Sample records for aluminum calcium sodium

  1. Selective Adsorption of Sodium Aluminum Fluoride Salts from Molten Aluminum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard S. Aubrey; Christine A. Boyle; Eddie M. Williams; David H. DeYoung; Dawid D. Smith; Feng Chi


    Aluminum is produced in electrolytic reduction cells where alumina feedstock is dissolved in molten cryolite (sodium aluminum fluoride) along with aluminum and calcium fluorides. The dissolved alumina is then reduced by electrolysis and the molten aluminum separates to the bottom of the cell. The reduction cell is periodically tapped to remove the molten aluminum. During the tapping process, some of the molten electrolyte (commonly referred as “bath” in the aluminum industry) is carried over with the molten aluminum and into the transfer crucible. The carryover of molten bath into the holding furnace can create significant operational problems in aluminum cast houses. Bath carryover can result in several problems. The most troublesome problem is sodium and calcium pickup in magnesium-bearing alloys. Magnesium alloying additions can result in Mg-Na and Mg-Ca exchange reactions with the molten bath, which results in the undesirable pickup of elemental sodium and calcium. This final report presents the findings of a project to evaluate removal of molten bath using a new and novel micro-porous filter media. The theory of selective adsorption or removal is based on interfacial surface energy differences of molten aluminum and bath on the micro-porous filter structure. This report describes the theory of the selective adsorption-filtration process, the development of suitable micro-porous filter media, and the operational results obtained with a micro-porous bed filtration system. The micro-porous filter media was found to very effectively remove molten sodium aluminum fluoride bath by the selective adsorption-filtration mechanism.

  2. Final report on the safety assessment of aluminum silicate, calcium silicate, magnesium aluminum silicate, magnesium silicate, magnesium trisilicate, sodium magnesium silicate, zirconium silicate, attapulgite, bentonite, Fuller's earth, hectorite, kaolin, lithium magnesium silicate, lithium magnesium sodium silicate, montmorillonite, pyrophyllite, and zeolite. (United States)

    Elmore, Amy R


    This report reviews the safety of Aluminum, Calcium, Lithium Magnesium, Lithium Magnesium Sodium, Magnesium Aluminum, Magnesium, Sodium Magnesium, and Zirconium Silicates, Magnesium Trisilicate, Attapulgite, Bentonite, Fuller's Earth, Hectorite, Kaolin, Montmorillonite, Pyrophyllite, and Zeolite as used in cosmetic formulations. The common aspect of all these claylike ingredients is that they contain silicon, oxygen, and one or more metals. Many silicates occur naturally and are mined; yet others are produced synthetically. Typical cosmetic uses of silicates include abrasive, opacifying agent, viscosity-increasing agent, anticaking agent, emulsion stabilizer, binder, and suspending agent. Clay silicates (silicates containing water in their structure) primarily function as adsorbents, opacifiers, and viscosity-increasing agents. Pyrophyllite is also used as a colorant. The International Agency for Research on Cancer has ruled Attapulgite fibers >5 microm as possibly carcinogenic to humans, but fibers mining and processing of Aluminum Silicate, Calcium Silicate, Zirconium Silicate, Fuller's Earth, Kaolin, Montmorillonite, Pyrophyllite, and Zeolite. The Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR. The Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel concluded that the extensive pulmonary damage in humans was the result of direct occupational inhalation of the dusts and noted that lesions seen in animals were affected by particle size, fiber length, and concentration. The Panel considers that most of the formulations are not respirable and of the preparations that are respirable, the concentration of the ingredient is very low. Even so, the Panel considered that any spray containing these solids should be formulated to minimize their inhalation. With this admonition to the cosmetics industry, the CIR Expert Panel concluded that these ingredients are safe as currently used in cosmetic formulations. The Panel did note that the cosmetic ingredient, Talc, is a hydrated magnesium silicate

  3. Copper, aluminum, iron and calcium inhibit human acetylcholinesterase in vitro. (United States)

    Pohanka, Miroslav


    Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is an important part of cholinergic nerves where it participates in termination of neurotransmission. AChE can be inhibited by e.g. some Alzheimer disease drugs, nerve agents, and secondary metabolites. In this work, metal salts aluminum chloride, calcium chloride, cupric chloride, ferric chloride, potassium chloride, magnesium chloride and sodium chloride were tested for their ability to inhibit AChE. Standard Ellman assay based on human recombinant AChE was done and inhibition was measured using Dixon plot. No inhibition was proved for sodium, potassium and magnesium ions. However, aluminum, cupric, ferric and calcium ions were able to inhibit AChE via noncompetitive mechanism of inhibition. Though the inhibition is much weaker when compared to e.g. drugs with noncompetitive mechanism of action, biological relevance of the findings can be anticipated.

  4. Elasticity of calcium and calcium-sodium amphiboles (United States)

    Brown, J. Michael; Abramson, Evan H.


    Measurements of single-crystal elastic moduli under ambient conditions are reported for nine calcium to calcium-sodium amphiboles that lie in the composition range of common crustal constituents. Velocities of body and surface acoustic waves measured by Impulsive Stimulated Light Scattering (ISLS) were inverted to determine the 13 moduli characterizing these monoclinic samples. Moduli show a consistent pattern: C33 > C22 > C11 and C23 > C12 > C13 and C44 > C55 ∼ C66 and for the uniquely monoclinic moduli, |C35| ≫ C46 ∼ |C25| > |C15| ∼ 0. Most of the compositionally-induced variance of moduli is associated with aluminum and iron content. Seven moduli (C11C12C13C22C44C55C66) increase with increasing aluminum while all diagonal moduli decrease with increasing iron. Three moduli (C11, C13 and C44) increase with increasing sodium and potassium occupancy in A-sites. The uniquely monoclinic moduli (C15C25 and C35) have no significant compositional dependence. Moduli associated with the a∗ direction (C11C12C13C55 and C66) are substantially smaller than values associated with structurally and chemically related clinopyroxenes. Other moduli are more similar for both inosilicates. The isotropically averaged adiabatic bulk modulus does not vary with iron content but increases with aluminum content from 85 GPa for tremolite to 99 GPa for pargasite. Increasing iron reduces while increasing aluminum increases the isotropic shear modulus which ranges from 47 GPa for ferro-actinolite to 64 GPa for pargasite. These results exhibit far greater anisotropy and higher velocities than apparent in earlier work. Quasi-longitudinal velocities are as fast as ∼9 km/s and (intermediate between the a∗- and c-axes) are as slow as ∼6 km/s. Voigt-Reuss-Hill averaging based on prior single crystal moduli resulted in calculated rock velocities lower than laboratory measurements, leading to adoption of the (higher velocity) Voigt bound. Thus, former uses of the upper Voigt bound can

  5. 21 CFR 582.1781 - Sodium aluminum phosphate. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium aluminum phosphate. 582.1781 Section 582.1781 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Additives § 582.1781 Sodium aluminum phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminum phosphate. (b) Conditions...

  6. 21 CFR 182.1781 - Sodium aluminum phosphate. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium aluminum phosphate. 182.1781 Section 182.1781 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Food Substances § 182.1781 Sodium aluminum phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminum phosphate....

  7. Hydrogen storage in sodium aluminum hydride.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozolins, Vidvuds; Herberg, J.L. (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); McCarty, Kevin F.; Maxwell, Robert S. (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Stumpf, Roland Rudolph; Majzoub, Eric H.


    Sodium aluminum hydride, NaAlH{sub 4}, has been studied for use as a hydrogen storage material. The effect of Ti, as a few mol. % dopant in the system to increase kinetics of hydrogen sorption, is studied with respect to changes in lattice structure of the crystal. No Ti substitution is found in the crystal lattice. Electronic structure calculations indicate that the NaAlH{sub 4} and Na{sub 3}AlH{sub 6} structures are complex-ionic hydrides with Na{sup +} cations and AlH{sub 4}{sup -} and AlH{sub 6}{sup 3-} anions, respectively. Compound formation studies indicate the primary Ti-compound formed when doping the material at 33 at. % is TiAl{sub 3} , and likely Ti-Al compounds at lower doping rates. A general study of sorption kinetics of NaAlH{sub 4}, when doped with a variety of Ti-halide compounds, indicates a uniform response with the kinetics similar for all dopants. NMR multiple quantum studies of solution-doped samples indicate solvent interaction with the doped alanate. Raman spectroscopy was used to study the lattice dynamics of NaAlH{sub 4}, and illustrated the molecular ionic nature of the lattice as a separation of vibrational modes between the AlH{sub 4}{sup -} anion-modes and lattice-modes. In-situ Raman measurements indicate a stable AlH{sub 4}{sup -} anion that is stable at the melting temperature of NaAlH{sub 4}, indicating that Ti-dopants must affect the Al-H bond strength.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amilton Carlos Pinheiro Cardoso Filho


    Full Text Available The steel demand for fine applications have increased considerably in the last years, and the criteria for its production are even stricter, mainly in relation to the residual elements content and cleanness required. In relation to the steel cleanness, the main problem faced is the control of the amount and morphology of alumina inclusions, generated in the steel deoxidation with aluminum. Besides harming the products quality, the presence of non metallic inclusions can originate nozzle clogging, and consequently interruptions in the process flux. Aiming to improve the steel cleanness and to minimize nozzle clogging, this study is developed to evaluate the partial substitution of aluminum by calcium carbide in the steel deoxidation. Along the operational procedures, the calcium carbide was applied to 397 heats, through what the improvement in steel cleanness is confirmed, with consequent reduction in the nozzle clogging occurrence.

  9. 75 FR 39025 - Determination That ACTONEL (Risendronate Sodium) Tablets, 75 Milligrams, and ACTONEL WITH CALCIUM... (United States)


    ... ACTONEL WITH CALCIUM (risendronate sodium and calcium carbonate (copackaged)) Tablets, 35 mg/500 mg, were... and calcium carbonate (copackaged)) Tablets, 35/500 mg, is the subject of NDA 21-823, held by Procter... (risendronate sodium) Tablets, 75 mg, nor ACTONEL WITH CALCIUM (risendronate sodium and calcium......

  10. Synthesis of Renewable Energy Materials, Sodium Aluminum Hydride by Grignard Reagent of Al

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    Jun-qin Wang


    Full Text Available The research on hydrogen generation and application has attracted widespread attention around the world. This paper is to demonstrate that sodium aluminum hydride can be synthesized under simple and mild reaction condition. Being activated through organics, aluminum powder reacts with hydrogen and sodium hydride to produce sodium aluminum hydride under atmospheric pressure. The properties and composition of the sample were characterized by FTIR, XRD, SEM, and so forth. The results showed that the product through this synthesis method is sodium aluminum hydride, and it has higher purity, perfect crystal character, better stability, and good hydrogen storage property. The reaction mechanism is also discussed in detail.

  11. Atomic mobility in calcium and sodium aluminosilicate melts at 1200 °C (United States)

    Claireaux, Corinne; Chopinet, Marie-Hélène; Burov, Ekaterina; Gouillart, Emmanuelle; Roskosz, Mathieu; Toplis, Michael J.


    Multicomponent chemical diffusion in liquids of the quaternary system CaO-Na2O-Al2O3-SiO2 has been studied. Diffusion-couple experiments were performed at 1200 °C and for different durations around a central composition of 64.5 wt%SiO2, 13.3 wt%Na2O, 10.8 wt%CaO, 11.4 wt%Al2O3, leading to an overconstrained system of equations that was used to determine the diffusion matrix of the system. The dominant eigenvector of the diffusion matrix was found to correspond to the exchange between sodium and calcium, consistent with the results of the ternary soda-lime silica system. On the other hand, neither of the other two eigenvectors of the diffusion matrix of the quaternary system involve sodium. Given a factor of 50 between the dominant and second eigenvalue, diffusion couples involving the exchange of sodium oxide and a network-forming oxide result in strong uphill diffusion of calcium. The second eigenvector, corresponding to the exchange of calcium with silicon and aluminum, is close to the dominant eigenvector found in previous studies of ternary alkaline-earth aluminosilicate systems. Our results therefore suggest that simple systems may be used to understand diffusive mechanisms in more complex systems.

  12. Simultaneous Sodium and Calcium Imaging from Dendrites and Axons. (United States)

    Miyazaki, Kenichi; Ross, William N


    Dynamic calcium imaging is a major technique of neuroscientists. It can reveal information about the location of various calcium channels and calcium permeable receptors, the time course, magnitude, and location of intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) changes, and indirectly, the occurrence of action potentials. Dynamic sodium imaging, a less exploited technique, can reveal analogous information related to sodium signaling. In some cases, like the examination of AMPA and NMDA receptor signaling, measurements of both [Ca(2+)]i and [Na(+)]i changes in the same preparation may provide more information than separate measurements. To this end, we developed a technique to simultaneously measure both signals at high speed and sufficient sensitivity to detect localized physiologic events. This approach has advantages over sequential imaging because the preparation may not respond identically in different trials. We designed custom dichroic and emission filters to allow the separate detection of the fluorescence of sodium and calcium indicators loaded together into a single neuron in a brain slice from the hippocampus of Sprague-Dawley rats. We then used high-intensity light emitting diodes (LEDs) to alternately excite the two indicators at the appropriate wavelengths. These pulses were synchronized with the frames of a CCD camera running at 500 Hz. Software then separated the data streams to provide independent sodium and calcium signals. With this system we could detect [Ca(2+)]i and [Na(+)]i changes from single action potentials in axons and synaptically evoked signals in dendrites, both with submicron resolution and a good signal-to-noise ratio (S/N).

  13. Effects of aluminum hydroxide and calcium carbonate antacids on the bioavailability of ciprofloxacin.


    Frost, R W; Lasseter, K C; Noe, A J; Shamblen, E C; Lettieri, J T


    This study was designed to determine the effects of an aluminum hydroxide antacid and a calcium carbonate antacid on the bioavailability of ciprofloxacin (Cipro). Cipro (750 mg) was administered orally to 12 healthy volunteers in a three-way randomized crossover design. The three treatments included Cipro alone, four 850-mg calcium carbonate tablets taken 5 min before Cipro, and three 600-mg aluminum hydroxide tablets taken 5 min before Cipro. The relative bioavailability of Cipro when given ...

  14. Aluminum chloride for accelerating hydrogen generation from sodium borohydride (United States)

    Demirci, U. B.; Akdim, O.; Miele, P.

    The present research paper reports preliminary results about the utilization of anhydrous aluminum chloride (AlCl 3) for accelerating hydrogen generation through hydrolysis of aqueous solution of sodium borohydride (NaBH 4) at 80 °C. To the best of our knowledge, AlCl 3 has never been considered for that reaction although many transition metal salts had already been assessed. AlCl 3 reactivity was compared to those of AlCl 3·6H 2O, AlF 3, CoCl 2, RuCl 3 and NiCl 2. With AlCl 3 and a NaBH 4 solution having a gravimetric hydrogen storage capacity (GHSC) of 2.9 wt.%, almost 100% hydrogen was generated in few seconds, i.e., with a hydrogen generation rate (HGR) of 354 L min -1 g -1(Al). This HGR is one of the highest rates ever reported. Higher HGRs were obtained by mixing AlCl 3 with CoCl2, RuCl 3 or NiCl 2. For example, the system RuCl 3:AlCl 3 (50:50 mass proportion) showed a HGR > 1000 L min -1 g -1(Ru:Al). The hydrolysis by-products (once dried) were identified (by XRD, IR and elemental analysis) as being Al(OH) 3, NaCl and Na 2B(OH) 4Cl and it was observed that even in situ formed Al(OH) 3 has catalytic abilities with HGRs of 5 L min -1 g -1(Al). All of these preliminary results are discussed, which concludes that AlCl 3 has a potential as accelerator for single-use NaBH 4-based storage system.

  15. Tellurium isotope compositions of calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (United States)

    Fehr, M. A.; Rehkämper, M.; Halliday, A. N.; Hattendorf, B.; Günther, D.


    A method for the precise and accurate determination of the tellurium (Te) isotope compositions of calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) has been developed. The technique utilizes multiple-collector inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (MC-ICPMS) with either Faraday detectors or a dual ion-counting system. The external reproducibility (2σ) for 126Te/125Te was ~15‰ and ~2‰ when 3 pg and 65 pg of Te were analyzed with the electron multipliers. Measurements performed on 200 pg of Te using Faraday detectors and time-resolved software displayed an external reproducibility of ~8‰ for 126Te/124Te, whereas 3 ng Te could be measured to a precision of about 0.6‰. Analyses of five CAIs from the Allende chondrite yielded Te concentrations that range from 12 to 537 ppb and the inclusions are therefore depleted in Te relative to bulk Allende by factors of about 2 to 86. The Sn/Te ratios of the CAIs are also fractionated compared to bulk Allende (which displays 124Sn/128Te ≍ 0.1) with 124Sn/128Te ratios of about 0.1 to 2.5. The Te isotope measurements for these refractory inclusions yielded no 126Te excesses from the decay of the short-lived radionuclide 126Sn (τ½ = 234,500 years) and the most precise analysis provided a ɛ126Te value of 1 ± 6 (ɛ126Te = 126Te/ 124Te normalized to 122Te/124Te = 0.53594 and reported relative to the JMC Te standard). Minor differences in the Te isotope composition of the CAIs relative to the terrestrial standard and bulk Allende hint at the presence of small deficits in r-process Te isotopes or excess of s-process Te, but these nucleosynthetic anomalies are barely resolvable given the analytical uncertainties. Hence, it is also conceivable that these effects reflect small unresolved analytical artifacts.

  16. Simulation of thermal and sodium expansion stress in aluminum reduction cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jie; WU Yu-yun; LAI Yan-qing; LIU Wei; WANG Zhi-gang; LIU Jie; LIU Ye-xiang


    Two finite element(FE) models were built up for analysis of stress field in the lining of aluminum electrolysis cells. Distribution of sodium concentration in cathode carbon blocks was calculated by one FE model of a cathode block. Thermal stress field was calculated by the other slice model of the cell at the end of the heating-up. Then stresses coupling thermal and sodium expansion were considered after 30 d start-up. The results indicate that sodium penetrates to the bottom of the cathode block after 30 d start-up. The semi-graphitic carbon block has the largest stress at the thermal stage. After 30 d start-up the anthracitic carbon has the greatest sodium expansion stress and the graphitized carbon has the lowest sodium expansion stress. Sodium penetration can cause larger deformation and stress in the cathode carbon block than thermal expansion.

  17. Scientific Opinion on the safety assessment of the active substances, sodium erythorbate, sodium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate, iron sulphate, activated carbon, cellulose, calcium hydroxide, calcium chloride and water, for use as active system in food contact materials



    This scientific opinion of EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids deals with the safety assessment of the active substances sodium erythorbate, sodium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate, iron sulfate, activated carbon, cellulose, calcium hydroxide, calcium chloride and water, used in mixture which is packed into sachets for absorbing oxygen/carbon dioxide emitting from/into the headspace surrounding packed food. All substances of this formulation have been e...

  18. Performance and plasma metabolites of dairy calves fed starter containing sodium butyrate, calcium propionate or sodium monensin. (United States)

    Ferreira, L S; Bittar, C M M


    This study was conducted to examine the influence of supplementation of sodium butyrate, sodium monensin or calcium propionate in a starter diet on the performance and selected plasma metabolites (plasma glucose, non-esterified fatty acids and β-hydroxybutyrate) of Holstein calves during pre- and post-weaning periods. Twenty-four newborn Holstein calves were housed in individual hutches until 10 weeks of life, receiving water free choice, and fed four liters of milk daily. Calves were blocked according to weight and date of birth, and allocated to one of the following treatments, according to the additive in the starter: (i) sodium butyrate (150 g/kg); (ii) sodium monensin (30 mg/kg); and (iii) calcium propionate (150 g/kg). During 10 weeks, calves received starter ad libitum, while coast cross hay (Cynodon dactylon (L.) pers.) was offered after weaning, which occurred at the 8th week of age. Weekly, calves were weighted and evaluated for body measurements. Blood samples were taken weekly after the fourth week of age, 2 hours after the morning feeding, for determination of plasma metabolites. No differences were observed among treatments for starter or hay intake, BW and daily gain of the animals. Mean concentrations of selected plasma metabolites were similar in calves fed a starter supplemented with sodium butyrate, sodium monensin and calcium propionate. There was significant reduction in the concentrations of plasma glucose as calves aged. The inclusion of sodium butyrate, calcium propionate or sodium monensin as additives in starter feeds resulted in equal animal performance, before and after weaning, suggesting that sodium monensin may be replaced by organic acid salts.

  19. Anticaries effect of dentifrices with calcium citrate and sodium trimetaphosphate (United States)

    DELBEM, Alberto Carlos Botazzo; BERGAMASCHI, Maurício; RODRIGUES, Eliana; SASSAKI, Kikue Takebayashi; VIEIRA, Ana Elisa de Mello; MISSEL, Emilene Macario Coimbra


    Because of the growing concerns regarding fluoride ingestion by young children and dental fluorosis, it is necessary to develop new dentifrices. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of dentifrices with calcium citrate (Cacit) and sodium trimetaphosphate (TMP) on enamel demineralization. Material and Methods Enamel blocks (n=70), previously selected through surface hardness analysis, were submitted to daily treatment with dentifrices diluted in artificial saliva and to a pH-cycling model. The fluoride concentration in dentifrices was 0, 250, 450, 550, 1,000 and 1,100 µg F/g. CrestTM was used as a positive control (1,100 mg F/g). Cacit (0.25%) and TMP (0.25%) were added to dentifrices with 450 and 1,000 µg F/g. Surface hardness was measured again and integrated loss of subsurface hardness and fluoride concentration in enamel were calculated. Parametric and correlation tests were used to determine difference (p0.05). Conclusions Dentifrices with 450 and 1,000 µg F/g, Cacit and TMP were as effective as a gold standard one. PMID:22437685

  20. Anticaries effect of dentifrices with calcium citrate and sodium trimetaphosphate

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    Alberto Carlos Botazzo Delbem


    Full Text Available Because of the growing concerns regarding fluoride ingestion by young children and dental fluorosis, it is necessary to develop new dentifrices. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of dentifrices with calcium citrate (Cacit and sodium trimetaphosphate (TMP on enamel demineralization. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Enamel blocks (n=70, previously selected through surface hardness analysis, were submitted to daily treatment with dentifrices diluted in artificial saliva and to a pH-cycling model. The fluoride concentration in dentifrices was 0, 250, 450, 550, 1,000 and 1,100 µg F/g. CrestTM was used as a positive control (1,100 mg F/g. Cacit (0.25% and TMP (0.25% were added to dentifrices with 450 and 1,000 µg F/g. Surface hardness was measured again and integrated loss of subsurface hardness and fluoride concentration in enamel were calculated. Parametric and correlation tests were used to determine difference (p0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Dentifrices with 450 and 1,000 µg F/g, Cacit and TMP were as effective as a gold standard one.

  1. Corrosion of LY12 aluminum alloy in sodium chloride solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程英亮; 张昭; 曹发和; 李劲风; 张鉴清; 王建明; 曹楚南


    The corrosion behavior of LY12 alloy in sodium chloride solution and its electrochemical noise were reported. The development of the micro-pits on the alloy surface was monitored by scanning electron microscopy, scanning tunneling microscopy, and electrochemical noise method. All the measurements show that the corrosion of LY12 alloy can be divided into two stages: a very reactive initial stage and a relative constant stable stage. The initial stage is corresponded to the adsorption of Cl ions and its reaction with the oxide film and the dissolution of Mg containing particles. The stable stage is corresponded to the development of the micro-pits by the galvanic attack formed by Al-Fe-Cu-Mn containing particles and the matrix. The initial stage lasts about 2-3 h while the stable stage dominates the whole corrosion process.

  2. Spontaneous and CRH-Induced Excitability and Calcium Signaling in Mice Corticotrophs Involves Sodium, Calcium, and Cation-Conducting Channels. (United States)

    Zemkova, Hana; Tomić, Melanija; Kucka, Marek; Aguilera, Greti; Stojilkovic, Stanko S


    Transgenic mice expressing the tdimer2(12) form of Discosoma red fluorescent protein under control of the proopiomelanocortin gene's regulatory elements are a useful model for studying corticotrophs. Using these mice, we studied the ion channels and mechanisms controlling corticotroph excitability. Corticotrophs were either quiescent or electrically active, with a 22-mV difference in the resting membrane potential (RMP) between the 2 groups. In quiescent cells, CRH depolarized the membrane, leading to initial single spiking and sustained bursting; in active cells, CRH further facilitated or inhibited electrical activity and calcium spiking, depending on the initial activity pattern and CRH concentration. The stimulatory but not inhibitory action of CRH on electrical activity was mimicked by cAMP independently of the presence or absence of arachidonic acid. Removal of bath sodium silenced spiking and hyperpolarized the majority of cells; in contrast, the removal of bath calcium did not affect RMP but reduced CRH-induced depolarization, which abolished bursting electrical activity and decreased the spiking frequency but not the amplitude of single spikes. Corticotrophs with inhibited voltage-gated sodium channels fired calcium-dependent action potentials, whereas cells with inhibited L-type calcium channels fired sodium-dependent spikes; blockade of both channels abolished spiking without affecting the RMP. These results indicate that the background voltage-insensitive sodium conductance influences RMP, the CRH-depolarization current is driven by a cationic conductance, and the interplay between voltage-gated sodium and calcium channels plays a critical role in determining the status and pattern of electrical activity and calcium signaling.

  3. Preliminary Nanosims Analysis of Carbon Isotope of Carbonates in Calcium-Aluminum-Rich Inclusions


    Guan, Y.; Paque, J. M.; Burnett, D.S.; Eiler, J. M.


    Carbonate minerals observed in primitive meteorites are products of either terrestrial weathering or aqueous alteration in the early solar system. Most of the carbonate minerals in carbonaceous chondrites occur primarily as isolated grains in matrix, as crosscutting veins, or as replacement minerals in chondrules [e.g., 1, 2]. A few calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) have been reported containing carbonate minerals as well [2, 3]. The C and O isotopes of carbonates in c...

  4. Scientific Opinion on the safety assessment of the active substances, sodium erythorbate, sodium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate, iron sulphate, activated carbon, cellulose, calcium hydroxide, calcium chloride and water, for use as active system in food contact materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF


    Full Text Available This scientific opinion of EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids deals with the safety assessment of the active substances sodium erythorbate, sodium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate, iron sulfate, activated carbon, cellulose, calcium hydroxide, calcium chloride and water, used in mixture which is packed into sachets for absorbing oxygen/carbon dioxide emitting from/into the headspace surrounding packed food. All substances of this formulation have been evaluated and approved for use as additives in plastic food contact materials or as food additives. No migration of calcium, iron and sodium ions was detected. No volatile organic compounds other than carbon dioxide were detected at the limit of detection of 0.5 μg/l. The CEF Panel concluded that the use of the substances sodium erythorbate, sodium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate, iron sulfate, activated carbon, cellulose, calcium hydroxide, calcium chloride and water does not raise a safety concern when used in oxygen absorber/carbon dioxide emitter systems, in sachets that prevent the physical release of their contents into the food. The sachets are to be placed in the headspace of the packaging and as such may come into occasional contact with the food, e.g. during handling. The sachet should not come into direct contact with liquid foods or foods that have and external aqueous liquid phase on the surface (liquid or exudates.

  5. Effect of coating of aluminum carboxymethylcellulose beads on the release and bioavailability of diclofenac sodium. (United States)

    Hosny, E A; al-Helw A al-R


    The production of spheres loaded with diclofenac sodium by the cross linking technique was achieved. The hydrophilic polymer sodium carboxymethylcellulose (Na-CMC) which gels in the presence of a cross linking agent, aluminum chloride (AlCl3), was used as a matrix forming agent for the bead production. To obtain a regular and uniform rate of drug release, the produced beads were coated with sodium alginate to increase the pathway of the diffused medium. Two processing variables were studied, the flocculating agent concentration (20, 40 and 60% w/v) and different coating times (15, 30 and 60 min). The results show that the higher concentrations of aluminum chloride (40 and 60% w/v) produced more uniform and rounded beads than that prepared using 20% w/v salt. The particle size of the core beads decreased insignificantly (P > 0.05) as the flocculating agent concentration increased. The coating time did not affect the particle size of the coated beads within the same concentration of aluminum chloride. The dissolution studies showed that the release rate of diclofenac sodium from the core beads increased with the increase of AlCl3 concentration and that the rate of drug release was markedly reduced after the coating of the core beads with Na-alginate. The results also show a linear relationship for drug release over a 4-5 h period from the core beads where it showed a longer straight line relationship (7 h) for the coated beads. The coating of the Al-CMC beads, prepared using 60% w/v AlCl3.6H2O, with 2% w/v aqueous solution of Na-alginate resulted in a significant (P 24 increased insignificantly (P > 0.05) from 39.82 +/- 26.61 to 57.92 +/- 25.58 micrograms h/ml resulting in a relative bioavailability of 145.45% relative to Al-CMC beads.

  6. Kinetics and leaching behaviors of aluminum from pharmaceutical blisters in sodium hydroxide solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王重庆; 王晖; 顾帼华; 符剑刚; 刘又年


    A hydrometallurgical process was developed for recycling pharmaceutical blisters. Leaching aluminum from pharmaceutical blisters using sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solutions was investigated with respect to leaching behaviors and kinetics. A L9(34) orthogonal design of experiments suggests that the most significant factor is NaOH concentration followed by temperature and leaching time. Factorial experiments demonstrate that the leaching rate of aluminum increases with increasing of the factors. The optimum conditions are temperature of 70 °C, leaching time of 20 min, NaOH concentration of 1.25 mol/L, liquid-to-solid mass ratio of 15:1 and agitation speed of 400 r/min. Under optimum conditions, the leaching rate is up to 100%, implying that aluminum and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastic in pharmaceutical blisters are separated completely. Kinetics of leaching aluminum is best described by the product layer diffusion control model, and the activation energy is calculated to be 19.26 kJ/mol.

  7. Direct determination of calcium, sodium and potassium in fermented milk products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kravić Snežana Ž.


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was the investigation of the possibilities of direct determination of calcium, sodium and potassium in the commercial and kombucha-based fermented milk products by flame photometry. Two procedures were used for sample preparation: simple dilution with water (direct method and extraction with mineral acid. Calcium, sodium and potassium levels determined after mentioned sample preparation methods were compared. The results showed that the differences between the values obtained for the different sample treatment were within the experimental error at the 95% confidence level. Compared to the method based on extraction with mineral acid, the direct method is efficient, faster, simpler, cheaper, and operates according to the principles of Green Chemistry. Consequently, the proposed method for the direct determination of calcium, sodium and potassium could be applied for the rapid routine analysis of the mineral content in the fermented dairy products. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 46009

  8. Effects of extracellular calcium and sodium on depolarization-induced automaticity in guinea pig papillary muscle. (United States)

    Katzung, B G


    Regenerative discharge of action potentials is induced in mammalian papillary muscles by passage of small depolarizing currents. In this paper, the effects of various extracellular calcium and sodium concentrations and of tetrodotoxin on this phenomenon were studied in guinea pig papillary muscles in a sucrose gap chamber. Phase 4 diastolic depolarization was found to be associated with an increase in membrane resistance. The slope of phase 4 depolarization was decreased by reductions in extracellular calcium or sodium concentration. The range of maximum diastolic potentials and the thresholds from which regenerative potentials arose were reduced, especially at the positive limit of potentials, by a reduction in either ion. It was concluded that both calcium and sodium influence diastolic depolarization and participate in the regenerative action potentials of depolarization-induced ventricular automaticity.

  9. Repassivation Potential of Alloy 22 in Sodium and Calcium Chloride Brines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rebak, R B; Ilevbare, G O; Carranza, R M


    A comprehensive matrix of 60 tests was designed to explore the effect of calcium chloride vs. sodium chloride and the ratio R of nitrate concentration over chloride concentration on the repassivation potential of Alloy 22. Tests were conducted using the cyclic potentiodynamic polarization (CPP) technique at 75 C and at 90 C. Results show that at a ratio R of 0.18 and higher nitrate was able to inhibit the crevice corrosion in Alloy 22 induced by chloride. Current results fail to show in a consistent way a different effect on the repassivation potential of Alloy 22 for calcium chloride solutions than for sodium chloride solutions.

  10. Microanalyses of the hydroxyl—poly—calcium sodium phosphate coatings produced by ion beam assisted deposition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIUZhong-Yang; WANGChang-Xing; 等


    Thin calcium phosphate catings on titanium alloy substrates were prepared by Ar+ ion beam assisted deposition(IBAD) from hydroxyl-poly-calcium sodium phosphate(HPPA) target.The coatings were analyzed by XRD,FTIR,XPS,These analyses revealed that the as-deposited films were amorphous or no apparent crystallinity.No distinct absorption band of the hydroxyl group was observed in FTIR spectra of the coatings but new absorption bands were presented for CO3-2,The calcium to phosphorous ratio of these catings in different IBAD conditions varied from 0.46 to 3.36.

  11. Magnetic interactions in calcium and sodium ladder vanadates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Graaf, C; Hozoi, L.; Broer-Braam, Henderika


    Magnetic interactions in ladder vanadates are determined with quantum chemical computational schemes using the embedded cluster model approach to represent the material. The available experimental data for calcium vanadate is accurately reproduced and the nature of the interladder interaction is est

  12. Magnesium, Calcium, Potassium, and Sodium Intakes and Risk of Stroke in Male Smokers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larsson, S.C.; Virtanen, M.J.; Mars, M.; Mannisto, S.; Pietinen, P.; Albanes, D.; Virtamo, J.


    Background A high intake of magnesium, calcium, and potassium and a low intake of sodium have been hypothesized to reduce the risk of stroke. However, prospective data relating intake of these minerals to risk of stroke are inconsistent. Methods We examined the relationship of dietary magnesium, cal

  13. Hydrate sodium calcium aluminosilicate does not reduce rumen lipopolysacharide concentrations in cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pilachai, R.; Schonewille, J.T.; Thamrongyoswittayakul, C.; Aiumlamai, S.; Wachirapakorn, C.; Everts, H.; Vlaeminck, B.; Doekes, G.; Hendriks, W.H.


    The efficacy of hydrate sodium calcium aluminosilicate (HSCAS) to reduce the concentrations of free lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in rumen fluid of cows was investigated. Six, rumen-fistulated crossbred Holstein, non-pregnant, dry cows were randomly assigned to three experimental rations in a study with

  14. 21 CFR 573.280 - Feed-grade calcium stearate and sodium stearate. (United States)


    ... calcium or sodium salts of a fatty acid mixture that is predominately stearic acid. Associated fatty acids, including palmitic acid and minor amounts of lauric, myristic, pentadecanoic, margaric, arachidic, and other fatty acids may be contained in the mixture, but such associated fatty acids in aggregate do not...

  15. The simultaneous removal of calcium, magnesium and chloride ions from industrial wastewater using magnesium-aluminum oxide. (United States)

    Hamidi, Roya; Kahforoushan, Davood; Fatehifar, Esmaeil


    In this article, a method for simultaneous removal of calcium, magnesium and chloride by using Mg0.80Al0.20O1.10 as a Magnesium-Aluminum oxide (Mg‒Al oxide) was investigated. Mg‒Al oxide obtained by thermal decomposition of the Mg-Al layered double hydroxide (Mg-Al LDH). The synthesized Mg‒Al oxide were characterized with respect to nitrogen physicosorption, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and field emission scan electron microscopy (FESEM) morphology. Due to high anion-exchange capacity of Mg‒Al oxide, it was employed in simultaneously removal of Cl(-), Mg(+2) and Ca(+2) from distiller waste of a sodium carbonate production factory. For this purpose, experiments were designed to evaluate the effects of quantity of Mg‒Al oxide, temperature and time on the removal process. The removal of Cl(-), Mg(+2) and Ca(+2) from wastewater was found 93.9%, 93.74% and 93.25% at 60°C after 0.5 h, respectively. Results showed that the removal of Cl(-), Mg(+2) and Ca(+2) by Mg‒Al oxide increased with increasing temperature, time and Mg‒Al oxide quantity.

  16. Relevance of rheological properties of sodium alginate in solution to calcium alginate gel properties. (United States)

    Fu, Shao; Thacker, Ankur; Sperger, Diana M; Boni, Riccardo L; Buckner, Ira S; Velankar, Sachin; Munson, Eric J; Block, Lawrence H


    The purpose of this study is to determine whether sodium alginate solutions' rheological parameters are meaningful relative to sodium alginate's use in the formulation of calcium alginate gels. Calcium alginate gels were prepared from six different grades of sodium alginate (FMC Biopolymer), one of which was available in ten batches. Cylindrical gel samples were prepared from each of the gels and subjected to compression to fracture on an Instron Universal Testing Machine, equipped with a 1-kN load cell, at a cross-head speed of 120 mm/min. Among the grades with similar % G, (grades 1, 3, and 4), there is a significant correlation between deformation work (L(E)) and apparent viscosity (η(app)). However, the results for the partial correlation analysis for all six grades of sodium alginate show that L(E) is significantly correlated with % G, but not with the rheological properties of the sodium alginate solutions. Studies of the ten batches of one grade of sodium alginate show that η(app) of their solutions did not correlate with L(E) while tan δ was significantly, but minimally, correlated to L(E). These results suggest that other factors--polydispersity and the randomness of guluronic acid sequencing--are likely to influence the mechanical properties of the resultant gels. In summary, the rheological properties of solutions for different grades of sodium alginate are not indicative of the resultant gel properties. Inter-batch differences in the rheological behavior for one specific grade of sodium alginate were insufficient to predict the corresponding calcium alginate gel's mechanical properties.

  17. Why and how to implement sodium, potassium, calcium, and magnesium changes in food items and diets? (United States)

    Karppanen, H; Karppanen, P; Mervaala, E


    The present average sodium intakes, approximately 3000-4500 mg/day in various industrialised populations, are very high, that is, 2-3-fold in comparison with the current Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) of 1500 mg. The sodium intakes markedly exceed even the level of 2500 mg, which has been recently given as the maximum level of daily intake that is likely to pose no risk of adverse effects on blood pressure or otherwise. By contrast, the present average potassium, calcium, and magnesium intakes are remarkably lower than the recommended intake levels (DRI). In USA, for example, the average intake of these mineral nutrients is only 35-50% of the recommended intakes. There is convincing evidence, which indicates that this imbalance, that is, the high intake of sodium on one hand and the low intakes of potassium, calcium, and magnesium on the other hand, produce and maintain elevated blood pressure in a big proportion of the population. Decreased intakes of sodium alone, and increased intakes of potassium, calcium, and magnesium each alone decrease elevated blood pressure. A combination of all these factors, that is, decrease of sodium, and increase of potassium, calcium, and magnesium intakes, which are characteristic of the so-called Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension diets, has an excellent blood pressure lowering effect. For the prevention and basic treatment of elevated blood pressure, various methods to decrease the intake of sodium and to increase the intakes of potassium, calcium, and magnesium should be comprehensively applied in the communities. The so-called 'functional food/nutraceutical/food-ceutical' approach, which corrects the mineral nutrient composition of extensively used processed foods, is likely to be particularly effective in producing immediate beneficial effects. The European Union and various governments should promote the availability and use of such healthier food compositions by tax reductions and other policies, which make the

  18. Energetics of sodium-calcium exchanged zeolite A. (United States)

    Sun, H; Wu, D; Guo, X; Shen, B; Navrotsky, A


    A series of calcium-exchanged zeolite A samples with different degrees of exchange were prepared. They were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). High temperature oxide melt drop solution calorimetry measured the formation enthalpies of hydrated zeolites CaNa-A from constituent oxides. The water content is a linear function of the degree of exchange, ranging from 20.54% for Na-A to 23.77% for 97.9% CaNa-A. The enthalpies of formation (from oxides) at 25 °C are -74.50 ± 1.21 kJ mol(-1) TO2 for hydrated zeolite Na-A and -30.79 ± 1.64 kJ mol(-1) TO2 for hydrated zeolite 97.9% CaNa-A. Dehydration enthalpies obtained from differential scanning calorimetry are 32.0 kJ mol(-1) H2O for hydrated zeolite Na-A and 20.5 kJ mol(-1) H2O for hydrated zeolite 97.9% CaNa-A. Enthalpies of formation of Ca-exchanged zeolites A are less exothermic than for zeolite Na-A. A linear relationship between the formation enthalpy and the extent of calcium substitution was observed. The energetic effect of Ca-exchange on zeolite A is discussed with an emphasis on the complex interactions between the zeolite framework, cations, and water.

  19. NALCN ion channels have alternative selectivity filters resembling calcium channels or sodium channels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Senatore

    Full Text Available NALCN is a member of the family of ion channels with four homologous, repeat domains that include voltage-gated calcium and sodium channels. NALCN is a highly conserved gene from simple, extant multicellular organisms without nervous systems such as sponges and placozoans and mostly remains a single gene compared to the calcium and sodium channels which diversified into twenty genes in humans. The single NALCN gene has alternatively-spliced exons at exons 15 or exon 31 that splices in novel selectivity filter residues that resemble calcium channels (EEEE or sodium channels (EKEE or EEKE. NALCN channels with alternative calcium, (EEEE and sodium, (EKEE or EEKE -selective pores are conserved in simple bilaterally symmetrical animals like flatworms to non-chordate deuterostomes. The single NALCN gene is limited as a sodium channel with a lysine (K-containing pore in vertebrates, but originally NALCN was a calcium-like channel, and evolved to operate as both a calcium channel and sodium channel for different roles in many invertebrates. Expression patterns of NALCN-EKEE in pond snail, Lymnaea stagnalis suggest roles for NALCN in secretion, with an abundant expression in brain, and an up-regulation in secretory organs of sexually-mature adults such as albumen gland and prostate. NALCN-EEEE is equally abundant as NALCN-EKEE in snails, but is greater expressed in heart and other muscle tissue, and 50% less expressed in the brain than NALCN-EKEE. Transfected snail NALCN-EEEE and NALCN-EKEE channel isoforms express in HEK-293T cells. We were not able to distinguish potential NALCN currents from background, non-selective leak conductances in HEK293T cells. Native leak currents without expressing NALCN genes in HEK-293T cells are NMDG(+ impermeant and blockable with 10 µM Gd(3+ ions and are indistinguishable from the hallmark currents ascribed to mammalian NALCN currents expressed in vitro by Lu et al. in Cell. 2007 Apr 20;129(2:371-83.

  20. Effect of calcium/sodium ion exchange on the osmotic properties and structure of polyelectrolyte gels. (United States)

    Horkay, Ferenc; Basser, Peter J; Hecht, Anne-Marie; Geissler, Erik


    We discuss the main findings of a long-term research program exploring the consequences of sodium/calcium ion exchange on the macroscopic osmotic and elastic properties, and the microscopic structure of representative synthetic polyelectrolyte (sodium polyacrylate, (polyacrylic acid)) and biopolymer gels (DNA). A common feature of these gels is that above a threshold calcium ion concentration, they exhibit a reversible volume phase transition. At the macroscopic level, the concentration dependence of the osmotic pressure shows that calcium ions influence primarily the third-order interaction term in the Flory-Huggins model of polymer solutions. Mechanical tests reveal that the elastic modulus is practically unaffected by the presence of calcium ions, indicating that ion bridging does not create permanent cross-links. At the microscopic level, small-angle neutron scattering shows that polyacrylic acid and DNA gels exhibit qualitatively similar structural features in spite of important differences (e.g. chain flexibility and chemical composition) between the two polymers. The main effect of calcium ions is that the neutron scattering intensity increases due to the decrease in the osmotic modulus. At the level of the counterion cloud around dissolved macroions, anomalous small-angle X-ray scattering measurements made on DNA indicate that divalent ions form a cylindrical sheath enveloping the chain, but they are not localized. Small-angle neutron scattering and small-angle X-ray scattering provide complementary information on the structure and interactions in polymer solutions and gels.

  1. Sodium-calcium exchanger and multiple sodium channel isoforms in intra-epidermal nerve terminals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gasser Andreas


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nociception requires transduction and impulse electrogenesis in nerve fibers which innervate the body surface, including the skin. However, the molecular substrates for transduction and action potential initiation in nociceptors are incompletely understood. In this study, we examined the expression and distribution of Na+/Ca2+ exchanger (NCX and voltage-gated sodium channel isoforms in intra-epidermal free nerve terminals. Results Small diameter DRG neurons exhibited robust NCX2, but not NCX1 or NCX3 immunolabeling, and virtually all PGP 9.5-positive intra-epidermal free nerve terminals displayed NCX2 immunoreactivity. Sodium channel NaV1.1 was not detectable in free nerve endings. In contrast, the majority of nerve terminals displayed detectable levels of expression of NaV1.6, NaV1.7, NaV1.8 and NaV1.9. Sodium channel immunoreactivity in the free nerve endings extended from the dermal boundary to the terminal tip. A similar pattern of NCX and sodium channel immunolabeling was observed in DRG neurons in vitro. Conclusions NCX2, as well as NaV1.6, NaV1.7, NaV1.8 and NaV1.9, are present in most intra-epidermal free nerve endings. The presence of NCX2, together with multiple sodium channel isoforms, in free nerve endings may have important functional implications.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Z. Zhang; Q.D. Zhong; J.Q. Zhang; Y.L. Cheng; F.H. Cao; J.M. Wang; C.N. Cao


    Wavelet transforms (WT) are proposed as an alternative tool to overcome the limita-tions of Fourier transforms (FFT) in the analysis of electrochemical noise (EN) data.The most relevant feature of this method of analysis is its capability of decomposingelectrochemical noise records into different sets of wavelet coefficients, which containinformation about the time scale characteristic of the associated corrosion event. Inthis context, the potential noise fluctuations during the free corrosion of pure alu-minum in sodium chloride solution was recorded and analyzed with wavelet transformtechnique. The typical results showed that the EN signal is composed of distinct typeof events, which can be classified according to their scales, i.e. their time constants.Meanwhile, the energy distribution plot (EDP) can be used as "fingerprints" of ENsignals and can be very useful for analyzing EN data in the future.

  3. Toxicity detection of sodium nitrite, borax and aluminum potassium sulfate using electrochemical method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dengbin Yu; Daming Yong; Shaojun Dong


    Based on the inhibition effect on the respiratory chain activity of microorganisms by toxicants,an electrochemical method has been developed to measure the current variation of a mediator in the presence of microorganisms contacted with a toxicant.Microelectrode arrays were adopted in this study,which can accelerate the mass transfer rate of an analyte to the electrode and also increase the total current signal,resulting in an improvement in detection sensitivity.We selected Escherichia coli as the testee and the standard glucoseglutamic acid as an exogenous material.Under oxygen restriction,the experiments in the presence of toxicant were performed at optimum conditions (solution pH 7.0,37℃ and reaction for 3 hr).The resulting solution was then separated from the suspended microorganisms and was measured by an electrochemical method,using ferricyanide as a mediator.The current signal obtained represents the re oxidation of ferrocyanide,which was transformed to inhibiting efficiency,IC50,as a quantitative measure of toxicity.The IC50 values measured were 410,570 and 830 mg/L for sodium nitrite,borax and aluminum potassium sulfate,respectively.The results show that the toxicity sequence for these three food additives is consistent with the value reported by other methods.Furthermore,the order of damage degree to the microorganism was also observed to be:sodium nitrite > borax > aluminum potassium sulfate >blank,according to the atomic force microscopy images of E.coli after being incubated for 3 hr with the toxic compound in buffer solutions.The electrochemical method is expected to be a sensitive and simple alternative to toxicity screening for chemical food additives.

  4. Role of Accumulated Calcium in Alleviating Aluminum Injury in Wheat Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Alamgir Hossain


    Full Text Available Aluminum (Al sensitive wheat cultivar kalyansona was grown for 14 d in a range of Ca solution (125, 625, and 2500 μM plus other nutrients without Al. At 14 d after Ca treatment, half of these plants were harvested (H1, and the rest of the plants were exposed to 100 μM Al for additional 6 d and harvested (H2. Severe Al injury was found only in the plants with the lowest supply of Ca before Al treatment. Aluminum concentration in the apoplastic fluid was very high at 125 μM Ca probably because the plasma membrane of some of the cells was destroyed due to the attack of 100 μM Al. Aluminum content in roots decreased with increasing supply of Ca before Al treatment. Calcium content decreased drastically at harvest (H2 in the plants with 100 μM Al. Under Al stress conditions, the plant responded to Al in different ways due to not only the different Ca supply but also the variation of Ca content in the plant tissues. Actually, the plants having the largest Ca content in the roots before Al treatment can receive less Al injury during Al treatment. To substantiate this idea, a companion study was conducted to investigate the effects of 2500 μM Ca supply during, before, and after 100 μM Al treatment on root growth. The results indicated clearly that exogenous Ca supply before Al treatment is able to alleviate Al injury but less effective than Ca supply during Al treatment.

  5. Development of voltage-dependent calcium, sodium, and potassium currents in Xenopus spinal neurons. (United States)

    O'Dowd, D K; Ribera, A B; Spitzer, N C


    Action potentials of embryonic nerve and muscle cells often have a different ionic dependence and longer duration than those of mature cells. The action potential of spinal cord neurons from Xenopus laevis exhibits a prominent calcium component at early stages of development that diminishes with age as the impulse becomes principally sodium dependent. Whole-cell voltage-clamp analysis has been undertaken to characterize the changes in membrane currents during development of these neurons in culture. Four voltage-dependent currents of cells were identified and examined during the first day in vitro, when most of the change in the action potential occurs. There are no changes in the peak density of the calcium current (ICa), its voltage dependence, or time to half-maximal activation; a small increase in inactivation is apparent. The major change in sodium current (INa) is a 2-fold increase in its density. In addition, more subtle changes in the kinetics of the macroscopic sodium current were noted. The peak density of voltage-dependent potassium current (IKv) increases 3-fold, and this current becomes activated almost twice as fast. No changes were noted in the extent of its inactivation. The calcium-dependent potassium current (IKc) consists of an inactivating and a sustained component. The former increases 2-fold in peak current density, and the latter increases similarly at less depolarized voltages. The changes in these currents contribute to the decrease in duration and the change in ionic dependence of the impulse.

  6. Influence of sodium borate on the early age hydration of calcium sulfoaluminate cement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Champenois, Jean-Baptiste; Dhoury, Mélanie [CEA, DEN, DTCD, SPDE, F-30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze Cedex (France); Cau Dit Coumes, Céline, E-mail: [CEA, DEN, DTCD, SPDE, F-30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze Cedex (France); Mercier, Cyrille [LMCPA, Université de Valenciennes et du Hainaut Cambrésis, 59600 Maubeuge (France); Revel, Bertrand [Centre Commun de Mesure RMN, Université Lille1 Sciences Technologies, Cité Scientifique, 59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France); Le Bescop, Patrick [CEA, DEN, DPC, SECR, F-91192 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Damidot, Denis [Ecole des Mines de Douai, LGCgE-GCE, 59508 Douai (France)


    Calcium sulfoaluminate (CSA) cements are potential candidates for the conditioning of radioactive wastes with high sodium borate concentrations. This work thus investigates early age hydration of two CSA cements with different gypsum contents (0 to 20%) as a function of the mixing solution composition (borate and NaOH concentrations). Gypsum plays a key role in controlling the reactivity of cement. When the mixing solution is pure water, increasing the gypsum concentration accelerates cement hydration. However, the reverse is observed when the mixing solution contains sodium borate. Until gypsum exhaustion, the pore solution pH remains constant at ~ 10.8, and a poorly crystallized borate compound (ulexite) precipitates. A correlation is established between this transient precipitation and the hydration delay. Decreasing the gypsum content in the binder, or increasing the sodium content in the mixing solution, are two ways of reducing the stability of ulexite, thus decreasing the hydration delay.

  7. Effects of temperature and sodium carboxylate additives on mineralization of calcium oxalate in silica gel systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    OUYANG Jianming; DENG Suiping; LI Xiangping; TAN Yanhua; Bernd Tieke


    The effects of temperature and multifunctional sodium carboxylate additives on the phase composition and morphology of calcium oxalate (CaOxa) crystals grown in silica gel system were systematically investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier-transform infrared spectra (FT-IR). The sodium carboxylates investigated include: monocarboxylate sodium acetate (NaAc), disodium tartrate (Na2tart), trisodium citrate (Na3cit), and the disodium salt of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (Na2edta). The temperature range was from 7℃ to 67℃. The crystallization temperature affects the phase compositions, the growth rate, and the morphology of CaOxa. First, the logarithm of the percentage of calcium oxalate dihydrate (COD) formed at a certain temperature (T) is proportional to the reciprocal of temperature (1/T). Second, the weight of CaOxa crystals decreases as decreasing the temperature. At a given temperature, the ability of the sodium carboxylates to induce COD follows the order: Na2edta > Na3cit > Na2tart >> NaAc. Third, the multicarboxylates can decrease the surface area of calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM).It makes the edges and tips of COM crystals blunt and oval. All the three changes, an increase of the content of COD, a decrease of the weight of CaOxa crystals, and a decrease of the surfacearea of COM crystals,can inhibit the formation of CaOxa stones. These results support the clinical use of citrates and may be helpful in elucidating the mechanisms of the formation of CaOxa calculus.

  8. K+-Na+ ion-exchanged sodium magnesium aluminum germanate glass waveguide amplifier operating in the first telecommunications window (United States)

    Yang, Dianlai; Zhang, Jie; Pun, Edwin Yue-Bun; Lin, Hai


    Potassium-sodium (K+-Na+) ion-exchanged multimode channel waveguide amplifiers have been fabricated based on Tm3+/Yb3+ codoped sodium magnesium aluminum germanate (NMAG) glass substrates. The normalized optical and relative gain coefficients of a 2.20 cm long device were identified to be 3.65 dB/cm and 1.58 dB/cm, respectively, at a signal wavelength of 810 nm under 457 mW 980 nm laser diode excitation. These are the highest values reported, and the results indicate that Tm3+/Yb3+ codoped NMAG glasses are an attractive material for optical amplification in the first telecommunications window.

  9. Effects of Calcium on ATPase Activity and Lipid Composition of Plasma Membranes from Wheat Roots Under Aluminum Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Long-fei; SHEN Zhen-guo; LIU You-liang


    Effects of calcium on ATPase activities, lipid contents, and fatty acid compositions of plasma membrane from wheat roots were assayed under aluminum stress. The results showed that the increase of calcium concentration in the nutrient solution increased the activity of H+-ATPase and the phospholipid content, decreased the activity of Ca2+-ATPase and the galactolipid of plasma membrane. Owing to the decrease of linolenic acid content, the index of unsaturated fatty acid (IUFA) and index of double bond (DBI) decreased in Altas66. The IUFA and DBI of plasma membrane from Scout66 roots increased because its linolenic acid content increased obviously and its palmitic acid content decreased apparently.

  10. Porous bioceramic bead prepared by calcium phosphate with sodium alginate gel and PE powder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Y.C. [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan (China); Ho, M.L.; Wu, S.C. [Department of Physiology, Kaohsiung Medical University, 100, Shih-Chuan 1st Rd, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan (China); Hsieh, H.S. [Faculty of Medicinal and Applied Chemistry, Kaohsiung Medical University, 100, Shih-Chuan 1st Rd, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan (China); Wang, C.K. [Faculty of Medicinal and Applied Chemistry, Kaohsiung Medical University, 100, Shih-Chuan 1st Rd, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan (China)], E-mail:


    The porous calcium phosphate beads were made by an alginate-interacting Ca ions mechanism on addition of a pore-forming polyethylene (PE) powder at 1250 deg. C sintering. The nature of the powders and porous beads were analyzed through X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR) and heavy metal analysis by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). The porous beads size and the pore microstructure characteristics were determined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Beside, the porosity analysis was evaluated out using an Archimedes' principle and mercury porosimetry. Then, the sodium ampicillin was penetrated/adsorbed onto calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite porous beads, and was subsequently released in PBS. No matter whether the raw material was HAp, TCP or biphase, the Ca{sub 9}(HPO{sub 4})(PO{sub 4}){sub 5}OH phase (CDHA) was formed only after sintering. Porous beads of various calcium phosphates with different sizes (0.9-1.1 mm) and pore size groups (60-120 {mu}m and lower than 10 {mu}m) were appeared. The release kinetics of sodium ampicillin from these porous beads have indicated the possibility of using these materials as possible carriers for drug delivery.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Z. Zhang; C. Cai; F.H. Cao; Z.N. Gao; J.Q. Zhang; C.N. Cao


    The corrosion behavior of pure aluminum in neutral 3.0% (mass fraction) sodium chloride (NaCl) solution has been studied using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (ELS) measurement in conjunction with the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) technique. EIS information on the evolution of pitting corrosion over a period of 15 days has been obtained and analyzed with equivalent circuit technique. The results shown that, during the ensemble constant immersion time, two time constants involved, the high frequency one originated from the protective layer on the corroding surface while the low frequency one from the diffusion process or the corrosion reaction and so on. And there existed a period for oxide film to growth and thickening prior to the commencement of the attacking of chloride ions to the substrate. Meanwhile, good relationship between EIS and the material corrosion type/severity has been obtained, which has been interpreted according to the characteristics of corrosion process such as auto acceleration of pitting corrosion and the protection of local anodic reaction to the area around them.

  12. The Effect of Calcium Sodium Phosphosilicate on Dentin Hypersensitivity: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengjiao Zhu

    Full Text Available To investigate the effect of calcium sodium phosphosilicate (CSPS in treating dentin hypersensitivity (DH and to compare this effect to that of a negative (placebo control.Several databases, including Medline, EMBASE, Web of Science, The Cochrane Library, and the Chinese Biomedical Literature Database, were searched to identify relevant articles published through January 2015; grey literature (i.e., academic literature that is not formally published was also searched. Two authors performed data extraction independently and jointly using data collection forms. The primary outcome was the DH pain response to routine activities or to thermal, tactile, evaporative, or electrical stimuli, and the secondary outcome was the side effects of CSPS use. Each study was evaluated using the Cochrane Collaboration tool for assessing risk bias. Meta-analysis of studies with the same participant demographics, interventions, controls, assessment methods and follow-up periods was performed. The Grading of Recommendations Assessment Development and Evaluation System was used to assess the quality of the evidence and the risk of bias across studies.Meta-analysis demonstrated that toothpaste containing 5% CSPS was more effective than the negative control at relieving dentin sensitivity, with the level of evidence classified as "moderate". In addition, prophylaxis paste containing 15% calcium sodium phosphosilicate was favored over the negative control at reducing post-periodontal therapy hypersensitivity, with the level of evidence categorized as "low". Only two studies reported side effects of CSPS use.The majority of studies found that calcium sodium phosphosilicate was more effective than the negative control at alleviating DH. Because strong evidence is scarce, high-quality, well-designed clinical trials are required in the future before definitive recommendations can be made.

  13. Neuroprotective activity of stiripentol with a possible involvement of voltage-dependent calcium and sodium channels. (United States)

    Verleye, Marc; Buttigieg, Dorothée; Steinschneider, Rémy


    A growing body of data has shown that recurrent epileptic seizures may be caused by an excessive release of the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate in the brain. Glutamatergic overstimulation results in massive neuronal influxes of calcium and sodium through N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA), α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid, and kainic acid glutamate subtype receptors and also through voltage-gated calcium and sodium channels. These persistent and abnormal sodium and calcium entry points have deleterious consequences (neurotoxicity) for neuronal function. The therapeutic value of an antiepileptic drug would include not only control of seizure activity but also protection of neuronal tissue. The present study examines the in vitro neuroprotective effects of stiripentol, an antiepileptic compound with γ-aminobutyric acidergic properties, on neuronal-astroglial cultures from rat cerebral cortex exposed to oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) or to glutamate (40 µM for 20 min), two in vitro models of brain injury. In addition, the affinity of stiripentol for the different glutamate receptor subtypes and the interaction with the cell influx of Na(+) and of Ca(2+) enhanced by veratridine and NMDA, respectively, are assessed. Stiripentol (10-100 µM) included in the culture medium during OGD or with glutamate significantly increased the number of surviving neurons relative to controls. Stiripentol displayed no binding affinity for different subtypes of glutamate receptors (IC50  >100 µM) but significantly blocked the entry of Na(+) and Ca(2+) activated by veratridine and NMDA, respectively. These results suggest that Na(+) and Ca(2+) channels could contribute to the neuroprotective properties of sitiripentol.

  14. A theoretical and experimental study of calcium, iron, zinc, cadmium, and sodium ions absorption by aspartame. (United States)

    Mahnam, Karim; Raisi, Fatame


    Aspartame (L-Aspartyl-L-phenylalanine methyl ester) is a sweet dipeptide used in some foods and beverages. Experimental studies show that aspartame causes osteoporosis and some illnesses, which are similar to those of copper and calcium deficiency. This raises the issue that aspartame in food may interact with cations and excrete them from the body. This study aimed to study aspartame interaction with calcium, zinc, iron, sodium, and cadmium ions via molecular dynamics simulation (MD) and spectroscopy. Following a 480-ns molecular dynamics simulation, it became clear that the aspartame is able to sequester Fe(2+), Ca(2+), Cd(2+), and Zn(2+) ions for a long time. Complexation led to increasing UV-Vis absorption spectra and emission spectra of the complexes. This study suggests a potential risk of cationic absorption of aspartame. This study suggests that purification of cadmium-polluted water by aspartame needs a more general risk assessment.

  15. Endurance Exercise Training Reduces Cardiac Sodium/Calcium Exchanger Expression in Animals Susceptible to Ventricular Fibrillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica eKukielka


    Full Text Available Aim: Increased sodium/calcium exchanger activity (NCX1, an important regulator of cardiomyocyte cystolic calcium may provoke arrhythmias. Exercise training can decrease NCX1 expression in animals with heart failure improving cytosolic calcium regulation, and could thereby reduce the risk for ventricular fibrillation (VF. Methods: To test this hypothesis, a 2-min coronary occlusion was made during the last min. of exercise in dogs with healed myocardial infarctions; 23 had VF (S, susceptible and 13 did not (R, resistant. The animals were randomly assigned to either 10-wk exercise training (progressively increasing treadmill running (S n = 9; R n = 8 or 10-wk sedentary (S n = 14; R n = 5 groups. At the end of the 10-wk period, the exercise + ischemia test provoked VF in sedentary but not trained susceptible dogs. On a subsequent day, cardiac tissue was harvested and NCX1 protein expression was determined by Western blot. Results: In the sedentary group, NCX1 expression was significantly (ANOVA, P<0.05 higher in susceptible compared to resistant dogs. In contrast, NCX1 levels were similar in the exercise trained resistant and susceptible animals. Conclusion: These data suggest that exercise training can restore a more normal NCX1 level in dogs susceptible to ventricular fibrillation, improving cystolic calcium regulation and could thereby reduce the risk for sudden death following myocardial infarction.

  16. Removal of uranium and fluorine from wastewater by double-functional microsphere adsorbent of SA/CMC loaded with calcium and aluminum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Liping [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang, Sichuan 621010 (China); Lin, Xiaoyan, E-mail: [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang, Sichuan 621010 (China); Engineering Research Center of Biomass Materials, Ministry of Education, Mianyang, Sichuan 621010 (China); Zhou, Xingbao [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang, Sichuan 621010 (China); Luo, Xuegang [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang, Sichuan 621010 (China); Engineering Research Center of Biomass Materials, Ministry of Education, Mianyang, Sichuan 621010 (China)


    Highlights: • A new method to load calcium and aluminum on alginate/carboxymethyl cellulose sodium. • SA/CMC-Ca-Al can respectively remove fluorine and uranium. • SA/CMC-Ca-Al shows a good adsorption capacity for fluorine and uranium. • Characterizations are used to research the adsorption mechanism of SA/CMC-Ca-Al. - Abstract: A novel dual functional microsphere adsorbent of alginate/carboxymethyl cellulose sodium composite loaded with calcium and aluminum (SA/CMC-Ca-Al) is prepared by an injection device to remove fluoride and uranium, respectively, from fluoro-uranium mixed aqueous solution. Batch experiments are performed at different conditions: pH, temperature, initial concentration and contact time. The results show that the maximum adsorption amount for fluoride is 35.98 mg/g at pH 2.0, 298.15 K concentration 100 mg/L, while that for uranium is 101.76 mg/g at pH 4.0, 298.15 K concentration 100 mg/L. Both of the adsorption process could be well described by Langmuir model. The adsorption kinetic data is fitted well with pseudo-first-order model for uranium and pseudo-second-order model for fluoride. Thermodynamic parameters are also evaluated, indicating that the adsorption of uranium on SA/CMC-Ca-Al is a spontaneous and exothermic process, while the removal of fluoride is non-spontaneous and endothermic process. The mechanism of modification and adsorption process on SA/CMC-Ca-Al is characterized by FT-IR, SEM, EDX and XPS. The results show that Ca (II) and Al (III) are loaded on SA/CMC through ion-exchange of sodium of SA/CMC. The coordination reaction and ion-exchange happen during the adsorption process between SA/CMC-Ca-Al and uranium, fluoride. Results suggest that the SA/CMC-Ca-Al adsorbent has a great potential in removing uranium and fluoride from aqueous solution.

  17. Modifications on the properties of a calcium phosphate cement by additions of sodium alginate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coelho, W.T.; Fernandes, J.M.; Vieira, R.S.; Thurmer, M.B.; Santos, L.A., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (PPG/LABIOMAT/UFRGS), RS (Brazil)


    The Calcium Phosphate Cement (CPC) are bone substitutes with great potential for use in orthopedics, traumatology and dentistry due to its biocompatibility, bioactivity and osteoconductivity, and form a paste that can be easily shaped and placed into the surgical site. However, CPCs have low mechanical strength, which equals the maximum mechanical strength of trabecular bone. In order to assess the strength and time to handle a CPC composed primarily of alpha phase, were added sodium alginate (1%, 2% and 3% wt) and an accelerator in an aqueous solution. The cement powder was mixed with liquid of setting, shaped into specimens and evaluated for apparent density and porosity by Archimedes method, X-ray diffraction and compressive strength. A significant increase in compressive strength by adding sodium alginate was verified. (author)

  18. Human water, sodium, and calcium regulation during space flight and exercise (United States)

    Doty, S. E.; Seagrave, R. C.


    When one is exposed to microgravity, fluid which is normally pooled in the lower extremities is redistributed headward and weight bearing bones begin to demineralize due to reduced mechanical stresses. The kidney, which is the primary regulator of body fluid volume and composition, responds to the fluid shift and bone demineralization by increasing the urinary output of water, sodium, and calcium. This research involves developing a mathematical description of how water and electrolytes are internally redistributed and exchanged with the environment during space flight. This model consequently involves kidney function and the associated endocrine system. The model agrees well with actual data, including that a low sodium diet can prevent bone demineralization. Therefore, assumptions made to develop the model are most likely valid. Additionally, various levels of activity are also considered in the model since exercise may help to eliminate some of the undesired effects of space flight such as muscle atrophy and bone demineralization.

  19. Comparative equilibrium studies of sorption of Pb(II) ions by sodium and calcium alginate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The absorption of Pb(II) ions from aqueous solution by different alginate compounds was studied in a batch sorption system. Water soluble sodium alginate and insoluble calcium alginate beads were investigated. The lead-binding capacity of both alginate compounds was highest within the pH range 6-8. The binding capacities and rates of Pb(II) ions by alginate compounds were evaluated. The Langmuir, Freundlich and Bruneaur, Emmet and Teller (BET) sorption models were applied to describe the isotherms and isotherm constants. Sorption isothermal data could be well interpreted by the Langmuir model. The results obtained through the study suggest that alginate compounds are favorable sorbents. The largest amount of Pb(II) ions were bound by sodium alginate although the difference between two compounds was slight. Therefore, alginate substances may be considered as alternative for sorption and removal of Pb(II) ions from wastewaters.

  20. Variable Temperature Infrared Spectroscopy Investigations of Benzoic Acid Desorption from Sodium and Calcium Montmorillonite Clays. (United States)

    Nickels, Tara M; Ingram, Audrey L; Maraoulaite, Dalia K; White, Robert L


    Processes involved in thermal desorption of benzoic acid from sodium and calcium montmorillonite clays are investigated by using variable temperature diffuse reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (DRIFTS). By monitoring the temperature dependence of infrared absorbance bands while heating samples, subtle changes in molecular vibrations are detected and employed to characterize specific benzoic acid adsorption sites. Abrupt changes in benzoic acid adsorption site properties occur for both clay samples at about 125 °C. Difference spectra absorbance band frequency variations indicate that adsorbed benzoic acid interacts with interlayer cations through water bridges and that these interactions can be disrupted by the presence of organic anions, in particular, benzoate.

  1. Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of vitamin C (ascorbic acid, sodium ascorbate, calcium ascorbate, ascorbyl palmitate, sodium calcium ascorbyl phosphate and sodium ascorbyl phosphate) as a feed additive for all animal species based on a dossier submitted by DSM Nutritional Products Ltd



    Vitamin C is essential for primates, guinea pigs and fish. Vitamin C, in the form of ascorbic acid and its calcium and sodium salts, ascorbyl palmitate, sodium calcium ascorbyl phosphate and sodium ascorbyl phosphate, is safe for all animal species. Setting a maximum content in feed and water for drinking is not considered necessary. Data on the vitamin C consumption of consumers are based on the levels of vitamin C in foodstuffs, including food of animal origin, produced in accordance with c...

  2. Effects of temperature and sodium carboxylate additives on mineralization of calcium oxalate in silica gel systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    OUYANG; Jianming; DENG; Suiping; LI; Xiangping; TAN; Yanh


    [1]Ouyang, J. M., Yao, X. Q., Su, Z. X. et al., Simulation of calcium oxalate stone in Vitro, Science in China, Ser. B, 2003, 46(3):234-242.[2]Xu, S. H., Chen, J. Q., Zhou, H., Nepidemiological study of renal calculus in Shenshen region, Chin. J. Urol. (in Chinese), 1999,20(11): 655-657.[3]Bretherton, T., Rodgers, A., Crystallization of calcium oxalate in minimally diluted urine, J. Crystal Growth, 1998, 192: 448-455.[4]Grover, P. K., Ryall, R. L., Effect of seed crystals of uric acid and monosodium urate on the crystallization of CaOxa in undiluted human urine in vitro, Clin. Sci., 1997, 92: 205-213.[5]Laube, N., Mohr, B., Hesse, A., Laser-probe-based investigation of the evolution of particle size distributions of calcium oxalate particles formed in artificial urines, J. Crystal Growth, 2001, 233:367-374.[6]Tunik, L., Fueredi-Milhofer, H., Garti, N., Adsorption of sodium diisooctyl sulfosuccinate onto calcium oxalate crystals, Langmuir,1998, 14: 3351-3355.[7]Cody, A. M., Cody, R. D., Calcium oxalate trihydrate phase control by structurally-specific carboxylic acids, J. Cryst. Growth,1994, 135: 234-245.[8]Ouyang, J. M., Duan, L., Tieke, B., Effects of carboxylic acids on the crystal growth of calcium oxalate nanoparticles in lecithin-water liposome systems, Langmuir, 2003, 19: 8980-8985.[9]Guo, S., Ward, M. D., Wesson, J. A., Direct visualization of calcium oxalate monohydrate crystallization and dissolution with atomic force microscopy and the role of polymeric additives,Langmuir, 2002, 18:4284-4291.[10]Yasui, T., Sato, M., Fujita, K., Effects of citrate on renal stone formation and osteopontin expression in a rat urolithiasis model,Urol. Res., 2001,29: 50-56.[11]Ouyang, J. M., Deng, S. P., Controlled and uncontrolled crystallization of calcium oxalate monohydrate in the presence of citric acid, Dalton Transactions, 2003, (14): 2846-2851.[12]Khan, S. R., Whalen, P. O., Glenton, P. A., Heterogeneous nucleation of

  3. Optical planar waveguide in sodium-doped calcium barium niobate crystals by carbon ion implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Jin-Hua, E-mail: [School of Science, Shandong Jianzhu University, Jinan 250101 (China); Qin, Xi-Feng; Wang, Feng-Xiang; Fu, Gang; Wang, Hui-Lin [School of Science, Shandong Jianzhu University, Jinan 250101 (China); Wang, Xue-Lin [School of Physics, Key Laboratory of Particle Physics and Particle Irradiation, Ministry of Education, and State Key Laboratory of Crystal Materials, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China)


    There is great interest in niobate crystals which belong to the tetragonal tungsten bronze (TTB) families owing to their intriguing properties. As one representative of such crystals, CBN (calcium barium niobate) has attracted rapidly growing attention. Because it has a higher Curie temperature than SBN (strontium barium niobate), possesses outstanding ferroelectric and it possesses optical properties. In addition, doped with sodium, CBN will show a higher Curie temperature than pure CBN. We report on the fabrication and characterization of optical planar waveguide in x-cut sodium-doped calcium barium niobate crystal by using C ion implantation. The guided-mode properties at the wavelength of 633 and 1539 nm are investigated through prism-coupling measurements, respectively. By applying direct end-face coupling arrangement, the near-field optical intensity distribution of waveguide modes is measured at 633 nm. For comparison, the modal profile of the same guided mode is also numerically calculated by the finite difference beam-propagation method via computer software BeamPROP. The transmission spectra of the waveguide before and after ion implantation treatments were investigated also. Our experiment results reveal that the waveguide could propagate light with transverse magnetic polarized direction only and it is assumed that the polarization selectivity of CBN crystal may responsible for this phenomenon.

  4. Impact of sodium polyacrylate on the amorphous calcium carbonate formation from supersaturated solution. (United States)

    Liu, J; Pancera, S; Boyko, V; Gummel, J; Nayuk, R; Huber, K


    A detailed in situ scattering study has been carried out on the formation of amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) particles modulated by the presence of small amounts of sodium polyacrylate chains. The work is aiming at an insight into the modulation of ACC formation by means of two polyacrylate samples differing in their molecular weight by a factor of 50. The ACC formation process was initiated by an in situ generation of CO(3)(2-) ions via hydrolysis of 10 mM dimethylcarbonate in the presence of 10 mM CaCl(2). Analysis of the formation process by means of time-resolved small-angle X-ray and light scattering in the absence of any additives provided evidence for a monomer addition mechanism for the growth of ACC particles. ACC formation under these conditions sets in after a lag-period of some 350 s. In the presence of sodium polyacrylate chains, calcium polyacrylate aggregates are formed during the lag-period, succeeded by a modulated ACC growth in a second step. The presence of anionic polyacrylate chains changed the shape of the growing particles toward loose and less homogeneous entities. In the case of low amounts (1.5-7.5 mg/L) of the long chain additive with 97 kDa, the size of the aggregates is comparable to the size of the successively formed hybrid particles. No variation of the lag-period has been observed in this case. Use of the short chain additive with 2 kDa enabled increase of the additive concentration up to 100 mg/L and resulted in a significant increase of the lag-period. This fact, together with the finding that the resulting hybrid particles remained stable in the latter case, identified short chain sodium polyacrylates as more efficient modulators than long chain polyacrylates.

  5. Inhibition of collagen synthesis by select calcium and sodium channel blockers can be mitigated by ascorbic acid and ascorbyl palmitate


    Ivanov, Vadim; Ivanova, Svetlana; KALINOVSKY, TATIANA; NIEDZWIECKI, ALEKSANDRA; Rath, Matthias


    Calcium, sodium and potassium channel blockers are widely prescribed medications for a variety of health problems, most frequently for cardiac arrhythmias, hypertension, angina pectoris and other disorders. However, chronic application of channel blockers is associated with numerous side effects, including worsening cardiac pathology. For example, nifedipine, a calcium-channel blocker was found to be associated with increased mortality and increased risk for myocardial infarction. In addition...

  6. Energetics of discrete selectivity bands and mutation-induced transitions in the calcium-sodium ion channels family

    CERN Document Server

    Kaufman, I; Tindjong, R; McClintock, P V E; Eisenberg, R S


    We use Brownian dynamics simulations to study the permeation properties of a generic electrostatic model of a biological ion channel as a function of the fixed charge Q_f at its selectivity filter. We reconcile the recently-discovered discrete calcium conduction bands M0 (Q_f=1e), M1 (3e), M2 (5e) with the set of sodium conduction bands L0 (0.5-0.7e), L1 (1.5-2e) thereby obtaining a completed pattern of conduction and selectivity bands v Q_f for the sodium-calcium channels family. An increase of Q_f leads to an increase of calcium selectivity: L0 (sodium selective, non-blocking channel) -> M0 (non-selective channel) -> L1 (sodium selective channel with divalent block) -> M1 (calcium selective channel exhibiting the anomalous mole fraction effect). We create a consistent identification scheme where the L1 band is identified with the eukaryotic (DEKA) sodium channel, and L0 (speculatively) with the bacterial NaChBac channel. The scheme created is able to account for the experimentally observed mutation-induced ...

  7. Simultaneous direct determination of aluminum, calcium and iron in silicon carbide and silicon nitride powders by slurry-sampling graphite furnace AAS. (United States)

    Minami, Hirotsugu; Yada, Masako; Yoshida, Tomomi; Zhang, Qiangbin; Inoue, Sadanobu; Atsuya, Ikuo


    A fast and accurate analytical method was established for the simultaneous direct determination of aluminum, calcium and iron in silicon carbide and silicon nitride powders by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry using a slurry sampling technique and a Hitachi Model Z-9000 atomic absorption spectrometer. The slurry samples were prepared by the ultrasonication of silicon carbide or silicon nitride powders with 0.1 M nitric acid. Calibration curves were prepared by using a mixed standard solution containing aluminum, calcium, iron and 0.1 M nitric acid. The analytical results of the proposed method for aluminum, calcium and iron in silicon carbide and silicon nitride reference materials were in good agreement with the reference values. The detection limits for aluminum, calcium and iron were 0.6 microg/g, 0.15 microg/g and 2.5 microg/g, respectively, in solid samples, when 200 mg of powdered samples were suspended in 20 ml of 0.1 M nitric acid and a 10 microl portion of the slurry sample was then measured. The relative standard deviation of the determination of aluminum, calcium and iron was 5 - 33%.

  8. Inhibitors of arachidonate-regulated calcium channel signaling suppress triggered activity induced by the late sodium current. (United States)

    Wolkowicz, Paul; Umeda, Patrick K; Sharifov, Oleg F; White, C Roger; Huang, Jian; Mahtani, Harry; Urthaler, Ferdinand


    Disturbances in myocyte calcium homeostasis are hypothesized to be one cause for cardiac arrhythmia. The full development of this hypothesis requires (i) the identification of all sources of arrhythmogenic calcium and (ii) an understanding of the mechanism(s) through which calcium initiates arrhythmia. To these ends we superfused rat left atria with the late sodium current activator type II Anemonia sulcata toxin (ATXII). This toxin prolonged atrial action potentials, induced early afterdepolarization, and provoked triggered activity. The calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) inhibitor KN-93 (N-[2-[[[3-(4-chlorophenyl)-2-propenyl]methylamino]methyl]phenyl]-N-(2-hydroxyethyl)-4-methoxybenzenesulphon-amide) suppressed ATXII triggered activity but its inactive congener KN-92 (2-[N-(4-methoxy benzenesulfonyl)]amino-N-(4-chlorocinnamyl)-N-methylbenzylamine) did not. Neither drug affected normal atrial contractility. Calcium entry via L-type channels or calcium leakage from sarcoplasmic reticulum stores are not critical for this type of ectopy as neither verapamil ((RS)-2-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-5-{[2-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)ethyl]-(methyl)amino}-2-prop-2-ylpentanenitrile) nor ryanodine affected ATXII triggered activity. By contrast, inhibitors of the voltage independent arachidonate-regulated calcium (ARC) channel and the store-operated calcium channel specifically suppressed ATXII triggered activity without normalizing action potentials or affecting atrial contractility. Inhibitors of cytosolic calcium-dependent phospholipase A2 also suppressed triggered activity suggesting that this lipase, which generates free arachidonate, plays a key role in ATXII ectopy. Thus, increased left atrial late sodium current appears to activate atrial Orai-linked ARC and store operated calcium channels, and these voltage-independent channels may be unexpected sources for the arrhythmogenic calcium that underlies triggered activity.

  9. 3D printing of mineral–polymer bone substitutes based on sodium alginate and calcium phosphate (United States)

    Egorov, Aleksey A; Fedotov, Alexander Yu; Mironov, Anton V; Popov, Vladimir K; Zobkov, Yury V


    Summary We demonstrate a relatively simple route for three-dimensional (3D) printing of complex-shaped biocompatible structures based on sodium alginate and calcium phosphate (CP) for bone tissue engineering. The fabrication of 3D composite structures was performed through the synthesis of inorganic particles within a biopolymer macromolecular network during 3D printing process. The formation of a new CP phase was studied through X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Both the phase composition and the diameter of the CP particles depend on the concentration of a liquid component (i.e., the “ink”). The 3D printed structures were fabricated and found to have large interconnected porous systems (mean diameter ≈800 μm) and were found to possess compressive strengths from 0.45 to 1.0 MPa. This new approach can be effectively applied for fabrication of biocompatible scaffolds for bone tissue engineering constructions. PMID:28144529

  10. [Concentrations of calcium, magnesium, sodium and potassium in human milk and infant formulas]. (United States)

    Rodríguez Rodríguez, E M; Sanz Alaejos, M; Díaz Romero, C


    Concentrations of calcium, magnesium, sodium and potassium were determined in 55 samples of mature human milk from Canary women and 5 samples of powdered infant formula. According to the literature our data fell within the normal intervals described for each kind of milk. The mean concentration of Ca, Mg, Na y K of powdered infant formula was higher than those concentrations found in the human milks. Significant differences among the concentrations of Ca, Mg and Na for the milks of the considered mothers were observed. Only the Ca intakes for infants fed with human milk were lower than those requirements recommended by the Food and Nutrition Board (1989). However, the infants fed with powdered infant formula had an adequate intake of all the studied metals. A progressive decrease of the Na, K and Ca concentrations with the lactation stage was observed. Maternal age, parity and sex of the newborns did not affect the metal concentrations significantly.

  11. Effect of co-existing copper and calcium on the removal of As(V) by reused aluminum oxides. (United States)

    Yang, J K; Park, Y J; Kim, K H; Lee, H Y; Min, K C; Lee, S M


    Among the various heavy metals, arsenic is frequently found in abandoned mine drainage and the environmental fate of arsenic in real aqueous solutions can be highly dependent on the presence of co-existing ions. In this study, removal of arsenate through adsorption on the reused aluminum oxide or through precipitation was investigated in a single and in a binary system as a function of pH and concentration. Different removal behaviors of arsenate were observed in the presence of different cations as well as a variation of the molar ratios of arsenate to cations. Co-operative effects on arsenate removal by precipitation in solution occurred with an increase of copper concentration, while a decrease of arsenate removal resulted in increasing calcium concentration. It was observed that the arsenate removal in the presence of calcium would be highly dependent on the molar ratios of both elements.

  12. Extração simultânea de alumínio, cálcio, magnésio, potássio e sódio do solo com solução de cloreto de amônio Simultaneous extraction of aluminum, calcium, magnesium, potassium, and sodium with ammonium chloride solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. Boeira


    Full Text Available Atualmente, alguns laboratórios de análise de solo determinam Al, Ca e Mg trocáveis em extratos de KCl 1 mol L-1 e K e Na na solução extratora Mehlich-1, também usada na extração de fósforo. Outros laboratórios, que empregam a resina trocadora de ânions para P, avaliam também Ca, Mg e K no extrato, não sendo possível determinar Al e Na. Dessa forma, achou-se oportuno avaliar a extração com NH4Cl 1 mol L-1 na determinação simultânea dos cinco cátions trocáveis: Al, Ca, Mg, K e Na, em comparação aos extratores KCl e Mehlich-1. Utilizaram-se amostras coletadas em áreas de cultivo de fruteiras irrigadas da região Nordeste e na área experimental da Embrapa Meio Ambiente em Jaguariúna (SP. Os métodos utilizados foram: (a extração simultânea dos cinco cátions com NH4Cl 1 mol L-1, e (b extração de Ca, Mg e Al com KCl 1 mol L-1, e de K e Na com o extrator Mehlich-1. A solução de NH4Cl 1 mol L-1 apresentou maior capacidade de extração de Mg do solo do que a solução de KCl 1 mol L-1; as duas soluções se equivaleram quanto à capacidade de extração de Ca e de Al. A solução de NH4Cl extraiu mais K e Na do que a solução Mehlich-1. Conclui-se que a solução de NH4Cl é uma opção conveniente para a extração de Al, Ca, Mg, K e Na trocáveis do solo.Currently, part of the soil testing laboratories of Brazil determine exchangeable Al, Ca, and Mg in a 1 mol L-1 KCl soil extract and exchangeable sodium and potassium in the Mehlich-1 soil extract, which is also used for phosphorus extraction. Other laboratories use an anion exchange resin for P and also determine Ca, Mg and K in the same extract, while Al and Na cannot be determined. For this reason, it was considered a good opportunity to evaluate the simultaneous extraction of the five exchangeable cations: Al, Ca, Mg, K, and Na in a 1 mol L-1 NH4Cl solution, and compare the results with those obtained with potassium chloride and Mehlich-1 extractants. The soil

  13. Influence of sodium silicate concentration on structural and tribological properties of microarc oxidation coatings on 2017A aluminum alloy substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polat, Aytekin, E-mail: [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Nigde University, Nigde 51100 (Turkey); Makaraci, Murat [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kocaeli University, Kocaeli (Turkey); Usta, Metin [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Gebze Institute of Technology, Kocaeli (Turkey)


    In this paper, thick and hard oxide coatings resistant to wear were produced on 2017A-T6 Al alloy by the microarc oxidation (MAO) technique in an alkali electrolyte consisting of different sodium silicate concentrations (0-8 g/l). The coatings were characterized by means of optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and surface profilometry. Microhardness, scratch adhesion and pin-on-disk sliding wear tests were also performed to evaluate the tribological properties of the coatings. The influence of sodium silicate concentration on the structural and tribological properties of the MAO coatings was discussed. Results reveal that increasing sodium silicate concentration from 0 to 8 g/l in the electrolyte caused an increase in the electrolyte conductivity (from 7.71 to 18.1 mS/cm) and a decrease in positive final voltage (from 627 to 590 V) in the MAO process. In response to the increase in sodium silicate concentration, the thickness, surface roughness (R{sub a}) and critical load (L{sub c}) corresponding to adhesive failure of the coatings were increased simultaneously from 74 to 144 {mu}m, and 4.4 to 6.58 {mu}m, and 127.76 to 198.54 N, respectively. At the same time, the phase structure and composition of the coatings also varied by the participation of silicate ions in the reactions and their incorporation into the coating structure. Moreover, it was observed that the coating formed in the low sodium silicate concentration (4 g/l) had higher surface hardness (2020 HV) and improved wear resistance than the one (1800 HV) formed in the high sodium silicate concentration (8 g/l). The coatings produced in three different electrolytic solutions provided an excellent wear resistance and a load carrying capacity compared to the uncoated aluminum alloy.

  14. 施钙对甘薯铝胁迫的缓解效应%Effects of calcium application on alleviation of aluminum stress to sweet potato

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李清华; 刘庆; 李欢; 史衍玺


    Using the Shangshu 19 as plant material, alleviation effects of various concentration of calcium on aluminum stress of sweet potato were examined by soil culture experiment. Different levels of aluminum levels (0, 1 g/L) and calcium treatment levels (0, 0. 8, 1. 6, 2. 4 g/L) were used to study the different concentration of calcium on aluminum toxicity of sweet po-tato. The results showed that under the stress of aluminum, increased calcium supply alleviated the toxicity by aluminum, significantly weaken the aluminum stress to the root activity, calcium content in leaf and potato, the leaf chlorophyll content, PSⅡand Fv/Fm, the blade SOD and POD, the accumulation of lower malondialdehyde ( MDA) content, and improved the plant resistance to aluminum stress.%采用土培试验方法,以铝敏感型甘薯品种商薯19号为研究材料,设置不同的钙处理水平(0、0.8、1.6、2.4 g/kg),研究了钙对甘薯铝胁迫(1 g/kg)的缓解效应。结果表明:施钙可以显著促进甘薯根系的生长发育,提高叶片叶绿素含量和PSⅡ(PhotosystemⅡ)最大光化学效率(Fv/Fm),提高叶片中超氧化物歧化酶、过氧化氢酶和过氧化物酶活性,降低叶片中丙二醛的积累量。施钙可以有效提高甘薯对铝胁迫的抗逆性,有效缓解铝对甘薯的胁迫。

  15. Bones and Crohn's: No benefit of adding sodium fluoride oribandronate to calcium and vitamin D

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jochen Klaus; Max Reinshagen; Katharina Herdt; Christoph Schr(o)ter; Guido Adler; Georg BT von Boyen; Christian von Tirpitz


    AIM: To compare the effect of calcium and cholecalciferol alone and along with additional sodium fluoride or ibandronate on bone mineral density (BMD) and fractures in patients with Crohn's disease (CD).METHODS: Patients (n =148) with reduced BMD (T-score< -1) were randomized to receive cholecalciferol (1000 IU) and calcium citrate (800 mg) daily alone(group A, n =32) or along with additional sodium fluoride (25 mg bid ) (group B, n = 62) or additional ibandronate (1 mg iv/3-monthly) (group C, n = 54). Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry of the lumbar spine (L1-L4) and proximal right femurand X-rays of the spine were performed at baseline and after 1.0, 2.25 and 3.5 years. Fracture-assessment included visual reading of X-rays and quantitative morphometry of vertebral bodies (T4-L4).RESULTS: One hundred and twenty three (83.1%) patients completed the first year for intention-to-treat (ITT) analysis. Ninety two (62.2%) patients completed thesecond year and 71 (47.8%) the third year available for per-protocol (PP) analysis. With a significant increase in T-score of the lumbar spine by +0.28 ± 0.35 [95%confidence interval (CI): 0.162-0.460, P < 0.01], +0.33 ± 0.49 (95% CI: 0.109-0.558, P < 0.01), +0.43 ± 0.47 (95% CI: 0.147-0.708, P < 0.01) in group A, +0.22 ±0.33 (95% CI: 0.125-0.321, P < 0.01); +0.47 ± 0.60 (95% CI: 0.262-0.676, P < 0.01), +0.51 ± 0.44 (95%CI: 0.338-0.682, P < 0.01) in group B and +0.22 ±0.38 (95% CI: 0.111-0.329, P < 0.01), +0.36 ± 0.53(95% CI: 0.147-0.578, P < 0.01), +0.41 ± 0.48 (95%CI: 0.238-0.576, P < 0.01) in group C, respectively, duringthe 1.0, 2.25 and 3.5 year periods (PP analysis), no treatment regimen was superior in any in- or betweengroup analyses. In the ITT analysis, similar results in allin- and between-group analyses with a significant ingroup but non-significant between-group increase in T-score of the lumbar spine by 0.38 ± 0.46 (group A,P < 0.01), 0.37 ± 0.50 (group B, P < 0.01) and 0.35 ±0.49 (group C, P < 0.01) was

  16. Removal of uranium and fluorine from wastewater by double-functional microsphere adsorbent of SA/CMC loaded with calcium and aluminum (United States)

    Wu, Liping; Lin, Xiaoyan; Zhou, Xingbao; Luo, Xuegang


    A novel dual functional microsphere adsorbent of alginate/carboxymethyl cellulose sodium composite loaded with calcium and aluminum (SA/CMC-Ca-Al) is prepared by an injection device to remove fluoride and uranium, respectively, from fluoro-uranium mixed aqueous solution. Batch experiments are performed at different conditions: pH, temperature, initial concentration and contact time. The results show that the maximum adsorption amount for fluoride is 35.98 mg/g at pH 2.0, 298.15 K concentration 100 mg/L, while that for uranium is 101.76 mg/g at pH 4.0, 298.15 K concentration 100 mg/L. Both of the adsorption process could be well described by Langmuir model. The adsorption kinetic data is fitted well with pseudo-first-order model for uranium and pseudo-second-order model for fluoride. Thermodynamic parameters are also evaluated, indicating that the adsorption of uranium on SA/CMC-Ca-Al is a spontaneous and exothermic process, while the removal of fluoride is non-spontaneous and endothermic process. The mechanism of modification and adsorption process on SA/CMC-Ca-Al is characterized by FT-IR, SEM, EDX and XPS. The results show that Ca (II) and Al (III) are loaded on SA/CMC through ion-exchange of sodium of SA/CMC. The coordination reaction and ion-exchange happen during the adsorption process between SA/CMC-Ca-Al and uranium, fluoride. Results suggest that the SA/CMC-Ca-Al adsorbent has a great potential in removing uranium and fluoride from aqueous solution.

  17. Effects of low calcium plus high aluminum diet on magnesium and calcium contents in spinal cord and trabecular bone of rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasui, Masayuki; Ota, Kiichiro [Wakayama Medical Coll. (Japan); Sasajima, Kazuhisa


    Current epidemiological surveys in the Western Pacific area and Kii Peninsula have suggested that low calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), and high aluminum (Al) and manganese (Mn) in river, soil and drinking water may be implicated in the pathogenetic process of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and parkinsonism-dementia (PD). The condition of unbalanced minerals was experimentally duplicated in this study using rats. Male Wistar rats, weighing 200 g, were maintained for 60 days on the following diets: (A) standard diet, (B) low Ca diet, (C) low Ca diet with high Al. Magnesium concentration was determined in spinal cord and trabecular bone using inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometry (ICP) and the calcium concentration was determined using neutron activation method. In the group maintained on low Ca high Al diet, magnesium content of the spinal cord was lower than the group fed standard diet. Also, magnesium content of lumbar bone showed lower values in the unbalanced diet group fed low Ca high Al diet than those in the standard diet and low Ca diet groups. Calcium content of spinal cord was highest in rats maintained on low Ca high Al diet. Calcium content in lumbar bone of rats significantly decreased in rats maintained on the low Ca diet (group B and C) compared to rats given a standard diet (group A). Our data indicate that low Ca and high Al dietary intake influence Mg concentration in bone and central nervous system (CNS) tissues and that low Ca and high Al diet diminish Mg in bone and CNS tissues, thereby inducing loss of calcification in bone and degeneration of CNS tissues due to disturbance of the normal biological effects of Mg. (author)

  18. A short introduction to the new principle of binding ration calcium with sodium zeolite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, R J; Bjerrum, M J; Classen, H;


    This paper summarise the development of the new principle of preventing parturient hypocalcaemia by reducing the bioavailability of ration calcium with calcium binders, based on the idea that a negative calcium balance would stimulate natural defence mechanisms against threatening hypocalcaemia. ...

  19. Electrochemical evaluation of sodium metabisulfite as environmentally friendly inhibitor for corrosion of aluminum alloy 6061 in a chloride solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaid, B., E-mail: [Département de métallurgie, Division de Technologie du Combustible, Centre de Recherche Nucléaire de Draria CRND, BP. 43 Draria, Alger (Algeria); Maddache, N.; Saidi, D. [Département de métallurgie, Division de Technologie du Combustible, Centre de Recherche Nucléaire de Draria CRND, BP. 43 Draria, Alger (Algeria); Souami, N. [Centre de Recherche Nucléaire d’Alger CRNA, 2 Bd. Frantz Fanon, Alger (Algeria); Bacha, N. [Département de Mécanique, Université SAAD Dahleb, Blida (Algeria); Si Ahmed, A. [Im2np, UMR 7334 CNRS, Aix-Marseille Université, 13397 Marseille Cedex 20 (France)


    Highlights: • Sodium metabisulfite acts as cathodic-type inhibitor. • The polarization resistance increases with the inhibitor concentration. • The pit nucleation rate decreases with increasing inhibitor concentration. • The current rise linked to pit propagation drops as inhibitor content increases. • The reactions involved in the inhibition actions are pointed out. - Abstract: Inhibition properties of sodium metabisulfite (Na{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 5}) on pitting corrosion of 6061 aluminum alloy, in 5 × 10{sup −2} M NaCl solution of pH near 7.2 at 298 K, are characterized using open circuit potential, polarization resistance, cyclic and chrono-amperometric polarization measurements. In addition, scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectrons are employed. Sodium metabisulfite, which is well compatible with environmental requirements, seems to act as a cathodic-type corrosion inhibitor. The passivation range and the polarization resistance increase with Na{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 5} concentration. The inhibition effects are also reflected through the substantial reduction of both the rate of pit nucleation and the current rise characterizing the pit propagation progress. The SEM–EDS and XPS analyses reveal the formation of a passive film, which contains sulfur atoms.

  20. Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of vitamin C (ascorbic acid, sodium ascorbate, calcium ascorbate, ascorbyl palmitate, sodium calcium ascorbyl phosphate and sodium ascorbyl phosphate as a feed additive for all animal species based on a dossier submitted by DSM Nutritional Products Ltd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP


    Full Text Available Vitamin C is essential for primates, guinea pigs and fish. Vitamin C, in the form of ascorbic acid and its calcium and sodium salts, ascorbyl palmitate, sodium calcium ascorbyl phosphate and sodium ascorbyl phosphate, is safe for all animal species. Setting a maximum content in feed and water for drinking is not considered necessary. Data on the vitamin C consumption of consumers are based on the levels of vitamin C in foodstuffs, including food of animal origin, produced in accordance with current EU legislation on the supplementation of feed with vitamin C. The exposure is far below the guidance level. Any potential contribution of the use of vitamin C in feed is therefore already considered in the above data. Consequently, the use of vitamin C in animal nutrition is not of concern for consumer safety. In the absence of inhalation toxicity studies it would be prudent to assume that inhalation of dust from the additives presents a health hazard to workers. Sodium calcium ascorbyl phosphate is not an irritant to skin and eyes and is unlikely to be a skin sensitiser. This conclusion is extrapolated to sodium ascorbyl phosphate. In the absence of data, ascorbic acid, sodium ascorbate, calcium ascorbate and ascorbyl palmitate should be considered as irritant to skin and eyes and as dermal sensitisers. The supplementation of feed with vitamin C does not pose a risk to the environment. Ascorbic acid, sodium calcium ascorbyl phosphate and sodium ascorbyl phosphate are regarded as effective sources of vitamin C when added to feed or water for drinking. Since ascorbic acid, sodium ascorbate, calcium ascorbate and ascorbyl palmitate are authorised for use as antioxidants in food and their function in feed is essentially the same as that in food, no further demonstration of efficacy is considered necessary.

  1. Possible roles of exceptionally conserved residues around the selectivity filters of sodium and calcium channels. (United States)

    Tikhonov, Denis B; Zhorov, Boris S


    In the absence of x-ray structures of sodium and calcium channels their homology models are used to rationalize experimental data and design new experiments. A challenge is to model the outer-pore region that folds differently from potassium channels. Here we report a new model of the outer-pore region of the NaV1.4 channel, which suggests roles of highly conserved residues around the selectivity filter. The model takes from our previous study (Tikhonov, D. B., and Zhorov, B. S. (2005) Biophys. J. 88, 184-197) the general disposition of the P-helices, selectivity filter residues, and the outer carboxylates, but proposes new intra- and inter-domain contacts that support structural stability of the outer pore. Glycine residues downstream from the selectivity filter are proposed to participate in knob-into-hole contacts with the P-helices and S6s. These contacts explain the adapted tetrodotoxin resistance of snakes that feed on toxic prey through valine substitution of isoleucine in the P-helix of repeat IV. Polar residues five positions upstream from the selectivity filter residues form H-bonds with the ascending-limb backbones. Exceptionally conserved tryptophans are engaged in inter-repeat H-bonds to form a ring whose π-electrons would facilitate passage of ions from the outer carboxylates to the selectivity filter. The outer-pore model of CaV1.2 derived from the NaV1.4 model is also stabilized by the ring of exceptionally conservative tryptophans and H-bonds between the P-helices and ascending limbs. In this model, the exceptionally conserved aspartate downstream from the selectivity-filter glutamate in repeat II facilitates passage of calcium ions to the selectivity-filter ring through the tryptophan ring. Available experimental data are discussed in view of the models.

  2. Physicochemical characterizations and desulfurization properties in coal combustion of three calcium and sodium industrial wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jun Cheng; Junhu Zhou; Jianzhong Liu; Xinyu Cao; Kefa Cen [Zhejiang University, Hangzhou (China). State Key Laboratory of Clean Energy Utilization


    To recycle industrial wastes and reduce SO{sub 2} pollutant emission in coal combustion, the mineralogical compositions, porosity structures, surface morphologies, and desulfurization properties of three calcium and sodium industrial wastes were investigated via X-ray diffraction (XRD), porosimeter, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and a fixed-bed reactor. (1) White lime mud (WLM) mainly composed of CaCO{sub 3} with Na{sub 2}O and K{sub 2}O impurities has smaller CaCO{sub 3} particles and a higher surface area than limestone. But calcined WLM has larger CaO particles and a lower surface area than limestone calcined at 1200{sup o}C for 300 s. (2) Calcium carbide residue (CCR) mainly composed of Ca(OH)2, has the highest surface area and smaller Ca(OH){sub 2} particles than the CaCO{sub 3} particles in WLM. Its surface area monotonously and dramatically decreases at 1200{sup o}C for 300 s, but the sintered CaO particles are still smaller than those in the limestone. (3) When brine sludge (BS), mainly composed of NaCl and CaCO{sub 3}, is heated at 1200{sup o}C for 300 s, the NaCl/CaO eutectic solvent facilitates the aggregation of some complex composites to form many larger particles. (4) WLM gives the highest desulfurization efficiency of 80.4% at 1000{sup o}C and 65.0% at 1100{sup o}C in coal combustion. Combined CCR and limestone give a synergistic desulfurization efficiency of 45.8% at 1200{sup o}C. BS with a molar ratio of Na/Ca at 1:15 effectively promotes the synergistic desulfurization efficiency of combined CCR and limestone to a peak of 54.9% at 1200{sup o}C. 23 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Altervalent substitution of sodium for calcium in biogenic calcite and aragonite (United States)

    Yoshimura, Toshihiro; Tamenori, Yusuke; Suzuki, Atsushi; Kawahata, Hodaka; Iwasaki, Nozomu; Hasegawa, Hiroshi; Nguyen, Luan T.; Kuroyanagi, Azumi; Yamazaki, Toshitsugu; Kuroda, Junichiro; Ohkouchi, Naohiko


    Sodium concentrations in biogenic CaCO3 are several thousands of parts per million, and, on a molar basis, Na is among the most abundant constituent minor element in these carbonates. Nevertheless, the chemical form of Na in CaCO3 is not well constrained. We used synchrotron X-ray spectroscopy to identify the dominant molecular host sites for Na in biogenic calcite and aragonite precipitated by corals, bivalves, and foraminifera. We also used the K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure to investigate the chemical environment of Na in biogenic calcium carbonates and identify the altervalent substitution of Na into Ca sites in the lattice structures of calcite and aragonite. Minor cation and anion concentrations in biogenic CaCO3 suggest that the principal substitution mechanism involves charge compensation through the creation of CO32- vacancies. The mostly homogeneous Na concentrations in the skeletal microstructures of the various biota we examined indicate that environmental and biological controls, such as temperature, skeletal microstructure, and calcification rates, have only minor influences on skeletal Na concentrations. A decrease of Na:Ca ratios with increasing age of foraminiferal shells picked from a Quaternary sediment core, indicates progressive release of Na, which suggests that structurally-substituted Na in biogenic CaCO3 is readily leached during burial diagenesis. Whereas the sediment that undergo diagenesis release some Na back to the water column, sodium co-precipitation in biogenic CaCO3 serves as a potential sink of Na for the ocean.

  4. Calcium oxalate crystal deposition in kidneys of hypercalciuric mice with disrupted type IIa sodium-phosphate cotransporter


    Khan, Saeed R.; Glenton, Patricia A.


    The most common theories about the pathogenesis of idiopathic kidney stones consider precipitation of calcium phosphate (CaP) within the kidneys critical for the development of the disease. We decided to test the hypothesis that a CaP substrate can promote the deposition of calcium oxalate (CaOx) in the kidneys. Experimental hyperoxaluria was induced by feeding glyoxylate to male mice with knockout (KO) of NaPi IIa (Npt2a), a sodium-phosphate cotransporter. Npt2a KO mice are hypercalciuric an...

  5. Fibroblast growth factor 23 dysregulates late sodium current and calcium homeostasis with enhanced arrhythmogenesis in pulmonary vein cardiomyocytes. (United States)

    Huang, Shih-Yu; Chen, Yao-Chang; Kao, Yu-Hsun; Hsieh, Ming-Hsiung; Lin, Yung-Kuo; Chung, Cheng-Chih; Lee, Ting-I; Tsai, Wen-Chin; Chen, Shih-Ann; Chen, Yi-Jen


    Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), elevated in chronic renal failure, increases atrial arrhythmogenesis and dysregulates calcium homeostasis. Late sodium currents (INa-Late) critically induces ectopic activity of pulmoanry vein (the most important atrial fibrillation trigger). This study was to investigate whether FGF23 activates the INa-Late leading to calcium dysregulation and increases PV arrhythmogenesis. Patch clamp, western blot, and confocal microscopy were used to evaluate the electrical activities, calcium homeostasis, and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) in PV cardiomyocytes with or without FGF23 (0.1 or 1 ng/mL) incubation for 4~6 h. Compared to the control, FGF23 (1 ng/mL, but not 0.1 ng/mL)-treated PV cardiomyocytes had a faster beating rate. FGF23 (1 ng/mL)-treated PV cardiomyocytes had larger INa-Late, calcium transients, and mitochondrial ROS than controls. However, ranolazine (an inhibitor of INa-Late) attenuated FGF23 (1 ng/mL)-increased beating rates, calcium transients and mitochondrial ROS. FGF23 (1 ng/mL)-treated PV cardiomyocytes exhibited larger phosphorylation of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII). Chelerythrine chloride (an inhibitor of protein kinase C) decreased INa-Late in FGF23 (1 ng/mL)-treated PV cardiomyocytes. However, KN93 (a selective CaMKII blocker) decreased INa-Late in control and FGF23 (1 ng/mL)-treated PV cardiomyocytes to a similar extent. In conclusion, FGF23 increased PV arrhythmogenesis through sodium and calcium dysregulation by acting protein kinase C signaling.

  6. Microstructure characterization and micro- and nanoscale mechanical behaviour of magnesium-aluminum and magnesium-aluminum-calcium alloys (United States)

    Han, Lihong

    The application in the automotive industry of the as-cast AM50 alloy (Mg-5.0 wt.%%Al-0.3 wt.%Mn) has been limited by its low creep resistance at elevated temperatures. Permanent mold cast (PM) Mg-Al-Ca alloys with calcium additions (0 ˜ 2.0 wt.%) were investigated in this study due to their potential for improving the high temperature creep strength. The microstructures of the die cast (DC) or PM AM50 alloys consisted of an intergranular beta-Mg17Al12 phase surrounded by a region of Al-rich eutectic alpha-Mg phase, sometimes with attached Al8Mn5 particles. In this study, significant grain refinement was observed in the PM Mg-Al-Ca alloys with Ca addition to the AM50 alloy. The grain refining effect was confirmed by quantitative image analysis through measurement of the secondary dendrite arm spacing (SDAS). The intergranular phases in Mg-Al-Ca alloys with 0.5 or 1.0 wt.% Ca were beta-Mg17Al 12 and (Al, Mg)2Ca phases. As the Ca addition was increased to 1.5 wt.% Ca, the (beta-Mg17Al12 phase was completely replaced by a (Al, Mg)2Ca phase. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) results showed that the (Al, Mg)2Ca phase was thermally more stable than the beta-Mg 17Al12 phase, which contributed to the better creep strength of the Mg-Al-Ca alloys. The change in heating/cooling rates played an important role in the redistribution of alloying elements and the dissolution or precipitation of the eutectic phases in the as-cast Mg alloys during DSC runs. The micro- and nano-scale hardness and composite modulus of the PM Mg-Al-Ca alloys increased with increasing Ca content, and the indentation size effect (ISE) was also observed in the as-cast Mg-Al and Mg-Al-Ca alloys. PM AC52 alloy (Mg-5.0wt.%Al-2.0wt.%Ca) was a much more creep resistant alloy than other Mg-Al-Ca alloys with lower Ca contents because of the higher solute content in the primary alpha-Mg in the as-cast state and also because of the presence of nano precipitates within the primary alpha-Mg. The size and

  7. Calcium-Mediated Regulation of Proton-Coupled Sodium Transport - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schumaker, Karen S [Professor


    The long-term goal of our experiments was to understand mechanisms that regulate energy coupling by ion currents in plants. Activities of living organisms require chemical, mechanical, osmotic or electrical work, the energy for which is supplied by metabolism. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) has long been recognized as the universal energy currency, with metabolism supporting the synthesis of ATP and the hydrolysis of ATP being used for the subsequent work. However, ATP is not the only energy currency in living organisms. A second and very different energy currency links metabolism to work by the movement of ions passing from one side of a membrane to the other. These ion currents play a major role in energy capture and they support a range of physiological processes from the active transport of nutrients to the spatial control of growth and development. In Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis), the activity of a plasma membrane Na+/H+ exchanger, SALT OVERLY SENSITIVE1 (SOS1), is essential for regulation of sodium ion homeostasis during plant growth in saline conditions. Mutations in SOS1 result in severely reduced seedling growth in the presence of salt compared to the growth of wild type. SOS1 is a secondary active transporter coupling movement of sodium ions out of the cell using energy stored in the transplasma membrane proton gradient, thereby preventing the build-up of toxic levels of sodium in the cytosol. SOS1 is regulated by complexes containing the SOS2 and CALCINEURIN B-LIKE10 (CBL10) or SOS3 proteins. CBL10 and SOS3 (also identified as CBL4) encode EF-hand calcium sensors that interact physically with and activate SOS2, a serine/threonine protein kinase. The CBL10/SOS2 or SOS3/SOS2 complexes then activate SOS1 Na+/H+ exchange activity. We completed our studies to understand how SOS1 activity is regulated. Specifically, we asked: (1) how does CBL10 regulate SOS1 activity? (2) What role do two putative CBL10-interacting proteins play in SOS1 regulation? (3) Are

  8. Optimization of the procedure for the synthesis of calcium and sodium citrate in laboratory and semi-industrial conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ušćumlić Gordana S.


    Full Text Available The aim of this investigation is the development of the optimal laboratory procedure for the synthesis of calcium and sodium citrate and the application of obtained results in a project for a semi-industrial installation for its production. These salts are used as an additive in numerous food and pharmaceutical products. Basically, they have to satisfy quality requirements, which is the reason why the procedure for their synthesis needs to be optimized in aspects of selection of reactants, their molar ratio, necessary laboratory equipment, reactant addition order, working temperature, isolation of final product from the reaction mixture, yield and product quality. A semi-industrial installation for the production of calcium and sodium citrate will be projected on the basis of the results of this investigation. The importance of this investigation is the fact that these salts are not produced in our country and the entire quantity (about 20 t per year is imported.

  9. Equilibrium studies of sodium-ammonium potassium-ammonium, and calcium-ammonium exchanges on clinoptilolite zeolite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jama, M.A.; Yuecel, H. (Middle East Technical Univ., Ankara (Turkey))


    Forward and reverse ion-exchange isotherms for the binary sodium-ammonium, potassium-ammonium, and calcium-ammonium systems on clinoptilolite have been measured in aqueous solutions at a total concentration of 0.1 equiv/dm{sup 3} and at 298 K. Prior to exchange experiments it was attempted to prepare homoionic forms of the zeolite by exhaustive treatments with appropriate salt solutions of cations. With no binary exchanges, full replacement of the cation by the ammonium ion is observed, which conflicts with some earlier work on clinoptilolite. Despite the observed partial exchange levels, clinoptilolite shows a very high preference for ammonium ion over sodium and calcium but not over potassium. Thermodynamic values for the exchanges were calculated and compared with data in the literature. Both the selectivity and thermodynamic affinity sequence, in agreement with previous work reported in the literature, are K{sup +} > NH{sub 4}{sup +} > Na{sup +} > Ca{sup 2+}.

  10. Transuranium removal from Hanford high level waste simulants using sodium permanganate and calcium (United States)

    Wilmarth, W. R.; Rosencrance, S. W.; Nash, C. A.; Fonduer, F. F.; DiPrete, D. P.; DiPrete, C. C.


    Plutonium and americium are present in the Hanford high level liquid waste complexant concentrate (CC) due to the presence of complexing agents including di-(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (D2EHPA), tributylphosphate (TBP), hydroxyethylene diamine triacetic acid (HEDTA), ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA), citric acid, glycolic acid, and sodium gluconate. The transuranic concentrations approach 600 nCi/g and require processing prior to encapsulation into low activity glass. BNFL's (British Nuclear Fuels Limited's) original process was a ferric co-precipitation method based on earlier investigations by Herting and Orth, et al. Furthermore, flocculation and precipitation are widely used for clarification in municipal water treatment. Co-precipitation of Np, Am, and Pu with ferric hydroxide is also used within an analytical method for the sum of those analytes. Tests to evaluate BNFL's original precipitation process indicated the measured decontamination factors (DFs) and filter fluxes were too low. Therefore, an evaluation of alternative precipitation agents to replace ferric ion was undertaken. Agents tested included various transition metals, lanthanide elements, uranium species, calcium, strontium, and permanganate.

  11. Structural Insight into the Ion-Exchange Mechanism of the Sodium/Calcium Exchanger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, Jun; Li, Hua; Zeng, Weizhong; Sauer, David B.; Belmares, Ricardo; Jiang, Youxing (UTSMC)


    Sodium/calcium (Na{sup +}/Ca{sup 2+}) exchangers (NCX) are membrane transporters that play an essential role in maintaining the homeostasis of cytosolic Ca{sup 2+} for cell signaling. We demonstrated the Na{sup +}/Ca{sup 2+}-exchange function of an NCX from Methanococcus jannaschii (NCX{_}Mj) and report its 1.9 angstrom crystal structure in an outward-facing conformation. Containing 10 transmembrane helices, the two halves of NCX{_}Mj share a similar structure with opposite orientation. Four ion-binding sites cluster at the center of the protein: one specific for Ca{sup 2+} and three that likely bind Na{sup +}. Two passageways allow for Na{sup +} and Ca{sup 2+} access to the central ion-binding sites from the extracellular side. Based on the symmetry of NCX{_}Mj and its ability to catalyze bidirectional ion-exchange reactions, we propose a structure model for the inward-facing NCX{_}Mj.

  12. Molecular Modeling of Ammonium, Calcium, Sulfur, and Sodium Lignosulphonates in Acid and Basic Aqueous Environments (United States)

    Salazar Valencia, P. J.; Bolívar Marinez, L. E.; Pérez Merchancano, S. T.


    Lignosulphonates (LS), also known as lignin sulfonates or sulfite lignin, are lignins in sulfonated forms, obtained from the "sulfite liquors," a residue of the wood pulp extraction process. Their main utility lies in its wide range of properties, they can be used as additives, dispersants, binders, fluxing, binder agents, etc. in fields ranging from food to fertilizer manufacture and even as agents in the preparation of ion exchange membranes. Since they can be manufactured relatively easy and quickly, and that its molecular size can be manipulated to obtain fragments of very low molecular weight, they are used as transport agents in the food industry, cosmetics, pharmaceutical and drug development, and as molecular elements for the treatment of health problems. In this paper, we study the electronic structural and optical characteristics of LS incorporating ammonium, sulfur, calcium, and sodium ions in acidic and basic aqueous media in order to gain a better understanding of their behavior and the very interesting properties exhibit. The studies were performed using the molecular modeling program HyperChem 5 using the semiempirical method PM3 of the NDO Family (neglect of differential overlap), to calculate the structural properties. We calculated the electronic and optical properties using the semiempirical method ZINDO / CI.

  13. Synthesis, characterization, and in vitro release of diclofenac sodium from hybrid nanostructured magnetite-calcium pectinate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutta, Raj Kumar, E-mail:; Sahu, Saurabh, E-mail: [Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Analytical Chemistry Laboratory, Department of Chemistry (India); Reddy, V. R., E-mail: [UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research (India)


    A stable spherical nanostructured calcium pectinate loaded with diclofenac sodium (DS) and functionalized by superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles, referred as MCPDS, was developed as a potential magnetically targeted drug delivery system. The sizes of the MCPDS were in the range of 100-200 nm in dried condition, confirmed by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. In the aqueous medium, the sizes of MCPDS were in the range 300 {+-} 50 nm, measured by dynamic light scattering technique. The X-ray diffraction and {sup 57}Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy confirmed magnetite phase in MCPDS. The magnetic property of the MCPDS nanostructures was confirmed from high saturation magnetization (44.05 emu/g), measured using a vibrating sample magnetometer. The superparamagnetic property of MCPDS was characterized by superconducting quantum unit interference device magnetometry and corroborated by Moessbauer spectroscopy. The loading efficiency of DS in MCPDS was measured by UV-Vis spectrophotometry and corroborated by thermal analysis. The in vitro release of the drug from MCPDS in simulated gastrointestinal fluids and in phosphate buffer solution was found to be pH sensitive and exhibited sustained release property. The cumulative drug release agreed well with that of swelling controlled diffusion mechanism, given by the Korsemeyer Peppas model.

  14. Growth of calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions by coagulation and fragmentation in a turbulent protoplanetary disk: observations and modelisation

    CERN Document Server

    Charnoz, S; Chaumard, N; Baillie, K; Tallifet, E


    Whereas it is generally accepted that calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) from chondritic meteorites formed in a hot environment in the solar protoplanetary disk, the conditions of their formation remain debated. Recent laboratory studies of CAIs have provided new kind of data: their size distributions. We show that size distributions of CAIs measured in laboratory from sections of carbonaceous chondrites have a power law size distribution with cumulative size exponent between -1.7 and -1.9, which translates into cumulative size exponent between -2.5 and -2.8 after correction for sectioning. To explain these observations, numerical simulations were run to explore the growth of CAIs from micrometer to centimeter sizes, in a hot and turbulent protoplanetary disk through the competition of coagulation and fragmentation. We show that the size distributions obtained in growth simulations are in agreement with CAIs size distributions in meteorites. We explain the CAI sharp cut-off of their size distribution at ...

  15. Simultaneous measurements of magnesium, calcium and sodium influxes in perfused squid giant axons under membrane potential control. (United States)

    Rojas, E; Taylor, R E


    1. Giant axons from the squids Dosidicus gigas, Loligo forbesi and Loligo vulgaris were internally perfused with 550 or 275 mM KF plus sucrose and bathed in artificial sea water containing 45Ca, 28Mg or mixtures of 45Ca-28Mg or 45Ca-22Na. Resting influxes and extra influxes during voltage-clamp pulses were measured by collecting and counting the internal perfusate. 2. For Dosidicus axons in 10 mM-CaCl2 the resting influx of calcium was 0-016 +/- 0-007 p-mole/cm2 sec and a linear function of external concentration. For two experiments in 10 and 84-7 mM-CaCl2, 100 nM tetrodotoxin had no effect. Resting calcium influx in 10 mM-CaCl2 was 0-017 +/- 0-013 p-mole/cm2 sec for Loligo axons. 3. With 55 mM-MgCl2 outside the average resting magnesium influx was 0-124 +/- 0-080 p-mole/cm2 sec for Loligo axons. Discarding one aberrant point the value is 0-105 +/- 0-046 which is not significantly different from the resting calcium influx for Dosidicus fibres in 55 mM-CaCl2, given as 0-094 p-mole/cm2 sec by the regression line shown in Fig. 1. In two experiments 150 nM tetrodotoxin had no effect. 4. With 430 mM-NaCl outside 100 nM tetrodotoxin reduced the average resting influx of sodium in Dosidicus axon from 27-7 +/- 4-5 to 25-1 +/- 6-2 p-mole/cm2 sec and for Loligo fibres in 460 mM-NaCl from 50-5 +/- 4 to 20 +/- 8 p-mole/cm2 sec. 5. Using depolarizing pulses of various durations, the extra calcium influx occurred in two phases. The early phase was eliminated by external application of tetrodotoxin. The results of analysis are consistent with, but do not rigorously demonstrate, the conclusion that the tetrodotoxin sensitive calcium entry is flowing through the normal sodium channels (cf. Baker, Hodgkin & Ridgway, 1971). 6. Measurements of extra influxes using 22Na and 45Ca simultaneously indicate that the time courses of tetrodotoxin sensitive calcium and sodium entry are similar but not necessarily identical. It is very doubtful that any significant calcium entry occurs before

  16. Gd3+ and calcium sensitive, sodium leak currents are features of weak membrane-glass seals in patch clamp recordings. (United States)

    Boone, Adrienne N; Senatore, Adriano; Chemin, Jean; Monteil, Arnaud; Spafford, J David


    The properties of leaky patch currents in whole cell recording of HEK-293T cells were examined as a means to separate these control currents from expressed sodium and calcium leak channel currents from snail NALCN leak channels possessing both sodium (EKEE) and calcium (EEEE) selectivity filters. Leak currents were generated by the weakening of gigaohm patch seals by artificial membrane rupture using the ZAP function on the patch clamp amplifier. Surprisingly, we found that leak currents generated from the weakened membrane/glass seal can be surprisingly stable and exhibit behavior that is consistent with a sodium leak current derived from an expressible channel. Leaky patch currents differing by 10 fold in size were similarly reduced in size when external sodium ions were replaced with the large monovalent ion NMDG+. Leaky patch currents increased when external Ca2+ (1.2 mM) was lowered to 0.1 mM and were inhibited (>40% to >90%) with 10 µM Gd3+, 100 µM La3+, 1 mM Co2+ or 1 mM Cd2+. Leaky patch currents were relatively insensitive (Sylgard rubber.

  17. Effect of Tartaric Acid on Hydration of a Sodium-Metasilicate-Activated Blend of Calcium Aluminate Cement and Fly Ash F

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Pyatina


    Full Text Available An alkali-activated blend of aluminum cement and class F fly ash is an attractive solution for geothermal wells where cement is exposed to significant thermal shocks and aggressive environments. Set-control additives enable the safe cement placement in a well but may compromise its mechanical properties. This work evaluates the effect of a tartaric-acid set retarder on phase composition, microstructure, and strength development of a sodium-metasilicate-activated calcium aluminate/fly ash class F blend after curing at 85 °C, 200 °C or 300 °C. The hardened materials were characterized with X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, X-ray computed tomography, and combined scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and tested for mechanical strength. With increasing temperature, a higher number of phase transitions in non-retarded specimens was found as a result of fast cement hydration. The differences in the phase compositions were also attributed to tartaric acid interactions with metal ions released by the blend in retarded samples. The retarded samples showed higher total porosity but reduced percentage of large pores (above 500 µm and greater compressive strength after 300 °C curing. Mechanical properties of the set cements were not compromised by the retarder.

  18. Calcium pentosan polysulfate and sodium pentosan polysulfate may be used to treat intervertebral disc degeneration. (United States)

    Zhao, Jia-Guo; Wang, Jia; Xin, Qi; Zhang, Peng; Zhang, Sheng-Fei; Qi, Feng; Mao, Dong; Zhang, Zhi-Cheng


    Intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD) is a major health problem world-wide, and several spinal disorders are closely associated with it. Although people have invested a great deal of time and effort, how to prevent and reverse the IDD for the researchers is still a difficult and hot issue. Intervertebral disc belongs to cartilage tissue, and IDD also is the cartilage degeneration disease. A large quantity of studies have shown that Calcium pentosan polysulfate (CaPPS) and sodium pentosan polysulfate (NaPPS) possess chondroprotective activities and play an important role in maintaining cartilage integrity. We reasonably hypothesize that NaPPS and CaPPS may be used to treat IDD. The possible mechanism may include that: (1) the significant effects of NaPPS and CaPPS in improving capillary blood flow could maintain nutritional supply to intervertebral disc, and preserve intervertebral disc tissue against degeneration; (2) CaPPS and NaPPS preserve cartilage integrity, proteoglycan synthesis, and improve cartilage biomechanical properties; (3) as the multifaceted exosite inhibitors of proteinases NaPPS and CaPPS strongly impede the activity and production of proteinases; (4) promotion of the balance between proteinases and TIMPs also may be involved in treating IDD; (5) NaPPS and CaPPS exhibit potent anti-inflammatory effects, and then reduce inflammation-induced IDD. If the hypothesis were conformed, the symptoms caused by IDD and its related diseases would be a corresponding alleviation or even disappearance, which could greatly alleviate the suffering of patients from disc degeneration diseases. Certainly, many roles of CaPPS and NaPPS, such as effectiveness, safety and side effects, need to be tested, and further works such as animal model and clinical trial, need to be done to prove this hypothesis.

  19. Seeing the forest through the trees: towards a unified view on physiological calcium regulation of voltage-gated sodium channels. (United States)

    Van Petegem, Filip; Lobo, Paolo A; Ahern, Christopher A


    Voltage-gated sodium channels (Na(V)s) underlie the upstroke of the action potential in the excitable tissues of nerve and muscle. After opening, Na(V)s rapidly undergo inactivation, a crucial process through which sodium conductance is negatively regulated. Disruption of inactivation by inherited mutations is an established cause of lethal cardiac arrhythmia, epilepsy, or painful syndromes. Intracellular calcium ions (Ca(2+)) modulate sodium channel inactivation, and multiple players have been suggested in this process, including the cytoplasmic Na(V) C-terminal region including two EF-hands and an IQ motif, the Na(V) domain III-IV linker, and calmodulin. Calmodulin can bind to the IQ domain in both Ca(2+)-bound and Ca(2+)-free conditions, but only to the DIII-IV linker in a Ca(2+)-loaded state. The mechanism of Ca(2+) regulation, and its composite effect(s) on channel gating, has been shrouded in much controversy owing to numerous apparent experimental inconsistencies. Herein, we attempt to summarize these disparate data and propose a novel, to our knowledge, physiological mechanism whereby calcium ions promote sodium current facilitation due to Ca(2+) memory at high-action-potential frequencies where Ca(2+) levels may accumulate. The available data suggest that this phenomenon may be disrupted in diseases where cytoplasmic calcium ion levels are chronically high and where targeted phosphorylation may decouple the Ca(2+) regulatory machinery. Many Na(V) disease mutations associated with electrical dysfunction are located in the Ca(2+)-sensing machinery and misregulation of Ca(2+)-dependent channel modulation is likely to contribute to disease phenotypes.

  20. The optical constants of several atmospheric aerosol species - Ammonium sulfate, aluminum oxide, and sodium chloride (United States)

    Toon, O. B.; Pollack, J. B.; Khare, B. N.


    An investigation is conducted of problems which are related to a use of measured optical constants in the simulation of the optical constants of real atmospheric aerosols. The techniques of measuring optical constants are discussed, taking into account transmission measurements through homogeneous and inhomogeneous materials, the immersion of a material in a liquid of a known refractive index, the consideration of the minimum deviation angle of prism measurement, the interference of multiply reflected light, reflectivity measurements, and aspects of mathematical analysis. Graphs show the real and the imaginary part of the refractive index as a function of wavelength for aluminum oxide, NaCl, and ammonium sulfate. Tables are provided for the dispersion parameters and the optical constants.

  1. Gd3+ and calcium sensitive, sodium leak currents are features of weak membrane-glass seals in patch clamp recordings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrienne N Boone

    Full Text Available The properties of leaky patch currents in whole cell recording of HEK-293T cells were examined as a means to separate these control currents from expressed sodium and calcium leak channel currents from snail NALCN leak channels possessing both sodium (EKEE and calcium (EEEE selectivity filters. Leak currents were generated by the weakening of gigaohm patch seals by artificial membrane rupture using the ZAP function on the patch clamp amplifier. Surprisingly, we found that leak currents generated from the weakened membrane/glass seal can be surprisingly stable and exhibit behavior that is consistent with a sodium leak current derived from an expressible channel. Leaky patch currents differing by 10 fold in size were similarly reduced in size when external sodium ions were replaced with the large monovalent ion NMDG+. Leaky patch currents increased when external Ca2+ (1.2 mM was lowered to 0.1 mM and were inhibited (>40% to >90% with 10 µM Gd3+, 100 µM La3+, 1 mM Co2+ or 1 mM Cd2+. Leaky patch currents were relatively insensitive (<30% to 1 mM Ni2+ and exhibited a variable amount of block with 1 mM verapamil and were insensitive to 100 µM mibefradil or 100 µM nifedipine. We hypothesize that the rapid changes in leak current size in response to changing external cations or drugs relates to their influences on the membrane seal adherence and the electro-osmotic flow of mobile cations channeling in crevices of a particular pore size in the interface between the negatively charged patch electrode and the lipid membrane. Observed sodium leak conductance currents in weak patch seals are reproducible between the electrode glass interface with cell membranes, artificial lipid or Sylgard rubber.

  2. Search for an exosphere in sodium and calcium in the transmission spectrum of exoplanet 55 Cancri e

    CERN Document Server

    Ridden-Harper, A R; Keller, C U; de Kok, R J; Di Gloria, E; Hoeijmakers, H J; Brogi, M; Fridlund, M; Vermeersen, B L A; van Westrenen, W


    [Abridged] The aim of this work is to search for an absorption signal from exospheric sodium (Na) and singly ionized calcium (Ca$^+$) in the optical transmission spectrum of the hot rocky super-Earth 55 Cancri e. Although current best-fitting models to the planet mass and radius require a possible atmospheric component, uncertainties in the radius exist, making it possible that 55 Cnc e could be a hot rocky planet without an atmosphere. High resolution (R$\\sim$110000) time-series spectra were analysed of five transits of 55 Cancri e, obtained with three different telescopes (UVES/VLT, HARPS/ESO 3.6m & HARPS-N/TNG). Targeting the sodium D lines and the calcium H and K lines the potential planet exospheric signal was filtered out from the much stronger stellar and telluric signals, making use of the change of the radial component of the orbital velocity of the planet over the transit from -57 to +57 km/sec. Combining all five transit data sets we detect a signal potentially associated with sodium in the pla...

  3. Statement on the exposure assessment of sodium stearoyl-2-lactylate and calcium stearoyl-2-lactylate including exposure resulting from extension of the authorisation of sodium stearoyl-2-lactylates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to Food (ANS


    Full Text Available Following a request by the European Commission, the Scientific Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to Food (ANS carried out an exposure assessment of sodium stearoyl-2-lactylate (E 481 and calcium stearoyl-2-lactylate (E 482 as a food additive, including an extension of the uses to use the additives in emulsified cooked meat products (e.g. mortadella, paté. Reflecting the data on actual use levels provided by food industry, the combined exposure to sodium stearoyl-2-lactylate and calcium stearoyl-2-lactylate is in the range 6-55 mg/kg bw/day for toddlers, 14-54 mg/kg bw/day for children, 13-27 mg/kg bw/day for adolescents, 4-16 mg/kg bw/day for adults, and 3-13 mg/kg bw/day for the elderly at the mean level. For exposure at high levels, ranges of 22-109 mg/kg bw/day for toddlers, 28-107 mg/kg bw/day for children, 21-46 mg/kg bw/day for adolescents, 15-33 mg/kg bw/day for adults, and 9-30 mg/kg bw/day were calculated for the elderly. The extension of the authorisation for the use of sodium stearoyl-2-lactylate in emulsified cooked meat products (e.g. mortadella, paté would not lead to an increase of exposure based on the approach taken for the exposure assessment for the two food additives.

  4. Tolperisone-type drugs inhibit spinal reflexes via blockade of voltage-gated sodium and calcium channels. (United States)

    Kocsis, Pál; Farkas, Sándor; Fodor, László; Bielik, Norbert; Thán, Márta; Kolok, Sándor; Gere, Anikó; Csejtei, Mónika; Tarnawa, István


    The spinal reflex depressant mechanism of tolperisone and some of its structural analogs with central muscle relaxant action was investigated. Tolperisone (50-400 microM), eperisone, lanperisone, inaperisone, and silperisone (25-200 microM) dose dependently depressed the ventral root potential of isolated hemisected spinal cord of 6-day-old rats. The local anesthetic lidocaine (100-800 microM) produced qualitatively similar depression of spinal functions in the hemicord preparation, whereas its blocking effect on afferent nerve conduction was clearly stronger. In vivo, tolperisone and silperisone as well as lidocaine (10 mg/kg intravenously) depressed ventral root reflexes and excitability of motoneurons. However, in contrast with lidocaine, the muscle relaxant drugs seemed to have a more pronounced action on the synaptic responses than on the excitability of motoneurons. Whole-cell measurements in dorsal root ganglion cells revealed that tolperisone and silperisone depressed voltage-gated sodium channel conductance at concentrations that inhibited spinal reflexes. Results obtained with tolperisone and its analogs in the [3H]batrachotoxinin A 20-alpha-benzoate binding in cortical neurons and in a fluorimetric membrane potential assay in cerebellar neurons further supported the view that blockade of sodium channels may be a major component of the action of tolperisone-type centrally acting muscle relaxant drugs. Furthermore, tolperisone, eperisone, and especially silperisone had a marked effect on voltage-gated calcium channels, whereas calcium currents were hardly influenced by lidocaine. These data suggest that tolperisone-type muscle relaxants exert their spinal reflex inhibitory action predominantly via a presynaptic inhibition of the transmitter release from the primary afferent endings via a combined action on voltage-gated sodium and calcium channels.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Scoping laboratory scale tests were performed at the Chemical Engineering Department of the Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech), and the Hanford 222-S Laboratory, involving double-shell tank (DST) and single-shell tank (SST) Hanford waste simulants. These tests established the viability of the Lithium Hydrotalcite precipitation process as a solution to remove aluminum and recycle sodium hydroxide from the Hanford tank waste, and set the basis of a validation test campaign to demonstrate a Technology Readiness Level of 3.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Honglong; Sheng, Zhizhi; Tarwater, Emily; Zhang, Xingxing; Dasgupta, Sudip; Fergus, Jeffrey


    Rare earth zirconates are promising materials for use as thermal barrier coatings in gas turbine engines. Among the lanthanide zirconate materials, Sm2Zr2O7 with the pyrochlore structure has lower thermal conductivity and better corrosion resistance against calcium-magnesium-aluminum-silicon oxide (CMAS). In this work, after reaction with CMAS, the pyrochlore structure transforms to the cubic fluorite structure and Ca2Sm8(SiO4)6O2 forms in elongated grain.

  7. Ecological comparison of calcium hydroxide and sodium hydrogen carbonate as sorbents; Oekologischer Vergleich der Sorptionsmittel Calciumhydroxid und Natriumhydrogencarbonat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacher, Christian; Weber-Blaschke, Gabriele [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Freising (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Rohstoff- und Energietechnologie; Mocker, Mario [ATZ Entwicklungszentrum, Sulzbach-Rosenberg (Germany); Faulstich, Martin [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Straubing (Germany). Wissenschaftszentrum Straubing


    Lime products have long been used with success for flue gas purification in waste incineration plants, where they serve to eliminate acid gas pollutants such as sulphur dioxide, hydrogen chloride and hydrogen fluoride. This article presents excerpts of a study commissioned by the German lime industry association for the purpose of obtaining an unbiased well-founded comparison of the environmental impact of the two sorbents calcium hydroxide and sodium hydrogen carbonate. The following questions were addressed by the study: Which of the two flue gas additives provides greater environmental benefit under specified conditions? What parameters influence the outcome? How can the results be viewed in regard to different plant configurations?.

  8. Entropic nature of the adsorption of sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate on nanoparticles of aluminum and iron oxides in aqueous medium (United States)

    Mansurov, R. R.; Safronov, A. P.; Lakiza, N. V.


    The adsorption of anionic surfactant sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate (SDBS) from aqueous solution on the hydrophilic surfaces of aluminum oxide and iron oxide nanoparticles is studied via UV spectrophotometry, electrophoretic light scattering, and isothermal microcalorimetry. It is shown that the isotherms of the adsorption of SDBS on the surfaces of both oxides in the area of concentrations up to 0.6 mmol/L is linear. It is found that the positive zeta potential of the surfaces of the particles falls to zero and shifts toward the range of negative values due to adsorption. The adsorption of SDBS is characterized by positive enthalpy values over the investigated range of concentrations, while the loss of energy during adsorption indicates it is of an entropic nature. It is concluded that the probable cause of the increase in entropy is the dehydration of SDBS molecules during on surface adsorption. The obtained results are discussed in terms of the formation of hemimicelles of surfactant on the hydrophilic surfaces of metal oxide nanoparticles in an aqueous medium.

  9. Comparative evaluation of a dentifrice containing calcium sodium phosphosilicate to a dentifrice containing potassium nitrate for dentinal hypersensitivity: A clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanya Satyapal


    Full Text Available Background: Calcium sodium phosphosilicate is a recently introduced desensitizing agent which acts by occluding the dentinal tubules and also resists acid decalcification. This study was designed to assess the efficacy of a new toothpaste containing 5% calcium sodium phosphosilicate for the treatment of dentinal hypersensitivity and also compare it with 5% potassium nitrate. Materials and Methods: Sixty patients with the chief complaint of dentinal hypersensitivity were enrolled and randomly divided into two groups. The visual analog scale (VAS scores were taken for water and air stimuli at baseline, 3 weeks after usage of the respective toothpaste, and 3 weeks after discontinuation of the respective toothpaste. Results: Both the groups showed reduction in hypersensitivity scores at 3 weeks and 6 weeks for air stimulus and cold water. The calcium sodium phosphosilicate group, however, showed significantly reduction in hypersensitivity compared to the potassium nitrate group at any time point for both measures of hypersensitivity. Conclusion: The 5% calcium sodium phosphosilicate group showed immense reduction in dentinal hypersensitivity symptoms. The 5% calcium sodium phosphosilicate showed prolonged effects even after discontinuation as compared to 5% potassium nitrate, due to its dentinal tubular occlusion property.

  10. Actions of a hydrogen sulfide donor (NaHS) on transient sodium, persistent sodium, and voltage-gated calcium currents in neurons of the subfornical organ. (United States)

    Kuksis, Markus; Ferguson, Alastair V


    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is an endogenously found gasotransmitter that has been implicated in a variety of beneficial physiological functions. This study was performed to investigate the cellular mechanisms underlying actions of H2S previously observed in subfornical organ (SFO), where H2S acts to regulate blood pressure through a depolarization of the membrane and an overall increase in the excitability of SFO neurons. We used whole cell patch-clamp electrophysiology in the voltage-clamp configuration to analyze the effect of 1 mM NaHS, an H2S donor, on voltage-gated potassium, sodium, and calcium currents. We observed no effect of NaHS on potassium currents; however, both voltage-gated sodium currents (persistent and transient) and the N-type calcium current had a depolarized activation curve and an enhanced peak-induced current in response to a series of voltage-step and ramp protocols run in the control and NaHS conditions. These effects were not responsible for the previously observed depolarization of the membrane potential, as depolarizing effects of H2S were still observed following block of these conductances with tetrodotoxin (5 μM) and ω-conotoxin-GVIA (100 nM). Our studies are the first to investigate the effect of H2S on a variety of voltage-gated conductances in a single brain area, and although they do not explain mechanisms underlying the depolarizing actions of H2S on SFO neurons, they provide evidence of potential mechanisms through which this gasotransmitter influences the excitability of neurons in this important brain area as a consequence of the modulation of multiple ion channels.

  11. Nutrient balance of layers fed diets with different calcium levels and the inclusion of phytase and/or sodium butyrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MM Vieira


    Full Text Available In this study, Hisex Brown layers in lay were evaluated between 40 and 44 weeks of age to evaluate the inclusion of bacterial phytase (Ph and sodium butyrate (SB to diets containing different calcium levels (CaL. Performance, average egg weight and eggshell percentage, in addition to nutrient metabolizability and Ca and P balance were evaluated for 28 days. Birds were distributed according to a completely randomized experimental design with a 3x2x2 factorial arrangement, with three calcium levels (2.8, 3.3, 3.8%; the addition or not of phytase (500PhU/kg and the addition or not of sodium butyrate (20mEq/kg, composing 12 treatments with eight replicates of one bird each. There was no additive effect of phytase or SB on the evaluated responses. Feed intake and feed conversion ratio were influenced by CaL, with the best performance obtained with 3.3% dietary Ca. Ca balance was positively affected by dietary Ca, and P balance by the addition of phytase. Ca dietary concentration, estimated to obtain Ca body balance, was 3.41%, corresponding to an apparent retention of 59.9% of Ca intake.

  12. Influence of Pyrethroid Insecticides on Sodium and Calcium Influx in Neocortical Neurons (United States)

    Pyrethroid insecticides bind to voltage-gated sodium channels and modify their gating kinetics, thereby disrupting neuronal function. Using murine neocortical neurons in primary culture, we have compared the ability of 11 structurally diverse pyrethroid insecticides to evoke Na+ ...

  13. The Plasma Membrane Ca2+ ATPase and the Plasma Membrane Sodium Calcium Exchanger Cooperate in the Regulation of Cell Calcium (United States)

    Brini, Marisa; Carafoli, Ernesto


    Calcium is an ambivalent signal: it is essential for the correct functioning of cell life, but may also become dangerous to it. The plasma membrane Ca2+ ATPase (PMCA) and the plasma membrane Na+/Ca2+ exchanger (NCX) are the two mechanisms responsible for Ca2+ extrusion. The NCX has low Ca2+ affinity but high capacity for Ca2+ transport, whereas the PMCA has a high Ca2+ affinity but low transport capacity for it. Thus, traditionally, the PMCA pump has been attributed a housekeeping role in maintaining cytosolic Ca2+, and the NCX the dynamic role of counteracting large cytosolic Ca2+ variations (especially in excitable cells). This view of the roles of the two Ca2+ extrusion systems has been recently revised, as the specific functional properties of the numerous PMCA isoforms and splicing variants suggests that they may have evolved to cover both the basal Ca2+ regulation (in the 100 nM range) and the Ca2+ transients generated by cell stimulation (in the μM range). PMID:21421919

  14. Aluminum disruption of calcium homeostasis and signal transduction resembles change that occurs in aging and Alzheimer's disease. (United States)

    Walton, J R


    Most humans living in industrialized societies are routinely exposed to bioavailable aluminum salts in the form of additives-in commercially-prepared foods, alum-clarified drinking water, certain pharmaceuticals, sunscreens, and other topical applications. Minute amounts of this aluminum are absorbed into the circulation. Trace aluminum levels cross the blood-brain barrier and progressively accumulate in large pyramidal neurons of the hippocampus, cortex, and other brain regions vulnerable in Alzheimer's disease. More aluminum enters the brain than leaves, resulting in a net increase in intraneuronal aluminum with advancing age. Aluminum is responsible for two main types of toxic damage in cells. As a pro-oxidant, aluminum causes oxidative damage both on its own and in synergy with iron. Aluminum also competes with, and substitutes for, essential metals-primarily Mg2+, iron and Ca2+ ions-in or on proteins and their co-factors. The author hypothesizes that intraneuronal aluminum interferes with Ca2+ metabolism in the aged brain and describes a way to test this hypothesis. This paper reviews: 1) major changes that occur in brain Ca2+ homeostasis and Ca2+ signaling, subtly with aging and more overtly in Alzheimer's disease; and 2) evidence from the scientific literature that aluminum causes these same changes in neurons.

  15. Final report of the safety assessment of L-Ascorbic Acid, Calcium Ascorbate, Magnesium Ascorbate, Magnesium Ascorbyl Phosphate, Sodium Ascorbate, and Sodium Ascorbyl Phosphate as used in cosmetics. (United States)

    Elmore, Amy R


    L-Ascorbic Acid, Calcium Ascorbate, Magnesium Ascorbate, Magnesium Ascorbyl Phosphate, Sodium Ascorbate, and Sodium Ascorbyl Phosphate function in cosmetic formulations primarily as antioxidants. Ascorbic Acid is commonly called Vitamin C. Ascorbic Acid is used as an antioxidant and pH adjuster in a large variety of cosmetic formulations, over 3/4 of which were hair dyes and colors at concentrations between 0.3% and 0.6%. For other uses, the reported concentrations were either very low (Sodium Ascorbyl Phosphate functions as an antioxidant in cosmetic products and is used at concentrations ranging from 0.01% to 3%. Magnesium Ascorbyl Phosphate functions as an antioxidant in cosmetics and was reported being used at concentrations from 0.001% to 3%. Sodium Ascorbate also functions as an antioxidant in cosmetics at concentrations from 0.0003% to 0.3%. Related ingredients (Ascorbyl Palmitate, Ascorbyl Dipalmitate, Ascorbyl Stearate, Erythorbic Acid, and Sodium Erythorbate) have been previously reviewed by the Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel and found "to be safe for use as cosmetic ingredients in the present practices of good use." Ascorbic Acid is a generally recognized as safe (GRAS) substance for use as a chemical preservative in foods and as a nutrient and/or dietary supplement. Calcium Ascorbate and Sodium Ascorbate are listed as GRAS substances for use as chemical preservatives. L-Ascorbic Acid is readily and reversibly oxidized to L-dehydroascorbic acid and both forms exist in equilibrium in the body. Permeation rates of Ascorbic Acid through whole and stripped mouse skin were 3.43 +/- 0.74 microg/cm(2)/h and 33.2 +/- 5.2 microg/cm(2)/h. Acute oral and parenteral studies in mice, rats, rabbits, guinea pigs, dogs, and cats demonstrated little toxicity. Ascorbic Acid and Sodium Ascorbate acted as a nitrosation inhibitor in several food and cosmetic product studies. No compound-related clinical signs or gross or microscopic pathological effects were

  16. Whole-cell recordings of voltage-gated Calcium, Potassium and Sodium currents in acutely isolated hippocampal pyramidal neurons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuyun Huang; Qing Cai; Weitian Liu; Xiaoling Wang; Tao Wang


    Objective:To record Calcium, Potassium and Sodium currents in acutely isolated hippocampal pyramidal neurons. Methods:Hip-pocampal CA3 neurons were freshly isolated by 1 mg protease/3 ml SES and mechanical trituration with polished pipettes of progressively smaller tip diameters. Patch clamp technique in whole-cell mode was employed to record voltage-gated channel currents. Results:The procedure dissociated hippocampal neurons, preserving apical dendrites and several basal dendrites, without impairing the electrical characteristics of the neurons. Whole-cell patch clamp configuration was successfully used to record voltage-gated Ca2+ currents, delayed rectifier K+ current and voltage-gated Na+ currents. Conclusion:Protease combined with mechanical trituration may be used for the dissociation of neurons from rat hippocampus. Voltage-gated channels currents could be recorded using a patch clamp technique.

  17. Evaluation of genotoxic effects of sodium propionate, calcium propionate and potassium propionate on the root meristem cells of Allium cepa. (United States)

    Türkoğlu, Sifa


    The effects of different treatments with food preservatives, sodium propionate (SP), calcium propionate (CP) and potassium propionate (PP), on the cytology and DNA content of Allium cepa were investigated. Five concentrations of these additives - 1000, 1500, 2000, 2500, and 3000ppm - were applied for 24, 48, and 72h. All concentrations of these chemicals showed an inhibitory effect on cell division in root-tips of A. cepa and caused a decrease in mitotic index values. Additionally, all treatments changed the frequency of mitotic phases when compared with the control groups. These compounds increased chromosome abnormalities in test material. Among these abnormalities were C-mitosis, anaphase bridges, micronuclei, binucleated cells, stickiness, laggards, and chromosome breaks. The nuclear DNA contents decreased when compared with control groups.

  18. Search for an exosphere in sodium and calcium in the transmission spectrum of exoplanet 55 Cancri e (United States)

    Ridden-Harper, A. R.; Snellen, I. A. G.; Keller, C. U.; de Kok, R. J.; Di Gloria, E.; Hoeijmakers, H. J.; Brogi, M.; Fridlund, M.; Vermeersen, B. L. A.; van Westrenen, W.


    Context. The atmospheric and surface characterization of rocky planets is a key goal of exoplanet science. Unfortunately, the measurements required for this are generally out of reach of present-day instrumentation. However, the planet Mercury in our own solar system exhibits a large exosphere composed of atomic species that have been ejected from the planetary surface by the process of sputtering. Since the hottest rocky exoplanets known so far are more than an order of magnitude closer to their parent star than Mercury is to the Sun, the sputtering process and the resulting exospheres could be orders of magnitude larger and potentially detectable using transmission spectroscopy, indirectly probing their surface compositions. Aims: The aim of this work is to search for an absorption signal from exospheric sodium (Na) and singly ionized calcium (Ca+) in the optical transmission spectrum of the hot rocky super-Earth 55 Cancri e. Although the current best-fitting models to the planet mass and radius require a possible atmospheric component, uncertainties in the radius exist, making it possible that 55 Cancri e could be a hot rocky planet without an atmosphere. Methods: High resolution (R ~ 110 000) time-series spectra of five transits of 55 Cancri e, obtained with three different telescopes (UVES/VLT, HARPS/ESO 3.6 m and HARPS-N/TNG) were analysed. Targeting the sodium D lines and the calcium H and K lines, the potential planet exospheric signal was filtered out from the much stronger stellar and telluric signals, making use of the change of the radial component of the orbital velocity of the planet over the transit from -57 to +57 km s-1. Results: Combining all five transit data sets, we detect a signal potentially associated with sodium in the planet exosphere at a statistical significance level of 3σ. Combining the four HARPS transits that cover the calcium H and K lines, we also find a potential signal from ionized calcium (4.1σ). Interestingly, this latter

  19. Changes in Sodium, Calcium, and Magnesium Ion Concentrations That Inhibit Geobacillus Biofilms Have No Effect on Anoxybacillus flavithermus Biofilms. (United States)

    Somerton, B; Lindsay, D; Palmer, J; Brooks, J; Flint, S


    This study investigated the effects of varied sodium, calcium, and magnesium concentrations in specialty milk formulations on biofilm formation by Geobacillus spp. and Anoxybacillus flavithermus. The numbers of attached viable cells (log CFU per square centimeter) after 6 to 18 h of biofilm formation by three dairy-derived strains of Geobacillus and three dairy-derived strains of A. flavithermus were compared in two commercial milk formulations. Milk formulation B had relatively high sodium and low calcium and magnesium concentrations compared with those of milk formulation A, but the two formulations had comparable fat, protein, and lactose concentrations. Biofilm formation by the three Geobacillus isolates was up to 4 log CFU cm(-2) lower in milk formulation B than in milk formulation A after 6 to 18 h, and the difference was often significant (P ≤ 0.05). However, no significant differences (P ≤ 0.05) were found when biofilm formations by the three A. flavithermus isolates were compared in milk formulations A and B. Supplementation of milk formulation A with 100 mM NaCl significantly decreased (P ≤ 0.05) Geobacillus biofilm formation after 6 to 10 h. Furthermore, supplementation of milk formulation B with 2 mM CaCl2 or 2 mM MgCl2 significantly increased (P ≤ 0.05) Geobacillus biofilm formation after 10 to 18 h. It was concluded that relatively high free Na(+) and low free Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) concentrations in milk formulations are collectively required to inhibit biofilm formation by Geobacillus spp., whereas biofilm formation by A. flavithermus is not impacted by typical cation concentration differences of milk formulations.

  20. Comparative evaluation of the remineralizing efficacy of calcium sodium phosphosilicate agent and fluoride based on quantitative and qualitative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saranya Mony


    Full Text Available Background: Calcium sodium phosphosilicate (NovaMin is an agent that is claimed to release calcium and phosphate ions intraorally to help the self-repair process of enamel. It is used extensively as a desensitizing agent, but the chemical reactions that occur may promote apatite formation enhancing remineralization. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the ability of NovaMin to remineralize an experimentally induced demineralized lesion. The evaluation was done based on the quantitative and qualitative analysis of enamel over the period of 15 and 30 days. Materials and Methods: A sample of 120 noncarious premolar teeth extracted for orthodontic reasons were used for the study. Baseline data for hardness, Ca/PO 4 , and surface characteristics before and after demineralization process was obtained. All the teeth were brushed twice daily at 12 h interval with the test agents using a powered toothbrush for 2 min. The samples were tested on the 15 th and 30 th day. Results: Calcium phosphate ratio and hardness in both the groups improved during the study period. Fluoride group showed higher values for Ca/PO 4 and hardness but was not statistically significant with the P > 0.05. Scanning electron microscope pictures showed that the deposition of the material over the decalcified enamel is more smoother and uniform with NovaMin and more irregular with fluoride. Relevance: NovaMin is found to be as effective in improving the Ca/PO 4 ratio and hardness in a demineralized enamel as fluoride. Hence, it can be a new alternate material for remineralization of enamel with less toxic effects compared to fluorides.

  1. Isotopically uniform, 16O-depleted calcium, aluminum-rich inclusions in CH and CB carbonaceous chondrites (United States)

    Krot, Alexander N.; Nagashima, Kazuhide; Petaev, Michail I.


    In situ oxygen-isotope measurements of calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) from the metal-rich carbonaceous chondrites Isheyevo (CH/CB-like), Acfer 214 paired with Acfer 182 (CH), QUE 94411 paired with QUE 94627 (CBb), and Hammadah al Hamra 237 (CBb) revealed the presence of a common population of igneous, isotopically uniform, 16O-depleted inclusions: Δ17O (average ± 2 standard deviations) = -7 ± 4‰, -6 ± 5‰, and -8 ± 3‰, respectively. All CAIs from CBs and a significant fraction of those from CHs and Isheyevo are 16O-depleted. Most of the 16O-depleted CAIs consist of Ti-poor Al-diopside, spinel, melilite, and forsterite and surrounded by a single- and double-layered rim of forsterite ± diopside. The 16O-depleted CAIs composed of hibonite, grossite, melilite, and spinel, and surrounded by the multilayered melilite + diopside ± forsterite rims are less common. Some of the 16O-depleted refractory igneous inclusions composed of Al-diopside, forsterite, and ±spinel have chondrule-like textures (skeletal or barred). They are mineralogically most similar to Al-diopside-rich chondrules found in metal-rich carbonaceous chondrites and composed of Al-diopside, forsterite, Al-rich low-Ca pyroxene, ±glassy mesostasis, and ±spinel, suggesting there is a continuum between these objects. We suggest that (i) most of the isotopically uniform and 16O-depleted CAIs resulted from remelting of pre-existing, possibly 16O-rich refractory inclusions. The remelting may have occurred during formation of the magnesian, non-porphyritic (cryptocrystalline and skeletal) chondrules in CHs, CBs, and Isheyevo either by an unspecified, late, single-stage, highly-energetic event or in an impact-generated plume previously hypothesized for their origin; both mechanisms probably occurred in the solar nebula (i.e., in the presence of the nebula gas). The forsterite ± pyroxene rims around 16O-depleted CAIs may have resulted from evaporation-recondensation of silicon and magnesium

  2. Microanalyses of the hydroxyl-poly-calcium sodium phosphate coatings produced by ion beam assisted deposition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Thin calcium phosphate coatings on titanium alloy substrates wereprepared by Ar+ ion beam assisted deposition (IBAD) from hydroxyl-poly-calciumsodium phosphate (HPPA) target. The coatings were analyzed by XRD, FTIR, XPS.These analyses revealed that the as-deposited films were amorphous or no apparentcrystallinity. No distinct absorption band of the hydroxyl group was observed in FTIRspectra of the coatings but new absorption bands were presented for CO3-2. Thecalcium to phosphorous ratio of these coatings in different IBAD conditions variedfrom 0.46 to 3.36.

  3. Quantitative study on La3+ influx mediated by sodium-calcium exchanger in human lymphocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏春英; 杨频


    Whether La3+ can enter human peripheral blood lymphocytes by the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger or not and the effect of La3+ on the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger activity are examined by fura-2 technique. And that whether La3+ is sequestered by intracellular organelles (mainly endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria) is studied by this method. La3+ uptake is obviously stimulated by pretreating the cells with ouabain and by removing extracellular Na+, and intracellular La3+ concentration ([La3+]i) is directly proportional to its extracellular concentration ([La3+]o). But when [La3+]o exceeds 0.4 mmol/L, the 340/380 nm ratio of fluorescence is no longer varied and the maximum [La3+]i is 1.5×10-12 mol@L-1. The higher concentration of La3+ (0.1 mmol/L) increases Na+/Ca2+ exchange-mediated calcium influx, but lower concentration (10 mmol/L) appears to block calcium influx. The results also suggest that cytosolic La3+ is transported by the ATP-dependent Ca2+ pump. Intracellular Ca2+ stores are depleted by ionomycin, and then ionomycin is added again during the period of La3+ uptake, the 340/380 nm ratio of fluorescence is also increased, these results indicate that La3+ is sequestered by intracellular organelles. A characterization of fura-2-La3+ interaction in solution simulating intracellular ionic composition (pH 7.05) shows that La3+ forms a 1:1 fura-2-La3+complex, and the apparent dissociation constant of La3+ for fura-2 (Kd) is 1.7×10-12 mol@L-1. In addition, the limit of detection of fura-2 for La3+ and Ca2+ is 10?12 and 10?8 mol@L-1 respectively.

  4. Diffusion of sodium, potassium, calcium, manganese, and radon in tuff and clinoptilolite under leaching (United States)

    Dikii, N. P.; Dovbnya, A. N.; Lyashko, Yu. V.; Medvedev, D. V.; Medvedeva, E. P.; Uvarov, V. L.; Achkasov, K. V.


    Nuclear physics methods are used to determine the diffusion coefficients of Na, Ca, Mn, K, and 222Rn in clinoptilolite (Sokirnitsa occurrence, Ukraine) and in natural tuff (Yucca Mountain, Nevada, United States) and in tuff irradiated by γ-quanta ( E max = 23 MeV) to a dose of 107 Gy at a leaching temperature of 37°C. The diffusion coefficients of sodium and potassium in clinoptilolite are found to differ considerably: 4 × 10-17 and 2 × 10-20 m2/s, respectively. This indicates the influence of aquacomplexes on the cation transfer. The diffusion coefficient of radon in these materials is determined: in clinoptilolite it equals 2.5 × 10-12 m2/s.

  5. Midbrain dopaminergic neurons generate calcium and sodium currents and release dopamine in the striatum of pups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Carolina Ferrari


    Full Text Available Midbrain dopaminergic neurons (mDA neurons are essential for the control of diverse motor and cognitive behaviors. However, our understanding of the activity of immature mDA neurons is rudimentary. Rodent mDA neurons migrate and differentiate early in embryonic life and dopaminergic axons enter the striatum and contact striatal neurons a few days before birth, but when these are functional is not known. Here, we recorded Ca2+ transients and Na+ spikes from embryonic (E16-E18 and early postnatal (P0-P7 mDA neurons with dynamic two photon imaging and patch clamp techniques in slices from tyrosine hydroxylase-GFP mice, and measured evoked dopamine release in the striatum with amperometry. We show that half of identified E16-P0 mDA neurons spontaneously generate non-synaptic, intrinsically-driven Ca2+ spikes and Ca2+ plateaus mediated by N- and L-type voltage-gated Ca2+ channels. Starting from E18-P0, half of the mDA neurons also reliably generate overshooting Na+ spikes with an abrupt maturation at birth (P0 = E19. At that stage (E18-P0, dopaminergic terminals release dopamine in a calcium-dependent manner in the striatum in response to local stimulation. We propose that the intrinsic spontaneous activity of mouse mDA neurons may impact the development/activity of the striatal network from birth.

  6. Inhibition of nitrite-induced toxicity in channel catfish by calcium chloride and sodium chloride (United States)

    Tommasso J.R., Wright; Simco, B.A.; Davis, K.B.


    Environmental chloride has been shown to inhibit methemoglobin formation in fish, thereby offering a protective effect against nitrite toxicity. Channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) were simultaneously exposed to various environmental nitrite and chloride levels (as either CaCl2 or NaCl) in dechlorinated tap water (40 mg/L total hardness, 47 mg/L alkalinity, 4 mg/L chloride, pH = 6.9-7.1, and temperature 21-24°C). Methemoglobin levels in fish simultaneously exposed to 2.5 mg/L nitrite and up to 30 mg/L chloride as either CaCl2 or NaCl were similar but significantly lower than in unprotected fish. Exposure to 10 mg/L nitrite and 60 mg/L chloride resulted in methemoglobin levels similar to those of the controls; most unprotected fish died. Fish exposed to 10 mg/L nitrite had significantly lower methemoglobin levels when protected with 15.0 mg/L chloride as CaCl2 than with NaCl. Fish exposed to nitrite in the presence of 60 mg/L chloride (as either CaCl2 or NaCl) had similar 24-h LC50 values that were significantly elevated above those obtained in the absence of chloride. Calcium had little effect on tolerance to nitrite toxicity in channel catfish in contrast to its large effect reported in steelhead trout (Salmo gairdneri).

  7. Studies of aluminum in rat brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipman, J.J.; Brill, A.B.; Som, P.; Jones, K.W.; Colowick, S.; Cholewa, M.


    The effects of high aluminum concentrations in rat brains were studied using /sup 14/C autoradiography to measure the uptake of /sup 14/C 2-deoxy-D-glucose (/sup 14/C-2DG) and microbeam proton-induced x-ray emission (microPIXE) with a resolution to measure concentrations of magnesium, aluminum, potassium, and calcium. The aluminum was introduced intracisternally in the form of aluminum tartrate (Al-T) while control animals were given sodium tartrate (Na-T). The /sup 14/C was administered intravenously. The animals receiving Al-T developed seizure disorders and had pathological changes that included cerebral cortical atrophy. The results showed that there was a decreased uptake of /sup 14/C-2DG in cortical regions in which increased aluminum levels were measured, i.e., there is a correlation between the aluminum in the rat brain and decreased brain glucose metabolism. A minimum detection limit of about 16 ppM (mass fraction) or 3 x 10/sup 9/ Al atoms was obtained for Al under the conditions employed. 14 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Stabilization/solidification of mercury-contaminated waste ash using calcium sodium phosphate (CNP) and magnesium potassium phosphate (MKP) processes. (United States)

    Cho, Jae Han; Eom, Yujin; Lee, Tai Gyu


    This study examined the stabilization and solidification (S/S) of mercury (Hg)-contaminated waste ash generated from an industrial waste incinerator using chemically bonded phosphate ceramic (CBPC) technology. A magnesium potassium phosphate (MKP; MgKPO4 · 6H2O) ceramic, fabricated from MgO and KH2PO4, and a calcium sodium phosphate (CNP; CaNaPO4) ceramic, fabricated from CaO and Na2HPO4, were used as solidification binders in the CBPC process, and Na2S or FeS was added to each solidification binder to stabilize the Hg-contaminated waste ash. The S/S processes were conducted under various operating conditions (based on the solidification binder and stabilization reagent, stabilization reagent dosage, and waste loading ratio), and the performance characteristics of the S/S sample under each operating condition were compared, including the Hg leaching value and compressive strength. The Hg leaching value of untreated Hg-contaminated waste ash was 231.3 μg/L, whereas the S/S samples treated using the MKP and CNP processes exhibited Hg leaching values below the universal treatment standard (UTS) limit (25 μg/L). Although the compressive strengths of the S/S samples decreased as the sulfide dosage and waste loading ratio were increased, most of the S/S samples fabricated by the MKP and CNP processes exhibited good mechanical properties.

  9. Microstructural, textural, and sensory characteristics of probiotic yogurts fortified with sodium calcium caseinate or whey protein concentrate. (United States)

    Akalın, A S; Unal, G; Dinkci, N; Hayaloglu, A A


    The influence of milk protein-based ingredients on the textural characteristics, sensory properties, and microstructure of probiotic yogurt during a refrigerated storage period of 28 d was studied. Milk was fortified with 2% (wt/vol) skim milk powder as control, 2% (wt/vol) sodium calcium caseinate (SCaCN), 2% (wt/vol) whey protein concentrate (WPC) or a blend of 1% (wt/vol) SCaCN and 1% (wt/vol) WPC. A commercial yogurt starter culture and Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12 as probiotic bacteria were used for the production. The fortification with SCaCN improved the firmness and adhesiveness. Higher values of viscosity were also obtained in probiotic yogurts with SCaCN during storage. However, WPC enhanced water-holding capacity more than the caseinate. Addition of SCaCN resulted in a coarse, smooth, and more compact protein network; however, WPC gave finer and bunched structures in the scanning electron microscopy micrographs. The use of SCaCN decreased texture scores in probiotic yogurt; probably due to the lower water-holding capacity and higher syneresis values in the caseinate-added yogurt sample. Therefore, the textural characteristics of probiotic yogurts improved depending on the ingredient variety.

  10. Effects of the Addition of Sodium Alginate and the Concentration of Calcium Chloride on the Properties of Composite Nonwoven Fabrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lou Ching-Wen


    Full Text Available Nonwoven fabrics have merits, and for example, they can be simply and quickly processed with a variety of materials and an easily changeable manufacturing process. This study aims to examine the influences of the addition of sodium alginate (SA and the concentration of calcium chloride (CaCl2 on the properties of the composite nonwoven fabrics. Chitosan (CS micro-particles and SA solution are cross-linked with CaCl2 with various concentrations, combined with farir heat preservative staples (FT/cotton (C nonwoven fabrics, and then freeze-dried to form CS/SA/FT/C composite nonwoven fabrics. Afterwards, physical property tests are performed on the resulting composite nonwoven fabrics to determine their properties as related to various concentrations of CaCl2. The addition of SA decreases the water vapor permeability of FT/C nonwoven fabrics by 15 %, but the concentrations of CaCl2 do not influence the water vapor permeability. Compared to FT/C nonwoven fabrics, CS/SA/FT/C composite nonwoven fabrics have significantly lower water absorbency and water vapor permeability, but a greater stiffness.

  11. Effect of Compounding of Sodium Tripolyphosphate and Super Plasticizers on the Hydration of α-calcium Sulfate Hemihydrate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN Wei; WANG Peiming


    The inhibition and its mechanism of sodium tripolyphosphate(STP)composited with super plasticizers(SPs)on hydration of α-calcium sulfate hemihydrate were studied by setting time,strength,hydration heat,X-ray diffraction(XRD),X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy(XPS),electronic probe micro analysis (EPMA),scanning electron microscopy(SEM)and differential scanning calorimeter(DSC)measurements.The experimental results show that compared with STP addition,compositing STP with polycarboxylate(PC)plasticizer,the final setting time is prolonged from 0.5h to 2hs.While formulating STP with naphthalene-based plasticizer(NAP)or sulfonate melamine formaldehyde plasticizer(SMF),the final setting time is reduced to quarter of an hour Similar changes can also be found in the rate of exothermic hydration and hydration degree.Formulating STP with suitable addition of PC can enhance the strength,while compositing STP and NAP or SMF weakens the strength.Besides,adding STP or STP and SMF,obvious movement(more than lev)of binding energy of Ca2p1/2 and Ca2p3/2 is detected.Compared with STP addition,content of the characteristic element(P)of STP is cut down form 1.1% to 0.49% by compositing STP with SMF.Furthermore,as hydration age increases,hydration inhibition in the presence of admixtures weakens and even disappears within 56 h.

  12. Individual effects of sodium, potassium, calcium, and magnesium chloride salts on Lactobacillus pentosus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae growth. (United States)

    Bautista-Gallego, J; Arroyo-López, F N; Durán-Quintana, M C; Garrido-Fernandez, A


    A quantitative investigation on the individual effects of sodium (NaCl), potassium (KCl), calcium (CaCl2), and magnesium (MgCl2) chloride salts against Lactobacillus pentosus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, two representative microorganisms of table olives and other fermented vegetables, was carried out. In order to assess their potential activities, both the kinetic growth parameters and dose-response profiles in synthetic media (deMan Rogosa Sharpe broth medium and yeast-malt-peptone-glucose broth medium, respectively) were obtained and analyzed. Microbial growth was monitored via optical density measurements as a function of contact time in the presence of progressive chloride salt concentrations. Relative maximum specific growth rate and lag-phase period were modeled as a function of the chloride salt concentrations. Moreover, for each salt and microorganism tested, the noninhibitory concentrations and the MICs were estimated and compared. All chloride salts exerted a significant antimicrobial effect on the growth cycle; particularly, CaCl2 showed a similar effect to NaCl, while KCl and MgCl2 were progressively less inhibitory. Microbial susceptibility and resistance were found to be nonlinearly dose related.

  13. Evaluation of strength-enhancing factors of a ductile binder in direct compression of sodium bicarbonate and calcium carbonate powders. (United States)

    Mattsson, S; Nyström, C


    This study evaluated the effectiveness of a ductile binder in direct compression of sodium bicarbonate and calcium carbonate powders. Properties associated with both the binder and the compound were studied. The addition of binder materials, such as polyethylene glycols (PEGs) of differing molecular weights or microcrystalline cellulose, generally resulted in an increase in the axial tensile strength of the corresponding compacts. The increase in tablet strength was generally greater with the PEGs than with microcrystalline cellulose. The results indicate that the improvement in tablet strength caused by the binder is dependent on properties of both the binder and the compound. By utilising different methods it was established that the fracture during tablet strength testing mainly occurred around the compound particles. As a consequence of this, it appears that the ability of the binder to fill the voids between the compound particles is a determinative factor for increasing tablet strength. The binder appeared to have less effect when added to compounds that fragmented during compaction. Characteristics of the binder resulting in the greatest decrease in porosity, and thus the greatest increase in the tensile strength of the compound, included a high degree of plastic deformation with a limited elastic component and a small particle size. Obviously, the amount of binder added to the mixture also affected the results.

  14. Calcium H & K and sodium D absorption induced by the interstellar and circumgalactic media of the Milky Way

    CERN Document Server

    Murga, Maria; Ménard, Brice; Lan, Ting-Wen


    We map out calcium II & sodium I absorption (Fraunhofer H, K & D lines) induced by both the interstellar medium and the circumgalactic medium of the Milky Way. Our measurements cover more than $9000$ deg$^2$ and make use of about $300,000$ extragalactic spectra from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We present absorption maps for these two species and then compare their distributions to those of neutral hydrogen and dust. We show that the abundance of Na I with respect to neutral hydrogen stays roughly constant in different environments, while that of Ca II decreases with hydrogen column density. Studying how these tracers vary as a function of velocity, we show that, on average, the N(Na I)/N(Ca II) ratio decreases at higher velocity with respect to the local standard of rest, similar to the local Routly-Spitzer effect but seen on Galactic scale. We show that it is likely caused by higher gas/dust density at lower velocity. Finally, we show that Galactic Ca II and Na I absorption needs to be taken into a...

  15. The Effect of a Novel Highly Selective Inhibitor of the Sodium/Calcium Exchanger (NCX) on Cardiac Arrhythmias in In Vitro and In Vivo Experiments


    Kohajda, Zsófia; Farkas-Morvay, Nikolett; Jost, Norbert; Nagy, Norbert; Geramipour, Amir; Horváth, András; Varga, Richárd S.; Hornyik, Tibor; Corici, Claudia; Acsai, Károly; Horváth, Balázs; Prorok, János; Ördög, Balázs; Déri, Szilvia; Tóth, Dániel


    Background In this study the effects of a new, highly selective sodium-calcium exchanger (NCX) inhibitor, ORM-10962 were investigated on cardiac NCX current, Ca2+ transients, cell shortening and in experimental arrhythmias. The level of selectivity of the novel inhibitor on several major transmembrane ion currents (L-type Ca2+ current, major repolarizing K+ currents, late Na+ current, Na+/K+ pump current) was also determined. Methods Ion currents in single dog ventricular cells (cardiac myocy...

  16. Scientific Opinion on the safety assessment of the active substances iron powder, activated carbon, calcined kaolin, sodium chloride, polyacrylic acid, sodium salt, crosslinked and calcium chloride, for use as active system in food contact materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF


    Full Text Available This scientific opinion of the EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids deals with the safety assessment of the active substances iron powder, activated carbon, calcined kaolin, sodium chloride, polyacrylic acid, sodium salt, crosslinked and calcium chloride, used in mixture which is packed into labels, for absorbing oxygen from the headspace surrounding packed food. All substances of this formulation have been evaluated and approved for use as additives in plastic food contact materials or as food supplements. Migration of substances from the labels and formation and release of volatile constituents are not expected under the intended conditions of use. The CEF Panel concluded that the use of substances iron powder, activated carbon, calcined kaolin, sodium chloride, polyacrylic acid, sodium salt, crosslinked and calcium chloride does not raise a safety concern when used in oxygen absorbers in labels, which prevent the physical release of their content into the food. When placed in the headspace of the packaging or when used in direct contact with foods, the labels should not intentionally or unintentionally come into direct contact with liquid foods or foods that have an external aqueous phase on the surface such as sliced fruits.

  17. Fabrication and icing property of superhydrophilic and superhydrophobic aluminum surfaces derived from anodizing aluminum foil in a sodium chloride aqueous solution (United States)

    Song, Meirong; Liu, Yuru; Cui, Shumin; Liu, Long; Yang, Min


    An aluminum foil with a rough surface was first prepared by anodic treatment in a neutral aqueous solution with the help of pitting corrosion of chlorides. First, the hydrophobic Al surface (contact angle around 79°) became superhydrophilic (contact angle smaller than 5°) after the anodizing process. Secondly, the superhydrophilic Al surface became superhydrophobic (contact angle larger than 150°) after being modified by oleic acid. Finally, the icing property of superhydrophilic, untreated, and superhydrophobic Al foils were investigated in a refrigerated cabinet at -12 °C. The mean total times to freeze a water droplet (6 μL) on the three foils were 17 s, 158 s and 1604 s, respectively. Thus, the superhydrophilic surface accelerates the icing process, while the superhydrophobic surface delays the process. The main reason for this transition might mainly result from the difference of the contact area of the water droplet with Al substrate: the increase in contact area with Al substrate will accelerate the heat conduct process, as well as the icing process; the decrease in contact area with Al substrate will delay the heat conduct process, as well as the icing process. Compared to the untreated Al foil, the contact area of the water droplet with the Al substrate was higher on superhydrophilic surface and smaller on the superhydrophobic surface, which led to the difference of the heat transfer time as well as the icing time.

  18. Calcium-(organo)aluminum-proton competition for adsorption to tomato root cell walls: Experimental data and exchange model calculations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riemsdijk, van W.H.; Keltjens, W.G.; Postma, J.W.M.


    Aluminum interacts with negatively charged surfaces in plant roots, causing inhibition of growth and nutrient uptake in plants growing on acid soils. Pectins in the root cell wall form the major cation adsorption surface, with Ca2+ as the main adsorbing cation. Adsorption of Al3+ and Ca2+ to isolate

  19. [Experiments on the mechanism of action of vascular spasmolytics. 4. Effect of nitroprusside sodium, nitroglycerin, prenylamine and verapamil on the calcium uptake of microsomes of the smooth bascular muscles]. (United States)

    Klinner, U; Ehlers, D; Fermum, R; Meisel, P


    Nitroprusside-sodium, nitroglycerol, and verapamil had no effect on the calcium uptake by microsomes from the carotid artery of cattle. Prenylamine reduced the passive binding and the active uptake and released already bound calcium. The basal Mg-dependendent ATPase and Ca-stimulatable Mg-ATPase were inhibited by prenylamine.

  20. Effects of sodium bicarbonate and 1,25-dihydroxy-cholecalciferol on calcium and phosphorus balances in the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goulding, A.; McIntosh, J.; Campbell, D.


    Metabolic balance studies were undertaken to determine whether sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO/sub 3/) supplements (4.5 mmol/day) altered 7-day cumulative calcium (Ca) phosphorus (P) balances in growing rats consuming either a basal diet providing 0.6% Ca and 0.3% P, or this diet plus 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol (40 ng 1,25(OH)/sub 2/D/sub 3//day). Feeding bicarbonate lowered urinary Ca but raised fecal Ca so that Ca balance became less positive. However, 1,25(OH)/sub 2/D/sub 3/ increased net absorption of Ca and P to the same degree when given to control rats and rats consuming bicarbonate. Nevertheless, bicarbonate-fed rats had lower net Ca absorption than controls, even when treated with high doses of 1,25(OH)/sub 2/D/sub 3/. Changes in net Ca absorption induced by bicarbonate may occur at a point in the gut distal to the duodenum since duodenal /sup 45/Ca absorption was decreased by bicarbonate feeding. The present results show that bicarbonate consumption depressed net Ca absorption in the rat. The effect appears to be independent of changes in 1,25(OH)/sub 2/D/sub 3/ metabolism because it is manifest in animals receiving high doses of 1,25(OH)/sub 2/D/sub 3/, which stimulate alimentary Ca absorption maximally, and because bicarbonate-fed rats are able to respond normally to exogenous 1,25(OH)/sub 2/D/sub 3/ by increasing their net absorption of Ca and P. In view of this demonstration that NaHCO/sub 3/ supplements elevate fecal Ca loss in the rat, it is suggested that studies should be undertaken to determine whether bicarbonate exerts similar adverse effects on Ca balance in humans.

  1. Genetic control and transgressive segregation of zinc, iron, potassium, phosphorus, calcium, and sodium accumulation in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) seeds. (United States)

    Fernandes Santos, C A; Boiteux, L S


    Cowpea crop, through combining a range of essential minerals with high quality proteins, plays an important role in providing nutritional security to human population living in semi-arid regions. Studies on genetics of biofortification with essential minerals are still quite scarce, and the major objective of the present study was to provide genetic information on development of cowpea cultivars with high seed mineral contents. Genetic parameters heritability and minimum number of genes were estimated for seed accumulation of zinc (Zn), iron (Fe), calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), and sodium (Na). Generation mean and variance analyses were conducted using contrasting parental lines, F₁, F₂, and backcross populations derived from IT97K-1042-3 x BRS Tapaihum and IT97K-1042-3 x Canapu crosses. High narrow-sense heritability (h²) values were found for accumulation of Fe (65-86%), P (74-77%), and K (77-88%), whereas moderate h(2) values were observed for accumulation of Ca (41-56%), Zn (51-83%), and Na (50-55%) in seeds. Significant additive genetic effects as well as parental mean effects were detected in both crosses for all minerals, whereas epistasis was important genetic component in Zn content. The minimum number of genes controlling the accumulation of minerals ranged from two (K) to 11 (P). Transgressive segregation was observed in F2 populations of both crosses for all minerals analyzed. The results suggest that, although under either oligogenic or polygenic control, the seed content of these six minerals in cowpea can be improved via standard breeding methods largely used for self-pollinated crops.

  2. Salicylic acid alleviates aluminum toxicity in rice seedlings better than magnesium and calcium by reducing aluminum uptake, suppressing oxidative damage and increasing antioxidative defense. (United States)

    Pandey, Poonam; Srivastava, Rajneesh Kumar; Dubey, R S


    Aluminum toxicity is a major constraint to crop production in acid soils. The present study was undertaken to examine the comparative ameliorating effects of salicylic acid, Ca and Mg on Al toxicity in rice (Oryza sativa L.) seedlings grown in hydroponics. Al treatment (0.5 mM AlCl3) caused decrease in plant vigour, loss of root plasma membrane integrity, increased contents of O 2 (∙-) , H2O2, lipid peroxidation, protein carbonyls and decline in the level of protein thiol. Al treatment caused significant changes in activity of antioxidative enzymes in rice seedlings. Exogenously added salicylic acid (60 μM), Ca (1 mM) and Mg (0.25 mM) significantly alleviated Al toxicity effects in the seedlings marked by restoration of growth, suppression of Al uptake, restoration of root plasma membrane integrity and decline in O 2 (∙-) , H2O2, lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyl contents. Salicylic acid, Ca and Mg suppressed Al-induced increase in SOD, GPX and APX activities while it elevated Al-induced decline in CAT activity. By histochemical staining of O 2 (∙-) using NBT and H2O2 using DAB, it was further confirmed that added salicylic acid, Ca or Mg decreased Al-induced accumulation of O 2 (∙-) and H2O2 in the leaf tissues. Results indicate that exogenously added salicylic acid, Ca or Mg alleviates Al toxicity in rice seedlings by suppressing Al uptake, restoring root membrane integrity, reducing ROS level and ROS induced oxidative damage and regulating the level of antioxidative enzyme activities. Further salicylic appears to be superior to Mg and Ca in alleviating Al toxicity effects in rice plants.

  3. The effect of electron irradiation on the structure and iron speciation in sodium aluminum (iron) phosphate glasses (United States)

    Stefanovsky, S. V.; Presniakov, I. A.; Sobolev, A. V.; Glazkova, I. S.; Kadyko, M. I.; Stefanovsky, O. I.


    The effect of 8 MeV electron irradiation on the structure of glasses in the series 40 Na2O, (20-x) Al2O3, x Fe2O3, 40 P2O5 (mol.%) and on the iron speciation in these samples was studied by FTIR and Mössbauer spectroscopic techniques. Irradiation up to a dose of 1.0 MGy has no appreciable effects on the character of the bonds within anionic motif of the glass network. Electron irradiation increases the fraction of aluminum in octahedral coordination. Iron in both unirradiated and irradiated glasses is present mainly as Fe(III) (60-75% of the total amount) in the glasses and partly as Fe(II) and the ratio of two forms remains constant up to a dose of 1.0 MGy.

  4. Inhibition of collagen synthesis by select calcium and sodium channel blockers can be mitigated by ascorbic acid and ascorbyl palmitate. (United States)

    Ivanov, Vadim; Ivanova, Svetlana; Kalinovsky, Tatiana; Niedzwiecki, Aleksandra; Rath, Matthias


    Calcium, sodium and potassium channel blockers are widely prescribed medications for a variety of health problems, most frequently for cardiac arrhythmias, hypertension, angina pectoris and other disorders. However, chronic application of channel blockers is associated with numerous side effects, including worsening cardiac pathology. For example, nifedipine, a calcium-channel blocker was found to be associated with increased mortality and increased risk for myocardial infarction. In addition to the side effects mentioned above by different channel blockers, these drugs can cause arterial wall damage, thereby contributing to vascular wall structure destabilization and promoting events facilitating rupture of plaques. Collagen synthesis is regulated by ascorbic acid, which is also essential for its optimum structure as a cofactor in lysine and proline hydroxylation, a precondition for optimum crosslinking of collagen and elastin. Therefore, the main objective in this study was to evaluate effects of various types of channel blockers on intracellular accumulation and cellular functions of ascorbate, specifically in relation to formation and extracellular deposition of major collagen types relevant for vascular function. Effects of select Na- and Ca- channel blockers on collagen synthesis and deposition were evaluated in cultured human dermal fibroblasts and aortic smooth muscle cells by immunoassay. All channel blockers tested demonstrated inhibitory effects on collagen type I deposition to the ECM by fibroblasts, each to a different degree. Ascorbic acid significantly increased collagen I ECM deposition. Nifedipine (50 µM), a representative of channel blockers tested, significantly reduced ascorbic acid and ascorbyl palmitate-dependent ECM deposition of collagen type l and collagen type lV by cultured aortic smooth muscle cells. In addition, nifedipine (50 µM) significantly reduced ascorbate-dependent collagen type l and type lV synthesis by cultured aortic smooth

  5. Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of malic acid and a mixture of sodium and calcium malate when used as technological additives for all animal species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP


    Full Text Available An application has been made for the re-authorisation of malic acid as a preservative in feed and an acidity regulator in feed for cats and dogs and for the authorisation of a mixture of sodium and calcium salts of malic acid to be used as an acidity regulator in feed for all animal species. Evidence from feeding studies with dogs, poultry, piglets, veal calves and ruminants showed that the highest typical use level of 1 600 mg malic acid/kg complete feedingstuffs (supplied as acid or salts is safe for all animal species. Setting a maximum content was not considered as necessary. Malic acid and its sodium and calcium salts are permitted food additives without limit in the EU. The use of malic acid and its sodium and calcium salts in animal nutrition is safe for the consumer. Malic acid and its salts are considered as strongly irritant to the skin and mucosa and as a particular risk to the eyes. Exposure via inhalation for those handling the additives is also considered to present a risk. Malates are components of the diet of humans and animals and are rapidly and completely metabolised to CO2. Consequently, their use in animal production would not pose a risk to the environment. Malic acid is used in food as a preservative. It is reasonable to expect that the effect seen in food will be observed in feed when it is used at comparable concentrations and under similar conditions. However, the FEEDAP Panel has reservations about the effectiveness of malic acid as a preservative in complete feedingstuffs with a moisture content of ≤ 12 %. The ability of malic acid and its salts to act as acidity regulators in feed has not been demonstrated.

  6. Addition of 1, 2 and 3% in mass of sodium alginate in calcium phosphate cement; Adicao de alginato de sodio a cimento de fosfato de calcio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coelho, W.T.; Fernandes, J.M.; Vieira, R.S.; Thurmer, M.B.; Santos, L.A., E-mail: [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (LABIOMAT/UFRS), RS (Brazil)


    The calcium phosphate cement (CFC) are bone substitutes with great potential for use in orthopedics, traumatology and dentistry because of their biocompatibility, bioactivity, osteoconductivity and osteotransdutivity, and a paste that can be easily molded and placed into the surgical site. However, CFCs have low mechanical strength, which equals the maximum mechanical strength of trabecular bone. Aiming to evaluate the strength and time to handle a CFC phase composed mainly of alpha were added to sodium alginate (1%, 2% and 3% wt) and an accelerator handle in an aqueous medium. The cement powder was mixed with liquid takes 2 minutes and resigned in specimens and assessed for apparent density and porosity by the Archimedes method, X-ray diffraction and mechanical strength. We noticed a significant increase in mechanical properties of cement added sodium alginate. (author)

  7. A Critical Examination of the X-Wind Model for Chondrule and Calcium-rich, Aluminum-rich Inclusion Formation and Radionuclide Production

    CERN Document Server

    Desch, S J; Connolly, H C; Jr.,; Boss, Alan P


    Meteoritic data, especially regarding chondrules and calcium-rich, aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs), and isotopic evidence for short-lived radionuclides (SLRs) in the solar nebula, potentially can constrain how planetary systems form. Intepretation of these data demands an astrophysical model, and the "X-wind" model of Shu et al. (1996) and collaborators has been advanced to explain the origin of chondrules, CAIs and SLRs. It posits that chondrules and CAIs were thermally processed < 0.1 AU from the protostar, then flung by a magnetocentrifugal outflow to the 2-3 AU region to be incorporated into chondrites. Here we critically examine key assumptions and predictions of the X-wind model. We find a number of internal inconsistencies: theory and observation show no solid material exists at 0.1 AU; particles at 0.1 AU cannot escape being accreted into the star; particles at 0.1 AU will collide at speeds high enough to destroy them; thermal sputtering will prevent growth of particles; and launching of particles ...

  8. Continuous Intravenous Infusion of Sodium Fusidate Sodium and Calcium Gluconate are Incompatibility%静脉连续输注夫西地酸钠与葡萄糖酸钙存在配伍禁忌

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    随着我国医药科学的发展,不断出现一些新的药物,原来的药物配伍禁忌表已经不能满足新药的查询要求。夫西地酸钠是临床常用的抗菌药物,主要治疗葡萄球菌引起的各种感染,葡萄糖酸钙注射液为常用的钙补充剂,临床上有将这两种药物在同一患者身上序贯输入的情况。我科于2013年9月收治1例急性上呼吸道感染并患急性荨麻疹的患儿,在遵医嘱静脉输液时我们发现夫西地酸钠与葡萄糖酸钙之间存在配伍禁忌,不能依次序贯输注。%With the development of medical science in China, some of the emerging of new drugs, the original drug incompatibility table has been unable to meet the requirements of new query. Sodium fusidate is the clinical commonly used antibiotics, causing the main treatment of staphylococcal infection, Calcium gluconate injection calcium supplements commonly used, there wil be the two drugs in the same patient is clinical on sequential input. Division in 2013.9 treated 1 cases of acute upper respiratory tract infection and acute urticaria in children, in the prescribed intravenous infusion we find there is incompatibility between fusidic acid sodium and calcium gluconate, cannot turn the sequential infusion.

  9. 柠檬酸钠表面改性重钙粉体的研究%Study on sodium citrate surface modification ground calcium carbonate powder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周国永; 陈丽莎; 成琳


    研究了柠檬酸钠用量、反应温度、反应时间、浆料浓度对重钙粉体表面改性的影响.结果表明,柠檬酸钠用量为重钙粉体的6.0%(质量分数),改性温度65℃,改性时间45 min,浆料浓度为12.5%时,重钙粉体沉降体积降为0.65 mL/g,活化度可达到67.9%,吸油值降为230 mg/g,粘度值降低为120 mPa·s,pH值8.50.%The effect of modifier amount, modification temperature, time and slurry concentration on modification were studied. The results showed sodium citrate can be used to modify calcium carbonate powder, the best conditions were as follows: sodium citrate amount 6% , modification temperature 65 X., modification time 45 min, slurry concentration 12.5%. The settling volume reduced to 0.65 Ml/g, the activation grade was 67. 9% ,the oil absorption decreased to 230 mg/g, viscosity of calcium carbonate reduced to 120 mPa·S,Ph value was 8.50.

  10. An aluminum/calcium-rich, iron-poor, white dwarf star: evidence for an extrasolar planetary lithosphere?

    CERN Document Server

    Zuckerman, B; Dufour, P; Melis, Carl; Klein, B; Jura, M


    The presence of elements heavier than helium in white dwarf atmospheres is often a signpost for the existence of rocky objects that currently or previously orbited these stars. We have measured the abundances of various elements in the hydrogen-atmosphere white dwarfs G149-28 and NLTT 43806. In comparison with other white dwarfs with atmospheres polluted by heavy elements, NLTT 43806 is substantially enriched in aluminum but relatively poor in iron. We compare the relative abundances of Al and eight other heavy elements seen in NLTT 43806 with the elemental composition of bulk Earth, with simulated extrasolar rocky planets, with solar system meteorites, with the atmospheric compositions of other polluted white dwarfs, and with the outer layers of the Moon and Earth. Best agreement is found with a model that involves accretion of a mixture of terrestrial crust and upper mantle material onto NLTT 43806. The implication is that NLTT 43806 is orbited by a differentiated rocky planet, perhaps quite similar to Eart...

  11. Absorption of silicon and aluminum by hens fed sodium zeolite A with various levels of dietary cholecalciferol. (United States)

    Rabon, H W; Roland, D A; Bryant, M M; Smith, R C; Barnes, D G; Laurent, S M


    Two experiments were conducted to determine whether 1) serum Si and Al is increased in hens intubated with sodium zeolite A (SZA); and 2) dietary cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) influences the absorption of Si or Al by hens fed SZA. In Experiment 1, hens were intubated at oviposition with 0, 1, or 2 g of SZA. Blood samples were collected from the brachial vein at oviposition, and 4, 8, 12, 16, and 20 h postoviposition. Serum samples were analyzed for Si and Al. Peak serum Si and Al were observed at 4 and 8 h postoviposition, respectively. In Experiment 2, hens consumed commercial layer diets ad libitum containing five levels of dietary cholecalciferol (100 to 500 IU/kg) with or without .75% SZA for 6 wk. Blood samples were collected at the end of the 6-wk period by cardiac puncture at oviposition. When dietary cholecalciferol was increased from 100 to 200 IU/kg of diet there was an increase (P < .05) in serum Si but not Al. Levels of cholecalciferol above 200 IU/kg did not produce an additional increase in serum Si. The results showed increased (P < .01) serum concentrations of Si and Al for hens intubated with or fed SZA. It was concluded that Si and Al from SZA are absorbed by commercial Leghorn hens, and a possible involvement of Si or Al should be considered in the mechanism of action of SZA associated with improved eggshell quality and bone development.

  12. Technical Status Report on the Effect of Phosphate and Aluminum on the Development of Amorphous Phase Separation in Sodium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cozzi, A.D.


    The objective of the Tank Focus Area ''Optimize Waste Loading'' task is to enhance the definition of the acceptable processing window for high-level waste vitrification plants. One possible manner in which the acceptable processing window may be enhanced is by reducing the uncertainty of various compositional/property models through a specifically defined experimental plan. A reduction in model uncertainty can reduce limitations on current acceptance constraints and may allow for a larger processing or operational window. Enhanced composition/property model predictions coupled with an increased waste loading may decrease the processing time and waste glass disposal costs (i.e., overall lifecycle costs). One of the compositional/property models currently being evaluated by the Tanks Focus Area is related to the development of amorphous phase separation in multi-component borosilicate glasses.Described in this report is the current status for evaluating the effect of phosphorus and alumina on both simple sodium borosilicate and high-level waste glasses on the formation of amorphous phase separation. The goal of this subtask is to increase the understanding of the formation of phase separation by adding significant amounts (3-5 wt. percent) of phosphorus and alumina to well-characterized glasses. Additional scope includes evaluating the effects of thermal history on the formation of amorphous phase separation and durability of select glasses.The development of data, understanding, and quantitative description for composition and kinetic effects on the development of amorphous phase separation will continue in FY99. This effort will provide insight into the compositional and thermal effects on phase stability and will lead to a better understanding of the methods used to predict the development of amorphous phase separation in HLW glasses.

  13. The effect of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate paste and sodium fluoride mouthwash on the prevention of dentine erosion: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Moezizadeh


    Full Text Available Aim: The purpose was to compare the effect of 0.2% sodium fluoride mouthwash and casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate paste on prevention of dentin erosion. Materials and Methods: Buccal surfaces of 36 sound premolar teeth were ground flat and polished with abrasive discs. Half the polished surfaces were covered with tape to maintain a reference surface. Samples were randomly allocated into three groups. Group A was pretreated with tooth mousse (TM 4 times a day for 5 days. Group B was pretreated with 0.2% sodium fluoride mouthwash 4 times a day for 5 days. Group C was considered as the control group with no pretreatment. In the next step, the samples were exposed to Coca-Cola 4 times a day for 3 days. After each erosive cycle, the samples were rinsed with deionized water and stored in artificial saliva. The surface loss was determined using profilometry. Results: The erosion in both Groups A and B was less than the control group. The surface loss in mouthwash group was significantly lower than in the control group. Erosion in TM group was more than the mouthwash group and less than the control group. Conclusion: Sodium fluoride mouthwash is more effective for prevention of dentin erosion.

  14. Crystallization of calcium sulfate dihydrate under simulated conditions of phosphoric acid production in the presence of aluminum and magnesium ions (United States)

    Rashad, M. M.; Mahmoud, M. H. H.; Ibrahim, I. A.; Abdel-Aal, E. A.


    The effect of Al 3+ and Mg 2+ ions, as additives, on the crystallization of gypsum was studied under simulated conditions of the phosphoric acid production. Calcium hydrogen phosphate and sulfuric acid were mixed with dilute phosphoric acid at 80°C, and the turbidity of the reaction mixture was measured at different time periods to calculate the induction time of gypsum crystals formation. Addition of Al 3+ ions up to 2% decreased the induction time and increased the growth efficiency while addition of Mg 2+ increased the induction time and decreased the growth efficiency compared with in absence of additives. Interestingly, the crystals mean and median diameters were found to increase in the presence of Al 3+ and decrease in the presence of Mg 2+. The surface energy increased with Al 3+ and decreased with Mg 2+ compared to the baseline (without additives). Gypsum morphology changed from needle-like type in absence of additives to thick-rhombic in the presence of Al 3+ ions.

  15. Aluminum-induced dreierketten chain cross-links increase the mechanical properties of nanocrystalline calcium aluminosilicate hydrate (United States)

    Geng, Guoqing; Myers, Rupert J.; Li, Jiaqi; Maboudian, Roya; Carraro, Carlo; Shapiro, David A.; Monteiro, Paulo J. M.


    The incorporation of Al and increased curing temperature promotes the crystallization and cross-linking of calcium (alumino)silicate hydrate (C-(A-)S-H), which is the primary binding phase in most contemporary concrete materials. However, the influence of Al-induced structural changes on the mechanical properties at atomistic scale is not well understood. Herein, synchrotron radiation-based high-pressure X-ray diffraction is used to quantify the influence of dreierketten chain cross-linking on the anisotropic mechanical behavior of C-(A-)S-H. We show that the ab-planar stiffness is independent of dreierketten chain defects, e.g. vacancies in bridging tetrahedra sites and Al for Si substitution. The c-axis of non-cross-linked C-(A-)S-H is more deformable due to the softer interlayer opening but stiffens with decreased spacing and/or increased zeolitic water and Ca2+ of the interlayer. Dreierketten chain cross-links act as ‘columns’ to resist compression, thus increasing the bulk modulus of C-(A-)S-H. We provide the first experimental evidence on the influence of the Al-induced atomistic configurational change on the mechanical properties of C-(A-)S-H. Our work advances the fundamental knowledge of C-(A-)S-H on the lowest level of its hierarchical structure, and thus can impact the way that innovative C-(A-)S-H-based cementitious materials are developed using a ‘bottom-up’ approach.

  16. Factors controlling soil water and stream water aluminum concentrations after a clearcut in a forested watershed with calcium-poor soils (United States)

    McHale, M.R.; Burns, Douglas A.; Lawrence, G.B.; Murdoch, Peter S.


    The 24 ha Dry Creek watershed in the Catskill Mountains of southeastern New York State USA was clearcut during the winter of 1996-1997. The interactions among acidity, nitrate (NO3- ), aluminum (Al), and calcium (Ca2+) in streamwater, soil water, and groundwater were evaluated to determine how they affected the speciation, solubility, and concentrations of Al after the harvest. Watershed soils were characterized by low base saturation, high exchangeable Al concentrations, and low exchangeable base cation concentrations prior to the harvest. Mean streamwater NO3- concentration was about 20 ??mol l-1 for the 3 years before the harvest, increased sharply after the harvest, and peaked at 1,309 ??mol l -1 about 5 months after the harvest. Nitrate and inorganic monomeric aluminum (Alim) export increased by 4-fold during the first year after the harvest. Alim mobilization is of concern because it is toxic to some fish species and can inhibit the uptake of Ca2+ by tree roots. Organic complexation appeared to control Al solubility in the O horizon while ion exchange and possibly equilibrium with imogolite appeared to control Al solubility in the B horizon. Alim and NO3- concentrations were strongly correlated in B-horizon soil water after the clearcut (r2 = 0.96), especially at NO3- concentrations greater than 100 ??mol l-1. Groundwater entering the stream from perennial springs contained high concentrations of base cations and low concentrations of NO3- which mixed with acidic, high Alim soil water and decreased the concentration of Alim in streamwater after the harvest. Five years after the harvest soil water NO 3- concentrations had dropped below preharvest levels as the demand for nitrogen by regenerating vegetation increased, but groundwater NO3- concentrations remained elevated because groundwater has a longer residence time. As a result streamwater NO3- concentrations had not fallen below preharvest levels, even during the growing season, 5 years after the harvest

  17. Aluminum-induced dreierketten chain cross-links increase the mechanical properties of nanocrystalline calcium aluminosilicate hydrate (United States)

    Geng, Guoqing; Myers, Rupert J.; Li, Jiaqi; Maboudian, Roya; Carraro, Carlo; Shapiro, David A.; Monteiro, Paulo J. M.


    The incorporation of Al and increased curing temperature promotes the crystallization and cross-linking of calcium (alumino)silicate hydrate (C-(A-)S-H), which is the primary binding phase in most contemporary concrete materials. However, the influence of Al-induced structural changes on the mechanical properties at atomistic scale is not well understood. Herein, synchrotron radiation-based high-pressure X-ray diffraction is used to quantify the influence of dreierketten chain cross-linking on the anisotropic mechanical behavior of C-(A-)S-H. We show that the ab-planar stiffness is independent of dreierketten chain defects, e.g. vacancies in bridging tetrahedra sites and Al for Si substitution. The c-axis of non-cross-linked C-(A-)S-H is more deformable due to the softer interlayer opening but stiffens with decreased spacing and/or increased zeolitic water and Ca2+ of the interlayer. Dreierketten chain cross-links act as ‘columns’ to resist compression, thus increasing the bulk modulus of C-(A-)S-H. We provide the first experimental evidence on the influence of the Al-induced atomistic configurational change on the mechanical properties of C-(A-)S-H. Our work advances the fundamental knowledge of C-(A-)S-H on the lowest level of its hierarchical structure, and thus can impact the way that innovative C-(A-)S-H-based cementitious materials are developed using a ‘bottom-up’ approach. PMID:28281635

  18. XANES analysis of calcium and sodium phosphates and silicates and hydroxyapatite-Bioglass (registered) 45S5 co-sintered bioceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demirkiran, Hande [Graduate Student, Materials Science and Engineering Department, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX (United States); Hu Yongfeng; Zuin, Lucia [Beamline Scientist, Canadian Light Source, Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Appathurai, Narayana [Beamline Scientist, Synchrotron Radiation Center, Madison, WI (United States); Aswath, Pranesh B., E-mail: [Materials Science and Engineering Department, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX (United States)


    Bioglass (registered) 45S5 was co-sintered with hydroxyapatite at 1200 deg. C. When small amounts (< 5 wt.%) of Bioglass (registered) 45S5 was added it behaved as a sintering aid and also enhanced the decomposition of hydroxyapatite to {beta}-tricalcium phosphate. However when 10 wt.% and 25 wt.% Bioglass (registered) 45S5 was used it resulted in the formation of Ca{sub 5}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}SiO{sub 4} and Na{sub 3}Ca{sub 6}(PO{sub 4}){sub 5} in an amorphous silicate matrix respectively. These chemistries show improved bioactivity compared to hydroxyapatite and are the subject of this study. The structure of several crystalline calcium and sodium phosphates and silicates as well as the co-sintered hydroxyapatite-Bioglass (registered) 45S5 bioceramics were examined using XANES spectroscopy. The nature of the crystalline and amorphous phases were studied using silicon (Si) and phosphorus (P) K- and L{sub 2,3}-edge and calcium (Ca) K-edge XANES. Si L{sub 2,3}-edge spectra of sintered bioceramic compositions indicates that the primary silicates present in these compositions are sodium silicates in the amorphous state. From Si K-edge spectra, it is shown that the silicates are in a similar structural environment in all the sintered bioceramic compositions with 4-fold coordination. Using P L{sub 2,3}-edge it is clearly shown that there is no evidence of sodium phosphate present in the sintered bioceramic compositions. In the P K-edge spectra, the post-edge shoulder peak at around 2155 eV indicates that this shoulder to be more defined for calcium phosphate compounds with decreasing solubility and increasing thermodynamic stability. This shoulder peak is more noticeable in hydroxyapatite and {beta}-TCP indicating greater stability of the phosphate phase. The only spectra that does not show a noticeable peak is the composition with Na{sub 3}Ca{sub 6}(PO{sub 4}){sub 5} in a silicate matrix indicating that it is more soluble compared to the other compositions.

  19. Comparative evaluation of human pulp tissue dissolution by different concentrations of chlorine dioxide, calcium hypochlorite and sodium hypochlorite: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonali Taneja


    Full Text Available Introduction: Irrigation plays an indispensable role in removal of tissue remnants and debris from the complicated root canal system. This study compared the human pulp tissue dissolution by different concentrations of chlorine dioxide, calcium hypochlorite and sodium hypochlorite. Materials and Methods: Pulp tissue was standardized to a weight of 9 mg for each sample. In all,60 samples obtained were divided into 6 groups according to the irrigating solution used- 2.5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl, 5.25% NaOCl, 5% calcium hypochlorite (Ca(OCl 2 , 10% Ca(OCl 2 , 5%chlorine dioxide (ClO 2 and 13% ClO 2 . Pulp tissue was placed in each test tube carrying irrigants of measured volume (5ml according to their specified subgroup time interval: 30 minutes (Subgroup A and 60 minutes (Subgroup B. The solution from each sample test tube was filtered and was left for drying overnight. The residual weight was calculated by filtration method. Results: Mean tissue dissolution increases with increase in time period. Results showed 5.25% NaOCl to be most effective at both time intervals followed by 2.5% NaOCl at 60 minutes, 10%Ca(OCl 2 and 13% ClO 2 at 60 minutes. Least amount of tissue dissolving ability was demonstrated by 5% Ca(OCl 2 and 5% ClO 2 at 30 minutes. Distilled water showed no pulp tissue dissolution. Conclusion: Withinthe limitations of the study, NaOCl most efficiently dissolved the pulp tissue at both concentrations and at both time intervals. Mean tissue dissolution by Ca(OCl 2 and ClO 2 gradually increased with time and with their increase in concentration.

  20. Structural and nano-mechanical properties of Calcium Silicate Hydrate (C-S-H) formed from alite hydration in the presence of sodium and potassium hydroxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendoza, Oscar, E-mail: [Grupo del Cemento y Materiales de Construcción (CEMATCO). Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Facultad de Minas, Medellín (Colombia); Giraldo, Carolina [Cementos Argos S.A., Medellín (Colombia); Camargo, Sergio S. [Engenharia Metalúrgica e de Materiais, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro/COPPE, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Tobón, Jorge I. [Grupo del Cemento y Materiales de Construcción (CEMATCO). Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Facultad de Minas, Medellín (Colombia)


    This research evaluates the effect of sodium and potassium hydroxide on the structure and nano-mechanical properties of Calcium Silicate Hydrate (C-S-H) formed from the hydration of pure alite. Monoclinic (MIII) alite was synthesized and hydrated, using water-to-alite ratios of 0.5 and 0.6 and additions of 10% NaOH and KOH by weight of alite. Based on results of X-ray diffraction, isothermal calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and nanoindentation, two different effects of the alkaline hydroxides on the hydration reaction of alite, both at early and later ages, can be identified: (i) a differentiated hydration process, attributed to an enhancement in calcium hydroxide (CH) precipitation and a stimulation of the C-S-H nuclei; and (ii) an increase in the elastic modulus of the C-S-H aggregations, attributed to an electrostatic attraction between positive charges from the alkaline cations and negative charges from the C-S-H structure.

  1. Alumínio e a absorção de cálcio por mudas de pimenta do reino Aluminum and calcium absorption by black pepper seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Costa Veloso


    Full Text Available Um experimento com solução nutritiva foi conduzido em casa de vegetação com o objetivo de verificar os efeitos da nutrição de cálcio na toxicidade de alumínio em mudas de pimenta do reino. Os tratamentos constituíram-se de três concentrações de cálcio (10; 40 e 160 mg L-1 adicionados como CaCl2 em combinação com três concentrações de alumínio (0; 10 e 20 mg L-1 adicionados como AlCl3.6H2O. A solução nutritiva continha as seguintes concentrações dos íons expressos em mg L-1: N-NO3 (80,5; N-NH4 (10,5; P(1,5; K(39,0; Mg(24,0; S-SO4(32,0; B(0,5; Cu(0,06; Fe(5,0; Mn(1,0; Mo(0,03 e Zn(0,10. Os tratamentos com alumínio retardaram o crescimento das mudas de pimenta do reino, induziram sintomas de toxicidade de alumínio na parte aérea e principalmente aumentaram o diâmetro das raízes. O acúmulo de cálcio aumentou com o incremento da concentração de cálcio na solução na ausência de alumínio, nas raízes o conteúdo de cálcio foi diminuído com o aumento da concentração de alumínio na solução. A absorção de alumínio diminuiu com o aumento da concentração de cálcio na solução.A nutrient solution experiment with was carried out in a greenhouse with the objective of verifying the specific effects of calcium and aluminum toxicity on black pepper seedlings. The treatments were set up in three concentrations of calcium (10; 40 and 160 mg L-1 added as CaCl2 in combination with three concentrations of aluminum (0; 10 and 20 mg L-1 added as AlCl3. 6 H2O. The nutrient solution contained the following ion concentrations in mg L-1: N-NO3 (80,5; N-NH4 (10,5; P(1,5; K(39,0; Mg(24,0; S-SO4(32,0; B(0,5; Cu(0,06; Fe(5,0; Mn(1,0; Mo(0,03 and Zn(0,10. The treatments with aluminum reduced black pepper growth and the diameter of roots increased. Calcium absorption increased with the increase of calcium concentration in the solution, in the absence of aluminum. Calcium absorption by roots decreased with the increase of the

  2. Effect of Sodium Molybdate Inhibitor on Corrosion Resistance of 5083 Aluminum Alloy Used for Drone%钼酸钠对靶用5083铝合金耐蚀性能影响的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨志成; 周宽; 田志强


    目的:提高靶用5083铝合金材料的耐蚀性。方法分别运用阳极极化、交流阻抗及EDS等试验技术研究钼酸钠对5083铝合金在3%氯化钠溶液中的耐蚀性能影响。结果钼酸钠加入3%氯化钠溶液以后,该铝合金的腐蚀电位下降,点蚀电位与腐蚀电位分离,维钝电流减小,阻抗值增大,抗点蚀能力提高。结论钼酸钠对5083铝合金产生缓蚀作用。%Objective To improve the corrosion resistance of 5083 aluminum alloy used for drone.Methods The polariza-tion, electrochemical impedance spectrum and energy dispersive spectrometer were employed to study the effect of sodium mo-lybdate inhibitor on the corrosion resistance of 5083 aluminum alloy in 3% NaCl solution.Results After addition of sodium molybdate in the 3% NaCl solution, the corrosion potential was decreased and separated from the pitting potential, the passi-vated current was reduced, the impedance was increased, and the capability of inhibiting pitting was promoted.Conclusion So-dium molybdate had corrosion inhibition effect on 5083 aluminum alloy.

  3. Effects of Angiotensin Ⅱ and ACE Inhibitor, Captopril on L-type Calcium Current and Sodium Current of Single Guinea Myocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐延敏; 黄体钢; 陈元禄


    Objectives To investigateeffect of AngⅡ, captopril on single guinea myocytes onL - type calcium current and sodium current. MethodsMembrane patch clamp whole cell recording tech-nique was used to investigate effect of angⅡ, captoprilon L- Ca maximum current density and sodium maxi-mum current density. Resutls AngⅡ increased themaximum current density compared with control afterpeffused 5 min, 357.7±219.7 Vs 279.5±240.5PA/PF, increase rate is 27.9 %, the shape of current- voltage relationship curve was unchanged, peaked at+ 10 my, indicated that angⅡ increased L- Ca cur-rent density in voltage -dependent. After perfusedwith captopril, captopril ± angⅡ 3, 5 rmin, L-Cacurrent was recorded, results suggest L - Ca maximumcurrent density decreased significantly compared withcontrol, in captopril group, 128.4 ± 92.6Vs286.2 ±89.7, 66.7 ±68.3Vs 286.2 ± 89.7, respectively, rateof inhibition is 55.1%, 76.6 %, respectively. L - Cacurrent further decreased in captopril perfused 5 mincompared with 3 rmin, 66.7 ± 68.3 Vs 128.4 ± 92.6,in captopril + angⅡ group, L- Ca current decreasedgreatly in 3, 5 min than control, 143.4 ± 117.6Vs267.7±141.4, 96.4±82.5 Vs 267.7+141.4, re-spectively, rate of inhibition is 46.4 %, 63.9 % re-spectively. We also investigated effect of captopril onNa current, which decreased significantly in 1 rmin and3 rmin compared with control, 939.1 ±319. 1 Vs1398.0 ± 144.6 PA/PF, 469.95±314.9 Vs 1398.0±144.6 PA/PF, respectively, rate of inhibition is32.8 %, 66. 3 %, respectively. Na current density de-creased significantly in 3 min compared with 1 min,469.9 ± 314.9 Vs 939. 1 ± 319. 1PA/PF, rate of in-hibition is 49.9 % . Conclusions Angiotensin Ⅱexerts increased maximum current density of L - Ca involtage dependent, captopril decreased maximum cur-rent density of L - Ca in voltage dependent, decreasedsodium maximum current density, which is the promi-nently antiarrhythmia mechanisms through inhibition ofangiotensin Ⅱ evoked

  4. The effects of a sodium and a calcium channel blocker on lethality of mice injected with the yellow scorpion (Leiurus quinquestriatus venom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Al-Shanawani


    Full Text Available Scorpion venom toxins generally produce similar effects by mainly acting on sodium channels, and to a lesser extent, on potassium, calcium, and chloride channels. This leads to increased release of neurotransmitters and mediators, resulting in a cascade of pathological events, involving the central nervous system, the autonomic nervous system, the cardiovascular and the respiratory system, eventually leading to death. The objective of this paper was to discover whether a sodium channel blocker, lidocaine, or a calcium channel blocker, verapamil, would prolong the survival of mice injected with the venom from the common yellow scorpion Leiurus quinquestriatus quinquestriatus (LQQ. For this purpose, mice were divided into 2 groups, each injected with a different venom dose (250 or 300 µ, s.c.. Subgroups (n=10 from each group were given venom alone; different doses of lidocaine (4, 10, 15, or 20; or several doses of verapamil (0.01, 0.03, 0.1, 0.3, or 1 All doses of lidocaine and verapamil were intravenously administered 3 minutes before, 1, 5, and 15 minutes after venom injection. Percent surviving after 24 hours was recorded in addition to the time of death. In general, lidocaine significantly prolonged survival at the dose of 10 (P<0.05 and P<0.01, versus low and high dose of venom, respectively or 15 (P<0.01 and P<0.001, versus low and high dose of venom, respectively; Covariance Wilcoxon survival statistics, especially when injected before the venom or in the early stages of envenomation. On the other hand, in all doses administered, verapamil was either toxic or showed non-significant results. Lidocaine, the sodium channel blocker, appears to play an important role in the protection from lethality of mice injected with LQQ venom, and significantly prolonged the survival time of mice whether injected before or in the early stages of envenomation.

  5. Microstructures and formation history of melilite-rich calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions from the ALHA77307 CO3.0 chondrite (United States)

    Han, Jangmi; Brearley, Adrian J.


    We have studied four melilite-rich calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) from the Allan Hills A77307 CO3.0 chondrite using transmission electron microscopy with the focused ion beam sample preparation technique. This type of CAI represents one of the dominant types of refractory inclusions in CO3 chondrites. Individual melilite-rich CAIs 04-07 record complex formational histories involving high-temperature gas-solid condensation that occurred under both equilibrium and disequilibrium conditions. CAI 04 contains two texturally- and compositionally-distinct occurrences of perovskite: fine-grained perovskite within a melilite-rich core and aggregates of perovskite grains that surround the core. The perovskite in the core was probably involved in a disequilibrium reaction with early equilibrium condensates (e.g., melilite and spinel) and a nebular gas to form Al-Ti-rich diopside, followed by a later condensation of the perovskite aggregates under equilibrium conditions. CAI 05 has a compact melilite-rich core surrounded by a porous mantle, and likely formed by at least two different condensation events under equilibrium and disequilibrium conditions. In CAI 06, complex intergrowth layers of spinel and diopside surrounding a melilite-rich core indicate disequilibrium reaction of spinel and melilite with a nebular gas to form Al-Ti-rich diopside following core formation by equilibrium condensation. CAI 07 is dominated by melilite with a narrow compositional range and equilibrated textures, suggesting its formation by equilibrium condensation over a limited temperature range. Collectively, we infer that the melilite-rich inclusions formed by a generalized sequence of high-temperature gas-solid condensation that involved: (1) formation of CAI cores by aggregation of primary equilibrium condensates (i.e., perovskite, spinel, and melilite), (2) back-reactions of the primary core minerals with a nebular gas under disequilibrium conditions, forming diopside that evolves in

  6. TRPM8 and Nav1.8 sodium channels are required for transthyretin-induced calcium influx in growth cones of small-diameter TrkA-positive sensory neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Adele J


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy (FAP is a peripheral neuropathy caused by the extracellular accumulation and deposition of insoluble transthyretin (TTR aggregates. However the molecular mechanism that underlies TTR toxicity in peripheral nerves is unclear. Previous studies have suggested that amyloidogenic proteins can aggregate into oligomers which disrupt intracellular calcium homeostasis by increasing the permeability of the plasma membrane to extracellular calcium. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of TTR on calcium influx in dorsal root ganglion neurons. Results Levels of intracellular cytosolic calcium were monitored in dorsal root ganglion (DRG neurons isolated from embryonic rats using the calcium-sensitive fluorescent indicator Fluo4. An amyloidogenic mutant form of TTR, L55P, induced calcium influx into the growth cones of DRG neurons, whereas wild-type TTR had no significant effect. Atomic force microscopy and dynamic light scattering studies confirmed that the L55P TTR contained oligomeric species of TTR. The effect of L55P TTR was decreased by blockers of voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCC, as well as by blockers of Nav1.8 voltage-gated sodium channels and transient receptor potential M8 (TRPM8 channels. siRNA knockdown of TRPM8 channels using three different TRPM8 siRNAs strongly inhibited calcium influx in DRG growth cones. Conclusions These data suggest that activation of TRPM8 channels triggers the activation of Nav1.8 channels which leads to calcium influx through VGCC. We suggest that TTR-induced calcium influx into DRG neurons may contribute to the pathophysiology of FAP. Furthermore, we speculate that similar mechanisms may mediate the toxic effects of other amyloidogenic proteins such as the β-amyloid protein of Alzheimer's disease.

  7. Effect of dietary moisture and sodium content on urine composition and calcium oxalate relative supersaturation in healthy miniature schnauzers and labrador retrievers. (United States)

    Stevenson, A E; Hynds, W K; Markwell, P J


    The aim of this series of studies was to evaluate two possible feeding strategies as methods for reducing the risk of calcium oxalate (CaOx) formation in two breeds of healthy dog. The studies compared the effect of dietary moisture (Study 1) and dietary sodium (Na), (Study 2) on urine composition of labrador retrievers (LR) and miniature schnauzers (MS). A nutritionally complete dry dog food was fed to 16 dogs (eight LR, eight MS; Study 1) and 15 dogs (seven LR, eight MS; Study 2) for 24 days (Study 1), or 36 days (Study 2). The dogs were fed the diet alone (7% moisture, 0.06 g Na/100 kcal), or supplemented with deionised water to 73% moisture (Study 1), or dietary Na, to deliver 0.20 or 0.30 g Na per 100 kcal (Study 2). Urine pH, volume, specific gravity, and concentrations of 12 analytes were measured for each dog. Urinary relative supersaturations (RSS) with CaOx were calculated from these values. The effects of supplemental Na or water were established using t tests (Study 1) or analysis of variance, and multiple range tests (least significant difference) (Study 2); Phigh moisture diet may reduce the risk of CaOx formation in high-risk breeds. Increasing dietary Na led to production of urine with a significantly lower CaOx RSS in both breeds, indicating that sodium supplementation to dry diet formats may reduce the risk of CaOx formation. These feeding strategies should be considered when evaluating methods for preventing CaOx formation within high-risk groups.

  8. A five way crossover human volunteer study to compare the pharmacokinetics of paracetamol following oral administration of two commercially available paracetamol tablets and three development tablets containing paracetamol in combination with sodium bicarbonate or calcium carbonate. (United States)

    Grattan, T; Hickman, R; Darby-Dowman, A; Hayward, M; Boyce, M; Warrington, S


    This report concerns a single dose randomized five way crossover study to compare the pharmacokinetics of paracetamol from two commercially available paracetamol (500 mg) tablets and three different development paracetamol (500 mg) tablet formulations containing either sodium bicarbonate (400 mg), sodium bicarbonate (630 mg) or calcium carbonate (375 mg). The results demonstrated that addition of sodium bicarbonate (630 mg) to paracetamol tablets, increased the rate of absorption of paracetamol relative to conventional paracetamol tablets and soluble paracetamol tablets. Addition of sodium bicarbonate (400 mg) to paracetamol tablets increased the absorption rate of paracetamol relative to conventional paracetamol tablets, but there was no difference in the rate of absorption compared to soluble paracetamol tablets. Inclusion of calcium carbonate (375 mg) to paracetamol tablets had no effect on absorption kinetics compared to the conventional paracetamol tablet. The faster absorption observed for the sodium bicarbonate formulations may be as a result of an increase in gastric emptying rate leading to faster transport of paracetamol to the small intestine where absorption takes place.

  9. Solubility of PdI/sub 2/ in nitrate and perchlorate solutions. [For use in spent fuels processing; solvents are water, nitric acid, calcium nitrate, and sodium perchlorate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horner, D.E.; Mailen, J.C.; Bigelow, H.R.


    This paper reports the solubilities of PdI/sub 2/ as measured in nitric acid by a tracer technique and in water, calcium nitrate, and sodium perchlorate solutions by a specific ion electrode technique. The tracer technique measures all the soluble iodine species, whereas the specific ion electrode measures only simple iodide ions (I/sup -/). When compared on the basis of ionic strength, the values obtained in the nitrate solutions by the two methods were in reasonable agreement. The solubilities in perchlorate solution were much higher than in nitrate, possibly because of ionic equilibria involving Pd/sup 4 +/, but this was not resolved in this work. The activity product constant, K/sub ap(PdI/sub 2/)/ = (2.5 +- 0.4) x 10/sup -23/ (25/sup 0/C), was calculated from PdI/sub 2/ solubility in water. With this value and the standard electrode potentials from the literature, the free energy of formation for PdI/sub 2/ was calculated to be --13.6 kcal/mol.

  10. Evaluation of a mixture of zinc oxide, calcium hydroxide, and sodium fluoride as a new root canal filling material for primary teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chawla H


    Full Text Available Endodontic treatment was performed on 25 pulpally involved mandibular primary molars in 4 to 9-year-old children; the root canals were obturated with a new root canal filling material consisting of a mixture of calcium hydroxide, zinc oxide, and 10% sodium fluoride solution, using hand-operated lentulo-spirals. All cases were evaluated clinically every 3 months and also radiographically every 6 months to assess the success of the treatment; we also examined the resorption of the root canal filling material from the root canals and the status of overpushed material, if any, as the tooth resorbed with the passage of time. At 6 months, endodontic treatment in 2 of the 25 teeth had failed and one tooth had exfoliated; the remaining 22 teeth were without any signs or symptoms. At the end of 2 years, 14 teeth could be evaluated; out of these 12 had physiologically exfoliated. It was observed that the rate of resorption of this new root canal obturating mixture was quite similar to the rate of physiologic root resorption in primary teeth. In three cases, where there was an overpush of the mixture, a gradual partial resorption was noted.

  11. The determination of calcium in phosphate, carbonate, and silicate rocks by flame photometer (United States)

    Kramer, Henry


    A method has been developed for the determination of calcium in phosphate, carbonate, and silicate rocks using the Beckman flame photometer, with photomultiplier attachement. The sample is dissolved in hydrofluoric, nitric, and perchloric acids, the hydrofluoric and nitric acids are expelled, a radiation buffer consisting of aluminum, magnesium, iron, sodium, potassium, phosphoric acid, and nitric acid is added, and the solution is atomized in an oxy-hydrogen flame with an instrument setting of 554 mµ. Measurements are made by comparison against calcium standards, prepared in the same manner, in the 0 to 50 ppm range. The suppression of calcium emission by aluminum and phosphate was overcome by the addition of a large excess of magnesium. This addition almost completely restores the standard curve obtained from a solution of calcium nitrate. Interference was noted when the iron concentration in the aspirated solution (including the iron from the buffer) exceeded 100 ppm iron. Other common rock-forming elements did not interfere. The results obtained by this procedure are within ± 2 percent of the calcium oxide values obtained by other methods in the range 1 to 95 percent calcium oxide. In the 0 to 1 percent calcium oxide range the method compares favorably with standard methods.

  12. The clinical significance of testing serum calcium and sodium in children with febrile convulsion%热性惊厥患儿血清钙、钠检测及其临床意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    To investigate the variation of Serum calcium and sodium concentration in children with febrile convulsion and its significance.Methods:Detect the serum calcium and sodium levels using automatic biochemical analyzer in 76 cases of children with febrile convulsion and 69 cases of the control group with fever,and compared it.Results:Serum calcium and sodium in febrile convulsion group were significantly lower than those of the control group(P<0.05).Conclusion:Children with febrile convulsion is in low calcium and low blood sodium.Reciprocal causation between febrile convulsion and low calcium and low sodium.For the treatment of febrile seizure,we should pay attention to correct the low calcium hyponatremia in addition to conventional anti convulsion and cooling,in order to prevent repeated attack of convulsion,and alleviate the damage on brain and other important organs.%目的:探讨热性惊厥患儿血清钙、钠浓度变化及其意义。方法:采用全自动生化测定仪检测76例热性惊厥患儿和对照组69例发热患儿的血清钙、钠水平,并进行比较分析。结果:热性惊厥组血清钙、钠明显低于对照组(P<0.05)。结论:热性惊厥患儿存在低血钙、低血钠。热性惊厥与低钙、低钠之间互为因果,针对热性惊厥治疗时除常规止惊、降温外应注意纠正低钙低钠血症,预防惊厥反复发作,减轻脑组织和其他重要脏器的损害。

  13. The influence of calcium magnesium, and sodium on the spectrographic analysis of natural waters; Estudio de la influencia del calcio, magnesio y sodio en un metodo de analisis espectrografico de aguas naturales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz Guerra, J. P.; Capdevilla, C.


    The influences of 1000 {mu}g/ml of calcium and sodium and 300 {mu}g/ml of magnesium, on the spectrographic determination of Al, Ba, Cr, Fe, Li , Mn, Ni, Pb, Sr and Ti, minor constituents in natural waters, have been studied, In order to eliminate them, the elements Ga, In, La, Ti and Zn, as well as a mixture containing 30 % Tl-70 % In, have been tested as spectrochemical buffers. (Author) 7 refs.

  14. Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of vitamin C (ascorbic acid and sodium calcium ascorbyl phosphate) as a feed additive for all animal species based on a dossier submitted by VITAC EEIG



    Vitamin C (formerly known as antiscorbutic vitamin) is essential for primates, guinea pigs and fish. Vitamin C, in the form of ascorbic acid and sodium calcium ascorbyl phosphate, is safe for all animal species. Setting a maximum content in feed and water for drinking is not considered necessary. Data on the vitamin C consumption of consumers are based on the levels of vitamin C in foodstuffs, including food of animal origin, produced in accordance with current EU legislation on the supplemen...

  15. Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of vitamin C (ascorbic acid and sodium calcium ascorbyl phosphate as a feed additive for all animal species based on a dossier submitted by VITAC EEIG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP


    Full Text Available Vitamin C (formerly known as antiscorbutic vitamin is essential for primates, guinea pigs and fish. Vitamin C, in the form of ascorbic acid and sodium calcium ascorbyl phosphate, is safe for all animal species. Setting a maximum content in feed and water for drinking is not considered necessary. Data on the vitamin C consumption of consumers are based on the levels of vitamin C in foodstuffs, including food of animal origin, produced in accordance with current EU legislation on the supplementation of feed with vitamin C. The exposure is far below the guidance level. Any potential contribution of the use of vitamin C in feed is therefore already considered in the above data. Consequently, the use of vitamin C in animal nutrition is not of concern for consumer safety. In the absence of inhalation toxicity studies it would be prudent to assume that inhalation of dust from the additives presents a health hazard to workers and measures should be taken to minimise inhalation exposure. In the absence of data, ascorbic acid and sodium calcium ascorbyl phosphate should be considered as irritant to skin and eyes and as dermal sensitisers. The supplementation of feed with vitamin C does not pose a risk to the environment. Ascorbic acid and sodium calcium ascorbyl phosphate are regarded as effective sources of vitamin C when added to feed or water for drinking.

  16. Poison Effects of Synergistic Stress of Calcium, Manganese, Aluminum and Boron on Tea Plant%钙、锰、铝及与硼的协同胁迫对茶树的毒害效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚元涛; 陶吉寒; 宋鲁彬; 田丽丽; 刘腾飞; 贾厚振


    The synergistic effects of calcium, manganese, aluminum, boron, calcium, manganese, aluminum and boron on the growth and the elements of tea tree were studied by sand culture method. The results showed that the toxicity stress of calcium, manganese, aluminum and boron signiifcantly decreased the activity of tea root, affected the tea root growth and development, decreased signiifcantly the tea photosynthetic rate and sto-matal conductance, increased intercellular CO2 concentration;inhibited the growth of new shoots, number of shoot leaves decreased, and the internode length became shorter. Each treatment promoted the absorption of el-ements in tea plant and had a signiifcant synergistic effect. The effects of different treatments on the other ele-ments were:Al could promote the uptake of phosphorus in tea tree root;boron and manganese had a certain in-hibition effect on the absorption of phosphorus;manganese and aluminum could promote the absorption of sulfur in roots and leaves of tea;boron, manganese and aluminum could promote the absorption of potassium in roots;boron could signiifcantly promote the absorption of magnesium in roots and leaves;and the other treat-ments signiifcantly inhibited the absorption of magnesium in roots, but promoted it in leaves;all treatments sig-niifcantly inhibited the absorption of iron and zinc in roots and leaves of tea plant.%采用砂培法研究了钙、锰、铝、硼及钙、锰、铝与硼的协同毒害胁迫对茶树生长与元素吸收的影响。结果表明,钙、锰、铝、硼毒害胁迫显著降低茶树根系活力,影响茶树根系的生长发育;显著降低茶树光合速率和气孔导度,增加了胞间二氧化碳浓度;抑制新梢生长,使新梢展叶数减小、节间距变短。各处理促进了茶树对处理元素的吸收,且具有明显的协同作用。各处理对其他元素的影响为:铝能促进茶树根系对磷的吸收,硼和锰对磷的吸收却有一定的抑制作

  17. Formation of ettringite, Ca 6Al 2(SO 4) 3(OH) 12·26H 2O, AFt, and monosulfate, Ca 4Al 2O 6(SO 4)·14H 2O, AFm-14, in hydrothermal hydration of Portland cement and of calcium aluminum oxide—calcium sulfate dihydrate mixtures studied by in situ synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction (United States)

    Christensen, Axel Nørlund; Jensen, Torben R.; Hanson, Jonathan C.


    In the hydration of calcium aluminum oxide-gypsum mixtures, i.e., Ca 3Al 2O 6, Ca 12Al 14O 33 and CaSO 4·2H 2O, the reaction products can be ettringite, Ca 6Al 2(SO 4) 3(OH) 12·26H 2O, monosulfate, Ca 4Al 2O 6(SO 4)·14H 2O, or the calcium aluminum oxide hydrate, Ca 4Al 2O 7·19H 2O. Ettringite is formed if sufficient CaSO 4·2H 2O is present in the mixture. Ettringite is converted to monosulfate when all CaSO 4·2H 2O is consumed in the synthesis of ettringite. The reactions were investigated in the temperature range 25-170°C using in situ synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction. This technique allows the study of very fast chemical reactions that are observed here under hydrothermal conditions. A new experimental approach was developed to perform in situ mixing of the reactants during X-ray data collection.

  18. Non-free ionic transport of sodium, magnesium, and calcium in streams of two adjacent headwater catchments with different vegetation types in Japan (United States)

    Terajima, Tomomi; Moriizumi, Mihoko; Nakamura, Tomohiro


    Sodium (Na), magnesium (Mg), calcium (Ca) are usually believed to occur mostly as free ions in the fresh water and consequently little is known about their chemical species. To understand the importance of non-free ionic fractions (NIF) of major metals in freshwater streams, Na, Mg, Ca, silicon (Si), and fulvic acid-like materials (FAM) were measured in streams of mountainous adjacent headwater catchments dominated by different vegetation types (planted evergreen coniferous forest and natural deciduous broadleaf forest). During both no rainfall periods and rainstorms, the proportion of NIF relative to total elements was lower in the coniferous catchment than in the deciduous catchment, although it sometimes accounted for half or more of the total concentrations of Na, Mg, and Ca in both catchments. The solubility of metal compounds was higher than the measured maximum concentrations of Na+, Mg2+, and Ca2+ to the extent that inorganic bonding was hardly possible. During no rainfall periods when FAM was slightly produced into the streams, the fluxes of NIF and Si were highly correlated (r > 0.92, p NIF correlated weakly with that of Si but did not correlate with that of FAM in both catchments. In contrast, during a heavy rainstorm, the flux of NIF correlated strongly (r ⩾ 0.83, p NIF originated in the quick-flow component (i.e., surface or near-surface water) in stream water (ΔNIF) correlated strongly (r ⩾ 0.81, p < 0.0001, n = 22) with that of FAM. These findings imply that heavy rainstorms may enhance the bonding of the major metals with humic substances mainly in the deciduous catchment; and also exhibit that, in the headwater catchments, both water flow pathways resulted from the different vegetation types play a very important role to promote the bonding of major metals with humic substances in stream water.

  19. Changes of Calcium Concentration after Ceftriaxone Sodium Mixed with Different Concentrations of Calcium Solution%头孢曲松钠与不同浓度含钙溶液混合后钙离子浓度的变化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林金华; 周艳芳; 凌丽燕; 姜宠华; 陆卫良


    目的:研究头孢曲松钠与含钙溶液产生沉淀的浓度范围,指导临床合理用药.方法:采用全自动生化测定仪测定初始钙离子浓度为0.16、0.38、0.61、0.85、1.10、1.35、1.58、1.84、2.13、2.37 mmol/L的合钙溶液与1、0.5、0.25 g头孢曲松钠混合后0、0.5、1.0、2.0、3.0、4.0、6.0、24.0h内上清液中的钙离子浓度变化,并分析其变化规律.结果:1、0.5、0.25 g头孢曲松钠与各个初始浓度的含钙溶液混合后,上清液中钙离子浓度相互间区别不大;3种头孢曲松钠加入量的上清液中钙离子浓度0.5 h时均较0h时下降,但1.0~24.0h与0h比较均变化不大;3种头孢曲松钠加入量的上清液中钙离子浓度差别不大;且从0.5~24.0h初始钙离子浓度越高,上清液中的钙离子浓度反而更低;钙离子浓度≥1.35 mmol/L时均产生沉淀,浓度越大,产生的沉淀越多,钙离子浓度≤0.85mmol/L时并未见沉淀产生.结论:高血钙患者(血钙>2.6 mmol/L),特别是甲状旁腺危象患者(血钙>4 mmol/L),如需使用头孢曲松钠,使用前应该测定血清钙离子浓度,≥1.35 mmol/L时,风险较大,应避免使用;如果合用含钙制剂(包括口服),应增加水分的摄入,以稀释尿液中的钙离子浓度,从而降低使用风险.%OBJECTIVE: To study the range of concentration that the precipitation appears after ceftriaxone sodium mixed with solution containing calcium, and to provide reference for rational use of drugs in the clinic. METHODS:Using automatic biochemical analyzer, the changes of calcium concentrations in supernatant were determined within 0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, 6.0 and 24.0 h after solution containing calcium (initial concentrations of 0.16, 0.38, 0.61, 0.85, 1.10, 1.35, 1.58, 1.84, 2.13 and 2.37 mmol/L) mixed with ceftriaxone sodium (1, 0.5, 0.25 g); the variation regularity was analyzed. RESULTS: The concentration of calcium ions had no significant difference when ceftriaxone sodium

  20. 氯化钠和氯化钙对玉米淀粉-瓜尔胶复配体系的影响%Effects of Sodium Chloride and Calcium Chloride on Corn Starch and Guar Gum Mixed System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


      通过测定分析玉米淀粉-瓜尔胶复配体系在有无氯化钠和氯化钙存在条件下的糊化特性、动态与静态流变学特性,研究氯化钠和氯化钙对玉米淀粉-瓜尔胶复配体系的影响。结果表明,氯化钠和氯化钙的加入,提高了玉米淀粉-瓜尔胶复配体系的成糊温度,降低了崩解值和回升值,峰值黏度也略微下降;玉米淀粉-瓜尔胶复配体系的弹性模量G′值显著减小,黏性模量G″值的频率依赖性较大;氯化钠和氯化钙使玉米淀粉-瓜尔胶复配体系的假塑性增强,且氯化钙的作用大于氯化钠。%Through the analysis and determination of pasting property, dynamic and static rheological properties of corn starch and guar gum mixed system with or without sodium chloride and calcium chloride, the effects of sodium chloride and calcium chloride on corn starch and guar gum mixed system were studied. The results showed, the addition of sodium chloride and calcium chloride increased the pasting temperature of corn starch and guar gum mixed system, decreased the breakdown value and consistence value, and the peak viscosity also dropped slightly. The G′ value of elastic modulus decreased significantly, the frequency dependence of G" value of viscous modulus was larger. The addition of sodium chloride and calcium chloride enhanced pseudo-plasticity of corn starch and guar gum mixed system, and calcium chloride was more effective.

  1. Study on P2O5 recovery in production of sodium dihydrogen phosphate with calcium biphosphate%磷酸二氢钙制备磷酸二氢钠磷收率研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王勃; 向伟; 陈红琼; 应建康


    Calcium biphosphate is an important product in fine processing wet-process phosphoric acid (WPA), it conforms to the present market needing to develop the middle production of calcium biphosphate refined series product, and is of great significance.Process conditions of preparation of sodium dihydrogen phosphate with double decomposition reaction between calcium biphosphate and sodium sulfate were studied,and product by concentrated crystallization process was obtained. Influences of the reaction temperature, mix ratio of sodium sulfate to calcium biphosphate, ratio of liquid to solid, and reaction time on P2O5 recovery were investigated.Optimal process parameters of the reaction obtained were as follows:the reaction temperature was 50 ℃, mix ratio of sodium sulfate to calcium biphosphate was 1.2:1, mass ratio of liquid to solid was 4:1, and reaction time was 120 min.Under the conditions,the P2O5 recovery was 79.1%.Advantages of this process were the purity of product was high, process flow was short, and operation was simple etc.%磷酸二氢钙是湿法磷酸精细加工的重要产品,开发以磷酸二氢钙为中间产物的精加工系列产品符合目前市场需求.研究了磷酸二氢钙与硫酸钠复分解反应制备磷酸二氢钠的工艺条件,并通过浓缩结晶得到磷酸二氢钠产品.对反应温度、物料配比、液固比以及反应时间诸因素对磷收率的影响进行了研究,确定了复分解过程适宜的工艺条件:反应温度为50℃,物料配比(硫酸钠与磷酸二氢钙物质的量比)为1.2∶1,液固比(质量比)为4∶1,反应时间为120 min.在此条件下磷收率可达79.1%.该工艺具产品纯度高、工艺流程简单、操作简便等优点.

  2. Protein Phosphatase 1c Associated with the Cardiac Sodium Calcium Exchanger 1 Regulates Its Activity by Dephosphorylating Serine 68-phosphorylated Phospholemman. (United States)

    Hafver, Tandekile Lubelwana; Hodne, Kjetil; Wanichawan, Pimthanya; Aronsen, Jan Magnus; Dalhus, Bjørn; Lunde, Per Kristian; Lunde, Marianne; Martinsen, Marita; Enger, Ulla Helene; Fuller, William; Sjaastad, Ivar; Louch, William Edward; Sejersted, Ole Mathias; Carlson, Cathrine Rein


    The sodium (Na(+))-calcium (Ca(2+)) exchanger 1 (NCX1) is an important regulator of intracellular Ca(2+) homeostasis. Serine 68-phosphorylated phospholemman (pSer-68-PLM) inhibits NCX1 activity. In the context of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase (NKA) regulation, pSer-68-PLM is dephosphorylated by protein phosphatase 1 (PP1). PP1 also associates with NCX1; however, the molecular basis of this association is unknown. In this study, we aimed to analyze the mechanisms of PP1 targeting to the NCX1-pSer-68-PLM complex and hypothesized that a direct and functional NCX1-PP1 interaction is a prerequisite for pSer-68-PLM dephosphorylation. Using a variety of molecular techniques, we show that PP1 catalytic subunit (PP1c) co-localized, co-fractionated, and co-immunoprecipitated with NCX1 in rat cardiomyocytes, left ventricle lysates, and HEK293 cells. Bioinformatic analysis, immunoprecipitations, mutagenesis, pulldown experiments, and peptide arrays constrained PP1c anchoring to the K(I/V)FF motif in the first Ca(2+) binding domain (CBD) 1 in NCX1. This binding site is also partially in agreement with the extended PP1-binding motif K(V/I)FF-X5-8Φ1Φ2-X8-9-R. The cytosolic loop of NCX1, containing the K(I/V)FF motif, had no effect on PP1 activity in an in vitro assay. Dephosphorylation of pSer-68-PLM in HEK293 cells was not observed when NCX1 was absent, when the K(I/V)FF motif was mutated, or when the PLM- and PP1c-binding sites were separated (mimicking calpain cleavage of NCX1). Co-expression of PLM and NCX1 inhibited NCX1 current (both modes). Moreover, co-expression of PLM with NCX1(F407P) (mutated K(I/V)FF motif) resulted in the current being completely abolished. In conclusion, NCX1 is a substrate-specifying PP1c regulator protein, indirectly regulating NCX1 activity through pSer-68-PLM dephosphorylation.

  3. The effectiveness of various chelates used alone or in combination with sodium hypochlorite in the removal of calcium hydroxide from root canals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emel Uzunoglu


    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the effectiveness of various chelates used alone or in combination with sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl in the removal of calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH2 from root canals. Materials and Methods: The root canals of 72 mandibular incisors were prepared up to the ProTaper F2 file. Among these, six randomly selected teeth were used as negative and positive controls, while the root canals of the remaining 66 were filled with Ca(OH2 paste for 1 week. Then, the experimental group specimens were divided into six groups (n = 11. The access cavities were reopened and the Ca(OH2 paste in each group was removed using the following solutions: 2.5 mL ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA; Group 1, 2.5 mL peracetic acid (PAA; Group 2, 2.5 mL QMix (Group 3, 2.5 mL NaOCl/2.5 mL EDTA (Group 4, 2.5 mL NaOCl/2.5 mL PAA (Group 5, and 2.5 mL NaOCl/2.5 mL QMix (Group 6. Digital photographs of longitudinally split specimens were imported into image analyzer software, and the amount of residual Ca (OH 2 was recorded as a percentage of the overall canal surface area. The results were analyzed using Kruskal–Wallis and Conover–Dunn tests. Results: The canal walls in the positive control group were completely covered with Ca(OH 2 compared with those in the negative control group. The lowest Ca(OH2 removal efficiency was observed for Group 4 (P < 0.001, while Group 6 showed favorable results (P < 0.05. Conclusions: QMix combined with NaOCl can remove Ca(OH2 from root canals as effectively as 17% EDTA and 1% PAA. The type and sequence of irrigants are more important than the total irrigant volume for effective Ca(OH 2 removal.

  4. Study of mechanical properties of calcium phosphate cement with addition of sodium alginate and dispersant; Estudo das propriedades mecanicas de cimento de fosfato de calcio com adicao de alginato de sodio e defloculante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, J.M.; Coelho, W.T.; Thurmer, M.B.; Vieira, P.S.; Santos, L.A., E-mail: [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRS), RS (Brazil)


    Several studies in literature have shown that the addition of polymer additives and deflocculant has a strong influence on the mechanical properties of cements in general.The low mechanical strength is the main impediment to wider use of bone cement of calcium phosphate (CFCs) as the implant material, since they have mechanical strength which equals the maximum of trabecular bone.In order to evaluate the strength of a CFC compound alpha-tricalcium phosphate, sodium alginate were added (1%, 2% and 3% by weight) and dispersant ammonium polyacrylate (3%) in aqueous solution.Specimens were made and evaluated for density, porosity, crystalline phases and mechanical strength.The results show the increase of the mechanical properties of cement when added sodium alginate and dispersant. (author)

  5. 碳酸钠焙烧铝系钒铁炉渣共提取钒与铝%Recovery of Vanadium and Aluminum in Ferrovanadium Slag from Thermite Method by Sodium Carbonate-roasting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高明磊; 陈东辉; 石立新; 李兰杰; 周冰晶; 祁健


    通过对铝系钒铁炉渣碳酸钠焙烧-水浸全过程的矿物分析、热力学计算及对比实验,研究了炉渣中钒、铝同步转化、溶出的机理与规律.结果显示,焙烧进程中渣中镁铝尖晶石MgO·Al2O3相、CaO·2Al2O3相逐渐消失,MgO相生成,并生成碱熔相Na2O·Al2O3和钒酸盐.随焙烧温度及时间增加,Na2O·Al2O3和钒酸盐相明显增多,钒、铝溶出率增加.焙烧熟料经水浸后,液相呈碱性,钒、铝分别以可溶性钒酸钠和铝酸钠的形式进入水相,固相残留物为少量未反应的镁铝尖晶石及新生成的MgO和Ca(OH)2.在磨矿粒度<75μm、配碱系数1.0、焙烧温度1 000℃及焙烧时间4h的优化条件下,钒的溶出率可达90%,铝的溶出率可达75%.%By mineralogical analysis, thermodynamic calculation, and comparative experiments, the synchronous conversion of vanadium and aluminum was studied, and dissolving mechanism in the process of sodium carbonate roasting and water leaching on ferrovanadium slag. The results showed that magnesia-alumina spinel (MgO-Al2O3) and CaO-2Al2O3 phases gradually disappeared, and MgO phase, alkali melting phase of Na2O-Al2O3 and phase vanadate were generated in the roasting process. Na2O-Al2O3 and vanadate phases increased obviously with the increase of roasting temperature and time, resulting in the dissolution increase of vanadium and aluminum. Vanadium and aluminum, in vanadate and sodium aluminate, could be dissolved into water solution, as the solution was alkaline when the clinker was leached by water. The solid residues were a small amount of unreacted magnesia-alumina spinel and new generated MgO and Ca(OH)2. The optimum roasting conditions were obtained as follows: grinding particle size below 75 μm, molar ratio of Al2O3 and V2O5 to Na2CO3 1:1, roasting temperature 1000 ℃and roasting time 4 h. Under these conditions, the leaching rates of vanadium and aluminum were up to 90% and 75%, respectively.

  6. Calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions with fractionation and unidentified nuclear effects (FUN CAIs): II. Heterogeneities of magnesium isotopes and 26Al in the early Solar System inferred from in situ high-precision magnesium-isotope measurements (United States)

    Park, Changkun; Nagashima, Kazuhide; Krot, Alexander N.; Huss, Gary R.; Davis, Andrew M.; Bizzarro, Martin


    Calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions with isotopic mass fractionation effects and unidentified nuclear isotopic anomalies (FUN CAIs) have been studied for more than 40 years, but their origins remain enigmatic. Here we report in situ high precision measurements of aluminum-magnesium isotope systematics of FUN CAIs by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). Individual minerals were analyzed in six FUN CAIs from the oxidized CV3 carbonaceous chondrites Axtell (compact Type A CAI Axtell 2271) and Allende (Type B CAIs C1 and EK1-4-1, and forsterite-bearing Type B CAIs BG82DH8, CG-14, and TE). Most of these CAIs show evidence for excess 26Mg due to the decay of 26Al. The inferred initial 26Al/27Al ratios [(26Al/27Al)0] and the initial magnesium isotopic compositions (δ26Mg0) calculated using an exponential law with an exponent β of 0.5128 are (3.1 ± 1.6) × 10-6 and 0.60 ± 0.10‰ (Axtell 2271), (3.7 ± 1.5) × 10-6 and -0.20 ± 0.05‰ (BG82DH8), (2.2 ± 1.1) × 10-6 and -0.18 ± 0.05‰ (C1), (2.3 ± 2.4) × 10-5 and -2.23 ± 0.37‰ (EK1-4-1), (1.5 ± 1.1) × 10-5 and -0.42 ± 0.08‰ (CG-14), and (5.3 ± 0.9) × 10-5 and -0.05 ± 0.08‰ (TE) with 2σ uncertainties. We infer that FUN CAIs recorded heterogeneities of magnesium isotopes and 26Al in the CAI-forming region(s). Comparison of 26Al-26Mg systematics, stable isotope (oxygen, magnesium, calcium, and titanium) and trace element studies of FUN and non-FUN igneous CAIs indicates that there is a continuum among these CAI types. Based on these observations and evaporation experiments on CAI-like melts, we propose a generic scenario for the origin of igneous (FUN and non-FUN) CAIs: (i) condensation of isotopically normal solids in an 16O-rich gas of approximately solar composition; (ii) formation of CAI precursors by aggregation of these solids together with variable abundances of isotopically anomalous grains-possible carriers of unidentified nuclear (UN) effects; and (iii) melt evaporation of these precursors

  7. The effect of a high-protein, high-sodium diet on calcium and bone metabolism in postmenopausal women stratified by hormone replacement therapy use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrington, M.; Bennett, T.; Jakobsen, Jette;


    randomly assigned to a diet high in protein ( 90 g/day) and sodium (180 mmol/day) ( calciuric diet) or a diet moderate in protein ( 70 g/day) and low in sodium ( 65 mmol/day) for 4 weeks followed by crossover to alternative dietary regimen for a further 4 weeks. The calciuric diet significantly (P......The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of a high-sodium, high-protein diet on bone metabolism in postmenopausal women ( aged 49 - 60 y) stratified by hormone replacement therapy (HRT) use. In a crossover trial, 18 women (n = 8 HRT users (+HRT) and n = 10 nonusers (-HRT)) were...

  8. Formation of calcium complexes by borogluconate in vitro and during calcium borogluconate infusion in sheep. (United States)

    Farningham, D A


    The effect of borogluconate on plasma calcium fractions was studied in vitro and in vivo in sheep. In vitro calcium chloride was more effective in raising ionised plasma calcium than calcium borogluconate. Sodium borate or gluconate added to blood caused only small decreases in blood ionised calcium. However, together, a synergistic reduction in ionised calcium was observed. Following calcium borogluconate infusions into sheep, total plasma calcium rose primarily because of an increase in the unionised ultrafiltrable fraction. Other changes observed following the infusion were hypercalciuria, decreased glomerular filtration rate and acidosis. Sodium borogluconate administered subcutaneously lowered total plasma calcium. This probably resulted from enhanced calcium excretion. It is suggested that since the anionic component of calcium solutions alters the availability and retention of calcium, it is likely to affect clinical efficacy significantly.

  9. 湖北某高钙低品位含钒石煤钠化焙烧研究%Sodium Roast and Extraction of Vanadium from Low Grade Stone Coal with High Calcium from Hubei

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩诗华; 张一敏; 包申旭; 胡杨甲


    对湖北某高钙低品位含钒石煤进行了NaCl、Na2SO4和两者复配焙烧及水浸—稀酸浸试验.添加单一NaCl焙烧时,过多的游离氧化钙容易与钒结合生成不溶于水的钒酸钙,影响钒的水浸率;添加单一Na2SO4焙烧时,虽然可以固定钙离子,但Na2SO4用量过大,经济和环境成本较高;当NaCl和Na2SO4添加量分别为7%和16%,焙烧温度为850℃,焙烧时间为3h,水浸率可提高到51.47%,总浸率可达79.81%.在复合添加剂用量较低情况下取得了较好的浸出效果,一方面源于Na2SO4对较高含量钙离子的固定作用,抑制了难溶性钒酸钙的形成;另一方面,NaCl焙烧生成了氧化性较强的气体HCl、Cl2,既有助于破坏云母晶格结构,又有助于钒的氧化转价.%Sodium roast using NaCl,Na2 SO4 and compound of both as roasting additives was studied in vanadium extraction from low grade stone coal with high calcium from Hubei Province. On the condition of roasting with sodium chloride,the water leaching rate of vanadium was affected because of too much free calcium oxide in the raw ore,which inclines to combine with vanadium,producing water-insoluble calcium vanadate. On the condition of roasting with sodium sulfate,even though it can fix calcium,the dosage of sodium sulfate was too large,and economic costs and environmental costs were very high. When roasting with the mixture of 7% NaCl and 16% Na2SO4 at the conditions of roasting temperature of 850 ℃ and roasting time of 3 h,the water leaching rate increased to 51.47% ,and the total leaching rate of vanadium could reach 79. 81%. The leaching results were good at small dosage of roasting compound additives. On one hand,roasting with Na2 SO4 can fix calcium,so as to inhibit the formation of water-insoluble calcium vanadate. On the other hand,the strong oxidizing atmosphere of HC1 and Cl2 produced by adding NaCl can strengthen the destruction of the crystal structure of mica and promote the oxidation

  10. Determination of calcium carbonate and sodium carbonate melting curves up to Earth's transition zone pressures with implications for the deep carbon cycle (United States)

    Li, Zeyu; Li, Jie; Lange, Rebecca; Liu, Jiachao; Militzer, Burkhard


    Melting of carbonated eclogite or peridotite in the mantle influences the Earth's deep volatile cycles and bears on the long-term evolution of the atmosphere. Existing data on the melting curves of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) and sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) are limited to 7 GPa and therefore do not allow a full understanding of carbon storage and cycling in deep Earth. We determined the melting curves of CaCO3 and Na2CO3 to the pressures of Earth's transition zone using a multi-anvil apparatus. Melting was detected in situ by monitoring a steep and large increase in ionic conductivity, or inferred from sunken platinum markers in recovered samples. The melting point of CaCO3 rises from 1870 K at 3 GPa to ∼2000 K at 6 GPa and then stays within 50 K of 2000 K between 6 and 21 GPa. In contrast, the melting point of Na2CO3 increases continuously from ∼1123 K at 3 GPa to ∼1950 K at 17 GPa. A pre-melting peak in the alternating current through solid CaCO3 is attributed to the transition from aragonite to calcite V. Accordingly the calcite V-aragonite-liquid invariant point is placed at 13 ± 1 GPa and 1970 ± 40 K, with the Clapeyron slope of the calcite V to aragonite transition constrained at ∼70 K/GPa. The experiments on CaCO3 suggest a slight decrease in the melting temperature from 8 to 13 GPa, followed by a slight increase from 14 to 21 GPa. The negative melting slope is consistent with the prediction from our ab initio simulations that the liquid may be more compressible and become denser than calcite V at sufficiently high pressure. The positive melting slope at higher pressures is supported by the ab initio prediction that aragonite is denser than the liquid at pressures up to 30 GPa. At transition zone pressures the melting points of CaCO3 are comparable to that of Na2CO3 but nearly 400 K and 500 K lower than that of MgCO3. The fusible nature of compressed CaCO3 may be partially responsible for the majority of carbonatitic melts found on Earth's surface

  11. Simultaneous Determination of Diatomite in Silicon, Aluminum, Iron, Calcium and Magnesium by ICP-OES Method%ICP-OES法同时测定硅藻土中硅、铝、铁、钙、镁

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张立新; 孙有娥


    A method for the simultaneous determination of diatomite in silicon, aluminum, iron, calcium and magnesium was studied by plasma atomic emission spectroscopy method. The samples were pre-treated with microwave digestion with ICP determination and resulted in terms of oxide. The results showed that 5 elements had a good linear correlation coefficient ( r) of 0. 999 or more, precision ( RSD) was less than 2%, recoveries were between 96% and 106%. The method is stable and reliable, simple operation, small reagent consumption.%研究利用等离子体原子发射光谱同时测定硅藻土中硅、铝、铁、钙、镁五种元素的方法。样品经微波消解前处理后,用ICP测定,结果再换算成氧化物。结果显示:5种元素的线性好,相关系数均( r)为0.999以上;精密度( RSD)小于2%;回收率在96%~106%之间。该方法稳定可靠、操作简单、试剂消耗量小。

  12. Aluminum modulates effects of beta amyloid(1-42) on neuronal calcium homeostasis and mitochondria functioning and is altered in a triple transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease. (United States)

    Drago, Denise; Cavaliere, Alessandra; Mascetra, Nicola; Ciavardelli, Domenico; di Ilio, Carmine; Zatta, Paolo; Sensi, Stefano L


    Recent findings suggest that beta-amyloid (A beta) is more neurotoxic when present in its oligomeric configuration rather than as monomers or fibrils. Previous work from our laboratories has shown that A beta aggregation is strongly influenced by the conjugation of the peptide with metal ions (aluminum A, copper [Cu], zinc [Zn], and iron [Fe]) that are found in high concentrations in the core of senile plaques. Disruption of Ca++ signaling and mitochondrial dysfunction are potent triggers of neuronal death and have been implicated in the neuronal loss that is associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this study, we explored whether A beta-metal complexes can have detrimental effects on intraneuronal Ca++ ([Ca++]i) homeostasis and mitochondrial function in vitro. Results from our experiments indicate that, when conjugated with Al, A beta perturbs neuronal [Ca++]i homeostasis and inhibits mitochondrial respiration. Finally, we analyzed the content of the four metals in the brain of a triple transgenic animal model of AD and found that Al is the only one to be increased in the cortex of these mice.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅丽英; 李泱; 夏国瑾; 姚伟星; 江明性


    目的研究4-氨基吡啶(4-AP)对心肌细胞L型钙通道和钠通道的影响。方法用全细胞膜片钳技术考察4-AP对豚鼠心室肌细胞L型钙电流和钠电流的作用。结果 4-AP 0.1, 0.5, 1.0 mmol*L-1浓度依赖性地抑制L型钙电流(ICa,L)和钠电流(INa),抑制率分别为(11.6±1.7)%,(37.5±8.3)%和(54.5±6.9)%以及(22.1±14.3)%,(39.4±8.8)%和(62.3±6.8)%。0.5 mmol*L-1 4-AP使ICa,L和INa I-V曲线均上移。结论 4-AP可浓度依赖性地阻滞豚鼠心室肌细胞L型钙通道和钠通道。%AIM To investigate the effect of 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) on ion channels of myocytes. METHODS L-type calcium channel and sodium channel currents were recorded in guinea pig single ventricular myocyte using whole-cell patch-clamp techniques. RESULTS 4-AP, 0.1, 0.5 and 1.0 mmol*L-1 were shown to inhibit L-type calcium channel currents (ICa,L) and sodium channel currents (INa) concentration-dependently. The percentage of inhibition were (11.6±1.7)%, (37.5±8.3)% and (54.5±6.9)% (P<0.01) respectively for ICa,L, and (22.1±14.3)% (P<0.05), (39.4±8.8)% and (62.3±6.8)% (P<0.01) respectively for INa. 4-AP 0.5 mmol*L-1 shifted the I-V curves of ICa,L and INa upwardly. CONCLUSION 4-AP blocked L-type calcium channel and sodium channels in guinea-pig ventricular myocytes concentration-dependently.

  14. 钙基及钠基膨润土涂膜对芒果保鲜效果的研究%Fresh-Keeping Effect of Coating with Calcium Bentonite or Sodium Bentonite on Mango at Ambient Temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘琨; 王雪玲; 陈勇


    "Guiqi" mangoes were coated with calcium bentonite or sodium bentonite and stored at ambient temperature(28–33 ℃).Physicochemical and physiological indexes were measured during the storage,including decay index,weight loss rate,respiration intensity,soluble sugar content,titritable acidity,soluble solids,membrane permeability,protopectin and soluble pectin.The results show both calcium bentonite and sodium bentonite could significantly decrease decay index and water loss,restrain the appearance of peak values of respiration intensity,soluble sugar content and soluble solids content,retard the decrease of titritable acidity,slow down the degradation speed of pectin,and maintain cell membrane functionality well.Furthermore,sodium bentonite was more effective in preserving mango than calcium bentonite.%以桂七芒果为试验材料,用钙基及钠基膨润土进行涂膜处理后在室温下(28~33℃)贮藏,对贮藏过程中发病指数、质量损失率、呼吸强度、可溶糖、可滴定酸、可溶性固形物、细胞膜透性、原果胶等物理、化学及生理指标进行测定。结果表明:经涂膜后可以明显降低芒果发病情况和失水率,抑制呼吸强度、可溶糖和可溶性固形物高峰的出现,降低了可滴定酸的下降程度,延缓了果胶的降解速度,较好的保持了细胞膜的功能活性。钠基膨润土涂膜处理的保鲜效果好于钙基膨润土。

  15. Co-Localization of Sodium Channel Na[v]1.6 and the Sodium--Calcium Exchanger at Sites of Axonal Injury in the Spinal Cord in EAE (United States)

    Craner, Matthew J.; Hains, Bryan C.; Lo, Albert C.; Black, Joel A.; Waxman, Stephen G.


    Axonal degeneration contributes to the development of non-remitting neurological deficits and disability in multiple sclerosis, but the molecular mechanisms that underlie axonal loss in multiple sclerosis are not clearly understood. Studies of white matter axonal injury have demonstrated that voltage-gated sodium channels can provide a route for…

  16. Simultaneous determination of free calcium, magnesium, sodium and potassium ion concentrations in simulated milk ultrafiltrate and reconstituted skim milk using the Donnan Membrane Technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gao, R.; Temminghoff, E.J.M.; Leeuwen, van H.P.; Valenberg, van H.J.F.; Eisner, M.D.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.


    This study focused on determination of free Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+ and K+ concentrations in a series of CaCl2 solutions, simulated milk ultrafiltrate and reconstituted skim milk using a recently developed Donnan Membrane Technique (DMT). A calcium ion selective electrode was used to compare the DMT results

  17. Prostaglandin E2 release from dermis regulates sodium permeability of frog skin epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rytved, Klaus A.; Brodin, Birger; Nielsen, Robert


    Arachidonic acid, cAMP, epithelium, frog skin, intracellular calcium, prostaglandin E*U2, sodium transport, tight epithelium.......Arachidonic acid, cAMP, epithelium, frog skin, intracellular calcium, prostaglandin E*U2, sodium transport, tight epithelium....

  18. Identification of mutations in SLC24A4, encoding a potassium-dependent sodium/calcium exchanger, as a cause of amelogenesis imperfecta. (United States)

    Parry, David A; Poulter, James A; Logan, Clare V; Brookes, Steven J; Jafri, Hussain; Ferguson, Christopher H; Anwari, Babra M; Rashid, Yasmin; Zhao, Haiqing; Johnson, Colin A; Inglehearn, Chris F; Mighell, Alan J


    A combination of autozygosity mapping and exome sequencing identified a null mutation in SLC24A4 in a family with hypomineralized amelogenesis imperfect a (AI), a condition in which tooth enamel formation fails. SLC24A4 encodes a calcium transporter upregulated in ameloblasts during the maturation stage of amelogenesis. Screening of further AI families identified a missense mutation in the ion-binding site of SLC24A4 expected to severely diminish or abolish the ion transport function of the protein. Furthermore, examination of previously generated Slc24a4 null mice identified a severe defect in tooth enamel that reflects impaired amelogenesis. These findings support a key role for SLC24A4 in calcium transport during enamel formation.

  19. Influence of sodium, calcium, magnesium, and ammonium in the sorption of cadmium in a zeolite rock; Influencia del sodio, calcio, magnesio y amonio en la sorcion de cadmio en una roca zeolitica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teutli S, E.A


    The cadmium is one of the more toxic heavy metals and the water pollution by this metal, is originated by industries whose turn is the production of batteries, electroplating processes, the production of pigments and in the refinement process of others metals. The objective of this work was to evaluate the ion exchange of cadmium using natural zeolite, obtained from the Arroyo zone, La Haciendita Municipality, in the State of Chihuahua. The parameters considered in this investigation were: the sorption time, the pH, the initial concentration of cadmium and the influence of sodium, calcium, magnesium and ammonium on the sorption of cadmium in the natural zeolite. Also, the theoretical pattern for kinetics and isotherm that better it is adjusted to those experimental results it was determined. The experimentation results allowed to establish the following conclusions: the sorption of the cadmium doesn't depend on the pH in an interval between 4 and 6; the pattern that better it describes the kinetics it is that of Pseudo-second order of Ho and Mc Kay; the Langmuir-Freundlich pattern is the one that better it describes the sorption isotherm and the calcium is the component that interferes in an important manner in the sorption of cadmium. The carried out investigation contributes to the definition of some of the parameters that should be considered in the development of ion exchangers for the cadmium removal. (Author)

  20. Hyperosmolar sodium chloride is toxic to cultured neurons and causes reduction of glucose metabolism and ATP levels, an increase in glutamate uptake, and a reduction in cytosolic calcium. (United States)

    Morland, Cecilie; Pettersen, Mi Nguyen; Hassel, Bjørnar


    Elevation of serum sodium, hypernatremia, which may occur during dehydration or treatment with sodium chloride, may cause brain dysfunction and damage, but toxic mechanisms are poorly understood. We found that exposure to excess NaCl, 10-100mmol/L, for 20h caused cell death in cultured cerebellar granule cells (neurons). Toxicity was due to Na(+), since substituting excess Na(+) with choline reduced cell death to control levels, whereas gluconate instead of excess Cl(-) did not. Prior to cell death from hyperosmolar NaCl, glucose consumption and lactate formation were reduced, and intracellular aspartate levels were elevated, consistent with reduced glycolysis or glucose uptake. Concomitantly, the level of ATP became reduced. Pyruvate, 10mmol/L, reduced NaCl-induced cell death. The extracellular levels of glutamate, taurine, and GABA were concentration-dependently reduced by excess NaCl; high-affinity glutamate uptake increased. High extracellular [Na(+)] caused reduction in intracellular free [Ca(2+)], but a similar effect was seen with mannitol, which was not neurotoxic. We suggest that inhibition of glucose metabolism with ensuing loss of ATP is a neurotoxic mechanism of hyperosmolar sodium, whereas increased uptake of extracellular neuroactive amino acids and reduced intracellular [Ca(2+)] may, if they occur in vivo, contribute to the cerebral dysfunction and delirium described in hypernatremia.

  1. Aluminum alloy (United States)

    Blackburn, Linda B. (Inventor); Starke, Edgar A., Jr. (Inventor)


    This invention relates to aluminum alloys, particularly to aluminum-copper-lithium alloys containing at least about 0.1 percent by weight of indium as an essential component, which are suitable for applications in aircraft and aerospace vehicles. At least about 0.1 percent by weight of indium is added as an essential component to an alloy which precipitates a T1 phase (Al2CuLi). This addition enhances the nucleation of the precipitate T1 phase, producing a microstructure which provides excellent strength as indicated by Rockwell hardness values and confirmed by standard tensile tests.

  2. 乳酸钙部分替代氯化钠对西式盐水火腿感官品质的影响%Effect of calcium lactate as sodium chloride substitute on the quality of cooked ham

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐雯雅; 刘登勇; 周光宏; 徐幸莲


    Calcium lactate was selected to replace part of NaCl in cooked ham.A series of substitution ratios such as 5%,10%,15% and 20% according to mass based on 2% total sodium were investigated.Effect of calcium lactate as NaCl substitution at various ratios on color,texture,sensory evaluation and water content in cooked pork ham were studied.Results indicated that calcium lactate resulted in a significant increase in brightness,redness,yellowness and hardness of cooked ham.However,excessive calcium lactate would result in a negative effect on springiness,cohesiveness,gumminess,chewiness,resilience and sensory quality of cooked pork ham.The optimal substitution ratio was 10%.%在西式盐水火腿加工中应用乳酸钙部分替代氯化钠,在氯化钠使用总量2%的前提下,按照氯化钠质量的5%、10%、15%、20%设计乳酸钙的替代比,单因素实验观察不同替代比对切片西式盐水火腿色差、质构、水分含量和感官指标的影响。结果发现,适量使用乳酸钙可以显著提高西式盐水火腿的亮度L*值、红度a*值、黄度b*值和硬度;但是当替代比过大时对产品的弹性、内聚性、胶着性、咀嚼性有一定负面影响;适当的使用乳酸钙替代氯化钠对产品感官品质有积极影响,适宜的替代比为10%左右。

  3. Preliminary Study on a Novel Process for Manufacturing Soda Ash from Sodium Sulfate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王天贵; 李佐虎


    The purpose of this work is to find a new way for utilizing the rich sodium sulfate resource to produce soda ash. A novel process is proposed which uses aqueous dichromate solution as working medium through decomposition of calcium carbonate in aqueous sodium dichromate, complex decomposition of aqueous sodium sulfate and calcium chromate, regeneration of sodium dichromate and production of sodium bicarbonate from carbonation of aqueous sodium chromate solution, processing and utilization of byproduct calcium sulfate, and production of sodium carbonate from sodium bicarbonate. The process has the features of less corrosion and pollution and low energy consumption.

  4. Determination of Calcium Chloride in Compound Sodium Chloride Injection by Atomic Absorption Spectrometry%原子吸收光谱法测定复方氯化钠注射液中氯化钙含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    童永鑫; 何宇新


    A method was established to determine the content of calcium chloride in compound sodium chloride injection .By atom-ic absorption spectrometry , the content of calcium chloride in compound sodium chloride injection was determined under the condition as follows:detection wavelength was 422.7 nm,the flame tape was air/acetylene(13.5∶2.0),the lamp current was 10 mA,slit width was 0.5 nm.Good linear relationship of concentration and absorption of Ca 2+was within the range of 1μg/mL-9μg/mL, the recovery rate range from 98.42%to 100.93%, detectability was 0.008206μg/mL,the RSD between results obtained from official method and ones obtained from comparative method is 1.21%.This method has good specificity, stability, reproducibility, and is accurate for de-tecting the content of Ca 2+,and can be supplementary method to official one .The concentration of calcium chloride in compound sodi-um chloride injection is between 0.0329296%g/mL and 0.0340398%g/mL, which meets the required quality standards .%目的:建立原子吸收光谱法测定复方氯化钠注射液氯化钙含量的方法。方法:采用火焰原子吸收光谱法测定复方氯化钠注射液氯化钙的含量,检测波长为422.7 nm;燃气类型为空气-乙炔,燃气比为空气体积︰乙炔体积=13.5∶2;灯电流:10 mA;狭缝宽度:0.5 nm。结果:Ca2+浓度在1~9μg/mL之间,与对应吸光度值呈良好的线性关系,回收率在98.42%~100.93%,检测限为0.008206μg/mL,与药典方法含量检测结果之间的RSD值为1.21%。结论:该方法进行复方氯化钠注射液Ca2+含量的测定专属性好,精密度高,稳定性强,重复性好,可作为药典补充方法。复方氯化钠注射液CaCl2·2H2 O质量浓度测定结果为0.0329296%~0.0340398% g/mL,符合质量标准要求。

  5. Determination of the physiological plasmatic values of sodium, potassium and ion calcium and its pre and post exercise Variations in “paso fino” horses in the bogota savannah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Valdés Restrepo


    Full Text Available This research intends to be a contribution to the Colombian sports equine medicine by providing data on electrolytes standards, a field where there is a substantial lack of literature. This research analyze and determines the normal values of sodium (Na+,potassium (K+ and ion calcium (iCa2+ electrolytes for Colombian Paso Fine horses. The establishment of the reference intervals was done at rest and after exercise. To achieve this, blood samples were taken from farms located in the Bogotá savannah. The 115 mares and stallions used for this study were actively competing with ages ranging from 43 to 78 months old. The samples were taken at three intervals: T0 (Rest,T1 (immediately after 45 minutes of exercise, and T2(1 hour post exercise. The samples were processed using a portable blood analyzer i-STAT® and the data was interpreted using descriptive and comparative statistic according to Turkey tests. The normal values for the breed were established and an electrolytic behavior curve was created, using values inside interval sat 95% confidence levels. The values obtained inmEq/L were: for T0: Na+ (136,71+/-0,23, K+ (4,05+/-0,03, Ca2+ (1,58+/-0,006; for T1: Na+ (136,44+/-0,24, K+ (3,92+/-0,24, Ca2+ (1,42+/-0,008; and for T2: Na+ (137,32+/-0,23, K+ (3,68+/-0,03, Ca2+(1,51+/-0,009. Na+ values increased after exercise. On the contrary K+ and Ca2+ values didn’t increase inT1. Calcium increased on T2 and K+ decreased. The findings of this research will serve as a framework for future analysis. Moreover, further studies and developments in this field are recommended and will prove to be very useful for equine practitioners.

  6. Sodium (Salt or Sodium Chloride) (United States)

    ... Some food companies have already been working to reduce sodium in many of their products. Learn more and ... sodium with these printable and sharable infographics. The Salty Six – Common Foods that Add the Most Sodium ...

  7. 长期摄入不同钙化合物对大鼠铝、铅吸收及大脑、骨骼蓄积的影响%Effects of long-term ingestion of different calcium compounds on the absorption of aluminum and lead and their accumulation in rat brain and bone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王劲; 柳启沛; 黄宗枝


    目的:探讨不同钙化合物对大鼠铝、铅代谢的影响. 方法:将幼年 Sprague-Dawley大鼠 30只(雌雄性各半),分成柠檬酸钙+铝+铅组、醋酸钙+铝+铅组和碳酸钙+铝+铅组等 3组.各组动物分别用不同形式的钙化合物通过灌胃给予等剂量钙元素,共 4周.实验结束后,用电感耦合等离子体原子发射光谱法( ICP-AES)分别测定全血、肝、肾、股骨和大脑中铝和铅的含量. 结果:醋酸钙组、柠檬酸钙组和碳酸钙组铅的表观吸收率分别为(- 29.97± 28.85)%,(- 86.20± 87.60)%和(- 163.56± 93.77)%;大脑中铝浓度分别为( 3.84± 1.49),( 3.67± 1.31)和( 0.83± 1.61) μ g/g.大鼠摄入醋酸钙和柠檬酸钙后对铅的表观吸收率要高于碳酸钙组的大鼠( F=- 23.744,7.802,P< 0.05).摄入柠檬酸钙和醋酸钙的大鼠的大脑和骨骼组织中铝和铅水平高于摄入碳酸钙的大鼠 (F=12.411~ 38.333,P< 0.05). 结论:长期摄入柠檬酸钙和醋酸钙有增加铅吸收的危险,并可使铅和铝蓄积在骨骼和大脑.%AIM: To explore the effects of different calcium compounds on aluminum(Al) and lead(Pb) metabolism in rats. METHODS: Thirty young rats(15 male and 15 female),were divided into three groups: Ca-citrate+ Al+ Pb group,Ca-acetate+ Al+ Pb group,and Ca-carbonate+ Al+ Pb group.The rats of each group were given calcium element of the same dosage by gavage of various calcium compounds for four weeks.After the experiment,Al and Pb levels in whole blood,liver,kidney, femur and cerebrum were measured by ICP-AES. RESULTS:In the Ca-acetate+ Al+ Pb group,Ca-citrate+ Al+ Pb group and Ca-carbonate+ Al+ Pb group,the apparent absorptivity of Pb(- 29.97± 28.85)% ,(- 86.20± 87.60)% and(- 163.56± 93.77)%; concentration of Al in cerebrum: (3.84± 1.49),(3.67± 1.31) and (0.83± 1.61)μ g/g.The absorptivities of Pb in the rats treated with calcium citrate and calcium acetate were higher than those treated with calcium carbonate.The aluminum and lead

  8. 钠钙交换体在支气管哮喘发病中的作用%The role of sodium-calcium exchanger in the pathogenesis of bronchial asthma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐希; 张畅; 商艳; 李强; 白冲


    Bronchial asthma (asthma) is a prevalent chronic respiratory systemic disease,whose characteristic representation is airway hyperreactivity and airway remodeling,in which airway smooth muscle cells (ASMCs) as major effective cells,play a very important role.Though the relevant controlling pathogenesis is uncertain,a lot of studies found that the homeostatic unbalance of ASMCs cytoplasmic calcium could result in the dysfunction of cellular contraction and relaxation,which have a close relationship with the morbidity of asthma.The sodium-calcium exchanger (NCX) is a Na+-Ca2+ transporting protein in the plasmalemma,play an important role in maintaining ASMCs cytoplasmic calcium homeostasis and cellular structure and function via regulation of intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i).In this review,we will give a summary of the structure,the function and the pathophysiologic significance in the of asthmatic morbidity of NCX.%支气管哮喘(简称哮喘)是一种常见的慢性呼吸系统疾病,特征性表现为气道高反应性和气道重塑,其中气道平滑肌细胞作为主要的效应细胞,发挥了非常重要的作用.尽管相关调控机制尚不清楚,但大量研究表明平滑肌细胞胞浆钙稳态失衡能够导致细胞收缩及舒张功能紊乱,与哮喘发病关系密切.钠钙交换体是一种存在于细胞膜上的Na+-Ca2+转运蛋白,通过调控细胞内钙离子浓度对维持平滑肌细胞钙稳态以及细胞结构与功能具有重要作用.本文就钠钙交换体的结构、功能及其在哮喘发病中的病理生理学意义作一综述.

  9. Inhibition and Promotion of Heat-Induced Gelation of Whey Proteins in the Presence of Calcium by Addition of Sodium Caseinate. (United States)

    Nguyen, Bach T; Balakrishnan, Gireeshkumar; Jacquette, Boris; Nicolai, Taco; Chassenieux, Christophe; Schmitt, Christophe; Bovetto, Lionel


    Heat-induced aggregation and gelation of aqueous solutions of whey protein isolate (WPI) in the presence of sodium caseinate (SC) and CaCl2 was studied at pH 6.6. The effect of adding SC (0-100 g/L) on the structure of the aggregates and the gels was investigated by light scattering and confocal laser scanning microscopy at different CaCl2 concentration ([CaCl2] = 0-30 mM). The gelation process was studied by oscillatory shear rheology. At the whey protein concentrations studied here (34 and 60 g/L), no gels were formed in the absence of CaCl2 and SC. However, WPI solutions gelled above a critical CaCl2 concentration that increased with increasing SC concentration. In the absence of CaCl2, WPI gels were formed only above a critical SC concentration. The critical SC concentration needed to induce WPI gelation decreased weakly when CaCl2 was added. In an intermediate range of CaCl2 concentrations, gels were formed both at low and high SC concentrations, but not at intermediate SC concentrations. Finally, at high CaCl2 concentrations gels were formed at all SC concentrations. The gelation rate and the gel structure of the gels formed at low and high casein concentrations were very different. The effect of SC on the thermal gelation of WPI was interpreted by competition for Ca(2+), a chaperon effect, and microphase separation.

  10. Effects of Tin Oxide on Preparation and Properties of Calcium Aluminate/Magnesium-Aluminum Spinel Composites%氧化锡对铝酸钙/镁铝尖晶石复相材料制备和性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    商恒; 员文杰; 朱青友; 邓承继; 祝洪喜


    With the advantages of their components such as high melting point, low thermal conductivity and good corrosion resistance, calcium aluminate/magnesium-aluminum spinel composites have a very wide application prospect in high temperature industries. Calcium aluminate/magnesium-aluminum spinel composites were prepared at 1300-1600 °C by using light-burned dolomite, alumina and tin oxide as raw materials. Effects of tin oxide on the phase composition, microstructure and properties of calcium aluminate/magnesium-aluminum spinel composites were investigated by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that the mass loss and shrinkage of sintered samples varied due to the sublimation of tin oxide and the decomposition of light-burned dolomite. Tin oxide not only enhanced the formation of calcium hexaluminate and magnesium-aluminum spinel but also made monocalcium aluminate and CaSnO3 involved in composites as a result of the effect of SnO2 on the reaction process. Moreover, the morphology of the phases was changed because of the solution of SnO2 in calcium hexaluminate and magnesium-aluminum spinel. With the increase of SnO2 addition, the apparent porosity of composites ifrstly increased and then decreased. When the SnO2 content was 35%, the composites sintered at 1600℃achieved the highest compressive strength of 240 MPa.%结合组分高熔点、低热导率和抗侵蚀等优点,铝酸钙/镁铝尖晶石复相材料在高温工业中具有十分广泛的应用前景。以轻烧白云石、氧化铝和氧化锡为原料,在1300-1600℃烧结合成铝酸钙/镁铝尖晶石复相材料。利用X射线衍射和扫描电子显微镜等测试方法,研究添加氧化锡对铝酸钙/镁铝尖晶石复相材料的物相组成、显微结构和性能的影响。结果表明:因氧化锡的分解,反应烧结过程中试样的失重和收缩率均有明显相应变化。氧化锡不仅促进六铝酸钙和镁铝尖晶石的形成,同时

  11. Sodium-dependent phosphate uptake in the jejunum is post-transcriptionally regulated in pigs fed a low-phosphorus diet and is independent of dietary calcium concentration. (United States)

    Saddoris, Kari L; Fleet, James C; Radcliffe, John S


    In rodents, severe dietary P restriction increases active phosphate absorption by the intestine. However, it remains unknown if moderate dietary P restriction has a similar effect. Weanling pigs (n = 32; body weight 7.4 +/- 0.55 kg) were used in a 2 x 2 factorial design and fed dietary available P (aP) concentrations of 0.23 or 0.40% and Ca concentrations of 0.58 or 1.00% for 14 d. Diets were formulated on an aP basis instead of a total P basis, because pigs are unable to absorb phytate-P present in corn and soybean meal. Jejunal segments were mounted in modified Ussing chambers for determination of Na(+)-dependent nutrient transport. Intestinal mucosal scrapings were taken for RNA isolation and brush border membrane (BBM) vesicle isolation. Na(+)-dependent phosphate uptake and gene expression of Na-phosphate cotransporter IIb (NaPi-IIb), SGLT-1 (sodium/glucose cotransporter-1), and calbindin D(9k) and protein expression of NaPi-IIb were evaluated. Na(+)-dependent phosphate transport increased (P dietary aP concentration was decreased. However, increased Na(+)-dependent phosphate uptake was not accompanied by increased NaPi-IIb mRNA expression. Expression of NaPi-IIb protein in the BBM increased (P pigs fed low-P diets compared with pigs fed adequate-P diets. No dietary Ca effects or aP x Ca interactions were detected for Na-dependent P uptake, mRNA or protein expression of NaPi-IIb, or mRNA expression of calbindin D(9k). These data suggest that restricting dietary aP concentration by only 43% stimulates Na(+)-dependent phosphate uptake and expression of the NaPi-IIb protein in the BBM of the small intestine and through a post-transcriptional mechanism.

  12. Clinical value study of low molecular heparin sodium for calcium-phosphorus metabolism and blood lipid of hemodialysis patients%探究低分子肝素钠对血液透析患者钙磷代谢及血脂影响的临床价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Objective To explore clinical value of low molecular heparin sodium for calcium-phosphorus metabolism and blood lipid of hemodialysis patients.MethodsChoose 60 cases hemodialysis patients in our hospital from August 2014 to August 2015, and randomly divide them into two groups, 30 cases in control group, 30 in study group, which was treated with common heparin sodium and low molecular heparin sodium injection. Analyze and compare two groups with changes of triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), calcium and phosphorus before treatment, 6 months and one year after treatment.results Before treatment, TG, TC, calcium, phosphorus indexes of two groups patients showed no significant difference (P> 0.05). 6 months after treatment, the above indexes improvement of study group was significantly better than control group, difference between groups showed statistical significant (P0.05)),治疗6个月后,研究组在上述各项质改善情况显著优于对照组,组间数据对比差异明显,(P<0.05)具有统计学意义。结论对血液透析患者采用低分子肝素注射,可有效改善他们钙磷代谢、血脂紊乱的情况,效果安全,值得推广。

  13. Effect of sodium, potassium, magnesium, and calcium salt cations on pH, proteolysis, organic acids, and microbial populations during storage of full-fat Cheddar cheese. (United States)

    McMahon, D J; Oberg, C J; Drake, M A; Farkye, N; Moyes, L V; Arnold, M R; Ganesan, B; Steele, J; Broadbent, J R


    Sodium reduction in cheese can assist in reducing overall dietary Na intake, yet saltiness is an important aspect of cheese flavor. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of partial substitution of Na with K on survival of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and nonstarter LAB (NSLAB), pH, organic acid production, and extent of proteolysis as water-soluble nitrogen (WSN) and protein profiles using urea-PAGE, in Cheddar cheese during 9mo of storage. Seven Cheddar cheeses with molar salt contents equivalent to 1.7% salt but with different ratios of Na, K, Ca, and Mg cations were manufactured as well as a low-salt cheese with 0.7% salt. The 1.7% salt cheeses had a mean composition of 352g of moisture/kg, 259g of protein/kg and 50% fat-on-dry-basis, and 17.5g of salt/kg (measured as Cl(-)). After salting, a faster initial decrease in cheese pH occurred with low salt or K substitution and it remained lower throughout storage. No difference in intact casein levels or percentage WSN levels between the various cheeses was observed, with the percentage WSN increasing from 5% at d 1 to 25% at 9mo. A greater decrease in intact αs1-casein than β-casein was detected, and the ratio of αs1-casein (f121-199) to αs1-casein could be used as an index of ripening. Typical changes in bacteria microflora occurred during storage, with lactococci decreasing gradually and NSLAB increasing. Lowering the Na content, even with K replacement, extended the crossover time when NSLAB became dominant. The crossover time was 4.5mo for the control cheese and was delayed to 5.2, 6.0, 6.1, and 6.2mo for cheeses with 10, 25, 50, and 75% K substitution. Including 10% Mg or Ca, along with 40% K, further increased crossover time, whereas the longest crossover time (7.3mo) was for low-salt cheese. By 9mo, NSLAB levels in all cheeses had increased from initial levels of ≤10(2) to approximately 10(6)cfu/g. Lactococci remained at 10(6) cfu/g in the low-salt cheese even after 9mo of storage. The propionic acid

  14. Mixed cation effect in sodium aluminosilicate glasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Jonas; Smedskjær, Morten Mattrup; Mauro, John C.

    , network structure, and the resistances associated with the deformation processes in mixed cation glasses by partially substituting magnesium for calcium and calcium for lithium in sodium aluminosilicate glasses. We use Raman and 27Al NMR spectroscopies to obtain insights into the structural...

  15. Sodium Oxybate (United States)

    Sodium oxybate is used to prevent attacks of cataplexy (episodes of muscle weakness that begin suddenly and ... urge to sleep during daily activities, and cataplexy). Sodium oxybate is in a class of medications called ...

  16. Sodium Test (United States)

    ... be limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Sodium Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: Na Formal name: Sodium Related tests: Chloride , Bicarbonate , Potassium , Electrolytes , Osmolality , Basic ...

  17. Sodium Phosphate (United States)

    Sodium phosphate is used in adults 18 years of age or older to empty the colon (large intestine, bowel) ... view of the walls of the colon. Sodium phosphate is in a class of medications called saline ...

  18. Hemograma, sódio, potássio, cálcio, osmolalidade e viscosidade durante angiocardiografia pediátrica com ioxaglato Blood cell count, sodium, potassium, calcium, osmolality and viscosity, during pediatric angiocardiography with ioxaglate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Regis Silva Moura


    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Os meios de contraste (MC introduzem alterações em alguns parâmetros sangüíneos, adquirindo, assim, mais importância na angiocardiografia pediátrica. MÉTODOS: Estudamos a presença e a severidade das mudanças no hematócrito, hemoglobina, leucócitos, sódio, potássio, cálcio, osmolalidade e viscosidade, em 35 crianças submetidas a angiocardiografia com ioxaglato, identificando, também, as variáveis independentes responsáveis por essas alterações. As amostras sangüíneas foram colhidas no início do procedimento (S1, no fim (S2 e 2h após (S3. RESULTADOS: Hematócrito: S1= 47,3±6,9%; S2= 40,7±7,4% (pPURPOSE: Children's blood changes during angiocardiography may not be only due to the contrast media (CM. METHODS: We studied the presence and severity of changes in those parameters in 35 pediatric patients undergoing angiocardiography with ioxaglate aiming to identify independent variables responsible for those changes. Blood samples were taken at the beginning of the procedure (S1, at the end (S2 and two hours later (S3. RESULTS: Hematocrit: S1= 47.3±6.9%; S2= 40.7± 7.4% (p<0.001, (related to the CM volume r=0.37, p<0.05. Hemoglobin: S1= 15±2.1g%; S2= 13.2±2.4g% (p<0.001, and S3= 12.7±2.5g% (NS. White blood cell count: S1= 7940±3040 leukocytes/mm³; S2= 6950± 2700/mm³ (NS; S3= 10830±4690 leukocytes/mm³, (p<0.001. Procedure duration (r=0.38, p<0.05 and 5% glucose fluid given between S2 and S3 (r=0.49, p<0.05 were isolated. Sodium: S1= 134.5±0.4mEq/L; S2= 130.7±0.4mEq/L (p<0.001 (due to 5% glucose fluid injected, r=0.61, p<0.01. Potassium: S1= 4.22±0.45mEq/L, S2= 3.83±0.4mEq/L (p<0.001. Calcium: S1= 9.13± 1.03mg%; S2= 8.4±0.91mg/dL. (related to the CM, r=0.43, p<0.01. Osmolality: S1= 293.3±12.5mOsm/kg; S2= 300.6±13.3mOsm/kg (p<0.001. Viscosity: S1= 3.36±0.81; S2= 3.09±0.74 (p<0.01; S3= 3.87±0.89, p<0.001. There was an indirect linear regression with the CM. CONCLUSION: There were profound

  19. Tunable luminescence and white light emission of novel multiphase sodium calcium silicate nanophosphors doped with Ce{sup 3+}, Tb{sup 3+}, and Mn{sup 2+} ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mickens, Matthew A. [Energy and Environmental Systems, North Carolina A and T State University, Greensboro, NC 27411 (United States); Assefa, Zerihun, E-mail: [Department of Chemistry, North Carolina A and T State University, Greensboro, NC 27411 (United States)


    This study reports the sol–gel synthesis of sodium calcium multiphase silicate (SCMS) nanophosphors. X-ray powder diffraction indicated the crystallization of devitrite (Na{sub 2}Ca{sub 3}Si{sub 6}O{sub 16}), wollastonite-2M (CaSiO{sub 3}), and cristobalite (SiO{sub 2}) phases that consistently occurred together upon repeated syntheses. The multiphase silicate system was used as a host matrix for varied concentrations of Ce{sup 3+}, Tb{sup 3+}, and Mn{sup 2+} dopant ions which resulted in tunable photoluminescence. A broad violet/UV emission band of Ce{sup 3+} (350–425 nm) combined with blue-green emissions of Tb{sup 3+} (488 and 545 nm) and a yellow-orange emission of Mn{sup 2+} (560 nm) resulted in the observance of white light (x=0.31, y=0.32, T{sub C}=6624 K) under midwave UV excitation (300–340 nm). Energy transfer from Ce{sup 3+}→Tb{sup 3+} and Ce{sup 3+}→Mn{sup 2+} was confirmed by steady state and time-resolved emission spectra, lifetime, and quantum yield measurements. The structural properties, morphology, and elemental composition of the nanophosphors were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). -- Highlights: • White light-emitting multiphase silicate nanophosphors were prepared for the first time. • Multiple crystalline silicate phases were reproduced consistently by repeated syntheses. • Energy transfer from Ce{sup 3+}→Tb{sup 3+} and Ce{sup 3+}→Mn{sup 2+} was confirmed by PL, lifetime, and QY measurements.

  20. ICP-OES法同时测定燕麦片中的钾、钠、钙、镁、铁、锌%Simultaneous determination of potassium, sodium, calcium, magnesium, iron, zinc in oatmeal with ICP-OES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙丽萍; 张素娟; 梁宝爱


    The determination method of potassium, sodium, calcium, magnesium, iron, zinc in oatmeal was established by the optimization of ICP-AES instruments conditions, with three different digestion methods. The results show that the linear relationship of each element elements is good, the correlation coefficient is above 0.999 9, the relative standard deviation is 1.5%~3.3% and the recovery rate is 82.3%~ 109.4%. The method is operated conveniently, with high accuracy and good precision. The test results of both the method (ICP-OES) and the national standard method are consistent, with no significant difference, and suitable for determination of mineral element in oatmeal.%通过对ICP-OES仪器条件的优化,采用3种不同消解方法,建立了燕麦片中钾、钠、钙、镁、铁、锌各元素的测定方法。试验结果表明,该方法中各元素的线性关系良好,相关系数均在0.9999以上,其相对标准偏差为1.5%~3.3%,回收率为82.3%~109.4%。该方法操作便捷、准确度高、精密度好,与国标方法比较检测结果一致,无显著性差异,适用于燕麦片中矿物质元素的测定。

  1. Calcium supplements (United States)

    ... do not help. Always tell your provider and pharmacist if you are taking extra calcium. Calcium supplements ... 2012:chap 251. The National Osteoporosis Foundation (NOF). Clinician's Guide to prevention and treatment of osteoporosis . National ...

  2. 21 CFR 82.2051 - Lakes (Ext. D&C). (United States)


    ..., titanium dioxide, zinc oxide, talc, rosin, aluminum benzoate, calcium carbonate, or on any combination of... color with the basic radical sodium, potassium, aluminum, barium, calcium, strontium, or zirconium....

  3. 奥扎格雷钠和低分子肝素钙治疗糖尿病下肢动脉疾病的疗效和安全性比较%Comparison of the efficacy and safety under integrated treatment to diabetic patients with peripheral artery disease between ozagrel sodium and low molecular heparin calcium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾雪明; 叶军; 刘宏; 许蕾; 钱泓洁; 方萍; 张杉杉; 汤正义; 宁光


    目的 观察奥扎格雷钠和低分子肝素钙治疗糖尿病下肢动脉疾病的疗效和安全性.方法 64例糖尿病伴下肢严重动脉狭窄的患者,随机分为奥扎格雷钠组和低分子肝素钙治疗组,所有患者在全身情况稳定的基础上,分别接受奥扎格雷钠和低分子肝素钙治疗2周,观察治疗前后腘动脉收缩期峰值血流速度(PSV)和踝肱指数(ABI),安全性评估指标包括活化部分凝血酶时间(APTT)和凝血酶原时间(PT).结果 两组患者治疗前后腘动脉PSV变化值比较差异显著,其中奥扎格雷钠组PSV增加(7.29±8.81)cm/s,低分子肝素钙组PSV增加(13.55±13.11)cm/s,组间差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05);两组治疗前后ABi变化值分别为(0.07±0.07)和(0.08±0.06),组间差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05):但两组患者治疗前后APTT和PT比较差异均无统计学意义.且药物不良反应轻.结论 两种抗凝治疗均能显著改善糖尿病下肢动脉血流,且低分子肝素钙疗效优于奥扎格雷钠.%Objective To evaluate the efficacy and safety of ozagrel sodium and low molecular heparin calcium on integrated treatment to diabetic patients with peripheral artery disease. Methods Diabetic patients with peripheral artery disease were randomly divided into ozagrel sodium group and low molecular heparin calcium group. Under intensive blood glucose control and regular treatment to other complications, ozagrel sodium and low molecular heparin calcium were used for 2 weeks in either group. The peak systolic velocity (PSV) of posterior tibia! Artery and ankle brachial index (ABI) were measured before and at the end of treatment. Activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) and prothrombin (PT) were tested as safe index. Results After 2 weeks treatment with ozagrel sodium and low molecular heparin calcium, PSV of posterior tibial artery were increased in both groups (P<0.05). Compared with low molecular heparin calcium group, increased PSV of ozagrel

  4. Sodium and Food Sources (United States)

    ... Sources Top 10 Sources of Sodium How to Reduce Sodium Sodium Reduction Resources for Everyone Sodium Reduction Fact ... in processed food [PDF-867K] and how to reduce sodium. Sodium Reduction Is Challenging Types of food matter: ...

  5. Sodium in diet (United States)

    Diet - sodium (salt); Hyponatremia - sodium in diet; Hypernatremia - sodium in diet; Heart failure - sodium in diet ... The body uses sodium to control blood pressure and blood volume. Your body also needs sodium for your muscles and nerves to work ...

  6. Preliminary Study on a Novel Process for Manufacturing Soda Ash from Sodium Sulfate%一种新的芒硝制碱法实验室研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王天贵; 李佐虎


    The purpose of this work is to find a new way for utilizing the rich sodium sulfate resource to produce soda ash.A novel process is proposed which uses aqueous dichromate solution as working medium through decomposition of calcium carbonate in aqueous sodium dichromate,complex decomposition of aqueous sodium sulfate and calcium chromate,regeneration of sodium dichromate and production of sodium bicarbonate from carbonation of aqueous sodium chromate solution,processing and utilization of byproduct calcium sulfate,and production of sodium carbonate from sodium bicarbonate.The process has the features of less corrosion and pollution and low energy consumption.

  7. Hidden Sodium

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    In this podcast, learn about reducing sodium intake by knowing what to eat and the main sources of sodium in the diet. It's important for a healthy lifestyle.  Created: 3/4/2013 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 3/4/2013.

  8. 聚丙烯酸钠的合成及其相对分子质量对CaCO3分散性的影响%Synthesis of sodium polyacrylate and the effect of its relative molecular mass on dispersion of calcium carbonate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The author prepared sodium polyacrylate with different relative molecular mass via aqueous solution polymerization in the presence of Na2S2O8 as initiator and NaHSO3 as chain transfer agent by regulating the molar ratio of the initiator to the chain transfer agent. The effect of the relative molecular mass of sodium polyacrylate as dispersing agent on dispersancy of calcium carbonate was studied. The results show that the dispersancy effectiveness of the sodium polyacrylate is closely dependent on its relative molecular mass and is undesirable in the case of too high or too low relative molecular mass. The dispersancy to the calcium carbonate attains its maximum when the viscosity average molecular mass of sodium polyacrylate is in the range of 3 000 to 3 500.%采用水溶液聚合法,以NaSO作引发剂,NaHSO作链转移剂,通过调整引发剂和链转移剂之间的摩尔比制备了具有不同相对分子质量的聚丙烯酸钠.研究了聚丙烯酸钠作为分散剂时,其相对分子质量对CaCO分散性的影响.结果表明:聚丙烯酸钠的分散效果与其相对分子质量有很大关系,相对分子质量过高或过低,分散效果都不理想.当聚丙烯酸钠黏均分子量在3 000-3 500时,对CaCO的分散性最好.

  9. Dietary sodium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graudal, Niels


    The 2013 Institute of Medicine (IOM) report "Sodium Intake in Populations: Assessment of Evidence" did not support the current recommendations of the IOM and the American Heart Association (AHA) to reduce daily dietary sodium intake to below 2,300 mg. The report concluded that the population......-based health outcome evidence was not sufficient to define a safe upper intake level for sodium. Recent studies have extended this conclusion to show that a sodium intake below 2,300 mg/day is associated with increased mortality. In spite of this increasing body of evidence, the AHA, Centers for Disease...... Control (CDC), other public health advisory bodies, and major medical journals have continued to support the current policy of reducing dietary sodium....


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available In municipal solid waste, aluminum is the main nonferrous metal, approximately 80- 85% of the total nonferrous metals. The income per ton gained from aluminum recuperation is 20 times higher than from glass, steel boxes or paper recuperation. The object of this paper is the design of a 300 kN press for aluminum box bundling.

  11. Preparation and characterization of aluminum stearate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lončar Eva S.


    Full Text Available Preparation of aluminum stearate by the precipitation method was examined under various conditions of stearic acid saponification with sodium hydroxide. It was proved that the most favorable ratio of acid/alkali was 1:1.5 and that the obtained soap was very similar to the commercial product. Endothermic effects determined by differential scanning calorimetry and also the other parameters showed that the soaps consisted mono-, di-, tristearates and non-reacted substances, where distearate was the dominant form.

  12. 驼初乳中钾、钙、钠、镁、铜、铁、锌质量浓度的检测%Detection of potassium,calcium,sodium, magnesium,copper,iron,zinc concentration in Xinjiang Bactrian milk Camel colostrum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏薇; 杨洁


    为研究新疆双峰驼驼初乳中钾、钙、钠、镁、铜、铁、锌的质量浓度及其在泌乳期内的变化,采用火焰原子吸收分光光度法进行测定,回收率为92.45%~110.85%之间,相对标准偏差小于5%,说明该法具有良好的准确性和精密度.结果表明,新疆双峰驼驼初乳中钾的质量浓度最为丰富高,其次为钠、钙和镁;检测发现驼初乳中铜、铁、锌质量浓度未达到仪器最佳工作条件下的最低检出限.在泌乳期1~6d内,钙元素和镁元素质量浓度的变化有相关性,差异显著;钠元素和钙元素质量浓度的变化与泌乳天数有相关性,差异显著;钙元素质量浓度的变化与泌乳天数有相关性,差异极显著.与牛乳相比,新疆双峰驼驼初乳中含有相对较高质量浓度的钾、钙、钠、镁的质量浓度较高,饮用驼初乳可作为补充人体所需钾、钙、钠、镁元素的一种有效途径.%The content of potassium,calcium,sodium, magnesium,copper,iron,zinc in Xinjiang Bactrian camel colostrum changes in the lactation period. By flame atomic absorption spectrometry were determined,recovery was between 92.45%~110.85%, the relative standard deviation less than 5%, it showed that the method has good accuracy and precision. The concentrantion of potassium was highest in Xinjiang Bactrian camel colostrum, followed by sodium,calcium and magnesium. The concentrantion of Ccopper, iron, zinc content in camel milk does did not meet the minimum detection limit of the instrument. In lactation 1 ~6 days,calcium and magnesium concentration changes was relevant,significant difference. The concentration changes of sodium,calcium and days of lactation was relevant,significant difference. Compared with bovine milk, the concentration of potassium,calcium,sodium, magnesium are higher in Xinjiang Bactrian camel colostrum. Drinking camel milk is an effective way as a supplement of potassium,calcium,sodium,magnesium elements needed by

  13. Molten Triazolium Chloride Systems as New Aluminum Battery Electrolytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, B.; Bjerrum, Niels; Petrushina, Irina;


    The possibility of using molten mixtures of 1,4-dimethyl-1,2,4-triazolium chloride (DMTC) and aluminum chloride (AlCl3) as secondary battery electrolytes was studied, in some cases extended by the copresence of sodium chloride. DMTC-AlCl, mixtures demonstrated high specific conductivity in a wide...... of milliamperes per square centimeter) was observed at 0.344 V on the acidic sodium tetrachloroaluminate background, involving a free triazolium radical mechanism. Molten DMTC-AlCl3 electrolytes are acceptable for battery performance and both the aluminum anode and the triazolium electrolyte can be used as active...

  14. Sodium - blood (United States)

    ... gland problems such as Cushing syndrome or hyperaldosteronism Diabetes insipidus (type of diabetes in which kidneys are not able to conserve water) Too much salt or sodium bicarbonate in the diet Use of certain medicines, including corticosteroids, laxatives, lithium, ...

  15. Calcium in diet (United States)

    ... D is needed to help your body use calcium. Milk is fortified with vitamin D for this reason. ... of calcium dietary supplements include calcium citrate and calcium carbonate. Calcium citrate is the more expensive form of ...

  16. 钠钾镁钙葡萄糖注射液(乐加)在急诊低血容量性休克液体复苏中的应用研究%The Application of the Emergency Hypovolemic Shock Fluid Resuscitation by Sodium, Potassium, Magnesium Calcium Glucose Injection (Lejia)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    覃双全; 刘笋; 曾宪华; 曾景亭; 张春阳; 贺永明


    Objective To study the emergency hypovolemic shock lfuid resuscitation, sodium, potassium, magnesium, calcium process to give glucose injection methods and results. Methods July 2011 - February 2014 in our hospital emergency department patients with hypovolemic shock were 52 cases of clinical study, patients were randomly divided into two groups. Control group of 26 patients using conventional lfuid resuscitation Ringer's lactate;26 cases of patients in the experimental group, given the sodium, potassium, magnesium, calcium and glucose injection recovery, patients were compared before and after potassium treatment, sodium, calcium, magnesium equivalent; determination 1 h after resuscitation of patients in mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate.Result Patients Experimental group after resuscitation 1 h, the patient's serum sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium blood-related indicators are better than the control group of patients, the statistical analysis, P<0.05, signiifcant difference;patients in the experimental group after recovery 1h, MAP higher heart rate is relatively low, compared with the control group, P<0.05, the difference was statistically signiifcant. Conclusions Patients with hypovolemic shock emergency resuscitation sodium, potassium, magnesium, calcium given glucose injection treatment and better clinical results, helps to maintain a stable internal environment, worthy of promotion.%目的:研究急诊低血容量性休克液体复苏过程中给予钠钾镁钙葡萄糖注射液的方法和效果。方法选择2011年7月至2014年2月我院急诊低血容量性休克患者共52例为临床研究对象,将患者随机分为两组。对照组共26例,使用乳酸林格液常规液体复苏;实验组患者26例,给予钠钾镁钙葡萄糖注射液复苏,观察比较患者治疗前后的血钾、钠、钙、镁等值;测定复苏1h后患者平均动脉压(MAP)和心率。结果实验组患者在复苏1h后,患者的血钠、

  17. Combination of sodium ozagrel, aspirin and low molecular heparin calcium for patients with NSTEACS%奥扎格雷钠联合阿司匹林肠溶片和低分子肝素钙治疗非ST段抬高型急性冠状动脉综合征疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋军; 王平; 李勇; 宋执敬; 付玉英


    目的 探讨奥扎格雷钠联合阿司匹林肠溶片和低分子肝素钙治疗非ST段抬高型急性冠状动脉综合征疗效和安全性.方法 60例非ST段抬高型急性冠状动脉综合征患者完全随机分为2组,每组30例,治疗组给予奥扎格雷钠、阿司匹林肠溶片和低分子肝素钙三联治疗,对照组给予阿司匹林肠溶片和低分子肝素钙二联治疗,观察2组疗效和药物不良反应.结果 治疗组治疗总有效27例(90.0%),较对照组22例(73.3%)高,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);2组患者治疗前、后各项凝血指标及药物他不良反应情况比较,差异无统计学意义(P0.05).结论 奥扎格雷钠、阿司匹林肠溶片和低分子肝素钙三联治疗非ST段抬高型急性冠状动脉综合征疗效较好且安全性良好.%Objective To explore the efficacy and safety of a combination of sodium ozagrel, aspirin and low molecular heparin calcium for patients with NSTEACS. Methods A total of 30 patients received aspirin and low molecular heparin calcium and 30 received aspirin and low molecular heparin plus sodium ozagrel. Results The therapeutic effect in sodium ozagrel group was significandy better than in control group (P<0.05). All blood clotting indexes and adverse reactions showed no significant difference between the two groups (P 0. 05). Conclusion The combination of aspirin and low molecular heparin calcium plus sodium ozagrel showes better outcome and safety for patients with NSTEACS.

  18. 猪场废水灌溉对地下水中钾、钙、钠、镁含量的影响%Influence of Livestock Wastewater Irrigation on Potassium,Calcium,Sodium and Magnesium Contents in Groundwater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵君怡; 张克强; 王风; 刘鸣达


    Three volumes of anaerobic water and the output of three stages of livestock wastewater treatment mixed with groundwater were used as irrigation water three years in the area where maize-wheat rotated.As the monitoring of potassium,calcium,sodium,magnesium concentration in groundwater,the results showed that:(1)The change trends of potassium concentration in groundwater with different volume of anaerobic wastewater was HaMaLa,with the three tragedy of livestock wastewater treatment mixed with groundwater,the tendency of potassium concentration in groundwater was TagTogTeg;(2)The change trends of other three ions concentration in groundwater was LaMaHa with different volume of anaerobic wastewater and TegTogTag with the three stages of livestock wastewater treatment mixed with groundwater.%应用猪场废水处理工程中产出的厌氧水不同灌溉量和3个处理阶段出水与地下水按体积比1∶5混合对冬小麦-夏玉米轮作系统进行3年的小区灌溉试验,监测地下水的总矿化度及钾、钙、钠、镁等含量的变化。结果表明:(1)地下水中钾含量在厌氧水不同灌溉量条件下呈现高量厌氧水(Ha)〉中量厌氧水(Ma)〉低量厌氧水(La)的变化趋势,在混水灌溉处理地下水中钾含量均呈厌氧水与地下水1∶5混合(Tag)〉原水与地下水1∶5混合(Tog)〉仿生态塘水与地下水1∶5混合(Teg)的变化趋势;(2)地下水中钠、钙、镁含量大致呈现低量厌氧水(La)〉中量厌氧水(Ma)〉高量厌氧水(Ha),仿生态塘水与地下水1∶5混合(Teg)〉原水与地下水1∶5混合(Tog)〉厌氧水与地下水1∶5混合(Tag)的变化趋势。

  19. 盐酸浸出赤泥回收铝的研究%Study on Aluminum Recovery from Red Mud with Hydrochloric Acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王克勤; 王皓; 李生虎


    The hydrochloric acid leaching process of aluminum from Bayer red mud was studied. The effects of temperature, time, ratio of liquid to solid (L/S) and concentration of hydrochloric acid on aluminum leaching rate were investigated. The industrial experiment of aluminum recovery from red mud was conducted. The results show that factors affecting the rate of aluminum extraction in sequence are temperature, L/S, hydrochloric acid concentration and leaching time. The leaching rate and recovery rate of aluminum from red mud is 88. 13% and 80. 26% respectively after two-step leached at 80℃, evaporation, de-titanium, de-calcium, neutralization and dissolving with sodium hydroxide solution.%研究了盐酸浸出拜耳法赤泥中铝的过程.考察浸出温度、浸出时间、液固比和酸度对铝浸出率的影响,并进行了赤泥回收铝的工业化试验.结果表明,影响铝浸出率的主次因素依次是浸出温度、液固比、盐酸浓度和浸出时间.赤泥在80℃下进行两段浸出,再经蒸发、除钛、除钙、中和及氢氧化钠溶液溶出,铝浸出率为88.13%,回收率为80.26%.

  20. Calcium Electroporation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Stine Krog; Gibot, Laure; Madi, Moinecha;


    BACKGROUND: Calcium electroporation describes the use of high voltage electric pulses to introduce supraphysiological calcium concentrations into cells. This promising method is currently in clinical trial as an anti-cancer treatment. One very important issue is the relation between tumor cell kill...... efficacy-and normal cell sensitivity. METHODS: Using a 3D spheroid cell culture model we have tested the effect of calcium electroporation and electrochemotherapy using bleomycin on three different human cancer cell lines: a colorectal adenocarcinoma (HT29), a bladder transitional cell carcinoma (SW780......), and a breast adenocarcinoma (MDA-MB231), as well as on primary normal human dermal fibroblasts (HDF-n). RESULTS: The results showed a clear reduction in spheroid size in all three cancer cell spheroids three days after treatment with respectively calcium electroporation (p


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing-shan Kong; Bing-bing Wang; Quan Ji; Yan-zhi Xia; Zhao-xia Guo; Jian Yu


    Calcium alginate fibers were prepared by wet spinning of sodium alginate into a coagulating bath containing calcium chloride. The thermal degradation and flame retardancy of calcium alginate fibers were investigated with thermal gravimetry (TG), X-ray diffraction (XRD), limiting oxygen index (LOI) and cone calorimeter (CONE). The results show that calcium alginate fibers are inherently flame retardant with a LOI value of 34, and the heat release rate (HRR), total heat release (THR), CO and CO_2 concentrations during combustion are much lower compared with those of viscose fibers. Calcium carbonate and calcium oxide were formed during thermal degradation of calcium alginate fibers at different temperatures. The shape of calcium alginate fibers is well kept after LOI test. The rigid combustion residue char acts as an effective barrier to the outward diffusion of flame and heat. The combustion process and flame retardant mechanism of calcium alginate fibers are also discussed.

  2. Aspects of aluminum toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hewitt, C.D.; Savory, J.; Wills, M.R. (Univ. of Virginia Health Sciences Center, Charlottesville (USA))


    Aluminum is the most abundant metal in the earth's crust. The widespread occurrence of aluminum, both in the environment and in foodstuffs, makes it virtually impossible for man to avoid exposure to this metal ion. Attention was first drawn to the potential role of aluminum as a toxic metal over 50 years ago, but was dismissed as a toxic agent as recently as 15 years ago. The accumulation of aluminum, in some patients with chronic renal failure, is associated with the development of toxic phenomena; dialysis encephalopathy, osteomalacic dialysis osteodystrophy, and an anemia. Aluminum accumulation also occurs in patients who are not on dialysis, predominantly infants and children with immature or impaired renal function. Aluminum has also been implicated as a toxic agent in the etiology of Alzheimer's disease, Guamiam amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and parkinsonism-dementia. 119 references.

  3. Aluminum powder metallurgy processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flumerfelt, J.F.


    The objective of this dissertation is to explore the hypothesis that there is a strong linkage between gas atomization processing conditions, as-atomized aluminum powder characteristics, and the consolidation methodology required to make components from aluminum powder. The hypothesis was tested with pure aluminum powders produced by commercial air atomization, commercial inert gas atomization, and gas atomization reaction synthesis (GARS). A comparison of the GARS aluminum powders with the commercial aluminum powders showed the former to exhibit superior powder characteristics. The powders were compared in terms of size and shape, bulk chemistry, surface oxide chemistry and structure, and oxide film thickness. Minimum explosive concentration measurements assessed the dependence of explosibility hazard on surface area, oxide film thickness, and gas atomization processing conditions. The GARS aluminum powders were exposed to different relative humidity levels, demonstrating the effect of atmospheric conditions on post-atomization processing conditions. The GARS aluminum powders were exposed to different relative humidity levels, demonstrating the effect of atmospheric conditions on post-atomization oxidation of aluminum powder. An Al-Ti-Y GARS alloy exposed in ambient air at different temperatures revealed the effect of reactive alloy elements on post-atomization powder oxidation. The pure aluminum powders were consolidated by two different routes, a conventional consolidation process for fabricating aerospace components with aluminum powder and a proposed alternative. The consolidation procedures were compared by evaluating the consolidated microstructures and the corresponding mechanical properties. A low temperature solid state sintering experiment demonstrated that tap densified GARS aluminum powders can form sintering necks between contacting powder particles, unlike the total resistance to sintering of commercial air atomization aluminum powder.

  4. Gel time of calcium acrylate grouting material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Calcium acrylate is a polymerized grout, and can polymerize in an aqueous solution. The polymerization reaction utilizes ammonium persulfate as a catalyst and sodium thiosulfate as the activator. Based on the theory of reaction kinetics, this study on the relation between gel time and concentration of activator and catalyst showed that gel time of calcium acrylate is inversely proportional to activator and catalyst concentration. A formula of gel time is proposed, and an example is provided to verify the proposed formula.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCabe, D; Jeff Pike, J; Bill Wilmarth, B


    formulations. Disposal of the resulting aluminum and chromium-rich streams are different at the two sites, with vitrification into Low Activity Waste (LAW) glass at Hanford, and solidification in Saltstone at SRS. Prior to disposal, the leachate solutions must be treated to remove radionuclides, resulting in increased operating costs and extended facility processing schedules. Interim storage of leachate can also add costs and delay tank closure. Recent projections at Hanford indicate that up to 40,000 metric tons of sodium would be needed to dissolve the aluminum and maintain it in solution, which nearly doubles the amount of sodium in the entire current waste tank inventory. This underscores the dramatic impact that the aluminum leaching can have on the entire system. A comprehensive view of leaching and the downstream impacts must therefore be considered prior to implementation. Many laboratory scale tests for aluminum and chromium dissolution have been run on Hanford wastes, with samples from 46 tanks tested. Three samples from SRS tanks have been tested, out of seven tanks containing high aluminum sludge. One full-scale aluminum dissolution was successfully performed on waste at SRS in 1982, but generated a very large quantity of liquid waste ({approx}3,000,000 gallons). No large-scale tests have been done on Hanford wastes. Although the data to date give a generally positive indication that aluminum dissolution will work, many issues remain, predominantly because of variable waste compositions and changes in process conditions, downstream processing, or storage limitations. Better approaches are needed to deal with the waste volumes and limitations on disposal methods. To develop a better approach requires a more extensive understanding of the kinetics of dissolution, as well as the factors that effect rates, effectiveness, and secondary species. Models of the dissolution rate that have been developed are useful, but suffer from limitations on applicable compositional

  6. 化学增强铝硅酸盐玻璃扩散性能研究%The Diffusion Performance of Potassium and Sodium in Ion Exchanged Aluminum Silicate Glass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程金树; 赵薇; 肖子凡


    了解碱金属离子在玻璃表面的扩散对生产高强度铝硅酸盐系统离子交换玻璃具有重要意义.通过外加Al,讨论不同Al/Na对碱离子扩散影响.采用EPMA测得玻璃断面K+、Na+分布曲线,根据Boltzmann- Matano计算方法得到K+、Na+的扩散系数,根据Arrhenius公式计算得到K+、Na+的扩散活化能.实验证明,随着Al/Na的增加,K+、Na+扩散深度逐渐增加,互扩散系数逐渐增加,K+、Na+平均活化能逐渐增加.讨论玻璃体内Al/Na比例是研究高强度离子交换玻璃的一个重要方向.%In the production of ion exchanged aluminum silicate system glass, the alkali ion diffusion on the glass surface is an important process which must be considered. In this paper, we discussed the impact of additional Al on the diffusion of alkali ions. The penetration depth profiles of alkali ions were obtained by EPMA methods. The diffusion coefficients of alkali ions were calculated by Boltzmann-Matano equation. And the active energy of alkali ions were gotten by Arrhenius equation. The results showed that the penetration depth, the interdiffusion coefficient and the average active energy increased with the increase of Al/Na ratios. It means the Al/Na ratios have a great effect on the diffusion of alkali i-ons.

  7. Is the Aluminum Hypothesis Dead?


    Lidsky, Theodore I.


    The Aluminum Hypothesis, the idea that aluminum exposure is involved in the etiology of Alzheimer disease, dates back to a 1965 demonstration that aluminum causes neurofibrillary tangles in the brains of rabbits. Initially the focus of intensive research, the Aluminum Hypothesis has gradually been abandoned by most researchers. Yet, despite this current indifference, the Aluminum Hypothesis continues to attract the attention of a small group of scientists and aluminum continues to be viewed w...

  8. High energy density aluminum battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Gilbert M.; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans; Dai, Sheng; Dudney, Nancy J.; Manthiram, Arumugan; McIntyre, Timothy J.; Sun, Xiao-Guang; Liu, Hansan


    Compositions and methods of making are provided for a high energy density aluminum battery. The battery comprises an anode comprising aluminum metal. The battery further comprises a cathode comprising a material capable of intercalating aluminum or lithium ions during a discharge cycle and deintercalating the aluminum or lithium ions during a charge cycle. The battery further comprises an electrolyte capable of supporting reversible deposition and stripping of aluminum at the anode, and reversible intercalation and deintercalation of aluminum or lithium at the cathode.

  9. Organic electrolytes for sodium batteries (United States)

    Vestergaard, B.


    A summary of earlier given status reports in connection with the project on organic electrolytes for sodium batteries is presented. The aim of the investigations was to develop new room temperature molten salts electrolytes mainly with radical substituted heterocyclic organic chlorides mixed with aluminum chloride. The new electrolytes should have an ionic conductivity comparable with MEIC1:AlCl3 or better. A computer model program MOPAC (Molecular Orbital Package) was to be included to calculate theoretically reduction potentials for a variety of organic cations. Furthermore, MOPAC could be utilized to predict the electron densities, and then give a prediction of the stability of the organic cation.

  10. Is the Aluminum Hypothesis dead? (United States)

    Lidsky, Theodore I


    The Aluminum Hypothesis, the idea that aluminum exposure is involved in the etiology of Alzheimer disease, dates back to a 1965 demonstration that aluminum causes neurofibrillary tangles in the brains of rabbits. Initially the focus of intensive research, the Aluminum Hypothesis has gradually been abandoned by most researchers. Yet, despite this current indifference, the Aluminum Hypothesis continues to attract the attention of a small group of scientists and aluminum continues to be viewed with concern by some of the public. This review article discusses reasons that mainstream science has largely abandoned the Aluminum Hypothesis and explores a possible reason for some in the general public continuing to view aluminum with mistrust.

  11. Impact Of Sodium Oxalate, Sodium Aluminosilicate, and Gibbsite/Boehmite on ARP Filter Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poirier, M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Burket, P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)


    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is currently treating radioactive liquid waste with the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). Recently, the low filter flux through the ARP of approximately 5 gallons per minute has limited the rate at which radioactive liquid waste can be treated. Salt Batch 6 had a lower processing rate and required frequent filter cleaning. Savannah River Remediation (SRR) has a desire to understand the causes of the low filter flux and to increase ARP/MCU throughput. SRR requested SRNL to conduct bench-scale filter tests to evaluate whether sodium oxalate, sodium aluminosilicate, or aluminum solids (i.e., gibbsite and boehmite) could be the cause of excessive fouling of the crossflow or secondary filter at ARP. The authors conducted the tests by preparing slurries containing 6.6 M sodium Salt Batch 6 supernate, 2.5 g MST/L slurry, and varying concentrations of sodium oxalate, sodium aluminosilicate, and aluminum solids, processing the slurry through a bench-scale filter unit that contains a crossflow primary filter and a dead-end secondary filter, and measuring filter flux and transmembrane pressure as a function of time. Among the conclusions drwn from this work are the following: (1) All of the tests showed some evidence of fouling the secondary filter. This fouling could be from fine particles passing through the crossflow filter. (2) The sodium oxalate-containing feeds behaved differently from the sodium aluminosilicate- and gibbsite/boehmite-containing feeds.

  12. Anodizing Aluminum with Frills. (United States)

    Doeltz, Anne E.; And Others


    "Anodizing Aluminum" (previously reported in this journal) describes a vivid/relevant laboratory experience for general chemistry students explaining the anodizing of aluminum in sulfuric acid and constrasting it to electroplating. Additions to this procedure and the experiment in which they are used are discussed. Reactions involved are…

  13. The aluminum smelting process. (United States)

    Kvande, Halvor


    This introduction to the industrial primary aluminum production process presents a short description of the electrolytic reduction technology, the history of aluminum, and the importance of this metal and its production process to modern society. Aluminum's special qualities have enabled advances in technologies coupled with energy and cost savings. Aircraft capabilities have been greatly enhanced, and increases in size and capacity are made possible by advances in aluminum technology. The metal's flexibility for shaping and extruding has led to architectural advances in energy-saving building construction. The high strength-to-weight ratio has meant a substantial reduction in energy consumption for trucks and other vehicles. The aluminum industry is therefore a pivotal one for ecological sustainability and strategic for technological development.

  14. Coupling a PEM fuel cell and the hydrogen generation from aluminum waste cans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, Susana Silva; Albanil Sanchez, Loyda; Alvarez Gallegos, Alberto A. [Centro de Investigacion en Ingenieria y Ciencias Aplicadas, Av. Universidad 1001, Col. Chamilpa, Cuernavaca, Mor. CP 62210 (Mexico); Sebastian, P.J. [Centro de Investigacion en Energia-UNAM, 62580 Temixco, Morelos (Mexico); Cuerpo Academico de Energia y Sustentabilidad, UPCH, Tuxtla Gutierrez, Chiapas (Mexico)


    High purity hydrogen was generated from the chemical reaction of aluminum and sodium hydroxide. The aluminum used in this study was obtained from empty soft drink cans and treated with concentrated sulfuric acid to remove the paint and plastic film. One gram of aluminum was reacted with a solution of 2moldm{sup -3} of sodium hydroxide to produce hydrogen. The hydrogen produced from aluminum cans and oxygen obtained from a proton exchange membrane electrolyzer or air, was fed to a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell to produce electricity. Yields of 44 mmol of hydrogen contained in a volume of 1.760dm{sup 3} were produced from one gram of aluminum in a time period of 20 min. (author)

  15. [Formulation of calcium carbonate tablets with various binding substances]. (United States)

    Gazikalović, E; Obrenović, D; Nidzović, Z; Toskić-Radojicić, M


    The test results of calcium carbonate tablets, made of different binding substances (microcrystal cellulose, gelatin, 7pp sodium carboxymethylcellulose and starch) were presented. The content of calcium-carbonate in tablets as well as varying, solidity, prodigality and aptness to decay was determined. The best properties were observed in tablets made with starch.

  16. Test Your Sodium Smarts (United States)

    ... You may be surprised to learn how much sodium is in many foods. Sodium, including sodium chloride ... foods with little or no salt. Test your sodium smarts by answering these 10 questions about which ...

  17. Calcium and bones (United States)

    Bone strength and calcium ... calcium (as well as phosphorus) to make healthy bones. Bones are the main storage site of calcium in ... your body does not absorb enough calcium, your bones can get weak or will not grow properly. ...

  18. Calcium Test (United States)

    ... if a person has symptoms of a parathyroid disorder , malabsorption , or an overactive thyroid. A total calcium level is often measured as part of a routine health screening. It is included in the comprehensive metabolic panel (CMP) and the basic metabolic panel (BMP) , ...

  19. Calcium Carbonate (United States)

    ... doctor if you have or have ever had kidney disease or stomach conditions.tell your doctor if you are pregnant, plan to become pregnant, or are breast-feeding. If you become pregnant while taking calcium carbonate, call your doctor.

  20. Spectra of sodium aluminate solutions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The UV spectra of sodium aluminate solutions were obtained in the sodium oxide concentration range from 59 to 409 g/L and the caustic ratio range from 1.5 to 4.0 to reveal the structure characteristics of them. It is found that a new peak appears at about 370 nm besides peaks at about 220 and 266 nm in all solutions. The new peak is strongly favored by high hydroxide concentration and high caustic ratio. And it only appears when the solutions are prepared by dissolving sodium hydroxide and aluminum hydroxide.In addition, the IR and Raman spectra of sodium aluminate solutions with high alkali concentration and high caustic ratio were measured, and the UV spectra of aqueous solutions of Al(H2O)63+ and AlF63- were measured as well. According to the crystal field theory in coordination chemistry as well as the above spectra characteristics, this new peak at about 370 nm is determined as the evidence of a new species of aluminate ion with a coordination number of 6.

  1. Clinical biochemistry of aluminum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, S.W.; Savory, J.; Wills, M.R.


    Aluminum toxicity has been implicated in the pathogenesis of a number of clinical disorders in patients with chronic renal failure on long-term intermittent hemodialysis treatment. The predominant disorders have been those involving either bone (osteomalacic dialysis osteodystrophy) or brain (dialysis encephalopathy). In nonuremic patients, an increased brain aluminum concentration has been implicated as a neurotoxic agent in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease and was associated with experimental neurofibrillary degeneration in animals. The brain aluminum concentrations of patients dying with the syndrome of dialysis encephalopathy (dialysis dementia) are significantly higher than in dialyzed patients without the syndrome and in nondialyzed patients. Two potential sources for the increased tissue content of aluminum in patients on hemodialysis have been proposed: (1) intestinal absorption from aluminum containing phosphate-binding gels, and (2) transfer across the dialysis membrane from aluminum in the water used to prepare the dialysate. These findings, coupled with our everyday exposure to the ubiquitous occurrence of aluminum in nature, have created concerns over the potential toxicity of this metal.

  2. Depressing effect of sodium hexametaphosphate on apatite in flotation of rutile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hao Ding; Hai Lin; Yanxi Deng


    The separation of mtile from apatite by flotation and the mechanism of depressing the apatite of sodium hexametaphosphate were studied. The results showed that rutile and apatite could be separated by using alkyl-imino-bismethylene phosphoric acid and sodium hexametaphosphate as a collector and a regulator, respectively. Sodium hexametaphosphate could selectively dissolve calcium ions on the apatite surface, and make calcium ions break away from lattice binding through combining.

  3. 40 CFR 721.2076 - D-Glucuronic acid, polymer with 6-deoxy-L-mannose and D-glucose, acetate, calcium magnesium... (United States)


    ...-deoxy-L-mannose and D-glucose, acetate, calcium magnesium potassium sodium salt. 721.2076 Section 721...-Glucuronic acid, polymer with 6-deoxy-L-mannose and D-glucose, acetate, calcium magnesium potassium sodium... identified as D-Glucuronic acid, polymer with 6-deoxy-L-mannose and D-glucose, acetate, calcium...

  4. Advances in aluminum pretreatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sudour, Michel; Maintier, Philippe [PPG Industries France, 3 Z.A.E. Les Dix Muids, B.P. 89, F-59583 Marly (France); Simpson, Mark [PPG Industries Inc., 1200 Piedmont Troy, Michigan 48083 (United States); Quaglia, Paolo [PPG Industries Italia, Via Garavelli 21, I-15028 Quattordio (Italy)


    As automotive manufacturers continue to look for ways to reduce vehicle weight, aluminum is finding more utility as a body panel component. The substitution of cold-rolled steel and zinc-coated substrates with aluminum has led to new challenges in vehicle pretreatment. As a result, changes to traditional pretreatment chemistries and operating practices are necessary in order to produce an acceptable coating on aluminum body panels. These changes result in increased sludging and other undesirable characteristics. In addition to the chemistry changes, there are also process-related problems to consider. Many existing automotive pretreatment lines simply were not designed to handle aluminum and its increased demands on filtration and circulation equipment. To retrofit such a system is capital intensive and in addition to requiring a significant amount of downtime, may not be totally effective. Thus, the complexities of pre-treating aluminum body panels have actually had a negative effect on efforts to introduce more aluminum into new vehicle design programs. Recent research into ways of reducing the negative effects has led to a new understanding of the nature of zinc phosphate bath -aluminum interactions. Many of the issues associated with the pretreatment of aluminum have been identified and can be mitigated with only minor changes to the zinc phosphate bath chemistry. The use of low levels of soluble Fe ions, together with free fluoride, has been shown to dramatically improve the efficiency of a zinc phosphate system processing aluminum. Appearance of zinc phosphate coatings, coating weights and sludge are all benefited by this chemistry change. (authors)

  5. Low sodium diet (image) (United States)

    ... for you. Look for these words on labels: low-sodium, sodium-free, no salt added, sodium-reduced, or ... for you. Look for these words on labels: low-sodium, sodium-free, no salt added, sodium-reduced, or ...

  6. 21 CFR 172.715 - Calcium lignosulfonate. (United States)


    ... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... of sulfonated lignin, primarily as calcium and sodium salts. (b) It is used in an amount not to exceed that reasonably required to accomplish the intended physical or technical effect when added as...

  7. 21 CFR 201.70 - Calcium labeling. (United States)


    ... diet”. The warnings in §§ 201.64(c), 201.70(c), 201.71(c), and 201.72(c) may be combined, if applicable, provided the ingredients are listed in alphabetical order, e.g., a calcium or sodium restricted diet. 1...

  8. Para-amino benzoic acid–mediated synthesis of vaterite phase of calcium carbonate

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    T N Ramesh; S A Inchara; K Pallavi


    Calcium carbonate polymorphs were precipitated at room temperature and 80°C by varying the precipitation pH, carbonate source, effect of solvent in presence and absence of structure directing agent such as para-aminobenzoic acid. Calcite phase of calcium carbonate was obtained when sodium hydrogen carbonate and/or sodium carbonate (used as precipitating agents) were added to calcium chloride solution at different pHs in water and/or methanol as solvent in separate experiments. Vaterite phase of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) has been synthesized by mixing calcium chloride and sodium carbonate in presence of para-aminobenzoic acid when water–methanol binary mixture was used as solvent. Vaterite phase of calcium carbonate crystallizes in P63/mmc, while that of calcite phase in R-3mc, respectively. Calcite phase of calcium carbonate exhibits rhombohedral morphology, while vaterite phase has spherical morphology.

  9. Evidence for a distinct light-induced calcium-dependent potassium current in Hermissenda crassicornis. (United States)

    Blackwell, K T


    A model of phototransduction is developed as a first step toward a model for investigating the critical interaction of light and turbulence stimuli within the type B photoreceptor of Hermissenda crassicronis. The model includes equations describing phototransduction, release of calcium from intracellular stores, and other calcium regulatory mechanisms, as well as equations describing ligand-gating of a rhabdomeric sodium current. The model is used to determine the sources of calcium in the soma, whether calcium or IP3 is a plausible ligand of the light-induced sodium current, and whether the light-induced potassium current is equivalent to the calcium-dependent potassium current activated by light-induced calcium release. Simulations show that the early light-induced calcium elevation is due to influx through voltage-dependent channels, whereas the later calcium elevation is due to release from intracellular stores. Simulations suggest that the ligand of the fast, light-induced sodium current is IP3 but that there is a smaller, prolonged component of the light-induced sodium current that is activated by calcium. In the model, the calcium-dependent potassium current, located in the soma, is activated only slightly by light-induced calcium elevation, leading to the prediction that a calcium-dependent potassium current, active at resting potential, is located in the rhabdomere and is responsible for the light-induced potassium current.

  10. Aluminum neurotoxicity effects on intracellular Ca2+homeostasis in the rat cerebral cortex

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rui Ren; Yang Zhang; Xiaofeng Zhang; Yanping Wu; Dandan Zhang; Baixiang Li


    Studies have suggested that aluminum,a neurotoxic metal,is involved in the progression of neurodegenerative diseases.Previous studies have confirmed that aluminum influences intracellular Ca2+homeostasis.However,it remains unclear whether aluminum increases or decreases intracellular Ca2+concentrations.The present study demonstrated that Al3+competitively binds to calmodulin(CAM),together with Ca2+,which resulted in loss of capacity of CaM to bind to Ca2+,leading to increased[Ca2+],.Al3+stimulated voltage-gated calcium channels on cell membranes,which allowed a small quantity of Ca2+into the cells.Al3+also promoted calcium release from organelles by stimulating L-Ca2+α1c to trigger calcium-induced calcium release.Although Al3+upregulated expression of Na+/Ca2+exchanger mRNA,increased levels of Ca2+and Na+/Ca2+exchanger did not maintain a normal Ca2+balance.Al3+resulted in disordered intracellular calcium homeostasis by affecting calcium channels,calcium buffering,and calcium expulsion.

  11. Development of Saqima without aluminum%无铝沙琪玛的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁大伟; 朱萍


    Saqima without aluminum was developed with flour as the major raw material. The optimal formula and processing parameters were explored by single-factor and orthogonal experiments: the eggs added accounted for 55 %; the compound leavening agent without aluminum was composed of sodium bicarbonate and ammonium bicarbonate with a ratio of 1:2, glucono-δ-lactone, potassium bitartrate and calcium biphosphote,the proportion of those were 2.0%, 2.5%, 1.5% and 2.5% respectively; the ratio of glucose to maltose in the syrup was 2 : 5, the amout of citric acid was 0.08%, CMC 0.08%; when mixed with sugar, the ratio of fried noodles to syrup was 1.8: 1. Results indicated that the quality of Saqima without aluminum was superior to the traditional formulations which contains aluminum.%以小麦粉为主要原料研制无铝沙琪玛.通过单因素试验和正交试验,得出无铝沙琪玛的最佳工艺及配方:鸡蛋添加量为55%;无铝复合膨松剂中小苏打和碳酸氢铵(1:2)、葡萄糖酸-δ-内酯、酒石酸氢钾、磷酸二氢钙的添加量分别为2.0%、2.5%、1.5%、2.5%;糖浆中添加的葡萄糖与麦芽糖比例为2;5、柠檬酸和CMC的添加量均为0.08%;拌糖时,油炸面条和糖浆的比例为1.8:1.结果表明,无铝沙琪玛的品质优于传统含铝配方的沙琪玛.

  12. Corrosion Inhibitors for Aluminum. (United States)

    Muller, Bodo


    Describes a simple and reliable test method used to investigate the corrosion-inhibiting effects of various chelating agents on aluminum pigments in aqueous alkaline media. The experiments that are presented require no complicated or expensive electronic equipment. (DDR)

  13. Advances in aluminum anodizing (United States)

    Dale, K. H.


    White anodize is applied to aluminum alloy surfaces by specific surface preparation, anodizing, pigmentation, and sealing techniques. The development techniques resulted in alloys, which are used in space vehicles, with good reflectance values and excellent corrosive resistance.


    Dalrymple, R.S.; Nelson, W.B.


    Treatment of aluminum-base metal surfaces in an autoclave with an aqueous chromic acid solution of 0.5 to 3% by weight and of pH below 2 for 20 to 50 hrs at 160 to 180 deg C produces an extremely corrosion-resistant aluminum oxidechromium film on the surface. A chromic acid concentration of 1 to 2% and a pH of about 1 are preferred. (D.C.W.)

  15. Dysbalance of astrocyte calcium under hyperammonemic conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Haack

    Full Text Available Increased brain ammonium (NH4(+/NH3 plays a central role in the manifestation of hepatic encephalopathy (HE, a complex syndrome associated with neurological and psychiatric alterations, which is primarily a disorder of astrocytes. Here, we analysed the influence of NH4(+/NH3 on the calcium concentration of astrocytes in situ and studied the underlying mechanisms of NH4(+/NH3-evoked calcium changes, employing fluorescence imaging with Fura-2 in acute tissue slices derived from different regions of the mouse brain. In the hippocampal stratum radiatum, perfusion with 5 mM NH4(+/NH3 for 30 minutes caused a transient calcium increase in about 40% of astrocytes lasting about 10 minutes. Furthermore, the vast majority of astrocytes (∼ 90% experienced a persistent calcium increase by ∼ 50 nM. This persistent increase was already evoked at concentrations of 1-2 mM NH4(+/NH3, developed within 10-20 minutes and was maintained as long as the NH4(+/NH3 was present. Qualitatively similar changes were observed in astrocytes of different neocortical regions as well as in cerebellar Bergmann glia. Inhibition of glutamine synthetase resulted in significantly larger calcium increases in response to NH4(+/NH3, indicating that glutamine accumulation was not a primary cause. Calcium increases were not mimicked by changes in intracellular pH. Pharmacological inhibition of voltage-gated sodium channels, sodium-potassium-chloride-cotransporters (NKCC, the reverse mode of sodium/calcium exchange (NCX, AMPA- or mGluR5-receptors did not dampen NH4(+/NH3-induced calcium increases. They were, however, significantly reduced by inhibition of NMDA receptors and depletion of intracellular calcium stores. Taken together, our measurements show that sustained exposure to NH4(+/NH3 causes a sustained increase in intracellular calcium in astrocytes in situ, which is partly dependent on NMDA receptor activation and on release of calcium from intracellular stores. Our study

  16. The observation of the curative effect of anti-inflammatory analgesic cream combined with heparin sodium cream coated in the treatment of iatrogenic neonatal calcium salt deposition disease%止痛消炎膏联合肝素钠乳膏外涂治疗医源性新生儿钙盐沉积症的疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵磊; 侯钰佩; 李丹凤


    目的:探讨止痛消炎膏联合肝素钠乳膏外涂治疗医源性新生儿钙盐沉积症的临床疗效。方法:2012年4月-2014年3月收治医源性新生儿钙盐沉积症患儿30例,随机分为试验组和对照组,各15例。试验组在钙盐沉积处用0.9%氯化钠注射液清洗干净后先涂抹肝素钠乳膏并适当局部按摩后用止痛消炎膏敷于患处,3次/日;对照组用透明质酸酶局部封闭。结果:试验组全部治愈,疗程18~29天,平均(23.7±3.5)天;对照组治愈率86.7%,疗程47~56天,平均(52.2±2.7)天,两组比较差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论:止痛消炎膏联合肝素钠乳膏外涂治疗医源性新生儿钙盐沉积症治愈率高,疗程短,可行性较强,疗效好,值得临床推广。%Objective:To investigate the clinical effect of anti-inflammatory analgesic cream combined with heparin sodium cream coated in the treatment of iatrogenic neonatal calcium salt deposition disease.Methods:30 cases of iatrogenic neonatal calcium salt deposition disease were selected from April 2012 to March 2014.They were randomly divided into the experimental group and the control group with 15 cases in each.The experimental group were washed the deposition of calcium salts cleaning using physiological saline,smeared heparin sodium cream at first and appropriate local massage,then applyed anti-inflammatory analgesic cream to affected area,3 times/day.The control group were partial closed with hyaluronidase.Results:The experimental group were all cured;the course of treatment was 18~29 days,with an average of 23.7±3.5 days.The cure rate of the control group was 86.7%;the course of treatment was 47~56 days,with an average of 52.2±2.7 days.The difference were statistically significant between the two groups(P<0.05).Conclusion:Analgesic anti-inflammatory ointment combined with heparin sodium cream in the treatment of iatrogenic neonatal calcium salt deposition disease have

  17. Efeito do cloreto de cálcio e da película de alginato de sódio na conservação de laranja 'Pera' minimamente processada Effect of calcium chloride and film of sodium alginate in the conservation of minimally processed 'Pera' orange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Daniel Groppo


    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito de solução de cloreto de cálcio e película de alginato de sódio na conservação de laranja 'Pera' minimamente processada. A qualidade da laranja minimamente processada submetida aos tratamentos com cloreto de cálcio a 1%, alginato de sódio a 1% e o controle (sem aplicação de tratamento foi monitorada a cada três dias, por análises físicas e químicas, microbiológicas e sensoriais por um período de 12 dias de armazenamento a 5 ºC. O tratamento com alginato de sódio (1% apresentou menor perda de massa ao longo do período de armazenamento, porém, as amostras submetidas a este tratamento, tiveram sua qualidade prejudicada quanto aos teores de ácido ascórbico, açúcares, teor de sólidos solúveis e firmeza. No final do armazenamento, o tratamento com cloreto de cálcio (1% apresentou a melhor eficiência na manutenção das características iniciais do fruto, preservando os teores de ácido ascórbico, acidez titulável, 'ratio', açúcares e firmeza, evidenciada pela menor solubilização de pectinas. Análise microbiológica detectou valores insignificantes para bactérias psicrotróficas, bolores e leveduras e coliformes totais em todos os tratamentos, mostrando que os cuidados tomados com as condições higiênicas levaram à obtenção de um produto com padrão microbiológico de acordo com a legislação de alimentos, apresentando ausência de Salmonella e ausência de coliformes a 45 ºC. Sensorialmente, a laranja minimamente processada tratada com cloreto de cálcio (1% e o controle, apresentou-se em condições de consumo por nove dias de armazenamento.The aim of this study was to assess the effect of a calcium chloride solution and a film of sodium alginate on the conservation of minimally processed 'Pera' oranges. The quality of minimally processed orange submitted to treatments with 1% calcium chloride and 1% sodium alginate and the control (without treatment

  18. 低分子肝素钠对血液透析患者钙磷代谢影响的临床观察%Effect of Low Molecular Weight Heparin Sodium on Calcium Phosphorus Metabolism in Patients Undergoing Hemodialysis:Clinical Observation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    OBJECTIVE:To explore the effect of low molecular weight heparin sodium on calcium-phosphorus metabolism in patients undergoing hemodialysis.METHODS: From May 2012 to May 2013, a total of 166 patients undergoing hemodialysis were randomly divided into either control group receiving unfractionated heparin or experimental group receiving low molecular weight heparin sodium.The two groups were followed and compared with regard to serum levels of calcium, phosphorus, parathyroid hormone (PTH) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP), the incidences of bleeding and blood clotting during cardiopulmonary bypass.RESULTS:Before treatment, serum levels of calcium, phosphorus, PTH and ALP showed no significant difference between the two groups ( P >0.05 ) .Serum phosphorus and PTH levels did not change significantly in the control group before and after treatment ( P>0.05 ) . After hemodialysis, serum phosphorus and PTH levels were significantly reduced in the experimental group, and the differences were statistically significant between the experimental group and the control group ( P 0.05 ) .The incidence of bleeding in the experimental group was significantly lower than in the control group ( P0.05).CONCLUSION:The low molecular heparin sodium might be effective for improving calcium-phosphorus metabolism.%目的:探讨低分子肝素钠对维持性血液透析患者钙磷代谢的影响。方法:选取2012年5月至2013年5月收治的166例血液透析患者作为研究对象,按随机表法将其分成对照组和试验组,对照组予以普通肝素钠,试验组予以低分子肝素钠,对两组患者的血钙、血磷、甲状旁腺激素( PTH)、碱性磷酸酶( ALP)水平、出血发生率、体外循环凝血发生率进行观察比较。结果:治疗前两组患者血钙、血磷、PTH、ALP水平差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)。对照组治疗前后血磷、PTH水平无明显变化(P>0.05)。透析后,试验组血磷及PTH水平显

  19. 奥扎格雷钠和低分子肝素钙治疗糖尿病下肢动脉疾病的疗效%Effect of Sodium Ozagrel and Low Molecular Heparin Calcium in the Treatment of Diabetes and Lower Extremity Arterial Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    目的 探究奥扎格雷钠和低分子肝素钙治疗糖尿病下肢动脉疾病的临床疗效. 方法 选取该院2013年3月—2014年10月收治的糖尿病下肢动脉疾病患者80例作为该次的研究对象,按照随机数字法将其分为两组,分别为实验组和常规组,实验组患者40例,常规组患者40例. 其中对常规组患者给予低分子肝素钙治疗,实验组患者在上述治疗方法的基础上加用奥扎格雷钠联合治疗,比较两组糖尿病下肢动脉疾病患者的临床治疗效果、不良反应情况等.结果 经过临床治疗后,实验组患者的总有效率为95.0%,常规组患者的总有效率为77.5%,实验组患者的总有效率明显高于常规组(P<0.05);治疗前后实验组患者各项生化指标的改善程度明显优于常规组(P<0.05);不良反应情况:实验组患者的不良反应发生率明显少于常规组(P<0.05). 结论 对糖尿病下肢动脉疾病患者给予奥扎格雷钠联合低分子肝素钙治疗的临床效果显著,不良反应少,药物安全有效,对疾病治疗具有重要的指导意义.%Objective To explore the clinical effect of sodium ozagrel and low molecular heparin calcium in the treatment of diabetes and lower extremity artery disease. Methods 80 cases with diabetes and lower extremity artery disease admitted in our hospital from March 2013 to October 2014 were selected as the subjects and divided into two groups, the experimental group and the control group with 40 cases in each according to the random number method. Patients in the control group were treated by low molecular heparin calcium, and those in the experimental group were treated by sodium ozagrel and low molecular heparin calcium. And the clinical effect and incidence of adverse reactions were compared between the two groups. Results After clinical treatment, the total effective rate of the experimental group was much higher than that of the control group(95.0%vs 77.5%)(P<0.05). The improvement of

  20. Randomized crossover study comparing the phosphate-binding efficacy of calcium ketoglutarate versus calcium carbonate in patients on chronic hemodialysis. (United States)

    Bro, S; Rasmussen, R A; Handberg, J; Olgaard, K; Feldt-Rasmussen, B


    The objective of the study was to evaluate the phosphate-binding efficacy, side effects, and cost of therapy of calcium ketoglutarate granulate as compared with calcium carbonate tablets in patients on chronic hemodialysis. The study design used was a randomized, crossover open trial, and the main outcome measurements were plasma ionized calcium levels, plasma phosphate levels, plasma intact parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels, requirements for supplemental aluminum-aminoacetate therapy, patient tolerance, and cost of therapy. Nineteen patients on chronic hemodialysis were treated with a dialysate calcium concentration of 1.25 mmol/L and a fixed alfacalcidol dose for at least 2 months. All had previously tolerated therapy with calcium carbonate. Of the 19 patients included, 10 completed both treatment arms. After 12 weeks of therapy, the mean (+/-SEM) plasma ionized calcium level was significantly lower in the ketoglutarate arm compared with the calcium carbonate arm (4.8+/-0.1 mg/dL v 5.2+/-0.1 mg/dL; P = 0.004), whereas the mean plasma phosphate (4.5+/-0.3 mg/dL v 5.1+/-0.1 mg/dL) and PTH levels (266+/-125 pg/mL v 301+/-148 pg/mL) did not differ significantly between the two treatment arms. Supplemental aluminum-aminoacetate was not required during calcium ketoglutarate treatment, while two patients needed this supplement when treated with calcium carbonate. Five of 17 (29%) patients were withdrawn from calcium ketoglutarate therapy within 1 to 2 weeks due to intolerance (anorexia, vomiting, diarrhea, general uneasiness), whereas the remaining 12 patients did not experience any side effects at all. The five patients with calcium ketoglutarate intolerance all had pre-existing gastrointestinal symptoms; four of them had received treatment with cimetidine or omeprazol before inclusion into the study. Calculations based on median doses after 12 weeks showed that the cost of the therapy in Denmark was 10 times higher for calcium ketoglutarate compared with calcium

  1. Removing vanadium from sodium chromate neutral liquid by non­calcium roasting technology with chromium salt%铬盐无钙焙烧工艺铬酸钠中性液铁盐除钒

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨得军; 王少娜; 陈晓芳; 郑诗礼; 李世厚


    According to the current existing problem in the vanadium precipitating process in calcium salt by non­calcium roasting technology with chromium salt, such problems as large amount of calcium salt, repeatedly adjusting the pH value, slag containing calcium chromate and other issues, iron salts were used as precipitating agent to remove vanadium. The amount of iron salt added, pH value, temperature and other major factors on the impact of vanadium removal were investigated, the optimum conditions are that the vanadium concentration in final liquid is less than 0.08 g/L, which satisfies the follow­up process requirements. Utilizing iron salt to remove vanadium can be operated in wide pH range, without repeatedly adjusting the pH value. By analyzing, the slag phase is ferric hydroxide, which adsorbs vanadium, containing no chromium. And by further exploring against adsorption mechanism, vanadium is adsorbed on the surface of the iron hydroxide by inner layer complexation.%针对铬盐无钙焙烧工艺浸出液除钒现行钙盐沉钒法钙盐加入量大、需反复调节pH值、脱钒渣含铬酸钙等问题,提出采用铁盐作为沉钒剂进行除钒。考察铁盐加入量、pH 值和温度等主要因素对钒脱除的影响,得到了最佳工艺条件,且终液钒浓度低于0.08 g/L,满足后续工艺要求。铁盐除钒可在较宽的pH值范围内操作,不需反复调节溶液pH值。渣相分析表明:脱钒渣为吸附钒酸根的氢氧化铁,其中不含铬,进一步探讨氢氧化铁对钒的吸附机理,确定钒酸根通过内层络合方式吸附在氢氧化铁表面。

  2. Effect of calcium on the physical properties of stirred probiotic yogurt. (United States)

    Ramasubramanian, L; Restuccia, C; Deeth, H C


    The effect of calcium on the viscosity, firmness, and smoothness, as determined by extent of nodulation, of stirred probiotic yogurt produced by bacterial fermentation was investigated. Standardized milk for yogurt manufacture was prepared, and calcium was added or removed from the system. Calcium was added as Ca(2+) in the form of CaCl(2) (up to 13.6 mM) or nonionic calcium as Gadocal-K (calcium potassium citrate; up to 49.8 mM). Calcium was removed by chelating with sodium citrate (up to 16 mM) or by cation exchange with Amberlite IR-120 plus (sodium form) resin (up to 10 g/L). Calcium chloride and sodium citrate were added either before or after heat treatment of milk, and nonionic calcium was added before heat treatment. Calcium removal by ion exchange was performed before heat treatment. Neither Ca(2+) addition nor removal by chelation with citrate resulted in stirred yogurt with viscosity, firmness, and smoothness superior to those of the control yogurt, whereas addition of 49.8 mM nonionic calcium and removal of calcium (5.6 mM or ~10% of total calcium) by cation exchange improved the firmness and viscosity without affecting yogurt smoothness. The study identified Gadocal-K as a possible source of calcium fortification of stirred yogurt without loss of texture.

  3. Repair of Nerve Cell Membrane Damage by Calcium-Dependent, Membrane-Binding Proteins (Revised) (United States)


    Alzheimer disease amyloid beta protein forms calcium channels in bilayer membranes: blockade by tromethamine and aluminum , Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A...Calcium signaling and amyloid toxicity in Alzheimer disease, J Biol Chem 285 (2010) 12463-12468. [14] H.A. Lashuel, P.T. Lansbury, Are amyloid

  4. Aluminum, parathyroid hormone, and osteomalacia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burnatowska-Hledin, M.A.; Kaiser, L.; Mayor, G.H.


    Aluminum exposure in man is unavoidable. The occurrence of dialysis dementia, vitamin D-resistant osteomalacia, and hypochromic microcytic anemia in dialysis patients underscores the potential for aluminum toxicity. Although exposure via dialysate and hyperalimentation leads to significant tissue aluminum accumulation, the ubiquitous occurrence of aluminum and the severe pathology associated with large aluminum burdens suggest that smaller exposures via the gastrointestinal tract and lungs could represent an important, though largely unrecognized, public health problem. It is clear that some aluminum absorption occurs with the ingestion of small amounts of aluminum in the diet and medicines, and even greater aluminum absorption is seen in individuals consuming large amounts of aluminum present in antacids. Aluminum absorption is enhanced in the presence of elevated circulating parathyroid hormone. In addition, elevated PTH leads to the preferential deposition of aluminum in brain and bone. Consequently, PTH is likely to be involved in the pathogenesis of toxicities in those organs. PTH excess also seems to lead to the deposition of aluminum in the parathyroid gland. The in vitro demonstration that aluminum inhibits parathyroid hormone release is consistent with the findings of a euparathyroid state in dialysis patients with aluminum related vitamin D-resistant osteomalacia. Nevertheless, it seems likely that hyperparathyroidism is at least initially involved in the pathogenesis of aluminum neurotoxicity and osteomalacia; the increases in tissue aluminum stores are followed by suppression of parathyroid hormone release, which is required for the evolution of osteomalacia. Impaired renal function is not a prerequisite for increased tissue aluminum burdens, nor for aluminum-related organ toxicity. Consequently, it is likely that these diseases will be observed in populations other than those with chronic renal disease.

  5. Calcium binding to low molecular weight compounds and health promoting products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vavrusova, Martina

    Calcium precipitation in the almost neutral environment of the intestines is a process related to weight loss management and plays an important role in the prevention of colon cancer development. This process also affects calcium bioavailability which is decreased due to decreased calcium...... binding. The continuing dissolution of calcium L-lactate in already saturated aqueous solution of calcium Llactate after addition of solid sodium gluconate was found to form a homogeneous solution. This homogeneous solution became increasingly supersaturated in calcium D-gluconate, and calcium Dgluconate...... only slowly precipitated after a lag phase. On the other hand, the slow dissolution of calcium D-gluconate by sodium L-lactate in aqueous solution with the reverse lactate/gluconate ratio did not result in a similar solution since fast precipitation prevented formation of a homogenous solution....

  6. 小剂量多次口服钙剂在机采血小板过程中致枸橼酸钠中毒的预防效果研究%Study on preventive effect on sodium citrate poisoning caused by multiple low dose oral calcium in apheresis platelet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    目的:研究钙剂对血细胞分离机采集血小板过程中致患者发生枸橼酸钠中毒的预防效果。方法将400例进行机采血小板的献血者按照随机对照原则分为对照组、A、B、C四组,每组各100例,全部献血者在机采血小板前一周均未应用过阿司匹林类药物,其中对照组在机采过程中未使用钙剂,A组在在口服10 ml 10%葡萄糖酸钙后立即进行机采血小板。B组在采集过程中如发生相关口唇麻木等症状时立即口服10 ml 10%葡萄糖酸钙。C组在每个循环机采血小板结束后,返输压积红细胞后立刻口服2 ml 10%葡萄糖酸钙,共5次,对全部献血者的枸橼酸钠中毒症状种类进行观察统计,并对每组的中毒症状发生率进行比较分析。结果全部献血者中,面部及口唇麻木发生例数位居第一,为102例(25.5%),其次由高至低依次为肢体麻木(25例,6.3%)、心悸(16例,4.0%)、胃肠道反应(6例,1.5%)、腓肠肌痉挛(4例,1.0%)。四组献血者的枸橼酸钠中毒症状发生率中,对照组的枸橼酸钠中毒症状发生率高于A、B、C三组,P<0.01,差异具有统计学意义,C组的枸橼酸钠中毒症状发生率低于对照组和A、B三组,P<0.01,差异具有统计学意义。结论小剂量多次口服钙剂能有效的减少机采血小板过程中枸橼酸钠中毒的情况。%Objective To study the preventive effect on sodium citrate poisoning caused by multiple low dose oral calcium in apheresis platelet. Methods 400 cases of apheresis platelet blood donors were divided into control group, group A, group B, and group C, with 100 cases in every group. All the donors hadn’t used Aspirin like drugs one week before blood taken, donors of control group hadn’t used calcium in the process of apheresis platelets, apheresis platelets were processed immediately after donors were given 10 ml 10% calcium gluconate in group A. When the associated

  7. The geochemical evolution of aqueous sodium in the Black Creek Aquifer, Horry and Georgetown counties, South Carolina (United States)

    Zack, Allen L.; Roberts, Ivan


    The Black Creek aquifer contains dilute seawater near the North Carolina State line, probably the result of incomplete flushing of ancient seawater. Data do not indicate that the dilute seawater has migrated toward areas of fresh ground-water withdrawals. The concentration of chloride in ground-water samples ranges from 5 to 720 milligrams per liter and that of sodium from 160 to 690 milligrams per liter. Ion-exchange reactions (sodium for calcium and fluoride for hydroxyl) occur with the calcium carbonate dissolution reaction which produces calcium, bicarbonate, and hydroxyl ions. The reaction sequence and stoichiometry result in an aqueous solution in which the sum of bicarbonate and chloride equivalents per liter is equal to the equivalents per liter of sodium. Calcium ions are exchanged for sodium ions derived from sodium-rich clays upgradient of the dilute seawater. The cation-exchange reaction equilibrates at a sodium concentration of 280 milligrams per liter. Amounts of sodium greater than 280 milligrams per liter are contributed from dilute seawater. The cation-exchange reaction approaches an equilibrium which represents a mass-action limit in terms of the ratio of sodium to calcium in solution versus the ratio of exchangeable sodium to calcium on clay surfaces. Where the limit of calcium carbonate solubility is approached and dissolution ceases, some precipitation of calcite probably takes place. The dissolution of calcite exposes fossil shark teeth which release fluoride ions to the ground water through anion exchange with aqueous hydroxyl ions.

  8. Synthesis of calcium hydroxyapatite from calcium carbonate and different orthophosphate sources: A comparative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pham Minh, Doan, E-mail: [Universite de Toulouse, Mines Albi, CNRS, Centre RAPSODEE, Campus Jarlard, F-81013 Albi cedex 09 (France); Lyczko, Nathalie; Sebei, Haroun; Nzihou, Ange [Universite de Toulouse, Mines Albi, CNRS, Centre RAPSODEE, Campus Jarlard, F-81013 Albi cedex 09 (France); Sharrock, Patrick [Universite de Toulouse, SIMAD, IUT Paul Sabatier, Avenue Georges Pompidou, 81104 Castres (France)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Calcium hydroxyapatite was synthesized from CaCO{sub 3} and four orthophosphates. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Only H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} led to the complete precipitation of orthophosphate species. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} was also the most efficient for calcium dissolution. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Reaction pathway was dissolution-precipitation accompanied by agglomeration step. - Abstract: The synthesis of calcium hydroxyapatite (Ca-HA) starting from calcium carbonate and different orthophosphate sources, including orthophosphoric acid, potassium, sodium and ammonium dihydrogen orthophosphates, was investigated under ambient conditions. The reaction started with calcium carbonate dissolution in an acid medium, followed by rapid precipitation of calcium cations with orthophosphate species to form calcium phosphate based particles which were in the size range of 0.4-1 {mu}m. These particles then agglomerated into much larger ones, up to 350 {mu}m in diameter (aggregates). These aggregates possessed an unstable porous structure which was responsible for the porosity of the final products. The highest specific surface area and pore volume were obtained with potassium dihydrogen orthophosphate. On the other hand, orthophosphoric acid led to the highest dissolution of calcium carbonate and the complete precipitation of orthophosphate species. Under ambient conditions, calcium phosphate based solid products of low crystallinity were formed. Different intermediates were identified and a reaction pathway proposed.

  9. Fabrication of aluminum foam from aluminum scrap Hamza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Osman1 ,


    Full Text Available In this study the optimum parameters affecting the preparation of aluminum foam from recycled aluminum were studied, these parameters are: temperature, CaCO3 to aluminum scrap wt. ratio as foaming agent, Al2O3 to aluminum scrap wt. ratio as thickening agent, and stirring time. The results show that, the optimum parameters are the temperature ranged from 800 to 850oC, CaCO3 to aluminum scrap wt. ratio was 5%, Al2O3 to aluminum scrap wt. ratio was 3% and stirring time was 45 second with stirring speed 1200 rpm. The produced foam apparent densities ranged from 0.40-0.60 g/cm3. The microstructure of aluminum foam was examined by using SEM, EDX and XRD, the results show that, the aluminum pores were uniformly distributed along the all matrices and the cell walls covered by thin oxide film.

  10. Evaluation of intestinal phosphate binding to improve the safety profile of oral sodium phosphate bowel cleansing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stef Robijn

    Full Text Available Prior to colonoscopy, bowel cleansing is performed for which frequently oral sodium phosphate (OSP is used. OSP results in significant hyperphosphatemia and cases of acute kidney injury (AKI referred to as acute phosphate nephropathy (APN; characterized by nephrocalcinosis are reported after OSP use, which led to a US-FDA warning. To improve the safety profile of OSP, it was evaluated whether the side-effects of OSP could be prevented with intestinal phosphate binders. Hereto a Wistar rat model of APN was developed. OSP administration (2 times 1.2 g phosphate by gavage with a 12h time interval induced bowel cleansing (severe diarrhea and significant hyperphosphatemia (21.79 ± 5.07 mg/dl 6h after the second OSP dose versus 8.44 ± 0.97 mg/dl at baseline. Concomitantly, serum PTH levels increased fivefold and FGF-23 levels showed a threefold increase, while serum calcium levels significantly decreased from 11.29 ± 0.53 mg/dl at baseline to 8.68 ± 0.79 mg/dl after OSP. OSP administration induced weaker NaPi-2a staining along the apical proximal tubular membrane. APN was induced: serum creatinine increased (1.5 times baseline and nephrocalcinosis developed (increased renal calcium and phosphate content and calcium phosphate deposits on Von Kossa stained kidney sections. Intestinal phosphate binding (lanthanum carbonate or aluminum hydroxide was not able to attenuate the OSP induced side-effects. In conclusion, a clinically relevant rat model of APN was developed. Animals showed increased serum phosphate levels similar to those reported in humans and developed APN. No evidence was found for an improved safety profile of OSP by using intestinal phosphate binders.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于建; 夏延致


    Calcium alginate fibers were prepared by wet spinning of sodium alginate into a coagulating bath containing calcium chloride.The thermal degradation and flame retardancy of calcium alginate fibers were investigated with thermal gravimetry(TG),X-ray diffraction(XRD),limiting oxygen index(LOI) and cone calorimeter(CONE).The results show that calcium alginate fibers are inherently flame retardant with a LOI value of 34,and the heat release rate(HRR),total heat release(THR),CO and CO_2 concentrations during ...

  12. The mode of inhibition of the Na+-K+ pump activity in mast cells by calcium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, T; Johansen, Torben


    1 The inhibition by calcium of the Na(+)-K+ pump in the plasma membrane of rat peritoneal mast cells was studied in pure populations of the cells by measuring the ouabain-sensitive uptake of the radioactive potassium analogue, 86rubidium (86Rb+). 2 Exposure of the cells to calcium induced a time...... not develop when the mast cells were incubated in a potassium-free medium, which is known to block Na(+)-K+ pump activity and allow accumulation of sodium inside the cells. Likewise, increasing the sodium permeability of the plasma membrane by monensin abolished the inhibition of the pump activity. In both...... peritoneal mast cells in a calcium-free medium increases the permeability of the plasma membrane to sodium, and the consequent increase in the intracellular concentration of sodium causes an increase in the activity of the pump. Addition of calcium to the cell suspension decreases the sodium permeability...

  13. Effect of Sodium Carbonate on Deep Desiliconization of Sodium Aluminate Solution%碳酸钠对铝酸钠溶液深度脱硅的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王雅静; 李宏亮; 翟玉春; 张征


    During the course of producing aluminum oxide,as accumulation of sodium carbonate in circulation mother liquor,the flow rate increases and also the solution viscosity,which has influences on crystallization and growth of A1(OH)3. The experiment was performed by using calcium oxide as desiliconization reagents to study the effects of sodium carbonate on the condition and result of deep desiliconization of sodium aluminate solution. Finally, the optimal reaction condition of temperature as 90℃, time as ll0min, stirring speed as 867r/min and dosage of sodium carbonate as 30g/L was determined and the silicon index of refine liquor reached 3642. Meanwhile, Silicon residue of deep desiliconization was analyzed by XRD and found when the sodium carbonate concentration is 0 ~30g/L,it can promote disiliconization but when the concentration is more than 30g/L,it inhibits.%在氧化铝的生产过程中,随着循环母液里碳酸钠的积累使物料流量增加,溶液的粘度增大,并影响分解过程Al(OH)3的结晶及生长.试验采用氧化钙为脱硅剂,研究了碳酸钠对铝酸钠溶液深度脱硅条件和结果的影响,确定出较佳反应条件:在脱硅温度90℃、时间110min、搅拌速度867r/min,碳酸钠用量30g/L时,精制液的硅量指数达到3642.硅渣的XRD光谱分析表明,碳酸钠浓度在0~30g/L之间时,促进铝酸钠溶液脱硅;碳酸钠浓度高于30g/L时,抑制溶液脱硅.

  14. Enhanced osteoconductivity of sodium-substituted hydroxyapatite by system instability. (United States)

    Sang Cho, Jung; Um, Seung-Hoon; Su Yoo, Dong; Chung, Yong-Chae; Hye Chung, Shin; Lee, Jeong-Cheol; Rhee, Sang-Hoon


    The effect of substituting sodium for calcium on enhanced osteoconductivity of hydroxyapatite was newly investigated. Sodium-substituted hydroxyapatite was synthesized by reacting calcium hydroxide and phosphoric acid with sodium nitrate followed by sintering. As a control, pure hydroxyapatite was prepared under identical conditions, but without the addition of sodium nitrate. Substitution of calcium with sodium in hydroxyapatite produced the structural vacancies for carbonate ion from phosphate site and hydrogen ion from hydroxide site of hydroxyapatite after sintering. The total system energy of sodium-substituted hydroxyapatite with structural defects calculated by ab initio methods based on quantum mechanics was much higher than that of hydroxyapatite, suggesting that the sodium-substituted hydroxyapatite was energetically less stable compared with hydroxyapatite. Indeed, sodium-substituted hydroxyapatite exhibited higher dissolution behavior of constituent elements of hydroxyapatite in simulated body fluid (SBF) and Tris-buffered deionized water compared with hydroxyapatite, which directly affected low-crystalline hydroxyl-carbonate apatite forming capacity by increasing the degree of apatite supersaturation in SBF. Actually, sodium-substituted hydroxyapatite exhibited markedly improved low-crystalline hydroxyl-carbonate apatite forming capacity in SBF and noticeably higher osteoconductivity 4 weeks after implantation in calvarial defects of New Zealand white rabbits compared with hydroxyapatite. In addition, there were no statistically significant differences between hydroxyapatite and sodium-substituted hydroxyapatite on cytotoxicity as determined by BCA assay. Taken together, these results indicate that sodium-substituted hydroxyapatite with structural defects has promising potential for use as a bone grafting material due to its enhanced osteoconductivity compared with hydroxyapatite.

  15. On the crucial influence of some supporting electrolytes during electrocoagulation in the presence of aluminum electrodes


    Trompette, Jean-Luc; Vergnes, Hugues


    The influence of some supporting electrolytes on aluminum electrode oxidation and pH variation during electrocoagulation of an unskimmed milk sample and a cutting oil emulsion has been investigated. Among the electrolytes studied, sulfate anions were found to be quite harmful both for electrical consumption and electrocoagulation efficiency. At the opposite, chloride and ammonium ionswere particularly benefic respectively for aluminum corrosion and pH regulation, whereas sodium cations were o...

  16. Analysis of Nitrogen in Sodium by Spectrophotometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Sodium sample in which nitrogen exists in form of sodium nitride, lithium nitride and calcium nitrideis solved by distilled water and produce ammonia. Ammonia is relieved when solution is heated, then it isabsorbed by hydrochloric acid to produce ammnium chloride. In alkaline solution, ammonium chlorideconverts into ammonia. Ammonia reacts with hypochlorite and phenol that produces a blue indophenol.Nitrogen is determined by 751G type spectrophotometry at the absorption wavelength of 635 nm. The work condition of 751G type spectroscopy, colorimetric condition, smicture of the apparatus

  17. Electrically conductive anodized aluminum coatings (United States)

    Alwitt, Robert S. (Inventor); Liu, Yanming (Inventor)


    A process for producing anodized aluminum with enhanced electrical conductivity, comprising anodic oxidation of aluminum alloy substrate, electrolytic deposition of a small amount of metal into the pores of the anodized aluminum, and electrolytic anodic deposition of an electrically conductive oxide, including manganese dioxide, into the pores containing the metal deposit; and the product produced by the process.

  18. China’s Aluminum Resources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    <正> The aluminum industry makes one of the keyindustries in China’s industrial and agriculturalmodernization and features a high degree ofrelevance with all industries.Of all the 124existing industries in China,113 use aluminum,representing an industrial relevance rate of91%.The consumption of aluminum is also ofhigh relevance with China’s GDP.

  19. 以尿钙排泄量为效应指标评价枸橼酸氢钾钠颗粒人体生物等效性%Evaluation of the bioequivalence of domestic and imported Potassium Sodium Hydrogen Citrate Granules with accumulative urinary excretion of calcium as index in healthy volunteers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张华; 刘沙; 李荣; 王本杰; 郭瑞臣


    Objective To evaluate the bioequivalence of imported and domestic Potassium Sodium Hydrogen Citrate Granules with accumulative urinary excretion of calcium as index in Chinese healthy volunteers. Methods Thirty - six healthy male volunteers were randomLy administered with a oral single dose of 5. 0 g domestic(test)and imported(refer-ence)Potassium Sodium Hydrogen Citrate Granules in a crossover study with a washout period of 7 days. Urine was collect-ed before or after oral doses at the scheduled time(0 ~ 2,2 ~ 4,4 ~ 6,6 ~ 8,8 ~ 10,10 ~ 12,12 ~ 24 h). Urine volumes were recorded,urinary calcium concentration was determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometric and twenty - four hours of accumulative urinary excretion of calcium were calculated. Results Twenty - four hours of accumulative urinary excretion of calcium were(128. 47 ± 76. 45)mg and(163. 53 ± 81. 28)mg before and after taking test preparation;(128. 34 ± 59. 55)mg and(179. 65 ± 103. 96)mg before and after taking reference preparation,respectively. Increase in 24 h urinary excretion of calcium after taking test and reference preparation were(35. 06 ± 61. 26)mg and(51. 31 ± 73. 18)mg,respec-tively. There was no significant difference(P ﹥ 0. 05)in increase of 24 h accumulative urinary excretion of calcium between the two preparations. Conclusion The domestic and imported Potassium Sodium Hydrogen Citrate Granules were bioequiv-alent.%目的:以24 h 尿液钙离子累计排泄量为指标,比较国产和进口枸橼酸氢钾钠颗粒剂的生物等效性。方法36名男性健康志愿者按自身交叉设计,随机口服枸橼酸氢钾钠颗粒剂的受试制剂(国产)或参比制剂(进口)5.0 g,(洗脱期7 d)。分别收集给药前(空白)和给药后0~2、2~4、4~6、6~8、8~10,10~12、12~24 h 的尿液,记录尿量,采用原子吸收分光光度法测定尿液钙离子浓度,计算给药前、后24 h 尿液钙累积排泄量。结

  20. Aluminum for Plasmonics (United States)


    in plasmon-enhanced light harvesting,14 photocatalysis ,511 surface- enhanced spectroscopies,1216 optics-based sensing,1722 nonlinear optics,2326...optical response of Al nanoparticles has appeared inconsistent relative to calculated spectra, even forwell-characterized geometries. Some studies have...model- ing their optical response. These results pro- vide a method for estimating the metallic purity of aluminum nanoparticles directly from their

  1. Ground-Based Detection of Exoatmospheric Calcium (United States)

    Rojo, Patricio M.; Astudillo-Defru, Nicola


    Data acquired with HDS@Subaru for HD209458b is re-analyzed. A new pipeline performs an automated search for the exoatmospheric presence of several elements without any a-priori assumptions on its existence or strength. We analyzed thousands of lines in the full spectral range of this optical echelle spectrograph using a robust method to correct for the telluric contamination. We recover previous detections of Sodium and Halpha, and present the first strong detection of Calcium in an Extrasolar Atmosphere as well as the tentative detection of other elements. The Calcium detection is in disagreement with theoretical thermal-equilibrium models.

  2. Comparative Study of Sodium and Potassium in Different Types of Gallstones and in Serum of Subjects with Gallstones and Controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mohammad Soomro


    Full Text Available The study comprises evaluation of sodium and potassium in the pathogenesis of human gallstones as well as measurement of the concentration of these elements in gallstones and in sera of 109 gallstone subjects and 100 controls (age and sex matched with no personal or family history of gallstone disease. It was observed that serum concentrations for both sodium and potassium were comparable (p>0.05 between gallstone subjects and control subjects. In gallstones the concentration of sodium was significantly higher as compared to potassium (p<0.05. Normal sodium to potassium ratio was seen in serum of gallstone subjects, whereas, low sodium to potassium ratio was seen in gallstone carriers. Amongst the different types of gallstones, significantly high (p<0.05 concentrations of sodium and potassium were seen in calcium bilirubinate gallstones. The levels for these mineral elements were also raised in serum of pure calcium carbonate gallstone subjects.The results demonstrate that the higher concentration of sodium and potassium in gallstones may involve in both calcium bilirubinate gallstones and in serum of calcium carbonate gallstone subjects, which indicate their association with calcium in the precipitation of calcium bilirubinate and calcium carbonate in bile. Furthermore, low sodium to potassium ratio in gallstones indicates low ratio in bile of gallstone subjects.

  3. Bone-tendon healing enhancement using injectable gelatin-sodium alginate-calcium citrate in rabbits%柠檬酸钙复合材料促进骨腱愈合的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安涛; 陈庆玉; 李苏; 周英勇; 赵志蓉; 彭磊


    目的:本实验为研发一种新型促进骨腱愈合材料———柠檬酸钙复合材料,并在合适动物实验模型中探究材料对骨腱愈合的作用。方法实验动物选用成年日本大白兔48只,将其随机分为6组,均采用双侧兔趾长伸肌腱模型,实验侧(右侧)注射注射型海藻酸钠-明胶-柠檬酸钙复合材料,对照侧(左侧)注射等量海藻酸钠-明胶液体。术后2、4、6、8、10、12周取材,行标本组织学染色观察,采用Image-Pro Plus 8.0图像分析软件测定肌腱周围每1mm2新生骨面积,进行生物力学测试。结果术后6周内,组织学示骨腱界面中,实验侧Sharpey纤维、纤维软骨、钙化软骨出现明显早于对照侧,骨腱间间隙明显减小;2、4、6、8、10周及12周,每1mm2中新生骨面积实验组均高于对照组;术后6周内,实验侧骨腱愈合抗牵拉强度明显高于对照侧。结论可注射型海藻酸钠-明胶-柠檬酸钙对骨腱愈合具有明显的促进作用,这种作用主要发生在早期。%Objective To develop a new kind of injectable composite material-alginate-gelatin-calcium cit-rate to enhance bone-tendon healing and investigate the enhancement of tendon to bone by using the osteoinductive biomaterial in appropriate animal models. Methods Forty-eight adult Japanese white rabbits were selected and randomly divided into 6 groups.All animals received the long digital extensor tendon modeling on both sides.On the experimental (the right) side,injectable alginate-gelatin-calcium citrate was injected.On the control (the left) side,equal amount of alginate-gelatin liquid was injected.Materials were drawn 2,4,6,8,10 and 12 weeks respec-tively from the six groups and the histopathologic changes were observed by staining.The amount of new bone for-mation over the grafted tendon was measured by Imagepro-Plus 8.0 and biomechanical tests were conducted.All ex-perimental data were analyzed with SSPS

  4. Consumo de fibra dietética, sodio, potasio y calcio y su relación con la presión arterial en hombres adultos normotensos Dietary fiber, energy, sodium, potassium and calcium intake and its relationship to blood pressure in normotensive male adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Nydia Ballesteros-Vásquez


    Full Text Available Objetivo. Evaluar el efecto del consumo de fibra dietética, energía, sodio, potasio y calcio sobre la presión arterial de un grupo de adultos normotensos, tomando en cuenta indicadores tales como la edad, el sexo, la actividad física y la obesidad. Material y métodos. Se evaluaron 38 sujetos del sexo masculino de 30 a 45 años de edad, normotensos, aparentemente sanos y residentes de la ciudad de Hermosillo, Sonora, México. Se midió la presión arterial y se realizó una evaluación dietética, antropométrica y de actividad física. Resultados. La dieta resultó ser alta en fibra y en grasa. El sodio estaba 56% por arriba de la recomendación en 87% de los casos y fue la variable que más efecto mostró sobre la presión diastólica. De los sujetos estudiados, 36.9% tenían sobrepeso y obesidad, y se encontró una asociación significativa entre el índice de masa corporal y la presión diastólica y sistólica. Conclusiones. Existe una asociación significativa entre la hipertensión arterial y el alto consumo de sodio, el sobrepeso y la obesidad en sujetos normotensos.Objective. To evaluate the effect of dietary fiber, energy, sodium, calcium and potassium intake on the blood pressure of a group of normotensive adults. Material and methods. Subjects were 38 healthy normotensive adult males aged 30-45 years, resident of Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico. Blood pressure, diet, anthropometric data and physical activity were recorded. Results. Their diet was high in fiber and fat. Sodium intake was 56% above the recommended values in 87% of the subjects, and the variable with the highest correlation to diastolic blood pressure. Of the subjects, 36.9% were overweight and obese, and a significant statistic association was found between BMI and diastolic and systolic blood pressure. Conclusions. A significant relationship was found between hypertension and high consumption of sodium, overweight and obesity in healthy adult normotensive males.

  5. Electroless Growth of Aluminum Dendrites in NaCl-AlCl3 Melts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Qingfeng; Hjuler, H.A.; Berg, Rolf W.


    The spontaneous growth of aluminum dendrites after deposition was observed and examined in sodium chloride-aluminumchloride melts. The concentration gradient of AlCl3 in the vicinity of the cathode surface resulting from electrolysisconstitutes a type of concentration cell with aluminum dendrites...... as electrodes. The short-circuit discharge of thecell is found to be the driving force for the growth of aluminum dendrites. Such a concentration gradient is proposed to beone of the causes for dendrite formation in the case of metal deposition....

  6. Enabling aqueous binders for lithium battery cathodes - Carbon coating of aluminum current collector (United States)

    Doberdò, Italo; Löffler, Nicholas; Laszczynski, Nina; Cericola, Dario; Penazzi, Nerino; Bodoardo, Silvia; Kim, Guk-Tae; Passerini, Stefano


    In this manuscript a novel approach to enable aqueous binders for lithium ion battery (LIB) cathodes is reported. Producing LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 (NMC) electrodes using sodium-carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) as a binder and water as a solvent, in fact, results in serious aluminum corrosion during electrode manufacturing due to the high pH of the slurry. In order to prevent the direct contact of the corrosive slurry with aluminum foil, the latter is first coated with a thin carbon layer. The CMC-based electrodes formed on carbon coated aluminum foil show enhanced performance than those made using unprotected aluminum instead. In particular, electrodes using protected aluminum foil are able to deliver a capacity of 126 mAh g-1 at 1C rate, which is rather close to that delivered by polyvinylidene-di-fluoride (PVdF)-based electrode having the same composition.

  7. Calcium chloride and tricalcium phosphate effects on the pink color defect in cooked ground and intact turkey breast. (United States)

    Sammel, L M; Claus, J R


    Calcium chloride (250, 500ppm) was examined for its ability to reduce the pink color defect induced by sodium nitrite (10ppm) and nicotinamide (1.0%) in cooked ground turkey in the presence and absence of sodium tripolyphosphate (0.25, 0.5%) and sodium citrate (0.5, 1.0%). The ability of tricalcium phosphate (0.1-0.5%) to reduce pink cooked color also was evaluated in ground turkey and both calcium chloride and tricalcium phosphate were tested for their effects on pink cooked color in whole breast muscle. The combination of calcium chloride and sodium tripolyphosphate, not calcium chloride alone, was necessary for a reduction in pink cooked color induced by nicotinamide. Subsequently, in the presence of phosphate, both calcium chloride and sodium citrate reduced pink cooked color and were most effective in combination. Tricalcium phosphate also was capable of reducing pink cooked color in ground turkey, however substituting tricalcium phosphate for sodium tripolyphosphate resulted in lower pH and cooking yields. Neither calcium chloride nor tricalcium phosphate was capable of reducing pink cooked color in whole turkey breast. Currently, a combination of sodium tripolyphosphate, calcium chloride, and sodium citrate represents the most suitable means for reducing or preventing the pink color defect in uncured ground turkey.

  8. Calcium and Vitamin D (United States)

    ... Cart Home › Patients › Treatment › Calcium/Vitamin D Calcium/Vitamin D Getting enough calcium and vitamin D is ... the-counter medications and calcium supplements. What is Vitamin D and What Does it Do? Vitamin D ...

  9. Role of calcium conductance in firing behavior of retinal ganglion cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dan Wang; Qingli Qiao; Nan Xie


    Fohlmeister-Coleman-Miller model of retinal ganglion cells consists of five ion channels; these are sodium channels, calcium channels, and 3 types of potassium channels. An increasing number of studies have investigated sodium channels, voltage-gated potassium channels, and delayed rectifier potassium channels. However, little is known about calcium channels, and in particular the dynamics and computational models of calcium ions. Retinal prostheses have been designed to assist with sight recovery for the blind, and in the present study, the effects of calcium ions in retinal ganglion cell models were analyzed with regard to calcium channel potential and calcium-activated potassium potential. Using MATLAB software, calcium conductance and calcium current from the Fohlmeister-Coleman-Miller model, under clamped voltages, were numerically computed using backward Euler methods. Subsequently, the Fohlmeister-Coleman-Miller model was simulated with the absence of calcium-current (lc,) or calcium-activated potassium current (IK, ca). The model was also analyzed according to the phase plane method.The relationship curve between peak calcium current and clamped potentials revealed an inverted bell shape, and the calcium-activated potassium current increased the frequency of firing and the peak of membrane potential. Results suggested that calcium ion concentrations play an important role in controlling the peak and the magnitude of peak membrane voltage in retinal ganglion cells.

  10. High-resolution /sup 27/Al NMR study of calcium aluminate catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yakerson, V.I.; Nissenbaum, V.D.; Golosman, E.Z.; Mastikhin, V.M.


    The high-resolution /sup 27/Al NMR spectra of calcium aluminates, calcium hydroaluminates, and calcium alumina supports and catalysts have been studied. The structures of the anhydrous calcium aluminates (CaAl/sub 2/O/sub 3/, CaAl/sub 4/O/sub 7/, 3CaO x Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, 12CaO x 7Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, talyum) consist of aluminum-oxygen tetrahedra and contain various types of aluminum atoms, the nonequivalence of which increases in going from strongly basic to weakly basic aluminates. In the NMR spectrum the signal of octahedrally coordinated aluminum is due to disordered aluminum-oxygen structures. During the forming of the calcium-alumina catalysts and supports the process (AlO/sub 4/) ..-->.. (AlO/sub 6/) takes place during hydration, and (AlO/sub 6/) ..-->.. (AlO/sub 4/) during thermolysis; the nonequivalence of the tetrahedrally coordinated aluminum atoms decreases, while the (AlO/sub 4/):(AlO/sub 6/) ratio decreases as the degree of hydration increases.

  11. Imaging calcium in neurons. (United States)

    Grienberger, Christine; Konnerth, Arthur


    Calcium ions generate versatile intracellular signals that control key functions in all types of neurons. Imaging calcium in neurons is particularly important because calcium signals exert their highly specific functions in well-defined cellular subcompartments. In this Primer, we briefly review the general mechanisms of neuronal calcium signaling. We then introduce the calcium imaging devices, including confocal and two-photon microscopy as well as miniaturized devices that are used in freely moving animals. We provide an overview of the classical chemical fluorescent calcium indicators and of the protein-based genetically encoded calcium indicators. Using application examples, we introduce new developments in the field, such as calcium imaging in awake, behaving animals and the use of calcium imaging for mapping single spine sensory inputs in cortical neurons in vivo. We conclude by providing an outlook on the prospects of calcium imaging for the analysis of neuronal signaling and plasticity in various animal models.

  12. Research on the determination of sodium propionate and calcium propionate as preservatives in food by HPLC%食品中防腐剂丙酸钠、丙酸钙检测方法的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    By using the high performance liquid chromatography (including UV detector), chromatogram conditions of emerging peak and pretreatment methods of moon-cake, cake , dry soybean curd ,sausage and noodle etc had been studied in this paper. At the same time, sodium diacetate can be determined, and its qualitative and quantitative tests in this method have been done. The experimental results show that linear relation of this method is preferable .recovery of this method was more than 90%; RSD <3.0%, precision of this method is high and the least detecting concentration of this method is 0.03g/kg, the least guantitative detecte limit of this method is 0.10g/kg.%本文采用高效液相色谱仪(配紫外检测器),摸索出对食品中的防腐剂丙酸钠(钙)的测定的色谱条件和月饼、蛋糕、豆腐干、酱油、面条等食品的前处理方法,并能同时检测双乙酸钠等2种防腐剂,进行准确的定性和定量测定的研究.标准曲线有较好的线性关系,方法回收率达90%以上;RSD<3.0%,精密度高;方法最低检出限为0.03g/kg,方法定量限为0.10g/kg.

  13. Physicochemical properties of calcium polycarbophil, a water-absorbing polymer. (United States)

    Yamada, T; Kitayama, M; Yamazaki, M; Nagata, O; Tamaj, I; Tsuji, A


    The physicochemical properties of calcium polycarbophil were examined. Calcium polycarbophil was decalcified rapidly under acidic conditions, affording polycarbophil. Polycarbophil absorbed about 10 times its own weight of water under acidic conditions, but the swelling ratio markedly increased at above pH 4.0 and reached 70 times the initial weight under neutral conditions. The swelling of polycarbophil was not affected by non-ionic osmolarity, but was affected by ionic strength, showing a decrease with increase of ionic strength. Monovalent metal ions such as sodium and potassium ions in gastrointestinal fluid did not reduce the equilibrium swelling of polycarbophil, but divalent ions such as calcium and magnesium ions did. However, calcium ion only slightly reduced the equilibrium swelling under sodium-rich conditions. The viscosity (as an indicator of fluidity) of polycarbophil was larger than that of CMC-Na at every shear rate and polymer content examined.

  14. Gel time of calcium acrylate grouting material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Calcium acrylate is a polymerized grout, and can polymerize in an aqueous solution. The polymerizationreaction utilizes ammonium persulfate as a catalyst and sodium thiosulfate as the activator. Based on the theory of reactionkinetics, this study on the relation between gel time and concentration of activator and catalyst showed that gel time ofcalcium acrylate is inversely proportional to activator and catalyst concentration. A formula of gel time is proposed, and anexample is provided to verify the proposed formula.

  15. Aluminum microstructures on anodic alumina for aluminum wiring boards. (United States)

    Jha, Himendra; Kikuchi, Tatsuya; Sakairi, Masatoshi; Takahashi, Hideaki


    The paper demonstrates simple methods for the fabrication of aluminum microstructures on the anodic oxide film of aluminum. The aluminum sheets were first engraved (patterned) either by laser beam or by embossing to form deep grooves on the surface. One side of the sheet was then anodized, blocking the other side by using polymer mask to form the anodic alumina. Because of the lower thickness at the bottom part of the grooves, the part was completely anodized before the complete oxidation of the other parts. Such selectively complete anodizing resulted in the patterns of metallic aluminum on anodic alumina. Using the technique, we fabricated microstructures such as line patterns and a simple wiring circuit-board-like structure on the anodic alumina. The aluminum microstructures fabricated by the techniques were embedded in anodic alumina/aluminum sheet, and this technique is promising for applications in electronic packaging and devices.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langton, C.; Stefanko, D.


    The objective of this report is to document laboratory testing of blended calcium aluminate - calcium hemihydrate grouts for P-Reactor vessel in-situ decommissioning. Blended calcium aluminate - calcium hemihydrate cement-based grout was identified as candidate material for filling (physically stabilizing) the 105-P Reactor vessel (RV) because it is less alkaline than portland cement-based grout which has a pH greater than 12.4. In addition, blended calcium aluminate - calcium hemihydrate cement compositions can be formulated such that the primary cementitious phase is a stable crystalline material. A less alkaline material (pH {<=} 10.5) was desired to address a potential materials compatibility issue caused by corrosion of aluminum metal in highly alkaline environments such as that encountered in portland cement grouts [Wiersma, 2009a and b, Wiersma, 2010, and Serrato and Langton, 2010]. Information concerning access points into the P-Reactor vessel and amount of aluminum metal in the vessel is provided elsewhere [Griffin, 2010, Stefanko, 2009 and Wiersma, 2009 and 2010, Bobbitt, 2010, respectively]. Radiolysis calculations are also provided in a separate document [Reyes-Jimenez, 2010].

  17. Vapor Pressure of Aluminum Chloride Systems. 3. Vapor Pressure of Aluminum Chloride-Sodium Chloride Melts (United States)


    were all as described previously (10). A .XCp/R log T(1, 2). mercury manometer was used as n additional external piessure The data were least-squares...the use of a mercury manometer and a NMLeod gauge, respectively, for pressure measurement; all other pressure measurements were made with a

  18. Aluminum Carbothermic Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruno, Marshall J.


    This report documents the non-proprietary research and development conducted on the Aluminum Carbothermic Technology (ACT) project from contract inception on July 01, 2000 to termination on December 31, 2004. The objectives of the program were to demonstrate the technical and economic feasibility of a new carbothermic process for producing commercial grade aluminum, designated as the ''Advanced Reactor Process'' (ARP). The scope of the program ranged from fundamental research through small scale laboratory experiments (65 kW power input) to larger scale test modules at up to 1600 kW power input. The tasks included work on four components of the process, Stages 1 and 2 of the reactor, vapor recovery and metal alloy decarbonization; development of computer models; and economic analyses of capital and operating costs. Justification for developing a new, carbothermic route to aluminum production is defined by the potential benefits in reduced energy, lower costs and more favorable environmental characteristics than the conventional Hall-Heroult process presently used by the industry. The estimated metrics for these advantages include energy rates at approximately 10 kWh/kg Al (versus over 13 kWh/kg Al for Hall-Heroult), capital costs as low as $1250 per MTY (versus 4,000 per MTY for Hall-Heroult), operating cost reductions of over 10%, and up to 37% reduction in CO2 emissions for fossil-fuel power plants. Realization of these benefits would be critical to sustaining the US aluminum industries position as a global leader in primary aluminum production. One very attractive incentive for ARP is its perceived ability to cost effectively produce metal over a range of smelter sizes, not feasible for Hall-Heroult plants which must be large, 240,000 TPY or more, to be economical. Lower capacity stand alone carbothermic smelters could be utilized to supply molten metal at fabrication facilities similar to the mini-mill concept employed by the steel industry

  19. Adsorption behavior of condensed phosphate on aluminum hydroxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUAN Xiao-hong; CHEN Guang-hao; SHANG Chii


    Sodium pyrophosphate(pyro-P,Na4P207),sodium tripolyphosphate(tripoly-P,NasP3010),and sodium hexametaphosphate(metaP,(NaP03)6)were selected as the model compounds of condensed phosphate to investigate the adsorption behavior of condensed phosphate on aluminum hydroxide.The adsorption was found to be endothermic and divisible into two stages:(1)fast adsorption within 1 h:and(2)slow adsorption between 1 and 24 h.The modified Freundlich model simulated the fast adsorption stage well;the slow adsorption stage was described well by the first-order kinetics.The activation energies of pyro-P,tripoly-P,and meta-P adsorption on aluminum hydroxide were determined to be 20.2,22.8 and 10.9 kJ/mol P adsorbed,respectively,in the fast adsorption stage and to be and 72.5 kJ/tool P adsorbed,respectively,in the slow adsorption stage.The adsorption increased the negative charge of the aluminum hydroxide surface.Transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis analyses provided evidence that the adsorption was not uniform on the surface and that the small crystals contfibuted more to the fast adsorption than the normal sites did.The results from X-ray fluorescence spectrometry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy tests also revealed the uneven adsorption of condensed phosphate as a function of the penetration depth.More condensed phosphates were adsorbed on the outer surface of aluminum hydroxide than in its inner parts.

  20. 奥扎格雷钠注射液与低分子肝素钙治疗不稳定型心绞痛的疗效观察%Observation on the curative effect of Ozagrel Sodium Injection and low molecular weight heparin calcium on unstable angina pectoris

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    目的:探讨奥扎格雷钠注射液与低分子肝素钙联合应用在不稳定型心绞痛中的治疗效果。方法选择本院82例不稳定型心绞痛患者,上述患者随机分为观察组和对照组,两组均给予常规治疗,对照组同时给予奥扎格雷钠注射液,观察组给予奥扎格雷钠注射液联合低分子肝素。评定两组疗效,观察血液流变学指标改变情况。结果观察组总有效率为95.0%,对照组总有效率为75.6%,观察组总有效率高于对照组(P<0.05)。观察组治疗后全血粘度高切、全血粘度低切和血液粘度分别与对照组治疗后比较,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论奥扎格雷钠注射液与低分子肝素钙治疗不稳定型心绞痛效果显著,有助于改善患者血液流变学指标,值得借鉴。%Objective To explore the effect of combined application of Ozagrel Sodium Injection and low molecular weight heparin on unstable angina pectoris. Methods 82 cases with unstable angina patients, the patients were randomly divided into observation group and control group, two groups were given conventional treatment, the control group was treated ozagrel sodium Injection, the observation group was given ozagrel sodium Injection combined with low molecular weight heparin. the efficacy of two groups was evaluated, the changes of blood rheology was observed. Results The total effective rate in the observation group, was 95%, the total effective rate in the control group was 75.6%, the total effective rate in observation groupwas higher than that in the control group (P<0.05). The whole blood high shear viscosity, whole blood low shear viscosity and blood viscosity in the observation group after treatment compared with those in the control group after treatment, the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). Conclusion Ozagrel sodium Injection combined with low molecular weight heparin calcium on unstable angina pectoris has significant effect

  1. Laser assisted foaming of aluminum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kathuria, Y.P. [Laser X Co. Ltd., Aichi (Japan)


    Recently aluminum foams have evoked considerable interest as an alternative material owing to their wide range of applications ranging from microelectronics, through automobiles to aerospace industries. The manufacturing techniques and characterization methods for aluminum foams require further development to achieve effective and economical use of this material. In this communication the authors demonstrate the feasibility of unidirectional and localized expansion of the aluminum foam using the Nd-YAG/CO{sub 2} laser and powder metallurgy. (orig.)

  2. Kinetics of the Carbonate Leaching for Calcium Metavanadate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peiyang Shi


    Full Text Available The sodium salt roasting process was widely used for extracting vanadium due to its high yield rate of vanadium. However, the serious pollution was a problem. The calcium roasting process was environmentally friendly, but the yield rate of vanadium was relatively lower. Focusing on the calcium metavanadate produced in the calcium roasting process of vanadium minerals, the mechanism of the carbonate leaching for calcium metavanadate and its leaching kinetics of calcium metavanadate were studied. With the increase of the leaching agent content, the decrease of the particle size, the increase of the temperature and the increase of the reaction time, the leaching rate of vanadium increased, and the constant of reaction rate increased. In the carbonate leaching process, the calcium carbonate was globular and attached to the surface of calcium metavanadate. In the solution containing bicarbonate radical, lots of cracks formed in the dissolution process. However, the cracks were relatively fewer in the solution containing carbonate. In the present study, the carbonate leaching for calcium metavanadate was controlled by diffusion, the activation energy reached maximum and minimum in the sodium bicarbonate and the sodium carbonate solution, respectively. The activation energy value in the ammonium bicarbonate solution was between those two solutions. The kinetic equations of the carbonate leaching for calcium metavanadate were as follows: 1 − 2/3η − (1 − η2/3 = 4.39[Na2CO3]0.75/r0 × exp(−2527.06/Tt; 1 − 2/3η − (1 − η2/3 = 7.89[NaHCO3]0.53/r0 × exp(−2530.67/Tt; 1 − 2/3η − (1 − η2/3 = 6.78[NH4HCO3]0.69/r0 × exp(−2459.71/Tt.

  3. Astrocyte sodium signaling and neuro-metabolic coupling in the brain. (United States)

    Rose, C R; Chatton, J-Y


    At tripartite synapses, astrocytes undergo calcium signaling in response to release of neurotransmitters and this calcium signaling has been proposed to play a critical role in neuron-glia interaction. Recent work has now firmly established that, in addition, neuronal activity also evokes sodium transients in astrocytes, which can be local or global depending on the number of activated synapses and the duration of activity. Furthermore, astrocyte sodium signals can be transmitted to adjacent cells through gap junctions and following release of gliotransmitters. A main pathway for activity-related sodium influx into astrocytes is via high-affinity sodium-dependent glutamate transporters. Astrocyte sodium signals differ in many respects from the well-described glial calcium signals both in terms of their temporal as well as spatial distribution. There are no known buffering systems for sodium ions, nor is there store-mediated release of sodium. Sodium signals thus seem to represent rather direct and unbiased indicators of the site and strength of neuronal inputs. As such they have an immediate influence on the activity of sodium-dependent transporters which may even reverse in response to sodium signaling, as has been shown for GABA transporters for example. Furthermore, recovery from sodium transients through Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase requires a measurable amount of ATP, resulting in an activation of glial metabolism. In this review, we present basic principles of sodium regulation and the current state of knowledge concerning the occurrence and properties of activity-related sodium transients in astrocytes. We then discuss different aspects of the relationship between sodium changes in astrocytes and neuro-metabolic coupling, putting forward the idea that indeed sodium might serve as a new type of intracellular ion signal playing an important role in neuron-glia interaction and neuro-metabolic coupling in the healthy and diseased brain.

  4. Difference of Sodium Currents between Pediatric and Adult Human Atrial Myocytes: Evidence for Developmental Changes of Sodium Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benzhi Cai, Xiaoqin Mu, Dongmei Gong, Shulin Jiang, Jianping Li, Qingxin Meng, Yunlong Bai, Yanju Liu, Xinyue Wang, Xueying Tan, Baofeng Yang, Yanjie Lu


    Full Text Available Voltage-gated calcium currents and potassium currents were shown to undergo developmental changes in postnatal human and animal cardiomocytes. However, so far, there is no evidence whether sodium currents also presented the developmental changes in postnatal human atrial cells. The aim of this study was to observe age-related changes of sodium currents between pediatric and adult atrial myocytes. Human atrial myocytes were acutely isolated and the whole-cell patch clamp technique was used to record sodium currents isolated from pediatric and adult atrial cardiomocytes. The peak amplitude of sodium currents recorded in adult atrial cells was significantly larger than that in pediatric atrial myocytes. However, there was no significant difference of the activation voltage for peak sodium currents between two kinds of atrial myocytes. The time constants for the activation and inactivation of sodium currents were smaller in adult atria than pediatric atria. The further study revealed that the voltage-dependent inactivation of sodium currents were more slow in adult atrial cardiomyocytes than pediatric atrial cells. A significant difference was also observed in the recovery process of sodium channel from inactivation. In summary, a few significant differences were demonstrated in sodium currents characteristics between pediatric and adult atrial myocytes, which indicates that sodium currents in human atria also undergo developmental changes.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami ŞAHİN


    Full Text Available At present more than 90 per cent of the world's alumina is produced by the Bayer process, a simple technology providing high purity final product. A part from some exceptional local conditions, bauxite is processed almost solely by this technology. As a benefication process, alumina production releases the aluminum oxide content of bauxite from other accompanying oxides thus providing alumina suitable for electrolysis in a cryolite melt. The basic theory of the Bayer process was elaborated by K.J. Bayer and described in his patents in 1887 and 1892. The first patent refers to the aid of seed crystals of aluminum hydroxide or of carbonic acid, that is, to the precipitation and carbonation processes. The second patent formulates the concept that the aluminum oxide content of bauxites can be dissolved in sodium hydroxide solutions, with the formulation of sodium aluminate, a process called digestion nowadays. The most important operations of the Bayer technology are bauxite preparation, crushing, grinding, digestion, red mud separation, thickening, washing, filtration, precipitation, calcination and evaporation. In spite of its great significance as regards the complete Bayer technology, the structure of sodium aluminate solutions has not been cleared up definitely yet. Boehmite is the most important aluminum mineral of karstic bauxites. Some experimental results showing the various effects on aluminum hydroxides by alkali process from boehmitic bauxites and the factors gowerning the digestion operation of aluminate solutions were investigated.

  6. Enabling room temperature sodium metal batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Ruiguo; Mushra, Kuber; Li, Xiaolin; Qian, Jiangfeng; Engelhard, Mark H.; Bowden, Mark E.; Han, Kee Sung; Mueller, Karl T.; Henderson, Wesley A.; Zhang, Jiguang


    Rechargeable batteries based upon sodium (Na+) cations are at the core of many new battery chemistries beyond Li-ion batteries. Rather than using carbon or alloy-based anodes, the direct utilization of solid sodium metal as an anode would be highly advantageous, but its use has been highly problematic due to its high reactivity. In this work, however, it is demonstrated that, by tailoring the electrolyte formulation, solid Na metal can be electrochemically plated/stripped at ambient temperature with high efficiency (> 99%) on both copper and inexpensive aluminum current collectors thereby enabling a shift in focus to new battery chemical couples based upon Na metal operating at ambient temperature. These highly concentrated electrolytes has enabled stable cycling of Na metal batteries based on a Na metal anode and Na3V2(PO4)3 cathode at high rates with very high efficiency.

  7. Diclofenac sodium overdose (United States)

    ... page: // Diclofenac sodium overdose To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Diclofenac sodium is a prescription medicine used to relieve pain ...

  8. Naproxen sodium overdose (United States)

    ... page: // Naproxen sodium overdose To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Naproxen sodium is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) used ...

  9. Docusate Sodium and Pregnancy (United States)

    ... live chat Live Help Fact Sheets Share Docusate Sodium Friday, 01 April 2016 In every pregnancy, a ... This sheet talks about whether exposure to docusate sodium may increase the risk for birth defects over ...

  10. Sodium hydroxide poisoning (United States)

    Sodium hydroxide is a very strong chemical. It is also known as lye and caustic soda. This ... poisoning from touching, breathing in (inhaling), or swallowing sodium hydroxide. This article is for information only. Do ...

  11. Sodium carbonate poisoning (United States)

    Sodium carbonate (known as washing soda or soda ash) is a chemical found in many household and ... products. This article focuses on poisoning due to sodium carbonate. This article is for information only. Do ...

  12. Sodium Ferric Gluconate Injection (United States)

    Sodium ferric gluconate injection is used to treat iron-deficiency anemia (a lower than normal number of ... are also receiving the medication epoetin (Epogen, Procrit). Sodium ferric gluconate injection is in a class of ...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    To reduce the additional sodium hydroxide and ease processing of aluminum bearing sludge, the lithium hydrotalcite (LiHT) process has been invented by AREV A and demonstrated on a laboratory scale to remove alumina and regenerate/recycle sodium hydroxide prior to processing in the WTP. The method uses lithium hydroxide (LiOH) to precipitate sodium aluminate (NaAI(OH){sub 4}) as lithium hydrotalcite (Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}.4Al(OH){sub 3}.3H{sub 2}O) while generating sodium hydroxide (NaOH). In addition, phosphate substitutes in the reaction to a high degree, also as a filterable solid. The sodium hydroxide enriched leachate is depleted in aluminum and phosphate, and is recycled to double-shell tanks (DSTs) to leach aluminum bearing sludges. This method eliminates importing sodium hydroxide to leach alumina sludge and eliminates a large fraction of the total sludge mass to be treated by the WTP. Plugging of process equipment is reduced by removal of both aluminum and phosphate in the tank wastes. Laboratory tests were conducted to verify the efficacy of the process and confirm the results of previous tests. These tests used both single-shell tank (SST) and DST simulants.

  14. Late sodium current: A mechanism for angina, heart failure, and arrhythmia. (United States)

    Makielski, Jonathan C


    The peak sodium current underlies excitability and conduction in heart muscle, but a late sodium current flowing after the peak contributes to maintaining and prolonging the action potential plateau, and also to intracellular sodium loading, which in turn increases intracellular calcium with consequent effects on arrhythmia and diastolic function. Late sodium current is pathologically increased in both genetic and acquired heart disease, making it an attractive target for therapy to treat arrhythmia, heart failure, and angina. This review provides an overview of the underlying bases for the clinical implications of late sodium current block.

  15. Neurofibrillary pathology and aluminum in Alzheimer's disease


    Shin, R. W.; Lee, V.M.Y.; Trojanowski, J.Q.


    Since the first reports of aluminum-induced neurofibrillary degeneration in experimental animals, extensive studies have been performed to clarify the role played by aluminum in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Additional evidence implicating aluminum in AD includes elevated levels of aluminum in the AD brain, epidemiological data linking aluminum exposure to AD, and interactions between aluminum and protein components in the pathological lesions o...

  16. Calcium and Mitosis (United States)

    Hepler, P.


    Although the mechanism of calcium regulation is not understood, there is evidence that calcium plays a role in mitosis. Experiments conducted show that: (1) the spindle apparatus contains a highly developed membrane system that has many characteristics of sarcoplasmic reticulum of muscle; (2) this membrane system contains calcium; and (3) there are ionic fluxes occurring during mitosis which can be seen by a variety of fluorescence probes. Whether the process of mitosis can be modulated by experimentally modulating calcium is discussed.

  17. Nanocomposite anode materials for sodium-ion batteries (United States)

    Manthiram, Arumugam; Kim Il, Tae; Allcorn, Eric


    The disclosure relates to an anode material for a sodium-ion battery having the general formula AO.sub.x--C or AC.sub.x--C, where A is aluminum (Al), magnesium (Mg), titanium (Ti), vanadium (V), chromium (Cr), manganese (Mn), iron (Fe), cobalt (Co), nickel (Ni), zirconium (Zr), molybdenum (Mo), tungsten (W), niobium (Nb), tantalum (Ta), silicon (Si), or any combinations thereof. The anode material also contains an electrochemically active nanoparticles within the matrix. The nanoparticle may react with sodium ion (Na.sup.+) when placed in the anode of a sodium-ion battery. In more specific embodiments, the anode material may have the general formula M.sub.ySb-M'O.sub.x--C, Sb-MO.sub.x--C, M.sub.ySn-M'C.sub.x--C, or Sn-MC.sub.x--C. The disclosure also relates to rechargeable sodium-ion batteries containing these materials and methods of making these materials.

  18. Calcium - Function and effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liang, Jianfen; He, Yifan; Gao, Qian; Wang, Xuan; Nout, M.J.R.


    Rice is the primary food source for more than half of the world population. Levels of calcium contents and inhibitor - phytic acid are summarized in this chapter. Phytic acid has a very strong chelating ability and it is the main inhibit factor for calcium in rice products. Calcium contents in br

  19. Octreotide enhances positive calcium balance in Duchenne muscular dystrophy. (United States)

    Nutting, D F; Schriock, E A; Palmieri, G M; Bittle, J B; Elmendorf, B J; Horner, L H; Edwards, M C; Griffin, J W; Sacks, H S; Bertorini, T E


    Although receptors for somatostatin are found in bone cells, the effect of somatostatin analogs on calcium metabolism is unknown. The authors studied, in a metabolic ward, the effect of octreotide (a long-acting somatostatin analog) and a placebo in two 6-day calcium balance periods in 8 children with Duchenne muscular dystrophy. As expected, octreotide (2 micrograms/kg, subcutaneously, every 8 hours) reduced serum growth hormone and somatomedin (IGF-1) to levels found in growth hormone deficiency. Octreotide enhanced calcium retention by 30% (96 mg daily [P < 0.04]) in 7 boys for whom complete data (diet, urine, and fecal calcium) were available. In 6 children with urinary calcium excretion (Uca) greater than 50 mg daily, octreotide markedly lowered Uca, from 114 +/- 23 mg daily to 61 +/- 9 mg daily (P < 0.03). Calcium retention occurred in patients with or without initial hypercalciuria, but the higher the basal Uca, the greater was the inhibition by octreotide (r = 0.79; P < 0.03). Inactive, nonambulatory patients had a more pronounced response of Uca to octreotide (P < 0.02). Octreotide caused a mild, nonsignificant reduction in fecal calcium, with no major changes in serum calcium, phosphorus, parathyroid hormone, urinary excretion of sodium and potassium, or in creatinine clearance. Based on the current observations and the presence of receptors for somatostatin in bone cells, this hormone may have, at least on a short-term basis, an anabolic effect on calcium, perhaps favoring its deposition in bone.

  20. Aluminum Nanoholes for Optical Biosensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Angulo Barrios


    Full Text Available Sub-wavelength diameter holes in thin metal layers can exhibit remarkable optical features that make them highly suitable for (biosensing applications. Either as efficient light scattering centers for surface plasmon excitation or metal-clad optical waveguides, they are able to form strongly localized optical fields that can effectively interact with biomolecules and/or nanoparticles on the nanoscale. As the metal of choice, aluminum exhibits good optical and electrical properties, is easy to manufacture and process and, unlike gold and silver, its low cost makes it very promising for commercial applications. However, aluminum has been scarcely used for biosensing purposes due to corrosion and pitting issues. In this short review, we show our recent achievements on aluminum nanohole platforms for (biosensing. These include a method to circumvent aluminum degradation—which has been successfully applied to the demonstration of aluminum nanohole array (NHA immunosensors based on both, glass and polycarbonate compact discs supports—the use of aluminum nanoholes operating as optical waveguides for synthesizing submicron-sized molecularly imprinted polymers by local photopolymerization, and a technique for fabricating transferable aluminum NHAs onto flexible pressure-sensitive adhesive tapes, which could facilitate the development of a wearable technology based on aluminum NHAs.

  1. Ballistic Evaluation of 2060 Aluminum (United States)


    experiments in Experimental Facilities (EFs) 108 and 106, as well as John Hogan of ARL/AMB, Hugh Walter of Bowhead Science and Technology, and David aluminum (Al)-based monocoque armored-vehicle hulls such as those of the M2 Bradley Infantry Fighting Vehicles. Also in 2012 the Aluminum

  2. Impairment of ciprofloxacin absorption by calcium polycarbophil. (United States)

    Kato, Ryuji; Ueno, Kazuyuki; Imano, Hideki; Kawai, Masayuki; Kuwahara, Shiro; Tsuchishita, Yoshimasa; Yonezawa, Emi; Tanaka, Kazuhiko


    The effect of calcium polycarbophil on the absorption of ciprofloxacin, a broad-spectrum antibacterial agent, was evaluated in an in vitro and in vivo study. In the in vitro study, the release of ciprofloxacin from the cellulose membrane in the presence or absence of metal cations was measured using the dissolution test procedure. In the in vivo study, male ST Wistar rats and male volunteers were employed. First, 20 mg/kg of ciprofloxacin alone (Rat Study 1) or 20 mg/kg of ciprofloxacin in combination with 64 mg/kg of calcium chloride (Rat Study 2) was administered orally to 3 rats. Second, a volunteer study was employed and a randomized crossover design with twophases was used. In onephase, volunteers received 400 mg of ciprofloxacin alone (Study 1); in the other phase, they received 400 mg of ciprofloxacin and 1200 mg of fine calcium polycarbophil granules concomitantly (Study 2). The plasma and serum concentrations of ciprofloxacin were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. The release of ciprofloxacin from the cellulose membrane in the presence of aluminum, calcium, or iron ions was slower than that in the absence of these metal ions. The AUC0-4 and Cmax in Rat Study 2 were lower than those respective values in Rat Study 1. AUC0-4 was approximately 60% lower in Rat Study 2 than Rat Study 1. In the volunteer study, the AUC0-12 and Cmax in Study 2 were lower than those respective values in Study 1. In particular, AUC0-12 was approximately 50% lowerin Study 2 than in Study 1. These findings suggest that when ciprofloxacin and calcium polycarbophil were coadministered concomitantly, a decrease of ciprofloxacin absorption was observed, and this action was caused by the formation of chelate complexes. Therefore, it seems clear that we should avoid the concomitant administration of ciprofloxacin and calcium polycarbophil.

  3. Wettability of Aluminum on Alumina (United States)

    Bao, Sarina; Tang, Kai; Kvithyld, Anne; Tangstad, Merete; Engh, Thorvald Abel


    The wettability of molten aluminum on solid alumina substrate has been investigated by the sessile drop technique in a 10-8 bar vacuum or under argon atmosphere in the temperature range from 1273 K to 1673 K (1000 °C to 1400 °C). It is shown that the reduction of oxide skin on molten aluminum is slow under normal pressures even with ultralow oxygen potential, but it is enhanced in high vacuum. To describe the wetting behavior of the Al-Al2O3 system at lower temperatures, a semiempirical calculation was employed. The calculated contact angle at 973 K (700 °C) is approximately 97 deg, which indicates that aluminum does not wet alumina at aluminum casting temperatures. Thus, a priming height is required for aluminum to infiltrate a filter. Wetting in the Al-Al2O3 system increases with temperature.

  4. Efficacy of supplemental natural zeolite in broiler chickens subjected to dietary calcium deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erol Bintaş


    Full Text Available Natural zeolite, or sodium aluminosilicate, influences calcium (Ca and phosphorus (P utilisation in chicks. A 2×2 factorial arrangement of treatments was used to investigate the effect of dietary Ca (recommended and below recommended levels and zeolite (0 and 0.8% on growth, plasma, tibia and faeces in chickens from 1 to 42 days of age. Zeolite supplementation did not affect overall body weight (BW gain, feed intake (FI or feed conversion ratio (FCR of broiler chickens (P>0.05. Overall mortality of zeolite-fed chickens was lower than in untreated ones (P<0.01. Reduction of dietary Ca of approximately 10 to 18% decreased (P<0.05 BW at 14 and 42 days of age in association with reduced FI, but overall FCR was unchanged. Serum protein and sodium constituents were reduced in birds fed zeolite (P<0.05. Decreasing dietary Ca level increased (P<0.01 serum, total protein and glucose concentrations, but decreased Ca level. Zeolite decreased bone ash in birds fed a Ca-deficient diet while increased faecal excretion of ash, Ca, P and aluminum. However, zeolite increased tibia weight (P<0.05 and thickness (P<0.01. No significant response (P>0.05 in relative weight and gross lesion scores of liver or footpad lesion scores was found related to changes in dietary regimens. The results of the present study do not corroborate the hypothesis that the effectiveness of zeolite may be improved in Ca-deficient diets in association with its ion exchange capability.

  5. Sodium in feline nutrition. (United States)

    Nguyen, P; Reynolds, B; Zentek, J; Paßlack, N; Leray, V


    High sodium levels in cat food have been controversial for a long time. Nonetheless, high sodium levels are used to enhance water intake and urine volume, with the main objective of reducing the risk of urolithiasis. This article is a review of current evidence of the putative risks and benefits of high dietary sodium levels. Its secondary aim is to report a possible safe upper limit (SUL) for sodium intake. The first part of the manuscript is dedicated to sodium physiology, with a focus on the mechanisms of sodium homeostasis. In this respect, there is only few information regarding possible interactions with other minerals. Next, the authors address how sodium intake affects sodium balance; knowledge of these effects is critical to establish recommendations for sodium feed content. The authors then review the consequences of changes in sodium intake on feline health, including urolithiasis, blood pressure changes, cardiovascular alterations and kidney disease. According to recent, long-term studies, there is no evidence of any deleterious effect of dietary sodium levels as high as 740 mg/MJ metabolizable energy, which can therefore be considered the SUL based on current knowledge.

  6. Mucoadhesion on pig vesical mucosa: influence of polycarbophil/calcium interactions. (United States)

    Kerec, M; Bogataj, M; Mugerle, B; Gasperlin, M; Mrhar, A


    The influence of polycarbophil/calcium interactions on the mucoadhesive properties of polycarbophil has been examined. Polycarbophil dispersions and films with different concentrations of calcium or sodium ions were prepared and the following parameters were measured: detachment force on pig vesical mucosa, zeta potential, pH and viscosity. Polycarbophil detachment force decreased significantly in the presence of calcium but not sodium. Both ions decrease the pH of polycarbophil dispersions. On the other hand, altering the pH of hydrated polycarbophil films in the absence of added ions had an insignificant effect on detachment force. Both ions reduce the absolute values of polycarbophil zeta potential, calcium more efficiently than sodium. We could conclude that decreased mucoadhesion strength of polycarbophil in the presence of calcium is due to the chelation of polycarbophil carboxylic groups by calcium and crosslinking of polymer. The crosslinked polymer chains would be expected to be less flexible, and therefore, interpenetrate to a lesser extent with the glycosaminoglycans of mucus. Additionally, the interactions between functional groups of polycarbophil and mucus glycosaminoglycans are lowered due to the calcium, blocking the carboxylic groups. The mechanism of calcium influence on viscosity of polycarbophil dispersions appears to be different: repulsion between ionised carboxylic groups of polycarbophil prevails over the crosslinking of polycarbophil by calcium.

  7. Hualu Aluminum Will Construct Large Coal-Power-Aluminum Aluminum Processing Industrial Chain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The reporter learned from relevant departments of Baiyin City that in order to further push forward industrial upgrading,fulfill expansion and consolidation of the enterprise,Gansu Hualu Aluminum Co.,Ltd(Hualu Aluminum)will implement Out-Of-City-Into-Park project,

  8. Modulation of Tartrates with Various Counterions on the Phases of Calcium Oxalate in Gelatinous Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian Ming OUYANG; Xiang Ping LI


    Effect of various counterions of tartrate on the crystallization of calcium oxalate in gel system was investigated using scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Various tartrates with hydrogen (H2tart), sodium (Na2tart), potassium (K2tart), ammonium ((NH4)2tart), and a mixture of sodium and potassium cations (NaKtart) were considered. For H2tart, Na2tart, and (NH4)2tart, calcium oxalate dihydrate (COD) was induced. However, for K2tart and NaKtart,calcium oxalate trihydrate (COT) was obtained.

  9. Preparation and Characterization of Calcium Carbonate Nanoparticles (United States)

    Hassim, Aqilah; Rachmawati, Heni


    Taking calcium supplements can reduce the risk of developing osteoporosis, but they are not readily absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract. Nanotechnology is expected to resolve this problem. In this study, we prepared and characterized calcium carbonate nanoparticle to improve the solubility by using bottom-up method. The experiment was done by titrating calcium chloride with sodium carbonate with the addition of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) as stabilizer, using ultra-turrax. Various concentrations of calcium chloride and sodium carbonate as well as various speed of stirring were used to prepare the calcium carbonate nanoparticles. Evaluations studied were including particle size, polydispersity index (PI) and zeta potential with particle analyzer, surface morphology with scanning electron microscope, and saturated solubility. In addition, to test the ability of PVP to prevent particles growth, short stability study was performed by storing nano CaCO3 suspension at room temperature for 2 weeks. Results show that using 8000 rpm speed of stirring, the particle size tends to be bigger with the range of 500-600 nm (PI between 0.2-0.4) whereas with stirring speed of 4000 rpm, the particle size tends to be smaller with 300-400 nm (PI between 0.2-0.4). Stirring speed of 6000 rpm produced particle size within the range of 400-500 nm (PI between 0.2-0.4). SEM photograph shows that particles are monodisperse confirming that particles were physically stable without any agglomeration within 2 weeks storage. Taken together, nano CaCO3 is successfully prepared by bottom-up method and PVP is a good stabilizer to prevent the particle growth.

  10. Calcium signaling and epilepsy. (United States)

    Steinlein, Ortrud K


    Calcium signaling is involved in a multitude of physiological and pathophysiological mechanisms. Over the last decade, it has been increasingly recognized as an important factor in epileptogenesis, and it is becoming obvious that the excess synchronization of neurons that is characteristic for seizures can be linked to various calcium signaling pathways. These include immediate effects on membrane excitability by calcium influx through ion channels as well as delayed mechanisms that act through G-protein coupled pathways. Calcium signaling is able to cause hyperexcitability either by direct modulation of neuronal activity or indirectly through calcium-dependent gliotransmission. Furthermore, feedback mechanisms between mitochondrial calcium signaling and reactive oxygen species are able to cause neuronal cell death and seizures. Unravelling the complexity of calcium signaling in epileptogenesis is a daunting task, but it includes the promise to uncover formerly unknown targets for the development of new antiepileptic drugs.

  11. The relationship between sodium intake and some bone minerals and osteoporosis risk assessment instrument in postmenopausal women (United States)

    Vafa, Mohammadreza; Soltani, Sepideh; Zayeri, Farid; Niroomand, Mahtab; Najarzadeh, Azadeh


    Background: The results of the studies on the effects of sodium on bone metabolism have been inconsistent. There is no definitive answer to the question of whether sodium restriction can be associated with a lower incidence of osteoporosis. What reinforces the necessity of designing this study is the lack of findings with the approach of examining the effects of sodium on bone in our country. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted on 185 retired female teachers aged 45 to 70. Sodium intake was evaluated using two methods: A 24-hour recall and a 12-hour urine sample. To assess bone health, ORAI index was calculated for each individual. Urinary calcium, phosphorus, potassium and serum vitamin D and PTH were measured as laboratory variables. To compare the general characteristics of the participants across tertiles of urinary sodium, the analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used for quantitative variables and the Chi-square test for categorical variables. Results: Phosphorous, calcium and potassium urinary excretion rate increased with the increase in urinary sodium (p<0.05). However, the changes in serum vitamin D, and PTH levels across tertiles of urinary sodium were not significant. Changes in urinary sodium levels were not significant (p=0.933) in ORAI groups (sorted by rating). The relationship between urinary calcium and sodium was apparent in low calcium intake (r=0.415, p<0.001), but not in higher calcium intake (r=0.144, p=0.177). Conclusion: Although urinary calcium and potassium increased with the increase in sodium intake, no relationship was found between sodium and ORAI. PMID:27493921

  12. Cerebrospinal fluid sodium rhythms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson Benjamin


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF sodium levels have been reported to rise during episodic migraine. Since migraine frequently starts in early morning or late afternoon, we hypothesized that natural sodium chronobiology may predispose susceptible persons when extracellular CSF sodium increases. Since no mammalian brain sodium rhythms are known, we designed a study of healthy humans to test if cation rhythms exist in CSF. Methods Lumbar CSF was collected every ten minutes at 0.1 mL/min for 24 h from six healthy participants. CSF sodium and potassium concentrations were measured by ion chromatography, total protein by fluorescent spectrometry, and osmolarity by freezing point depression. We analyzed cation and protein distributions over the 24 h period and spectral and permutation tests to identify significant rhythms. We applied the False Discovery Rate method to adjust significance levels for multiple tests and Spearman correlations to compare sodium fluctuations with potassium, protein, and osmolarity. Results The distribution of sodium varied much more than potassium, and there were statistically significant rhythms at 12 and 1.65 h periods. Curve fitting to the average time course of the mean sodium of all six subjects revealed the lowest sodium levels at 03.20 h and highest at 08.00 h, a second nadir at 09.50 h and a second peak at 18.10 h. Sodium levels were not correlated with potassium or protein concentration, or with osmolarity. Conclusion These CSF rhythms are the first reports of sodium chronobiology in the human nervous system. The results are consistent with our hypothesis that rising levels of extracellular sodium may contribute to the timing of migraine onset. The physiological importance of sodium in the nervous system suggests that these rhythms may have additional repercussions on ultradian functions.

  13. The effect of calcium withdrawal on the structure and function of the toad bladder. (United States)

    Hays, R M; Singer, B; Malamed, S


    Previous reports have indicated that calcium is necessary to support active sodium transport by the toad bladder, and may be required as well in the action of vasopressin on both toad bladder and frog skin. The structure and function of the toad bladder has been studied in the absence of calcium, and a reinterpretation of the previous findings now appears possible. When calcium is withdrawn from the bathing medium, epithelial cells detach from one another and eventually from their supporting tissue. The short-circuit current (the conventional means of determining active sodium transport) falls to zero, and vasopressin fails to exert its usual effect on short-circuit current and water permeability. However, employing an indirect method for the estimation of sodium transport (oxygen consumption), it is possible to show that vasopressin exerts its usual effect on Q(oo2) when sodium is present in the bathing medium. Hence, it appears that the epithelial cells maintain active sodium transport when calcium is rigorously excluded from the bathing medium, and continue to respond to vasopressin. The failure of conventional techniques to show this can be attributed to the structural alterations in the epithelial layer in the absence of calcium. These findings may provide a model for the physiologic action of calcium in epithelia such as the renal tubule.

  14. Effect of bariun on the refinement of primary aluminum and eutectics in a hypoeutectic Al-Si alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Wei; FAN Hongyuan; ZHANG Xianju; SHEN Baoluo


    The effect of barium on the refinement of primary aluminum and on the modification of eutectics in a hypoeutectic aluminm-silicon alloy was investigated. The results indicate that barium not only modifies the eutectic silicon but also refines the primary aluminum and there is a relationship between the retained barium and the second spacing of primary aluminum. Experiments of barium-treated commercial Al-Si hypoeutectic alloy show that barium is a better modifier than sodium when there is a longer holding time.

  15. Canadian initiatives to prevent hypertension by reducing dietary sodium. (United States)

    Campbell, Norm R C; Willis, Kevin J; L'Abbe, Mary; Strang, Robert; Young, Eric


    Hypertension is the leading risk for premature death in the world. High dietary sodium is an important contributor to increased blood pressure and is strongly associated with other important diseases (e.g., gastric cancer, calcium containing kidney stones, osteoporosis, asthma and obesity). The average dietary sodium intake in Canada is approximately 3400 mg/day. It is estimated that 30% of hypertension, more than 10% of cardiovascular events and 1.4 billion dollars/year in health care expenses are caused by this high level of intake in Canada. Since 2006, Canada has had a focused and evolving effort to reduce dietary sodium based on actions from Non Governmental Organizations (NGO), and Federal and Provincial/Territorial Government actions. NGOs initiated Canadian sodium reduction programs by developing a policy statement outlining the health issue and calling for governmental, NGO and industry action, developing and disseminating an extensive health care professional education program including resources for patient education, developing a public awareness campaign through extensive media releases and publications in the lay press. The Federal Government responded by striking a Intersectoral Sodium Work Group to develop recommendations on how to implement Canada's dietary reference intake values for dietary sodium and by developing timelines and targets for foods to be reduced in sodium, assessing key research gaps with funding for targeted dietary sodium based research, developing plans for public education and for conducting evaluation of the program to reduce dietary sodium. While food regulation is a Federal Government responsibility Provincial and Territorial governments indicated reducing dietary sodium needed to be a priority. Federal and Provincial Ministers of Health have endorsed a target to reduce the average consumption of sodium to 2300 mg/day by 2016 and the Deputy Ministers of Health have tasked a joint committee to review the recommendations of

  16. Canadian Initiatives to Prevent Hypertension by Reducing Dietary Sodium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Strang


    Full Text Available Hypertension is the leading risk for premature death in the world. High dietary sodium is an important contributor to increased blood pressure and is strongly associated with other important diseases (e.g., gastric cancer, calcium containing kidney stones, osteoporosis, asthma and obesity. The average dietary sodium intake in Canada is approximately 3400 mg/day. It is estimated that 30% of hypertension, more than 10% of cardiovascular events and 1.4 billion dollars/year in health care expenses are caused by this high level of intake in Canada. Since 2006, Canada has had a focused and evolving effort to reduce dietary sodium based on actions from Non Governmental Organizations (NGO, and Federal and Provincial/Territorial Government actions. NGOs initiated Canadian sodium reduction programs by developing a policy statement outlining the health issue and calling for governmental, NGO and industry action, developing and disseminating an extensive health care professional education program including resources for patient education, developing a public awareness campaign through extensive media releases and publications in the lay press. The Federal Government responded by striking a Intersectoral Sodium Work Group to develop recommendations on how to implement Canada’s dietary reference intake values for dietary sodium and by developing timelines and targets for foods to be reduced in sodium, assessing key research gaps with funding for targeted dietary sodium based research, developing plans for public education and for conducting evaluation of the program to reduce dietary sodium. While food regulation is a Federal Government responsibility Provincial and Territorial governments indicated reducing dietary sodium needed to be a priority. Federal and Provincial Ministers of Health have endorsed a target to reduce the average consumption of sodium to 2300 mg/day by 2016 and the Deputy Ministers of Health have tasked a joint committee to review the

  17. Spray Rolling Aluminum Strip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavernia, E.J.; Delplanque, J-P; McHugh, K.M.


    Spray forming is a competitive low-cost alternative to ingot metallurgy for manufacturing ferrous and non-ferrous alloy shapes. It produces materials with a reduced number of processing steps, while maintaining materials properties, with the possibility of near-net-shape manufacturing. However, there are several hurdles to large-scale commercial adoption of spray forming: 1) ensuring strip is consistently flat, 2) eliminating porosity, particularly at the deposit/substrate interface, and 3) improving material yield. Through this program, a new strip/sheet casting process, termed spray rolling, has been developed, which is an innovative manufacturing technique to produce aluminum net-shape products. Spray rolling combines the benefits of twin-roll casting and conventional spray forming, showing a promising potential to overcome the above hurdles associated with spray forming. Spray rolling requires less energy and generates less scrap than conventional processes and, consequently, enables the development of materials with lower environmental impacts in both processing and final products. Spray Rolling was developed as a collaborative project between the University of California-Davis, the Colorado School of Mines, the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, and an industry team. The following objectives of this project were achieved: (1) Demonstration of the feasibility of the spray rolling process at the bench-scale level and evaluation of the materials properties of spray rolled aluminum strip alloys; and (2) Demonstration of 2X scalability of the process and documentation of technical hurdles to further scale up and initiate technology transfer to industry for eventual commercialization of the process.

  18. [Does the diuretic effect of calcium inhibitors play an important role in the hypertensive efficacy?]. (United States)

    Maldonado Martin, A; Gil Extremera, B; Rubio Luengo, M A


    Calcium ions play an important role in the pathophysiology of hypertension. Calcium antagonists, a group of first line drugs in the treatment of hypertension, reduce the intracellular content of calcium in vascular smooth muscle cells, and decrease the peripheral vascular resistance and blood pressure. These drugs differ from other vasodilators in that they also have natriuretic effects; thus they can affect the kidney on three levels: Renal haemodynamics are affected by increased renal blood flow, and increased glomerular filtration rate. Changes in the renin-angiotensin system can decrease aldosterone secretion. Finally, they affect sodium management by acting directly on the renal tubule, increasing sodium excretion and inhibiting tubular reabsorption of this ion. The natriuretic effect of calcium antagonists is independent of the subject's sodium balance. The vasodilating action of these drugs is therefore accompanied by a natriuretic effect that makes satisfactory control of hypertension possible without placing the patient on a low-salt or salt-free diet.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reboul, S; Michael Hay, M; Kristine Zeigler, K; Michael Stone, M


    A 3-L sludge slurry sample from Tank 12 was characterized and then processed through an aluminum dissolution demonstration. The dominant constituent of the sludge was found to be aluminum in the form of boehmite. The iron content was minor, about one-tenth that of the aluminum. The salt content of the supernatant was relatively high, with a sodium concentration of {approx}7 M. Due to these characteristics, the yield stress and plastic viscosity of the unprocessed slurry were relatively high (19 Pa and 27 cP), and the settling rate of the sludge was relatively low ({approx}20% settling over a two and a half week period). Prior to performing aluminum dissolution, plutonium and gadolinium were added to the slurry to simulate receipt of plutonium waste from H-Canyon. Aluminum dissolution was performed over a 26 day period at a temperature of 65 C. Approximately 60% of the insoluble aluminum dissolved during the demonstration, with the rate of dissolution slowing significantly by the end of the demonstration period. In contrast, approximately 20% of the plutonium and less than 1% of the gadolinium partitioned to the liquid phase. However, about a third of the liquid phase plutonium became solubilized prior to the dissolution period, when the H-Canyon plutonium/gadolinium simulant was added to the Tank 12 slurry. Quantification of iron dissolution was less clear, but appeared to be on the order of 1% based on the majority of data (a minor portion of the data suggested iron dissolution could be as high as 10%). The yield stress of the post-dissolution slurry (2.5 Pa) was an order of magnitude lower than the initial slurry, due most likely to the reduced insoluble solids content caused by aluminum dissolution. In contrast, the plastic viscosity remained unchanged (27 cP). The settling rate of the post-dissolution slurry was higher than the initial slurry, but still relatively low compared to settling of typical high iron content/low salt content sludges. Approximately 40

  20. Tank 12 Sludge Characterization and Aluminum Dissolution Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reboul, S.; Hay, M.; Zeigler, K; Stone, M.


    A 3-L sludge slurry sample from Tank 12 was characterized and then processed through an aluminum dissolution demonstration. The dominant constituent of the sludge was found to be aluminum in the form of boehmite. The iron content was minor, about one-tenth that of the aluminum. The salt content of the supernatant was relatively high, with a sodium concentration of {approx}7 M. Due to these characteristics, the yield stress and plastic viscosity of the unprocessed slurry were relatively high (19 Pa and 27 cP), and the settling rate of the sludge was relatively low ({approx}20% settling over a two and a half week period). Prior to performing aluminum dissolution, plutonium and gadolinium were added to the slurry to simulate receipt of plutonium waste from H-Canyon. Aluminum dissolution was performed over a 26 day period at a temperature of 65 C. Approximately 60% of the insoluble aluminum dissolved during the demonstration, with the rate of dissolution slowing significantly by the end of the demonstration period. In contrast, approximately 20% of the plutonium and less than 1% of the gadolinium partitioned to the liquid phase. However, about a third of the liquid phase plutonium became solubilized prior to the dissolution period, when the H-Canyon plutonium/gadolinium simulant was added to the Tank 12 slurry. Quantification of iron dissolution was less clear, but appeared to be on the order of 1% based on the majority of data (a minor portion of the data suggested iron dissolution could be as high as 10%). The yield stress of the post-dissolution slurry (2.5 Pa) was an order of magnitude lower than the initial slurry, due most likely to the reduced insoluble solids content caused by aluminum dissolution. In contrast, the plastic viscosity remained unchanged (27 cP). The settling rate of the post-dissolution slurry was higher than the initial slurry, but still relatively low compared to settling of typical high iron content/low salt content sludges. Approximately 40

  1. Hydrothermal Formation of Calcium Copper Tetrasilicate. (United States)

    Johnson-McDaniel, Darrah; Comer, Sara; Kolis, Joseph W; Salguero, Tina T


    We describe the first hydrothermal synthesis of CaCuSi4 O10 as micron-scale clusters of thin platelets, distinct from morphologies generated under salt-flux or solid-state conditions. The hydrothermal reaction conditions are surprisingly specific: too cold, and instead of CaCuSi4 O10 , a porous calcium copper silicate forms; too hot, and calcium silicate (CaSiO3 ) forms. The precursors also strongly impact the course of the reaction, with the most common side product being sodium copper silicate (Na2 CuSi4 O10 ). Optimized conditions for hydrothermal CaCuSi4 O10 formation from calcium chloride, copper(II) nitrate, sodium silicate, and ammonium hydroxide are 350 °C at 3000 psi for 72 h; at longer reaction times, competitive delamination and exfoliation causes crystal fragmentation. These results illustrate that CaCuSi4 O10 is an even more unique material than previously appreciated.

  2. Subsurface Aluminum Nitride Formation in Iron-Aluminum Alloys (United States)

    Bott, June H.

    Transformation-induced plasticity (TRIP) steels containing higher amounts of aluminum than conventional steels are ideal for structural automotive parts due to their mechanical properties. However, the aluminum tends to react with any processing environment at high temperatures and therefore presents significant challenges during manufacturing. One such challenge occurs during secondary cooling, reheating, and hot-rolling and is caused by a reaction with nitrogen-rich atmospheres wherein subsurface aluminum nitride forms in addition to internal and external oxides. The nitrides are detrimental to mechanical properties and cause surface cracks. It is important to understand how these nitrides and oxides form and their consequences for the quality of steel products. This study looks at model iron-aluminum (up to 8 wt.% aluminum) alloys and uses confocal laser scanning microscopy, x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive x-ray spectrometry, and transmission electron microscopy to study the effect of various conditions on the growth and development of these precipitates in a subsurface oxygen-depleted region. By using model alloys and controlling the experimental atmosphere, this study is able to understand some of the more fundamental materials science behind aluminum nitride formation in aluminum-rich iron alloys and the relationship between internal nitride and oxide precipitation and external oxide scale morphology and composition. The iron-aluminum alloys were heated in N2 atmospheres containing oxygen impurities. It was found that nitrides formed when bulk aluminum content was below 8 wt.% when oxygen was sufficiently depleted due to the internal oxidation. In the samples containing 1 wt.% aluminum, the depth of the internal oxide and nitride zones were in agreement with a diffusion-based model. Increasing aluminum content to 3 and 5 wt% had the effects of modifying the surface-oxide scale composition and increasing its continuity

  3. 熔融制样-波长色散X射线荧光光谱法测定红土镍矿中铁、镍、硅、铝、镁、钙、钛、锰、铜和磷%Determination of iron, nickel, silicon, aluminum, magnesium, calcium, titanium, manganese,copper and phosphorus in laterite nickel ores by wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry with fusion sample preparation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林忠; 李卫刚; 褚宁; 蒋晓光; 孙涛; 林志伟; 王艳君


    A wavelength dispersive X - ray fluorescence spectrometry with fusion sample preparation has been developed for determination of iron, nickel, silicon, aluminum, magnesium, calcium, titanium, manganese, copper and phosphorus in laterite nickel ores. Calibration samples were prepared by adding high pure oxides and standard solutions of pending elements into iron ore standards, which were applied as matrix and ignited in 1000 ℃. The experimental conditions including of fluxing agent, fusion time, dilution ratios, doffing membrane reagent and matrix effects were determined. The analytical results were proposed by loss on ignition calibration, which were agreement with those obtained by wet method analysis, and the relative standard deviation was between 0. 219 % and 2. 817 %. The method was satisfied the request of laterite nickel ores test.%建立了熔融制样-波长色散X射线荧光光谱法测定红土镍矿中铁、镍、硅、铝、镁、钙、钛、锰、铜和磷含量的方法.采用经1000℃灼烧后的铁矿标准样品为基体,添加相关待测元素的高纯氧化物和标准溶液制作校准曲线用的校准样品,确定了助熔剂、熔融时间、稀释比、脱模剂和基体效应校正方式等试验条件.样品分析结果进行烧失量校正,与湿法分析结果的相对标准偏差介于0.219%~2.817%之间,满足红土镍矿检测需要.

  4. Solubilities of sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, and sodium aluminate in simulated nuclear waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, D.A.; Herting, D.L.


    Solubilities were determined for sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, and sodium aluminate in synthetic nuclear waste liquor. Solubilities were determined as a function of temperature and solution composition (concentrations of sodium hydroxide, sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, and sodium aluminate). Temperature had the greatest effect on the solubilities of sodium nitrate and sodium nitrite and a somewhat lesser effect on sodium aluminate solubility. Hydroxide had a great effect on the solubilities of all three salts. Other solution components had minor effects. 2 references, 8 figures, 11 tables.

  5. Aluminum-rich mesoporous MFI - type zeolite single crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kustova, Marina; Kustov, Arkadii; Christensen, Christina Hviid


    Zeolitcs are crystalline materials, which are widely used as solid acid catalysts and supports in many industrial processes. Recently, mesoporous MFI-type zeolite single crystals were synthesized by use of carbon particles as a mesopore template and sodium aluminate as the aluminum Source...... are characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), ammonia temperature programmed desorption (NH3-TPD), and N-2 adsorption measurements. The obtained zeolites combine the high crystallinity and the characteristic micropores of zeolites with an intracrystalline mesopore system...

  6. Efecto de la arginina 8%-carbonato de calcio y del fluoruro de sodio al 5% en la reducción de la hipersensibilidad dentinaria post terapia periodontal: ensayo clínico Effect of 8% arginine, calcium carbonate and 5% sodium fluoride on the reduction of the dentine hipersensitivity post periodontal therapy: clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Márquez


    embargo, se logró una mayor reducción del dolor en aquellos pacientes que utilizaron la terapia de arginina al 8% y carbonato de calcio, con un 60% de los individuos sin dolor y con una mediana final de 0 en comparación al grupo con barniz de flúor al 5% y un dentrífico fluorado que mantuvieron en el 100% de los sujetos algún grado de dolor y presentando una mediana final en la escala VAS de 2.Aim: The aim of this clinical study was to evaluate and to compare the efficacy in reducing the dentine hypersensitivity of an 8% arginine, calcium carbonate, 1.450 ppm sodium monofluorophosphate dentifrice with topical application and twice-daily brushing, with a negative control toothpaste containing calcium carbonate and 1.450 ppm fluoride as MFP, after periodontal treatment (baseline and four weeks respectively. Methods: A four-week clinical study with 20 subjects with diagnosis of slight to moderate chronic periodontitis under mechanical periodontal treatment and presence of gingival recessions in incisors, canines or premolars, stratified based on baseline tooth sensitivity. Subjects brushed with either a 1.450 ppm fluoride dentifrice or a marketed 8% arginine calcium carbonate dentifrice twice daily for approximately one minute. At screening, baseline and weeks four, subjects' tooth sensitivity was determined through both evaporative (Schiff and Visual Analogue Scale [VAS]. The same examiner throughout the study performed subject assessments using each stimulus. Results: Both subject groups exhibited significant reductions from baseline to four weeks in dentine hypersensitivity. However, patients who received 8% arginine calcium carbonate therapy, exhibited a greater reduction, with a 60% of individuals lacking of pain and with a final median of 0 in comparison with the 5% fluoride varnish and fluoride toothpaste group in which a 100% of subjects felt some degree of pain, presenting a final medium VAS scale of 2.

  7. Mechano-activated surface modification of calcium carbonate in wet stirred mill and its properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Surface modification of calcium carbonate particles using sodium stearate(SDS) as a modification agent incorporated with the simultaneous wet ultra-fine grinding in the laboratory stirred mill was investigated. The physical properties and application properties of modified calcium carbonate were measured and evaluated. The action mechanism between SDS and calcium carbonate in the modification was studied by infrared spectrometry(IR) and X-ray photoelectron energy spectroscopy(XPS). The results indicate that the crushing mechanic force intensity can obviously influence the modification effect of calcium carbonate because of mechano-chemical effect. The hydrophilic surface of calcium carbonate is turned into hydrophobic after modification. The properties of polyethylene(PE) filled by modified calcium carbonate powder is markedly improved. And the adsorption of SDS could occur by chemical reaction with calcium carbonate surface.

  8. Fatal encephalopathy after otoneurosurgery procedure with an aluminum-containing biomaterial. (United States)

    Hantson, P; Mahieu, P; Gersdorff, M; Sindic, C; Lauwerys, R


    Refractory status epilepticus was observed in two patients who underwent vestibular neurectomy. We investigated the relationship with the use of an aluminum containing bone cement during the procedure. Two patients developed focal and thereafter generalized seizures in the late postoperative period of vestibular neurectomy (respectively after 42 and 35 days). A cement (1 g aluminum-calcium fluorosilicate) was used during the procedure to bridge bone defects. Both patients presented cerebrospinal fluid fistula. Investigations excluded common etiologies, in particular infections, and a toxic origin was suspected. Aluminum concentration was determined repeatedly in serum urine, cerebrospinal fluid and retroauricular fistula. The highest aluminum values were respectively in case 1 and 2, 112 and 63 micrograms/L for the cerebrospinal fluid, 495 and 1440 micrograms/L for the fistula, 4.4 and 4.4 micrograms/L in serum. Desferrioxamine was used as chelating agent and aluminum elimination was analyzed in the urine. Status epilepticus became refractory to intensive care therapy. The patients never recovered normal consciousness. Case 1 died 143 days after the procedure and case 2 at 80 days from brain failure. Brain post-mortem examination was obtained in Case 2. Brain aluminum concentration was 2.5 micrograms/g (wet weight) (0.85 micrograms/g in a control non exposed cadaver). The cement (0.2 g) was incubated in vitro (16 h-37 degrees C) with the cerebrospinal fluid of a control patient (cerebrospinal fluid aluminum 8 micrograms/L): aluminum concentration reached 2750 micrograms/L. A close contact between an aluminum containing cement and the cerebrospinal fluid may have resulted in encephalopathy and fatal status epilepticus in these two patients.

  9. Calcium is important forus.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Calcium is important for our health.We must have it in our diet to stay well.A good place to get it is from dairy products like milk, cheese and ice cream.One pound of cheese has fifty times the calcium we should have every day.Other foods have less.For example,a pound of beans also has calcium.But it has only three times the amount we ought to have daily.

  10. Use of sodium polyaspartate for the removal of hydroxyapatite/brushite deposits from stainless steel tubing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Littlejohn, F.; Saez, A.E.; Grant, C.S. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering


    This research investigates the use of sodium polyaspartate, a nontoxic, biodegradable polycarboxylic sequestrant, for removing calcium phosphate deposit consisting of hydroxyapatite (HAP) and brushite or dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD) from stainless steel surfaces. Cleaning studies show that the use of sodium polyaspartate under alkaline conditions significantly enhances the removal rates when compared to deionized water. In acidic solutions, sodium polyaspartate concentrations below 300 ppm inhibit removal of HAP/DCPD deposits whereas higher concentrations increase the removal rate. Comparative cleaning studies at alkaline pHs show that sodium polyaspartate cleans the surface at a rate comparable to sodium citrate but slower than in ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid. Supplementary dissolution experiments show that sodium polyaspartate enhances the HAP/DCPD dissolution rate while inhibiting the release of Ca{sup 2+}. On the basis of these findings, the authors have concluded that sodium polyaspartate improves the HAP/DCPD dissolution and cleaning rates by Ca{sup 2+} sequestration.

  11. Structural Role of Alkali Cations in Calcium Aluminosilicate Glasses as Examined Using Oxygen-17 Solid-State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (United States)

    Sukenaga, Sohei; Kanehashi, Koji; Shibata, Hiroyuki; Saito, Noritaka; Nakashima, Kunihiko


    The structural roles of alkali and calcium cations are important for understanding the physical and chemical properties of aluminosilicate melts and glasses. Recently, oxygen-17 nuclear magnetic resonance (17O NMR) studies of calcium-sodium aluminosilicate glasses showed that these structural roles are not randomly given, but rather each cation has its own preferential role. However, the relationship between cation type and role preference in calcium aluminosilicate glass is not completely understood. In the present study, the structural roles of lithium, sodium, and potassium cations in selected calcium aluminosilicate glasses are investigated using 17O solid-state NMR experiments. Data from these experiments clearly show that potassium cations have a notably stronger tendency to act as charge compensators within the network structure, compared to sodium and lithium cations. The result of 17O NMR experiment also showed that sodium and lithium cations in part act as network modifier alongside with calcium cations.

  12. Invisible Display in Aluminum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prichystal, Jan Phuklin; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Bladt, Henrik Henriksen


    Bang & Olufsen a/s has been working with ideas for invisible integration of displays in metal surfaces. Invisible integration of information displays traditionally has been possible by placing displays behind transparent or semitransparent materials such as plastic or glass. The wish for an integ...... be obtained by shining light from the backside of the workpiece. When there is no light from the backside, the front surface seems totally untouched. This was achieved by laser ablation with ultra-short pulses.......Bang & Olufsen a/s has been working with ideas for invisible integration of displays in metal surfaces. Invisible integration of information displays traditionally has been possible by placing displays behind transparent or semitransparent materials such as plastic or glass. The wish...... for an integrated display in a metal surface is often ruled by design and functionality of a product. The integration of displays in metal surfaces requires metal removal in order to clear the area of the display to some extent. The idea behind an invisible display in Aluminum concerns the processing of a metal...

  13. Anodized aluminum on LDEF (United States)

    Golden, Johnny L.


    A compilation of reported analyses and results obtained for anodized aluminum flown on the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) was prepared. Chromic acid, sulfuric acid, and dyed sulfuric acid anodized surfaces were exposed to the space environment. The vast majority of the anodized surface on LDEF was chromic acid anodize because of its selection as a thermal control coating for use on the spacecraft primary structure, trays, tray clamps, and space end thermal covers. Reports indicate that the chromic acid anodize was stable in solar absorptance and thermal emittance, but that contamination effects caused increases in absorptance on surfaces exposed to low atomic oxygen fluences. There were some discrepancies, however, in that some chromic acid anodized specimens exhibited significant increases in absorptance. Sulfuric acid anodized surfaces also appeared stable, although very little surface area was available for evaluation. One type of dyed sulfuric acid anodize was assessed as an optical baffle coating and was observed to have improved infrared absorptance characteristics with exposure on LDEF.

  14. Intracellular calcium modulates basolateral K(+)-permeability in frog skin epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodin, Birger; Rytved, K A; Nielsen, R


    Cytosolic calcium ([Ca2+]i) has been suggested as a key modulator in the regulation of active sodium transport across electrically "tight" (high resistance) epithelia. In this study we investigated the effects of calcium on cellular electrophysiological parameters in a classical model tissue......, the frog skin. [Ca2+]i was measured with fura-2 in an epifluorescence microscope setup. An inhibition of basolateral potassium permeability was observed when cytosolic calcium was increased. This inhibition was reversible upon removal of calcium from the serosal solution....

  15. Hydration of Portland cement with additions of calcium sulfoaluminates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Saout, Gwenn, E-mail: [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Concrete and Construction Chemistry Laboratory, Ueberlandstrasse 129, CH-8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland); Lothenbach, Barbara [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Concrete and Construction Chemistry Laboratory, Ueberlandstrasse 129, CH-8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland); Hori, Akihiro [DENKA Chemicals GmbH, Wehrhahn-Center, Cantadorstr. 3, D-40211 Duesseldorf (Germany); Higuchi, Takayuki [Denki Kagaku Kogyo Kabushiki Kaisha (DENKA), Omi, Itoigawa, Niigata, 949-0393 (Japan); Winnefeld, Frank [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Concrete and Construction Chemistry Laboratory, Ueberlandstrasse 129, CH-8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland)


    The effect of mineral additions based on calcium aluminates on the hydration mechanism of ordinary Portland cement (OPC) was investigated using isothermal calorimetry, thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, solid state nuclear magnetic resonance and pore solution analysis. Results show that the addition of a calcium sulfoaluminate cement (CSA) to the OPC does not affect the hydration mechanism of alite but controls the aluminate dissolution. In the second blend investigated, a rapid setting cement, the amorphous calcium aluminate reacts very fast to ettringite. The release of aluminum ions strongly retards the hydration of alite but the C-S-H has a similar composition as in OPC with no additional Al to Si substitution. As in CSA-OPC, the aluminate hydration is controlled by the availability of sulfates. The coupling of thermodynamic modeling with the kinetic equations predicts the amount of hydrates and pore solution compositions as a function of time and validates the model in these systems.

  16. Gas evolution behavior of aluminum in mortar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashizume, Shuji; Matsumoto, Junko; Banba, Tsunetaka [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment


    As a part of study of leaching behavior for solidified dry low level radioactive waste, gas evolution behavior of aluminum in mortar was investigated, and a plan of our research was proposed. The effect of pH on corrosion rate of aluminum, corrosion product, time dependency of corrosion rate of aluminum in mortar, change of corrosion mechanism, the effects of Na, Ca and Cl ions on corrosion rate of aluminum in mortar and corrosion behavior of aluminum when aluminum was used as sacrificed anode in reinforced concrete were previously clarified. Study of the effects of environmental factors such as pH, kind of ions and temperature on gas evolution behavior of aluminum and the effect of aluminum/carbon steel surface ratio no gas evolution behavior of aluminum were planed. (author). 75 refs.

  17. Low-aluminum content iron-aluminum alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikka, V.K.; Goodwin, G.M.; Alexander, D.J. [and others


    The low-aluminum-content iron-aluminum program deals with the development of a Fe-Al alloy with aluminum content such as a produce the minimum environmental effect at room temperature. The FAPY is an Fe-16 at. % Al-based alloy developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory as the highest aluminum-containing alloy with essentially no environmental effect. The chemical composition for FAPY in weight percent is: aluminum = 8.46, chromium = 5.50, zirconium = 0.20, carbon = 0.03, molybdenum = 2.00, yttrium = 0.10 and iron = 83.71. The ignots of the alloy can be hot worked by extrusion, forging, and rolling processes. The hot-worked cast structure can be cold worked with intermediate anneals at 800{degrees}C. Typical room-temperature ductility of the fine-grained wrought structure is 20 to 25% for this alloy. In contrast to the wrought structure, the cast ductility at room temperature is approximately 1% with a transition temperature of approximately 100 to 150{degrees}C, above which ductility values exceed 20%. The alloy has been melted and processed into bar, sheet, and foil. The alloy has also been cast into slabs, step-blocks of varying thicknesses, and shapes. The purpose of this section is to describe the welding response of cast slabs of three different thicknesses of FAPY alloy. Tensile, creep, and Charpy-impact data of the welded plates are also presented.

  18. Safety assessment of Salicylic Acid, Butyloctyl Salicylate, Calcium Salicylate, C12-15 Alkyl Salicylate, Capryloyl Salicylic Acid, Hexyldodecyl Salicylate, Isocetyl Salicylate, Isodecyl Salicylate, Magnesium Salicylate, MEA-Salicylate, Ethylhexyl Salicylate, Potassium Salicylate, Methyl Salicylate, Myristyl Salicylate, Sodium Salicylate, TEA-Salicylate, and Tridecyl Salicylate. (United States)


    Salicylic Acid is an aromatic acid used in cosmetic formulations as a denaturant, hair-conditioning agent, and skin-conditioning agent--miscellaneous in a wide range of cosmetic products at concentrations ranging from 0.0008% to 3%. The Calcium, Magnesium, and MEA salts are preservatives, and Potassium Salicylate is a cosmetic biocide and preservative, not currently in use. Sodium Salicylate is used as a denaturant and preservative (0.09% to 2%). The TEA salt of Salicylic Acid is used as an ultraviolet (UV) light absorber (0.0001% to 0.75%). Several Salicylic Acid esters are used as skin conditioning agents--miscellaneous (Capryloyl, 0.1% to 1%; C12-15 Alkyl, no current use; Isocetyl, 3% to 5%; Isodecyl, no current use; and Tridecyl, no current use). Butyloctyl Salicylate (0.5% to 5%) and Hexyldodecyl Salicylate (no current use) are hair-conditioning agents and skin-conditioning agents--miscellaneous. Ethylhexyl Salicylate (formerly known as Octyl Salicylate) is used as a fragrance ingredient, sunscreen agent, and UV light absorber (0.001% to 8%), and Methyl Salicylate is used as a denaturant and flavoring agent (0.0001% to 0.6%). Myristyl Salicylate has no reported function. Isodecyl Salicylate is used in three formulations, but no concentration of use information was reported. Salicylates are absorbed percutaneously. Around 10% of applied salicylates can remain in the skin. Salicylic Acid is reported to enhance percutaneous penetration of some agents (e.g., vitamin A), but not others (e.g., hydrocortisone). Little acute toxicity (LD(50) in rats; >2 g/kg) via a dermal exposure route is seen for Salicylic Acid, Methyl Salicylate, Tridecyl Salicylate, and Butyloctyl Salicylate. Short-term oral, inhalation, and parenteral exposures to salicylates sufficient to produce high blood concentrations are associated primarily with liver and kidney damage. Subchronic dermal exposures to undiluted Methyl Salicylate were associated with kidney damage. Chronic oral exposure to

  19. Decode the Sodium Label Lingo (United States)

    ... For Preschooler For Gradeschooler For Teen Decode the Sodium Label Lingo Published January 24, 2013 Print Email Reading food labels can help you slash sodium. Here's how to decipher them. "Sodium free" or " ...

  20. Acidosis and Urinary Calcium Excretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexander, R Todd; Cordat, Emmanuelle; Chambrey, Régine


    Metabolic acidosis is associated with increased urinary calcium excretion and related sequelae, including nephrocalcinosis and nephrolithiasis. The increased urinary calcium excretion induced by metabolic acidosis predominantly results from increased mobilization of calcium out of bone and inhibi...

  1. Calcium signaling in neurodegeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dreses-Werringloer Ute


    Full Text Available Abstract Calcium is a key signaling ion involved in many different intracellular and extracellular processes ranging from synaptic activity to cell-cell communication and adhesion. The exact definition at the molecular level of the versatility of this ion has made overwhelming progress in the past several years and has been extensively reviewed. In the brain, calcium is fundamental in the control of synaptic activity and memory formation, a process that leads to the activation of specific calcium-dependent signal transduction pathways and implicates key protein effectors, such as CaMKs, MAPK/ERKs, and CREB. Properly controlled homeostasis of calcium signaling not only supports normal brain physiology but also maintains neuronal integrity and long-term cell survival. Emerging knowledge indicates that calcium homeostasis is not only critical for cell physiology and health, but also, when deregulated, can lead to neurodegeneration via complex and diverse mechanisms involved in selective neuronal impairments and death. The identification of several modulators of calcium homeostasis, such as presenilins and CALHM1, as potential factors involved in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease, provides strong support for a role of calcium in neurodegeneration. These observations represent an important step towards understanding the molecular mechanisms of calcium signaling disturbances observed in different brain diseases such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and Huntington's diseases.

  2. An increase in [Ca2+]i activates basolateral chloride channels and inhibits apical sodium channels in frog skin epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodin, Birger; Rytved, K A; Nielsen, R


    The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms by which increases in free cytosolic calcium ([Ca2+]i) cause a decrease in macroscopic sodium absorption across principal cells of the frog skin epithelium. [Ca2+]i was measured with fura-2 in an epifluorescence microscope set-up, sodium...

  3. Fluorescent lighting with aluminum nitride phosphors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cherepy, Nerine J.; Payne, Stephen A.; Seeley, Zachary M.; Srivastava, Alok M.


    A fluorescent lamp includes a glass envelope; at least two electrodes connected to the glass envelope; mercury vapor and an inert gas within the glass envelope; and a phosphor within the glass envelope, wherein the phosphor blend includes aluminum nitride. The phosphor may be a wurtzite (hexagonal) crystalline structure Al.sub.(1-x)M.sub.xN phosphor, where M may be drawn from beryllium, magnesium, calcium, strontium, barium, zinc, scandium, yttrium, lanthanum, cerium, praseodymium, europium, gadolinium, terbium, ytterbium, bismuth, manganese, silicon, germanium, tin, boron, or gallium is synthesized to include dopants to control its luminescence under ultraviolet excitation. The disclosed Al.sub.(1-x)M.sub.xN:Mn phosphor provides bright orange-red emission, comparable in efficiency and spectrum to that of the standard orange-red phosphor used in fluorescent lighting, Y.sub.2O.sub.3:Eu. Furthermore, it offers excellent lumen maintenance in a fluorescent lamp, and does not utilize "critical rare earths," minimizing sensitivity to fluctuating market prices for the rare earth elements.

  4. Scaleable Clean Aluminum Melting Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Q.; Das, S.K. (Secat, Inc.)


    The project entitled 'Scaleable Clean Aluminum Melting Systems' was a Cooperative Research and Development Agreements (CRADAs) between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Secat Inc. The three-year project was initially funded for the first year and was then canceled due to funding cuts at the DOE headquarters. The limited funds allowed the research team to visit industrial sites and investigate the status of using immersion heaters for aluminum melting applications. Primary concepts were proposed on the design of furnaces using immersion heaters for melting. The proposed project can continue if the funding agency resumes the funds to this research. The objective of this project was to develop and demonstrate integrated, retrofitable technologies for clean melting systems for aluminum in both the Metal Casting and integrated aluminum processing industries. The scope focused on immersion heating coupled with metal circulation systems that provide significant opportunity for energy savings as well as reduction of melt loss in the form of dross. The project aimed at the development and integration of technologies that would enable significant reduction in the energy consumption and environmental impacts of melting aluminum through substitution of immersion heating for the conventional radiant burner methods used in reverberatory furnaces. Specifically, the program would couple heater improvements with furnace modeling that would enable cost-effective retrofits to a range of existing furnace sizes, reducing the economic barrier to application.

  5. Mercury Control with Calcium-Based Sorbents and Oxidizing Agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas K. Gale


    This Final Report contains the test descriptions, results, analysis, correlations, theoretical descriptions, and model derivations produced from many different investigations performed on a project funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, to investigate calcium-based sorbents and injection of oxidizing agents for the removal of mercury. Among the technologies were (a) calcium-based sorbents in general, (b) oxidant-additive sorbents developed originally at the EPA, and (c) optimized calcium/carbon synergism for mercury-removal enhancement. In addition, (d) sodium-tetrasulfide injection was found to effectively capture both forms of mercury across baghouses and ESPs, and has since been demonstrated at a slipstream treating PRB coal. It has been shown that sodium-tetrasulfide had little impact on the foam index of PRB flyash, which may indicate that sodium-tetrasulfide injection could be used at power plants without affecting flyash sales. Another technology, (e) coal blending, was shown to be an effective means of increasing mercury removal, by optimizing the concentration of calcium and carbon in the flyash. In addition to the investigation and validation of multiple mercury-control technologies (a through e above), important fundamental mechanism governing mercury kinetics in flue gas were elucidated. For example, it was shown, for the range of chlorine and unburned-carbon (UBC) concentrations in coal-fired utilities, that chlorine has much less effect on mercury oxidation and removal than UBC in the flyash. Unburned carbon enhances mercury oxidation in the flue gas by reacting with HCl to form chlorinated-carbon sites, which then react with elemental mercury to form mercuric chloride, which subsequently desorbs back into the flue gas. Calcium was found to enhance mercury removal by stabilizing the oxidized mercury formed on carbon surfaces. Finally, a model was developed to describe these mercury adsorption, desorption, oxidation, and removal mechanisms, including

  6. 21 CFR 82.1051 - Lakes (D&C). (United States)


    ..., gloss white, clay, titanium dioxide, zinc oxide, talc, rosin, aluminum benzoate, calcium carbonate, or... radical sodium, potassium, aluminum, barium, calcium, strontium, or zirconium; or (ii) a salt prepared... subpart, by combining such color with the basic radical sodium, potassium, aluminum, barium,...

  7. [Sodium and hypertension]. (United States)

    de Wardener, H E


    Over several million years the human race was programmed to eat a diet which contained about 15 mmol of sodium (1 g of sodium chloride) per day. It is only five to ten thousand years ago that we became addicted to salt. Today we eat about 150 mmol of sodium (9-12 g of salt) per day. It is now apparent that this sudden rise in sodium intake (in evolutionary terms) is the most likely cause for the rise in blood pressure with age that occurs in the majority of the world's population. Those which consume less than 60 mmol/day do not develop hypertension. The reason for the rise in sodium intake is not known but it is probable that an important stimulus was the discovery that meat could be preserved by immersion into a concentrated salt solution. This seemingly miraculous power endowed salt with such magical and medicinal qualities that it became a symbol of goodness and health. It was not until 1904 Ambard and Beaujard suggested that on the contrary dietary salt could be harmful and raise the blood pressure. At first the idea did not prosper and it continues to be opposed by a diminishing band. The accumulated evidence that sodium intake is related to the blood pressure in normal man and animals and in inherited forms of hypertension has been obtained from experimental manipulations and studies of human populations. The following observation links sodium and hypertension. An increase in sodium intakes raises the blood pressure of the normal rat, dog, rabbit, baboon, chimpanzee and man. Population studies have demonstrated a significant correlation between sodium intake and the customary rise in blood pressure with age. The development of hypertensive strains of rats has revealed that the primary genetic lesion which gives rise to hypertension resides in the kidney where it impairs the urinary excretion of sodium. There is similar but less convincing evidence in essential hypertension. The kidney in both essential hypertension and hypertensive strains of rats share a

  8. 钠钾镁钙葡萄糖注射液应用于烧伤休克液体复苏的临床疗效评估——前瞻性、随机、单盲、阳性药物对照、多中心临床试验%Clinical evaluation of sodium potassium magnesium calcium and glucose injection during fluid resuscitation of burn shock: a prospective, randomized, single-blinded, positive drug controlled, multicentre clinical trial

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柴家科; 李利根; 罗高兴; 沈光裕; 张庆富; 王玉莲; 霍然; 牛希华; 孙海宁


    Objective To evaluate the efficacy and safety of sodium potassium magnesium calcium and glucose injection(Le Jia (R)) comparing with sodium lactated ringer's solution for burn resuscitation.Methods 198 burned patients who met the criterion were performed fluid resuscitation during the first 6 h after injury.All patients who were enrolled in this study had been assigned assigned either the sodium potassium magnesium calcium and glucose injection group (test group) or the sodium lactated ringer's group (control group) according to random number table.Before the fluid resuscitation according to 1970 National Conference of Burn Injuries formula,the clinical index such as routine blood count,liver and kidney functions,blood biochemistry and coagulation function were detected.The hemodynamic index,arterial blood gas and serum glucose levels were monitored during fluid infusion,and all blood lab indexes were detected at the end of the first and second 24 h after resuscitation beginning.The efficacy index is the changes of serum electrolyte,arterial blood lactate,blood gas and serum glucose levels after resuscitation of two different electrolyte solution.And the safety index is the incidence and specific situation of adverse drug reaction.Results Comprehensive analysis was performed from the aspects of maintaining of serum electrolyte,acid-base equilibrium,changes of blood lactate and glucose levels.No statistically significant difference was found between the two groups.In safety evaluation,safe cases in test group were 99(100%) as well as in control group.No statistically significant difference was found in safety evaluation.Conclusions Sodium potassium magnesium calcium and glucose injection (Le Jia (R)) has the comparative efficacy and safety to sodium lactated ringer's solution,the most commonly used in clinic for burn resuscitation.%目的 以乳酸钠林格注射液为对照,验证钠钾镁钙葡萄糖注射液(乐加(R))用于烧伤休克液体复苏方面

  9. Reduction of chromium oxides with calcium carbide during thestainless steelmaking process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Arh


    Full Text Available An efficient reduction of chromium from slag requires an appropriate reduction agent for the given steelmaking technology. The usual slag reduction praxis consists of carbon injections and additions of ferrosilicon and aluminum.Reduction of chromium containing slags with calcium carbide is an appealing alternative. Calcium carbide is a strong reduction agent that unlike ferrosilicon and aluminum also provides the possibility of foaming slag formation.Experimental work regarding chromium slag reduction with calcium carbide towards usual slag reduction praxis is described in this work. The results show that higher reduction rates in the stage of refining period of the melt and higher level of overall chromium reduction from slag can be reached with the blowing of CaC2.

  10. Repair, Evaluation, Maintenance, and Rehabilitation Research Program. State-of-the-Art Procedures for Sealing Coastal Structures with Grouts and Concretes (United States)


    sulfurous , boric, carbonic, and oxalic acid . Spe- cific salts include sodium bisulfate , sodium tetraborate, sodium bicarbonate, potassium-hydrogen oxalate...potassium bichromate, ferric chloride, sulfuric acid , aluminum sulfate (alum), aluminum chloride, ammonium persulfate, and copper sulfate. The bichromates... bisulfates , bicarbonates, sulfur dioxide, and sodium silico- fluoride. Sodium silicate also reacts with salts of some metals, such as 23 calcium

  11. Methodology for Extraction of Remaining Sodium of Used Sodium Containers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Minhwan; Kim, Jongman; Cho, Youngil; Jeong, Jiyoung [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    Sodium used as a coolant in the SFR (Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor) reacts easily with most elements due to its high reactivity. If sodium at high temperature leaks outside of a system boundary and makes contact with oxygen, it starts to burn and toxic aerosols are produced. In addition, it generates flammable hydrogen gas through a reaction with water. Hydrogen gas can be explosive within the range of 4.75 vol%. Therefore, the sodium should be handled carefully in accordance with standard procedures even though there is a small amount of target sodium remainings inside the containers and drums used for experiment. After the experiment, all sodium experimental apparatuses should be dismantled carefully through a series of draining, residual sodium extraction, and cleaning if they are no longer reused. In this work, a system for the extraction of the remaining sodium of used sodium drums has been developed and an operation procedure for the system has been established. In this work, a methodology for the extraction of remaining sodium out of the used sodium container has been developed as one of the sodium facility maintenance works. The sodium extraction system for remaining sodium of the used drums was designed and tested successfully. This work will contribute to an establishment of sodium handling technology for PGSFR. (Prototype Gen-IV Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor)

  12. Sodium urine test (United States)

    ... urine sodium level may be a sign of: Adrenal glands releasing too much hormone ( hyperaldosteronism ) Not enough fluid in the body (dehydration) Diarrhea and fluid loss Heart failure Kidney problems, such as chronic kidney disease or ...

  13. Decreasing residual aluminum level in drinking water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志红; 崔福义


    The relativity of coagulant dosage, residual turbidity, temperature, pH etc. with residual aluminum concentration were investigated, and several important conclusions were achieved. Firstly, dosage of alum-coagulant or PAC1 influences residual aluminum concentration greatly. There is an optimal-dosage-to-aluminum, a bit less than the optimal-dosage-to-turbidity. Secondly, it proposes that decreasing residual aluminum concentration can be theoretically divided into two methods, either decreasing (even removing) the concentration of particulate aluminum component, or decreasing dissolved aluminum. In these tests there is an optimal value of residual turbidity of postprecipitation at 7.0 NTU. Thirdly, residual aluminum level will increase while water temperature goes higher. At the last, optimal pH value corresponds a minimum dissolved aluminum at a given turbidity. Data shows the optimal pH value decreases with water temperature's increasing.

  14. 21 CFR 172.310 - Aluminum nicotinate. (United States)


    ... Special Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.310 Aluminum nicotinate. Aluminum nicotinate may be safely... additive, expressed as niacin, shall appear on the label of the food additive container or on that of...

  15. Environmental Control over the Primary Aluminum Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    <正> To strengthen environmental control over theprimary aluminum industry,the State Environ-mental Protection Administration of China hasrecently issued a notice addressing the follow-ing points:Strengthening environmental control over theexisting primary aluminum companies

  16. Effects of sodium selenite on vascular smooth muscle reactivity. (United States)

    Togna, G; Russo, P; Pierconti, F; Caprino, L


    The effects of sodium selenite (Na(2)SeO(3)) on the vascular smooth muscle reactivity of rabbit aorta were studied. In isolated rabbit aorta, Na(2)SeO(3) inhibited contractile response to phenylephrine and developed a lasting contracture in the vascular tissue. Relaxation in phenylephrine-precontracted aortic rings induced by sodium nitroprusside and 8-bromo-guanosine 3':5'-cyclic-monophosphate was also inhibited. Preliminary data obtained with ascorbic acid suggested a partial involvement of an oxidative mechanism. Excluding the possibility that Se damages actin or modifies its distribution (immunohistochemical evaluation), results indicate that Se alters vascular smooth muscle reactivity by inhibiting both its contracting and relaxing properties. Calcium-dependent mechanisms appear to be primarily involved and an interference with calcium re-uptake by sarcoplasmic reticulum as a possible site of Se vascular action could be hypothesized.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Ali Hajeeh


    Full Text Available Minimizing the amount of scrap generated in an aluminum extrusion process. An optimizing model is constructed in order to select the best cutting patterns of aluminum logs and billets of various sizes and shapes. The model applied to real data obtained from an existing extrusion factory in Kuwait. Results from using the suggested model provided substantial reductions in the amount of scrap generated. Using sound mathematical approaches contribute significantly in reducing waste and savings when compared to the existing non scientific techniques.

  18. 丹参酮 IIA 磺酸钠联合低分子肝素钙对普外科腹腔镜手术后下肢深静脉血栓形成的预防作用%The prevention of Sodium Tanshine IA combined with low molecular weight heparin calcium on patients with lower extremity deep vein thrombosis after laparoscopic surgery in General Surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



      目的观察丹参酮 IA 磺酸钠联合低分子肝素钙(LMWH)在普科腹腔镜手术后下肢深静脉血栓(LEDVT)的防治效果.方法126例患者随机平均分为2组,A 组用 LMWH 治疗,B 组用丹参酮 IA 磺酸钠与 LMWH 联合治疗.结果① DVT 的发生率 A 组为4.76%,B 组为1.59%,两者比较有统计学差异(P<0.05);② B组用药后 APTT 和 PT 明显延长,与用药前和 A 组比较差异均有显著性意义(P<0.05).结论丹参酮 IA 磺酸钠结合 LMWH 可有效预防普科腹腔镜手术后 LEDVT 形成.%Abjective] To observe the efficacy of Sodium Tanshine IA combined with low molecular weight heparin calcium (LMWH)on patients with lower extremity deep vein thrombosis(LEDVT) after laparoscopic surgery in general surgery. [Methods] 126 patients are divided into two groups randomly and equaly. In A group, LMWH is used, while in B group, on the basic of the A group, Sodium Tanshine IA is intravenously dripped. [Results] ① the incidence of DVT is different between two groups(P<0.05),A group was 4.76%, B group was 1.59%; ② APTT and PT of B group was significantly prolonged in, compared with before treatment and A group,difference were statisticaly significant(P<0.05). [Conclusions] Sodium Tanshine IA combined with LMWH may be effective in preventing LEDVT after laparoscopic surgery.

  19. 采用ICP-AES测定高纯氢氧化钠中Ca、Al、Si的含量%Using ICP-AES to determine the concentration of Ca, Al and Si in high-purity sodium hydroxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    介绍了等离子体原子发射光谱,采用标准加入法测定高纯氢氧化钠中痕量Ca、Al、Si含量的方法,该方法的准确度和精密度都符合定量要求。目前,该方法已应用于高纯氢氧化钠中杂质氧化钙、氧化铝、氧化硅含量的测定,且具有操作简便、省时、省材和高灵敏度等特点,适用于批量样品的测定。%This report introduces a novel method to determine the concentration of trace impurities in high- purity sodium hydroxide. The method uses ICP-AES combined with standard addition, thus its accuracy and precision fits the requirement of quantitative measurement. This method has been successfully applied to determine the concentration of calcium oxide (CaO), aluminum oxide (A1203) and silicon dioxide (SiO2) in high-purity sodium hydroxide. The method is not only convenient, fast but also very sensitive, therefore is suitable for batch analysis.

  20. The effect of zinc on the aluminum anode of the aluminum-air battery (United States)

    Tang, Yougen; Lu, Lingbin; Roesky, Herbert W.; Wang, Laiwen; Huang, Baiyun

    Aluminum is an ideal material for batteries, due to its excellent electrochemical performance. Herein, the effect of zinc on the aluminum anode of the aluminum-air battery, as an additive for aluminum alloy and electrolytes, has been studied. The results show that zinc can decrease the anodic polarization, restrain the hydrogen evolution and increase the anodic utilization rate.

  1. 晶形助长剂对磷石膏制硫酸钙晶须性能的影响%Influence of crystal growing agent on properties of calcium sulfate whisker with phosphogypsum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨林; 周杰; 李贺军; 曹建新


    借助X射线衍射、扫描电子显微镜等分析方法,研究了晶形助长剂对以磷石膏为原料水热法制备硫酸钙晶须生长行为的影响.结果表明,以磷石膏为原料制备硫酸钙晶须适宜的晶形助长剂为氯化镁(掺量为磷石膏质量的1.0%),其次为十二烷基磺酸钠,效果最差的是硫酸铝.%Influence of crystal growing agent on growth behavior of calcium sulfate whisker,which was prepared by hydrothermal method with phosphogypsum as raw material, was studied and analyzed by means of XRD and SEM etcResults showed that when the calcium sulfate whisker was prepared from phosphogypsum, the proper crystal growing agent was magnesium chloride (doping amount was 1.0% of phosphogypsum) .The next-proper crystal growing agent was sodium dodecyl sulfonate and the worst was aluminum sulfate.

  2. Effect of Cationic and Anionic Surfactants on the Application of Calcium Carbonate Nanoparticles in Paper Coating

    CERN Document Server

    Barhoum, Ahmed; Abou-Zaied, Ragab Esmail; Rehan, Mohamed; Dufour, Thierry; Hill, Gavin; Dufresne, Alain


    Modification of calcium carbonate particles with surfactant significantly improves the properties of the calcium carbonate coating on paper. Unmodified and CTAB and oleate-modified calcium carbonate nanoparticles were prepared using the wet carbonation technique for paper coating. CTAB (cationic surfactant) and sodium oleate (anionic surfactant) were used to modify the size, morphology, and surface properties of the precipitated nanoparticles. The obtained particles were characterized by XRD, FT-IR spectroscopy, zeta potential measurements, TGA and TEM. Coating colors were formulated from the prepared unmodified and modified calcium carbonates and examined by creating a thin coating layer on reference paper. The effect of calcium carbonate particle size and surface modification on paper properties, such as coating thickness, coating weight, surface roughness, air permeability, brightness, whiteness, opacity, and hydrophobicity, were investigated and compared with GCC calcium carbonate-coated papers. The obtai...

  3. Calcium Transient and Sodium-Calcium Exchange Current in Human versus Rabbit Sinoatrial Node Pacemaker Cells


    Verkerk, Arie O.; Marcel M. G. J. van Borren; Ronald Wilders


    There is an ongoing debate on the mechanism underlying the pacemaker activity of sinoatrial node (SAN) cells, focusing on the relative importance of the “membrane clock” and the “Ca2+ clock” in the generation of the small net membrane current that depolarizes the cell towards the action potential threshold. Specifically, the debate centers around the question whether the membrane clock-driven hyperpolarization-activated current, I f , which is also known as the “funny current” or “pacemaker c...

  4. Electrochemical Behavior of Aluminum in Nitric Acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN; Hui; ZHU; Li-yang; LIN; Ru-shan; TAN; Hong-bin; HE; Hui


    Aluminum is one of cladding materials for nuclear fuel,it is important to investigate the electrolytic dissolution of aluminum in nitric acid.The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy,polarization curve and cyclic voltammetry cure of anodic aluminum electrode in nitric acid under various conditions were collected(Fig.1).It turns out,under steady state,the thickness of the passivated film of aluminum

  5. New technology for comprehensive utilization of aluminum-chromium residue from chromium salts production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiao-bin; QI Tian-gui; JIANG Xin-min; ZHOU Qiu-sheng; LIU Gui-hua; PENG Zhi-hong; HAN Deng-lun; ZHANG Zhong-yuan; YANG Kun-shan


    Colloidal aluminum-chromium residue(ACR) was mass-produced in chromate production process, and the large energy consumption and high recovery cost existed in traditional methods of utilizing such ACR. To overcome those problems, a new comprehensive method was proposed to deal with the ACR, and was proven valid in industry. In the new process, the chromate was separated firstly from the colloidal ACR by ripening and washing with additives, by which more than 95% hexavalent chromium was recovered. The chromium-free aluminum residue(CFAR), after properly dispersed, was digested at 120-130 ℃ and more than 90% alumina can be recovered. And then the pregnant aluminate solution obtained from digestion was seeded to precipitate aluminum hydroxide. This new method can successfully recover both alumina and sodium chromate, and thus realize the comprehensive utilization of ACR from chromate industry.

  6. The corrosion inhibition of iron and aluminum by various naturally occurring biological molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCafferty, E.; Hansen, D.C. [Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (United States)


    Biological polymers that exhibit a strong affinity for metal surfaces are increasingly becoming the focus of research toward the development of environmentally friendly corrosion inhibitors. This paper deals with the use of various naturally occurring organic molecules as corrosion inhibitors for iron or aluminum. Among the organic molecules considered are catecholate and hydroxamate siderophores isolated from bacteria, the adhesive protein from the blue mussel Mytilus edulis L, and caffeic acid and chlorogenic acid. FTIR analysis, anodic polarization curves, and AC impedance measurements were used to determine the adsorption and effectiveness of the various organic molecules as corrosion inhibitors. Parabactin, a catecholate siderophore, was effective in inhibiting both the corrosion of iron in hydrochloric acid and the pitting of aluminum in 0.1 M sodium chloride. The adhesive protein from the blue mussel was also effective in inhibiting the pitting of aluminum.

  7. The nacre protein perlucin nucleates growth of calcium carbonate crystals. (United States)

    Blank, S; Arnoldi, M; Khoshnavaz, S; Treccani, L; Kuntz, M; Mann, K; Grathwohl, G; Fritz, M


    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) in aqueous solution was used to investigate native nacre of the marine snail Haliotis laevigata on the microscopic scale and the interaction of purified nacre proteins with calcium carbonate crystals on the nanoscopic scale. These investigations were controlled by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), light microscopy (LM) and biochemical methods. For investigations with AFM and SEM, nacre was cleaved parallel to the aragonite tablets in this biogenic polymer/mineral composite. Multilamellar organic sheets consisting of a core of chitin with layers of proteins attached on both sides lay between the aragonite layers consisting of confluent aragonite tablets. Cleavage appeared to occur between the aragonite tablet layer and the protein layer. AFM images revealed a honeycomb-like structure to the organic material with a diameter of the 'honeycombs' equalling that of the aragonite tablets. The walls of the structures consisted of filaments, which were suggested to be collagen. The flat regions of the honeycomb-like structures exhibited a hole with a diameter of more than 100 nm. When incubated in saturated calcium carbonate solution, aragonite needles with perfect vertical orientation grew on the proteinacous surface. After treatment with proteinase K, no growth of orientated aragonite needles was detected. Direct AFM measurements on dissolving and growing calcite crystals revealed a surface structure with straight steps the number of which decreased with crystal growth. When the purified nacre protein perlucin was added to the growth solution (a super-saturated calcium carbonate solution) new layers were nucleated and the number of steps increased. Anion exchange chromatography of the water-soluble proteins revealed a mixture of about 10 different proteins. When this mixture was dialysed against saturated calcium carbonate solution and sodium chloride, calcium carbonate crystals precipitated together with perlucin leaving the other proteins

  8. 76 FR 23490 - Aluminum tris (O (United States)


    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 Aluminum tris (O-ethylphosphonate), Butylate, Chlorethoxyfos, Clethodim, et al..., fosthiazate, propetamphos, and tebufenozide; the fungicide aluminum tris (O-ethylphosphonate); the herbicides.... Also, EPA is revoking the tolerances for aluminum tris (O-ethylphosphonate) on pineapple fodder...

  9. Guangxi Aluminum Giant Made Investment in Changfeng

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    <正>A aluminum processing and supporting project (450,000 tons) of Hefei Guangyin Aluminum Company kicked off in Xiatang Town of Changfeng County recently. It is a project jointly invested by Guangxi Investment Group and Guangxi Baise Guangyin Aluminum in Xiatang Town of Changfeng County.

  10. Calcium and Your Child (United States)

    ... for dinner. Create mini-pizzas by topping whole-wheat English muffins or bagels with pizza sauce, low- ... Minerals Do I Need to Drink Milk? Lactose Intolerance Becoming a Vegetarian Soy Foods and Health Calcium ...

  11. Stoichiometry of Calcium Medicines (United States)

    Pinto, Gabriel


    The topic of calcium supplement and its effects on human lives is presented in the way of questions to the students. It enables the students to realize the relevance of chemistry outside the classroom surrounding.

  12. Selecting an economically justifiable method of calculating ameliorant application rates for solonetzes with different sodium contents (United States)

    Voropaeva, Z. I.


    The comparative assessment of methods for the calculation of the gypsum application rates based on the exchangeable sodium (Gedroits, Schollenberger), the estimated sodium (Schoonover), and the soil’s requirement for calcium (the version of the Omsk State Agrarian University) showed that, for the chemical amelioration of solonetzes with different contents of exchangeable sodium in Western Siberia, it is economically and ecologically advisable to calculate the ameliorant application rates from the estimated sodium. It was experimentally shown that the content of displaced magnesium used by Schoonover is a more efficient unified criterion than the value of the calcium adsorption by zonal soils. For improving the method’s accuracy, it was proposed to change the conditions of the soil preparation by regulating the concentration of the displacing solution, the interaction time, and the temperature.

  13. Experimental study on the positive inotropic effect of the antibody against sodium calcium exchanger α-2 repeat (815-839) on cardiac function in isolated adult rat hearts%抗钠-钙交换体α-2(815-839)重复序列抗体对成年大鼠离体心脏心功能影响的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    封启龙; 吴博威


    目的 研究抗钠-钙交换体α-2(815-839)抗体对Langendorff离体灌流大鼠心功能的影响并分析其机制.方法 以人工合成的α-2(815-839)作为抗原肽段免疫大鼠获得并纯化抗体,利用Langendorff离体灌流系统研究其对大鼠心功能的影响.结果 免疫后大鼠体内抗α-2(815-839)抗血清滴度明显升高,纯化后抗体浓度为1.2 mg/ml,在PAGE电泳时仅有一条带出现,分子量与IgG标准品相一致.在浓度为10,20和40 nmol/L时,该抗体可剂量依赖性地升高离体灌流大鼠心脏左室发展压(LVDP)、左室压最大上升速率(+dP/dtmax)和左室压最大下降速率(-dP/dtmax),且这一效应可被NCX特异性阻断剂KB-R7943阻断.高钙溶液灌流可使离体心脏LVDP和+dP/dtmax增大,而使-dP/dtmax明显降低.结论 抗α-2(815-839)抗体通过激动心肌钠-钙交换体和L型钙通道不仅可以增强心肌的收缩力和加快心肌收缩的速度,而且还可促进心肌的舒张,为研发防治心力衰竭新型药物提供了实验依据.%Objective To explore the effect of the antibody against α-2(815-839)in sodium calcium exchanger on cardiac function in Langendorff-perfused rat hearts and its mechanism. Methods Rats were immunized with synthesized α-2(815-839)peptide. Effects of the antibody against α-2(815-839)on cardiac performance were observed in Langendorff-perfused isolated rat heart. Results Titer of the antisera increased significantly in α-2(815-839)immunized rats. The concentration of the purified antibody was 1.2 mg/ml.Only one band with the same molecular weight as standard IgG was observed in the purified antibody sample lane of PAGE. The antibody increased dose-dependently LVDP, +d P/d t max and -d P/d t max in Langendorff-perfused isolated hearts at 10,20 and 40 nmol/L, which could be partly reversed by KB-R7943.When perfused with the solution containing high concentration of 3.5 mmol/L Ca2+,LVDP and +d P/d t max increased, while -d P/d t max declined

  14. Calcium and Calcium-Base Alloys (United States)


    should be satisfactory, because the electrolytic process for •(!>: A. H. Everts and G. D. Baglev’, " Physical «nrt m<„.+„4 i «_ of Calcium«, Electrochem...Rev. Metalurgie , 3j2, (1), 129 (1935). 10 ^sm^mssss^ma^^ extension between two known loads, is preferable to the value of 3,700,000 p.B.i. obtained

  15. Luminescent properties of aluminum hydride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baraban, A.P.; Gabis, I.E.; Dmitriev, V.A. [Saint-Petersburg State University, Department of Physics, Saint-Petersburg 198504 (Russian Federation); Dobrotvorskii, M.A., E-mail: [Saint-Petersburg State University, Department of Physics, Saint-Petersburg 198504 (Russian Federation); Kuznetsov, V.G. [Saint-Petersburg State University, Department of Physics, Saint-Petersburg 198504 (Russian Federation); Matveeva, O.P. [National Mineral Resources University, Saint Petersburg 199106 (Russian Federation); Titov, S.A. [Petersburg State University of Railway Transport, Saint-Petersburg 190031 (Russian Federation); Voyt, A.P.; Elets, D.I. [Saint-Petersburg State University, Department of Physics, Saint-Petersburg 198504 (Russian Federation)


    We studied cathodoluminescence and photoluminescence of α-AlH{sub 3}– a likely candidate for use as possible hydrogen carrier in hydrogen-fueled vehicles. Luminescence properties of original α-AlH{sub 3} and α-AlH{sub 3} irradiated with ultraviolet were compared. The latter procedure leads to activation of thermal decomposition of α-AlH{sub 3} and thus has a practical implementation. We showed that the original and UV-modified aluminum hydride contain luminescence centers ‐ structural defects of the same type, presumably hydrogen vacancies, characterized by a single set of characteristic bands of radiation. The observed luminescence is the result of radiative intracenter relaxation of the luminescence center (hydrogen vacancy) excited by electrons or photons, and its intensity is defined by the concentration of vacancies, and the area of their possible excitation. UV-activation of the dehydrogenation process of aluminum hydride leads to changes in the spatial distribution of the luminescence centers. For short times of exposure their concentration increases mainly in the surface regions of the crystals. At high exposures, this process extends to the bulk of the aluminum hydride and ends with a decrease in concentration of luminescence centers in the surface region. - Highlights: • Aluminum hydride contains hydrogen vacancies which serve as luminescence centers. • The luminescence is the result of radiative relaxation of excited centers. • Hydride UV-irradiation alters distribution and concentration of luminescence centers.

  16. Aluminum break-point contacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinemann, Martina; Groot, R.A. de


    Ab initio molecular dynamics is used to study the contribution of a single Al atom to an aluminum breakpoint contact during the final stages of breaking and the initial stages of the formation of such a contact. A hysteresis effect is found in excellent agreement with experiment and the form of the

  17. [Comparative study of the short-term effect of mineral water on calcium metabolism]. (United States)

    Vezzoli, Giuseppe; Arcidiacono, Teresa; Puzzovio, Maria; Mora, Stefano


    Mineral water may be a useful means to achieve optimal dietary calcium intake, but the effect of different mineral waters on calcium metabolism is unknown. We therefore evaluated calcium excretion in 24-hour urine in 10 healthy individuals (5 women and 5 men) after two weeks of drinking at least 1500 mL/day of mineral water with a low electrolyte content or 1500 mL/day of mineral water rich in calcium and bicarbonate but with a different sodium content. The low-sodium water Sangemini was one of these two mineral waters. Calcium excretion did not significantly increase after intake of the Sangemini mineral water in comparison with the baseline period of low-electrolyte mineral water intake. Conversely, the calcium excretion increased significantly after intake of the second mineral water. The plasma concentration of C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen and the urinary phosphate excretion decreased after intake of the second mineral water in comparison with the baseline period, whereas they did not decrease after intake of Sangemini water. Therefore, phosphate excretion was higher after drinking Sangemini water than the other studied mineral water. Drinking Sangemini water may have a slight effect on calcium excretion and may not inhibit bone turnover in the short term. The lesser effect of Sangemini water on calcium excretion could be useful in the treatment of osteoporosis.

  18. Synthesis and reaction behavior of calcium silicate hydrate in basic system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘桂华; 贺强; 李小斌; 彭志宏; 周秋生


    At the molar ratio of CaO to SiO2 of 1, with calcium hydroxide and sodium silicate, calcium silicate hydrate was synthesized at 50, 100, 170 ℃, respectively. The results show that temperature favors the formation of calcium silicate hydrate with perfect structure. When calcium silicate hydrate reacts with caustic solution, the decomposition rate of calcium silicate hydrate increases with the increasing caustic concentration and decreases with the raising synthesis temperature and the prolongation of reaction time. The decomposition rate is all less than 1.2 % in caustic solution, and XRD pattern of the residue after reaction with caustic solution is found as the same as that of original calcium silicate hydrate, which indicates the stable existence of calcium silicate hydrate in caustic solution.When reacted with soda solution, the decomposition rate increases with the increasing soda concentration and reaction time, while decreases with the synthesis temperature. The decomposition rate is more than 2% because CaO · SiO2 · H2O(CSH( Ⅰ )), except Ca5 (OH)2Si6O16 · 4H2O and Ca6Si6O17 (OH)2, is decomposed. So the synthesis temperature and soda concentration should be controlled in the process of transformation of sodium aluminosilicate hydrate into calcium silicate hydrate.

  19. [Calcium suppletion for patients who use gastric acid inhibitors: calcium citrate or calcium carbonate?].

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonge, H.J. de; Gans, R.O.; Huls, G.A.


    Various calcium supplements are available for patients who have an indication for calcium suppletion. American guidelines and UpToDate recommend prescribing calcium citrate to patients who use antacids The rationale for this advice is that water-insoluble calcium carbonate needs acid for adequate ab

  20. Sodium Butyrate Induces Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Autophagy in Colorectal Cells: Implications for Apoptosis


    Jintao Zhang; Man Yi; Longying Zha; Siqiang Chen; Zhijia Li; Cheng Li; Mingxing Gong; Hong Deng; Xinwei Chu; Jiehua Chen; Zheqing Zhang; Limei Mao; Suxia Sun


    Purpose Butyrate, a short-chain fatty acid derived from dietary fiber, inhibits proliferation and induces cell death in colorectal cancer cells. However, clinical trials have shown mixed results regarding the anti-tumor activities of butyrate. We have previously shown that sodium butyrate increases endoplasmic reticulum stress by altering intracellular calcium levels, a well-known autophagy trigger. Here, we investigated whether sodium butyrate-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress mediated au...

  1. Ouabain enhancement of compound 48/80 induced histamine secretion from rat peritoneal mast cells: dependence on extracellular sodium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, T; Bertelsen, Niels Haldor; Johansen, Torben


    a measure of the Na(+)-K+ pump activity of the cells. Ouabain caused an immediate inhibition of the pump activity and a time-dependent increase in histamine secretion in the absence of extracellular calcium. No effect on the secretion was observed in the presence of calcium. The effect of ouabain......-free medium, the pump activity was inhibited and the enhancement by ouabain of the secretion of histamine was blocked. A less marked inhibition of the pump was found in a calcium-free medium containing magnesium. The inhibition exerted by magnesium was concentration-dependent (0-5 mM) as was the counteraction...... of sodium-calcium exchange caused by a decreased inward directed sodium gradient, the mechanism by which ouabain enhances the secretory response is likely to involve an increased binding of calcium to membrane binding sites....

  2. Development of sodium technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Sung Tai; Nam, H. Y.; Choi, Y. D. [and others


    The objective of present study is to produce the experimental data for development and verification of computer codes for development of LMR and to develop the preliminary technologies for the future large scale verification experiments. A MHD experimental test loop has been constructed for the quantitative analysis of the effect of magnetic field on the sodium flow and experiments are carried out for three EM pumps. The previous pressure drop correlations are evaluated using the experimental data obtained from the pressure drop experiment in a 19-pin fuel assembly with wire spacer. An dimensionless variable is proposed to describe the amplitude and frequency of the fluctuation of free surface using the experimental data obtained from free surface experimental apparatus and an empirical correlation is developed using this dimensionless variable. An experimental test loop is constructed to measure the flow characteristics in IHX shell side and the local pressure drop in fuel assembly, and to test the vibration behaviour of fuel pins due to flow induced vibration. The sodium two-phase flow measuring technique using the electromagnetic flowmeter is developed and the sodium differential pressure drop measuring technique using the method of direct contact of sodium and oil is established. The work on the analysis of sodium fire characteristics and produce data for vlidation of computer code is performed. Perfect reopen time of self plugged leak path was observed to be about 130 minutes after water leak initiation. Reopen shape of a specimen appeared to be double layer of circular type, and reopen size of this specimen surface was about 2mm diameter on sodium side. In small water leakage experiments, the following correlation equation about the reopen time between sodium temperature and initial leak rate was obtained, {tau}{sub c} = {delta}{center_dot}g{sup -0.83}{center_dot}10{sup (3570/T{sub Na}-3.34)}, in 400-500 deg C of liquid sodium atmosphere. The characteristics

  3. Behavior of calcium silicate hydrate in aluminate solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiao-bin; ZHAO Zhuo; LIU Gui-hua; ZHOU Qiu-sheng; PENG Zhi-hong


    Using calcium hydroxide and sodium silicate as starting materials, two kinds of calcium silicate hydrates, CaO · SiO2 · H2O and 2CaO · SiO2 · 1.17H2O, were hydro-thermally synthesized at 120 ℃. The reaction rule of calcium silicate hydrate in aluminate solution was investigated. The result shows that CaO · SiO2 · H2O is more stable than 2CaO · SiO2 · 1.17H2 O in aluminate solution and its stability increases with the increase of reaction temperature but decreases with the increase of caustic concentration. The reaction between calcium silicate hydrate and aluminate solution is mainly through two routes. In the first case, Al replaces partial Si in calcium silicate hydrate, meanwhile 3CaO · Al2 O3 · xSiO2 · (6-2x) H2 O (hydro-garnet) is formed and some SiO2 enters the solution. In the second case, calcium silicate hydrate can react directly with aluminate solution, forming hydro-garnet and Na2O · Al2O3 · 2SiO2 · nH2O (DSP). The desilication reaction of aluminate solution containing silicate could contribute partially to forming DSP.

  4. Colonic necrosis and perforation due to calcium polystyrene sulfonate in a uraemic patient: a case report


    Akagun, Tulin; Yazici, Halil; Gulluoglu, Mine G.; Yegen, Gulcin; Turkmen, Aydin


    Sodium or calcium polystyrene sulfonate (Kayexalate or analog) is an ion-exchange resin commonly used to treat hyperkalaemia in patients with chronic kidney disease. It is known to cause digestive complications, such as nausea, vomiting and constipation. Although rare, colonic necrosis and perforation are very severe complications associated with the medication. In this case report, we present a case of calcium polystyrene sulfonate-induced colonic necrosis and perforation to remind clinician...

  5. Brushite-based calcium phosphate cement with multichannel hydroxyapatite granule loading for improved bone regeneration. (United States)

    Sarkar, Swapan Kumar; Lee, Byung Yeol; Padalhin, Andrew Reyas; Sarker, Avik; Carpena, Nathaniel; Kim, Boram; Paul, Kallyanshish; Choi, Hwan Jun; Bae, Sang-Ho; Lee, Byong Taek


    In this work, we report brushite-based calcium phosphate cement (CPC) system to enhance the in vivo biodegradation and tissue in-growth by incorporation of micro-channeled hydroxyapatite (HAp) granule and silicon and sodium addition in calcium phosphate precursor powder. Sodium- and silicon-rich calcium phosphate powder with predominantly tri calcium phosphate (TCP) phase was synthesized by an inexpensive wet chemical route to react with mono calcium phosphate monohydrate (MCPM) for making the CPC. TCP nanopowder also served as a packing filler and moderator of the reaction kinetics of the setting mechanism. Strong sintered cylindrical HAp granules were prepared by fibrous monolithic (FM) process, which is 800 µm in diameter and have seven micro-channels. Acid sodium pyrophosphate and sodium citrate solution was used as the liquid component which acted as a homogenizer and setting time retarder. The granules accelerated the degradation of the brushite cement matrix as well as improved the bone tissue in-growth by permitting an easy access to the interior of the CPC through the micro-channels. The addition of micro-channeled granule in the CPC introduced porosity without sacrificing much of its compressive strength. In vivo investigation by creating a critical size defect in the femur head of a rabbit model for 1 and 2 months showed excellent bone in-growth through the micro-channels. The granules enhanced the implant degradation behavior and bone regeneration in the implanted area was significantly improved after two months of implantation.

  6. Calcium in plant cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Schwartau


    Full Text Available The paper gives the review on the role of calcium in many physiological processes of plant organisms, including growth and development, protection from pathogenic influences, response to changing environmental factors, and many other aspects of plant physiology. Initial intake of calcium ions is carried out by Ca2+-channels of plasma membrane and they are further transported by the xylem owing to auxins’ attractive ability. The level of intake and selectivity of calcium transport to ove-ground parts of the plant is controlled by a symplast. Ca2+enters to the cytoplasm of endoderm cells through calcium channels on the cortical side of Kaspary bands, and is redistributed inside the stele by the symplast, with the use of Ca2+-АТPases and Ca2+/Н+-antiports. Owing to regulated expression and activity of these calcium transporters, calclum can be selectively delivered to the xylem. Important role in supporting calcium homeostasis is given to the vacuole which is the largest depo of calcium. Regulated quantity of calcium movement through the tonoplast is provided by a number of potential-, ligand-gated active transporters and channels, like Ca2+-ATPase and Ca2+/H+ exchanger. They are actively involved in the inactivation of the calcium signal by pumping Ca2+ to the depo of cells. Calcium ATPases are high affinity pumps that efficiently transfer calcium ions against the concentration gradient in their presence in the solution in nanomolar concentrations. Calcium exchangers are low affinity, high capacity Ca2+ transporters that are effectively transporting calcium after raising its concentration in the cell cytosol through the use of protons gradients. Maintaining constant concentration and participation in the response to stimuli of different types also involves EPR, plastids, mitochondria, and cell wall. Calcium binding proteins contain several conserved sequences that provide sensitivity to changes in the concentration of Ca2+ and when you

  7. Diet and arterial hypertension: is the sodium ion alone important? (United States)

    Buemi, Michele; Senatore, Massimino; Corica, Francesco; Aloisi, Carmela; Romeo, Adolfo; Tramontana, Domenico; Frisina, Nicola


    Hypertension is a widespread phenomenon whose ultimate cause is still unknown. Many factors contribute to this disease, and partially for this reason, hypertension responds to different treatments in different individuals. It is difficult to generalize about therapies for general populations. In particular, the role of electrolytes in hypertension varies widely across individuals. This review focuses its attention on sodium, potassium, calcium, and magnesium ions in order to investigate whether these electrolytes play a role in the pathogenesis of arterial hypertension and its treatment. Some individuals are especially sensitive to sodium, and changing their intake of dietary sodium may lead to variations in the levels of the other electrolytes. These changes in electrolyte levels can complicate treatments for arterial hypertension in some patients.

  8. Elemental calcium intake associated with calcium acetate/calcium carbonate in the treatment of hyperphosphatemia


    Wilson, Rosamund J; Copley, J Brian


    Background Calcium-based and non-calcium-based phosphate binders have similar efficacy in the treatment of hyperphosphatemia; however, calcium-based binders may be associated with hypercalcemia, vascular calcification, and adynamic bone disease. Scope A post hoc analysis was carried out of data from a 16-week, Phase IV study of patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) who switched to lanthanum carbonate monotherapy from baseline calcium acetate/calcium carbonate monotherapy. Of the intent...

  9. 43. Calmodulin regulating calcium sensitivity of Na channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Vegiraju


    Full Text Available By extrapolating information from existing research and observing previous assumptions regarding the structure of the Na Channel, this experiment was conducted under the hypothesis that the Na Channel is in part regulated by the calmodulin protein, as a result proving calcium sensitivity of the Na Channel. Furthermore, we assume that there is a one to one stoichiometry between the Na Channel and the Calmodulin. There has been extensive research into the functionality and structure of sodium ion channels (Na channels, as several diseases are associated with the lack of regulation of sodium ions, that is caused by the disfunction of these Na channels. However, one highly controversial matter in the field is the importance of the protein calmodulin (CaM and calcium in Na channel function. Calmodulin is a protein that is well known for its role as a calcium binding messenger protein, and that association is believed to play an indirect role in regulating the Na channel through the Na channel’s supposed calcium sensitivity. While there are proponents for both sides, there has been relatively little research that provides strong evidence for either case. In this experiment, the effect of calmodulin on NaV 1.5 is tested by preparing a set of cardiac cells (of the human specie with the NaV 1.5 C-Termini and CaM protein, which were then to be placed in solutions with varying concentrations of calcium. We took special care to test multiple concentrations of calcium, as previous studies have tested very low concentrations, with Manu Ben-Johny’s team from the John Hopkins laboratory in particular testing up to a meager 50 micromolar, despite producing a well-respected paper (By comparison, the average Na channel can naturally sustain a concentration of almost 1-2 millimolar and on some occasions, reaching even higher concentrations. After using light scattering and observing the signals given off by the calcium interacting with these Nav1.5/Ca

  10. [Microbial geochemical calcium cycle]. (United States)

    Zavarzin, G A


    The participation of microorganisms in the geochemical calcium cycle is the most important factor maintaining neutral conditions on the Earth. This cycle has profound influence on the fate of inorganic carbon, and, thereby, on the removal of CO2 from the atmosphere. The major part of calcium deposits was formed in the Precambrian, when prokaryotic biosphere predominated. After that, calcium recycling based on biogenic deposition by skeletal organisms became the main process. Among prokaryotes, only a few representatives, e.g., cyanobacteria, exhibit a special calcium function. The geochemical calcium cycle is made possible by the universal features of bacteria involved in biologically mediated reactions and is determined by the activities of microbial communities. In the prokaryotic system, the calcium cycle begins with the leaching of igneous rock predominantly through the action of the community of organotrophic organisms. The release of carbon dioxide to the soil air by organotrophic aerobes leads to leaching with carbonic acid and soda salinization. Under anoxic conditions, of major importance is the organic acid production by primary anaerobes (fermentative microorganisms). Calcium carbonate is precipitated by secondary anaerobes (sulfate reducers) and to a smaller degree by methanogens. The role of the cyanobacterial community in carbonate deposition is exposed by stromatolites, which are the most common organo-sedimentary Precambrian structures. Deposition of carbonates in cyanobacterial mats as a consequence of photoassimilation of CO2 does not appear to be a significant process. It is argued that carbonates were deposited at the boundary between the "soda continent", which emerged as a result of subaerial leaching with carbonic acid, and the ocean containing Ca2+. Such ecotones provided favorable conditions for the development of the benthic cyanobacterial community, which was a precursor of stromatolites.

  11. Effects of aluminum sulfate on delta-aminolevulinate dehydratase from kidney, brain, and liver of adult mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schetinger M.R.C.


    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to investigate the in vitro and in vivo effects of aluminum sulfate on delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALA-D activity from the brain, liver and kidney of adult mice (Swiss albine. In vitro experiments showed that the aluminum sulfate concentration needed to inhibit the enzyme activity was 1.0-5.0 mM (N = 3 in brain, 4.0-5.0 mM (N = 3 in liver and 0.0-5.0 mM (N = 3 in kidney. The in vivo experiments were performed on three groups for one month: 1 control animals (N = 8; 2 animals treated with 1 g% (34 mM sodium citrate (N = 8 and 3 animals treated with 1 g% (34 mM sodium citrate plus 3.3 g% (49.5 mM aluminum sulfate (N = 8. Exposure to aluminum sulfate in drinking water inhibited ALA-D activity in kidney (23.3 ± 3.7%, mean ± SEM, P<0.05 compared to control, but enhanced it in liver (31.2 ± 15.0%, mean ± SEM, P<0.05. The concentrations of aluminum in the brain, liver and kidney of adult mice were determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. The aluminum concentrations increased significantly in the liver (527 ± 3.9%, mean ± SEM, P<0.05 and kidney (283 ± 1.7%, mean ± SEM, P<0.05 but did not change in the brain of aluminum-exposed mice. One of the most important and striking observations was the increase in hepatic aluminum concentration in the mice treated only with 1 g% sodium citrate (34 mM (217 ± 1.5%, mean ± SEM, P<0.05 compared to control. These results show that aluminum interferes with delta-aminolevulinate dehydratase activity in vitro and in vivo. The accumulation of this element was in the order: liver > kidney > brain. Furthermore, aluminum had only inhibitory properties in vitro, while in vivo it inhibited or stimulated the enzyme depending on the organ studied.

  12. Melting of sodium clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Reyes-Nava, J A; Beltran, M R; Michaelian, K


    Thermal stability properties and the melting-like transition of Na_n, n=13-147, clusters are studied through microcanonical molecular dynamics simulations. The metallic bonding in the sodium clusters is mimicked by a many-body Gupta potential based on the second moment approximation of a tight-binding Hamiltonian. The characteristics of the solid-to-liquid transition in the sodium clusters are analyzed by calculating physical quantities like caloric curves, heat capacities, and root-mean-square bond length fluctuations using simulation times of several nanoseconds. Distinct melting mechanisms are obtained for the sodium clusters in the size range investigated. The calculated melting temperatures show an irregular variation with the cluster size, in qualitative agreement with recent experimental results. However, the calculated melting point for the Na_55 cluster is about 40 % lower than the experimental value.

  13. Multilayer Clad Plate of Stainless Steel/Aluminum/Aluminum Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Jiawei; PANG Yuhua; LI Ting


    The 3, 5, 20 layer clad plate from austenitic stainless steel, pure aluminum and aluminum alloy sheets were fabricated in different ways. The stretch and interface properties were measured. The result shows that 20 layer clad plate is better than the others. Well-bonded clad plate was successfully obtained in the following procedure: Basic clad sheet from 18 layer A11060/A13003sheets was firstly obtained with an initial rolling reduction of 44% at 450 ℃, followed by annealing at 300 ℃, and then with reduction of 50% at 550 ℃ from STS304 on each side. The best 20 layer clad plate was of 129 MPa bonding strength and 225 MPa stretch strength.

  14. Electrodeposition of aluminum on aluminum surface from molten salt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenmao HUANG; Xiangyu XIA; Bin LIU; Yu LIU; Haowei WANG; Naiheng MA


    The surface morphology,microstructure and composition of the aluminum coating of the electrodeposition plates in AlC13-NaC1-KC1 molten salt with a mass ratio of 8:1:1 were investigated by SEM and EDS.The binding force was measured by splat-cooling method and bending method.The results indicate that the coatings with average thicknesses of 12 and 9 μm for both plates treated by simple grinding and phosphating are compacted,continuous and well adhered respectively. Tetramethylammonium chloride (TMAC) can effectively prevent the growth of dendritic crystal,and the anode activation may improve the adhesion of the coating. Binding force analysis shows that both aluminum coatings are strongly adhered to the substrates.

  15. Fundamental Characteristics of Bioprint on Calcium Alginate Gel (United States)

    Umezu, Shinjiro; Hatta, Tatsuru; Ohmori, Hitoshi


    The goal of this study is to fabricate precision three-dimensional (3D) biodevices those are micro fluidics and artificial organs utilizing digital fabrication. Digital fabrication is fabrication method utilizing inkjet technologies. Electrostatic inkjet is one of the inkjet technologies. The electrostatic inkjet method has following two merits; those are high resolution to print and ability to eject highly viscous liquid. These characteristics are suitable to print biomaterials precisely. We are now applying for bioprint. In this paper, the electrostatic inkjet method is applied for fabrication of 3D biodevices that has cave like blood vessel. When aqueous solution of sodium alginate is printed to aqueous solution of calcium chloride, calcium alginate is produced. 3D biodevices are fabricated in case that calcium alginate is piled.

  16. Participação da excreção renal de cálcio, fósforo, sódio e potássio na homeostase em cães sadios e cães com doença renal crônica Participation of renal excretion of calcium, phosphorus, sodium and potassium on the homeostasis in healthy dogs and in dogs with chronic kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro P Martínez


    Full Text Available Na doença renal crônica (DRC a manutenção da homeostase de água e sódio é o primeiro problema a ser contornado pelo organismo e com o agravamento das lesões renais surgem outros problemas graves relacionados à homeostase de cálcio e fósforo. O presente estudo tem por escopo avaliar a excreção renal de cálcio, fósforo, sódio e potássio, e o perfil sérico destes eletrólitos em cães normais e em cães com DRC naturalmente adquirida. Foram avaliados três grupos de cães adultos, machos ou fêmeas, de raças variadas. Animais normais compuseram o grupo controle (G1 e os cães com DRC foram distribuídos em dois grupos de acordo com os estágios de comprometimento da função renal (G2 e G3, respectivamente, estágios 1-2 e estágios 3-4, descritos pela IRIS 2006 staging CKD. Os cães do G3 apresentaram aumento das concentrações séricas de cálcio ionizado e fósforo, além de diminuição da concentração sérica de sódio. Quanto à excreção renal dos eletrólitos analisados, os animais dos grupos G1 e G2 apresentaram diminuição de carga filtrada e aumento de excreção fracionada, mas as excreções urinárias não variaram significativamente. Os resultados são indicativos de que os rins de cães com DRC podem manter a excreção urinária dos eletrólitos em valores se melhantes aos dos normais. O mecanismo envolve aumento da excreção fracionada na medida em que haja diminuição da filtração glomerular. Esse processo de compensação, entretanto, pode perder a eficiência nos estágios mais avançados da enfermidade no que se refere à manutenção das concentrações séricas de fósforo e sódio.In chronic kidney disease (CKD, the first problem to be solved by the organism is to maintain water and sodium homeostasis and, with the worsening of the renal injuries, other severe problems related to the calcium and phosphorus homeostasis emerge. The present study has the purpose to evaluate the renal excretion and

  17. Too Much Sodium

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    This podcast is based on the February 2012 CDC Vital Signs report. Ninety percent of Americans age two and older eat too much sodium which can increase your risk for high blood pressure and often leads to heart disease and stroke, two leading causes of death in the US. Learn several small steps you can take to reduce the amount of sodium in your diet.  Created: 2/7/2012 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 2/7/2012.

  18. Modeling dissolution in aluminum alloys (United States)

    Durbin, Tracie Lee


    Aluminum and its alloys are used in many aspects of modern life, from soda cans and household foil to the automobiles and aircraft in which we travel. Aluminum alloy systems are characterized by good workability that enables these alloys to be economically rolled, extruded, or forged into useful shapes. Mechanical properties such as strength are altered significantly with cold working, annealing, precipitation-hardening, and/or heat-treatments. Heat-treatable aluminum alloys contain one or more soluble constituents such as copper, lithium, magnesium, silicon and zinc that individually, or with other elements, can form phases that strengthen the alloy. Microstructure development is highly dependent on all of the processing steps the alloy experiences. Ultimately, the macroscopic properties of the alloy depend strongly on the microstructure. Therefore, a quantitative understanding of the microstructural changes that occur during thermal and mechanical processing is fundamental to predicting alloy properties. In particular, the microstructure becomes more homogeneous and secondary phases are dissolved during thermal treatments. Robust physical models for the kinetics of particle dissolution are necessary to predict the most efficient thermal treatment. A general dissolution model for multi-component alloys has been developed using the front-tracking method to study the dissolution of precipitates in an aluminum alloy matrix. This technique is applicable to any alloy system, provided thermodynamic and diffusion data are available. Treatment of the precipitate interface is explored using two techniques: the immersed-boundary method and a new technique, termed here the "sharp-interface" method. The sharp-interface technique is based on a variation of the ghost fluid method and eliminates the need for corrective source terms in the characteristic equations. In addition, the sharp-interface method is shown to predict the dissolution behavior of precipitates in aluminum

  19. Correlation between porosity and space holder content at different sintering temperatures of aluminum foam (United States)

    Rushdi, N. M. F. M.; Jamaludin, S. B.; Mazlee, M. N.; Jamal, Z. A. Z.


    Aluminum foam is the most popular metal foam that can be used as energy absorbers, heat exchangers, air-oil separators and structure core of fuel cells. Melt-foaming agent, melt-gas injection, investment casting and powder-foaming agent techniques can be used to manufacture aluminum foam, but these techniques are too expensive. In this study, the aluminum foam was manufactured via a sintering dissolution process (SDP). Powders of aluminum and sodium chloride as space holder (25, 40, 50 wt. %) were mixed together to produce a homogeneous mixture. The mixture was compacted at 200 MPa followed by sintering at 500, 550 and 600˚C for 2 hours. A warm running water stream was used to dissolve the space holder that was embedded in the aluminum. The result showed that, the space holder content performed a significant role to control the total porosity to a value between 18 and 40%, and the porosity increased with increasing content of space holder and sintering temperature.

  20. Synthesis of aluminum oxy-hydroxide nanofibers from porous anodic alumina. (United States)

    Jha, Himendra; Kikuchi, Tatsuya; Sakairi, Masatoshi; Takahashi, Hideaki


    A novel method for the synthesis of aluminum oxy-hydroxide nanofibers from a porous anodic oxide film of aluminum is demonstrated. In the present method, the porous anodic alumina not only acts as a template, but also serves as the starting material for the synthesis. The porous anodic alumina film is hydrothermally treated for pore-sealing, which forms aluminum oxy-hydroxide inside the pores of the oxide film as well as on the surface of the film. The hydrothermally sealed porous oxide film is immersed in the sodium citrate solution, which selectively etches the porous aluminum oxide from the film, leaving the oxy-hydroxide intact. The method is simple and gives highly uniform aluminum oxy-hydroxide nanofibers. Moreover, the diameter of the nanofibers can be controlled by controlling the pore size of the porous anodic alumina film, which depends on the anodizing conditions. Nanofibers with diameters of about 38-85 nm, having uniform shape and size, were successfully synthesized using the present method.

  1. Fluoride Removal From Drinking Water by Electrocoagulation Using Iron and Aluminum Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Background Existence of fluoride in drinking water above the permissible level causes human skeletal fluorosis. Objectives Electrocoagulation by iron and aluminum electrodes was proposed for removing fluoride from drinking water. Materials and Methods Effects of different operating conditions such as treatment time, initial pH, applied voltage, type and number of electrodes, the spaces between aluminum and iron electrodes, and energy consumption during electrocoagulation were investigated in the batch reactor. Variable concentrations of fluoride solution were prepared by mixing proper amounts of sodium fluoride with deionized water. Results Experimental results showed that aluminum electrode is more effective in fluoride removal than iron, as in 40 minutes and initial pH of 7.5 at 20 V, the fluoride removal process reached to 97.86%. The final recommendable limit of fluoride (1.5 mg/L was obtained in 10 minutes at 20 V with the aluminum electrode. Conclusions In electrocoagulation with iron and aluminum electrodes, increase of voltage, number of electrodes and reaction time as well as decrease of the spaces between electrodes, enhanced the fluoride removal efficiency from drinking water. In addition the effect of pH and initial concentration of fluoride varied with types of electrodes.

  2. Sodium and bone health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teucher, B.; Dainty, J. R.; Spinks, C. A.


    High salt intake is a well-recognized risk factor for osteoporosis because it induces calciuria, but the effects of salt on calcium metabolism and the potential impact on bone health in postmenopausal women have not been fully characterized. This study investigated adaptive mechanisms in response...... was negative on both high and low salt diets....

  3. Potassium citrate decreases urine calcium excretion in patients with hypocitraturic calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis. (United States)

    Song, Yan; Hernandez, Natalia; Shoag, Jonathan; Goldfarb, David S; Eisner, Brian H


    Two previous studies (nephrolithiasis. The hypothesized mechanisms are (1) a decrease in bone turnover due to systemic alkalinization by the medications; (2) binding of calcium by citrate in the gastrointestinal tract; (3) direct effects on TRPV5 activity in the distal tubule. We performed a retrospective review of patients on potassium citrate therapy to evaluate the effects of this medication on urinary calcium excretion. A retrospective review was performed of a metabolic stone database at a tertiary care academic hospital. Patients were identified with a history of calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis and hypocitraturia who were on potassium citrate therapy for a minimum of 3 months. 24-h urine composition was assessed prior to the initiation of potassium citrate therapy and after 3 months of therapy. Patients received 30-60 mEq potassium citrate by mouth daily. Inclusion criterion was a change in urine potassium of 20 mEq/day or greater, which suggests compliance with potassium citrate therapy. Paired t test was used to compare therapeutic effect. Twenty-two patients were evaluated. Mean age was 58.8 years (SD 14.0), mean BMI was 29.6 kg/m(2) (SD 5.9), and gender prevalence was 36.4% female:63.6% male. Mean pre-treatment 24-h urine values were as follows: citrate 280.0 mg/day, potassium 58.7 mEq/day, calcium 216.0 mg/day, pH 5.87. Potassium citrate therapy was associated with statistically significant changes in each of these parameters-citrate increased to 548.4 mg/day (p < 0.0001), potassium increased to 94.1 mEq/day (p < 0.0001), calcium decreased to 156.5 mg/day (p = 0.04), pH increased to 6.47 (p = 0.001). Urine sodium excretion was not different pre- and post-therapy (175 mEq/day pre-therapy versus 201 mEq/day post-therapy, p = NS). Urinary calcium excretion decreased by a mean of 60 mg/day on potassium citrate therapy-a nearly 30 % decrease in urine calcium excretion. These data lend support to the hypothesis that alkali therapy reduces urine calcium

  4. Inositol trisphosphate and calcium signalling (United States)

    Berridge, Michael J.


    Inositol trisphosphate is a second messenger that controls many cellular processes by generating internal calcium signals. It operates through receptors whose molecular and physiological properties closely resemble the calcium-mobilizing ryanodine receptors of muscle. This family of intracellular calcium channels displays the regenerative process of calcium-induced calcium release responsible for the complex spatiotemporal patterns of calcium waves and oscillations. Such a dynamic signalling pathway controls many cellular processes, including fertilization, cell growth, transformation, secretion, smooth muscle contraction, sensory perception and neuronal signalling.

  5. Sodium borohydride reduction of aromatic carboxylic acids via methyl esters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Aamer Saeed; Zaman Ashraf


    A number of important aromatic carboxylic acids precursors, or intermediates in the syntheses of natural products, are converted into methyl esters and reduced to the corresponding primary alcohols using a sodium borohydride-THF-methanol system. The alcohols are obtained in 70-92% yields in 2-5 hours, in a pure state. This two-step procedure not only provides a better alternative to aluminum hydride reduction of acids but also allows the selective reduction of esters in presence of acids, amides, nitriles or nitro functions which are not affected under these conditions.

  6. The Effect of Impurities on the Processing of Aluminum Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zi-Kui Liu; Shengjun Zhang; Qingyou Han; Vinod Sikka


    For this Aluminum Industry of the Future (IOF) project, the effect of impurities on the processing of aluminum alloys was systematically investigated. The work was carried out as a collaborative effort between the Pennsylvania State University and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Industrial support was provided by ALCOA and ThermoCalc, Inc. The achievements described below were made. A method that combines first-principles calculation and calculation of phase diagrams (CALPHAD) was used to develop the multicomponent database Al-Ca-K-Li-Mg-Na. This method was extensively used in this project for the development of a thermodynamic database. The first-principles approach provided some thermodynamic property data that are not available in the open literature. These calculated results were used in the thermodynamic modeling as experimental data. Some of the thermodynamic property data are difficult, if not impossible, to measure. The method developed and used in this project allows the estimation of these data for thermodynamic database development. The multicomponent database Al-Ca-K-Li-Mg-Na was developed. Elements such as Ca, Li, Na, and K are impurities that strongly affect the formability and corrosion behavior of aluminum alloys. However, these impurity elements are not included in the commercial aluminum alloy database. The process of thermodynamic modeling began from Al-Na, Ca-Li, Li-Na, K-Na, and Li-K sub-binary systems. Then ternary and higher systems were extrapolated because of the lack of experimental information. Databases for five binary alloy systems and two ternary systems were developed. Along with other existing binary and ternary databases, the full database of the multicomponent Al-Ca-K-Li-Mg-Na system was completed in this project. The methodology in integrating with commercial or other aluminum alloy databases can be developed. The mechanism of sodium-induced high-temperature embrittlement (HTE) of Al-Mg is now understood. Using the thermodynamic

  7. The Effect of Impurities on the Processing of Aluminum Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zi-Kui Liu; Shengjun Zhang; Qingyou Han; Vinod Sikka


    For this Aluminum Industry of the Future (IOF) project, the effect of impurities on the processing of aluminum alloys was systematically investigated. The work was carried out as a collaborative effort between the Pennsylvania State University and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Industrial support was provided by ALCOA and ThermoCalc, Inc. The achievements described below were made. A method that combines first-principles calculation and calculation of phase diagrams (CALPHAD) was used to develop the multicomponent database Al-Ca-K-Li-Mg-Na. This method was extensively used in this project for the development of a thermodynamic database. The first-principles approach provided some thermodynamic property data that are not available in the open literature. These calculated results were used in the thermodynamic modeling as experimental data. Some of the thermodynamic property data are difficult, if not impossible, to measure. The method developed and used in this project allows the estimation of these data for thermodynamic database development. The multicomponent database Al-Ca-K-Li-Mg-Na was developed. Elements such as Ca, Li, Na, and K are impurities that strongly affect the formability and corrosion behavior of aluminum alloys. However, these impurity elements are not included in the commercial aluminum alloy database. The process of thermodynamic modeling began from Al-Na, Ca-Li, Li-Na, K-Na, and Li-K sub-binary systems. Then ternary and higher systems were extrapolated because of the lack of experimental information. Databases for five binary alloy systems and two ternary systems were developed. Along with other existing binary and ternary databases, the full database of the multicomponent Al-Ca-K-Li-Mg-Na system was completed in this project. The methodology in integrating with commercial or other aluminum alloy databases can be developed. The mechanism of sodium-induced high-temperature embrittlement (HTE) of Al-Mg is now understood. Using the thermodynamic

  8. Diffusion-bonded beryllium aluminum optical structures (United States)

    Grapes, Thomas F.


    Beryllium aluminum material can present significant advantages for optical support structures. A likely advantage of beryllium aluminum compared to aluminum or titanium for such structures is its higher specific stiffness. However, beryllium aluminum material is significantly more expensive than most competing materials. The cost problem with beryllium aluminum is exacerbated if fabrication methods that result in near net shape parts are not used. Near net shape methods result in the least amount of material "thrown away" in the fabrication process. Casting is a primary example of near net shape manufacturing that is appropriate for some optical support structures. Casting aluminum, and other materials as well, is common. Casting of beryllium aluminum is very difficult, however, and has not had significant success. Diffusion bonding - a different approach for achieving near net shape beryllium aluminum optical support structures, was pursued and accomplished. Diffusion bonding is a term used to describe the joining of solid metal pieces under high temperature and pressure, but without melting. Three different optical support structures were designed and built of beryllium aluminum using diffusion bonding. Relatively small solid beryllium aluminum pieces were arranged together and then joined under hot isostatic pressure conditions. The resulting relatively large pressure bonded part was then machined to achieve the final product. Significant cost savings as compared to machining the part from a solid block were realized. Difficulties achieving diffusion bonds in complex joints were experienced and addressed.

  9. Gravimetric Determination of Calcium as Calcium Carbonate Hydrate. (United States)

    Henrickson, Charles H.; Robinson, Paul R.


    The gravimetric determination of calcium as calcium carbonate is described. This experiment is suitable for undergraduate quantitative analysis laboratories. It is less expensive than determination of chloride as silver chloride. (BB)

  10. Calcium and Calcium Supplements: Achieving the Right Balance (United States)

    ... bone mass, which is a risk factor for osteoporosis. Many Americans don't get enough calcium in their diets. Children and adolescent girls are at particular risk, but so are adults age 50 and older. How much calcium you ...

  11. Aluminum/air electrochemical cells


    Wang, Lei; 王雷


    Aluminum (Al) is a very promising energy carrier given its high capacity and energy density, low cost, earth abundance and environmental benignity. The Al/air battery as a kind of metal/air electrochemical cell attracts tremendous attention. Traditional Al/air batteries suffer from the self-corrosion and related safety problems. In this work, three new approaches were investigated to tackle these challenges and to develop high-performance Al/air cells: (1) incorporate an additional hydrogen/a...

  12. Electrically Conductive Anodized Aluminum Surfaces (United States)

    Nguyen, Trung Hung


    Anodized aluminum components can be treated to make them sufficiently electrically conductive to suppress discharges of static electricity. The treatment was conceived as a means of preventing static electric discharges on exterior satin-anodized aluminum (SAA) surfaces of spacecraft without adversely affecting the thermal-control/optical properties of the SAA and without need to apply electrically conductive paints, which eventually peel off in the harsh environment of outer space. The treatment can also be used to impart electrical conductivity to anodized housings of computers, medical electronic instruments, telephoneexchange equipment, and other terrestrial electronic equipment vulnerable to electrostatic discharge. The electrical resistivity of a typical anodized aluminum surface layer lies between 10(exp 11) and 10(exp 13) Omega-cm. To suppress electrostatic discharge, it is necessary to reduce the electrical resistivity significantly - preferably to anodized surface becomes covered and the pores in the surface filled with a transparent, electrically conductive metal oxide nanocomposite. Filling the pores with the nanocomposite reduces the transverse electrical resistivity and, in the original intended outer-space application, the exterior covering portion of the nanocomposite would afford the requisite electrical contact with the outer-space plasma. The electrical resistivity of the nanocomposite can be tailored to a value between 10(exp 7) and 10(exp 12) Omega-cm. Unlike electrically conductive paint, the nanocomposite becomes an integral part of the anodized aluminum substrate, without need for adhesive bonding material and without risk of subsequent peeling. The electrodeposition process is compatible with commercial anodizing production lines. At present, the electronics industry uses expensive, exotic, electrostaticdischarge- suppressing finishes: examples include silver impregnated anodized, black electroless nickel, black chrome, and black copper. In

  13. Cardiac sodium channelopathies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amin, A.S.; Asghari-Roodsari, A.; Tan, H.L.


    Cardiac sodium channel are protein complexes that are expressed in the sarcolemma of cardiomyocytes to carry a large inward depolarizing current (I-Na) during phase 0 of the cardiac action potential. The importance of I-Na for normal cardiac electrical activity is reflected by the high incidence of

  14. Sodium fluxes in sweet pepper exposed to varying sodium concentrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom-Zandstra, M.; Vogelzang, S.A.; Veen, B.W.


    The sodium transport and distribution of sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) under saline conditions were studied after transferring the plants to a sodium-free nutrient solution. Sodium stress up to 60 mM did not affect the growth of sweet pepper, as it appears able to counteract the unfavourable phy

  15. Purification technology of molten aluminum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙宝德; 丁文江; 疏达; 周尧和


    Various purification methods were explored to eliminate the dissolved hydrogen and nonmetallic inclusions from molten aluminum alloys. A novel rotating impeller head with self-oscillation nozzles or an electromagnetic valve in the gas circuit was used to produce pulse gas currents for the rotary impeller degassing method. Water simulation results show that the size of gas bubbles can be decreased by 10%-20% as compared with the constant gas current mode. By coating ceramic filters or particles with active flux or enamels, composite filters were used to filter the scrap A356 alloy and pure aluminum. Experimental results demonstrate that better filtration efficiency and operation performance can be obtained. Based on numerical calculations, the separation efficiency of inclusions by high frequency magnetic field can be significantly improved by using a hollow cylinder-like separator or utilizing the effects of secondary flow of the melt in a square separator. A multi-stage and multi-media purification platform based on these methods was designed and applied in on-line processing of molten aluminum alloys. Mechanical properties of the processed scrap A356 alloy are greatly improved by the composite purification.

  16. Form and stability of aluminum hydroxide complexes in dilute solution (United States)

    Hem, John David; Roberson, Charles Elmer


    Laboratory studies of solutions 4.53 x 10 -4 to 4.5 x 10 -5 molal (12.2-1.2 ppm) in aluminum, in 0.01 molal sodium perchlorate, were conducted to obtain information as to the probable behavior of aluminum in natural water. When the solutions were brought to pH 7.5-9.5 and allowed to stand for 24 hours, a precipitate was obtained which was virtually amorphous as shown by X-rays, and which had a solubility equivalent to that of boehmite. This precipitate had a hydrolysis constant (*Ks4) of 1.93 x 10 -13a. When solutions were allowed to stead at this pH range for 10 days, their precipitates gave the X-ray pattern of bayerite (*Ks4 = 1.11 > (10- 4). These hydrolysis constants were obtained at 25?C. and corrected to zero ionic strength and are in close agreement with other published values. The predominant dissolved form in this pH range is Al(OH) -4. Below neutral pH (7.0) the dissolved aluminum species consist of octahedral units in which each aluminum ion is surrounded by six water molecules or hydroxide ions. Single units such as Al(OH2)6 + 3 and AlOH(OH2)5+2 are most abundant below pH 5.0, and where the molar ratio (r) of combined hydroxide to total dissolved aluminum is low. When r is greater than 1.0, polymerization of the octahedral units occurs. When r is between 2.0 and 3.0, solutions aged for 10 days or more contained colloidal particles between 0.10 and 0.45 ? in diameter. Particles whose diameters were greater than 0.10 ? were identified by X-ray diffraction as gibbsite. Particles smaller than 0.10 ? were also present and were shown by means of the electron microscope to have a hexagonal crystal pattern. Structured material consisting of sheets of coalesced six-membered rings of aluminum ions held together by double OH bridges has a distinctive kinetic behavior. This property was used to determine amounts of polymerized material in solutions having r between 1.0 and 3.0 after aging times ranging from a few hours to more than 4 months. Aging increased the

  17. Glucose stimulates calcium-activated chloride secretion in small intestinal cells. (United States)

    Yin, Liangjie; Vijaygopal, Pooja; MacGregor, Gordon G; Menon, Rejeesh; Ranganathan, Perungavur; Prabhakaran, Sreekala; Zhang, Lurong; Zhang, Mei; Binder, Henry J; Okunieff, Paul; Vidyasagar, Sadasivan


    The sodium-coupled glucose transporter-1 (SGLT1)-based oral rehydration solution (ORS) used in the management of acute diarrhea does not substantially reduce stool output, despite the fact that glucose stimulates the absorption of sodium and water. To explain this phenomenon, we investigated the possibility that glucose might also stimulate anion secretion. Transepithelial electrical measurements and isotope flux measurements in Ussing chambers were used to study the effect of glucose on active chloride and fluid secretion in mouse small intestinal cells and human Caco-2 cells. Confocal fluorescence laser microscopy and immunohistochemistry measured intracellular changes in calcium, sodium-glucose linked transporter, and calcium-activated chloride channel (anoctamin 1) expression. In addition to enhancing active sodium absorption, glucose increased intracellular calcium and stimulated electrogenic chloride secretion. Calcium imaging studies showed increased intracellular calcium when intestinal cells were exposed to glucose. Niflumic acid, but not glibenclamide, inhibited glucose-stimulated chloride secretion in mouse small intestines and in Caco-2 cells. Glucose-stimulated chloride secretion was not seen in ileal tissues incubated with the intracellular calcium chelater BAPTA-AM and the sodium-potassium-2 chloride cotransporter 1 (NKCC1) blocker bumetanide. These observations establish that glucose not only stimulates active Na absorption, a well-established phenomenon, but also induces a Ca-activated chloride secretion. This may explain the failure of glucose-based ORS to markedly reduce stool output in acute diarrhea. These results have immediate potential to improve the treatment outcomes for acute and/or chronic diarrheal diseases by replacing glucose with compounds that do not stimulate chloride secretion.

  18. Choice of salts for process of continous sodium modification of Al-Si alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Białobrzeski A.


    Full Text Available Broad application of aluminum cast alloys, silumins first of all, have become to be possible after finding a method of change of solidification form in Al-Si eutectic mixture. By introduction to liquid alloy a slight additive of modifying agent this primary thick, needle-like shape of Si crystals becomes altered into fine and compact structure. Quality of structure modification depends on correct proportioning of the modifying agent, temperature of metal and time elapsing from modification to solidification of the alloy. The sodium is used as one of the modifying agents. The sodium is introduced into metal bath in metallic form or in form of compounds containing sodium. Apart from a form in which modifying agent is introduced to metal bath, however, its action is relatively short (about 15-20 minutes. Prolongation of modifying agent’s action can be accomplished due to technology of continuous introduction of the sodium to metal bath. That technology is based on continuous electrolysis of sodium salt, occurring directly in melting pot with liquid alloy. Sodium salt placed in retort ( immersed in liquid metal undergoes dissociation due to applied voltage, and next electrolysis. Sodium ions arisen during the dissociation of sodium salts and electrolysis are “conveyed” through retort walls made from solid electrolyte. In contact with liquid alloy as cathode, sodium ions pass to atomic state, modifying the alloy. Suitable selection of material for the anode (source of sodium is an important issue. The paper presents results of preliminary research concerning selection of sodium salt, based on predetermined Rm tensile strength and measured voltage drop for the alloy in solid state. Values of those parameters confirm modification effect on tested alloys. Complexity of physical-chemical phenomena occurring in course of the process effects on necessity of further investigation which needs to be performed for optimization of parameters of the

  19. Property of anodic coatings obtained in an organic, environmental friendly electrolyte on aluminum alloy 2024-T3 (United States)

    Zhang, R. F.; Shi, H. W.; Liu, Z. L.; Zhang, S. F.; Zhang, Y. Q.; Guo, S. B.


    Anodic coatings were obtained by micro arc oxidation on aluminum alloy 2024-T3 in a solution containing only 10 g/L sodium phytate. The morphology, composition, structure and corrosion resistance of anodic coatings were systematically investigated. The results show that the working voltage continually increases during 3 min and bright sparks appear after 25 s. Anodic coatings are evenly formed on the substrate and about 2 μm thick. XPS and XRD analyses reveal that the obtained coatings are mainly composed of α-Al2O3 and γ-Al2O3. Compared with the substrate, the corrosion resistance of the anodized aluminum alloys is improved.

  20. Calcium, vitamin D and bone


    Borg, Andrew A.


    Calcium, protein and vitamin D are the main nutrients relevant to bone health. This short article discusses the importance of vitamin D and its relation to calcium homeostasis. The various causes, clinical manifestations and treatment are outlined.

  1. Inhaled sodium metabisulphite induced bronchoconstriction: inhibition by nedocromil sodium and sodium cromoglycate. (United States)

    Dixon, C M; Ind, P W


    1. The effects of nedocromil sodium and sodium cromoglycate on bronchoconstriction induced by inhaled sodium metabisulphite have been studied in eight atopic subjects, three of whom had mild asthma. 2. Nedocromil sodium (4 mg, 7.8 X 10(-6) M), sodium cromoglycate (10 mg, 24.1 X 10(-6) M) and matched placebo were administered by identical metered dose inhalers 30 min before a dose-response to sodium metabisulphite (5-100 mg ml-1) was performed. 3. Maximum fall in sGaw after placebo pre-treatment was -43.9 +/- 3.3% baseline (mean +/- s.e. mean). At the same metabisulphite concentration maximum fall in sGaw after sodium cromoglycate was -13.0 +/- 3.6% and after nedocromil sodium was +4.3 +/- 6.8%. Nedocromil sodium prevented any significant fall in sGaw even after higher concentrations of metabisulphite. 4. Both nedocromil sodium, 4 mg, and sodium cromoglycate, 10 mg, inhibited sodium metabisulphite induced bronchoconstriction but nedocromil sodium was significantly more effective. Relative in vivo potency of the two drugs is broadly in line with other in vivo and in vitro studies. PMID:2171616

  2. Fabrication of patterned calcium cross-linked alginate hydrogel films and coatings through reductive cation exchange. (United States)

    Bruchet, Marion; Melman, Artem


    Calcium cross-linked alginate hydrogels are widely used in targeted drug delivery, tissue engineering, wound treatment, and other biomedical applications. We developed a method for preparing homogeneous alginate hydrogels cross-linked with Ca(2+) cations using reductive cation exchange in homogeneous iron(III) cross-linked alginate hydrogels. Treatment of iron(III) cross-linked alginate hydrogels with calcium salts and sodium ascorbate results in reduction of iron(III) cations to iron(II) that are instantaneously replaced with Ca(2+) cations, producing homogeneous ionically cross-linking hydrogels. Alternatively, the cation exchange can be performed by photochemical reduction in the presence of calcium chloride using a sacrificial photoreductant. This approach allows fabrication of patterned calcium alginate hydrogels through photochemical patterning of iron(III) cross-linked alginate hydrogel followed by the photochemical reductive exchange of iron cations to calcium.

  3. Studying inhibition of calcium oxalate stone formation: an in vitro approach for screening hydrogen sulfide and its metabolites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Vaitheeswari


    Full Text Available ABSTRACTPurpose:Calcium oxalate urolithiasis is one of the most common urinary tract diseases and is of high prevalence. The present study proposes to evaluate the antilithiatic property of hydrogen sulfide and its metabolites like thiosulfate & sulfate in an in vitro model.Materials and Methods:The antilithiatic activity of sodium hydrogen sulfide (NaSH, sodium thiosulfate (Na2S2O3 and sodium sulfate (Na2SO4 on the kinetics of calcium oxalate crystal formation was investigated both in physiological buffer and in urine from normal and recurrent stone forming volunteers. The stones were characterized by optical and spectroscopic techniques.Results:The stones were characterized to be monoclinic, prismatic and bipyramidal habit which is of calcium monohydrate and dihydrate nature. The FTIR displayed fingerprint corresponding to calcium oxalate in the control while in NaSH treated, S=O vibrations were visible in the spectrum. The order of percentage inhibition was NaSH>Na2S2O3>Na2SO4.Conclusion:Our study indicates that sodium hydrogen sulfide and its metabolite thiosulfate are inhibitors of calcium oxalate stone agglomeration which makes them unstable both in physiological buffer and in urine. This effect is attributed to pH changes and complexing of calcium by S2O32-and SO42- moiety produced by the test compounds.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josip Peko


    Full Text Available This study examined steel and aluminum variants of modern exhibition structures in which the main design requirements include low weight (increased span/depth ratio, transportation, and construction and durability (resistance to corrosion. This included a design situation in which the structural application of aluminum alloys provided an extremely convenient and practical solution. Viability of an aluminum structure depends on several factors and requires a detailed analysis. The overall conclusion of the study indicated that aluminum can be used as a structural material and as a viable alternative to steel for Croatian snow and wind load values and evidently in cases in which positive properties of aluminum are required for structural design. Furthermore, a structural fire analysis was conducted for an aluminum variant structure by using a zone model for realistic fire analysis. The results suggested that passive fire protection for the main structural members was not required in the event of areal fire with duration of 60 min.

  5. [Link between aluminum neurotoxicity and neurodegenerative disorders]. (United States)

    Kawahara, Masahiro


    Aluminum is an old element that has been known for a long time, but some of its properties are only now being discovered. Although environmentally abundant, aluminum is not essential for life; in fact, because of its specific chemical properties, aluminum inhibits more than 200 biologically important functions and exerts various adverse effects in plants, animals, and humans. Aluminum is a widely recognized neurotoxin. It has been suggested that there is a relationship between exposure to aluminum and neurodegenerative diseases, including dialysis encephalopathy, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and parkinsonism dementia in the Kii Peninsula and Guam, as well as Alzheimer' s disease: however, this claim remains to be verified. In this chapter, we review the detailed characteristics of aluminum neurotoxicity and the link between Alzheimer' s disease and other neurodegenerative diseases, based on recent findings on metal-metal interactions and the functions of metalloproteins in synapses.

  6. Optical Transmittance of Anodically Oxidized Aluminum Alloy (United States)

    Saito, Mitsunori; Shiga, Yasunori; Miyagi, Mitsunobu; Wada, Kenji; Ono, Sachiko


    Optical transmittance and anisotropy of anodic oxide films that were made from pure aluminum and an aluminum alloy (A5052) were studied. The alloy oxide film exhibits an enhanced polarization function, particularly when anodization is carried out at a large current density. It was revealed by chemical analysis that the alloy oxide film contains a larger amount of unoxidized aluminum than the pure-aluminum oxide film. The polarization function can be elucidated by considering unoxidized aluminum particles that are arranged in the columnar structure of the alumina film. Electron microscope observation showed that many holes exist in the alloy oxide film, around which columnar cells are arranged irregularly. Such holes and irregular cell arrangement cause the increase in the amount of unoxidized aluminum, and consequently induces scattering loss.

  7. EDTA间接滴定法测定铁水脱硫剂中氧化钙和氟化钙%Determination of calcium oxide and calcium fluoride in molten iron desulphurizer by EDTA indirect titration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾波; 张强; 涂昀; 吴迎红; 付志军


    A method was introduced for the determination of calcium oxide and calcium fluoride in KR molten iron desulphurizer. By taking advantage of alkaline characteristics of activated calcium oxide in KR molten iron desulphurizer, the sample was dissolved by excess hydrochloric acid, and the excessive hydrochloric acid was back-titrated by sodium hydroxide standard solution with phenolphthalein as indicator. Thus the content of calcium oxide could be calculated by deducting the consumption of hydrochloric acid by magnesium oxide. Simultaneously, in consideration of the acid-soluble characteristics of calcium oxide and calcium fluoride in KR molten iron desulphurizer, the samples were dissolved by hydrochloric acid. After iron and aluminum was separated by precipitation with hexamethyl-enetetramine, their interference was further masked by triethanolamine solution in acidic solution. Being adjusted to pH 12 with potassium hydroxide solution, the content of total calcium was determined by EDTA complexometry (national method) with calcein as indicator. Being adjusted to pH 8-9 with ammonia buffer solution, the total content of calcium and magnesium was determined by EDTA complexometry with acid chrome blue K-naphthol B green as indicator. Thereby the content of magnesium was obtained by subtraction. In KR molten iron desulphurizer, the content of calcium fluoride was determined indirectly by deduction of the content of active calcium oxide from the content of total calcium and the formula calculation. A number of parallel determinations of KR molten iron desulphurizer synthetic samples were carried out with this method. The results were consistent with the reference values, and the relative standard deviations (RSDs, n = 6)) were less than 1%. Recovery test was conducted by adding calcium fluoride and calcium oxide certified reference materials, and the recoveries were between 97% and 102%.%建立了KR铁水脱硫剂中氧化钙和氟化钙含量的测定方法.利用KR铁

  8. Slicing sodium from bakery products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noort, M.


    The need for sodium reduction in our diet is clear to consumers, dieticians and food manufacturers. As sodium concentration has a strengthening effect on gluten, sodium reduction decreases dough mixing tolerance, dough resistance and induces dough stickiness. In particular, the latter may cause prob

  9. Hanford site sodium management plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guttenberg, S.


    The Hanford Site Sodium Management Plan, Revision 1, provides changes to the major elements and management strategy to ensure an integrated and coordinated approach for disposition of the more than 350,000 gallons of sodium and related sodium facilities located at the DOE`s Hanford Site

  10. In vitro bioavailability of iron from the heme analogue sodium iron chlorophyllin. (United States)

    Miret, Silvia; Tascioglu, Serpil; van der Burg, Monique; Frenken, Leon; Klaffke, Werner


    The use of heme analogues from vegetable origin could provide an alternative iron source of potentially high bioavailability. Sodium iron chlorophyllin is a water-soluble semisynthetic chlorophyll derivative where the magnesium in the porphyrin ring has been substituted by iron. We have used an in vitro model that combines gastric and intestinal digestion followed by intestinal iron uptake in Caco-2 cells to determine the bioavailability of iron from sodium iron chlorophyllin. Our results demonstrate that sodium iron chlorophyllin is stable under simulated gastrointestinal conditions and is able to deliver bioavailable iron to Caco-2 cells. Similar to the heme, the bioavailability of iron from sodium iron chlorophyllin is dependent on the food matrix, and it was inhibited by calcium. Potentially, sodium iron chlorophyllin could be used as an iron fortificant from vegetable origin with high bioavailability.

  11. Calcium ion channel and epilepsy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yudan Lü; Weihong Lin; Dihui Ma


    OBJECTIVE: To review the relationship between calcium ion channel and epilepsy for well investigating the pathogenesis of epilepsy and probing into the new therapeutic pathway of epilepsy.DATA SOURCES: A computer-based online research Calcium ion channel and epilepsy related articles published between January 1994 and December 2006 in the CKNI and Wanfang database with the key words of "calcium influxion, epilepsy, calcium-channel blocker". The language was limited to Chinese. At the same time,related articles published between January 1993 and December 2006 in Pubmed were searched for on online with the key words of "calcium influxion, epilepsy" in English.STUDY SELECTION: The materials were selected firstly. Inclusive criteria: ① Studies related to calcium ion channel and the pat1hogenesis of epilepsy. ② Studies on the application of calcium ion channel blocker in the treatment of epilepsy. Exclusive criteria: repetitive or irrelated studies.DATA EXTRACTION: According to the criteria, 123 articles were retrieved and 93 were excluded due to repetitive or irrelated studies. Altogether 30 articles met the inclusive criteria, 11 of them were about the structure and characters of calcium ion channel, 10 about calcium ion channel and the pathogenesis of epilepsy and 9 about calcium blocker and the treatment of epilepsy.DATA SYNTHESIS: Calcium ion channels mainly consist of voltage dependent calcium channel and receptor operated calcium channel. Depolarization caused by voltage gating channel-induced influxion is the pathological basis of epileptic attack, and it is found in many studies that many anti-epileptic drugs have potential and direct effect to rivalizing voltage-dependent calcium ion channel.CONCLUSION: Calcium influxion plays an important role in the seizure of epilepsy. Some calcium antagonists seen commonly are being tried in the clinical therapy of epilepsy that is being explored, not applied in clinical practice. If there are enough evidences to

  12. Structure of Liquid Aluminum and Hydrogen Absorption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yang; DAI Yongbing; WANG Jun; SHU Da; SUN Baode


    The hydrogen content in aluminum melts at different temperature was detected. The structure in aluminum melts was investigated by molecular dynamics simulation. The first peak position of pair correlation function, atomic coordination number and viscosity of aluminum melts were calculated and they changed abnormally in the same temperature range. The mechanism of hydrogen absorption has been discussed. From molecular dynamics calculations, the interdependence between melt structural properties and hydrogen absorption were obtained.

  13. Calcium carbonate overdose (United States)

    Calcium carbonate is not very poisonous. Recovery is quite likely. But, long-term overuse is more serious than a single overdose, because it can cause kidney damage. Few people die from an antacid overdose. Keep all medicines in child-proof bottles and out ...

  14. High Blood Calcium (Hypercalcemia) (United States)

    ... as well as kidney function and levels of calcium in your urine. Your provider may do other tests to further assess your condition, such as checking your blood levels of phosphorus (a mineral). Imaging studies also may be helpful, such as bone ...

  15. Solar Imagery - Chromosphere - Calcium (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset consists of full-disk images of the sun in Calcium (Ca) II K wavelength (393.4 nm). Ca II K imagery reveal magnetic structures of the sun from about 500...

  16. Calcium aluminate in alumina (United States)

    Altay, Arzu

    The properties of ceramic materials are determined not only by the composition and structure of the phases present, but also by the distribution of impurities, intergranular films and second phases. The phase distribution and microstructure both depend on the fabrication techniques, the raw materials used, the phase-equilibrium relations, grain growth and sintering processes. In this dissertation research, various approaches have been employed to understand fundamental phenomena such as grain growth, impurity segregation, second-phase formation and crystallization. The materials system chosen was alumina intentionally doped with calcium. Atomic-scale structural analyses of grain boundaries in alumina were carried on the processed samples. It was found that above certain calcium concentrations, CA6 precipitated as a second phase at all sintering temperatures. The results also showed that abnormal grain growth can occur after precipitation and it is not only related to the calcium level, but it is also temperature dependent. In order to understand the formation mechanism of CA6 precipitates in calcium doped alumina samples, several studies have been carried out using either bulk materials or thin films The crystallization of CA2 and CA6 powders has been studied. Chemical processing techniques were used to synthesize the powders. It was observed that CA2 powders crystallized directly, however CA6 powders crystallized through gamma-Al 2O3 solid solution. The results of energy-loss near-edge spectrometry confirmed that gamma-Al2O3 can dissolve calcium. Calcium aluminate/alumina reaction couples have also been investigated. All reaction couples were heat treated following deposition. It was found that gamma-Al2O3 was formed at the interface as a result of the interfacial reaction between the film and the substrate. gamma-Al 2O3 at the interface was stable at much higher temperatures compared to the bulk gamma-Al2O3 formed prior to the CA6 crystallization. In order to

  17. Calcium addition in straw gasification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risnes, H.; Fjellerup, Jan Søren; Henriksen, Ulrik Birk


    The present work focuses on the influence of calcium addition in gasification. The inorganic¿organic element interaction as well as the detailed inorganic¿inorganic elements interaction has been studied. The effect of calcium addition as calcium sugar/molasses solutions to straw significantly...

  18. Antimicrobial activity of calcium hydroxide and chlorhexidine on intratubular Candida albicans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ronan Jacques Rezende Delgado; Thaís Helena Gasparoto; Carla Renata Sipert; Claudia Ramos Pinheiro; Ivaldo Gomes de Moraes; Roberto Brandāo Garcia; Marco Antonio Hungaro Duarte; Clóvis Monteiro Bramante; Sérgio Aparecido Torres; Gustavo Pompermaier Garlet; Ana Paula Campanelli; Norberti Bernardineli


    This study investigated the efficacy of calcium hydroxide and chlorhexidine gel for the elimination of intratubular Candida albicans (C. albicans). Human single-rooted teeth contaminated with C. albicans were treated with calcium hydroxide, 2% chlorhexidine gel, calcium hydroxide plus 2% chlorhexidine gel, or saline (0.9% sodium chloride) as a positive control. The samples obtained at depths of 0-100 and 100-200 μm from the root canal system were analyzed for C. albicans load by counting the number of colony forming units and for the percentage of viable C. albicans using fluorescence microscopy. First, the antimicrobial activity of calcium hydroxide and the 2% chlorhexidine gel was evaluated by counting the number of colony forming units. After 14 days of intracanal medication, there was a significant decrease in the number of C. albicanscolony forming units at a depth of 0-100 lzm with chlorhexidine treatment either with or without calcium hydroxide compared with the calcium hydroxide only treatment. However, there were no differences in the number of colony forming units at the 100-200 μm depth for any of the medications investigated. C. albicans viability was also evaluated by vital staining techniques and fluorescence microscopy analysis. Antifungal activity against C. albicans significantly increased at both depths in the chlorhexidine groups with and without calcium hydroxide compared with the groups treated with calcium hydroxide only. Treatments with only chlorhexidine or chlorhexidine in combination with calcium hydroxide were effective for elimination of C. albicans.

  19. Regulation of Microstructure of Calcium Carbonate Crystals by Egg White Protein

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Wen-kun; LUO Xue-gang; ZHANG Chi; DUAN Tao; ZHOU Jian


    Crystal growth of calcium carbonate in biological simulation was investigated via egg white protein with different volume fractions,during which calcium carbonate was synthesized by calcium chloride and sodium carbonate.The morphology,thermal properties and microstructure of the calcium carbonate micro-to-nanoscale crystals were characterized by scanning electron microscopy(SEM),transmission electron microscopy(TEM),Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy(FTIR),thermogravimetric analysis(TG)and X-ray diffraction(XRD)analysis.The results show that the volume fraction of egg white protein has great influence on the shape,size and morphology of calcium carbonate crystals.The calcium carbonate crystals were the mixtures of calcite-vaterite-like crystals including spherical and rough surface,which are different from that formed in pure water.With the increase of egg white protein concentration,the diameter of calcium carbonate crystals changed,the amount of formed spherical calcium carbonate particles decreased and that of vaterite increased.These results indicate that the coordination and electrostatic interaction between egg white protein and Ca2+ significantly affect the calcium carbonate crystalization.

  20. Aluminum-stabilized NB3SN superconductor (United States)

    Scanlan, Ronald M.


    An aluminum-stabilized Nb.sub.3 Sn superconductor and process for producing same, utilizing ultrapure aluminum. Ductile components are co-drawn with aluminum to produce a conductor suitable for winding magnets. After winding, the conductor is heated to convert it to the brittle Nb.sub.3 Sn superconductor phase, using a temperature high enough to perform the transformation but still below the melting point of the aluminum. This results in reaction of substantially all of the niobium, while providing stabilization and react-in-place features which are beneficial in the fabrication of magnets utilizing superconducting materials.

  1. Bioceramics of calcium orthophosphates. (United States)

    Dorozhkin, Sergey V


    A strong interest in use of ceramics for biomedical applications appeared in the late 1960's. Used initially as alternatives to metals in order to increase a biocompatibility of implants, bioceramics have become a diverse class of biomaterials, presently including three basic types: relatively bioinert ceramics, bioactive (or surface reactive) and bioresorbable ones. Furthermore, any type of bioceramics could be porous to provide tissue ingrowth. This review is devoted to bioceramics prepared from calcium orthophosphates, which belong to the categories of bioresorbable and bioactive compounds. During the past 30-40 years, there have been a number of major advances in this field. Namely, after the initial work on development of bioceramics that was tolerated in the physiological environment, emphasis was shifted towards the use of bioceramics that interacted with bones by forming a direct chemical bond. By the structural and compositional control, it became possible to choose whether the bioceramics of calcium orthophosphates was biologically stable once incorporated within the skeletal structure or whether it was resorbed over time. At the turn of the millennium, a new concept of calcium orthophosphate bioceramics, which is able to regenerate bone tissues, has been developed. Current biomedical applications of calcium orthophosphate bioceramics include replacements for hips, knees, teeth, tendons and ligaments, as well as repair for periodontal disease, maxillofacial reconstruction, augmentation and stabilization of the jawbone, spinal fusion and bone fillers after tumor surgery. Potential future applications of calcium orthophosphate bioceramics will include drug-delivery systems, as well as they will become effective carriers of growth factors, bioactive peptides and/or various types of cells for tissue engineering purposes.

  2. Sandia National Laboratories Small-Scale Sensitivity Testing (SSST) Report: Calcium Nitrate Mixtures with Various Fuels.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, Jason Joe [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    Based upon the presented sensitivity data for the examined calcium nitrate mixtures using sugar and sawdust, contact handling/mixing of these materials does not present hazards greater than those occurring during handling of dry PETN powder. The aluminized calcium nitrate mixtures present a known ESD fire hazard due to the fine aluminum powder fuel. These mixtures may yet present an ESD explosion hazard, though this has not been investigated at this time. The detonability of these mixtures will be investigated during Phase III testing.

  3. Silicon reduces aluminum accumulation in rats: relevance to the aluminum hypothesis of Alzheimer disease. (United States)

    Bellés, M; Sánchez, D J; Gómez, M; Corbella, J; Domingo, J L


    In recent years, a possible relation between the aluminum and silicon levels in drinking water and the risk of Alzheimer disease (AD) has been established. It has been suggested that silicon may have a protective effect in limiting oral aluminum absorption. The present study was undertaken to examine the influence of supplementing silicon in the diet to prevent tissue aluminum retention in rats exposed to oral aluminum. Three groups of adult male rats were given by gavage 450 mg/kg/day of aluminum nitrate nonahydrate 5 days a week for 5 weeks. Concurrently, animals received silicon in the drinking water at 0 (positive control), 59, and 118 mg Si/L. A fourth group (-Al, - Si) was designated as a negative control group. At the end of the period of aluminum and silicon administration, urines were collected for 4 consecutive days, and the urinary aluminum levels were determined. The aluminum concentrations in the brain (various regions), liver, bone, spleen, and kidney were also measured. For all tissues, aluminum levels were significantly lower in the groups exposed to 59 and 118 mg Si/L than in the positive control group; significant reductions in the urinary aluminum levels of the same groups were also found. The current results corroborate that silicon effectively prevents gastrointestinal aluminum absorption, which may be of concern in protecting against the neurotoxic effects of aluminum.

  4. The Aluminum Deep Processing Project of North United Aluminum Landed in Qijiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    <正>On April 10,North United Aluminum Company respectively signed investment cooperation agreements with Qijiang Industrial Park and Qineng Electricity&Aluminum Co.,Ltd,signifying the landing of North United Aluminum’s aluminum deep processing project in Qijiang.

  5. Nanocomposite anode materials for sodium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manthiram, Arumugam; Kim Il, Tae; Allcorn, Eric


    The disclosure relates to an anode material for a sodium-ion battery having the general formula AO.sub.x--C or AC.sub.x--C, where A is aluminum (Al), magnesium (Mg), titanium (Ti), vanadium (V), chromium (Cr), manganese (Mn), iron (Fe), cobalt (Co), nickel (Ni), zirconium (Zr), molybdenum (Mo), tungsten (W), niobium (Nb), tantalum (Ta), silicon (Si), or any combinations thereof. The anode material also contains an electrochemically active nanoparticles within the matrix. The nanoparticle may react with sodium ion (Na.sup.+) when placed in the anode of a sodium-ion battery. In more specific embodiments, the anode material may have the general formula M.sub.ySb-M'O.sub.x--C, Sb-MO.sub.x--C, M.sub.ySn-M'C.sub.x--C, or Sn-MC.sub.x--C. The disclosure also relates to rechargeable sodium-ion batteries containing these materials and methods of making these materials.

  6. Calcium renal lithiasis: metabolic diagnosis and medical treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Angel Arrabal-Polo

    Full Text Available Calcium renal lithiasis is a frequent condition that affects the worldwide population and has a high recurrence rate. Different metabolic changes may trigger the onset of calcium stone disorders, such as hypercalciuria, hyperoxaluria, hyperuricosuria, hypocitraturia and others. There are also other very prevalent disorders that are associated with calcium calculi, such as arterial hypertension, obesity and loss of bone mineral density. A correct diagnosis needs to be obtained through examining the serum and urinary parameters of mineral metabolism in order to carry out adequate prevention and treatment of this condition. Once the metabolic diagnosis is known, it is possible to establish dietary and pharmacological treatment that may enable monitoring of the disease and prevent recurrence of stone formation. Some advances in treating this pathological condition have been made, and these include use of sodium alendronate in patients with calcium renal lithiasis and osteopenia/osteoporosis, or use of a combination of a thiazide with a bisphosphonate. In summary, calcium renal lithiasis often requires multidrug treatment with strict control and follow-up of patients.

  7. Calcium renal lithiasis: metabolic diagnosis and medical treatment. (United States)

    Arrabal-Polo, Miguel Angel; Arrabal-Martin, Miguel; Garrido-Gomez, Juan


    Calcium renal lithiasis is a frequent condition that affects the worldwide population and has a high recurrence rate. Different metabolic changes may trigger the onset of calcium stone disorders, such as hypercalciuria, hyperoxaluria, hyperuricosuria, hypocitraturia and others. There are also other very prevalent disorders that are associated with calcium calculi, such as arterial hypertension, obesity and loss of bone mineral density. A correct diagnosis needs to be obtained through examining the serum and urinary parameters of mineral metabolism in order to carry out adequate prevention and treatment of this condition. Once the metabolic diagnosis is known, it is possible to establish dietary and pharmacological treatment that may enable monitoring of the disease and prevent recurrence of stone formation. Some advances in treating this pathological condition have been made, and these include use of sodium alendronate in patients with calcium renal lithiasis and osteopenia/osteoporosis, or use of a combination of a thiazide with a bisphosphonate. In summary, calcium renal lithiasis often requires multidrug treatment with strict control and follow-up of patients.

  8. Ultrasound influence upon calcium carbonate precipitation on bacterial cellulose membranes. (United States)

    Stoica-Guzun, Anicuta; Stroescu, Marta; Jinga, Sorin; Jipa, Iuliana; Dobre, Tanase; Dobre, Loredana


    The effect of ultrasonic irradiation (40 kHz) on the calcium carbonate deposition on bacterial cellulose membranes was investigated using calcium chloride (CaCl(2)) and sodium carbonate (Na(2)CO(3)) as starting reactants. The composite materials containing bacterial cellulose-calcium carbonate were characterized by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and color measurements. The polymorphs of calcium carbonate that were deposited on bacterial cellulose membranes in the presence or in the absence of ultrasonic irradiation were calcite and vaterite. The morphology of the obtained crystals was influenced by the concentration of starting solutions and by the presence of ultrasonic irradiation. In the presence of ultrasonic irradiation the obtained crystals were bigger and in a larger variety of shapes than in the absence of ultrasounds: from cubes of calcite to spherical and flower-like vaterite particles. Bacterial cellulose could be a good matrix for obtaining different types of calcium carbonate crystals.

  9. Sodium hydride precipitation in sodium cold traps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McPheeters, C.C.; Raue, D.J.


    A series of experiments have been performed to test a calculational model for precipitation of NaH in sodium cold traps. The calculational model, called ACTMODEL, is a computer simulation that uses the system geometry and operating conditions as input to calculate a mass-transfer coefficient and the distribution of NaH in a cold trap. The ACTMODEL was tested using an analytical cold trap (ACT) that is simple and essentially one-dimensional. The ACT flow and temperature profile can be controlled at any desired condition. The ACT was analyzed destructively after each test to measure the actual NaH distribution. Excellent agreement was obtained between the ACTMODEL simulations and the experiments. Mass-transfer coefficients ranging upward from 6 x 10/sup -5/ m/s were measured in both packless and packed traps. As much as a fourfold increase in precipitation surface area was observed with increasing amount of NaH deposited. 11 figures, 2 tables.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pareizs, J; Cj Bannochie, C; Michael Hay, M; Daniel McCabe, D


    The SRS sludge that was to become a major fraction of Sludge Batch 5 (SB5) for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) contained a large fraction of H-Modified PUREX (HM) sludge, containing a large fraction of aluminum compounds that could adversely impact the processing and increase the vitrified waste volume. It is beneficial to reduce the non-radioactive fraction of the sludge to minimize the number of glass waste canisters that must be sent to a Federal Repository. Removal of aluminum compounds, such as boehmite and gibbsite, from sludge can be performed with the addition of NaOH solution and heating the sludge for several days. Preparation of SB5 involved adding sodium hydroxide directly to the waste tank and heating the contents to a moderate temperature through slurry pump operation to remove a fraction of this aluminum. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was tasked with demonstrating this process on actual tank waste sludge in our Shielded Cells Facility. This paper evaluates some of the impacts of aluminum dissolution on sludge washing and DWPF processing by comparing sludge processing with and without aluminum dissolution. It was necessary to demonstrate these steps to ensure that the aluminum removal process would not adversely impact the chemical and physical properties of the sludge which could result in slower processing or process upsets in the DWPF.

  11. Study on Treatment of acidic and highly concentrated fluoride waste water using calcium oxide-calcium chloride (United States)

    Ren, T.; Gao, X. R.; Zheng, T.; Wang, P.


    There are problems with treating acidic waste water containing high concentration fluorine by chemical precipitation, including the low sludge setting velocity and the high difficulty of reaching the criterion. In Heilongjiang province, a graphite factory producing high-purity graphite generates acidic waste water with a high concentration of fluorine. In this paper, the effect of removals on the concentration of fluoride with the combined treatment of calcium oxide and calcium chloride were discussed with regard to acid waste water. The study improved the sludge characteristics by using polyacrylamide (PAM) and polymeric aluminum chloride (PAC). The effect of different coagulants on sludge was evaluated by the sludge settlement ratio (SV), sludge volume index (SVI) and sludge moisture content. The results showed that the optimal combination for 100 ml waste water was calcium oxide addition amount of 14 g, a calcium chloride addition amount of 2.5 g, a PAM addition amount of 350 mg/L, and the effluent fluoride concentration was below 6 mg/L. PAM significantly improved the sludge settling velocity. The sludge settlement ratio reduced from 87.6% to 60%. The process for wastewater treatment was easily operated and involved low expenditure.

  12. Colonic necrosis due to calcium polystyrene sulfonate (Kalimate) not suspended in sorbitol. (United States)

    Castillo-Cejas, María Dolores; de-Torres-Ramírez, Inés; Alonso-Cotoner, Carmen


    Cation-exchange resins are used in the management of hyperkalemia, particularly in patients with end-stage renal disease. These resins were associated with gastrointestinal tract lesions, especially sodium polystyrene sulfonate (Kayexalate) mixed with sorbitol. We present a case of colonic necrosis after the administration of calcium polystyrene sulfonate (Kalimate) not suspended in sorbitol.

  13. Colonic necrosis due to calcium polystyrene sulfonate (Kalimate) not suspended in sorbitol


    María Dolores Castillo-Cejas; Inés de Torres-Ramírez; Carmen Alonso-Cotoner


    Cation-exchange resins are used in the management of hyperkalemia, particularly in patients with end-stage renal disease. These resins were associated with gastrointestinal tract lesions, especially sodium polystyrene sulfonate (Kayexalate) mixed with sorbitol. We present a case of colonic necrosis after the administration of calcium polystyrene sulfonate (Kalimate) not suspended in sorbitol.

  14. Flotation Separating Rutile from Calcium and Silicon Gangue Miner-als

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Rutile separation from calcite, apatite and quartz by flotation was investigated. The results show that the rutile separation from calcium and silicon gangue minerals can be realized with alkyl-imino-bismethylene phosphoric acid (TF112) as a collector and sodium hexametaphosphate (SH) as a regulator.

  15. Formulation and Mathematical Optimization of Controlled Release Calcium Alginate Micro Pellets of Frusemide


    Amitava Ghosh; Prithviraj Chakraborty


    Objective. Frusemide loaded calcium alginate micropellets, an oral microparticulate delivery system, was statistically optimized exhibiting prolonged therapeutic action minimizing its adverse effects. Methods. Ionotropic Gelation technique was adopted employing 32 Factorial designs and keeping the entire process free from organic solvents. Physicochemical and the release characteristics of the prepared formulations were studied, keeping variations only in sodium alginate (primary polymer) and...

  16. Mechanisms of pyrethroid insecticide-induced stimulation of calcium influx in neocortical neurons (United States)

    Pyrethroid insecticides bind to voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs) and modify their gating kinetics, thereby disrupting neuronal function. Pyrethroids have also been reported to alter the function of other channel types, including activation of voltage-gated Ca2+ calcium chann...

  17. Colonic necrosis due to calcium polystyrene sulfonate (Kalimate not suspended in sorbitol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Dolores Castillo-Cejas


    Full Text Available Cation-exchange resins are used in the management of hyperkalemia, particularly in patients with end-stage renal disease. These resins were associated with gastrointestinal tract lesions, especially sodium polystyrene sulfonate (Kayexalate mixed with sorbitol. We present a case of colonic necrosis after the administration of calcium polystyrene sulfonate (Kalimate not suspended in sorbitol.

  18. Orthokinetic flocculation of caseinate-stabilized emulsions : influence of calcium concentration, shear rate and protein content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schokker, E.P.; Dalgleish, D.G.


    Calcium-induced flocculation of caseinate-stabilized soybean oil-in- water emulsions in conditions of Couette flow was studied. A concentrated emulsion (20% oil, 0.5-2.0% sodium caseinate in 20 mM imidazole, pH 7) was diluted 20 times in buffer containing concentrations of CaCl2 between 9 and 17 mM

  19. 21 CFR 201.64 - Sodium labeling. (United States)


    ... this section). (e) The term very low sodium may be used in the labeling of OTC drug products intended.... (f) The term low sodium may be used in the labeling of OTC drug products intended for oral ingestion... the term sodium. (h) The terms sodium free, very low sodium, and low sodium shall be in print size...

  20. Influence of calcium on ceramide-1-phosphate monolayers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana S. L. Oliveira


    Full Text Available Ceramide-1-phosphate (C1P plays an important role in several biological processes, being identified as a key regulator of many protein functions. For instance, it acts as a mediator of inflammatory responses. The mediation of the inflammation process happens due to the interaction of C1P with the C2 domain of cPLA2α, an effector protein that needs the presence of submicromolar concentrations of calcium ions. The aim of this study was to determine the phase behaviour and structural properties of C1P in the presence and absence of millimolar quantities of calcium in a well-defined pH environment. For that purpose, we used monomolecular films of C1P at the soft air/liquid interface with calcium ions in the subphase. The pH was varied to change the protonation degree of the C1P head group. We used surface pressure versus molecular area isotherms coupled with other monolayer techniques as Brewster angle microscopy (BAM, infrared reflection–absorption spectroscopy (IRRAS and grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXD. The isotherms indicate that C1P monolayers are in a condensed state in the presence of calcium ions, regardless of the pH. At higher pH without calcium ions, the monolayer is in a liquid-expanded state due to repulsion between the negatively charged phosphate groups of the C1P molecules. When divalent calcium ions are added, they are able to bridge the highly charged phosphate groups, enhancing the regular arrangement of the head groups. Similar solidification of the monolayer structure can be seen in the presence of a 150 times larger concentration of monovalent sodium ions. Therefore, calcium ions have clearly a strong affinity for the phosphomonoester of C1P.