductivity of AlN films grown at low temperature (<200 °C) on single-crystal silicon (Si) and amorphous silicon nitride (SiN) with thicknesses ranging from 100 nm to 4000 nm was measured with the transient hot-strip technique. The k values for AlN films on SiN were found significantly lower than those on Silicon consistently with their microstructures revealed by X-ray diffraction, high resolution scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The change in k was due to the thermal boundary resistance found to be equal to 10 × 10{sup −9} Km{sup 2}W{sup −1} on SiN against 3.5 × 10{sup −9} Km{sup 2}W{sup −1} on Si. However, the intrinsic thermal conductivity was determined with a value as high as 200 Wm{sup −1}K{sup −1} whatever the substrate.

  3. Oxidation behavior of nickel-chromium-aluminum-yttrium - Magnesium oxide and nickel-chromium-aluminum-yttrium - zirconate type of cermets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaplatynsky, I.

    1976-01-01

    The 1100 and 1200 C cyclic oxidation resistance of dense Ni-Cr-Al-Y - MgO, Ni-Cr-Al-Y - CaZrO3, Ni-Cr-Al-Y - SrZrO3, Ni-Cr-Al-Y - MgZro3 cermets and a 70 percent dense Ni-Cr-Al-Y developmental material was determined. The cermets contained 60 and 50 volume percent of Ni-Cr-Al-Y which formed a matrix with the oxide particles imbedded in it. The cermets containing MgO were superior to cermets based on zirconates and to the porous Ni-Cr-Al-Y material.

  4. Surface scanning inspection system particle detection dependence on aluminum film morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prater, Walter; Tran, Natalie; McGarvey, Steve

    2012-03-01

    Physical vapor deposition (PVD) aluminum films present unique challenges when detecting particulate defects with a Surface Scanning Inspection System (SSIS). Aluminum (Al) films 4500Å thick were deposited on 300mm particle grade bare Si wafers at two temperatures using a Novellus Systems INOVA® NExT,.. Film surface roughness and morphology measurements were performed using a Veeco Vx310® atomic force microscope (AFM). AFM characterization found the high deposition temperature (TD) Al roughness (Root Mean Square 16.5 nm) to be five-times rougher than the low-TD Al roughness (rms 3.7 nm). High-TD Al had grooves at the grain boundaries that were measured to be 20 to 80 nm deep. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) examination, with a Hitachi RS6000 defect review SEM, confirmed the presence of pronounced grain grooves. SEM images established that the low-TD filmed wafers have fine grains (0.1 to 0.3 um diameter) and the high-TD film wafers have fifty-times larger equiaxed plateletshape grains (5 to 15 um diameter). Calibrated Poly-Styrene Latex (PSL) spheres ranging in size from 90 nm to 1 μm were deposited in circular patterns on the wafers using an aerosol deposition chamber. PSL sphere depositions at each spot were controlled to yield 2000 to 5000 counts. A Hitachi LS9100® dark field full wafer SSIS was used to experimentally determine the relationship of the PSL sphere scattered light intensity with S-polarized light, a measure of scattering cross-section, with respect to the calibrated PSL sphere diameter. Comparison of the SSIS scattered light versus PSL spot size calibration curves shows two distinct differences. Scattering cross-section (intensity) of the PSL spheres increased on the low-TD Al film with smooth surface roughness and the low-TD Al film defect detection sensitivity was 126 nm compared to 200 nm for the rougher high- TD Al film. This can be explained by the higher signal to noise attributed to the smooth low-TD Al. Dark field defect detection on

  5. Systematic review of potential health risks posed by pharmaceutical, occupational and consumer exposures to metallic and nanoscale aluminum, aluminum oxides, aluminum hydroxide and its soluble salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willhite, Calvin C; Karyakina, Nataliya A; Yokel, Robert A; Yenugadhati, Nagarajkumar; Wisniewski, Thomas M; Arnold, Ian M F; Momoli, Franco; Krewski, Daniel

    2014-10-01

    oxidative damage that leads to intrinsic apoptosis. In contrast, the toxicity of the insoluble Al oxides depends primarily on their behavior as particulates. Aluminum has been held responsible for human morbidity and mortality, but there is no consistent and convincing evidence to associate the Al found in food and drinking water at the doses and chemical forms presently consumed by people living in North America and Western Europe with increased risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Neither is there clear evidence to show use of Al-containing underarm antiperspirants or cosmetics increases the risk of AD or breast cancer. Metallic Al, its oxides, and common Al salts have not been shown to be either genotoxic or carcinogenic. Aluminum exposures during neonatal and pediatric parenteral nutrition (PN) can impair bone mineralization and delay neurological development. Adverse effects to vaccines with Al adjuvants have occurred; however, recent controlled trials found that the immunologic response to certain vaccines with Al adjuvants was no greater, and in some cases less than, that after identical vaccination without Al adjuvants. The scientific literature on the adverse health effects of Al is extensive. Health risk assessments for Al must take into account individual co-factors (e.g., age, renal function, diet, gastric pH). Conclusions from the current review point to the need for refinement of the PTWI, reduction of Al contamination in PN solutions, justification for routine addition of Al to vaccines, and harmonization of OELs for Al substances.

  6. Rapid air film continuous casting of aluminum alloy using static magnetic field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu QU; Huixue JIANG; Gaosong WANG; Qingfeng ZHU; Xiangjie WANG; Jianzhong CUI

    2009-01-01

    The influences of the cooling style and static magnetic field on the air film casting process were investigated. Ingots of 6063 aluminum alloy were produced by AIRSOL VEIL casting with double-layer cooling water and static magnetic field. Surface segregation, hot crack and variation of solute content along the radius direction of ingot were examined. The results showed that double-layer cooling water can improve the surface quality and avoid of hot crack, which created conditions to increase the casting speed. The electromagnetic casting process can effectively improve the surface quality in high speed casting process, and static magnetic field has a great influence on solute distribution along the radius direction of ingot.

  7. Ultrasonic Spray-Assisted Solution-Based Vapor-Deposition of Aluminum Tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piao, Jinchun; Katori, Shigetaka; Ikenoue, Takumi; Fujita, Shizuo

    2011-02-01

    Aluminum tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) (Alq3) thin films were fabricated by a vapor-deposition technique from its methanol solution, that is, by the ultrasonic-assisted mist deposition technique. The application of high ultrasonic power to the Alq3-methanol mixture resulted in a stable and transparent solution. Mist particles formed by ultrasonic atomization of the solution were used as the source for vapor-deposition at the substrate temperature of 100-200 °C. Optical absorption and photoluminescence characteristics indicated the formation of Alq3 thin films. The results promise the formation of thin films of a variety of organic materials by the solution-based technique.

  8. Elaboration of aluminum oxide-based graphite containing castables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ningsheng

    The aim of this work was set to develop effective and practicable new methods to incorporate natural flake graphite (FG) into the Al2O 3 based castables for iron and steel making applications. Three approaches, viz. micro-pelletized graphite (PG), crushed briquette of Al2O3-graphite (BAG) and TiO2 coated graphite (CFG), have been developed to insert flake graphite into Al2O 3 rich Al2O3-SiC based and Al2O 3-MgO based castables. These approaches were put into effect as countermeasures against the problems caused by FG in order: (1) to agglomerate the FG powders so as to decrease the specific surface area; (2) to diminish the density difference by using crushed carbon bonded compact of oxide-FG mixture; (3) to modify the surface of the flake graphite by forming hydrophilic coating; (4) to control the dispersion state of the graphite in the castable to maintain enough bonding strength; and (5) to use appropriate antioxidants to inhibit the oxidation of FG. The whole work was divided into two stages. In stage one, Al2O 3-SiC-C castables were dealt with to compare 4 modes of inserting graphite, i.e., by PG, BAG, CFG and FG. Overall properties were measured, all in correlation with graphite amount and incorporating mode. In stage two, efforts were made to reduce water demand in the Al2O3-MgO castables system. For this purpose, the matrix portion of the castable mixes was extracted and a coaxial double cylinder viscometer was adopted to investigate rheological characteristics of the matrix slurries vs. 4 kinds of deflocculants, through which the best deflocculant and its appropriate amount were found. Efforts were then made to add up to 30% MgO into the castables, using a limited amount of powders (UMI.)

  9. Synthesis and fabrication of graphene oxide thin film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadam, Mahesh M.; Sravani, Medha B.; Gaikar, V. G.; Jha, Neetu

    2013-06-01

    The primary aim of the investigation is to synthesize graphene oxide at room temperature and fabricate a flexible free standing graphene oxide thin film. Modified Hummers technique was employed for the synthesis of graphene oxide using graphite as the starting material. Graphene oxide is a layered material consisting of hydrophilic oxygenated functional groups on their basal planes and edges. Graphene-oxide thin film has been fabricated via solvent-evaporation technique. Functional, elemental and structural analysis of the samples was performed using several characterization techniques.

  10. Application of diffusion barriers to the refractory fibers of tungsten, columbium, carbon and aluminum oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, F. C.; Paradis, E. L.; Veltri, R. D.

    1973-01-01

    A radio frequency powered ion-plating system was used to plate protective layers of refractory oxides and carbide onto high strength fiber substrates. Subsequent overplating of these combinations with nickel and titanium was made to determine the effectiveness of such barrier layers in preventing diffusion of the overcoat metal into the fibers with consequent loss of fiber strength. Four substrates, five coatings, and two metal matrix materials were employed for a total of forty material combinations. The substrates were tungsten, niobium, NASA-Hough carbon, and Tyco sapphire. The diffusion-barrier coatings were aluminum oxide, yttrium oxide, titanium carbide, tungsten carbide with 14% cobalt addition, and zirconium carbide. The metal matrix materials were IN 600 nickel and Ti 6/4 titanium. Adhesion of the coatings to all substrates was good except for the NASA-Hough carbon, where flaking off of the oxide coatings in particular was observed.

  11. Novel texturing method for sputtered zinc oxide films prepared at high deposition rate from ceramic tube targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hüpkes J.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Sputtered and wet-chemically texture etched zinc oxide (ZnO films on glass substrates are regularly applied as transparent front contact in silicon based thin film solar cells. In this study, chemical wet etching in diluted hydrofluoric acid (HF and subsequently in diluted hydrochloric acid (HCl on aluminum doped zinc oxide (ZnO:Al films deposited by magnetron sputtering from ceramic tube targets at high discharge power (~10 kW/m target length is investigated. Films with thickness of around 800 nm were etched in diluted HCl acid and HF acid to achieve rough surface textures. It is found that the etching of the films in both etchants leads to different surface textures. A two steps etching process, which is especially favorable for films prepared at high deposition rate, was systematically studied. By etching first in diluted hydrofluoric acid (HF and subsequently in diluted hydrochloric acid (HCl these films are furnished with a surface texture which is characterized by craters with typical diameter of around 500 − 1000 nm. The resulting surface structure is comparable to etched films sputtered at low deposition rate, which had been demonstrated to be able to achieve high efficiencies in silicon thin film solar cells.

  12. Nano integrated lithium polymer electrolytes based on anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) templates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokalawela, Roshan S. P.

    Since their discovery in the 1970s, polymer electrolytes have been actively studied because they have properties important for many device applications. However, even after 40 years, the detailed mechanisms of conductivity in these electrolytes are still not completely understood. Moreover, the conductivity in polymer electrolytes is one of the limiting factors of these devices so that different methods to enhance conductivity are actively being explored. One proposed method of enhancing the conductivity is to confine the polymer electrolyte in the nanoscale, but the study of material properties at the nanoscale is challenging in this area. In this work, we confine poly(ethylene oxide) lithium triflate (PEO:LiTf)(X:1)X=10,30 polymer electrolytes in carefully fabricated nanometer-diameter anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) pore structures. We demonstrate two orders of magnitude higher conductivity in the confined structures versus that of bulk films. Using x-ray characterization we show that this increased conductivity is associated with ordered PEO polymer chains aligned in the template pore direction. The activation energy of the AAO-confined polymer electrolyte is found to be smaller than that of the unconfined melt and about half that of the unconfined solid. This result indicates that not only is the room-temperature confined polymer ordered, but that this order persists at temperatures where the nano-confined polymer electrolyte is expected to be a liquid. The geometric bulk resistances of the electrolytes were obtained by AC-impedance spectra, from which the ionic conductivities were calculated. The Arrhenius plots of temperature dependent ionic conductivities showed that the usual melting temperature of the PEO phase in confined PEO:LiTf(X:1) X=10,30 is suppressed and a single activation energy was evident throughout the temperature range 25--90 °C. Wide-angle x-ray scattering (WAXS) patterns show that the polymer chains in both the pure PEO and PEO:LiTf(10

  13. Low temperature solid oxide fuel cells with proton-conducting Y:BaZrO{sub 3} electrolyte on porous anodic aluminum oxide substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, Seungbum [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Seoul National University, Daehak-dong, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151–742 (Korea, Republic of); Su, Pei-Chen [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Ji, Sanghoon [Graduate School of Convergence Science and Technology, Seoul National University, Daehak-dong, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151–742 (Korea, Republic of); Cha, Suk Won, E-mail: swcha@snu.ac.kr [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Seoul National University, Daehak-dong, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151–742 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-01

    This paper presents the architecture of a nano thin-film yttrium-doped barium zirconate (BYZ) solid-oxide fuel cell that uses nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) as a supporting and gas-permeable substrate. The anode was fabricated by sputtering 300 nm platinum thin film that partially covered the AAO surface pores, followed by an additional conformal platinum coating to tune the pore size by atomic layer deposition. Two different nano-porous anode structures with a pore size of 10 nm or 50 nm were deposited. Proton-conducting BYZ ceramic electrolyte with increasing thicknesses of 300, 600, and 900 nm was deposited on top of the platinum anode by pulsed laser deposition, followed by a 200 nm layer of porous Pt sputtered on BYZ electrolyte as a cathode. The open circuit voltage (OCV) of the fuel cells was characterized at 250 °C with 1:1 volumetric stoichiometry of a methanol/water vapor mixture as the fuel. The OCVs were 0.17 V with a 900 nm-thick BYZ electrolyte on 50 nm pores and 0.3 V with a 600 nm-thick BYZ electrolyte on 10 nm pores, respectively, but it increased to 0.8 V for a 900 nm-thick BYZ electrolyte on 10 nm pores, indicating that increasing the film thickness and decreasing a surface pore size help to reduce the number of electrolyte pinholes and the gas leakage through the electrolyte. A maximum power density of 5.6 mW/cm{sup 2} at 250 °C was obtained from the fuel cell with 900 nm of BYZ electrolyte using methanol vapor as a fuel. - Highlights: • A low temperature ceramic fuel cell on nano-porous substrate was demonstrated. • A thin-film yttrium doped barium zirconate (BYZ) was deposited as an electrolyte. • An open circuit voltage (OCV) was measured to verify the BYZ film quality. • An OCV increased by increasing BYZ film thickness and decreasing pore size of anode. • The current–voltage performance was measured using vaporized methanol fuel at 250 °C.

  14. Auger electron spectroscopy study of initial stages of oxidation in a copper - 19.6-atomic-percent-aluminum alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrante, J.

    1973-01-01

    Auger electron spectroscopy was used to examine the initial stages of oxidation of a polycrystalline copper - 19.6 a/o-aluminum alloy. The growth of the 55-eV aluminum oxide peak and the decay of the 59-, 62-, and 937-eV copper peaks were examined as functions of temperature, exposure, and pressure. Pressures ranged from 1x10 to the minus 7th power to 0.0005 torr of O2. Temperatures ranged from room temperature to 700 C. A completely aluminum oxide surface layer was obtained in all cases. Complete disappearance of the underlying 937-eV copper peak was obtained by heating at 700 C in O2 at 0.0005 torr for 1 hr. Temperature studies indicated that thermally activated diffusion was important to the oxidation studies. The initial stages of oxidation followed a logarithmic growth curve.

  15. Electrochromic study on amorphous tungsten oxide films by sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Chuan, E-mail: cli10@yahoo.com [Department of Biomedical Engineering, National Yang Ming University, Taipei 11221, Taiwan (China); Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Central University, Jhongli, Taoyuan 32001, Taiwan (China); Hsieh, J.H. [Department of Materials Engineering, Ming Chi University of Technology, Taishan, Taipei 24301, Taiwan (China); Hung, Ming-Tsung [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Central University, Jhongli, Taoyuan 32001, Taiwan (China); Huang, B.Q. [Department of Biomedical Engineering, National Yang Ming University, Taipei 11221, Taiwan (China)

    2015-07-31

    Tungsten oxide films under different oxygen flow rates are deposited by DC sputtering. The voltage change at target and analyses for the deposited films by X-ray diffraction, scanning electronic microscope, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and ultraviolet–visible-near infrared spectroscopy consistently indicate that low oxygen flow rate (5 sccm) only creates metal-rich tungsten oxide films, while higher oxygen flow rate (10–20 sccm) assures the deposition of amorphous WO{sub 3} films. To explore the electrochromic function of deposited WO{sub 3} films, we use electrochemical tests to perform the insertion of lithium ions and electrons into films. The WO{sub 3} films switch between color and bleach states effectively by both potentiostat and cyclic voltammetry. Quantitative evaluation on electrochemical tests indicates that WO{sub 3} film with composition close to its stoichiometry is an optimal choice for electrochromic function. - Highlights: • Amorphous WO{sub 3} films are deposited by DC sputtering under different O{sub 2} flow rates. • Higher oxygen flow rate (> 10 sccm) assures the deposition of amorphous WO{sub 3} films. • Both potentiostat and cyclic voltammetry make WO{sub 3} films switch its color. • An optimal electrochromic WO{sub 3} is to make films close to its stoichiometry.

  16. The influence of titanium and iron oxides on the coloring and friability of the blue fired aluminum oxide as an abrasive material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. R. Passos

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The quality of abrasive grains is crucial to increase the lifespan of roughing, polishing and cutting tools. The purpose of the work herein was to evaluate the variables of the blue fired aluminum oxide heat treatment process. This heat treatment process improves the physical properties of the brown fused aluminum oxide and results in a blue coloring, which uniquely identifies it within the abrasives industry. The work herein includes information beginning with the electro-fusion process of bauxite (the manufacturing of the brown fused aluminum oxide to the Blue Fired process. It also compares the fracture resistance index between these materials. This index is the inverse of the friability. Besides the content of titanium and iron oxides, process variables such as time, temperature and atmospheric conditions are important to monitor in order to reach standard requirements. Experimental evidence measuring these parameters is presented in the article herein. The blue coloring of this aluminum oxide is explained by the optical phenomena of electron transition, and not by the formation of aluminum titanate, as some technical literature has stated. Furthermore, it was proved that the coloring of blue fired material should not be used exclusively as an indicator of the optimal abrasive characteristics of this class of aluminum oxide.

  17. Characterization of oxide film formed on NiTi by laser oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, M.H. [Department of Applied Physics, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Cheng, F.T. [Department of Applied Physics, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)]. E-mail: apaftche@polyu.edu.hk; Pang, G.K.H. [Department of Applied Physics, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Man, H.C. [Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)

    2007-03-15

    NiTi was surface treated by laser oxidation for improving corrosion resistance. While the corrosion behavior of laser oxidized NiTi is reported elsewhere, the present study aims at characterizing the oxide film formed in laser oxidation by means of atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and selected-area diffraction (SAD). The naturally formed (NF) oxide film on a mechanically polished substrate is included in the study for comparison with the laser formed (LF) oxide film. The LF oxide film on NiTi carries a golden-yellowish interference color, and has a thickness of about 25 nm versus a thickness of 5 nm for the NF film, as determined by TEM or estimated from XPS depth profiling. The average surface roughness R {sub a} increases from 1.02 nm for the NF oxide film to 13.1 nm for the LF oxide film. XPS analysis shows a surface Ni/Ti atomic ratio of 0.17 for laser oxidized samples, which is lower than that of 0.30 for mechanically polished samples. Depth profiling of composition by XPS reveals that the LF oxide film contains mainly titanium oxides, together with a small amount of Ni in oxidized and metallic states. The oxidation state of Ti changes from Ti{sup 4+} (corresponding to TiO{sub 2}) in the top layer of the LF oxide film to lower oxidation states Ti{sup 3+} and Ti{sup 2+} (corresponding to Ti{sub 2}O{sub 3} and TiO). The LF film is composed of nanocrystallites, as evidenced from SAD patterns. High-resolution TEM image shows that the crystallite size in the LF oxide film is about 10 nm. These findings show clearly that laser oxidation significantly changes the characteristics of the oxide film on NiTi and also provide an explanation for the improvement in surface properties due to laser oxidation.

  18. Synthesis and structure analysis of aluminum doped zinc oxide powders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Hexagonal Al-doped zinc oxide (ZnO) powders with a nominal composition of Zn1-xAlxO (0≤x≤0.028) were synthesized by the co-precipitation method. The contents of the Al element in the samples were measured by the inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) technique. The structures of the Zn1-xAlxO (0≤x≤0.028) compounds calcined at 1000 and 1200℃ have been deter- mined using the Rietveld full-profile analysis method. Rietveld refinements of the diffraction data indi- cated that the addition of Al initially has a considerably positive effect on the decreasing of the lattice parameters a and c of Zn1-xAlxO, but the effect becomes very slight and even negative with the further increase of the Al content. The solid solubility limit of Al in ZnO (mole fraction y) is 2.2l%, resulting in Zn0.978Al0.22O. It seems that when the Al content is excessive, Al prefers to form a ZnAl2O4 compound with ZnO, but not to incorporate into the ZnO lattice to occupy the Zn2+ cites. Two phases, [ZnO] (or Al-doped ZnO) and [ZnAl2O4], are obviously segregated in Zn1-xAlxO while the value of x is larger than 0.024. The UV-Vis absorption spectra show that the Al-doped ZnO exhibits a red-shift in the absorption edge without reduced transmission compared with pure ZnO, which also confirms that Al ions enter the ZnO lattice and form a Zn1-xAlxO solid solution.

  19. Synthesis and structure analysis of aluminum doped zinc oxide powders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NIE DengPan; XUE Tao; ZHANG Yu; LI XiangJun

    2008-01-01

    Hexagonal Al-doped zinc oxide (ZnO) powders with a nominal composition of Zn1-xAlxO (0≤x≤0.028) were synthesized by the co-precipitation method. The contents of the Al element in the samples were measured by the inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) technique. The structures of the Zn1-xAlxO (0≤x≤0.028) compounds calcined at 1000 and 1200℃ have been deter-mined using the Rietveld full-profile analysis method. Rietveld refinements of the diffraction data indi-cated that the addition of Al initially has a considerably positive effect on the decreasing of the lattice parameters a and c of Zn1-xAlxO, but the effect becomes very slight and even negative with the further increase of the Al content. The solid solubility limit of Al in ZnO (mole fraction y) is 2.21%, resulting in Zn0.978Al0.22O. It seems that when the Al content is excessive, Al prefers to form a ZnAl2O4 compound with ZnO, but not to incorporate into the ZnO lattice to occupy the Zn2+ cites. Two phases, [ZnO] (or Al-doped ZnO) and [ZnAl2O4], are obviously segregated in Zn1-xAlxO while the value of x is larger than 0.024. The UV-Vis absorption spectra show that the Al-doped ZnO exhibits a red-shift in the absorption edge without reduced transmission compared with pure ZnO, which also confirms that Al ions enter the ZnO lattice and form a Zn1-xAlxO solid solution.

  20. Sound Absorption Characteristics of Aluminum Foams Treated by Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Jin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Open-celled aluminum foams with different pore sizes were fabricated. A plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO treatment was applied on the aluminum foams to create a layer of ceramic coating. The sound absorption coefficients of the foams were measured by an impedance tube and they were calculated by a transfer function method. The experimental results show that the sound absorption coefficient of the foam increases gradually with the decrease of pore size. Additionally, when the porosity of the foam increases, the sound absorption coefficient also increases. The PEO coating surface is rough and porous, which is beneficial for improvement in sound absorption. After PEO treatment, the maximum sound absorption of the foam is improved to some extent.

  1. Surface reaction mechanisms during ozone and oxygen plasma assisted atomic layer deposition of aluminum oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Vikrant R; Vandalon, Vincent; Agarwal, Sumit

    2010-09-07

    We have elucidated the reaction mechanism and the role of the reactive intermediates in the atomic layer deposition (ALD) of aluminum oxide from trimethyl aluminum in conjunction with O(3) and an O(2) plasma. In situ attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy data show that both -OH groups and carbonates are formed on the surface during the oxidation cycle. These carbonates, once formed on the surface, are stable to prolonged O(3) exposure in the same cycle. However, in the case of plasma-assisted ALD, the carbonates decompose upon prolonged O(2) plasma exposure via a series reaction kinetics of the type, A (CH(3)) --> B (carbonates) --> C (Al(2)O(3)). The ratio of -OH groups to carbonates on the surface strongly depends on the oxidizing agent, and also the duration of the oxidation cycle in plasma-assisted ALD. However, in both O(3) and O(2) plasma cycles, carbonates are a small fraction of the total number of reactive sites compared to the hydroxyl groups.

  2. A thin-film aluminum strain gauges array in a flexible gastrointestinal catheter for pressure measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, P. J.; Silva, L. R.; Pinto, V. C.; Goncalves, L. M.; Minas, G.

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents an innovative approach to measure the pressure patterns associated with the motility and peristaltic movements in the upper gastrointestinal tract. This approach is based on inexpensive and easy to fabricate thin-film aluminum strain gauge pressure sensors using a flexible polyimide film (Kapton) as substrate and SU-8 structural support. These sensors are fabricated using well-established and standard photolithographic and wet etching techniques. Each sensor has a 3.4 mm2 area, allowing a fabrication process with a high level of sensors integration (four sensors in 1.7 cm), which is suitable for placing them in a single catheter. These strain gauges bend when pressure is applied and, consequently, their electrical resistance is changed. The fabricated sensors feature an almost linear response (R 2  =  0.9945) and an overall sensitivity of 6.4 mV mmHg-1. Their readout and control electronics were developed in a flexible Kapton ribbon cable and, together with the sensors, bonded and wrapped around a catheter-like structure. The sequential acquisition of the different signals is carried by a microcontroller with a 10 bit ADC at a sample rate of 250 Hz per-1 sensor. The signals are presented in a user friendly interface developed using the integrated development environment software, QtCreator IDE, for better visualization by physicians.

  3. NANO-TRIBOLOGICAL STUDY ON A SUPER-HYDROPHOBIC FILM FORMED ON ROUGH ALUMINUM SUBSTRATES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ren Sili; Yang Shengrong; Zhao Yapu

    2004-01-01

    A novel super-hydrophobic stearic acid (STA) film with a water contact angle of 166°was prepared by chemical adsorption on aluminum wafer coated with polyethyleneimine (PEI) film.The micro-tribological behavior of the super-hydrophobic STA monolayer was compared with that of the polished and PEI-coated Al surfaces. The effect of relative humidity on the adhesion and friction was investigated as well. It was found that the STA monolayer showed decreased friction, while the adhesive force was greatly decreased by increasing the surface roughness of the Al wafer to reduce the contact area between the atomic force microscope (AFM) tip and the sample surface to be tested. Thus the friction and adhesion of the Al wafer was effectively decreased by generating the STA monolayer,which indicated that it could be feasible and rational to prepare a surface with good adhesion resistance and lubricity by properly controlling the surface morphology and the chemical composition. Both the adhesion and friction decreased as the relative humidity was lowered from 65% to 10%, though the decrease extent became insignificant for the STA monolayer.

  4. Growth of porous anodized alumina on the sputtered aluminum films with 2D–3D morphology for high specific surface area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, M.W.; Chung, C.K., E-mail: ckchung@mail.ncku.edu.tw

    2014-08-01

    The porous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) with high-aspect-ratio pore channels is widely used as a template for fabricating nanowires or other one-dimensional (1D) nanostructures. The high specific surface area of AAO can also be applied to the super capacitor and the supporting substrate for catalysis. The rough surface could be helpful to enhance specific surface area but it generally results in electrical field concentration even to ruin AAO. In this article, the aluminum (Al) films with the varied 2D–3D morphology on Si substrates were prepared using magnetron sputtering at a power of 50 W–185 W for 1 h at a working pressure of 2.5 × 10⁻¹ Pa. Then, AAO was fabricated from the different Al films by means of one-step hybrid pulse anodizing (HPA) between the positive 40 V and the negative -2 V (1 s:1 s) for 3 min in 0.3 M oxalic acid at a room temperature. The microstructure and morphology of Al films were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope and atomic force microscope, respectively. Some hillocks formed at the high target power could be attributed to the grain texture growth in the normal orientation of Al(1 1 1). The 3D porous AAO structure which is different from the conventional 2D planar one has been successfully demonstrated using HPA on the film with greatly rough hillock-surface formed at the highest power of 185 W. It offers a potential application of the new 3D AAO to high specific surface area devices.

  5. Growth of porous anodized alumina on the sputtered aluminum films with 2D-3D morphology for high specific surface area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, M. W.; Chung, C. K.

    2014-08-01

    The porous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) with high-aspect-ratio pore channels is widely used as a template for fabricating nanowires or other one-dimensional (1D) nanostructures. The high specific surface area of AAO can also be applied to the super capacitor and the supporting substrate for catalysis. The rough surface could be helpful to enhance specific surface area but it generally results in electrical field concentration even to ruin AAO. In this article, the aluminum (Al) films with the varied 2D-3D morphology on Si substrates were prepared using magnetron sputtering at a power of 50 W-185 W for 1 h at a working pressure of 2.5 × 10-1 Pa. Then, AAO was fabricated from the different Al films by means of one-step hybrid pulse anodizing (HPA) between the positive 40 V and the negative -2 V (1 s:1 s) for 3 min in 0.3 M oxalic acid at a room temperature. The microstructure and morphology of Al films were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope and atomic force microscope, respectively. Some hillocks formed at the high target power could be attributed to the grain texture growth in the normal orientation of Al(1 1 1). The 3D porous AAO structure which is different from the conventional 2D planar one has been successfully demonstrated using HPA on the film with greatly rough hillock-surface formed at the highest power of 185 W. It offers a potential application of the new 3D AAO to high specific surface area devices.

  6. Ballistic phonon and thermal radiation transport across a minute vacuum gap in between aluminum and silicon thin films: Effect of laser repetitive pulses on transport characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yilbas, B.S., E-mail: bsyilbas@kfupm.edu.sa; Ali, H.

    2016-08-15

    Short-pulse laser heating of aluminum and silicon thin films pair with presence of a minute vacuum gap in between them is considered and energy transfer across the thin films pair is predicted. The frequency dependent Boltzmann equation is used to predict the phonon intensity distribution along the films pair for three cycles of the repetitive short-pulse laser irradiation on the aluminum film surface. Since the gap size considered is within the Casimir limit, thermal radiation and ballistic phonon contributions to energy transfer across the vacuum gap is incorporated. The laser irradiated field is formulated in line with the Lambert's Beer law and it is considered as the volumetric source in the governing equations of energy transport. In order to assess the phonon intensity distribution in the films pair, equivalent equilibrium temperature is introduced. It is demonstrated that thermal separation of electron and lattice sub-systems in the aluminum film, due to the short-pulse laser irradiation, takes place and electron temperature remains high in the aluminum film while equivalent equilibrium temperature for phonons decays sharply in the close region of the aluminum film interface. This behavior is attributed to the phonon boundary scattering at the interface and the ballistic phonon transfer to the silicon film across the vacuum gap. Energy transfer due to the ballistic phonon contribution is significantly higher than that of the thermal radiation across the vacuum gap.

  7. Deposition and characterisation of epitaxial oxide thin films for SOFCs

    KAUST Repository

    Santiso, José

    2010-10-24

    This paper reviews the recent advances in the use of thin films, mostly epitaxial, for fundamental studies of materials for solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) applications. These studies include the influence of film microstructure, crystal orientation and strain in oxide ionic conducting materials used as electrolytes, such as fluorites, and in mixed ionic and electronic conducting materials used as electrodes, typically oxides with perovskite or perovskite-related layered structures. The recent effort towards the enhancement of the electrochemical performance of SOFC materials through the deposition of artificial film heterostructures is also presented. These thin films have been engineered at a nanoscale level, such as the case of epitaxial multilayers or nanocomposite cermet materials. The recent progress in the implementation of thin films in SOFC devices is also reported. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.

  8. Determining the Effect of Aluminum Oxide Nanoparticles on the Aggregation of Amyloid-Beta in Transgenic Caenorhabditis elegans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Suhag; Matticks, John; Howell, Carina

    2014-03-01

    The cause of Alzheimer's disease has been linked partially to genetic factors but the predicted environmental components have yet to be determined. In Alzheimer's, accumulation of amyloid-beta protein in the brain forms plaques resulting in neurodegeneration and loss of mental functions. It has been postulated that aluminum influences the aggregation of amyloid-beta. To test this hypothesis, transgenic Caenorhabditis elegans, CL2120, was used as a model organism to observe neurodegeneration in nematodes exposed to aluminum oxide nanoparticles. Behavioral testing, fluorescent staining, and fluorescence microscopy were used to test the effects of aggregation of amyloid-beta in the nervous systems of effected nematodes exposed to aluminum oxide nanoparticles. Energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy was used to quantify the total concentration of aluminum oxide that the worms were exposed to during the experiment. Exposure of transgenic and wild type worms to a concentration of 4 mg mL-1 aluminum oxide showed a decrease in the sinusoidal motion, as well as an infirmity of transgenic worms when compared to control worms. These results support the hypothesis that aluminum may play a role in neurodegeneration in C. elegans, and may influence and increase the progression of Alzheimer's disease. This work was supported by National Science Foundation grants DUE-1058829, DMR-0923047 DUE-0806660 and Lock Haven FPDC grants.

  9. Nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide with a long-range order and tunable cell sizes by phosphoric acid anodization on pre-patterned substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surawathanawises, Krissada; Cheng, Xuanhong

    2014-01-20

    Nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) has been explored for various applications due to its regular cell arrangement and relatively easy fabrication processes. However, conventional two-step anodization based on self-organization only allows the fabrication of a few discrete cell sizes and formation of small domains of hexagonally packed pores. Recent efforts to pre-pattern aluminum followed with anodization significantly improve the regularity and available pore geometries in AAO, while systematic study of the anodization condition, especially the impact of acid composition on pore formation guided by nanoindentation is still lacking. In this work, we pre-patterned aluminium thin films using ordered monolayers of silica beads and formed porous AAO in a single-step anodization in phosphoric acid. Controllable cell sizes ranging from 280 nm to 760 nm were obtained, matching the diameters of the silica nanobead molds used. This range of cell size is significantly greater than what has been reported for AAO formed in phosphoric acid in the literature. In addition, the relationships between the acid concentration, cell size, pore size, anodization voltage and film growth rate were studied quantitatively. The results are consistent with the theory of oxide formation through an electrochemical reaction. Not only does this study provide useful operational conditions of nanoindentation induced anodization in phosphoric acid, it also generates significant information for fundamental understanding of AAO formation.

  10. Nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide with a long-range order and tunable cell sizes by phosphoric acid anodization on pre-patterned substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surawathanawises, Krissada; Cheng, Xuanhong

    2014-01-01

    Nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) has been explored for various applications due to its regular cell arrangement and relatively easy fabrication processes. However, conventional two-step anodization based on self-organization only allows the fabrication of a few discrete cell sizes and formation of small domains of hexagonally packed pores. Recent efforts to pre-pattern aluminum followed with anodization significantly improve the regularity and available pore geometries in AAO, while systematic study of the anodization condition, especially the impact of acid composition on pore formation guided by nanoindentation is still lacking. In this work, we pre-patterned aluminium thin films using ordered monolayers of silica beads and formed porous AAO in a single-step anodization in phosphoric acid. Controllable cell sizes ranging from 280 nm to 760 nm were obtained, matching the diameters of the silica nanobead molds used. This range of cell size is significantly greater than what has been reported for AAO formed in phosphoric acid in the literature. In addition, the relationships between the acid concentration, cell size, pore size, anodization voltage and film growth rate were studied quantitatively. The results are consistent with the theory of oxide formation through an electrochemical reaction. Not only does this study provide useful operational conditions of nanoindentation induced anodization in phosphoric acid, it also generates significant information for fundamental understanding of AAO formation. PMID:24535886

  11. Altering properties of cerium oxide thin films by Rh doping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ševčíková, Klára, E-mail: klarak.sevcikova@seznam.cz [Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Department of Surface and Plasma Science, Charles University in Prague, V Holešovičkách 2, 180 00 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); NIMS Beamline Station at SPring-8, National Institute for Materials Science, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Nehasil, Václav, E-mail: nehasil@mbox.troja.mff.cuni.cz [Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Department of Surface and Plasma Science, Charles University in Prague, V Holešovičkách 2, 180 00 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Vorokhta, Mykhailo, E-mail: vorohtam@gmail.com [Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Department of Surface and Plasma Science, Charles University in Prague, V Holešovičkách 2, 180 00 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Haviar, Stanislav, E-mail: stanislav.haviar@gmail.com [Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Department of Surface and Plasma Science, Charles University in Prague, V Holešovičkách 2, 180 00 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Matolín, Vladimír, E-mail: matolin@mbox.troja.mff.cuni.cz [Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Department of Surface and Plasma Science, Charles University in Prague, V Holešovičkách 2, 180 00 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); and others

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Thin films of ceria doped by rhodium deposited by RF magnetron sputtering. • Concentration of rhodium has great impact on properties of Rh–CeO{sub x} thin films. • Intensive oxygen migration in films with low concentration of rhodium. • Oxygen migration suppressed in films with high amount of Rh dopants. - Abstract: Ceria containing highly dispersed ions of rhodium is a promising material for catalytic applications. The Rh–CeO{sub x} thin films with different concentrations of rhodium were deposited by RF magnetron sputtering and were studied by soft and hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopies, Temperature programmed reaction and X-ray powder diffraction techniques. The sputtered films consist of rhodium–cerium mixed oxide where cerium exhibits a mixed valency of Ce{sup 4+} and Ce{sup 3+} and rhodium occurs in two oxidation states, Rh{sup 3+} and Rh{sup n+}. We show that the concentration of rhodium has a great influence on the chemical composition, structure and reducibility of the Rh–CeO{sub x} thin films. The films with low concentrations of rhodium are polycrystalline, while the films with higher amount of Rh dopants are amorphous. The morphology of the films strongly influences the mobility of oxygen in the material. Therefore, varying the concentration of rhodium in Rh–CeO{sub x} thin films leads to preparing materials with different properties.

  12. Conductive metal oxide film for solar energy control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donley, H.E.

    1980-05-20

    An electroconductive film comprising the oxides of cobalt and nickel in a spinel structure having the formula nico2o4 and having high absorption in the luminous and infrared portions of the solar energy spectrum is disclosed.

  13. Tantalum oxide thin films as protective coatings for sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Carsten; Reus, Roger De; Bouwstra, Siebe

    1999-01-01

    Reactively sputtered tantalum oxide thin-films have been investigated as protective coating for aggressive media exposed sensors. Tantalum oxide is shown to be chemically very robust. The etch rate in aqueous potassium hydroxide with pH 11 at 140°C is lower than 0.008 Å/h. Etching in liquids with p...... the residual thin-film stress can be altered from compressive to tensile and annealing at 450°C for 30 minutes gives a stress-free film. The step coverage of the sputter deposited amorphous tantalum oxide is reasonable, but metallisation lines are hard to cover. Sputtered tantalum oxide exhibits high...... dielectric strength and the pinhole density for 0.5 μm thick films is below 3 cm-2...

  14. Fabrication of independent nickel microstructures with anodizing of aluminum,laser irradiation, and electrodeposition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    T. Kikuchi; M. Sakairi; H. Takahashi

    2003-01-01

    Independent microstructures made of Ni metal were fabricated by five sequential processes: porous anodic oxide film for-mation, pore sealing, laser irradiation, Ni electroplating, and removal of the aluminum substrate and anodic oxide films. Aluminumplates and rods were anodized in an oxalic acid solution to form porous type anodic oxide films, and then immersed in boiling dis-tilled water for pore sealing. The anodized and pore-sealed specimens were irradiated with a pulsed neodymium-doped yttrium alu-minum garnet (Nd-YAG) laser beam in a Ni plating solution to remove anodic oxide film locally by rotating and moving up / downwith an XYZθ-stage. Nickel was deposited at the area where film had been removed by cathodic polarization in the solution beforeremoving the aluminum substrate and anodic oxide films in NaOH solutions. Cylindrical or plain network structures were fabricated successfully.

  15. Oxide film assisted dopant diffusion in silicon carbide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tin, Chin-Che, E-mail: cctin@physics.auburn.ed [Department of Physics, Auburn University, Alabama 36849 (United States); Mendis, Suwan [Department of Physics, Auburn University, Alabama 36849 (United States); Chew, Kerlit [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Science, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Atabaev, Ilkham; Saliev, Tojiddin; Bakhranov, Erkin [Physical Technical Institute, Uzbek Academy of Sciences, 700084 Tashkent (Uzbekistan); Atabaev, Bakhtiyar [Institute of Electronics, Uzbek Academy of Sciences, 700125 Tashkent (Uzbekistan); Adedeji, Victor [Department of Chemistry, Geology and Physics, Elizabeth City State University, North Carolina 27909 (United States); Rusli [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University (Singapore)

    2010-10-01

    A process is described to enhance the diffusion rate of impurities in silicon carbide so that doping by thermal diffusion can be done at lower temperatures. This process involves depositing a thin film consisting of an oxide of the impurity followed by annealing in an oxidizing ambient. The process uses the lower formation energy of silicon dioxide relative to that of the impurity-oxide to create vacancies in silicon carbide and to promote dissociation of the impurity-oxide. The impurity atoms then diffuse from the thin film into the near-surface region of silicon carbide.

  16. Aluminum nitride thin film based acoustic wave sensors for biosensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jianzeng

    monitoring the frequency and phase changes in response to the coating of aluminum thin films onto the device surface. The derived mass sensitivity indicates that both modes could potentially reach an extremely low detection limit at the level of picograms.

  17. Removal of hydrogen chloride from gaseous streams using magnesium-aluminum oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kameda, Tomohito; Uchiyama, Naoya; Park, Kye-Sung; Grause, Guido; Yoshioka, Toshiaki

    2008-10-01

    Magnesium-aluminum oxide (Mg-Al oxide) obtained by thermal decomposition of Mg-Al layered double hydroxide (Mg-Al LDH) effectively removed HCl from gaseous streams. HCl removal was greater in the presence of added water vapor at all temperatures examined and increased with decreasing temperature in both the presence and absence of added water vapor. Wet and dry removal of gaseous HCl were attributed to the production of MgCl2 . 6H2O and MgCl2 . 4H2O, respectively. For the wet scrubbing process, the reconstruction reaction of Mg-Al LDH from Mg-Al oxide was the primary mechanism for increased HCl removal.

  18. Selection of crucible oxides in molten titanium and titanium aluminum alloys by thermo-chemistry calculations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostov A.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Titanium and its alloys interstitially dissolve a large amount of impurities such as oxygen and nitrogen, which degrade the mechanical and physical properties of alloys. On the other hand crucible oxides based on CaO, ZrO2 Y2O3, etc., and their spinels (combination of two or more oxides can be used for melting titanium and its alloys. However, the thermodynamic behavior of calcium, zirconium, yttrium on the one side, and oxygen on the other side, in molten Ti and Ti-Al alloys have not been made clear and because of that, it is very interesting for research. Owing of literature data, as well as these crucibles are cheaper than standard crucibles for melting titanium and titanium alloys, in this paper will be presented the results of selection of thermo-chemistry analysis with the aim to determine the crucible oxide stability in contact with molten titanium and titanium-aluminum alloys.

  19. Review of Zinc Oxide Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-23

    oriented ZnO:Ga thin  films  deposited  on  glass  by  laser   ablation   at  different  deposition  temperatures.  The  surface  morphology,  crystalline...resistivity  value  (7  ×  10‐4  Ωcm)  in  200  nm  thickness  samples  deposited  on  glass  substrate by  laser   ablation  at 300 oC.    Highly  conducting...number, and atomic  arrangements of  metal   cations  in  crystalline or  amorphous oxide  structures, on  the  resident  morphology, and on the presence of

  20. Preparation and Characterization of Neutral and Oxidized Polypyrrole Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-08-31

    oxidation of the pyrrole was obtained from cyclic voltametry in a two-compartment electrochemical cell. If TBAP was used as the electrolyte salt in both...bronze color; thin transparent films are grey. The room temperature electrical conductivity of the films is -50 ohm ŕ cmŕ. Cyclic voltammetry showed that

  1. Synthesis and electrical characterization of Graphene Oxide films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasin, Muhammad, E-mail: m.yasin@seecs.edu.pk [National University of Sciences and Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan); Polymer Electronics Research Laboratory, Gebze Technical University, Gebze (Turkey); Tauqeer, T.; Zaidi, Syed M.H. [National University of Sciences and Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan); San, Sait E. [Polymer Electronics Research Laboratory, Gebze Technical University, Gebze (Turkey); Department of Physics, Gebze Technical University, 41400 Kocaeli (Turkey); TUBITAK Marmara Research Center, Photonic Technologies Group, TUBITAK Gebze (Turkey); Mahmood, Asad [National Center of Excellence in Physical Chemistry, University of Peshawar, Peshawar (Pakistan); Köse, Muhammet E. [TUBITAK Marmara Research Center, Photonic Technologies Group, TUBITAK Gebze (Turkey); Canimkurbey, Betul [Polymer Electronics Research Laboratory, Gebze Technical University, Gebze (Turkey); Department of Physics, Gebze Technical University, 41400 Kocaeli (Turkey); Department of Physics, Amasya University, 05100 Amasya (Turkey); Okutan, Mustafa [Department of Physics, Yildiz Technical University, Davutpasa, 34210 Istanbul (Turkey)

    2015-09-01

    In this work, we have synthesized Graphene Oxide (GO) using modified Hummers method and investigated its electrical properties using parallel plate impedance spectroscopic technique. Graphene Oxide films were prepared using drop casting method on Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) coated glass substrate. Atomic force microscopy was used to characterize the films' microstructure and surface topography. Electrical characterization was carried out using LCR meter in frequency regime (100 Hz to 10 MHz) at different temperatures. AC conductivity σ{sub ac} of the films was observed to be varied with angular frequency, ω as ω{sup S}, with S < 1. The electrical properties of GO were found to be both frequency and temperature dependent. Analysis showed that GO film contains direct current (DC) and Correlated Barrier Hopping (CBH) conductivity mechanisms at low and high frequency ranges, respectively. Photon absorption and transmittance capability in the visible range and excellent electrical parameters of solution processed Graphene Oxide suggest its suitability for the realization of low cost flexible organic solar cells and organic Thin Film Transistors, respectively. - Highlights: • Synthesize and electrical characterization of Graphene Oxide (GO) Film was undertaken. • Temperature dependent impedance spectroscopy was used for electrical analysis. • AFM was used to characterize films' microstructure and surface topography. • Electrical parameters were found to vary with both temperature and frequency. • GO showed DC and CBH conductivity mechanisms at low and high frequency, respectively.

  2. Hydrotalcite-derived cobalt-aluminum mixed oxide catalysts for toluene combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Białas, Anna; Mazur, Michal; Natkański, Piotr; Dudek, Barbara; Kozak, Marek; Wach, Anna; Kuśtrowski, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    Hydrotalcite-like compounds (HTlcs) containing cobalt and aluminum (intended Co/Al molar ratio = 3.0) were coprecipitated at 30, 50 and 70 °C. Their crystallinity, which was confirmed by powder X-ray diffraction, increased with the precipitation temperature. Furthermore, HTlcs with various cobalt contents were prepared at 70 °C. Thermogravimetric analysis showed that HTlcs were transformed into stable oxides at 550 °C. The decrease in the crystallite size of the formed spinels with the increase in the precipitation temperature was observed. Low temperature sorption of nitrogen revealed meso-macroporous nature of the oxides with extended interparticle porosity. Aluminum segregated on the samples surface, which contained various amounts of lattice and adsorbed/electrophilic oxygen as detected by X-ray electron spectroscopy. The high ratio of lattice to adsorbed/electrophilic oxygen found for the sample with Co/Al = 3:1 caused that it turned out to be the most efficient catalyst in the total oxidation of toluene (50% conversion at 257 °C).

  3. The fabrication and thermal properties of bismuth-aluminum oxide nanothermometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chiu-Yen; Chen, Shih-Hsun; Tsai, Ping-Hsin; Chiou, Chung-Han; Hsieh, Sheng-Jen

    2017-01-01

    Bismuth (Bi) nanowires, well controlled in length and diameter, were prepared by using an anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) template-assisted molding injection process with a high cooling rate. A high performance atomic layer deposition (ALD)-capped bismuth-aluminum oxide (Bi-Al2O3) nanothermometer is demonstrated that was fabricated via a facile, low-cost and low-temperature method, including AAO templated-assisted molding injection and low-temperature ALD-capped processes. The thermal behaviors of Bi nanowires and Bi-Al2O3 nanocables were studied by in situ heating transmission electron microscopy. Linear thermal expansion of liquid Bi within native bismuth oxide nanotubes and ALD-capped Bi-Al2O3 nanocables were evaluated from 275 °C to 700 °C and 300 °C to 1000 °C, respectively. The results showed that the ALD-capped Bi-Al2O3 nanocable possesses the highest working temperature, 1000 °C, and the broadest operation window, 300 °C-1000 °C, of a thermal-expanding type nanothermometer. Our innovative approach provides another way of fabricating core-shell nanocables and to further achieve sensing local temperature under an extreme high vacuum environment.

  4. Hydrotalcite-derived cobalt–aluminum mixed oxide catalysts for toluene combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Białas, Anna, E-mail: anbialas@chemia.uj.edu.pl [Faculty of Chemistry, Jagiellonian University, Ingardena 3, Kraków 30-060 (Poland); Mazur, Michal; Natkański, Piotr; Dudek, Barbara [Faculty of Chemistry, Jagiellonian University, Ingardena 3, Kraków 30-060 (Poland); Kozak, Marek [Division of Petroleum Processing, Oil and Gas Institute, Łukasiewicza 1, Kraków 31-429 (Poland); Wach, Anna; Kuśtrowski, Piotr [Faculty of Chemistry, Jagiellonian University, Ingardena 3, Kraków 30-060 (Poland)

    2016-01-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Crystallinity of CoAl3 HT-like compounds increases with coprecipitation temperature. • After calcination CoAl3HTlcs with larger crystallites form low crystalline spinels. • The surface of Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} or Co{sub 2}AlO{sub 4}spinels is enriched in aluminum. • CoAl3 spinel is the most efficient catalyst in toluene combustion with T50 = 257 °C. • Catalytic activity results from the high lattice/adsorbed, electrophilic oxygen ratio. - Abstract: Hydrotalcite-like compounds (HTlcs) containing cobalt and aluminum (intended Co/Al molar ratio = 3.0) were coprecipitated at 30, 50 and 70 °C. Their crystallinity, which was confirmed by powder X-ray diffraction, increased with the precipitation temperature. Furthermore, HTlcs with various cobalt contents were prepared at 70 °C. Thermogravimetric analysis showed that HTlcs were transformed into stable oxides at 550 °C. The decrease in the crystallite size of the formed spinels with the increase in the precipitation temperature was observed. Low temperature sorption of nitrogen revealed meso-macroporous nature of the oxides with extended interparticle porosity. Aluminum segregated on the samples surface, which contained various amounts of lattice and adsorbed/electrophilic oxygen as detected by X-ray electron spectroscopy. The high ratio of lattice to adsorbed/electrophilic oxygen found for the sample with Co/Al = 3:1 caused that it turned out to be the most efficient catalyst in the total oxidation of toluene (50% conversion at 257 °C).

  5. Tunable structural color of anodic tantalum oxide films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sheng Cui-Cui; Cai Yun-Yu; Dai En-Mei; Liang Chang-Hao

    2012-01-01

    Tantalum (Ta) oxide films with tunable structural color were fabricated easily using anodic oxidation.The structure,components,and surface valence states of the oxide filns were investigated by using gazing incidence X-ray diffractometry,X-ray photoelectron microscopy,and surface analytical techniques.Their thickness and optical properties were studied by using spectroscopic ellipsometry and total reflectance spectrum.Color was accurately defined using L*a*b* scale.The thickness of compact Ta2O5 films was linearly dependent on anodizing voltage.The film color was tunable by adjusting the anodic voltage.The difference in color appearance resulted from the interference behavior between the interfaces of air-oxide and oxide-metal.

  6. Monolayer-directed Assembly and Magnetic Properties of FePt Nanoparticles on Patterned Aluminum Oxide

    OpenAIRE

    Guus Rijnders; Jurriaan Huskens; van der Wiel, Wilfred G.; Blank, Dave H. A.; Reinhoudt, David N.; Sachin Kinge; Tian Gang; Oktay Yildirim

    2010-01-01

    FePt nanoparticles (NPs) were assembled on aluminum oxide substrates, and their ferromagnetic properties were studied before and after thermal annealing. For the first time, phosph(on)ates were used as an adsorbate to form self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on alumina to direct the assembly of NPs onto the surface. The Al2O3 substrates were functionalized with aminobutylphosphonic acid (ABP) or phosphonoundecanoic acid (PNDA) SAMs or with poly(ethyleneimine) (PEI) as a reference. FePt NPs assem...

  7. Effects of iron and aluminum oxides and clay content on penetration resistance of five Greek soils

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The effect of amorphous and crystalline iron (Fe) and aluminum (Al) oxides and oxy-hydroxides as well as clay on soil penetration resistance of five Greek soils, as a function of soil water suction was studied for the whole range of soil moisture. The soils tested were of loamy texture and were collected from cultivated and non-cultivated areas of north and central Greece (Macedonia and Thessaly). The study aimed at understanding the role of the above mentioned soil components on penetration ...

  8. A simple dip coat patterning of aluminum oxide to constitute a bistable memristor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Bindu; Rabinal, M. K.

    2016-12-01

    Charge transport studies on a bipolar resistive random access memory device based on aluminum oxide were successfully undertaken. The device was designed in a simple metal-insulator-metal format, which was characterized in detail for structural, morphological and electrical measurements. A low cost technique has been adopted for the formation of the memristive element, exhibiting three orders of magnitude change between its two states of conductivity. The obtained memristive behavior is explained based on evidence obtained from charge transport characteristics. Formation/rupture of the conducting filament by external electric field is found to be the main mechanism behind resistive switching.

  9. Selective-Area Growth of Transferable InN Nanocolumns by Using Anodic Aluminum Oxide Nanotemplates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao; Zhang, Guozhen; Xu, Yang; Wu, Hao; Liu, Chang

    2017-02-01

    InN nanocolumn arrays were grown on c-plane sapphire with and without anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) nanotemplates. The crystalline quality of InN nanocolumns was significantly improved by selective-area growth (SAG) using AAO templates, as verified by X-ray diffraction measurements. Then, InN nanocolumns were transferred onto p-type silicon substrates after etching off the AAO templates. Current-voltage characteristic of the transferred n-InN/p-Si heterojunctions shows on/off ratio as high as 4.65 × 103 at 2 V. This work offers a potential way to grow transferable devices with improving performances.

  10. Study on phosphating treatment of aluminum alloy: role of yttrium oxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Shenglin

    2009-01-01

    Zinc phosphate coatings formed on 6061-Al alloy, after dipping in phosphating solutions containing different amounts of Y2O3(yttrium oxide), were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and electrochemical measurements. Significant variations in the morphology and corrosion resistance afforded by zinc phosphate coating were especially observed as Y2O3 in phosphating solution varied from 0 to 40 mg/L. The addition of Y2O3 changed the initial potential of the interface between aluminum alloy substrate and phosphating solution and increased the number of nucleation sites. The phosphate coating thereby was less porous structure and covered the surface of aluminum alloy completely within short phosphating time. Phosphate coating was mainly composed of Zn3(PO4)2-4H2O (hopeite) and AIPO4(aluminum phosphate). Y2O3, as an additive of phosphatization, accelerated precipitation and refined the gain size of phosphate coating. The corrosion resistance of zinc phosphate coating in 3% NaCl solution was improved as shown by po-larization measurement. In the present research, the optimal amount of Y2O3 was 10-20 mg/L, and the optimal phosphating time was 600 s.

  11. Optimization of synthesis protocols to control the nanostructure and the morphology of metal oxide thin films for memristive applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldi, G., E-mail: giacomo.baldi@cnr.it; Bosi, M.; Attolini, G.; Berzina, T.; Mosca, R.; Ponraj, J. S.; Iannotta, S. [IMEM-CNR Institute, Parco Area delle Scienze 37/A, I-43124 Parma (Italy); Giusti, G.; Nozar, P.; Toccoli, T.; Verucchi, R. [IMEM-CNR Institute, Via alla Cascata 56/C, Povo – I-38123 Trento (Italy); Collini, C.; Lorenzelli, L. [FBK Bruno Kessler Foundation, Via Sommarive 18, I-38123 Trento (Italy)

    2015-03-10

    We propose a multi-technique approach based on in-vacuum synthesis of metal oxides to optimize the memristive properties of devices that use a metal oxide thin film as insulating layer. Pulsed Microplasma Cluster Source (PMCS) is based on supersonic beams seeded by clusters of the metal oxide. Nanocrystalline TiO{sub 2} thin films can be grown at room temperature, controlling the oxide stoichiometry from titanium metal up to a significant oxygen excess. Pulsed Electron beam Deposition (PED) is suitable to grow crystalline thin films on large areas, a step towards producing device arrays with controlled morphology and stoichiometry. Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) is a powerful technique to grow materials layer-by-layer, finely controlling the chemical and structural properties of the film up to thickness of 50-80 nm. We will present a few examples of metal-insulator-metal structures showing a pinched hysteresis loop in their current-voltage characteristic. The structure, stoichiometry and morphology of the metal oxide layer, either aluminum oxide or titanium dioxide, is investigated by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and by Raman scattering.

  12. Role of melt behavior in modifying oxidation distribution using an interface incorporated model in selective laser melting of aluminum-based material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Dongdong; Dai, Donghua

    2016-08-01

    A transient three dimensional model for describing the molten pool dynamics and the response of oxidation film evolution in the selective laser melting of aluminum-based material is proposed. The physical difference in both sides of the scan track, powder-solid transformation and temperature dependent physical properties are taken into account. It shows that the heat energy tends to accumulate in the powder material rather than in the as-fabricated part, leading to the formation of the asymmetrical patterns of the temperature contour and the attendant larger dimensions of the molten pool in the powder phase. As a higher volumetric energy density is applied (≥1300 J/mm3), a severe evaporation is produced with the upward direction of velocity vector in the irradiated powder region while a restricted operating temperature is obtained in the as-fabricated part. The velocity vector continuously changes from upward direction to the downward one as the scan speed increases from 100 mm/s to 300 mm/s, promoting the generation of the debris of the oxidation films and the resultant homogeneous distribution state in the matrix. For the applied hatch spacing of 50 μm, a restricted remelting phenomenon of the as-fabricated part is produced with the upward direction of the convection flow, significantly reducing the turbulence of the thermal-capillary convection on the breaking of the oxidation films, and therefore, the connected oxidation films through the neighboring layers are typically formed. The morphology and distribution of the oxidation are experimentally acquired, which are in a good agreement with the results predicted by simulation.

  13. The complex interface chemistry of thin-film silicon/zinc oxide solar cell structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlach, D; Wimmer, M; Wilks, R G; Félix, R; Kronast, F; Ruske, F; Bär, M

    2014-12-21

    The interface between solid-phase crystallized phosphorous-doped polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si(n(+))) and aluminum-doped zinc oxide (ZnO:Al) was investigated using spatially resolved photoelectron emission microscopy. We find the accumulation of aluminum in the proximity of the interface. Based on a detailed photoemission line analysis, we also suggest the formation of an interface species. Silicon suboxide and/or dehydrated hemimorphite have been identified as likely candidates. For each scenario a detailed chemical reaction pathway is suggested. The chemical instability of the poly-Si(n(+))/ZnO:Al interface is explained by the fact that SiO2 is more stable than ZnO and/or that H2 is released from the initially deposited a-Si:H during the crystallization process. As a result, Zn (a deep acceptor in silicon) is "liberated" close to the silicon/zinc oxide interface presenting the inherent risk of forming deep defects in the silicon absorber. These could act as recombination centers and thus limit the performance of silicon/zinc oxide based solar cells. Based on this insight some recommendations with respect to solar cell design, material selection, and process parameters are given for further knowledge-based thin-film silicon device optimization.

  14. Elucidation of the electrochromic mechanism of nanostructured iron oxides films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Lobato, M.A.; Martinez, Arturo I.; Castro-Roman, M. [Center for Research and Advanced Studies of the National Polytechnic Institute, Cinvestav Campus Saltillo, Carr. Saltillo-Monterrey Km. 13, Ramos Arizpe, Coah. 25900 (Mexico); Perry, Dale L. [Mail Stop 70A1150, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Zarate, R.A. [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Catolica del Norte, Casilla 1280, Antofagasta (Chile); Escobar-Alarcon, L. (Departamento de Fisica, Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico)

    2011-02-15

    Nanostructured hematite thin films were electrochemically cycled in an aqueous solution of LiOH. Through optical, structural, morphological, and magnetic measurements, the coloration mechanism of electrochromic iron oxide thin films was elucidated. The conditions for double or single electrochromic behavior are given in this work. During the electrochemical cycling, it was found that topotactic transformations of hexagonal crystal structures are favored; i.e. {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} to Fe(OH){sub 2} and subsequently to {delta}-FeOOH. These topotactic redox reactions are responsible for color changes of iron oxide films. (author)

  15. Structural, electronic and chemical properties of metal/oxide and oxide/oxide interfaces and thin film structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lad, Robert J.

    1999-12-14

    This project focused on three different aspects of oxide thin film systems: (1) Model metal/oxide and oxide/oxide interface studies were carried out by depositing ultra-thin metal (Al, K, Mg) and oxide (MgO, AlO{sub x}) films on TiO{sub 2}, NiO and {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} single crystal oxide substrates. (2) Electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) oxygen plasma deposition was used to fabricate AlO{sub 3} and ZrO{sub 2} films on sapphire substrates, and film growth mechanisms and structural characteristics were investigated. (3) The friction and wear characteristics of ZrO{sub 2} films on sapphire substrates in unlubricated sliding contact were studied and correlated with film microstructure. In these studies, thin film and interfacial regions were characterized using diffraction (RHEED, LEED, XRD), electron spectroscopies (XPS, UPS, AES), microscopy (AFM) and tribology instruments (pin-on-disk, friction microprobe, and scratch tester). By precise control of thin film microstructure, an increased understanding of the structural and chemical stability of interface regions and tribological performance of ultra-thin oxide films was achieved in these important ceramic systems.

  16. Characteristics and properties of metal aluminum thin films prepared by electron cyclotron resonance plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiong Yu-Qing; Li Xing-Cun; Chen Qiang; Lei Wen-Wen; Zhao Qiao; Sang Li-Jun; Liu Zhong-Wei; Wang Zheng-Duo; Yang Li-Zhen

    2012-01-01

    Metal aluminum (Al) thin films are prepared by 2450 MHz electron cyclotron resonance plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition on glass and p-Si substrates using trimethylaluminum as the precursor and hydrogen as the reductive gas.We focus our attention on the plasma source for the thin-film preparation and annealing of the as-deposited films relative to the surface square resistivity.The square resistivity of as-deposited Al films is greatly reduced after annealing and almost reaches the value of bulk metal.Through chemical and structural analysis,we conclude that the square resistivity is determined by neither the contaminant concentration nor the surface morphology,but by both the crystallinity and crystal size in this process.

  17. Synthesis and characterization of thermally oxidized ZnO films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A P Rambu; N Iftimie

    2014-05-01

    Metallic zinc thin films were deposited onto glass substrates using vacuum thermal evaporation method. By thermal oxidation of as-deposited Zn films, in ambient conditions, at different temperatures (570, 670 and 770 K, respectively, for 1 h) zinc oxide thin films were obtained. The structural characteristics of the obtained films were investigated by X-ray diffraction technique and atomic force microscopy. Characteristic XRD patterns of oxidized films show small and narrow peaks superimposed on the large broad background of the amorphous component of the substrate. Optical transmittance spectra were recorded and it was observed that the transmittances of the studied films increased with increasing oxidation temperature. The values of the optical bandgap, g, evaluated from Tauc plots, were found to be ranged between 3.22 and 3.27 eV. Electrical conductivity measurements were performed and it was observed that, after performing a heat treatment, the electrical conductivity of analysed samples decreased with one or two orders of magnitude. The gas sensitivity was investigated for some reducing gases such as acetone, methane and liquefied petroleum gas and it was observed that the films studied were selective to acetone.

  18. Thin film zinc oxide deposited by CVD and PVD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamelmann, Frank U.

    2016-10-01

    Zinc oxide is known as a mineral since 1810, but it came to scientific interest after its optoelectronic properties found to be tuneable by p-type doping. Since the late 1980’s the number of publications increased exponentially. All thin film deposition technologies, including sol-gel and spray pyrolysis, are able to produce ZnO films. However, for outstanding properties and specific doping, only chemical vapor deposition and physical vapor deposition have shown so far satisfying results in terms of high conductivity and high transparency. In this paper the different possibilities for doping will be discussed, some important applications of doped ZnO thin films will be presented. The deposition technologies used for industrial applications are shown in this paper. Especially sputtering of aluminium doped Zinc Oxide (ZnO:Al or AZO) and LPCVD of boron doped Zinc Oxide (ZnO:B or BZO) are used for the commercial production of transparent conductive oxide films on glass used for thin film photovoltaic cells. For this special application the typical process development for large area deposition is presented, with the important trade-off between optical properties (transparency and ability for light scattering) and electrical properties (conductivity). Also, the long term stability of doped ZnO films is important for applications, humidity in the ambient is often the reason for degradation of the films. The differences between the mentioned materials are presented.

  19. Growth of oxide thin films for optical gas sensor applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caiteanu, D. [Lasers Department, Institute of Atomic Physics, P.O. Box MG 36, 76900 Bucharest V (Romania); Gyoergy, E. [Lasers Department, Institute of Atomic Physics, P.O. Box MG 36, 76900 Bucharest V (Romania)]. E-mail: eniko@ifin.nipne.ro; Grigorescu, S. [Lasers Department, Institute of Atomic Physics, P.O. Box MG 36, 76900 Bucharest V (Romania); Mihailescu, I.N. [Lasers Department, Institute of Atomic Physics, P.O. Box MG 36, 76900 Bucharest V (Romania); Prodan, G. [University ' Ovidius' of Constanta, Mamaia Bd., 124, Constanta 900527 (Romania); Ciupina, V. [University ' Ovidius' of Constanta, Mamaia Bd., 124, Constanta 900527 (Romania)

    2006-04-30

    Tungsten trioxide and titanium dioxide thin films were synthesised by pulsed laser deposition. We used for irradiations of oxide targets an UV KrF* ({lambda} = 248 nm, {tau} {sub FWHM} {approx_equal} 20 ns, {nu} = 2 Hz) excimer laser source, at 2 J/cm{sup 2} incident fluence value. The experiments were performed in low oxygen pressure. The (0 0 1) SiO{sub 2} substrates were heated during the thin film deposition process at temperature values within the 300-500 deg. Crange. The structure and crystalline status of the obtained oxide thin films were investigated by high resolution transmission electron microscopy. Our analyses show that the films are composed by nanoparticles with average diameters from a few to a few tens of nm. Moreover, the films deposited at substrate temperatures higher than 300 deg. Care crystalline. The tungsten trioxide films consist of a mixture of triclinic and monoclinic phases, while the titanium dioxide films structure corresponds to the tetragonal anatase phase. The oxide films average transmittance in the visible-infrared spectral range is higher than 80%, which makes them suitable for sensor applications.

  20. CO2 gas sensitivity of sputtered zinc oxide thin films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P Samarasekara; N U S Yapa; N T R N Kumara; M V K Perera

    2007-04-01

    For the first time, sputtered zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films have been used as a CO2 gas sensor. Zinc oxide thin films have been synthesized using reactive d.c. sputtering method for gas sensor applications, in the deposition temperature range from 130–153°C at a chamber pressure of 8.5 mbar for 18 h. Argon and oxygen gases were used as sputtering and reactive gases, respectively. ZnO phase could be crystallized using a pure metal target of zinc. The structure of the films determined by means of X-ray diffraction method indicates that the zinc oxide single phase can be fabricated in this substrate temperature range. The sensitivity of the film synthesized at substrate temperature of 130°C is 2.17 in the presence of CO2 gas at a measuring temperature of 100°C.

  1. Nanotwin hardening in a cubic chromium oxide thin film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuma Suzuki

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available NaCl-type (B1 chromium oxide (CrO has been expected to have a high hardness value and does not exist as an equilibrium phase. We report a B1-based Cr0.67O thin film with a thickness of 144 nm prepared by pulsed laser deposition as an epitaxial thin film on a MgO single crystal. The thin film contained a number of stacking faults and had a nanotwinned structure composed of B1 with disordered vacancies and corundum structures. The Cr0.67O thin film had a high indentation hardness value of 44 GPa, making it the hardest oxide thin film reported to date.

  2. Spatial atomic layer deposition of zinc oxide thin films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Illiberi, A.; Roozeboom, F.; Poodt, P.W.G.

    2012-01-01

    Zinc oxide thin films have been deposited at high growth rates (up to ~1 nm/s) by spatial atomic layer deposition technique at atmospheric pressure. Water has been used as oxidant for diethylzinc (DEZ) at deposition temperatures between 75 and 250 °C. The electrical, structural (crystallinity and mo

  3. Method for Fabricating Textured High-Haze ZnO:Al Transparent Conduction Oxide Films on Chemically Etched Glass Substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyeongsik; Nam, Sang-Hun; Shin, Myunghun; Ju, Minkyu; Lee, Youn-Jung; Yu, Jung-Hoon; Jung, Junhee; Kim, Sunbo; Ahn, Shihyun; Boo, Jin-Hyo; Yi, Junsin

    2016-05-01

    We developed a technique for forming textured aluminum-doped zinc oxide (ZnO:Al) transparent conductive oxide (TCO) films on glass substrates, which were etched using a mixture of hydrofluoric (HF) and hydrochloric (HCl) acids. The etching depth and surface roughness increased with an increase in the HF content and the etching time. The HF-based residues produced insoluble hexafluorosilicate anion- and oxide impurity-based semipermeable films, which reduced the etching rate. Using a small amount of HCl dissolved the Ca compounds, helping to fragment the semipermeable film. This formed random, complex structures on the glass substrates. The angled deposition of three layers of ZnO:Al led to the synthesis of multiscaled ZnO:Al textures on the glass substrates. The proposed approach resulted in textured ZnO:Al TCO films that exhibited high transmittance (-80%) and high haze (> 40%) values over wavelengths of 400-1000 nm, as well as low sheet resistances (ZnO:Al textured TCO films exhibited photocurrents and cell efficiencies that were 40% higher than those of cells with conventional TCO films.

  4. Effect of environment on iodine oxidation state and reactivity with aluminum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Dylan K; McCollum, Jena; Pantoya, Michelle L

    2016-04-28

    Iodine oxide is a highly reactive solid oxidizer and with its abundant generation of iodine gas during reaction, this oxidizer also shows great potential as a biocidal agent. A problem with using I2O5 in an energetic mixture is its highly variable reactive behavior. This study isolates the variable reactivity associated with I2O5 as a function of its chemical reaction in various environments. Specifically, aluminum fuel and iodine oxide powder are combined using a carrier fluid to aid intermixing. The carrier fluid is shown to significantly affect the oxidation state of iodine oxide, thereby affecting the reactivity of the mixture. Four carrier fluids were investigated ranging in polarity and water miscibility in increasing order from hexane X-ray photoelectric spectroscopy (XPS) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Results are compared with thermal equilibrium simulations. Flame speeds increased with polarity of the fluid used to intermix the powder and ranged from 180 to 1202 m s(-1). The I2O5 processed in the polar fluids formed hydrated states of iodine oxide: HIO3 and HI3O8; and, the nonpolar and dry-mixed samples formed: I2O4 and I4O9. During combustion, the hydrated iodine oxides rapidly dehydrated from HIO3 to HI3O8 and from HI3O8 to I2O5. Both steps release 25% of their mass as vapor during combustion. Increased gas generation enhances convective energy transport and accounts for the increase in reactivity seen in the mixtures processed in polar fluids. These results explain the chemical mechanisms underlying the variable reactivity of I2O5 that are a function of the oxide's highly reactive nature with its surrounding environment. These results will significantly impact the selection of carrier fluid in the synthesis approach for iodine containing reactive mixtures.

  5. Characterizations of photoconductivity of graphene oxide thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiang-Kuo Chang-Jian

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Characterizations of photoresponse of a graphene oxide (GO thin film to a near infrared laser light were studied. Results showed the photocurrent in the GO thin film was cathodic, always flowing in an opposite direction to the initial current generated by the preset bias voltage that shows a fundamental discrepancy from the photocurrent in the reduced graphene oxide thin film. Light illumination on the GO thin film thus results in more free electrons that offset the initial current. By examining GO thin films reduced at different temperatures, the critical temperature for reversing the photocurrent from cathodic to anodic was found around 187°C. The dynamic photoresponse for the GO thin film was further characterized through the response time constants within the laser on and off durations, denoted as τon and τoff, respectively. τon for the GO thin film was comparable to the other carbon-based thin films such as carbon nanotubes and graphenes. τoff was, however, much larger than that of the other's. This discrepancy was attributable to the retardation of exciton recombination rate thanks to the existing oxygen functional groups and defects in the GO thin films.

  6. Effects of rare earth oxide additives on the thermal behaviors of aluminum nitride ceramics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO Yijun; WANG Ling; LI Chuncheng; JIANG Xiaolong; QIU Tai

    2009-01-01

    The effects of Y_2O_3 and Er_2O_3 on the sintering behaviors, thermal properties and microstructure of AIN ceramics were investigated. The ex-perimental results show that the sintering temperature can be decreased; the relative density and thermal behavior can be improved by adding rare earth oxide in AIN ceramics. For AIN ceramics with 3 wt.% Er_2O_3 additive, the relative density is 98.8%, and the thermal conductivity reaches 106 W·m~(-1)·K~(-1). The microstructure research found that no obvious aluminum erbium oxide was found in AIN ceramics doped with 3 wt.% Er_2O_3, which favored the improvement of the thermal conductivity of AIN ceramics.

  7. A molecular beacon biosensor based on the nanostructured aluminum oxide surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, Xiangchen; He, Yuan; Yin, Haocheng; Que, Long

    2015-10-15

    A new class of molecular beacon biosensors based on the nanostructured aluminum oxide or anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) surface is reported. In this type of sensor, the AAO surface is used to enhance the fluorescent signals of the fluorophore-labeled hairpin DNA. When a target DNA with a complementary sequence to that of the hairpin DNA is applied on the sensor, the fluorophores are forced to move away from the AAO surface due to the hybridization between the hairpin DNA and the target DNA, resulting in the significant decrease of the fluorescent signals. The observed signal reduction is sufficient to achieve a demonstrated detection limit of 10nM, which could be further improved by optimizing the AAO surface. The control experiments have also demonstrated that the bioassay used in the experiments has excellent specificity and selectivity, indicating the great promise of this type of sensor for diagnostic applications. Since the arrayed AAO micropatterns can be fabricated on a single chip in a cost-effective manner, the arrayed sensors could provide an ideal technical platform for studying fundamental biological process and monitoring disease biomarkers.

  8. Anodic aluminum oxide with fine pore size control for selective and effective particulate matter filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Su; Wang, Yang; Tan, Yingling; Zhu, Jianfeng; Liu, Kai; Zhu, Jia

    2016-07-01

    Air pollution is widely considered as one of the most pressing environmental health issues. Particularly, atmospheric particulate matters (PM), a complex mixture of solid or liquid matter suspended in the atmosphere, are a harmful form of air pollution due to its ability to penetrate deep into the lungs and blood streams, causing permanent damages such as DNA mutations and premature death. Therefore, porous materials which can effectively filter out particulate matters are highly desirable. Here, for the first time, we demonstrate that anodic aluminum oxide with fine pore size control fabricated through a scalable process can serve as effective and selective filtering materials for different types of particulate matters (such as PM2.5, PM10). Combining selective and dramatic filtering effect, fine pore size control and a scalable process, this type of anodic aluminum oxide templates can potentially serve as a novel selective filter for different kinds of particulate matters, and a promising and complementary solution to tackle this serious environmental issue.

  9. Effects of iron and aluminum oxides and clay content on penetration resistance of five Greek soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanos Stefanou

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The effect of amorphous and crystalline iron (Fe and aluminum (Al oxides and oxy-hydroxides as well as clay on soil penetration resistance of five Greek soils, as a function of soil water suction was studied for the whole range of soil moisture. The soils tested were of loamy texture and were collected from cultivated and non-cultivated areas of north and central Greece (Macedonia and Thessaly. The study aimed at understanding the role of the above mentioned soil components on penetration resistance. The findings showed that the increase of iron and aluminum oxides and oxy-hydroxides content resulted in an increase of soil penetration resistance and the relationships between them were significant. Crystalline iron forms found to have a more profound effect on penetration resistance as compared to amorphous iron forms. Finally, positive and significant relationships were also found between penetration resistance and clay content. However, it is not entirely clear which of the two soil components plays the most important role in penetration resistance changes in soils.

  10. Modification of Shape Memory Polymer Foams Using Tungsten, Aluminum Oxide, and Silicon Dioxide Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, S M; Thompson, R S; Emery, H; Nathan, A L; Weems, A C; Zhou, F; Monroe, M B B; Maitland, D J

    Shape memory polymer (SMP) foams were synthesized with three different nanoparticles (tungsten, silicon dioxide, and aluminum oxide) for embolization of cerebral aneurysms. Ultra-low density SMP foams have previously been utilized for aneurysm occlusion, resulting in a rapid, stable thrombus. However, the small cross section of foam struts can potentially lead to fracture and particulate generation, which would be a serious adverse event for an embolic device. The goal of this study was to improve the mechanical properties of the system by physically incorporating fillers into the SMP matrix. Thermal and mechanical characterization suggested minimal changes in thermal transition of the SMP nanocomposites and improved mechanical strength and toughness for systems with low filler content. Actuation profiles of the three polymer systems were tuned with filler type and content, resulting in faster SMP foam actuation for nanocomposites containing higher filler content. Additionally, thermal stability of the SMP nanocomposites improved with increasing filler concentration, and particulate count remained well below accepted standard limits for all systems. Extraction studies demonstrated little release of silicon dioxide and aluminum oxide from the bulk over 16 days. Tungstun release increased over the 16 day examination period, with a maximum measured concentration of approxiately 2.87 μg/mL. The SMP nanocomposites developed through this research have the potential for use in medical devices due to their tailorable mechanical properties, thermal resisitivity, and actuation profiles.

  11. Preparation and characterization of solid-state sintered aluminum-doped zinc oxide with different alumina contents

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Yu-Hsien Chou; J L H Chau; W L Wang; C S Chen; S H Wang; C C Yang

    2011-06-01

    Aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) ceramics with 0−2.5 wt.% alumina (Al2O3) content were prepared using a solid-state reaction technique. It was found that AZO grains became finer in size and more irregular in shape than undoped ZnO as the Al2O3 content increased. Addition of Al2O3 dopant caused the formation of phase transformation stacking faults in ZnO grains. The second phase, ZnAl2O4 spinel, was observed at the grain boundaries and triple junctions, and inside the grains. In this study, a 3-inch circular Al2O3 (2 wt.%)-doped ZnO ceramic target sintered at 1500°C for 6 h has a relative density of 99.8% with a resistivity of 1.8 × 10-3 -cm. The AZO film exhibits optical transparency of 90.3% in the visible region and shows an electrical resistivity of 2.5 × 10-3 -cm.

  12. Growth of Anodic Aluminum Oxide Templates and the Application in Fabrication of the BiSbTe-Based Thermoelectric Nanowires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Guo Kuo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A two-step electrochemical anodization was used to form the anodic aluminum oxide (AAO thin films with nanotube arrays of self-organized honeycomb structure. Al foil was anodized in 10% sulfuric acid (H2SO4 and 3% oxalic acid (H2C2O4 at 25°C at constant voltage of 40 V for 60 min for two times. Ethylene glycol (C2H6O2 was used as a solution and 0.3 M potassium iodide (KI was used to improve the solution’s conductivity. Different electrolyte concentrations of Bi(NO33-5H2O, SbCl3, and TeCl4 were added into KI-C2H6O2 solution and the cyclic voltammetry experiment was used to find the reduced voltages of Bi3+, Sb3+, and Te4+ ions. The potentiostatic deposition and pulse electrodeposition (PED processes were used to deposit the (Bi,Sb2−xTe3+x-based materials. Field-emission scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive spectrometers were used to analyze the compositions of the deposited (Bi,Sb2−xTe3+x-based materials. After finding the optimal deposition parameter of the PED process the AAO nanotube arrays were used as the templates to deposit the (Bi,Sb2−xTe3+x-based thermoelectric nanowires.

  13. Nitric oxide alleviates aluminum-induced oxidative damage through regulating the ascorbate-glutathione cycle in roots of wheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chengliang Sun; Lijuan Liu; Yan Yu; Wenjing Liu; Lingli Lu; Chongwei Jin; Xianyong Lin

    2015-01-01

    The possible association with nitric oxide (NO) and ascorbate-glutathione (AsA-GSH) cycle in regulating aluminum (Al) tolerance of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was investigated using two genotypes with different Al resistance. Exposure to Al inhibited root elongation, and triggered lipid peroxidation and oxidation of AsA to dehydroascorbate and GSH to glutathione disulfide in wheat roots. Exogenous NO significantly increased endogenous NO levels, and subsequently al eviated Al-induced inhibition of root elongation and oxidation of AsA and GSH to maintain the redox molecules in the reduced form in both wheat genotypes. Under Al stress, significantly increased activities and gene transcriptional levels of ascorbate peroxi-dase, glutathione reductase, and dehydroascorbate reductase, were observed in the root tips of the Al-tolerant genotype Jian-864. Nitric oxide application enhanced the activity and gene transcriptional level of these enzymes in both wheat geno-types. g-Glutamylcysteine synthetase was not significantly affected by Al or NO, but NO treatments increased the activity of glutathione peroxidase and glutathione S-transferase to a greater extent than the Al-treated wheat seedlings. Proline was significantly decreased by Al, while it was not affected by NO. These results clearly suggest that NO protects wheat root against Al-induced oxidative stress, possibly through its regulation of the AsA-GSH cycle.

  14. Photo-oxidation Behaviour of EVA Antimicrobial Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botta, L.; Scaffaro, R.; La Mantia, F. P.

    2010-06-01

    In this work the photo-oxidation of neat EVA and antimicrobial EVA/Nisin films was studied. Two EVA samples—containing two different vinyl acetate levels—were added with different amounts of nisin. The influence of the matrix type and of the nisin content on the photo-oxidation behaviour was evaluated. The photo-oxidation has been followed by monitoring the change of the mechanical and spectroscopic properties upon artificial exposure to UV-B light. The results revealed that the films incorporating nisin show a better photo resistance with respect to the neat polymer. This improvement becomes weaker with decreasing the amount of nisin incorporated. Moreover the EVA 28 based films showed a much slower photo-oxidation rate in comparison with the EVA 14 based ones.

  15. The formation and structure of the oxide and hydroxide chemisorbed phases at the aluminum surface, and relevance to hydrogen embrittlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Michael; Kelly, Robert; Neurock, Matthew

    2010-03-01

    Aluminum alloys used in aerospace structures are susceptible to environmentally assisted cracking (EAC) induced by hydrogen embrittlement (HE) (Gangloff and Ives 1990). Crack growth experiments have demonstrated a linear relation between the relative humidity of the environment and crack growth rates, indicating the importance of water (Speidel and Hyatt 1972). While the presence of water has been demonstrated to be necessary for EAC of aluminum, crack growth rates have been linked to the diffusivity of hydrogen in aluminum (Gangloff 2003) and hydrogen densities at the crack tip as high as Al2H have been observed (Young and Scully 1998). While the mechanism by which hydrogen embrittles aluminum is yet not well understood, without the entry of hydrogen into the aluminum matrix, embrittlement would not occur. While at the crack tip high hydrogen concentrations exist, the solubility of hydrogen in aluminum is normal near 1 ppm (Wolverton 2004). In this work combined first principles and kinetic Monte Carlo methods will be used to examine the oxide and hydroxide structure resulting from exposure of aluminum to H2O or O2 and relevance to hydrogen entry as well as EAC is discussed.

  16. WO3 Nanoplates Film: Formation and Photocatalytic Oxidation Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin Wei Lai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available High surface area of tungsten oxide (WO3 nanoplates films was prepared via simple electrochemical anodization technique by controlling the fluoride content (NH4F in electrolyte. The design and development of WO3-based nanostructure assemblies have gained significant interest in order to maximize specific surface area for harvesting more photons to trigger photocatalytic oxidation reaction. This study aims to determine the optimum content of NH4F in forming WO3 nanoplates on W film with efficient photocatalytic oxidation reaction for organic dye degradation by utilizing our solar energy. The NH4F was found to influence the chemical dissolution and field-assisted dissolution rates, thus modifying the final morphological of WO3-based nanostructure assemblies film. It was found that 0.7 wt% of NH4F is the minimum amount to grow WO3 nanoplates film on W film. The photocatalysis oxidation experimental results showed that WO3 nanoplates film exhibited a maximum degradation of methyl orange dye (≈75% under solar illumination for 5 hours. This behavior was attributed to the better charge carriers transportation and minimizes the recombination losses with specific surface area of nanoplates structure.

  17. Synthesis and Oxidation Resistance of h-BN Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, David; Meulenberg, Robert; Lad, Robert

    Hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) is an exciting 2D material for use in sensors and other electronic devices that operate in harsh, high temperature environments. Not only is h-BN a wide band gap material with excellent wear resistance and high temperature stability, but recent reports indicate that h-BN can prevent metallic substrates from oxidizing above 600°C in low O2 pressures. However, the PVD of highly crystalline h-BN films required for this oxidation protection has proven challenging. In this work, we have explored the growth of h-BN thin films by reactive RF magnetron sputtering from an elemental B target in an Ar/N2 atmosphere. The film growth rate is extremely slow and the resulting films are atomically smooth and homogeneous. Using DC biasing during deposition and high temperature annealing treatments, the degree of film crystallinity can be controlled. The oxidation resistance of h-BN films deposited on inert sapphire and reactive metal substrates such as Zr and ZrB2 has been examined by techniques such as XPS, XRD, and SEM after oxidation between 600 and 1200°C under varying oxygen pressures. The success of h-BN as a passivation layer for metallic substrates in harsh environments is shown to depend greatly on its crystalline quality and defects. Supported by the NSF SusChEM program.

  18. Oxidation of fluorinated amorphous carbon (a-CF(x)) films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Yang; Broitman, Esteban; Gellman, Andrew J

    2010-01-19

    Amorphous fluorinated carbon (a-CF(x)) films have a variety of potential technological applications. In most such applications these films are exposed to air and undergo partial surface oxidation. X-ray photoemission spectroscopy has been used to study the oxidation of fresh a-CF(x) films deposited by magnetron sputtering. The oxygen sticking coefficient measured by exposure to low pressures (<10(-3) Torr) of oxygen at room temperature is on the order of S approximately 10(-6), indicating that the surfaces of these films are relatively inert to oxidation when compared with most metals. The X-ray photoemission spectra indicate that the initial stages of oxygen exposure (<10(7) langmuirs) result in the preferential oxidation of the carbon atoms with zero or one fluorine atom, perhaps because these carbon atoms are more likely to be found in configurations with unsaturated double bonds and radicals than carbon atoms with two or three fluorine atoms. Exposure of the a-CF(x) film to atmospheric pressures of air (effective exposure of 10(12) langmuirs to O(2)) results in lower levels of oxygen uptake than the low pressure exposures (<10(7) langmuirs). It is suggested that this is the result of oxidative etching of the most reactive carbon atoms, leaving a relatively inert surface. Finally, low pressure exposures to air result in the adsorption of both nitrogen and oxygen onto the surface. Some of the nitrogen adsorbed on the surface at low pressures is in a reversibly adsorbed state in the sense that subsequent exposure to low pressures of O(2) results in the displacement of nitrogen by oxygen. Similarly, when an a-CF(x) film oxidized in pure O(2) is exposed to low pressures of air, some of the adsorbed oxygen is displaced by nitrogen. It is suggested that these forms of nitrogen and oxygen are bound to free radical sites in the film.

  19. Murine pulmonary responses after sub-chronic exposure to aluminum oxide-based nanowhiskers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adamcakova-Dodd Andrea

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aluminum oxide-based nanowhiskers (AO nanowhiskers have been used in manufacturing processes as catalyst supports, flame retardants, adsorbents, or in ceramic, metal and plastic composite materials. They are classified as high aspect ratio nanomaterials. Our aim was to assess in vivo toxicity of inhaled AO nanowhisker aerosols. Methods Primary dimensions of AO nanowhiskers specified by manufacturer were 2–4 nm x 2800 nm. The aluminum content found in this nanomaterial was 30% [mixed phase material containing Al(OH3 and AlOOH]. Male mice (C57Bl/6 J were exposed to AO nanowhiskers for 4 hrs/day, 5 days/wk for 2 or 4 wks in a dynamic whole body exposure chamber. The whiskers were aerosolized with an acoustical dry aerosol generator that included a grounded metal elutriator and a venturi aspirator to enhance deagglomeration. Average concentration of aerosol in the chamber was 3.3 ± 0.6 mg/m3 and the mobility diameter was 150 ± 1.6 nm. Both groups of mice (2 or 4 wks exposure were necropsied immediately after the last exposure. Aluminum content in the lung, heart, liver, and spleen was determined. Pulmonary toxicity assessment was performed by evaluation of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL fluid (enumeration of total and differential cells, total protein, activity of lactate dehydrogenase [LDH] and cytokines, blood (total and differential cell counts, lung histopathology and pulmonary mechanics. Results Following exposure, mean Al content of lungs was 0.25, 8.10 and 15.37 μg/g lung (dry wt respectively for sham, 2 wk and 4 wk exposure groups. The number of total cells and macrophages in BAL fluid was 2-times higher in animals exposed for 2 wks and 6-times higher in mice exposed for 4 wks, compared to shams (p p  Conclusions Sub-chronic inhalation exposures to aluminum-oxide based nanowhiskers induced increased lung macrophages, but no inflammatory or toxic responses were observed.

  20. Effect of interfacial oxide thickness on the photocatalytic activity of magnetron-sputtered TiO2 coatings on aluminum substrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daviðsdóttir, Svava; Petit, Jean-Pierre; Shabadi, Rajashekhara;

    2015-01-01

    measurements showed a maximum UV-light absorption by titanium dioxide occurring slightly prior to the energy of the maximum photocurrent. The photocurrent of titanium dioxide decreases with increasing thickness of the aluminum oxide interface layer. Aluminum oxide acts as an insulator; disfavoring the electron...

  1. Effect of interfacial oxide thickness on the photocatalytic activity of magnetron-sputtered TiO2coatings on aluminum substrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daviðsdóttir, Svava; Petit, Jean-Pierre; Shabadi, Rajashekhara

    2015-01-01

    measurements showed a maximum UV-light absorption by titanium dioxide occurring slightly prior to the energy of the maximum photocurrent. The photocurrent of titanium dioxide decreases with increasing thickness of the aluminum oxide interface layer. Aluminum oxide acts as an insulator; disfavoring the electron...

  2. Properties of Edible Films Based on Oxidized Starch and Zein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Argüello-García

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to investigate the effect of zein and film formulation on mechanical and structural properties of native (FNS, and oxidized with 2.5% (FOSA and 3.5% (FOSB banana starch. The oxidized starch showed differences from native starch due to the oxidation process, showing a decrease in lipids, proteins, and amylose. The increase of the sodium hypochlorite increased the content of carbonyl and carboxyl groups in the ranges 0.015–0.028% and 0.022–0.031%, respectively. The film obtained from FOSB displayed the highest tensile strength (5.05 MPa and satisfactory elongation value (27.1%. The zein addition caused a decrease in these mechanical properties, as well as a significant decrease in water vapour permeability (WVP. However, films from FOSA and FOSB showed higher permeability than that of the native starch. The addition of glycerol and the level of oxidation increased the films moisture. Micrographs showed that, during the oxidation process, impurities were largely eliminated from the starch granule, noting more homogeneous structures both in granules and films.

  3. The Effect of Silicon and Aluminum Additions on the Oxidation Resistance of Lean Chromium Stainless Steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunning, J.S.; Alman, D.E.; Rawers, J.C.

    2001-09-01

    The effect of Si and Al additions on the oxidation of lean chromium austenitic stainless steels has been studied. A baseline composition of Fe-16Cr-16Ni-2Mn-1Mo was selected to allow combined Si and Al additions of up to 5 wt. pct. in a fully austenitic alloy. The baseline composition was selected using a net Cr equivalent equation to predict the onset of G-ferrite formation in austenite. Cyclic oxidation tests in air for 1000 hours were carried out on alloys with Si only or combined Si and Al additions in the temperature range 700 C to 800 C. Oxidation resistance of alloys with Si only additions were outstanding, particularly at 800 C. It was evident that different rate controlling mechanisms for oxidation were operative at 700 C and 800 C in the Si alloys. In addition, Si alloys pre-oxidized at 800 C, showed a zero weight gain in subsequent testing for 1000 hours at 700 C. The rate controlling mechanism in alloys with combined Si and Al addition for oxidation at 800 C was also different than alloys with Si only. SEM and ESCA analysis of the oxide films and base material at the oxide/base metal interface were conducted to study potential rate controlling mechanisms.

  4. Oxidative stress in blood and testicle of rat following intraperitoneal administration of aluminum and indium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maghraoui, S; Clichici, Simona; Ayadi, A; Login, C; Moldovan, R; Daicoviciu, D; Decea, N; Mureşan, A; Tekaya, L

    2014-03-01

    Aluminum (Al) and indium (In) have embryotoxic, neurotoxic and genotoxic effects, oxidative stress being one of the possible mechanisms involved in their cytotoxicity. We have recently demonstrated that indium intraperitoneal (ip) administration induced histological disorganization of testicular tissue. In the present research we aimed at investigating the effect of Al and In ip administration on systemic and testicular oxidative stress status. Studies were performed on Wistar rats ip injected with Al, In or physiological solution for two weeks. Our results showed that In significantly decreased the absolute weight of testicles. Measurements of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and paraoxonase (PON) activities showed that In induced a significant augmentation in the first parameter but no changes were observed in the second. Both Al and In caused oxidative stress in testicles by increasing malondialdehyde (MDA) and protein carbonyls (PC) production. Concomitantly, thiol group (-SH) and glutathione (GSH) level were enhanced in the testicles. In the blood, while concentrations of MDA was not changed, those of GSH was significantly decreased in the Al and In groups. Our results indicated that Al and In cause oxidative stress both in blood and testicles but In has cytotoxic effect as well as negative impact on testicle weights. These findings could explain the testicular histological alterations previously described after In ip administration.

  5. Modelo predictivo del espesor de la capa de óxido y microdureza en aluminio Al3003-B14 y Al6063-T6 anodizado usando análisis multifactorial Oxide film thickness and microhardness prediction model of Al3003-B14 and Al6063-T6 anodized aluminum using multifactorial analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Eladio Vergara Guillén

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available En esta investigación se modela a partir de los parámetros del proceso el espesor de la capa de óxido y la microdureza de los aluminios Al3003 y Al6063 anodizados. Para ello se realizaron estudios de la microdureza y espesor de capa de la superficie anodizada, utilizando técnicas de análisis multifactorial y diseño robusto. Se establecieron los siguientes niveles de los parámetros del proceso: temperatura [15 °C, 25 °C], tiempo [30 min; 60 min], concentración de electrolito [1,2 M; 2 M], densidad de corriente [1 Amp/dm²; 3 Amp/dm²], aluminio [Al3003,Al6063] y como variable de ruido, la deformación plástica [0%, 10%, 20%, 30%]. Se propuso un diseño fraccionado 2(7-2 mixto, con el cual se efectuó un total de 48 pruebas usando soluciones electrolíticas de ácido sulfúrico. La medición de microdureza se realizó con un indentador Vickers con carga de 400 g; el espesor de la capa de óxido se captó mediante microscopia electrónica. A los resultados se les realizó un análisis de varianza (ANOVA, para determinar los factores significativos y la robustez de los efectos. Se encontraron resultados de microdureza [HV] [85,74-308,87]; y espesor de óxido [µm] [12,82- 94,69]. Finalmente, se muestran los modelos de predicción de cada una de las respuestas en función de los factores significativos estas ecuaciones permitirán seleccionar la microdureza y espesor de la capa de óxido para cumplir los requerimientos de un producto particular mediante una selección apropiada de los parámetros del proceso.In this research, the thickness of the oxide layer and the microhardness of anodized aluminum Al3003 and Al6063 are modeled based on process parameters. To this end, studies of the microhardness and the thickness layer of the anodized surface were made, via techniques of multifactorial analysis and robust design. The following levels of the process parameters were established: temperature [15°C, 25°C], time [30min; 60min

  6. Deposition of Aluminium Oxide Films by Pulsed Reactive Sputtering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xinhui MAO; Bingchu CAI; Maosong WU; Guoping CHEN

    2003-01-01

    Pulsed reactive sputtering is a novel process used to deposit some compound films, which are not deposited by traditional D.C. reactive sputtering easily. In this paper some experimental results about the deposition of Al oxide films by pulsed reactive sputtering are presented. The hysteresis phenomenon of the sputtering voltage and deposition rate with the change of oxygen flow during sputtering process are discussed.

  7. Physicochemical characteristics of fluorine doped tin oxide films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, A I [Electronics Department, National Institute for Astrophysics, Optics, and Electronics (INAOE), Luis E Erro No.1, 72000 Tonantzintla, Puebla (Mexico); Huerta, L [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, AP 70-360, 04510 Mexico DF (Mexico); Leon, J M O- Rueda de [Institute of Physics, National Autonomous University of Mexico, 04510 Mexico DF (Mexico); Acosta, D [Institute of Physics, National Autonomous University of Mexico, 04510 Mexico DF (Mexico); Malik, O [Electronics Department, National Institute for Astrophysics, Optics, and Electronics (INAOE), Luis E Erro No.1, 72000 Tonantzintla, Puebla (Mexico); Aguilar, M [Institute of Physics, National Autonomous University of Mexico, 04510 Mexico DF (Mexico)

    2006-12-07

    In this work, relationships between chemical and physical properties of fluorine doped tin oxide films prepared by the chemical spray pyrolysis technique have been studied. Changes in the structural, optical and electrical properties of these films in relation to their doping concentrations determined by the resonant nuclear reaction analysis and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) techniques have been correlated. By XPS measurements, it was found that the fluorine content in the tin oxide films does not induce any chemical shift of the Sn and O core levels. At the same time, XPS measurements are carried out at low binding energy, shown that the valence band of heavy doped tin oxide changes with respect to that determined in SnO{sub 2} powder, due to the influence of the fluorine doping. In addition, it was shown that the formation of F-Sn complexes provides a decrease in both the concentration and mobility of the carriers.

  8. The physical and chemical properties of ultrathin oxide films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Street, S C; Xu, C; Goodman, D W

    1997-01-01

    Thin oxide films (from one to tens of monolayers) of SiO2, MgO, NiO, Al2O3, FexOy, and TiO2 supported on refractory metal substrates have been prepared by depositing the oxide metal precursor in a background of oxygen (ca 1 x 10(-5) Torr). The thinness of these oxide samples facilitates investigation by an array of surface techniques, many of which are precluded when applied to the corresponding bulk oxide. Layered and mixed binary oxides have been prepared by sequential synthesis of dissimilar oxide layers or co-deposition of two different oxides. Recent work has shown that the underlying oxide substrate can markedly influence the electronic and chemical properties of the overlayer oxide. The structural, electronic, and chemical properties of these ultrathin oxide films have been probed using Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), electron energy loss spectroscopy (ELS), ion-scattering spectroscopy (ISS), high-resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS), infrared reflectance absorption spectroscopy (IRAS), temperature-programmed desorption (TPD), scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), and scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS).

  9. Preparation of thin hexagonal highly-ordered anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) template onto silicon substrate and growth ZnO nanorod arrays by electrodeposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chahrour, Khaled M.; Ahmed, Naser M.; Hashim, M. R.; Elfadill, Nezar G.; Qaeed, M. A.; Bououdina, M.

    2014-12-01

    In this study, anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) templates of Aluminum thin films onto Ti-coated silicon substrates were prepared for growth of nanostructure materials. Hexagonally highly ordered thin AAO templates were fabricated under controllable conditions by using a two-step anodization. The obtained thin AAO templates were approximately 70 nm in pore diameter and 250 nm in length with 110 nm interpore distances within an area of 3 cm2. The difference between first and second anodization was investigated in details by in situ monitoring of current-time curve. A bottom barrier layer of the AAO templates was removed during dropping the voltage in the last period of the anodization process followed by a wet etching using phosphoric acid (5 wt%) for several minutes at ambient temperature. As an application, Zn nanorod arrays embedded in anodic alumina (AAO) template were fabricated by electrodeposition. Oxygen was used to oxidize the electrodeposited Zn nanorods in the AAO template at 700 °C. The morphology, structure and photoluminescence properties of ZnO/AAO assembly were analyzed using Field-emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), Atomic force microscope (AFM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and photoluminescence (PL).

  10. Photo- and electroluminescence properties of lanthanide tungstate-doped porous anodic aluminum oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staninski, Krzysztof; Piskuła, Zbigniew; Kaczmarek, Małgorzata

    2017-02-01

    A new cathode material for the potential use in light-emitting devices, based on porous anodic alumina (PAA), aluminum and ITO layers has been synthesized. Porous alumina samples with ordered pore arrays were prepared electrochemically from high purity Al sheet in H2SO4 and H3PO4. To be able to apply the matrix obtained in the electroluminescence cell, the thickness of the barrier layer of aluminum oxide was decreased by slow reduction of the anodization voltage to zero. The luminescence and electroluminescence (EL) properties of the Al2O3 matrix admixtured with Eu3+ and Tb3+ ions as well as europium and terbium tungstates, were determined. The particles of inorganic luminophore were synthesized on the walls of the matrix cylindrical nanopores in the two-step process of immersion in solutions of TbCl3 or EuCl3 and Na2WO4. The effect of the nanopores diameter and the thickness of the porous Al2O3 layer on the intensity and relative yield of electroluminescence was analyzed, the best results were obtained for 80-90 μm PAA layers with 140 nm nanopores.

  11. Aluminum work function: Effect of oxidation, mechanical scraping and ion bombardment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinet, P.; Lemogne, T.; Montes, H.

    1985-01-01

    Surface studies have been performed on aluminum polycrystalline surfaces which have been mechanically scraped. Such studies were initiated in order to understand surface effects occurring in tribological processes which involve rubbing surfaces and the effects of adsorption of oxygen. To characterize the surfaces, the following three different experimental approaches have been used: (1) X.P.S. (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy), in order to check the cleanliness of the surfaces and follow the adsorption and oxidation kinetics; (2) Analysis of the work function changes by following the energy spectra of secondary electrons emitted under low energy electron bombardment; and (3) Analysis of photoemission intensities under U.V. excitation. The reference state being chosen to be the surface cleaned by ion bombardment and exposures to oxygen atmospheres have been shown to lower the work function of clean polycrystalline aluminum by 1.2 eV. The oxygen pressure is found to affect only the kinetics of these experiments. Mechanical scraping has been shown to induce a decrease ( 0.3 eV) in the work function, which could sharply modify the kinetics of adsorption on the surface.

  12. Effects of Complex Structured Anodic Oxide Dielectric Layer Grown in Pore Matrix for Aluminum Capacitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jin-Ha; Yun, Sook Young; Lee, Chang Hyoung; Park, Hwa-Sun; Suh, Su-Jeong

    2015-11-01

    Anodization of aluminum is generally divided up into two types of anodic aluminum oxide structures depending on electrolyte type. In this study, an anodization process was carried out in two steps to obtain high dielectric strength and break down voltage. In the first step, evaporated high purity Al on Si wafer was anodized in oxalic acidic aqueous solution at various times at a constant temperature of 5 degrees C. In the second step, citric acidic aqueous solution was used to obtain a thickly grown sub-barrier layer. During the second anodization process, the anodizing potential of various ranges was applied at room temperature. An increased thickness of the sub-barrier layer in the porous matrix was obtained according to the increment of the applied anodizing potential. The microstructures and the growth of the sub-barrier layer were then observed with an increasing anodizing potential of 40 to 300 V by using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). An impedance analyzer was used to observe the change of electrical properties, including the capacitance, dissipation factor, impedance, and equivalent series resistance (ESR) depending on the thickness increase of the sub-barrier layer. In addition, the breakdown voltage was measured. The results revealed that dielectric strength was improved with the increase of sub-barrier layer thickness.

  13. Preparation of amorphous aluminum oxide-hydroxide nanoparticles in amphiphilic silicone-based copolymer microemulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkovich, Yana; Aserin, Abraham; Wachtel, Ellen; Garti, Nissim

    2002-01-01

    Organo-inorgano nanocomposites with colloidal dimensions have interesting optical, catalytic, and mechanical properties, particularly when such hybrids are reinforced with transition metal oxide nanoparticles. Nanoparticles with a mean size of 1.0-2.4 nm are obtained through hydrolysis of aluminum isopropoxide in the L(2) phase of amphiphilic (PDMS-POE) polydimethylsiloxane-polyoxyethylene Silwet L-7607-octanol/acetylacetone-water mixtures. The particle sizes are related weakly to the microemulsion composition: 0.8-1.2 nm for 20 wt% Silwet L-7607 and 2.0-2.4 nm for 50 wt% Silwet L-7607. Protection of the particles against aggregation is ensured through their confinement in the intraaggregate colloidal domains. Factors affecting the hydrolysis-condensation process of acetylacetone-complexed aluminum isopropoxide in copolymer-poor and copolymer-rich regions of PDMS-POE W/O microemulsions are studied by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, small angle X-ray scattering, and transmission electron microscopy. Prepared nanoparticulate dispersions possess long-term stability and form clear mixtures in different organic polar and nonpolar solvents.

  14. High-Quality, Ultraconformal Aluminum-Doped Zinc Oxide Nanoplasmonic and Hyperbolic Metamaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Conor T; Smalley, Joseph S T; Post, Kirk W; Basov, Dimitri N; Fainman, Yeshaiahu; Wang, Deli; Liu, Zhaowei; Sirbuly, Donald J

    2016-02-17

    Aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) is a tunable low-loss plasmonic material capable of supporting dopant concentrations high enough to operate at telecommunication wavelengths. Due to its ultrahigh conformality and compatibility with semiconductor processing, atomic layer deposition (ALD) is a powerful tool for many plasmonic applications. However, despite many attempts, high-quality AZO with a plasma frequency below 1550 nm has not yet been realized by ALD. Here a simple procedure is devised to tune the optical constants of AZO and enable plasmonic activity at 1550 nm with low loss. The highly conformal nature of ALD is also exploited to coat silicon nanopillars to create localized surface plasmon resonances that are tunable by adjusting the aluminum concentration, thermal conditions, and the use of a ZnO buffer layer. The high-quality AZO is then used to make a layered AZO/ZnO structure that displays negative refraction in the telecommunication wavelength region due to hyperbolic dispersion. Finally, a novel synthetic scheme is demonstrated to create AZO embedded nanowires in ZnO, which also exhibits hyperbolic dispersion.

  15. Graphene Oxide Reinforced Polycarbonate Nanocomposite Films with Antibacterial Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Mahendran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The incorporation of carbonaceous nanofillers into polymers can result in significant materials with improved physicochemical properties and novel composite functionalities. In this study, we have fabricated antibacterial, lightweight, transparent, and flexible graphene oxide (GO reinforced polycarbonate thin films by a facile and low-cost methodology. Solution blending is employed to get a homogeneous mixture of PC-GO composites at various loading of GO, and the thin films are prepared by dry-wet phase inversion technique. Thermal studies and micrographs of the films revealed the incorporation of GO in PC matrix. Microstructure of the thin films showed the homogeneous dispersion of GO at micro- and nanoscales; however, at higher loading of GO (0.7%, significant agglomeration is observed. More importantly, PC-GO composite films exhibited excellent antibacterial activities against E. coli and S. aureus, owing to the antibacterial nature of GO nanoparticles.

  16. The growth of thin film epitaxial oxide-metal heterostructures

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, C

    1998-01-01

    films with lowest IR emissivity are those made from the purest targets despite their having comparable roughnesses to films from lower purity targets. The lowest emissivity achieved was in the range of 1.64% to 1.72% measured at 3.8 mu m for 1.5 to 1.8 mu m thick films. Modifications to standard idealized Drude theory have been made which, in a phenomenological way, take account of imperfections in the sputtered Al film, oxidation state and roughness. in electric properties of the Nb film and the reduction in crystalline quality of the MgO layer. The reduction of transition temperature to the superconducting state, Tc, and the similarly systematic increase in the Nb lattice parameter were observed consistent with oxygen content data reported in the literature, as the Nb became heavily oxidized. Examination of the surface of clean and oxidized Nb by atomic force microscopy, and deposition of MgO in UHV onto a previously oxidized Nb surface, suggested that the decrease in crystalline quality of the MgO can be a...

  17. Oxidation and growth of Mg thin films on Ru(001)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, H. H.; Jiang, X.; Siew, H. L.; Chin, W. S.; Sim, W. S.; Xu, G. Q.

    1999-08-01

    The oxidation and growth of ultra-thin Mg films on a Ru(001) substrate have been studied using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS) in the temperature range of 300-1500 K. Our results suggest that the growth of Mg thin films follows a layer-by-layer mode. Upon oxygen adsorption at 300 K, two O 1s peaks were detected on the Mg film. The peak at 532.2-532.6 eV could be attributed to either dioxygen or partially reduced species (O δ-, δfilm to 800 K causes the conversion of the dioxygen or partially reduced species to the oxide state. Thermal desorption peaks of MgO were directly detected at 1000-1127 and 1350-1380 K, respectively. However, initial evaporation of Mg atoms onto an oxygen pre-adsorbed surface yields a fully oxidized MgO. Further Mg deposition results in the formation of a partially oxidized film with the observation of an O 1s peak at 532.2 eV.

  18. Tailor-made oxide architectures attained by molecularly permeable metal-oxide organic hybrid thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Debabrata; Taffa, Dereje Hailu; Ishchuk, Sergey; Hazut, Ori; Cohen, Hagai; Toker, Gil; Asscher, Micha; Yerushalmi, Roie

    2014-08-21

    Tailor-made metal oxide (MO) thin films with controlled compositions, electronic structures, and architectures are obtained via molecular layer deposition (MLD) and solution treatment. Step-wise formation of permeable hybrid films by MLD followed by chemical modification in solution benefits from the versatility of gas phase reactivity on surfaces while maintaining flexibility which is more common at the liquid phase.

  19. Room Temperature Oxide Deposition Approach to Fully Transparent, All-Oxide Thin-Film Transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rembert, Thomas; Battaglia, Corsin; Anders, André; Javey, Ali

    2015-10-28

    A room temperature cathodic arc deposition technique is used to produce high-mobility ZnO thin films for low voltage thin-film transistors (TFTs) and digital logic inverters. All-oxide, fully transparent devices are fabricated on alkali-free glass and flexible polyimide foil, exhibiting high performance. This provides a practical materials platform for the low-temperature fabrication of all-oxide TFTs on virtually any substrate.

  20. Comparison of topotactic fluorination methods for complex oxide films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. J. Moon

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated the synthesis of SrFeO3−αFγ (α and γ ≤ 1 perovskite films using topotactic fluorination reactions utilizing poly(vinylidene fluoride as a fluorine source. Two different fluorination methods, a spin-coating and a vapor transport approach, were performed on as-grown SrFeO2.5 films. We highlight differences in the structural, compositional, and optical properties of the oxyfluoride films obtained via the two methods, providing insight into how fluorination reactions can be used to modify electronic and optical behavior in complex oxide heterostructures.

  1. Correlations between optical properties, microstructure, and processing conditions of Aluminum nitride thin films fabricated by pulsed laser deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baek, Jonghoon [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Texas Materials Institute, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States)]. E-mail: jhoon6@hotmail.com; Ma, James [Materials Science and Engineering Program, Texas Materials Institute, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Becker, Michael F. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Texas Materials Institute, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Keto, John W. [Department of Physics, Texas Materials Institute, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Kovar, Desiderio [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Texas Materials Institute, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States)

    2007-06-25

    Aluminum nitride (AlN) films were deposited using pulsed laser deposition (PLD) onto sapphire (0001) substrates with varying processing conditions (temperature, pressure, and laser fluence). We have studied the dependence of optical properties, structural properties and their correlations for these AlN films. The optical transmission spectra of the produced films were measured, and a numerical procedure was applied to accurately determine the optical constants for films of non-uniform thickness. The microstructure and texture of the films were studied using various X-ray diffraction techniques. The real part of the refractive index was found to not vary significantly with processing parameters, but absorption was found to be strongly dependent on the deposition temperature and the nitrogen pressure in the deposition chamber. We report that low optical absorption, textured polycrystalline AlN films can be produced by PLD on sapphire substrates at both low and high laser fluence using a background nitrogen pressure of 6.0 x 10{sup -2} Pa (4.5 x 10{sup -4} Torr) of 99.9% purity.

  2. Highly Ordered Zinc Oxide Nanotubules Synthesized within the Anodic Aluminum Oxide Template

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Zhen

    2001-01-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) is a wide-band-gap semiconductor, which has a broad range of applications, e.g., in pigment, rubber additives, gas sensors, varistors and transducers1. It has recently been demonstrated that nanophase zinc oxide can be used in photocells of the Gatzel type2, which results in improved current generation efficiency. The properties of high aspect ratios and small sizes of zinc oxide nanotubules or nanowires are expected to improve the luminescence efficiency of the electro-optical devices and the sensitivity of the chemical sensors3.  ……

  3. Highly Ordered Zinc Oxide Nanotubules Synthesized within the Anodic Aluminum Oxide Template

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhen; LI HuLin

    2001-01-01

    @@ Zinc oxide (ZnO) is a wide-band-gap semiconductor, which has a broad range of applications, e.g., in pigment, rubber additives, gas sensors, varistors and transducers1. It has recently been demonstrated that nanophase zinc oxide can be used in photocells of the Gatzel type2, which results in improved current generation efficiency. The properties of high aspect ratios and small sizes of zinc oxide nanotubules or nanowires are expected to improve the luminescence efficiency of the electro-optical devices and the sensitivity of the chemical sensors3.

  4. In-situ ALD growth of hafnium oxide films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karavaev, Konstantin; Tallarida, Massimo; Schmeisser, Dieter [Brandenburgische Technische Universitaet Cottbus (Germany). Angewandte Physik - Sensorik; Zschech, Ehrenfried [AMD Saxony LLC and Co. KG, Center for Complex Analysis, Dresden (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    We report on a novel system for in-situ atomic layer growth (ALD) of high-k dielectric films. First results were obtained for Hf-oxide samples by using Hf-tetrachloride as precursor and water as oxidizer. We compare the photoelectron spectra of Si 2p, O 1s and Hf 4f of our in-situ prepared films with samples (ex-situ) prepared by industrial ALD reactors and discuss similarities and differences observed in the core level spectra of the various samples by considering the different growth conditions.

  5. Ultraviolet-induced erasable photochromism in bilayer metal oxide films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terakado, Nobuaki; Tanaka, Keiji; Nakazawa, Akira

    2011-09-01

    We demonstrate that the optical transmittance of bilayer samples consisting of pyrolytically coated amorphous Mg-Sn-O and metal oxide films such as In 2O 3 and SnO 2 decreases upon ultraviolet illumination, but can be recovered by annealing in air at ˜300 ∘C. Spectral, structural, and compositional studies suggest that this photochromic phenomenon is induced by photoelectronic excitation in the Mg-Sn-O film, electron injection into the metal oxide, which becomes negatively charged, and subsequent formation of metallic particles, which absorb and/or scatter visible light.

  6. Bismuth iron oxide thin films using atomic layer deposition of alternating bismuth oxide and iron oxide layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puttaswamy, Manjunath; Vehkamäki, Marko [University of Helsinki, Department of Chemistry, P.O. Box 55, FI-00014 Helsinki (Finland); Kukli, Kaupo, E-mail: kaupo.kukli@helsinki.fi [University of Helsinki, Department of Chemistry, P.O. Box 55, FI-00014 Helsinki (Finland); University of Tartu, Institute of Physics, W. Ostwald 1, EE-50411 Tartu (Estonia); Dimri, Mukesh Chandra [National Institute of Chemical Physics and Biophysics, Akadeemia tee 23, EE-12618 Tallinn (Estonia); Kemell, Marianna; Hatanpää, Timo; Heikkilä, Mikko J. [University of Helsinki, Department of Chemistry, P.O. Box 55, FI-00014 Helsinki (Finland); Mizohata, Kenichiro [University of Helsinki, Department of Physics, P.O. Box 64, FI-00014 Helsinki (Finland); Stern, Raivo [National Institute of Chemical Physics and Biophysics, Akadeemia tee 23, EE-12618 Tallinn (Estonia); Ritala, Mikko; Leskelä, Markku [University of Helsinki, Department of Chemistry, P.O. Box 55, FI-00014 Helsinki (Finland)

    2016-07-29

    Bismuth iron oxide films with varying contributions from Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} or Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} were prepared using atomic layer deposition. Bismuth (III) 2,3-dimethyl-2-butoxide, was used as the bismuth source, iron(III) tert-butoxide as the iron source and water vapor as the oxygen source. The films were deposited as stacks of alternate Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} layers. Films grown at 140 °C to the thickness of 200–220 nm were amorphous, but crystallized upon post-deposition annealing at 500 °C in nitrogen. Annealing of films with intermittent bismuth and iron oxide layers grown to different thicknesses influenced their surface morphology, crystal structure, composition, electrical and magnetic properties. Implications of multiferroic performance were recognized in the films with the remanent charge polarization varying from 1 to 5 μC/cm{sup 2} and magnetic coercivity varying from a few up to 8000 A/m. - Highlights: • Bismuth iron oxide thin films were grown by atomic layer deposition at 140 °C. • The major phase formed in the films upon annealing at 500 °C was BiFeO{sub 3}. • BiFeO{sub 3} films and films containing excess Bi favored electrical charge polarization. • Slight excess of iron oxide enhanced saturative magnetization behavior.

  7. Influence of the atmospheric species water, oxygen, nitrogen and carbon dioxide on the degradation of aluminum doped zinc oxide layers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theelen, M.; Dasgupta, S.; Vroon, Z.; Kniknie, B.; Barreau, N.; Berkum, J. van; Zeman, M.

    2014-01-01

    Aluminum doped zinc oxide (ZnO:Al) layers were exposed to the atmospheric gases carbon dioxide (CO2), oxygen (O2), nitrogen (N 2) and air as well as liquid H2O purged with these gases, in order to investigate the chemical degradation behavior of these layers. The samples were analyzed by electrical,

  8. Characterization of reliability of printed indium tin oxide thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sung-Jei; Kim, Jong-Woong; Jung, Seung-Boo

    2013-11-01

    Recently, decreasing the amount of indium (In) element in the indium tin oxide (ITO) used for transparent conductive oxide (TCO) thin film has become necessary for cost reduction. One possible approach to this problem is using printed ITO thin film instead of sputtered. Previous studies showed potential for printed ITO thin films as the TCO layer. However, nothing has been reported on the reliability of printed ITO thin films. Therefore, in this study, the reliability of printed ITO thin films was characterized. ITO nanoparticle ink was fabricated and printed onto a glass substrate followed by heating at 400 degrees C. After measurement of the initial values of sheet resistance and optical transmittance of the printed ITO thin films, their reliabilities were characterized with an isothermal-isohumidity test for 500 hours at 85 degrees C and 85% RH, a thermal shock test for 1,000 cycles between 125 degrees C and -40 degrees C, and a high temperature storage test for 500 hours at 125 degrees C. The same properties were investigated after the tests. Printed ITO thin films showed stable properties despite extremely thermal and humid conditions. Sheet resistances of the printed ITO thin films changed slightly from 435 omega/square to 735 omega/square 507 omega/square and 442 omega/square after the tests, respectively. Optical transmittances of the printed ITO thin films were slightly changed from 84.74% to 81.86%, 88.03% and 88.26% after the tests, respectively. These test results suggest the stability of printed ITO thin film despite extreme environments.

  9. Magnetron sputtered nanostructured cadmium oxide films for ammonia sensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhivya, P. [Functional Nanomaterials and Devices Lab, Centre for Nanotechnology and Advanced Biomaterials and School of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, SASTRA University, Thanjavur-613 401 (India); Prasad, A.K. [Surface and Nanoscience Division, Materials Science Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam-603 102 (India); Sridharan, M., E-mail: m.sridharan@ece.sastra.edu [Functional Nanomaterials and Devices Lab, Centre for Nanotechnology and Advanced Biomaterials and School of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, SASTRA University, Thanjavur-613 401 (India)

    2014-06-01

    Nanostructured cadmium oxide (CdO) films were deposited on to glass substrates by reactive dc magnetron sputtering technique. The depositions were carried out for different deposition times in order to obtain films with varying thicknesses. The CdO films were polycrystalline in nature with cubic structure showing preferred orientation in (1 1 1) direction as observed by X-ray diffraction (XRD). Field-emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) micrographs showed uniform distribution of grains of 30–35 nm size and change in morphology from spherical to elliptical structures upon increasing the film thickness. The optical band gap value of the CdO films decreased from 2.67 to 2.36 eV with increase in the thickness. CdO films were deposited on to interdigitated electrodes to be employed as ammonia (NH{sub 3}) gas sensor. The fabricated CdO sensor with thickness of 294 nm has a capacity to detect NH{sub 3} as low as 50 ppm at a relatively low operating temperature of 150 °C with quick response and recovery time. - Highlights: • Nanostructured CdO films were deposited on to glass substrates using magnetron sputtering. • Deposition time was varied in order to obtain films with different thicknesses. • The CdO films were polycrystalline in nature with preferred orientation along (1 1 1) direction. • The optical bandgap values of the films decreased on increasing the thickness of the films. • CdO films with different thickness such as 122, 204, 294 nm was capable to detect NH{sub 3} down to 50 ppm at operating temperature of 150 °C.

  10. Ligand field effect at oxide-metal interface on the chemical reactivity of ultrathin oxide film surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jaehoon; Shin, Hyung-Joon; Kim, Yousoo; Kawai, Maki

    2012-06-27

    Ultrathin oxide film is currently one of the paramount candidates for a heterogeneous catalyst because it provides an additional dimension, i.e., film thickness, to control chemical reactivity. Here, we demonstrate that the chemical reactivity of ultrathin MgO film grown on Ag(100) substrate for the dissociation of individual water molecules can be systematically controlled by interface dopants over the film thickness. Density functional theory calculations revealed that adhesion at the oxide-metal interface can be addressed by the ligand field effect and is linearly correlated with the chemical reactivity of the oxide film. In addition, our results indicate that the concentration of dopant at the interface can be controlled by tuning the drawing effect of oxide film. Our study provides not only profound insight into chemical reactivity control of ultrathin oxide film supported by a metal substrate but also an impetus for investigating ultrathin oxide films for a wider range of applications.

  11. The optical constants of several atmospheric aerosol species - Ammonium sulfate, aluminum oxide, and sodium chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toon, O. B.; Pollack, J. B.; Khare, B. N.

    1976-01-01

    An investigation is conducted of problems which are related to a use of measured optical constants in the simulation of the optical constants of real atmospheric aerosols. The techniques of measuring optical constants are discussed, taking into account transmission measurements through homogeneous and inhomogeneous materials, the immersion of a material in a liquid of a known refractive index, the consideration of the minimum deviation angle of prism measurement, the interference of multiply reflected light, reflectivity measurements, and aspects of mathematical analysis. Graphs show the real and the imaginary part of the refractive index as a function of wavelength for aluminum oxide, NaCl, and ammonium sulfate. Tables are provided for the dispersion parameters and the optical constants.

  12. Anodized Aluminum Oxide Templated Synthesis of Metal-Organic Frameworks Used as Membrane Reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yifu; Wu, Xue-Jun; Zhao, Meiting; Ma, Qinglang; Chen, Junze; Chen, Bo; Sindoro, Melinda; Yang, Jian; Han, Shikui; Lu, Qipeng; Zhang, Hua

    2017-01-09

    The incorporation of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) into membrane-shaped architectures is of great importance for practical applications. The currently synthesized MOF-based membranes show many disadvantages, such as poor compatibility, low dispersity, and instability, which severely limit their utility. Herein, we present a general, facile, and robust approach for the synthesis of MOF-based composite membranes through the in situ growth of MOF plates in the channels of anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes. After being used as catalysis reactors, they exhibit high catalytic performance and stability in the Knoevenagel condensation reaction. The high catalytic performance might be attributed to the intrinsic structure of MOF-based composite membranes, which can remove the products from the reaction zone quickly, and prevent the aggregation and loss of catalysts during reaction and recycling process.

  13. Taguchi Optimization for Combustion Synthesis of Aluminum Oxide Nano-particles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    EDRISSI Mohammad; NOROUZBEIGI Reza

    2008-01-01

    Nano-structured aluminum oxide powders were prepared by a combustion synthesis method utilizing serine as a new fuel. The product was sonicated to obtain nano powders. A Taguchi L-4 statistical design of combustion syn- thesis was utilized to optimize the production of γ-alumina powder. The product was characterized by XRD, BET, SEM, EDX and LLS. Nano crystalline γ-alumina with crystal sizes between 4.26 and 5.47 nm and α-Al2O3 powders with crystal sizes 24.51 and 28.62 nm were obtained by the combustion synthesis. The specific surface area was measured by a BET method to be 75.21 m2/g. The average particle size after sonication of product, observed by LLS, was 79.32 nm.

  14. Effect of magnesium in aluminum alloys on characteristics of microarc oxidation coatings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yao-hui; LI Song; YU Si-rong; ZHU Xian-yong; XU Bai-ming

    2006-01-01

    Microarc oxidation(MAO) coatings were prepared on the surface of aluminum alloys with different contents of magnesium. The morphologies and surface roughness of the coatings were characterized by Confocal laser scanning microscopy(CLSM). Phase and chemical composition of the MAO coatings were analyzed by X-ray diffractometry(XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy(XPS). The experimental results show that the coatings formed on different substrates have two-layer morphologies and are mainly composed of Al2O3 and Al-Si-O phases. In addition, the content of Al2O3 increases with increasing the content of magnesium. XPS results prove that magnesium from substrate indeed participates in the MAO process and is incorporated into the coating in the form of MgO. The coating formed on Al-3Mg substrate has the smallest mass loss and the lowest friction coefficient of 0.17-0.19.

  15. Europium-doped aluminum oxide phosphors as indicators for frontal polymerization dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carranza, Arturo; Gewin, Mariah; Pojman, John A

    2014-06-01

    In this study, we present an inexpensive and practical method that allows the monitoring and visualization of front polymerization, propagation, and dynamics. Commercially available europium-doped aluminum oxide powders were combined with video imaging to visualize free-radical propagating polymer fronts. In order to demonstrate the applicability of this method, frontal copolymerization reactions of propoxylated glycerin triacrylate (EB53), pentaerythritol triacrylate (PETA), and pentaerythritol tetra-acrylate (PETEA) with 1,1-Bis(tert-butylperoxy)-3,3,5-trimethylcyclohexane (Luperox 231®) as an initiator were studied and compared to the results obtained by IR imaging. Systems exhibiting higher filler loading, higher EB53 content, and less acrylated monomers showed a marked decrease in front velocity, while those with more acrylated monomers and higher crosslinking density showed a marked increase in front velocity. Finally, in order to show the potential of the imaging technique, we studied fronts propagating in planar and spherical geometries.

  16. Photoluminescence and Raman studies in swift heavy ion irradiated polycrystalline aluminum oxide

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K R Nagabhushana; B N Lakshminarasappa; Fouran Singh

    2009-10-01

    Polycrystalline aluminum oxide is synthesized by combustion technique and XRD studies of the sample revealed the -phase. The synthesized sample is irradiated with 120 MeV swift Au9+ ions for the fluence in the range from 1 × 1011 to 1 × 1013 ions cm-2. A broad photoluminescence (PL) emission with peak at ∼447 nm and two sharp emissions with peak at ∼ 679 and ∼ 695 nm are observed in pristine when sample was excited with 326 nm. However, in the irradiated samples the PL intensity at ∼ 447, 679 and 695 nm decreases with increase in ion fluence. The -Al2O3 gives rise to seven Raman modes with Raman intensity with peaks at ∼ 253, 396, 417, 546, 630, 842, 867 cm-1 observed in pristine. The intensity of these modes decreases with increase in ion fluence. However, the Raman modes observed at lower fluences are found to disappear at higher fluence.

  17. Characterization of Anodic Aluminum Oxide Membrane with Variation of Crystallizing Temperature for pH Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Jin-Ho; Lee, Sung-Gap; Jo, Ye-Won; Jung, Hye-Rin

    2015-11-01

    We fabricated electrolyte-dielectric-metal (EDM) device incorporating a high-k Al2O3 sensing membrane from a porous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) using a two step anodizing process for pH sensors. In order to change the properties of the AAO template, the crystallizing temperature was varied from 400 degrees C to 700 degrees C over 2 hours. The structural properties were observed by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). The pH sensitivity increased with an increase in the crystallizing temperature from 400 degrees C to 600 degrees C. However at 700 degrees C, deformation occurred. The porous AAO sensor with a crystallizing temperature of 600 degrees C displayed the good sensitivity and long-term stability and the values were 55.7 mV/pH and 0.16 mV/h, respectively.

  18. Europium-doped aluminum oxide phosphors as indicators for frontal polymerization dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carranza, Arturo; Gewin, Mariah; Pojman, John A., E-mail: japojman@lsu.edu [Department of Chemistry, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803-1804 (United States)

    2014-06-15

    In this study, we present an inexpensive and practical method that allows the monitoring and visualization of front polymerization, propagation, and dynamics. Commercially available europium-doped aluminum oxide powders were combined with video imaging to visualize free-radical propagating polymer fronts. In order to demonstrate the applicability of this method, frontal copolymerization reactions of propoxylated glycerin triacrylate (EB53), pentaerythritol triacrylate (PETA), and pentaerythritol tetra-acrylate (PETEA) with 1,1-Bis(tert-butylperoxy)-3,3,5-trimethylcyclohexane (Luperox 231®) as an initiator were studied and compared to the results obtained by IR imaging. Systems exhibiting higher filler loading, higher EB53 content, and less acrylated monomers showed a marked decrease in front velocity, while those with more acrylated monomers and higher crosslinking density showed a marked increase in front velocity. Finally, in order to show the potential of the imaging technique, we studied fronts propagating in planar and spherical geometries.

  19. Microstructures and Composition of Ceramic Coatings on Aluminum Produced by Micro-Arc Oxidation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN De-jiu; WANG Yu-lin; GU Wei-chao; XING Guang-zhong

    2004-01-01

    Microstructures and phase composition of the ceramic coatings formed on pure aluminum by heteropolar pulsed current ceramic synthesizing system for different periods were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electronic microscopy (SEM). Results show that the amount of the discharge channels in the ceramic coating sminish while the aperture largen in the micro-arc oxidation process, and the surface of the ceramic coatingmelted and solidified in the process.XRD studies of ceramic coatings deposited for different time show that these coatings consist mainly of α-Al2 O3, γ-Al2 O3 , θ-Al2 O3 and a little amorphous phase, and phase composition of compact and porous ceramic coatings don' t have much difference but have a little change of the content of α-Al2 O3 and amorphous phase.

  20. Contribution of Iron and Aluminum Oxides to Electrokinetic Characteristics of Variable Charge Soils in Relation to Surface Charge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGHONG; ZHANGXIAO-NIAN

    1992-01-01

    The contribution of iron and aluminum oxides to electrokinetic characteristics of variable charge soils was studied through determination of electrophoretic mobilities of the red soils treated with either removal of iron oxides or coating of aluminum oxides,and of those deferrated under natural conditions.After removal of the iron oxides,zeta potentials of the latosol and the red earth decreased obviously with a shift of IEP to a lower pH,from 6.4 to 5.3 and 4.1 to 2.4 for the former and the latter,respectively,and the electrokinetic change for the latosol was greater than for the red earth.Zeta potentials of the kaolinite sample increased markedly after coated with iron oxides.The striking effect of iron oxides on electrokinetix properties of the soils was also demonstrated by the electrokinetic differences between the samples from the red and white zones of a plinthitic horizon formed naturally,and between the samples from the gley and bottom horizons of a paddy soil derived from a red earth.The coatings of aluminum oxides on the latosol and the yellow earth made their zeta potentials rise pronouncedly and their IEFs move toward higher pHs,from 6.2 to 6.8 and 4.3 to 5.3 for the former and the latter,respectively.The samples with different particle sizes also exhibited some electrokinetic variation.The experiment showed that the effects of iron and aluminum oxides were closely related to the pH and type of the soils.

  1. Size effects in epitaxial oxide thin films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiper, Bouwe

    2014-01-01

    The perovskite oxide material class comprises a vast range of interesting physical properties. The common oxygen backbone in such ABO3 perovskites and the similar lattice parameters allow for the creation of epitaxial oxide heterostructures. Materials with different intrinsic properties can be combi

  2. Efficient indium-tin-oxide free inverted organic solar cells based on aluminum-doped zinc oxide cathode and low-temperature aqueous solution processed zinc oxide electron extraction layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Dazheng; Zhang, Chunfu, E-mail: cfzhang@xidian.edu.cn; Wang, Zhizhe; Zhang, Jincheng; Tang, Shi; Wei, Wei; Sun, Li; Hao, Yue, E-mail: yhao@xidian.edu.cn [State Key Discipline Laboratory of Wide Band Gap Semiconductor Technology, School of Microelectronics, Xidian University, No. 2 South Taibai Road, Xi' an 710071 (China)

    2014-06-16

    Indium-tin-oxide (ITO) free inverted organic solar cells (IOSCs) based on aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) cathode, low-temperature aqueous solution processed zinc oxide (ZnO) electron extraction layer, and poly(3-hexylthiophene-2, 5-diyl):[6, 6]-phenyl C{sub 61} butyric acid methyl ester blend were realized in this work. The resulted IOSC with ZnO annealed at 150 °C shows the superior power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 3.01%, if decreasing the ZnO annealing temperature to 100 °C, the obtained IOSC also shows a PCE of 2.76%, and no light soaking issue is observed. It is found that this ZnO film not only acts as an effective buffer layer but also slightly improves the optical transmittance of AZO substrates. Further, despite the relatively inferior air-stability, these un-encapsulated AZO/ZnO IOSCs show comparable PCEs to the referenced ITO/ZnO IOSCs, which demonstrates that the AZO cathode is a potential alternative to ITO in IOSCs. Meanwhile, this simple ZnO process is compatible with large area deposition and plastic substrates, and is promising to be widely used in IOSCs and other relative fields.

  3. Gating of Permanent Molds for ALuminum Casting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Schwam; John F. Wallace; Tom Engle; Qingming Chang

    2004-03-30

    This report summarizes a two-year project, DE-FC07-01ID13983 that concerns the gating of aluminum castings in permanent molds. The main goal of the project is to improve the quality of aluminum castings produced in permanent molds. The approach taken was determine how the vertical type gating systems used for permanent mold castings can be designed to fill the mold cavity with a minimum of damage to the quality of the resulting casting. It is evident that somewhat different systems are preferred for different shapes and sizes of aluminum castings. The main problems caused by improper gating are entrained aluminum oxide films and entrapped gas. The project highlights the characteristic features of gating systems used in permanent mold aluminum foundries and recommends gating procedures designed to avoid common defects. The study also provides direct evidence on the filling pattern and heat flow behavior in permanent mold castings.

  4. Surface adsorption of organoarsenic roxarsone and arsanilic acid on iron and aluminum oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wan-Ru; Huang, Ching-Hua

    2012-08-15

    Aromatic organoarsenicals roxarsone (ROX) and p-arsanilic acid (ASA) are common feed additives for livestock and could be released into the environment via animal manure and agricultural runoff. To evaluate their environmental fate, the adsorption behavior of ROX and ASA was investigated with two common soil metal oxides, goethite (FeOOH) and aluminum oxide (Al(2)O(3)), under different reactant loading, water pH and competing ion conditions. ROX and ASA exhibit essentially identical adsorption characteristics. FeOOH and Al(2)O(3) exhibit similar adsorption trends for both organoarsenicals; however, the adsorption efficiency on the surface site basis was about three times lower for Al(2)O(3) than for FeOOH. The adsorption reaction is favorable at neutral and acidic pH. Phosphate and natural organic matter significantly interfere with aromatic arsenical adsorption on both metal oxides, whereas sulfate and nitrate do not. Pre-adsorbed aromatic arsenicals can be quickly but not completely displaced by phosphate, indicating that ion exchange is not the only mechanism governing the adsorption process. The adsorption envelope was successfully modeled by a diffuse double layer surface complexation model, identifying the critical role of di-anionic organoarsenic species in the adsorption. Results of this research can help predict and control the mobility of aromatic arsenicals in the environment.

  5. Preparation and Properties of Microarc Oxidation Self-Lubricating Composite Coatings on Aluminum Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenwei Li

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Microarc oxidation (MAO coatings were prepared on 2024-T4 aluminum alloy using pulsed bipolar power supply at different cathode current densities. The MAO ceramic coatings contained many crater-like micropores and a small number of microcracks. After the MAO coatings were formed, the coated samples were immersed into a water-based Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE dispersion. The micropores and microcracks on the surface of the MAO coatings were filled with PTFE dispersion for preparing MAO self-lubricating composite coatings. The microstructure and properties of MAO coatings and the wear resistance of microarc oxidation self-lubricating composite coatings were analyzed by SEM, laser confocal microscope, X-ray diffractometry (XRD, Vickers hardness test, scratch test and ball-on-disc abrasive tests, respectively. The results revealed that the wear rates of the MAO coatings decreased significantly with an increase in cathode current density. Compared to the MAO coatings, the microarc oxidation self-lubricating composite coatings exhibited a lower friction coefficient and lower wear rates.

  6. Effect of ac electrodeposition conditions on the growth of high aspect ratio copper nanowires in porous aluminum oxide templates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerein, Nathan J; Haber, Joel A

    2005-09-22

    The effect of several deposition parameters on the uniformity of copper electrodeposition through the alumina barrier layer into porous aluminum oxide templates grown in sulfuric or oxalic acid was systematically investigated. A fractional factorial design of experiment was conducted to find suitable deposition conditions among the variables: frequency, voltage, pulsed or continuous deposition, electrolyte concentration, and barrier layer thinning voltage. Continuous ac sine wave deposition conditions yielded excellent uniformity of pore-filling but damaged the porous aluminum oxide templates when deposition was continued to grow bulk copper on the surface. Pulsed electrodeposition yielded comparable uniformity of pore-filling and no damage to the porous aluminum oxide templates, even when bulk copper was deposited on them. Further optimization of pulsed deposition conditions was accomplished by comparing square and sine waveforms and pulse polarity. Pulsed square waveforms produced better pore-filling than pulsed sine waveforms. For sine wave depositions, the oxidative/reductive pulse polarity was more efficient than the commonly used reductive/oxidative pulse polarity. For square wave depositions into sulfuric acid grown pores, the reductive/oxidative pulse polarity produces more uniform pore-filling, likely as a result of enhanced resonant tunneling through the barrier layer and reoxidation of copper in faster filling pores.

  7. Oxide and proton conductivity in aluminum-doped tricalcium oxy-silicate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porras-Vazquez, J.M.; De la Torre, A.G.; Losilla, E.R.; Aranda, M.A.G. [Dept. Quimica Inorganica, Cristalografia y Mineralogia, Universidad de Malaga, Campus Teatinos, 29071-Malaga (Spain)

    2007-06-15

    Aluminum doping in tricalcium silicate, Ca{sub 3}(SiO{sub 4})O, has been studied by high-resolution laboratory X-ray powder diffraction and the Rietveld method. Two nominal series have been designed and studied. Oxygen-fixed Ca{sub 3-x/2}Al{sub x/2}(Si{sub 1-x/2}Al{sub x/2}O{sub 4})O series has been prepared as single-phase up to x = 0.03. However, oxygen-variable Ca{sub 3}(Si{sub 1-x}Al{sub x}O{sub 4})O{sub 1-x/2}{open_square}{sub x/2} series has not been stabilized for any composition. The samples show oxide anion conductivity with a small p-type electronic contribution under oxidizing conditions. Typical total conductivities for these solids are 10{sup -} {sup 5}-10{sup -} {sup 4}S cm{sup -} {sup 1} at 1100 K. The oxide ion transference numbers are very high, {proportional_to} 0.98, under reducing conditions, i.e. dry 5%H{sub 2}-N{sub 2}/air gradient. The oxide ion transference numbers are slightly lower, {proportional_to} 0.91 under oxidizing conditions, i.e. dry O{sub 2}/air gradient. These compounds display a very important proton contribution to the overall conductivities under humidified atmospheres. The proton transference number ranges between 0.72 and 0.55 at 873 and 1023 K, respectively. (author)

  8. Growth Mechanism of γ-MnS Nanorod-Arrays by Hydrothermal Method on Anodic Aluminum Oxide Template

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Jianming; Liu, Weifeng; Lv, Yong; Yao, Lianzeng [Chinese Academy of Science, Hefei, Anhui (China)

    2010-09-15

    Hydrothermal method is a general, low-cost and convenience method which was utilized for synthesis of nanomaterials. Our research group has reported that oriented MnS nanorods on anodic aluminum oxide template were synthesized under a hydrothermal condition and demonstrated the effect of precursor content on the morphology evolution of as-samples. In order to research the growth mechanism of the arrays, herein we synthesized MnS nanorod arrays by combination of anodic aluminum oxide template and hydrothermal method on different substrates. Through-hole anodic aluminum oxide templates were prepared using Al foil (99.999%) via a two-step anodization process as described in literature. To investigate the effect of different substrates on the morphology of the-products, different substrates including anodic aluminum oxide template (sample A), one-step anodization Al foil (sample B, which was prepared by first anodizing Al foil for 10h and then removing the alumina layer with the mixed acid (0.6 M H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} and 0.15 M H{sub 2}CrO{sub 4}), where the foil still kept the close-packed concave nano-pits consistently with the nanopole of anodic aluminum oxide template), Al foil (sample C, dipped in HNO{sub 3} solution and covered by a compact alumina layer), Si wafer (sample D) respectively were put into Teflon-lined stainless steel autoclaves of 20 mL capacity filled with 16 mL mixed solution consisting of 2 mol/L MnCl{sub 4} and 2 mol/L thiourea. We kept the reaction at 150 .deg. C for 20 h. When reactions completed the products were washed three times with distilled water and absolute ethanol, respectively. Then the products were dried in an oven at 60 .deg. C.

  9. Nanocolumnar Crystalline Vanadium Oxide-Molybdenum Oxide Antireflective Smart Thin Films with Superior Nanomechanical Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Arjun; Nayak, Manish Kumar; Esther, A. Carmel Mary; Pradeepkumar, Maurya Sandeep; Porwal, Deeksha; Gupta, A. K.; Bera, Parthasarathi; Barshilia, Harish C.; Mukhopadhyay, Anoop Kumar; Pandey, Ajoy Kumar; Khan, Kallol; Bhattacharya, Manjima; Kumar, D. Raghavendra; Sridhara, N.; Sharma, Anand Kumar

    2016-11-01

    Vanadium oxide-molybdenum oxide (VO-MO) thin (21-475 nm) films were grown on quartz and silicon substrates by pulsed RF magnetron sputtering technique by altering the RF power from 100 to 600 W. Crystalline VO-MO thin films showed the mixed phases of vanadium oxides e.g., V2O5, V2O3 and VO2 along with MoO3. Reversible or smart transition was found to occur just above the room temperature i.e., at ~45-50 °C. The VO-MO films deposited on quartz showed a gradual decrease in transmittance with increase in film thickness. But, the VO-MO films on silicon exhibited reflectance that was significantly lower than that of the substrate. Further, the effect of low temperature (i.e., 100 °C) vacuum (10-5 mbar) annealing on optical properties e.g., solar absorptance, transmittance and reflectance as well as the optical constants e.g., optical band gap, refractive index and extinction coefficient were studied. Sheet resistance, oxidation state and nanomechanical properties e.g., nanohardness and elastic modulus of the VO-MO thin films were also investigated in as-deposited condition as well as after the vacuum annealing treatment. Finally, the combination of the nanoindentation technique and the finite element modeling (FEM) was employed to investigate yield stress and von Mises stress distribution of the VO-MO thin films.

  10. Nanocolumnar Crystalline Vanadium Oxide-Molybdenum Oxide Antireflective Smart Thin Films with Superior Nanomechanical Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Arjun; Nayak, Manish Kumar; Esther, A Carmel Mary; Pradeepkumar, Maurya Sandeep; Porwal, Deeksha; Gupta, A K; Bera, Parthasarathi; Barshilia, Harish C; Mukhopadhyay, Anoop Kumar; Pandey, Ajoy Kumar; Khan, Kallol; Bhattacharya, Manjima; Kumar, D Raghavendra; Sridhara, N; Sharma, Anand Kumar

    2016-11-17

    Vanadium oxide-molybdenum oxide (VO-MO) thin (21-475 nm) films were grown on quartz and silicon substrates by pulsed RF magnetron sputtering technique by altering the RF power from 100 to 600 W. Crystalline VO-MO thin films showed the mixed phases of vanadium oxides e.g., V2O5, V2O3 and VO2 along with MoO3. Reversible or smart transition was found to occur just above the room temperature i.e., at ~45-50 °C. The VO-MO films deposited on quartz showed a gradual decrease in transmittance with increase in film thickness. But, the VO-MO films on silicon exhibited reflectance that was significantly lower than that of the substrate. Further, the effect of low temperature (i.e., 100 °C) vacuum (10(-5) mbar) annealing on optical properties e.g., solar absorptance, transmittance and reflectance as well as the optical constants e.g., optical band gap, refractive index and extinction coefficient were studied. Sheet resistance, oxidation state and nanomechanical properties e.g., nanohardness and elastic modulus of the VO-MO thin films were also investigated in as-deposited condition as well as after the vacuum annealing treatment. Finally, the combination of the nanoindentation technique and the finite element modeling (FEM) was employed to investigate yield stress and von Mises stress distribution of the VO-MO thin films.

  11. Investigation of the Carbon Monoxide Gas Sensing Characteristics of Tin Oxide Mixed Cerium Oxide Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad B. Haider

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Thin films of tin oxide mixed cerium oxide were grown on unheated substrates by physical vapor deposition. The films were annealed in air at 500 °C for two hours, and were characterized using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy and optical spectrophotometry. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy results reveal that the films were highly porous and porosity of our films was found to be in the range of 11.6–21.7%. The films were investigated for the detection of carbon monoxide, and were found to be highly sensitive. We found that 430 °C was the optimum operating temperature for sensing CO gas at concentrations as low as 5 ppm. Our sensors exhibited fast response and recovery times of 26 s and 30 s, respectively.

  12. Growth of ultrathin vanadium oxide films on Ag(100)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Takuya; Sugizaki, Yuichi; Ishida, Shuhei; Edamoto, Kazuyuki; Ozawa, Kenichi

    2016-07-01

    Vanadium oxide films were grown on Ag(100) by vanadium deposition in O2 and subsequent annealing at 450 °C. It was found that at least three types of ordered V oxide films, which showed (1 × 1), hexagonal, and (4 × 1) LEED patterns, were formed on Ag(100) depending on the O2 pressure during deposition and conditions during postannealing. The films with the hexagonal and (1 × 1) periodicities were characterized by photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) and near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) analysis. The film with the (1 × 1) periodicity was ascribed to a VO(100) film. On the other hand, the film with the hexagonal periodicity was found to be composed of V2O3, and the analysis of the LEED pattern revealed that the lattice parameter of the hexagonal lattice is 0.50 nm, which is very close to that of corundum V2O3(0001) (0.495 nm).

  13. Tandem organic light-emitting diode with a molybdenum tri-oxide thin film interconnector layer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Fei-Ping; Wang Qian; Zhou Xiang

    2013-01-01

    A 10-nm-thick molybdenum tri-oxide (MoO3) thin film was used as the interconnector layer in tandem organic lightemitting devices (OLEDs).The tandem OLEDs with two identical emissive units consisting of N,N'-bis(naphthalen-1-yl)-N,N'-bis(phenyl)-benzidine (NPB) / tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum (Alq3) exhibited current efficiency-current density characteristics superior to the conventional single-unit devices.At 20 mA/cm2,the current efficiency of the tandem OLEDs using the interconnector layers of MoO3 thin film was about 4.0 cd/A,which is about twice that of the corresponding conventional single-unit device (1.8 cd/A).The tandem OLED showed a higher power efficiency than the conventional single-unit device for luminance over 1200 cd/m2.The experimental results demonstrated that a MoO3 thin film with a proper thickness can be used as an effective interconnector layer in tandem OLEDs.Such an interconnector layer can be easily fabricated by simple thermal evaporation,greatly simplifying the device processing and fabrication processes required by previously reported interconnector layers.A possible explanation was proposed for the carrier generation of the MoO3 interconnector layer.

  14. Stoichiometry controlled oxide thin film growth by pulsed laser deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenen, Rik; Smit, Jasper; Orsel, Kasper; Vailionis, Arturas; Bastiaens, Bert; Huijben, Mark; Boller, Klaus; Rijnders, Guus; Koster, Gertjan

    2015-01-01

    The oxidation of species in the plasma plume during pulsed laser deposition controls both the stoichiometry as well as the growth kinetics of the deposited SrTiO3 thin films, instead of the commonly assumed mass distribution in the plasma plume and the kinetic energy of the arriving species. It was

  15. Optimized transparent and heat reflecting oxide and nitride films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howson, R.P.; Ridge, M.I.; Suzuki, K.

    1984-11-01

    Films of indium oxide and indium oxide doped with tin have been produced by reactive planar magnetron sputtering of the pure metal and the alloy and from two metal sources simultaneously. In each case the oxygen partial pressure was controlled to give the higher sheet resistance in the oxide film which was deposited onto a plastic sheet transferred over a drum at ambient temperature. Films prepared under these conditions with the best properties for heat reflecting and visible transparent filters were found to be the oxide of the pure metal. A radio frequency discharge used in conjunction with the magnetron allowed the operating pressure to be considerably reduced, which allowed the preparation of titanium nitride films from a titanium metal target and the construction of simple metal and dielectric-metal-dielectric filters, which match theoretical predictions. A sandwich filter could be made from one titanium target by varying the active gas between oxygen and nitrogen to give a structure of: TiO/sub 2/-TiN-TiO/sub 2/. (A.V.)

  16. Optimized Transparent And Heat Reflecting Oxide And Nitride Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howson, Ronald P.; Ridge, Martin I.; Suzuki, Koichi

    1983-12-01

    Films of indium oxide and indium oxide doped with tin have been produced by reactive planar magnetron sputtering of the pure metal and the alloy and from two metal sources simultaneously. In each case the oxygen partial pressure was controlled to give the highest sheet resistance in the oxide film which was deposited onto a plastic sheet transferred over a drum at ambient temperature. Films prepared under these conditions with the best properties for heat reflecting and visible transparent filters were found to be the oxide of the pure metal. A radio frequency discharge used in conjunction with the magnetron allowed the operating pressure to be considerably reduced, which allowed the preparation of titanium nitride films from a titanium metal target and the construction of simple metal and dielectric-metal-dielectric filters, which match theoretical predictions. A sandwich filter could be made from one titanium target by varying the active gas between oxygen and nitrogen to give a structure of: TiO2 - TiN - Ti02.

  17. Transparent conductive oxides for thin-film silicon solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Löffler, J.

    2005-01-01

    This thesis describes research on thin-film silicon solar cells with focus on the transparent conductive oxide (TCO) for such devices. In addition to the formation of a transparent and electrically conductive front electrode for the solar cell allowing photocurrent collection with low ohmic losses,

  18. Effect of Oxidation Temperature on Characteristics of Thermally Oxidized ZnO Thin Films on Mica Substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Jiyun; Kim, Younggyu; Kim, Byunggu; Leem, Jae-Young

    2015-11-01

    Muscovite mica is one of the promising alternatives to polymer substrates because of its good thermal resistivity, flexibility, and transparency. In this study, metallic Zn films with a thickness of 300 nm were deposited on mica substrates through thermal evaporation; the thin films were then oxidized by annealing at temperatures ranging from 350 to 550 degrees C. The structural and optical properties of thermally oxidized ZnO thin films were investigated. Diffraction peaks for ZnO (100) and (002) planes were observed only for the ZnO thin films oxidized at temperatures above 450 degrees C. These films consisted of relatively rough film-like structures, and the average transmittance of the films was greater than 70% in the visible region. The highest near-band-edge emission was observed for the ZnO thin films oxidized at 500 degrees C. Upon increasing the oxidation temperatures to 500 degrees C, the optical band gap was blue-shifted.

  19. Magnetic Transparent Conducting Oxide Film And Method Of Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windisch, Jr., Charles F.; Exarhos, Gregory J.; Sharma, Shiv K.

    2006-03-14

    Cobalt-nickel oxide films of nominal 100 nm thickness, and resistivity as low as 0.06 O·cm have been deposited by spin-casting from both aqueous and organic precursor solutions followed by annealing at 450° C. in air. An increase in film resistivity was found upon substitution of other cations (e.g., Zn2+, Al3+) for Ni in the spinel structure. However, some improvement in the mechanical properties of the films resulted. On the other hand, addition of small amounts of Li decreased the resistivity. A combination of XRD, XPS, UV/Vis and Raman spectroscopy indicated that NiCo2O4 is the primary conducting component and that the conductivity reaches a maximum at this stoichiometry. When x0.67, the oxide was all spinel but the increased Co content lowered the conductivity.

  20. Magnetic Transparent Conducting Oxide Film And Method Of Making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Windisch, Jr., Charles F. (Richland, WA); Exarhos, Gregory J. (Richland, WA); Sharma, Shiv K. (Honolulu, HI)

    2006-03-14

    Cobalt-nickel oxide films of nominal 100 nm thickness, and resistivity as low as 0.06 O·cm have been deposited by spin-casting from both aqueous and organic precursor solutions followed by annealing at 450° C. in air. An increase in film resistivity was found upon substitution of other cations (e.g., Zn2+, Al3+) for Ni in the spinel structure. However, some improvement in the mechanical properties of the films resulted. On the other hand, addition of small amounts of Li decreased the resistivity. A combination of XRD, XPS, UV/Vis and Raman spectroscopy indicated that NiCo2O4 is the primary conducting component and that the conductivity reaches a maximum at this stoichiometry. When x<0.67, NiO forms leading to an increase in resistivity; when x>0.67, the oxide was all spinel but the increased Co content lowered the conductivity.

  1. Nanostructured zinc oxide thin film by simple vapor transport deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athma, P. V.; Martinez, Arturo I.; Johns, N.; Safeera, T. A.; Reshmi, R.; Anila, E. I.

    2015-09-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures find applications in optoelectronic devices, photo voltaic displays and sensors. In this work zinc oxide nanostructures in different forms like nanorods, tripods and tetrapods have been synthesized by thermal evaporation of zinc metal and subsequent deposition on a glass substrate by vapor transport in the presence of oxygen. It is a comparatively simpler and environment friendly technique for the preparation of thin films. The structure, morphology and optical properties of the synthesized nanostructured thin film were characterized in detail by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and photoluminescence (PL). The film exhibited bluish white emission with Commission International d'Eclairage (CIE) coordinates x = 0.22, y = 0.31.

  2. Multiferroic oxide thin films and heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chengliang; Hu, Weijin; Tian, Yufeng; Wu, Tom

    2015-06-01

    Multiferroic materials promise a tantalizing perspective of novel applications in next-generation electronic, memory, and energy harvesting technologies, and at the same time they also represent a grand scientific challenge on understanding complex solid state systems with strong correlations between multiple degrees of freedom. In this review, we highlight the opportunities and obstacles in growing multiferroic thin films with chemical and structural integrity and integrating them in functional devices. Besides the magnetoelectric effect, multiferroics exhibit excellent resistant switching and photovoltaic properties, and there are plenty opportunities for them to integrate with other ferromagnetic and superconducting materials. The challenges include, but not limited, defect-related leakage in thin films, weak magnetism, and poor control on interface coupling. Although our focuses are Bi-based perovskites and rare earth manganites, the insights are also applicable to other multiferroic materials. We will also review some examples of multiferroic applications in spintronics, memory, and photovoltaic devices.

  3. Multiferroic oxide thin films and heterostructures

    KAUST Repository

    Lu, Chengliang

    2015-05-26

    Multiferroic materials promise a tantalizing perspective of novel applications in next-generation electronic, memory, and energy harvesting technologies, and at the same time they also represent a grand scientific challenge on understanding complex solid state systems with strong correlations between multiple degrees of freedom. In this review, we highlight the opportunities and obstacles in growing multiferroic thin films with chemical and structural integrity and integrating them in functional devices. Besides the magnetoelectric effect, multiferroics exhibit excellent resistant switching and photovoltaic properties, and there are plenty opportunities for them to integrate with other ferromagnetic and superconducting materials. The challenges include, but not limited, defect-related leakage in thin films, weak magnetism, and poor control on interface coupling. Although our focuses are Bi-based perovskites and rare earth manganites, the insights are also applicable to other multiferroic materials. We will also review some examples of multiferroic applications in spintronics, memory, and photovoltaic devices.

  4. Perovskite Oxide Thin Film Growth, Characterization, and Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumi, Andrew

    Studies into a class of materials known as complex oxides have evoked a great deal of interest due to their unique magnetic, ferroelectric, and superconducting properties. In particular, materials with the ABO3 perovskite structure have highly tunable properties because of the high stability of the structure, which allows for large scale doping and strain. This also allows for a large selection of A and B cations and valences, which can further modify the material's electronic structure. Additionally, deposition of these materials as thin films and superlattices through techniques such as pulsed laser deposition (PLD) results in novel properties due to the reduced dimensionality of the material. The novel properties of perovskite oxide heterostructures can be traced to a several sources, including chemical intermixing, strain and defect formation, and electronic reconstruction. The correlations between microstructure and physical properties must be investigated by examining the physical and electronic structure of perovskites in order to understand this class of materials. Some perovskites can undergo phase changes due to temperature, electrical fields, and magnetic fields. In this work we investigated Nd0.5Sr 0.5MnO3 (NSMO), which undergoes a first order magnetic and electronic transition at T=158K in bulk form. Above this temperature NSMO is a ferromagnetic metal, but transitions into an antiferromagnetic insulator as the temperature is decreased. This rapid transition has interesting potential in memory devices. However, when NSMO is deposited on (001)-oriented SrTiO 3 (STO) or (001)-oriented (LaAlO3)0.3-(Sr 2AlTaO6)0.7 (LSAT) substrates, this transition is lost. It has been reported in the literature that depositing NSMO on (110)-oriented STO allows for the transition to reemerge due to the partial epitaxial growth, where the NSMO film is strained along the [001] surface axis and partially relaxed along the [11¯0] surface axis. This allows the NSMO film enough

  5. Effects of Substrate Local Strain on Microstructure of Electrodeposited Aluminum Film

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAN Yuehua; YAN Bo; GAO Ge; YANG Yuxin

    2006-01-01

    The aluminum coating layer was formed on a copper substrate with local strain region by using the electrodeposited method. It was found that the particle shape of the coating deposited on the copper substrate is very sensitive to the strain extent of substrate. The large needle-like aluminum particles were observed on the substrate region with large local strain, indicating that substrate local strain may affect the shape of the deposited particles and promote the nucleation and growth of the deposited particles.

  6. Indium oxide inverse opal films synthesized by structure replication method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amrehn, Sabrina; Berghoff, Daniel; Nikitin, Andreas; Reichelt, Matthias; Wu, Xia; Meier, Torsten; Wagner, Thorsten

    2016-04-01

    We present the synthesis of indium oxide (In2O3) inverse opal films with photonic stop bands in the visible range by a structure replication method. Artificial opal films made of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) spheres are utilized as template. The opal films are deposited via sedimentation facilitated by ultrasonication, and then impregnated by indium nitrate solution, which is thermally converted to In2O3 after drying. The quality of the resulting inverse opal film depends on many parameters; in this study the water content of the indium nitrate/PMMA composite after drying is investigated. Comparison of the reflectance spectra recorded by vis-spectroscopy with simulated data shows a good agreement between the peak position and calculated stop band positions for the inverse opals. This synthesis is less complex and highly efficient compared to most other techniques and is suitable for use in many applications.

  7. Ferroelectric thin films using oxides as raw materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.B. Araújo

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available This work describes an alternative method for the preparation of ferroelectric thin films based on pre-calcination of oxides, to be used as precursor material for a solution preparation. In order to show the viability of the proposed method, PbZr0.53Ti0.47O3 and Bi4Ti3O12 thin films were prepared on fused quartz and Si substrates. The results were analyzed by X-ray Diffraction (XRD, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM, Infrared Spectroscopy (IR and Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy (RBS. The films obtained show good quality, homogeneity and the desired stoichiometry. The estimated thickness for one layer deposition was approximately 1000 Å and 1500 Å for Bi4Ti3O12 and PbZr0.53Ti0.47O3 films, respectively.

  8. Structure of silicon oxide films prepared by vacuum deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Yoshio; Kaito, Chihiro; Nishio, Kenzo; Naiki, Toshio

    1985-05-01

    The structure of thin silicon oxide films 5 nm in thickness, which were prepared by electron beam evaporation of SiO 2 glass onto a NaCl substrate, has been examined by high resolution electron microscopy and diffraction. Although the films which were prepared with substrate temperatures ranging from room up to 400°C gave rise to amorphous haloes, lattice fringes in areas 1-2 nm in extent were, however, seen in the micrographs. It is shown that the film is composed of α-quartz micro-crystallites. Crystals of α-cristobalite with sizes of several tens of nanometers appeared at a substrate temperature of 500°C. At a substrate temperature of 600°C, β-cristobalite crystals with sizes of several tens of nanometers appeared. The structural changes due to the substrate temperature were attributed to incorporation of sodium atoms from the substrate into the SiO 2 film.

  9. Structural transformation of nickel hydroxide films during anodic oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crocker, R.W.; Muller, R.H.

    1992-05-01

    The transformation of anodically formed nickel hydroxide/oxy-hydroxide electrodes has been investigated. A mechanism is proposed for the anodic oxidation reaction, in which the reaction interface between the reduced and oxidized phases of the electrode evolves in a nodular topography that leads to inefficient utilization of the active electrode material. In the proposed nodular transformation model for the anodic oxidation reaction, nickel hydroxide is oxidized to nickel oxy-hydroxide in the region near the metal substrate. Since the nickel oxy-hydroxide is considerably more conductive than the surrounding nickel hydroxide, as further oxidation occurs, nodular features grow rapidly to the film/electrolyte interface. Upon emerging at the electrolyte interface, the reaction boundary between the nickel hydroxide and oxy-hydroxide phases spreads laterally across the film/electrolyte interface, creating an overlayer of nickel oxy-hydroxide and trapping uncharged regions of nickel hydroxide within the film. The nickel oxy-hydroxide overlayer surface facilitates the oxygen evolution side reaction. Scanning tunneling microscopy of the electrode in its charged state revealed evidence of 80 {endash} 100 Angstrom nickel oxy-hydroxide nodules in the nickel hydroxide film. In situ spectroscopic ellipsometer measurements of films held at various constant potentials agree quantitatively with optical models appropriate to the nodular growth and subsequent overgrowth of the nickel oxy-hydroxide phase. A two-dimensional, numerical finite difference model was developed to simulate the current distribution along the phase boundary between the charged and uncharged material. The model was used to explore the effects of the physical parameters that govern the electrode behavior. The ratio of the conductivities of the nickel hydroxide and oxy-hydroxide phases was found to be the dominant parameter in the system.

  10. Polymer-assisted deposition of metal-oxide films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Q X; McCleskey, T M; Burrell, A K; Lin, Y; Collis, G E; Wang, H; Li, A D Q; Foltyn, S R

    2004-08-01

    Metal oxides are emerging as important materials for their versatile properties such as high-temperature superconductivity, ferroelectricity, ferromagnetism, piezoelectricity and semiconductivity. Metal-oxide films are conventionally grown by physical and chemical vapour deposition. However, the high cost of necessary equipment and restriction of coatings on a relatively small area have limited their potential applications. Chemical-solution depositions such as sol-gel are more cost-effective, but many metal oxides cannot be deposited and the control of stoichiometry is not always possible owing to differences in chemical reactivity among the metals. Here we report a novel process to grow metal-oxide films in large areas at low cost using polymer-assisted deposition (PAD), where the polymer controls the viscosity and binds metal ions, resulting in a homogeneous distribution of metal precursors in the solution and the formation of uniform metal-organic films. The latter feature makes it possible to grow simple and complex crack-free epitaxial metal-oxides.

  11. Albumin adsorption on oxide thin films studied by spectroscopic ellipsometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva-Bermudez, P., E-mail: suriel21@yahoo.com [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Circuito Exterior s/n, C.U., 04510, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Unidad de Posgrado, Facultad de Odontologia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, CU, 04510, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Rodil, S.E.; Muhl, S. [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Circuito Exterior s/n, C.U., 04510, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2011-12-15

    Thin films of tantalum, niobium, zirconium and titanium oxides were deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering and their wettability and surface energy, optical properties, roughness, chemical composition and microstructure were characterized using contact angle measurements, spectroscopic ellipsometry, profilometry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction, respectively. The purpose of the work was to correlate the surface properties of the films to the Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) adsorption, as a first step into the development of an initial in vitro test of the films biocompatibility, based on standardized protein adsorption essays. The films were immersed into BSA solutions with different protein concentrations and protein adsorption was monitored in situ by dynamic ellipsometry; the adsorption-rate was dependent on the solution concentration and the immersion time. The overall BSA adsorption was studied in situ using spectroscopic ellipsometry and it was found to be influenced by the wettability of the films; larger BSA adsorption occurred on the more hydrophobic surface, the ZrO{sub 2} film. On the Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5}, Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} and TiO{sub 2} films, hydrophilic surfaces, the overall BSA adsorption increased with the surface roughness or the polar component of the surface energy.

  12. Adsorption kinetics of organophosphonic acids on plasma-modified oxide-covered aluminum surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giza, M; Thissen, P; Grundmeier, G

    2008-08-19

    Tailoring of oxide chemistry on aluminum by means of low-pressure water and argon plasma surface modification was performed to influence the kinetics of the self-assembly process of octadecylphosphonic acid monolayers. The plasma-induced surface chemistry was studied by in situ FTIR reflection-absorption spectroscopy (IRRAS). Ex situ IRRAS and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were applied for the analysis of the adsorbed self-assembled monolayers. The plasma-induced variation of the hydroxide to oxide ratio led to different adsorption kinetics of the phosphonic acid from dilute ethanol solutions as measured by means of a quartz crystal microbalance. Water plasma treatment caused a significant increase in the density of surface hydroxyl groups in comparison to that of the argon-plasma-treated surface. The hydroxyl-rich surface led to significantly accelerated adsorption kinetics of the phosphonic acid with a time of monolayer formation of less than 1 min. On the contrary, decreasing the surface hydroxyl density slowed the adsorption kinetics.

  13. Steam reforming of methanol over copper loaded anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) prepared through electrodeposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linga Reddy, E.; Karuppiah, J.; Lee, Hyun Chan; Kim, Dong Hyun

    2014-12-01

    In order to study the steam reforming of methanol (SRM) to produce hydrogen for fuel cells, porous γ-alumina support is developed on Al substrate using anodic oxidation process and copper catalyst particles are deposited homogeneously over anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) surface by electrodeposition method. We investigated the effect of electrodeposition time and hot water treatment (HWT) on the activity of catalysts for SRM reaction in the temperature range between 160 and 360 °C. The experimental results indicate that the SRM activity, CO2 and dimethyl ether (DME) selectivity's over Cu catalysts increased as the electrodeposition time increased from 30 to 120 s, further increment in deposition time of Cu have no significant effect on it. The rates of SRM conversion are found to be higher for the catalysts made from the supports obtained after HWT, which may be due to the enhancement in the surface area of AAO support. It is found that the SRM activity and CO2 selectivity strongly depended upon the free exposed copper sites available for methanol adsorption and reaction, and DME in products is mainly observed in the reaction temperature range between 300 and 350 °C and it is higher for the catalysts with low Cu content.

  14. Fabrication of Orderly Copper Particle Arrays on a Multi-Electrolyte-Step Anodic Aluminum Oxide Template

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Ko Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A multi-electrolyte-step (MES anodic aluminum oxide (AAO method was used to achieve nanochannel arrays with good circularity and periodic structure. The nano-channel array fabrication process included immersion in a phosphoric acid solution with a 120–150 bias voltage. Bowl-shaped structures were then formed by removing the walls of the nano-channel arrays. The nano-channel arrays were grown from the bottom of the bowl structure in an oxalic solution using a 50 V bias voltage. A comparison of this new MES process with the one-step and five-step AAO process showed a 50% improvement in the circularity over the one-step process. The standard deviation of the average period in the MES array was 25 nm which is less than that of one-step process. This MES method also took 1/4 of the growing time of the five-step process. The orderliness of the nano-channel arrays for the five-step and MES process was similar. Finally, Cu nanoparticle arrays with a 200 nm period were grown using an electroplating process inside the MES nano-channel arrays on fluorine doped tin oxide glass. Stronger surface plasmon resonance absorption from 550 nm to 750 nm was achieved with the MES process than was possible with the one-step process.

  15. Evaluation of cerium oxide coated Cu cermets as inert anodes for aluminum electrowinning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-08-01

    Cu/NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} cermets were evaluated, with and without an in-situ deposited CEROX (TM; cerium oxide) coating, in 100 h laboratory A1 electrowinning tests. Bath ratio and current density were varied between tests and corrosion was determined by contamination of the aluminum and cryolite by cermet components (Cu, Fe, and Ni). Higher bath ratios of 1.5 to 1.6 led to less corrosion and thicker CEROX coatings. Lower current densities led to slightly less corrosion but much less oxidation of the Cu cermet substrate. At identical test conditions, the corrosion of the CEROX coated cermets was 1/7 that of an uncoated cermet. Corrosion was increased in CEROX coated cermets tested under unsaturated alumina conditions. The electrical conductivity of the CEROX coating was measured to be {approximately}0.2 ohm{sup {minus}1}cm{sup {minus}1}, resulting in a slight voltage penalty, depending on the thickness of the coating.

  16. Microarc Oxidation of the High-Silicon Aluminum AK12D Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Kiseleva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of work is to study how the high-silicon aluminum AK12D alloy microstructure and MAO-process modes influence on characteristics (microhardness, porosity and thickness of the oxide layer of formed surface layer.Experimental methods of study:1 MAO processing of AK12D alloy disc-shaped samples. MAO modes features are concentration of electrolyte components – soluble water glass Na2SiO3 and potassium hydroxide (KOH. The content of two components both the soluble water glass and the potassium hydroxide was changed at once, with their concentration ratio remaining constant;2 metallographic analysis of AK12D alloy structure using an optical microscope «Olympus GX51»;3 image analysis of the system "alloy AK12D - MAO - layer" using a scanning electron microscope «JEOL JSM 6490LV»;4 hardness evaluation of the MAO-layers using a micro-hardness tester «Struers Duramin».The porosity, microhardness and thickness of MAO-layer formed on samples with different initial structures are analyzed in detail. Attention is paid to the influence of MAO process modes on the quality layer.It has been proved that the MAO processing allows reaching quality coverage with high microhardness values of 1200-1300HV and thickness up to 114 μm on high-silicon aluminum alloy. It has been found that the initial microstructure of alloy greatly affects the thickness of the MAO - layer. The paper explains the observed effect using the physical principles of MAO process and the nature of silicon particles distribution in the billet volume.It has been shown that increasing concentration of sodium silicate and potassium hydroxide in the electrolyte results in thicker coating and high microhardness.It has been revealed that high microhardness is observed in the thicker MAO-layers.Conclusions:1 The microstructure of aluminum AK12D alloy and concentration of electrolyte components - liquid glass Na2SiO3 and potassium hydroxide affect the quality of coating resulted from MAO

  17. Green light emission in aluminum oxide powders doped with different terbium concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariscal B, L; Falcony, C. [IPN, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados, 07360 Ciudad de Mexico (Mexico); Carmona T, S.; Murrieta, H.; Sanchez A, M. A. [UNAM, Instituto de Fisica, 04510 Ciudad de Mexico (Mexico); Vazquez A, R. [IPN, Escuela Superior de Computo, 07738 Ciudad de Mexico (Mexico); Garcia R, C. M., E-mail: mariscal2005@gmail.com [UNAM, Facultad de Ciencias, 04510 Ciudad de Mexico (Mexico)

    2016-11-01

    Different emission intensities presented in aluminum oxide phosphors corresponding to different concentrations of doping performed with terbium are analyzed. The phosphors were synthesized by the evaporation technique and were characterized by photo and cathodoluminescence, X-ray diffraction and EDS techniques for different incorporation percentages of terbium as dopant; they show characteristic transitions in 494, 543, 587 and 622 nm, corresponding to {sup 5}D{sub 4} → {sup 7}F{sub 6}, {sup 5}D{sub 4} → {sup 7}F{sub 5}, {sup 5}D{sub 4} → {sup 7}F{sub 4} and {sup 5}D{sub 4} → {sup 7}F{sub 3}, respectively when they are excited with λ{sub exc} = 380 nm wavelength at room temperature. The results of X-ray diffraction show the presence of α-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} phases with peaks located at 2θ = 25.78, 35.34, 37.96, 43.56, 45.8, 52.74, 57.7, 61.5, 66.74, 68.44, 77.12 and 80.94, and the δ-Al{sub 2}O-3 phase 2θ = 32.82, 45.8, 61.36 and 66.74. These compounds were heat treated for two hours at 1100 degrees Celsius. EDS analyzes indicate that these compounds have close to 60% oxygen around of 40% aluminum in the presence of terbium as dopant which indicates a stoichiometry close to the expected one for alumina. (Author)

  18. Numerical experiments on evaporation and explosive boiling of ultra-thin liquid argon film on aluminum nanostructure substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weidong; Zhang, Haiyan; Tian, Conghui; Meng, Xiaojie

    2015-04-01

    Evaporation and explosive boiling of ultra-thin liquid film are of great significant fundamental importance for both science and engineering applications. The evaporation and explosive boiling of ultra-thin liquid film absorbed on an aluminum nanostructure solid wall are investigated by means of molecular dynamics simulations. The simulated system consists of three regions: liquid argon, vapor argon, and an aluminum substrate decorated with nanostructures of different heights. Those simulations begin with an initial configuration for the complex liquid-vapor-solid system, followed by an equilibrating system at 90 K, and conclude with two different jump temperatures, including 150 and 310 K which are far beyond the critical temperature. The space and time dependences of temperature, pressure, density number, and net evaporation rate are monitored to investigate the phase transition process on a flat surface with and without nanostructures. The simulation results reveal that the nanostructures are of great help to raise the heat transfer efficiency and that evaporation rate increases with the nanostructures' height in a certain range.

  19. Numerical experiments on evaporation and explosive boiling of ultra-thin liquid argon film on aluminum nanostructure substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weidong; Zhang, Haiyan; Tian, Conghui; Meng, Xiaojie

    2015-01-01

    Evaporation and explosive boiling of ultra-thin liquid film are of great significant fundamental importance for both science and engineering applications. The evaporation and explosive boiling of ultra-thin liquid film absorbed on an aluminum nanostructure solid wall are investigated by means of molecular dynamics simulations. The simulated system consists of three regions: liquid argon, vapor argon, and an aluminum substrate decorated with nanostructures of different heights. Those simulations begin with an initial configuration for the complex liquid-vapor-solid system, followed by an equilibrating system at 90 K, and conclude with two different jump temperatures, including 150 and 310 K which are far beyond the critical temperature. The space and time dependences of temperature, pressure, density number, and net evaporation rate are monitored to investigate the phase transition process on a flat surface with and without nanostructures. The simulation results reveal that the nanostructures are of great help to raise the heat transfer efficiency and that evaporation rate increases with the nanostructures' height in a certain range.

  20. Characterization of aluminum surfaces: Sorption and etching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polkinghorne, Jeannette Clera

    Aluminum, due to its low density and low cost, is a key material for future lightweight applications. However, like other structural materials, aluminum is subject to various forms of corrosion damage that annually costs the United States approximately 5% of its GNP [1]. The main goal is to investigate the effects of various solution anions on aluminum surfaces, and specifically probe pit initiation and inhibition. Using surface analysis techniques including X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Auger electron spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy, results have been correlated with those obtained from electrochemical methods and a radiolabeling technique developed in the Wieckowski laboratory. Analysis of data has indicated that important variables include type of anion, solution pH, and applied electrode potential. While aggressive anions such as chloride are usually studied to elucidate corrosion processes to work ultimately toward inhibition, its corrosive properties can be successfully utilized in the drive for higher energy and smaller-scale storage devices. Fundamental information gained regarding anion interaction with the aluminum surface can be applied to tailor etch processes. Standard electrochemical techniques and SEM are respectively used to etch and analyze the aluminum substrate. Aluminum electrolytic capacitors are comprised of aluminum anode foil covered by an anodically grown aluminum oxide dielectric film, electrolytic paper impregnated with electrolyte, and aluminum cathode foil. Two main processes are involved in the fabrication of aluminum electrolytic capacitors, namely etching and anodic oxide formation. Etching of the anode foil results in a higher surface area (up to 20 times area enlargement compared to unetched foil) that translates into a higher capacitance gain, permitting more compact and lighter capacitor manufacture. Anodic oxide formation on the anode, creates the required dielectric to withstand high voltage operation. A

  1. Improved zinc oxide film for gas sensor applications

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Roy; S Basu

    2002-11-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) is a versatile material for different commercial applications such as transparent electrodes, piezoelectric devices, varistors, SAW devices etc because of its high piezoelectric coupling, greater stability of its hexagonal phase and its pyroelectric property. In fact, ZnO is a potential material for gas sensor applications. Good quality ZnO films were deposited on glass and quartz substrates by a novel CVD technique using zinc acetate as the starting solution. X-ray diffraction confirmed the crystallinity of the zinc oxide film and SEM study revealed uniform deposition of fine grains. Undoped ZnO films were used for detection of dimethylamine (DMA) and H2 at different temperatures by recording the change in resistivity of the film in presence of the test gases. The response was faster and the sensitivity was higher compared to the earlier reported ZnO based sensors developed in our laboratory. The main objective of this work was to study the selectivity of the ZnO film for a particular gas in presence of the others. The operating temperature was found to play a key role in the selectivity of such sensors.

  2. Reduction of interface states by hydrogen treatment at the aluminum oxide/4H-SiC Si-face interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hironori Yoshioka

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Processes to form aluminum oxide as a gate insulator on the 4H-SiC Si-face are investigated to eliminate the interface state density (DIT and improve the mobility. Processes that do not involve the insertion or formation of SiO2 at the interface are preferential to eliminate traps that may be present in SiO2. Aluminum oxide was formed by atomic layer deposition with hydrogen plasma pretreatment followed by annealing in forming gas. Hydrogen treatment was effective to reduce DIT at the interface of aluminum oxide and SiC without a SiO2 interlayer. Optimization of the process conditions resulted in DIT for the metal oxide semiconductor (MOS capacitor of 1.7×1012 cm−2eV−1 at 0.2 eV, and the peak field-effect mobility of the MOS field-effect transistor (MOSFET was approximately 57 cm2V−1s−1.

  3. Effect of deposition parameters on mechanical properties of TiN films coated on 2A12 aluminum alloys by arc ion plating (AIP)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AWAD Samir Hamid; QIAN Han-cheng

    2005-01-01

    TiN films were deposited on 2A12 aluminum alloy by arc ion plating (AIP). The Vickers hardness of the films deposited at different bias voltages and different nitrogen gas pressures, and that of the substrate were measured. The surface roughness of the TiN films diposited at -30 V and -80 V respectively and at different nitrogen gas pressure was measured also. The mass loss of TiN films deposited at 0 V, -30 V and -80 V respectively were analyzed in dry sand rubber wheel abrasive wear tests and wet ones in comparison with uncoated Al alloy and austenitic stainless steel (AISI 316L). It is revealed that the highest hardness of the TiN film is obtained at a bias voltage of -30 V and a N2 gas pressure of 0.5 Pa. The surface roughness of the film is larger at -80 V than that at -30 V and reduces as the increase of the N2 gas pressure. The mass loss of TiN-film coated 2A12 aluminum alloy is remarkably less than that of uncoated Al alloy and also that of AISI 316L, which indicates that the abrasive wear rate is greatly reduced by the application of TiN coating. TiN coating deposited by arc ion plating (AIP) technique on aluminum alloy can be a potential coating for machine parts requiring preciseness and lightness.

  4. Aluminum/Copper Oxide/Copper Memristive Devices: Fabrication, Characterization, and Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Nathan R.

    Memristive devices have become very popular in recent years due to their potential to dramatically alter logic processing in CMOS circuitry. Memristive devices function as electrical potentiometers, allowing for such diverse applications as memory storage, multi-state logic, and reconfigurable logic gates. This research covered the fabrication, characterization, and modeling of Al/CuxO/Cu memristive devices created by depositing Al top electrodes atop a CuxO film grown using plasma oxidation to grow the oxide on a Cu wafer. Power settings of the plasma oxidation system were shown to control the grown oxide thickness and oxygen concentration, which subsequently affected memristive device behaviors. These memristive devices demonstrated complete nonpolar behavior and could be switched either in a vertical (Al/Cu xO/Cu) or lateral (Al/CuxO/Cu/CuxO/Al) manner. The switching mechanism of these devices was shown to be filamentary in nature. Physical and empirical models of these devices were created for MATLAB, HSPICE, & Verilog A environments. While the physical model proved of limited practical consequence, the robust empirical model allows for rapid prototyping of CMOS-memristor circuitry.

  5. Compositional analysis of silicon oxide/silicon nitride thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meziani Samir

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen, amorphous silicon nitride (SiNx:H abbreviated SiNx films were grown on multicrystalline silicon (mc-Si substrate by plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD in parallel configuration using NH3/SiH4 gas mixtures. The mc-Si wafers were taken from the same column of Si cast ingot. After the deposition process, the layers were oxidized (thermal oxidation in dry oxygen ambient environment at 950 °C to get oxide/nitride (ON structure. Secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS, Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS, Auger electron spectroscopy (AES and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX were employed for analyzing quantitatively the chemical composition and stoichiometry in the oxide-nitride stacked films. The effect of annealing temperature on the chemical composition of ON structure has been investigated. Some species, O, N, Si were redistributed in this structure during the thermal oxidation of SiNx. Indeed, oxygen diffused to the nitride layer into Si2O2N during dry oxidation.

  6. Transparent amorphous zinc oxide thin films for NLO applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawadzka, A.; Płóciennik, P.; Strzelecki, J.; Sahraoui, B.

    2014-11-01

    This review focuses on the growth and optical properties of amorphous zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films. A high quality ZnO films fabricated by dip-coating (sol-gel) method were grown on quartz and glass substrates at temperature equal to 350 K. The amorphous nature of the films was verified by X-ray diffraction. Atomic Force Microscopy was used to evaluate the surface morphology of the films. The optical characteristics of amorphous thin films have been investigated in the spectral range 190-1100 nm. Measurement of the polarized optical properties was shows a high transmissivity (80-99%) and low absorptivity (<5%) in the visible and near infrared regions at different angles of incidence. Linear optical properties were investigated by classic and Time-Resolved Photoluminescence (TRPL) measurements. Photoluminescence spectrum exhibits a strong ultraviolet emission while the visible emission is very weak. An innovative TRPL technique has enabled the measurement of the photoluminescence decay time as a function of temperature. TRPL measurements reveal a multiexponential decay behavior typical for amorphous thin films. Second and third harmonic generation measurements were performed by means of the rotational Maker fringe technique using Nd:YAG laser at 1064 nm in picosecond regime for investigations of the nonlinear optical properties. The obtained values of second and third order nonlinear susceptibilities were found to be high enough for the potential applications in the optical switching devices based on refractive index changes. Presented spectra confirm high structural and optical quality of the investigated zinc oxide thin films.

  7. Zinc oxide doped graphene oxide films for gas sensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetna, Kumar, Shani; Garg, A.; Chowdhuri, A.; Dhingra, V.; Chaudhary, S.; Kapoor, A.

    2016-05-01

    Graphene Oxide (GO) is analogous to graphene, but presence of many functional groups makes its physical and chemical properties essentially different from those of graphene. GO is found to be a promising material for low cost fabrication of highly versatile and environment friendly gas sensors. Selectivity, reversibility and sensitivity of GO based gas sensor have been improved by hybridization with Zinc Oxide nanoparticles. The device is fabricated by spin coating of deionized water dispersed GO flakes (synthesized using traditional hummer's method) doped with Zinc Oxide on standard glass substrate. Since GO is an insulator and functional groups on GO nanosheets play vital role in adsorbing gas molecules, it is being used as an adsorber. Additionally, on being exposed to certain gases the electric and optical characteristics of GO material exhibit an alteration in behavior. For the conductivity, we use Zinc Oxide, as it displays a high sensitivity towards conduction. The effects of the compositions, structural defects and morphologies of graphene based sensing layers and the configurations of sensing devices on the performances of gas sensors were investigated by Raman Spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction(XRD) and Keithley Sourcemeter.

  8. High-temperature tensile deformation behavior of aluminum oxide with and without an applied electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, James

    1998-12-01

    Ceramics are usually considered to be brittle, but under certain conditions some ceramics exhibit a large degree of ductility. They are fine-grained and exhibit superplastic behavior when deformed at high temperatures and low stresses. Whereas superplasticity gives enhanced ductility to metals, it may be the only method for imparting large plasticity to ceramics. Electric fields have been shown to increase ductility, reduce flow stress and reduce cavitation in the superplastic forming of 7475 Al and yttria-stabilized zirconia. Thus, the concurrent application of an electric field may give improved superplastic properties and increased plasticity to a marginally ductile ceramic such as aluminum oxide (alpha-alumina). Fine-grained alumina tensile specimens, formed by dry pressing and sintering a spray-dried powder, were tested in tension at high temperature with and without an electric field of 300 V/cm. Constant strain rate, strain rate cycling and stress relaxation tests were performed. The effects of an electric field on the ductility, flow stress, cavitation and parameters of the Weertman-Dorn deformation equation were measured. Without an electric field, the following deformation parameters were found: the stress exponent n = 2.2, the grain size exponent p = 1.9, the activation energy Q = 490 kJ/mol and the threshold stress sigmao ≈ 0 MPa, indicating structural superplasticity where grain boundary sliding is the predominant deformation mode and was likely accommodated by the motion of grain boundary dislocations. An electric field of 300 V/cm gave a Joule heating temperature increase of ˜30°C and caused the alumina to swell 5--25% (increasing with time), even while under no applied stress, thereby reducing its ductility and flow stress. After correcting for Joule heating and swelling there was still a significant flow stress reduction produced by the field and the following deformation parameters were found: n = 2.2, p = 1.9, Q = 950 kJ/mol and sigmao ≈ 0

  9. In vitro biocompatibility of titanium-nickel alloy with titanium oxide film by H2O2 oxidation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Tao; CHU Cheng-lin; YIN Li-hong; PU Yao-pu; DONG Yin-sheng; GUO Chao; SHENG Xiao-bo; CHUNG Jonathan-CY; CHU Paul-K

    2007-01-01

    Titanium oxide film with a graded interface to NiTi matrix was synthesized in situ on NiTi shape memory alloy(SMA) by oxidation in H2O2 solution. In vitro studies including contact angle measurement, hemolysis, MTT cytotoxicity and cell morphology tests were employed to investigate the biocompatibility of the H2O2-oxidized NiTi SMAs with this titanium oxide film. The results reveal that wettability, blood compatibility and fibroblasts compatibility of NiTi SMA are improved by the coating of titanium oxide film through H2O2 oxidation treatment.

  10. Structural and Electrochemical Properties of Lithium Nickel Oxide Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyu-bong Cho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available LiNiO2 thin films were fabricated by RF magnetron sputtering. The microstructure of the films was determined by X-ray diffraction and field-emission scanning electron microscopy. The electrochemical properties were investigated with a battery cycler using coin-type half-cells. The LiNiO2 thin films annealed below 500°C had the surface carbonate. The results suggest that surface carbonate interrupted the Li intercalation and deintercalation during charge/discharge. Although the annealing process enhanced the crystallization of LiNiO2, the capacity did not increase. When the annealing temperature was increased to 600°C, the FeCrNiO4 oxide phase was generated and the discharge capacity decreased due to an oxygen deficiency in the LiNiO2 thin film. The ZrO2-coated LiNiO2 thin film provided an improved discharge capacity compared to bare LiNiO2 thin film suggesting that the improved electrochemical characteristic may be attributed to the inhibition of surface carbonate by ZrO2 coating layer.

  11. A comparative analysis of graphene oxide films as proton conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, V. A.; Denisov, N. N.; Dremova, N. N.; Vol'fkovich, Y. M.; Rychagov, A. Y.; Sosenkin, V. E.; Belay, K. G.; Gutsev, G. L.; Shulga, N. Yu.; Shulga, Y. M.

    2014-12-01

    The electrical conductivity of graphene oxide (GO) films in vapors of water and acid solutions is found to be close to the conductivity of a film formed after drying the solution of phenol-2,4-disulfonic acid in polyvinyl alcohol, which is known to be a proton conductor. We found that the conductivity of a GO film in vapors of the H2O-H2SO4 electrolyte possesses a sharp maximum at ~1 % by weight of sulfuric acid. The highest conductivity of GO films can be expected when placing the films over acid vapors where the acid concentration is essentially lower than in the acid solutions at their maximum conductivity. Since the conductivity of the H2O-H2SO4 electrolyte itself has a maximum at ~30 % by weight of sulfuric acid, the use of intermediate concentrations of H2SO4 is recommended in practical applications. The GO films permeated with water or acid solution in water are expected to possess the proton-exchange properties similar to those of other proton-exchanging membranes.

  12. The calculation of band gap energy in zinc oxide films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arif, Ali; Belahssen, Okba; Gareh, Salim; Benramache, Said

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the optical properties of undoped zinc oxide thin films as the n-type semiconductor; the thin films were deposited at different precursor molarities by ultrasonic spray and spray pyrolysis techniques. The thin films were deposited at different substrate temperatures ranging between 200 and 500 °C. In this paper, we present a new approach to control the optical gap energy of ZnO thin films by concentration of the ZnO solution and substrate temperatures from experimental data, which were published in international journals. The model proposed to calculate the band gap energy with the Urbach energy was investigated. The relation between the experimental data and theoretical calculation suggests that the band gap energies are predominantly estimated by the Urbach energies, film transparency, and concentration of the ZnO solution and substrate temperatures. The measurements by these proposal models are in qualitative agreements with the experimental data; the correlation coefficient values were varied in the range 0.96-0.99999, indicating high quality representation of data based on Equation (2), so that the relative errors of all calculation are smaller than 4%. Thus, one can suppose that the undoped ZnO thin films are chemically purer and have many fewer defects and less disorder owing to an almost complete chemical decomposition and contained higher optical band gap energy.

  13. Effect of oxidizing agents in CeO2 thin film formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, S. M.; Sartale, S. D.

    2012-06-01

    Cerium Oxide (CeO2) thin films have been prepared by oxidative soak method onto glass substrates using NaNO2 and NaBrO3 oxidizing agents. Because of different oxidation strength different crystallinity, morphology and optical properties of the CeO2 films have been observed. Furthermore it has been observed that crystalline, transparent and crack free CeO2 thin films can be obtained using NaNO2 oxidizing agent. On the other hand CeO2 thin films deposited by using NaBrO3 oxidizing agent are amorphous, less transparent and porous with large number of cracks.

  14. Physical investigation of electrophoretically deposited graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Politano, Grazia Giuseppina; Versace, Carlo; Vena, Carlo; Castriota, Marco; Ciuchi, Federica; Fasanella, Angela; Desiderio, Giovanni; Cazzanelli, Enzo

    2016-11-01

    Graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide thin films are very promising materials because they can be used in optoelectronic devices and in a growing range of applications such as touch screens and flexible displays. In this work, graphene oxide (GO) and thermally reduced graphene oxide (rGO) thin films, deposited on Ti/glass substrates, have been obtained by electrophoretic deposition. The morphological and the structural properties of the samples have been investigated by micro-Raman technique, X-ray reflectometry, and SEM analysis. In order to study the optical and electrical properties, variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry and impedance analysis have been performed. The thermal annealing changes strongly the structural, electrical, and optical properties, because during the thermal processes some amount of sp3 bonds originally present in GO were removed. In particular, the annealing enhances the Ohmic behavior of the rGO film increasing its conductivity and the estimated optical density. Moreover, using electrophoretic deposition, we have found a higher value of optical density for GO thin films, not observed in GO films obtained with other deposition methods.

  15. Oxidation states of molybdenum in oxide films formed in sulphuric acid and sodium hydroxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okonkwo, I.A.; Doff, J.; Baron-Wiechec, A. [Corrosion and Protection Centre, School of Materials, The University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Jones, G. [Waters Corporation, Floats Rd, Roundthorn Ind. Est., Manchester M23 9LZ (United Kingdom); Koroleva, E.V. [Corrosion and Protection Centre, School of Materials, The University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Skeldon, P., E-mail: p.skeldon@manchester.ac.uk [Corrosion and Protection Centre, School of Materials, The University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Thompson, G.E. [Corrosion and Protection Centre, School of Materials, The University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom)

    2012-07-31

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy is used to investigate the oxidation states of molybdenum in thin films formed potentiostatically, over a range of potentials, in either 1 mol dm{sup -3} H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} or 10 mol dm{sup -3} NaOH at 20 Degree-Sign C. Mo 3d spectra suggested that MoO{sub 2} and Mo(OH){sub 2} were the main components of the films, with smaller amounts of MoO{sub 3} and possibly Mo{sub 2}O{sub 5}. O 1s spectra indicated the presence of oxygen as oxide and hydroxide species and as bound water. Ion beam analysis revealed the formation of thin films at all potentials, with significant losses of oxidized molybdenum to the electrolyte. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Oxides are formed on molybdenum in sulphuric acid and sodium hydroxide solutions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Molybdenum IV and VI are identified by XPS, with MoO2 species dominating. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thicknesses of films are determined by ion beam analysis for a range of potentials. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Films form at low efficiency due to loss of molybdenum species to electrolyte.

  16. PHOTOELECTRIC AND PHOTOMAGNETIC RESPONSE OF INDIUM-TIN OXIDE FILMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. K. Meshkovsky

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Subject of Research. The goal of the present research is investigation of photoelectric and photomagnetic response of ITO (indium-tin oxide films under UV laser irradiation. Method. The ITO films were prepared by magnetron sputtering with the thickness equal to 300nm. The films were irradiated by UV laser light with 248 nm wavelength in laser pulse energy range from 10 mJ to 150 mJ by KrF excimer laser. Metallic electrodes were deposited on the films. Information about the films surface topography was obtained by atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The film structure was investigated by X-ray diffraction. Main Results. It was shown that voltage appears between metallic contacts under the UV light effect. The electric current was observed through resistive load. The anisotropy of electric field producing photoelectric response was demonstrated for the first time. The appearance of magnetic field under the laser light irradiation was observed for the first time. The dependence of the response voltage on the laser pulse energy was linear over the whole measured energy range. The following physical mechanism was proposed for description of the observed phenomenon: electric voltage is associated with non-uniform distribution of the average crystallite size along the film surface, and, therefore, with mean free path of the charge carriers along the film surface. Photomagnetic response could be associated with collective behavior of the large number of charged particles, created due to high intensity laser irradiation. Practical Relevance. The phenomenon being studied could be applied for creation of new optoelectronic devices, for example, modulators, optical detectors, etc. Particularly, due to linear dependence of photoelectric response on the laser pulse energy, this phenomenon is attractive for manufacturing of simple and cheap excimer laser pulse energy detectors.

  17. The Surface Structure and Thermal Properties of Novel Polymer Composite Films Based on Partially Phosphorylated Poly(vinyl alcohol with Aluminum Phosphate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asmalina Mohamed Saat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Partially phosphorylated polyvinyl alcohol (PPVA with aluminum phosphate (ALPO4 composites was synthesized by solution casting technique to produce (PPVA100-y-(ALPO4y (y = 0, 1, and 2. The surface structure and thermal properties of the films were characterized using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA. The results showed that the films have higher thermal stability with strong bonding between PPVA and ALPO4.

  18. An in Situ Generated Palladium on Aluminum Oxide: Applications in Gram-Scale Matsuda-Heck Reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pape, Simon; Daukšaitė, Lauryna; Lucks, Sandra; Gu, Xiaoting; Brunner, Heiko

    2016-12-16

    In situ generated palladium on aluminum oxide provides an active catalytic system for Matsuda-Heck reactions in gram-scale. The novel catalyst proceeded through a significantly higher catalytic activity compared to the classical Pd/C system. Based on the high catalytic activity the first α,β,β-triarylation of methyl acrylate in good yields could be provided in one-step.

  19. Porous silicon carbide and aluminum oxide with unidirectional open porosity as model target materials for radioisotope beam production

    CERN Document Server

    Czapski, M; Tardivat, C; Stora, T; Bouville, F; Leloup, J; Luis, R Fernandes; Augusto, R Santos

    2013-01-01

    New silicon carbide (SiC) and aluminum oxide (Al2O3) of a tailor-made microstructure were produced using the ice-templating technique, which permits controlled pore formation conditions within the material. These prototypes will serve to verify aging of the new advanced target materials under irradiation with proton beams. Before this, the evaluation of their mechanical integrity was made based on the energy deposition spectra produced by FLORA codes. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Tunable Nanostructures and Crystal Structures in Titanium Oxide Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuess H

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Controllable nanostructures in spin coated titanium oxide (TiO2 films have been achieved by a very simple means, through change of post deposition annealing temperature. Electron beam imaging and reciprocal space analysis revealed as-deposited TiO2films to be characterized by a dominant anatase phase which converts to the rutile form at 600 °C and reverts to the anatase modification at 1,200 °C. The phase changes are also accompanied by changes in the film microstructure: from regular nanoparticles (as-deposited to nanowires (600 °C and finally to dendrite like shapes at 1,200 °C. Photoluminescence studies, Raman spectral results, and X-ray diffraction data also furnish evidence in support of the observed solid state phase transformations in TiO2.