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Sample records for aluminum calcium sodium

  1. Selective Adsorption of Sodium Aluminum Fluoride Salts from Molten Aluminum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard S. Aubrey; Christine A. Boyle; Eddie M. Williams; David H. DeYoung; Dawid D. Smith; Feng Chi

    2007-08-16

    Aluminum is produced in electrolytic reduction cells where alumina feedstock is dissolved in molten cryolite (sodium aluminum fluoride) along with aluminum and calcium fluorides. The dissolved alumina is then reduced by electrolysis and the molten aluminum separates to the bottom of the cell. The reduction cell is periodically tapped to remove the molten aluminum. During the tapping process, some of the molten electrolyte (commonly referred as “bath” in the aluminum industry) is carried over with the molten aluminum and into the transfer crucible. The carryover of molten bath into the holding furnace can create significant operational problems in aluminum cast houses. Bath carryover can result in several problems. The most troublesome problem is sodium and calcium pickup in magnesium-bearing alloys. Magnesium alloying additions can result in Mg-Na and Mg-Ca exchange reactions with the molten bath, which results in the undesirable pickup of elemental sodium and calcium. This final report presents the findings of a project to evaluate removal of molten bath using a new and novel micro-porous filter media. The theory of selective adsorption or removal is based on interfacial surface energy differences of molten aluminum and bath on the micro-porous filter structure. This report describes the theory of the selective adsorption-filtration process, the development of suitable micro-porous filter media, and the operational results obtained with a micro-porous bed filtration system. The micro-porous filter media was found to very effectively remove molten sodium aluminum fluoride bath by the selective adsorption-filtration mechanism.

  2. Final report on the safety assessment of aluminum silicate, calcium silicate, magnesium aluminum silicate, magnesium silicate, magnesium trisilicate, sodium magnesium silicate, zirconium silicate, attapulgite, bentonite, Fuller's earth, hectorite, kaolin, lithium magnesium silicate, lithium magnesium sodium silicate, montmorillonite, pyrophyllite, and zeolite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmore, Amy R

    2003-01-01

    This report reviews the safety of Aluminum, Calcium, Lithium Magnesium, Lithium Magnesium Sodium, Magnesium Aluminum, Magnesium, Sodium Magnesium, and Zirconium Silicates, Magnesium Trisilicate, Attapulgite, Bentonite, Fuller's Earth, Hectorite, Kaolin, Montmorillonite, Pyrophyllite, and Zeolite as used in cosmetic formulations. The common aspect of all these claylike ingredients is that they contain silicon, oxygen, and one or more metals. Many silicates occur naturally and are mined; yet others are produced synthetically. Typical cosmetic uses of silicates include abrasive, opacifying agent, viscosity-increasing agent, anticaking agent, emulsion stabilizer, binder, and suspending agent. Clay silicates (silicates containing water in their structure) primarily function as adsorbents, opacifiers, and viscosity-increasing agents. Pyrophyllite is also used as a colorant. The International Agency for Research on Cancer has ruled Attapulgite fibers >5 microm as possibly carcinogenic to humans, but fibers Hectorite was nonirritating to the skin of rabbits in a Draize primary skin irritation study. Magnesium Aluminum Silicate and Sodium Magnesium Silicate caused minimal eye irritation in a Draize eye irritation test. Bentonite caused severe iritis after injection into the anterior chamber of the eyes of rabbits and when injected intralamellarly, widespread corneal infiltrates and retrocorneal membranes were recorded. In a primary eye irritation study in rabbits, Hectorite was moderately irritating without washing and practically nonirritating to the eye with a washout. Rats tolerated a single dose of Zeolite A without any adverse reaction in the eye. Calcium Silicate had no discernible effect on nidation or on maternal or fetal survival in rabbits. Magnesium Aluminum Silicate had neither a teratogenic nor adverse effects on the mouse fetus. Female rats receiving a 20% Kaolin diet exhibited maternal anemia but no significant reduction in birth weight of the pups was

  3. Aluminum Zintl anion moieties within sodium aluminum clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Haopeng; Zhang, Xinxing; Ko, Yeon Jae; Grubisic, Andrej; Li, Xiang; Ganteför, Gerd; Bowen, Kit H., E-mail: AKandalam@wcupa.edu, E-mail: kiran@mcneese.edu, E-mail: kbowen@jhu.edu [Department of Chemistry, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218 (United States); Schnöckel, Hansgeorg [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, 76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); Eichhorn, Bryan W. [Department of Chemistry, University of Maryland at College Park, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); Lee, Mal-Soon; Jena, P. [Department of Physics, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23284 (United States); Kandalam, Anil K., E-mail: AKandalam@wcupa.edu, E-mail: kiran@mcneese.edu, E-mail: kbowen@jhu.edu [Department of Physics, West Chester University of Pennsylvania, West Chester, Pennsylvania 19383 (United States); Kiran, Boggavarapu, E-mail: AKandalam@wcupa.edu, E-mail: kiran@mcneese.edu, E-mail: kbowen@jhu.edu [Department of Chemistry, McNeese State University, Lake Charles, Louisiana 70609 (United States)

    2014-02-07

    Through a synergetic combination of anion photoelectron spectroscopy and density functional theory based calculations, we have established that aluminum moieties within selected sodium-aluminum clusters are Zintl anions. Sodium–aluminum cluster anions, Na{sub m}Al{sub n}{sup −}, were generated in a pulsed arc discharge source. After mass selection, their photoelectron spectra were measured by a magnetic bottle, electron energy analyzer. Calculations on a select sub-set of stoichiometries provided geometric structures and full charge analyses for both cluster anions and their neutral cluster counterparts, as well as photodetachment transition energies (stick spectra), and fragment molecular orbital based correlation diagrams.

  4. 21 CFR 182.2122 - Aluminum calcium silicate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Aluminum calcium silicate. 182.2122 Section 182.2122 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....2122 Aluminum calcium silicate. (a) Product. Aluminum calcium silicate. (b) Tolerance. 2 percent....

  5. 21 CFR 582.2122 - Aluminum calcium silicate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aluminum calcium silicate. 582.2122 Section 582.2122 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....2122 Aluminum calcium silicate. (a) Product. Aluminum calcium silicate. (b) Tolerance. 2 percent....

  6. 21 CFR 582.1781 - Sodium aluminum phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium aluminum phosphate. 582.1781 Section 582.1781 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Additives § 582.1781 Sodium aluminum phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminum phosphate. (b) Conditions...

  7. 21 CFR 182.1781 - Sodium aluminum phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium aluminum phosphate. 182.1781 Section 182.1781 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Food Substances § 182.1781 Sodium aluminum phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminum phosphate....

  8. 21 CFR 582.1131 - Aluminum sodium sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aluminum sodium sulfate. 582.1131 Section 582.1131 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1131 Aluminum sodium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sodium sulfate. (b) Conditions of...

  9. 21 CFR 182.1131 - Aluminum sodium sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Aluminum sodium sulfate. 182.1131 Section 182.1131 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Substances § 182.1131 Aluminum sodium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sodium sulfate. (b) Conditions of...

  10. Intracellular calcium ions as regulators of renal tubular sodium transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windhager, E; Frindt, G; Yang, J M; Lee, C O

    1986-09-15

    This review addresses the putative role of intracellular calcium ions in the regulation of sodium transport by renal tubules. Cytoplasmic calcium-ion activities in proximal tubules of Necturus are less than 10(-7) M and can be increased by lowering the electrochemical potential gradient for sodium ions across the peritubular cell membrane, or by addition of quinidine or ionomycin to peritubular fluid. Whereas lowering of the peritubular Na concentration increases cytosolic [Ca++] and [H+], ionomycin, a calcium ionophore, raises intracellular [Ca++] without decreasing pHi. The intracellular calcium-ion level is maintained by transport processes in the plasma membrane and membranes of intracellular organelles, as well as by calcium-binding proteins. Calcium ions inhibit net transport of sodium by reducing the rate of sodium entry across the luminal cell membrane. In the collecting tubule this inhibition is caused, at least in part, by an indirect reduction in the activity of the amiloride-sensitive sodium channel. PMID:2430134

  11. Hydrogen storage in sodium aluminum hydride.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozolins, Vidvuds; Herberg, J.L. (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); McCarty, Kevin F.; Maxwell, Robert S. (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Stumpf, Roland Rudolph; Majzoub, Eric H.

    2005-11-01

    Sodium aluminum hydride, NaAlH{sub 4}, has been studied for use as a hydrogen storage material. The effect of Ti, as a few mol. % dopant in the system to increase kinetics of hydrogen sorption, is studied with respect to changes in lattice structure of the crystal. No Ti substitution is found in the crystal lattice. Electronic structure calculations indicate that the NaAlH{sub 4} and Na{sub 3}AlH{sub 6} structures are complex-ionic hydrides with Na{sup +} cations and AlH{sub 4}{sup -} and AlH{sub 6}{sup 3-} anions, respectively. Compound formation studies indicate the primary Ti-compound formed when doping the material at 33 at. % is TiAl{sub 3} , and likely Ti-Al compounds at lower doping rates. A general study of sorption kinetics of NaAlH{sub 4}, when doped with a variety of Ti-halide compounds, indicates a uniform response with the kinetics similar for all dopants. NMR multiple quantum studies of solution-doped samples indicate solvent interaction with the doped alanate. Raman spectroscopy was used to study the lattice dynamics of NaAlH{sub 4}, and illustrated the molecular ionic nature of the lattice as a separation of vibrational modes between the AlH{sub 4}{sup -} anion-modes and lattice-modes. In-situ Raman measurements indicate a stable AlH{sub 4}{sup -} anion that is stable at the melting temperature of NaAlH{sub 4}, indicating that Ti-dopants must affect the Al-H bond strength.

  12. Calcium citrate without aluminum antacids does not cause aluminum retention in patients with functioning kidneys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakhaee, K.; Wabner, C. L.; Zerwekh, J. E.; Copley, J. B.; Pak, L.; Poindexter, J. R.; Pak, C. Y.

    1993-01-01

    It has been suggested that calcium citrate might enhance aluminum absorption from food, posing a threat of aluminum toxicity even in patients with normal renal function. We therefore measured serum and urinary aluminum before and following calcium citrate therapy in patients with moderate renal failure and in normal subjects maintained on constant metabolic diets with known aluminum content (967-1034 mumol/day, or 26.1-27.9 mg/day, in patients and either 834 or 1579 mumol/day, or 22.5 and 42.6 mg/day, in normal subjects). Seven patients with moderate renal failure (endogenous creatinine clearance of 43 ml/min) took 50 mmol (2 g) calcium/day as effervescent calcium citrate with meals for 17 days. Eight normal women received 25 mmol (1 g) calcium/day as tricalcium dicitrate tablets with meals for 7 days. In patients with moderate renal failure, serum and urinary aluminum were normal before treatment at 489 +/- 293 SD nmol/l (13.2 +/- 7.9 micrograms/l) and 767 +/- 497 nmol/day (20.7 +/- 13.4 micrograms/day), respectively. They remained within normal limits and did not change significantly during calcium citrate treatment (400 +/- 148 nmol/l and 600 +/- 441 nmol/day, respectively). Similarly, no significant change in serum and urinary aluminum was detected in normal women during calcium citrate administration (271 +/- 59 vs 293 +/- 85 nmol/l and 515 +/- 138 vs 615 +/- 170 nmol/day, respectively). In addition, skeletal bone aluminum content did not change significantly in 14 osteoporotic patients (endogenous creatinine clearance of 68.5 ml/min) treated for 24 months with calcium citrate, 10 mmol calcium twice/day separately from meals (29.3 +/- 13.9 ng/mg ash bone to 27.9 +/0- 10.4, P = 0.727). In them, histomorphometric examination did not show any evidence of mineralization defect. Thus, calcium citrate given alone without aluminum-containing drugs does not pose a risk of aluminum toxicity in subjects with normal or functioning kidneys, when it is administered on an

  13. Aluminum-26 in calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions and chondrules from unequilibrated ordinary chondrites

    OpenAIRE

    Huss, Gary R.; MacPherson, Glenn J.; Wasserburg, G. J.; Russell, Sara S.; Srinivasan, Gopalan

    2001-01-01

    In order to investigate the distribution of ^(26)A1 in chondrites, we measured aluminum-magnesium systematics in four calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) and eleven aluminum-rich chondrules from unequilibrated ordinary chondrites (UOCs). All four CAIs were found to contain radiogenic ^(26)Mg (^(26)Mg^*) from the decay of ^(26)A1. The inferred initial ^(26)Al/^(27)Al ratios for these objects ((^(26)Al/^(27)Al)_0 ≅ 5 × 10^(−5)) are indistinguishable from the (^(26)Al/^(27)Al)_0 ratios found...

  14. CALCIUM CARBIDE: AN EFFICIENT ALTERNATIVE TO THE USE OF ALUMINUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amilton Carlos Pinheiro Cardoso Filho

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The steel demand for fine applications have increased considerably in the last years, and the criteria for its production are even stricter, mainly in relation to the residual elements content and cleanness required. In relation to the steel cleanness, the main problem faced is the control of the amount and morphology of alumina inclusions, generated in the steel deoxidation with aluminum. Besides harming the products quality, the presence of non metallic inclusions can originate nozzle clogging, and consequently interruptions in the process flux. Aiming to improve the steel cleanness and to minimize nozzle clogging, this study is developed to evaluate the partial substitution of aluminum by calcium carbide in the steel deoxidation. Along the operational procedures, the calcium carbide was applied to 397 heats, through what the improvement in steel cleanness is confirmed, with consequent reduction in the nozzle clogging occurrence.

  15. Aluminum deoxidation equilibria and inclusion modification mechanism by calcium treatment of stainless steel melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A thermodynamic equilibrium between aluminum and oxygen along with the inclusion morphology in Fe-16%Cr stainless steel was investigated to understand the fundamentals of aluminum deoxidation technology for ferritic stainless steels. Further, the effects of calcium addition on the changes in chemistry and morphology of inclusions were discussed. The measured results for aluminum-oxygen equilibria exhibit relatively good agreement with the calculated values, indicating that the introduction of the first- and second-order interaction parameters, recently reported, is reasonable to numerically express aluminum deoxidation equilibrium in a ferritic stainless steel. In the composition of dissolved aluminum content greater than about 60 ppm, pure alumina particles were observed, while the alumino-manganese silicates containing Cr2O3 were appeared at less than 20 mass ppm of dissolved aluminum. The formation of calcium aluminate inclusions after Ca treatment could be discussed based on the thermodynamic equilibrium with calcium, aluminum, and oxygen in the steel melts. In the composition of steel melt with relatively high content of calcium and low aluminum, the log(XCaO/XAl2O3) of inclusions linearly increases with increasing the log [aCa/aAl2·aO2] with the slope close to unity. However, the slope of the line is significantly lower than the expected value in the composition of steel melt with relatively low calcium and high aluminum contents

  16. Study on transformation and fragmentation behavior of molten aluminum is sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basic experiments using molten aluminum and sodium have been conducted to investigate the possibility of fragmentation of molten fuel with instantaneous contact interface temperatures sufficiently below the boiling point of sodium. It was observed that the degree of fragmentation increased with higher initial temperatures of molten aluminum. The fragmentation process was found to closely relate with the generation of spherical crust of aluminum drop. It was concluded that even though the instantaneous contact interface temperature was sufficiently lower than the boiling point of sodium, an efficient fragmentation was caused by a high pressure produced rapidly due to the internal thermal interaction between the molten aluminum and the sodium entrained into the molten aluminum. (author)

  17. Characterization of ion distributions near the surface of sodium-containing and sodium-depleted calcium aluminosilicate glass melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The distribution of cation and anion components of sodium containing calcium aluminosilicate glass was studied by classical molecular dynamics simulations in a high temperature melt in the bulk and at the vacuum-melt interface. A significant redistribution of the sodium and non-bridging oxygen ions was observed. Subsequently, a sodium depleted calcium aluminosilicate glass melt was simulated to determine the sensitivity of the redistribution of ions near the vacuum-melt interface to the presence of sodium ions. It is found that the thermodynamic equilibrium condition near a surface favors the enrichment of non-bridging oxygen ions that is closely associated with enrichment of the sodium ions

  18. 21 CFR 872.3490 - Carboxymethylcellulose sodium and/or polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Carboxymethylcellulose sodium and/or... DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3490 Carboxymethylcellulose sodium and/or polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt denture adhesive. (a) Identification. A...

  19. In situ generation of hydrogen from water by aluminum corrosion in solutions of sodium aluminate

    OpenAIRE

    Soler Turu, Lluis; Candela Soto, Angélica Maria; Macanás de Benito, Jorge; Muñoz Tapia, Maria; Casado Giménez, Juan

    2009-01-01

    A new process to obtain hydrogen from water using aluminum in sodium aluminate solutions is described and compared with results obtained in aqueous sodium hydroxide. This process consumes only water and aluminum, which are raw materials much cheaper than other compounds used for in situ hydrogen generation, such as hydrocarbons and chemical hydrides, respectively. As a consequence, our process could be an economically feasible alternative for hydrogen to supply fuel cells. Results showed an i...

  20. Transformation and fragmentation behavior of molten aluminum in sodium. In the case of lower instantaneous contract interface temperatures than the boiling point of sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basic experiments using molten aluminum and sodium have been conducted to investigate the possibility of fragmentation of molten metals for instantaneous contact interface temperatures sufficiently below the boiling point of sodium (881degC). Aluminum was heated to the temperature from 898degC to 1073degC in a crucible by using an electric heater and dropped into a sodium pool at the temperature of around 275degC. Recovered aluminum fragments were sieved to measure particle size. The degree of fragmentation increases with higher initial temperatures of molten aluminum. The fragmentation process is closely related with the formation of pot-like shape from aluminum drop. Even though the instantaneous contact interface temperature is sufficiently lower than the boiling point of sodium, and efficient fragmentation is caused by a high pressure produced rapidly due to the thermal interaction between the molten aluminum and the sodium entrapped into the molten aluminum. (author)

  1. 21 CFR 573.280 - Feed-grade calcium stearate and sodium stearate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Feed-grade calcium stearate and sodium stearate... SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.280 Feed-grade calcium stearate and sodium...

  2. Preparation of calcium fluoroaluminosilicate glasses containing sodium and phosphorus by the nonhydrolytic sol-gel method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aluminum and silicon oxide-based inorganic matrices have been extensively studied because of their countless applications. Dental cements consist of aluminum and silicon-based amorphous polymeric materials containing fluoride, sodium, phosphorus and calcium, which are also good candidates for bone replacement. The nonhydrolytic sol-gel method has emerged as an alternative route for the preparation of these materials under milder conditions than those employed in traditional methods, such as oxide fusion. The main advantages of the nonhydrolytic sol-gel method include the use of low temperatures and the ready availability and easy purification of the precursors. Together, these factors have contributed to the production of highly pure materials with controlled porosity and nanometric particles. Dental restorations based on aluminosilicate matrices are known as glass ionomer cements. These materials have interesting physical and dental properties, mainly because they display anticariogenic activity and exhibit prolonged adhesiveness to the dental structure. The base of the ionomer is an aluminosilicate that is industrially synthesized by the fusion of SiO2, Al2O3, AlF3, CaF2, NaF and AlPO4, in various concentrations. The characterizations conducted in this study reveal that this ionomer displays interesting properties, so its use as a precursor of dental cement and a biomaterial for bone replacement is highly recommended

  3. Anticaries effect of dentifrices with calcium citrate and sodium trimetaphosphate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Carlos Botazzo Delbem

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Because of the growing concerns regarding fluoride ingestion by young children and dental fluorosis, it is necessary to develop new dentifrices. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of dentifrices with calcium citrate (Cacit and sodium trimetaphosphate (TMP on enamel demineralization. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Enamel blocks (n=70, previously selected through surface hardness analysis, were submitted to daily treatment with dentifrices diluted in artificial saliva and to a pH-cycling model. The fluoride concentration in dentifrices was 0, 250, 450, 550, 1,000 and 1,100 µg F/g. CrestTM was used as a positive control (1,100 mg F/g. Cacit (0.25% and TMP (0.25% were added to dentifrices with 450 and 1,000 µg F/g. Surface hardness was measured again and integrated loss of subsurface hardness and fluoride concentration in enamel were calculated. Parametric and correlation tests were used to determine difference (p0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Dentifrices with 450 and 1,000 µg F/g, Cacit and TMP were as effective as a gold standard one.

  4. Simulation of thermal and sodium expansion stress in aluminum reduction cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jie; WU Yu-yun; LAI Yan-qing; LIU Wei; WANG Zhi-gang; LIU Jie; LIU Ye-xiang

    2008-01-01

    Two finite element(FE) models were built up for analysis of stress field in the lining of aluminum electrolysis cells. Distribution of sodium concentration in cathode carbon blocks was calculated by one FE model of a cathode block. Thermal stress field was calculated by the other slice model of the cell at the end of the heating-up. Then stresses coupling thermal and sodium expansion were considered after 30 d start-up. The results indicate that sodium penetrates to the bottom of the cathode block after 30 d start-up. The semi-graphitic carbon block has the largest stress at the thermal stage. After 30 d start-up the anthracitic carbon has the greatest sodium expansion stress and the graphitized carbon has the lowest sodium expansion stress. Sodium penetration can cause larger deformation and stress in the cathode carbon block than thermal expansion.

  5. Spontaneous and CRH-Induced Excitability and Calcium Signaling in Mice Corticotrophs Involves Sodium, Calcium, and Cation-Conducting Channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemkova, Hana; Tomić, Melanija; Kucka, Marek; Aguilera, Greti; Stojilkovic, Stanko S

    2016-04-01

    Transgenic mice expressing the tdimer2(12) form of Discosoma red fluorescent protein under control of the proopiomelanocortin gene's regulatory elements are a useful model for studying corticotrophs. Using these mice, we studied the ion channels and mechanisms controlling corticotroph excitability. Corticotrophs were either quiescent or electrically active, with a 22-mV difference in the resting membrane potential (RMP) between the 2 groups. In quiescent cells, CRH depolarized the membrane, leading to initial single spiking and sustained bursting; in active cells, CRH further facilitated or inhibited electrical activity and calcium spiking, depending on the initial activity pattern and CRH concentration. The stimulatory but not inhibitory action of CRH on electrical activity was mimicked by cAMP independently of the presence or absence of arachidonic acid. Removal of bath sodium silenced spiking and hyperpolarized the majority of cells; in contrast, the removal of bath calcium did not affect RMP but reduced CRH-induced depolarization, which abolished bursting electrical activity and decreased the spiking frequency but not the amplitude of single spikes. Corticotrophs with inhibited voltage-gated sodium channels fired calcium-dependent action potentials, whereas cells with inhibited L-type calcium channels fired sodium-dependent spikes; blockade of both channels abolished spiking without affecting the RMP. These results indicate that the background voltage-insensitive sodium conductance influences RMP, the CRH-depolarization current is driven by a cationic conductance, and the interplay between voltage-gated sodium and calcium channels plays a critical role in determining the status and pattern of electrical activity and calcium signaling. PMID:26901094

  6. CALCIUM CARBIDE: AN EFFICIENT ALTERNATIVE TO THE USE OF ALUMINUM

    OpenAIRE

    Amilton Carlos Pinheiro Cardoso Filho; Carlos Alberto Souza; João Domingos Guimarães de Athayde Júnior; Prudêncio Aparecido de Freitas; Sergio Henrique Rocha; Gilson Alves Menezes; Helio Gabriel de Souza

    2013-01-01

    The steel demand for fine applications have increased considerably in the last years, and the criteria for its production are even stricter, mainly in relation to the residual elements content and cleanness required. In relation to the steel cleanness, the main problem faced is the control of the amount and morphology of alumina inclusions, generated in the steel deoxidation with aluminum. Besides harming the products quality, the presence of non metallic inclusions can originate ...

  7. Intake of protein, calcium and sodium in public child day care centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovana Longo-Silva

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE:To assess calcium, protein and sodium intake, of children that attend public day-care centers and to compare it with the recommended one.METHODS:Cross-sectional descriptive study in seven public day care centers of São Paulo city, Southeast Brazil, which enrolled 366 children between 12 and 36 months of age. The data collection occurred between September and December 2010. Each day care center was evaluated for three non-consecutive days, totaling 42 days and 210 meals. Dietary intake was assessed by a direct food weighing method. For the nutritional calculation, DietWin(r Profissional 2.0 was used, and the adequacy was calculated according to the recommendations of the National School Feeding Program for energy, protein, calcium and sodium. The calcium/protein relation was also calculated, as well as calcium density (mg/1,000kcal.RESULTS: The energy (406.4kcal, protein (18.2g and calcium (207.6mg consumption did not reach the recommended values ​​in all the evaluated day care centers. Sodium intake exceeded up to three times the recommendation. The calcium/protein ratio of 11.7mg/g was less than the adequate one (20mg/g.CONCLUSIONS: There was inadequacy of calcium, protein and sodium dietary intake, in children attending public day-care centers.

  8. Scientific Opinion on the safety assessment of the active substances, sodium erythorbate, sodium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate, iron sulphate, activated carbon, cellulose, calcium hydroxide, calcium chloride and water, for use as active system in food contact materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This scientific opinion of EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids deals with the safety assessment of the active substances sodium erythorbate, sodium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate, iron sulfate, activated carbon, cellulose, calcium hydroxide, calcium chloride and water, used in mixture which is packed into sachets for absorbing oxygen/carbon dioxide emitting from/into the headspace surrounding packed food. All substances of this formulation have been evaluated and approved for use as additives in plastic food contact materials or as food additives. No migration of calcium, iron and sodium ions was detected. No volatile organic compounds other than carbon dioxide were detected at the limit of detection of 0.5 μg/l. The CEF Panel concluded that the use of the substances sodium erythorbate, sodium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate, iron sulfate, activated carbon, cellulose, calcium hydroxide, calcium chloride and water does not raise a safety concern when used in oxygen absorber/carbon dioxide emitter systems, in sachets that prevent the physical release of their contents into the food. The sachets are to be placed in the headspace of the packaging and as such may come into occasional contact with the food, e.g. during handling. The sachet should not come into direct contact with liquid foods or foods that have and external aqueous liquid phase on the surface (liquid or exudates.

  9. Sodium/Calcium Exchangers Selectively Regulate Calcium Signaling in Mouse Taste Receptor Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Szebenyi, Steven A.; Laskowski, Agnieszka I.; Medler, Kathryn F.

    2010-01-01

    Taste cells use multiple signaling mechanisms to generate appropriate cellular responses to discrete taste stimuli. Some taste stimuli activate G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) that cause calcium release from intracellular stores while other stimuli depolarize taste cells to cause calcium influx through voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs). While the signaling mechanisms that initiate calcium signals have been described in taste cells, the calcium clearance mechanisms (CCMs) that contrib...

  10. Preliminary Nanosims Analysis of Carbon Isotope of Carbonates in Calcium-Aluminum-Rich Inclusions

    OpenAIRE

    Guan, Y.; Paque, J. M.; Burnett, D. S.; Eiler, J. M.

    2009-01-01

    Carbonate minerals observed in primitive meteorites are products of either terrestrial weathering or aqueous alteration in the early solar system. Most of the carbonate minerals in carbonaceous chondrites occur primarily as isolated grains in matrix, as crosscutting veins, or as replacement minerals in chondrules [e.g., 1, 2]. A few calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) have been reported containing carbonate minerals as well [2, 3]. The C and O isotopes of carbonates in c...

  11. Solar wind implantation model for Be-10 in calcium-aluminum inclusions

    OpenAIRE

    Bricker, G. E.; Caffee, M. W.

    2010-01-01

    We propose a model for the incorporation of Be-10 within calcium-aluminum inclusions (CAIs) in primitive carbonaceous meteorites. In this model, Be-10 is produced by energetic particle reactions in the proto-solar atmosphere of a more active proto-Sun characterized by energetic particle fluxes higher than contemporary particle fluxes. This Be-10 is incorporated into the solar wind that is then implanted into CAI precursor material. This production mechanism is operational in the contemporary ...

  12. Recycling (?): Relict Spinels (?) in Type B Calcium-Aluminum-Rich Inclusions

    OpenAIRE

    Connolly, H. C.; Burnett, D. S.

    1998-01-01

    Type B calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) can be thought of as a type of chondrule despite obvious differences in size, composition, and texture. Nevertheless, igneous CAIs likely experienced similar thermal histories. A major constraint on the thermal history of chondrules is that they have been recycled, mainly supported by the presence relict grains. Although well known that igneous CAIs experienced at least two melting events (counting Wark-Lovering rims), the identification of re...

  13. Direct determination of calcium, sodium and potassium in fermented milk products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kravić Snežana Ž.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was the investigation of the possibilities of direct determination of calcium, sodium and potassium in the commercial and kombucha-based fermented milk products by flame photometry. Two procedures were used for sample preparation: simple dilution with water (direct method and extraction with mineral acid. Calcium, sodium and potassium levels determined after mentioned sample preparation methods were compared. The results showed that the differences between the values obtained for the different sample treatment were within the experimental error at the 95% confidence level. Compared to the method based on extraction with mineral acid, the direct method is efficient, faster, simpler, cheaper, and operates according to the principles of Green Chemistry. Consequently, the proposed method for the direct determination of calcium, sodium and potassium could be applied for the rapid routine analysis of the mineral content in the fermented dairy products. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 46009

  14. Corrosion of LY12 aluminum alloy in sodium chloride solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程英亮; 张昭; 曹发和; 李劲风; 张鉴清; 王建明; 曹楚南

    2003-01-01

    The corrosion behavior of LY12 alloy in sodium chloride solution and its electrochemical noise were reported. The development of the micro-pits on the alloy surface was monitored by scanning electron microscopy, scanning tunneling microscopy, and electrochemical noise method. All the measurements show that the corrosion of LY12 alloy can be divided into two stages: a very reactive initial stage and a relative constant stable stage. The initial stage is corresponded to the adsorption of Cl ions and its reaction with the oxide film and the dissolution of Mg containing particles. The stable stage is corresponded to the development of the micro-pits by the galvanic attack formed by Al-Fe-Cu-Mn containing particles and the matrix. The initial stage lasts about 2-3 h while the stable stage dominates the whole corrosion process.

  15. Comparison of sodium and calcium heparin in prevention of venous thromboembolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cade, J F; Andrews, J T; Stubbs, A E

    1982-10-01

    The relative efficacy of sodium and calcium heparin in preventing venous thromboembolism and their relative side-effects were studied in 234 high-risk patients in a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. The two heparin preparations were from the same batch and in the same concentration, and were given in a dose of 5000 U 12 hourly. Positive leg scans were found in 19% after placebo, 12% after sodium heparin and 8% after calcium heparin. Bruising at the injection site was more common after calcium heparin (66%) than after sodium heparin (53%) or placebo (38%). Pain at the injection site was also more common after calcium heparin (26%) than after sodium heparin (8%) or placebo (6%). Changes in the activated partial thromboplastin time were small and did not correlate with leg scan results or bruising. While there was a tendency for calcium heparin to be possibly more effective, it was followed by significantly more local haematoma and pain. PMID:6758747

  16. Sodium calcium orthovanadate, NaCa4(VO4)3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Yahia, Hamdi; Gaudin, Etienne; Darriet, Jacques

    2005-07-01

    Single crystals of sodium tetracalcium trivanadium dodecaoxide were prepared by melting a powder sample of NaCa4(VO4)3 at 1673 K, followed by slow cooling to room temperature. The compound crystallizes in the Pnma space group and is isostructural with the mineral silicocarnotite, Ca5(PO4)2SiO4. The structure is composed of isolated VO4 tetrahedra linked by sodium and calcium cations disordered over eight- and seven-coordinated sites. PMID:15997052

  17. Stress Corrosion Cracking of Steel and Aluminum in Sodium Hydroxide: Field Failure and Laboratory Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Prawoto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Through an investigation of the field failure analysis and laboratory experiment, a study on (stress corrosion cracking SCC behavior of steel and aluminum was performed. All samples were extracted from known operating conditions from the field failures. Similar but accelerated laboratory test was subsequently conducted in such a way as to mimic the field failures. The crack depth and behavior of the SCC were then analyzed after the laboratory test and the mechanism of stress corrosion cracking was studied. The results show that for the same given stress relative to ultimate tensile strength, the susceptibility to SCC is greatly influenced by heat treatment. Furthermore, it was also concluded that when expressed relative to the (ultimate tensile strength UTS, aluminum has similar level of SCC susceptibility to that of steel, although with respect to the same absolute value of applied stress, aluminum is more susceptible to SCC in sodium hydroxide environment than steel.

  18. Microanalyses of the hydroxyl—poly—calcium sodium phosphate coatings produced by ion beam assisted deposition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIUZhong-Yang; WANGChang-Xing; 等

    2002-01-01

    Thin calcium phosphate catings on titanium alloy substrates were prepared by Ar+ ion beam assisted deposition(IBAD) from hydroxyl-poly-calcium sodium phosphate(HPPA) target.The coatings were analyzed by XRD,FTIR,XPS,These analyses revealed that the as-deposited films were amorphous or no apparent crystallinity.No distinct absorption band of the hydroxyl group was observed in FTIR spectra of the coatings but new absorption bands were presented for CO3-2,The calcium to phosphorous ratio of these catings in different IBAD conditions varied from 0.46 to 3.36.

  19. Determination of simvastatin, pravastatin sodium and rosuvastatin calcium in tablet dosage forms by HPTLC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaudhari B

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Simple and reproducible HPTLC method was developed for the separation and quantitation of simvastatin, pravastatin sodium and rosuvastatin calcium, cholesterol lowering agents in pharmaceutical dosage forms. The stationary phase used was precoated silica gel 60F 254 . The mobile phase used was a mixture of chloroform:methanol:toluene (6:2:2, v/v/v. The method has been completely validated and proved to be rugged. Calibration curves were linear over the studied ranges with correlation coefficients grater than 0.999. All the drugs were extracted from the respective tablets using methanol. The percentage recoveries ranged from 100 to 101 for simvastatin, 98 to 101 for pravastatin sodium and 98 to 102 for rosuvastatin calcium. The LOD for simvastatin, pravastatin sodium and rosuvastatin calcium were found to be 15, 9 and 8 ng/spot, respectively and LOQ were 200 ng/spot for simvastatin and 100 ng/spot for pravastatin sodium and rosuvastatin calcium. The method can be useful in the quality control of bulk manufacturing and tablet dosage forms.

  20. Multi-scale characterization of nanostructured sodium aluminum hydride

    Science.gov (United States)

    NaraseGowda, Shathabish

    Complex metal hydrides are the most promising candidate materials for onboard hydrogen storage. The practicality of this class of materials is counter-poised on three critical attributes: reversible hydrogen storage capacity, high hydrogen uptake/release kinetics, and favorable hydrogen uptake/release thermodynamics. While a majority of modern metallic hydrides that are being considered are those that meet the criteria of high theoretical storage capacity, the challenges lie in addressing poor kinetics, thermodynamics, and reversibility. One emerging strategy to resolve these issues is via nanostructuring or nano-confinement of complex hydrides. By down-sizing and scaffolding them to retain their nano-dimensions, these materials are expected to improve in performance and reversibility. This area of research has garnered immense interest lately and there is active research being pursued to address various aspects of nanostructured complex hydrides. The research effort documented here is focused on a detailed investigation of the effects of nano-confinement on aspects such as the long range atomic hydrogen diffusivities, localized hydrogen dynamics, microstructure, and dehydrogenation mechanism of sodium alanate. A wide variety of microporous and mesoporous materials (metal organic frameworks, porous silica and alumina) were investigated as scaffolds and the synthesis routes to achieve maximum pore-loading are discussed. Wet solution infiltration technique was adopted using tetrahydrofuran as the medium and the precursor concentrations were found to have a major role in achieving maximum pore loading. These concentrations were optimized for each scaffold with varying pore sizes and confinement was quantitatively characterized by measuring the loss in specific surface area. This work is also aimed at utilizing neutron and synchrotron x-ray characterization techniques to study and correlate multi-scale material properties and phenomena. Some of the most advanced

  1. Selective Measurement of Calcium and Sodium Ion Conductance Using Sub-Micropipette Probes with Ion Filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xiao Long; Takami, Tomohide; Son, Jong Wan; Kawai, Tomoji; Park, Bae Ho

    2012-02-01

    Selective ion currents in aqueous calcium chloride and sodium chloride solutions with concentrations of up to 1.0 M were observed with sub-micropipettes in which poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) films containing ionophores selectively filtered cations. Calcium bis[4-(1,1,3,3-tetramethylbutyl)phenyl] phosphate (HDOPP-Ca) and bis[(12-crown-4)methyl]-2-dodecyl-2-methylmalonate [bis(12-crown-4)] were used as the ionophores to filter calcium and sodium ions, respectively. The selective ion current was observed using a low-current detection system developed from scanning tunneling microscopy. The approximate linear relationship between the ion concentration and ion current suggests that the sub-micropipette probe can be used to detect the intracellular local concentration of a specific ion up to 1.0 M.

  2. [Sodium, potassium and calcium content in regional dishes consumed in Sonora, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grijalva Haro, M I; Valencia, M E; Wyatt, J

    1990-06-01

    The content of sodium, potassium and calcium was determined in 15 regional dishes, by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The Na:K ratio was high in most of the dishes due to the high sodium content and low content of potassium found. The higher sources of the studied minerals were "tortilla de harina" with 1,372.8 mg/100 g of sodium; "chorizo con papas" with 466 mg/100 g of potassium, and "calabacitas con queso" with 244.1 mg/100 g of calcium. Two of the dishes considered as desserts, "capirotada" and "arroz con leche" showed the lowest Na:K ratio (0.66 and 0.81, respectively). PMID:2133188

  3. Collaborative study of the Food Chemicals Codex method for the determination of the neutralizing value of sodium aluminum phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, D L

    1976-01-01

    Fifteen laboratories participated in a collaborative study to evaluate the Food Chemicals Codex method for the determination of the neutralizing value of sodium aluminum phosphate. The AOAC method for determining the neutralizing value of sodium acid pyrophosphate, sec. 8.010, was also included in the study. The precisions of the Food chemicals Codex method, based on the between-replicate standard deviation and on one collaborator making one determination, are 1.16 and 3.66, respectively. The Food Chemicals Codex method for the determination of the neutralizing value of sodium aluminum phosphate has been adopted as official first action. PMID:2581

  4. Synthesis of aluminum nitride in a coke-calcium reduction bed using nitrogen in air

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ehsan Noorizadeh Dehkordi; H.R. Samim Banihashemi; R. Naghizadeh; H.R.Rezaie; M.Goodarzi

    2015-01-01

    An experimental study on the heating of a mixture of aluminum and lithium hydroxide (LiOH) powders in a reductive bed under air atmosphere is reported. The formation of aluminum nitride (AlN) during this process was the focus of this study. The formation of AlN was achieved using LiOH as an additive and heating the sample in a resistance furnace in a specially designed double crucible within a bed of a mixture of coke and filamentous calcium. The temperature range of the reaction was between 700°C and 1100°C. The optimum tem-perature of 1100°C and the optimum LiOH amount (5wt%) required to achieve maximum yield were determined by powder X-ray diffrac-tion (XRD) analysis. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) micrographs clearly indicated the transformation of grain structures from rods (700°C) to cauliflower shapes (1100°C).

  5. Calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions from enstatite chondrites: indigenous or foreign?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan; Huss; MacPherson; Wasserburg

    2000-08-25

    The primary mineral assemblages and initial (26)Al/(27)Al ratios of rare calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) from enstatite (E) chondrites are similar to those of CAIs from other chondrite classes. CAIs from all chondrite classes formed under oxidizing conditions that are much different from the reducing conditions under which the E chondrites formed. Either CAIs formed at an earlier, more oxidizing epoch in the region where E chondrites ultimately formed, or they formed at a different place in the solar nebula and were transported into the E chondrite formation region. PMID:10958775

  6. Kinetics and leaching behaviors of aluminum from pharmaceutical blisters in sodium hydroxide solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王重庆; 王晖; 顾帼华; 符剑刚; 刘又年

    2015-01-01

    A hydrometallurgical process was developed for recycling pharmaceutical blisters. Leaching aluminum from pharmaceutical blisters using sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solutions was investigated with respect to leaching behaviors and kinetics. A L9(34) orthogonal design of experiments suggests that the most significant factor is NaOH concentration followed by temperature and leaching time. Factorial experiments demonstrate that the leaching rate of aluminum increases with increasing of the factors. The optimum conditions are temperature of 70 °C, leaching time of 20 min, NaOH concentration of 1.25 mol/L, liquid-to-solid mass ratio of 15:1 and agitation speed of 400 r/min. Under optimum conditions, the leaching rate is up to 100%, implying that aluminum and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastic in pharmaceutical blisters are separated completely. Kinetics of leaching aluminum is best described by the product layer diffusion control model, and the activation energy is calculated to be 19.26 kJ/mol.

  7. Improved cycling performance of P2-type layered sodium cobalt oxide by calcium substitution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Masaki; Mizukoshi, Fumikazu; Imanishi, Nobuyuki

    2015-04-01

    P2-type Na2/3-xCaxCoO2 is synthesized via a conventional solid-state reaction. The substituted calcium ions occupy the sodium ion layer and eliminate the lattice mismatches of the two phases in Na2/3-xCaxCoO2. Several voltage steps typically observed in the voltage profiles of NaxCoO2 are mostly disappeared associated with the expansion of single-phase regions, because the substituted calcium ions hinder the ordering of sodium ions and vacancies. Furthermore the Na2/3-xCaxCoO2 shows improved cycling performance especially at high charging-discharging rate. During the cycling test, the calcium-free Na0.74CoO2 shows phase separation to form an inactive sodium poor phase, while the Na5/8Ca1/24CoO2 maintained the single phase, suggesting that the calcium substitution suppress the structural change of the P2-type NaxCoO2 to prevent the phase separation, resulting in the improved cycling performance.

  8. Spontaneous and CRH-Induced Excitability and Calcium Signaling in Mice Corticotrophs Involves Sodium, Calcium, and Cation-Conducting Channels

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zemková, Hana; Tomič, M.; Kučka, M.; Aguilera, G.; Stojilkovic, S. S.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 157, č. 4 (2016), s. 1576-1589. ISSN 0013-7227 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP304/12/G069; GA MŠk(CZ) LQ1604; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : action potential * background sodium conductance * bursting activity * cation-conducting channels * cytosolic calcium concentration * resting membrane potential Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition Impact factor: 4.503, year: 2014

  9. Characterisation and determination of the neutron transmission properties of sodium-calcium and sodium borates from different regions in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, ulexite, probertite found within sodium-calcium borates and borax, and tincalconite found within sodium borates retrieved from different regions in Turkey are evaluated for their neutron irradiation performances. Characterisations were performed using XRD, FT-IR, Raman spectroscopy. B2O3 contents were determined experimentally, structural water contents and surface morphologies were determined using DTA/TG and SEM. Neutron transmission values and total macroscopic cross-sections were determined using 239Pu-Be source moderated in a howitzer. Neutron transmission values from lowest to highest were found to be as follows: secondary ulexite (Kirka), tincalconite (Kirka), ulexite (Kestelek), ulexite (Kirka), borax (Kirka), probertite (Kestelek) and ulexite (Bigadic). (author)

  10. Effect of calcium/sodium ion exchange on the osmotic properties and structure of polyelectrolyte gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horkay, Ferenc; Basser, Peter J; Hecht, Anne-Marie; Geissler, Erik

    2015-12-01

    We discuss the main findings of a long-term research program exploring the consequences of sodium/calcium ion exchange on the macroscopic osmotic and elastic properties, and the microscopic structure of representative synthetic polyelectrolyte (sodium polyacrylate, (polyacrylic acid)) and biopolymer gels (DNA). A common feature of these gels is that above a threshold calcium ion concentration, they exhibit a reversible volume phase transition. At the macroscopic level, the concentration dependence of the osmotic pressure shows that calcium ions influence primarily the third-order interaction term in the Flory-Huggins model of polymer solutions. Mechanical tests reveal that the elastic modulus is practically unaffected by the presence of calcium ions, indicating that ion bridging does not create permanent cross-links. At the microscopic level, small-angle neutron scattering shows that polyacrylic acid and DNA gels exhibit qualitatively similar structural features in spite of important differences (e.g. chain flexibility and chemical composition) between the two polymers. The main effect of calcium ions is that the neutron scattering intensity increases due to the decrease in the osmotic modulus. At the level of the counterion cloud around dissolved macroions, anomalous small-angle X-ray scattering measurements made on DNA indicate that divalent ions form a cylindrical sheath enveloping the chain, but they are not localized. Small-angle neutron scattering and small-angle X-ray scattering provide complementary information on the structure and interactions in polymer solutions and gels. PMID:26614803

  11. Influence of sodium pentosan polysulphate and certain inhibitors on calcium oxalate crystal growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthil, D; Subha, K; Saravanan, N; Varalakshmi, P

    1996-03-01

    Calcium oxalate crystal growth and aggregation leads to the formation of renal calculi. It is known to be inhibited by several compounds both in vitro and in vivo conditions. The present study highlights the inhibitory potential of sodium pentosan polysulphate (SPP), a semi-synthetic glycosaminoglycan (GAG) on calcium oxalate crystal growth in vitro. Its efficacy was compared with those of known inhibitors like pyrophosphate, heparin and chondroitin-4-sulphate. Of the above compounds pyrophosphate was found to be the most potent inhibitor. Among the GAGs, SPP exhibited 80% inhibitory activity as compared to heparin. A lesser degree of inhibition was observed with chondroitin-4-sulphate. PMID:8709973

  12. Indium sulfide precipitation from hydrochloric acid solutions of calcium and sodium chlorides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of precipitation duration, acid concentration, indium complexing with chloride ions on the process of indium sulfide chemical precipitation in hydrochloric acid solutions, precipitate composition and dispersity are studied. It is established that indium sulfide solubility increases in solutions with acid concentration exceeding 0.40-0.45 mol/l. Calcium and indium chloride addition to diluted hydrochloric solutions greatly increases the solubility of indium sulfide. The effect of calcium chloride on In2S3 solubility is higher than that of sodium chloride

  13. Adsorption of sodium polyacrylate in high solids loading calcium carbonate slurries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Joshua J; Sigmund, Wolfgang M

    2010-01-15

    The adsorption of sodium polyacrylate (NaPAA) in slurries with up to 75 wt.% calcium carbonate was investigated with the use of attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) and adsorption of probe molecules. Analysis of the IR spectra demonstrated that the carboxylate groups of NaPAA adsorbed onto ground calcium carbonate (GCC) in three different modes. These modes were shown to be dependent on the solids loading and age of the slurry. Further investigation lead to the determination of the chelating ability of NaPAA at high solids loading. PMID:19875128

  14. EFFECTS OF SODIUM AND CALCIUM IN LIGNITE ON THE PERFORMANCE OF ACTIVATED CARBON PRODUCTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwin S. Olson; Kurt E. Eylands; Daniel J. Stepan

    2001-12-01

    Powdered activated carbon (PAC) has traditionally been used by the water treatment industry for the removal of compounds contributing to taste and odor problems. PAC also has the potential to remove naturally occurring organic matter (NOM) from raw waters prior to disinfection, thus controlling the formation of regulated disinfection by-products (DBPs). Many small water systems are currently using PAC for taste and odor control and have the potential to use PAC for controlling DBPs. The Energy & Environmental Research Center has been working on the development of a PAC product to remove NOM from surface water supplies to prevent the formation of carcinogenic DBPs during chlorination. During previous studies, the sodium and calcium content of the lignites showed a significant effect on the sorption capacity of the activated carbon product. As much as a 130% increase in the humic acid sorption capacity of a PAC produced from a high-sodium-content lignite was observed. During this study, activated carbons were prepared from three coals representing high-sodium, low-sodium--low-calcium, and high-calcium compositions in two steps, an initial char formation followed by mild activation with steam to avoid excessive burnout. This set of carbons was characterized with respect to physical and chemical properties. The BET (Brunauer-Emmett-Teller) nitrogen adsorption isotherms gave relatively low surface areas (ranging from 245 to 370 m{sup 2}/g). The lowest-BET area was obtained for the high-sodium carbon, which can be attributed to enlargement of micropores as a result of sodium-catalyzed gasification reaction of the carbon structure. This hypothesis is consistent with the scanning electron microscopy microprobe analyses, which show that in both the coal and the activated carbon from this coal, the sodium is distributed over both the carbon structure and the mineral particles. Thus it is initially associated with carboxylate groups on the coal and then as sodium oxide or

  15. Sodium-calcium exchanger and multiple sodium channel isoforms in intra-epidermal nerve terminals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gasser Andreas

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nociception requires transduction and impulse electrogenesis in nerve fibers which innervate the body surface, including the skin. However, the molecular substrates for transduction and action potential initiation in nociceptors are incompletely understood. In this study, we examined the expression and distribution of Na+/Ca2+ exchanger (NCX and voltage-gated sodium channel isoforms in intra-epidermal free nerve terminals. Results Small diameter DRG neurons exhibited robust NCX2, but not NCX1 or NCX3 immunolabeling, and virtually all PGP 9.5-positive intra-epidermal free nerve terminals displayed NCX2 immunoreactivity. Sodium channel NaV1.1 was not detectable in free nerve endings. In contrast, the majority of nerve terminals displayed detectable levels of expression of NaV1.6, NaV1.7, NaV1.8 and NaV1.9. Sodium channel immunoreactivity in the free nerve endings extended from the dermal boundary to the terminal tip. A similar pattern of NCX and sodium channel immunolabeling was observed in DRG neurons in vitro. Conclusions NCX2, as well as NaV1.6, NaV1.7, NaV1.8 and NaV1.9, are present in most intra-epidermal free nerve endings. The presence of NCX2, together with multiple sodium channel isoforms, in free nerve endings may have important functional implications.

  16. Collapse of sodium polyacrylate chains in calcium salt solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweins, R.; Huber, K.

    The sodium salt of polyacrylic acid (NaPA) precipitates in the presence of Ca^{2+}-ions. This phase behaviour can be represented by a phase diagram where the critical NaPA concentration is plotted versus the critical Ca^{2+} concentration resulting in a straight line as a phase boundary. The location of this phase boundary is influenced by the presence of an inert monovalent salt like NaCl. The present contribution focuses on the coil dimensions of NaPA chains in dilute aqueous solution corresponding to the one phase region of such a phase diagram. A variety of parameters with which the size and shape of the polyelectrolyte chains can be modulated are revealed. Approaching the phase boundary by decreasing the NaPA concentration at a constant Ca^{2+} content leads to a collapse of the NaPA chains. Combined static and dynamic light scattering suggests a compact spherical shape as the final state of this transition, both in 0.1 M NaCl and in 0.01 M NaCl. In the lower NaCl concentration, indication is presented for the existence of a cigar or pearl necklace like intermediate. Most strikingly, the collapsed chains can be reexpanded by increasing the concentration of inert NaCl at constant content of NaPA and Ca^{2+}. Clearly, excessive Na+-ions displace the Ca^{2+}-ions from the NaPA chains.

  17. The influence of calcium magnesium, and sodium on the spectrographic analysis of natural waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influences of 1000 μg/ml of calcium and sodium and 300 μg/ml of magnesium, on the spectrographic determination of Al, Ba, Cr, Fe, Li , Mn, Ni, Pb, Sr and Ti, minor constituents in natural waters, have been studied, In order to eliminate them, the elements Ga, In, La, Ti and Zn, as well as a mixture containing 30 % Tl-70 % In, have been tested as spectrochemical buffers. (Author) 7 refs

  18. In situ generation of hydrogen from water by aluminum corrosion in solutions of sodium aluminate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soler, Lluis; Candela, Angelica Maria; Munoz, Maria; Casado, Juan [Centre Grup de Tecniques de Separacio en Quimica (GTS), Unitat de Quimica Analitica, Departament de Quimica, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Campus UAB s/n, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); Macanas, Jorge [Laboratoire de Genie Chimique, UMR 5503 CNRS-INPT-UPS, Universite de Toulouse, Toulouse (France)

    2009-07-01

    A new process to obtain hydrogen from water using aluminum in sodium aluminate solutions is described and compared with results obtained in aqueous sodium hydroxide. This process consumes only water and aluminum, which are raw materials much cheaper than other compounds used for in situ hydrogen generation, such as hydrocarbons and chemical hydrides, respectively. As a consequence, our process could be an economically feasible alternative for hydrogen to supply fuel cells. Results showed an improvement of the maximum rates and yields of hydrogen production when NaAlO{sub 2} was used instead of NaOH in aqueous solutions. Yields of 100% have been reached using NaAlO{sub 2} concentrations higher than 0.65 M and first order kinetics at concentrations below 0.75 M has been confirmed. Two different heterogeneous kinetic models are verified for NaAlO{sub 2} aqueous solutions. The activation energy (E{sub a}) of the process with NaAlO{sub 2} is 71 kJ mol{sup -1}, confirming a control by a chemical step. A mechanism unifying the behavior of Al corrosion in NaOH and NaAlO{sub 2} solutions is presented. The application of this process could reduce costs in power sources based on fuel cells that nowadays use hydrides as raw material for hydrogen production. (author)

  19. Influence of sodium borate on the early age hydration of calcium sulfoaluminate cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calcium sulfoaluminate (CSA) cements are potential candidates for the conditioning of radioactive wastes with high sodium borate concentrations. This work thus investigates early age hydration of two CSA cements with different gypsum contents (0 to 20%) as a function of the mixing solution composition (borate and NaOH concentrations). Gypsum plays a key role in controlling the reactivity of cement. When the mixing solution is pure water, increasing the gypsum concentration accelerates cement hydration. However, the reverse is observed when the mixing solution contains sodium borate. Until gypsum exhaustion, the pore solution pH remains constant at ~ 10.8, and a poorly crystallized borate compound (ulexite) precipitates. A correlation is established between this transient precipitation and the hydration delay. Decreasing the gypsum content in the binder, or increasing the sodium content in the mixing solution, are two ways of reducing the stability of ulexite, thus decreasing the hydration delay

  20. Influence of sodium borate on the early age hydration of calcium sulfoaluminate cement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Champenois, Jean-Baptiste; Dhoury, Mélanie [CEA, DEN, DTCD, SPDE, F-30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze Cedex (France); Cau Dit Coumes, Céline, E-mail: celine.cau-dit-coumes@cea.fr [CEA, DEN, DTCD, SPDE, F-30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze Cedex (France); Mercier, Cyrille [LMCPA, Université de Valenciennes et du Hainaut Cambrésis, 59600 Maubeuge (France); Revel, Bertrand [Centre Commun de Mesure RMN, Université Lille1 Sciences Technologies, Cité Scientifique, 59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France); Le Bescop, Patrick [CEA, DEN, DPC, SECR, F-91192 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Damidot, Denis [Ecole des Mines de Douai, LGCgE-GCE, 59508 Douai (France)

    2015-04-15

    Calcium sulfoaluminate (CSA) cements are potential candidates for the conditioning of radioactive wastes with high sodium borate concentrations. This work thus investigates early age hydration of two CSA cements with different gypsum contents (0 to 20%) as a function of the mixing solution composition (borate and NaOH concentrations). Gypsum plays a key role in controlling the reactivity of cement. When the mixing solution is pure water, increasing the gypsum concentration accelerates cement hydration. However, the reverse is observed when the mixing solution contains sodium borate. Until gypsum exhaustion, the pore solution pH remains constant at ~ 10.8, and a poorly crystallized borate compound (ulexite) precipitates. A correlation is established between this transient precipitation and the hydration delay. Decreasing the gypsum content in the binder, or increasing the sodium content in the mixing solution, are two ways of reducing the stability of ulexite, thus decreasing the hydration delay.

  1. Evaluation of calcium, magnesium, zinc, aluminum and manganese deposition in bones and CNS of rats fed calcium-deficient diets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The long term intake of unbalanced mineral diets has been reported to be one of the pathogenetic factors of central nervous system (CNS) degeneration, and the unbalanced mineral distribution in the bones clinically is expressed as a metabolic bone disorder or deposition of neurotoxic minerals/metals. The unbalanced mineral or metal diets in animals provoke the unbalanced mineral distribution in bones and soft tissues. In this study, the calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), zinc (Zn), aluminum (Al) and manganese (Mn) contents in the CNS and the bones of rats maintained on unbalanced mineral diets were analyzed to investigate the roles of bone on CNS degeneration. Male Wistar rats were maintained for 90 days on the following diets: (A) standard diet, (B) low Ca diet, (C) low Ca-Mg diet, (D) low Ca-Mg diet with high Al. Al and Mn contents were determined in the frontal cortex, spinal cord, lumbar spine and femur using inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometry (ICP) for Ca, Mg and Zn, and neutron activation analysis (NAA) for Al and Mn. Intake of low Ca and Mg with added Al in rats led to the abnormal distribution of metals or minerals in the bones and in the CNS. These results illustrate that unbalanced mineral diets and metal-metal interactions may lead to the irregular deposition of Al and Mn in the bones and ultimately in the CNS, thus inducing CNS degeneration. (author)

  2. H +, Na +, and K + ion sensing properties of sodium and aluminum coimplanted LPCVD silicon oxynitride thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Paik-Kyun; Mikolajick, Thomas

    2003-02-01

    Three different silicon oxynitride layers were fabricated by varying NH 3/N 2O flow rate ratios in low pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) process. Sodium and aluminum were then coimplanted by implanting sodium ions with the energy of 100 keV and dose of 5×10 16 cm -2 into an aluminum buffer layer on silicon dioxide and three different silicon oxynitride layers. The composition of the as-deposited silicon oxynitride layers was analyzed by sputtered neutral mass spectroscopy (SNMS). Sodium, potassium and pH-sensing properties of the layers were investigated on an electrolyte-isolator-silicon (EIS) structure using high frequency capacitance-voltage (HF-CV) measurements. Differences of pH, sodium and potassium sensing properties between the as-deposited silicon oxynitride layers and the coimplanted silicon oxynitride layers were investigated. The sodium and aluminum coimplanted layers showed better sodium and potassium sensitivity as well as a lower sensitivity towards hydrogen ions. The effect is more pronounced for higher oxygen concentration in the layers. On the other hand the stability of ion response of the layers, in contrast, is better for the higher nitrogen content of the layers.

  3. Energetics of discrete selectivity bands and mutation-induced transitions in the calcium-sodium ion channels family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, I.; Luchinsky, D. G.; Tindjong, R.; McClintock, P. V. E.; Eisenberg, R. S.

    2013-11-01

    We use Brownian dynamics (BD) simulations to study the ionic conduction and valence selectivity of a generic electrostatic model of a biological ion channel as functions of the fixed charge Qf at its selectivity filter. We are thus able to reconcile the discrete calcium conduction bands recently revealed in our BD simulations, M0 (Qf=1e), M1 (3e), M2 (5e), with a set of sodium conduction bands L0 (0.5e), L1 (1.5e), thereby obtaining a completed pattern of conduction and selectivity bands vs Qf for the sodium-calcium channels family. An increase of Qf leads to an increase of calcium selectivity: L0 (sodium-selective, nonblocking channel) → M0 (nonselective channel) → L1 (sodium-selective channel with divalent block) → M1 (calcium-selective channel exhibiting the anomalous mole fraction effect). We create a consistent identification scheme where the L0 band is putatively identified with the eukaryotic sodium channel The scheme created is able to account for the experimentally observed mutation-induced transformations between nonselective channels, sodium-selective channels, and calcium-selective channels, which we interpret as transitions between different rows of the identification table. By considering the potential energy changes during permeation, we show explicitly that the multi-ion conduction bands of calcium and sodium channels arise as the result of resonant barrierless conduction. The pattern of periodic conduction bands is explained on the basis of sequential neutralization taking account of self-energy, as Qf(z,i)=ze(1/2+i), where i is the order of the band and z is the valence of the ion. Our results confirm the crucial influence of electrostatic interactions on conduction and on the Ca2+/Na+ valence selectivity of calcium and sodium ion channels. The model and results could be also applicable to biomimetic nanopores with charged walls.

  4. Lead isotopic ages of chondrules and calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amelin, Yuri; Krot, Alexander N; Hutcheon, Ian D; Ulyanov, Alexander A

    2002-09-01

    The lead-lead isochron age of chondrules in the CR chondrite Acfer 059 is 4564.7 +/- 0.6 million years ago (Ma), whereas the lead isotopic age of calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) in the CV chondrite Efremovka is 4567.2 +/- 0.6 Ma. This gives an interval of 2.5 +/- 1.2 million years (My) between formation of the CV CAIs and the CR chondrules and indicates that CAI- and chondrule-forming events lasted for at least 1.3 My. This time interval is consistent with a 2- to 3-My age difference between CR CAIs and chondrules inferred from the differences in their initial 26Al/27Al ratios and supports the chronological significance of the 26Al-26Mg systematics. PMID:12215641

  5. Searching for calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions in cometary particles with Rosetta/COSIMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquette, John A.; Engrand, Cecile; Stenzel, Oliver; Hilchenbach, Martin; Kissel, Jochen

    2016-05-01

    The calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) found in chondritic meteorites are probably the oldest solar system solids, dating back to 4567.30 ± 0.16 million years ago. They are thought to have formed in the protosolar nebula within a few astronomical units of the Sun, and at a temperature of around 1300 K. The Stardust mission found evidence of CAI-like material in samples recovered from comet Wild 2. The appearance of CAIs in comets, which are thought to be formed at lower temperatures and larger distances from the Sun, is only explicable if some mechanism allows the efficient transfer of such objects from the inner solar nebula to the outer solar nebula. Such mechanisms have been proposed such as an X-wind or turbulence. In this work, particles collected from within the coma of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko are examined for compositional evidence of the presence of CAIs. COSIMA (the Cometary Secondary Ion Mass Analyzer) uses secondary ion mass spectrometry to analyze the composition of cometary dust captured on metal targets. While CAIs can have a radius of centimeters, they are more typically a few hundred microns in size, and can be smaller than 1 μm, so it is conceivable that particles visible on COSIMA targets (ranging in size from about 10 μm to hundreds of microns) could contain CAIs. Using a peak fitting technique, the composition of a set of 13 particles was studied, looking for material rich in both calcium and aluminum. One such particle was found.

  6. A petrographic, chemical, and isotopic study of calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions and aluminum-rich chondrules from the Axtell (CV3) chondrite

    OpenAIRE

    Srinivasan, G.; Huss, G. R.; Wasserburg, G. J.

    2000-01-01

    Petrographic, compositional, and isotopic characteristics were studied for three calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) and four plagioclase-bearing chondrules (three of them Al-rich) from the Axtell (CV3) chondrite. All seven objects have analogues in Allende (CV3) and other primitive chondrites, yet Axtell, like most other chondrites, contains a distinctive suite of CAIs and chondrules. In common with Allende CAIs, CAIs in Axtell exhibit initial ^(26)Al/^(27)Al ratios ((^(26)Al/^(27)Al)0) ...

  7. The Role of an Impurity in Ceftriaxone Sodium Preparation for Injection in Determining Compatibility with Calcium-Containing Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tange, Mio; Yoshida, Miyako; Nakai, Yuka; Uchida, Takahiro

    2016-01-01

    Ceftriaxone sodium preparation for injection is known to form insoluble microparticles with calcium. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of an impurity in the ceftriaxone sodium preparation on this incompatibility. Firstly, using HPLC, two impurities were identified in the ceftriaxone sodium solution. The major impurity (impurity 1) was identified as tetrahydro-2-methyl-3-thioxo-1,2,4-triazine-5,6-dione by LC/MS. Secondly, the role played by this impurity in the incompatibility with calcium was examined. Using seven different ceftriaxone preparations for injection, the effect of adding impurity 1 to mixed solutions of ceftriaxone sodium and calcium chloride on the appearance of insoluble microparticles, was examined using a light obscuration particle counter. Although incompatibility was not completely suppressed by the addition of impurity 1, the number of insoluble microparticles formed with calcium chloride solution was decreased in proportion to the concentration of impurity 1, and the concentration of calcium ion decreased as the concentration of added impurity 1 increased. These results show that impurity 1 plays a concentration-dependent role in incompatibility between ceftriaxone sodium preparation for injection and calcium-containing solutions. PMID:26936047

  8. ELECTROCHEMICAL NOISE ANALYSIS OF PURE ALUMINUM IN SODIUM CHLORIDE SOLUTION WITH WAVELET TRANSFORM TECHNIQUE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Z. Zhang; Q.D. Zhong; J.Q. Zhang; Y.L. Cheng; F.H. Cao; J.M. Wang; C.N. Cao

    2002-01-01

    Wavelet transforms (WT) are proposed as an alternative tool to overcome the limita-tions of Fourier transforms (FFT) in the analysis of electrochemical noise (EN) data.The most relevant feature of this method of analysis is its capability of decomposingelectrochemical noise records into different sets of wavelet coefficients, which containinformation about the time scale characteristic of the associated corrosion event. Inthis context, the potential noise fluctuations during the free corrosion of pure alu-minum in sodium chloride solution was recorded and analyzed with wavelet transformtechnique. The typical results showed that the EN signal is composed of distinct typeof events, which can be classified according to their scales, i.e. their time constants.Meanwhile, the energy distribution plot (EDP) can be used as "fingerprints" of ENsignals and can be very useful for analyzing EN data in the future.

  9. EIS study on pitting corrosion of 7150 aluminum alloy in sodium chloride and hydrochloric acid solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, G.S; Chen, K.H.; Fang, H.C.; Chao, H.; Chen, S.Y. [State Key Laboratory for Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Hunan (China)

    2010-09-15

    The pitting corrosion behavior of 7150 aluminum alloy was studied by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in the sodium chloride and hydrochloric acid solution. Based on EIS features and corrosion morphologies as well as corrosion potential, the process of pitting corrosion could be clearly divided into four stages: at the first stage, the Nyquist diagram was composed of two overlapping capacitive loops at the high-medial frequency and one inductive loop at the low frequency. At the second stage (metastable pits developing stage), there existed one small capacitive loop at the high frequency and one big capacitive loop at the medial frequency. At the third stage (stable pits developing stage), two time constants were more clearly distinguished, corresponding to two obvious capacitive loops. At the fourth stage, there appeared one capacitive loop, attributing to uniform corrosion. An equivalent circuit was designed to fit EIS, and the experimental results and the fitted results had good correspondence. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  10. Action of aluminum on high voltage-dependent calcium current and its modulation by ginkgolide B

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei CHEN; Chang-jin LIU; Ming TANG; Ai LI; Xin-wu HU; Yi-mei DU; Jing-jing SHEN; Yong-li LU; Jurgen HESCHLER

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the effect of aluminum (Al) on high voltage-dependent calcium current (IHVA) and its modulation by ginkgolide B (Gin B). Methods: The whole-cell, patch-clamp technique was used to record IHVA from acutely isolated hippocampal CA1 pyramydal neurons in rats. Results: Al 0.1 mmol/L (low concentration) reduced IHVA; Al 0.75 and 1.0 mmol/L (high concentrations) increased IHVA, and Al decreased and increased IHVA at intermediate concentrations of 0.25 and 0.5 mmol/L. The increase of IHVA by Al 1.0 mmol/L was enhanced by the adenylyl cyclase (AC) agonist forskolin and was partly abolished by the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) antagonist H-89, whereas the decrease observed with Al0.1 mmol/L was neither reversed by forskolin nor affected by H-89. Gin B had no effect on IHVA in normal neurons,but canceled the increase in IHVA by 1.0 mmol/L Al. Conclusion: The results indicate that the mechanism of Al affecting IHVA differs at different concentrations,and this may be attributed to its complex actions. Gin B could prevent neurons from injury by inhibiting calcium influx.

  11. Sodium induces simultaneous changes in cytosolic calcium and pH in salt-tolerant quince protoplasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Onofrio, Cladio; Lindberg, Sylvia

    2009-11-01

    Previous experiments with salt-resistant quince BA29 (Cydonia oblonga cv. Mill.) have shown that this cultivar takes up sodium transiently into the cytosol of shoot protoplasts only in the absence of calcium chloride, or at or =100mM to single protoplasts from in vitro-cultivated quince in the presence of 1.0mM calcium induced instant changes in the cytosolic concentrations of calcium and protons. These changes were investigated by use of tetra [acetoxymethyl] esters of the fluorescent stilbene chromophores Fura 2 and bis-carboxyethyl-carboxyfluorescein (BCECF), respectively. The cytosolic Ca(2+) dynamics in the protoplasts were dependent on the concentration of NaCl added. The changes in calcium differed in amplitude and final concentration and were correlated in time mainly with changes in pH. Addition of 100-400mM NaCl to the protoplasts caused an oscillating increase in the cytosolic level of calcium, and then a decrease. Addition of mannitol, of equiosmolar concentration to NaCl, did not increase the cytosolic calcium concentration. Moreover, there was no increase in cytosolic calcium when NaCl was added in the presence of calcium binding ethylene glycol-bis(beta-aminoethylether)-N,N,N',N'-tetra acetic acid (EGTA), or lantan or verapamil, two inhibitors of plasma membrane calcium channels. Therefore, we conclude that, in salt-resistant quince, sodium induces an influx of calcium into the cytosol by plasma membrane calcium channels, and a simultaneous increase in cytosolic pH. Because these changes were obtained in the presence of 1mM calcium in the medium, they were not due to sodium uptake into the cytosol. PMID:19556023

  12. Endurance Exercise Training Reduces Cardiac Sodium/Calcium Exchanger Expression in Animals Susceptible to Ventricular Fibrillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GeorgeEBillman

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Increased sodium/calcium exchanger activity (NCX1, an important regulator of cardiomyocyte cystolic calcium may provoke arrhythmias. Exercise training can decrease NCX1 expression in animals with heart failure improving cytosolic calcium regulation, and could thereby reduce the risk for ventricular fibrillation (VF. Methods: To test this hypothesis, a 2-min coronary occlusion was made during the last min. of exercise in dogs with healed myocardial infarctions; 23 had VF (S, susceptible and 13 did not (R, resistant. The animals were randomly assigned to either 10-wk exercise training (progressively increasing treadmill running (S n = 9; R n = 8 or 10-wk sedentary (S n = 14; R n = 5 groups. At the end of the 10-wk period, the exercise + ischemia test provoked VF in sedentary but not trained susceptible dogs. On a subsequent day, cardiac tissue was harvested and NCX1 protein expression was determined by Western blot. Results: In the sedentary group, NCX1 expression was significantly (ANOVA, P<0.05 higher in susceptible compared to resistant dogs. In contrast, NCX1 levels were similar in the exercise trained resistant and susceptible animals. Conclusion: These data suggest that exercise training can restore a more normal NCX1 level in dogs susceptible to ventricular fibrillation, improving cystolic calcium regulation and could thereby reduce the risk for sudden death following myocardial infarction.

  13. The Effect of Calcium Sodium Phosphosilicate on Dentin Hypersensitivity: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengjiao Zhu

    Full Text Available To investigate the effect of calcium sodium phosphosilicate (CSPS in treating dentin hypersensitivity (DH and to compare this effect to that of a negative (placebo control.Several databases, including Medline, EMBASE, Web of Science, The Cochrane Library, and the Chinese Biomedical Literature Database, were searched to identify relevant articles published through January 2015; grey literature (i.e., academic literature that is not formally published was also searched. Two authors performed data extraction independently and jointly using data collection forms. The primary outcome was the DH pain response to routine activities or to thermal, tactile, evaporative, or electrical stimuli, and the secondary outcome was the side effects of CSPS use. Each study was evaluated using the Cochrane Collaboration tool for assessing risk bias. Meta-analysis of studies with the same participant demographics, interventions, controls, assessment methods and follow-up periods was performed. The Grading of Recommendations Assessment Development and Evaluation System was used to assess the quality of the evidence and the risk of bias across studies.Meta-analysis demonstrated that toothpaste containing 5% CSPS was more effective than the negative control at relieving dentin sensitivity, with the level of evidence classified as "moderate". In addition, prophylaxis paste containing 15% calcium sodium phosphosilicate was favored over the negative control at reducing post-periodontal therapy hypersensitivity, with the level of evidence categorized as "low". Only two studies reported side effects of CSPS use.The majority of studies found that calcium sodium phosphosilicate was more effective than the negative control at alleviating DH. Because strong evidence is scarce, high-quality, well-designed clinical trials are required in the future before definitive recommendations can be made.

  14. Intake of protein, calcium and sodium in public child day care centers

    OpenAIRE

    Giovana Longo-Silva; Toloni, Maysa Helena de A.; de Menezes, Risia Cristina E.; Tatiane Leocádio Temteo; Oliveira, Maria Alice A.; Leiko Asakura; Emília Chagas Costa; Taddei, José Augusto de A. C.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess calcium, protein and sodium intake, of children that attend public day-care centers and to compare it with the recommended one. METHODS: Cross-sectional descriptive study in seven public day care centers of São Paulo city, Southeast Brazil, which enrolled 366 children between 12 and 36 months of age. The data collection occurred between September and December 2010. Each day care center was evaluated for three non-consecutive days, totaling 42 days and 210 meals. Dietary i...

  15. Modifications on the properties of a calcium phosphate cement by additions of sodium alginate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coelho, W.T.; Fernandes, J.M.; Vieira, R.S.; Thurmer, M.B.; Santos, L.A., E-mail: trajano@ufrgs.br, E-mail: julianafernandes2@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: rsvieira.eng@gmail.com, E-mail: monicathurmer@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: luis.santos@ufrgs.br [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (PPG/LABIOMAT/UFRGS), RS (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    The Calcium Phosphate Cement (CPC) are bone substitutes with great potential for use in orthopedics, traumatology and dentistry due to its biocompatibility, bioactivity and osteoconductivity, and form a paste that can be easily shaped and placed into the surgical site. However, CPCs have low mechanical strength, which equals the maximum mechanical strength of trabecular bone. In order to assess the strength and time to handle a CPC composed primarily of alpha phase, were added sodium alginate (1%, 2% and 3% wt) and an accelerator in an aqueous solution. The cement powder was mixed with liquid of setting, shaped into specimens and evaluated for apparent density and porosity by Archimedes method, X-ray diffraction and compressive strength. A significant increase in compressive strength by adding sodium alginate was verified. (author)

  16. Modifications on the properties of a calcium phosphate cement by additions of sodium alginate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Calcium Phosphate Cement (CPC) are bone substitutes with great potential for use in orthopedics, traumatology and dentistry due to its biocompatibility, bioactivity and osteoconductivity, and form a paste that can be easily shaped and placed into the surgical site. However, CPCs have low mechanical strength, which equals the maximum mechanical strength of trabecular bone. In order to assess the strength and time to handle a CPC composed primarily of alpha phase, were added sodium alginate (1%, 2% and 3% wt) and an accelerator in an aqueous solution. The cement powder was mixed with liquid of setting, shaped into specimens and evaluated for apparent density and porosity by Archimedes method, X-ray diffraction and compressive strength. A significant increase in compressive strength by adding sodium alginate was verified. (author)

  17. Impression creep properties of a semi-solid processed magnesium-aluminum alloy containing calcium and rare earth elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The creep properties of a thixoformed magnesium-aluminum alloy containing calcium and rare earth elements were studied under shear modulus-normalized stresses ranging from 0.0225 to 0.035 at temperatures of 150-212 oC using the impression creep technique. Analysis of the creep mechanism based on a power-law equation indicated that pipe diffusion-controlled dislocation climb is the dominant mechanism during creep. The alloy has a better creep resistance than high-pressure die-cast magnesium-aluminum alloy.

  18. Effects of temperature and sodium carboxylate additives on mineralization of calcium oxalate in silica gel systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    OUYANG; Jianming; DENG; Suiping; LI; Xiangping; TAN; Yanh

    2004-01-01

    [1]Ouyang, J. M., Yao, X. Q., Su, Z. X. et al., Simulation of calcium oxalate stone in Vitro, Science in China, Ser. B, 2003, 46(3):234-242.[2]Xu, S. H., Chen, J. Q., Zhou, H., Nepidemiological study of renal calculus in Shenshen region, Chin. J. Urol. (in Chinese), 1999,20(11): 655-657.[3]Bretherton, T., Rodgers, A., Crystallization of calcium oxalate in minimally diluted urine, J. Crystal Growth, 1998, 192: 448-455.[4]Grover, P. K., Ryall, R. L., Effect of seed crystals of uric acid and monosodium urate on the crystallization of CaOxa in undiluted human urine in vitro, Clin. Sci., 1997, 92: 205-213.[5]Laube, N., Mohr, B., Hesse, A., Laser-probe-based investigation of the evolution of particle size distributions of calcium oxalate particles formed in artificial urines, J. Crystal Growth, 2001, 233:367-374.[6]Tunik, L., Fueredi-Milhofer, H., Garti, N., Adsorption of sodium diisooctyl sulfosuccinate onto calcium oxalate crystals, Langmuir,1998, 14: 3351-3355.[7]Cody, A. M., Cody, R. D., Calcium oxalate trihydrate phase control by structurally-specific carboxylic acids, J. Cryst. Growth,1994, 135: 234-245.[8]Ouyang, J. M., Duan, L., Tieke, B., Effects of carboxylic acids on the crystal growth of calcium oxalate nanoparticles in lecithin-water liposome systems, Langmuir, 2003, 19: 8980-8985.[9]Guo, S., Ward, M. D., Wesson, J. A., Direct visualization of calcium oxalate monohydrate crystallization and dissolution with atomic force microscopy and the role of polymeric additives,Langmuir, 2002, 18:4284-4291.[10]Yasui, T., Sato, M., Fujita, K., Effects of citrate on renal stone formation and osteopontin expression in a rat urolithiasis model,Urol. Res., 2001,29: 50-56.[11]Ouyang, J. M., Deng, S. P., Controlled and uncontrolled crystallization of calcium oxalate monohydrate in the presence of citric acid, Dalton Transactions, 2003, (14): 2846-2851.[12]Khan, S. R., Whalen, P. O., Glenton, P. A., Heterogeneous nucleation of

  19. Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of vitamin C (ascorbic acid, sodium ascorbate, calcium ascorbate, ascorbyl palmitate, sodium calcium ascorbyl phosphate and sodium ascorbyl phosphate) as a feed additive for all animal species based on a dossier submitted by DSM Nutritional Products Ltd

    OpenAIRE

    EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP)

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin C is essential for primates, guinea pigs and fish. Vitamin C, in the form of ascorbic acid and its calcium and sodium salts, ascorbyl palmitate, sodium calcium ascorbyl phosphate and sodium ascorbyl phosphate, is safe for all animal species. Setting a maximum content in feed and water for drinking is not considered necessary. Data on the vitamin C consumption of consumers are based on the levels of vitamin C in foodstuffs, including food of animal origin, produced in accordance with c...

  20. A study of the minor element concentrations of spinels from two type B calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions: An investigation into potential formation conditions of calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions

    OpenAIRE

    Connolly, Harold C., Jr.; Burnett, D. S.

    1999-01-01

    We have conducted an electron microprobe study of minor element distributions among spinels from two type B1 calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs): Allende TS-23 and Leoville 3537–2. We show that by maintaining the petrologic context (edge, middle, and center of the inclusion plus their host silicate phase), four populations of spinels are resolvable based on their minor element contents. One population resides within the edge area (mainly mantle melilite) and is characterized by the highes...

  1. Effects of Calcium on ATPase Activity and Lipid Composition of Plasma Membranes from Wheat Roots Under Aluminum Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Long-fei; SHEN Zhen-guo; LIU You-liang

    2003-01-01

    Effects of calcium on ATPase activities, lipid contents, and fatty acid compositions of plasma membrane from wheat roots were assayed under aluminum stress. The results showed that the increase of calcium concentration in the nutrient solution increased the activity of H+-ATPase and the phospholipid content, decreased the activity of Ca2+-ATPase and the galactolipid of plasma membrane. Owing to the decrease of linolenic acid content, the index of unsaturated fatty acid (IUFA) and index of double bond (DBI) decreased in Altas66. The IUFA and DBI of plasma membrane from Scout66 roots increased because its linolenic acid content increased obviously and its palmitic acid content decreased apparently.

  2. Optical planar waveguide in sodium-doped calcium barium niobate crystals by carbon ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is great interest in niobate crystals which belong to the tetragonal tungsten bronze (TTB) families owing to their intriguing properties. As one representative of such crystals, CBN (calcium barium niobate) has attracted rapidly growing attention. Because it has a higher Curie temperature than SBN (strontium barium niobate), possesses outstanding ferroelectric and it possesses optical properties. In addition, doped with sodium, CBN will show a higher Curie temperature than pure CBN. We report on the fabrication and characterization of optical planar waveguide in x-cut sodium-doped calcium barium niobate crystal by using C ion implantation. The guided-mode properties at the wavelength of 633 and 1539 nm are investigated through prism-coupling measurements, respectively. By applying direct end-face coupling arrangement, the near-field optical intensity distribution of waveguide modes is measured at 633 nm. For comparison, the modal profile of the same guided mode is also numerically calculated by the finite difference beam-propagation method via computer software BeamPROP. The transmission spectra of the waveguide before and after ion implantation treatments were investigated also. Our experiment results reveal that the waveguide could propagate light with transverse magnetic polarized direction only and it is assumed that the polarization selectivity of CBN crystal may responsible for this phenomenon

  3. Impact of sodium polyacrylate on the amorphous calcium carbonate formation from supersaturated solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J; Pancera, S; Boyko, V; Gummel, J; Nayuk, R; Huber, K

    2012-02-21

    A detailed in situ scattering study has been carried out on the formation of amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) particles modulated by the presence of small amounts of sodium polyacrylate chains. The work is aiming at an insight into the modulation of ACC formation by means of two polyacrylate samples differing in their molecular weight by a factor of 50. The ACC formation process was initiated by an in situ generation of CO(3)(2-) ions via hydrolysis of 10 mM dimethylcarbonate in the presence of 10 mM CaCl(2). Analysis of the formation process by means of time-resolved small-angle X-ray and light scattering in the absence of any additives provided evidence for a monomer addition mechanism for the growth of ACC particles. ACC formation under these conditions sets in after a lag-period of some 350 s. In the presence of sodium polyacrylate chains, calcium polyacrylate aggregates are formed during the lag-period, succeeded by a modulated ACC growth in a second step. The presence of anionic polyacrylate chains changed the shape of the growing particles toward loose and less homogeneous entities. In the case of low amounts (1.5-7.5 mg/L) of the long chain additive with 97 kDa, the size of the aggregates is comparable to the size of the successively formed hybrid particles. No variation of the lag-period has been observed in this case. Use of the short chain additive with 2 kDa enabled increase of the additive concentration up to 100 mg/L and resulted in a significant increase of the lag-period. This fact, together with the finding that the resulting hybrid particles remained stable in the latter case, identified short chain sodium polyacrylates as more efficient modulators than long chain polyacrylates. PMID:22256962

  4. VS-501: a novel, nonabsorbed, calcium- and aluminum-free, highly effective phosphate binder derived from natural plant polymer

    OpenAIRE

    Wu-Wong, J Ruth; Chen, Yung-wu; Gaffin, Robert; Hall, Andy; Wong, Jonathan T; Xiong, Joseph; Wessale, Jerry L

    2014-01-01

    Inadequate control of serum phosphate in chronic kidney disease can lead to pathologies of clinical importance. Effectiveness of on-market phosphate binders is limited by safety concerns and low compliance due to high pill size/burden and gastrointestinal (GI) discomfort. VS-501 is a nonabsorbed, calcium- and aluminum-free, chemically modified, plant-derived polymer. In vitro studies show that VS-501 has a high density and a low swell volume when exposed to simulated gastric fluid (vs. sevela...

  5. Growth of calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions by coagulation and fragmentation in a turbulent protoplanetary disk: observations and modelisation

    OpenAIRE

    Charnoz, S.; Aleon, J.; Chaumard, N.; Baillie, K.; Tallifet, E.

    2015-01-01

    Whereas it is generally accepted that calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) from chondritic meteorites formed in a hot environment in the solar protoplanetary disk, the conditions of their formation remain debated. Recent laboratory studies of CAIs have provided new kind of data: their size distributions. We show that size distributions of CAIs measured in laboratory from sections of carbonaceous chondrites have a power law size distribution with cumulative size exponent between -1.7 and -1...

  6. Inhibition of collagen synthesis by select calcium and sodium channel blockers can be mitigated by ascorbic acid and ascorbyl palmitate

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanov, Vadim; Ivanova, Svetlana; KALINOVSKY, TATIANA; NIEDZWIECKI, ALEKSANDRA; RATH, MATTHIAS

    2016-01-01

    Calcium, sodium and potassium channel blockers are widely prescribed medications for a variety of health problems, most frequently for cardiac arrhythmias, hypertension, angina pectoris and other disorders. However, chronic application of channel blockers is associated with numerous side effects, including worsening cardiac pathology. For example, nifedipine, a calcium-channel blocker was found to be associated with increased mortality and increased risk for myocardial infarction. In addition...

  7. Energetics of discrete selectivity bands and mutation-induced transitions in the calcium-sodium ion channels family

    CERN Document Server

    Kaufman, I; Tindjong, R; McClintock, P V E; Eisenberg, R S

    2013-01-01

    We use Brownian dynamics simulations to study the permeation properties of a generic electrostatic model of a biological ion channel as a function of the fixed charge Q_f at its selectivity filter. We reconcile the recently-discovered discrete calcium conduction bands M0 (Q_f=1e), M1 (3e), M2 (5e) with the set of sodium conduction bands L0 (0.5-0.7e), L1 (1.5-2e) thereby obtaining a completed pattern of conduction and selectivity bands v Q_f for the sodium-calcium channels family. An increase of Q_f leads to an increase of calcium selectivity: L0 (sodium selective, non-blocking channel) -> M0 (non-selective channel) -> L1 (sodium selective channel with divalent block) -> M1 (calcium selective channel exhibiting the anomalous mole fraction effect). We create a consistent identification scheme where the L1 band is identified with the eukaryotic (DEKA) sodium channel, and L0 (speculatively) with the bacterial NaChBac channel. The scheme created is able to account for the experimentally observed mutation-induced ...

  8. Calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions in the Allende meteorite - Evidence for a liquid origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blander, M.; Fuchs, L. H.

    1975-01-01

    We have made a detailed examination of the mineralogy, textures, and assemblages of six calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAI) in the Allende meteorite. They can be classified into four types - hibonite-bearing, fassaite- and olivine-bearing, feldspathoid-bearing and fassaite-bearing CAI that are hibonite and olivine free. Examples of each type appear to have crystallized from a liquid rather than by agglomeration of solid nebular condensates. Some lines of evidence for a liquid origin are the presence of spherical and ovoid shapes and rims containing minerals that are more refractory than minerals inside the inclusion. Thermodynamic calculations and comparisons with liquidus phase diagrams indicate that the CAI could have been produced by direct condensation to metastable subcooled liquids that subsequently crystallized or by remelting of an equilibrium high-temperature condensate by impact. The diopside rims in some hibonite-bearing CAI and the paucity of metal in fassaite-olivine-bearing CAI are more consistent with direct condensation of a liquid.

  9. SOLAR WIND IMPLANTATION MODEL FOR 10Be IN CALCIUM-ALUMINUM INCLUSIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We propose a model for the incorporation of 10Be within calcium-aluminum inclusions (CAIs) in primitive carbonaceous meteorites. In this model, 10Be is produced by energetic particle reactions in the proto-solar atmosphere of a more active proto-Sun characterized by energetic particle fluxes higher than contemporary particle fluxes. This 10Be is incorporated into the solar wind that is then implanted into CAI precursor material. This production mechanism is operational in the contemporary solar system implanting 10Be in lunar materials. The contemporary production rate of 10Be at the surface of the Sun is ∼0.1 10Be cm-2 s-1. Scaling up the contemporary 10Be production in the proto-Sun by a factor of 105 would increase the production rate to 10410Be cm-2 s-1. Using this enhanced production value in conjunction with refractory mass inflow rates at 0.06 AU from the proto-Sun we model 10Be concentrations in CAI precursors. We calculate the content of solar-wind-implanted 10Be would have been of the order of 101210Be g-1 in CAIs, consistent with initial10Be content found from boron-beryllium isotopic systematics in CAIs.

  10. Use of calcium/aluminum ratios as indicators of stress in forest ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cronan, C.S. [Univ. of Maine, Orono, ME (United States); Grigal, D.F. [Univ. of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN (United States)

    1995-03-01

    The calcium/aluminum (Ca/Al) molar ratio of the soil solution provides a valuable measurement endpoint or ecological indicator for identification of approximate thresholds beyond which the risk of forest damage from Al stress and nutrient imbalances increases. The Ca/Al ratio can also be used as an indicator to assess forest ecosystem changes over time in response to acidic deposition, forest harvesting, or other processes contributing to acid soil infertility. Based on a critical review of literature on Al stress, we estimate that there is a 50:50 risk of adverse impacts on tree growth or nutrition when the soil solution Ca/Al ratio is as low as 1.0, a 75% risk when the soil solution ratio is as low as 0.5, and nearly a 100% risk when the soil solution Ca/Al molar ratio is as low as 0.2. The Ca/Al ratio of the soil solution can be corroborated with other complementary indices.

  11. EVOLUTION OF THE ELECTROCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS DURING PITTING CORROSION OF PURE ALUMINUM IN SODIUM CHLORIDE SOLUTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Z. Zhang; C. Cai; F.H. Cao; Z.N. Gao; J.Q. Zhang; C.N. Cao

    2005-01-01

    The corrosion behavior of pure aluminum in neutral 3.0% (mass fraction) sodium chloride (NaCl) solution has been studied using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (ELS) measurement in conjunction with the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) technique. EIS information on the evolution of pitting corrosion over a period of 15 days has been obtained and analyzed with equivalent circuit technique. The results shown that, during the ensemble constant immersion time, two time constants involved, the high frequency one originated from the protective layer on the corroding surface while the low frequency one from the diffusion process or the corrosion reaction and so on. And there existed a period for oxide film to growth and thickening prior to the commencement of the attacking of chloride ions to the substrate. Meanwhile, good relationship between EIS and the material corrosion type/severity has been obtained, which has been interpreted according to the characteristics of corrosion process such as auto acceleration of pitting corrosion and the protection of local anodic reaction to the area around them.

  12. Haemorrhagic effects of sodium heparin and calcium heparin prophylaxis in patients undergoing mastectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, R E; Ho, K N; Karran, S J; Taylor, I

    1989-06-01

    In a double-blind prospective clinical trial 75 consecutive patients undergoing mastectomy were randomly allocated to one of three groups. Twenty-five patients received perioperative anti-thromboembolic therapy with sodium heparin and 25 with calcium heparin. The remaining 25 patients were given anti-embolism stockings but no heparin. The total postoperative blood loss and period of drainage did not differ between the two groups given heparin, but a total of 10 of these 50 patients suffered haemorrhagic complications in the form of severe bruising or haematoma postoperatively. Of the patients given no heparin, none suffered haemorrhagic complications and the blood loss following the first 24-hour postoperative period was significantly less than in the groups given heparin. PMID:2681717

  13. SMALL-SCALE PILOT EVALUATION OF CALCIUM- AND SODIUM-BASED SORBENTS FOR DRY SO2 REMOVAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper discusses a 100 cu m/h pilot facility (consisting of a spray dryer, a sorbent injection system, a duct section, and a pulse-jet baghouse or cyclone separator) used for testing the reaction at low temperature between various calcium- and sodium-based sorbents and SO2 in ...

  14. Statement on the exposure assessment of sodium stearoyl-2-lactylate and calcium stearoyl-2-lactylate including exposure resulting from extension of the authorisation of sodium stearoyl-2-lactylates

    OpenAIRE

    EFSA Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to food (ANS)

    2013-01-01

    Following a request by the European Commission, the Scientific Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to Food (ANS) carried out an exposure assessment of sodium stearoyl-2-lactylate (E 481) and calcium stearoyl-2-lactylate (E 482) as a food additive, including an extension of the uses to use the additives in emulsified cooked meat products (e.g. mortadella, paté). Reflecting the data on actual use levels provided by food industry, the combined exposure to sodium stearoyl-2-lactyla...

  15. Influence of sodium, calcium, magnesium, and ammonium in the sorption of cadmium in a zeolite rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cadmium is one of the more toxic heavy metals and the water pollution by this metal, is originated by industries whose turn is the production of batteries, electroplating processes, the production of pigments and in the refinement process of others metals. The objective of this work was to evaluate the ion exchange of cadmium using natural zeolite, obtained from the Arroyo zone, La Haciendita Municipality, in the State of Chihuahua. The parameters considered in this investigation were: the sorption time, the pH, the initial concentration of cadmium and the influence of sodium, calcium, magnesium and ammonium on the sorption of cadmium in the natural zeolite. Also, the theoretical pattern for kinetics and isotherm that better it is adjusted to those experimental results it was determined. The experimentation results allowed to establish the following conclusions: the sorption of the cadmium doesn't depend on the pH in an interval between 4 and 6; the pattern that better it describes the kinetics it is that of Pseudo-second order of Ho and Mc Kay; the Langmuir-Freundlich pattern is the one that better it describes the sorption isotherm and the calcium is the component that interferes in an important manner in the sorption of cadmium. The carried out investigation contributes to the definition of some of the parameters that should be considered in the development of ion exchangers for the cadmium removal. (Author)

  16. Calmodulin and calcium differentially regulate the neuronal Nav1.1 voltage-dependent sodium channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → Both Ca++-Calmodulin (CaM) and Ca++-free CaM bind to the C-terminal region of Nav1.1. → Ca++ and CaM have both opposite and convergent effects on INav1.1. → Ca++-CaM modulates INav1.1 amplitude. → CaM hyperpolarizes the voltage-dependence of activation, and increases the inactivation rate. → Ca++ alone antagonizes CaM for both effects, and depolarizes the voltage-dependence of inactivation. -- Abstract: Mutations in the neuronal Nav1.1 voltage-gated sodium channel are responsible for mild to severe epileptic syndromes. The ubiquitous calcium sensor calmodulin (CaM) bound to rat brain Nav1.1 and to the human Nav1.1 channel expressed by a stably transfected HEK-293 cell line. The C-terminal region of the channel, as a fusion protein or in the yeast two-hybrid system, interacted with CaM via a consensus C-terminal motif, the IQ domain. Patch clamp experiments on HEK1.1 cells showed that CaM overexpression increased peak current in a calcium-dependent way. CaM had no effect on the voltage-dependence of fast inactivation, and accelerated the inactivation kinetics. Elevating Ca++ depolarized the voltage-dependence of fast inactivation and slowed down the fast inactivation kinetics, and for high concentrations this effect competed with the acceleration induced by CaM alone. Similarly, the depolarizing action of calcium antagonized the hyperpolarizing shift of the voltage-dependence of activation due to CaM overexpression. Fluorescence spectroscopy measurements suggested that Ca++ could bind the Nav1.1 C-terminal region with micromolar affinity.

  17. Calmodulin and calcium differentially regulate the neuronal Nav1.1 voltage-dependent sodium channel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaudioso, Christelle; Carlier, Edmond; Youssouf, Fahamoe [INSERM U641, Institut Jean Roche, Marseille F-13344 (France); Universite de la Mediterranee, Faculte de Medecine Secteur Nord, IFR 11, Marseille F-13344 (France); Clare, Jeffrey J. [Eaton Pharma Consulting, Eaton Socon, Cambridgeshire PE19 8EF (United Kingdom); Debanne, Dominique [INSERM U641, Institut Jean Roche, Marseille F-13344 (France); Universite de la Mediterranee, Faculte de Medecine Secteur Nord, IFR 11, Marseille F-13344 (France); Alcaraz, Gisele, E-mail: gisele.alcaraz@univmed.fr [INSERM U641, Institut Jean Roche, Marseille F-13344 (France); Universite de la Mediterranee, Faculte de Medecine Secteur Nord, IFR 11, Marseille F-13344 (France)

    2011-07-29

    Highlights: {yields} Both Ca{sup ++}-Calmodulin (CaM) and Ca{sup ++}-free CaM bind to the C-terminal region of Nav1.1. {yields} Ca{sup ++} and CaM have both opposite and convergent effects on I{sub Nav1.1}. {yields} Ca{sup ++}-CaM modulates I{sub Nav1.1} amplitude. {yields} CaM hyperpolarizes the voltage-dependence of activation, and increases the inactivation rate. {yields} Ca{sup ++} alone antagonizes CaM for both effects, and depolarizes the voltage-dependence of inactivation. -- Abstract: Mutations in the neuronal Nav1.1 voltage-gated sodium channel are responsible for mild to severe epileptic syndromes. The ubiquitous calcium sensor calmodulin (CaM) bound to rat brain Nav1.1 and to the human Nav1.1 channel expressed by a stably transfected HEK-293 cell line. The C-terminal region of the channel, as a fusion protein or in the yeast two-hybrid system, interacted with CaM via a consensus C-terminal motif, the IQ domain. Patch clamp experiments on HEK1.1 cells showed that CaM overexpression increased peak current in a calcium-dependent way. CaM had no effect on the voltage-dependence of fast inactivation, and accelerated the inactivation kinetics. Elevating Ca{sup ++} depolarized the voltage-dependence of fast inactivation and slowed down the fast inactivation kinetics, and for high concentrations this effect competed with the acceleration induced by CaM alone. Similarly, the depolarizing action of calcium antagonized the hyperpolarizing shift of the voltage-dependence of activation due to CaM overexpression. Fluorescence spectroscopy measurements suggested that Ca{sup ++} could bind the Nav1.1 C-terminal region with micromolar affinity.

  18. EFFECTS OF SODIUM AND CALCIUM IN LIGNITE ON THE PERFORMANCE OF ACTIVATED CARBON PRODUCTS; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New federal drinking water regulations have been promulgated to restrict the levels of disinfection by-products (DBPs) in finished public water supplies. DBPs are suspected carcinogens and are formed when organic material is partially oxidized by disinfectants commonly used in the water treatment industry. Additional federal mandates are expected in the near future that will also affect public water suppliers with respect to DBPs. These new federal drinking water regulations may require public water suppliers to adjust treatment practices or incorporate additional treatment operations into their existing treatment trains. Many options have been identified, including membrane processes, granular activated carbon, powered activated carbon (PAC), enhanced coagulation and/or softening, and alternative disinfectants (e.g., chlorine dioxide, ozone, and chloramines). Of the processes being considered, PAC appears to offer an attractive benefit-to-cost advantage for many water treatment plants, particularly small systems (those serving fewer than 10,000 customers). PAC has traditionally been used by the water treatment industry for the removal of compounds contributing to taste and odor problems. PAC also has the potential to remove naturally occurring organic matter (NOM) from raw waters prior to disinfection, thus controlling the formation of regulated DBPs. Many small water systems are currently using PAC for taste and odor control and have the potential to use PAC for controlling DBPs. Activated carbons can be produced from a variety of raw materials, including wood, peat, coconut husks, and numerous types of coal. The Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) has been working on the development of a PAC product to remove NOM from surface water supplies to prevent the formation of carcinogenic DBPs during chlorination. During that study, the sodium and calcium content of the lignites showed a significant effect on the sorption capacity of the activated carbon

  19. EFFECTS OF SODIUM AND CALCIUM IN LIGNITE ON THE PERFORMANCE OF ACTIVATED CARBON PRODUCTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwin S. Olson; Kurt E. Eylands; Daniel J. Stepan

    2001-12-01

    New federal drinking water regulations have been promulgated to restrict the levels of disinfection by-products (DBPs) in finished public water supplies. DBPs are suspected carcinogens and are formed when organic material is partially oxidized by disinfectants commonly used in the water treatment industry. Additional federal mandates are expected in the near future that will also affect public water suppliers with respect to DBPs. These new federal drinking water regulations may require public water suppliers to adjust treatment practices or incorporate additional treatment operations into their existing treatment trains. Many options have been identified, including membrane processes, granular activated carbon, powered activated carbon (PAC), enhanced coagulation and/or softening, and alternative disinfectants (e.g., chlorine dioxide, ozone, and chloramines). Of the processes being considered, PAC appears to offer an attractive benefit-to-cost advantage for many water treatment plants, particularly small systems (those serving fewer than 10,000 customers). PAC has traditionally been used by the water treatment industry for the removal of compounds contributing to taste and odor problems. PAC also has the potential to remove naturally occurring organic matter (NOM) from raw waters prior to disinfection, thus controlling the formation of regulated DBPs. Many small water systems are currently using PAC for taste and odor control and have the potential to use PAC for controlling DBPs. Activated carbons can be produced from a variety of raw materials, including wood, peat, coconut husks, and numerous types of coal. The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) has been working on the development of a PAC product to remove NOM from surface water supplies to prevent the formation of carcinogenic DBPs during chlorination. During that study, the sodium and calcium content of the lignites showed a significant effect on the sorption capacity of the activated carbon

  20. Sodium fluoride and casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate cream plus sodium fluoride efficacy in preventing enamel erosion in a simulated oral environment study model

    OpenAIRE

    Cristiane Mariote Amaral; Maria Elisa da Silva NG Miranda; Danielly S Correa; Eduardo M. Silva

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of dentifrices containing high concentrations of sodium fluoride (NaF) and casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate cream plus fluoride (CPP-ACPF) in prevention of the erosion in a simulated oral environment study model. Subjects and Methods: Fifteen flat human enamel specimens were polished and half of the surfaces were protected with adhesive tape. Initial Knoop microhardness (KHN) and surface roughness (SR) were meas...

  1. Bones and Crohn's: No benefit of adding sodium fluoride oribandronate to calcium and vitamin D

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jochen Klaus; Max Reinshagen; Katharina Herdt; Christoph Schr(o)ter; Guido Adler; Georg BT von Boyen; Christian von Tirpitz

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To compare the effect of calcium and cholecalciferol alone and along with additional sodium fluoride or ibandronate on bone mineral density (BMD) and fractures in patients with Crohn's disease (CD).METHODS: Patients (n =148) with reduced BMD (T-score< -1) were randomized to receive cholecalciferol (1000 IU) and calcium citrate (800 mg) daily alone(group A, n =32) or along with additional sodium fluoride (25 mg bid ) (group B, n = 62) or additional ibandronate (1 mg iv/3-monthly) (group C, n = 54). Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry of the lumbar spine (L1-L4) and proximal right femurand X-rays of the spine were performed at baseline and after 1.0, 2.25 and 3.5 years. Fracture-assessment included visual reading of X-rays and quantitative morphometry of vertebral bodies (T4-L4).RESULTS: One hundred and twenty three (83.1%) patients completed the first year for intention-to-treat (ITT) analysis. Ninety two (62.2%) patients completed thesecond year and 71 (47.8%) the third year available for per-protocol (PP) analysis. With a significant increase in T-score of the lumbar spine by +0.28 ± 0.35 [95%confidence interval (CI): 0.162-0.460, P < 0.01], +0.33 ± 0.49 (95% CI: 0.109-0.558, P < 0.01), +0.43 ± 0.47 (95% CI: 0.147-0.708, P < 0.01) in group A, +0.22 ±0.33 (95% CI: 0.125-0.321, P < 0.01); +0.47 ± 0.60 (95% CI: 0.262-0.676, P < 0.01), +0.51 ± 0.44 (95%CI: 0.338-0.682, P < 0.01) in group B and +0.22 ±0.38 (95% CI: 0.111-0.329, P < 0.01), +0.36 ± 0.53(95% CI: 0.147-0.578, P < 0.01), +0.41 ± 0.48 (95%CI: 0.238-0.576, P < 0.01) in group C, respectively, duringthe 1.0, 2.25 and 3.5 year periods (PP analysis), no treatment regimen was superior in any in- or betweengroup analyses. In the ITT analysis, similar results in allin- and between-group analyses with a significant ingroup but non-significant between-group increase in T-score of the lumbar spine by 0.38 ± 0.46 (group A,P < 0.01), 0.37 ± 0.50 (group B, P < 0.01) and 0.35 ±0.49 (group C, P < 0.01) was

  2. Experimental investigation of aluminum complexing with sodium ion and of gallium and iron (III) speciation in natural solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this work is to acquire thermodynamic data on the aqueous complexes forming between sodium and aluminum, gallium and hydroxide, and iron (III) and hydroxide. These data will provide for a better understanding of the transport and distribution of these elements in surface and hydrothermal fluids. Stability constants of the sodium-aluminate complex (Na Al(OH)4 deg.) were obtained from boehmite solubility measurements at temperatures from 125 to 350 deg. C in alkaline solutions containing from 0.1 to 1 mol/L sodium. Complementary potentiometric measurements were performed with a sodium selective electrode, between 75 and 200 deg C (the potentiometric study was carried out by Gleb Pokrovski). Analyses of these data within the framework of the revised Helgeson-Kirkham-Flowers (HKF) model allowed determination of the HKF parameters for Na Al(OH)4 deg. and calculation of its thermodynamic properties to 800 deg. C and 5 kb. The results of this work show that Na Al(OH)4 deg. complex formation increases significantly the solubility of aluminum-bearing minerals and consequently aluminum mobility in hydrothermal fluids. Gallium speciation in surface and hydrothermal fluids is dominated by the negatively charged species, Ga(OH)4-. The thermodynamic properties of this species were determined from of OEGaOOH solubility measurements as a function of pH and temperature from 25 to 250 deg. C. In general, the variation of gallium aqueous speciation with pH is similar to that of aluminum other than at temperatures less than 200 deg. C over the pH range 3 - 6. This difference can account for the independent behavior of gallium versus aluminum in numerous low temperature natural systems. The thermodynamic properties of Fe(OH)3 deg. which dominates the speciation of Fe(III) in surface waters and Fe(OH)4- were determined from hematite solubility measurements as a function of pH, oxygen pressure and temperature from 110 to 300 deg. C. The available thermodynamic data on other

  3. A short introduction to the new principle of binding ration calcium with sodium zeolite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, R J; Bjerrum, M J; Classen, H;

    2003-01-01

    This paper summarise the development of the new principle of preventing parturient hypocalcaemia by reducing the bioavailability of ration calcium with calcium binders, based on the idea that a negative calcium balance would stimulate natural defence mechanisms against threatening hypocalcaemia. ...

  4. Extração simultânea de alumínio, cálcio, magnésio, potássio e sódio do solo com solução de cloreto de amônio Simultaneous extraction of aluminum, calcium, magnesium, potassium, and sodium with ammonium chloride solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. Boeira

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Atualmente, alguns laboratórios de análise de solo determinam Al, Ca e Mg trocáveis em extratos de KCl 1 mol L-1 e K e Na na solução extratora Mehlich-1, também usada na extração de fósforo. Outros laboratórios, que empregam a resina trocadora de ânions para P, avaliam também Ca, Mg e K no extrato, não sendo possível determinar Al e Na. Dessa forma, achou-se oportuno avaliar a extração com NH4Cl 1 mol L-1 na determinação simultânea dos cinco cátions trocáveis: Al, Ca, Mg, K e Na, em comparação aos extratores KCl e Mehlich-1. Utilizaram-se amostras coletadas em áreas de cultivo de fruteiras irrigadas da região Nordeste e na área experimental da Embrapa Meio Ambiente em Jaguariúna (SP. Os métodos utilizados foram: (a extração simultânea dos cinco cátions com NH4Cl 1 mol L-1, e (b extração de Ca, Mg e Al com KCl 1 mol L-1, e de K e Na com o extrator Mehlich-1. A solução de NH4Cl 1 mol L-1 apresentou maior capacidade de extração de Mg do solo do que a solução de KCl 1 mol L-1; as duas soluções se equivaleram quanto à capacidade de extração de Ca e de Al. A solução de NH4Cl extraiu mais K e Na do que a solução Mehlich-1. Conclui-se que a solução de NH4Cl é uma opção conveniente para a extração de Al, Ca, Mg, K e Na trocáveis do solo.Currently, part of the soil testing laboratories of Brazil determine exchangeable Al, Ca, and Mg in a 1 mol L-1 KCl soil extract and exchangeable sodium and potassium in the Mehlich-1 soil extract, which is also used for phosphorus extraction. Other laboratories use an anion exchange resin for P and also determine Ca, Mg and K in the same extract, while Al and Na cannot be determined. For this reason, it was considered a good opportunity to evaluate the simultaneous extraction of the five exchangeable cations: Al, Ca, Mg, K, and Na in a 1 mol L-1 NH4Cl solution, and compare the results with those obtained with potassium chloride and Mehlich-1 extractants. The soil

  5. Geochemical reactions and dynamics during titration of a contaminated groundwater with high uranium, aluminum, and calcium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Baohua; Brooks, Scott C.; Roh, Yul; Jardine, Philip M.

    2003-08-01

    This study investigated possible geochemical reactions during titration of a contaminated groundwater with a low pH but high concentrations of aluminum, calcium, magnesium, manganese, and trace contaminant metals/radionuclides such as uranium, technetium, nickel, and cobalt. Both Na-carbonate and hydroxide were used as titrants, and a geochemical equilibrium reaction path model was employed to predict aqueous species and mineral precipitation during titration. Although the model appeared to be adequate to describe the concentration profiles of some metal cations, solution pH, and mineral precipitates, it failed to describe the concentrations of U during titration and its precipitation. Most U (as uranyl, UO 22+) as well as Tc (as pertechnetate, TcO 4-) were found to be sorbed and coprecipitated with amorphous Al and Fe oxyhydroxides at pH below ˜5.5, but slow desorption or dissolution of U and Tc occurred at higher pH values when Na 2CO 3 was used as the titrant. In general, the precipitation of major cationic species followed the order of Fe(OH) 3 and/or FeCo 0.1(OH) 3.2, Al 4(OH) 10SO 4, MnCO 3, CaCO 3, conversion of Al 4(OH) 10SO 4 to Al(OH) 3,am, Mn(OH) 2, Mg(OH) 2, MgCO 3, and Ca(OH) 2. The formation of mixed or double hydroxide phases of Ni and Co with Al and Fe oxyhydroxides was thought to be responsible for the removal of Ni and Co in solution. Results of this study indicate that, although the hydrolysis and precipitation of a single cation are known, complex reactions such as sorption/desorption, coprecipitation of mixed mineral phases, and their dissolution could occur simultaneously. These processes as well as the kinetic constraints must be considered in the design of the remediation strategies and modeling to better predict the activities of various metal species and solid precipitates during pre- and post-groundwater treatment practices.

  6. Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of vitamin C (ascorbic acid, sodium ascorbate, calcium ascorbate, ascorbyl palmitate, sodium calcium ascorbyl phosphate and sodium ascorbyl phosphate as a feed additive for all animal species based on a dossier submitted by DSM Nutritional Products Ltd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin C is essential for primates, guinea pigs and fish. Vitamin C, in the form of ascorbic acid and its calcium and sodium salts, ascorbyl palmitate, sodium calcium ascorbyl phosphate and sodium ascorbyl phosphate, is safe for all animal species. Setting a maximum content in feed and water for drinking is not considered necessary. Data on the vitamin C consumption of consumers are based on the levels of vitamin C in foodstuffs, including food of animal origin, produced in accordance with current EU legislation on the supplementation of feed with vitamin C. The exposure is far below the guidance level. Any potential contribution of the use of vitamin C in feed is therefore already considered in the above data. Consequently, the use of vitamin C in animal nutrition is not of concern for consumer safety. In the absence of inhalation toxicity studies it would be prudent to assume that inhalation of dust from the additives presents a health hazard to workers. Sodium calcium ascorbyl phosphate is not an irritant to skin and eyes and is unlikely to be a skin sensitiser. This conclusion is extrapolated to sodium ascorbyl phosphate. In the absence of data, ascorbic acid, sodium ascorbate, calcium ascorbate and ascorbyl palmitate should be considered as irritant to skin and eyes and as dermal sensitisers. The supplementation of feed with vitamin C does not pose a risk to the environment. Ascorbic acid, sodium calcium ascorbyl phosphate and sodium ascorbyl phosphate are regarded as effective sources of vitamin C when added to feed or water for drinking. Since ascorbic acid, sodium ascorbate, calcium ascorbate and ascorbyl palmitate are authorised for use as antioxidants in food and their function in feed is essentially the same as that in food, no further demonstration of efficacy is considered necessary.

  7. Effects of low calcium plus high aluminum diet on magnesium and calcium contents in spinal cord and trabecular bone of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current epidemiological surveys in the Western Pacific area and Kii Peninsula have suggested that low calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), and high aluminum (Al) and manganese (Mn) in river, soil and drinking water may be implicated in the pathogenetic process of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and parkinsonism-dementia (PD). The condition of unbalanced minerals was experimentally duplicated in this study using rats. Male Wistar rats, weighing 200 g, were maintained for 60 days on the following diets: (A) standard diet, (B) low Ca diet, (C) low Ca diet with high Al. Magnesium concentration was determined in spinal cord and trabecular bone using inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometry (ICP) and the calcium concentration was determined using neutron activation method. In the group maintained on low Ca high Al diet, magnesium content of the spinal cord was lower than the group fed standard diet. Also, magnesium content of lumbar bone showed lower values in the unbalanced diet group fed low Ca high Al diet than those in the standard diet and low Ca diet groups. Calcium content of spinal cord was highest in rats maintained on low Ca high Al diet. Calcium content in lumbar bone of rats significantly decreased in rats maintained on the low Ca diet (group B and C) compared to rats given a standard diet (group A). Our data indicate that low Ca and high Al dietary intake influence Mg concentration in bone and central nervous system (CNS) tissues and that low Ca and high Al diet diminish Mg in bone and CNS tissues, thereby inducing loss of calcification in bone and degeneration of CNS tissues due to disturbance of the normal biological effects of Mg. (author)

  8. Calcium-Mediated Regulation of Proton-Coupled Sodium Transport - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schumaker, Karen S [Professor

    2013-10-24

    The long-term goal of our experiments was to understand mechanisms that regulate energy coupling by ion currents in plants. Activities of living organisms require chemical, mechanical, osmotic or electrical work, the energy for which is supplied by metabolism. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) has long been recognized as the universal energy currency, with metabolism supporting the synthesis of ATP and the hydrolysis of ATP being used for the subsequent work. However, ATP is not the only energy currency in living organisms. A second and very different energy currency links metabolism to work by the movement of ions passing from one side of a membrane to the other. These ion currents play a major role in energy capture and they support a range of physiological processes from the active transport of nutrients to the spatial control of growth and development. In Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis), the activity of a plasma membrane Na+/H+ exchanger, SALT OVERLY SENSITIVE1 (SOS1), is essential for regulation of sodium ion homeostasis during plant growth in saline conditions. Mutations in SOS1 result in severely reduced seedling growth in the presence of salt compared to the growth of wild type. SOS1 is a secondary active transporter coupling movement of sodium ions out of the cell using energy stored in the transplasma membrane proton gradient, thereby preventing the build-up of toxic levels of sodium in the cytosol. SOS1 is regulated by complexes containing the SOS2 and CALCINEURIN B-LIKE10 (CBL10) or SOS3 proteins. CBL10 and SOS3 (also identified as CBL4) encode EF-hand calcium sensors that interact physically with and activate SOS2, a serine/threonine protein kinase. The CBL10/SOS2 or SOS3/SOS2 complexes then activate SOS1 Na+/H+ exchange activity. We completed our studies to understand how SOS1 activity is regulated. Specifically, we asked: (1) how does CBL10 regulate SOS1 activity? (2) What role do two putative CBL10-interacting proteins play in SOS1 regulation? (3) Are

  9. Synthesis, characterization, and in vitro release of diclofenac sodium from hybrid nanostructured magnetite-calcium pectinate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutta, Raj Kumar, E-mail: duttafcy@iitr.ernet.in; Sahu, Saurabh, E-mail: saurabhsahu12@gmail.com [Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Analytical Chemistry Laboratory, Department of Chemistry (India); Reddy, V. R., E-mail: vrreddy@csr.res.in [UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research (India)

    2012-08-15

    A stable spherical nanostructured calcium pectinate loaded with diclofenac sodium (DS) and functionalized by superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles, referred as MCPDS, was developed as a potential magnetically targeted drug delivery system. The sizes of the MCPDS were in the range of 100-200 nm in dried condition, confirmed by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. In the aqueous medium, the sizes of MCPDS were in the range 300 {+-} 50 nm, measured by dynamic light scattering technique. The X-ray diffraction and {sup 57}Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy confirmed magnetite phase in MCPDS. The magnetic property of the MCPDS nanostructures was confirmed from high saturation magnetization (44.05 emu/g), measured using a vibrating sample magnetometer. The superparamagnetic property of MCPDS was characterized by superconducting quantum unit interference device magnetometry and corroborated by Moessbauer spectroscopy. The loading efficiency of DS in MCPDS was measured by UV-Vis spectrophotometry and corroborated by thermal analysis. The in vitro release of the drug from MCPDS in simulated gastrointestinal fluids and in phosphate buffer solution was found to be pH sensitive and exhibited sustained release property. The cumulative drug release agreed well with that of swelling controlled diffusion mechanism, given by the Korsemeyer Peppas model.

  10. Experimental studies on the anticoagulant and antithrombotic effects of sodium and calcium pentosan polysulphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giedrojć, J; Radziwon, P; Klimiuk, M; Bielawiec, M; Breddin, H K; Kłoczko, J

    1999-03-01

    In the present study we have compared the antithrombotic and anticoagulant properties of sodium and calcium derivatives of pentosan polysulphate (Na-PPS, Ca-PPS). The antithrombotic effect of these agents have been investigated in an experimental thrombosis model in which rat mesenteric venules diameter of 20-30 microm were injured by well defined Argon laser lesions. Furthermore, the in vivo and in vitro anticoagulant activities (aPTT, Heptest) of these agents have been studied. Thrombus formation was significantly inhibited after s.c. injection of Na-PPS and Ca-PPS in doses above 10 mg/kg. The duration of the antithrombotic effect lasted 8 h for Na-PPS and 12 h for Ca-PPS. After oral administration of Na-PPS an antithrombotic effect was not observed. Oral application of Ca-PPS in doses higher than 20 mg/kg significantly inhibited thrombus formation. Na-PPS and Ca-PPS markedly prolonged clotting time in aPTT and Heptest in concentrations ranging from 0.01 to 0.2 mg/ml rat PTT. Two h after s.c. administration of these agents in a dose 10 mg/kg, the aPTT increased 3-fold and Heptest 2.5-fold compared to controls. After oral application of 50 mg/kg Na-PPS and Ca-PPS no effect on coagulation test could be measured. PMID:10210159

  11. Large-scale expression of recombinant cardiac sodium-calcium exchange in insect larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, C C; Zimmerschied, J A; Bliler, S; Price, E M

    1999-02-01

    Recombinant bovine cardiac sodium-calcium exchange (NCX1) in a baculovirus construct was used to infect cabbage looper larvae (Trichoplusia ni). Infected larvae were homogenized and larvae membrane vesicles were purified. Western blot analysis indicated the presence of recombinant NCX1 protein in vesicles from infected larvae but not in controls. Vesicles from infected larvae expressed high levels of NCX1 activity (1.7 nmol Ca2+/mg protein/s) while vesicles from control larvae had no activity. NCX1 in larvae vesicles was bidirectional. Kinetic analysis yielded a Vmax of 3.6 nmol Ca2+/mg protein/s and a Km for Ca of 4.2 microM. NCX1 activity was inhibited by the exchange inhibitory peptide with an IC50 of 4 microM. These data demonstrate a novel and efficient method for the expression of large amounts of active recombinant NCX1 protein that has general application for expression and analysis of recombinant membrane proteins. PMID:10024479

  12. Molecular Modeling of Ammonium, Calcium, Sulfur, and Sodium Lignosulphonates in Acid and Basic Aqueous Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar Valencia, P. J.; Bolívar Marinez, L. E.; Pérez Merchancano, S. T.

    2015-12-01

    Lignosulphonates (LS), also known as lignin sulfonates or sulfite lignin, are lignins in sulfonated forms, obtained from the "sulfite liquors," a residue of the wood pulp extraction process. Their main utility lies in its wide range of properties, they can be used as additives, dispersants, binders, fluxing, binder agents, etc. in fields ranging from food to fertilizer manufacture and even as agents in the preparation of ion exchange membranes. Since they can be manufactured relatively easy and quickly, and that its molecular size can be manipulated to obtain fragments of very low molecular weight, they are used as transport agents in the food industry, cosmetics, pharmaceutical and drug development, and as molecular elements for the treatment of health problems. In this paper, we study the electronic structural and optical characteristics of LS incorporating ammonium, sulfur, calcium, and sodium ions in acidic and basic aqueous media in order to gain a better understanding of their behavior and the very interesting properties exhibit. The studies were performed using the molecular modeling program HyperChem 5 using the semiempirical method PM3 of the NDO Family (neglect of differential overlap), to calculate the structural properties. We calculated the electronic and optical properties using the semiempirical method ZINDO / CI.

  13. Levels of ammonium, sulfate, chloride, calcium, and sodium in snow and ice from southern Greenland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chemical analysis of surface snows and dated ice core samples from Dye 3, Greenland, suggests that the ammonium cation is a major constituent in all samples and that the annual ammonium levels present in the south Greenland samples have varied from 3.3 to 26.3 μg/kg between the seventeenth century and the present time. The annual range of 1974--1975 surface samples was between 3.8 and 8.8 μg/kg, while the mean was 5.7 +- 1.8 μ/kg. The recent large-scale uses of fixed nitrogen fertilizers and industrial pollution have apparently not affected the levels of ammonia reaching southern Greenland. The sodium and chloride present are predominantly derived from ocean spray, while more than 90% of the calcium is of continental origin. The levels of these three elements have not apparently been affected by human activity since the industrial revolution. Sulfate levels have increased dramatically since the industrial revolution, suggesting that sulfate of anthropogenic origin is the most important source of sulfate in modern snows from southern Greenland. The amount of the sulfuric acid neutralized by the ammonium cations was approximately 100% in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, dropping to approximately 20% in the 1974--1975 samples. These figures imply that there has been in increase in the acidity of precipitation in southern Greenland since the end of the eighteenth ce

  14. Determination of calcium, copper, chromium, iron, magnesium, manganese, potassium, sodium and zinc in ethanol by atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The direct determinacao of calcium, copper, chomium, iron, magnesium, manganese, potassium, sodium and zinc in ethanol by atomic absorption spectrometry with, air-acetylene flame is proposed. Effects of fuel/oxidant ratio, burner height and water content in the samples were investigated in detail. The method allows the determition of the elements with good precision (r.s.d. -1 for the elements tested. (author)

  15. Determination of sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron, copper, zinc and mercury in contaminated wheat and wheat flour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The wheat and wheat flour samples from district Khairpur, were dissolved in acids and analyzed spectrophotometrically for mercury contents, using dithiozone method. Mercury was found in 0.92-5.8 mg/ kg range, above the safe limits for human consumption, samples were also analysed for sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron, copper and zinc, after dry ashing, followed by acid dissolution and flame atomic absorption determination. Metal ions were found within the normal limits reported for wheat and wheat flour. (author)

  16. Influence of sodium silicate concentration on structural and tribological properties of microarc oxidation coatings on 2017A aluminum alloy substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polat, Aytekin, E-mail: apolat@nigde.edu.t [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Nigde University, Nigde 51100 (Turkey); Makaraci, Murat [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kocaeli University, Kocaeli (Turkey); Usta, Metin [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Gebze Institute of Technology, Kocaeli (Turkey)

    2010-08-20

    In this paper, thick and hard oxide coatings resistant to wear were produced on 2017A-T6 Al alloy by the microarc oxidation (MAO) technique in an alkali electrolyte consisting of different sodium silicate concentrations (0-8 g/l). The coatings were characterized by means of optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and surface profilometry. Microhardness, scratch adhesion and pin-on-disk sliding wear tests were also performed to evaluate the tribological properties of the coatings. The influence of sodium silicate concentration on the structural and tribological properties of the MAO coatings was discussed. Results reveal that increasing sodium silicate concentration from 0 to 8 g/l in the electrolyte caused an increase in the electrolyte conductivity (from 7.71 to 18.1 mS/cm) and a decrease in positive final voltage (from 627 to 590 V) in the MAO process. In response to the increase in sodium silicate concentration, the thickness, surface roughness (R{sub a}) and critical load (L{sub c}) corresponding to adhesive failure of the coatings were increased simultaneously from 74 to 144 {mu}m, and 4.4 to 6.58 {mu}m, and 127.76 to 198.54 N, respectively. At the same time, the phase structure and composition of the coatings also varied by the participation of silicate ions in the reactions and their incorporation into the coating structure. Moreover, it was observed that the coating formed in the low sodium silicate concentration (4 g/l) had higher surface hardness (2020 HV) and improved wear resistance than the one (1800 HV) formed in the high sodium silicate concentration (8 g/l). The coatings produced in three different electrolytic solutions provided an excellent wear resistance and a load carrying capacity compared to the uncoated aluminum alloy.

  17. Simultaneous measurements of magnesium, calcium and sodium influxes in perfused squid giant axons under membrane potential control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, E; Taylor, R E

    1975-10-01

    1. Giant axons from the squids Dosidicus gigas, Loligo forbesi and Loligo vulgaris were internally perfused with 550 or 275 mM KF plus sucrose and bathed in artificial sea water containing 45Ca, 28Mg or mixtures of 45Ca-28Mg or 45Ca-22Na. Resting influxes and extra influxes during voltage-clamp pulses were measured by collecting and counting the internal perfusate. 2. For Dosidicus axons in 10 mM-CaCl2 the resting influx of calcium was 0-016 +/- 0-007 p-mole/cm2 sec and a linear function of external concentration. For two experiments in 10 and 84-7 mM-CaCl2, 100 nM tetrodotoxin had no effect. Resting calcium influx in 10 mM-CaCl2 was 0-017 +/- 0-013 p-mole/cm2 sec for Loligo axons. 3. With 55 mM-MgCl2 outside the average resting magnesium influx was 0-124 +/- 0-080 p-mole/cm2 sec for Loligo axons. Discarding one aberrant point the value is 0-105 +/- 0-046 which is not significantly different from the resting calcium influx for Dosidicus fibres in 55 mM-CaCl2, given as 0-094 p-mole/cm2 sec by the regression line shown in Fig. 1. In two experiments 150 nM tetrodotoxin had no effect. 4. With 430 mM-NaCl outside 100 nM tetrodotoxin reduced the average resting influx of sodium in Dosidicus axon from 27-7 +/- 4-5 to 25-1 +/- 6-2 p-mole/cm2 sec and for Loligo fibres in 460 mM-NaCl from 50-5 +/- 4 to 20 +/- 8 p-mole/cm2 sec. 5. Using depolarizing pulses of various durations, the extra calcium influx occurred in two phases. The early phase was eliminated by external application of tetrodotoxin. The results of analysis are consistent with, but do not rigorously demonstrate, the conclusion that the tetrodotoxin sensitive calcium entry is flowing through the normal sodium channels (cf. Baker, Hodgkin & Ridgway, 1971). 6. Measurements of extra influxes using 22Na and 45Ca simultaneously indicate that the time courses of tetrodotoxin sensitive calcium and sodium entry are similar but not necessarily identical. It is very doubtful that any significant calcium entry occurs before

  18. Calcium-aluminum-silicate-hydrate "cement" phases and rare Ca-zeolite association at Colle Fabbri, Central Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoppa, F.; Scordari, F.; Mesto, E.; Sharygin, V.; Bortolozzi, G.

    2010-06-01

    Very high temperature, Ca-rich alkaline magma intruded an argillite formation at Colle Fabbri, Central Italy, producing cordierite-tridymite metamorphism in the country rocks. An intense Ba-rich sulphate-carbonate-alkaline hydrothermal plume produced a zone of mineralization several meters thick around the igneous body. Reaction of hydrothermal fluids with country rocks formed calcium-silicate-hydrate (CSH), i.e., tobermorite-afwillite-jennite; calcium-aluminum-silicate-hydrate (CASH) — "cement" phases - i.e., thaumasite, strätlingite and an ettringite-like phase and several different species of zeolites: chabazite-Ca, willhendersonite, gismon-dine, three phases bearing Ca with the same or perhaps lower symmetry of phillipsite-Ca, levyne-Ca and the Ca-rich analogue of merlinoite. In addition, apophyllite-(KF) and/or apophyllite-(KOH), Ca-Ba-carbonates, portlandite and sulphates were present. A new polymorph from the pyrrhotite group, containing three layers of sphalerite-type structure in the unit cell, is reported for the first time. Such a complex association is unique. Most of these minerals are specifically related to hydration processes of: (1) pyrometamorphic metacarbonate/metapelitic rocks (natural analogues of cement clinkers); (2) mineralization between intrusive stocks and slates; and (3) high-calcium, alkaline igneous rocks such as melilitites and foidites as well as carbonatites. The Colle Fabbri outcrop offers an opportunity to study in situ complex crystalline overgrowth and specific crystal chemistry in mineral phases formed in igneous to hydrothermal conditions.

  19. Synthesis of sodium caseinate-calcium carbonate microspheres and their mineralization to bone-like apatite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhewu; Liang, Guobin; Jin, Lin; Wang, Zhenling; Xing, Chao; Jiange, Qing; Zhang, Zhiguang

    2014-06-01

    Phosphoproteins can induce and stabilize calcium carbonate (CaCO3) vaterite, which has desirable features for high reactivity. The purpose of this study was to synthesize bioactive CaCO3 microspheres for bone regeneration. Sodium caseinate (NaCas)-containing CaCO3 microspheres, with the crystal phase of vaterite, were synthesized by fast precipitation in an aqueous solution of CaCl2, Na2CO3, and 2 mg/mL of NaCas. The uniform microspheres exhibited rougher surfaces and lower negative charges than CaCO3 particles without NaCas addition. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) of the microspheres showed characteristic peaks or bands corresponding to phosphate and hydroxyl groups. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) curves exhibited approximately 5% weight loss below 600 °C due to the decomposition of NaCas. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images showed lath-like hydroxyapatite (HAp) on the surface after soaking in simulated body fluid (SBF) at 37 °C for 5 and 10 days. Energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS) revealed that the agglomerates were composed of Ca, C, O, P, Na, and Mg elements, and the Ca/P ratios ranged from 1.53 to 1.56. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns exhibited peaks characteristic of hydroxyapatite. The results of this study demonstrated that the addition of NaCas induced the formation of vaterite microspheres which possesses an enhanced apatite formation after soaking in SBF at 37 °C for 5 and 10 days. These NaCas-CaCO3 microspheres may be a potential biomaterial for bone regeneration.

  20. Electron Solvation in Liquid Ammonia: Lithium, Sodium, Magnesium, and Calcium as Electron Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaban, Vitaly V; Prezhdo, Oleg V

    2016-03-10

    A free electron in solution, known as a solvated electron, is the smallest possible anion. Alkali and alkaline earth atoms serve as electron donors in solvents that mediate outer-sphere electron transfer. We report herein ab initio molecular dynamics simulations of lithium, sodium, magnesium, and calcium in liquid ammonia at 250 K. By analyzing the electronic properties and the ionic and solvation structures and dynamics, we systematically characterize these metals as electron donors and ammonia molecules as electron acceptors. We show that the solvated metal strongly modifies the properties of its solvation shells and that the observed effect is metal-specific. Specifically, the radius and charge exhibit major impacts. The single solvated electron present in the alkali metal systems is distributed more uniformly among the solvent molecules of each metal's two solvation shells. In contrast, alkaline earth metals favor a less uniform distribution of the electron density. Alkali and alkaline earth atoms are coordinated by four and six NH3 molecules, respectively. The smaller atoms, Li and Mg, are stronger electron donors than Na and Ca. This result is surprising, as smaller atoms in a column of the periodic table have higher ionization potentials. However, it can be explained by stronger electron donor-acceptor interactions between the smaller atoms and the solvent molecules. The structure of the first solvation shell is sharpest for Mg, which has a large charge and a small radius. Solvation is weakest for Na, which has a small charge and a large radius. Weak solvation leads to rapid dynamics, as reflected in the diffusion coefficients of NH3 molecules of the first two solvation shells and the Na atom. The properties of the solvated electrons established in the present study are important for radiation chemistry, synthetic chemistry, condensed-matter charge transfer, and energy sources. PMID:26886153

  1. Electrochemical evaluation of sodium metabisulfite as environmentally friendly inhibitor for corrosion of aluminum alloy 6061 in a chloride solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaid, B., E-mail: zaidbachir@yahoo.com [Département de métallurgie, Division de Technologie du Combustible, Centre de Recherche Nucléaire de Draria CRND, BP. 43 Draria, Alger (Algeria); Maddache, N.; Saidi, D. [Département de métallurgie, Division de Technologie du Combustible, Centre de Recherche Nucléaire de Draria CRND, BP. 43 Draria, Alger (Algeria); Souami, N. [Centre de Recherche Nucléaire d’Alger CRNA, 2 Bd. Frantz Fanon, Alger (Algeria); Bacha, N. [Département de Mécanique, Université SAAD Dahleb, Blida (Algeria); Si Ahmed, A. [Im2np, UMR 7334 CNRS, Aix-Marseille Université, 13397 Marseille Cedex 20 (France)

    2015-04-25

    Highlights: • Sodium metabisulfite acts as cathodic-type inhibitor. • The polarization resistance increases with the inhibitor concentration. • The pit nucleation rate decreases with increasing inhibitor concentration. • The current rise linked to pit propagation drops as inhibitor content increases. • The reactions involved in the inhibition actions are pointed out. - Abstract: Inhibition properties of sodium metabisulfite (Na{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 5}) on pitting corrosion of 6061 aluminum alloy, in 5 × 10{sup −2} M NaCl solution of pH near 7.2 at 298 K, are characterized using open circuit potential, polarization resistance, cyclic and chrono-amperometric polarization measurements. In addition, scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectrons are employed. Sodium metabisulfite, which is well compatible with environmental requirements, seems to act as a cathodic-type corrosion inhibitor. The passivation range and the polarization resistance increase with Na{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 5} concentration. The inhibition effects are also reflected through the substantial reduction of both the rate of pit nucleation and the current rise characterizing the pit propagation progress. The SEM–EDS and XPS analyses reveal the formation of a passive film, which contains sulfur atoms.

  2. Electrochemical evaluation of sodium metabisulfite as environmentally friendly inhibitor for corrosion of aluminum alloy 6061 in a chloride solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Sodium metabisulfite acts as cathodic-type inhibitor. • The polarization resistance increases with the inhibitor concentration. • The pit nucleation rate decreases with increasing inhibitor concentration. • The current rise linked to pit propagation drops as inhibitor content increases. • The reactions involved in the inhibition actions are pointed out. - Abstract: Inhibition properties of sodium metabisulfite (Na2S2O5) on pitting corrosion of 6061 aluminum alloy, in 5 × 10−2 M NaCl solution of pH near 7.2 at 298 K, are characterized using open circuit potential, polarization resistance, cyclic and chrono-amperometric polarization measurements. In addition, scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectrons are employed. Sodium metabisulfite, which is well compatible with environmental requirements, seems to act as a cathodic-type corrosion inhibitor. The passivation range and the polarization resistance increase with Na2S2O5 concentration. The inhibition effects are also reflected through the substantial reduction of both the rate of pit nucleation and the current rise characterizing the pit propagation progress. The SEM–EDS and XPS analyses reveal the formation of a passive film, which contains sulfur atoms

  3. Effect of Tartaric Acid on Hydration of a Sodium-Metasilicate-Activated Blend of Calcium Aluminate Cement and Fly Ash F

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Pyatina

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available An alkali-activated blend of aluminum cement and class F fly ash is an attractive solution for geothermal wells where cement is exposed to significant thermal shocks and aggressive environments. Set-control additives enable the safe cement placement in a well but may compromise its mechanical properties. This work evaluates the effect of a tartaric-acid set retarder on phase composition, microstructure, and strength development of a sodium-metasilicate-activated calcium aluminate/fly ash class F blend after curing at 85 °C, 200 °C or 300 °C. The hardened materials were characterized with X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, X-ray computed tomography, and combined scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and tested for mechanical strength. With increasing temperature, a higher number of phase transitions in non-retarded specimens was found as a result of fast cement hydration. The differences in the phase compositions were also attributed to tartaric acid interactions with metal ions released by the blend in retarded samples. The retarded samples showed higher total porosity but reduced percentage of large pores (above 500 µm and greater compressive strength after 300 °C curing. Mechanical properties of the set cements were not compromised by the retarder.

  4. Segregation and evaporation behaviors of aluminum and calcium in silicon during solidification process induced by electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experimental investigation into the removal of aluminum (Al) and calcium (Ca) from molten silicon by using electron beam melting was carried out. Based on the distributions of Al and Ca along the growth direction of the ingot under different solidification conditions, the influence of segregation and evaporation behaviors on the removal of such impurities with both high saturated vapor pressure and low segregation coefficients was investigated. The results showed that the distributions of impurities depend upon the interaction between segregation and evaporation, so that the removal efficiency can be further improved by adjusting the melting parameters. Compared with the traditional electron beam melting process, the energy consumption decreases by 20% during the whole melting and solidification process. It is considered to be a more effective way for the purification of silicon and the reduction of energy consumption by electron beam melting. (paper)

  5. Growth of calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions by coagulation and fragmentation in a turbulent protoplanetary disk: observations and modelisation

    CERN Document Server

    Charnoz, S; Chaumard, N; Baillie, K; Tallifet, E

    2015-01-01

    Whereas it is generally accepted that calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) from chondritic meteorites formed in a hot environment in the solar protoplanetary disk, the conditions of their formation remain debated. Recent laboratory studies of CAIs have provided new kind of data: their size distributions. We show that size distributions of CAIs measured in laboratory from sections of carbonaceous chondrites have a power law size distribution with cumulative size exponent between -1.7 and -1.9, which translates into cumulative size exponent between -2.5 and -2.8 after correction for sectioning. To explain these observations, numerical simulations were run to explore the growth of CAIs from micrometer to centimeter sizes, in a hot and turbulent protoplanetary disk through the competition of coagulation and fragmentation. We show that the size distributions obtained in growth simulations are in agreement with CAIs size distributions in meteorites. We explain the CAI sharp cut-off of their size distribution at ...

  6. The effect of calcium ions and sodium silicate on the adsorption of a model anionic flotation collector on magnetite studied by ATR-FTIR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potapova, E; Grahn, M; Holmgren, A; Hedlund, J

    2010-05-01

    Previous studies have shown that agglomeration of the magnetite concentrate after reverse flotation of apatite is negatively affected by the collector species adsorbed on the surface of magnetite. In this work, the effect of ionic strength, calcium ions and sodium silicate on the unwanted adsorption of a model anionic flotation collector on synthetic magnetite was studied in situ using attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR). The amount of collector adsorbed was found to increase with increasing ionic strength at pH 8.5 providing evidence to the contribution of electrostatic forces to the adsorption of the collector. Adding sodium silicate to the system resulted in a threefold decrease in the amount of collector adsorbed compared to when no sodium silicate was added, confirming the depressing activity of sodium silicate on magnetite. Calcium ions were shown to increase the adsorption of both the collector and sodium silicate on magnetite. The depressing effect of sodium silicate on collector adsorption was completely suppressed in the presence of calcium ions under the conditions studied. Furthermore, the amount of collector adsorbed on magnetite from the silicate-collector solution increased 14 times upon addition of calcium ions suggesting that calcium ions in the process water may increase undesired adsorption of the collector on the iron oxide. PMID:20153478

  7. Search for an exosphere in sodium and calcium in the transmission spectrum of exoplanet 55 Cancri e

    CERN Document Server

    Ridden-Harper, A R; Keller, C U; de Kok, R J; Di Gloria, E; Hoeijmakers, H J; Brogi, M; Fridlund, M; Vermeersen, B L A; van Westrenen, W

    2016-01-01

    [Abridged] The aim of this work is to search for an absorption signal from exospheric sodium (Na) and singly ionized calcium (Ca$^+$) in the optical transmission spectrum of the hot rocky super-Earth 55 Cancri e. Although current best-fitting models to the planet mass and radius require a possible atmospheric component, uncertainties in the radius exist, making it possible that 55 Cnc e could be a hot rocky planet without an atmosphere. High resolution (R$\\sim$110000) time-series spectra were analysed of five transits of 55 Cancri e, obtained with three different telescopes (UVES/VLT, HARPS/ESO 3.6m & HARPS-N/TNG). Targeting the sodium D lines and the calcium H and K lines the potential planet exospheric signal was filtered out from the much stronger stellar and telluric signals, making use of the change of the radial component of the orbital velocity of the planet over the transit from -57 to +57 km/sec. Combining all five transit data sets we detect a signal potentially associated with sodium in the pla...

  8. Alleviating aluminum toxicity in an acid sulfate soil from Peninsular Malaysia by calcium silicate application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elisa, A. A.; Ninomiya, S.; Shamshuddin, J.; Roslan, I.

    2016-03-01

    In response to human population increase, the utilization of acid sulfate soils for rice cultivation is one option for increasing production. The main problems associated with such soils are their low pH values and their associated high content of exchangeable Al, which could be detrimental to crop growth. The application of soil amendments is one approach for mitigating this problem, and calcium silicate is an alternative soil amendment that could be used. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to ameliorate soil acidity in rice-cropped soil. The secondary objective was to study the effects of calcium silicate amendment on soil acidity, exchangeable Al, exchangeable Ca, and Si content. The soil was treated with 0, 1, 2, and 3 Mg ha-1 of calcium silicate under submerged conditions and the soil treatments were sampled every 30 days throughout an incubation period of 120 days. Application of calcium silicate induced a positive effect on soil pH and exchangeable Al; soil pH increased from 2.9 (initial) to 3.5, while exchangeable Al was reduced from 4.26 (initial) to 0.82 cmolc kg-1. Furthermore, the exchangeable Ca and Si contents increased from 1.68 (initial) to 4.94 cmolc kg-1 and from 21.21 (initial) to 81.71 mg kg-1, respectively. Therefore, it was noted that calcium silicate was effective at alleviating Al toxicity in acid sulfate, rice-cropped soil, yielding values below the critical level of 2 cmolc kg-1. In addition, application of calcium silicate showed an ameliorative effect as it increased soil pH and supplied substantial amounts of Ca and Si.

  9. Statement on the exposure assessment of sodium stearoyl-2-lactylate and calcium stearoyl-2-lactylate including exposure resulting from extension of the authorisation of sodium stearoyl-2-lactylates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to Food (ANS

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Following a request by the European Commission, the Scientific Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to Food (ANS carried out an exposure assessment of sodium stearoyl-2-lactylate (E 481 and calcium stearoyl-2-lactylate (E 482 as a food additive, including an extension of the uses to use the additives in emulsified cooked meat products (e.g. mortadella, paté. Reflecting the data on actual use levels provided by food industry, the combined exposure to sodium stearoyl-2-lactylate and calcium stearoyl-2-lactylate is in the range 6-55 mg/kg bw/day for toddlers, 14-54 mg/kg bw/day for children, 13-27 mg/kg bw/day for adolescents, 4-16 mg/kg bw/day for adults, and 3-13 mg/kg bw/day for the elderly at the mean level. For exposure at high levels, ranges of 22-109 mg/kg bw/day for toddlers, 28-107 mg/kg bw/day for children, 21-46 mg/kg bw/day for adolescents, 15-33 mg/kg bw/day for adults, and 9-30 mg/kg bw/day were calculated for the elderly. The extension of the authorisation for the use of sodium stearoyl-2-lactylate in emulsified cooked meat products (e.g. mortadella, paté would not lead to an increase of exposure based on the approach taken for the exposure assessment for the two food additives.

  10. EXTREME 16O ENRICHMENT IN CALCIUM-ALUMINUM-RICH INCLUSIONS FROM THE ISHEYEVO (CH/CB) CHONDRITE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) from the metal-rich (CH/CB-like) carbonaceous chondrite Isheyevo are mineralogically pristine and show no evidence for postcrystallization alteration. Many of them are composed of very refractory minerals, such as hibonite (CaAl12O19), grossite (CaAl4O7), aluminum-rich pyroxene, and perovskite (CaTiO3). Twenty-eight out of 35 studied CAIs from Isheyevo have oxygen isotopic compositions similar to those of CAIs from the CM and CR carbonaceous chondrites (Δ17O ∼ -20 per mille ). Five igneous CAIs are 16O-depleted to a level observed in Isheyevo chondrules (Δ17O ∼> -10 per mille ), suggesting remelting and isotope exchange in an 16O-poor gaseous reservoir. Two CAIs, WA9 and B1, show the highest enrichment in 16O (δ17O ∼ -68 per mille , δ18O ∼ -66 per mille , Δ17O ∼ -34 per mille ) ever observed among refractory inclusions. In the context of the self-shielding model for the evolution of oxygen isotopes in the solar accretion disk, these CAIs may have recorded the initial oxygen isotopic composition of the solar system, and hence of the Sun.

  11. Technology Readiness Evaluation For Aluminum Removal And Sodium Hydroxide Regenration From Hanford Tank Waste By Lithium Hydrotalcite Precipitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Technology Readiness Evaluation (TRE) performed by AREV A Federal Services, LLC (AFS) for Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (WRPS) shows the lithium hydrotalcite (LiHT) process invented and patented (pending) by AFS has reached an overall Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of 3. The LiHT process removes aluminum and regenerates sodium hydroxide. The evaluation used test results obtained with a 2-L laboratory-scale system to validate the process and its critical technology elements (CTEs) on Hanford tank waste simulants. The testing included detailed definition and evaluation for parameters of interest and validation by comparison to analytical predictions and data quality objectives for critical subsystems. The results of the TRE would support the development of strategies to further mature the design and implementation of the LiHT process as a supplemental pretreatment option for Hanford tank waste.

  12. Effect of sodium polyacrylate molecular weight on the crystallogenesis of calcium carbonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jada, A.; Ait Akbour, R.; Jacquemet, C.; Suau, J. M.; Guerret, O.

    2007-08-01

    Aqueous solutions of sodium polyacrylates (NaPA) series having molecular weights ( Mw) ranging from 2540 to 9890 g mol -1 are used as precipitation media to control the size and shape of calcium carbonate (CaCO 3) particles. The retarding effect of polyacrylates on CaCO 3 nucleation is evidenced by the increase of the induction time, τ, of the precipitated CaCO 3, from τ=55 s in the absence of additives, to τ values in the range 100-2500 s in the presence of NaPA samples. The data also show the coexistence of two polymorphs, calcite and vaterite, for CaCO 3 particles as prepared in the presence of NaPA samples. The vaterite fraction, fv, varies in all instances with the polymer concentration, Cpoly (g. L -1), and reaches its maximum value, fv,max at optimal ratio, R (mol. g -1), of Ca ion to polymer (NaPA), R=[Ca]/([NaPA]=Cpoly). No simple general trend is found to explain the influence of the molecular weight ( Mw) of NaPA on the induction time, τ, and on the vaterite fraction, fv, since these two parameters are found to vary with Cpoly and Mw. However, under certain experimental conditions, an optimum polymer molecular weight ( Mw=5530 g mol -1) of the NaPA series, gives the highest values of fv,max and τ. Such optimum indicates the influence of Mw of NaPA on CaCO 3 nucleation and growth, and it is related to the surface density and the rate of adsorption of the polymer onto the growing crystal. The CaCO 3 particle size is reduced from about 20 μm, as obtained in the control experiment, to sizes varying in the range 2-8 μm in the presence NaPA samples. Polymers having low Mw values ( Mw<5000 g mol -1) are found to be more efficient in reducing the CaCO 3 particle size.

  13. Stress Corrosion Cracking of Steel and Aluminum in Sodium Hydroxide: Field Failure and Laboratory Test

    OpenAIRE

    Prawoto, Y.; Sumeru, K.; W.B. WAN NIK

    2012-01-01

    Through an investigation of the field failure analysis and laboratory experiment, a study on (stress corrosion cracking) SCC behavior of steel and aluminum was performed. All samples were extracted from known operating conditions from the field failures. Similar but accelerated laboratory test was subsequently conducted in such a way as to mimic the field failures. The crack depth and behavior of the SCC were then analyzed after the laboratory test and the mechanism of stress corrosion cracki...

  14. Ecological comparison of calcium hydroxide and sodium hydrogen carbonate as sorbents; Oekologischer Vergleich der Sorptionsmittel Calciumhydroxid und Natriumhydrogencarbonat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacher, Christian; Weber-Blaschke, Gabriele [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Freising (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Rohstoff- und Energietechnologie; Mocker, Mario [ATZ Entwicklungszentrum, Sulzbach-Rosenberg (Germany); Faulstich, Martin [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Straubing (Germany). Wissenschaftszentrum Straubing

    2009-07-01

    Lime products have long been used with success for flue gas purification in waste incineration plants, where they serve to eliminate acid gas pollutants such as sulphur dioxide, hydrogen chloride and hydrogen fluoride. This article presents excerpts of a study commissioned by the German lime industry association for the purpose of obtaining an unbiased well-founded comparison of the environmental impact of the two sorbents calcium hydroxide and sodium hydrogen carbonate. The following questions were addressed by the study: Which of the two flue gas additives provides greater environmental benefit under specified conditions? What parameters influence the outcome? How can the results be viewed in regard to different plant configurations?.

  15. Comparative evaluation of a dentifrice containing calcium sodium phosphosilicate to a dentifrice containing potassium nitrate for dentinal hypersensitivity: A clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanya Satyapal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Calcium sodium phosphosilicate is a recently introduced desensitizing agent which acts by occluding the dentinal tubules and also resists acid decalcification. This study was designed to assess the efficacy of a new toothpaste containing 5% calcium sodium phosphosilicate for the treatment of dentinal hypersensitivity and also compare it with 5% potassium nitrate. Materials and Methods: Sixty patients with the chief complaint of dentinal hypersensitivity were enrolled and randomly divided into two groups. The visual analog scale (VAS scores were taken for water and air stimuli at baseline, 3 weeks after usage of the respective toothpaste, and 3 weeks after discontinuation of the respective toothpaste. Results: Both the groups showed reduction in hypersensitivity scores at 3 weeks and 6 weeks for air stimulus and cold water. The calcium sodium phosphosilicate group, however, showed significantly reduction in hypersensitivity compared to the potassium nitrate group at any time point for both measures of hypersensitivity. Conclusion: The 5% calcium sodium phosphosilicate group showed immense reduction in dentinal hypersensitivity symptoms. The 5% calcium sodium phosphosilicate showed prolonged effects even after discontinuation as compared to 5% potassium nitrate, due to its dentinal tubular occlusion property.

  16. Alleviating aluminum toxicity in an acid sulfate soil from Peninsular Malaysia by calcium silicate application

    OpenAIRE

    A. A. Elisa; Ninomiya, S.; J. Shamshuddin; Roslan, I.

    2016-01-01

    In response to human population increase, the utilization of acid sulfate soils for rice cultivation is one option for increasing production. The main problems associated with such soils are their low pH values and their associated high content of exchangeable Al, which could be detrimental to crop growth. The application of soil amendments is one approach for mitigating this problem, and calcium silicate is an alternative soil amendment that could be used. Therefore, the ma...

  17. Influence of Pyrethroid Insecticides on Sodium and Calcium Influx in Neocortical Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyrethroid insecticides bind to voltage-gated sodium channels and modify their gating kinetics, thereby disrupting neuronal function. Using murine neocortical neurons in primary culture, we have compared the ability of 11 structurally diverse pyrethroid insecticides to evoke Na+ ...

  18. DEGRADATION OF SM2ZR2O7 THERMAL BARRIER COATING CAUSED BY CALCIUM-MAGNESIUM-ALUMINUM-SILICON OXIDE (CMAS) DEPOSITION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Honglong; Sheng, Zhizhi; Tarwater, Emily; Zhang, Xingxing; Dasgupta, Sudip; Fergus, Jeffrey

    2015-03-16

    Rare earth zirconates are promising materials for use as thermal barrier coatings in gas turbine engines. Among the lanthanide zirconate materials, Sm2Zr2O7 with the pyrochlore structure has lower thermal conductivity and better corrosion resistance against calcium-magnesium-aluminum-silicon oxide (CMAS). In this work, after reaction with CMAS, the pyrochlore structure transforms to the cubic fluorite structure and Ca2Sm8(SiO4)6O2 forms in elongated grain.

  19. A Critical Examination of the X-Wind Model for Chondrule and Calcium-rich, Aluminum-rich Inclusion Formation and Radionuclide Production

    OpenAIRE

    Desch, S. J.; Morris, M A; Connolly, Jr., H. C.; Boss, Alan P.

    2010-01-01

    Meteoritic data, especially regarding chondrules and calcium-rich, aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs), and isotopic evidence for short-lived radionuclides (SLRs) in the solar nebula, potentially can constrain how planetary systems form. Intepretation of these data demands an astrophysical model, and the "X-wind" model of Shu et al. (1996) and collaborators has been advanced to explain the origin of chondrules, CAIs and SLRs. It posits that chondrules and CAIs were thermally processed < 0.1 AU fr...

  20. Functioning of catfish electroreceptors: Influence of calcium and sodium concentration on the skin potential

    OpenAIRE

    Schouten, V.J.A.; Bretschneider, F.

    1980-01-01

    1. 1. The skin potential of catfish was measured in order to test the hypothesis that it controls electroreceptor sensitivity. 2. 2. The skin potential depends on the “milieu extérieur” in the same way as reported lor goldfish (Fig. 2). 3. 3. The variation of the skin potential is very large compared with the normal stimulus range of electroreceptors. 4. 4. Calcium strongly influences the skin potential, but the latter “adapts” to calcium concentrations of 0.3-3.0 mM (Fig. 3). 5. 5. Ion-depen...

  1. [Local tolerance of subcutaneous heparin. Double-blind comparison of calcium and sodium heparins (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blard, J M; Rincon, F; Nakache, J P; Chastang, C

    One hundred and twelve subcutaneous injections of concentrated heparin (25,000 IU/ml), half in sodium heparin and half in calciparine, both with an identical heparin cation, were given in doses varying from 0.2 ml to 0.5 ml by a single operator in a double-blind study to assess the comparative local tolerance of the two heparin salts. The occurrence of bruising at the point of injection, more frequent with sodium heparin than with Calciparine, proved to be the distinguishing factor. Overall after 48 hours, 31 hematomas were observed with the sodium salt versus 20 with calciparine. McNemar's test of comparing matched proportions confirms this result (p = 0.03) and, with the order of the two treatments taken into consideration, J.J. Gart's exact test gives p = 0.0101. PMID:218296

  2. ALUMINUM REMOVAL AND SODIUM HYDROXIDE REGENERATION FROM HANFORD TANK WASTE BY LITHIUM HYDROTALCITE PRECIPITATION SUMMARY OF PRIOR LAB-SCALE TESTING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SAMS TL; GUILLOT S

    2011-01-27

    Scoping laboratory scale tests were performed at the Chemical Engineering Department of the Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech), and the Hanford 222-S Laboratory, involving double-shell tank (DST) and single-shell tank (SST) Hanford waste simulants. These tests established the viability of the Lithium Hydrotalcite precipitation process as a solution to remove aluminum and recycle sodium hydroxide from the Hanford tank waste, and set the basis of a validation test campaign to demonstrate a Technology Readiness Level of 3.

  3. Aluminum Removal And Sodium Hydroxide Regeneration From Hanford Tank Waste By Lithium Hydrotalcite Precipitation Summary Of Prior Lab-Scale Testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scoping laboratory scale tests were performed at the Chemical Engineering Department of the Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech), and the Hanford 222-S Laboratory, involving double-shell tank (DST) and single-shell tank (SST) Hanford waste simulants. These tests established the viability of the Lithium Hydrotalcite precipitation process as a solution to remove aluminum and recycle sodium hydroxide from the Hanford tank waste, and set the basis of a validation test campaign to demonstrate a Technology Readiness Level of 3.

  4. FTIR and Mössbauer spectroscopic study of sodium-aluminum-iron phosphate glassy materials for high level waste immobilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanovsky, S. V.; Stefanovsky, O. I.; Remizov, M. B.; Belanova, E. A.; Kozlov, P. V.; Glazkova, Ya. S.; Sobolev, A. V.; Presniakov, I. A.; Kalmykov, S. N.; Myasoedov, B. F.

    2015-11-01

    Complex sodium-aluminum-iron phosphate glassy materials with various Al2O3 to Fe2O3 ratio containing high level waste (HLW) surrogate were characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy and studied in details by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The samples with high Al2O3 content and not containing Fe2O3 were predominantly amorphous but subjected to devitrification under annealing. Addition of B2O3 and partial Fe2O3 substitution for Al2O3 in the materials increases their resistance to devitrification whereas further substitution and NiO incorporation significantly increase the tendency to devitrification. FTIR spectra demonstrate changes in the structure of glassy materials caused by both structural variations in the anionic motif and occurrence of crystalline phases in the materials. According to Mössbauer spectroscopy data, iron in the glassy samples is present as octahedrally coordinated Fe3+ ions while in the partly devitrified samples iron is partitioned among vitreous and crystalline phases entering the vitreous phase mainly as Fe3+O6 units and crystalline phases as major Fe3+ and minor Fe2+ ions in a magnetically ordered state and participating in a "fast" electronic exchange.

  5. The Polarized Effect of Intracellular Calcium on the Renal Epithelial Sodium Channel Occurs as a Result of Subcellular Calcium Signaling Domains Maintained by Mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thai, Tiffany L; Yu, Ling; Galarza-Paez, Laura; Wu, Ming Ming; Lam, Ho Yin Colin; Bao, Hui Fang; Duke, Billie Jeanne; Al-Khalili, Otor; Ma, He-Ping; Liu, Bingchen; Eaton, Douglas C

    2015-11-27

    The renal epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) provides regulated sodium transport in the distal nephron. The effects of intracellular calcium ([Ca(2+)]i) on this channel are only beginning to be elucidated. It appears from previous studies that the [Ca(2+)]i increases downstream of ATP administration may have a polarized effect on ENaC, where apical application of ATP and the subsequent [Ca(2+)]i increase have an inhibitory effect on the channel, whereas basolateral ATP and [Ca(2+)]i have a stimulatory effect. We asked whether this polarized effect of ATP is, in fact, reflective of a polarized effect of increased [Ca(2+)]i on ENaC and what underlying mechanism is responsible. We began by performing patch clamp experiments in which ENaC activity was measured during apical or basolateral application of ionomycin to increase [Ca(2+)]i near the apical or basolateral membrane, respectively. We found that ENaC does indeed respond to increased [Ca(2+)]i in a polarized fashion, with apical increases being inhibitory and basolateral increases stimulating channel activity. In other epithelial cell types, mitochondria sequester [Ca(2+)]i, creating [Ca(2+)]i signaling microdomains within the cell that are dependent on mitochondrial localization. We found that mitochondria localize in bands just beneath the apical and basolateral membranes in two different cortical collecting duct principal cell lines and in cortical collecting duct principal cells in mouse kidney tissue. We found that inhibiting mitochondrial [Ca(2+)]i uptake destroyed the polarized response of ENaC to [Ca(2+)]i. Overall, our data suggest that ENaC is regulated by [Ca(2+)]i in a polarized fashion and that this polarization is maintained by mitochondrial [Ca(2+)]i sequestration. PMID:26451045

  6. Final report of the safety assessment of L-Ascorbic Acid, Calcium Ascorbate, Magnesium Ascorbate, Magnesium Ascorbyl Phosphate, Sodium Ascorbate, and Sodium Ascorbyl Phosphate as used in cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmore, Amy R

    2005-01-01

    L-Ascorbic Acid, Calcium Ascorbate, Magnesium Ascorbate, Magnesium Ascorbyl Phosphate, Sodium Ascorbate, and Sodium Ascorbyl Phosphate function in cosmetic formulations primarily as antioxidants. Ascorbic Acid is commonly called Vitamin C. Ascorbic Acid is used as an antioxidant and pH adjuster in a large variety of cosmetic formulations, over 3/4 of which were hair dyes and colors at concentrations between 0.3% and 0.6%. For other uses, the reported concentrations were either very low (Ascorbate and Magnesium Ascorbate are described as antioxidants and skin conditioning agents--miscellaneous for use in cosmetics, but are not currently used. Sodium Ascorbyl Phosphate functions as an antioxidant in cosmetic products and is used at concentrations ranging from 0.01% to 3%. Magnesium Ascorbyl Phosphate functions as an antioxidant in cosmetics and was reported being used at concentrations from 0.001% to 3%. Sodium Ascorbate also functions as an antioxidant in cosmetics at concentrations from 0.0003% to 0.3%. Related ingredients (Ascorbyl Palmitate, Ascorbyl Dipalmitate, Ascorbyl Stearate, Erythorbic Acid, and Sodium Erythorbate) have been previously reviewed by the Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel and found "to be safe for use as cosmetic ingredients in the present practices of good use." Ascorbic Acid is a generally recognized as safe (GRAS) substance for use as a chemical preservative in foods and as a nutrient and/or dietary supplement. Calcium Ascorbate and Sodium Ascorbate are listed as GRAS substances for use as chemical preservatives. L-Ascorbic Acid is readily and reversibly oxidized to L-dehydroascorbic acid and both forms exist in equilibrium in the body. Permeation rates of Ascorbic Acid through whole and stripped mouse skin were 3.43 +/- 0.74 microg/cm(2)/h and 33.2 +/- 5.2 microg/cm(2)/h. Acute oral and parenteral studies in mice, rats, rabbits, guinea pigs, dogs, and cats demonstrated little toxicity. Ascorbic Acid and Sodium Ascorbate acted

  7. Calcium and aluminum cycling in a temperate broadleaved deciduous forest of the eastern USA: relative impacts of tree species, canopy state, and flux type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levia, Delphis F; Shiklomanov, Alexey N; Van Stan, John T; Scheick, Carrie E; Inamdar, Shreeram P; Mitchell, Myron J; McHale, Patrick J

    2015-07-01

    Ca/Al molar ratios are commonly used to assess the extent of aluminum stress in forests. This is among the first studies to quantify Ca/Al molar ratios for stemflow. Ca/Al molar ratios in bulk precipitation, throughfall, stemflow, litter leachate, near-trunk soil solution, and soil water were quantified for a deciduous forest in northeastern MD, USA. Data were collected over a 3-year period. The Ca/Al molar ratios in this study were above the threshold for aluminum stress (pH was occasionally an important predictor of calcium and aluminum concentrations, but was not a good predictor of Ca/Al ratio in any of the best-fit models (of >500 examined). This study supplies new data on Ca/Al molar ratios for stemflow from two common deciduous tree species. Future work should examine Ca/Al molar ratios in stemflow of other species and examine both inorganic and organic aluminum species to better gauge the potential for, and understand the dynamics of, aluminum toxicity in the proximal area around tree boles. PMID:26100445

  8. Use of Calcium, Potassium, and Sodium Lactates to Control Germination and Outgrowth of Clostridium perfringens Spores during Chilling of Injected Pork

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inhibition of Clostridium perfringens spore germination and outgrowth by calcium (CaL), potassium (KL) or sodium (NaL) lactate in injected pork during abusive chilling regimes was investigated. Lactates (Ca, K, or Na) were incorporated into injected pork at various concentrations (1.0, 2.0, 3.0 and...

  9. Comparative evaluation of the remineralizing efficacy of calcium sodium phosphosilicate agent and fluoride based on quantitative and qualitative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saranya Mony

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Calcium sodium phosphosilicate (NovaMin is an agent that is claimed to release calcium and phosphate ions intraorally to help the self-repair process of enamel. It is used extensively as a desensitizing agent, but the chemical reactions that occur may promote apatite formation enhancing remineralization. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the ability of NovaMin to remineralize an experimentally induced demineralized lesion. The evaluation was done based on the quantitative and qualitative analysis of enamel over the period of 15 and 30 days. Materials and Methods: A sample of 120 noncarious premolar teeth extracted for orthodontic reasons were used for the study. Baseline data for hardness, Ca/PO 4 , and surface characteristics before and after demineralization process was obtained. All the teeth were brushed twice daily at 12 h interval with the test agents using a powered toothbrush for 2 min. The samples were tested on the 15 th and 30 th day. Results: Calcium phosphate ratio and hardness in both the groups improved during the study period. Fluoride group showed higher values for Ca/PO 4 and hardness but was not statistically significant with the P > 0.05. Scanning electron microscope pictures showed that the deposition of the material over the decalcified enamel is more smoother and uniform with NovaMin and more irregular with fluoride. Relevance: NovaMin is found to be as effective in improving the Ca/PO 4 ratio and hardness in a demineralized enamel as fluoride. Hence, it can be a new alternate material for remineralization of enamel with less toxic effects compared to fluorides.

  10. Modification of oxide inclusions present in aluminum-killed low carbon steel by addition of calcium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos S. Pires

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available A crescente demanda por aços de alta qualidade com elevada limpeza interna tem levado a uma contínua melhoria nas práticas de produção do aço, em especial na etapa de refino secundário. O interesse especial é no controle das inclusões não-metálicas, devido ao seu efeito prejudicial nas etapas subseqüentes (lingotamento e conformação plástica e devido às sua grande influência nas propriedades do produto final. Através do controle do tamanho, da quantidade e da composição química das inclusões, é possível obter um produto final de alta qualidade. O controle da formação das inclusões não-metálicas e a identificação de suas fases constituintes são de suma importância para a obtenção de aços limpos. Nesse trabalho, amostras de aço de baixo teor de carbono, desoxidado ao silício, coletadas em uma indústria siderúrgica, são analisadas e é demonstrado que, pela comparação do teor total de cálcio e de oxigênio no aço, é possível prever os tipos de inclusões presentes no aço.The increasing demand in recent years for high-quality steel products has led to the continuous improvement of steelmaking practices. There is a special interest in the control of non-metallic inclusions due to their harmful effect on the subsequent stages and their great influence on the properties of the final product. Through the control of the amount, size and chemical composition of the inclusions it is possible to obtain a final product of good quality. The control of the formation of non-metallic inclusions and the identification of their constituent phases are of extreme importance for the obtaining of clean steels. In this work, samples collected in a steelmaking process are analyzed and it is demonstrated that by comparing the total calcium and oxygen contents in the steel, it is possible to have an overview of the types of oxide inclusions present.

  11. Characterization and corrosion of polypyrrole/sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate electropolymerised on aluminum alloy 1100

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castagno, Katia R.L., E-mail: katiarlc@pelotas.ifsul.edu.br [Department of Chemistry, Federal Institute Sul-rio-grandense - IFSul Praca Vinte de Setembro, 455, CEP 96015-360, Pelotas, RS (Brazil); Dalmoro, Viviane; Azambuja, Denise S. [Institute of Chemistry, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul - UFRGS, Av. Bento Goncalves, 9500, CEP 91501-970, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2011-10-17

    Highlights: {yields} The SDBS confers a greater degree of ordering to the PPy deposits. {yields} The PPy/SDBS presented a relatively high electrical conductivity of 343 S cm{sup -1}. {yields} The conductivity values of the film remained stable even after 60 days of air exposure. {yields} The thermal analysis showed that the PPy/SDBS film is amorphous and degrades without melting. {yields} The potentiodynamic polarization curves show that the PPy/SDBS coating improves the corrosion resistance of the AA 1100 in NaCl and HCl solutions. - Abstract: In this study films of polypyrrole/sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (PPy/SDBS) were electropolymerised on the surface of platinum to determine their chemical and physical characteristics and on AA 1100 alloy to evaluate their performance in terms of corrosion protection of the alloy in chloride solutions. The characterization of the films was performed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and conductivity measurements. The XRD and FT-IR analysis of the PPy/SDBS films showed that the SDBS confers a higher degree of order to the PPy deposits, this effect being evident from the relatively high value obtained for the electrical conductivity of the films. Moreover, the films presented environmental stability with conductivity values remaining stable even after 60 days of air exposure. The thermal analysis showed that the PPy/SDBS film is amorphous and degrades without melting. The corrosion protection of the films produced on the AA 1100 surface was evaluated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and potentiodynamic polarization tests in 0.05 mol L{sup -1} NaCl and 0.05 mol L{sup -1} HCl solutions. The potentiodynamic polarization curves of the PPy/SDBS coatings produced on the AA 1100 surface evidenced a shift of the corrosion potential to more positive values and a decrease of the

  12. High-Power Arctic Lidar for observations of Sodium layer and Calcium Ion Cyclotron Resonance Heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuerker, R. F.; Foley, J.; Kidd, P.; Wong, A. Y.

    1998-11-01

    The UCLA HIPAS Observatory is located at 64o 54' 22"N, 146o 50' 33" W. It passes under the auroral oval, has a 2.7 m diameter liquid mirror collector (LMT), and two bistatic laser illuminators; a Doubled YAG pumped dye laser and a Doubled (tunable) Alexandrite laser. The first emits 0.1 J - 10 ns pulses at 590nm (Na) at 20 Hz. The second laser emits 0.15 J -10 ns pulses at 393 nm (Ca+) and 391.4 nm (N2) at 10 Hz. New sporadic sodium layers have been observed during the passage of the electrojet and auroras in periods of 20-30 seconds, indicating that sodium is liberated from micrometeors during auroral precipitations. The Laser Induced Fluorescence techniques will be used to observe the acceleration of the Ca+ ions when they are driven by the 80 MW (ERP) 2.85MHz RF array, modulated at the Ca+ ion Cyclotron Frequency. 1. Ionospheric Modifaction and Enviromental Research in the Auroral Region in Plasma Science and the Environment. Publisher: AIP Press, Woodbury, NY. Editors: W. Manheimer, L. Sugiyama, T. Stix; Chapter 3, pgs. 41-75, 1997. Research supported by ONR N00014-96-C-0040

  13. Quantitative study on La3+ influx mediated by sodium-calcium exchanger in human lymphocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI; Chunying(魏春英); YANG; Pin(杨频)

    2002-01-01

    Whether La3+ can enter human peripheral blood lymphocytes by the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger or not and the effect of La3+ on the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger activity are examined by fura-2 technique. And that whether La3+ is sequestered by intracellular organelles (mainly endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria) is studied by this method. La3+ uptake is obviously stimulated by pretreating the cells with ouabain and by removing extracellular Na+, and intracellular La3+ concentration ([La3+]i) is directly proportional to its extracellular concentration ([La3+]o). But when [La3+]o exceeds 0.4 mmol/L, the 340/380 nm ratio of fluorescence is no longer varied and the maximum [La3+]i is 1.5×10-12 mol@L-1. The higher concentration of La3+ (0.1 mmol/L) increases Na+/Ca2+ exchange-mediated calcium influx, but lower concentration (10 mmol/L) appears to block calcium influx. The results also suggest that cytosolic La3+ is transported by the ATP-dependent Ca2+ pump. Intracellular Ca2+ stores are depleted by ionomycin, and then ionomycin is added again during the period of La3+ uptake, the 340/380 nm ratio of fluorescence is also increased, these results indicate that La3+ is sequestered by intracellular organelles. A characterization of fura-2-La3+ interaction in solution simulating intracellular ionic composition (pH 7.05) shows that La3+ forms a 1:1 fura-2-La3+complex, and the apparent dissociation constant of La3+ for fura-2 (Kd) is 1.7×10-12 mol@L-1. In addition, the limit of detection of fura-2 for La3+ and Ca2+ is 10?12 and 10?8 mol@L-1 respectively.

  14. Constraints on formation processes of two coarse-grained calcium- aluminum-rich inclusions: a study of mantles, islands and cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeker, G.P.

    1995-01-01

    Many coarse-grained calcium- aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) contain features that are inconsistent with equilibrium liquid crystallization models of origin. Spinel-free islands (SFIs) in spinel-rich cores of Type B CAIs are examples of such features. One model previously proposed for the origin of Allende 5241, a Type B1 CAI containing SFIs, involves the capture and assimilation of xenoliths by a liquid droplet in the solar nebula (El Goresy et al, 1985; MacPherson et al 1989). This study reports new textural and chemical zoning data from 5241 and identifies previously unrecognized chemical zoning patterns in the melilite mantle and in a SFI. -from Author

  15. Evaluation of a new calcium containing cardioplegic solution in the isolated rabbit heart in comparison to a calcium-free, low sodium solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, F; Suzuki, K; Noda, H; Kato, T; Tsuboi, H; Miyamoto, M; Esato, K; Imamura, A; Kawahara, S; Uchiyama, J

    1991-03-01

    Isolated perfused rabbit hearts were studied to compare the effects of 3 hour ischemic arrest following either calcium-free or calcium-containing cardioplegia, on the recovery of isovolumic function of the left ventricle, coronary flow, release of creatine phosphokinase and myocardial water content. The hearts perfused with the calcium-containing solution (Ca 0.5 mmol/L) showed better recovery of the developed pressure in the left ventricle, and its first derivative and compliance. Coronary flow at a constant perfusion pressure was better restored during reperfusion in the hearts with calcium-containing solution. The release of less CPK and a lower water content were also observed in the hearts reperfused with calcium-containing solution. We concluded that calcium-containing cardioplegic solution with a high concentration of magnesium (10 mmol/L) was superior to calcium-free solution for myocardial protection. PMID:2051666

  16. Midbrain dopaminergic neurons generate calcium and sodium currents and release dopamine in the striatum of pups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constance Hammond

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Midbrain dopaminergic neurons (mDA neurons are essential for the control of diverse motor and cognitive behaviors. However, our understanding of the activity of immature mDA neurons is rudimentary. Rodent mDA neurons migrate and differentiate early in embryonic life and dopaminergic axons enter the striatum and contact striatal neurons a few days before birth, but when these are functional is not known. Here, we recorded Ca2+ transients and Na+ spikes from embryonic (E16-E18 and early postnatal (P0-P7 mDA neurons with dynamic two photon imaging and patch clamp techniques in slices from tyrosine hydroxylase-GFP mice, and measured evoked dopamine release in the striatum with amperometry. We show that half of identified E16-P0 mDA neurons spontaneously generate non-synaptic, intrinsically-driven Ca2+ spikes and Ca2+ plateaus mediated by N- and L-type voltage-gated Ca2+ channels. Starting from E18-P0, half of the mDA neurons also reliably generate overshooting Na+ spikes with an abrupt maturation at birth (P0 = E19. At that stage (E18-P0, dopaminergic terminals release dopamine in a calcium-dependent manner in the striatum in response to local stimulation. We propose that the intrinsic spontaneous activity of mouse mDA neurons may impact the development/activity of the striatal network from birth.

  17. Inhibition of nitrite-induced toxicity in channel catfish by calcium chloride and sodium chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tommasso J.R., Wright, M. I.; Simco, B.A.; Davis, K.B.

    1980-01-01

    Environmental chloride has been shown to inhibit methemoglobin formation in fish, thereby offering a protective effect against nitrite toxicity. Channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) were simultaneously exposed to various environmental nitrite and chloride levels (as either CaCl2 or NaCl) in dechlorinated tap water (40 mg/L total hardness, 47 mg/L alkalinity, 4 mg/L chloride, pH = 6.9-7.1, and temperature 21-24°C). Methemoglobin levels in fish simultaneously exposed to 2.5 mg/L nitrite and up to 30 mg/L chloride as either CaCl2 or NaCl were similar but significantly lower than in unprotected fish. Exposure to 10 mg/L nitrite and 60 mg/L chloride resulted in methemoglobin levels similar to those of the controls; most unprotected fish died. Fish exposed to 10 mg/L nitrite had significantly lower methemoglobin levels when protected with 15.0 mg/L chloride as CaCl2 than with NaCl. Fish exposed to nitrite in the presence of 60 mg/L chloride (as either CaCl2 or NaCl) had similar 24-h LC50 values that were significantly elevated above those obtained in the absence of chloride. Calcium had little effect on tolerance to nitrite toxicity in channel catfish in contrast to its large effect reported in steelhead trout (Salmo gairdneri).

  18. Biochemistry of the normal dura mater of the human brain determination of water, sodium, potassium, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, copper, iron, sulfur and nitrogen contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horacio M. Canelas

    1969-06-01

    Full Text Available The concentrations of water, sodium, potassium, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, copper, iron, sulfur, and nitrogen were determined in samples of apparently normal dura mater removed from 18 subjects recently dead by craniocerebral trauma. The average concentrations expressed in dry weight were: water 79.55 g/100 g ± 2.52; sodium 1.63 mequiv/100 g ±0.27; potassium 3.68 mequiv/100 g ± 0.66; calcium 119.84 mg/100 g ± 107.40; phosphorus 68.2 mg/100 g ± 34.5; magnesium 0.61 mequiv/100 g ± 0.37; copper 249.8 /xg/100 g ± 109.4; iron 0.82 mg/100 g ± 0.28; sulfur 490.7 mg/100 g ± 22.5; nitrogen 3.33 g/100 g ± 0.17.

  19. Calcium H&K and sodium D absorption induced by the interstellar and circumgalactic media of the Milky Way

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murga, Maria; Zhu, Guangtun; Ménard, Brice; Lan, Ting-Wen

    2015-09-01

    We map out calcium II and sodium I absorption (Fraunhofer H, K & D lines) induced by both the interstellar medium and the circumgalactic medium of the Milky Way. Our measurements cover more than 9000 deg2 and make use of about 300 000 extragalactic spectra from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We present absorption maps for these two species and then compare their distributions to those of neutral hydrogen and dust. We show that the abundance of Na I with respect to neutral hydrogen stays roughly constant in different environments, while that of Ca II decreases with hydrogen column density. Studying how these tracers vary as a function of velocity, we show that, on average, the NNaI/NCaII ratio decreases at higher velocity with respect to the local standard of rest, similar to the local Routly-Spitzer effect but seen on Galactic scale. We show that it is likely caused by higher gas/dust density at lower velocity. Finally, we show that Galactic Ca II and Na I absorption needs to be taken into account for precision photometry and, more importantly, for photometric redshift estimation with star-forming galaxies. Our maps of Ca II and Na I absorption are publicly available.

  20. Apatite-forming ability and magnetic properties of glass-ceramics containing zinc ferrite and calcium sodium phosphate phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fine particles of zinc ferrite (ZnFe2O4) and calcium sodium phosphate [NaCaPO4] were crystallized in bulk x(ZnO, Fe2O3)(65-x)SiO220(CaO, P2O5)15Na2O (6 ≤ x ≤ 21 mol %) glassy matrix by heat treatment. Initial magnetization curves reveal that samples with x = 6 and 9 mol % zinc-iron oxide exhibit both ferrimagnetic and paramagnetic contributions, whereas, samples with x > 9 mol % zinc-iron oxide exhibit only ferrimagnetic contribution. This observation is supported by the disappearance of the electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) absorption line centered at g ∼ 4.3 in samples with x > 9 mol % zinc-iron oxide. Apatite-forming ability of the glass-ceramic samples was investigated by examining apatite formation on the surface of the samples treated in simulated body fluid (SBF). Increase in apatite-forming ability was observed with an increase in zinc-iron oxide content. The results obtained have been used to understand the evolution of the apatite surface layer as a function of immersion time in SBF and glass-ceramic composition. A good correlation has also been observed between the magnetic nature of the samples and their apatite-forming ability. These materials are expected to find application as thermo-seeds in hyperthermia treatment of bone cancer.

  1. Effect of Compounding of Sodium Tripolyphosphate and Super Plasticizers on the Hydration of α-calcium Sulfate Hemihydrate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN Wei; WANG Peiming

    2011-01-01

    The inhibition and its mechanism of sodium tripolyphosphate(STP)composited with super plasticizers(SPs)on hydration of α-calcium sulfate hemihydrate were studied by setting time,strength,hydration heat,X-ray diffraction(XRD),X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy(XPS),electronic probe micro analysis (EPMA),scanning electron microscopy(SEM)and differential scanning calorimeter(DSC)measurements.The experimental results show that compared with STP addition,compositing STP with polycarboxylate(PC)plasticizer,the final setting time is prolonged from 0.5h to 2hs.While formulating STP with naphthalene-based plasticizer(NAP)or sulfonate melamine formaldehyde plasticizer(SMF),the final setting time is reduced to quarter of an hour Similar changes can also be found in the rate of exothermic hydration and hydration degree.Formulating STP with suitable addition of PC can enhance the strength,while compositing STP and NAP or SMF weakens the strength.Besides,adding STP or STP and SMF,obvious movement(more than lev)of binding energy of Ca2p1/2 and Ca2p3/2 is detected.Compared with STP addition,content of the characteristic element(P)of STP is cut down form 1.1% to 0.49% by compositing STP with SMF.Furthermore,as hydration age increases,hydration inhibition in the presence of admixtures weakens and even disappears within 56 h.

  2. Calcium H & K and sodium D absorption induced by the interstellar and circumgalactic media of the Milky Way

    CERN Document Server

    Murga, Maria; Ménard, Brice; Lan, Ting-Wen

    2015-01-01

    We map out calcium II & sodium I absorption (Fraunhofer H, K & D lines) induced by both the interstellar medium and the circumgalactic medium of the Milky Way. Our measurements cover more than $9000$ deg$^2$ and make use of about $300,000$ extragalactic spectra from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We present absorption maps for these two species and then compare their distributions to those of neutral hydrogen and dust. We show that the abundance of Na I with respect to neutral hydrogen stays roughly constant in different environments, while that of Ca II decreases with hydrogen column density. Studying how these tracers vary as a function of velocity, we show that, on average, the N(Na I)/N(Ca II) ratio decreases at higher velocity with respect to the local standard of rest, similar to the local Routly-Spitzer effect but seen on Galactic scale. We show that it is likely caused by higher gas/dust density at lower velocity. Finally, we show that Galactic Ca II and Na I absorption needs to be taken into a...

  3. Ab Initio Discovery of Novel Crystal Structure Stability in Barium and Sodium-Calcium Compounds under Pressure using DFT

    CERN Document Server

    Taillon, Joshua A; Hennig, Richard G

    2012-01-01

    Group I/II materials exhibit unexpected structural phase transitions at high pressures, providing potential insight into the origins of elemental superconductivity. We present here a computational study of elemental barium and binary sodium-calcium alloys to identify both known and unknown phases of barium under pressure, as well as stable high-pressure compounds in the immiscible Na-Ca system. To predict stability, we performed density functional theory calculations on randomly generated structures and evolved them using a genetic algorithm. For barium, we observed all of the expected phases and a number of new metastable structures, excluding the incommensurate Ba-IV structure. We also observed a heretofore unreported structure (\\alpha-Sm) predicted to be the ground state from 30-42 GPa. In the Na-Ca system, we demonstrate feasibility of our search method, but have been unable to predict any stable compounds. These results have improved the efficacy of the genetic algorithm, and should provide many promisin...

  4. The effect of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate paste and sodium fluoride mouthwash on the prevention of dentine erosion: An in vitro study

    OpenAIRE

    Maryam Moezizadeh; Azar Alimi

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The purpose was to compare the effect of 0.2% sodium fluoride mouthwash and casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate paste on prevention of dentin erosion. Materials and Methods: Buccal surfaces of 36 sound premolar teeth were ground flat and polished with abrasive discs. Half the polished surfaces were covered with tape to maintain a reference surface. Samples were randomly allocated into three groups. Group A was pretreated with tooth mousse (TM) 4 times a day for 5 days. ...

  5. Subcutaneous calcium heparin versus intravenous sodium heparin in treatment of established acute deep vein thrombosis of the legs: a multicentre prospective randomised trial.

    OpenAIRE

    Walker, M. G.; Shaw, J W; Thomson, G J; Cumming, J G; Thomas, M. L.

    1987-01-01

    One hundred patients with phlebographically proved acute deep vein thrombosis of the legs were prospectively randomised into two treatment groups to compare the safety and efficacy of subcutaneous calcium heparin versus intravenous sodium heparin administered by constant infusion pump. The dose of heparin was determined by daily measurement of the kaolin cephalin clotting time. Treatment was maintained for up to 14 days, after which phlebography was repeated. Of 49 patients who received subcu...

  6. MODIFICATION OF PRECIPITATED CALCIUM CARBONATE FILLER USING SODIUM SILICATE/ZINC CHLORIDE BASED MODIFIERS TO IMPROVE ACID-RESISTANCE AND USE OF THE MODIFIED FILLER IN PAPERMAKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Shen

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the acid-resistant property of papermaking grade precipitated calcium carbonate filler and to obtain modified filler in powder form, sodium silicate/zinc chloride based modifiers were used in filler modification, and the use of modified filler in papermaking of deinked pulp derived from recycled newspaper was also preliminarily investigated. Under the preliminarily optimized experimental conditions, when sodium silicate, zinc chloride, sodium hexametaphosphate, and phosphoric acid with dosages of 10 wt%, 3 wt%, 1 wt% and 0.2 wt%, respectively, were used as modifiers, and when the temperature, aging time, and PCC concentration during the filler modification process was 70 oC, 7 h and 9.1 wt%, respectively, the acid-resistant property of filler was significantly improved after modification, as evaluated using alum consumption and pH methods. The use of modified precipitated calcium carbonate filler prepared under the optimized conditions provided considerably more brightness and light scattering improvement in comparison to unmodified filler, and filler modification was found to have only negligible influence on tensile and burst strength of the paper, air permeability of the paper, and retention performance of the filler. Surface analysis of the modified filler using XPS and SEM confirmed the occurring of surface encapsulation and modification of precipitated calcium carbonate filler when the relevant modifiers were used in filler modification. The encapsulating effect of modifiers on filler was thought to be favorable to improvement in acid-resistant property, and optical properties of the filled paper.

  7. Subcutaneous calcium heparin versus intravenous sodium heparin in treatment of established acute deep vein thrombosis of the legs: a multicentre prospective randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, M G; Shaw, J W; Thomson, G J; Cumming, J G; Thomas, M L

    1987-05-01

    One hundred patients with phlebographically proved acute deep vein thrombosis of the legs were prospectively randomised into two treatment groups to compare the safety and efficacy of subcutaneous calcium heparin versus intravenous sodium heparin administered by constant infusion pump. The dose of heparin was determined by daily measurement of the kaolin cephalin clotting time. Treatment was maintained for up to 14 days, after which phlebography was repeated. Of 49 patients who received subcutaneous calcium heparin, two showed an increase in thrombus size, while eight showed complete lysis. In the 47 patients who received intravenous sodium heparin thrombus increased in size in 13 while only one showed evidence of complete lysis. These differences were significant. There were no significant differences between the two groups in the incidence of serious complications, although almost half of those receiving intravenous heparin had some minor problem with the constant infusion pump and just over half of those receiving subcutaneous heparin had some bruising at the injection site. This study showed that subcutaneous calcium heparin was more effective in helping lyse existing thrombus and preventing its propagation than intravenous sodium heparin. PMID:3109574

  8. Scientific Opinion on the safety assessment of the active substances iron powder, activated carbon, calcined kaolin, sodium chloride, polyacrylic acid, sodium salt, crosslinked and calcium chloride, for use as active system in food contact materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This scientific opinion of the EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids deals with the safety assessment of the active substances iron powder, activated carbon, calcined kaolin, sodium chloride, polyacrylic acid, sodium salt, crosslinked and calcium chloride, used in mixture which is packed into labels, for absorbing oxygen from the headspace surrounding packed food. All substances of this formulation have been evaluated and approved for use as additives in plastic food contact materials or as food supplements. Migration of substances from the labels and formation and release of volatile constituents are not expected under the intended conditions of use. The CEF Panel concluded that the use of substances iron powder, activated carbon, calcined kaolin, sodium chloride, polyacrylic acid, sodium salt, crosslinked and calcium chloride does not raise a safety concern when used in oxygen absorbers in labels, which prevent the physical release of their content into the food. When placed in the headspace of the packaging or when used in direct contact with foods, the labels should not intentionally or unintentionally come into direct contact with liquid foods or foods that have an external aqueous phase on the surface such as sliced fruits.

  9. The ash deposition mechanism in boilers burning Zhundong coal with high contents of sodium and calcium: A study from ash evaporating to condensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The high contents of sodium and calcium in Zhundong coal induce severe slagging and ash deposition in boilers. In this study, the ash deposition mechanism was investigated based on the results obtained from a full-scale boiler (350 MW) burning Zhundong coal, and a fixed bed reactor used for ash evaporating-condensing. In the full-scale boiler, the condensing and depositing of sodium and calcium sulfates play an important role on ash depositing on convection heating surfaces. Sulfates start to significantly condense and deposit at the flue gas temperature of about 850 °C on the medium and high temperature reheater surfaces. Ash evaporating tests proved that, with the increasing in temperature from 400 °C to 1200 °C, the ash evaporating process is divided into three stages: 1) 400–800 °C, 80% of sodium, and 100% of chlorine are released; 2) 800–1000 °C, all the left sodium evaporates and sulfur starts to be released with the formation of partial aluminosilicates; 3) 1000–1200 °C, all the left sulfur is released through the decomposition of calcium sulfates and then calcium starts to evaporate, while silicon oxides disappear due to the formation of new complex silicates. Ash condensing tests further proved that, the sodium in Zhundong coal was released mainly in the forms of atom, oxide, and chloride, in which sodium chloride account for about 50%. When the evaporating temperature increased higher than 1000 °C, partial alkali and alkaline earth metals were released as gaseous sulfates, and afterward condense and deposit on the heating surfaces. At last, a temperature-dependent ash deposition mechanism in Zhundong coal combustion was proposed. - Highlights: • The ash deposition of coal with high Na/Ca content was studied in full-scale and lab-scale furnaces. • The deposition mechanism was demonstrated from ash evaporating to condensing. • Sulfate condensing at about 850 °C plays an important role in ash deposition of Zhundong coal. • A

  10. Genetic control and transgressive segregation of zinc, iron, potassium, phosphorus, calcium, and sodium accumulation in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes Santos, C A; Boiteux, L S

    2015-01-01

    Cowpea crop, through combining a range of essential minerals with high quality proteins, plays an important role in providing nutritional security to human population living in semi-arid regions. Studies on genetics of biofortification with essential minerals are still quite scarce, and the major objective of the present study was to provide genetic information on development of cowpea cultivars with high seed mineral contents. Genetic parameters heritability and minimum number of genes were estimated for seed accumulation of zinc (Zn), iron (Fe), calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), and sodium (Na). Generation mean and variance analyses were conducted using contrasting parental lines, F₁, F₂, and backcross populations derived from IT97K-1042-3 x BRS Tapaihum and IT97K-1042-3 x Canapu crosses. High narrow-sense heritability (h²) values were found for accumulation of Fe (65-86%), P (74-77%), and K (77-88%), whereas moderate h(2) values were observed for accumulation of Ca (41-56%), Zn (51-83%), and Na (50-55%) in seeds. Significant additive genetic effects as well as parental mean effects were detected in both crosses for all minerals, whereas epistasis was important genetic component in Zn content. The minimum number of genes controlling the accumulation of minerals ranged from two (K) to 11 (P). Transgressive segregation was observed in F2 populations of both crosses for all minerals analyzed. The results suggest that, although under either oligogenic or polygenic control, the seed content of these six minerals in cowpea can be improved via standard breeding methods largely used for self-pollinated crops. PMID:25729958

  11. Effects of sodium bicarbonate and 1,25-dihydroxy-cholecalciferol on calcium and phosphorus balances in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metabolic balance studies were undertaken to determine whether sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) supplements (4.5 mmol/day) altered 7-day cumulative calcium (Ca) phosphorus (P) balances in growing rats consuming either a basal diet providing 0.6% Ca and 0.3% P, or this diet plus 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol [40 ng 1,25(OH)2D3/day]. Feeding bicarbonate lowered urinary Ca but raised fecal Ca so that Ca balance became less positive. However, 1,25(OH)2D3 increased net absorption of Ca and P to the same degree when given to control rats and rats consuming bicarbonate. Nevertheless, bicarbonate-fed rats had lower net Ca absorption than controls, even when treated with high doses of 1,25(OH)2D3. Changes in net Ca absorption induced by bicarbonate may occur at a point in the gut distal to the duodenum since duodenal 45Ca absorption was decreased by bicarbonate feeding. The present results show that bicarbonate consumption depressed net Ca absorption in the rat. The effect appears to be independent of changes in 1,25(OH)2D3 metabolism because it is manifest in animals receiving high doses of 1,25(OH)2D3, which stimulate alimentary Ca absorption maximally, and because bicarbonate-fed rats are able to respond normally to exogenous 1,25(OH)2D3 by increasing their net absorption of Ca and P. In view of this demonstration that NaHCO3 supplements elevate fecal Ca loss in the rat, it is suggested that studies should be undertaken to determine whether bicarbonate exerts similar adverse effects on Ca balance in humans

  12. Inhibition of collagen synthesis by select calcium and sodium channel blockers can be mitigated by ascorbic acid and ascorbyl palmitate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Vadim; Ivanova, Svetlana; Kalinovsky, Tatiana; Niedzwiecki, Aleksandra; Rath, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Calcium, sodium and potassium channel blockers are widely prescribed medications for a variety of health problems, most frequently for cardiac arrhythmias, hypertension, angina pectoris and other disorders. However, chronic application of channel blockers is associated with numerous side effects, including worsening cardiac pathology. For example, nifedipine, a calcium-channel blocker was found to be associated with increased mortality and increased risk for myocardial infarction. In addition to the side effects mentioned above by different channel blockers, these drugs can cause arterial wall damage, thereby contributing to vascular wall structure destabilization and promoting events facilitating rupture of plaques. Collagen synthesis is regulated by ascorbic acid, which is also essential for its optimum structure as a cofactor in lysine and proline hydroxylation, a precondition for optimum crosslinking of collagen and elastin. Therefore, the main objective in this study was to evaluate effects of various types of channel blockers on intracellular accumulation and cellular functions of ascorbate, specifically in relation to formation and extracellular deposition of major collagen types relevant for vascular function. Effects of select Na- and Ca- channel blockers on collagen synthesis and deposition were evaluated in cultured human dermal fibroblasts and aortic smooth muscle cells by immunoassay. All channel blockers tested demonstrated inhibitory effects on collagen type I deposition to the ECM by fibroblasts, each to a different degree. Ascorbic acid significantly increased collagen I ECM deposition. Nifedipine (50 µM), a representative of channel blockers tested, significantly reduced ascorbic acid and ascorbyl palmitate-dependent ECM deposition of collagen type l and collagen type lV by cultured aortic smooth muscle cells. In addition, nifedipine (50 µM) significantly reduced ascorbate-dependent collagen type l and type lV synthesis by cultured aortic smooth

  13. Inhibition of collagen synthesis by select calcium and sodium channel blockers can be mitigated by ascorbic acid and ascorbyl palmitate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Vadim; Ivanova, Svetlana; Kalinovsky, Tatiana; Niedzwiecki, Aleksandra; Rath, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Calcium, sodium and potassium channel blockers are widely prescribed medications for a variety of health problems, most frequently for cardiac arrhythmias, hypertension, angina pectoris and other disorders. However, chronic application of channel blockers is associated with numerous side effects, including worsening cardiac pathology. For example, nifedipine, a calcium-channel blocker was found to be associated with increased mortality and increased risk for myocardial infarction. In addition to the side effects mentioned above by different channel blockers, these drugs can cause arterial wall damage, thereby contributing to vascular wall structure destabilization and promoting events facilitating rupture of plaques. Collagen synthesis is regulated by ascorbic acid, which is also essential for its optimum structure as a cofactor in lysine and proline hydroxylation, a precondition for optimum crosslinking of collagen and elastin. Therefore, the main objective in this study was to evaluate effects of various types of channel blockers on intracellular accumulation and cellular functions of ascorbate, specifically in relation to formation and extracellular deposition of major collagen types relevant for vascular function. Effects of select Na- and Ca- channel blockers on collagen synthesis and deposition were evaluated in cultured human dermal fibroblasts and aortic smooth muscle cells by immunoassay. All channel blockers tested demonstrated inhibitory effects on collagen type I deposition to the ECM by fibroblasts, each to a different degree. Ascorbic acid significantly increased collagen I ECM deposition. Nifedipine (50 µM), a representative of channel blockers tested, significantly reduced ascorbic acid and ascorbyl palmitate-dependent ECM deposition of collagen type l and collagen type lV by cultured aortic smooth muscle cells. In addition, nifedipine (50 µM) significantly reduced ascorbate-dependent collagen type l and type lV synthesis by cultured aortic smooth

  14. Use of sodium or calcium salts of fatty acids as sources of energy in buffalo rations during late pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thirty pregnant buffaloes expected to calve within 60-75 days were divided into three groups balanced by bodyweight and expected date of parturition. The first group received a control ration consisting of concentrate diet (75% concentrate feed mixture with 25% yellow corn) plus berseem (Trifolim alexandrinum) hay and rice straw. In the second and third groups, yellow corn was replaced with either sodium salts of fatty acids (Na-SFA) or calcium salts of fatty acids (Ca-SFA). The content of acid ether extract (AEE) in Ca-SFA was lower than that of Na-SFA, while TFA's in Ca-SFA were higher. Degradability rates of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP), effective degradability (ED) and potential degradability (PD) decreased with the ration containing Na-SFA. Undegradable values of DM, OM and CP increased with adding Na-SFA compared with adding Ca-SFA or the control diet. Digestion coefficients of DM, OM, CP and cell wall constituents (CWC) were lower with feeding the ration containing Na-SFA compared with that containing Ca-SFA, while no significant differences were found between the control and Ca-SFA-containing rations. Values for total digestible nutrients (TDN) and digestible crude protein (DCP) were reduced (P < 0.05) with the ration contained Na-SFA compared with Ca-SFA. Feed intake was not affected by feeding rations containing Na-SFA or Ca-SFA, but bodyweight (BWt) was higher after feeding rations containing Ca-SFA or Na-SFA compared with the control. pH values, propionic acid and free fatty acids (FFA's) in the rumen were higher (P < 0.05) when feeding the ration containing Na-SFA compared with that containing Ca-SFA or the control, while total volatile fatty acids (TVFAs), acetic, Ac:Pr ratio and NH3-N were significantly decreased. Adding Na-SFA in the ration decreased glucose and total protein concentrations in blood compared with Ca-SFA or in the control. Concentrations of albumin, globulin and their ratio were not affected with feeding

  15. XANES analysis of calcium and sodium phosphates and silicates and hydroxyapatite-Bioglass (registered) 45S5 co-sintered bioceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bioglass (registered) 45S5 was co-sintered with hydroxyapatite at 1200 deg. C. When small amounts (5(PO4)2SiO4 and Na3Ca6(PO4)5 in an amorphous silicate matrix respectively. These chemistries show improved bioactivity compared to hydroxyapatite and are the subject of this study. The structure of several crystalline calcium and sodium phosphates and silicates as well as the co-sintered hydroxyapatite-Bioglass (registered) 45S5 bioceramics were examined using XANES spectroscopy. The nature of the crystalline and amorphous phases were studied using silicon (Si) and phosphorus (P) K- and L2,3-edge and calcium (Ca) K-edge XANES. Si L2,3-edge spectra of sintered bioceramic compositions indicates that the primary silicates present in these compositions are sodium silicates in the amorphous state. From Si K-edge spectra, it is shown that the silicates are in a similar structural environment in all the sintered bioceramic compositions with 4-fold coordination. Using P L2,3-edge it is clearly shown that there is no evidence of sodium phosphate present in the sintered bioceramic compositions. In the P K-edge spectra, the post-edge shoulder peak at around 2155 eV indicates that this shoulder to be more defined for calcium phosphate compounds with decreasing solubility and increasing thermodynamic stability. This shoulder peak is more noticeable in hydroxyapatite and β-TCP indicating greater stability of the phosphate phase. The only spectra that does not show a noticeable peak is the composition with Na3Ca6(PO4)5 in a silicate matrix indicating that it is more soluble compared to the other compositions.

  16. Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of malic acid and a mixture of sodium and calcium malate when used as technological additives for all animal species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available An application has been made for the re-authorisation of malic acid as a preservative in feed and an acidity regulator in feed for cats and dogs and for the authorisation of a mixture of sodium and calcium salts of malic acid to be used as an acidity regulator in feed for all animal species. Evidence from feeding studies with dogs, poultry, piglets, veal calves and ruminants showed that the highest typical use level of 1 600 mg malic acid/kg complete feedingstuffs (supplied as acid or salts is safe for all animal species. Setting a maximum content was not considered as necessary. Malic acid and its sodium and calcium salts are permitted food additives without limit in the EU. The use of malic acid and its sodium and calcium salts in animal nutrition is safe for the consumer. Malic acid and its salts are considered as strongly irritant to the skin and mucosa and as a particular risk to the eyes. Exposure via inhalation for those handling the additives is also considered to present a risk. Malates are components of the diet of humans and animals and are rapidly and completely metabolised to CO2. Consequently, their use in animal production would not pose a risk to the environment. Malic acid is used in food as a preservative. It is reasonable to expect that the effect seen in food will be observed in feed when it is used at comparable concentrations and under similar conditions. However, the FEEDAP Panel has reservations about the effectiveness of malic acid as a preservative in complete feedingstuffs with a moisture content of ≤ 12 %. The ability of malic acid and its salts to act as acidity regulators in feed has not been demonstrated.

  17. Studies of aluminum in rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of high aluminum concentrations in rat brains were studied using 14C autoradiography to measure the uptake of 14C 2-deoxy-D-glucose (14C-2DG) and microbeam proton-induced x-ray emission (microPIXE) with a 20-μm resolution to measure concentrations of magnesium, aluminum, potassium, and calcium. The aluminum was introduced intracisternally in the form of aluminum tartrate (Al-T) while control animals were given sodium tartrate (Na-T). The 14C was administered intravenously. The animals receiving Al-T developed seizure disorders and had pathological changes that included cerebral cortical atrophy. The results showed that there was a decreased uptake of 14C-2DG in cortical regions in which increased aluminum levels were measured, i.e., there is a correlation between the aluminum in the rat brain and decreased brain glucose metabolism. A minimum detection limit of about 16 ppM (mass fraction) or 3 x 109 Al atoms was obtained for Al under the conditions employed. 14 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  18. Reduction of sodium and increment of calcium and ω-3 PUFA in dry fermented sausages: effects on the mineral content, lipid profile and sensory quality

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia-Iñiguez-de-Ciriano, M. (Mikel); Berasategi, I. (Izaskun); Navarro-Blasco, I. (Íñigo); Astiasaran, I. (Iciar); D. Ansorena

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A combined technological approach was applied in the development of healthier dry fermented sausages: a partial substitution of the pork back fat by pre-emulsified linseed oil and a partial replacement of sodium chloride with calcium ascorbate at two different levels, leading to low amounts of salt (14gSalt and 10gSalt, with 14 g and 10 g NaCl per kg of mixture, respectively). RESULTS: The developed products (14gSalt and 10gSalt) showed adequate results for a(w) (0.85 and...

  19. Scientific Opinion on the re-evaluation of sodium stearoyl-2-lactylate (E 481) and calcium stearoyl-2-lactylate (E 482) as food additives

    OpenAIRE

    EFSA Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to food (ANS)

    2013-01-01

    Following a request by the European Commission, the Panel of Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to Food (ANS) was asked to deliver a scientific opinion on the safety of sodium stearoyl-2-lactylate (E 481, SSL) and calcium stearoyl-2-lactylate (E 482, CSL) when used as food additives. SSL and CSL are used as emulsifiers and stabilizers. An Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) of 20 mg/kg bw/day for SSL and CSL (either singly or in combination) was established in 1974 by the Joint FAO/WHO Exper...

  20. Fabrication and icing property of superhydrophilic and superhydrophobic aluminum surfaces derived from anodizing aluminum foil in a sodium chloride aqueous solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Meirong; Liu, Yuru; Cui, Shumin; Liu, Long; Yang, Min

    2013-10-01

    An aluminum foil with a rough surface was first prepared by anodic treatment in a neutral aqueous solution with the help of pitting corrosion of chlorides. First, the hydrophobic Al surface (contact angle around 79°) became superhydrophilic (contact angle smaller than 5°) after the anodizing process. Secondly, the superhydrophilic Al surface became superhydrophobic (contact angle larger than 150°) after being modified by oleic acid. Finally, the icing property of superhydrophilic, untreated, and superhydrophobic Al foils were investigated in a refrigerated cabinet at -12 °C. The mean total times to freeze a water droplet (6 μL) on the three foils were 17 s, 158 s and 1604 s, respectively. Thus, the superhydrophilic surface accelerates the icing process, while the superhydrophobic surface delays the process. The main reason for this transition might mainly result from the difference of the contact area of the water droplet with Al substrate: the increase in contact area with Al substrate will accelerate the heat conduct process, as well as the icing process; the decrease in contact area with Al substrate will delay the heat conduct process, as well as the icing process. Compared to the untreated Al foil, the contact area of the water droplet with the Al substrate was higher on superhydrophilic surface and smaller on the superhydrophobic surface, which led to the difference of the heat transfer time as well as the icing time.

  1. Corrosion evaluation of multi-pass welded nickel–aluminum bronze alloy in 3.5% sodium chloride solution: A restorative application of gas tungsten arc welding process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Corrosion of GTA welded nickel–aluminum bronze (C95800) was studied. • Drastic microstructural changes occurred during the welding operations. • The β′ and α phases acts as anode and cathode, correspondingly, in weld region. • A few nanoamperes couple current was measured in ZRA test as galvanic corrosion. • Corrosion resistance of weld parts could not be weakened in marine environments. - Abstract: In this research, the corrosion behavior of a gas tungsten arc welded nickel–aluminum bronze (NAB) alloy is investigated by DC and AC electrochemical techniques in 3.5% sodium chloride solution. Regarding the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and potentiodynamic results, uniform corrosion resistance of instantly immersed weld and base samples are almost analogous and increased (more in weld region) during the immersion times. Moreover, zero resistant ammeter results demonstrated that the few nanoampere galvanic currents are attributed to microstructural and morphological differences between these two regions. Therefore, the welding procedure could not deteriorate the general corrosion resistance of the restored damaged NAB parts operating in marine environments

  2. Trace element studies in urolithiasis; preliminary investigation on mixed calcium oxalate-struvite urinary calculi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study the levels of the trace elements copper , zinc, lead, iron, aluminum, nickel, chromium along with magnesium, sodium and potassium were estimated in fifteen mixed calcium oxalate-struvite (CaOx/STR) urinary stones. The mean values of the combined results were, copper 4.24, zinc 1302, zinc 1302.10, lead 23.25, iron 36.83,nickel 0.69, chromium 1.93, magnesium 4530441, sodium 54.13 and potassium 5.93 ng mg/sup -1/. It was observed that zinc, aluminum and potassium levels were higher than in calcium oxalate(CaOx) calculi 0.05>P>0.02 and potassium levels were higher than in mixed calcium oxalate-hydroxy appetite (CaOx/APA) calculi, P<0.01. A combination of all the results was also compared with similar data from South Africa, Turkey, Austria, India, U.S.A and Japan. (author)

  3. The effect of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate paste and sodium fluoride mouthwash on the prevention of dentine erosion: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Moezizadeh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The purpose was to compare the effect of 0.2% sodium fluoride mouthwash and casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate paste on prevention of dentin erosion. Materials and Methods: Buccal surfaces of 36 sound premolar teeth were ground flat and polished with abrasive discs. Half the polished surfaces were covered with tape to maintain a reference surface. Samples were randomly allocated into three groups. Group A was pretreated with tooth mousse (TM 4 times a day for 5 days. Group B was pretreated with 0.2% sodium fluoride mouthwash 4 times a day for 5 days. Group C was considered as the control group with no pretreatment. In the next step, the samples were exposed to Coca-Cola 4 times a day for 3 days. After each erosive cycle, the samples were rinsed with deionized water and stored in artificial saliva. The surface loss was determined using profilometry. Results: The erosion in both Groups A and B was less than the control group. The surface loss in mouthwash group was significantly lower than in the control group. Erosion in TM group was more than the mouthwash group and less than the control group. Conclusion: Sodium fluoride mouthwash is more effective for prevention of dentin erosion.

  4. XANES analysis of calcium and sodium phosphates and silicates and hydroxyapatite-Bioglass (registered) 45S5 co-sintered bioceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demirkiran, Hande [Graduate Student, Materials Science and Engineering Department, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX (United States); Hu Yongfeng; Zuin, Lucia [Beamline Scientist, Canadian Light Source, Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Appathurai, Narayana [Beamline Scientist, Synchrotron Radiation Center, Madison, WI (United States); Aswath, Pranesh B., E-mail: aswath@uta.edu [Materials Science and Engineering Department, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX (United States)

    2011-03-12

    Bioglass (registered) 45S5 was co-sintered with hydroxyapatite at 1200 deg. C. When small amounts (< 5 wt.%) of Bioglass (registered) 45S5 was added it behaved as a sintering aid and also enhanced the decomposition of hydroxyapatite to {beta}-tricalcium phosphate. However when 10 wt.% and 25 wt.% Bioglass (registered) 45S5 was used it resulted in the formation of Ca{sub 5}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}SiO{sub 4} and Na{sub 3}Ca{sub 6}(PO{sub 4}){sub 5} in an amorphous silicate matrix respectively. These chemistries show improved bioactivity compared to hydroxyapatite and are the subject of this study. The structure of several crystalline calcium and sodium phosphates and silicates as well as the co-sintered hydroxyapatite-Bioglass (registered) 45S5 bioceramics were examined using XANES spectroscopy. The nature of the crystalline and amorphous phases were studied using silicon (Si) and phosphorus (P) K- and L{sub 2,3}-edge and calcium (Ca) K-edge XANES. Si L{sub 2,3}-edge spectra of sintered bioceramic compositions indicates that the primary silicates present in these compositions are sodium silicates in the amorphous state. From Si K-edge spectra, it is shown that the silicates are in a similar structural environment in all the sintered bioceramic compositions with 4-fold coordination. Using P L{sub 2,3}-edge it is clearly shown that there is no evidence of sodium phosphate present in the sintered bioceramic compositions. In the P K-edge spectra, the post-edge shoulder peak at around 2155 eV indicates that this shoulder to be more defined for calcium phosphate compounds with decreasing solubility and increasing thermodynamic stability. This shoulder peak is more noticeable in hydroxyapatite and {beta}-TCP indicating greater stability of the phosphate phase. The only spectra that does not show a noticeable peak is the composition with Na{sub 3}Ca{sub 6}(PO{sub 4}){sub 5} in a silicate matrix indicating that it is more soluble compared to the other compositions.

  5. A Critical Examination of the X-Wind Model for Chondrule and Calcium-rich, Aluminum-rich Inclusion Formation and Radionuclide Production

    CERN Document Server

    Desch, S J; Connolly, H C; Jr.,; Boss, Alan P

    2010-01-01

    Meteoritic data, especially regarding chondrules and calcium-rich, aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs), and isotopic evidence for short-lived radionuclides (SLRs) in the solar nebula, potentially can constrain how planetary systems form. Intepretation of these data demands an astrophysical model, and the "X-wind" model of Shu et al. (1996) and collaborators has been advanced to explain the origin of chondrules, CAIs and SLRs. It posits that chondrules and CAIs were thermally processed < 0.1 AU from the protostar, then flung by a magnetocentrifugal outflow to the 2-3 AU region to be incorporated into chondrites. Here we critically examine key assumptions and predictions of the X-wind model. We find a number of internal inconsistencies: theory and observation show no solid material exists at 0.1 AU; particles at 0.1 AU cannot escape being accreted into the star; particles at 0.1 AU will collide at speeds high enough to destroy them; thermal sputtering will prevent growth of particles; and launching of particles ...

  6. Refinement of the crystal structure of calcium-lithium-aluminum tourmaline from the pegmatite vein in the Sangilen Upland (Tuva Republic)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The crystal structure of a natural calcium-lithium-aluminum tourmaline, which has the unique composition (Ca0.62Na0.32□0.06)(Al1.08Li0.99Fe0.662+ Mg0.24Ti0.03)Al6[Si6O18](BO3)3(OH2.28O0.72) . (F0.84O0.16), is refined (R = 0.019, Rw = 0.022, S = 1.47). It is found that the O(1)(W) site is split into two sites, O(1) and O(11), which are incompletely occupied by fluorine and oxygen anions, respectively, and that the O(3)(V) site contains bivalent oxygen anions. The solid solution studied is close in composition to the liddicoatite mineral species and differs from the latter one by the Li: Al ratio in the Y octahedra and the presence of bivalent oxygen anions in the O(3) site. The tourmaline studied differs from the hypothetical oxyliddicoatite by the population of the O(1)(W) site by fluorine and accommodation of additional oxygen anions in the O(3)(V) site

  7. Comparative evaluation of human pulp tissue dissolution by different concentrations of chlorine dioxide, calcium hypochlorite and sodium hypochlorite: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonali Taneja

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Irrigation plays an indispensable role in removal of tissue remnants and debris from the complicated root canal system. This study compared the human pulp tissue dissolution by different concentrations of chlorine dioxide, calcium hypochlorite and sodium hypochlorite. Materials and Methods: Pulp tissue was standardized to a weight of 9 mg for each sample. In all,60 samples obtained were divided into 6 groups according to the irrigating solution used- 2.5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl, 5.25% NaOCl, 5% calcium hypochlorite (Ca(OCl 2 , 10% Ca(OCl 2 , 5%chlorine dioxide (ClO 2 and 13% ClO 2 . Pulp tissue was placed in each test tube carrying irrigants of measured volume (5ml according to their specified subgroup time interval: 30 minutes (Subgroup A and 60 minutes (Subgroup B. The solution from each sample test tube was filtered and was left for drying overnight. The residual weight was calculated by filtration method. Results: Mean tissue dissolution increases with increase in time period. Results showed 5.25% NaOCl to be most effective at both time intervals followed by 2.5% NaOCl at 60 minutes, 10%Ca(OCl 2 and 13% ClO 2 at 60 minutes. Least amount of tissue dissolving ability was demonstrated by 5% Ca(OCl 2 and 5% ClO 2 at 30 minutes. Distilled water showed no pulp tissue dissolution. Conclusion: Withinthe limitations of the study, NaOCl most efficiently dissolved the pulp tissue at both concentrations and at both time intervals. Mean tissue dissolution by Ca(OCl 2 and ClO 2 gradually increased with time and with their increase in concentration.

  8. Structural and nano-mechanical properties of Calcium Silicate Hydrate (C-S-H) formed from alite hydration in the presence of sodium and potassium hydroxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendoza, Oscar, E-mail: oamendoz@unal.edu.co [Grupo del Cemento y Materiales de Construcción (CEMATCO). Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Facultad de Minas, Medellín (Colombia); Giraldo, Carolina [Cementos Argos S.A., Medellín (Colombia); Camargo, Sergio S. [Engenharia Metalúrgica e de Materiais, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro/COPPE, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Tobón, Jorge I. [Grupo del Cemento y Materiales de Construcción (CEMATCO). Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Facultad de Minas, Medellín (Colombia)

    2015-08-15

    This research evaluates the effect of sodium and potassium hydroxide on the structure and nano-mechanical properties of Calcium Silicate Hydrate (C-S-H) formed from the hydration of pure alite. Monoclinic (MIII) alite was synthesized and hydrated, using water-to-alite ratios of 0.5 and 0.6 and additions of 10% NaOH and KOH by weight of alite. Based on results of X-ray diffraction, isothermal calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and nanoindentation, two different effects of the alkaline hydroxides on the hydration reaction of alite, both at early and later ages, can be identified: (i) a differentiated hydration process, attributed to an enhancement in calcium hydroxide (CH) precipitation and a stimulation of the C-S-H nuclei; and (ii) an increase in the elastic modulus of the C-S-H aggregations, attributed to an electrostatic attraction between positive charges from the alkaline cations and negative charges from the C-S-H structure.

  9. Structural and nano-mechanical properties of Calcium Silicate Hydrate (C-S-H) formed from alite hydration in the presence of sodium and potassium hydroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research evaluates the effect of sodium and potassium hydroxide on the structure and nano-mechanical properties of Calcium Silicate Hydrate (C-S-H) formed from the hydration of pure alite. Monoclinic (MIII) alite was synthesized and hydrated, using water-to-alite ratios of 0.5 and 0.6 and additions of 10% NaOH and KOH by weight of alite. Based on results of X-ray diffraction, isothermal calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and nanoindentation, two different effects of the alkaline hydroxides on the hydration reaction of alite, both at early and later ages, can be identified: (i) a differentiated hydration process, attributed to an enhancement in calcium hydroxide (CH) precipitation and a stimulation of the C-S-H nuclei; and (ii) an increase in the elastic modulus of the C-S-H aggregations, attributed to an electrostatic attraction between positive charges from the alkaline cations and negative charges from the C-S-H structure

  10. Factors controlling soil water and stream water aluminum concentrations after a clearcut in a forested watershed with calcium-poor soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHale, M.R.; Burns, Douglas A.; Lawrence, G.B.; Murdoch, Peter S.

    2007-01-01

    The 24 ha Dry Creek watershed in the Catskill Mountains of southeastern New York State USA was clearcut during the winter of 1996-1997. The interactions among acidity, nitrate (NO3- ), aluminum (Al), and calcium (Ca2+) in streamwater, soil water, and groundwater were evaluated to determine how they affected the speciation, solubility, and concentrations of Al after the harvest. Watershed soils were characterized by low base saturation, high exchangeable Al concentrations, and low exchangeable base cation concentrations prior to the harvest. Mean streamwater NO3- concentration was about 20 ??mol l-1 for the 3 years before the harvest, increased sharply after the harvest, and peaked at 1,309 ??mol l -1 about 5 months after the harvest. Nitrate and inorganic monomeric aluminum (Alim) export increased by 4-fold during the first year after the harvest. Alim mobilization is of concern because it is toxic to some fish species and can inhibit the uptake of Ca2+ by tree roots. Organic complexation appeared to control Al solubility in the O horizon while ion exchange and possibly equilibrium with imogolite appeared to control Al solubility in the B horizon. Alim and NO3- concentrations were strongly correlated in B-horizon soil water after the clearcut (r2 = 0.96), especially at NO3- concentrations greater than 100 ??mol l-1. Groundwater entering the stream from perennial springs contained high concentrations of base cations and low concentrations of NO3- which mixed with acidic, high Alim soil water and decreased the concentration of Alim in streamwater after the harvest. Five years after the harvest soil water NO 3- concentrations had dropped below preharvest levels as the demand for nitrogen by regenerating vegetation increased, but groundwater NO3- concentrations remained elevated because groundwater has a longer residence time. As a result streamwater NO3- concentrations had not fallen below preharvest levels, even during the growing season, 5 years after the harvest

  11. Development and in vitro evaluation of an oral floating matrix tablet formulation of calcium di-sodium EDTA using gamma scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Heavy metal poisoning remains a widespread problem in most industrial nations. People exposed to these heavy metal while come in contact heavy metal industries. Toxicity is more likely to result through inhalation or ingestion route. It affects a number of important body functions including central nervous and haematopoietic systems, besides hepatic and renal functions. Metal toxicity has also been reported to cause oxidative stress, leading to various physiological malfunctions. Rapid gastrointestinal transit could result in incomplete drug release from the drug delivery system above the absorption zone leading to diminished efficacy of the administered dose. In order to overcome above mentioned problem we have developed a floating drug delivery system of Calcium disodium edetate (CaNa2EDTA) to provide prolong chelation therapy against various heavy metals. Floating matrix tablets of Ca Na2EDTA were found to attain prolonged gastric residence time. A radiolabeling procedure of Ca-disodium-EDTA with 99mTc was standardized using stannous chloride as reducing agent. The radiolabeled complex was added to the optimized tablet. Floating tablets were prepared by wet granulation technique, using polymers such as Hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose (HPMC, Methocel K100M CR), sodium alginate, Chitosan alone or in combination and other standard excipients. Sodium bicarbonate was incorporated as a gas-generating agent. The effects of sodium bicarbonate and poly vinyl alcohol on drug release profile and floating properties were investigated. Dissolution studies were performed to ensure that there was no leaching of radioactivity from the capsules. Gamma scintigraphy was performed in healthy human volunteers to assess the buoyancy of the optimized formulation. The optimized formulation remained buoyant during 4 hours of gamma scintigraphic studies in rabbits

  12. Technical Status Report on the Effect of Phosphate and Aluminum on the Development of Amorphous Phase Separation in Sodium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cozzi, A.D.

    1998-11-03

    The objective of the Tank Focus Area ''Optimize Waste Loading'' task is to enhance the definition of the acceptable processing window for high-level waste vitrification plants. One possible manner in which the acceptable processing window may be enhanced is by reducing the uncertainty of various compositional/property models through a specifically defined experimental plan. A reduction in model uncertainty can reduce limitations on current acceptance constraints and may allow for a larger processing or operational window. Enhanced composition/property model predictions coupled with an increased waste loading may decrease the processing time and waste glass disposal costs (i.e., overall lifecycle costs). One of the compositional/property models currently being evaluated by the Tanks Focus Area is related to the development of amorphous phase separation in multi-component borosilicate glasses.Described in this report is the current status for evaluating the effect of phosphorus and alumina on both simple sodium borosilicate and high-level waste glasses on the formation of amorphous phase separation. The goal of this subtask is to increase the understanding of the formation of phase separation by adding significant amounts (3-5 wt. percent) of phosphorus and alumina to well-characterized glasses. Additional scope includes evaluating the effects of thermal history on the formation of amorphous phase separation and durability of select glasses.The development of data, understanding, and quantitative description for composition and kinetic effects on the development of amorphous phase separation will continue in FY99. This effort will provide insight into the compositional and thermal effects on phase stability and will lead to a better understanding of the methods used to predict the development of amorphous phase separation in HLW glasses.

  13. Effect of Soaking on Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium and Sodium Contents of Chickpea (Cicer aritinum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Reza Mahdavi; Anita Kazem Shayan; Seyed Jamal Ghaemmaghami; Elnaz Faramarzi

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of soaking on peas minerals. Raw peas were soaked for 8, 12 and 24 h in tap water. After drying and acid digestion, 70 samples in 4 groups of raw, 8, 12 and 24 h soaked and also soaking waters of all soaking hours, minerals were measured and compared. The result of present study showed that after 12 and 24 soaking hours, calcium content of peas and after 8, 12 and 24 h soaking time, magnesium and phosphorus content of samples were decreased and...

  14. A CRITICAL EXAMINATION OF THE X-WIND MODEL FOR CHONDRULE AND CALCIUM-RICH, ALUMINUM-RICH INCLUSION FORMATION AND RADIONUCLIDE PRODUCTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meteoritic data, especially regarding chondrules and calcium-rich, aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs), and isotopic evidence for short-lived radionuclides (SLRs) in the solar nebula, potentially can constrain how planetary systems form. Interpretation of these data demands an astrophysical model, and the 'X-wind' model of Shu et al. and collaborators has been advanced to explain the origin of chondrules, CAIs, and SLRs. It posits that chondrules and CAIs were thermally processed <0.1 AU from the protostar, then flung by a magnetocentrifugal outflow to the 2-3 AU region to be incorporated into chondrites. Here we critically examine key assumptions and predictions of the X-wind model. We find a number of internal inconsistencies: theory and observation show no solid material exists at 0.1 AU; particles at 0.1 AU cannot escape being accreted into the star; particles at 0.1 AU will collide at speeds high enough to destroy them; thermal sputtering will prevent growth of particles; and launching of particles in magnetocentrifugal outflows is not modeled, and may not be possible. We also identify a number of incorrect predictions of the X-wind model: the oxygen fugacity where CAIs form is orders of magnitude too oxidizing, chondrule cooling rates are orders of magnitude lower than those experienced by barred olivine chondrules, chondrule-matrix complementarity is not predicted, and the SLRs are not produced in their observed proportions. We conclude that the X-wind model is not relevant to chondrule and CAI formation and SLR production. We discuss more plausible models for chondrule and CAI formation and SLR production.

  15. Regulation of the sodium/potassium/chloride cotransporter by calcium and cyclic AMP in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higgins, B.L.; Smith, L.; Smith, J.B.

    1987-05-01

    The activity of the Na/K/Cl cotransporter in smooth muscle cells cultured from rat aorta was assayed by measuring the initial rate of furosemide-inhibitable /sup 86/Rb influx or efflux. Five uM furosemide or 0.2 uM bumetanide inhibited influx by 50%. Furosemide-inhibitable /sup 86/Rb influx depended on the presence of all 3 ions in the external medium. The dependence on Na and K was hyperbolic with apparent Km values of 45 and 5 mM, respectively. The dependence on Cl was sigmoidal. Assuming a stoichiometry of 1:1:2 for Na:K:Cl, a Km for Cl of 60 mM was obtained from a Hofstee plot of the data. Rapidly growing cells had 3 fold higher cotransport activity than quiescent cells. Angiotensin II (ANG) stimulated furosemide-inhibitable /sup 86/Rb efflux by 2 fold. An ANG receptor antagonist prevented ANG from increasing cotransport activity. Two calcium ionophores, A23187 and ionomycin, increased cotransport activity by 2 fold. Phorbol myristate acetate had no effect on cotransport activity. Isoproterenol, dibutyryl cyclic AMP, cholera toxin, or methylisobutylxanthine inhibited furosemide-sensitive /sup 86/Rb influx by 35 to 50%. From these findings they conclude that increasing cytoplasmic free calcium stimulates cotransport activity, whereas increasing cellular cyclic AMP inhibits the cotransporter.

  16. Alumínio e a absorção de cálcio por mudas de pimenta do reino Aluminum and calcium absorption by black pepper seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Costa Veloso

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Um experimento com solução nutritiva foi conduzido em casa de vegetação com o objetivo de verificar os efeitos da nutrição de cálcio na toxicidade de alumínio em mudas de pimenta do reino. Os tratamentos constituíram-se de três concentrações de cálcio (10; 40 e 160 mg L-1 adicionados como CaCl2 em combinação com três concentrações de alumínio (0; 10 e 20 mg L-1 adicionados como AlCl3.6H2O. A solução nutritiva continha as seguintes concentrações dos íons expressos em mg L-1: N-NO3 (80,5; N-NH4 (10,5; P(1,5; K(39,0; Mg(24,0; S-SO4(32,0; B(0,5; Cu(0,06; Fe(5,0; Mn(1,0; Mo(0,03 e Zn(0,10. Os tratamentos com alumínio retardaram o crescimento das mudas de pimenta do reino, induziram sintomas de toxicidade de alumínio na parte aérea e principalmente aumentaram o diâmetro das raízes. O acúmulo de cálcio aumentou com o incremento da concentração de cálcio na solução na ausência de alumínio, nas raízes o conteúdo de cálcio foi diminuído com o aumento da concentração de alumínio na solução. A absorção de alumínio diminuiu com o aumento da concentração de cálcio na solução.A nutrient solution experiment with was carried out in a greenhouse with the objective of verifying the specific effects of calcium and aluminum toxicity on black pepper seedlings. The treatments were set up in three concentrations of calcium (10; 40 and 160 mg L-1 added as CaCl2 in combination with three concentrations of aluminum (0; 10 and 20 mg L-1 added as AlCl3. 6 H2O. The nutrient solution contained the following ion concentrations in mg L-1: N-NO3 (80,5; N-NH4 (10,5; P(1,5; K(39,0; Mg(24,0; S-SO4(32,0; B(0,5; Cu(0,06; Fe(5,0; Mn(1,0; Mo(0,03 and Zn(0,10. The treatments with aluminum reduced black pepper growth and the diameter of roots increased. Calcium absorption increased with the increase of calcium concentration in the solution, in the absence of aluminum. Calcium absorption by roots decreased with the increase of the

  17. Scientific Opinion on the re-evaluation of sodium stearoyl-2-lactylate (E 481 and calcium stearoyl-2-lactylate (E 482 as food additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to Food (ANS

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Following a request by the European Commission, the Panel of Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to Food (ANS was asked to deliver a scientific opinion on the safety of sodium stearoyl-2-lactylate (E 481, SSL and calcium stearoyl-2-lactylate (E 482, CSL when used as food additives. SSL and CSL are used as emulsifiers and stabilizers. An Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI of 20 mg/kg bw/day for SSL and CSL (either singly or in combination was established in 1974 by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA. The Scientific Committee on Food (SCF endorsed this ADI of 20 mg/kg bw/day in 1978. The biological fate of CSL is comparable in rodent and non-rodent species. The acute oral toxicity in rats is low. Subacute and subchronic oral toxicity studies with SSL and CSL in rats and dogs revealed a NOAEL of 5 % in the diet. Neither SSL and CSL nor their breakdown products stearic and lactic acid raise concern for genotoxicity. The NOAEL in a one-year oral toxicity study with SSL in rats was 2214 mg/kg bw/day for males and 2641 mg/kg bw/day for females. No data on reproductive toxicity and carcinogenicity were available. However, no reproductive or carcinogenic effects are expected since the products of hydrolysis, stearic and lactic acid are constituents of natural food and part of endogenous metabolism in mammals. The Panel concluded that based on the NOAEL of 2200 mg/kg bw/day derived from the one-year toxicity study in rats and an uncertainty factor of 100, an ADI of 22 mg/kg bw/day for sodium stearoyl-2-lactylate (E 481 and calcium stearoyl-2-lactylate (E 482 either singly or in combination can be established. The estimated exposure to SSL and CSL occurs mainly via the consumption of flavoured fermented milk products including heat treated products, bread and rolls and fine bakery wares and is below the ADI of 22 mg/kg bw/day for all the adult population including the elderly, but exceeds the ADI for other groups of the population

  18. Activity diagrams for calcium/hydrogen, sodium/hydrogen, and potassium/hydrogen, and H4SiO4 and their relation to reactions in systems containing radioactive waste forms, cement, and rock in the presence of water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to identify reactions which can occur in systems containing nuclear waste forms, cement, and repository rock in the presence of water, activity diagrams were calculated from free energies for aluminosilicates and calcium silicates. Groundwater compositions from candidate repository sites in the Palo Duro Basin of Texas, the Delaware Basin of New Mexico, and the Nevada Test Site were plotted on these diagrams. Essentially all of these are shown to be in the calcium zeolite field as shown on the diagram for calcium in the absence of other cations. Chlorite is shown to be stable in this region at the Mg and pH level of the Ogallala if the chlorite is high in iron, and at the Mg and pH level of the Wolfcamp low- or high-Fe chlorites are stable. Potassium and sodium mineral relationships fall in two categories, dilute waters and saline waters. Boreholes at Yucca Flat and Mercury Valley at the Nevada Test Site, and shallow ground water from the Rolling Plains north and east of the Palo Duro Basin are in equilibrium with kaolinite. The brines from the Salado and Rustler formations are in equilibrium with kaolinite and possibly also with sodium-potassium zeolite and illite. Leachates of cement and water, and cement, waste, and water were plotted on the calcium silicate activity diagram. These solutions are in equilibrium with calcium silicate hydrate hydrolysis reactions, with grossular and possibly with Ca-zeolites. Among the calcium silicates, calcium-silicate-hydrate gel (C-S-H gel) and tobermorite are the most likely candidates, but the thermodynamic data are not adequate to distinguish all the possibilities. 37 references, 4 figures, 3 tables

  19. The clinical significance of testing serum calcium and sodium in children with febrile convulsion%热性惊厥患儿血清钙、钠检测及其临床意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王刚

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the variation of Serum calcium and sodium concentration in children with febrile convulsion and its significance.Methods:Detect the serum calcium and sodium levels using automatic biochemical analyzer in 76 cases of children with febrile convulsion and 69 cases of the control group with fever,and compared it.Results:Serum calcium and sodium in febrile convulsion group were significantly lower than those of the control group(P<0.05).Conclusion:Children with febrile convulsion is in low calcium and low blood sodium.Reciprocal causation between febrile convulsion and low calcium and low sodium.For the treatment of febrile seizure,we should pay attention to correct the low calcium hyponatremia in addition to conventional anti convulsion and cooling,in order to prevent repeated attack of convulsion,and alleviate the damage on brain and other important organs.%目的:探讨热性惊厥患儿血清钙、钠浓度变化及其意义。方法:采用全自动生化测定仪检测76例热性惊厥患儿和对照组69例发热患儿的血清钙、钠水平,并进行比较分析。结果:热性惊厥组血清钙、钠明显低于对照组(P<0.05)。结论:热性惊厥患儿存在低血钙、低血钠。热性惊厥与低钙、低钠之间互为因果,针对热性惊厥治疗时除常规止惊、降温外应注意纠正低钙低钠血症,预防惊厥反复发作,减轻脑组织和其他重要脏器的损害。

  20. Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of vitamin C (ascorbic acid and sodium calcium ascorbyl phosphate) as a feed additive for all animal species based on a dossier submitted by VITAC EEIG

    OpenAIRE

    EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP)

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin C (formerly known as antiscorbutic vitamin) is essential for primates, guinea pigs and fish. Vitamin C, in the form of ascorbic acid and sodium calcium ascorbyl phosphate, is safe for all animal species. Setting a maximum content in feed and water for drinking is not considered necessary. Data on the vitamin C consumption of consumers are based on the levels of vitamin C in foodstuffs, including food of animal origin, produced in accordance with current EU legislation on the supplemen...

  1. Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of vitamin C (ascorbic acid and sodium calcium ascorbyl phosphate as a feed additive for all animal species based on a dossier submitted by VITAC EEIG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin C (formerly known as antiscorbutic vitamin is essential for primates, guinea pigs and fish. Vitamin C, in the form of ascorbic acid and sodium calcium ascorbyl phosphate, is safe for all animal species. Setting a maximum content in feed and water for drinking is not considered necessary. Data on the vitamin C consumption of consumers are based on the levels of vitamin C in foodstuffs, including food of animal origin, produced in accordance with current EU legislation on the supplementation of feed with vitamin C. The exposure is far below the guidance level. Any potential contribution of the use of vitamin C in feed is therefore already considered in the above data. Consequently, the use of vitamin C in animal nutrition is not of concern for consumer safety. In the absence of inhalation toxicity studies it would be prudent to assume that inhalation of dust from the additives presents a health hazard to workers and measures should be taken to minimise inhalation exposure. In the absence of data, ascorbic acid and sodium calcium ascorbyl phosphate should be considered as irritant to skin and eyes and as dermal sensitisers. The supplementation of feed with vitamin C does not pose a risk to the environment. Ascorbic acid and sodium calcium ascorbyl phosphate are regarded as effective sources of vitamin C when added to feed or water for drinking.

  2. Deep formation waters of Western Europe, Russia and North America characterised by sodium, calcium, magnesium and chloride concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozau, Elke; Hemme, Christina; Sattler, Carl-Diedrich; van Berk, Wolfgang

    2015-04-01

    Deep formation water can be classified according to depth, temperature, and salinity (e.g., Graf et al. 1966, Kharaka & Hanor 2007). Most of the deep formation waters contain dissolved solids in excess of sea water. The hydrogeochemical development of formation water has been discussed for a long time. It is widely accepted that deep aquifers are influenced by the meteoric cycle and geochemical processes within the crust (e.g., Hebig et al. 2012). Similar hydrogeochemical signatures are found in deep formation waters of all continents and can be explained by general geochemical processes within the deep reservoirs (e.g., Land 1995). Therefore, data of deep formation waters from Western Europe, Russia, and North America are collected and classified by the major water components. The data are used to identify important hydrogeochemical processes (e.g., halite dissolution and albitisation) leading to different compositions of formation water. Two significant water types are identified: Na-Cl water and Na-Ca-Cl water. Based on the collected hydrogeochemical data, development trends are stated for the formation waters, and albitisation is favoured as the main process for calcium enrichment. Furthermore, differences of formation water according to stratigraphical units are shown for deep reservoirs of the North German Basin and the North Sea. References: Graf, D.L., 1982. Chemical osmosis, reverse chemical osmosis, and the origin of subsurface brines. Geochimica Cosmochimica Acta 46, 1431-1448. Hebig, K.H., Ito, N., Scheytt, T., Marui, A., 2012. Review: Deep groundwater research with focus on Germany. Hydrogeology Journal 20, 227-243. Kharaka, Y.K., Hanor, J.S., 2007. Deep fluids in continents: I. Sedimentary Basins. Treatise on Geochemistry 5, 1-48. Land, L.S., 1995. The role of saline formation water in the crustal cycling. Aquatic Geochemistry 1, 137-145. Acknowledgements: The presented data are results of the collaborative research program "gebo" (Geothermal energy

  3. The determination of calcium in phosphate, carbonate, and silicate rocks by flame photometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Henry

    1956-01-01

    A method has been developed for the determination of calcium in phosphate, carbonate, and silicate rocks using the Beckman flame photometer, with photomultiplier attachement. The sample is dissolved in hydrofluoric, nitric, and perchloric acids, the hydrofluoric and nitric acids are expelled, a radiation buffer consisting of aluminum, magnesium, iron, sodium, potassium, phosphoric acid, and nitric acid is added, and the solution is atomized in an oxy-hydrogen flame with an instrument setting of 554 mµ. Measurements are made by comparison against calcium standards, prepared in the same manner, in the 0 to 50 ppm range. The suppression of calcium emission by aluminum and phosphate was overcome by the addition of a large excess of magnesium. This addition almost completely restores the standard curve obtained from a solution of calcium nitrate. Interference was noted when the iron concentration in the aspirated solution (including the iron from the buffer) exceeded 100 ppm iron. Other common rock-forming elements did not interfere. The results obtained by this procedure are within ± 2 percent of the calcium oxide values obtained by other methods in the range 1 to 95 percent calcium oxide. In the 0 to 1 percent calcium oxide range the method compares favorably with standard methods.

  4. XRD and NMR investigation of Ti-compound formation in solution-doping of sodium aluminum hydrides: solubility of Ti in NaAlH4 crystals grown in THF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sodium aluminum hydrides have gained attention due to their high hydrogen weight percent (5.5% ideal) compared to interstitial hydrides, and as a model for hydrides with even higher hydrogen weight fraction. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the Ti-compounds that are formed under solution-doping techniques, such as wet doping in solvents such as tetrahydrofuran (THF). Compound formation in Ti-doped sodium aluminum hydrides is investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and magic angle spinning (MAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). We present lattice parameter measurements of crushed single crystals, which were exposed to Ti during growth. Rietveld refinements indicate no lattice parameter change and thus no solubility for Ti in NaAlH4 by this method of exposure. In addition, X-ray diffraction data indicate that no Ti substitutes in NaH, the final decomposition product for the alanate. Reaction products of completely reacted (33.3 at.%-doped) samples that were solvent-mixed or mechanically milled are investigated. Formation of TiAl3 is observed in mechanically milled materials, but not solution mixed samples, where bonding to THF likely stabilizes Ti-based nano-clusters. The Ti in these clusters is activated by mechanical milling

  5. Tunable luminescence and white light emission of novel multiphase sodium calcium silicate nanophosphors doped with Ce3+, Tb3+, and Mn2+ ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study reports the sol–gel synthesis of sodium calcium multiphase silicate (SCMS) nanophosphors. X-ray powder diffraction indicated the crystallization of devitrite (Na2Ca3Si6O16), wollastonite-2M (CaSiO3), and cristobalite (SiO2) phases that consistently occurred together upon repeated syntheses. The multiphase silicate system was used as a host matrix for varied concentrations of Ce3+, Tb3+, and Mn2+ dopant ions which resulted in tunable photoluminescence. A broad violet/UV emission band of Ce3+ (350–425 nm) combined with blue-green emissions of Tb3+ (488 and 545 nm) and a yellow-orange emission of Mn2+ (560 nm) resulted in the observance of white light (x=0.31, y=0.32, TC=6624 K) under midwave UV excitation (300–340 nm). Energy transfer from Ce3+→Tb3+ and Ce3+→Mn2+ was confirmed by steady state and time-resolved emission spectra, lifetime, and quantum yield measurements. The structural properties, morphology, and elemental composition of the nanophosphors were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). -- Highlights: • White light-emitting multiphase silicate nanophosphors were prepared for the first time. • Multiple crystalline silicate phases were reproduced consistently by repeated syntheses. • Energy transfer from Ce3+→Tb3+ and Ce3+→Mn2+ was confirmed by PL, lifetime, and QY measurements

  6. Scientific Opinion on the re-evaluation of propionic acid (E 280, sodium propionate (E 281, calcium propionate (E 282 and potassium propionate (E 283 as food additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to food (ANS

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The EFSA ANS Panel provides a scientific opinion re-evaluating the safety of propionic acid (E 280, sodium propionate (E 281, calcium propionate (E 282 and potassium propionate (E 283 which are authorised as food additives in the EU and have been previously evaluated by the SCF and JECFA. JECFA allocated an ADI “not limited”. The SCF concluded that potassium propionate could be added to the list of preservatives and established an ADI ”not specified”. Propionates are naturally occurring substances in the normal diet. The Panel considered that forestomach hyperplasia reported in long-term studies in rodents is not a relevant endpoint for humans because humans lack this organ. Based on the reported presence of reversible diffuse epithelial hyperplasia in the oesophagus the LOAEL for a 90-day study in dogs was considered by the Panel to be 1 % propionic acid in the diet and the NOAEL to be 0.3 % propionic acid in the diet. The Panel considered that there is no concern with respect to genotoxicity and carcinogenicity. The Panel concluded that the present database did not allow allocation of an ADI for propionic acid - propionates. The overall mean and 95th percentile exposures to propionic acid - propionates resulting from their use as food additives (major contributor to exposure ranged from 0.7-21.1 and 3.6-40.8 mg/kg bw/day, respectively. The Panel noted that the concentration provoking site of contact effect in the 90-day study in dogs (1 % propionic acid in the diet is a factor of three higher than the concentration of propionic acid - propionates in food at the highest permitted level and concluded that for food as consumed, there would not be a safety concern from the maximum concentrations of propionic acid and its salts at their currently authorised uses and use levels as food additives.

  7. [Study on the Influence of Mineralizer on the Preparation of Calcium Aluminates Based on Infrared Spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Wei; Wang, Liang; Zheng, Huai-li; Chen, Wei; Tang, Xiao-min; Shang, Juan-fang; Qian, Li

    2015-05-01

    In this study, effect of mineralizer on the structure and spectraproperties of calcium aluminates formation was extensively studied. Medium or low-grade bauxite and calcium carbonate were used as raw material and mineralizer CaF2 as additive. Calcium aluminates can be obtained after mixing fully, calcination and grinding. The prepared calcium aluminates can be directly used for the production of polyaluminiumchloride (PAC), polymeric aluminum sulfate, sodium aluminate and some other water treatment agents. The calcium aluminates preparation technology was optimized by investigating the mass ratio of raw materials (bauxiteand calcium carbonate) and mineralizer CaF2 dosage. The structure and spectra properties of bauxite and calcium aluminates were characterized by Fourier transform infrared(FTIR) spectroscopy analysis and the mineralization mechanism of the mineralizer was studied. FTIR spectra indicated that the addition of mineralizer promoted the decomposition and transformation of the diaspore, gibbsite and kaolinite, the decomposition of calcium carbonate, and more adequately reaction between bauxite and calcium carbonate. In addition, not only Ca in calcium carbonate and Si in bauxite were more readily reacted, but also Si-O, Si-O-Al and Al-Si bonds in the bauxite were more fractured which contributed to the release of Al in bauxite, and therefore, the dissolution rate of Al2O3 could be improved. The dissolution rate of Al2O3 can be promoted effectively when the mineralizer CaF2 was added in a mass ratio amount of 3%. And the mineralizer CaF2 cannot be fully functioned, when its dosage was in a mass percent of 1. 5%. Low-grade bauxite was easier to sinter for the preparation of calcium aluminates comparing with the highgrade one. The optimum material ratio for the preparation of calcium aluminates calcium at 1 250 °C was the mass ratio between bauxite and calcium carbonate of 1 : 0. 6 and mineralizer CaF2 mass ratio percent of 3%. PMID:26415430

  8. 微波消解-火焰原子吸收光谱法测定氧化铝中的氧化钠%Determination of Sodium Oxide in Aluminum Oxide by Microwave Digestion-flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛心禄

    2012-01-01

    氧化铝中氧化钠含量的测定,一般采用高温熔结,用水浸出钠盐后,用原予吸收火焰光度法测定,该方法的测定周期比较长,而且高温熔结时对铂金皿的损耗比较大。文章提出了试样用磷酸和硫酸混合溶液,在高压微波消解器中进行处理,将样品在较短的时间内消解,并在试液中加入一定量的氯化铯,消除钠的电离干扰,采用原子吸收光谱法直接测定,测试结果与标准样品推荐值比较,结果令人满意。%The sodium oxide content in aluminum oxide is usually determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry with high temperature melting and leaching, which is time consuming and damage platinum bowl. The paper proposed forward to determine with sample of mixed phosphoric acid and sulfuric acid solution to process in the high pressure microwave digestion device. The samples were digested in a relatively short time, and added a certain amount of cesium chloride in the test solution. Used for eliminate ionization interference of sodium to directly determine sodium oxide in aluminum oxide by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. Under the comparison of test results and recommended values of standard samples, it was satisfactory.

  9. Formation of ettringite, Ca 6Al 2(SO 4) 3(OH) 12·26H 2O, AFt, and monosulfate, Ca 4Al 2O 6(SO 4)·14H 2O, AFm-14, in hydrothermal hydration of Portland cement and of calcium aluminum oxide—calcium sulfate dihydrate mixtures studied by in situ synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Axel Nørlund; Jensen, Torben R.; Hanson, Jonathan C.

    2004-06-01

    In the hydration of calcium aluminum oxide-gypsum mixtures, i.e., Ca 3Al 2O 6, Ca 12Al 14O 33 and CaSO 4·2H 2O, the reaction products can be ettringite, Ca 6Al 2(SO 4) 3(OH) 12·26H 2O, monosulfate, Ca 4Al 2O 6(SO 4)·14H 2O, or the calcium aluminum oxide hydrate, Ca 4Al 2O 7·19H 2O. Ettringite is formed if sufficient CaSO 4·2H 2O is present in the mixture. Ettringite is converted to monosulfate when all CaSO 4·2H 2O is consumed in the synthesis of ettringite. The reactions were investigated in the temperature range 25-170°C using in situ synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction. This technique allows the study of very fast chemical reactions that are observed here under hydrothermal conditions. A new experimental approach was developed to perform in situ mixing of the reactants during X-ray data collection.

  10. Formation of ettringite, Ca6Al2(SO4)3(OH)12·26H2O, AFt, and monosulfate, Ca4Al2O6(SO4)·14H2O, AFm-14, in hydrothermal hydration of Portland cement and of calcium aluminum oxide--calcium sulfate dihydrate mixtures studied by in situ synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the hydration of calcium aluminum oxide-gypsum mixtures, i.e., Ca3Al2O6, Ca12Al14O33 and CaSO4·2H2O, the reaction products can be ettringite, Ca6Al2(SO4)3(OH)12·26H2O, monosulfate, Ca4Al2O6(SO4)·14H2O, or the calcium aluminum oxide hydrate, Ca4Al2O7·19H2O. Ettringite is formed if sufficient CaSO4·2H2O is present in the mixture. Ettringite is converted to monosulfate when all CaSO4·2H2O is consumed in the synthesis of ettringite. The reactions were investigated in the temperature range 25-170 degree sign C using in situ synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction. This technique allows the study of very fast chemical reactions that are observed here under hydrothermal conditions. A new experimental approach was developed to perform in situ mixing of the reactants during X-ray data collection

  11. The Effect of Modified Atmosphere Packaging and Addition of Rosemary Extract, Sodium Acetate and Calcium Lactate Mixture on the Quality of Pre-cooked Hamburger Patties during Refrigerated Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Muhlisin,; Kang, Sun Moon; Choi, Won Hee; Lee, Keun Taik; Cheong, Sung Hee; Lee, Sung Ki

    2013-01-01

    The effect of modified atmosphere packaging (MAP; 30% CO2+70% N2 or 100% N2) and an additive mixture (500 ppm rosemary extract, 3,000 ppm sodium acetate and 1,500 ppm calcium lactate) on the quality of pre-cooked hamburger patties during storage at 5°C for 14 d was evaluated. The addition of the additive mixture reduced aerobic and anaerobic bacteria counts in both 30% CO2-MAP (30% CO2+70% N2) and 100% N2-MAP (p

  12. 21 CFR 184.1763 - Sodium hydroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... solution and also by reacting calcium hydroxide with sodium carbonate. (b) The ingredient meets the... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium hydroxide. 184.1763 Section 184.1763 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1763 Sodium hydroxide. (a) Sodium hydroxide (NaOH, CAS Reg....

  13. Hydration of calcium sulfate hemihydrate (CaSO 4· {1}/{2}H 2O) into gypsum (CaSO 4·2H 2O). The influence of the sodium poly(acrylate)/surface interaction and molecular weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boisvert, Jean-Philippe; Domenech, Marc; Foissy, Alain; Persello, Jacques; Mutin, Jean-Claude

    2000-12-01

    The retarding influence of sodium poly(acrylate) (PANa) on the hydration of calcium sulfate hemihydrate (CaSO 4· {1}/{2}H 2O) was investigated. This study reports the influence of sodium poly(acrylate) on hemihydrate dissolution, on homogenous and heterogeneous gypsum (CaSO 4·2H 2O) nucleation as well as on gypsum growth. It is shown that adsorption of PANa does not hinder the dissolution of hemihydrate in the present experimental conditions. The specific interaction of PANa with gypsum can explain the oriented growth of gypsum crystal. The gypsum growth is slowed down but cannot be blocked by the adsorption of PANa. On the other hand, PANa can block the heterogeneous and homogenous gypsum nucleation. As soon as a critical surface density of PANa onto the hemihydrate surface is reached, the heterogeneous gypsum nucleation is prevented and hemihydrate hydration is indefinitely blocked. The interaction between PANa and the hemihydrate surface is of prime importance to control hydration. Also, the influence of the molecular weight of PANa on homogenous nucleation has been investigated. The precipitation of calcium polyacrylate can explain the differences between the two molecular weights used (2100 and 20 000). This work leads to the conclusion that heterogeneous nucleation is the key process that controls hydration of a system in which hemihydrate dissolution, gypsum nucleation and growth are all occurring at the same time in a continuous manner.

  14. Calcium transport in turtle bladder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unidirectional 45Ca fluxes were measured in the turtle bladder under open-circuit and short-circuit conditions. In the open-circuited state net calcium flux (JnetCa) was secretory (serosa to mucosa). Ouabain reversed JnetCa to an absorptive flux. Amiloride reduced both fluxes such that JnetCa was not significantly different from zero. Removal of mucosal sodium caused net calcium absorption; removal of serosal sodium caused calcium secretion. When bladders were short circuited, JnetCa decreased to approximately one-third of control value but remained secretory. When ouabain was added under short-circuit conditions, JnetCa was similar in magnitude and direction to ouabain under open-circuited conditions (i.e., absorptive). Tissue 45Ca content was ≅30-fold lower when the isotope was placed in the mucosal bath, suggesting that the apical membrane is the resistance barrier to calcium transport. The results obtained in this study are best explained by postulating a Ca2+-ATPase on the serosa of the turtle bladder epithelium and a sodium-calcium antiporter on the mucosa. In this model, the energy for calcium movement would be supplied, in large part, by the Na+-K+-ATPase. By increasing cell sodium, ouabain would decrease the activity of the mucosal sodium-calcium exchanger (or reverse it), uncovering active calcium transport across the serosa

  15. The effect of sodium humate upon phosphorus nutrition of plants with variable doses of iron and calcium in tomato water cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Lisiak

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Studies were carried out on the effect of sodium humate upon content of P, Fe, Ca, and dry weight yield of tomato seedlings in water cultures. Nutrient solutions contained 10 times more or 10 times less P, Fe, and Ca than the control (nutrient solution according to Hampe. Sodium humate was effective only in relation to phosphorus at lowered amount of Fe, and supplied the plants with Fe when phosphorus content remained in excess. At lowered Ca content humate was not more effective in relation to phosphorus. Sodium humate protected the plants against inhibiting effects of excessive Ca content, and supplied them with phosphorus.

  16. Aluminum Hydroxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aluminum hydroxide is used for the relief of heartburn, sour stomach, and peptic ulcer pain and to ... Aluminum hydroxide comes as a capsule, a tablet, and an oral liquid and suspension. The dose and ...

  17. Simultaneous determination of free calcium, magnesium, sodium and potassium ion concentrations in simulated milk ultrafiltrate and reconstituted skim milk using the Donnan Membrane Technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gao, R.; Temminghoff, E.J.M.; Leeuwen, van H.P.; Valenberg, van H.J.F.; Eisner, M.D.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.

    2009-01-01

    This study focused on determination of free Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+ and K+ concentrations in a series of CaCl2 solutions, simulated milk ultrafiltrate and reconstituted skim milk using a recently developed Donnan Membrane Technique (DMT). A calcium ion selective electrode was used to compare the DMT results

  18. Co-Localization of Sodium Channel Na[v]1.6 and the Sodium--Calcium Exchanger at Sites of Axonal Injury in the Spinal Cord in EAE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craner, Matthew J.; Hains, Bryan C.; Lo, Albert C.; Black, Joel A.; Waxman, Stephen G.

    2004-01-01

    Axonal degeneration contributes to the development of non-remitting neurological deficits and disability in multiple sclerosis, but the molecular mechanisms that underlie axonal loss in multiple sclerosis are not clearly understood. Studies of white matter axonal injury have demonstrated that voltage-gated sodium channels can provide a route for…

  19. The effect of a high-protein, high-sodium diet on calcium and bone metabolism in postmenopausal women stratified by hormone replacement therapy use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrington, M.; Bennett, T.; Jakobsen, Jette; Ovesen, L.; Brot, C.; Flynn, A.; Cashman, K. D.

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of a high-sodium, high-protein diet on bone metabolism in postmenopausal women ( aged 49 - 60 y) stratified by hormone replacement therapy (HRT) use. In a crossover trial, 18 women (n = 8 HRT users (+HRT) and n = 10 nonusers (-HRT)) were...

  20. Prostaglandin E2 release from dermis regulates sodium permeability of frog skin epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rytved, Klaus A.; Brodin, Birger; Nielsen, Robert

    1995-01-01

    Arachidonic acid, cAMP, epithelium, frog skin, intracellular calcium, prostaglandin E*U2, sodium transport, tight epithelium.......Arachidonic acid, cAMP, epithelium, frog skin, intracellular calcium, prostaglandin E*U2, sodium transport, tight epithelium....

  1. Influence of sodium, calcium, magnesium, and ammonium in the sorption of cadmium in a zeolite rock; Influencia del sodio, calcio, magnesio y amonio en la sorcion de cadmio en una roca zeolitica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teutli S, E.A

    2007-07-01

    The cadmium is one of the more toxic heavy metals and the water pollution by this metal, is originated by industries whose turn is the production of batteries, electroplating processes, the production of pigments and in the refinement process of others metals. The objective of this work was to evaluate the ion exchange of cadmium using natural zeolite, obtained from the Arroyo zone, La Haciendita Municipality, in the State of Chihuahua. The parameters considered in this investigation were: the sorption time, the pH, the initial concentration of cadmium and the influence of sodium, calcium, magnesium and ammonium on the sorption of cadmium in the natural zeolite. Also, the theoretical pattern for kinetics and isotherm that better it is adjusted to those experimental results it was determined. The experimentation results allowed to establish the following conclusions: the sorption of the cadmium doesn't depend on the pH in an interval between 4 and 6; the pattern that better it describes the kinetics it is that of Pseudo-second order of Ho and Mc Kay; the Langmuir-Freundlich pattern is the one that better it describes the sorption isotherm and the calcium is the component that interferes in an important manner in the sorption of cadmium. The carried out investigation contributes to the definition of some of the parameters that should be considered in the development of ion exchangers for the cadmium removal. (Author)

  2. The corrosion inhibition of aluminum and its copper alloys in 1.0 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solution using linear-sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate as inhibitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abd El Rehim, Sayed S.; Amin, Mohammed A. [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University, Abbassia, Cairo (Egypt); Moussa, S.O. [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University, Abbassia, Cairo (Egypt)], E-mail: sherif_m74@yahoo.com; Ellithy, Abdallah S. [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University, Abbassia, Cairo (Egypt)

    2008-12-20

    The corrosion inhibition of Al and its two copper alloys are the subject of tremendous technological importance due to the increased industrial applications of these materials. This paper reports the results of potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopic (EIS) measurements on the corrosion inhibition of Al (Al-2.5% Cu and Al-7.0% Cu) alloys in 1.0 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solution carried out in different concentrations of linear-sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate as an anionic surfactant (LAS) and temperature range from 10 to 60 deg. C. The data revealed that the inhibition efficiency increases with increasing surfactant concentration and time of immersion, and decreases with solution temperature. Energy dispersion X-ray (EDX) observations of the electrode surface confirmed the existence of LAS adsorbed film on the electrode surface. The surfactant acted mainly as cathodic inhibitor. Maximum inhibition efficiency of the surfactant is observed at concentration around its critical micelle concentration (CMC). The inhibition occurs through adsorption of the surfactant on the metal surface without modifying the mechanism of the corrosion process, which tested by UV-spectroscopy. The potential of zero charge (PZC) of aluminum and Al-7.0% Cu was studied by ac-impedance, and the mechanism of adsorption is discussed. The adsorption isotherm is described by Temkin adsorption isotherm. Thermodynamic functions for activation and adsorption process were determined.

  3. Sodium Azide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Matters What's New A - Z Index Facts About Sodium Azide What sodium azide is Sodium azide is a rapidly acting, ... give people sufficient warning of the danger. Where sodium azide is found and how it is used ...

  4. The Revision of Aluminum-containing Food Additive Provisions in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong; Zhang, Ji Yue; Wang, Hua Li; Luo, Peng Jie; Zhang, Jian Bo

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to revise the provisions for aluminum-containing food additives in GB 2760-2011 (The National Food Safety Standard for Use of Food Additives), in order to reduce aluminum exposure among the Chinese population. According to the latest risk assessment results of JECFA and China on aluminum and the actual use of aluminum-containing food additives in certain products, the aluminum-containing food additive-related provisions in GB 2760-2011 were revised. Those revisions included narrowing down the applicable food categories and adjusting the maximum use level of aluminum potassium sulfate and aluminum ammonium sulfate, repealing nine aluminum-containing food additives in puffed food and repealing the use of sodium aluminum phosphate, sodium aluminosilicate and starch aluminum octenylsuccinate in all food. After revision of the use of aluminum food additive provisions, the weekly dietary intake of aluminum in the Chinese population can be reduced to a safe level. PMID:27470109

  5. Hyperosmolar sodium chloride is toxic to cultured neurons and causes reduction of glucose metabolism and ATP levels, an increase in glutamate uptake, and a reduction in cytosolic calcium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morland, Cecilie; Pettersen, Mi Nguyen; Hassel, Bjørnar

    2016-05-01

    Elevation of serum sodium, hypernatremia, which may occur during dehydration or treatment with sodium chloride, may cause brain dysfunction and damage, but toxic mechanisms are poorly understood. We found that exposure to excess NaCl, 10-100mmol/L, for 20h caused cell death in cultured cerebellar granule cells (neurons). Toxicity was due to Na(+), since substituting excess Na(+) with choline reduced cell death to control levels, whereas gluconate instead of excess Cl(-) did not. Prior to cell death from hyperosmolar NaCl, glucose consumption and lactate formation were reduced, and intracellular aspartate levels were elevated, consistent with reduced glycolysis or glucose uptake. Concomitantly, the level of ATP became reduced. Pyruvate, 10mmol/L, reduced NaCl-induced cell death. The extracellular levels of glutamate, taurine, and GABA were concentration-dependently reduced by excess NaCl; high-affinity glutamate uptake increased. High extracellular [Na(+)] caused reduction in intracellular free [Ca(2+)], but a similar effect was seen with mannitol, which was not neurotoxic. We suggest that inhibition of glucose metabolism with ensuing loss of ATP is a neurotoxic mechanism of hyperosmolar sodium, whereas increased uptake of extracellular neuroactive amino acids and reduced intracellular [Ca(2+)] may, if they occur in vivo, contribute to the cerebral dysfunction and delirium described in hypernatremia. PMID:26994581

  6. 1.2. Substitution of sodium on sodium sulfate in alumina and cryolite production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the problems of wastes processing of aluminum production is utilization of sodium sulphate, obtained by crystallization of circulating solutions of gas purification and mixed salt Na2SO4·NaF obtaining at evaporation of these solutions. Therefore, the dry alkaline method of alumina production where instead of sodium used sodium sulfate was studied.

  7. Calcium - urine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003603.htm Calcium - urine To use the sharing features on this ... enable JavaScript. This test measures the amount of calcium in urine. All cells need calcium in order ...

  8. Calcium supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007477.htm Calcium supplements To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. WHO SHOULD TAKE CALCIUM SUPPLEMENTS? Calcium is an important mineral for the ...

  9. Calcium Oscillations

    OpenAIRE

    Dupont, Geneviève; Combettes, Laurent; Bird, Gary S.; Putney, James W.

    2011-01-01

    Calcium signaling results from a complex interplay between activation and inactivation of intracellular and extracellular calcium permeable channels. This complexity is obvious from the pattern of calcium signals observed with modest, physiological concentrations of calcium-mobilizing agonists, which typically present as sequential regenerative discharges of stored calcium, a process referred to as calcium oscillations. In this review, we discuss recent advances in understanding the underlyin...

  10. Aluminum effects on blood chemistry and long bone development in the chick embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firling, C E; Severson, A R; Hill, T A

    1994-01-01

    Body growth, blood chemistry, and long bone development of 10- to 16-day chick embryos (Gallus gallus) treated with aluminum (Al) citrate, sodium (Na) citrate, or sodium chloride (NaCl) were investigated. Two administration protocols were used. Acutely-treated embryos received 6.0 mumol Al citrate or Na citrate on day 8 of incubation. Chronically-treated embryos received a daily dose of 1.5 mumol Al citrate or Na citrate beginning on day 8 of incubation. For both protocols, Al citrate and Na citrate had no significant influence on viability or body weight. Al citrate-treated embryos had: (a) significantly shorter mean tibia lengths by day 16 of incubation, (b) a consistently lower ratio of tibia length: body weight on all days investigated, and (c) a persistent mid-diaphyseal malformation (angulation) of the femur and tibia. Spatially correlated with the malformation was a calcification defect detected by alizarin red S staining of intact tibias and the accumulation of aluminum as demonstrated by acid solochrome azurine staining of histological sections. Aluminum was localized at the mineralization front of the osteogenic collar surrounding the cartilage core of the tibia. Aluminum citrate or Na citrate had no significant effect on serum total calcium, inorganic phosphorus, total alkaline phosphatase activity, or creatinine, except for a transitory hypercalcemia (day 10) and phosphatemia (days 10 and 12) in Al citrate-treated embryos. The concomitant localization of Al and the early calcification defect in the region of tibial malformation implicate aluminum in the pathogenesis of the skeletal abnormality. PMID:7998819

  11. Preliminary Study on a Novel Process for Manufacturing Soda Ash from Sodium Sulfate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王天贵; 李佐虎

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to find a new way for utilizing the rich sodium sulfate resource to produce soda ash. A novel process is proposed which uses aqueous dichromate solution as working medium through decomposition of calcium carbonate in aqueous sodium dichromate, complex decomposition of aqueous sodium sulfate and calcium chromate, regeneration of sodium dichromate and production of sodium bicarbonate from carbonation of aqueous sodium chromate solution, processing and utilization of byproduct calcium sulfate, and production of sodium carbonate from sodium bicarbonate. The process has the features of less corrosion and pollution and low energy consumption.

  12. Determination of the physiological plasmatic values of sodium, potassium and ion calcium and its pre and post exercise Variations in “paso fino” horses in the bogota savannah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Valdés Restrepo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This research intends to be a contribution to the Colombian sports equine medicine by providing data on electrolytes standards, a field where there is a substantial lack of literature. This research analyze and determines the normal values of sodium (Na+,potassium (K+ and ion calcium (iCa2+ electrolytes for Colombian Paso Fine horses. The establishment of the reference intervals was done at rest and after exercise. To achieve this, blood samples were taken from farms located in the Bogotá savannah. The 115 mares and stallions used for this study were actively competing with ages ranging from 43 to 78 months old. The samples were taken at three intervals: T0 (Rest,T1 (immediately after 45 minutes of exercise, and T2(1 hour post exercise. The samples were processed using a portable blood analyzer i-STAT® and the data was interpreted using descriptive and comparative statistic according to Turkey tests. The normal values for the breed were established and an electrolytic behavior curve was created, using values inside interval sat 95% confidence levels. The values obtained inmEq/L were: for T0: Na+ (136,71+/-0,23, K+ (4,05+/-0,03, Ca2+ (1,58+/-0,006; for T1: Na+ (136,44+/-0,24, K+ (3,92+/-0,24, Ca2+ (1,42+/-0,008; and for T2: Na+ (137,32+/-0,23, K+ (3,68+/-0,03, Ca2+(1,51+/-0,009. Na+ values increased after exercise. On the contrary K+ and Ca2+ values didn’t increase inT1. Calcium increased on T2 and K+ decreased. The findings of this research will serve as a framework for future analysis. Moreover, further studies and developments in this field are recommended and will prove to be very useful for equine practitioners.

  13. CALCIUM SOAP LUBRICANTS

    OpenAIRE

    Alaz, Izer; Tugce, Nefise; Devrim, Balköse

    2014-01-01

    The article studies the properties of calcium stearate (CaSt2) and lubricants produced on its basis. These lubricants were prepared using sodium stearate and calcium chloride by subsidence from aqueous solutions. The CaSt2 and the light fraction of crude oil were mixed together to obtain lubricating substances. The article shows that CaSt2 had the melting temperature of 142.8 C that is higher than the melting temperature of crude oil (128 C). The compositions of obtained lubricants were stu...

  14. 钠钙交换体在支气管哮喘发病中的作用%The role of sodium-calcium exchanger in the pathogenesis of bronchial asthma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐希; 张畅; 商艳; 李强; 白冲

    2015-01-01

    Bronchial asthma (asthma) is a prevalent chronic respiratory systemic disease,whose characteristic representation is airway hyperreactivity and airway remodeling,in which airway smooth muscle cells (ASMCs) as major effective cells,play a very important role.Though the relevant controlling pathogenesis is uncertain,a lot of studies found that the homeostatic unbalance of ASMCs cytoplasmic calcium could result in the dysfunction of cellular contraction and relaxation,which have a close relationship with the morbidity of asthma.The sodium-calcium exchanger (NCX) is a Na+-Ca2+ transporting protein in the plasmalemma,play an important role in maintaining ASMCs cytoplasmic calcium homeostasis and cellular structure and function via regulation of intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i).In this review,we will give a summary of the structure,the function and the pathophysiologic significance in the of asthmatic morbidity of NCX.%支气管哮喘(简称哮喘)是一种常见的慢性呼吸系统疾病,特征性表现为气道高反应性和气道重塑,其中气道平滑肌细胞作为主要的效应细胞,发挥了非常重要的作用.尽管相关调控机制尚不清楚,但大量研究表明平滑肌细胞胞浆钙稳态失衡能够导致细胞收缩及舒张功能紊乱,与哮喘发病关系密切.钠钙交换体是一种存在于细胞膜上的Na+-Ca2+转运蛋白,通过调控细胞内钙离子浓度对维持平滑肌细胞钙稳态以及细胞结构与功能具有重要作用.本文就钠钙交换体的结构、功能及其在哮喘发病中的病理生理学意义作一综述.

  15. 钠钙双碱法烟气脱硫主要影响因素的实验研究%Modeling research on main influence factors of flue gas desulfurization by sodium-calcium dual-alkali scrubbing method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余新明

    2001-01-01

    Main influence factors(scrubber′s gas velocities,SO2 inlet concentrations,values pH or [Na+] of absorption liquid,ratios of liquid to gas volumes) of flue gas desulfurization(FGD) have been researched by a scrubber with fiber railing panels at laboratory by Sodium-calcium Dual-alkali Scrubbing Method.Some relations have been achieved on the influence factors and desulfurization efficiencies.%采用纤维栅洗涤器在实验室对钠钙双碱法烟气脱硫效率的主要影响因素:洗涤器的风速、烟气SO2初始浓度、吸收液pH值及[Na+]浓度、液气比等进行了模拟实验,得出了它们与烟气脱硫效率的关系。

  16. The Effect of Modified Atmosphere Packaging and Addition of Rosemary Extract, Sodium Acetate and Calcium Lactate Mixture on the Quality of Pre-cooked Hamburger Patties during Refrigerated Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhlisin; Kang, Sun Moon; Choi, Won Hee; Lee, Keun Taik; Cheong, Sung Hee; Lee, Sung Ki

    2013-01-01

    The effect of modified atmosphere packaging (MAP; 30% CO2+70% N2 or 100% N2) and an additive mixture (500 ppm rosemary extract, 3,000 ppm sodium acetate and 1,500 ppm calcium lactate) on the quality of pre-cooked hamburger patties during storage at 5°C for 14 d was evaluated. The addition of the additive mixture reduced aerobic and anaerobic bacteria counts in both 30% CO2-MAP (30% CO2+70% N2) and 100% N2-MAP (p<0.05). The 30% CO2-MAP was more effective to suppress the microbial growth than 100% N2-MAP, moreover the 30% CO2-MAP combined with additive mixture resulted in the lowest bacterial counts. The hamburger patties with additive mixture showed lower CIE L* and CIE a*, and higher CIE b* than those with no additive mixture. The 30% CO2-MAP tended to decrease the TBARS during storage regardless of the addition of additives. The use of 30% CO2-MAP in combination with additives mixture was effective for maintaining the quality and extending the shelf-life of pre-cooked hamburger patties. PMID:25049716

  17. Intercomparison 9711. pH, conductivity, alkalinity, nitrate + nitrite, chloride, sulfate, calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, total aluminium, reactive and non-labile aluminium, dissolved organic carbon, and chemical oxygen demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hovind, Haavard

    1997-09-22

    The work described in this report was a part of an international cooperative programme for assessment and monitoring of acidification of rivers and lakes. Two sample sets were prepared for intercomparison, one for determination of the major ions, the other for determination of aluminium fractions and unspecified organic matter. The samples were sent to 50 laboratories and 47 laboratories from 22 countries submitted results. Good agreement was found for chloride, sulfate, calcium, magnesium, sodium and the unspecific organic compounds, dissolved organic carbon and chemical oxygen demand, more than 80% being evaluated as acceptable for these analytic variables. The results for nitrate + nitrite and aluminium species did not agree well, probably because different methods were used to determine the aluminium species. On the whole, 78% of the results were within the general target accuracy of plus or minus 20%. Laboratories with results outside this accuracy should improve their methods if they want to analyse low-concentration samples. To improve the compatibility of the analytical results for aluminium fractions, it seems necessary to normalize the analytical methods and determination techniques used for these determinations. A total error of plus minus 0.2 pH units seems to be a reasonable assessment of the accuracy for pH measurements when weakly acid or neutral water samples not in CO{sub 2} equilibrium are analyzed. 7 refs., 1 fig., 34 tabs.

  18. Study on silicate-calcium phosphate composite bone cement modified by sodium carbonate solution%碳酸钠液相改性硅-磷酸钙复合骨水泥研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李青林; 杨帮成

    2014-01-01

    以质量分数70%的硅酸三钙(Ca3 SiO5,C3 S)和30%磷酸氢钙(CaHPO4·2H2 O,DCPD)复合得到的 DCP30粉体材料为固相,以不同浓度碳酸钠溶液为液相,得到碳酸钠改性骨水泥材料。使用 X 射线衍射(XRD)、扫描电镜(SEM)、万能材料试验机等手段对不同浓度改性材料进行表征。结果显示:添加碳酸钠液相,骨水泥初、终凝时间分别缩短至16和55 min;调控碳酸钠液相浓度,可以实现短期抗压强度优化;使用碳酸钠后,固化自发生成羟基磷灰石(HA)。浸泡模拟体液(SBF)7天,材料表面覆盖 HA 沉积层,生物活性优越。碳酸钠液相改性硅-磷酸钙复合骨水泥体系的水化性能、短期力学性能以及生物活性均优于Ca3 SiO5水泥和未改性硅-磷酸钙复合骨水泥,是一种良好的生物活性骨修复材料。%Sodium carbonate solution modified bone cement materials have been prepared using sodium carbonate solution with dif-ferent concentration as liquid phase and DCP30 powder material obtained by 70% mass fraction tricalcium silicate (Ca3 SiO5 ,C3 S) and 30% dicalcium phosphate (CaHPO4 ·2H2 O,DCPD)as the solid phase.The materials were characterized by the means of X-ray diffraction (XRD),scanning electron microscope (SEM)and mechanical test.The results show that the initial and final set-ting time of bone cement is reduced to 16 and 55 min by the addition of sodium carbonate solution.The short-term mechanical strength can be optimized by controlling the concentration of sodium carbonate solution.Hydroxyapatite (HA)can spontaneously form after the use of sodium carbonate solution.HA forms on the surface of bone-cement after immersion in SBF for 7 days,indi-cating its good bioactivity.The modified system shows better hydraulic property,bioactivity and mechanical strength than Ca3 SiO5 cement and unmodifiled silicate-calcium phosphate composite bone cement,suggesting the new system is a

  19. Assessment of sodium conductor distribution cable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-06-01

    The study assesses the barriers and incentives for using sodium conductor distribution cable. The assessment considers environmental, safety, energy conservation, electrical performance and economic factors. Along with all of these factors considered in the assessment, the sodium distribution cable system is compared to the present day alternative - an aluminum conductor system. (TFD)

  20. Calcium-Ask1-MKK7-JNK2-c-Src Signaling Cascade Mediates Disruption of Intestinal Epithelial Tight Junctions by Dextran Sulfate Sodium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samak, Geetha; Chaudhry, Kamaljit K.; Gangwar, Ruchika; Narayanan, Damodaran; Jaggar, Jonathan H.; Rao, RadhaKrishna

    2015-01-01

    Disruption of intestinal epithelial tight junctions is an important event in the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis. Dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) induces colitis in mice with the symptoms similar to ulcerative colitis. However, the mechanism of DSS-induced colitis is unknown. We investigated the mechanism of DSS-induced disruption of intestinal epithelial tight junctions and barrier dysfunction in Caco-2 cell monolayers in vitro and mouse colon in vivo. DSS treatment resulted in disruption of tight junctions, adherens junctions and actin cytoskeleton leading to barrier dysfunction in Caco-2 cell monolayers. DSS induced a rapid activation of c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and the inhibition or knockdown of JNK2 attenuated DSS-induced tight junction disruption and barrier dysfunction. In mice, DSS administration for 4 days caused redistribution of tight junction and adherens junction proteins from the epithelial junctions, which was blocked by JNK inhibitor. In Caco-2 cell monolayers, DSS increased intracellular Ca2+ concentration, and depletion of intracellular Ca2+ by BAPTA or thapsigargin attenuated DSS-induced JNK activation, tight junction disruption and barrier dysfunction. Knockdown of Ask1 or MKK7 blocked DSS-induced tight junction disruption and barrier dysfunction. DSS activated c-Src by a Ca2+ and JNK-dependent mechanism. Inhibition of Src kinase activity or knockdown of c-Src blocked DSS-induced tight junction disruption and barrier dysfunction. DSS increased Tyr-phosphorylation of occludin, ZO-1, E-cadherin and β-catenin. SP600125 abrogated DSS-induced Tyr-phosphorylation of junctional proteins. Recombinant JNK2 induced threonine phosphorylation and auto phosphorylation of c-Src. This study demonstrates that Ca2+-Ask1-MKK7-JNK2-cSrc signaling cascade mediates DSS-induced tight junction disruption and barrier dysfunction. PMID:25377781

  1. Leak detector of liquid sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Object: To arrange a cable core connected to a leakage current detector on the outer wall of piping for liquid sodium, devices or the like and apply a voltage to said core and outer wall to quickly and securely detect the leakage of liquid sodium. Structure: A cable, which is composed of metal coating formed of metal material (copper, steel, stainless, etc.) which is apt to be corroded by reaction products of liquid sodium with water and oxygen in air, and metal oxide (such as magnesium oxide, beryllium oxide, aluminum oxide) as an electric insulator is arranged on the outer wall of pipes or devices. In the event sodium is leaked from the pipes or devices, said metal coating and the insulator are corroded, and the leakage of sodium is sensed by a leakage current detector through the core in the cable. (Kamimura, M.)

  2. Mixed cation effect in sodium aluminosilicate glasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Jonas; Smedskjær, Morten Mattrup; Mauro, John C.;

    , network structure, and the resistances associated with the deformation processes in mixed cation glasses by partially substituting magnesium for calcium and calcium for lithium in sodium aluminosilicate glasses. We use Raman and 27Al NMR spectroscopies to obtain insights into the structural and...

  3. ICP-OES法同时测定燕麦片中的钾、钠、钙、镁、铁、锌%Simultaneous determination of potassium, sodium, calcium, magnesium, iron, zinc in oatmeal with ICP-OES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙丽萍; 张素娟; 梁宝爱

    2015-01-01

    The determination method of potassium, sodium, calcium, magnesium, iron, zinc in oatmeal was established by the optimization of ICP-AES instruments conditions, with three different digestion methods. The results show that the linear relationship of each element elements is good, the correlation coefficient is above 0.999 9, the relative standard deviation is 1.5%~3.3% and the recovery rate is 82.3%~ 109.4%. The method is operated conveniently, with high accuracy and good precision. The test results of both the method (ICP-OES) and the national standard method are consistent, with no significant difference, and suitable for determination of mineral element in oatmeal.%通过对ICP-OES仪器条件的优化,采用3种不同消解方法,建立了燕麦片中钾、钠、钙、镁、铁、锌各元素的测定方法。试验结果表明,该方法中各元素的线性关系良好,相关系数均在0.9999以上,其相对标准偏差为1.5%~3.3%,回收率为82.3%~109.4%。该方法操作便捷、准确度高、精密度好,与国标方法比较检测结果一致,无显著性差异,适用于燕麦片中矿物质元素的测定。

  4. Sodium Phosphate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodium phosphate is used in adults 18 years of age or older to empty the colon (large intestine, bowel) ... view of the walls of the colon. Sodium phosphate is in a class of medications called saline ...

  5. Sodium Oxybate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodium oxybate is used to prevent attacks of cataplexy (episodes of muscle weakness that begin suddenly and ... urge to sleep during daily activities, and cataplexy). Sodium oxybate is in a class of medications called ...

  6. Sodium Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Sodium Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: Na Formal name: Sodium Related tests: Chloride , Bicarbonate , Potassium , Electrolytes , Osmolality , Basic ...

  7. Sodium Oxybate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sodium oxybate.Sodium oxybate is not available at retail pharmacies. A special program is in place to ... Drug Administration's (FDA) MedWatch Adverse Event Reporting program online (http://www.fda.gov/Safety/MedWatch) or by ...

  8. The solubility and thermodynamic properties of ettringite, its chromium analogs, and calcium aluminum monochromate (3CaO*Al(2)O(3)*CaCrO(4)*nH(2)O)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Robert Benjamin

    Ettringite (Ca6[(Al(OH)6)]2(SO 4)3·26H2O) is a naturally-occurring mineral and an important product of the hydration of Portland cements and fly ash. Substitution of Cr(III) for Al(III) and CrO4 for SO4 in the ettringite structure has been demonstrated and may be important with respect to the fate and transport of chromium in alkaline environments. Ettringite and its chromium analogs were synthesized and their solubilities measured via dissolution and precipitation experiments over a range of temperatures between 5 and 75°C and pH values between 10 and 13. The log KSP,298 for the reaction Ca6AlOH 62SO 43˙26H2O =6Ca2++2AlOH -4 +3SO 2-4 +4OH-+26H2O is -44.9 +/- 0.3. The enthalpy and entropy of reaction are 205 +/- 12 kJ mol-1 and 170 +/- 38 J mol -1 K-1, respectively. The free energy, enthalpy, and entropy of formation are -15211 +/- 20, -17550 +/- 16 kJ mol-1, and 1870 +/- 59 J mol -1 K-1, respectively, based on the reaction parameters and partial molar properties for the dissolved ions. The log KSP, free energy, and enthalpy of reaction for the Cr(III) ettringite analog, bentorite, are KSP,298 = -52.9 +/- 0.8, DeltaG°r,298 = 302 +/- 10 and DeltaH°r = 320 +/- 76 kJ mol-1 based on an equivalent dissolution reaction. Dissolution of bentorite is incongruent due to precipitation of another phase tentatively identified as Ca2Cr2O5·8H 2O. The log KSP, free energy and enthalpy of reaction for the dissolution of Ca6[(Al(OH)6)]2(CrO4 )3·26H2O are KSP,298 = -41.46 +/- 0.30, DeltaG°r,298 = 236.6 +/- 3.9 and DeltaH°r = 77.5 +/- 9.6 kJ mol-1. The log KSP varies with pH unless a CaCrO4(aq) complex is included in the speciation model. A log formation constant of K = 2.77 +/- 0.16 was obtained for the reaction Ca2+ + CrO42- = CaCrO 4(aq) by minimizing the variance of the IAP for Ca6[(Al(OH) 6)]2(CrO4)3·26H2O. A secondary precipitate, identified as calcium aluminum monochromate or (3CaO·Al2O3·CaCrO4·nH 2O) was present in Cr(VI)-analog experimental residues. The log K SP

  9. 聚丙烯酸钠的合成及其相对分子质量对CaCO3分散性的影响%Synthesis of sodium polyacrylate and the effect of its relative molecular mass on dispersion of calcium carbonate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范宝安

    2011-01-01

    The author prepared sodium polyacrylate with different relative molecular mass via aqueous solution polymerization in the presence of Na2S2O8 as initiator and NaHSO3 as chain transfer agent by regulating the molar ratio of the initiator to the chain transfer agent. The effect of the relative molecular mass of sodium polyacrylate as dispersing agent on dispersancy of calcium carbonate was studied. The results show that the dispersancy effectiveness of the sodium polyacrylate is closely dependent on its relative molecular mass and is undesirable in the case of too high or too low relative molecular mass. The dispersancy to the calcium carbonate attains its maximum when the viscosity average molecular mass of sodium polyacrylate is in the range of 3 000 to 3 500.%采用水溶液聚合法,以NaSO作引发剂,NaHSO作链转移剂,通过调整引发剂和链转移剂之间的摩尔比制备了具有不同相对分子质量的聚丙烯酸钠.研究了聚丙烯酸钠作为分散剂时,其相对分子质量对CaCO分散性的影响.结果表明:聚丙烯酸钠的分散效果与其相对分子质量有很大关系,相对分子质量过高或过低,分散效果都不理想.当聚丙烯酸钠黏均分子量在3 000-3 500时,对CaCO的分散性最好.

  10. Preliminary Study on a Novel Process for Manufacturing Soda Ash from Sodium Sulfate%一种新的芒硝制碱法实验室研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王天贵; 李佐虎

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to find a new way for utilizing the rich sodium sulfate resource to produce soda ash.A novel process is proposed which uses aqueous dichromate solution as working medium through decomposition of calcium carbonate in aqueous sodium dichromate,complex decomposition of aqueous sodium sulfate and calcium chromate,regeneration of sodium dichromate and production of sodium bicarbonate from carbonation of aqueous sodium chromate solution,processing and utilization of byproduct calcium sulfate,and production of sodium carbonate from sodium bicarbonate.The process has the features of less corrosion and pollution and low energy consumption.

  11. Aluminum-rich mesoporous MFI - type zeolite single crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kustova, Marina; Kustov, Arkadii; Christensen, Christina Hviid

    Zeolitcs are crystalline materials, which are widely used as solid acid catalysts and supports in many industrial processes. Recently, mesoporous MFI-type zeolite single crystals were synthesized by use of carbon particles as a mesopore template and sodium aluminate as the aluminum Source. With...... this technique, only zeolites with relatively low Al contents were reported (Si/Al ratio about 100). In this work, the preparation of aluminum-rich mesoporous MFI-type zeolite single crystals (Si/Al similar to 16-50) using aluminum isopropoxide as the aluminum Source is reported for the first time. All...

  12. Aluminum-rich mesoporous MFI - type zeolite single crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kustova, Marina; Kustov, Arkadii; Christensen, Christina Hviid

    2005-01-01

    Zeolitcs are crystalline materials, which are widely used as solid acid catalysts and supports in many industrial processes. Recently, mesoporous MFI-type zeolite single crystals were synthesized by use of carbon particles as a mesopore template and sodium aluminate as the aluminum Source. With...... this technique, only zeolites with relatively low Al contents were reported (Si/Al ratio about 100). In this work, the preparation of aluminum-rich mesoporous MFI-type zeolite single crystals (Si/Al similar to 16-50) using aluminum isopropoxide as the aluminum Source is reported for the first time. All...

  13. Hidden Sodium

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-03-04

    In this podcast, learn about reducing sodium intake by knowing what to eat and the main sources of sodium in the diet. It's important for a healthy lifestyle.  Created: 3/4/2013 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 3/4/2013.

  14. Dietary sodium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graudal, Niels

    2015-01-01

    The 2013 Institute of Medicine (IOM) report "Sodium Intake in Populations: Assessment of Evidence" did not support the current recommendations of the IOM and the American Heart Association (AHA) to reduce daily dietary sodium intake to below 2,300 mg. The report concluded that the population......-based health outcome evidence was not sufficient to define a safe upper intake level for sodium. Recent studies have extended this conclusion to show that a sodium intake below 2,300 mg/day is associated with increased mortality. In spite of this increasing body of evidence, the AHA, Centers for Disease...... Control (CDC), other public health advisory bodies, and major medical journals have continued to support the current policy of reducing dietary sodium....

  15. Calcium Carbonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... before being swallowed; do not swallow them whole. Drink a full glass of water after taking either the regular or chewable tablets or capsules. Some liquid forms of calcium carbonate must be shaken well before use.Do not ...

  16. Calcium Electroporation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Stine Krog; Gibot, Laure; Madi, Moinecha;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Calcium electroporation describes the use of high voltage electric pulses to introduce supraphysiological calcium concentrations into cells. This promising method is currently in clinical trial as an anti-cancer treatment. One very important issue is the relation between tumor cell kill...... efficacy-and normal cell sensitivity. METHODS: Using a 3D spheroid cell culture model we have tested the effect of calcium electroporation and electrochemotherapy using bleomycin on three different human cancer cell lines: a colorectal adenocarcinoma (HT29), a bladder transitional cell carcinoma (SW780......), and a breast adenocarcinoma (MDA-MB231), as well as on primary normal human dermal fibroblasts (HDF-n). RESULTS: The results showed a clear reduction in spheroid size in all three cancer cell spheroids three days after treatment with respectively calcium electroporation (p<0.0001) or...

  17. Calcium Calculator

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Latvia - Lebanon - Libya - Lithuania - Luxembourg - Macedonia, Republic of - Malaysia - Malta - Mexico - Moldova - Morocco - Netherlands - New Zealand - Nigeria - ... and Statistics Popular content Calcium content of common foods What is Osteoporosis? The Board Introduction to Bone ...

  18. The viability of aluminum Zintl anion moieties within magnesium-aluminum clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Haopeng; Jae Ko, Yeon; Zhang, Xinxing; Gantefoer, Gerd; Bowen, Kit H., E-mail: kiran@mcneese.edu, E-mail: akandalam@wcupa.edu, E-mail: kbowen@jhu.edu [Department of Chemistry, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218 (United States); Schnoeckel, Hansgeorg [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, 76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); Eichhorn, Bryan W. [Department of Chemistry, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); Jena, Puru [Department of Physics, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23284 (United States); Kiran, Boggavarapu, E-mail: kiran@mcneese.edu, E-mail: akandalam@wcupa.edu, E-mail: kbowen@jhu.edu [Department of Chemistry, McNeese State University, Lake Charles, Louisiana 70609 (United States); Kandalam, Anil K., E-mail: kiran@mcneese.edu, E-mail: akandalam@wcupa.edu, E-mail: kbowen@jhu.edu [Department of Physics, West Chester University, West Chester, Pennsylvania 19383 (United States)

    2014-03-28

    Through a synergetic combination of anion photoelectron spectroscopy and density functional theory based calculations, we have investigated the extent to which the aluminum moieties within selected magnesium-aluminum clusters are Zintl anions. Magnesium-aluminum cluster anions were generated in a pulsed arc discharge source. After mass selection, photoelectron spectra of Mg{sub m}Al{sub n}{sup −} (m, n = 1,6; 2,5; 2,12; and 3,11) were measured by a magnetic bottle, electron energy analyzer. Calculations on these four stoichiometries provided geometric structures and full charge analyses for the cluster anions and their neutral cluster counterparts, as well as photodetachment transition energies (stick spectra). Calculations revealed that, unlike the cases of recently reported sodium-aluminum clusters, the formation of aluminum Zintl anion moieties within magnesium-aluminum clusters was limited in most cases by weak charge transfer between the magnesium atoms and their aluminum cluster moieties. Only in cases of high magnesium content, e.g., in Mg{sub 3}Al{sub 11} and Mg{sub 2}Al{sub 12}{sup −}, did the aluminum moieties exhibit Zintl anion-like characteristics.

  19. 21 CFR 201.70 - Calcium labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... product is more than 3.2 grams: “Ask a doctor before use if you have 1 kidney stones a calcium-restricted diet”. The warnings in §§ 201.64(c), 201.70(c), 201.71(c), and 201.72(c) may be combined, if applicable, provided the ingredients are listed in alphabetical order, e.g., a calcium or sodium restricted diet. 1...

  20. Gel time of calcium acrylate grouting material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Tong-Chun

    2004-08-01

    Calcium acrylate is a polymerized grout, and can polymerize in an aqueous solution. The polymerization reaction utilizes ammonium persulfate as a catalyst and sodium thiosulfate as the activator. Based on the theory of reaction kinetics, this study on the relation between gel time and concentration of activator and catalyst showed that gel time of calcium acrylate is inversely proportional to activator and catalyst concentration. A formula of gel time is proposed, and an example is provided to verify the proposed formula. PMID:15236477

  1. Fondaparinux sodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keam, Susan J; Goa, Karen L

    2002-01-01

    black triangle Fondaparinux sodium, a selective factor Xa inhibitor, is the first in a new class of antithrombotics. It binds selectively with high affinity to antithrombin III and specifically catalyses the inactivation of factor Xa. The elimination half-life of fondaparinux sodium permits once daily treatment. black triangle A randomised, double-blind, parallel-group, dose-ranging, multicentre phase IIb study in 933 eligible patients established that a subcutaneous dose of between 1.5 and 3mg of fondaparinux sodium has the optimum efficacy and safety profile for prophylaxis of venous thromboembolism in patients undergoing major orthopaedic surgery. black triangle Fondaparinux sodium, given to more than 3600 patients undergoing major orthopaedic surgery who participated in prospective, randomised, double-blind, multicentre phase III clinical trials, significantly reduced the incidence of venous thromboembolism, with an overall risk reduction of 55.2% compared with enoxaparin. black triangle Fondaparinux sodium was well tolerated by patients undergoing major orthopaedic surgery, and at the recommended clinical dose of 2.5mg has a similar tolerability profile, including bleeding events, to standard enoxaparin regimens. Fondaparinux sodium has not been reported to cause antibody-induced thrombocytopenia. PMID:12109927

  2. Calcium pyrophosphate arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate deposition disease; CPPD disease; Acute CPPD arthritis; Pseudogout ... Calcium pyrophosphate arthritis is caused by the collection of salt called calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD). The buildup ...

  3. Uptake of sodium in quince, sugar beet, and wheat protoplasts determined by the fluorescent sodium-binding dye benzofuran isophthalate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Onofrio, Claudio; Kader, Abdul; Lindberg, Sylvia

    2005-04-01

    The uptake of sodium into protoplasts of quince (Cydonia oblonga Mill, clone BA29), sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. cv. Monohill), and wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Kadett) was determined by use of the acetoxy methyl ester of the fluorescent sodium-binding benzofuran isopthalate (SBFI-AM). In the presence of 1 mM CaCl2, little sodium was taken up in the cytosol of quince mesophyll cells compared to cytosols of sugar beet and wheat. Upon addition of 40 mM NaCl, approximately the same amount of sodium was taken up in leaf and root protoplasts of wheat, but no sodium was taken up in quince. However, in calcium-free medium, obtained by addition of ethylene glycol tetra acetic acid (EGTA), quince protoplasts transiently took up sodium in the cytosol when 200-400 mM NaCl was added to the protoplast medium. Moreover, after cultivation of quince in the presence of 200 mM sodium for 4 weeks, the cytosol of isolated protoplasts did not take up any sodium at all from a calcium-free medium. The results show that protoplasts from salt tolerant quince only temporarily take up sodium in the cytosol and that they have a mechanism for fast extrusion of sodium from that compartment. These mechanisms are probably important for the high salt tolerance of quince. Calcium blocks the sodium uptake into the cytosol of both quince and wheat protoplasts. PMID:15900884

  4. Sodium taurocholate, ineffective as an adjuvant in oral cholecystography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of 6 g sodium taurocholate on the visualization of the gall bladder with calcium iopodate (Solu-Biloptin, Leiras, Schering AG) was studied on 140 patients with a control group of 99 patients. The administration of sodium taurocholate with a contrast medium did not improve the opacification of the gall bladder in oral cholecystography with calcium iopodate but induced a significant increase in side effects. (orig.)

  5. Sodium taurocholate, ineffective as an adjuvant in oral cholecystography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katevuo, K.; Kormano, M.

    1982-01-01

    The effect of 6 g sodium taurocholate on the visualization of the gall bladder with calcium iopodate (Solu-Biloptin, Leiras, Schering AG) was studied on 140 patients with a control group of 99 patients. The administration of sodium taurocholate with a contrast medium did not improve the opacification of the gall bladder in oral cholecystography with calcium iopodate but induced a significant increase in side effects.

  6. Calcium and bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bone strength and calcium ... calcium (as well as phosphorus) to make healthy bones. Bones are the main storage site of calcium in ... your body does not absorb enough calcium, your bones can get weak or will not grow properly. ...

  7. Get Enough Calcium

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Calcium Print This Topic En español Get Enough Calcium Browse Sections The Basics Overview Foods and Vitamins ... 2 of 4 sections Take Action! Take Action: Calcium Sources Protect your bones – get plenty of calcium ...

  8. Calcium carbonate overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tums overdose; Calcium overdose ... Calcium carbonate can be dangerous in large amounts. ... Some products that contain calcium carbonate are certain: ... and mineral supplements Other products may also contain calcium ...

  9. 亚叶酸钙与碳酸氢钠含漱预防大剂量甲氨蝶呤致口腔溃疡的效果研究%Study on effect of calcium folinate and sodium bicarbonate gargle on the prevention of oral ulcer by using high dose methotrexate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李尚娣; 周月琼; 曾飞燕; 李小洁

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the effectiveness of preventing oral ulcer by using high dose methotrexate with calcium folinate and sodium bicarbonate gargle alternatively.Methods Sixty patients of high dose methotrexate chemotherapy were randomly divided into experiment group and control group, with 30 patients in each group, Normal saline was given to those in the control group for gargle, and calcium folinate and sodium bicarbonate gargle alternatively for those in the experiment group, The incidence and grade of oral ulcer were observed.Results The incidence of oral ulcer and grade were markedly lower in the experiment group than that in control group. The difference between the two groups was significant(P<0.01).Conclusions Alternate gargling with calcium folinate and sodium bicarbonate is effective in the prevention of incidence of oral ulcer in patients with high dose methotrexate chemotherapy.%目的 探讨亚叶酸钙与碳酸氢钠溶液交替含漱预防大剂量甲氨蝶呤所致口腔溃疡的效果.方法 将60例大剂量甲氨蝶呤化疗的患儿随机分为实验组及对照组,每组30例.对照组给予生理盐水含漱,实验组给予0.1%亚叶酸钙与1%碳酸氢钠溶液交替漱口.观察两组患者口腔溃疡发生率及溃疡发生程度.结果 实验组口腔溃疡发生率、程度明显低于对照组,两者比较差异有显著差异(P<0.01).结论 大剂量甲氨蝶呤化疗的患儿使用0.1%亚叶酸钙与1%碳酸氢钠溶液交替漱口,可以有效预防口腔溃疡的发生.

  10. Chemical Liquid Phase Deposition of Thin Aluminum Oxide Films

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Jie; Sun, Yingchun

    2007-01-01

    Thin aluminum oxide films were deposited by a new and simple physicochemical method called chemical liquid phase deposition (CLD) on semiconductor materials. Aluminum sulfate with crystallized water and sodium bicarbonate were used as precursors for film growth, and the control of the system pH value played an important role in this experiment. The growth rate is 12 nm/h at room temperature. Post-growth annealing not only densifies and purifies the films, but results in film crystallization a...

  11. Preparation and characterization of aluminum stearate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lončar Eva S.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Preparation of aluminum stearate by the precipitation method was examined under various conditions of stearic acid saponification with sodium hydroxide. It was proved that the most favorable ratio of acid/alkali was 1:1.5 and that the obtained soap was very similar to the commercial product. Endothermic effects determined by differential scanning calorimetry and also the other parameters showed that the soaps consisted mono-, di-, tristearates and non-reacted substances, where distearate was the dominant form.

  12. The Aluminum Smelting Process

    OpenAIRE

    Kvande, Halvor

    2014-01-01

    This introduction to the industrial primary aluminum production process presents a short description of the electrolytic reduction technology, the history of aluminum, and the importance of this metal and its production process to modern society. Aluminum's special qualities have enabled advances in technologies coupled with energy and cost savings. Aircraft capabilities have been greatly enhanced, and increases in size and capacity are made possible by advances in aluminum technology. The me...

  13. Molten Triazolium Chloride Systems as New Aluminum Battery Electrolytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, B.; Bjerrum, Niels; Petrushina, Irina;

    1993-01-01

    The possibility of using molten mixtures of 1,4-dimethyl-1,2,4-triazolium chloride (DMTC) and aluminum chloride (AlCl3) as secondary battery electrolytes was studied, in some cases extended by the copresence of sodium chloride. DMTC-AlCl, mixtures demonstrated high specific conductivity in a wide...... of milliamperes per square centimeter) was observed at 0.344 V on the acidic sodium tetrachloroaluminate background, involving a free triazolium radical mechanism. Molten DMTC-AlCl3 electrolytes are acceptable for battery performance and both the aluminum anode and the triazolium electrolyte can be...

  14. Crescimento, trocas gasosas e potencial osmótico da bananeira-'Prata', submetida a diferentes doses de sódio e cálcio em solução nutritiva Growth, gaseous exchange and osmotic potential of banana 'Prata' plants, exposed to different concentrations of sodium and calcium in nutritive solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUDMILA LAFETÁ DE MELO NEVES

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available O cálcio vem sendo utilizado com o intuito de incrementar tolerância a sais nas plantas, pois sabe-se que a salinidade restringe o crescimento e a produtividade de muitas culturas. Este estudo teve por objetivo avaliar os efeitos da aplicação de sódio e cálcio sobre o crescimento inicial, trocas gasosas e potencial osmótico da bananeira (Musa spp. 'Prata' (AAB. Foi utilizado o delineamento experimental em blocos casualizados, com arranjo fatorial 4 x 4 [ 4 doses de sódio ( 0; 5; 10; 15 mmol L-1 e 4 de cálcio ( 2; 4; 8; 12 mmol L-1] e 3 repetições. A emissão total de folhas e o potencial osmótico das plantas não foram influenciados pelos tratamentos. O aumento dos níveis de sódio na solução promoveu redução significativa na massa fresca da parte aérea, altura, área foliar, diâmetro do pseudocaule e massa seca das plantas. A presença de 5 mmol L-1 de Na na solução favoreceu as trocas gasosas. O aumento dos níveis de cálcio na solução promoveu a redução da massa fresca da parte aérea, altura e área foliar da bananeira-'Prata'.The Calcium has been used to increase salt tolerance in plants since salinity restricts growth and productivity in many crops. This study was conducted with the objective of evaluating the effects of sodium and calcium application on the initial growth, gaseous exchange and osmotic potential of banana (Musa spp. 'Prata' plants (AAB. The experimental layout was a 4 x 4 factorial with three replicates in a randomized complete block design. The factors tested were concentrations of sodium (0; 5; 10; 15 mmol L-1 and calcium (2; 4; 8; 12 mmol L-1. The total emition of leaves and the osmotic potential of the plants were not influenced by the treatments. However, the increase in concentrations of sodium in the nutritive solution resulted in significant reduction of the fresh weight of aerial plant parts, height and leaf area of the plants, diameter of the pseudostem, and dry weight of the plants. The

  15. Nutrição de mudas de açaizeiro sob relações cálcio:potássio:sódio em solução nutritiva Nutrition of açai seedlings (Euterpe oleracea Mart. under different ratios of calcium:potassium: sodium in nutrient solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Umbelino de Sousa

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivando-se estudar diferentes relações entre os cátions cálcio, potássio e sódio na produção de matéria seca e acúmulo de macronutrientes em mudas de açaizeiro (Euterpe oleracea Mart., realizou-se um experimento em casa-de-vegetação no Departamento de Ciência do Solo da UFLA. Utilizou-se o delineamento estatístico em blocos casualisados com nove tratamentos em quatro repetições. Os tratamentos foram constituídos por nove relações cálcio: potássio: sódio (4:2:1, 3:3:1, 2:4:1, 1:5:1, 5:1:1, 4:1:2, 6:0:1; 0:6:1, e 4:2:0 em solução nutritiva. A unidade experimental constituiu-se de um vaso com capacidade para três litros de solução, contendo duas plantas. Avaliaram-se as seguintes características: produção de matéria seca e o acúmulo dos macronutrientes fósforo, cálcio, potássio, magnésio e enxofre na matéria seca da planta. A relação cálcio:potássio:sódio influenciou todas as características avaliadas; as soluções contendo cálcio, potássio e sódio nas relações 4:2:1 e 3:3:1 resultaram no desenvolvimento de mudas com maior produção de matéria seca e maior acúmulo de nutrientes.Aiming to evaluate the effects of different ratios of calcium, potassium and sodium cations on the mineral nutrition of açai seedlings (Euterpe oleracea Mart., a greenhouse experiment was carried out in the Soil Science Department at the Federal University of Lavras-UFLA. The randomized block design, with nine treatments and four replications, was used. The treatments were nine ratios of calcium, potassium and sodium (4:2:1, 3:3:1, 2:4:1, 1:5:1, 5:1:1, 4:1:2, 6:0:1; 0:6:1, e 4:2:0 in the nutrient solution. The experimental unit was a plastic pot with three liters of solution, containing two plants. The total dry matter and nutrient accumulation were evaluated. The relationship calcium:potassium:sodium influenced all the appraised characteristics, and the solutions containing calcium, potassium and sodium in the ratios

  16. Effect of dietary calcium and magnesium on experimental renal tubular deposition of calcium oxalate crystal induced by ethylene glycol administration and its prevention with phytin and citrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebisuno, S; Morimoto, S; Yoshida, T; Fukatani, T; Yasukawa, S; Ohkawa, T

    1987-01-01

    Oral administration of ethylene glycol to rats, and the resultant intratubular depositions of microcrystals of calcium oxalate were studied investigating the influences of dietary calcium or magnesium and assessing the protective efficacies against the crystallizations by treatment with phytin and sodium citrate. With increase of calcium intake and consequent increase of urinary calcium excretion there was a marked increase in the amount of tubular deposit of calcium oxalate crystal and in the calcium content of renal tissue. Although magnesium deficiency accelerated renal tubular calcium oxalate deposition, the protection against the crystal formation was not observed with excessive dietary magnesium. When rats were fed a high-calcium diet supplemented with phytin, a significant inhibition of the intratubular crystallization was observed. It appeared obvious that a hypocalciuric action of phytin was attributed to the effect of the prevention. There was vigorous protection of crystal formation by treatment with sodium citrate, which correlated with the level of citrate concentration in the drinking water. PMID:3433579

  17. 40 CFR 721.2076 - D-Glucuronic acid, polymer with 6-deoxy-L-mannose and D-glucose, acetate, calcium magnesium...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-deoxy-L-mannose and D-glucose, acetate, calcium magnesium potassium sodium salt. 721.2076 Section 721...-Glucuronic acid, polymer with 6-deoxy-L-mannose and D-glucose, acetate, calcium magnesium potassium sodium... identified as D-Glucuronic acid, polymer with 6-deoxy-L-mannose and D-glucose, acetate, calcium...

  18. Calcium paradox and calcium entry blockers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruigrok, T.J.C.; Slade, A.M.; Nayler, W.G.; Meijler, F.L.

    1984-01-01

    Reperfusion of isolated hearts with calcium-containing solution after a short period of calcium-free perfusion results in irreversible cell damage (calcium paradox). This phenomenon is characterized by an excessive influx of calcium into the cells, the rapid onset of myocardial contracture, exhausti

  19. Transmembrane sodium and potassium gradients modulate histamine secretion induced by ionophore A23187.

    OpenAIRE

    Amellal, M.; Bronner, C.; Landry, Y.

    1985-01-01

    Histamine secretion was induced from rat peritoneal mast cells by calcium ionophore A23187 in the presence of various extracellular calcium concentrations. Transmembrane sodium and potassium gradients were altered by cold pretreatment of mast cells or through the inhibition of sodium-potassium ATPase by the use of ouabain or potassium-deprivation. Such pretreatments led to a parallel shift to the left of the extracellular calcium concentration-histamine secretion curve, i.e. to an apparent de...

  20. Low sodium diet in essential hypertension- Effect on blood cell ions and hemodynamic parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Krzesinski, Jean-Marie; Du, Fenghe; Pequeux, Marie-Louise; Rorive, Georges

    1992-01-01

    The influence of salt restriction for 3 months on blood pressure, peripheral vascular resistance (observed by occlusive plethysmography), erythrocyte sodium, platelet calcium, and pH, was studied in eight untreated essential hypertensive patients. A low salt diet decreases blood pressure, vascular resistances, erythrocyte sodium, and platelet calcium, but not platelet pH. A strong positive correlation was noted between baseline platelet calcium and vascular resistances (r=0.95, P < .01). Bu...

  1. Para-amino benzoic acid–mediated synthesis of vaterite phase of calcium carbonate

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    T N Ramesh; S A Inchara; K Pallavi

    2015-05-01

    Calcium carbonate polymorphs were precipitated at room temperature and 80°C by varying the precipitation pH, carbonate source, effect of solvent in presence and absence of structure directing agent such as para-aminobenzoic acid. Calcite phase of calcium carbonate was obtained when sodium hydrogen carbonate and/or sodium carbonate (used as precipitating agents) were added to calcium chloride solution at different pHs in water and/or methanol as solvent in separate experiments. Vaterite phase of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) has been synthesized by mixing calcium chloride and sodium carbonate in presence of para-aminobenzoic acid when water–methanol binary mixture was used as solvent. Vaterite phase of calcium carbonate crystallizes in P63/mmc, while that of calcite phase in R-3mc, respectively. Calcite phase of calcium carbonate exhibits rhombohedral morphology, while vaterite phase has spherical morphology.

  2. Layered Metal Hydroxides Containing Calcium and Their Structural Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Tae Hyun; Heo, Il; Lee, Sung Han; Oh, Jae Min [College of Science and Technology, Yonsei University, Wonju (Korea, Republic of); Paek, Seung Min [Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Park, Chung Berm; Choi, Ae Jin [National Institute of Horticultural and Herbal Science of R and D Eumseong (Korea, Republic of); Choy, Jin Ho [Ewha Womans University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-06-15

    Layered metal hydroxides (LMHs) containing calcium were synthesized by coprecipitation in solution having two different trivalent metal ions, iron and aluminum. Two mixed metal solutions (Ca{sup 2+}/Al{sup 3+} and Ca{sup 2+}/Fe{sup 3+} = 2/1) were added to sodium hydroxide solution and the final pH was adjusted to {approx}11.5 and {approx}13 for CaAl-and CaFe-LMHs. Powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) for the two LMH samples showed well developed (00l) diffractions indicating 2-dimensional crystal structure of the synthesized LMHs. Rietveld refinement of the X-ray diffraction pattern, the local structure analysis through X-ray absorption spectroscopy, and thermal analysis also confirmed that the synthesized precipitates show typical structure of LMHs. The chemical formulae, Ca{sub 2.04}Al{sub 1}(OH){sub 6}(NO{sub 3}){center_dot}5.25H{sub 2}O and Ca{sub 2.01}Fe{sub 1}(OH){sub 6}(NO{sub 3}){center_dot}4.75H{sub 2}O were determined by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). Particle morphology and thermal behavior for the synthesized LMHs were examined by field emission scanning electron microscopy and thermogravimetric differential scanning calorimetry

  3. Depressing effect of sodium hexametaphosphate on apatite in flotation of rutile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hao Ding; Hai Lin; Yanxi Deng

    2007-01-01

    The separation of mtile from apatite by flotation and the mechanism of depressing the apatite of sodium hexametaphosphate were studied. The results showed that rutile and apatite could be separated by using alkyl-imino-bismethylene phosphoric acid and sodium hexametaphosphate as a collector and a regulator, respectively. Sodium hexametaphosphate could selectively dissolve calcium ions on the apatite surface, and make calcium ions break away from lattice binding through combining.

  4. Graphene-aluminum nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → We investigated the mechanical properties of aluminum and aluminum nanocomposites. → Graphene composite had lower strength and hardness compared to nanotube reinforcement. → Processing causes aluminum carbide formation at graphene defects. → The carbides in between grains is a source of weakness and lowers tensile strength. - Abstract: Composites of graphene platelets and powdered aluminum were made using ball milling, hot isostatic pressing and extrusion. The mechanical properties and microstructure were studied using hardness and tensile tests, as well as electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry. Compared to the pure aluminum and multi-walled carbon nanotube composites, the graphene-aluminum composite showed decreased strength and hardness. This is explained in the context of enhanced aluminum carbide formation with the graphene filler.

  5. Graphene-aluminum nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartolucci, Stephen F., E-mail: stephen.bartolucci@us.army.mil [U.S. Army Benet Laboratories, Armaments Research Development and Engineering Center, Watervliet, NY 12189-4000 (United States); Paras, Joseph [U.S. Army Benet Laboratories, Armaments Research Development and Engineering Center, Watervliet, NY 12189-4000 (United States); Rafiee, Mohammad A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Rice University, Houston, TX 77005 (United States); Rafiee, Javad [Department of Mechanical, Aerospace and Nuclear Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180 (United States); Lee, Sabrina; Kapoor, Deepak [U.S. Army Benet Laboratories, Armaments Research Development and Engineering Center, Watervliet, NY 12189-4000 (United States); Koratkar, Nikhil, E-mail: koratn@rpi.edu [Department of Mechanical, Aerospace and Nuclear Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180 (United States)

    2011-10-15

    Highlights: {yields} We investigated the mechanical properties of aluminum and aluminum nanocomposites. {yields} Graphene composite had lower strength and hardness compared to nanotube reinforcement. {yields} Processing causes aluminum carbide formation at graphene defects. {yields} The carbides in between grains is a source of weakness and lowers tensile strength. - Abstract: Composites of graphene platelets and powdered aluminum were made using ball milling, hot isostatic pressing and extrusion. The mechanical properties and microstructure were studied using hardness and tensile tests, as well as electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry. Compared to the pure aluminum and multi-walled carbon nanotube composites, the graphene-aluminum composite showed decreased strength and hardness. This is explained in the context of enhanced aluminum carbide formation with the graphene filler.

  6. Test Your Sodium Smarts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... You may be surprised to learn how much sodium is in many foods. Sodium, including sodium chloride ... foods with little or no salt. Test your sodium smarts by answering these 10 questions about which ...

  7. Impact Of Sodium Oxalate, Sodium Aluminosilicate, and Gibbsite/Boehmite on ARP Filter Performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is currently treating radioactive liquid waste with the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). Recently, the low filter flux through the ARP of approximately 5 gallons per minute has limited the rate at which radioactive liquid waste can be treated. Salt Batch 6 had a lower processing rate and required frequent filter cleaning. Savannah River Remediation (SRR) has a desire to understand the causes of the low filter flux and to increase ARP/MCU throughput. SRR requested SRNL to conduct bench-scale filter tests to evaluate whether sodium oxalate, sodium aluminosilicate, or aluminum solids (i.e., gibbsite and boehmite) could be the cause of excessive fouling of the crossflow or secondary filter at ARP. The authors conducted the tests by preparing slurries containing 6.6 M sodium Salt Batch 6 supernate, 2.5 g MST/L slurry, and varying concentrations of sodium oxalate, sodium aluminosilicate, and aluminum solids, processing the slurry through a bench-scale filter unit that contains a crossflow primary filter and a dead-end secondary filter, and measuring filter flux and transmembrane pressure as a function of time. Among the conclusions drwn from this work are the following: (1) All of the tests showed some evidence of fouling the secondary filter. This fouling could be from fine particles passing through the crossflow filter. (2) The sodium oxalate-containing feeds behaved differently from the sodium aluminosilicate- and gibbsite/boehmite-containing feeds.

  8. Impact Of Sodium Oxalate, Sodium Aluminosilicate, and Gibbsite/Boehmite on ARP Filter Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poirier, M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Burket, P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-11-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is currently treating radioactive liquid waste with the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). Recently, the low filter flux through the ARP of approximately 5 gallons per minute has limited the rate at which radioactive liquid waste can be treated. Salt Batch 6 had a lower processing rate and required frequent filter cleaning. Savannah River Remediation (SRR) has a desire to understand the causes of the low filter flux and to increase ARP/MCU throughput. SRR requested SRNL to conduct bench-scale filter tests to evaluate whether sodium oxalate, sodium aluminosilicate, or aluminum solids (i.e., gibbsite and boehmite) could be the cause of excessive fouling of the crossflow or secondary filter at ARP. The authors conducted the tests by preparing slurries containing 6.6 M sodium Salt Batch 6 supernate, 2.5 g MST/L slurry, and varying concentrations of sodium oxalate, sodium aluminosilicate, and aluminum solids, processing the slurry through a bench-scale filter unit that contains a crossflow primary filter and a dead-end secondary filter, and measuring filter flux and transmembrane pressure as a function of time. Among the conclusions drwn from this work are the following: (1) All of the tests showed some evidence of fouling the secondary filter. This fouling could be from fine particles passing through the crossflow filter. (2) The sodium oxalate-containing feeds behaved differently from the sodium aluminosilicate- and gibbsite/boehmite-containing feeds.

  9. Fabrication of Superhydrophobic Aluminum Plate by Surface Etching and Fluorosilane Modification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN Shi-heng; ZHU Bin; LIU Yun-chun; YANG Ji; KUANG Tong-chun

    2012-01-01

    Superhydrophobic aluminum surfaces with a high water contact angle and low sliding angle on aluminum plate substrate were fabricated by means of surface etching with sodium hydroxide under ultrasonic bathing and then modification with fluorosilane.Scanning electron microscopy(SEM) showed a honeycomb-like structure on aluminum substrate surface after etching under ultrasonic bathing.And the surface was rendered from superhydrophilicity to superhydrophobicity after further modification with fluorosilane.

  10. Potentials of polyacrylamide-sodium carboxymethyl cellulose graft polymer as flooding material in enhanced crude oil recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cellulose-based derivatives have been used in drilling fluids as viscosifiers and fluid loss reducers for many years. But more recently due to evident advantages, such as technology and relative ease of large-scale production of cellulose derivatives as powders or granules and the generally non-toxic nature of cellulose ethers, research efforts have been intensified to optimize their possible applications as polymer flooding materials in enhanced oil recovery. Consequently, this paper addresses the synthesis and characterization of polyacrylamide-sodium carboxymethyl cellulose graft polymer produced from locally available cellulose materials. Notable improvement was achieved in the specific viscosity of the graft polymer when compared with the unmodified sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (NaCMC). For a 1% (wt%) solution at 25 deg. c and a shear rate of 200s/sup -1/-1, NaCMC has a viscosity of 74.6 centipose while the graft polymer recorded a viscosity of 154 centipose. The influence of mono and multivalent cations such as sodium, calcium and aluminum ions on the viscosity of the graft polymer solution was relatively minimal, suggesting improvement in the so-called salt tolerance or cation compatibility. (author)

  11. Transformation and fragmentation behavior of molten metal drop in sodium pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to clarify the fragmentation mechanism of a metallic alloy (U-Pu-Zr) fuel on liquid phase formed by metallurgical reactions (liquefaction temperature =650degC), which is important in evaluating the sequence of core disruptive accidents for metallic fuel fast reactors, a series of experiments was carried out using molten aluminum (m.p.=660degC) and sodium mainly under the condition that the boiling of sodium does not occur. When the instantaneous contact interface temperature (Ti) between molten aluminum drop and sodium is lower than the boiling point of sodium (Tc,bp), the molten aluminum drop can be fragmented and the mass median diameter (Dm) of aluminum fragments becomes small with increasing Ti. When Ti is roughly equivalent to or higher than Tc,bp, the fragmentation of aluminum drop is promoted by thermal interaction caused by the boiling of sodium on the surface of the drop. Furthermore, even under the condition that the boiling of sodium does not occur and the solid crust is formed on the surface of the drop, it is found from an analytical evaluation that the thermal fragmentation of molten aluminum drop with solid crust is caused by the transient pressurization within the melt confined by the crust. These results indicate the possibility that the metallic alloy fuel on liquid phase formed by the metallurgical reactions can be fragmented without occurring the boiling of sodium on the surface of the melt. (author)

  12. Randomized crossover study comparing the phosphate-binding efficacy of calcium ketoglutarate versus calcium carbonate in patients on chronic hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bro, S; Rasmussen, R A; Handberg, J; Olgaard, K; Feldt-Rasmussen, B

    1998-02-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the phosphate-binding efficacy, side effects, and cost of therapy of calcium ketoglutarate granulate as compared with calcium carbonate tablets in patients on chronic hemodialysis. The study design used was a randomized, crossover open trial, and the main outcome measurements were plasma ionized calcium levels, plasma phosphate levels, plasma intact parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels, requirements for supplemental aluminum-aminoacetate therapy, patient tolerance, and cost of therapy. Nineteen patients on chronic hemodialysis were treated with a dialysate calcium concentration of 1.25 mmol/L and a fixed alfacalcidol dose for at least 2 months. All had previously tolerated therapy with calcium carbonate. Of the 19 patients included, 10 completed both treatment arms. After 12 weeks of therapy, the mean (+/-SEM) plasma ionized calcium level was significantly lower in the ketoglutarate arm compared with the calcium carbonate arm (4.8+/-0.1 mg/dL v 5.2+/-0.1 mg/dL; P = 0.004), whereas the mean plasma phosphate (4.5+/-0.3 mg/dL v 5.1+/-0.1 mg/dL) and PTH levels (266+/-125 pg/mL v 301+/-148 pg/mL) did not differ significantly between the two treatment arms. Supplemental aluminum-aminoacetate was not required during calcium ketoglutarate treatment, while two patients needed this supplement when treated with calcium carbonate. Five of 17 (29%) patients were withdrawn from calcium ketoglutarate therapy within 1 to 2 weeks due to intolerance (anorexia, vomiting, diarrhea, general uneasiness), whereas the remaining 12 patients did not experience any side effects at all. The five patients with calcium ketoglutarate intolerance all had pre-existing gastrointestinal symptoms; four of them had received treatment with cimetidine or omeprazol before inclusion into the study. Calculations based on median doses after 12 weeks showed that the cost of the therapy in Denmark was 10 times higher for calcium ketoglutarate compared with calcium

  13. Synthesis of calcium hydroxyapatite from calcium carbonate and different orthophosphate sources: A comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Calcium hydroxyapatite was synthesized from CaCO3 and four orthophosphates. ► Only H3PO4 led to the complete precipitation of orthophosphate species. ► H3PO4 was also the most efficient for calcium dissolution. ► Reaction pathway was dissolution-precipitation accompanied by agglomeration step. - Abstract: The synthesis of calcium hydroxyapatite (Ca-HA) starting from calcium carbonate and different orthophosphate sources, including orthophosphoric acid, potassium, sodium and ammonium dihydrogen orthophosphates, was investigated under ambient conditions. The reaction started with calcium carbonate dissolution in an acid medium, followed by rapid precipitation of calcium cations with orthophosphate species to form calcium phosphate based particles which were in the size range of 0.4–1 μm. These particles then agglomerated into much larger ones, up to 350 μm in diameter (aggregates). These aggregates possessed an unstable porous structure which was responsible for the porosity of the final products. The highest specific surface area and pore volume were obtained with potassium dihydrogen orthophosphate. On the other hand, orthophosphoric acid led to the highest dissolution of calcium carbonate and the complete precipitation of orthophosphate species. Under ambient conditions, calcium phosphate based solid products of low crystallinity were formed. Different intermediates were identified and a reaction pathway proposed.

  14. THERMAL DEGRADATION AND FLAME RETARDANCY OF CALCIUM ALGINATE FIBERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于建; 夏延致

    2009-01-01

    Calcium alginate fibers were prepared by wet spinning of sodium alginate into a coagulating bath containing calcium chloride.The thermal degradation and flame retardancy of calcium alginate fibers were investigated with thermal gravimetry(TG),X-ray diffraction(XRD),limiting oxygen index(LOI) and cone calorimeter(CONE).The results show that calcium alginate fibers are inherently flame retardant with a LOI value of 34,and the heat release rate(HRR),total heat release(THR),CO and CO_2 concentrations during ...

  15. Calcium and bones (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcium is one of the most important minerals for the growth, maintenance, and reproduction of the human ... body, are continually being re-formed and incorporate calcium into their structure. Calcium is essential for the ...

  16. Coronary Calcium Scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is a Coronary Calcium Scan? A coronary calcium scan is a test ... you have calcifications in your coronary arteries. Coronary Calcium Scan Figure A shows the position of the ...

  17. Calcium hydroxide poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydrate - calcium; Lime milk; Slaked lime ... Calcium hydroxide ... These products contain calcium hydroxide: Cement Limewater Many industrial solvents and cleaners (hundreds to thousands of construction products, flooring strippers, brick cleaners, cement ...

  18. Calcium source (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getting enough calcium to keep bones from thinning throughout a person's life may be made more difficult if that person has ... as a tendency toward kidney stones, for avoiding calcium-rich food sources. Calcium deficiency also effects the ...

  19. Calcium in diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diet - calcium ... Calcium is one of the most important minerals for the human body. It helps form and maintain healthy teeth and bones. A proper level of calcium in the body over a lifetime can help ...

  20. Calcium Pyrophosphate Deposition (CPPD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Patient / Caregiver Diseases & Conditions Calcium Pyrophosphate Deposition (CPPD) Calcium Pyrophosphate Deposition (CPPD) Fast Facts The risk of ... young people, too. Proper diagnosis depends on detecting calcium pyrophosphate crystals in the fluid of an affected ...

  1. Low toxic corrosion inhibitors for aluminum in fresh water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, T. S.

    1978-01-01

    Combinations of chemical compounds that reportedly reduce the corrosion of aluminum in fresh water were evaluated. These included combinations of borates, nitrates, nitrites, phosphates, silicates, and mercaptobenzothiazole. Eight of fifty inhibitor combinations evaluated gave excellent corrosion protection and compared favorably with sodium chromate, which has generally been considered standard for many years.

  2. Aluminum powder metallurgy processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flumerfelt, J.F.

    1999-02-12

    The objective of this dissertation is to explore the hypothesis that there is a strong linkage between gas atomization processing conditions, as-atomized aluminum powder characteristics, and the consolidation methodology required to make components from aluminum powder. The hypothesis was tested with pure aluminum powders produced by commercial air atomization, commercial inert gas atomization, and gas atomization reaction synthesis (GARS). A comparison of the GARS aluminum powders with the commercial aluminum powders showed the former to exhibit superior powder characteristics. The powders were compared in terms of size and shape, bulk chemistry, surface oxide chemistry and structure, and oxide film thickness. Minimum explosive concentration measurements assessed the dependence of explosibility hazard on surface area, oxide film thickness, and gas atomization processing conditions. The GARS aluminum powders were exposed to different relative humidity levels, demonstrating the effect of atmospheric conditions on post-atomization processing conditions. The GARS aluminum powders were exposed to different relative humidity levels, demonstrating the effect of atmospheric conditions on post-atomization oxidation of aluminum powder. An Al-Ti-Y GARS alloy exposed in ambient air at different temperatures revealed the effect of reactive alloy elements on post-atomization powder oxidation. The pure aluminum powders were consolidated by two different routes, a conventional consolidation process for fabricating aerospace components with aluminum powder and a proposed alternative. The consolidation procedures were compared by evaluating the consolidated microstructures and the corresponding mechanical properties. A low temperature solid state sintering experiment demonstrated that tap densified GARS aluminum powders can form sintering necks between contacting powder particles, unlike the total resistance to sintering of commercial air atomization aluminum powder.

  3. Calcium binding to low molecular weight compounds and health promoting products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vavrusova, Martina

    absorption. Therefore, calcium as an essential nutrient should not be underestimated in our diet. Milk and dairy products are good sources of bioavailable calcium due to specific protein binding. Other sources of calcium, apart from a balanced and healthy diet, are calcium supplements and calcium fortified...... food. Therefore, an understanding of the basic chemistry of calcium binding to low molecular weight compounds can contribute to a general knowledge about calcium bioavailability and also to product improvement. Calcium precipitation with palmitate was described by a first-order reaction for conditions...... calcium Dgluconate only slowly precipitated after a lag phase. On the other hand, the slow dissolution of calcium D-gluconate by sodium L-lactate in aqueous solution with the reverse lactate/gluconate ratio did not result in a similar solution since fast precipitation prevented formation of a homogenous...

  4. The flame photometric determination of calcium in phosphate, carbonate, and silicate rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, H.

    1957-01-01

    A flame photometric method of determining calcium in phosphate, carbonate, and silicate locks has been developed Aluminum and phosphate interference was overcome by the addition of a large excess of magnesium. The method is rapid and suitable for routine analysis Results obtained are within ?? 2% of the calcium oxide content. ?? 1957.

  5. Is the Aluminum Hypothesis Dead?

    OpenAIRE

    Lidsky, Theodore I.

    2014-01-01

    The Aluminum Hypothesis, the idea that aluminum exposure is involved in the etiology of Alzheimer disease, dates back to a 1965 demonstration that aluminum causes neurofibrillary tangles in the brains of rabbits. Initially the focus of intensive research, the Aluminum Hypothesis has gradually been abandoned by most researchers. Yet, despite this current indifference, the Aluminum Hypothesis continues to attract the attention of a small group of scientists and aluminum continues to be viewed w...

  6. Coupling a PEM fuel cell and the hydrogen generation from aluminum waste cans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, Susana Silva; Albanil Sanchez, Loyda; Alvarez Gallegos, Alberto A. [Centro de Investigacion en Ingenieria y Ciencias Aplicadas, Av. Universidad 1001, Col. Chamilpa, Cuernavaca, Mor. CP 62210 (Mexico); Sebastian, P.J. [Centro de Investigacion en Energia-UNAM, 62580 Temixco, Morelos (Mexico); Cuerpo Academico de Energia y Sustentabilidad, UPCH, Tuxtla Gutierrez, Chiapas (Mexico)

    2007-10-15

    High purity hydrogen was generated from the chemical reaction of aluminum and sodium hydroxide. The aluminum used in this study was obtained from empty soft drink cans and treated with concentrated sulfuric acid to remove the paint and plastic film. One gram of aluminum was reacted with a solution of 2moldm{sup -3} of sodium hydroxide to produce hydrogen. The hydrogen produced from aluminum cans and oxygen obtained from a proton exchange membrane electrolyzer or air, was fed to a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell to produce electricity. Yields of 44 mmol of hydrogen contained in a volume of 1.760dm{sup 3} were produced from one gram of aluminum in a time period of 20 min. (author)

  7. Anodizing Aluminum with Frills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doeltz, Anne E.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    "Anodizing Aluminum" (previously reported in this journal) describes a vivid/relevant laboratory experience for general chemistry students explaining the anodizing of aluminum in sulfuric acid and constrasting it to electroplating. Additions to this procedure and the experiment in which they are used are discussed. Reactions involved are also…

  8. Aluminum neurotoxicity effects on intracellular Ca2+homeostasis in the rat cerebral cortex

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rui Ren; Yang Zhang; Xiaofeng Zhang; Yanping Wu; Dandan Zhang; Baixiang Li

    2010-01-01

    Studies have suggested that aluminum,a neurotoxic metal,is involved in the progression of neurodegenerative diseases.Previous studies have confirmed that aluminum influences intracellular Ca2+homeostasis.However,it remains unclear whether aluminum increases or decreases intracellular Ca2+concentrations.The present study demonstrated that Al3+competitively binds to calmodulin(CAM),together with Ca2+,which resulted in loss of capacity of CaM to bind to Ca2+,leading to increased[Ca2+],.Al3+stimulated voltage-gated calcium channels on cell membranes,which allowed a small quantity of Ca2+into the cells.Al3+also promoted calcium release from organelles by stimulating L-Ca2+α1c to trigger calcium-induced calcium release.Although Al3+upregulated expression of Na+/Ca2+exchanger mRNA,increased levels of Ca2+and Na+/Ca2+exchanger did not maintain a normal Ca2+balance.Al3+resulted in disordered intracellular calcium homeostasis by affecting calcium channels,calcium buffering,and calcium expulsion.

  9. The aluminum smelting process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvande, Halvor

    2014-05-01

    This introduction to the industrial primary aluminum production process presents a short description of the electrolytic reduction technology, the history of aluminum, and the importance of this metal and its production process to modern society. Aluminum's special qualities have enabled advances in technologies coupled with energy and cost savings. Aircraft capabilities have been greatly enhanced, and increases in size and capacity are made possible by advances in aluminum technology. The metal's flexibility for shaping and extruding has led to architectural advances in energy-saving building construction. The high strength-to-weight ratio has meant a substantial reduction in energy consumption for trucks and other vehicles. The aluminum industry is therefore a pivotal one for ecological sustainability and strategic for technological development. PMID:24806722

  10. Interactions between magnesium, calcium, and aluminum on soybean root elongation Interação entre magnésio, cálcio e alumínio na elongação radicular da soja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Ribeiro da Silva

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Alleviation of Al rhizotoxicity by Ca and Mg can differ among species and genotypes. Root elongation of soybean [Glycine max (L. Merr.] line N93-S-179 and cvs. Young and Ransom exposed to varying concentrations of Al, Ca and Mg were compared in two experiments using a vertically split root system. Roots extending from a surface compartment with limed soil grew for 12 days into a subsurface compartment with nutrient solution treatments maintained at pH 4.6 with either 0 or 15 µmol L-1 Al. Calcium and Mg concentrations in treatments ranging from 0 to 20 mmol L-1. Although an adequate supply of Mg was provided in the surface soil compartment for soybean top growth, an inclusion of Mg was necessary in the subsurface solutions to promote root elongation in both the presence and absence of Al. In the absence of Al in the subsurface solution, tap root length increased by 74 % and lateral root length tripled when Mg in the solutions was increased from 0 to either 2 or 10 mmol L-1. In the presence of 15 µmol L-1 Al, additions of 2 or 10 mmol L-1 Mg increased tap root length fourfold and lateral root length by a factor of 65. This high efficacy of Mg may have masked differences in Al tolerance between genotypes N93 and Young. Magnesium was more effective than Ca in alleviating Al rhizotoxicity, and its ameliorative properties could not be accounted for by estimated electrostatic changes in root membrane potential and Al3+ activity at the root surface. The physiological mechanisms of Mg alleviation of Al injury in roots, however, are not known.A redução na rizotoxidez de Al por Ca e Mg difere entre espécies e genótipos. A elongação radicular da linhagem N93-S-179 e cvs. Young e Ransom de soja [Glycine max (L. Merr.] exposta a concentrações variáveis de Al, Ca e Mg foi comparada em dois experimentos, usando um sistema de raízes subdivididas verticalmente. As raízes cresceram por 12 dias a partir de um compartimento superficial com solo

  11. Calcium and Vitamin D

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home › Patients › Treatment › Calcium/Vitamin D Calcium/Vitamin D Getting enough calcium and vitamin D is essential ... counter medications and calcium supplements. What is Vitamin D and What Does it Do? Vitamin D plays ...

  12. Low sodium level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low sodium level is a condition in which the amount of sodium (salt) in the blood is lower than normal. ... Sodium is found mostly in the body fluids outside the cells. It is very important for maintaining ...

  13. Sodium and Food Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease Cholesterol High Blood Pressure Million Hearts® WISEWOMAN Sodium and Food Sources Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... food [PDF-867K] and how to reduce sodium. Sodium Reduction Is Challenging Types of food matter: More ...

  14. Evaluation of intestinal phosphate binding to improve the safety profile of oral sodium phosphate bowel cleansing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stef Robijn

    Full Text Available Prior to colonoscopy, bowel cleansing is performed for which frequently oral sodium phosphate (OSP is used. OSP results in significant hyperphosphatemia and cases of acute kidney injury (AKI referred to as acute phosphate nephropathy (APN; characterized by nephrocalcinosis are reported after OSP use, which led to a US-FDA warning. To improve the safety profile of OSP, it was evaluated whether the side-effects of OSP could be prevented with intestinal phosphate binders. Hereto a Wistar rat model of APN was developed. OSP administration (2 times 1.2 g phosphate by gavage with a 12h time interval induced bowel cleansing (severe diarrhea and significant hyperphosphatemia (21.79 ± 5.07 mg/dl 6h after the second OSP dose versus 8.44 ± 0.97 mg/dl at baseline. Concomitantly, serum PTH levels increased fivefold and FGF-23 levels showed a threefold increase, while serum calcium levels significantly decreased from 11.29 ± 0.53 mg/dl at baseline to 8.68 ± 0.79 mg/dl after OSP. OSP administration induced weaker NaPi-2a staining along the apical proximal tubular membrane. APN was induced: serum creatinine increased (1.5 times baseline and nephrocalcinosis developed (increased renal calcium and phosphate content and calcium phosphate deposits on Von Kossa stained kidney sections. Intestinal phosphate binding (lanthanum carbonate or aluminum hydroxide was not able to attenuate the OSP induced side-effects. In conclusion, a clinically relevant rat model of APN was developed. Animals showed increased serum phosphate levels similar to those reported in humans and developed APN. No evidence was found for an improved safety profile of OSP by using intestinal phosphate binders.

  15. Efeito da adição de butirato de sódio, propionato de cálcio ou monensina sódica no concentrado inicial sobre parâmetros ruminais e de desenvolvimento do rúmen de bezerros leiteiros Effect of inclusion of sodium butyrate, calcium propionate or sodium monensin in the starter feed on ruminal parameters and forestomach development in dairy calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Silveira Ferreira

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo neste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da inclusão de butirato de sódio, monensina sódica ou propionato de cálcio no concentrado inicial sobre parâmetros ruminais e de desenvolvimento do trato digestório superior de bezerros leiteiros. Quinze bezerros holandeses recém-nascidos foram fistulados no rúmen e alojados em baias individuais até a décima semana de vida, com livre acesso a água, alimentados com leite (4 L/dia, em duas refeições, e concentrado à vontade contendo butirato de sódio (0,15%, monensina sódica (30 ppm ou propionato de cálcio (0,15%. A partir da quarta semana de vida dos animais, antes e 2 horas após a alimentação da manhã, foram realizadas colheitas semanais de fluido ruminal para determinação do pH, da concentração de ácidos graxos de cadeia curta (AGCC e N-amoniacal. Ao completar 10 semanas, os animais foram abatidos para avaliação do crescimento do trato digestório superior. O pH ruminal apresentou diferenças, tanto entre horários quanto entre os aditivos utilizados no concentrado inicial. As concentrações de AGCC totais, bem como de cada ácido graxo, não foram afetadas pelos aditivos. Entretanto, o horário de colheita teve efeito sobre todos os parâmetros, exceto a concentração molar de ácido acético. O peso total do trato digestório superior, assim como o peso médio de cada compartimento e a capacidade máxima do retículo-rúmen, não foram afetados pelos aditivos fornecidos no concentrado. Também não foram observados efeitos dos aditivos sobre a altura, a largura e o número de papilas do epitélio ruminal. A inclusão desses aditivos no concentrado inicial não afeta os parâmetros ruminais ou de desenvolvimento do trato digestório de bezerros em aleitamento.The objective of this study was the evaluation of the inclusion of calcium propionate, sodium butyrate and sodium monensin in the starter concentrate on ruminal parameters and forestomach development in dairy

  16. Importance of Calcium

    OpenAIRE

    TANDOĞAN, Berivan; ULUSU, N. Nuray

    2005-01-01

    Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body. Calcium regulates many cellular processes and has important structural roles in living organisms. Skeletal muscle structure and function, polymerisation of fibrin and the conduction of impulses in the nervous system are regulated by calcium. Calcium is an important intracellular messenger in protozoa, plants, and animals. Calcium-transporting systems which are located in the plasma membrane and in the organelles, regulate the ionic concentrati...

  17. Role of calcium conductance in firing behavior of retinal ganglion cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dan Wang; Qingli Qiao; Nan Xie

    2011-01-01

    Fohlmeister-Coleman-Miller model of retinal ganglion cells consists of five ion channels; these are sodium channels, calcium channels, and 3 types of potassium channels. An increasing number of studies have investigated sodium channels, voltage-gated potassium channels, and delayed rectifier potassium channels. However, little is known about calcium channels, and in particular the dynamics and computational models of calcium ions. Retinal prostheses have been designed to assist with sight recovery for the blind, and in the present study, the effects of calcium ions in retinal ganglion cell models were analyzed with regard to calcium channel potential and calcium-activated potassium potential. Using MATLAB software, calcium conductance and calcium current from the Fohlmeister-Coleman-Miller model, under clamped voltages, were numerically computed using backward Euler methods. Subsequently, the Fohlmeister-Coleman-Miller model was simulated with the absence of calcium-current (lc,) or calcium-activated potassium current (IK, ca). The model was also analyzed according to the phase plane method.The relationship curve between peak calcium current and clamped potentials revealed an inverted bell shape, and the calcium-activated potassium current increased the frequency of firing and the peak of membrane potential. Results suggested that calcium ion concentrations play an important role in controlling the peak and the magnitude of peak membrane voltage in retinal ganglion cells.

  18. Consumo de fibra dietética, sodio, potasio y calcio y su relación con la presión arterial en hombres adultos normotensos Dietary fiber, energy, sodium, potassium and calcium intake and its relationship to blood pressure in normotensive male adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Nydia Ballesteros-Vásquez

    1998-05-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Evaluar el efecto del consumo de fibra dietética, energía, sodio, potasio y calcio sobre la presión arterial de un grupo de adultos normotensos, tomando en cuenta indicadores tales como la edad, el sexo, la actividad física y la obesidad. Material y métodos. Se evaluaron 38 sujetos del sexo masculino de 30 a 45 años de edad, normotensos, aparentemente sanos y residentes de la ciudad de Hermosillo, Sonora, México. Se midió la presión arterial y se realizó una evaluación dietética, antropométrica y de actividad física. Resultados. La dieta resultó ser alta en fibra y en grasa. El sodio estaba 56% por arriba de la recomendación en 87% de los casos y fue la variable que más efecto mostró sobre la presión diastólica. De los sujetos estudiados, 36.9% tenían sobrepeso y obesidad, y se encontró una asociación significativa entre el índice de masa corporal y la presión diastólica y sistólica. Conclusiones. Existe una asociación significativa entre la hipertensión arterial y el alto consumo de sodio, el sobrepeso y la obesidad en sujetos normotensos.Objective. To evaluate the effect of dietary fiber, energy, sodium, calcium and potassium intake on the blood pressure of a group of normotensive adults. Material and methods. Subjects were 38 healthy normotensive adult males aged 30-45 years, resident of Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico. Blood pressure, diet, anthropometric data and physical activity were recorded. Results. Their diet was high in fiber and fat. Sodium intake was 56% above the recommended values in 87% of the subjects, and the variable with the highest correlation to diastolic blood pressure. Of the subjects, 36.9% were overweight and obese, and a significant statistic association was found between BMI and diastolic and systolic blood pressure. Conclusions. A significant relationship was found between hypertension and high consumption of sodium, overweight and obesity in healthy adult normotensive males.

  19. A quantitative model for presynaptic free calcium dynamics during the induction of long-term effects

    CERN Document Server

    Erler, F; Soff, G; Erler, Frido; Meyer-Hermann, Michael; Soff, Gerhard

    2002-01-01

    The presynaptic free calcium dynamics of neurons due to various stimulation protocols is investigated in a mathematical model. Especially, connections between free calcium dynamics and the induction of synaptic long-term effects are considered. The model includes calcium influx through voltage-directed calcium channels, calcium buffering by endogenous and exogenous buffers as well as calcium efflux through ATP-driven plasma membrane calcium pumps and sodium/calcium exchangers. A classification of parameters into universal (widely independent of neuron types) and specific ones (depending on neuron type and experimental setup) allows the applications of the model to different classes of neurons and experiments. This is demonstrated for single boutons of pyramidal neurons of the rat neocortex. The model parameters are determined using corresponding fluorescence measurements. The model enables us to reconstruct the free calcium dynamics in neurons as it would have been without fluorescence indicators starting fro...

  20. Burning characteristics of individual aluminum/aluminum oxide particles

    OpenAIRE

    Ruttenberg, Eric C.

    1996-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited An experimental investigation was conducted in which the burning characteristics of individual aluminum/aluminum oxide particles were measured using a windowed combustion bomb at atmospheric pressure and under gravity-fall conditions. A scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to measure the size distribution of the initial aluminum particles and the aluminum oxide residue. Analysis of the residue indicated that the mass of aluminum...

  1. Purifying Aluminum by Vacuum Distillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du Fresne, E. R.

    1985-01-01

    Proposed method for purifying aluminum employs one-step vacuum distillation. Raw material for process impure aluminum produced in electrolysis of aluminum ore. Impure metal melted in vacuum. Since aluminum has much higher vapor pressure than other constituents, boils off and condenses on nearby cold surfaces in proportions much greater than those of other constituents.

  2. Diclofenac sodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, R E

    1989-08-01

    The pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, clinical efficacy, adverse effects, and dosage of diclofenac sodium are reviewed. Diclofenac, the first nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agent (NSAID) to be approved that is a phenylacetic acid derivative, competes with arachidonic acid for binding to cyclo-oxygenase, resulting in decreased formation of prostaglandins. The drug has both analgesic and antipyretic activities. Diclofenac is efficiently absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract; peak plasma concentrations occur 1.5 to 2.0 hours after ingestion in fasting subjects. Even though diclofenac has a relatively short elimination half-life in plasma (1.5 hours), it persists in synovial fluid. The drug is metabolized in the liver and is eliminated by urinary and biliary excretion. In clinical trials, diclofenac was as effective as aspirin, diflunisal, indomethacin, sulindac, ibuprofen, ketoprofen, and naproxen in improving function and reducing pain in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. For treatment of osteoarthritis, diclofenac was equivalent in efficacy to aspirin, diflunisal, indomethacin, sulindac, ibuprofen, ketoprofen, naproxen, flurbiprofen, mefenamic acid, and piroxicam. Diclofenac was as effective as indomethacin or sulindac in treating ankylosing spondylitis. The most frequent adverse effects reported for diclofenac were gastrointestinal, but these effects were fewer and less serious than occurred with aspirin or indomethacin; in addition, diclofenac caused fewer central nervous system reactions than indomethacin. Diclofenac is administered in divided doses with meals. The recommended total daily dosage is 100 to 150 mg (osteoarthritis and ankylosing spondylitis) or 150 to 200 mg (rheumatoid arthritis). Diclofenac is effective, but no more so than other NSAIDs. It is structurally distinct and offers another choice in the treatment of rheumatological conditions. PMID:2670397

  3. Polyelectrolyte addition effect on the properties of setting hydraulic cements based on calcium phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present work the effects of the addition of some poly electrolytes (sodium alginate and poly acrylic acid) on the solubility, crystalline phases, pH and mechanical strength under compression of three calcium phosphate cements were studied. (author)

  4. PYRETHROID INDUCED ALTERATIONS IN TRANSCRIPTION OF CALCIUM RESPONSIVE AND IMMEDIATE EARLY GENES IN VIVO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multiple molecular targets for pyrethroid insecticides have been evaluated in in vitro preparations, including but not limited to voltage-sensitive sodium channels (VSSCs), voltage-sensitive calcium channels (VSCCs), GABAergic receptors, ATPases and mitochondrial respiratory chai...

  5. Corrosion Inhibitors for Aluminum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Bodo

    1995-01-01

    Describes a simple and reliable test method used to investigate the corrosion-inhibiting effects of various chelating agents on aluminum pigments in aqueous alkaline media. The experiments that are presented require no complicated or expensive electronic equipment. (DDR)

  6. Advances in aluminum anodizing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, K. H.

    1969-01-01

    White anodize is applied to aluminum alloy surfaces by specific surface preparation, anodizing, pigmentation, and sealing techniques. The development techniques resulted in alloys, which are used in space vehicles, with good reflectance values and excellent corrosive resistance.

  7. Liquid sodium pool fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experimental sodium pool combustion results have led to a definition of the combustion kinetics, and have revealed the hazards of sodium-concrete contact reactions and the possible ignition of organic matter (paint) by hydration of sodium peroxide aerosols. Analysis of these test results shows that the controlling mechanism is sodium evaporation diffusion. (author)

  8. Hot corrosion resistance of nickel-chromium-aluminum alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, G. J.; Barret, C. A.

    1977-01-01

    The hot corrosion resistance of nickel-chromium-aluminum alloys was examined by cyclically oxidizing sodium sulfate-coated specimens in still air at 900, 1000, and 1100 C. The compositions tested were within the ternary region: Ni, Ni-50 at.% Cr, and Ni-50 at.% Al. At each temperature the corrosion data were statistically fitted to a third order regression equation as a function of chromium and aluminum contents. From these equations corrosion isopleths were prepared. Compositional regions with the best hot corrosion resistance were identified.

  9. Molten aluminum: Recent advances in weighing and transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefansson, P. [Hydro Equipment AS, Oslo (Norway); Vee, O.I. [Procon a/s, Oslo (Norway); Sigfusson, T.I. [Univ. of Iceland, Reykjavik (Iceland). Science Inst.

    1996-10-01

    Logistics of molten metal is an important aspect of the efficiency of any aluminum smelter operation. The paper discusses a tapping method developed by Hydro Aluminum which has proven superior to the conventional crane or forklift tapping of potroom metal. The overall manning can be halved by the extensive rationalization of this method. The remote computer operated control of molten metal transfer by electronic scales mounted on the tapping vehicle is explained. As the metal needs no skimming, the dross/skim generation and sodium content of metal is shown with collected data. The impact and advantages of this novel engineering on the casthouse is finally explained and discussed in detail.

  10. Structure and elasticity of sodium magnesium fluoride and calcium iridium oxide at high pressures and temperatures---The perovskite and post-perovskite structure model of magnesium silicate investigated with Rietveld structure refinement and ultrasonic interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Charles David

    Perovskite-structured MgSiO3 dominates the mineralogy of Earth's lower mantle. As a result, the physical properties and phase transitions of this mineral are key to understanding anomalous seismic observations of the mantle's lowermost 150-300 km---the D'' region. Recent literature suggests a post-perovskite phase of MgSiO3, experimentally observed at pressures and temperatures consistent with those expected to exist at D'', is responsible for the observed discontinuity in seismic velocity. While characterizing the crystal-chemistry, structure, and elastic properties of these two mineral enigmatic region of the Earth, many conventional experimental apparatus are unable to reproduce these extreme conditions in the laboratory. Thus, measurements of the solubility of trace elements, the elastic changes with pressure and temperature, and the Clapeyron slope between perovskite and post-perovskite phases are in desperate need; however difficult or impossible to perform on MgSiO3 directly. This dissertation addresses structure changes at high pressure and temperature occurring in materials analogous to MgSiO 3 with perovskite and post-perovskite structure, considering that conclusions drawn from this research will prove useful to a subsequent understanding of the elastic, rheological, and crystal-chemical properties of MgSiO3. Neighborite (NaMgF3) is isostructural to orthorhombic ( Pbnm) MgSiO3 perovskite. On the basis of X-ray diffraction data, previous research by Yusheng Zhao has shown that increasing temperature, or potassium substitution for sodium in the structure, drives an evolution in the average structure (> 100 A) towards a perovskite with cubic ( Pm3m) symmetry. Through utilization of pair-distribution function analysis and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, experimental techniques sensitive to short-range structure (CaIrO3 is isostructural to the post-perovskite structure of MgSiO3 (Cmcm). Utilizing X-ray powder diffraction we identify the

  11. Sodium removal from sodium wetted under sodium ultra sonic scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Sodium wetted USUSS was subjected to sodium cleaning by water vapour–CO2 process. ► Hydrogen released during the process was monitored and regulated in safe limit. ► The temperature of USUSS was maintained below 80 °C to prevent caustic corrosion. ► The experiment revealed intricacies involved in the cleaning operation. ► The operational parameters for safe cleaning were optimised. - Abstract: Sodium is used as a coolant in primary and secondary heat transport systems of Liquid Metal cooled Fast Breeder Reactors (LMFBR). The Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR) is in advanced stage of construction at Kalpakkam, India. Under Sodium Ultra Sonic Scanner (USUSS) is used to image the components dipped in sodium and more specifically the gap between Sub Assembly (SA) heads and the control plug. This is essential to confirm that no SA is protruding from its position. USUSS has to be qualified in sodium before its use in the reactor. After sodium testing, sodium adhering to the USUSS needs to be removed to prevent reaction with oxygen and moisture present in air when it is taken out. The sodium removal process is based on the use of moist carbon-di-oxide (CO2) at a temperature of about 353 K. The reaction rate is controlled by varying the ratio of CO2 to moisture. Hydrogen released during the reaction of sodium with moisture is continuously monitored to ensure safe limits of hydrogen concentration. This paper describes the details of the experimental setup used in a cleaning pit for the removal of sodium adhering on USUSS and the technical details of the cleaning process.

  12. Canadian Initiatives to Prevent Hypertension by Reducing Dietary Sodium

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Strang; Eric Van Young; Mary L’Abbe; Campbell, Norm R.C.; Willis, Kevin J.

    2011-01-01

    Hypertension is the leading risk for premature death in the world. High dietary sodium is an important contributor to increased blood pressure and is strongly associated with other important diseases (e.g., gastric cancer, calcium containing kidney stones, osteoporosis, asthma and obesity). The average dietary sodium intake in Canada is approximately 3400 mg/day. It is estimated that 30% of hypertension, more than 10% of cardiovascular events and 1.4 billion dollars/year in health care expens...

  13. Modulation of intestinal absorption of calcium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Absorption of ingested calcium (2ml of a 10mM CaCl2 solution + 45Ca) by the adult rat was shown to be facilitated by the simultaneous ingestion of an active carbohydrate, L-arabinose. As the carbohydrate concentration is increased from 10 to 200mM, the absorption of calcium is maximised at a level corresponding to about twice the control absorption level. A similar doubling of calcium absorption is obtained when a 100mM concentration of any one of a number of other carbohydrates is ingested simultaneously with a 10mM CaCl2 solution. Conversely, the simultaneous ingestion of increasing doses (10 to 100mM) of phosphate (NaH2PO4) with a 10mM CaCl2 solution results in decreased 45Ca absorption and retention by the adult rat. The maximum inhibition of calcium absorption by phosphate is independent of the concentration of the ingested calcium solution (from 5 to 50mM CaCl2). The simultaneous ingestion of CaCl2 (10mM) with lactose and sodium phosphate (50 and 10mM respectively) shows that the activation effect of lactose upon 45Ca absorption may be partly dissimulated by the presence of phosphate. These various observations indicate that, within a large concentration range (2 to 50mM CaCl2) calcium absorption appears to be a precisely modulated diffusion process. Calcium absorption varies (between minimum and maximum levels) as a function of the state of saturation by the activators (carbohydrates) and inhibitors (phosphate) of the calcium transport system

  14. STARCH-SODIUM STEARATE COMPLEX MODIFIED PCC FILLER AND ITS APPLICATION IN PAPERMAKING

    OpenAIRE

    Huiming Fan,; Daoxuan Wang,; Wenrui Bai,; Jianan Liu

    2012-01-01

    The use of fillers tends to reduce paper strength, which can limit their application. Therefore research on filler modification is of significant importance in order to overcome this limitation. In this paper, precipitated calcium carbonate (PCC) was modified by starch, sodium stearate, and the starch cross-linking agent sodium hexametaphosphate. The purpose of this research is to provide useful references to the industrial application of modified precipitated calcium carbonate (PCC). Modifie...

  15. BLENDED CALCIUM ALUMINATE-CALCIUM SULFATE CEMENT-BASED GROUT FOR P-REACTOR VESSEL IN-SITU DECOMMISSIONING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langton, C.; Stefanko, D.

    2011-03-10

    The objective of this report is to document laboratory testing of blended calcium aluminate - calcium hemihydrate grouts for P-Reactor vessel in-situ decommissioning. Blended calcium aluminate - calcium hemihydrate cement-based grout was identified as candidate material for filling (physically stabilizing) the 105-P Reactor vessel (RV) because it is less alkaline than portland cement-based grout which has a pH greater than 12.4. In addition, blended calcium aluminate - calcium hemihydrate cement compositions can be formulated such that the primary cementitious phase is a stable crystalline material. A less alkaline material (pH {<=} 10.5) was desired to address a potential materials compatibility issue caused by corrosion of aluminum metal in highly alkaline environments such as that encountered in portland cement grouts [Wiersma, 2009a and b, Wiersma, 2010, and Serrato and Langton, 2010]. Information concerning access points into the P-Reactor vessel and amount of aluminum metal in the vessel is provided elsewhere [Griffin, 2010, Stefanko, 2009 and Wiersma, 2009 and 2010, Bobbitt, 2010, respectively]. Radiolysis calculations are also provided in a separate document [Reyes-Jimenez, 2010].

  16. Blended Calcium Aluminate-Calcium Sulfate Cement-Based Grout For P-Reactor Vessel In-Situ Decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this report is to document laboratory testing of blended calcium aluminate - calcium hemihydrate grouts for P-Reactor vessel in-situ decommissioning. Blended calcium aluminate - calcium hemihydrate cement-based grout was identified as candidate material for filling (physically stabilizing) the 105-P Reactor vessel (RV) because it is less alkaline than portland cement-based grout which has a pH greater than 12.4. In addition, blended calcium aluminate - calcium hemihydrate cement compositions can be formulated such that the primary cementitious phase is a stable crystalline material. A less alkaline material (pH ≤ 10.5) was desired to address a potential materials compatibility issue caused by corrosion of aluminum metal in highly alkaline environments such as that encountered in portland cement grouts (Wiersma, 2009a and b, Wiersma, 2010, and Serrato and Langton, 2010). Information concerning access points into the P-Reactor vessel and amount of aluminum metal in the vessel is provided elsewhere (Griffin, 2010, Stefanko, 2009 and Wiersma, 2009 and 2010, Bobbitt, 2010, respectively). Radiolysis calculations are also provided in a separate document (Reyes-Jimenez, 2010).

  17. Fabrication of aluminum foam from aluminum scrap Hamza

    OpenAIRE

    O. A. Osman1 ,; Mining and Petroleum Engineering, Faculty of Engineering- Qena, Al_Azhar University, Egypt

    2015-01-01

    In this study the optimum parameters affecting the preparation of aluminum foam from recycled aluminum were studied, these parameters are: temperature, CaCO3 to aluminum scrap wt. ratio as foaming agent, Al2O3 to aluminum scrap wt. ratio as thickening agent, and stirring time. The results show that, the optimum parameters are the temperature ranged from 800 to 850oC, CaCO3 to aluminum scrap wt. ratio was 5%, Al2O3 to aluminum scrap wt. ratio was 3% and stirring time was 45 second ...

  18. Calcium in diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... best source. Milk and dairy products such as yogurt, cheeses, and buttermilk contain a form of calcium ... the amount of calcium in a dairy product. Yogurt, most cheeses, and buttermilk are excellent sources of ...

  19. Fenoprofen calcium overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenoprofen calcium is a type of medicine called a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug. It is a prescription pain medicine used to relieve symptoms of arthritis . Fenoprofen calcium overdose occurs when someone takes more than the ...

  20. Calcium channel blocker overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002580.htm Calcium channel blocker overdose To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Calcium channel blockers are a type of medicine used ...

  1. Fenoprofen calcium overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002649.htm Fenoprofen calcium overdose To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Fenoprofen calcium is a type of medicine called a nonsteroidal ...

  2. Hydrogen generation from water and aluminum promoted by sodium stannate

    OpenAIRE

    Soler Turu, Lluis; Candela Soto, Angélica Maria; Macanás de Benito, Jorge; Muñoz Tapia, Maria; Casado Giménez, Juan

    2010-01-01

    A new process to obtain H2 from H2O using Al corrosion in Na2SnO3 solutions is described. Results showed an enhancement of H2 production rates using Na2SnO3 instead of NaOH at the same pH. A side reaction of Al in Na2SnO3 solutions has been found, which consumes Al to produce metallic Sn. H2 yield depends chiefly on Al/Na2SnO3 molar ratio for experiments with Na2SnO3 concentrations above 0.025 M, reaching higher yields with higher Al/Na2SnO3 ratios. The maximum H2 production rates are proport...

  3. Calcium and magnesium disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goff, Jesse P

    2014-07-01

    Hypocalcemia is a clinical disorder that can be life threatening to the cow (milk fever) and predisposes the animal to various other metabolic and infectious disorders. Calcium homeostasis is mediated primarily by parathyroid hormone, which stimulates bone calcium resorption and renal calcium reabsorption. Parathyroid hormone stimulates the production of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D to enhance diet calcium absorption. High dietary cation-anion difference interferes with tissue sensitivity to parathyroid hormone. Hypomagnesemia reduces tissue response to parathyroid hormone. PMID:24980727

  4. Calcium and Mitosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepler, P.

    1983-01-01

    Although the mechanism of calcium regulation is not understood, there is evidence that calcium plays a role in mitosis. Experiments conducted show that: (1) the spindle apparatus contains a highly developed membrane system that has many characteristics of sarcoplasmic reticulum of muscle; (2) this membrane system contains calcium; and (3) there are ionic fluxes occurring during mitosis which can be seen by a variety of fluorescence probes. Whether the process of mitosis can be modulated by experimentally modulating calcium is discussed.

  5. Note: Inhibiting bottleneck corrosion in electrical calcium tests for ultra-barrier measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehm, F.; Müller-Meskamp, L.; Klumbies, H.; Leo, K.

    2015-12-01

    A major failure mechanism is identified in electrical calcium corrosion tests for quality assessment of high-end application moisture barriers. Accelerated calcium corrosion is found at the calcium/electrode junction, leading to an electrical bottleneck. This causes test failure not related to overall calcium loss. The likely cause is a difference in electrochemical potential between the aluminum electrodes and the calcium sensor, resulting in a corrosion element. As a solution, a thin, full-area copper layer is introduced below the calcium, shifting the corrosion element to the calcium/copper junction and inhibiting bottleneck degradation. Using the copper layer improves the level of sensitivity for the water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) by over one order of magnitude. Thin-film encapsulated samples with 20 nm of atomic layer deposited alumina barriers this way exhibit WVTRs of 6 × 10-5 g(H2O)/m2/d at 38 °C, 90% relative humidity.

  6. Note: Inhibiting bottleneck corrosion in electrical calcium tests for ultra-barrier measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A major failure mechanism is identified in electrical calcium corrosion tests for quality assessment of high-end application moisture barriers. Accelerated calcium corrosion is found at the calcium/electrode junction, leading to an electrical bottleneck. This causes test failure not related to overall calcium loss. The likely cause is a difference in electrochemical potential between the aluminum electrodes and the calcium sensor, resulting in a corrosion element. As a solution, a thin, full-area copper layer is introduced below the calcium, shifting the corrosion element to the calcium/copper junction and inhibiting bottleneck degradation. Using the copper layer improves the level of sensitivity for the water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) by over one order of magnitude. Thin-film encapsulated samples with 20 nm of atomic layer deposited alumina barriers this way exhibit WVTRs of 6 × 10−5 g(H2O)/m2/d at 38 °C, 90% relative humidity

  7. A Case of Recurrent Renal Aluminum Hydroxide Stone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basri Cakıroglu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal stone disease is characterized by the differences depending on the age, gender, and the geographic location of the patients. Seventy-five percent of the renal stone components is the calcium (Ca. The most common type of the stones is the Ca oxalate stones, while Ca phosphate, uric acid, struvite, and sistine stones are more rarely reported. Other than these types, triamterene, adenosine, silica, indinavir, and ephedrine stones are also reported in the literature as case reports. However, to the best of our knowledge, aluminum hydroxide stones was not reported reported before. Herein we will report a 38-years-old woman with the history of recurrent renal colic disease whose renal stone was determined as aluminum hydroxide stone in type. Aluminum mineral may be considered in the formation of kidney stones as it is widely used in the field of healthcare and cosmetics.

  8. Calcium en cardioplegie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruigrok, T.J.C.; Meijler, F.L.

    1985-01-01

    Coronary perfusion with a calcium-free solution, followed by reperfusion with a calcium containing solution, may result in acute myocardial cell death and in irreversible loss of the e1ectrical and mechanical activity of the heart. This phenomenon is known as the calcium paradox. A number of cardiop

  9. Fabrication of aluminum foam from aluminum scrap Hamza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Osman1 ,

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study the optimum parameters affecting the preparation of aluminum foam from recycled aluminum were studied, these parameters are: temperature, CaCO3 to aluminum scrap wt. ratio as foaming agent, Al2O3 to aluminum scrap wt. ratio as thickening agent, and stirring time. The results show that, the optimum parameters are the temperature ranged from 800 to 850oC, CaCO3 to aluminum scrap wt. ratio was 5%, Al2O3 to aluminum scrap wt. ratio was 3% and stirring time was 45 second with stirring speed 1200 rpm. The produced foam apparent densities ranged from 0.40-0.60 g/cm3. The microstructure of aluminum foam was examined by using SEM, EDX and XRD, the results show that, the aluminum pores were uniformly distributed along the all matrices and the cell walls covered by thin oxide film.

  10. ALUMINUM RECLAMATION BY ACIDIC EXTRACTION OF ALUMINUM-ANODIZING SLUDGES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Extraction of aluminum-anodizing sludges with sulfuric acid was examined to determine the potential for production of commercial-strength solutions of aluminum sulfate, that is liquid alum. The research established kinetic and stoichiometric relationships and evaluates product qu...

  11. Astrocyte sodium signaling and neuro-metabolic coupling in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, C R; Chatton, J-Y

    2016-05-26

    At tripartite synapses, astrocytes undergo calcium signaling in response to release of neurotransmitters and this calcium signaling has been proposed to play a critical role in neuron-glia interaction. Recent work has now firmly established that, in addition, neuronal activity also evokes sodium transients in astrocytes, which can be local or global depending on the number of activated synapses and the duration of activity. Furthermore, astrocyte sodium signals can be transmitted to adjacent cells through gap junctions and following release of gliotransmitters. A main pathway for activity-related sodium influx into astrocytes is via high-affinity sodium-dependent glutamate transporters. Astrocyte sodium signals differ in many respects from the well-described glial calcium signals both in terms of their temporal as well as spatial distribution. There are no known buffering systems for sodium ions, nor is there store-mediated release of sodium. Sodium signals thus seem to represent rather direct and unbiased indicators of the site and strength of neuronal inputs. As such they have an immediate influence on the activity of sodium-dependent transporters which may even reverse in response to sodium signaling, as has been shown for GABA transporters for example. Furthermore, recovery from sodium transients through Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase requires a measurable amount of ATP, resulting in an activation of glial metabolism. In this review, we present basic principles of sodium regulation and the current state of knowledge concerning the occurrence and properties of activity-related sodium transients in astrocytes. We then discuss different aspects of the relationship between sodium changes in astrocytes and neuro-metabolic coupling, putting forward the idea that indeed sodium might serve as a new type of intracellular ion signal playing an important role in neuron-glia interaction and neuro-metabolic coupling in the healthy and diseased brain. PMID:25791228

  12. Antimicrobial activity of calcium hydroxide and chlorhexidine on intratubular Candida albicans

    OpenAIRE

    Jacques Rezende Delgado, Ronan; Helena Gasparoto, Thaís; Renata Sipert, Carla; Ramos Pinheiro, Claudia; Gomes de Moraes, Ivaldo; Brandão Garcia, Roberto; Antônio Hungaro Duarte, Marco; Monteiro Bramante, Clóvis; Aparecido Torres, Sérgio; Pompermaier Garlet, Gustavo; Paula Campanelli, Ana; Bernardineli, Norberti

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the efficacy of calcium hydroxide and chlorhexidine gel for the elimination of intratubular Candida albicans (C. albicans). Human single-rooted teeth contaminated with C. albicans were treated with calcium hydroxide, 2% chlorhexidine gel, calcium hydroxide plus 2% chlorhexidine gel, or saline (0.9% sodium chloride) as a positive control. The samples obtained at depths of 0–100 and 100–200 µm from the root canal system were analyzed for C. albicans load by counting the ...

  13. Difference of Sodium Currents between Pediatric and Adult Human Atrial Myocytes: Evidence for Developmental Changes of Sodium Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benzhi Cai, Xiaoqin Mu, Dongmei Gong, Shulin Jiang, Jianping Li, Qingxin Meng, Yunlong Bai, Yanju Liu, Xinyue Wang, Xueying Tan, Baofeng Yang, Yanjie Lu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Voltage-gated calcium currents and potassium currents were shown to undergo developmental changes in postnatal human and animal cardiomocytes. However, so far, there is no evidence whether sodium currents also presented the developmental changes in postnatal human atrial cells. The aim of this study was to observe age-related changes of sodium currents between pediatric and adult atrial myocytes. Human atrial myocytes were acutely isolated and the whole-cell patch clamp technique was used to record sodium currents isolated from pediatric and adult atrial cardiomocytes. The peak amplitude of sodium currents recorded in adult atrial cells was significantly larger than that in pediatric atrial myocytes. However, there was no significant difference of the activation voltage for peak sodium currents between two kinds of atrial myocytes. The time constants for the activation and inactivation of sodium currents were smaller in adult atria than pediatric atria. The further study revealed that the voltage-dependent inactivation of sodium currents were more slow in adult atrial cardiomyocytes than pediatric atrial cells. A significant difference was also observed in the recovery process of sodium channel from inactivation. In summary, a few significant differences were demonstrated in sodium currents characteristics between pediatric and adult atrial myocytes, which indicates that sodium currents in human atria also undergo developmental changes.

  14. Association of Urinary Calcium Excretion with Serum Calcium and Vitamin D Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathod, Anita; Bonny, Olivier; Guessous, Idris; Suter, Paolo M.; Conen, David; Erne, Paul; Binet, Isabelle; Gabutti, Luca; Gallino, Augusto; Muggli, Franco; Hayoz, Daniel; Péchère-Bertschi, Antoinette; Paccaud, Fred

    2015-01-01

    Background and objectives Population-based data on urinary calcium excretion are scarce. The association of serum calcium and circulating levels of vitamin D [25(OH)D2 or D3] with urinary calcium excretion in men and women from a population-based study was explored. Design, settings, participants, & measurements Multivariable linear regression was used to explore factors associated with square root–transformed 24-hour urinary calcium excretion (milligrams per 24 hours) taken as the dependent variable with a focus on month-specific vitamin D tertiles and serum calcium in the Swiss Survey on Salt Study. Results In total, 624 men and 669 women were studied with mean ages of 49.2 and 47.0 years, respectively (age range=15–95 years). Mean urinary calcium excretion was higher in men than in women (183.05 versus 144.60 mg/24 h; P<0.001). In adjusted models, the association (95% confidence interval) of square root urinary calcium excretion with protein–corrected serum calcium was 1.78 (95% confidence interval, 1.21 to 2.34) mg/24 h per milligram per deciliter in women and 0.59 (95% confidence interval, −0.11 to 1.29) mg/24 h per milligram per deciliter in men. Men in the third 25(OH)D3 tertile had higher square root urinary calcium excretion than men in the first tertile (0.99; 95% confidence interval, 0.36 to 1.63 mg/24 h per nanogram per milliliter), and the corresponding association was 0.32 (95% confidence interval, −0.22 to 0.85) mg/24 h per nanogram per milliliter in women. These sex differences were more marked under conditions of high urinary sodium or urea excretions. Conclusions There was a positive association of serum calcium with urinary calcium excretion in women but not men. Vitamin 25(OH)D3 was associated with urinary calcium excretion in men but not women. These results suggest important sex differences in the hormonal and dietary control of urinary calcium excretion. PMID:25518946

  15. 剖宫产术前输注醋酸钠钾镁钙葡萄糖注射液对新生儿血气、血糖、乳酸及电解质的影响%Effects of Sodium Acetate Potassium Magnesium Calcium Glucose Injection on Neonatal Blood Gas, Blood Glucose, Lactate and Electrolytes before Cesarean Section

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周晓筠; 黄军

    2014-01-01

    目的:观察剖宫产术前应用醋酸钠钾镁钙葡萄糖注射液对新生儿血气、血糖、乳酸及电解质的影响。方法选取2013年5月至12月需行剖宫产手术患者60例,依据分层随机分组法将患者分为治疗组及对照组,每组30例。对照组给予常规术前准备并进行剖宫产术;治疗组在对照组处理的基础上于术前加用醋酸钠钾镁钙葡萄糖注射液进行治疗。观察比较两组孕产妇手术前后血糖、游离脂肪酸、酮体变化以及用药不良反应情况,检测两组新生儿血气分析、电解质、血糖、乳酸及Apgar评分情况。结果术前两组孕产妇空腹血糖(FBG)、游离脂肪酸(NEFA)及酮体(KB)比较,差异无统计学意义( P>0.05)。术后治疗组孕产妇FBG为(6.75±1.71)mmol/L,明显高于对照组的(5.86±1.62)mmol/L,孕产妇 NEFA 为(0.57±0.18)mmol/L,KB 为(0.14±0.06)mmol/L,均分别低于对照组的(0.71±0.26)mmol/L和(0.19±0.09)mmol/L( P0.05)。结论剖宫产术前应用醋酸钠钾镁钙葡萄糖注射液,可显著改善孕产妇能量物质代谢情况及新生儿血气、电解质状况,并可提高新生儿Apgar评分。%Objective To observe the effect of Sodium Acetate Potassium Magnesium Calcium Glucose Injection on neonatal blood gas, blood glucose, lactate and electrolytes before cesarean section. Methods 60 pregnant woman requiring cesarean section in our hospital from May to December 2013 were divided into the treatment group and the control group according to the stratified randomized method, 30 cases in each group. The control group was given the routine preoperative preparation and performed cesarean section;while the treatment group was added with Sodium Acetate Potassium Magnesium Calcium Glucose Injection before operation on the basis of the control group treatment;the changes of blood glucose, free fatty acids, ketone bodies ( KB ) and adverse drug reactions

  16. Solubility of Aluminum in Cryolite-Based Melts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielik, V.; Fellner, P.; Sýkorová, A.; Thonstad, J.

    2010-04-01

    The solubility of aluminum in NaF-AlF3-Al2O3 melts was investigated between 800 °C and 960 °C. The amount of dissolved metal in rapidly cooled samples was analyzed by the reaction with hydrochloric acid under the formation of hydrogen—the volume of which then was determined. Four thermodynamic models that describe the high-temperature equilibrium of aluminum reactions with the NaF-AlF3 melt were proposed. The best fit for the experimental data was obtained by assuming the existence of a monovalent aluminum species, AlF and {text{AlF}}_{ 2}^{ - } , as well as elemental sodium.

  17. Regeneration of aluminum hydride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graetz, Jason Allan; Reilly, James J; Wegrzyn, James E

    2012-09-18

    The present invention provides methods and materials for the formation of hydrogen storage alanes, AlH.sub.x, where x is greater than 0 and less than or equal to 6 at reduced H.sub.2 pressures and temperatures. The methods rely upon reduction of the change in free energy of the reaction between aluminum and molecular H.sub.2. The change in free energy is reduced by lowering the entropy change during the reaction by providing aluminum in a state of high entropy, and by increasing the magnitude of the change in enthalpy of the reaction or combinations thereof.

  18. Aluminum Hydroxide and Magnesium Hydroxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aluminum Hydroxide, Magnesium Hydroxide are antacids used together to relieve heartburn, acid indigestion, and upset stomach. They ... They combine with stomach acid and neutralize it. Aluminum Hydroxide, Magnesium Hydroxide are available without a prescription. ...

  19. Radioactive sodium processing apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To enable safety, continuous and economical disposal for radioactive sodium while preventing radioactive contaminations. Constitution: Reaction gas introduction pipe for introducing oxygen and carbon dioxygen, and steams for accelerating the processing speed, as well as a discharge pipe for sodium carbonate as reaction products are connected to the lower side wall of a radioactive sodium processing container. A screw conveyor is mounted within the radioactive sodium processing container and a torque meter is disposed in the central axis of the conveyor. Signals from the torque meter are sent to an oxygen introduction control device. V-shaped recesses are formed to the screw blades of the conveyor for improving the separating efficiency between sodium carbonate produced through the procession and not-processed radioactive sodium. Since sodium is converted after the process into sodium carbonate, it can be handled and stored within ease. (Yoshihara, H.)

  20. Sodium Ferric Gluconate Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodium ferric gluconate injection is used to treat iron-deficiency anemia (a lower than normal number of ... are also receiving the medication epoetin (Epogen, Procrit). Sodium ferric gluconate injection is in a class of ...

  1. Docusate Sodium and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... live chat Live Help Fact Sheets Share Docusate Sodium Friday, 01 April 2016 In every pregnancy, a ... This sheet talks about whether exposure to docusate sodium may increase the risk for birth defects over ...

  2. Diclofenac sodium overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002630.htm Diclofenac sodium overdose To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Diclofenac sodium is a prescription medicine used to relieve pain ...

  3. Sodium carbonate poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodium carbonate (known as washing soda or soda ash) is a chemical found in many household and ... products. This article focuses on poisoning due to sodium carbonate. This article is for information only. Do ...

  4. Sodium hydroxide poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodium hydroxide is a very strong chemical. It is also known as lye and caustic soda. This ... poisoning from touching, breathing in (inhaling), or swallowing sodium hydroxide. This article is for information only. Do ...

  5. Naproxen sodium overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002507.htm Naproxen sodium overdose To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Naproxen sodium is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) used ...

  6. Mixed alkaline earth effect in sodium aluminosilicate glasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Jonas; Smedskjær, Morten Mattrup; Mauro, John C.;

    2013-01-01

    While the mixed alkali effect has received significant attention in the glass literature, the mixed alkaline earth effect has not been thoroughly studied. Here, we investigate the latter effect by partial substitution of magnesium for calcium in sodium aluminosilicate glasses. We use Raman and NMR...

  7. Modulation of Tartrates with Various Counterions on the Phases of Calcium Oxalate in Gelatinous Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian Ming OUYANG; Xiang Ping LI

    2005-01-01

    Effect of various counterions of tartrate on the crystallization of calcium oxalate in gel system was investigated using scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Various tartrates with hydrogen (H2tart), sodium (Na2tart), potassium (K2tart), ammonium ((NH4)2tart), and a mixture of sodium and potassium cations (NaKtart) were considered. For H2tart, Na2tart, and (NH4)2tart, calcium oxalate dihydrate (COD) was induced. However, for K2tart and NaKtart,calcium oxalate trihydrate (COT) was obtained.

  8. RECLAMATION OF ALUMINUM FINISHING SLUDGES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The research study of the reclamation of aluminum-anodizing sludges was conducted in two sequential phases focused on enhanced dewatering of aluminum-anodizing sludges to produce commercial-strength solutions of aluminum sulfate, i.e., liquid alum. The use of high-pressure (14 to...

  9. Electrically conductive anodized aluminum coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alwitt, Robert S. (Inventor); Liu, Yanming (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A process for producing anodized aluminum with enhanced electrical conductivity, comprising anodic oxidation of aluminum alloy substrate, electrolytic deposition of a small amount of metal into the pores of the anodized aluminum, and electrolytic anodic deposition of an electrically conductive oxide, including manganese dioxide, into the pores containing the metal deposit; and the product produced by the process.

  10. Sodium and potassium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Present article is devoted to sodium and potassium content in fluoride. In order to obtain the comprehensive view on sodium and potassium distribution in fluorite 892 mono mineral samples of various geologic deposits and ores of Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan were analyzed. The content of sodium and potassium in fluorite of geologic deposits of various mineralogical and genetic type was defined.

  11. SODIUM ENVIRONMENTS IN GLASS

    OpenAIRE

    Greaves, G.

    1981-01-01

    Sodium environments have been measured directly in several oxide glasses using EXAFS at the sodium K edge. The existence of local structure around sodium in glass contradicts the conventional Zachariasen model. Analysis of the EXAFS indicates there are significant differences relating to the glass modifier : glass former chemistry - the details of which demonstrate similarities with crystalline silicates and borates.

  12. Calcium absorption and achlorhydria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Defective absorption of calcium has been thought to exist in patients with achlorhydria. The author compared absorption of calcium in its carbonate form with that in a pH-adjusted citrate form in a group of 11 fasting patients with achlorhydria and in 9 fasting normal subjects. Fractional calcium absorption was measured by a modified double-isotope procedure with 0.25 g of calcium used as the carrier. Mean calcium absorption (+/- S.D.) in the patients with achlorhydria was 0.452 +/- 0.125 for citrate and 0.042 +/- 0.021 for carbonate (P less than 0.0001). Fractional calcium absorption in the normal subjects was 0.243 +/- 0.049 for citrate and 0.225 +/- 0.108 for carbonate (not significant). Absorption of calcium from carbonate in patients with achlorhydria was significantly lower than in the normal subjects and was lower than absorption from citrate in either group; absorption from citrate in those with achlorhydria was significantly higher than in the normal subjects, as well as higher than absorption from carbonate in either group. Administration of calcium carbonate as part of a normal breakfast resulted in completely normal absorption in the achlorhydric subjects. These results indicate that calcium absorption from carbonate is impaired in achlorhydria under fasting conditions. Since achlorhydria is common in older persons, calcium carbonate may not be the ideal dietary supplement

  13. Invisible Display in Aluminum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prichystal, Jan Phuklin; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Bladt, Henrik Henriksen

    2005-01-01

    integrated display in a metal surface is often ruled by design and functionality of a product. The integration of displays in metal surfaces requires metal removal in order to clear the area of the display to some extent. The idea behind an invisible display in Aluminum concerns the processing of a metal...

  14. Aluminum Sulfate 18 Hydrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Jay A.

    2004-01-01

    A chemical laboratory information profile (CLIP) of the chemical, aluminum sulfate 18 hydrate, is presented. The profile lists physical and harmful properties, exposure limits, reactivity risks, and symptoms of major exposure for the benefit of teachers and students using the chemical in the laboratory.

  15. Hot pressing aluminum nitride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiment was performed on the hot pressing of aluminum nitride, using three kinds of powder which are: a) made by electric arc method, b) made by nitrifying aluminum metal powder, and c) made from alumina and carbon in nitrogen atmosphere. The content of oxygen of these powders was analyzed by activation analysis using high energy neutron irradiation. The density of hot pressed samples was classified into two groups. The high density group contained oxygen more than 3 wt. %, and the low density group contained about 0.5 wt %. Typical density vs. temperature curves have a bending point near 1,5500C, and the sample contains iron impurity of 0.5 wt. %. Needle crystals were found to grow near 1,5500C by VLS mechanism, and molten iron acts a main part of mechanism as a liquid phase. According to the above-mentioned curve, the iron impurity in aluminum nitride prevents densification. The iron impurity accelerates crystal growth. Advance of densification may be expected by adding iron impurity, but in real case, the densification is delayed. Densification and crystal growth are greatly accelerated by oxygen impurity. In conclusion, more efforts must be made for the purification of aluminum nitride. In the present stage, the most pure nitride powder contains about 0.1 wt. % of oxygen, as compared with good silicon carbide crystals containing only 10-5 wt. % of nitrogen. (Iwakiri, K.)

  16. EXERCISE ENHANCING CALCIUM ABSORPTION MECHANISM

    OpenAIRE

    Muliani

    2013-01-01

    Calcium has important role in many biological processes therefore calcium homeostasis should be maintained. Imbalance in calcium homeostasis would affects the bone metabolism, neuromuscular function, blood coagulation, cell proliferation and signal transduction. Homeostasis of calcium is maintained by three major organs: gastrointestinal tract, bone and kidney. Intestinal calcium absorption is the sole mechanism to supply calcium to the body. Calcium absorption controlled by calcitropic hormo...

  17. Electroless Growth of Aluminum Dendrites in NaCl-AlCl3 Melts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Qingfeng; Hjuler, H.A.; Berg, Rolf W.;

    1989-01-01

    The spontaneous growth of aluminum dendrites after deposition was observed and examined in sodium chloride-aluminumchloride melts. The concentration gradient of AlCl3 in the vicinity of the cathode surface resulting from electrolysisconstitutes a type of concentration cell with aluminum dendrites...... as electrodes. The short-circuit discharge of thecell is found to be the driving force for the growth of aluminum dendrites. Such a concentration gradient is proposed to beone of the causes for dendrite formation in the case of metal deposition....

  18. Sensing of corrosion on aluminum surfaces by use of metallic optical fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Saying; Liao, Yanbiao; Tian, Qian

    2005-10-20

    We present a new method for monitoring aluminum corrosion by determining the kind of light output that is as corrosion occurs. We prepared some metallized multimode optical fibers by physical vacuum deposition of aluminum to monitor metal corrosion. The sensing area was 1-2 cm in length and had an uncladded part. We used scanning-electron microscopy (SEM) to observe the microappearance of the aluminum before and after corrosion by sodium hydroxide or hydrochloric acid. The film's thickness was also measured by SEM. The factors that affect the rate of corrosion were also investigated. PMID:16252643

  19. Enabling aqueous binders for lithium battery cathodes - Carbon coating of aluminum current collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doberdò, Italo; Löffler, Nicholas; Laszczynski, Nina; Cericola, Dario; Penazzi, Nerino; Bodoardo, Silvia; Kim, Guk-Tae; Passerini, Stefano

    2014-02-01

    In this manuscript a novel approach to enable aqueous binders for lithium ion battery (LIB) cathodes is reported. Producing LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 (NMC) electrodes using sodium-carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) as a binder and water as a solvent, in fact, results in serious aluminum corrosion during electrode manufacturing due to the high pH of the slurry. In order to prevent the direct contact of the corrosive slurry with aluminum foil, the latter is first coated with a thin carbon layer. The CMC-based electrodes formed on carbon coated aluminum foil show enhanced performance than those made using unprotected aluminum instead. In particular, electrodes using protected aluminum foil are able to deliver a capacity of 126 mAh g-1 at 1C rate, which is rather close to that delivered by polyvinylidene-di-fluoride (PVdF)-based electrode having the same composition.

  20. Recycling of aluminum and caustic soda solution from waste effluents generated during the cleaning of the extruder matrixes of the aluminum industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anodising industries use a concentrated caustic soda solution to remove aluminum from extruder matrixes. This procedure produces very alkaline effluents containing high amounts of aluminum. The work reported here was focussed on recycling aluminum, as aluminum hydroxide, from these effluents and regenerating an alkaline sodium hydroxide solution. Briefly, the method comprises a dilution step (necessary for reducing the viscosity of the effluent and allowing the subsequent filtration) followed by a filtration to eliminate a substantial amount of the insoluble iron. Then, sulphuric acid was added to neutralize the waste solution down to pH 12 and induce aluminum precipitation. The purity of the aluminum salt was improved after washing the precipitate with deionised water. The characterization of the solid recovered, performed by thermogravimetric analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction, indicated characteristics typical of bayerite. The proposal method allowed recovering 82% of the aluminum present in the wastewater with high purity (99.5%). Additionally, a sufficiently concentrated caustic soda solution was also recovered, which can be reused in the anodising industries. This procedure can be easily implemented and ensures economy by recycling reagents (concentrated caustic soda solution) and by recovering commercial by-products (aluminum hydroxide), while avoiding environmental pollution.

  1. Distance for fragmentation of a simulated molten-core material discharged into a sodium pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of experiments has been carried out to obtain experimental knowledge on the distance for fragmentation of molten core material discharged into the sodium plenum during postulated core disruptive accidents of sodium-cooled fast reactors. In the current experiments, 0.9 kg of molten aluminum (initial temperature: around 1473 K) was discharged into a sodium pool (diameter: 0.11 m, depth: 1 m, initial temperature: 673 K) through a nozzle (inner diameter: 20 mm). Visual observation of the fragmentation behavior was performed using an X-ray imaging system (frame rate: 1000 frames per second). At the same time, axial temperature distribution along liquid column of molten aluminum was measured with a number of thermocouples installed in the sodium pool. The following experimental results were obtained: 1) Liquid column of molten aluminum was intensively fragmented almost simultaneously with a rapid expansion of sodium vapor in the vicinity of the column. 2) Due to the intensive fragmentation, penetration of the liquid column was limited to approximately 100 mm or so from the sodium level. 3) The molten aluminum was rapidly cooled after the intensive fragmentation. Based on these results, the distance for fragmentation of the liquid column was estimated to be 100 mm in the experiments. Through the current experiment, useful knowledge was obtained for the future development of an evaluation method of the distance for fragmentation of molten core material. (author)

  2. ALUMINUM SOLUBILITY, CALCIUM-ALUMINUM EXCHANGE, AND PH IN ACID FOREST SOILS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Important components in several models designed to describe the effects of acid deposition on soils and surface waters are the pH-A1 and Ca-A1 exchange relationships. f A1 solubility is controlled by A1 trihydroxide minerals, the theoretical pH-A1 relationship can be described by...

  3. Efficacy of supplemental natural zeolite in broiler chickens subjected to dietary calcium deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erol Bintaş

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Natural zeolite, or sodium aluminosilicate, influences calcium (Ca and phosphorus (P utilisation in chicks. A 2×2 factorial arrangement of treatments was used to investigate the effect of dietary Ca (recommended and below recommended levels and zeolite (0 and 0.8% on growth, plasma, tibia and faeces in chickens from 1 to 42 days of age. Zeolite supplementation did not affect overall body weight (BW gain, feed intake (FI or feed conversion ratio (FCR of broiler chickens (P>0.05. Overall mortality of zeolite-fed chickens was lower than in untreated ones (P<0.01. Reduction of dietary Ca of approximately 10 to 18% decreased (P<0.05 BW at 14 and 42 days of age in association with reduced FI, but overall FCR was unchanged. Serum protein and sodium constituents were reduced in birds fed zeolite (P<0.05. Decreasing dietary Ca level increased (P<0.01 serum, total protein and glucose concentrations, but decreased Ca level. Zeolite decreased bone ash in birds fed a Ca-deficient diet while increased faecal excretion of ash, Ca, P and aluminum. However, zeolite increased tibia weight (P<0.05 and thickness (P<0.01. No significant response (P>0.05 in relative weight and gross lesion scores of liver or footpad lesion scores was found related to changes in dietary regimens. The results of the present study do not corroborate the hypothesis that the effectiveness of zeolite may be improved in Ca-deficient diets in association with its ion exchange capability.

  4. The hydration of interstitial Portland cement phases in sodium hydroxide and magnesium sulfate solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Boyd Arthur

    tricalcium aluminate were observed. No crystalline magnesium-rich phases were detected by XRD. The products formed by hydration of tetracalcium aluminoferrite (Ca 2AlFeO5) and magnesium sulfate solutions were investigated by isothermal calorimetry, XRD and SEM analyses. Hydration reactions were carried out isothermally at temperatures from 25 to 80°C in 0.25M, 0.5M, 1.0M, 2.0M, and 3.0M magnesium sulfate solutions. Gypsum was the initial hydration product in all magnesium sulfate concentrations and was the only crystalline hydration product in 2.0M and 3.0M magnesium sulfate solutions. Monosulfate was the dominant crystalline phase produced over the entire temperature range when hydration was carried out in magnesium sulfate concentrations between 0.25M and 1.0M. No crystalline phases incorporating iron were observed regardless of magnesium sulfate concentration or temperature. Hydration in 1.0M MgSO 4 solution was more extensively investigated at 50°C. SEM observations indicated gypsum formed initially, consisting of fine particles (ettringite, and monosulfate were present at intermediate times. Monosulfate was the final crystalline hydration product. Amorphous solids produced include a calcium/iron-rich gel and a magnesium/aluminum/sulfate-rich phase. The calcium/iron-rich gel is the only iron-rich phase observed in the hydrated phase assemblage.

  5. Liberação de benzoato de cálcio de filmes de alginato de sódio reticulados com íons cálcio Release of calcium benzoate from films of sodium alginate crosslinked with calcium ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franciele R. B. Turbiani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Biofilmes confeccionados à base de alginato de sódio foram reticulados com íons Ca++ provenientes de duas fontes, cloreto e benzoato de cálcio, e continham glicerol como plastificante. Inicialmente, devido ao alto poder gelificante do Ca++, um filme de baixo grau de reticulação foi confeccionado por casting (1º estágio. Esse filme sofreu uma reticulação complementar por imersão em uma solução contendo de 3 a 7% de CaCl2.2H2O, além de glicerol (2º estágio. A liberação de benzoato de cálcio foi avaliada em diferentes concentrações de agente ativo no filme e dois níveis de reticulação do alginato. O mecanismo envolvido no processo de difusão foi investigado usando o modelo da Lei de Potência. Os resultados indicaram que a difusão de benzoato de cálcio em filmes de alginato apresenta características de comportamentos Fickiano e não-Fickiano. Os coeficientes de difusão efetivos obtidos usando a solução em série derivada da 2ª Lei de Fick são próximos aos valores obtidos pela solução em tempos curtos, com valores de difusividade efetiva do benzoato variando de 3 a 5.10-7 cm²/s. Os valores de difusividade diminuíram com o aumento da intensidade de reticulação e aumentaram com a concentração de benzoato no filme.Alginate-based biofilms were reticulated with Ca++ supplied by two sources, calcium chloride and benzoate, and using glycerol as plasticizer. The strong gelling power of the Ca++ ions hindered smooth casting procedures, so that films with low degree of reticulation were initially manufactured (1st stage. These films were further crosslinked with an excess of Ca++ by immersion in a solution of 3 to 7% of CaCl2.2H2O (2nd stage. The release of sorbate was evaluated considering different active agent concentrations in the film and two levels of alginate crosslinking. The mechanism involved in the diffusional process was investigated using the Power Law Model. The results indicated that potassium sorbate

  6. Dengue and Calcium

    OpenAIRE

    Shivanthan, Mitrakrishnan C; Rajapakse, Senaka

    2014-01-01

    Dengue is potentially fatal unless managed appropriately. No specific treatment is available and the mainstay of treatment is fluid management with careful monitoring, organ support, and correction of metabolic derangement. Evidence with regards to the role of calcium homeostasis in dengue is limited. Low blood calcium levels have been demonstrated in dengue infection and hypocalcemia maybe more pronounced in more severe forms. The cause of hypocalcemia is likely to be multifactorial. Calcium...

  7. Measurements of intracellular calcium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) has been measured in cultured cells by using Fura-2 load cells and a computer-controlled Perkin Elmer LS-5B spectrofluorometer. Increased [Ca2+]i in cells exposed to extracellular bilirubin was observed both with and without extracellular calcium. However, the increase was considerable larger with extracellular calcium. The enhancement of [Ca2+]i became smaller with decreasing bilirubin/BSA (bovine serum albumine) ratio. 5 refs., 5 figs

  8. Trace-element abundances and the origin of aluminum-26-bearing chondrules in unequilibrated ordinary chondrites

    OpenAIRE

    Huss, G. R.; Wasserburg, G. J.; Russell, S.S.; MacPherson, G. J.

    1997-01-01

    Calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAis) typically contain radiogenic ^(26)Mg (^(26)Mg^*) from the decay of ^(26)Al, with (^(26)Al/^(27)Al); up to 5 x 10^(-5) [e.g., 1]. Some Al-rich chondrules from unequilibrated ordinary chondrites contain detectable ^(26)Mg^*, but (^(26)Al/^(27)Al); is lower [e.g., 2].

  9. Interaction of H2S with Calcium Permeable Channels and Transporters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weihua Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A growing amount of evidence has suggested that hydrogen sulfide (H2S, as a gasotransmitter, is involved in intensive physiological and pathological processes. More and more research groups have found that H2S mediates diverse cellular biological functions related to regulating intracellular calcium concentration. These groups have demonstrated the reciprocal interaction between H2S and calcium ion channels and transporters, such as L-type calcium channels (LTCC, T-type calcium channels (TTCC, sodium/calcium exchangers (NCX, transient receptor potential (TRP channels, β-adrenergic receptors, and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDAR in different cells. However, the understanding of the molecular targets and mechanisms is incomplete. Recently, some research groups demonstrated that H2S modulates the activity of calcium ion channels through protein S-sulfhydration and polysulfide reactions. In this review, we elucidate that H2S controls intracellular calcium homeostasis and the underlying mechanisms.

  10. Mechano-activated surface modification of calcium carbonate in wet stirred mill and its properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Surface modification of calcium carbonate particles using sodium stearate(SDS) as a modification agent incorporated with the simultaneous wet ultra-fine grinding in the laboratory stirred mill was investigated. The physical properties and application properties of modified calcium carbonate were measured and evaluated. The action mechanism between SDS and calcium carbonate in the modification was studied by infrared spectrometry(IR) and X-ray photoelectron energy spectroscopy(XPS). The results indicate that the crushing mechanic force intensity can obviously influence the modification effect of calcium carbonate because of mechano-chemical effect. The hydrophilic surface of calcium carbonate is turned into hydrophobic after modification. The properties of polyethylene(PE) filled by modified calcium carbonate powder is markedly improved. And the adsorption of SDS could occur by chemical reaction with calcium carbonate surface.

  11. Nanocomposite anode materials for sodium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manthiram, Arumugam; Kim Il, Tae; Allcorn, Eric

    2016-06-14

    The disclosure relates to an anode material for a sodium-ion battery having the general formula AO.sub.x--C or AC.sub.x--C, where A is aluminum (Al), magnesium (Mg), titanium (Ti), vanadium (V), chromium (Cr), manganese (Mn), iron (Fe), cobalt (Co), nickel (Ni), zirconium (Zr), molybdenum (Mo), tungsten (W), niobium (Nb), tantalum (Ta), silicon (Si), or any combinations thereof. The anode material also contains an electrochemically active nanoparticles within the matrix. The nanoparticle may react with sodium ion (Na.sup.+) when placed in the anode of a sodium-ion battery. In more specific embodiments, the anode material may have the general formula M.sub.ySb-M'O.sub.x--C, Sb-MO.sub.x--C, M.sub.ySn-M'C.sub.x--C, or Sn-MC.sub.x--C. The disclosure also relates to rechargeable sodium-ion batteries containing these materials and methods of making these materials.

  12. Divacancy superstructures in thermoelectric calcium-doped sodium cobaltate

    OpenAIRE

    Porter, D. G.; Roger, M; Gutmann, M. J.; Uthayakumar, S; D. Prabhakaran; Boothroyd, A. T.; Pandiyan, M. S.; Goff, J. P.

    2015-01-01

    We have grown single crystals of Na$_x$Ca$_y$CoO$_2$ and determined their superstructures as a function of composition using neutron and x-ray diffraction. Inclusion of Ca$^{2+}$ stabilises a single superstructure across a wide range of temperatures and concentrations. The superstructure in the Na$^+$ layers is based on arrays of divacancy clusters with Ca$^{2+}$ ions occupying the central site, and it has an ideal concentration Na$_{4/7}$Ca$_{1/7}$CoO$_2$. Previous measurements of the thermo...

  13. Sodium bromide-cesium bromide-calcium bromide system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fusibility diagram of Na2Br2-Cs2Br2-CaBr2 system is investigated. System liquidus consists of crystallization fields of components and congruently melting CaBr2xCsBr compound. The main triangle is devided by CaBr2xCsBr-Na2Br2 cross-section into two coordinated phase triangles with eutectic points at 460 and 490degC

  14. Calcium sodium phosphosilicate had some benefit on dentine hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freda, Nicolas M; Veitz-Keenan, Analia

    2016-03-01

    Data sourcesMedline (via Pubmed), Embase, Web of Science, CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library), and the Chinese Biomedical Literature Database. Search strategy was limited to articles published in English and Chinese. No restriction applied to date of publication and a supplemental manual search was conducted by reviewing the reference lists for related paper and articles. Grey literature was also searched in ClinicalTrials.gov, the National Research Register, OpenGrey and the WHO's international clinical Trial Registry Platform.Study selectionRandomised controlled trials in humans with DH that compared topical CSPS in any modality and any concentration to a negative (placebo) control. The primary outcome was the DH pain response to routine activities or to thermal, tactile, evaporative or electrical stimuli, and the secondary outcome was the side effect of CSPS use including discomfort, oral hygiene deterioration or dental staining.Data extraction and synthesisStudy selection, data extraction and risk bias assessment were carried out in duplicate by two calibrated reviewers. Any disagreement was resolved via discussion after consulting a third reviewer. Mean differences (MDs) and standard deviations (SDs) were used to summarise data in studies with continuous outcomes. Heterogeneity was assessed using the I(2) test. Meta-analysis was performed when similarities were found among the included studies. The Grading of Recommendations Assessment Development and Evaluation (GRADE) System's Profiler was used to assess the quality of the body of the evidence.ResultsEleven trials were included comparing CSPS with a negative control. Four articles that focused on post-periodontal therapy were extracted as an independent analysis group. CSPS was used in topical administration with concentrations ranging from 2.5%-15%. Follow-up times ranged from 15 days to eight weeks. DH pain was elicited by tactile, evaporative or thermal stimuli. A 10 cm visual analogue scale (VAS) was the most commonly used for measurements. Five studies revealed a low risk of bias, one study had a high risk of bias and five studies had an unclear risk of bias. Seven of the studies were regarded as having a potential conflict of interest.For the primary outcome (DH) Subjects in the DH group (four studies) showed that toothpaste containing 5% CSPS was favoured compared with a negative control at almost every time point, however one study did not report a significant difference between these treatments at two weeks.The results from the from the grey literature (two studies) did not show significant differences between the CSPS and control groups and the results were not in agreement with the other studies.Another study observed effects of both 2.5% and 7.5% CSPS-containing toothpaste: 7.5% CSPS was more effective at relieving DH than a negative control, whereas no significant difference was found between 2.5% and the negative controls.For the secondary outcome (adverse events): six studies did not observe adverse reactions. The remaining studies reported minor adverse events, although most were not orally related.Toothpaste containing 5% CSPS versus negative control: the 5% CSPS-containing toothpaste showed a better desensitising effect at both two and six weeks regardless of the applied stimuli (evaporative, two weeks: MD = -0.68; 95% CIs = -1.15, -0. 20; I2 = 59%; evaporative, six weeks: MD = -1.69; 95% CIs = -1.86, -1.52; I2 = 42%; thermal, two weeks: MD = -0.59; 95% CIs = -1.33, 0.14; I2 = 84%; and thermal, six weeks: MD = -1.70; 95% CIs = -2.17, -1.23;I2 = 72%). The quality of evidence was categorised as 'moderate'.Prophylaxis paste containing 15% CSPS versus negative control: prophylaxis paste containing 15% CSPS showed a better desensitising effect on post-periodontal therapy DH pain than a negative control, immediately after prophylaxis and at four weeks, as determined using evaporative or tactile stimuli, and the results showed relatively low heterogeneity (evaporative, immediate: MD = -0.87; 95% CIs = -1.23, -0.51; I2 = 0%; evaporative, four weeks: MD = -0.9

  15. Dialysate sodium and sodium gradient in maintenance hemodialysis: a neglected sodium restriction approach?

    OpenAIRE

    Munoz Mendoza, Jair; Sun, Sumi; Chertow, Glenn M.; Moran, John, (Thesis); Doss, Sheila; Schiller, Brigitte

    2011-01-01

    Background. A higher sodium gradient (dialysate sodium minus pre-dialysis plasma sodium) during hemodialysis (HD) has been associated with sodium loading; however, its role is not well studied. We hypothesized that a sodium dialysate prescription resulting in a higher sodium gradient is associated with increases in interdialytic weight gain (IDWG), blood pressure (BP) and thirst.

  16. Canadian Initiatives to Prevent Hypertension by Reducing Dietary Sodium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Strang

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension is the leading risk for premature death in the world. High dietary sodium is an important contributor to increased blood pressure and is strongly associated with other important diseases (e.g., gastric cancer, calcium containing kidney stones, osteoporosis, asthma and obesity. The average dietary sodium intake in Canada is approximately 3400 mg/day. It is estimated that 30% of hypertension, more than 10% of cardiovascular events and 1.4 billion dollars/year in health care expenses are caused by this high level of intake in Canada. Since 2006, Canada has had a focused and evolving effort to reduce dietary sodium based on actions from Non Governmental Organizations (NGO, and Federal and Provincial/Territorial Government actions. NGOs initiated Canadian sodium reduction programs by developing a policy statement outlining the health issue and calling for governmental, NGO and industry action, developing and disseminating an extensive health care professional education program including resources for patient education, developing a public awareness campaign through extensive media releases and publications in the lay press. The Federal Government responded by striking a Intersectoral Sodium Work Group to develop recommendations on how to implement Canada’s dietary reference intake values for dietary sodium and by developing timelines and targets for foods to be reduced in sodium, assessing key research gaps with funding for targeted dietary sodium based research, developing plans for public education and for conducting evaluation of the program to reduce dietary sodium. While food regulation is a Federal Government responsibility Provincial and Territorial governments indicated reducing dietary sodium needed to be a priority. Federal and Provincial Ministers of Health have endorsed a target to reduce the average consumption of sodium to 2300 mg/day by 2016 and the Deputy Ministers of Health have tasked a joint committee to review the

  17. Efecto de la arginina 8%-carbonato de calcio y del fluoruro de sodio al 5% en la reducción de la hipersensibilidad dentinaria post terapia periodontal: ensayo clínico Effect of 8% arginine, calcium carbonate and 5% sodium fluoride on the reduction of the dentine hipersensitivity post periodontal therapy: clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Márquez

    2011-04-01

    embargo, se logró una mayor reducción del dolor en aquellos pacientes que utilizaron la terapia de arginina al 8% y carbonato de calcio, con un 60% de los individuos sin dolor y con una mediana final de 0 en comparación al grupo con barniz de flúor al 5% y un dentrífico fluorado que mantuvieron en el 100% de los sujetos algún grado de dolor y presentando una mediana final en la escala VAS de 2.Aim: The aim of this clinical study was to evaluate and to compare the efficacy in reducing the dentine hypersensitivity of an 8% arginine, calcium carbonate, 1.450 ppm sodium monofluorophosphate dentifrice with topical application and twice-daily brushing, with a negative control toothpaste containing calcium carbonate and 1.450 ppm fluoride as MFP, after periodontal treatment (baseline and four weeks respectively. Methods: A four-week clinical study with 20 subjects with diagnosis of slight to moderate chronic periodontitis under mechanical periodontal treatment and presence of gingival recessions in incisors, canines or premolars, stratified based on baseline tooth sensitivity. Subjects brushed with either a 1.450 ppm fluoride dentifrice or a marketed 8% arginine calcium carbonate dentifrice twice daily for approximately one minute. At screening, baseline and weeks four, subjects' tooth sensitivity was determined through both evaporative (Schiff and Visual Analogue Scale [VAS]. The same examiner throughout the study performed subject assessments using each stimulus. Results: Both subject groups exhibited significant reductions from baseline to four weeks in dentine hypersensitivity. However, patients who received 8% arginine calcium carbonate therapy, exhibited a greater reduction, with a 60% of individuals lacking of pain and with a final median of 0 in comparison with the 5% fluoride varnish and fluoride toothpaste group in which a 100% of subjects felt some degree of pain, presenting a final medium VAS scale of 2.

  18. Valorization of Calcium Carbonate-Based Solid Wastes for the Treatment of Hydrogen Sulfide from the Gas Phase

    OpenAIRE

    Pham Xuan, Huynh; Pham Minh, Doan; Galera Martinez, Marta; Nzihou, Ange; Sharrock, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on the valorization of calcium carbonate-based solid wastes for theremoval of hydrogen sulfide from gas phase. Two solid wastes taken from industrial sites for theproduction of sodium carbonate and sodium bicarbonate by the Solvay process® were analyzedby different physico-chemical methods. Calcium carbonate was found as the main component ofboth the solid wastes. Trace amounts of other elements such as Mg, Al, Fe, Si, Cl, Na etc. werealso present in these wastes. These sol...

  19. Adsorption behavior of condensed phosphate on aluminum hydroxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUAN Xiao-hong; CHEN Guang-hao; SHANG Chii

    2007-01-01

    Sodium pyrophosphate(pyro-P,Na4P207),sodium tripolyphosphate(tripoly-P,NasP3010),and sodium hexametaphosphate(metaP,(NaP03)6)were selected as the model compounds of condensed phosphate to investigate the adsorption behavior of condensed phosphate on aluminum hydroxide.The adsorption was found to be endothermic and divisible into two stages:(1)fast adsorption within 1 h:and(2)slow adsorption between 1 and 24 h.The modified Freundlich model simulated the fast adsorption stage well;the slow adsorption stage was described well by the first-order kinetics.The activation energies of pyro-P,tripoly-P,and meta-P adsorption on aluminum hydroxide were determined to be 20.2,22.8 and 10.9 kJ/mol P adsorbed,respectively,in the fast adsorption stage and to be 66.3.53.5 and 72.5 kJ/tool P adsorbed,respectively,in the slow adsorption stage.The adsorption increased the negative charge of the aluminum hydroxide surface.Transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis analyses provided evidence that the adsorption was not uniform on the surface and that the small crystals contfibuted more to the fast adsorption than the normal sites did.The results from X-ray fluorescence spectrometry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy tests also revealed the uneven adsorption of condensed phosphate as a function of the penetration depth.More condensed phosphates were adsorbed on the outer surface of aluminum hydroxide than in its inner parts.

  20. Synthesis of pure zeolite P2 from calcium silicate hydrate; tobermorite

    OpenAIRE

    Nasser Y. Mostafa; Rasha A. Garib; Z. K. Heiba; Abd-Elkader, Omar H.; M. M. Al-Majthoub

    2015-01-01

    Calcium silicate hydrate phases offer the possibility to become potential zeolites precursors due to its high silica contents. Pure calcium silicate hydrate phase; tobermorite (Ca5Si6O16(OH)2·4H2O), was prepared by hydrothermal method at 175°C. Tobermorite was sucssefully converted to Zeolite P2 for the first time via refluxing in 3 M NaOH solution and in the presence of Al source. Sodium hydroxide removed calcium ions from the interlayers of calcium silicate phase and form mesoporous zeolite...

  1. Intracellular calcium modulates basolateral K(+)-permeability in frog skin epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodin, Birger; Rytved, K A; Nielsen, R

    1994-01-01

    Cytosolic calcium ([Ca2+]i) has been suggested as a key modulator in the regulation of active sodium transport across electrically "tight" (high resistance) epithelia. In this study we investigated the effects of calcium on cellular electrophysiological parameters in a classical model tissue, the...... frog skin. [Ca2+]i was measured with fura-2 in an epifluorescence microscope setup. An inhibition of basolateral potassium permeability was observed when cytosolic calcium was increased. This inhibition was reversible upon removal of calcium from the serosal solution....

  2. Aluminum microstructures on anodic alumina for aluminum wiring boards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Himendra; Kikuchi, Tatsuya; Sakairi, Masatoshi; Takahashi, Hideaki

    2010-03-01

    The paper demonstrates simple methods for the fabrication of aluminum microstructures on the anodic oxide film of aluminum. The aluminum sheets were first engraved (patterned) either by laser beam or by embossing to form deep grooves on the surface. One side of the sheet was then anodized, blocking the other side by using polymer mask to form the anodic alumina. Because of the lower thickness at the bottom part of the grooves, the part was completely anodized before the complete oxidation of the other parts. Such selectively complete anodizing resulted in the patterns of metallic aluminum on anodic alumina. Using the technique, we fabricated microstructures such as line patterns and a simple wiring circuit-board-like structure on the anodic alumina. The aluminum microstructures fabricated by the techniques were embedded in anodic alumina/aluminum sheet, and this technique is promising for applications in electronic packaging and devices. PMID:20356280

  3. Calcium D-saccharate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia, André Castilho; Hedegaard, Martina Vavrusova; Skibsted, Leif Horsfelt

    2016-01-01

    Molar conductivity of saturated aqueous solutions of calcium d-saccharate, used as a stabilizer of beverages fortified with calcium d-gluconate, increases strongly upon dilution, indicating complex formation between calcium and d-saccharate ions, for which, at 25 °C, Kassoc = 1032 ± 80, ΔHassoc......° = -34 ± 6 kJ mol-1, and ΔSassoc° = -55 ± 9 J mol-1 K-1, were determined electrochemically. Calcium d-saccharate is sparingly soluble, with a solubility product, Ksp, of (6.17 ± 0.32) × 10-7 at 25 °C, only moderately increasing with the temperature: ΔHsol° = 48 ± 2 kJ mol-1, and ΔSassoc° = 42 ± 7 J mol-1...... K-1. Equilibria in supersaturated solutions of calcium d-saccharate seem only to adjust slowly, as seen from calcium activity measurements in calcium d-saccharate solutions made supersaturated by cooling. Solutions formed by isothermal dissolution of calcium d-gluconate in aqueous potassium d...

  4. Structural Role of Alkali Cations in Calcium Aluminosilicate Glasses as Examined Using Oxygen-17 Solid-State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukenaga, Sohei; Kanehashi, Koji; Shibata, Hiroyuki; Saito, Noritaka; Nakashima, Kunihiko

    2016-08-01

    The structural roles of alkali and calcium cations are important for understanding the physical and chemical properties of aluminosilicate melts and glasses. Recently, oxygen-17 nuclear magnetic resonance (17O NMR) studies of calcium-sodium aluminosilicate glasses showed that these structural roles are not randomly given, but rather each cation has its own preferential role. However, the relationship between cation type and role preference in calcium aluminosilicate glass is not completely understood. In the present study, the structural roles of lithium, sodium, and potassium cations in selected calcium aluminosilicate glasses are investigated using 17O solid-state NMR experiments. Data from these experiments clearly show that potassium cations have a notably stronger tendency to act as charge compensators within the network structure, compared to sodium and lithium cations. The result of 17O NMR experiment also showed that sodium and lithium cations in part act as network modifier alongside with calcium cations.

  5. Structural Role of Alkali Cations in Calcium Aluminosilicate Glasses as Examined Using Oxygen-17 Solid-State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukenaga, Sohei; Kanehashi, Koji; Shibata, Hiroyuki; Saito, Noritaka; Nakashima, Kunihiko

    2016-05-01

    The structural roles of alkali and calcium cations are important for understanding the physical and chemical properties of aluminosilicate melts and glasses. Recently, oxygen-17 nuclear magnetic resonance (17O NMR) studies of calcium-sodium aluminosilicate glasses showed that these structural roles are not randomly given, but rather each cation has its own preferential role. However, the relationship between cation type and role preference in calcium aluminosilicate glass is not completely understood. In the present study, the structural roles of lithium, sodium, and potassium cations in selected calcium aluminosilicate glasses are investigated using 17O solid-state NMR experiments. Data from these experiments clearly show that potassium cations have a notably stronger tendency to act as charge compensators within the network structure, compared to sodium and lithium cations. The result of 17O NMR experiment also showed that sodium and lithium cations in part act as network modifier alongside with calcium cations.

  6. Serum Calcium Level in Hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Hazari, Mohammed Abdul Hannan; Arifuddin, Mehnaaz Sameera; Muzzakar, Syed; Reddy, Vontela Devender

    2012-01-01

    Background: The alterations in extracellular calcium level may influence intracellular calcium level and possibly play a role in the pathogenesis of essential hypertension. Aim: The purpose was to find out the association between serum calcium levels and hypertension; and to compare the serum calcium levels between normotensive controls, hypertensive subjects on calcium channel blockers, and hypertensive subjects on antihypertensive medication other than calcium channel blockers. Materials an...

  7. Direct reading spectrochemical analysis of sodium uranate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe the application of the quantometer to the analysis of sodium uranate. To determine boron, cadmium, phosphorus and molybdenum contents, the samples are mixed with graphite powder (1:30) and excited in a 10 amperes direct current arc with 4x4,,5 mm cup graphite rods, using silver as internal standard. A not se deep cup and a dilution factor of 90 are more suitable for calcium, copper, iron, silicon and vanadium determination; cobalt and chromium are the internal standards. (Author) 6 refs

  8. Solubilities of sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, and sodium aluminate in simulated nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solubilities were determined for sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, and sodium aluminate in synthetic nuclear waste liquor. Solubilities were determined as a function of temperature and solution composition (concentrations of sodium hydroxide, sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, and sodium aluminate). Temperature had the greatest effect on the solubilities of sodium nitrate and sodium nitrite and a somewhat lesser effect on sodium aluminate solubility. Hydroxide had a great effect on the solubilities of all three salts. Other solution components had minor effects. 2 references, 8 figures, 11 tables

  9. Sodium fire suppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignition and combustion studies have provided valuable data and guidelines for sodium fire suppression research. The primary necessity is to isolate the oxidant from the fuel, rather than to attempt to cool the sodium below its ignition temperature. Work along these lines has led to the development of smothering tank systems and a dry extinguishing powder. Based on the results obtained, the implementation of these techniques is discussed with regard to sodium fire suppression in the Super-Phenix reactor. (author)

  10. Aluminum Removal From Hanford Waste By Lithium Hydrotalcite Precipitation - Laboratory Scale Validation On Waste Simulants Test Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To reduce the additional sodium hydroxide and ease processing of aluminum bearing sludge, the lithium hydrotalcite (LiHT) process has been invented by AREV A and demonstrated on a laboratory scale to remove alumina and regenerate/recycle sodium hydroxide prior to processing in the WTP. The method uses lithium hydroxide (LiOH) to precipitate sodium aluminate (NaAI(OH)4) as lithium hydrotalcite (Li2CO3.4Al(OH)3.3H2O) while generating sodium hydroxide (NaOH). In addition, phosphate substitutes in the reaction to a high degree, also as a filterable solid. The sodium hydroxide enriched leachate is depleted in aluminum and phosphate, and is recycled to double-shell tanks (DSTs) to leach aluminum bearing sludges. This method eliminates importing sodium hydroxide to leach alumina sludge and eliminates a large fraction of the total sludge mass to be treated by the WTP. Plugging of process equipment is reduced by removal of both aluminum and phosphate in the tank wastes. Laboratory tests were conducted to verify the efficacy of the process and confirm the results of previous tests. These tests used both single-shell tank (SST) and DST simulants.

  11. THE DIGESTION OPERATION IN THE ALKALI ALUMINAT SOLUTIONS OF ALUMINUM HYDROXIDES IN THE BOEHMITIC BAUXITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami ŞAHİN

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available At present more than 90 per cent of the world's alumina is produced by the Bayer process, a simple technology providing high purity final product. A part from some exceptional local conditions, bauxite is processed almost solely by this technology. As a benefication process, alumina production releases the aluminum oxide content of bauxite from other accompanying oxides thus providing alumina suitable for electrolysis in a cryolite melt. The basic theory of the Bayer process was elaborated by K.J. Bayer and described in his patents in 1887 and 1892. The first patent refers to the aid of seed crystals of aluminum hydroxide or of carbonic acid, that is, to the precipitation and carbonation processes. The second patent formulates the concept that the aluminum oxide content of bauxites can be dissolved in sodium hydroxide solutions, with the formulation of sodium aluminate, a process called digestion nowadays. The most important operations of the Bayer technology are bauxite preparation, crushing, grinding, digestion, red mud separation, thickening, washing, filtration, precipitation, calcination and evaporation. In spite of its great significance as regards the complete Bayer technology, the structure of sodium aluminate solutions has not been cleared up definitely yet. Boehmite is the most important aluminum mineral of karstic bauxites. Some experimental results showing the various effects on aluminum hydroxides by alkali process from boehmitic bauxites and the factors gowerning the digestion operation of aluminate solutions were investigated.

  12. Thermophysical properties of sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermophysical properties of sodium for reactor safety studies are presented. Subcooled, superheated and saturated properties are given. A summary of the thermophysical properties is given in tabular form

  13. 21 CFR 73.1645 - Aluminum powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aluminum powder. 73.1645 Section 73.1645 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1645 Aluminum powder. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive aluminum powder shall be composed of finely divided particles of aluminum prepared from virgin aluminum....

  14. Thermal decomposition of bioactive sodium titanate surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravelingien, Matthieu; Mullens, Steven; Luyten, Jan; Meynen, Vera; Vinck, Evi; Vervaet, Chris; Remon, Jean Paul

    2009-09-01

    Alkali-treated orthopaedic titanium surfaces have earlier shown to induce apatite deposition. A subsequent heat treatment under air improved the adhesion of the sodium titanate layer but decreased the rate of apatite deposition. Furthermore, insufficient attention was paid to the sensitivity of titanium substrates to oxidation and nitriding during heat treatment under air. Therefore, in the present study, alkali-treated titanium samples were heat-treated under air, argon flow or vacuum. The microstructure and composition of their surfaces were characterized to clarify what mechanism is responsible for inhibiting in vitro calcium phosphate deposition after heat treatment. All heat treatments under various atmospheres turned out to be detrimental for apatite deposition. They led to the thermal decomposition of the dense sodium titanate basis near the interface with the titanium substrate. Depending on the atmosphere, several forms of Ti yO z were formed and Na 2O was sublimated. Consequently, less exchangeable sodium ions remained available. This pointed to the importance of the ion exchange capacity of the sodium titanate layer for in vitro bioactivity.

  15. HYPERTHERMIA, INTRACELLULAR FREE CALCIUM AND CALCIUM IONOPHORES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    STEGE, GJJ; WIERENGA, PK; KAMPINGA, HH; KONINGS, AWT

    1993-01-01

    It is shown that heat-induced increase of intracellular calcium does not correlate with hyperthermic cell killing. Six different cell lines were investigated; in four (EAT, HeLa S3, L5178Y-R and L5178Y-S) heat treatments killing 90% of the cells did not affect the levels of intracellular free calciu

  16. Hydration of Portland cement with additions of calcium sulfoaluminates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Saout, Gwenn, E-mail: gwenn.le-saout@mines-ales.fr [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Concrete and Construction Chemistry Laboratory, Ueberlandstrasse 129, CH-8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland); Lothenbach, Barbara [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Concrete and Construction Chemistry Laboratory, Ueberlandstrasse 129, CH-8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland); Hori, Akihiro [DENKA Chemicals GmbH, Wehrhahn-Center, Cantadorstr. 3, D-40211 Duesseldorf (Germany); Higuchi, Takayuki [Denki Kagaku Kogyo Kabushiki Kaisha (DENKA), Omi, Itoigawa, Niigata, 949-0393 (Japan); Winnefeld, Frank [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Concrete and Construction Chemistry Laboratory, Ueberlandstrasse 129, CH-8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland)

    2013-01-15

    The effect of mineral additions based on calcium aluminates on the hydration mechanism of ordinary Portland cement (OPC) was investigated using isothermal calorimetry, thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, solid state nuclear magnetic resonance and pore solution analysis. Results show that the addition of a calcium sulfoaluminate cement (CSA) to the OPC does not affect the hydration mechanism of alite but controls the aluminate dissolution. In the second blend investigated, a rapid setting cement, the amorphous calcium aluminate reacts very fast to ettringite. The release of aluminum ions strongly retards the hydration of alite but the C-S-H has a similar composition as in OPC with no additional Al to Si substitution. As in CSA-OPC, the aluminate hydration is controlled by the availability of sulfates. The coupling of thermodynamic modeling with the kinetic equations predicts the amount of hydrates and pore solution compositions as a function of time and validates the model in these systems.

  17. Hydration of Portland cement with additions of calcium sulfoaluminates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of mineral additions based on calcium aluminates on the hydration mechanism of ordinary Portland cement (OPC) was investigated using isothermal calorimetry, thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, solid state nuclear magnetic resonance and pore solution analysis. Results show that the addition of a calcium sulfoaluminate cement (CSA) to the OPC does not affect the hydration mechanism of alite but controls the aluminate dissolution. In the second blend investigated, a rapid setting cement, the amorphous calcium aluminate reacts very fast to ettringite. The release of aluminum ions strongly retards the hydration of alite but the C–S–H has a similar composition as in OPC with no additional Al to Si substitution. As in CSA–OPC, the aluminate hydration is controlled by the availability of sulfates. The coupling of thermodynamic modeling with the kinetic equations predicts the amount of hydrates and pore solution compositions as a function of time and validates the model in these systems.

  18. Mercury Control with Calcium-Based Sorbents and Oxidizing Agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas K. Gale

    2005-07-01

    This Final Report contains the test descriptions, results, analysis, correlations, theoretical descriptions, and model derivations produced from many different investigations performed on a project funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, to investigate calcium-based sorbents and injection of oxidizing agents for the removal of mercury. Among the technologies were (a) calcium-based sorbents in general, (b) oxidant-additive sorbents developed originally at the EPA, and (c) optimized calcium/carbon synergism for mercury-removal enhancement. In addition, (d) sodium-tetrasulfide injection was found to effectively capture both forms of mercury across baghouses and ESPs, and has since been demonstrated at a slipstream treating PRB coal. It has been shown that sodium-tetrasulfide had little impact on the foam index of PRB flyash, which may indicate that sodium-tetrasulfide injection could be used at power plants without affecting flyash sales. Another technology, (e) coal blending, was shown to be an effective means of increasing mercury removal, by optimizing the concentration of calcium and carbon in the flyash. In addition to the investigation and validation of multiple mercury-control technologies (a through e above), important fundamental mechanism governing mercury kinetics in flue gas were elucidated. For example, it was shown, for the range of chlorine and unburned-carbon (UBC) concentrations in coal-fired utilities, that chlorine has much less effect on mercury oxidation and removal than UBC in the flyash. Unburned carbon enhances mercury oxidation in the flue gas by reacting with HCl to form chlorinated-carbon sites, which then react with elemental mercury to form mercuric chloride, which subsequently desorbs back into the flue gas. Calcium was found to enhance mercury removal by stabilizing the oxidized mercury formed on carbon surfaces. Finally, a model was developed to describe these mercury adsorption, desorption, oxidation, and removal mechanisms, including

  19. Aluminum Solubility Model for Hanford Tank Waste Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The solubility of aluminum in Hanford tank waste is a critical issue that fundamentally impacts the planning basis for treating waste at Hanford's Waste Treatment Plant. Dissolving or leaching aluminum from Hanford tank sludges and maintaining its solubility during pretreatment requires the addition of large amounts of sodium hydroxide. Recent estimates suggest that added sodium may result in nearly doubling the amount of Low-Activity Waste (LAW). On the other hand, aluminum (as aluminate) often shows very high solubility in Hanford tank waste supernatants. There are many reports of tank farm supernatants with aluminum concentrations in the range of 0.2 to 1.5 M, considerably higher than predicted by current models with the measured free hydroxide concentrations. This paper proposes an aluminum solubility model that is consistent with these observations by taking into account not only the free hydroxide, but three additional characteristics of these complex waste mixtures: 1) Low water activity that appears to stabilize aluminate in solution and is caused by high amounts of dissolved salts in waste concentrates; 2) Carbonate appears to further stabilize aluminate in solution; and 3) High TOC (total organic carbon) in waste also appears to stabilize soluble aluminate. This paper shows this 'water activity' aluminum solubility model is consistent with a large number of tank farm assays and may therefore be useful for Site planning. The well-known dependence of Al solubility on hydroxide concentration occurs by means of formation of soluble aluminate, Al(OH)4-. Although it has also been long recognized that changes in species activities are important for highly concentrated sodium hydroxide solutions, the role of water activity has not yet been well defined. The water-activity model herein developed seems to be consistent with the large amount of data for the simple system of NaOH, Al(OH)3, and H2O, including temperature. Moreover, this paper shows additional roles

  20. Distinguishing between carbonate and non-carbonate precipitates from the carbonation of calcium-containing organic acid leachates

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Rafael; Chiang, Yi Wai; Elsen, Jan; Van Gerven, Tom

    2014-01-01

    Two organic acids were trialled for the extraction of calcium from steelmaking blast furnace slag for the purpose of precipitated calcium carbonate (PCC) production: succinic and acetic acids. While the leaching performance of succinic acid was superior, carbonation of its leachate did not result in the production of PCC, but rather the precipitation of calcium succinate, and only after the use of pH buffering agents (sodium hydroxide or bicarbonate). In contrast, carbonation of the acetic ac...

  1. Effect of Fluoride, Casein Phosphopeptide–Amorphous Calcium Phosphate and Casein Phosphopeptide–Amorphous Calcium Phosphate Fluoride on Enamel Surface Microhardness After Microabrasion: An In Vitro Study

    OpenAIRE

    Ghazaleh Ahmadi Zenouz; Fariba Ezoji; Seyede Anese Enderami; Soraya Khafri

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: This study aimed to assess the effect of applying casein phosphopeptide–amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) paste, casein phosphopeptide–amorphous calcium phosphate fluoride (CPP-ACPF) paste and sodium fluoride gel on surface microhardness of enamel after microabrasion.Materials and Methods: Thirty freshly extracted human premolars were selected. All samples were subjected to hardness indentations made with the Vickers hardness machine and the average value was recorded as the i...

  2. Biochemistry of the normal dura mater of the human brain determination of water, sodium, potassium, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, copper, iron, sulfur and nitrogen contents Estudo bioquímico da dura mater normal do cérebro humano: conteúdo de água, sódio, potássio, cálcio, fósforo, magnésio, cobre ferro, enxôfre e nitrogênio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horacio M. Canelas

    1969-06-01

    Full Text Available The concentrations of water, sodium, potassium, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, copper, iron, sulfur, and nitrogen were determined in samples of apparently normal dura mater removed from 18 subjects recently dead by craniocerebral trauma. The average concentrations expressed in dry weight were: water 79.55 g/100 g ± 2.52; sodium 1.63 mequiv/100 g ±0.27; potassium 3.68 mequiv/100 g ± 0.66; calcium 119.84 mg/100 g ± 107.40; phosphorus 68.2 mg/100 g ± 34.5; magnesium 0.61 mequiv/100 g ± 0.37; copper 249.8 /xg/100 g ± 109.4; iron 0.82 mg/100 g ± 0.28; sulfur 490.7 mg/100 g ± 22.5; nitrogen 3.33 g/100 g ± 0.17.Foram determinadas as concentrações de água, sódio, potássio, cálcio, fósforo, magnésio, cobre, ferro, enxôfre e nitrogênio de espécimes de dura máter aparentemente normal retirados de 18 indivíduos recentemente falecidos em conseqüência de traumatismo crânio-encefálico. As concentrações médias, expressas em peso seco, foram as seguintes: água 79,55 g/100 g ± 2,52; sódio 1,63 mequiv/100 g ± 0,27; potássio 3,68 mequiv/100 g ± 0,66; cálcio 119,84 mg/100 g ± 107,40; fósforo 68,2 mg/100 g ± 34,5; magnésio 0,61 mequiv/100 g ± 0,37; cobre 249,8 mg/100 ± 109,4; ferro 0,82 mg/100 g ± 0,28; enxôfre 490,7 mg/100 g ± 22,5; nitrogênio 3,33 g/100 g ± 0,17.

  3. Sodium recovery vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To enable to efficiently separate and recover sodium or reaction product in the secondly coolant circuit of FBR type nuclear power plant. Constitution: an upper element is disposed above a cyclone in a sodium recovery vessel, to which a gas formed by sodium-water reaction is caused to flow. Sodium and gases formed by sodium-water reaction introduced from a gas inlet of pressure open system pipeways descend downwardly as swirling stream in a cylindrical vessel within the circumferential flow channel along the outer wall of the shround surrounding the cyclone and the inner wall of the cylindrical vessel. In this case, liquid sodium is separated from the gas, falls to the bottom of the cylindrical vessel as an accumulated liquid. The gas stream passes between each of the elements in the upper element to enable separation of sodium or reaction product, as well as separated sodium and reaction product are urged to the outer circumferential side since all of the upper element and the buffer plate are arranged with their outer circumferential being lowered. (Horiuchi, T.)

  4. Visibility in sodium fume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The appearance of sodium fume of unknown concentration and the effects of short term exposure on unprotected workers is described. The molecular extinction coefficient of sodium fume is calculated from which light transmission data, and a rapid method for the estimation of the fume concentration is proposed. (author)

  5. Annular sodium flowsensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes a unique eddy-current type liquid sodium flowsensor, designed as a joint effort between Argonne National Laboratory and Kaman Instrumentation Corp. Test results are included for operation of the flowsensor mounted on a sodium test loop whose configuration simulates the actual operating conditions, except for the magnetic field of the ALIP

  6. Sodium concrete reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The data from an extensive series of sodium/concrete reaction tests are presented and mechanisms by which the reactions proceed are analyzed. The results indicate water transport and the resulting sodium/water reaction dominate both the chemical energy release and H2 generation. A mechanism which explains the limited penetration of concrete observed in most of these tests is proposed

  7. An increase in [Ca2+]i activates basolateral chloride channels and inhibits apical sodium channels in frog skin epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodin, Birger; Rytved, K A; Nielsen, R

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms by which increases in free cytosolic calcium ([Ca2+]i) cause a decrease in macroscopic sodium absorption across principal cells of the frog skin epithelium. [Ca2+]i was measured with fura-2 in an epifluorescence microscope set-up, sodium...

  8. Photoemission study of tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum/aluminum oxide/tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The evolution of the interface electronic structure of a sandwich structure involving aluminum oxide and tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum (Alq), i.e. (Alq/AlOx/Alq), has been investigated with photoemission spectroscopy. Strong chemical reactions have been observed due to aluminum deposition onto the Alq substrate. The subsequent oxygen exposure releases some of the Alq molecules from the interaction with aluminum. Finally, the deposition of the top Alq layer leads to an asymmetry in the electronic energy level alignment with respect to the AlOx interlayer

  9. Neuronal calcium sparks and intracellular calcium “noise”

    OpenAIRE

    Melamed-Book, Naomi; Kachalsky, Sylvia G.; Kaiserman, Igor; Rahamimoff, Rami

    1999-01-01

    Intracellular calcium ions are involved in many forms of cellular function. To accommodate so many control functions, a complex spatiotemporal organization of calcium signaling has developed. In both excitable and nonexcitable cells, calcium signaling was found to fluctuate. Sudden localized increases in the intracellular calcium concentration—or calcium sparks—were found in heart, striated and smooth muscle, Xenopus Laevis oocytes, and HeLa and P12 cells. In the nervous system, intracellular...

  10. A simplified acute physiology score in the prediction of acute aluminum phosphide poisoning outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahin Shadnia

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Aluminum phosphide (AlP is used as a fumigant. It produces phosphine gas, which is a mitochondrial poison. Unfortunately, there is no known antidote for AlP intoxication, and also, there are few data about its prognostic factors. AIMS: The aim of this study was to determine the impact of the Simplified Acute Physiology Score II (SAPS II in the prediction of outcome in patients with acute AlP poisoning requiring admission to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU. Materials and Methods : This was a prospective study in patients with acute AlP poisoning, admitted to the ICU over a period of 12 months. The demographic data were collected and SAPSII was recorded. The patients were divided into survival and non-survival groups due to outcome. Statistical Analysis : The data were expressed as mean ± SD for continuous or discrete variables and as frequency and percentage for categorical variables. The results were compared between the two groups using SPSS software. Results : During the study period, 39 subjects were admitted to the ICU with acute AlP poisoning. All 39 patients required endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation in addition to gastric decontamination with sodium bicarbonate, permanganate potassium, and activated charcoal, therapy with MgSO 4 and calcium gluconate and adequate hydration. Among these patients, 26 (66.7% died. SAPSII was significantly higher in the non-survival group than in the survival group (11.88 ± 4.22 vs. 4.31 ± 2.06, respectively (P < 0.001. Conclusion : SAPSII calculated within the first 24 hours was recognized as a good prognostic indicator among patients with acute AlP poisoning requiring ICU admission.

  11. Neurofibrillary pathology and aluminum in Alzheimer's disease

    OpenAIRE

    Shin, R. W.; Lee, V. M. Y; Trojanowski, J Q

    1995-01-01

    Since the first reports of aluminum-induced neurofibrillary degeneration in experimental animals, extensive studies have been performed to clarify the role played by aluminum in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Additional evidence implicating aluminum in AD includes elevated levels of aluminum in the AD brain, epidemiological data linking aluminum exposure to AD, and interactions between aluminum and protein components in the pathological lesions o...

  12. Effect of Cationic and Anionic Surfactants on the Application of Calcium Carbonate Nanoparticles in Paper Coating

    CERN Document Server

    Barhoum, Ahmed; Abou-Zaied, Ragab Esmail; Rehan, Mohamed; Dufour, Thierry; Hill, Gavin; Dufresne, Alain

    2016-01-01

    Modification of calcium carbonate particles with surfactant significantly improves the properties of the calcium carbonate coating on paper. Unmodified and CTAB and oleate-modified calcium carbonate nanoparticles were prepared using the wet carbonation technique for paper coating. CTAB (cationic surfactant) and sodium oleate (anionic surfactant) were used to modify the size, morphology, and surface properties of the precipitated nanoparticles. The obtained particles were characterized by XRD, FT-IR spectroscopy, zeta potential measurements, TGA and TEM. Coating colors were formulated from the prepared unmodified and modified calcium carbonates and examined by creating a thin coating layer on reference paper. The effect of calcium carbonate particle size and surface modification on paper properties, such as coating thickness, coating weight, surface roughness, air permeability, brightness, whiteness, opacity, and hydrophobicity, were investigated and compared with GCC calcium carbonate-coated papers. The obtai...

  13. The origin of high sodium bicarbonate waters in the Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, M.D.

    1950-01-01

    Some sodium bicarbonate waters at depth in the Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plains have the same bicarbonate content as the shallower calcium bicarbonate waters in the same formation and appear to be the result of replacement of calcium by sodium through the action of base-exchange minerals. Others, however, contain several hundred parts per million more of bicarbonate than any of the calcium bicarbonate waters and much more bicarbonate than can be attributed to solution of calcium carbonate through the action of carbon dioxide derived from the air and soil. As the waters in the Potomac group (Cretaceous) are all low in sulphate and as the environmental conditions under which the sediments of the Potomac group were deposited do not indicate that large amounts of sulphate are available for solution, it does not seem probable that carbon dioxide generated by chemical or biochemical breakdown of sulphate is responsible for the high sodium bicarbonate waters in this area. Sulphate as a source of oxygen is not necessary for the generation of carbon dioxide by carbonaceous material. Oxygen is an important constituent of carbonaceous material and carbon dioxide is a characteristic decomposition product of such material-as, for example, peat and lignite. Experimental work showed that distilled water, calcium bicarbonate water, and sodium bicarbonate water, after contact with lignite, calcium carbonate, and permutite (a base-exchange material), had all increased greatly in sodium bicarbonate content and had become similar in chemical character and in mineral content to high sodium bicarbonate waters found in the Coastal Plain. The tests indicated that carbonaceous material can act as a source of carbon dioxide, which, when dissolved in water, enables it to take into solution more calcium carbonate. If base-exchange materials are also present to replace calcium with sodium, a still greater amount of bicarbonate can be held in solution. The presence of carbonaceous material

  14. Calcium addition in straw gasification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risnes, H.; Fjellerup, Jan Søren; Henriksen, Ulrik Birk;

    2003-01-01

    The present work focuses on the influence of calcium addition in gasification. The inorganic¿organic element interaction as well as the detailed inorganic¿inorganic elements interaction has been studied. The effect of calcium addition as calcium sugar/molasses solutions to straw significantly...... affected the ash chemistry and the ash sintering tendency but much less the char reactivity. Thermo balance test are made and high-temperature X-ray diffraction measurements are performed, the experimental results indicate that with calcium addition major inorganic¿inorganic reactions take place very late...... calcium binds silicon primarily as calcium silicates and less as potassium calcium silicates....

  15. Aluminum Nanoholes for Optical Biosensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Angulo Barrios

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Sub-wavelength diameter holes in thin metal layers can exhibit remarkable optical features that make them highly suitable for (biosensing applications. Either as efficient light scattering centers for surface plasmon excitation or metal-clad optical waveguides, they are able to form strongly localized optical fields that can effectively interact with biomolecules and/or nanoparticles on the nanoscale. As the metal of choice, aluminum exhibits good optical and electrical properties, is easy to manufacture and process and, unlike gold and silver, its low cost makes it very promising for commercial applications. However, aluminum has been scarcely used for biosensing purposes due to corrosion and pitting issues. In this short review, we show our recent achievements on aluminum nanohole platforms for (biosensing. These include a method to circumvent aluminum degradation—which has been successfully applied to the demonstration of aluminum nanohole array (NHA immunosensors based on both, glass and polycarbonate compact discs supports—the use of aluminum nanoholes operating as optical waveguides for synthesizing submicron-sized molecularly imprinted polymers by local photopolymerization, and a technique for fabricating transferable aluminum NHAs onto flexible pressure-sensitive adhesive tapes, which could facilitate the development of a wearable technology based on aluminum NHAs.

  16. Aluminum Nanoholes for Optical Biosensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrios, Carlos Angulo; Canalejas-Tejero, Víctor; Herranz, Sonia; Urraca, Javier; Moreno-Bondi, María Cruz; Avella-Oliver, Miquel; Maquieira, Ángel; Puchades, Rosa

    2015-01-01

    Sub-wavelength diameter holes in thin metal layers can exhibit remarkable optical features that make them highly suitable for (bio)sensing applications. Either as efficient light scattering centers for surface plasmon excitation or metal-clad optical waveguides, they are able to form strongly localized optical fields that can effectively interact with biomolecules and/or nanoparticles on the nanoscale. As the metal of choice, aluminum exhibits good optical and electrical properties, is easy to manufacture and process and, unlike gold and silver, its low cost makes it very promising for commercial applications. However, aluminum has been scarcely used for biosensing purposes due to corrosion and pitting issues. In this short review, we show our recent achievements on aluminum nanohole platforms for (bio)sensing. These include a method to circumvent aluminum degradation—which has been successfully applied to the demonstration of aluminum nanohole array (NHA) immunosensors based on both, glass and polycarbonate compact discs supports—the use of aluminum nanoholes operating as optical waveguides for synthesizing submicron-sized molecularly imprinted polymers by local photopolymerization, and a technique for fabricating transferable aluminum NHAs onto flexible pressure-sensitive adhesive tapes, which could facilitate the development of a wearable technology based on aluminum NHAs. PMID:26184330

  17. Investigating the fate of activated sludge extracellular proteins in sludge digestion using sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chul; Helm, Richard F; Novak, John T

    2008-12-01

    The fate of activated sludge extracellular proteins in sludge digestion was investigated using three different cation-associated extraction methods and sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Extraction methods used were the cation exchange resin (CER) method for extracting calcium (Ca2+) and magnesium (Mg2+), sulfide extraction for removing iron, and base treatment (pH 10.5) for dissolving aluminum. Extracellular polymeric substances extracted were then subjected to SDS-PAGE, and the resultant protein profiles were examined before and after sludge digestion. The SDS-PAGE results showed that three methods led to different SDS-PAGE profiles for both undigested and digested sludges. The results further revealed that CER-extracted proteins remained mainly undegraded in anaerobic digestion, but were degraded in aerobic digestion. While the fate of sulfide- and base-extracted proteins was not clear for aerobic digestion, their changes in anaerobic digestion were elucidated. Most sulfide-extracted proteins were removed by anaerobic digestion, while the increase in protein band intensity and diversity was observed for base-extracted proteins. These results suggest that activated sludge flocs contain different fractions of proteins that are distinguishable by their association with certain cations and that each fraction undergoes different fates in anaerobic and aerobic digestion. The proteins that were resistant to degradation and generated during anaerobic digestion were identified by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Protein identification results and their putative roles in activated sludge and anaerobic digestion are discussed in this study. PMID:19146099

  18. Friction reducing behavior of stearic acid film on a textured aluminum substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Quan [School of Mechanical Engineering, Qingdao Technological University, Qingdao 266033 (China); Wan, Yong, E-mail: wanyong@qtech.edu.cn [School of Mechanical Engineering, Qingdao Technological University, Qingdao 266033 (China); Li, Yang; Yang, Shuyan [School of Mechanical Engineering, Qingdao Technological University, Qingdao 266033 (China); Yao, Wenqing [Analysis Center of Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2013-09-01

    A simple two-step process was developed to render the aluminum hydrophobicity with lower friction. The textured aluminum substrate was firstly fabricated by immersed in a sodium hydroxide solution at 100 °C for 1 h. Stearic acid film was then deposited to acquire high hydrophobicity. Scanning electron microscopy, IR spectroscopy and water contact angle measurements were used to analyze the morphological features, chemical structure and hydrophobicity of prepared samples, respectively. Moreover, the friction reducing behavior of the organic–inorganic composite film on aluminum sliding against steel was evaluated in a ball-on-plate configuration. It was found that the stearic acid film on the textured aluminum led to decreased friction with significantly extended life.

  19. METHOD FOR REMOVING SODIUM OXIDE FROM LIQUID SODIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruggeman, W.H.; Voorhees, B.G.

    1957-12-01

    A method is described for removing sodium oxide from a fluent stream of liquid sodium by coldtrapping the sodium oxide. Apparatus utilizing this method is disclosed in United States Patent No. 2,745,552. Sodium will remain in a molten state at temperatures below that at which sodium oxide will crystallize out and form solid deposits, therefore, the contaminated stream of sodium is cooled to a temperature at which the solubility of sodium oxide in sodium is substantially decreased. Thereafter the stream of sodium is passed through a bed of stainless steel wool maintained at a temperature below that of the stream. The stream is kept in contact with the wool until the sodium oxide is removed by crystal growth on the wool, then the stream is reheated and returned to the system. This method is useful in purifying reactor coolants where the sodium oxide would otherwise deposit out on the walls and eventually plug the coolant tubes.

  20. Selectivity of calcium channels in rat uterine smooth muscle: interactions between sodium, calcium and barium ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jmari, K; Mironneau, C; Mironneau, J

    1987-03-01

    1. Action potentials and membrane currents were recorded by means of a double sucrose-gap technique from Cs-loaded strips from pregnant rats superfused in Ca-free EGTA-containing solutions. 2. When external Ca was reduced below 1 microM in the presence of 1 mM-EGTA, step depolarizations from a holding potential close to the normal resting potential produced tetrodotoxin-resistant inward currents. These currents were suppressed after removal of external Na and blocked by a variety of Ca-channel blockers such as Mn, Co, Ni and nifedipine. 3. Inactivation of the inward Na current was studied using a double-pulse protocol. The degree of inactivation of the Na current was almost maximal for depolarizations of +50 mV. Application of stronger depolarizations did not significantly increase it and had no effect on recovery from inactivation. Similarly, increasing the duration of the conditioning pulse from 30 to 250 ms had no further effect on both amplitude and kinetics of the Na current. These results suggest that the Na current inactivation reflects a pure voltage-dependent mechanism. 4. The effects of external Ca were studied over a 10(9)-fold range in concentration. When external Ca was gradually increased from 1 nM to 1 microM, the inward Na current was reduced and finally abolished. As the external Ca was increased over 0.5 mM, inward current reappeared and increased as Ca became the charge carrier. 5. When Na was the charge carrier, external Ca was the most effective divalent cation in blocking the Ca channel with a half-blockage concentration of 0.1 microM. Addition of millimolar concentrations of Ca and Sr also reduced the Ba current while adding Ba to Ca-containing solution produced no increase in current. 6. Membrane currents in solutions containing both Ba and Ca ions were less than in solutions containing either Ca or Ba at the same concentration, suggesting that Ca channels are single-file multi-ion pores. 7. We conclude that the selectivity of uterine Ca channels depends on the presence of external Ca. In the absence of Ca, these channels become permeable to other divalent (Ba and Sr) and monovalent (Na) cations. PMID:2443660

  1. Sodium-calcium exchange in intracellular calcium handling of human airway smooth muscle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatachalem Sathish

    Full Text Available Enhanced airway contractility following inflammation by cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα or interleukin-13 (IL-13 involves increased intracellular Ca(2+ ([Ca(2+](i levels in airway smooth muscle (ASM. In ASM, plasma membrane Ca(2+ fluxes form a key component of [Ca(2+](i regulation. There is now growing evidence that the bidirectional plasma membrane Na(+/Ca(2+ exchanger (NCX contributes to ASM [Ca(2+](i regulation. In the present study, we examined NCX expression and function in human ASM cells under normal conditions, and following exposure to TNFα or IL-13. Western blot analysis showed significant expression of the NCX1 isoform, with increased NCX1 levels by both cytokines, effects blunted by inhibitors of nuclear factor NF-κB or mitogen-activated protein kinase. Cytokine-mediated increase in NCX1 involved enhanced transcription followed by protein synthesis. NCX2 and NCX3 remained undetectable even in cytokine-stimulated ASM. In fura-2 loaded human ASM cells, NCX-mediated inward Ca(2+ exchange as well as outward exchange (measured as rates of change in [Ca(2+](i was elicited by altering extracellular Na(+ and Ca(2+ levels. Contribution of NCX was verified by measuring [Na(+](i using the fluorescent Na(+ indicator SBFI. NCX-mediated inward exchange was verified by demonstrating prevention of rising [Ca(2+](i or falling [Na(+](i in the presence of the NCX inhibitor KBR7943. Inward exchange-mode NCX was increased by both TNFα and IL-13 to a greater extent than outward exchange. NCX siRNA transfection substantially blunted outward exchange and inward exchange modes. Finally, inhibition of NCX expression or function blunted peak [Ca(2+](i and rate of fall of [Ca(2+](i following histamine stimulation. These data suggest that NCX-mediated Ca(2+ fluxes normally exist in human ASM (potentially contributing to rapid Ca(2+ fluxes, and contribute to enhanced [Ca(2+](i regulation in airway inflammation.

  2. Calcium binding by dietary fibre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietary fibre from plants low in phytate bound calcium in proportion to its uronic-acid content. This binding by the non-cellulosic fraction of fibre reduces the availability of calcium for small-intestinal absorption, but the colonic microbial digestion of uronic acids liberates the calcium. Thus the ability to maintain calcium balance on high-fibre diets may depend on the adaptive capacity on the colon for calcium. (author)

  3. Calcium-phospholipid enhanced protein phosphorylation in human placenta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calcium-activated, phospholipid-dependent protein phosphorylation has not been studied in placenta. Human placental cytosol was subjected to an endogenous protein phosphorylation assay using [γ-32P]ATP in the presence of calcium and phosphatidylserine. Protein phosphorylation was assessed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and autoradiography. When compared to basal levels, calcium (10-6 M) in combination with phosphatidylserine (50 μg/ml) significantly enhanced (P 32P incorporation into phosphoproteins having mol wt 47,000, 43,000, and 37,000. Half-maximal 22P incorporation was observed with 3.5 x 10-7 M Ca2+ in the presence of phosphatidylserine (50 μg/ml). The effect of phosphatidylserine was biphasic. In the presence of Ca 10-6 M, 32P incorporation increased to a maximum at 70 +g/ml of phosphatidylserine. The increase was suppressed at 150 μg/ml. Tetracaine caused a dose-dependent inhibition of calcium-activated, phospholipid-dependent enhancement of the three phosphoproteins. Calcium in the absence of phospholipid enhanced the phosphorylation of a protein of 98,000 mol wt. Phosphatidylserine suppressed this enhancement. Calmodulin (10-6 M) had no detectable effect upon phosphorylation beyond that of calcium alone, but the calmodulin inhibitor R-24571 specifically inhibited the calcium-stimulated 98,000 mol wt phosphoprotein. Calcium-activated, phospholipid-dependent phospholipid-dependent phosphoproteins are present in human placental cytosol; whether calcium-activated, calmodulin-dependent phosphoproteins also are present remains a question

  4. [Calcium suppletion for patients who use gastric acid inhibitors: calcium citrate or calcium carbonate?].

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonge, H.J. de; Gans, R.O.; Huls, G.A.

    2012-01-01

    Various calcium supplements are available for patients who have an indication for calcium suppletion. American guidelines and UpToDate recommend prescribing calcium citrate to patients who use antacids The rationale for this advice is that water-insoluble calcium carbonate needs acid for adequate ab

  5. Chemical Liquid Phase Deposition of Thin Aluminum Oxide Films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN,Jie(孙捷); SUN,Ying-Chun(孙迎春)

    2004-01-01

    Thin aluminum oxide films were deposited by a new and simple physicochemical method called chemical liquid phase deposition (CLD) on semiconductor materials. Aluminum sulfate with crystallized water and sodium bicarbonate were used as precursors for film growth, and the control of the system's pH value played an important role in this experiment. The growth rate is 12 nm/h with the deposition at [Al2(SO4)3]=0.0837 mol·L-1, [NaHCO3]=0.214 mol·L-1, 15 ℃. Post-growth annealing not only densifies and purifies the films, but results in film crystallization as well, Excellent quality of A12O3 films in this work is supported by electron dispersion spectroscopy,Fourier transform infrared spectrum, X-ray diffraction spectrum and scanning electron microscopy photograph.

  6. Sodium technology project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 1976 annual report of the subgroup Nuclear Energy of the organisation for Toegepast Natuurwetenschappelijk Onderzoek (TNO) discusses the research program related to the SNR-300 reactor. The program mainly comprises the properties of ferritic and austenitic construction steels, remote methods of repair (e.g. for welding of sodium moistured surfaces), calculational methods in the designing and large-scale testing of components for heat-transfer equipment, the properties of hydrogen in sodium systems (detection of leaks in steam generator pipes), the study of models for mass transport in sodium, wear and mechanical damage of pipes in heat exchangers

  7. Developments in sodium technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sodium, because of its good heat transfer and nuclear properties, is used as a coolant in fast reactors. It is also used largely as a reducing agent in pharmaceutical, perfumery and general chemical industries. Its affinity to react with air and water is a strong disadvantage. However, this is fully understood and the design of engineering systems takes care of this aspect. With several experimental and test facilities established over the years in this country and abroad, 'sodium technology' has reached a level of maturity. The design of sodium systems considering all the physical and chemical properties and the development work carried out in this country are broadly covered in this article. (author)

  8. Hualu Aluminum Will Construct Large Coal-Power-Aluminum Aluminum Processing Industrial Chain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    The reporter learned from relevant departments of Baiyin City that in order to further push forward industrial upgrading,fulfill expansion and consolidation of the enterprise,Gansu Hualu Aluminum Co.,Ltd(Hualu Aluminum)will implement Out-Of-City-Into-Park project,

  9. Reduction of chromium oxides with calcium carbide during thestainless steelmaking process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Arh

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available An efficient reduction of chromium from slag requires an appropriate reduction agent for the given steelmaking technology. The usual slag reduction praxis consists of carbon injections and additions of ferrosilicon and aluminum.Reduction of chromium containing slags with calcium carbide is an appealing alternative. Calcium carbide is a strong reduction agent that unlike ferrosilicon and aluminum also provides the possibility of foaming slag formation.Experimental work regarding chromium slag reduction with calcium carbide towards usual slag reduction praxis is described in this work. The results show that higher reduction rates in the stage of refining period of the melt and higher level of overall chromium reduction from slag can be reached with the blowing of CaC2.

  10. Sodium Aluminosilicate Formation in Tank 43H Simulants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work studied the formation of a sodium aluminosilicate, Na8Al6Si6O24(NO3)2?4H2O, at 40 degree 110 degree C in simulated waste solutions with varied amounts of silicon and aluminum. The data agree well with literature solubility data for sodalite, the analogous chloride salt. The following conclusions result from this work: (1) The study shows, by calculation and experiments, that evaporation of the September 1997 Tank 43H inventory will only form minor quantities of the aluminosilicate. (2) The data indicate that the rate of formation of the nitrate enclathrated sodalite solid at these temperatures falls within the residence time (<; 4 h) of liquid in the evaporator. (3) The silicon in entrained Frit 200 transferred to the evaporator with the Tank 43H salt solution will quantitatively convert to the sodium aluminosilicate. One kilogram of Frit 200 produces 2.1 kg of the sodium aluminosilicate

  11. Synthesis and reaction behavior of calcium silicate hydrate in basic system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘桂华; 贺强; 李小斌; 彭志宏; 周秋生

    2004-01-01

    At the molar ratio of CaO to SiO2 of 1, with calcium hydroxide and sodium silicate, calcium silicate hydrate was synthesized at 50, 100, 170 ℃, respectively. The results show that temperature favors the formation of calcium silicate hydrate with perfect structure. When calcium silicate hydrate reacts with caustic solution, the decomposition rate of calcium silicate hydrate increases with the increasing caustic concentration and decreases with the raising synthesis temperature and the prolongation of reaction time. The decomposition rate is all less than 1.2 % in caustic solution, and XRD pattern of the residue after reaction with caustic solution is found as the same as that of original calcium silicate hydrate, which indicates the stable existence of calcium silicate hydrate in caustic solution.When reacted with soda solution, the decomposition rate increases with the increasing soda concentration and reaction time, while decreases with the synthesis temperature. The decomposition rate is more than 2% because CaO · SiO2 · H2O(CSH( Ⅰ )), except Ca5 (OH)2Si6O16 · 4H2O and Ca6Si6O17 (OH)2, is decomposed. So the synthesis temperature and soda concentration should be controlled in the process of transformation of sodium aluminosilicate hydrate into calcium silicate hydrate.

  12. Effect of bariun on the refinement of primary aluminum and eutectics in a hypoeutectic Al-Si alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Wei; FAN Hongyuan; ZHANG Xianju; SHEN Baoluo

    2003-01-01

    The effect of barium on the refinement of primary aluminum and on the modification of eutectics in a hypoeutectic aluminm-silicon alloy was investigated. The results indicate that barium not only modifies the eutectic silicon but also refines the primary aluminum and there is a relationship between the retained barium and the second spacing of primary aluminum. Experiments of barium-treated commercial Al-Si hypoeutectic alloy show that barium is a better modifier than sodium when there is a longer holding time.

  13. Calcium in plant cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Schwartau

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives the review on the role of calcium in many physiological processes of plant organisms, including growth and development, protection from pathogenic influences, response to changing environmental factors, and many other aspects of plant physiology. Initial intake of calcium ions is carried out by Ca2+-channels of plasma membrane and they are further transported by the xylem owing to auxins’ attractive ability. The level of intake and selectivity of calcium transport to ove-ground parts of the plant is controlled by a symplast. Ca2+enters to the cytoplasm of endoderm cells through calcium channels on the cortical side of Kaspary bands, and is redistributed inside the stele by the symplast, with the use of Ca2+-АТPases and Ca2+/Н+-antiports. Owing to regulated expression and activity of these calcium transporters, calclum can be selectively delivered to the xylem. Important role in supporting calcium homeostasis is given to the vacuole which is the largest depo of calcium. Regulated quantity of calcium movement through the tonoplast is provided by a number of potential-, ligand-gated active transporters and channels, like Ca2+-ATPase and Ca2+/H+ exchanger. They are actively involved in the inactivation of the calcium signal by pumping Ca2+ to the depo of cells. Calcium ATPases are high affinity pumps that efficiently transfer calcium ions against the concentration gradient in their presence in the solution in nanomolar concentrations. Calcium exchangers are low affinity, high capacity Ca2+ transporters that are effectively transporting calcium after raising its concentration in the cell cytosol through the use of protons gradients. Maintaining constant concentration and participation in the response to stimuli of different types also involves EPR, plastids, mitochondria, and cell wall. Calcium binding proteins contain several conserved sequences that provide sensitivity to changes in the concentration of Ca2+ and when you

  14. Behavior of calcium silicate hydrate in aluminate solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiao-bin; ZHAO Zhuo; LIU Gui-hua; ZHOU Qiu-sheng; PENG Zhi-hong

    2005-01-01

    Using calcium hydroxide and sodium silicate as starting materials, two kinds of calcium silicate hydrates, CaO · SiO2 · H2O and 2CaO · SiO2 · 1.17H2O, were hydro-thermally synthesized at 120 ℃. The reaction rule of calcium silicate hydrate in aluminate solution was investigated. The result shows that CaO · SiO2 · H2O is more stable than 2CaO · SiO2 · 1.17H2 O in aluminate solution and its stability increases with the increase of reaction temperature but decreases with the increase of caustic concentration. The reaction between calcium silicate hydrate and aluminate solution is mainly through two routes. In the first case, Al replaces partial Si in calcium silicate hydrate, meanwhile 3CaO · Al2 O3 · xSiO2 · (6-2x) H2 O (hydro-garnet) is formed and some SiO2 enters the solution. In the second case, calcium silicate hydrate can react directly with aluminate solution, forming hydro-garnet and Na2O · Al2O3 · 2SiO2 · nH2O (DSP). The desilication reaction of aluminate solution containing silicate could contribute partially to forming DSP.

  15. Sodium bicarbonate and sodium citrate: ergogenic aids?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Requena, Bernardo; Zabala, Mikel; Padial, Paulino; Feriche, Belén

    2005-02-01

    Numerous studies have used exogenous administration of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO(3)) and sodium citrate (Na-citrate) in an attempt to enhance human performance. After ingestion of NaHCO(3) and Na-citrate, two observations have been made: (a) There was great individual variability in the ergogenic benefit reached, which can be attributed to the level of physical conditioning of the subjects and to their tolerance of the buffer substance; and (b) the subjects who had ingested NaHCO(3) and Na-citrate show higher levels of pH, bicarbonate, and lactate ions concentrations in their exercising blood than do the subjects who had ingested the placebo. A majority of the studies have suggested that the ingestion of both substances provides an ergogenic effect due to the establishment and maintenance of an elevated pH level during exercise. However, the exact mechanism by which the ergogenic effects occur has not been demonstrated conclusively. Sodium bicarbonate and Na-citrate seem to be effective in activities with a sufficient duration to generate a difference in the hydrogen ion gradient, characterized by a very high intensity and involving large muscular groups. However, in activities of equally high intensity, but with longer duration, the results obtained have been conflicting and inconclusive. PMID:15705037

  16. Spray Rolling Aluminum Strip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavernia, E.J.; Delplanque, J-P; McHugh, K.M.

    2006-05-10

    Spray forming is a competitive low-cost alternative to ingot metallurgy for manufacturing ferrous and non-ferrous alloy shapes. It produces materials with a reduced number of processing steps, while maintaining materials properties, with the possibility of near-net-shape manufacturing. However, there are several hurdles to large-scale commercial adoption of spray forming: 1) ensuring strip is consistently flat, 2) eliminating porosity, particularly at the deposit/substrate interface, and 3) improving material yield. Through this program, a new strip/sheet casting process, termed spray rolling, has been developed, which is an innovative manufacturing technique to produce aluminum net-shape products. Spray rolling combines the benefits of twin-roll casting and conventional spray forming, showing a promising potential to overcome the above hurdles associated with spray forming. Spray rolling requires less energy and generates less scrap than conventional processes and, consequently, enables the development of materials with lower environmental impacts in both processing and final products. Spray Rolling was developed as a collaborative project between the University of California-Davis, the Colorado School of Mines, the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, and an industry team. The following objectives of this project were achieved: (1) Demonstration of the feasibility of the spray rolling process at the bench-scale level and evaluation of the materials properties of spray rolled aluminum strip alloys; and (2) Demonstration of 2X scalability of the process and documentation of technical hurdles to further scale up and initiate technology transfer to industry for eventual commercialization of the process.

  17. Sodium Ferric Gluconate Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are also receiving the medication epoetin (Epogen, Procrit). Sodium ferric gluconate injection is in a class of medications called iron replacement products. It works by replenishing iron stores so ...

  18. Fractional excretion of sodium

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... skin) Infection (a slight risk any time the skin is broken) Multiple punctures to locate veins There are no risks with the urine sample. Alternative Names FE sodium; FENa Images Male urinary system References Parikh CR, ...

  19. Chemistry of sodium coolant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Properties of impurities of nuclear fuel and its fission products and their behaviour in sodium coolant of the primary circuit of fast reactors are considered. The impurities are classified with account of their properties, behaviour in the circuit and significance

  20. Sodium blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are not able to conserve water) Too much salt or sodium bicarbonate in the diet Use of certain medicines, including corticosteroids, laxatives, lithium, and medicines such as ibuprofen or naproxen Lower ...

  1. Sodium oxide aerosol filtration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the scope of the sodium aerosol trapping research effort by the CEA/DSN, the retention capacity and yield were measured for very high efficiency fiberglass filters and several types of prefilters (cyclone agglomerator, fabric prefilters, water scrubbers). (author)

  2. Cefoperazone Sodium Impregnated Polycaprolactone Composite Implant for Osteomyelitis

    OpenAIRE

    Anand A.; Pundir R; Pandian C; Saraf S; Gupta H

    2009-01-01

    The use of local antibiotics from a biodegradable implant for chronic osteomyelitis is an attractive alternative. The implant delivers high antibiotic concentration at tissue levels, obliterates dead space, aids bone repair and does not need to be removed. The purpose of this paper is to develop and evaluate a calcium sulphate and polycaprolactone based composite biodegradable implantable delivery system of cefoperazone sodium. Implants were prepared by modified fabrication technique to avoid...

  3. Formulation and Physicochemical Characterization of Buccoadhesive Microspheres Containing Diclofenac Sodium

    OpenAIRE

    Mitra Jelvehgari; Hadi Valizadeh; Ramin Jalali Motlagh; Hassan Montazam

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The present study involves preparation and evaluation of diclofenac buccal-mucoadhesive microparticles for prolongation of buccal residence time. Methods: The microparticles were prepared by modified double-emulsion dehydration method (O1/W/O2) using sodium carboxymethylcellulose (CMC-Na) as mucoadhesive polymer. Calcium chloride was used as a cross-linking agent. Buccal-mucoadhesive microparticles with different drug to polymers ratios were prepared and characterized by encapsula...

  4. Ultrahigh vacuum system with aluminum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A bakeable vacuum chamber (1500C continuous) consists of aluminum alloy beam pipe (6063-T6) and bellows (5052-F) with an aluminum alloy flange (2219-T87) and a metal seal [Helicoflex-HN: pure aluminum (1050) O-ring with an elastic core (Ni base super alloy Inconel 750) which supplies the sealing force] has been constructed. The beam pipe and the flange (6063-T6/2219-T87), and the bellows and the flange (5052-F/2219-T87) were welded by an alternate current (50 Hz) TIG process using an aluminum alloy filler wire (4043). The mechanical properties of the aluminum alloy (2219-T87) is suitable for using the Helicoflex O-ring but the groove surface for the gasket is weak for scratching. Cromium-nitride coating by ion plating method was carried out on the aluminum surface of the gasket groove [thickness: 16 μm, micro Vickers hardness: 1800]. Ordinary stainless steel vacuum system can be replaced by the aluminum vacuum system in an accelerator. (author)

  5. Colonic necrosis and perforation due to calcium polystyrene sulfonate in a uraemic patient: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Akagun, Tulin; Yazici, Halil; Gulluoglu, Mine G.; Yegen, Gulcin; Turkmen, Aydin

    2011-01-01

    Sodium or calcium polystyrene sulfonate (Kayexalate or analog) is an ion-exchange resin commonly used to treat hyperkalaemia in patients with chronic kidney disease. It is known to cause digestive complications, such as nausea, vomiting and constipation. Although rare, colonic necrosis and perforation are very severe complications associated with the medication. In this case report, we present a case of calcium polystyrene sulfonate-induced colonic necrosis and perforation to remind clinician...

  6. Calcium-activated chloride channels in the apical region of mouse vomeronasal sensory neurons

    OpenAIRE

    Dibattista, Michele; Amjad, Asma; Maurya, Devendra Kumar; Sagheddu, Claudia; Montani, Giorgia; Tirindelli, Roberto; Menini, Anna

    2012-01-01

    The rodent vomeronasal organ plays a crucial role in several social behaviors. Detection of pheromones or other emitted signaling molecules occurs in the dendritic microvilli of vomeronasal sensory neurons, where the binding of molecules to vomeronasal receptors leads to the influx of sodium and calcium ions mainly through the transient receptor potential canonical 2 (TRPC2) channel. To investigate the physiological role played by the increase in intracellular calcium concentration in the api...

  7. Kinetics of release of methylene blue immobilized in calcium alginate microparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Inal Bakhytkyzy; R. Ussenkyzy; D. Rahimbaeva

    2013-01-01

    The swelling kinetics of microparticles obtained with different concentrations of calcium chloride was studied to learn the ability of sodium alginate to gelation. To increase the effect of prolongation it is necessary to obtain microparticles with sustained release of drugs. For this purpose the drying kinetics of alginate microparticles was investigated. Also the kinetics of release of methylene blue immobilized in calcium alginate microparticles was studied. It was found that the release o...

  8. TANK 12 SLUDGE CHARACTERIZATION AND ALUMINUM DISSOLUTION DEMONSTRATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 3-L sludge slurry sample from Tank 12 was characterized and then processed through an aluminum dissolution demonstration. The dominant constituent of the sludge was found to be aluminum in the form of boehmite. The iron content was minor, about one-tenth that of the aluminum. The salt content of the supernatant was relatively high, with a sodium concentration of ∼7 M. Due to these characteristics, the yield stress and plastic viscosity of the unprocessed slurry were relatively high (19 Pa and 27 cP), and the settling rate of the sludge was relatively low (∼20% settling over a two and a half week period). Prior to performing aluminum dissolution, plutonium and gadolinium were added to the slurry to simulate receipt of plutonium waste from H-Canyon. Aluminum dissolution was performed over a 26 day period at a temperature of 65 C. Approximately 60% of the insoluble aluminum dissolved during the demonstration, with the rate of dissolution slowing significantly by the end of the demonstration period. In contrast, approximately 20% of the plutonium and less than 1% of the gadolinium partitioned to the liquid phase. However, about a third of the liquid phase plutonium became solubilized prior to the dissolution period, when the H-Canyon plutonium/gadolinium simulant was added to the Tank 12 slurry. Quantification of iron dissolution was less clear, but appeared to be on the order of 1% based on the majority of data (a minor portion of the data suggested iron dissolution could be as high as 10%). The yield stress of the post-dissolution slurry (2.5 Pa) was an order of magnitude lower than the initial slurry, due most likely to the reduced insoluble solids content caused by aluminum dissolution. In contrast, the plastic viscosity remained unchanged (27 cP). The settling rate of the post-dissolution slurry was higher than the initial slurry, but still relatively low compared to settling of typical high iron content/low salt content sludges. Approximately 40% of the

  9. Tank 12 Sludge Characterization and Aluminum Dissolution Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reboul, S.; Hay, M.; Zeigler, K; Stone, M.

    2010-05-05

    A 3-L sludge slurry sample from Tank 12 was characterized and then processed through an aluminum dissolution demonstration. The dominant constituent of the sludge was found to be aluminum in the form of boehmite. The iron content was minor, about one-tenth that of the aluminum. The salt content of the supernatant was relatively high, with a sodium concentration of {approx}7 M. Due to these characteristics, the yield stress and plastic viscosity of the unprocessed slurry were relatively high (19 Pa and 27 cP), and the settling rate of the sludge was relatively low ({approx}20% settling over a two and a half week period). Prior to performing aluminum dissolution, plutonium and gadolinium were added to the slurry to simulate receipt of plutonium waste from H-Canyon. Aluminum dissolution was performed over a 26 day period at a temperature of 65 C. Approximately 60% of the insoluble aluminum dissolved during the demonstration, with the rate of dissolution slowing significantly by the end of the demonstration period. In contrast, approximately 20% of the plutonium and less than 1% of the gadolinium partitioned to the liquid phase. However, about a third of the liquid phase plutonium became solubilized prior to the dissolution period, when the H-Canyon plutonium/gadolinium simulant was added to the Tank 12 slurry. Quantification of iron dissolution was less clear, but appeared to be on the order of 1% based on the majority of data (a minor portion of the data suggested iron dissolution could be as high as 10%). The yield stress of the post-dissolution slurry (2.5 Pa) was an order of magnitude lower than the initial slurry, due most likely to the reduced insoluble solids content caused by aluminum dissolution. In contrast, the plastic viscosity remained unchanged (27 cP). The settling rate of the post-dissolution slurry was higher than the initial slurry, but still relatively low compared to settling of typical high iron content/low salt content sludges. Approximately 40

  10. CALCIUM ISOTOPE COMPOSITION OF METEORITES, EARTH, AND MARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The relative abundances of calcium isotopes in the mass range 40-44 were measured in primitive and differentiated meteorites and igneous rocks from Earth and Mars in search of non-mass-dependent variations that could provide clues about early solar system processes. Most bulk samples of planetary materials have calcium isotopic compositions identical with Earth's within the current resolution of about 0.01% in 40Ca/44Ca. Possible exceptions include carbonaceous chondrites, some ordinary chondrites, and two samples of calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions, which have small excesses of 40Ca. The samples with 40Ca excesses are also known to have 50Ti and 135Ba excesses and 142Nd and 144Sm deficits. Collectively these data from refractory elements suggest that the planetary embryos represented by chondrites preserve isotopic heterogeneity that reflects different nucleosynthetic sources. No late admixture from a single nucleosynthetic source can explain all observations. The results are most compatible with variable proportions of material derived from Type II supernovae. The initial calcium isotope compositions of Earth and Mars are indistinguishable and similar to the 40Ca abundance found in some chondrites and all differentiated meteorites studied. It appears that isotopic heterogeneity in calcium was still present at the completion of disk formation but was homogenized during planetary accretion.

  11. Liquid sodium oxygenmeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of test runs of two design varieties of liquid sodium oxygenmeter in sodium loops are described. The accuracy and sensitivity are discussed reached using this instrument within 1 and 10 p.p.m. of oxygen concentration. A change in the used reference system is proposed based on practical experiences and thermochemical calculations. Ceramic electrolyte corrosion is analysed and the possible interpretation of the corrosion effect on the galvanic cell electromotive force is suggested. (author)

  12. [Microbiological corrosion of aluminum alloys].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, V F; Belov, D V; Sokolova, T N; Kuzina, O V; Kartashov, V R

    2008-01-01

    Biological corrosion of ADO quality aluminum and aluminum-based construction materials (alloys V65, D16, and D16T) was studied. Thirteen microscopic fungus species and six bacterial species proved to be able to attack aluminum and its alloys. It was found that biocorrosion of metals by microscopic fungi and bacteria was mediated by certain exometabolites. Experiments on biocorrosion of the materials by the microscopic fungus Alternaria alternata, the most active biodegrader, demonstrated that the micromycete attack started with the appearance of exudate with pH 8-9 on end faces of the samples. PMID:18669265

  13. Fundamental Characteristics of Bioprint on Calcium Alginate Gel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umezu, Shinjiro; Hatta, Tatsuru; Ohmori, Hitoshi

    2013-05-01

    The goal of this study is to fabricate precision three-dimensional (3D) biodevices those are micro fluidics and artificial organs utilizing digital fabrication. Digital fabrication is fabrication method utilizing inkjet technologies. Electrostatic inkjet is one of the inkjet technologies. The electrostatic inkjet method has following two merits; those are high resolution to print and ability to eject highly viscous liquid. These characteristics are suitable to print biomaterials precisely. We are now applying for bioprint. In this paper, the electrostatic inkjet method is applied for fabrication of 3D biodevices that has cave like blood vessel. When aqueous solution of sodium alginate is printed to aqueous solution of calcium chloride, calcium alginate is produced. 3D biodevices are fabricated in case that calcium alginate is piled.

  14. Light-induced ejection of calcium atoms from polymer surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mango, F.; Maccioni, E.

    2008-12-01

    Laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) of calcium atoms at room temperature has been observed in a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) coated cell when the walls are illuminated with non resonant visible light. Ca atomic density in the gas phase, monitored by the LIF, is much higher than normal room-temperature vapour pressure of calcium. In past years photon-stimulated desorption (PSD) was observed for several alkali metals that adsorbed to solid films of PDMS polymers. High yields of photo-desorbed atoms (and molecules in the case of sodium) can be induced, at room temperature and below, by weak intensity radiation. The desorption is characterised by a frequency threshold, whereas any power threshold is undetectable. The calcium photo-ejection is characterised both by a frequency threshold (about 18 500 cm-1) and by an observable power threshold (whose value becomes lower when the photo-ejecting light wavelength decreases).

  15. Composition and genesis of calcium deposits in atheroma plaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara, María Jesús; Ros, Eduardo; Sierra, Manuel; Dorronsoro, Carlos; Aguilar, José

    2014-05-01

    The composition of atheromatous plaque determines its progression toward rupture or thrombosis. Although its histopathological structure has been widely studied, little attention has been paid to its structural and chemical composition and even less to its mineral component. Thirty-three atheromatous plaques were obtained by carotid thromboendarterectomy. Three types of materials were observed under polarized light microscopy: apatite crystals in the form of glomeruli (dark with plane polarized illumination and greensh with cross-polarized illumination); fibrous-like cholesterol (uncolored or grayish with plane-polarized illumination); and amorphous organic material as brownish deposits. SEM-EDX analysis showed an abundance of phosphorus and calcium in sufficient quantities to form calcium phosphates, and appreciably reduced levels of sodium. X-ray diffraction results differentiated samples into three groups: group I with predominance of hydroxyapatite-type crystals, group II with crystalline material containing an amorphous component, and group III with wholly amorphous material. The most abundant mineral in atheromatous plaque is hydroxyapatite, on which crystals of cholesterol and lipid nuclei are deposited, stratifying the plaque into layers that reflect the different stages of its formation. The difference in calcium and sodium concentrations between arteries with and without atheromata may indicate an important relationship in the pathophysiological development of calcium deposits. PMID:24134634

  16. Gravimetric Determination of Calcium as Calcium Carbonate Hydrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrickson, Charles H.; Robinson, Paul R.

    1979-01-01

    The gravimetric determination of calcium as calcium carbonate is described. This experiment is suitable for undergraduate quantitative analysis laboratories. It is less expensive than determination of chloride as silver chloride. (BB)

  17. Sodium source development for pulsed power driven, photopumped NA/NE x-ray laser experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A sodium plasma source is being developed for a resonant photopumping x-ray laser scheme in which the 11A 1s2 - 1s2rho 1P1 line in heliumlike Na X is used to pump the Ne IX n=4 singlet level. In their experiment the NRL Gamble II generator is used to produce two z-pinch plasmas in a side-by-side geometry. The sodium plasma is produced on axis and conducts the full 1 MA machine current. A fraction of this current returns through a neon gas puff located 5 cm from the sodium. This separation is determined by the need to prevent the plasmas from mixing and the need to have each plasma's azimuthal magnetic field as symmetric as possible. A minimum separation is desirable to increase coupling efficiency. To improve the pump source, a more confined source of pure sodium involving a coaxial plasma gun is being developed. They are currently studying both the operation of this source on a test stand and implosions of the resulting plasma on Gamble II. In initial experiments aluminum is substituted for sodium. Test stand diagnostics include photodiodes, witness plates, and current monitors designed to investigate the early motion of the annular plasma. Results from test stand and Gamble II experiments with both aluminum and sodium, as well as sodium handling techniques, are presented

  18. Participação da excreção renal de cálcio, fósforo, sódio e potássio na homeostase em cães sadios e cães com doença renal crônica Participation of renal excretion of calcium, phosphorus, sodium and potassium on the homeostasis in healthy dogs and in dogs with chronic kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro P Martínez

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Na doença renal crônica (DRC a manutenção da homeostase de água e sódio é o primeiro problema a ser contornado pelo organismo e com o agravamento das lesões renais surgem outros problemas graves relacionados à homeostase de cálcio e fósforo. O presente estudo tem por escopo avaliar a excreção renal de cálcio, fósforo, sódio e potássio, e o perfil sérico destes eletrólitos em cães normais e em cães com DRC naturalmente adquirida. Foram avaliados três grupos de cães adultos, machos ou fêmeas, de raças variadas. Animais normais compuseram o grupo controle (G1 e os cães com DRC foram distribuídos em dois grupos de acordo com os estágios de comprometimento da função renal (G2 e G3, respectivamente, estágios 1-2 e estágios 3-4, descritos pela IRIS 2006 staging CKD. Os cães do G3 apresentaram aumento das concentrações séricas de cálcio ionizado e fósforo, além de diminuição da concentração sérica de sódio. Quanto à excreção renal dos eletrólitos analisados, os animais dos grupos G1 e G2 apresentaram diminuição de carga filtrada e aumento de excreção fracionada, mas as excreções urinárias não variaram significativamente. Os resultados são indicativos de que os rins de cães com DRC podem manter a excreção urinária dos eletrólitos em valores se melhantes aos dos normais. O mecanismo envolve aumento da excreção fracionada na medida em que haja diminuição da filtração glomerular. Esse processo de compensação, entretanto, pode perder a eficiência nos estágios mais avançados da enfermidade no que se refere à manutenção das concentrações séricas de fósforo e sódio.In chronic kidney disease (CKD, the first problem to be solved by the organism is to maintain water and sodium homeostasis and, with the worsening of the renal injuries, other severe problems related to the calcium and phosphorus homeostasis emerge. The present study has the purpose to evaluate the renal excretion and

  19. CALCIUM-INDUCED SUPRAMOLECULAR STRUCTURES IN THE CALCIUM CASEINATE SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    The molecular details deciphering the spontaneous calcium-induced protein aggregation process in the calcium caseinate system remain obscure. Understanding this complex process could lead to potential new applications of this important food ingredient. In this work, we studied calcium-induced supra...

  20. Chrome - Free Aluminum Coating System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, John H.; Gugel, Jeffrey D.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation concerns the program to qualify a chrome free coating for aluminum. The program was required due to findings by OSHA and EPA, that hexavalent chromium, used to mitigate corrosion in aerospace aluminum alloys, poses hazards for personnel. This qualification consisted of over 4,000 tests. The tests revealed that a move away from Cr+6, required a system rather than individual components and that the maximum corrosion protection required pretreatment, primer and topcoat.

  1. Refinement of Aluminum Thermal Chrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Refinement of aluminum thermal chrome of the X98.5 mark by a high-temperature annealing in high vacuum is explored experimentally. It is shown that at the temperature of annealing 1150 C during 1...6 hours the content of such interstitial impurity as nitrogen is essentially depressed in chrome, and also the content of aluminum and iron admixtures is noticeably moderated

  2. Intensity-based optical fiber sensor for monitoring corrosion of aluminum alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Saying; Liao, Yanbiao; Tian, Qian

    2005-09-20

    A new method, based on the shift of light power transmitted through fiber, to measure corrosion of aluminum is presented. A multimode fiber was metallized by use of physical vacuum to deposit aluminum onto an unclad part of a fiber of 1 to 2 cm length. Scanning-electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction were used to show, the formation and corrosion of the metallized film. The light signal driven by metal corrosion was affected by the film's thickness and the concentration of the corrosive solution of sodium hydroxide. PMID:16201441

  3. Development of sodium technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Sung Tai; Nam, H. Y.; Choi, Y. D. [and others

    2000-05-01

    The objective of present study is to produce the experimental data for development and verification of computer codes for development of LMR and to develop the preliminary technologies for the future large scale verification experiments. A MHD experimental test loop has been constructed for the quantitative analysis of the effect of magnetic field on the sodium flow and experiments are carried out for three EM pumps. The previous pressure drop correlations are evaluated using the experimental data obtained from the pressure drop experiment in a 19-pin fuel assembly with wire spacer. An dimensionless variable is proposed to describe the amplitude and frequency of the fluctuation of free surface using the experimental data obtained from free surface experimental apparatus and an empirical correlation is developed using this dimensionless variable. An experimental test loop is constructed to measure the flow characteristics in IHX shell side and the local pressure drop in fuel assembly, and to test the vibration behaviour of fuel pins due to flow induced vibration. The sodium two-phase flow measuring technique using the electromagnetic flowmeter is developed and the sodium differential pressure drop measuring technique using the method of direct contact of sodium and oil is established. The work on the analysis of sodium fire characteristics and produce data for vlidation of computer code is performed. Perfect reopen time of self plugged leak path was observed to be about 130 minutes after water leak initiation. Reopen shape of a specimen appeared to be double layer of circular type, and reopen size of this specimen surface was about 2mm diameter on sodium side. In small water leakage experiments, the following correlation equation about the reopen time between sodium temperature and initial leak rate was obtained, {tau}{sub c} = {delta}{center_dot}g{sup -0.83}{center_dot}10{sup (3570/T{sub Na}-3.34)}, in 400-500 deg C of liquid sodium atmosphere. The characteristics

  4. Development of sodium technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of present study is to produce the experimental data for development and verification of computer codes for development of LMR and to develop the preliminary technologies for the future large scale verification experiments. A MHD experimental test loop has been constructed for the quantitative analysis of the effect of magnetic field on the sodium flow and experiments are carried out for three EM pumps. The previous pressure drop correlations are evaluated using the experimental data obtained from the pressure drop experiment in a 19-pin fuel assembly with wire spacer. An dimensionless variable is proposed to describe the amplitude and frequency of the fluctuation of free surface using the experimental data obtained from free surface experimental apparatus and an empirical correlation is developed using this dimensionless variable. An experimental test loop is constructed to measure the flow characteristics in IHX shell side and the local pressure drop in fuel assembly, and to test the vibration behaviour of fuel pins due to flow induced vibration. The sodium two-phase flow measuring technique using the electromagnetic flowmeter is developed and the sodium differential pressure drop measuring technique using the method of direct contact of sodium and oil is established. The work on the analysis of sodium fire characteristics and produce data for vlidation of computer code is performed. Perfect reopen time of self plugged leak path was observed to be about 130 minutes after water leak initiation. Reopen shape of a specimen appeared to be double layer of circular type, and reopen size of this specimen surface was about 2mm diameter on sodium side. In small water leakage experiments, the following correlation equation about the reopen time between sodium temperature and initial leak rate was obtained, τc = δ·g-0.83·10(3570/TNa-3.34), in 400-500 deg C of liquid sodium atmosphere. The characteristics of pressure propagation and gas flow, and pressure

  5. A sensor for calcium uptake

    OpenAIRE

    Collins, Sean; Meyer, Tobias

    2010-01-01

    Mitochondria — the cell’s power plants — increase their energy production in response to calcium signals in the cytoplasm. A regulator of the elusive mitochondrial calcium channel has now been identified.

  6. Children's Bone Health and Calcium

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Trials Resources and Publications Children's Bone Health and Calcium: Condition Information Skip sharing on social media links ... straight, walk, run, and lead an active life. Calcium is one of the key dietary building blocks ...

  7. Anodized aluminum on LDEF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Johnny L.

    1993-01-01

    A compilation of reported analyses and results obtained for anodized aluminum flown on the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) was prepared. Chromic acid, sulfuric acid, and dyed sulfuric acid anodized surfaces were exposed to the space environment. The vast majority of the anodized surface on LDEF was chromic acid anodize because of its selection as a thermal control coating for use on the spacecraft primary structure, trays, tray clamps, and space end thermal covers. Reports indicate that the chromic acid anodize was stable in solar absorptance and thermal emittance, but that contamination effects caused increases in absorptance on surfaces exposed to low atomic oxygen fluences. There were some discrepancies, however, in that some chromic acid anodized specimens exhibited significant increases in absorptance. Sulfuric acid anodized surfaces also appeared stable, although very little surface area was available for evaluation. One type of dyed sulfuric acid anodize was assessed as an optical baffle coating and was observed to have improved infrared absorptance characteristics with exposure on LDEF.

  8. Calcium ion channel and epilepsy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yudan Lü; Weihong Lin; Dihui Ma

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review the relationship between calcium ion channel and epilepsy for well investigating the pathogenesis of epilepsy and probing into the new therapeutic pathway of epilepsy.DATA SOURCES: A computer-based online research Calcium ion channel and epilepsy related articles published between January 1994 and December 2006 in the CKNI and Wanfang database with the key words of "calcium influxion, epilepsy, calcium-channel blocker". The language was limited to Chinese. At the same time,related articles published between January 1993 and December 2006 in Pubmed were searched for on online with the key words of "calcium influxion, epilepsy" in English.STUDY SELECTION: The materials were selected firstly. Inclusive criteria: ① Studies related to calcium ion channel and the pat1hogenesis of epilepsy. ② Studies on the application of calcium ion channel blocker in the treatment of epilepsy. Exclusive criteria: repetitive or irrelated studies.DATA EXTRACTION: According to the criteria, 123 articles were retrieved and 93 were excluded due to repetitive or irrelated studies. Altogether 30 articles met the inclusive criteria, 11 of them were about the structure and characters of calcium ion channel, 10 about calcium ion channel and the pathogenesis of epilepsy and 9 about calcium blocker and the treatment of epilepsy.DATA SYNTHESIS: Calcium ion channels mainly consist of voltage dependent calcium channel and receptor operated calcium channel. Depolarization caused by voltage gating channel-induced influxion is the pathological basis of epileptic attack, and it is found in many studies that many anti-epileptic drugs have potential and direct effect to rivalizing voltage-dependent calcium ion channel.CONCLUSION: Calcium influxion plays an important role in the seizure of epilepsy. Some calcium antagonists seen commonly are being tried in the clinical therapy of epilepsy that is being explored, not applied in clinical practice. If there are enough evidences to

  9. Solar Imagery - Chromosphere - Calcium

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset consists of full-disk images of the sun in Calcium (Ca) II K wavelength (393.4 nm). Ca II K imagery reveal magnetic structures of the sun from about...

  10. Preparation of TiO2 nanotubes/mesoporous calcium silicate composites with controllable drug release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Chunling; Li, Ping; Liu, Yan; Luo, Fei; Xiao, Xiufeng

    2016-10-01

    Nanotube structures such as TiO2 nanotube (TNT) arrays produced by self-ordering electrochemical anodization have been extensively explored for drug delivery applications. In this study, we presented a new implantable drug delivery system that combined mesoporous calcium silicate coating with nanotube structures to achieve a controllable drug release of water soluble and antiphlogistic drug loxoprofen sodium. The results showed that the TiO2 nanotubes/mesoporous calcium silicate composites were successfully fabricated by a simple template method and the deposition of mesoporous calcium silicate increased with the soaking time. Moreover, the rate of deposition of biological mesoporous calcium silicate on amorphous TNTs was better than that on anatase TNTs. Further, zinc-incorporated mesoporous calcium silicate coating, produced by adding a certain concentration of zinc nitrate into the soaking system, displayed improved chemical stability. A significant improvement in the drug release characteristics with reduced burst release and sustained release was demonstrated. PMID:27287140

  11. Impregnating Coal With Calcium Carbonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Pramod K.; Voecks, Gerald E.; Gavalas, George R.

    1991-01-01

    Relatively inexpensive process proposed for impregnating coal with calcium carbonate to increase rates of gasification and combustion of coal and to reduce emission of sulfur by trapping sulfur in calcium sulfide. Process involves aqueous-phase reactions between carbon dioxide (contained within pore network of coal) and calcium acetate. Coal impregnated with CO2 by exposing it to CO2 at high pressure.

  12. Acidosis and Urinary Calcium Excretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexander, R Todd; Cordat, Emmanuelle; Chambrey, Régine;

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic acidosis is associated with increased urinary calcium excretion and related sequelae, including nephrocalcinosis and nephrolithiasis. The increased urinary calcium excretion induced by metabolic acidosis predominantly results from increased mobilization of calcium out of bone and...... renal tubule and then discuss why not all gene defects that cause renal tubular acidosis are associated with hypercalciuria and nephrocalcinosis....

  13. Io's sodium cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, B. A.; Garneau, G. W.; Lavoie, S. K.

    1984-01-01

    The first two-dimensional images of the source region of Io's neutral sodium cloud have been acquired by ground-based observation. Observed asymmetries in its spatial brightness distribution provide new evidence that the cloud is supplied by sodium that is ejected nonisotropically from Io or its atmosphere. Complementary, high-time-resolution, calibrated image sequences that give the first comprehensive picture of the variations of the fainter regions of the cloud extending more than 100,000 kilometers from Io were also obtained. These data demonstrate that the cloud exhibits a persistent systematic behavior coupled with Io's orbital position, a distinct 'east-west orbital asymmetry', a variety of spatial morphologies, and true temporal changes. The geometric stability of the sodium source is also indicated. Isolation of the cloud's temporal changes constitutes an important milestone toward its utilization as a long-term probe of Io and the inner Jovian magnetosphere.

  14. Synthesis of calcium diborate CaO·B2O3·4H2O (Ca 114) containing definite boron isotope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new method for the synthesis of calcium diborate in aqueous solutions from calcium oxide, sodium hydroxide and boric acid containing a definite boron isotope (10B or 11B) has been elaborated. Since the mother liquid can be utilized for repeated synthesis, the yield of the diborate with respect to boron is higher than in other processes

  15. Sodium and bone health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teucher, B.; Dainty, J. R.; Spinks, C. A.;

    2008-01-01

    High salt intake is a well-recognized risk factor for osteoporosis because it induces calciuria, but the effects of salt on calcium metabolism and the potential impact on bone health in postmenopausal women have not been fully characterized. This study investigated adaptive mechanisms in response...

  16. Fluorescent lighting with aluminum nitride phosphors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cherepy, Nerine J.; Payne, Stephen A.; Seeley, Zachary M.; Srivastava, Alok M.

    2016-05-10

    A fluorescent lamp includes a glass envelope; at least two electrodes connected to the glass envelope; mercury vapor and an inert gas within the glass envelope; and a phosphor within the glass envelope, wherein the phosphor blend includes aluminum nitride. The phosphor may be a wurtzite (hexagonal) crystalline structure Al.sub.(1-x)M.sub.xN phosphor, where M may be drawn from beryllium, magnesium, calcium, strontium, barium, zinc, scandium, yttrium, lanthanum, cerium, praseodymium, europium, gadolinium, terbium, ytterbium, bismuth, manganese, silicon, germanium, tin, boron, or gallium is synthesized to include dopants to control its luminescence under ultraviolet excitation. The disclosed Al.sub.(1-x)M.sub.xN:Mn phosphor provides bright orange-red emission, comparable in efficiency and spectrum to that of the standard orange-red phosphor used in fluorescent lighting, Y.sub.2O.sub.3:Eu. Furthermore, it offers excellent lumen maintenance in a fluorescent lamp, and does not utilize "critical rare earths," minimizing sensitivity to fluctuating market prices for the rare earth elements.

  17. Studying inhibition of calcium oxalate stone formation: an in vitro approach for screening hydrogen sulfide and its metabolites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Vaitheeswari

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTPurpose:Calcium oxalate urolithiasis is one of the most common urinary tract diseases and is of high prevalence. The present study proposes to evaluate the antilithiatic property of hydrogen sulfide and its metabolites like thiosulfate & sulfate in an in vitro model.Materials and Methods:The antilithiatic activity of sodium hydrogen sulfide (NaSH, sodium thiosulfate (Na2S2O3 and sodium sulfate (Na2SO4 on the kinetics of calcium oxalate crystal formation was investigated both in physiological buffer and in urine from normal and recurrent stone forming volunteers. The stones were characterized by optical and spectroscopic techniques.Results:The stones were characterized to be monoclinic, prismatic and bipyramidal habit which is of calcium monohydrate and dihydrate nature. The FTIR displayed fingerprint corresponding to calcium oxalate in the control while in NaSH treated, S=O vibrations were visible in the spectrum. The order of percentage inhibition was NaSH>Na2S2O3>Na2SO4.Conclusion:Our study indicates that sodium hydrogen sulfide and its metabolite thiosulfate are inhibitors of calcium oxalate stone agglomeration which makes them unstable both in physiological buffer and in urine. This effect is attributed to pH changes and complexing of calcium by S2O32-and SO42- moiety produced by the test compounds.

  18. Sodium fire tests for investigating the sodium leak in Monju

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a part of the work for investigating the sodium leak accident which occurred in Monju on December 8, 1995, three tests, (1) sodium leak test, (2) sodium fire test-I, and (3) sodium fire test-II, were carried out at OEC/PNC. Main objectives of these tests are to confirm leak and burning behavior of sodium from the damaged thermometer, and effects of the sodium fire on integrity of the surrounding structure, etc. The main conclusions obtained from the tests are shown as below. 1) Average sodium leak rate obtained from the sodium leak test was about 50 g/sec. This was equivalent to the value estimated from level change in the sodium overflow tank in the Monju accident. 2) Observation from video cameras in the sodium fire tests revealed that in early stages of sodium leak, sodium dropped down out of the flexible tube of thermometer in drips. This dripping and burning were expanded in range as sodium splashed on the duct. 3) Though, in the sodium fire test-I, there was a decrease of about 1 mm at a thickness of the burning pan in the vicinity in just under in the leak point, there were completely no crack and failure. In the meantime, in the sodium fire test-II the six open holes were found in the floor liner. By this liner failure, the reaction between sodium and concrete might take place. At present, while the detailed evaluation on the sodium fire test-II has been mainly carried out, the investigation for clarifying the cause of the liner failure has been also carried out. (author)

  19. EVALUATION OF LOW TEMPERATURE ALUMINUM DISSOLUTION IN TANK 51

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pike, J

    2008-09-04

    loss from a quiescent tank; and an evaluation of the aluminum dissolution rate model and actual dissolution rate. LTAD was successfully completed in Tank 51 with minimal waste tank changes. The following general conclusions may be drawn about the LTAD process: (1) Dissolution at about 60 C for 46 days dissolved 64% of the aluminum from the sludge slurry. (2) The aluminum-laden leach solution decanted to Tank 11 can be blended with a wide variety of supernates without risk of precipitating the dissolved aluminum based on thermodynamic chemical equilibrium models. (3) Uranium and plutonium leached into solution without corresponding leaching of iron or metal other than aluminum, but the total mass leached was a small fraction of the total uranium and plutonium in the sludge. (4) The concentration of uranium and plutonium in the leach solution was indistinguishable from other tank farm supernates, thus, the leach solutions can be managed relative to the risk of criticality like any other supernate. (5) A small amount of mercury leached into solution from the sludge causing the liquid phase concentration to increase 6 to 10 fold, which is consistent with the 4 to 14 fold increase observed during the 1982 aluminum dissolution demonstration. (6) Chromium did not dissolve during LTAD. (7) Chloride concentration increased in the liquid phase during LTAD due to chloride contamination in the 50% sodium hydroxide solution. (8) The rate of heat loss from Tank 51 at temperatures above 45 C appeared linear and predictable at 8E+7 cal/hr. (9) The rate of heat transfer from Tank 51 did not follow a simplified bulk heat transfer model. (10) Prediction of the aluminum dissolution rate was prone to error due to a lack of active specific surface area data of sludge particles. (11) The higher than expected dissolution rate during LTAD was likely due to smaller than expected particle sizes of most of the sludge particles. While evaluating the LTAD process, the dissolved salt solution from

  20. Too Much Sodium

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-02-07

    This podcast is based on the February 2012 CDC Vital Signs report. Ninety percent of Americans age two and older eat too much sodium which can increase your risk for high blood pressure and often leads to heart disease and stroke, two leading causes of death in the US. Learn several small steps you can take to reduce the amount of sodium in your diet.  Created: 2/7/2012 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 2/7/2012.