WorldWideScience

Sample records for aluminum ammonium sulfate

  1. 21 CFR 582.1127 - Aluminum ammonium sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aluminum ammonium sulfate. 582.1127 Section 582.1127 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Additives § 582.1127 Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (b) Conditions of...

  2. 21 CFR 182.1127 - Aluminum ammonium sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Aluminum ammonium sulfate. 182.1127 Section 182.1127 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Food Substances § 182.1127 Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (b...

  3. The optical constants of several atmospheric aerosol species - Ammonium sulfate, aluminum oxide, and sodium chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toon, O. B.; Pollack, J. B.; Khare, B. N.

    1976-01-01

    An investigation is conducted of problems which are related to a use of measured optical constants in the simulation of the optical constants of real atmospheric aerosols. The techniques of measuring optical constants are discussed, taking into account transmission measurements through homogeneous and inhomogeneous materials, the immersion of a material in a liquid of a known refractive index, the consideration of the minimum deviation angle of prism measurement, the interference of multiply reflected light, reflectivity measurements, and aspects of mathematical analysis. Graphs show the real and the imaginary part of the refractive index as a function of wavelength for aluminum oxide, NaCl, and ammonium sulfate. Tables are provided for the dispersion parameters and the optical constants.

  4. Aluminum ammonium sulfate dodecahydrate purified from traditional Chinese medicinal herb Korean monkshood root is a potent matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yehua; Liu, Sen; Jin, Fenghai; Mu, Tianyang; Li, Cong; Jiang, Kun; Tian, Weihua; Yu, Dahai; Zhang, Yingqi; Fang, Xuexun

    2012-06-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are zinc-dependent endopeptidases and key regulators for many physiological and pathological functions. The MMP inhibitors have been shown to modulate diseases such as cancer, inflammation, and cardiovascular diseases. In this paper we tracked the MMP inhibitory activities of the traditional Chinese medicinal herb Korean Monkshood Root. The purified active ingredient was identified by the elemental analysis, infrared spectrum (IR) and X-ray diffraction as aluminum ammonium sulfate dodecahydrate. This inorganic compound showed inhibitory activities toward a number of MMP family members. In particular, it has a strong inhibitory effect toward MMP-2 and MMP-9, with IC50 values of 0.54 and 0.50 μM, respectively. Further analysis suggested that the MMP inhibitory activity is mainly due to Al(3+). Cell viability assays using human fibrosarcoma HT1080 cells showed aluminum ammonium sulfate had minimal cyto-toxicity with a concentration up to 500 μM. However, within 50 μM, it exhibited significant inhibition of cell invasion. To our knowledge, there has been no previous report of inorganic form of the MMP inhibitor with strong inhibitory activity. Our results for the first time showed that aluminum ammonium sulfate is an inorganic form of MMP inhibitor with high potency, and can be used to interfere with MMP related cellular processes.

  5. Decomposition of aluminum oxide, titanium(IV) oxide and niobium(V) oxide by fusion with ammonium sulfate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashiba, Minoru; Miura, Eiji; Nurishi, Yukio; Hibino, Taizo

    1980-01-01

    A decomposition method with ammonium sulfate for Al 2 O 3 , TiO 2 and Nb 2 O 5 is presented. Al 2 O 3 and TiO 2 were fused at 400 and 450 0 C, for 2 h and 1 h, respectively, in the presence of ammonium sulfate (oxide/ammonium sulfate = 1/20 in weight). The fused products were dissolved and extracted into 4N H 2 SO 4 aqueous solution by warming on the water bath or gently boiling on asbestos. The degree of decomposition by fusion was confirmed from the amount of the oxides recovered in the following manner; with the aid of filter pulp, the residue was completely separated by filtration and washed thoroughly by hot water. To the filtrate was added ammonia water in order to precipitate aluminum and titanium hydroxide. The precipitates were ignited in platinum crucible at 1000 0 C and weighed in oxide form. Nb 2 O 5 was fused at 400 0 C for 1 h in the presence of ammonium sulfate (niobium pentoxide/ammonium sulfate = 1/10 in weight). The fused product was extracted with 20% tartaric acid aqueous solution. The degree of decomposition by fusion was confirmed from the amount of the oxide recovered as follows; after separation of the residue by a filter paper with the aid of filter pulp and washed thoroughly by 2% tartaric acid aqueous solution, freshly prepared 6% aqueous solution of cupferron was added to the filtrate and the precipitate formed was filtered immediately. The precipitate was ignited in platinum crucible at 1000 0 C and weighed as Nb 2 O 5 . The recovery of Al 2 O 3 , TiO 2 and Nb 2 O 5 by the present method was (99.2 +- 0.4), (100.1 +- 0.2) and (100.1 +- 0.2)%, respectively. It is concluded that Al 2 O 3 , TiO 2 and Nb 2 O 5 could be completely decomposed with ammonium sulfate. (author)

  6. Protein Precipitation Using Ammonium Sulfate

    OpenAIRE

    Wingfield, Paul T.

    2001-01-01

    The basic theory of protein precipitation by addition of ammonium sulfate is presented and the most common applications are listed, Tables are provided for calculating the appropriate amount of ammonium sulfate to add to a particular protein solution.

  7. Protein Precipitation Using Ammonium Sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    The basic theory of protein precipitation by addition of ammonium sulfate is presented, and the most common applications are listed. Tables are provided for calculating the appropriate amount of ammonium sulfate to add to a particular protein solution. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  8. Experimental additions of aluminum sulfate and ammonium nitrate to in situ mesocosms to reduce cyanobacterial biovolume and microcystin concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Ted D.; Wilhelm, Frank M.; Graham, Jennifer L.; Loftin, Keith A.

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that nitrogen additions to increase the total nitrogen:total phosphorus (TN:TP) ratio may reduce cyanobacterial biovolume and microcystin concentration in reservoirs. In systems where TP is >100 μg/L, however, nitrogen additions to increase the TN:TP ratio could cause ammonia, nitrate, or nitrite toxicity to terrestrial and aquatic organisms. Reducing phosphorus via aluminum sulfate (alum) may be needed prior to nitrogen additions aimed at increasing the TN:TP ratio. We experimentally tested this sequential management approach in large in situ mesocosms (70.7 m3) to examine effects on cyanobacteria and microcystin concentration. Because alum removes nutrients and most seston from the water column, alum treatment reduced both TN and TP, leaving post-treatment TN:TP ratios similar to pre-treatment ratios. Cyanobacterial biovolume was reduced after alum addition, but the percent composition (i.e., relative) cyanobacterial abundance remained unchanged. A single ammonium nitrate (nitrogen) addition increased the TN:TP ratio 7-fold. After the TN:TP ratio was >50 (by weight), cyanobacterial biovolume and abundance were reduced, and chrysophyte and cryptophyte biovolume and abundance increased compared to the alum treatment. Microcystin was not detectable until the TN:TP ratio was <50. Although both treatments reduced cyanobacteria, only the nitrogen treatment seemed to stimulate energy flow from primary producers to zooplankton, which suggests that combining alum and nitrogen treatments may be a viable in-lake management strategy to reduce cyanobacteria and possibly microcystin concentrations in high-phosphorus systems. Additional studies are needed to define best management practices before combined alum and nitrogen additions are implemented as a reservoir management strategy.

  9. Characterization of alumina obtained from the synthesis of gelatinous precipitates of aluminum hydroxide obtained from the reaction of aluminum sulfate and ammonium hydroxide in different temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercury, Jose Manuel Rivas; Freitas Neves, R. de

    1996-01-01

    Aluminum hydroxide was obtained by synthesis through neutralization of solutions aluminum sulphate solutions with ammonium hydroxide at different level of temperatures of synthesis (30, 60, 90 deg C) on the molar [OH]/[Al +3 ] of 6,5. All products was burned at 950 deg C during two hours of dried aluminum hydroxide powder. Alumina obtained and A-16SG, APC-2011, produced by Alcoa Co. was characterized by Bulk Density, Tap density, Real Density, Particle Size Distribution, X-Ray Diffractions and Chemical Analysis and both compared. (author)

  10. 21 CFR 184.1143 - Ammonium sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ammonium sulfate. 184.1143 Section 184.1143 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1143 Ammonium sulfate. (a) Ammonium sulfate ((NH4)2SO4, CAS Reg... is prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with ammonium hydroxide. (b) The ingredient meets...

  11. Aluminum Sulfate 18 Hydrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Jay A.

    2004-01-01

    A chemical laboratory information profile (CLIP) of the chemical, aluminum sulfate 18 hydrate, is presented. The profile lists physical and harmful properties, exposure limits, reactivity risks, and symptoms of major exposure for the benefit of teachers and students using the chemical in the laboratory.

  12. Study of ammonium sulfates electric conductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobrynin, D.V.; Tulegulov, A.D.

    2006-01-01

    In the work results of research of ammonium sulfate electroconductivity are given. The influence effecting on ammonium sulfate conductivity is investigated. The various circuits of inclusion tetra ohmmeter are given. (author)

  13. 21 CFR 582.1143 - Ammonium sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ammonium sulfate. 582.1143 Section 582.1143 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1143 Ammonium sulfate. (a) Product. Ammonium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  14. Heterogeneous reactions of alkylamines with ammonium sulfate and ammonium bisulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Chong; Wang, Lin; Lal, Vinita; Khalizov, Alexei F; Zhang, Renyi

    2011-06-01

    The heterogeneous reactions between alkylamines and ammonium salts (ammonium sulfate and ammonium bisulfate) have been studied using a low-pressure fast flow reactor coupled to an ion drift-chemical ionization mass spectrometer (ID-CIMS) at 293 ± 2 K. The uptake of three alkylamines, i.e., monomethylamine, dimethylamine, and trimethylamine, on ammonium sulfate shows a displacement reaction of ammonium by aminium, evidenced by the release of ammonia monitored using protonated acetone dimer as the reagent ion. For the three alkylamines, the initial uptake coefficients (γ(0)) range from 2.6 × 10(-2) to 3.4 × 10(-2) and the steady-state uptake coefficients (γ(ss)) range from 6.0 × 10(-3) to 2.3 × 10(-4) and decrease as the number of methyl groups on the alkylamine increases. A different reaction mechanism is observed for the uptake of the three alkylamines on ammonium bisulfate, which is featured by an acid-base reaction (neutralization) with irreversible alkylamine loss and no ammonia generation and occurs at a rate limited by diffusion of gaseous alkylamines to the ammonium bisulfate surface. Our results reveal that the reactions between alkylamines and ammonium salts contribute to particle growth and alter the composition of ammonium sulfate and bisulfate aerosols in the atmosphere.

  15. Ammonium sulfate preparation from phosphogypsum waste

    OpenAIRE

    Kandil, Abdel-Hakim T.; Cheira, Mohamed F.; Gado, Hady S.; Soliman, Madiha H.; Akl, Hesham M.

    2017-01-01

    The Egyptian phosphogypsum waste is treated using sulfuric acid prior the ammonium sulfate production. The relevant factors that would affect the removal efficiencies of some impurities are studied. The optimum conditions of the treatment are 8 M sulfuric acid solution and 1/4 solid/liquid ratio for 30 min contact time at 80 °C. Moreover, the optimum conditions of the ammonium sulfate preparation are 10 g of the suspended impure or purified phosphogypsum in 40 ml of 3% ammonium sulfate soluti...

  16. Ammonium sulfate preparation from phosphogypsum waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel-Hakim T. Kandil

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Egyptian phosphogypsum waste is treated using sulfuric acid prior the ammonium sulfate production. The relevant factors that would affect the removal efficiencies of some impurities are studied. The optimum conditions of the treatment are 8 M sulfuric acid solution and 1/4 solid/liquid ratio for 30 min contact time at 80 °C. Moreover, the optimum conditions of the ammonium sulfate preparation are 10 g of the suspended impure or purified phosphogypsum in 40 ml of 3% ammonium sulfate solution (as initiator, 1/4 solid/liquid ratio at pH7 at an addition of an excess ammonium carbonate, and 150 rpm stirring speed for 4.0 h contact time at 55 °C as well as the 5 mg of barium chloride is added to remove the radium in the ammonium sulfate product. Finally, the ammonium sulfate is crystallized and the chemical analysis of the product shows 20% nitrogen and 23.6% sulfur. Therefore, the purity of the obtained ammonium sulfate is 95% from the purified phosphogypsum.

  17. The ammonium sulfate inhibition of human angiogenin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatzileontiadou, Demetra S M; Tsirkone, Vicky G; Dossi, Kyriaki; Kassouni, Aikaterini G; Liggri, Panagiota G V; Kantsadi, Anastassia L; Stravodimos, George A; Balatsos, Nikolaos A A; Skamnaki, Vassiliki T; Leonidas, Demetres D

    2016-09-01

    In this study, we investigate the inhibition of human angiogenin by ammonium sulfate. The inhibitory potency of ammonium sulfate for human angiogenin (IC50 = 123.5 ± 14.9 mm) is comparable to that previously reported for RNase A (119.0 ± 6.5 mm) and RNase 2 (95.7 ± 9.3 mm). However, analysis of two X-ray crystal structures of human angiogenin in complex with sulfate anions (in acidic and basic pH environments, respectively) indicates an entirely distinct mechanism of inhibition. While ammonium sulfate inhibits the ribonucleolytic activity of RNase A and RNase 2 by binding to the active site of these enzymes, sulfate anions bind only to peripheral substrate anion-binding subsites of human angiogenin, and not to the active site. © 2016 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  18. 21 CFR 182.1125 - Aluminum sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Aluminum sulfate. 182.1125 Section 182.1125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Substances § 182.1125 Aluminum sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  19. 21 CFR 582.1125 - Aluminum sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aluminum sulfate. 582.1125 Section 582.1125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1125 Aluminum sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  20. On the evaporation of ammonium sulfate solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drisdell, Walter S.; Saykally, Richard J.; Cohen, Ronald C.

    2009-07-16

    Aqueous evaporation and condensation kinetics are poorly understood, and uncertainties in their rates affect predictions of cloud behavior and therefore climate. We measured the cooling rate of 3 M ammonium sulfate droplets undergoing free evaporation via Raman thermometry. Analysis of the measurements yields a value of 0.58 {+-} 0.05 for the evaporation coefficient, identical to that previously determined for pure water. These results imply that subsaturated aqueous ammonium sulfate, which is the most abundant inorganic component of atmospheric aerosol, does not affect the vapor-liquid exchange mechanism for cloud droplets, despite reducing the saturation vapor pressure of water significantly.

  1. On the evaporation of ammonium sulfate solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drisdell, Walter S.; Saykally, Richard J.; Cohen, Ronald C.

    2009-01-01

    Aqueous evaporation and condensation kinetics are poorly understood, and uncertainties in their rates affect predictions of cloud behavior and therefore climate. We measured the cooling rate of 3 M ammonium sulfate droplets undergoing free evaporation via Raman thermometry. Analysis of the measurements yields a value of 0.58 ± 0.05 for the evaporation coefficient, identical to that previously determined for pure water. These results imply that subsaturated aqueous ammonium sulfate, which is the most abundant inorganic component of atmospheric aerosol, does not affect the vapor-liquid exchange mechanism for cloud droplets, despite reducing the saturation vapor pressure of water significantly.

  2. Optical constants of concentrated aqueous ammonium sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remsberg, E. E.

    1973-01-01

    Using experimental data obtained from applying spectroscopy to a 39-wt-% aqueous ammonium sulfate solution, it is shown that, even though specific aerosol optical constants appear quite accurate, spectral variations may exist as functions of material composition or concentration or both. Prudent users of optical constant data must then include liberal data error estimates when performing calculations or in interpreting spectroscopic surveys of collected aerosol material.

  3. Application of anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing consortium to achieve completely autotrophic ammonium and sulfate removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sitong; Yang, Fenglin; Gong, Zheng; Meng, Fangang; Chen, Huihui; Xue, Yuan; Furukawa, Kenji

    2008-10-01

    The simultaneous ammonium and sulfate removal was detected in an anammox reactor, consisted of ammonium oxidization with sulfate deoxidization, and subsequently traditional anammox process, in via of middle medium nitrite with solid sulfur and N2 as the terminal products. The pure anammox bacteria offered a great biotechnological potential for the completely autotrophic reaction indicated by batch tests. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis further revealed that a new organism belonging to Planctomycetales was strongly enriched in the defined niche: the redox of ammonium and sulfate. The new species "Anammoxoglobussulfate" was so considered as holding a critical role in the ammonium oxidization with sulfate deoxidization to nitrite. Afterwards, the Planctomyces existing in the bacteria community performed the anammox process together to achieve the complete nitrogen and sulfate removal. The potential use of sulfate as electron acceptor for ammonium oxidizing widens the usage of anammox bacteria.

  4. Synthesis and anticoagulant activity of the quaternary ammonium chitosan sulfates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Lihong; Wu, Penghui; Zhang, Jinrong; Gao, Song; Wang, Libo; Li, Mingjia; Sha, Mingming; Xie, Weiguo; Nie, Min

    2012-01-01

    Quaternary ammonium chitosan sulfates with diverse degrees of substitution (DS) ascribed to sulfate groups between 0.52 and 1.55 were synthesized by reacting quaternary ammonium chitosan with an uncommon sulfating agent (N(SO(3)Na)(3)) that was prepared from sodium bisulfite (NaHSO(3)) through reaction with sodium nitrite (NaNO(2)) in the aqueous system homogeneous. The structures of the derivatives were characterized by FTIR, (1)H NMR and (13)C NMR. The factors affecting DS of quaternary ammonium chitosan sulfates which included the molar ratio of NaNO(2) to quaternary ammonium chitosan, sulfated temperature, sulfated time and pH of sulfated reaction solution were investigated in detail. Its anticoagulation activity in vitro was determined by an activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) assay, a thrombin time (TT) assay and a prothrombin time (PT) assay. Results of anticoagulation assays showed quaternary ammonium chitosan sulfates significantly prolonged APTT and TT, but not PT, and demonstrated that the introduction of sulfate groups into the quaternary ammonium chitosan structure improved its anticoagulant activity obviously. The study showed its anticoagulant properties strongly depended on its DS, concentration and molecular weight. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. An immunoglobulin E assay using radiolabelled Fab' and ammonium sulfate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilcsek, R.J.; Hamburger, R.N.

    1978-01-01

    An immunochemical assay is described in which a radiolabelled antibody fragment, Fab', is bound specifically to immunoglobulin E (IgE), and precipitated with ammonium sulfate. The radioactivity in the precipitate is a measure of the amount of IgE in the sample. Results for six serum samples are compared using the double antibody and ammonium sulfate methods as well as the papωr radioimmunosorbent test (PRIST)

  6. Reactive Uptake of Dimethylamine by Ammonium Sulfate and Ammonium Sulfate-Sucrose Mixed Particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Yangxi; Chan, Chak K

    2017-01-12

    Short-chain alkyl amines can undergo gas-to-particle partitioning via reactive uptake by ammonium salts, whose phases have been thought to largely influence the extent of amine uptake. Previous studies mainly focused on particles of single ammonium salt at either dry or wet conditions without any addition of organic compounds. Here we report the uptake of dimethylamine (DMA) by ammonium sulfate (AS) and AS-sucrose mixed particles at different relative humidities (RHs) using an electrodynamic balance coupled with in situ Raman spectroscopy. DMA is selected as a representative of short-chain alkyl amines, and sucrose is used as a surrogate of viscous and hydrophilic organics. Effective DMA uptake was observed for most cases, except for the water-limiting scenario at <5% RH and the formation of an ultraviscous sucrose coating at 10% RH and below. DMA uptake coefficients (γ) were estimated using the particle mass measurements during DMA uptake. Addition of sucrose can increase γ by absorbing water or inhibiting AS crystallization and decrease γ by elevating the particle viscosity and forming a coating layer. DMA uptake can be facilitated for crystalline AS or retarded for aqueous AS with hydrophilic viscous organics (e.g., secondary organic material formed via the oxidation of biogenic volatile organic compounds) present in aerosol particles.

  7. [Aluminum forms in acid sulfate soils].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J; Luo, S; Feng, Y

    2000-10-01

    With the method of sequential extraction, the extractable noncrystalline aluminum in Acid Sulfate Soils was fractionized into exchangeable Al (ExAl), absorbed inorganic hydroxy-Al(HyAl), organic complexed Al(OrAl), Fe oxide bound Al (DCBAl), interlayered Al(InAl) and noncrystalline aluminosilicate(NcAl) with average of 1.79, 2.51, 4.17, 4.14, 4.31 and 8.66 g Al2O3.kg-1, respectively. In actual Acid Sulfate Soils, the amount of different forms Al followed the order of NcAl > OrAl > InAl > DCBAl > ExAl > HyAl, but in potential acid sulfate soils, NcAl > InAl > DCBAl > HyAl > OrAl > ExAl. The average of the total extractable noncrystalline Al was 35.57 g Al2O3.kg-1, which covered 25.04% of the total amount of Al in Acid Sulfate Soils. The characteristic of extractable noncrystalline Al in Acid Sulfate Soils was the high proportion of active aluminum, such as ExAl, HyAl and OrAl. All forms of Al were closely related to the corresponding properties and ecological characteristics of Acid Sulfate Soils. The strong acid environment of actual Acid Sulfate Soils induced over-released Al, which transformed to active Al and resulted in Al toxicity.

  8. Treating poultry litter with aluminum sulfate (alum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a USDA/ARS factsheet on how to treat poultry litter with aluminum sulfate (alum) to reduce ammonia emissions. Over half of the nitrogen excreted from chickens is lost to the atmosphere as ammonia before the manure is removed from the poultry houses. Research has shown that additions of alu...

  9. 21 CFR 582.1131 - Aluminum sodium sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aluminum sodium sulfate. 582.1131 Section 582.1131 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1131 Aluminum sodium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sodium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use...

  10. 21 CFR 182.1131 - Aluminum sodium sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Aluminum sodium sulfate. 182.1131 Section 182.1131 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Substances § 182.1131 Aluminum sodium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sodium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use...

  11. 21 CFR 182.1129 - Aluminum potassium sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Aluminum potassium sulfate. 182.1129 Section 182.1129 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Food Substances § 182.1129 Aluminum potassium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum potassium sulfate. (b...

  12. 21 CFR 582.1129 - Aluminum potassium sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aluminum potassium sulfate. 582.1129 Section 582.1129 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Additives § 582.1129 Aluminum potassium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum potassium sulfate. (b) Conditions of...

  13. 40 CFR 418.60 - Applicability; description of the ammonium sulfate production subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ammonium sulfate production subcategory. 418.60 Section 418.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... CATEGORY Ammonium Sulfate Production Subcategory § 418.60 Applicability; description of the ammonium... production of ammonium sulfate by the synthetic process and by coke oven by-product recovery. The provisions...

  14. Investigation into kinetics of obtaining sodium and ammonium sulfate zirconates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavrilova, R.V.; Kolenkova, M.A.; Sazhina, V.A.

    1981-01-01

    The kinetics of the process of sodium and ammonium sulfate zirconates precipitation is studied. The following optimum conditions of their separation are determined: ZrO 2 concentration in sulfate solution (with αsub(s)=2.0) is 200 g/dm 3 , the quantity of precipitator-sodium (ammonium) chloride-is 3.5 mole per 1 mole ZrO 2 , the temperature is 90 deg C, the duration of mixing is 1 hr. It is established that the process of precipitation of sulfatozirconates is within the kinetic region. The average values of activation energy constitute 40 and 50 kJ/mol for sodium and ammonium sulfate zirconates respectively [ru

  15. Radionuclide flow during the conversion of phosphogypsum to ammonium sulfate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnett, W.C.; Schultz, M.K.; Hull, C.D.

    1996-01-01

    Approximately 30 million tons of the by-product phosphogypsum are currently produced annually by the phosphate fertilizer industry in Florida. Nearly all of this material is stockpiled because radioactive impurities prevent utilization of what could otherwise be a useful agricultural amendment or construction material. Long-term storage and maintenance of this material presents economic as well as potential environmental concerns. One partial solution to this problem may be conversion of phosphogypsum to ammonium sulfate by the so-called Merseberg ammonocarbonation process. Ammonium sulfate is an excellent fertilizer which supplies sulfur as well as nitrogen to soils. We have assessed the flow of the natural decay-series radionuclides 238 U, 226 Ra, 210 Pb and 210 Po through the Merseberg process by the analysis of starting materials and products from overseas industrial-scale plants. Results indicate that the radionuclides associated with phosphogypsum do not report to the ammonium sulfate product but are found instead almost exclusively in the by-product calcium carbonate. Thus, the radiochemical results are encouraging in terms of using this process as an option for partial removal of waste phosphogypsum. Although there is a clear and recognized need for increased sulfur addition to many crops, the price of sulfur has been so low and alternative supplies of ammonium so common that investment in this process has been discouraged. Recent price increases and demand for ammonium sulfate may make the Merseberg process more attractive. (author)

  16. Behavior of aluminum in aluminum welders and manufacturers of aluminum sulfate--impact on biological monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riihimäki, Vesa; Valkonen, Sinikka; Engström, Bernt; Tossavainen, Antti; Mutanen, Pertti; Aitio, Antero

    2008-12-01

    The suitability of determining aluminum in serum or urine as a form of biological monitoring was critically assessed. Airborne and internal aluminum exposure was assessed for 12 aluminum welders in a shipyard and 5 manufacturers of aluminum sulfate. Particles were characterized with X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Aluminum in air and biological samples was analyzed using electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. Basic toxicokinetic features were inferred from the data. The mean 8-hour time-weighted average concentration of aluminum was 1.1 (range 0.008-6.1) mg/m(3) for the shipyard and 0.13 (range 0.02-0.5) mg/m(3) for the aluminum sulfate plant. Welding fume contained aluminum oxide particles aluminum sulfate particles ranged from 1 to 10 microm in diameter. The shipyard welders' mean postshift serum and urinary concentrations of aluminum (S-Al and U-Al, respectively) were 0.22 and 3.4 micromol/l, respectively, and the aluminum sulfate workers' corresponding values were 0.13 and 0.58 micromol/l. Between two shifts, the welders' S-Al concentration decreased by about 50% (Paluminum sulfate workers. After aluminum welding at the shipyard had ceased, the median S-Al concentration decreased by about 50% (P=0.007) within a year, but there was no change (P=0.75) in the corresponding U-Al concentration. About 1% of aluminum in welding fume appears to be rapidly absorbed from the lungs, whereas an undetermined fraction is retained and forms a lung burden. A higher fractional absorption of aluminum seems possible for aluminum sulfate workers without evidence of a lung burden. After rapid absorption, aluminum is slowly mobilized from the lung burden and dominates the S-Al and U-Al concentrations of aluminum welders. For kinetic reasons, S-Al or U-Al concentrations cannot be used to estimate the accumulation of aluminum in the target organs of toxicity. However, using U-Al analysis to monitor aluminum welders' lung burden seems practical.

  17. Metal-free catalytic oxidation of sulfides to sulfoxides with ammonium nitrate, ammonium hydrogen sulfate and ammonium bromide as catalyst

    OpenAIRE

    Ghorbani-Choghamarani, Arash; Zolfigol, Mohammad Ali; Ayazi-Nasrabadi, Roia

    2010-01-01

    A general and metal-free catalytic oxidation of aliphatic and aromatic sulfides to their corresponding sulfoxides via combination of ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3), supported ammonium hydrogen sulfate on silica gel (NH4HSO4-SiO2) and a catalytic amount of ammonium bromide (NH4Br) in the presence of wet SiO2 (50%, w/w) has been investigated. The reactions were carried out heterogeneously and selectively in short reaction times in CH2Cl2 at room temperature. This protocol is mild and efficient compa...

  18. 40 CFR 721.10170 - Polyoxyethylene polyalkylarylphenylether sulfate ammonium salt (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... polyalkylarylphenylether sulfate ammonium salt (generic). 721.10170 Section 721.10170 Protection of Environment... polyalkylarylphenylether sulfate ammonium salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to... sulfate ammonium salt (PMN P-03-197) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  19. Producing ammonium sulfate from flue gas desulfurization by-products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, I.-Ming; Bruinius, J.A.; Benig, V.; Chou, S.-F.J.; Carty, R.H.

    2005-01-01

    Emission control technologies using flue gas desulfurization (FGD) have been widely adopted by utilities burning high-sulfur fuels. However, these technologies require additional equipment, greater operating expenses, and increased costs for landfill disposal of the solid by-products produced. The financial burdens would be reduced if successful high-volume commercial applications of the FGD solid by-products were developed. In this study, the technical feasibility of producing ammonium sulfate from FGD residues by allowing it to react with ammonium carbonate in an aqueous solution was preliminarily assessed. Reaction temperatures of 60, 70, and 80??C and residence times of 4 and 6 hours were tested to determine the optimal conversion condition and final product evaluations. High yields (up to 83%) of ammonium sulfate with up to 99% purity were achieved under relatively mild conditions. The optimal conversion condition was observed at 60??C and a 4-hour residence time. The results of this study indicate the technical feasibility of producing ammonium sulfate fertilizer from an FGD by-product. Copyright ?? Taylor & Francis Inc.

  20. Mammalian phospholipase D: activation by ammonium sulfate and nucleotides.

    OpenAIRE

    Nakamura, S; Shimooku, K; Akisue, T; Jinnai, H; Hitomi, T; Kiyohara, Y; Ogino, C; Yoshida, K; Nishizuka, Y

    1995-01-01

    Phospholipase D (PLD) associated with the rat kidney membrane was activated by guanine 5'-[gamma-thio]triphosphate and a cytosol fraction that contained ADP-ribosylation factor. When assayed by measuring the phosphatidyl transfer reaction to ethanol with exogenously added radioactive phosphatidylcholine as substrate, the PLD required a high concentration (1.6 M) of ammonium sulfate to exhibit high enzymatic activity. Other salts examined were far less effective or practically inactive, and th...

  1. Characterization of alumina obtained from the synthesis of gelatinous precipitates of aluminum hydroxide obtained from the reaction of aluminum sulfate and ammonium hydroxide in different temperatures; Caracterizacao de aluminas obtidas a partir da sintese de precipitados gelatinosos de hidroxido de aluminio obtidos pela reacao de sulfato de aluminio e hidroxido de amonio em diferentes temperaturas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mercury, Jose Manuel Rivas [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica do Maranhao (CEFET), Sao Luiz, MA (Brazil); Freitas Neves, R. de [Para Univ., Belem, Pa (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica

    1996-07-01

    Aluminum hydroxide was obtained by synthesis through neutralization of solutions aluminum sulphate solutions with ammonium hydroxide at different level of temperatures of synthesis (30, 60, 90 deg C) on the molar [OH]/[Al{sup +3}] of 6,5. All products was burned at 950 deg C during two hours of dried aluminum hydroxide powder. Alumina obtained and A-16SG, APC-2011, produced by Alcoa Co. was characterized by Bulk Density, Tap density, Real Density, Particle Size Distribution, X-Ray Diffractions and Chemical Analysis and both compared. (author) 11 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. [Achievement of Sulfate-Reducing Anaerobic Ammonium Oxidation Reactor Started with Nitrate-Reducting Anaerobic Ammonium Oxidation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zheng-chuan; Yuan, Lin-jiang; Zhou, Guo-biao; Li, Jing

    2015-09-01

    The transformation of nitrite-reducing anaerobic ammonium oxidation to sulfate-reducing anaerobic ammonium oxidation in an UASB was performed and the changes in microbial community were studied. The result showed that the sulfate reducing anaerobic ammonium oxidation process was successfully accomplished after 177 days' operation. The removal rate of ammonium nitrogen and sulfate were up to 58. 9% and 15. 7%, the removing load of ammonium nitrogen and sulfate were 74. 3 mg.(L.d)-1 and 77. 5 mg.(L.d)-1 while concentration of ammonium nitrogen and sulfate of influent were 130 mg.(L.d)-1 and 500 mg.(L.d)-1, respectively. The lost nitrogen and sulphur was around 2 in molar ratio. The pH value of the effluent was lower than that of the influent. Instead of Candidatus brocadia in nitrite reducing anaerobic ammonium oxidation granular sludge, Bacillus benzoevorans became the dominant species in sulfate reducing anaerobic ammonium oxidation sludge. The dominant bacterium in the two kinds of anaerobic ammonium oxidation process is different. Our results imply that the two anaerobic ammonium oxidation processes are carried out by different kind of bacterium.

  3. Sources et marché du sulfate d'ammonium Sources of and Market for Ammonium Sulfate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loussouarn C.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Engrais azoté le plus utilisé dans le monde jusqu'en 1970, le sulfate d'ammonium ne représente plus aujourd'hui que 4 % de la fertilisation azotée. Avec une teneur en azote de 21 % seulement, il a été peu à peu remplacé comme engrais universel par des produits plus concentrés, notamment l'urée et le nitrate d'ammonium. Obtenu pour plus de 40 % comme sous-produit dans la synthèse de monomères comme le caprolactame, l'acrylonitrile ou le méthacrylate de méthyle, et pour près de 10 % dans le traitement des gaz de cokerie, sa production dépend largement des développements du marché des fibres synthétiques, et, dans une moindre mesure, de la sidérurgie et de la métallurgie. Dans les pays développés, où la production est essentiellement fatale, le volume du marché est et sera plus fonction de la disponibilité du sulfate d'ammonium que de la demande ou de facteurs de marché; sa consommation ne résidera plus que dans des applications spécifiques pour lesquelles il sera bien adapté. Par contre, l'intérêt croissant pour compenser le déficit en soufre de certains sols, et les qualités agronomiques propres du sulfate d'ammonium laissent entrevoir la possibilité d'un essor de son utilisation dans certaines régions en voie de développernent. Ammonium sulfate was the most worldwide nitrogenous fertilizer used up to 1970. Today, it makes up only 4% of nitrogenous fertilization. With a nitrogen content of only 21%, it has gradually been replaced as a universal fertilizer by more concentrated products, particularly urea and ammonium nitrate. More than 40% of the ammonium sulfate is obtained as a by-product from the synthesis of monomers such as caprolactam, acrylonitrile or methyl methacrylate, and nearly 10% from coking gas processing. Its production depends extensively on the development of the market for synthetic fibers and, to a lesser extent, on the steel and metallurgical industries. In the industrialized countries

  4. Ammonium sulfate and MALDI in-source decay: a winning combination for sequencing peptides

    OpenAIRE

    Delvolve, Alice; Woods, Amina S.

    2009-01-01

    In previous papers we highlighted the role of ammonium sulfate in increasing peptide fragmentation by in source decay (ISD). The current work systematically investigated effects of MALDI extraction delay, peptide amino acid composition, matrix and ammonium sulfate concentration on peptides ISD fragmentation. The data confirmed that ammonium sulfate increased peptides signal to noise ratio as well as their in source fragmentation resulting in complete sequence coverage regardless of the amino ...

  5. Aluminum toxicity in acid sulfate soil alleviated with biogenic liming ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Low crop yield from acid sulfate soil was caused by high concentrations of aluminum and iron in soil. Aluminum ion which cause root injury at root region inhibits the uptake of the nutrients by the root and lead to nutrient deficiency. Ground magnesium limestones can be applied to overcome this problem but incurred more ...

  6. Cold Case: Radar investigation of ammonium sulfate cryovolcanism on Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomann, C.; Hayes, A. G.; Hofgartner, J.; Lunine, J. I.; Le Gall, A.

    2012-12-01

    The detection of a large tidal k2 value from Cassini [1] constitutes very strong evi-dence for a subcrustal ocean, most plausibly dominated by water. However, the secondary constituents are not known. One interesting possibility that has received scant attention in analysis of surface data sets is that the ocean contain aqueous ammonium sulfates, which erupted on the surface in the past to create vast, smooth plains [2]. We adopt the hypothesis that the undifferentiated plains—the "bland-lands" in the mid-latitudes of Titan—are these deposits, and test it using radiometry with SAR data. Lopez et al (this conference) investigate the global distribution and possible origin of this type of unit. We extracted SAR and radiometry-during-SAR data sets from the PDS, and pro-duced maps of brightness temperatures. The SAR imagery was used to identify locations where crossovers exist -some of which are in the undifferentiated plains--and hence where brightness temperatures at different incidence angles are available. We derived emissivities from the data using a simple radiometric model [3] to ac-count for the brightness temperature differences as a function of surface roughness, volume scattering and emissivity. We test the hypothesis by assessing whether the derived emissivities and volume scattering in the bland-lands are consistent with the model cryoclastic ash of ice and ammonium sulfate proposed in [2], distinct from that in other terrains. [1] L. Iess, R.A. Jacobson, M. Ducci, D.J. Stevenson, J.I. Lunine, J.W. Armstrong, S.W. Asmar, P. Racioppa, N.J. Rappaport, P. Tortora, Science, 337, 457 (2012). [2] A.D. Fortes, P.M. Grinrod, S.K. Trickett, L. Vocadlo. Icarus, 188, 139 (2007). [3] T.L. White and J.R. Cogdell. The Moon, 6, 235 (1973).

  7. Efficient ozone, sulfate, and ammonium free resist stripping process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dattilo, Davide; Dietze, Uwe

    2014-07-01

    In recent years, photomask resist strip and cleaning technology development was substantially driven by the industry's need to prevent surface haze formation through the elimination of sulfuric acid and ammonium hydroxide from these processes. As a result, conventional SPM (H2SO4 + H2O2) was replaced with Ozone water (DIO3) for resist stripping and organic removal to eliminate chemical haze formation [1, 2]. However, it has been shown that DIO3 basted strip and clean process causes oxidative degradation of photomask materials [3, 4]. Such material damage can affect optical properties of funcitional mask layers, causeing CD line-width, phase, transmission and reflection changes, adversely affecting image transfer during the Lithography process. To overcome Ozone induced surface damage, SUSS MicroTec successfully developed a highly efficient strip process, where photolysis of DIO3 is leading to highly reactive hydroxyl radical formation, as the main contribution to hydrocarbon removal without surface damage [5]. This technology has been further extended to a final clean process, which is utilizing pure DI water for residual organic material removal during final clean [6]. Recently, SUS MicroTec did also successfully release strip and clean processes which completely remove NH4OH, eliminating any chemicals known today to induce haze [7]. In this paper we show the benefits of these new technologies for highly efficient sulfate and ammonium free stripping and cleaning processes.

  8. Effects of Korean Red Ginseng marc with aluminum sulfate against pathogen populations in poultry litters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Tae Ho; Park, Chul; Choi, In Hag

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of Korean Red Ginseng marc with aluminum sulfate as litter amendments on ammonia, soluble reactive phosphorus, and pathogen populations in poultry litters. Increasing levels of Korean Red Ginseng marc with aluminum sulfate were applied onto the surface of rice hull as a top-dress application; untreated rice hulls served as controls. Treatment with Korean Red Ginseng marc with aluminum sulfate or aluminum sulfate alone resulted in lower litter pH (p aluminum sulfate or aluminum sulfate alone and controls at 2-4 wk (not at 1 wk). Ammonia levels reduced on an average by 29%, 30%, and 32% for 10 g, 20 g Korean Red Ginseng marc with aluminum sulfate, and aluminum sulfate alone, respectively, as compared with controls at 4 wk. During the experiment, Korean Red Ginseng marc with aluminum sulfate or aluminum sulfate treatment had an effect (p aluminum sulfate and aluminum sulfate alone, as compared with the control, except at 1-3 wk for Salmonella enterica and 1 wk and 4 wk for Escherichia coli, respectively. The results showed that using Korean Red Ginseng marc with aluminum sulfate (blends), which act as acidifying agents by reducing the pH of the litter, was equally effective as aluminum sulfate in reducing the environmental impact.

  9. Ammonium nickel sulfate hexahydrate crystal: a new ultraviolet light filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Genbo; Zhuang Xinxin; He Youping; Li Zhengdong; Wang Guofu

    2002-01-01

    We propounded and grew a new crystal material of ammonium nickel sulfate hexahydrate (ANSH) for an ultraviolet light filter. The crystal structure of ANSH was solved by x-ray diffraction method and the empirical formula of the title compound is (NH 4 ) 2 Ni(SO 4 ) 2 c6H 2 O. The ANSH crystal belongs to the monoclinic space group P2 1 /C, a = 6.2351 A, b = 12.451(3) A, c = 9.1798(18) A, β = 106.88(3)deg , v = 681.9(2) A 3 , z = 2 and D c = 1.924 g cm -3 . The deep-green ANSH single crystal with a dimension of 20.5x28x15 mm 3 has been grown by the cooling solution method. Thermo-gravimetry analysis showed that the dehydration temperature of the ANSH crystal is above 96.06 deg. C, which is much higher than that of commercially available nickel sulfate hexahydrate (NSH) crystals. The optical transmission character of the ANSH crystal is discontinuous in the range from ultraviolet (UV) to near IR wavelengths, and has several transmission peaks at 250 nm, 500 nm, 875 nm and 1425 nm, respectively. The UV transmission peak (250 nm) especially has high transmission efficiency and a narrow spectrum band-width. The relationship between the structure and the optical transmission property is further discussed

  10. Effects of Korean Red Ginseng marc with aluminum sulfate against pathogen populations in poultry litters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae Ho Chung

    2015-10-01

    Conclusion: The results showed that using Korean Red Ginseng marc with aluminum sulfate (blends, which act as acidifying agents by reducing the pH of the litter, was equally effective as aluminum sulfate in reducing the environmental impact.

  11. Dissolution kinetics of calcined ulexite in ammonium sulfate solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nizamettin Demirkıran

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Ulexite is one of the boron minerals, which include a respectable amount of hydration water. It can be used as a raw material in the production of boron compounds. Some part of water in the composition of ulexite can be removed from the solid matrix applying dehydration treatment, and a porous structure can be obtained to increase the reaction rate. In the present study, the effect of dehydration temperature on dissolution kinetics of ulexite in ammonium sulfate solutions was researched in a batch reactor utilizing the parameters of solution concentration, solid-to-liquid ratio, stirring speed and reaction temperature. It was determined that the dissolution rate of calcined material increased with increasing solution concentration and reaction temperature and with decreasing solid-to-liquid ratio. The highest dissolution rate was attained with the sample calcined at 150 °C. It was found that the dissolution rate fit to the first order pseudo-homogeneous model. The activation energy of the dissolution process was estimated to be 42 kJ·mol-1.

  12. Crystallization of Chicken Egg-White Lysozyme from Ammonium Sulfate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsythe, Elizabeth L.; Snell, Edward H.; Pusey, Marc L.

    1997-01-01

    Chicken egg-white lysozyme was crystallized from ammonium sulfate over the pH range 4.0-7.8, with protein concentrations from 100 to 150 mg/ml. Crystals were obtained by vapor-diffusion or batch-crystallization methods. The protein crystallized in two morphologies with an apparent morphology dependence on temperature and protein concentration. In general, tetragonal crystals could be grown by lowering the protein concentration or temperature. Increasing the temperature or protein concentration resulted in the growth of orthorhombic crystals. Representative crystals of each morphology were selected for X-ray analysis. The tetragonal crystals belonged to the P4(sub 3)2(sub 1)2 space group with crystals grown at ph 4.4 having unit-cell dimensions of a = b = 78.7 1, c=38.6 A and diffracting to beyond 2.0 A. The orthorhombic crystals, grown at pH 4.8, were of space group P2(sub 1)2(sub 1)2 and had unit-cell dimensions of a = 30.51, b = 56.51 and c = 73.62 A.

  13. Depositional ice nucleation on solid ammonium sulfate and glutaric acid particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. J. Baustian

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Heterogeneous ice nucleation on solid ammonium sulfate and glutaric acid particles was studied using optical microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. Optical microscopy was used to detect selective nucleation events as water vapor was slowly introduced into an environmental sample cell. Particles that nucleated ice were dried via sublimation and examined in detail using Raman spectroscopy. Depositional ice nucleation is highly selective and occurred preferentially on just a few ammonium sulfate and glutaric acid particles in each sample. For freezing temperatures between 214 K and 235 K an average ice saturation ratio of S = 1.10±0.07 for solid ammonium sulfate was observed. Over the same temperature range, S values observed for ice nucleation on glutaric acid particles increased from 1.2 at 235 K to 1.6 at 218 K. Experiments with externally mixed particles further show that ammonium sulfate is a more potent ice nucleus than glutaric acid. Our results suggest that heterogeneous nucleation on ammonium sulfate may be an important pathway for atmospheric ice nucleation and cirrus cloud formation when solid ammonium sulfate aerosol particles are available for ice formation. This pathway for ice formation may be particularly significant near the tropical tropopause region where sulfates are abundant and other species known to be good ice nuclei are depleted.

  14. Effects of adding aluminum sulfate to different litters on selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of adding aluminum sulfate to different litters on blood plasma concentrations of some principal microelements and some vitamins in broilers. In this experiment, 645 day old Ross 308 broiler chicks were randomly divided into 4 litter group (straw, sawdust, alum ...

  15. 40 CFR 415.20 - Applicability; description of the aluminum sulfate production subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... aluminum sulfate production subcategory. 415.20 Section 415.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SOURCE CATEGORY Aluminum Sulfate Production Subcategory § 415.20 Applicability; description of the aluminum sulfate production subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to discharges and to...

  16. [Effect of ammonium sulfate aerosol on the photochemical reaction of toluene/ NO(x)/air mixture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shan; Hao, Ji-Ming; Lü, Zi-Feng; Zhao, Zhe; Li, Jun-Hua

    2007-06-01

    The effect of ammonium sulfate aerosol on the photochemical reaction of toluene/NO(x)/air mixture was evaluated with Tsinghua Smog Chamber facility. The results indicate that the presence of concentrated preexisting ammonium sulfate aerosol shortens the time to reach maximum PM (particle matter) concentration and increases the aerosol yield of toluene. And under the presence of high concentrated ammonium sulfate aerosol seed, the concentration of aerosol does not have significant effects on NO(x), NO and O3 variation, but affects the formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA). The SOA yield increases with the increasing initial ammonium sulfate seed concentration (< 160 microg x m(-3)). From the minimum 7.2% to the maximum 11.7%, the percentage increase of SOA yield is more than 60%.

  17. Crystallization pathways of sulfate-nitrate-ammonium aerosol particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlenker, Julie C; Martin, Scot T

    2005-11-10

    Crystallization experiments are conducted for aerosol particles composed of aqueous mixtures of (NH(4))(2)SO(4)(aq) and NH(4)NO(3)(aq), (NH(4))(2)SO(4)(aq) and NH(4)HSO(4)(aq), and NH(4)NO(3)(aq) and NH(4)HSO(4)(aq). Depending on the aqueous composition, crystals of (NH(4))(2)SO(4)(s), (NH(4))(3)H(SO(4))(2)(s), NH(4)HSO(4)(s), NH(4)NO(3)(s), 2NH(4)NO(3) x (NH(4))(2)SO(4)(s), and 3NH(4)NO(3) x (NH(4))(2)SO(4)(s) are formed. Although particles of NH(4)NO(3)(aq) and NH(4)HSO(4)(aq) do not crystallize even at 1% relative humidity, additions of 0.05 mol fraction SO(4)(2-)(aq) or NO(3)(-)(aq) ions promote crystallization, respectively. 2NH(4)NO(3) x (NH(4))(2)SO(4)(s) and (NH(4))(3)H(SO(4))(2)(s) appear to serve as good heterogeneous nuclei for NH(4)NO(3)(s) and NH(4)HSO(4)(s), respectively. 2NH(4)NO(3) x (NH(4))(2)SO(4)(s) crystallizes over a greater range of aqueous compositions than 3NH(4)NO(3) x (NH(4))(2)SO(4)(s). An infrared aerosol spectrum is provided for each solid based upon a linear decomposition analysis of the recorded spectra. Small nonzero residuals occur in the analysis because aerosol spectra depend on particle morphology, which changes slightly across the range of compositions studied. In addition, several of the mixed compositions crystallize with residual aqueous water of up to 5% particle mass. We attribute this water content to enclosed water pockets. The results provide further insights into the nonlinear crystallization pathways of sulfate-nitrate-ammonium aerosol particles.

  18. Effects of salinity induced by ammonium sulfate fertilizer on root and shoot growth of highbush blueberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammonium sulfate fertilizer is commonly used in highbush blueberry, but due to a high relative salinity, it often causes salt damage, particularly in young plants, when too much of the fertilizer is applied. Three experiments were done to determine the sensitivity of ‘Bluecrop’ blueberry to ammonium...

  19. The boric acid - ammonium rhodanide (nitrate, sulfate) - water system at 25 deg C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skvortsov, V.G.; Molodkin, A.K.; Tsekhanskij, R.S.; Sadetdinov, Sh.V.; Nikonov, F.V.

    1985-01-01

    Methods of isothermal solubility and refractometry have been used to establish that boric acid-ammonium rhodanite (nitrate, sulfate) - water systems are of a simple eutonic type. Rhodanide salts out boric acid, while nitrate and sulfate salt it in. The lyotropic effect referred to the volumetric share of both anion and cation increases in the series SCN - 3 - 4 2-

  20. Effects of Korean Red Ginseng marc with aluminum sulfate against pathogen populations in poultry litters

    OpenAIRE

    Chung, Tae Ho; Park, Chul; Choi, In Hag

    2015-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of Korean Red Ginseng marc with aluminum sulfate as litter amendments on ammonia, soluble reactive phosphorus, and pathogen populations in poultry litters. Methods: Increasing levels of Korean Red Ginseng marc with aluminum sulfate were applied onto the surface of rice hull as a top-dress application; untreated rice hulls served as controls. Results: Treatment with Korean Red Ginseng marc with aluminum sulfate or aluminum sul...

  1. DNA amplification fingerprinting using 10 x polymerase chain reaction buffer with ammonium sulfate for human identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baransel, Aysun; Dulger, Hikmet E; Tokdemir, Mehmet

    2004-06-01

    The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) - based DNA amplification fingerprinting (DAF) or randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) is based on a strategy using a single arbitrary oligonucleotide primer to generate anonymous amplification of genomic DNA. On this basic strategy, in this study, we aimed to test individual differences and usefulness of 2 basic primers (5'-CGCGCCGG-3' and 5'-TGCCGAGCTG-3') and examined whether there is a positive effect on results of 10 x PCR buffer with ammonium sulfate. A new approach in DNA fingerprinting, 10 x PCR buffer with ammonium sulfate, is presented in the study. Primers with single 8 and 10 nucleotides in length and 2 different PCR buffers with or without ammonium sulfate were used to identify 135 volunteers with no blood relationship. This study was carried out at the Pharmacology Laboratory, University of Gaziantep, School of Medicine, Turkey between 1999 and 2000. An average of 10 major bands representing 500-1500 base pair (bp) in length was determined as amplified DNA products on standard agarose gels for these volunteers. The use of ammonium sulfate in 10 x PCR buffers has increased to 92% success ratio of individual difference obtained from the 8 nucleotides primer. With this study, more reliable results can be obtained by using ammonium sulfate in 10 x PCR buffers.

  2. DNA amplification fingerprinting using 10 x polymerase chain reaction buffer with ammonium sulfate for human identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baransel, Asyun; Dugler, Hikmat E.; Tokdemir, Mehmet

    2004-01-01

    The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) - based DNA amplification fingerprinting (DAF) or randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) is based on a strategy using a single arbitrary oligonucleotide primer to generate anonymous amplification of genomic DNA. On this basic strategy, in this study, we aimed to test individual differences and usefulness of 2 basic primers (5-CGCGCCGG-3 and 5-TGCCGAGCTG-3) and examined whether there is a positive effect on results of 10 x PCR buffer with ammonium sulfate. A new approach in DNA fingerprinting, 10 x PCR buffer with ammonium sulfate, is presented in the study. Primers with single 8 and 10 nucleotides in length and 2 different PCR buffers with or without ammonium sulfate were used to identify 135 volunteers with no blood relationship. This study was carried out at the Pharmacology Laboratory, University of Gaziantep, School of Medicine, Turkey between 1999 and 2000. An average of 10 major bands representing 500-1500 base pair (bp) in length was determined as amplified DNA products on standard agarose gels for these volunteers. The use of ammonium sulfate in 10 x PCR buffers has increased to 92% success ratio of individual difference obtained from the 8 nucleotides primer. With this study, more reliable results can be obtained by using ammonium sulfate in 10 x PCR buffers. (author)

  3. Volatility of organic aerosol: evaporation of ammonium sulfate/succinic acid aqueous solution droplets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yli-Juuti, Taina; Zardini, Alessandro A; Eriksson, Axel C; Hansen, Anne Maria K; Pagels, Joakim H; Swietlicki, Erik; Svenningsson, Birgitta; Glasius, Marianne; Worsnop, Douglas R; Riipinen, Ilona; Bilde, Merete

    2013-01-01

    Condensation and evaporation modify the properties and effects of atmospheric aerosol particles. We studied the evaporation of aqueous succinic acid and succinic acid/ammonium sulfate droplets to obtain insights on the effect of ammonium sulfate on the gas/particle partitioning of atmospheric organic acids. Droplet evaporation in a laminar flow tube was measured in a Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer setup. A wide range of droplet compositions was investigated, and for some of the experiments the composition was tracked using an Aerosol Mass Spectrometer. The measured evaporation was compared to model predictions where the ammonium sulfate was assumed not to directly affect succinic acid evaporation. The model captured the evaporation rates for droplets with large organic content but overestimated the droplet size change when the molar concentration of succinic acid was similar to or lower than that of ammonium sulfate, suggesting that ammonium sulfate enhances the partitioning of dicarboxylic acids to aqueous particles more than currently expected from simple mixture thermodynamics. If extrapolated to the real atmosphere, these results imply enhanced partitioning of secondary organic compounds to particulate phase in environments dominated by inorganic aerosol.

  4. Volatility of Organic Aerosol: Evaporation of Ammonium Sulfate/Succinic Acid Aqueous Solution Droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Condensation and evaporation modify the properties and effects of atmospheric aerosol particles. We studied the evaporation of aqueous succinic acid and succinic acid/ammonium sulfate droplets to obtain insights on the effect of ammonium sulfate on the gas/particle partitioning of atmospheric organic acids. Droplet evaporation in a laminar flow tube was measured in a Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer setup. A wide range of droplet compositions was investigated, and for some of the experiments the composition was tracked using an Aerosol Mass Spectrometer. The measured evaporation was compared to model predictions where the ammonium sulfate was assumed not to directly affect succinic acid evaporation. The model captured the evaporation rates for droplets with large organic content but overestimated the droplet size change when the molar concentration of succinic acid was similar to or lower than that of ammonium sulfate, suggesting that ammonium sulfate enhances the partitioning of dicarboxylic acids to aqueous particles more than currently expected from simple mixture thermodynamics. If extrapolated to the real atmosphere, these results imply enhanced partitioning of secondary organic compounds to particulate phase in environments dominated by inorganic aerosol. PMID:24107221

  5. Ammonium sulfate obtainment and labelling with S-35

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, M.; Diaz, A.

    1987-01-01

    A simple technique to measure sulfur-35, using a light absorption method for sulfates as well as liquid scintillation to obtain the specific activity of the sample, is presented. The technique is based on the isotopic exchange of the sulfate ion from H 2 SO 4 S-35. The salt produced is identified by X-ray diffraction

  6. Start-up of simultaneous removal of ammonium and sulfate from an anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) process in an anaerobic up-flow bioreactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Zhiquan; Zhou Shaoqi; Sun Yanbo

    2009-01-01

    A laboratory testing of simultaneous removal of ammonium and sulfate (SRAS) was studied from an anammox process in an anaerobic bioreactor filled with granular activated carbon. Two different phases of experiment were investigated to start up the SRAS process, and final batch tests were performed to analyze the SRAS process. The experiment included an anammox process and an SRAS process. During the anammox process, the highest removal efficiency of ammonium and nitrite was up to 97 and 98%, respectively. After 160 days in the stationary phase of anammox process, the ratio of ammonium to nitrite consumption was approximately 1:1.15, which is much higher than 1:1.32 in the traditional anammox process. The extra electron acceptor, such as sulfate, was thought to react with ammonium by bacteria. Synthetic wastewater containing ammonium chlorine and sodium sulfate was used as the feed for the bioreactor in the second phase of experiment. During the SRAS process, the influent concentrations of ammonium and sulfate were controlled to be 50-60 and 210-240 mg L -1 respectively. After start-up and acclimatization of this process for 60 days, the average effluent concentrations of ammonium and sulfate were 30 and 160 mg L -1 , respectively. The simultaneous ammonium and sulfate removal was detected in the reactor. In order to further validate the biochemical interaction between ammonium and sulfate, batch tests was carried out. Abiotic tests were carried out to demonstrate that the pure chemical action between ammonium and sulfate without microorganism was not possible. Biotic assays with different ammonium and sulfate concentrations were further investigated that high concentrations of ammonium and sulfate could promote simultaneous removal of ammonium and sulfate. And elemental sulfur and nitrogen gas as the products measured in the SRAS process helped to demonstrate the occurrence of new interaction between nitrogen and sulfur. The new process of SRAS in the inorganic

  7. Start-up of simultaneous removal of ammonium and sulfate from an anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) process in an anaerobic up-flow bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhiquan; Zhou, Shaoqi; Sun, Yanbo

    2009-09-30

    A laboratory testing of simultaneous removal of ammonium and sulfate (SRAS) was studied from an anammox process in an anaerobic bioreactor filled with granular activated carbon. Two different phases of experiment were investigated to start up the SRAS process, and final batch tests were performed to analyze the SRAS process. The experiment included an anammox process and an SRAS process. During the anammox process, the highest removal efficiency of ammonium and nitrite was up to 97 and 98%, respectively. After 160 days in the stationary phase of anammox process, the ratio of ammonium to nitrite consumption was approximately 1:1.15, which is much higher than 1:1.32 in the traditional anammox process. The extra electron acceptor, such as sulfate, was thought to react with ammonium by bacteria. Synthetic wastewater containing ammonium chlorine and sodium sulfate was used as the feed for the bioreactor in the second phase of experiment. During the SRAS process, the influent concentrations of ammonium and sulfate were controlled to be 50-60 and 210-240 mg L(-1) respectively. After start-up and acclimatization of this process for 60 days, the average effluent concentrations of ammonium and sulfate were 30 and 160 mg L(-1), respectively. The simultaneous ammonium and sulfate removal was detected in the reactor. In order to further validate the biochemical interaction between ammonium and sulfate, batch tests was carried out. Abiotic tests were carried out to demonstrate that the pure chemical action between ammonium and sulfate without microorganism was not possible. Biotic assays with different ammonium and sulfate concentrations were further investigated that high concentrations of ammonium and sulfate could promote simultaneous removal of ammonium and sulfate. And elemental sulfur and nitrogen gas as the products measured in the SRAS process helped to demonstrate the occurrence of new interaction between nitrogen and sulfur. The new process of SRAS in the inorganic

  8. Study of precipitation kinetics of vanadium compounds from the solutions of ammonium sulfate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fofarov, A.A.; Sukhov, A.A.; Batrakova, L.Kh.; Ostashko, T.I.

    1988-01-01

    To select the regime of vanadium deposition from ammonium sulfate solutions the dependence of deposition rate on the concentration of reacting components and conditions of the process course. The maximum deposition rate of vanadium compounds proved to be at pH 2.0-2.2. With an increase in ammonium sulfate content from 0 to 80-100 g/dm 3 the deposition rate decreases by a factor of 2. With an increase in the temperature by each 10 deg C in the temperature range of 70-90 deg C vanadium deposition rate at the same supersaturation increases by a factor of 1.72. Kinetic equation of vanadium deposition in the presence of 80 g/dm 3 ammonium sulfate is obtained

  9. Synthesis of nano-crystalline hydroxyapatite and ammonium sulfate from phosphogypsum waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mousa, Sahar, E-mail: dollyriri@yahoo.com [Inorganic Chemistry Department, National Research Centre, Dokki, P.O.Box:12622, Postal code: 11787 Cairo (Egypt); King Abdulaziz University, Science and Art College, Chemistry Department, Rabigh Campus, P.O. Box:344, Postal code: 21911 Rabigh (Saudi Arabia); Hanna, Adly [Inorganic Chemistry Department, National Research Centre, Dokki, P.O.Box:12622, Postal code: 11787 Cairo (Egypt)

    2013-02-15

    Graphical abstract: TEM micrograph of dried HAP at 800 °C. -- Abstract: Phosphogypsum (PG) waste which is derived from phosphoric acid manufacture by using wet method was converted into hydroxyapatite (HAP) and ammonium sulfate. Very simple method was applied by reacting PG with phosphoric acid in alkaline medium with adjusting pH using ammonia solution. The obtained nano-HAP was dried at 80 °C and calcined at 600 °C and 900 °C for 2 h. Both of HAP and ammonium sulfate were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and infrared spectroscopy (IR) to study the structural evolution. The thermal behavior of nano-HAP was studied; the particle size and morphology were estimated by using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). All the results showed that HAP nano-crystalline and ammonium sulfate can successfully be produced from phosphogypsum waste.

  10. Synthesis of nano-crystalline hydroxyapatite and ammonium sulfate from phosphogypsum waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mousa, Sahar; Hanna, Adly

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: TEM micrograph of dried HAP at 800 °C. -- Abstract: Phosphogypsum (PG) waste which is derived from phosphoric acid manufacture by using wet method was converted into hydroxyapatite (HAP) and ammonium sulfate. Very simple method was applied by reacting PG with phosphoric acid in alkaline medium with adjusting pH using ammonia solution. The obtained nano-HAP was dried at 80 °C and calcined at 600 °C and 900 °C for 2 h. Both of HAP and ammonium sulfate were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and infrared spectroscopy (IR) to study the structural evolution. The thermal behavior of nano-HAP was studied; the particle size and morphology were estimated by using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). All the results showed that HAP nano-crystalline and ammonium sulfate can successfully be produced from phosphogypsum waste.

  11. The influence of complex cation on the change of O- defect in ammonium sulfate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orazbaev, A. Kh.

    1999-01-01

    By the methods of quantum chemistry a possibilities of oxygen ion formation during interaction of atomic oxygen as well as OH 0 OH - secondary defects with ammonium sulfate cation sublattice are considered. Calculations have been conducted by MNDO method. It is established, that ammonium ion does not exert an effect on atomic oxygen migration. The ion capture is more possible within cation sublattice. Interactions of cation complexes with OH - and OH 0 show, that neither atomic oxygen nor it ion formation does not have place in these cation complexes. It is noticed, that NH 3 0 defect could arise not only due to dissociative capture of electron by cation, but and in the post-radiation stage during interaction with oxygen ion. Obtained results allow to suppose a possible reasons of essential weakness of recombination luminescence in ammonium sulfate in comparison with alkaline metal sulfates

  12. Alumina Extraction from a Pennsylvania Diaspore Clay by an Ammonium Sulfate Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetterman, J. W.; Sun, Shou-Chuan

    A method is proposed for the extraction of alumina from the minerals diaspore, kaolinite and boehmite, the major alumina usinerais in Pennsylvania diaspore clay. The conditions required for optimum alumina extraction and minimum ammonium sulfate loss as determined for the alumina minerals are applied to a naturally occurring diaspore clay. The proposed flowsheet thus obtained is examined in its parts and such variables as particle size, ammonium sulfate to alumina mole ratio, roasting temperature, roasting time, heating rate, leaching cohditions, and purification methods are discussed.

  13. Optical constants of ammonium sulfate in the infrared. [stratospheric aerosol refractive and absorption indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downing, H. D.; Pinkley, L. W.; Sethna, P. P.; Williams, D.

    1977-01-01

    The infrared spectral reflectance at near normal incidence has been measured for 3.2 M, 2.4 M, and 1.6 M solutions of ammonium sulfate, an aerosol abundant in the stratosphere and also present in the troposphere. Kramers-Kronig analysis was used to determine values of the refractive and absorption indices from the measured spectral reflectance. A synthetic spectrum of crystalline ammonium sulfate was obtained by extrapolation of the absorption index obtained for the solution to the absorber number densities of the NH4 and SO4 ions characteristic of the crystal.

  14. Inconsistency of ammonium-sulfate aerosol ratios with thermodynamic models in the eastern US: a possible role of organic aerosol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvern, Rachel F.; Jacob, Daniel J.; Kim, Patrick S.; Marais, Eloise A.; Turner, Jay R.; Campuzano-Jost, Pedro; Jimenez, Jose L.

    2017-04-01

    Thermodynamic models predict that sulfate aerosol (S(VI) ≡ H2SO4(aq) + HSO4-+ SO42-) should take up available ammonia (NH3) quantitatively as ammonium (NH4+) until the ammonium sulfate stoichiometry (NH4)2SO4 is close to being reached. This uptake of ammonia has important implications for aerosol mass, hygroscopicity, and acidity. When ammonia is in excess, the ammonium-sulfate aerosol ratio R = [NH4+] / [S(VI)] should approach 2, with excess ammonia remaining in the gas phase. When ammonia is in deficit, it should be fully taken up by the aerosol as ammonium and no significant ammonia should remain in the gas phase. Here we report that sulfate aerosol in the eastern US in summer has a low ammonium-sulfate ratio despite excess ammonia, and we show that this is at odds with thermodynamic models. The ammonium-sulfate ratio averages only 1.04 ± 0.21 mol mol-1 in the Southeast, even though ammonia is in large excess, as shown by the ammonium-sulfate ratio in wet deposition and by the presence of gas-phase ammonia. It further appears that the ammonium-sulfate aerosol ratio is insensitive to the supply of ammonia, remaining low even as the wet deposition ratio exceeds 6 mol mol-1. While the ammonium-sulfate ratio in wet deposition has increased by 5.8 % yr-1 from 2003 to 2013 in the Southeast, consistent with SO2 emission controls, the ammonium-sulfate aerosol ratio decreased by 1.4-3.0 % yr-1. Thus, the aerosol is becoming more acidic even as SO2 emissions decrease and ammonia emissions stay constant; this is incompatible with simple sulfate-ammonium thermodynamics. A tentative explanation is that sulfate particles are increasingly coated by organic material, retarding the uptake of ammonia. Indeed, the ratio of organic aerosol (OA) to sulfate in the Southeast increased from 1.1 to 2.4 g g-1 over the 2003-2013 period as sulfate decreased. We implement a simple kinetic mass transfer limitation for ammonia uptake to sulfate aerosols in the GEOS-Chem chemical transport

  15. Global Distribution of Solid Ammonium Sulfate Aerosols and their Climate Impact Acting as Ice Nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, C.; Penner, J.

    2017-12-01

    Laboratory experiments show that liquid ammonium sulfate particles effloresce when RHw is below 34% to become solid and dissolve when RHw is above 79%. Solid ammonium sulfate aerosols can act as heterogeneous ice nuclei particles (INPs) to form ice particles in deposition mode when the relative humidity over ice is above 120%. In this study we used the coupled IMPACT/CAM5 model to track the efflorescence and deliquescence processes of ammonium sulfate. Results show that about 20% of the total simulated pure sulfate aerosol mass is in the solid state and is mainly distributed in the northern hemisphere (NH) from 50 hPa to 200 hPa. When these solid ammonium sulfate aerosols are allowed to act as ice nuclei particles, they act to increase the ice water path in the NH and reduce ice water path in the tropics. The addition of these particles leads to a positive net radiative effect at the TOA ranging from 0.5-0.9 W/m2 depending on the amounts of other ice nuclei particles (e.g., dust, soot) used in the ice nucleation process. The short-term climate feedback shows that the ITCZ shifts northwards and precipitation increases in the NH. There is also an average warming of 0.05-0.1 K near the surface (at 2 meter) in the NH which is most obvious in the Arctic region.

  16. Preparation of ammonium sulfate, calcium oxide and rare earth concentrate from phospho-gypsum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrianov, A.M.; Rusin, N.F.; Dejneka, G.F.; Zinchenko, T.A.; Burova, T.I.

    1978-01-01

    A technological scheme is proposed which gives ammonium sulfate, purified (from admixtures of silicon, iron, titanium, aluminium) calcium oxide with direct yield of calcium 91% and rare-earth concentrate, containing 5.6% of Ln 2 O 3 with direct yield of 99.5%

  17. A mathematical relationship for hydromorphone loading into liposomes with trans-membrane ammonium sulfate gradients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Sheng; McGinnis, Tamara; Krugner-Higby, Lisa; Heath, Timothy D

    2010-06-01

    We have studied the loading of the opioid hydromorphone into liposomes using ammonium sulfate gradients. Unlike other drugs loaded with this technique, hydromorphone is freely soluble as the sulfate salt, and, consequently, does not precipitate in the liposomes after loading. We have derived a mathematical relationship that can predict the extent of loading based on the ammonium ion content of the liposomes and the amount of drug added for loading. We have adapted and used the Berthelot indophenol assay to measure the amount of ammonium ions in the liposomes. Plots of the inverse of the fraction of hydromorphone loaded versus the amount of hydromorphone added are linear, and the slope should be the inverse of the amount of ammonium ions present in the liposomes. The inverse of the slopes obtained closely correspond to the amount of ammonium ions in the liposomes measured with the Berthelot indophenol assay. We also show that loading can be less than optimal under conditions where osmotically driven loss of ammonium ions or leakage of drug after loading may occur. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association

  18. Uranium concentrate obtained from sulfuric liquor by solvent extraction using ammonium sulfate as extractant agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morais, Carlos Antonio de; Gomiero, Luiz Alberto

    2005-01-01

    Results of uranium concentrate obtainment from sulfuric liquor by solvent extraction followed by chemical precipitation techniques are presented. In the extraction process a tertiary amine as extractant agent and ammonium sulfate solution as stripping agent were used. Uranium was precipitated from the pregnant strip solution as ammonium diuranate by addition of ammonium hydroxide solution. Equilibrium pH and chloride content in the loaded solvent were the main interference on the uranium stripping stage. From a chloride-free uranium loaded organic phase a pregnant strip solution containing 33.2 g/L U 3 O 8 and a stripped solvent with 0.006 g/L U 3 O 8 using 5 stages of mixer-settlers were obtained. The chemical precipitation stage yielded a high purity ammonium diuranate precipitate with a recovery of 99.98%. After calcination, the product presented 99.7 % U 3 O 8 content. (author)

  19. Air-liquid interfaces of aqueous solutions containing ammonium and sulfate: Spectroscopic and molecular dynamics studies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gopalakrishnan, S.; Jungwirth, Pavel; Tobias, D. J.; Allen, H. C.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 109, - (2005), s. 8861-8872 ISSN 1089-5647 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC512; GA MŠk(CZ) ME 644 Grant - others:NSF(US) CHE0209719; NSF(US) CHE0134131 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : ammonium * sulfate * molecular dynamics Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.679, year: 2003

  20. Synthesis of seaweed based carbon acid catalyst by thermal decomposition of ammonium sulfate for biodiesel production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ee, Tang Zo; Lim, Steven; Ling, Pang Yean; Huei, Wong Kam; Chyuan, Ong Hwai

    2017-04-01

    Experiment was carried out to study the feasibility of biomass derived solid acid catalyst for the production of biodiesel using Palm Fatty Acid Distillate (PFAD). Malaysia indigenous seaweed was selected as the biomass to be carbonized as the catalyst support. Sulfonation of seaweed based carbon material was carried out by thermal decomposition of ammonium sulfate, (NH4)2SO4. The effects of carbonization temperature at 200 to 600°C on the catalyst physical and chemical properties were studied. The effect of reaction parameters on the fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) yield was studied by varying the concentration of ammonium sulfate (5.0 to 40.0 w/v%) and thermal decomposition time (15 to 90 min). Characterizations of catalyst were carried out to study the catalyst surface morphology with Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), acid density with back titration and functional group attached with FT-IR. Results showed that when the catalyst sulfonated with 10.0 w/v% ammonium sulfate solution and heated to 235°C for 30 min, the highest FAME yield achieved was 23.7% at the reaction condition of 5.0 wt.% catalyst loading, esterification time of 4 h, methanol to PFAD molar ratio of 20:1 at 100°C reaction temperature.

  1. Cloud condensation nucleus activity of internally mixed ammonium sulfate/organic acid aerosol particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbatt, J. P. D.; Broekhuizen, K.; Pradeep Kumar, P.

    The ability of mixed ammonium sulfate/organic acid particles to act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) has been studied in the laboratory using a continuous flow, thermal-gradient diffusion chamber operated at supersaturations between 0.3% and 0.6%. The organic acids studied were malonic acid, azelaic acid, hexanoic acid, cis-pinonic acid, oleic acid and stearic acid, and the particles were largely prepared by condensation of the organic vapor onto a dry ammonium sulfate core. For malonic acid and hexanoic acid, the mixed particles activated as predicted by a simple Köhler theory model where both species are assumed to be fully soluble and the droplet has the surface tension of water. Three low-solubility species, cis-pinonic acid, azelaic acid and oleic acid, are well modeled where the acid was assumed to be either partially or fully insoluble. Interestingly, although thin coats of stearic acid behaved in a manner similar to that displayed by oleic and cis-pinonic acid, we observed that thick coats led to a complete deactivation of the ammonium sulfate, presumably because the water vapor could not diffuse through the solid stearic acid. We observed no CCN behavior that could be clearly attributed to a lowering of the surface tension of the growing droplet by the presence of the organic constituents, some of which are highly surface active.

  2. [Inhibition of chlorobenzene formation via various routes during waste incineration by ammonium sulfate and urea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Mi; Qi, Zhi-Fu; Li, Xiao-Dong; Hu, Yan-Jun; Chen, Tong

    2014-01-01

    Chlorobenzene (CBz) is the precursor of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) generated in the processes of waste incineration, and it is regarded as a good indicator of PCDD/Fs for realizing PCDD/Fs online monitoring, moreover, pentachlorobenzene (PeCBz) and Hexachlorobenzene (HxCBz) belong to Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs). However, the emission control of CBz in waste incineration does not attract enough attention, so this study focused on the inhibition of the 3 CBz formation routes in waste combustion by ammonium sulfate and urea, including CB formation from fly ash, CB formation from 1,2-dichlorobenzene (1,2-DiCBz) and the combustion of model medical waste. The results showed that both ammonium sulfate and urea reduced CBz yield during these three thermal processes. For instance, the inhibition rates of tetrachlorobenzene (TeCBz), PeCBz and HxCBz were 66.8%, 57.4% and 50.4%, respectively, when 1% urea was co-combusted with medical waste. By comparing the effect of ammonium sulfate and urea on CBz formation by three routes, urea was considered as a comparatively stable inhibitor for CBz.

  3. Optimization of tetanus toxoid ammonium sulfate precipitation process using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brgles, Marija; Prebeg, Pero; Kurtović, Tihana; Ranić, Jelena; Marchetti-Deschmann, Martina; Allmaier, Günter; Halassy, Beata

    2016-10-02

    Tetanus toxoid (TTd) is a highly immunogenic, detoxified form of tetanus toxin, a causative agent of tetanus disease, produced by Clostridium tetani. Since tetanus disease cannot be eradicated but is easily prevented by vaccination, the need for the tetanus vaccine is permanent. The aim of this work was to investigate the possibility of optimizing TTd purification, i.e., ammonium sulfate precipitation process. The influence of the percentage of ammonium sulfate, starting amount of TTd, buffer type, pH, temperature, and starting purity of TTd on the purification process were investigated using optimal design for response surface models. Responses measured for evaluation of the ammonium sulfate precipitation process were TTd amount (Lf/mL) and total protein content. These two parameters were used to calculate purity (Lf/mgPN) and the yield of the process. Results indicate that citrate buffer, lower temperature, and lower starting amount of TTd result in higher purities of precipitates. Gel electrophoresis combined with matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-mass spectrometric analysis of precipitates revealed that there are no inter-protein cross-links and that all contaminating proteins have pIs similar to TTd, so this is most probably the reason for the limited success of purification by precipitation.

  4. Extraction of Oxytetracycline Hydrochloride in Aqueous Two-phase System of Acetone and Ammonium Sulfate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, J.

    2013-01-01

    Summary: Aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) is an efficient implement for separation of various substrates, and extracted by an aqueous two-phase system has been successful ly applied in the downstream processing of various biological compounds. In this research, the extraction of oxytetracycline hydrochloride (OTC-HCl) was carried out in an aqueous two-phase system containing acetone and ammonium sulfate solution, which partitioned the antibiotic to the upper phase. The effects of some parameters on the extraction efficiency of OTC-HCl were studied in detail, including temperature, the volume of acetone, the pH value of ammonium sulfate solution, the concentrations of (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/ SO/sub 4/ and OTC-HCl. The results showed that the volume of acetone, the pH value of ammonium sulfate solution and the concentration of OTC-HCl in feed had significant effects on the extraction efficiency of OTC-HCl, but the effects of temperature on the extraction of OTC-HCl was not obvious. (author)

  5. Levels of ammonium, sulfate, chloride, calcium, and sodium in snow and ice from southern Greenland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busenberg, E.; Langway, C.C. Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Chemical analysis of surface snows and dated ice core samples from Dye 3, Greenland, suggests that the ammonium cation is a major constituent in all samples and that the annual ammonium levels present in the south Greenland samples have varied from 3.3 to 26.3 μg/kg between the seventeenth century and the present time. The annual range of 1974--1975 surface samples was between 3.8 and 8.8 μg/kg, while the mean was 5.7 +- 1.8 μ/kg. The recent large-scale uses of fixed nitrogen fertilizers and industrial pollution have apparently not affected the levels of ammonia reaching southern Greenland. The sodium and chloride present are predominantly derived from ocean spray, while more than 90% of the calcium is of continental origin. The levels of these three elements have not apparently been affected by human activity since the industrial revolution. Sulfate levels have increased dramatically since the industrial revolution, suggesting that sulfate of anthropogenic origin is the most important source of sulfate in modern snows from southern Greenland. The amount of the sulfuric acid neutralized by the ammonium cations was approximately 100% in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, dropping to approximately 20% in the 1974--1975 samples. These figures imply that there has been in increase in the acidity of precipitation in southern Greenland since the end of the eighteenth ce

  6. Manufacture of ammonium sulfate fertilizer from gypsum-rich byproduct of flue gas desulfurization - A prefeasibility cost estimate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, I.-Ming; Rostam-Abadi, M.; Lytle, J.M.; Achorn, F.P.

    1996-01-01

    Costs for constructing and operating a conceptual plant based on a proposed process that converts flue gas desulfurization (FGD)-gypsum to ammonium sulfate fertilizer has been calculated and used to estimate a market price for the product. The average market price of granular ammonium sulfate ($138/ton) exceeds the rough estimated cost of ammonium sulfate from the proposed process ($111/ ton), by 25 percent, if granular size ammonium sulfate crystals of 1.2 to 3.3 millimeters in diameters can be produced by the proposed process. However, there was at least ??30% margin in the cost estimate calculations. The additional costs for compaction, if needed to create granules of the required size, would make the process uneconomical unless considerable efficiency gains are achieved to balance the additional costs. This study suggests the need both to refine the crystallization process and to find potential markets for the calcium carbonate produced by the process.

  7. Bioleaching of heavy metals from sewage sludge by indigenous iron-oxidizing microorganisms using ammonium ferrous sulfate and ferrous sulfate as energy sources: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Ashish; Dastidar, M G; Sreekrishnan, T R

    2009-11-15

    The potential of indigenous iron-oxidizing microorganisms enriched at initial neutral pH of the sewage sludge for bioleaching of heavy metals was investigated at initial neutral pH of the sludge using ammonium ferrous sulfate (FAS) and ferrous sulfate (FS) as an energy sources in two different sets of experiments. After 16 days of bioleaching, 56% Cu, 48% Ni, 68% Zn and 42% C were removed from the sludge using ammonium ferrous sulfate as an energy source. On the other hand, 64% Cu, 58% Ni, 76% Zn and 52% Cr were removed using ferrous sulfate. Further, 32% nitrogen and 24% phosphorus were leached from the sludge using ferrous sulfate, whereas only 22% nitrogen and 17% phosphorus were removed using ammonium ferrous sulfate. The BCR sequential extraction study on speciation of metals showed that using ammonium ferrous sulfate and ferrous sulfate, all the metals remained in bioleached sludge as stable form (F4 fraction). The results of the present study indicate that the bioleached sludge would be safer for land application. Also, the fertilizing property was largely conserved in the bioleached sludge using both the substrates.

  8. Hygroscopicity of organic compounds from biomass burning and their influence on the water uptake of mixed organic ammonium sulfate aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, T.; Zuend, A.; Wang, W. G.; Zhang, Y. H.; Ge, M. F.

    2014-10-01

    Hygroscopic behavior of organic compounds, including levoglucosan, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, and humic acid, as well as their effects on the hygroscopic properties of ammonium sulfate (AS) in internally mixed particles are studied by a hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer (HTDMA). The organic compounds used represent pyrolysis products of wood that are emitted from biomass burning sources. It is found that humic acid aerosol particles only slightly take up water, starting at RH (relative humidity) above ~70%. This is contrasted by the continuous water absorption of levoglucosan aerosol particles in the range 5-90% RH. However, no hygroscopic growth is observed for 4-hydroxybenzoic acid aerosol particles. Predicted water uptake using the ideal solution theory, the AIOMFAC model and the E-AIM (with UNIFAC) model are consistent with measured hygroscopic growth factors of levoglucosan. However, the use of these models without consideration of crystalline organic phases is not appropriate to describe the hygroscopicity of organics that do not exhibit continuous water uptake, such as 4-hydroxybenzoic acid and humic acid. Mixed aerosol particles consisting of ammonium sulfate and levoglucosan, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, or humic acid with different organic mass fractions, take up a reduced amount of water above 80% RH (above AS deliquescence) relative to pure ammonium sulfate aerosol particles of the same mass. Hygroscopic growth of mixtures of ammonium sulfate and levoglucosan with different organic mass fractions agree well with the predictions of the thermodynamic models. Use of the Zdanovskii-Stokes-Robinson (ZSR) relation and AIOMFAC model lead to good agreement with measured growth factors of mixtures of ammonium sulfate with 4-hydroxybenzoic acid assuming an insoluble organic phase. Deviations of model predictions from the HTDMA measurement are mainly due to the occurrence of a microscopical solid phase restructuring at increased humidity (morphology

  9. Management of ammonium sulfate fertilization on productive performance of corn grown after oats and wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Anita Gonçalves Silva

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The time, dose and applied nutrients in corn have a direct effect on its productivity. Therefore, the objective was to study the application of N and S in corn as ammonium sulfate, in succession to wheat and oats and evaluate different forms of fertilizer management. The experiment was conducted in a randomized block design in Oxisol (Hapludox. The five treatments with N, at a dose of 120 kg ha-1 were applied in 20 plots (5x4, according to the management of fertilizer: T1-N (120 kg ha-1 full at sowing, T2-N (120 kg ha-1 total coverage; T3 –N (40 kg ha-1 at sowing and N (80 kg ha-1 in coverage; T4-N advance in wheat sowing and sowing oats (120 kg ha-1, T5- (control. The S doses were corresponding to their concentrations in the fertilizer. Only wheat received a dose of 24 kg N ha-1 at sowing all plots and oats received 24 kg N ha- 1 at sowing only the portions related to treatment with anticipation of corn N ( T4 . We evaluated the biomass production of winter crops (oats and wheat, according to the fertilization at sowing, and also the influence of winter crops and management of ammonium sulfate, the corn yield. The oats produced more dry matter in relation to wheat, positively influencing the corn yield, regardless of fertilizer management. The anticipation of ammonium sulfate, the sowing of oats, was favorable to corn yield, equating to other forms of management of fertilizer. Rotation corn and oats, forms management, ammonium sulphate, at seeding, topdressing or applied in split were equally efficient in corn yields.

  10. Serum aluminum levels in dialysis patients after sclerotherapy of internal hemorrhoids with aluminum potassium sulfate and tannic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsunoda, Akira; Nakagi, Masafumi; Kano, Nobuyasu; Mizutani, Masahiko; Yamaguchi, Kenji

    2014-12-01

    Aluminum potassium sulfate and tannic acid (ALTA) is an effective sclerosing agent for internal hemorrhoids. However, it is contraindicated for patients with chronic renal failure on dialysis, because the aluminum in ALTA can cause aluminum encephalopathy when it is not excreted effectively. We conducted this study to measure the serum aluminum concentrations and observe for symptoms relating to aluminum encephalopathy in dialysis patients after ALTA therapy. Ten dialysis patients underwent ALTA therapy for hemorrhoids. We measured their serum aluminum concentrations and observed them for possible symptoms of aluminum encephalopathy. The total injection volume of ALTA solution was 31 mL (24-37). The median serum aluminum concentration before ALTA therapy was 9 μg/L, which increased to 741, 377, and 103 μg/L, respectively, 1 h, 1 day, and 1 week after ALTA therapy. These levels decreased rapidly, to 33 μg/L by 1 month and 11 μg/L by 3 months after ALTA therapy. No patient suffered symptoms related to aluminum encephalopathy. Although the aluminum concentrations increased temporarily after ALTA therapy, dialysis patients with levels below 150 μg/L by 1 week and thereafter are considered to be at low risk of the development of aluminum encephalopathy.

  11. Modeling the Use of Sulfate Additives for Potassium Chloride Destruction in Biomass Combustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Hao; Pedersen, Morten Nedergaard; Jespersen, Jacob Boll

    2014-01-01

    Potassium chloride, KCl, formed from biomass combustion may lead to ash deposition and corrosion problems in boilers. Sulfates are effective additives for converting KCl to the less harmful K2SO4 and HCl. In the present study, the rate constants for decomposition of ammonium sulfate and aluminum......-dependent distribution of SO2 and SO3 from ammonium sulfate decomposition. On the basis of these data as well as earlier results, a detailed chemical kinetic model for sulfation of KCl by a range of sulfate additives was established. Modeling results were compared to biomass combustion experiments in a bubbling...... fluidized-bed reactor using ammonium sulfate, aluminum sulfate, and ferric sulfate as additives. The simulation results for ammonium sulfate and ferric sulfate addition compared favorably to the experiments. The predictions for aluminum sulfate addition were only partly in agreement with the experimental...

  12. Hygroscopic behavior of atmospherically relevant water-soluble carboxylic salts and their influence on the water uptake of ammonium sulfate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. J. Wu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The hygroscopic behavior of atmospherically relevant water-soluble carboxylic salts and their effects on ammonium sulfate were investigated using a hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer (H-TDMA. No hygroscopic growth is observed for disodium oxalate, while ammonium oxalate shows slight growth (growth factor = 1.05 at 90%. The growth factors at 90% RH for sodium acetate, disodium malonate, disodium succinate, disodium tartrate, diammonium tartrate, sodium pyruvate, disodium maleate, and humic acid sodium salt are 1.79, 1.78, 1.69, 1.54, 1.29, 1.70, 1.78, and 1.19, respectively. The hygroscopic growth of mixtures of organic salts with ammonium sulfate, which are prepared as surrogates of atmospheric aerosols, was determined. A clear shift in deliquescence relative humidity to lower RH with increasing organic mass fraction was observed for these mixtures. Above 80% RH, the contribution to water uptake by the organic salts was close to that of ammonium sulfate for the majority of investigated compounds. The observed hygroscopic growth of the mixed particles at RH above the deliquescence relative humidity of ammonium sulfate agreed well with that predicted using the Zdanovskii-Stokes-Robinson (ZSR mixing rule. Mixtures of ammonium sulfate with organic salts are more hygroscopic than mixtures with organic acids, indicating that neutralization by gas-phase ammonia and/or association with cations of dicarbonxylic acids may enhance the hygroscopicity of the atmospheric particles.

  13. Mass spectrometric investigation into thermal decomposition of double hafnium and ammonium sulfate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedoryako, L.I.; Sheka, I.A.; Vykhrestyuk, N.I.; Brodskij, E.S.

    1983-01-01

    The method of pyrolytic mass spectrometry has been used to investigate thermal decomposition doUble hafnium ammonium sulfate of the (Nr 4 ) 4 Hf(SO 4 ) 4 X4H 2 O composition during heating from 20 to 800 deg. In volatile destruction products the following ions are found: H 2 O + , NH 3 + , SO + , SO 2 + , O 2 + , H 2 S + , N 2 + , SO 3 + ion is practically absent. Removal of crystallization water occurs in the 85-285 deg range, that of ammonium and sulfur oxides - at 300-775 deg. Higher than 300 deg the ratios of intensities of peaks of SO 2 + :SO + :O 2 + ions do not exceed those standard for SO 2 , which proves a deeper destruction of sUlfUr dioxide under given conditions

  14. Comparison of ammonium sulfate and urea as nitrogen sources in rice production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bufogle, A. Jr.; Bollich, P.K.; Kovar, J.L.; Lindau, C.W.; Macchiavellid, R.E.

    1998-01-01

    Wetland rice agriculture is the major anthropogenic source of methane, an important greenhouse gas. Methane emissions are less when ammonium sulfate (AS) rather than urea is the nitrogen (N) source. However, an agronomic advantage of AS over urea has not been established. The objectives of this study were: (i) to compare the effectiveness of AS, urea, and urea plus elemental sulfur (S) as sources of N in flooded rice culture, (ii) to compare fertilizer recovery of each source of N from application at preflood (PF) and panicle initiation (PI), and (iii) to determine if there is a response to S by rice grown on a soil with a less than optimum level of available S. 'Cypress' rice was drill-seeded in a Crowley silt loam soil (fine, montmorillonitic, thermic Typic Albaqualf) of 7.25 to 10.75 mg S kg-1. Ammonium sulfate, urea, or urea plus S was applied in split applications of 101 kg N ha-1 PF and 50 kg N ha-1 PI. Microplots with retainers and 15N-labeled N were used. Unlabeled N was used in field plots. Microplots were harvested at 50% heading, while field plots were harvested at maturity. Dry matter and total N accumulation at 50% heading and at maturity were similar regardless of N source. Grain dry matter yields were 8.54, 8.47, and 8.79 Mg ha-1 for AS, urea, and urea plus S treatments, respectively. Greater N recovery was generally found from N application at PI than at PF, but this was not reflected by an increase in grain yield. No response to S was detected, although grain yields were slightly higher when S-containing fertilizers were used. Ammonium sulfate and urea were equally effective for flooded rice production in Louisiana

  15. Removal of hydrogen sulfide as ammonium sulfate from hydropyrolysis product vapors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marker, Terry L.; Felix, Larry G.; Linck, Martin B.; Roberts, Michael J.

    2017-03-14

    A system and method for processing biomass into hydrocarbon fuels that includes processing a biomass in a hydropyrolysis reactor resulting in hydrocarbon fuels and a process vapor stream and cooling the process vapor stream to a condensation temperature resulting in an aqueous stream. The aqueous stream is sent to a catalytic reactor where it is oxidized to obtain a product stream containing ammonia and ammonium sulfate. A resulting cooled product vapor stream includes non-condensable process vapors comprising H.sub.2, CH.sub.4, CO, CO.sub.2, ammonia and hydrogen sulfide.

  16. Removal of hydrogen sulfide as ammonium sulfate from hydropyrolysis product vapors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marker, Terry L; Felix, Larry G; Linck, Martin B; Roberts, Michael J

    2014-10-14

    A system and method for processing biomass into hydrocarbon fuels that includes processing a biomass in a hydropyrolysis reactor resulting in hydrocarbon fuels and a process vapor stream and cooling the process vapor stream to a condensation temperature resulting in an aqueous stream. The aqueous stream is sent to a catalytic reactor where it is oxidized to obtain a product stream containing ammonia and ammonium sulfate. A resulting cooled product vapor stream includes non-condensable process vapors comprising H.sub.2, CH.sub.4, CO, CO.sub.2, ammonia and hydrogen sulfide.

  17. Comparative Evaluation of Aluminum Sulfate and Ferric Sulfate-Induced Coagulations as Pretreatment of Microfiltration for Treatment of Surface Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yali Song

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Two coagulants, aluminum sulfate and ferric chloride, were tested to reduce natural organic matter (NOM as a pretreatment prior to polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF microfiltration (MF membranes for potable water treatment. The results showed that the two coagulants exhibited different treatment performance in NOM removal. Molecular weight (MW distributions of NOM in the tested surface raw water were concentrated at 3–5 kDa and approximately 0.2 kDa. Regardless of the coagulant species and dosages, the removal of 0.2 kDa NOM molecules was limited. In contrast, NOM at 3–5 kDa were readily removed with increasing coagulant dosages. In particular, aluminum sulfate favorably removed NOM near 5 kDa, whereas ferric chloride tended to reduce 3 kDa organic substances. Although aluminum sulfate and ferric chloride could improve the flux of the ensuing MF treatment, the optimal coagulant dosages to achieve effective pretreatment were different: 2–30 mg/L for aluminum sulfate and >15 mg/L for ferric chloride. The scanning electron microscope (SEM image of the membrane-filtered coagulated raw water showed that coagulation efficiency dramatically affected membrane flux and that good coagulation properties can reduce membrane fouling.

  18. Comparative Evaluation of Aluminum Sulfate and Ferric Sulfate-Induced Coagulations as Pretreatment of Microfiltration for Treatment of Surface Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yali; Dong, Bingzhi; Gao, Naiyun; Deng, Yang

    2015-06-12

    Two coagulants, aluminum sulfate and ferric chloride, were tested to reduce natural organic matter (NOM) as a pretreatment prior to polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) microfiltration (MF) membranes for potable water treatment. The results showed that the two coagulants exhibited different treatment performance in NOM removal. Molecular weight (MW) distributions of NOM in the tested surface raw water were concentrated at 3-5 kDa and approximately 0.2 kDa. Regardless of the coagulant species and dosages, the removal of 0.2 kDa NOM molecules was limited. In contrast, NOM at 3-5 kDa were readily removed with increasing coagulant dosages. In particular, aluminum sulfate favorably removed NOM near 5 kDa, whereas ferric chloride tended to reduce 3 kDa organic substances. Although aluminum sulfate and ferric chloride could improve the flux of the ensuing MF treatment, the optimal coagulant dosages to achieve effective pretreatment were different: 2-30 mg/L for aluminum sulfate and >15 mg/L for ferric chloride. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) image of the membrane-filtered coagulated raw water showed that coagulation efficiency dramatically affected membrane flux and that good coagulation properties can reduce membrane fouling.

  19. Aluminum sulfate (alum) application interactions with coupled metal and nutrient cycling in a hypereutrophic lake ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogaro, Geraldine; Burgin, Amy J; Schoepfer, Valerie A; Konkler, Matthew J; Bowman, Katlin L; Hammerschmidt, Chad R

    2013-05-01

    Many lake ecosystems worldwide experience severe eutrophication and associated harmful blooms of cyanobacteria due to high loadings of phosphorus (P). While aluminum sulfate (alum) has been used for decades as chemical treatment of eutrophic waters, the ecological effects of alum on coupled metal and nutrient cycling are not well known. The objective of our study was to investigate the effects of an in-situ alum treatment on aluminum and nutrient (P, N, and S) cycling in a hypereutrophic lake ecosystem. Our results indicate that the addition of alum along with sodium aluminate (as a buffer) increased dissolved aluminum and sulfate in the surface and pore waters, and altered nitrogen cycling by increasing nitrous oxide (N2O) concentrations in the surface water. The increase of aluminum and sulfate may potentially feedback to alter benthic community dynamics. These results enhance our understanding of the unintended ecological consequences of alum treatments in hypereutrophic freshwater ecosystems. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of Sodium Sulfate, Ammonium Chloride, Ammonium Nitrate, and Salt Mixtures on Aqueous Phase Partitioning of Organic Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chen; Lei, Ying Duan; Wania, Frank

    2016-12-06

    Dissolved inorganic salts influence the partitioning of organic compounds into the aqueous phase. This influence is especially significant in atmospheric aerosol, which usually contains large amounts of ions, including sodium, ammonium, chloride, sulfate, and nitrate. However, empirical data on this salt effect are very sparse. Here, the partitioning of numerous organic compounds into solutions of Na 2 SO 4 , NH 4 Cl, and NH 4 NO 3 was measured and compared with existing data for NaCl and (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 . Salt mixtures were also tested to establish whether the salt effect is additive. In general, the salt effect showed a decreasing trend of Na 2 SO 4 > (NH) 2 SO 4 > NaCl > NH 4 Cl > NH 4 NO 3 for the studied organic compounds, implying the following relative strength of the salt effect of individual anions: SO 4 2- > Cl - > NO 3 - and of cations: Na + > NH 4 + . The salt effect of different salts is moderately correlated. Predictive models for the salt effect were developed based on the experimental data. The experimental data indicate that the salt effect of mixtures may not be entirely additive. However, the deviation from additivity, if it exists, is small. Data of very high quality are required to establish whether the effect of constituent ions or salts is additive or not.

  1. Hydrothermal synthesis of one-dimensional tungsten oxide nanostructures using cobalt ammonium sulfate as a structure-directing agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajagopal, Shanmugasundaram; Lee, Hae-Min; Kim, Chang-Koo; Lee, Kangtaek

    2013-01-01

    Hydrothermal synthesis of one-dimensional tungsten oxide nanostructures was performed using cobalt ammonium sulfate as a structure-directing agent, and the effect of the concentration of cobalt ammonium sulfate on the characteristics of the tungsten oxide nanostructures was investigated. XRD measurements showed that hexagonal tungsten oxide (h-WO 3 ) structures were obtained at a higher concentration of cobalt ammonium sulfate (0.2 M), while cubic tungsten oxide (c-WO 3 ) structures were obtained at a lower concentration of cobalt ammonium sulfate (0.01M). Mixed structures of h-WO 3 and c-WO 3 were observed at an intermediate concentration of cobalt ammonium sulfate. Morphological studies revealed that h-WO 3 appeared as nanowires with a diameter of about 40 nm and an average length of 1 µm. c-WO 3 was shaped in pillar-like nanorods with a diameter of about 30 nm. A red-shift in the UV/Vis absorption peak was observed with different phases of tungsten oxide nanostructures

  2. Aluminum sulfate significantly reduces the skin test response to common allergens in sensitized patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grier Thomas J

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Avoidance of allergens is still recommended as the first and best way to prevent allergic illnesses and their comorbid diseases. Despite a variety of attempts there has been very limited success in the area of environmental control of allergic disease. Our objective was to identify a non-invasive, non-pharmacological method to reduce indoor allergen loads in atopic persons' homes and public environments. We employed a novel in vivo approach to examine the possibility of using aluminum sulfate to control environmental allergens. Methods Fifty skin test reactive patients were simultaneously skin tested with conventional test materials and the actions of the protein/glycoprotein modifier, aluminum sulfate. Common allergens, dog, cat, dust mite, Alternaria, and cockroach were used in the study. Results Skin test reactivity was significantly reduced by the modifier aluminum sulfate. Our studies demonstrate that the effects of histamine were not affected by the presence of aluminum sulfate. In fact, skin test reactivity was reduced independent of whether aluminum sulfate was present in the allergen test material or removed prior to testing, indicating that the allergens had in some way been inactivated. Conclusion Aluminum sulfate was found to reduce the in vivo allergic reaction cascade induced by skin testing with common allergens. The exact mechanism is not clear but appears to involve the alteration of IgE-binding epitopes on the allergen. Our results indicate that it may be possible to diminish the allergenicity of an environment by application of the active agent aluminum sulfate, thus producing environmental control without complete removal of the allergen.

  3. Recovery of valuable metals from waste diamond cutters through ammonia-ammonium sulfate leaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Ping; Li, Guang-qiang; Yang, Yong-xiang; Qin, Qin-wei; Wei, Ming-xing

    2017-12-01

    Copper and zinc were recovered from waste diamond cutters through leaching with an ammonia-ammonium sulfate system and air as an oxidant. The effects of experimental parameters on the leaching process were investigated, and the potential-pH ( E-pH) diagrams of Cu-NH3-SO4 2--H2O and Zn-NH3-SO4 2--H2O at 25°C were drawn. Results showed that the optimal parameters for the leaching reaction are as follows: reaction temperature, 45°C; leaching duration, 3 h; liquid-to-solid ratio, 50:1 (mL/g); stirring speed, 200 r/min; ammonia concentration, 4.0 mol/L; ammonium sulfate concentration, 1.0 mol/L; and air flow rate, 0.2 L/min. The results of the kinetics study indicated that the leaching is controlled by the surface chemical reaction at temperatures below 35°C, and the leaching is controlled by diffusion through the product layer at temperatures above 35°C.

  4. Glyoxal in aqueous ammonium sulfate solutions: products, kinetics and hydration effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ge; Bayer, Amanda R; Galloway, Melissa M; Korshavn, Kyle J; Fry, Charles G; Keutsch, Frank N

    2011-08-01

    Reactions and interactions between glyoxal and salts in aqueous solution were studied. Glyoxal was found to react with ammonium to form imidazole, imidazole-2-carboxaldehyde, formic acid, N-glyoxal substituted imidazole, and minor products at very low concentrations. Overall reaction orders and rates for each major product were measured. Sulfate ions have a strong and specific interaction with glyoxal in aqueous solution, which shifts the hydration equilibria of glyoxal from the unhydrated carbonyl form to the hydrated form. This ion-specific effect contributes to the observed enhancement of the effective Henry's law coefficient for glyoxal in sulfate-containing solutions. The results of UV-vis absorption and NMR spectroscopy studies of solutions of glyoxal with ammonium, methylamine, and dimethylamine salts reveal that light absorbing compounds require the formation of nitrogen containing molecules. These findings have implications on the role of glyoxal in the atmosphere, both in models of the contribution of glyoxal to form secondary organic aerosol (SOA), the role of nitrogen containing species for aerosol optical properties and in predictions of the behavior of other carbonyls or dicarbonyls in the atmosphere.

  5. Solid ferrous ammonium sulfate as a dosimeter at low temperatures and high doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juarez-calderon, J.M.; Ramos B, S.; Negron M, A.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the results obtained from a study of the radiation induced oxidation of crystalline ferrous ammonium sulfate with gamma rays at 295 K, 263 K and 77 K and doses from 0 to 300 kGy. The radiation induced decomposition of ferrous ammonium sulfate has been studied by the dissolution of the irradiated salt in 0,8 N sulfuric acid. The main product is ferric ion (Fe 3+ ) and its molar concentration was determined spectrophotometrically in the UV region at 304 nm. The optical density values showed a linear dependence with dose, indicating that the data obtained might be used to create a calibrating curve. Color in irradiated salt changes from blue to green, yellow and orange according to the absorbed dose. The accuracy and the reproducibility of the system were tested. In addition, some other characteristics make possible the use of this system as a dosimeter, similar to Fricke chemical dosimeter, for studies and works at low temperatures and high doses. (authors)

  6. Solid ferrous ammonium sulfate as a dosimeter at low temperatures and high doses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juarez-calderon, J.M.; Ramos B, S.; Negron M, A. [Mexico Univ. Nacional Autonoma, Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares (Mexico)

    2006-07-01

    This paper presents the results obtained from a study of the radiation induced oxidation of crystalline ferrous ammonium sulfate with gamma rays at 295 K, 263 K and 77 K and doses from 0 to 300 kGy. The radiation induced decomposition of ferrous ammonium sulfate has been studied by the dissolution of the irradiated salt in 0,8 N sulfuric acid. The main product is ferric ion (Fe{sup 3+}) and its molar concentration was determined spectrophotometrically in the UV region at 304 nm. The optical density values showed a linear dependence with dose, indicating that the data obtained might be used to create a calibrating curve. Color in irradiated salt changes from blue to green, yellow and orange according to the absorbed dose. The accuracy and the reproducibility of the system were tested. In addition, some other characteristics make possible the use of this system as a dosimeter, similar to Fricke chemical dosimeter, for studies and works at low temperatures and high doses. (authors)

  7. The influence of indoxyl sulfate and ammonium on the autofluorescence of human urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perinchery, Sandeep Menon; Kuzhiumparambil, Unnikrishnan; Vemulpad, Subramanyam; Goldys, Ewa M

    2010-01-15

    Despite biological variability the spectral characteristics of undiluted human urine show relatively low autofluorescence at short UV (250-300nm) excitation. However with dilution the fluorescence intensity remarkably increases. This paper examines the mechanisms behind this effect, by using excitation-emission matrices. Corrections for the inner filter effect were made for improved understanding of the spectral patterns. We focused on three major fluorophores (tryptophan, indoxyl sulfate and 5-hydroxyindole-3-acetate) that are excited at these wavelengths, and whose content in urine is strongly linked with various health conditions. Their fluorescence was studied both individually and in combinations. We also examined the effect of ammonium on the fluorescence of these major fluorophores individually and in combinations. Through these studies we have identified the leading effects that reduce the UV fluorescence, namely higher concentration of indoxyl sulfate producing the inner filter effect and concentration quenching and quenching of fluorophores by ammonium. This result will assist in broader utilisation of UV fluorescence in medical diagnostics.

  8. Mass-spectrometric investigation of complex sulfates of hafnium and ammonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motov, D.L.; Sozinova, Yu.P.; Korobejnikov, L.S.

    1981-01-01

    In the 100-600 deg temperature range by means of mass-spectrometric investigation a thermal decomposition of complex sulphates of hafnium and ammonium: basic (NI 4 ) 2 Hf 2 O 3 (SO 4 ) 2 x2h 2 o(I), (NH 4 ) 2 Hf 2 O(SO 4 ) 4 x2H 2 O (2) and neutral (NH 4 ) 2 Hf(SO 4 ) 3 x2H 2 O (3), (NH 4 ) 4 xHf(SO 4 ) 4 x4H 2 O (4) is studied. It has been found that the coordinated water is more strongly bound in basic salts as compared with the neutral ones. As to water removal 1 is hydroxo-, 2 - oxocompound, in 3 water bonds are equivalent, in 4 -crystallohydrate water is removed in two stages. It is shown that the NH 4 and SO 4 bond strength decreases from basic to neutral salts. In investigated compounds the NH 4 - and SO 4 groups are more strongly bound than in ammonium sulphate that confirms the complex character of double hafnium ammonium sulfates [ru

  9. Preparation of Highly Pure Vanadyl Sulfate from Sulfate Solutions Containing Impurities of Iron and Aluminum by Solvent Extraction Using EHEHPA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Li

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The preparation of highly pure vanadyl sulfate from sulfate solutions containing impurities of iron and aluminumwas investigated by solvent extraction with 2-ethylhexyl phosphoric acid mono-2-ethylhexyl ester (EHEHPA and tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP as the phase modifier. The extraction and stripping conditions of vanadium (IV and its separation from iron and aluminum were optimized. Under the optimal extraction conditions, the extraction of vanadium (IV and iron were 68% and 53%, respectively, while only 2% aluminum was extracted in a single contact, suggesting good separation of vanadium (IV from aluminum. Sulfuric acid solution was used for the stripping. Nearly 100% vanadium (IV and 95% aluminum were stripped, while only 10% iron was stripped under the optimal stripping conditions in a single contact, suggesting good separation of vanadium (IV from iron. After five stages of extraction and stripping, highly pure vanadyl sulfate containing 76.5 g/L V (IV with the impurities of 12 mg/L Fe and 10 mg/L Al was obtained, which is suitable for the electrolyte of a vanadium redox flow battery. Organic solution was well regenerated after stripping by oxalic acid solution to remove the remaining iron. The mechanism of vanadium (IV extraction using EHEHPA was also discussed based on the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR analysis.

  10. Solubility of ammonium aluminum sulfate dodecahydrate in the aluminum sulfate plus ammonium sulfate plus sulfuric acid plus water system at (25, 30, 40, and 50) degrees C

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hostomská, Věra; Hostomský, Jiří

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 1 (2006), s. 243-247 ISSN 0021-9568 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA203/04/1574 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40320502 Keywords : alums Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.642, year: 2006

  11. A new experimental approach to study the hygroscopic and the optical properties of aerosols: application to ammonium sulfate particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denjean, C.; Formenti, P.; Picquet-Varrault, B.; Katrib, Y.; Pangui, E.; Zapf, P.; Doussin, J. F.

    2013-07-01

    A new methodology for the determination of size distribution and optical properties of aerosols as a function of the relative humidity (RH) in simulation chamber is described. The hygroscopic properties of aerosols can be investigated by exposing aerosols to varying RH ranging from 0 to 100% for approximately 1 h. This method is also proved useful in both providing information on the RH dependence of size and scattering coefficient (σscat) of the overall size distribution. The complex refractive index (CRI) of aerosols can be retrieved at λ = 525 nm, as well as in the visible spectrum. Ammonium sulfate particles that have well known optical and hygroscopic properties were used for the measurements. The particle's growth was compared to values obtained for one selected size of particles (150 nm) with a H-TDMA and the effect of the residence time for particles humidification was investigated. The CRI of ammonium sulfate particles obtained from the two methods (1.54-1.57) compared favorably to each other and are also in reasonable agreement with the literature values. When the humidification is performed in the chamber for a few minutes, a continuous increase of the ammonium sulfate particle's size and σscat was observed from RH values as low as 30% RH. Comparison of the measured and modeled values based on Köhler and Mie theories shows that layers of water are adsorbed on ammonium sulfate particles below the deliquescence point. In contradiction, the particle's growth reported with H-TDMAs showed a prompt deliquescence of ammonium sulfate particles with no continuous growth in size at low RH. The findings highlight the need to allow sufficient time for particle-water vapor equilibrium in investigating the aerosols hygroscopic properties. H-TDMA instruments induce limited residence time for humidification and seem to be insufficient for water adsorption on ammonium sulfate particles.

  12. A differential protein solubility approach for the depletion of highly abundant proteins in plasma using ammonium sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollineni, Ravi Chand; Guldvik, Ingrid J; Grönberg, Henrik; Wiklund, Fredrik; Mills, Ian G; Thiede, Bernd

    2015-12-21

    Depletion of highly abundant proteins is an approved step in blood plasma analysis by mass spectrometry (MS). In this study, we explored a precipitation and differential protein solubility approach as a fractionation strategy for abundant protein removal from plasma. Total proteins from plasma were precipitated with 90% saturated ammonium sulfate, followed by differential solubilization in 55% and 35% saturated ammonium sulfate solutions. Using a four hour liquid chromatography (LC) gradient and an LTQ-Orbitrap XL mass spectrometer, a total of 167 and 224 proteins were identified from the 55% and 35% ammonium sulfate fractions, whereas 235 proteins were found in the remaining protein fractions with at least two unique peptides. SDS-PAGE and exclusive total spectrum counts from LC-MS/MS analyses clearly showed that majority of the abundant plasma proteins were solubilized in 55% and 35% ammonium sulfate solutions, indicating that the remaining protein fraction is of potential interest for identification of less abundant plasma proteins. Serum albumin, serotransferrin, alpha-1-antitrypsin and transthyretin were the abundant proteins that were highly enriched in 55% ammonium sulfate fractions. Immunoglobulins, complement system proteins, and apolipoproteins were among other abundant plasma proteins that were enriched in 35% ammonium sulfate fractions. In the remaining protein fractions a total of 40 unique proteins were identified of which, 32 proteins were identified with at least 10 exclusive spectrum counts. According to PeptideAtlas, 9 of these 32 proteins were estimated to be present at low μg ml(-1) (0.12-1.9 μg ml(-1)) concentrations in the plasma, and 17 at low ng ml(-1) (0.1-55 ng ml(-1)) range.

  13. The effect of wax coating, aluminum and ammonium perchlorate on impact sensitivity of HMX

    OpenAIRE

    Yu-bin LI; Li-ping PAN; Zhi-jian YANG; Fei-yan GONG; Xue ZHENG; Guan-song HE

    2017-01-01

    Interaction of 1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocane (HMX)/ammonium perchlorate (AP) and its effect on mechanical sensitivity may result in some restrictions for the application of AP/HMX system in high energetic weapon system. In this work, impact sensitivity test is used to study the effects of wax coating of HMX, AP and aluminum (Al) powder on sensitivity properties of HMX/AP/Al mixtures. Thermogravimetry-differential scanning calorimetry (TG-DSC) analysis has been developed to investigat...

  14. Production of ammonium sulfate doubly labeled with the 15N and 34S stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maximo, Everaldo; Bendassolli, Jose Albertino; Trivelin, Paulo Cesar Ocheuze; Rossete, Alexssandra Luiza Rodrigues Molina; Oliveira, Claudineia Raquel de; Prestes, Clelber Vieira

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this work was the production of ammonium sulfate double labeled with 15 N and 34 S ((15NH 4 ) 2 34 SO 4 )), employing the ion exchange technique in two different processes. The first one was carried out using Na 2 34 SO 4 and ( 15 NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 previously enriched. It was possible to obtain about 54g of ( 15 NH 4 ) 2 34 SO 4 from 70.0g of Na 2 34 SO 4 and 64.2g of ( 15 NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 . The second method involved the production of H 2 34 SO 4 , by ion exchange, and its subsequent reaction with 15 NH 3(aq) , using a distillation system, to yield 58 g of ( 15 NH 4 ) 2 34 SO 4 from 43.1 g of H 2 34 SO 4 . (author)

  15. Evaluation of commercial grade ferrous ammonium sulfate as potential dosimeter for technological irradiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juarez-Calderon, J. Manuel; Ramos-Bernal, Sergio; Negron-Mendoza, Alicia

    2008-01-01

    In this work, we have studied the behavior of crystalline ferrous ammonium sulfate (FAS) under gamma irradiation. The doses studied ranged from 33.5 to 270 kGy. The purpose of this study is to explain the setup, measurement, and reporting procedures for using FAS as a dosimeter. The results obtained in the present study show that this salt very easily gave reproducible results, a linear response, as well as, simple sample preparation and reading. The irradiation temperature and dose rate in the response of the iron salt were found to have slight influence. Any storage time up to 18 months resulted in a 36% decreased in the response. The variation in the response obtained for short periods of storage is negligible for this application. Due to the properties of the FAS system also can be use as transfer dosimeter. (author)

  16. Hygroscopic and phase separation properties of ammonium sulfate/organic/water ternary solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawadowicz, M. A.; Proud, S. R.; Seppalainen, S. S.; Cziczo, D. J.

    2015-03-01

    Atmospheric aerosol particles are often partially or completely composed of inorganic salts, such as ammonium sulfate and sodium chloride, and therefore exhibit hygroscopic properties. Many inorganic salts have well-defined deliquescence and efflorescence points at which they take up and lose water, respectively. Deliquescence and efflorescence of simple inorganic salt particles have been investigated by a variety of methods, such as IR spectroscopy, tandem mobility analysis and electrodynamic balance. Field measurements have shown that atmospheric aerosols are not typically pure inorganic salt, instead they often also contain organic species. There is ample evidence from laboratory studies that suggests that mixed particles exist in a phase-separated state, with an aqueous inorganic core and organic shell. Although phase separation has not been measured in situ, there is no reason it would not also take place in the atmosphere. Many recent studies have focused on microscopy techniques that require deposition of the aerosol on a glass slide, possibly changing its surface properties. Here, we investigate the deliquescence and efflorescence points, phase separation and ability to exchange gas-phase components of mixed organic and inorganic aerosol using a flow tube coupled with FTIR spectroscopy. Ammonium sulfate aerosol mixed with organic polyols with different O : C ratios, including 1,4-butanediol, glycerol, 1,2,6-hexanetriol, 1,2-hexanediol, and 1,5-pentanediol have been investigated. Those constituents correspond to materials found in the atmosphere in great abundance, and therefore, particles prepared in this study should mimic atmospheric mixed phase aerosol particles. The results of this study tend to be in agreement with previous microscopy experiments, with several key differences, which possibly reveal a size-dependent effect on phase separation in organic/inorganic aerosol particles.

  17. Hygroscopic behavior of multicomponent organic aerosols and their internal mixtures with ammonium sulfate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Bo; Tong, Shengrui; Liu, Qifan; Li, Kun; Wang, Weigang; Zhang, Yunhong; Ge, Maofa

    2016-03-01

    Water-soluble organic compounds (WSOCs) are important components of organics in the atmospheric fine particulate matter. Although WSOCs play an important role in the hygroscopicity of aerosols, knowledge on the water uptake behavior of internally mixed WSOC aerosols remains limited. Here, the hygroscopic properties of single components such as levoglucosan, oxalic acid, malonic acid, succinic acid, phthalic acid, and multicomponent WSOC aerosols mainly involving oxalic acid are investigated with the hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer (HTDMA). The coexisting hygroscopic species including levoglucosan, malonic acid, and phthalic acid have a strong influence on the hygroscopic growth and phase behavior of oxalic acid, even suppressing its crystallization completely during the drying process. The phase behaviors of oxalic acid/levoglucosan mixed particles are confirmed by infrared spectra. The discrepancies between measured growth factors and predictions from Extended Aerosol Inorganics Model (E-AIM) with the Universal Quasi-Chemical Functional Group Activity Coefficient (UNIFAC) method and Zdanovskii-Stokes-Robinson (ZSR) approach increase at medium and high relative humidity (RH) assuming oxalic acid in a crystalline solid state. For the internal mixture of oxalic acid with levoglucosan or succinic acid, there is enhanced water uptake at high RH compared to the model predictions based on reasonable oxalic acid phase assumption. Organic mixture has more complex effects on the hygroscopicity of ammonium sulfate than single species. Although hygroscopic species such as levoglucosan account for a small fraction in the multicomponent aerosols, they may still strongly influence the hygroscopic behavior of ammonium sulfate by changing the phase state of oxalic acid which plays the role of "intermediate" species. Considering the abundance of oxalic acid in the atmospheric aerosols, its mixtures with hygroscopic species may significantly promote water uptake

  18. Hygroscopic behavior of multicomponent organic aerosols and their internal mixtures with ammonium sulfate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Jing

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Water-soluble organic compounds (WSOCs are important components of organics in the atmospheric fine particulate matter. Although WSOCs play an important role in the hygroscopicity of aerosols, knowledge on the water uptake behavior of internally mixed WSOC aerosols remains limited. Here, the hygroscopic properties of single components such as levoglucosan, oxalic acid, malonic acid, succinic acid, phthalic acid, and multicomponent WSOC aerosols mainly involving oxalic acid are investigated with the hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer (HTDMA. The coexisting hygroscopic species including levoglucosan, malonic acid, and phthalic acid have a strong influence on the hygroscopic growth and phase behavior of oxalic acid, even suppressing its crystallization completely during the drying process. The phase behaviors of oxalic acid/levoglucosan mixed particles are confirmed by infrared spectra. The discrepancies between measured growth factors and predictions from Extended Aerosol Inorganics Model (E-AIM with the Universal Quasi-Chemical Functional Group Activity Coefficient (UNIFAC method and Zdanovskii–Stokes–Robinson (ZSR approach increase at medium and high relative humidity (RH assuming oxalic acid in a crystalline solid state. For the internal mixture of oxalic acid with levoglucosan or succinic acid, there is enhanced water uptake at high RH compared to the model predictions based on reasonable oxalic acid phase assumption. Organic mixture has more complex effects on the hygroscopicity of ammonium sulfate than single species. Although hygroscopic species such as levoglucosan account for a small fraction in the multicomponent aerosols, they may still strongly influence the hygroscopic behavior of ammonium sulfate by changing the phase state of oxalic acid which plays the role of "intermediate" species. Considering the abundance of oxalic acid in the atmospheric aerosols, its mixtures with hygroscopic species may significantly

  19. Proton spin lattice relaxation studies in lithium ammonium sulfate LiNH4SO4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shenoy, R.K.; Ramakrishna, J.

    1979-01-01

    Lithium ammonium sulfate (LAS) undergoes a phase transition at Tsub(c1) = 459.5deg K from a paraelectric phase (phase 1) to a ferroelectric phase (phase II) and again at Tsub(c2) = 283deg K to a polar ferroelastic phase (phase III). Proton spin lattice relaxation investigations in the temperature range 480-77deg K at 10 MHz show discontinuous changes in Tsub(1) at the transition temperatures, indicating first order phase transitions. The absence of the slow motion region (ωsub(not)tausub(not)>>1) shows that the ammonium ions are reorienting fast enough to keep the resonance absorption line narrow down to liquid nitrogen temperatures. The possibility of a second minimum and a low activation energy, Esub(a) = 2.659 kcal/mole, in phase III suggest the possibility of tunnelling of the protons at low temperatures. The nature of the transitions have been discussed in the light of the available literature. The unusually high activation energy, Esub(a) = 17.845 kcal/mole, in the paraelectric phase has been attributed to the possible diffusion of protons. (auth.)

  20. Effects of pH on the formation of 4(5)-Methylimidazole in glucose/ammonium sulfate and glucose/ammonium sulfite caramel model reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xinlan; Kong, Fansheng; Huang, Minghui; Yu, Shujuan

    2015-10-01

    The objective of the present study was to detail the change of 4(5)-Methylimidazole (4-MI) in sulfite and sulfate reactions with different initial pH values. Glucose/ammonium sulfate and glucose/ammonium sulfite reaction systems with initial pH conditions 4.9, 5.9, 6.9, 8.0 and 8.6, were heated at 100°C for 2h, respectively. Higher concentration of methylglyoxal (MGO) and 4-MI was detected in thermal treated glucose/ammonium sulfite reaction system than that in sulfate system. The SO 3 2- reacting with MGO and other precursors of 4-MI at higher pH conditions prevented 4-MI formation. However, no inhibition of 4-MI was found at lower pH conditions due to higher reactivity of the nucleophilic NH 4 + than SO 3 2- . The browning intensity of the sulfite system changed scarcely at higher pH values, which was possibly caused by the polyreaction between SO 3 2- and carbonyl, instead of the intermolecular polymerisation of carbonyl in the advanced stage of the Maillard reaction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Electrochemical processing of WC-Ni pseudo alloys in sulfuric acid solutions to ammonium paratungstate and nickel(II) sulfate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuntyj, O.I.; Ivashkiv, V.R.; Yavorskij, V.T.; Zozulya, G.I.

    2007-01-01

    Electrolysis of a WC-Ni pseudo alloy in aqueous sulfuric acid solutions was studied to develop a method for secondary tungsten waste utilization. A flowsheet for production of ammonium paratungstate and nickel(II) sulfate is suggested, in which the process solutions are recycled. The major electrolysis parameters are presented [ru

  2. Tree-ring chemistry response in black cherry to ammonium sulfate fertilization at two West Virginia sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    David R. DeWalle; Jeffrey S. Tepp; Callie J. Pickens; Pamela J. Edwards; William E. Sharpe

    1995-01-01

    The chemical element content of black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) tree rings showed significant changes related to annual ammonium sulfate treatments on one watershed (Fernow WS-3) which exhibited a significant increase in streamflow N export due to treatment. However, tree-ring, soil and streamflow chemistry did not respond to the same treatment...

  3. Growth and fruit production of highbush blueberry fertilized with ammonium sulfate and urea applied by fertigation or as granular fertilizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    The application of granular sources of nitrogen (N) fertilizers, including ammonium sulfate and urea, were compared to fertigation with liquid forms of the fertilizers in northern highbush blueberry during the first 5 years of fruit production. The granular fertilizers were banded on each side of t...

  4. ANAMMOX-like performances for nitrogen removal from ammonium-sulfate-rich wastewater in an anaerobic sequencing batch reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prachakittikul, Pensiri; Wantawin, Chalermraj; Noophan, Pongsak Lek; Boonapatcharoen, Nimaradee

    2016-01-01

    Ammonium removal by the ANaerobic AMonium OXidation (ANAMMOX) process was observed through the Sulfate-Reducing Ammonium Oxidation (SRAO) process. The same concentration of ammonium (100 mg N L(-1)) was applied to two anaerobic sequencing batch reactors (AnSBRs) that were inoculated with the same activated sludge from the Vermicelli wastewater treatment process, while nitrite was fed in ANAMMOX and sulfate in SRAO reactors. In SRAO-AnSBR, in substrates that were fed with a ratio of NH4(+)/SO4(2-) at 1:0.4 ± 0.03, a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 48 h and without sludge draining, the Ammonium Removal Rate (ARR) was 0.02 ± 0.01 kg N m(-3).d(-1). Adding specific ANAMMOX substrates to SRAO-AnSBR sludge in batch tests results in specific ammonium and nitrite removal rates of 0.198 and 0.139 g N g(-1) VSS.d, respectively, indicating that the ANAMMOX activity contributes to the removal of ammonium in the SRAO process using the nitrite that is produced from SRAO. Nevertheless, the inability of ANAMMOX to utilize sulfate to oxidize ammonium was also investigated in batch tests by augmenting enriched ANAMMOX culture in SRAO-AnSBR sludge and without nitrite supply. The time course of sulfate in a 24-hour cycle of SRAO-AnSBR showed an increase in sulfate after 6 h. For enriched SRAO culture, the uptake molar ratio of NH4(+)/SO4(2-) at 8 hours in a batch test was 1:0.82 lower than the value of 1:0.20 ± 0.09 as obtained in an SRAO-AnSBR effluent, while the stoichiometric ratio of 1:0.5 that includes the ANAMMOX reaction was in this range. After a longer operation of more than 2 years without sludge draining, the accumulation of sulfate and the reduction of ammonium removal were observed, probably due to the gradual increase in the sulfur denitrification rate and the competitive use of nitrite with ANAMMOX. The 16S rRNA gene PCR-DGGE (polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis) and PCR cloning analyses resulted in the detection of the ANAMMOX

  5. Effects of the physical state of tropospheric ammonium-sulfate-nitrate particles on global aerosol direct radiative forcing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. T. Martin

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of aqueous versus crystalline sulfate-nitrate-ammonium tropospheric particles on global aerosol direct radiative forcing is assessed. A global three-dimensional chemical transport model predicts sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium aerosol mass. An aerosol thermodynamics model is called twice, once for the upper side (US and once for lower side (LS of the hysteresis loop of particle phase. On the LS, the sulfate mass budget is 40% solid ammonium sulfate, 12% letovicite, 11% ammonium bisulfate, and 37% aqueous. The LS nitrate mass budget is 26% solid ammonium nitrate, 7% aqueous, and 67% gas-phase nitric acid release due to increased volatility upon crystallization. The LS ammonium budget is 45% solid ammonium sulfate, 10% letovicite, 6% ammonium bisulfate, 4% ammonium nitrate, 7% ammonia release due to increased volatility, and 28% aqueous. LS aerosol water mass partitions as 22% effloresced to the gas-phase and 78% remaining as aerosol mass. The predicted US/LS global fields of aerosol mass are employed in a Mie scattering model to generate global US/LS aerosol optical properties, including scattering efficiency, single scattering albedo, and asymmetry parameter. Global annual average LS optical depth and mass scattering efficiency are, respectively, 0.023 and 10.7 m2 (g SO4-2-1, which compare to US values of 0.030 and 13.9 m2 (g SO4-2-1. Radiative transport is computed, first for a base case having no aerosol and then for the two global fields corresponding to the US and LS of the hysteresis loop. Regional, global, seasonal, and annual averages of top-of-the-atmosphere aerosol radiative forcing on the LS and US (FL and FU, respectively, in W m-2 are calculated. Including both anthropogenic and natural emissions, we obtain global annual averages of FL=-0.750, FU=-0.930, and DFU,L=24% for full sky calculations without clouds and FL=-0.485, FU=-0.605, and DFU,L=25% when clouds are included. Regionally, DFU,L=48% over the USA, 55% over Europe

  6. Assessment of the first indirect radiative effect of ammonium-sulfate-nitrate aerosols in East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xiao; Zhang, Meigen; Skorokhod, Andrei

    2017-11-01

    A physically based cloud nucleation parameterization was introduced into an optical properties/radiative transfer module incorporated with the off-line air quality modeling system Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS)-Models-3 Community Multi Scale Air Quality (CMAQ) to investigate the distribution features of the first indirect radiative effects of sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium-sulfate-nitrate (ASN) over East Asia for the years of 2005, 2010, and 2013. The relationship between aerosol particles and cloud droplet number concentration could be properly described by this parameterization because the simulated cloud fraction and cloud liquid water path were generally reliable compared with Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) retrieved data. Simulation results showed that the strong effect of indirect forcing was mainly concentrated in Southeast China, the East China Sea, the Yellow Sea, and the Sea of Japan. The highest indirect radiative forcing of ASN reached -3.47 W m-2 over Southeast China and was obviously larger than the global mean of the indirect forcing of all anthropogenic aerosols. In addition, sulfate provided about half of the contribution to the ASN indirect forcing effect. However, the effect caused by nitrate was weak because the mass burden of nitrate was very low during summer, whereas the cloud fraction was the highest. The analysis indicated that even though the interannual variation of indirect forcing magnitude generally followed the trend of aerosol mass burden from 2005 to 2013, the cloud fraction was an important factor that determined the distribution pattern of indirect forcing. The heaviest aerosol loading in North China did not cause a strong radiative effect because of the low cloud fraction over this region.

  7. Interactions between chloride and sulfate or silica removals using an advanced lime-aluminum softening process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Wahab, Ahmed; Batchelor, Bill

    2006-12-01

    An advanced softening process called the ultra-high lime with aluminum process (UHLA) was initiated in this research. The UHLA process has the ability to remove sulfate, silica, and chloride from waters such as recycled cooling water and desalination brines. Furthermore, it can remove other scale-forming materials, such as calcium, magnesium, carbonate, and phosphate. The purpose of this paper is to study the interactions among chloride, sulfate, and silica in the UHLA process. Results of equilibrium experiments indicated that sulfate is preferentially removed over chloride. Final chloride concentration increased with increasing initial sulfate concentration. However, initial chloride concentration was found to have negligible effect on final sulfate concentration. Silica was found to have only a small effect on chloride removal.

  8. Utilization of Drinking Water Treatment Slurry to Produce Aluminum Sulfate Coagulant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouad, Mahmoud M; Razek, Taha M A; Elgendy, Ahmed S

    2017-02-01

      In Egypt, water treatment consumes about 365 000 tons of aluminum sulfate and produces more than 100 million tons of sludge per year. The common disposal system of sludge in Egypt is to discharge it into natural waterways. Toxicity of aluminum, environmental regulations and costs of chemicals used in water treatment and sludge treatment processes led to an evaluation of coagulant recovery and subsequent reuse. The present work aimed at aluminum recovery from sludge of El-Shiekh Zayd water treatment plant (WTP) to produce aluminum sulfate coagulant. Sludge was characterized and the effect of five variables was tested and the process efficiency was evaluated at different operating conditions. Maximum recovery is 94.2% at acid concentration 1.5 N, sludge weight 5 g, mixing speed 60 rpm, temperature 60 °C and leaching time 40 min. Then optimum conditions were applied to get maximum recovery for aluminum sulfate and compared to commercial coagulant on raw water of El-Shiekh Zayd (WTP).

  9. Simulation of nitrate, sulfate, and ammonium aerosols over the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Walker

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric concentrations of inorganic gases and aerosols (nitrate, sulfate, and ammonium are simulated for 2009 over the United States using the chemical transport model GEOS-Chem. Predicted aerosol concentrations are compared with surface-level measurement data from the Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE, the Clean Air Status and Trends Network (CASTNET, and the California Air Resources Board (CARB. Sulfate predictions nationwide are in reasonably good agreement with observations, while nitrate and ammonium are over-predicted in the East and Midwest, but under-predicted in California, where observed concentrations are the highest in the country. Over-prediction of nitrate in the East and Midwest is consistent with results of recent studies, which suggest that nighttime nitric acid formation by heterogeneous hydrolysis of N2O5 is over-predicted based on current values of the N2O5 uptake coefficient, γ, onto aerosols. After reducing the value of γ by a factor of 10, predicted nitrate levels in the US Midwest and East still remain higher than those measured, and over-prediction of nitrate in this region remains unexplained. Comparison of model predictions with satellite measurements of ammonia from the Tropospheric Emissions Spectrometer (TES indicates that ammonia emissions in GEOS-Chem are underestimated in California and that the nationwide seasonality applied to ammonia emissions in GEOS-Chem does not represent California very well, particularly underestimating winter emissions. An ammonia sensitivity study indicates that GEOS-Chem simulation of nitrate is ammonia-limited in southern California and much of the state, suggesting that an underestimate of ammonia emissions is likely the main cause for the under-prediction of nitrate aerosol in many areas of California. An approximate doubling of ammonia emissions is needed to reproduce observed nitrate concentrations in

  10. Sulfate and metal removal in bioreactors treating acid mine drainage dominated with iron and aluminum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCauley, Craig A; O'Sullivan, Aisling D; Milke, Mark W; Weber, Paul A; Trumm, Dave A

    2009-03-01

    Bioreactors represent an emerging technology for removing metals and sulfate commonly found in acid mine drainage (AMD). Six continuously fed anaerobic bioreactors employing organic and alkaline waste materials were operated to investigate relationships between metal and sulfate removal from AMD. Median AMD influent chemistry was 65.8mg/L Fe (49.7-113mg/L), 46.5mg/L Al (33.5-72.4mg/L) and 608mg/L sulfate (493-1007mg/L). Bioreactors containing mussel shells as an alkaline substrate amendment were more effective at removing metals and sulfate than those containing limestone. Experimental results indicated bioreactor design and operation should be dependent on treatment goals. These include 0.3mol sulfate loading/m(3)/day for sulfate removal (mean of 94.1% (87.6-98.0%), 0.4mol metals/m(3)/day for metal (mean of 99.0% (98.5-99.9%)) and partial sulfate (mean of 46.0% (39.6-57.8%)) removal and 0.8mol metals/m(3)/day for metal (mean of 98.4% (98.2-98.6%) and minimal sulfate (mean of 16.6% (11.9-19.2%)) removal. Aluminum removal efficiency was on average 1.72% (0.04-3.42%) greater than Fe during stable operating conditions.

  11. Changes of pH during biomacromolecule crystallization by vapor diffusion using ammonium sulfate as the precipitant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikol, V.; Giege, R.; Rodeau, J.L.

    1989-01-01

    Possible pH variations during crystallization of biological macromolecules by the vapor diffusion method have not been taken into account in most experiments so far reported. The present study demonstrates that when ammonium sulfate is used as the precipitant, pH changes occur due to ammonia transfer following ammonium/ammonia equilibrium. The pH in a crystallization droplet is shown to be controlled by that of the reservoir. The theory of the effect is given and the consequences of pH variations during crystallization are discussed in terms of reproducibility of experiments. An application, the crystallization of concanavalin A induced by pH variation, is presented. (orig.)

  12. Effects of ammonium sulfate aerosols on vegetation—II. Mode of entry and responses of vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gmur, Nicholas F.; Evans, Lance S.; Cunningham, Elizabeth A.

    These experiments were designed to provide information on the rates of aerosol deposition, mode of entry, and effects of deposition of submicrometer ammonium sulfate aerosols on foliage of Phaseolus vulgaris L. A deposition velocity of 3.2 × 10 3cms-1 was constant during 3-week exposures of plants to aerosol concentrations of 26mg m -3 (i.e. about two orders of magnitude above ambient episode concentrations). Mean deposition rate on foliage was 4.1 × 10 -11 μg cm -2s -1. Visible injury symptoms included leaf chlorosis, necrosis and loss of turgor. Chlorosis was most frequent near leaf margins causing epinasty and near major veins. Internal injury occurred initially in spongy mesophyll cells. Eventually abaxial epidermal and palisade parenchyma cells were injured. These results suggest that submicrometer aerosols enter abaxial stomata and affect more internal cells before affecting leaf surface cells. Exposure to aerosols decreased both abaxial and adaxial leaf resistances markedly. Although visible injury to foliage occurred, no changes in dry mass of roots and shoots or leaf area occurred. These results suggest that for the plant developmental stage studied, while leaf resistances decreased and cellular injury occurred in foliage, these factors were not significantly related to plant growth and development.

  13. LEACHING OF MALACHITE ORE IN AMMONIUM SULFATE SOLUTIONS AND PRODUCTION OF COPPER OXIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ekmekyapar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Malachite ore is one of the most important of oxidized copper ores. Copper production can be performed by using this ore. In this work, the leaching kinetics of malachite in ammonium sulfate solutions was investigated, and metallic copper was recovered by a cementation method from the resulting actual leach solution. Copper (II oxide was prepared by an isothermal oxidation method from the cement copper. In the leaching experiments, the effects of reaction temperature, particle size, and stirring speed on copper leaching from malachite ore were studied. In the cementation experiments, metallic zinc was used as the reductant metal to recover the copper from the solution. Thermal oxidation of cement copper was performed under isothermal conditions. It was found that the leaching rate increased with increasing stirring speed and temperature, and decreased with particle size. It was observed that the leaching reaction fit to diffusion through the product layer. The activation energy of the leaching process was determined to be 25.4 kJ/mol. It was determined that the copper content of the metallic product obtained by the cementation method increased up to 96%. It was found that copper oxide prepared from cement copper had a tenorite structure.

  14. Brown carbon formation by aqueous-phase carbonyl compound reactions with amines and ammonium sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powelson, Michelle H; Espelien, Brenna M; Hawkins, Lelia N; Galloway, Melissa M; De Haan, David O

    2014-01-21

    Reactions between small water-soluble carbonyl compounds, ammonium sulfate (AS), and/or amines were evaluated for their ability to form light-absorbing species in aqueous aerosol. Aerosol chemistry was simulated with bulk phase reactions at pH 4, 275 K, initial concentrations of 0.05 to 0.25 M, and UV-vis and fluorescence spectroscopy monitoring. Glycolaldehyde-glycine mixtures produced the most intense absorbance. In carbonyl compound reactions with AS, methylamine, or AS/glycine mixtures, product absorbance followed the order methylglyoxal > glyoxal > glycolaldehyde > hydroxyacetone. Absorbance extended into the visible, with a wavelength dependence fit by absorption Ångstrom coefficients (Å(abs)) of 2 to 11, overlapping the Å(abs) range of atmospheric, water-soluble brown carbon. Many reaction products absorbing between 300 and 400 nm were strongly fluorescent. On a per mole basis, amines are much more effective than AS at producing brown carbon. In addition, methylglyoxal and glyoxal produced more light-absorbing products in reactions with a 5:1 AS-glycine mixture than with AS or glycine alone, illustrating the importance of both organic and inorganic nitrogen in brown carbon formation. Through comparison to biomass burning aerosol, we place an upper limit on the contribution of these aqueous carbonyl-AS-amine reactions of ≤ 10% of global light absorption by brown carbon.

  15. Growth and characterization of ammonium nickel-cobalt sulfate Tutton's salt for UV light applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Santunu; Oliveira, Michelle; Pacheco, Tiago S.; Perpétuo, Genivaldo J.; Franco, Carlos J.

    2018-04-01

    We have obtained a set of sample crystals of the family of Tutton's salt comprise in the isomorphic series with general chemical formula (NH4)2NixCo(1-x) (SO4)2·6H2O, by employing growth from solutions by slow evaporation technique. The samples crystals were characterized by ICP-AES, X-ray powder diffraction analysis, thermogravimetric analysis, UV-Vis-NIR, Raman and FTIR spectroscopy. This type of material has been studied because of its physical and chemical properties not yet understood and they have potential technological applications. Chemical analysis of the samples by ICP-AES method allowed us to investigate the efficiency of the method of growth used. Thermogravimetric analysis provides the information about the thermal stability of the obtained crystals for high temperature applications, and powder X-ray diffraction analysis at ambient and high temperature reveals the structural quality and structural change of the samples respectively. We have used Raman spectroscopy in the range 100-4000 cm-1 and FTIR spectroscopy in the range 400-4000 cm-1 to understand the internal vibrational mode of the octahedral complexes [Ni(H2O)6]2+ and [Co(H2O)6]2+, SO42- and NH4+ tetrahedra. The transmittance of our mixed ammonium nickel cobalt sulfate hexahydrate (ACNSH) crystals is 75% in the UV region, which indicates that they are ideal to use in UV light filters and UV sensors.

  16. Dielectric permittivity, ac conductivity and phase transition in hydroxyl ammonium sulfate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel Kader, M M; Aboud, A I; Abdelmonem, H; Elzayat, M Y; Hammad, T R

    2011-01-01

    The complex dielectric permittivity (ε*=ε'-jε'') and ac conductivity σ (ω, T) as a function of temperature (90-375 K) and frequency (0.4 kHz to ∼100 kHz) were measured in this work for polycrystalline samples of hydroxyl ammonium sulfate, (NH 3 OH) 2 SO 4 . The measured electrical parameters revealed the existence of a structural phase transition at T∼312 K, which was further confirmed by a differential thermal analysis thermogram, where a clear endothermic peak centered at ∼312 K is observed. Regarding the charge transport mechanism, it is likely that the behavior of frequency-dependent conductivity follows the universal dynamic response σ (ω,T)=A(T) ω s(T) . Moreover, the temperature dependence of the frequency exponent s (0≤s≤1) suggests the quantum mechanical tunneling model to be the most likely one that describes the electrical transport mechanism. The data correlate with the crystal structure and the hydrogen-bonding system.

  17. Secondary organic aerosol formation during evaporation of droplets containing atmospheric aldehydes, amines, and ammonium sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, Melissa M; Powelson, Michelle H; Sedehi, Nahzaneen; Wood, Stephanie E; Millage, Katherine D; Kononenko, Julia A; Rynaski, Alec D; De Haan, David O

    2014-12-16

    Reactions of carbonyl compounds in cloudwater produce organic aerosol mass through in-cloud oxidation and during postcloud evaporation. In this work, postcloud evaporation was simulated in laboratory experiments on evaporating droplets that contain mixtures of common atmospheric aldehydes with ammonium sulfate (AS), methylamine, or glycine. Aerosol diameters were measured during monodisperse droplet drying experiments and during polydisperse droplet equilibration experiments at 75% relative humidity, and condensed-phase mass was measured in bulk thermogravimetric experiments. The evaporation of water from a droplet was found to trigger aldehyde reactions that increased residual particle volumes by a similar extent in room-temperature experiments, regardless of whether AS, methylamine, or glycine was present. The production of organic aerosol volume was highest from droplets containing glyoxal, followed by similar production from methylglyoxal or hydroxyacetone. Significant organic aerosol production was observed for glycolaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and formaldehyde only at elevated temperatures in thermogravimetric experiments. In many experiments, the amount of aerosol produced was greater than the sum of all solutes plus nonvolatile solvent impurities, indicating the additional presence of trapped water, likely caused by increasing aerosol-phase viscosity due to oligomer formation.

  18. Modified ferrous ammonium sulfate benzoic acid xyelenol orange (MFBX) and thermoluminescent dosimeters - a comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brindha, S.; Rose, J.V.R.; Sathyan, S.; Singh, Rabi Raja I.; Ravindran, B. Paul

    2002-01-01

    Radiation dosimetry deals with the determination of absorbed dose to the medium exposed to ionizing radiation. Chemical dosimetry depends on oxidation or reduction of chemicals by ionizing radiation. A ferrous ammonium sulfate benzoic acid xyelenol orange (FBX) dosimeter based on this principle is being used as a clinical dosimeter at present. Certain modifications were carried out in the preparation and storage of the FBX dosimeter to increase its shelf life. The resulting dosimeter was called a modified FBX (MFBX) dosimeter and has been used in our department for the past few years. An extensive study of the dose, dose rate and energy response of the dosimeter was carried out and compared with a thermoluminescent (LiF 7 ) dosimeter. The results obtained were found to be comparable to the thermoluminescent (LiF 7 ) dosimeter. Hence it was concluded that the MFBX dosimeter could be used for phantom dosimetry, data collection and in vivo measurements. Easier preparation and availability of the reagents are added advantages of using MFBX as a clinical dosimeter in small radiotherapy departments. (author)

  19. Nitrous Oxide and Methane Fluxes Following Ammonium Sulfate and Vinasse Application on Sugar Cane Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paredes, Debora da S; Alves, Bruno J R; dos Santos, Marco A; Bolonhezi, Denizart; Sant'Anna, Selenobaldo A C; Urquiaga, Segundo; Lima, Magda A; Boddey, Robert M

    2015-09-15

    This study aimed to quantify nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) emission/sink response from sugar cane soil treated with fertilizer nitrogen (N) and vinasse applied separately or in sequence, the latter being investigated with regard to the time interval between applications for a possible effect on emissions. The study was carried out in a traditional area of unburned sugar cane in São Paulo state, Brazil. Two levels of N fertilization (0 and 100 kg N ha(-1)) with no added vinasse and combined with vinasse additions at different times (100 m(-3) ha(-1) at 3 and 15 days after N fertilization) were evaluated. Methane and N2O fluxes were monitored for 211 days. On average, the soil was a sink for CH4, which was not affected by the treatments. Emissions of N2O were induced by N fertilizer and vinasse applications. For ammonium sulfate, 0.6% of the added N was emitted as N2O, while for vinasse, this ranged from 1.0 to 2.2%. Changes in N2O fluxes were detected the day after application of vinasse on the N fertilized areas, but although the emission factor (EF) was 34% greater, the EF was not significantly different from fertilizer N alone. Nevertheless, we recommend to not apply vinasse after N fertilization to avoid boosting N2O emissions.

  20. Revealing Brown Carbon Chromophores Produced in Reactions of Methylglyoxal with Ammonium Sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Peng; Laskin, Julia; Nizkorodov, Sergey A; Laskin, Alexander

    2015-12-15

    Atmospheric brown carbon (BrC) is an important contributor to light absorption and climate forcing by aerosols. Reactions between small water-soluble carbonyls and ammonia or amines have been identified as one of the potential pathways of BrC formation. However, detailed chemical characterization of BrC chromophores has been challenging and their formation mechanisms are still poorly understood. Understanding BrC formation is impeded by the lack of suitable methods which can unravel the variability and complexity of BrC mixtures. This study applies high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to photodiode array (PDA) detector and high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) to investigate optical properties and chemical composition of individual BrC components produced through reactions of methylglyoxal (MG) and ammonium sulfate (AS), both of which are abundant in the atmospheric environment. A direct relationship between optical properties and chemical composition of 30 major BrC chromophores is established. Nearly all of these chromophores are nitrogen-containing compounds that account for >70% of the overall light absorption by the MG+AS system in the 300-500 nm range. These results suggest that reduced-nitrogen organic compounds formed in reactions between atmospheric carbonyls and ammonia/amines are important BrC chromophores. It is also demonstrated that improved separation of BrC chromophores by HPLC will significantly advance understanding of BrC chemistry.

  1. The ferrous ammonium sulfate solid system, as dosemeter for processes at low temperatures and high doses of gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juarez C, J.M.; Ramos B, S.; Negron M, A.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the results obtained from a study of the radiation induced oxidation of crystalline ferrous ammonium sulfate with gamma rays at 295 K, 263 K and 77 K and dose from 0 to 300 kGy. The radiation induced decomposition of ferrous ammonium sulfate has been studied by the dissolution of the irradiated salt in 0,8 N sulfuric acid. The main product is Fe 3+ and molar concentration of ferric ion was determined spectrophotometrically in the UV region at 304 nm. The optical density values showed a linear dependence with dose, indicating that the data obtained might be used to create a calibrating curve. Color in irradiated salt changes from blue to green, yellow and orange according to the absorbed dose. The accuracy and the reproducibility of the system were tested. In addition, some other characteristics make possible the use of this system as a dosimeter, similar to Fricke chemical dosemeter, at low temperatures and high dose. (Author)

  2. Penentuan Aktivitas Amilase Dari Umbi Bengkuang (Pachyrrizus Arosus L.urb) Hasil Ekstraksi Etanol Dan Ammonium Sulfat

    OpenAIRE

    iswendi, Iswendi

    2009-01-01

    Amylase is an hydrolase enzyme that plays a role in the hydrolysis reaction of starch and glycogen into isomaltose, maltotriose, maltose and glucose. Amylase can be obtained by extraction from several sources of plants, animals and microorganisms. Extraction of the enzyme can be done in two ways, with an organic solvent and inorganic salt. We have conducted research on amylase activity of yam tubers extracted with ethanol and ammonium sulfate. This research aimed to determine the optimum amyl...

  3. Distribution coefficients of purine alkaloids in water-ammonium sulfate-alkyl acetate-dialkyl phthalate systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korenman, Ya. I.; Krivosheeva, O. A.; Mokshina, N. Ya.

    2012-12-01

    The distribution of purine alkaloids (caffeine, theobromine, theophylline) was studied in the systems: alkyl acetates-dialkyl phtalate-salting-out agent (ammonium sulfate). The quantitative characteristics of the extraction-distribution coefficients ( D) and the degree of extraction ( R, %) are calculated. The relationships between the distribution coefficients of alkaloids and the length of the hydrocarbon radical in the molecule of alkyl acetate (dialkyl phtalate) are determined. The possibility of predicting the distribution coefficients is demonstrated.

  4. Effect of roasting with ammonium sulfate and sulfuric acid on the extraction of copper and cobalt from copper converter slag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamamci, C.; Ziyadanogullari, B. (Univ. of Dicle, Diyarbakir (Turkey))

    1991-08-01

    Copper converter slag, provided by Ergani Copper Co. of Etibank and containing 2.56% copper and 0.22% cobalt, was roasted with ammonium sulfate. The effects of such parameters as temperature (200-600C), duration of roasting (15-120 min), and amount of ammonium sulfate (0.5-2.5 times stoichiometric) have been studied. Under optimum conditions (slag size, {minus}100 mesh; stoichiometric requirement of ammonium sulfate; roasting temperature of 400 C for 60 min), the authors obtained 88% Cu and 67% Co by extraction. Similar studies were carried out with concentrated sulfuric acid. The influence of experimental variables such as roasting temperature (25-300C), roasting period (30-120 min), and amount of sulfuric acid (0.5-2 times stoichiometric) has been studied. Under atmospheric conditions, i.e., at 200C and a roasting period of 60 min with 1.5 times the stoichiometric amount of sulfuric acid, recoveries of copper and cobalt were 82 and 96% respectively.

  5. Separation of polysaccharides from Spirulina platensis by HSCCC with ethanol-ammonium sulfate ATPS and their antioxidant activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xueyan; Li, Ruichang; Zhao, Yongjie; Liu, Yang

    2017-10-01

    Three separation methods for water-soluble polysaccharides from Spirulina platensis (PSP) were compared, including sevage deproteinization and column chromatography, ethanol-ammonium sulfate aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) and column chromatography, and one-step high speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) with ethanol-ammonium sulfate ATPS. ATPS was confirmed as an efficient alternative method of protein removal for PSP purification. For the HSCCC with ethanol-ammonium sulfate ATPS, the stationary retention reached to 50.8% at the optimized rotation speed and flow rate. Moreover, the yield of PSP purified by one-step HSCCC rose nearly five times to 12.45mg/g(dry algae powder), it was higher than PSP yield by two-step column chromatography separation methods. PSP purified by HSCCC has the same purity as PSP obtained by traditional methods, which was proved by a single symmetrical peak of purified PSP with molecular weight of 12.33kDa through gel chromatography. Purified PSP was an α-acidic polysaccharide, composed of major glucose, slight rhamnose and mannose, which were detected within GC and FT-IR spectra. The antioxidation activity experiment showed that HSCCC-purified PSP had strong scavenging effects on hydroxyl free radical and DPPH free radical. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of particle size and ammonium sulfate concentration on rice bran fermentation with the fungus Rhizopus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Cristiano Gautério; Furlong, Eliana Badiale

    2012-11-01

    The effects of rice bran particle size (0.18-0.39mm) and ammonium sulfate concentration in the nutrient solution (2-8g/L) on biomass production, protein and phenolic content generated by solid state fermentation with the fungus Rhizopus oryzae (CCT 1217) were studied. Particle size had a positive effect on biomass production and a negative effect (p⩽0.05) on protein and phenolic contents. Ammonium sulfate concentration had a positive effect (p⩽0.05) on biomass and phenolic content gain. Cultivation of fungus in rice bran with particle size of 0.18mm and in the presence of 8g/L ammonium sulfate, resulted in protein levels of 20g/100g dry wt and phenolics content of 4mg/g dry wt. These values were 53 and 65% higher than those achieved with unfermented rice bran. The results demonstrate that the fermentation process increased the value of compounds recovered for potential use in food formulations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Hygroscopicity of organic compounds from biomass burning and their influence on the water uptake of mixed organic-ammonium sulfate aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, T.; Zuend, A.; Wang, W. G.; Zhang, Y. H.; Ge, M. F.

    2014-05-01

    Hygroscopic behavior of organic compounds, including levoglucosan, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid and humic acid, and their effects on the hygroscopic properties of ammonium sulfate (AS) in internally mixed particles are studied by a hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer (HTDMA). The organic compounds used represent pyrolysis products of wood that are emitted from biomass burning sources. It is found that humic acid aerosol particles only slightly take up water, starting at RH above ∼70%. This is contrasted by the continuous water absorption of levoglucosan aerosol particles in the range 5-90% RH. However, no hygroscopic growth is observed for 4-hydroxybenzoic acid aerosol particles. Predicted water uptake using the ideal solution theory, the AIOMFAC model and the E-AIM (with UNIFAC) model are consistent with measured hygroscopic growth factors of levoglucosan. However, the use of these models without consideration of crystalline organic phases is not appropriate to describe the hygroscopicity of organics that do not exhibit continuous water uptake, such as 4-hydroxybenzoic acid and humic acid. Mixed aerosol particles consisting of ammonium sulfate and levoglucosan, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, or humic acid with different organic mass fractions, take up a reduced amount of water above 80% RH (above AS deliquescence) relative to pure ammonium sulfate aerosol particles of the same mass. Hygroscopic growth of mixtures of ammonium sulfate and levoglucosan with different organic mass fractions agree well with the predictions of the thermodynamic models. Use of the Zdanovskii-Stokes-Robinson (ZSR) relation and AIOMFAC model lead to good agreement with measured growth factors of mixtures of ammonium sulfate with 4-hydrobenxybenzoic acid assuming an insoluble organic phase. Deviations of model predictions from the HTDMA measurement are mainly due to the occurrence of a microscopical solid phase restructuring at increased humidity (morphology effects), which are not

  8. A new experimental approach to study the hygroscopic and optical properties of aerosols: application to ammonium sulfate particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denjean, C.; Formenti, P.; Picquet-Varrault, B.; Katrib, Y.; Pangui, E.; Zapf, P.; Doussin, J. F.

    2014-01-01

    A new methodology for the determination of the changes due to hygroscopic growth with relative humidity of the number size distribution and optical properties of polydispersed aerosols is described. This method uses the simulation chamber CESAM where the hygroscopic properties of polydispersed aerosol particles can be investigated in situ by exposing them to RH ranging from 0 to 100% for approximately 1 h. In situ humidification is used to provide simultaneous information on the RH-dependence of the particle size and the corresponding scattering coefficient (σscat), and that for the entire size distribution. Optical closure studies, based on integrated nephelometer and aethalometer measurements, Mie scattering calculations and measured particle size distributions, can therefore be performed to yield derived parameters such as the complex refractive index (CRI) at λ = 525 nm. The CRI can also be retrieved in the visible spectrum by combining differential mobility analyzer (DMA) and white light aerosol spectrometer (Palas Welas®) measurements. We have applied this methodology to ammonium sulfate particles, which have well known optical and hygroscopic properties. The CRI obtained from the two methods (1.54-1.57) compared favourably to each other and are also in reasonable agreement with the literature values. The particle's growth was compared to values obtained for one selected size of particles (150 nm) with a H-TDMA and the effect of the residence time for particles humidification was investigated. When the humidification was performed in the chamber for a few minutes, a continuous increase of the ammonium sulfate particle's size and σscat was observed from RH values as low as 30% RH. Comparison of the measured and modelled values based on Köhler and Mie theories shows that layers of water are adsorbed on ammonium sulfate particles below the deliquescence point. In contradiction, the particle's growth reported with H-TDMAs showed a prompt deliquescence of

  9. Importance of including ammonium sulfate ((NH42SO4 aerosols for ice cloud parameterization in GCMs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Yang

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available A common deficiency of many cloud-physics parameterizations including the NASA's microphysics of clouds with aerosol-cloud interactions (hereafter called McRAS-AC is that they simulate lesser (larger than the observed ice cloud particle number (size. A single column model (SCM of McRAS-AC physics of the GEOS4 Global Circulation Model (GCM together with an adiabatic parcel model (APM for ice-cloud nucleation (IN of aerosols were used to systematically examine the influence of introducing ammonium sulfate (NH42SO4 aerosols in McRAS-AC and its influence on the optical properties of both liquid and ice clouds. First an (NH42SO4 parameterization was included in the APM to assess its effect on clouds vis-à-vis that of the other aerosols. Subsequently, several evaluation tests were conducted over the ARM Southern Great Plain (SGP and thirteen other locations (sorted into pristine and polluted conditions distributed over marine and continental sites with the SCM. The statistics of the simulated cloud climatology were evaluated against the available ground and satellite data. The results showed that inclusion of (NH42SO4 into McRAS-AC of the SCM made a remarkable improvement in the simulated effective radius of ice cloud particulates. However, the corresponding ice-cloud optical thickness increased even more than the observed. This can be caused by lack of horizontal cloud advection not performed in the SCM. Adjusting the other tunable parameters such as precipitation efficiency can mitigate this deficiency. Inclusion of ice cloud particle splintering invoked empirically further reduced simulation biases. Overall, these changes make a substantial improvement in simulated cloud optical properties and cloud distribution particularly over the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ in the GCM.

  10. Comparative thermodynamic studies of aqueous glutaric acid, ammonium sulfate and sodium chloride aerosol at high humidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanford, Kate L; Mitchem, Laura; Reid, Jonathan P; Clegg, Simon L; Topping, David O; McFiggans, Gordon B

    2008-10-02

    Aerosol optical tweezers are used to simultaneously characterize and compare the hygroscopic properties of two aerosol droplets, one containing inorganic and organic solutes and the second, referred to as the control droplet, containing a single inorganic salt. The inorganic solute is either sodium chloride or ammonium sulfate and the organic component is glutaric acid. The time variation in the size of each droplet (3-7 microm in radius) is recorded with 1 s time resolution and with nanometre accuracy. The size of the control droplet is used to estimate the relative humidity with an accuracy of better than +/-0.09%. Thus, the Kohler curve of the multicomponent inorganic/organic droplet, which characterizes the variation in equilibrium droplet size with relative humidity, can be determined directly. The measurements presented here focus on high relative humidities, above 97%, in the limit of dilute solutes. The experimental data are compared with theoretical treatments that, while ignoring the interactions between the inorganic and organic components, are based upon accurate representations of the activity-concentration relationships of aqueous solutions of the individual salts. The organic component is treated by a parametrized fit to experimental data or by the UNIFAC model and the water activity of the equilibrium solution droplet is calculated using the approach suggested by Clegg, Seinfeld and Brimblecombe or the Zdanovskii-Stokes-Robinson approximation. It is shown that such an experimental strategy, comparing directly droplets of different composition, enables highly accurate measurements of the hygroscopic properties, allowing the theoretical treatments to be rigorously tested. Typical deviations of the experimental measurements from theoretical predictions are shown to be around 1% in equilibrium size, comparable to the variation between the theoretical frameworks considered.

  11. Deliquescence, efflorescence, and phase miscibility of mixed particles of ammonium sulfate and isoprene-derived secondary organic material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Smith

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The hygroscopic phase transitions of ammonium sulfate mixed with isoprene-derived secondary organic material were investigated in aerosol experiments. The organic material was produced by isoprene photo-oxidation at 40% and 60% relative humidity. The low volatility fraction of the photo-oxidation products condensed onto ammonium sulfate particles. The particle-phase organic material had oxygen-to-carbon ratios of 0.67 to 0.74 (±0.2 for mass concentrations of 20 to 30 μg m−3. The deliquescence, efflorescence, and phase miscibility of the mixed particles were investigated using a dual arm tandem differential mobility analyzer. The isoprene photo-oxidation products induced deviations in behavior relative to pure ammonium sulfate. Compared to an efflorescence relative humidity (ERH of 30 to 35% for pure ammonium sulfate, efflorescence was eliminated for aqueous particles having organic volume fractions ϵ of 0.6 and greater. Compared to a deliquescence relative humidity (DRH of 80% for pure ammonium sulfate, the DRH steadily decreased with increasing ϵ, approaching a DRH of 40% for ϵ of 0.9. Parameterizations of the DRH(ϵ and ERH(ϵ curves were as follows: DRH(ϵ= ∑i ci,d ϵi valid for 0 ≤ ϵ ≤0.86 and ERH(ϵ= ∑ i ci,e ϵi valid for 0 ≤ ϵ ≤ 0.55 for the coefficients c0,d= 80.67, c0,e = 28.35, c1,d = −11.45, c1,e = −13.66, c2,d = 0, c2,e = 0, c3,d = 57.99, c3,e = -83.80, c4,d = −106.80, and

  12. Corrosion resistance of sodium sulfate coated cobalt-chromium-aluminum alloys at 900 C, 1000 C, and 1100 C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, G. J.

    1979-01-01

    The corrosion of sodium sulfate coated cobalt alloys was measured and the results compared to the cyclic oxidation of alloys with the same composition, and to the hot corrosion of compositionally equivalent nickel-base alloys. Cobalt alloys with sufficient aluminum content to form aluminum containing scales corrode less than their nickel-base counterparts. The cobalt alloys with lower aluminum levels form CoO scales and corrode more than their nickel-base counterparts which form NiO scales.

  13. The effect of wax coating, aluminum and ammonium perchlorate on impact sensitivity of HMX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-bin LI

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Interaction of 1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocane (HMX/ammonium perchlorate (AP and its effect on mechanical sensitivity may result in some restrictions for the application of AP/HMX system in high energetic weapon system. In this work, impact sensitivity test is used to study the effects of wax coating of HMX, AP and aluminum (Al powder on sensitivity properties of HMX/AP/Al mixtures. Thermogravimetry-differential scanning calorimetry (TG-DSC analysis has been developed to investigate the mechanism of interaction between HMX and AP during the course of thermal decomposition of HMX/AP/Al mixtures. The results show that severe interaction effect exists between AP and HMX, which causes the impact sensitivity (H50 to become smaller. The impact energy (E50 of mixture can be improved under the circumstances of effective separating HMX from AP by surface coating with Wax. AP may firstly engender low-temperature decomposition under the circumstance of external heat or mechanical impact, which causes the exothermic peak of HMX forward shift about 28 °C. The gaseous product releasing from thermal decomposition of HMX accelerates further decomposition of AP. For HMX/AP composite system, the interactive catalysis effect between AP and HMX can be eliminated mostly by adding a great deal of Al powder (i.e. above 30%.

  14. A precise structure redetermination of nickel ammonium sulfate hexahydrate, Ni(H2O)6.2NH4.2SO4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tahirov, T.H.; Lu Tianhuey; Huang Chiungchia; Chung Chungsun

    1994-01-01

    The Ni(H 2 O) 6 ion is located at an inversion center. Six octahedral water molecules surround the Ni II ion and form hydrogen bonds with the sulfate groups. Each ammonium group binds to the sulfate groups through hydrogen bonds. (orig.)

  15. Neutron structural, X-ray powder and vibrational studies of the mixed solid solution rubidium ammonium sulfate tellurate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ktari, L.; Dammak, M.; Kolsi, A.W.; Cousson, A.

    2009-01-01

    At room temperature the rubidium ammonium sulfate tellurate salt Rb 1.12 (NH 4 ) 0.88 SO 4 .Te(OH) 6 (RbNST) has been prepared using the reaction of the rubidium sulfate, ammonium sulfate and telluric acid. Its structure has been determined from single crystal using neutron diffraction data. The RbNST crystal is monoclinic structure with P2 1 /a space group. The parameters are: a = 11.440(9) A, b = 6.640(7) A, c = 13.700(1) A, β = 106.90(7) deg. and Z = 4. The main result is the presence of two different and independent anionic groups (TeO 6 6- and SO 4 2- ) in the same crystal. The structure is like built by planes of pure SO 4 tetrahedra and pure TeO 6 octahedra altering with Rb + and NH 4 + cations statistically disordered on one atomic position. Differential scanning calorimetry traces show one anomaly at 418 K, two epaulments at 483 and 510 K corresponding to three phase transitions and one strong peak at 517 K dealing with the decomposition of the salt. Raman scattering and X-ray powder diffraction measurements on RbNST material, taken between 300 and 620 K are reported in this paper. The spectrums confirm and characterize clearly these phase transitions detected by DSC.

  16. Measuring and modeling the salting-out effect in ammonium sulfate solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chen; Lei, Ying Duan; Endo, Satoshi; Wania, Frank

    2014-11-18

    The presence of inorganic salts significantly influences the partitioning behavior of organic compounds between environmentally relevant aqueous phases, such as seawater or aqueous aerosol, and other, nonaqueous phases (gas phase, organic phase, etc.). In this study, salting-out coefficients (or Setschenow constants) (KS [M(-1)]) for 38 diverse neutral compounds in ammonium sulfate ((NH4)2SO4) solutions were measured using a shared headspace passive dosing method and a negligible depletion solid phase microextraction technique. The measured KS were all positive, varied from 0.216 to 0.729, and had standard errors in the range of 0.006-0.060. Compared to KS for sodium chloride (NaCl) in the literature, KS values for (NH4)2SO4 are always higher for the same compound, suggesting a higher salting-out effect of (NH4)2SO4. A polyparameter linear free energy relationship (pp-LFER) for predicting KS in (NH4)2SO4 solutions was generated using the experimental data for calibration. pp-LFER predicted KS agreed well with measured KS reported in the literature. KS for (NH4)2SO4 was also predicted using the quantum-chemical COSMOtherm software and the thermodynamic model AIOMFAC. While COSMOtherm generally overpredicted the experimental KS, predicted and experimental values were correlated. Therefore, a fitting factor needs to be applied when using the current version of COSMOtherm to predict KS. AIOMFAC tends to underpredict the measured KS((NH4)2SO4) but always overpredicts KS(NaCl). The prediction error is generally larger for KS(NaCl) than for KS((NH4)2SO4). AIOMFAC also predicted a dependence of KS on the salt concentrations, which is not observed in the experimental data. In order to demonstrate that the models developed and calibrated in this study can be applied to estimate Setschenow coefficients for atmospherically relevant compounds involved in secondary organic aerosol formation based on chemical structure alone, we predicted and compared KS for selected

  17. Simulations of Sulfate-Nitrate-Ammonium (SNA) aerosols during the extreme haze events over Northern China in October 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, D.; Liu, Z.; Fast, J. D.; Ban, J.

    2017-12-01

    Extreme haze events have occurred frequently over China in recent years. Although many studies have investigated the formation mechanisms associated with PM2.5 for heavily polluted regions in China based on observational data, adequately predicting peak PM2.5 concentrations is still challenging for regional air quality models. In this study, we evaluate the performance of one configuration of the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with chemistry (WRF-Chem) and use the model to investigate the sensitivity of heterogeneous reactions on simulated peak sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium concentrations in the vicinity of Beijing during four extreme haze episodes in October 2014 over the North China Plain. The highest observed PM2.5 concentration of 469 μg m-3 occurred in Beijing. Comparisons with observations show that the model reproduced the temporal variability in PM2.5 with the highest PM2.5 values on polluted days (defined as days in which observed PM2.5 is greater than 75 μg m-3), but predictions of sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium were too low on days with the highest observed concentrations. Observational data indicate that the sulfur/nitric oxidation rates are strongly correlated with relative humidity during periods of peak PM2.5; however, the model failed to reproduce the highest PM2.5 concentrations due to missing heterogeneous/aqueous reactions. As the parameterizations of those heterogeneous reactions are not well established yet, estimates of SO2-to-H2SO4 and NO2/NO3-to-HNO3 reaction rates that depend on relative humidity were applied which improved the simulation of sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium enhancement on polluted days in terms of both concentrations and partitioning among those species. Sensitivity simulations showed that the extremely high heterogeneous reaction rates and also higher emission rates than those reported in the emission inventory were likely important factors contributing to those peak PM2.5 concentrations.

  18. Simulations of Sulfate-Nitrate-Ammonium (SNA) aerosols during the extreme haze events over Northern China in 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Dan; Liu, Zhiquan; Fast, Jerome D.; Ban, Junmei

    2016-08-30

    Extreme haze events have occurred frequently over China in recent years. Although many studies have investigated the formation mechanisms associated with PM2.5 for heavily polluted regions in China based on observational data, adequately predicting peak PM2.5 concentrations is still challenging for regional air quality models. In this study, we evaluate the performance of one configuration of the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with chemistry (WRF-Chem) and use the model to investigate the sensitivity of heterogeneous reactions on simulated peak sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium concentrations in the vicinity of Beijing during four extreme haze episodes in October 2014 over the North China Plain. The highest observed PM2.5 concentration of 469 μg m-3 occurred in Beijing. Comparisons with observations show that the model reproduced the temporal variability in PM2.5 with the highest PM2.5 values on polluted days (defined as days in which observed PM2.5 is greater than 75 μg m-3), but predictions of sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium were too low on days with the highest observed concentrations. Observational data indicate that the sulfur/nitric oxidation rates are strongly correlated with relative humidity during periods of peak PM2.5; however, the model failed to reproduce the highest PM2.5 concentrations due to missing heterogeneous reactions. As the parameterizations of those reactions is not well established yet, estimates of SO2-to-H2SO4 and NO2/NO3-to-HNO3 reaction rates that depend on relative humidity were applied which improved the simulation of sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium enhancement on polluted days in terms of both concentrations and partitioning among those species. Sensitivity simulations showed that the extremely high heterogeneous reaction rates and also higher emission rates than those reported in the emission inventory

  19. Irradiation of ferrous ammonium sulfate for its use as high absorbed dose and low-temperature dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juarez-Calderon, J.M.; Negron-Mendoza, A.; Ramos-Bernal, S.

    2007-01-01

    In the present paper, we study the response of crystalline ammonium ferrous sulfate as a function of the irradiation dose and temperature. The dose studied ranged from 33.5 to 546 kGy. The temperature regimen varied from 77 K (liquid nitrogen) to 311 K. The analysis of the samples was made by UV spectroscopy and EPR. The results show that the change in absorbance of the dosimeter was linear with respect to the absorbed dose in the range studied. There is a small influence of the irradiation temperature in the response of the iron salt. The dose rate and storage time after irradiation was of no importance in this application

  20. Ammonium Sulfate Improves Detection of Hydrophilic Quaternary Ammonium Compounds through Decreased Ion Suppression in Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Imaging Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Eiji; Masaki, Noritaka; Matsushita, Shoko; Setou, Mitsutoshi

    2015-11-17

    Hydrophilic quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) include derivatives of carnitine (Car) or choline, which are known to have essential bioactivities. Here we developed a technique for improving the detection of hydrophilic QACs using ammonium sulfate (AS) in matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-imaging mass spectrometry (MALDI-IMS). In MALDI mass spectrometry for brain homogenates, the addition of AS greatly increased the signal intensities of Car, acetylcarnitine (AcCar), and glycerophosphocholine (GPC) by approximately 300-, 700-, and 2500-fold. The marked improvement required a higher AS concentration than that needed for suppressing the potassium adduction on phosphatidylcholine and 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid. Adding AS also increased the signal intensities of Car, AcCar, and GPC by approximately 10-, 20-, and 40-fold in MALDI-IMS. Consequently, the distributions of five hydrophilic QACs (Car, AcCar, GPC, choline, and phosphocholine) were simultaneously visualized by this technique. The distinct mechanism from other techniques such as improved matrix application, derivatization, or postionization suggests the great potential of AS addition to achieve higher sensitivity of MALDI-IMS for various analytes.

  1. DNA damage in the kidney tissue cells of the fish Rhamdia quelen after trophic contamination with aluminum sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingelfus, Tatiane; Costa, Paula Moiana da; Scherer, Marcos; Cestari, Marta Margarete

    2015-12-01

    Even though aluminum is the third most common element present in the earth's crust, information regarding its toxicity remains scarce. It is known that in certain cases, aluminum is neurotoxic, but its effect in other tissues is unknown. The aim of this work was to analyze the genotoxic potential of aluminum sulfate in kidney tissue of the fish Rhamdia quelen after trophic contamination for 60 days. Sixty four fish were subdivided into the following groups: negative control, 5 mg, 50 mg and 500 mg of aluminum sulfate per kg of fish. Samples of the posterior kidney were taken and prepared to obtain mitotic metaphase, as well as the comet assay. The three types of chromosomal abnormalities (CA) found were categorized as chromatid breaks, decondensation of telomeric region, and early separation of sister chromatids. The tests for CA showed that the 5 mg/kg and 50 mg/kg doses of aluminum sulfate had genotoxic potential. Under these treatments, early separation of the sister chromatids was observed more frequently and decondensation of the telomeric region tended to increase in frequency. We suggest that structural changes in the proteins involved in DNA compaction may have led to the decondensation of the telomeric region, making the DNA susceptible to breaks. Moreover, early separation of the sister chromatids may have occurred due to changes in the mobility of chromosomes or proteins that keep the sister chromatids together. The comet assay confirmed the genotoxicity of aluminum sulfate in the kidney tissue of Rhamdia quelen at the three doses of exposure.

  2. {sup 15}N-labeled nitrogen from green manure and ammonium sulfate utilization by the sugarcane ratoon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambrosano, Edmilson Jose; Rossi, Fabricio, E-mail: ambrosano@apta.sp.gov.b [Agencia Paulista de Tecnologia dos Agronegocios (APTA), Piracicapa, SP (Brazil). Polo Rigional Centro Sul; Trivelin, Paulo Cesar Ocheuze [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Isotopos Estaveis; Cantarella, Heitor [Agencia Paulista de Tecnologia dos Agronegocios (APTA/IAC), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Instituto Agronomico de Campinas. Centro de Solos e Recursos Agroambientais; Ambrosano, Glaucia Maria Bovi [Universidade de Campinas (UNICAMP/FOP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Odontologia de Piracicaba. Dept. de Odontologia Social, Bioestatistica; Schammass, Eliana Aparecida [Agencia Paulista de Tecnologia dos Agronegocios (APTA/IZ), Nova Odessa, SP (Brazil). Instituto de Zootecnia; Muraoka, Takashi [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Fertilidade do solo

    2011-05-15

    Legumes as green manure are alternative sources of nitrogen (N) for crops and can supplement or even replace mineral nitrogen fertilization due to their potential for biological nitrogen fixation (BNF). The utilization of nitrogen by sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) fertilized with sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.) and ammonium sulfate (AS) was evaluated using the {sup 15}N tracer technique. N was added at the rate of 196 and 70 kg ha{sup -1} as {sup 15}N-labeled sunn hemp green manure (SH) and as ammonium sulfate (AS), respectively. Treatments were: (I) Control; (II) AS{sup 15}N; (III) SH{sup 15}N + AS; (IV) SH{sup 15}N; and (V) AS{sup 15}N + SH. Sugarcane was cultivated for five years and was harvested three times. {sup 15}N recovery was evaluated in the two first harvests. In the sum of the three harvests, the highest stalk yields were obtained with a combination of green manure and inorganic N fertilizer; however, in the second cutting the yields were higher where SH was used than in plots with AS. The recovery of N by the first two consecutive harvests accounted for 19 to 21% of the N applied as leguminous green manure and 46 to 49% of the N applied as AS. The amounts of inorganic N, derived from both N sources, present in the 0-0.4 m layer of soil in the first season after N application and were below 1 kg ha{sup -1}. (author)

  3. Distribution of nitrogen ammonium sulfate (15N) soil-plant system in a no-tillage crop succession

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, Flavia Carvalho da Silva; Libardi, Paulo Leonel

    2012-01-01

    the n use by maize (Zea mays, l.) is affected by n-fertilizer levels. this study was conducted using a sandy-clay texture soil (Hapludox) to evaluate the efficiency of n use by maize in a crop succession, based on 15 N labeled ammonium sulfate (5.5 atom %) at different rates, and to assess the residual fertilizer effect in two no-tillage succession crops (signal grass and corn). Two maize crops were evaluated, the first in the growing season 2006, the second in 2007, and brachiaria in the second growing season. The treatments consisted of n rates of 60, 120 and 180 kg ha -1 in the form of labeled 15 N ammonium sulfate. This fertilizer was applied in previously defined subplots, only to the first maize crop (growing season 2006). The variables total accumulated n; fertilizer-derived n in corn plants and pasture; fertilizer-derived n in the soil; and recovery of fertilizer-n by plants and soil were evaluated.The highest uptake of fertilizer n by corn was observed after application of 120 kg ha -1 N and the residual effect of n fertilizer on subsequent corn and brachiaria was highest after application of 180 kg ha -1 N. After the crop succession, soil n recovery was 32, 23 and 27 % for the respective applications of 60, 120 and 180 kg ha -1 N. (author)

  4. Recovery and purification of limonin from pummelo [Citrus grandis] peel using water extraction, ammonium sulfate precipitation and resin adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuan Fan; Zhang, Liang Zheng; Du, Xi Ping; Zhang, Su Fang; Li, Li Jun; Jiang, Ze Dong; Wu, Li Ming; Ni, Hui; Chen, Feng

    2017-08-15

    Limonin is a bioactive compound that is traditionally extracted from citrus seeds using organic solvents or alkaline/metal ion solutions. In the present study, pummelo [Citrus grandis] peel was investigated for limonin preparation using a novel process consisting of water extraction, ammonium sulfate precipitation and resin adsorption. The pummelo peel was determined to have 4.7mg/g limonin, which could be extracted by water and further recovered by ammonium sulfate precipitation with a yield of 2.4mg/g, which was similar to that of traditional process using ethanol extraction and vacuumed evaporation. The precipitated limonin was purified by resin adsorption and crystallization with a purity of 96.4%. In addition, the limonin was identified via the analyses of retention time, infrared spectrum and nuclear magnetic resonance. This study indicates a novel and eco-friendly process for recovering limonin, providing a new candidate for limonin preparation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Formation of light absorbing organo-nitrogen species from evaporation of droplets containing glyoxal and ammonium sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Alex K Y; Zhao, Ran; Li, Richard; Liggio, John; Li, Shao-Meng; Abbatt, Jonathan P D

    2013-11-19

    In the atmosphere, volatile organic compounds such as glyoxal can partition into aqueous droplets containing significant levels of inorganic salts. Upon droplet evaporation, both the organics and inorganic ions become highly concentrated, accelerating reactions between them. To demonstrate this process, we investigated the formation of organo-nitrogen and light absorbing materials in evaporating droplets containing glyoxal and different ammonium salts including (NH4)2SO4, NH4NO3, and NH4Cl. Our results demonstrate that evaporating glyoxal-(NH4)2SO4 droplets produce light absorbing species on a time scale of seconds, which is orders of magnitude faster than observed in bulk solutions. Using aerosol mass spectrometry, we show that particle-phase organics with high N:C ratios were formed when ammonium salts were used, and that the presence of sulfate ions promoted this chemistry. Since sulfate can also significantly enhance the Henry's law partitioning of glyoxal, our results highlight the atmospheric importance of such inorganic-organic interactions in aqueous phase aerosol chemistry.

  6. Understanding pH and ionic strength effects on aluminum sulfate-induced microalgae flocculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Y; Yuan, W; Cheng, J

    2014-08-01

    The objective of this study was to understand the effect of pH and ionic strength of aluminum sulfate on the flocculation of microalgae. It was found that changing pH and ionic strength influenced algal flocculation by changing the zeta potential of cells, which was described by the classical theory of Derjaguin, Landau, Verwey, and Overbeek (DLVO). For both algal species of Scenedesmus dimorphus and Nannochloropsis oculata, cells with lower total DLVO interaction energy had higher flocculation efficiency, indicating that the DLVO model was qualitatively accurate in predicting the flocculation of the two algae. However, the two algae responded differently to changing pH and ionic strength. The flocculation of N. oculata increased with increasing aluminum sulfate concentration and favored either low (pH 5) or high (pH 10) pH where cells had relatively low negative surface charges. For S. dimorphus, the highest flocculation was achieved at low ionic strength (1 μM) or moderate pH (pH 7.5) where cell surface charges were fully neutralized (zero zeta potential).

  7. Post-treatment of banknote printing wastewater using polysilicate ferro-aluminum sulfate (PSFA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Zu-min; Jiang, Wen-tian; He, Zong-jian

    2009-07-30

    In this paper, a new kind of inorganic polymeric flocculant (IPF)-polysilicate ferro-aluminum sulfate (PSFA) was adopted to treat banknote printing wastewater. Effects of flocculants dosage on the colour and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) removal were examined. Experiments revealed that maximal colour removal efficiency of 98% and COD removal efficiency of 85% could be achieved at the optimal dosage of 30.33 g/L. And the colour and COD removal results treated by the PSFA flocculant were compared with those treated by aluminum sulfate. Experimental results showed that the most attracting parts of PSFA as compared with that of Al(2)(SO(4))(3) were: (i) lower COD and colour contained effluents; (ii) less quantity and volume sludge; (iii) better dewatering behaviour and solid-liquid separation flocs; (iv) providing a possibility to eliminate the high labour intensity plate-frame pressure procedure and replace it by ordinary filtration. Therefore, the using of PSFA generally offered a lower cost of operation and maintenance choice to treat banknote printing wastewater as compared to that of Al(2)(SO(4))(3).

  8. Life cycle energy and greenhouse gas profile of a process for the production of ammonium sulfate from nitrogen-fixing photosynthetic cyanobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razon, Luis F

    2012-03-01

    In this paper, an alternative means for nitrogen fixation that may consume less energy and release less greenhouse gases than the Haber-Bosch process is explored. A life-cycle assessment was conducted on a process to: culture the cyanobacterium, Anabaena sp. ATCC 33047, in open ponds; harvest the biomass and exopolysaccharides and convert these to biogas; strip and convert the ammonia from the biogas residue to ammonium sulfate; dry the ammonium sulfate solution to ammonium sulfate crystals and transport the finished product. The results suggest that substantial reductions in non-renewable energy use and greenhouse gas emissions may be realized. The study opens the possibility that Haber-Bosch ammonia may be replaced with ammonia from a biomass process which simultaneously generates renewable energy. The process is intrinsically safer than the Haber-Bosch process. However, there are trade-offs in terms of land use and possibly, water. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Sulfate-reducing anaerobic ammonium oxidation as a potential treatment method for high nitrogen-content wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rikmann, Ergo; Zekker, Ivar; Tomingas, Martin; Tenno, Taavo; Menert, Anne; Loorits, Liis; Tenno, Toomas

    2012-07-01

    After sulfate-reducing ammonium oxidation (SRAO) was first assumed in 2001, several works have been published describing this process in laboratory-scale bioreactors or occurring in the nature. In this paper, the SRAO process was performed using reject water as a substrate for microorganisms and a source of NH(4) (+), with SO(4) (2-) being added as an electron acceptor. At a moderate temperature of 20°C in a moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) sulfate reduction along with ammonium oxidation were established. In an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor (UASBR) the SRAO process took place at 36°C. Average volumetric TN removal rates of 0.03 kg-N/m³/day in the MBBR and 0.04 kg-N/m³/day in the UASBR were achieved, with long-term moderate average removal efficiencies, respectively. Uncultured bacteria clone P4 and uncultured planctomycete clone Amx-PAn30 were detected from the biofilm of the MBBR, from sludge of the UASBR uncultured Verrucomicrobiales bacterium clone De2102 and Uncultured bacterium clone ATB-KS-1929 were found also. The stoichiometrical ratio of NH(4) (+) removal was significantly higher than could be expected from the extent of SO(4) (2-) reduction. This phenomenon can primarily be attributed to complex interactions between nitrogen and sulfur compounds and organic matter present in the wastewater. The high NH(4) (+) removal ratio can be attributed to sulfur-utilizing denitrification/denitritation providing the evidence that SRAO is occurring independently and is not a result of sulfate reduction and anammox. HCO(3) (-) concentrations exceeding 1,000 mg/l were found to have an inhibiting effect on the SRAO process. Small amounts of hydrazine were naturally present in the reaction medium, indicating occurrence of the anammox process. Injections of anammox intermediates, hydrazine and hydroxylamine, had a positive effect on SRAO process performance, particularly in the case of the UASBR.

  10. Slippery liquid-infused porous surfaces fabricated on aluminum as a barrier to corrosion induced by sulfate reducing bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Peng; Lu, Zhou; Zhang, Dun

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Slippery liquid-infused porous surfaces (SLIPS) were fabricated over aluminum. • SLIPS depress the adherence of sulfate reducing bacteria in static seawater. • SLIPS inhibit the microbiological corrosion of aluminum in static seawater. • The possible microbiological corrosion protection mechanism of SLIPS is proposed. - Abstract: Microbiological corrosion induced by sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) is one of the main threatens to the safety of marine structure. To reduce microbiological corrosion, slippery liquid infused porous surfaces (SLIPS) were designed and fabricated on aluminum substrate by constructing rough aluminum oxide layer, followed by fluorination of the rough layer and infiltration with lubricant. The as-fabricated SLIPS were characterized with wettability measurement, SEM and XPS. Their resistances to microbiological corrosion induced by SRB were evaluated with fluorescence microscopy and electrochemical measurement. It was demonstrated that they present high resistance to bacteria adherence and the resultant microbiological corrosion in static seawater

  11. Effects of aluminum sulfate on delta-aminolevulinate dehydratase from kidney, brain, and liver of adult mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R.C. Schetinger

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to investigate the in vitro and in vivo effects of aluminum sulfate on delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALA-D activity from the brain, liver and kidney of adult mice (Swiss albine. In vitro experiments showed that the aluminum sulfate concentration needed to inhibit the enzyme activity was 1.0-5.0 mM (N = 3 in brain, 4.0-5.0 mM (N = 3 in liver and 0.0-5.0 mM (N = 3 in kidney. The in vivo experiments were performed on three groups for one month: 1 control animals (N = 8; 2 animals treated with 1 g% (34 mM sodium citrate (N = 8 and 3 animals treated with 1 g% (34 mM sodium citrate plus 3.3 g% (49.5 mM aluminum sulfate (N = 8. Exposure to aluminum sulfate in drinking water inhibited ALA-D activity in kidney (23.3 ± 3.7%, mean ± SEM, P kidney > brain. Furthermore, aluminum had only inhibitory properties in vitro, while in vivo it inhibited or stimulated the enzyme depending on the organ studied.

  12. Adsorption of sodium dodecyl sulfate and sodium dodecyl phosphate on aluminum, studied by QCM-D, XPS, and AAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Philip M; Palmqvist, Anders E C; Holmberg, Krister

    2008-12-02

    The adsorption of two anionic surfactants, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and sodium dodecyl phosphate (SDP), at surfaces of aluminum and aluminum oxide has been studied by means of atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D). It was shown that more SDP than SDS binds to the surface and that SDP prevents dissolution of aluminum in water whereas SDS does not. This was not obvious, since the adsorption isotherms of the two surfactants to aluminum pigment powder are quite similar, as shown in an earlier work. The decreased aluminum dissolution with SDP compared to SDS was explained by the formation of a more compact protective layer with less permeability on the aluminum surface with SDP than with SDS. This is explained by differences in complexing ability between the surfactants and the aluminum pigment surface. While SDP is expected to form an inner-sphere complex with aluminum, leading to a lower accessibility of aluminum sites to water, SDS is likely to form a weaker outer-sphere complex.

  13. Liver injury after aluminum potassium sulfate and tannic acid treatment of hemorrhoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Kenichi; Kawashima, Reimi; Hirose, Yuki; Shibata, Keiko; Akasu, Takafumi; Hagiwara, Noriko; Yokota, Takeharu; Imai, Nami; Iwaku, Akira; Kobayashi, Go; Kobayashi, Hirohiko; Kinoshita, Akiyoshi; Fushiya, Nao; Kijima, Hiroyuki; Koike, Kazuhiko; Saruta, Masayuki

    2017-07-21

    We are reporting a rare case of acute liver injury that developed after an internal hemorrhoid treatment with the aluminum potassium sulfate and tannic acid (ALTA) regimen. A 41-year-old man developed a fever and liver injury after undergoing internal hemorrhoid treatment with a submucosal injection of ALTA with lidocaine. The acute liver injury was classified clinically as hepatocellular and pathologically as cholestastic. We could not classify the mechanism of injury. High eosinophil and immunoglobulin E levels characterized the injury, and a drug lymphocyte stimulation test was negative on postoperative day 25. Fluid replacement for two weeks after hospitalization improved the liver injury. ALTA therapy involves injecting chemicals into the submucosa, from the rectum to the anus, and this is the first description of a case that developed a severe liver disorder after this treatment; hence, an analysis of future cases as they accumulate is desirable.

  14. Toxicity detection of sodium nitrite, borax and aluminum potassium sulfate using electrochemical method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Dengbin; Yong, Daming; Dong, Shaojun

    2013-04-01

    Based on the inhibition effect on the respiratory chain activity of microorganisms by toxicants, an electrochemical method has been developed to measure the current variation of a mediator in the presence of microorganisms contacted with a toxicant. Microelectrode arrays were adopted in this study, which can accelerate the mass transfer rate of an analyte to the electrode and also increase the total current signal, resulting in an improvement in detection sensitivity. We selected Escherichia coli as the testee and the standard glucose-glutamic acid as an exogenous material. Under oxygen restriction, the experiments in the presence of toxicant were performed at optimum conditions (solution pH 7.0, 37 degrees C and reaction for 3 hr). The resulting solution was then separated from the suspended microorganisms and was measured by an electrochemical method, using ferricyanide as a mediator. The current signal obtained represents the reoxidation of ferrocyanide, which was transformed to inhibiting efficiency, IC50, as a quantitative measure of toxicity. The IC50 values measured were 410, 570 and 830 mg/L for sodium nitrite, borax and aluminum potassium sulfate, respectively. The results show that the toxicity sequence for these three food additives is consistent with the value reported by other methods. Furthermore, the order of damage degree to the microorganism was also observed to be: sodium nitrite > borax > aluminum potassium sulfate > blank, according to the atomic force microscopy images of E. coli after being incubated for 3 hr with the toxic compound in buffer solutions. The electrochemical method is expected to be a sensitive and simple alternative to toxicity screening for chemical food additives.

  15. Production of Extra-Cellular Proteases from Marine Bacillus Sp. Cultured in Media Containing Ammonium Sulfate as the Sole Nitrogen Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seri Intan, M.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Useful bacterial strains can be used to increase mineralize activity of an aquatic system. These bacteria can specifically degrade targeted compound by producing extra-cellular enzymes. Three species of Bacillus i.e. B. subtilis, B. pumilus and B. licheniformis acquired from shrimp ponds were tested for their ability to utilize ammonia and produce extracellular enzymes. These bacteria were grown in artificial seawater (30 ppt salinity and pH 7.6 supplemented with decreasing yeast extract concentration but increasing ammonium sulfate concentration. All three bacteria grew in artificial seawater containing only 0.01% yeast extract and 1% ammonium sulfate. However, only B. pumilus and B. licheniformis were able to grow in the medium containing only 1% ammonium sulfate as a sole energy source. Bacterialgrowth reduced when alkaline proteases activities was maximum from culture filtrates of all three bacterial cultures during 24 hour culturing in artificial seawater containing 0.01% yeast extract and 1% ammonium sulfate at 30 C when assayed at pH 9. Bacterial growth increased when acid proteases activities was maximum from culture filtrates of all three bacterial cultures during 48 hour culturing in artificial seawater containing 0.01% yeast extract and 1% ammoniumsulfate at 30 C when assayed at pH 5.

  16. DNA damage in the kidney tissue cells of the fish Rhamdia quelen after trophic contamination with aluminum sulfate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiane Klingelfus

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Even though aluminum is the third most common element present in the earth's crust, information regarding its toxicity remains scarce. It is known that in certain cases, aluminum is neurotoxic, but its effect in other tissues is unknown. The aim of this work was to analyze the genotoxic potential of aluminum sulfate in kidney tissue of the fish Rhamdia quelen after trophic contamination for 60 days. Sixty four fish were subdivided into the following groups: negative control, 5 mg, 50 mg and 500 mg of aluminum sulfate per kg of fish. Samples of the posterior kidney were taken and prepared to obtain mitotic metaphase, as well as the comet assay. The three types of chromosomal abnormalities (CA found were categorized as chromatid breaks, decondensation of telomeric region, and early separation of sister chromatids. The tests for CA showed that the 5 mg/kg and 50 mg/kg doses of aluminum sulfate had genotoxic potential. Under these treatments, early separation of the sister chromatids was observed more frequently and decondensation of the telomeric region tended to increase in frequency. We suggest that structural changes in the proteins involved in DNA compaction may have led to the decondensation of the telomeric region, making the DNA susceptible to breaks. Moreover, early separation of the sister chromatids may have occurred due to changes in the mobility of chromosomes or proteins that keep the sister chromatids together. The comet assay confirmed the genotoxicity of aluminum sulfate in the kidney tissue of Rhamdia quelen at the three doses of exposure.

  17. The effect of nitrate addition on efficient use of ammonium sulfate fertilizer under saline soil condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalifa, KH.; Zedan, A.

    1996-01-01

    The effect of addition of nitrate fertilizers on the efficient use of ammonium fertilizers was studied using N sub 1 sub 5 method. In pot experiment using salt affected alluvial soil, the objective of this study was to determine the ideal ratio of NO sub 3/NH sub 4 which enhance the efficiency of ammonium fertilizers. The results showed that the fresh and dry weights of maize (variety LG11) responded significantly to each type of fertilizer alone. Furthermore, the N-NO sub 3 fertilizer showed superiority over N-NH sup 4 fertilizer. Wherever, the highest yield was obtained with a mixture of both (N-NO sub 3 and N-NH sub 4) with NO sub 3/NH sub 4 ratio 1/8, in spite of the fact that the equivalent amounts of N were employed in all treatments. Under the given circumstances it has been recommended in salt affected soil in dry area, to use the above mentioned ratio for nitrogen fertilizer to obtain optimum yield. (author). 8 refs., 3 tabs

  18. Trends in atmospheric ammonium concentrations in relation to atmospheric sulfate and local agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Victoria R; Lovett, Gary M; Weathers, Kathleen C; Likens, Gene E

    2005-06-01

    Ammonium (NH(4)(+)) concentrations in air and precipitation at the Institute of Ecosystem Studies (IES) in southeastern New York, USA declined over an 11-year period from 1988 to 1999, but increased from 1999 to 2001. These trends in particulate NH(4)(+) correlated well with trends in particulate SO(4)(2-) over the 1988-2001 period. The NH(4)(+) trends were not as well correlated with local cattle and milk production, which declined continuously throughout the period. This suggests that regional transport of SO(4)(2-) may have a greater impact on concentrations of NH(4)(+) and subsequent deposition than local agricultural emissions of NH(3). Ammonium concentrations in precipitation correlated significantly with precipitation SO(4)(2-) concentrations for the 1984-2001 period although NH(4)(+) in precipitation increased after 1999 and SO(4)(2-) in precipitation continued to decline after 1999. The correlation between NH(4)(+) and SO(4)(2-) was stronger for particulates than for precipitation. Particulate NH(4)(+) concentrations were also correlated with particulate SO(4)(2-) concentrations at 31 of 35 eastern U.S. CASTNet sites that had at least 10 years of data. Air concentrations of NH(4)(+) and SO(4)(2-) were more strongly correlated at the sites that were located within an agricultural landscape than in forested sites. At most of the sites there was either no trend or a decrease in NH(4)(+) dry deposition during the 1988-2001 period. The sites that showed an increasing trend in NH(4)(+) dry deposition were generally located in the southeastern U.S. The results of this study suggest that, in the northeastern U.S., air concentrations of NH(4)(+) and subsequent deposition may be more closely linked to SO(4)(2-) and thus SO(2) emissions than with NH(3) emissions. These results also suggest that reductions in S emissions have reduced NH(4)(+) transport to and NH(4)(+)-N deposition in the Northeast.

  19. Effect of ammonium sulfate addition on decomposition of eudiolitic concentrate of sulphuric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ermakova, E.V.; Kolenkova, M.A.; Egorov, B.L.

    1985-01-01

    Researches on eudiolitic concentrate sulization by the sulfuric acid and ammonnum sulfate mixture are conducted with the purpose of a more complete separation of the rare-earth elements from Nb and Zr. It is shown that the eudiolitic concentrate decomposition degree under similar circumstances does not depend significantly on the amount of the added (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 . Rare-earth element and especially Y 2 O 3 transition into solution reduces sharply. As a result of investigations the following optimal eudiolitic concentrate sulfatization regime is recommended: the process temperature is 230 deg C; the duration is 4 hours; the consumption of 50% H 2 SO 4 -110% of the amount theore,.ically required for the break-down of all the components; the amount of (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 - 60 % of the concentrate weight. This regime allows more or less complete separation of ZrO 2 and Nb 2 O 5 from the rare-earth elements sum

  20. Agronomic performance of green cane fertilized with ammonium sulfate in a coastal tableland soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Pessim Oliveira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The recent approach of eliminating the usage of fire for sugarcane harvesting resulted in managing the crop on a trashblanketed soil, to which a proper recommendation of N fertilization is lacking, a problem that remains in the coastal tablelands of the Espírito Santo State, Brazil. This study aimed at evaluating the effect of increasing N rates on stalk and sugar yields and the N use efficiency by the crop. The experimental area planted with sugarcane, at the first ratoon, is located in Linhares, Espírito Santo State. The treatments consisted of N rates varying from 80 to 160 kg N∙ha−1 as ammonium sulphate, and a control without N, in a completely randomized blocks experimental design. Stalk yield increased with the N rate, and fitting the results to a quadratic function suggests no response to fertilizer rates above 130 kg N∙ha−1. The highest margin of agricultural contribution was obtained at the rate of 100 kg N∙ha−1. The N use efficiency decreased from almost 49 to 38%, when the N rate increased from 100 to 160 kg N∙ha−1. There was no effect of increasing N rates on the sugar concentration, although the sugar yield response was positive and strongly influenced by the stalk production. Results showed the importance of reassessing the adequate N rate for maximizing yield in green cane production systems.

  1. Sulfuric Acid and Ammonium Sulfate Leaching of Alumina from Lampang Clay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweena Numluk

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The rapid development of the global alumina industry has led to a considerable increase in the production alumina and processing of alumina from non-bauxitic sources. Lampang clays comprise various minerals that contain about 22.70 wt% of extractable alumina. Local clay was ground, activated by calcination and treated with sulfuric acid to extract alumina. In the activation step, the effects of temperature and time on the extraction of alumina and iron were investigated. The leaching experiments were performed on clay samples with particle sizes less than 200 mesh. The samples were calcined at different temperatures, ranging from 450°C to 1050°C, and for different periods, ranging from 30 to 150 min. The optimum conditions for the extraction of alumina from Lampang clay include grinding the clay to pass through a 200 mesh sieve, calcining the ground clay at 750°C for 30 min, extracting the alumina from the calcined clay by leaching with 3M sulfuric acid, and using an acid to clay ratio of 80 wt% at 100°C for 120 min. An aluminum dissolution efficiency of 95.1 % was achieved under the conditions that resulted in the maximum dissolution efficiency of iron (26.6 %.

  2. Effect of ammonium sulfate and urea on PCDD/F formation from active carbon and possible mechanism of inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Mi; Qi, Zhifu; Yang, Jie; Li, Xiaodong; Ren, Jianli; Xu, Zhang

    2014-11-01

    The effect of ammonium sulfate ((NH4)2SO4) and urea (CO(NH2)2) on polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran (PCDD/F) formation from active carbon was investigated in this study. Both additives could significantly inhibit PCDD/F formation, and PCDD/F (TEQ) generation was reduced to 98.5% (98%) or 64.5% (77.2%) after 5% (NH4)2SO4 or CO(NH2)2 was added into model ash, respectively. The inhibition efficiency of PCDDs was higher than the value of PCDFs, however, the reduction of PCDD/F yield was mainly from PCDFs decreasing. In addition, the solid-phase products were reduced more than the gas-phase compounds by inhibitors. By the measurement of chlorine emission in the phase of ion (Cl[Cl(-)]) and molecule gas (Cl[Cl2]), it was observed that both Cl[Cl(-)] and Cl[Cl2] were reduced after inhibitors were added into ash. Cl[Cl2] was reduced to 51.0% by urea addition, which was supposed as one possible mechanism of PCDD/F inhibition. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Synthesis, crystal growth, optical, thermal, and mechanical properties of a nonlinear optical single crystal: ammonium sulfate hydrogen sulphamate (ASHS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudhakar, K.; Nandhini, S.; Muniyappan, S.; Arumanayagam, T.; Vivek, P.; Murugakoothan, P.

    2018-04-01

    Ammonium sulfate hydrogen sulphamate (ASHS), an inorganic nonlinear optical crystal, was grown from the aqueous solution by slow evaporation solution growth technique. The single-crystal XRD confirms that the grown single crystal belongs to the orthorhombic system with the space group of Pna21. Powder XRD confirms the crystalline nature and the diffraction planes were indexed. Crystalline perfection of grown crystal was analysed by high-resolution X-ray diffraction rocking curve technique. UV-Vis-NIR studies revealed that ASHS crystal has optical transparency 65% and lower cut-off wavelength at 218 nm. The violet light emission of the crystal was identified by photoluminescence studies. The particle size-dependent second-harmonic generation efficiency for ASHS crystal was evaluated by Kurtz-Perry powder technique using Nd:YAG laser which established the existence of phase matching. Surface laser damage threshold value was evaluated using Nd:YAG laser. Optical homogeneity of the crystal was evaluated using modified channel spectrum method through birefringence study. Thermal analysis reveals that ASHS crystal is stable up to 213 °C. The mechanical behaviour of the ASHS crystal was analysed using Vickers microhardness study.

  4. Effect of diesel oil and ammonium sulfate on efficacy of glyphosate on Cyperus rotundus under field conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, N.E.; Babiker, A.G.T.

    1998-01-01

    Under Gezira field conditions, excellent and lasting Cyperus rotundus suppression was achieved, irrespective of application time or cropping conditions. From visual assessments, suppression was achieved when glyphosate as ''Roundup'' at 1.5 kg a.e./ha was applied alone or with the addition of ammonium sulfate, diesel oil emulsified with Triton X-100. At the rate of 0.75kg a.e./ha the herbicide was moderately effective on the cropped fields but on the uncropped fields it was as effective as the higher rate at 8 weeks. At the lowest rate tested (0.5 kg a.e./ha) the herbicide was less effective and was not significantly improved by the addition of adjuvants or charms, the time of spray application. The fresh and dry weights in the 0.75 kg a.e./ha treatments were reduced by 85% to 98% compared with the controls confirming the visual assessments. Unrestricted competition from the natural weed population combined with C. rotundus, reduced the maize stand by 59%, height by 55%, straw yield by 60% and grain yield by 87%, C. rotundus alone was less competitive reducing maize stand, height, straw and grain yields by 21%, 2%, 61% and 68% respectively. (author)

  5. Eliminating aluminum toxicity in an acid sulfate soil for rice cultivation using plant growth promoting bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panhwar, Qurban Ali; Naher, Umme Aminun; Radziah, Othman; Shamshuddin, Jusop; Razi, Ismail Mohd

    2015-02-20

    Aluminum toxicity is widely considered as the most important limiting factor for plants growing in acid sulfate soils. A study was conducted in laboratory and in field to ameliorate Al toxicity using plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB), ground magnesium limestone (GML) and ground basalt. Five-day-old rice seedlings were inoculated by Bacillus sp., Stenotrophomonas maltophila, Burkholderia thailandensis and Burkholderia seminalis and grown for 21 days in Hoagland solution (pH 4.0) at various Al concentrations (0, 50 and 100 μM). Toxicity symptoms in root and leaf were studied using scanning electron microscope. In the field, biofertilizer (PGPB), GML and basalt were applied (4 t·ha-1 each). Results showed that Al severely affected the growth of rice. At high concentrations, the root surface was ruptured, leading to cell collapse; however, no damages were observed in the PGPB inoculated seedlings. After 21 days of inoculation, solution pH increased to >6.0, while the control treatment remained same. Field study showed that the highest rice growth and yield were obtained in the bio-fertilizer and GML treatments. This study showed that Al toxicity was reduced by PGPB via production of organic acids that were able to chelate the Al and the production of polysaccharides that increased solution pH. The release of phytohormones further enhanced rice growth that resulted in yield increase.

  6. Comparative study between M. oleifera and aluminum sulfate for water treatment: case study Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar Gámez, Lorena L; Luna-delRisco, Mario; Cano, Roberto Efrain Salazar

    2015-10-01

    The world has a water deficit, mostly located in developing countries. For example, in Colombia, water deficit is a major concern and it increases in rural areas, where the rate of accessibility to drinking water is of 33.26% in 2005. Since the 1970s, the most used technology for water purification is the conventional physicochemical process. The most common coagulant used in this process is aluminum sulfate (alum). This study focuses on a comparison between Moringa oleifera seeds and alum for water treatment in different natural waters. Results showed that M. oleifera removed 90% turbidity and alum 96% from water samples from the tested natural brook. However, color removal for M. oleifera was 95 and 80.3% for alum. For water-polluted samples, both coagulants have shown high efficiency (100%) in color and turbidity removal. Usage of natural coagulants (i.e., M. oleifera) instead of chemical ones (i.e., alum) are more convenient in rural areas where the economic situation and accessibility of those products are key elements to maintain fresh water treatment standards. Additionally, results demonstrated that high dosages M. oleifera did not affect the optimal value in terms of color and turbidity removal. In rural and developing countries, this is important because it does not require a sophisticated dosing equipment.

  7. Origin and paleoenvironmental interpretation of aluminum phosphate-sulfate minerals in a Neoproterozoic Baltic paleosol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vircava, Ilze; Somelar, Peeter; Liivamägi, Sirle; Kirs, Juho; Kirsimäe, Kalle

    2015-04-01

    Aluminum phosphate-sulfate (APS) mineral solid-solutions occur as accessory phases in different sedimentary and hydrothermal deposits. Their composition is a sensitive environmental indicator recording changes in pH, temperature and chemical composition of the weathering, diagenetic or hydrothermal fluids. In this contribution we studied APS mineralization in a Neoproterozoic paleotropical paleosol developed on Paleo-Mesoproterozoic crystalline basement in the Baltic Basin. Small and disseminated APS minerals occur in high abundance (up to 4 wt.% of crystalline phases) in the weathering profile developed on gabbroic rocks rich in magmatic apatite. APS minerals belonging to a goyazite-florencite-svanbergite-woodhouseite solid-solution series occur in the uppermost part of the weathering profile and are replaced down-profile with secondary apatite. The change from APS minerals to secondary apatite precipitates reflects a paleo-pH gradient in the weathering profile from acidic (pH meters in the APS precipitation zone, to neutral or near neutral at 4-5 m-depth from the paleoweathered surface where secondary apatite occurs. Typically uniform < 5 μm-size APS crystallites suggest rapid precipitation in a highly supersaturated solution, but these crystals show a fine zonal structure whose nature and formation mechanism remain unclear.

  8. Hygroscopic behavior and chemical composition evolution of internally mixed aerosols composed of oxalic acid and ammonium sulfate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Wang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Although water uptake of aerosol particles plays an important role in the atmospheric environment, the effects of interactions between components on chemical composition and hygroscopicity of particles are still not well constrained. The hygroscopic properties and phase transformation of oxalic acid (OA and mixed particles composed of ammonium sulfate (AS and OA with different organic to inorganic molar ratios (OIRs have been investigated by using confocal Raman spectroscopy. It is found that OA droplets first crystallize to form OA dihydrate at 71 % relative humidity (RH, and further lose crystalline water to convert into anhydrous OA around 5 % RH during the dehydration process. The deliquescence and efflorescence point for AS is determined to be 80.1 ± 1.5 % RH and 44.3 ± 2.5 % RH, respectively. The observed efflorescence relative humidity (ERH for mixed OA ∕ AS droplets with OIRs of 1 : 3, 1 : 1 and 3 : 1 is 34.4 ± 2.0, 44.3 ± 2.5 and 64.4 ± 3.0 % RH, respectively, indicating the elevated OA content appears to favor the crystallization of mixed systems at higher RH. However, the deliquescence relative humidity (DRH of AS in mixed OA ∕ AS particles with OIRs of 1 : 3 and 1 : 1 is observed to occur at 81.1 ± 1.5 and 77 ± 1.0 % RH, respectively. The Raman spectra of mixed OA ∕ AS droplets indicate the formation of ammonium hydrogen oxalate (NH4HC2O4 and ammonium hydrogen sulfate (NH4HSO4 from interactions between OA and AS in aerosols during the dehydration process on the time scale of hours, which considerably influence the subsequent deliquescence behavior of internally mixed particles with different OIRs. The mixed OA ∕ AS particles with an OIR of 3 : 1 exhibit no deliquescence transition over the RH range studied due to the considerable transformation of (NH42SO4 into NH4HC2O4 with a high DRH. Although the hygroscopic growth of mixed OA

  9. Hygroscopic behavior and chemical composition evolution of internally mixed aerosols composed of oxalic acid and ammonium sulfate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaowei; Jing, Bo; Tan, Fang; Ma, Jiabi; Zhang, Yunhong; Ge, Maofa

    2017-10-01

    Although water uptake of aerosol particles plays an important role in the atmospheric environment, the effects of interactions between components on chemical composition and hygroscopicity of particles are still not well constrained. The hygroscopic properties and phase transformation of oxalic acid (OA) and mixed particles composed of ammonium sulfate (AS) and OA with different organic to inorganic molar ratios (OIRs) have been investigated by using confocal Raman spectroscopy. It is found that OA droplets first crystallize to form OA dihydrate at 71 % relative humidity (RH), and further lose crystalline water to convert into anhydrous OA around 5 % RH during the dehydration process. The deliquescence and efflorescence point for AS is determined to be 80.1 ± 1.5 % RH and 44.3 ± 2.5 % RH, respectively. The observed efflorescence relative humidity (ERH) for mixed OA / AS droplets with OIRs of 1 : 3, 1 : 1 and 3 : 1 is 34.4 ± 2.0, 44.3 ± 2.5 and 64.4 ± 3.0 % RH, respectively, indicating the elevated OA content appears to favor the crystallization of mixed systems at higher RH. However, the deliquescence relative humidity (DRH) of AS in mixed OA / AS particles with OIRs of 1 : 3 and 1 : 1 is observed to occur at 81.1 ± 1.5 and 77 ± 1.0 % RH, respectively. The Raman spectra of mixed OA / AS droplets indicate the formation of ammonium hydrogen oxalate (NH4HC2O4) and ammonium hydrogen sulfate (NH4HSO4) from interactions between OA and AS in aerosols during the dehydration process on the time scale of hours, which considerably influence the subsequent deliquescence behavior of internally mixed particles with different OIRs. The mixed OA / AS particles with an OIR of 3 : 1 exhibit no deliquescence transition over the RH range studied due to the considerable transformation of (NH4)2SO4 into NH4HC2O4 with a high DRH. Although the hygroscopic growth of mixed OA / AS droplets is comparable to that of AS or OA at high RH during the dehydration process, Raman growth

  10. Investigation of ozone and coagulant material’s (aluminum sulfate, ferric chloride, poly aluminum chloride and lime efficiency in “Kerman Kork” industry wastewater treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Hussein Javid

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Entry of untreated wastewater of wool scouring factories has been associated with many environmental hazards because of high rate of pollution. Presently effective treatment methods and reducing the costs of operation and maintenance from treatment units have always been under the attention of this industry owners. The aim of this survey is to present a suitable method for the treatment of wool scouring. Methods: In this study, chemical coagulant is used for wastewater treatment (aluminum sulfate, ferric chloride, poly aluminum chloride and lime. And then these materials with “ozone” as a strong oxidative in reduction of the amount of Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD in wastewater effluent has been surveyed. Results: The results of this work showed that only ferric chloride and aluminum sulfate among the above chemical coagulant had a high efficiency in the turbidity removal. Productivity of turbidity removal using ferric chloride with the pH of 4 to 5 was 99%, and turbidity was reduced from 166 Nephelometric Turbidity Units (NTU to 1.5 NTU, and productivity of turbidity removal using aluminum sulfate within the pH 4.5 to 5 was 99.33% that reduced turbidity from 166 to 1.1 NTU. Results of ozonation with 5 g/hour and the oxygen flow of 2.5 litter per min with the pH assess of 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, and 150 min to wastewater from chemical treatment with ferric chloride showed that the rate of COD was reduced from 24700 mg/L to 2940 mg/L. In ozonation to wastewater of chemical treatment with aluminum sulfate within the above rang of time, the rate of COD was reduced from 22500 mg/l to 4800 mg/l. Conclusion: We can be hopeful that in near future, getting the cheap technology of ozone production in industrial scale, one can use this technology for the propose of removal of pollutants having removal preferable by help of advanced treatment approaches.

  11. The effect of ammonium sulfate on the solubility of amino acids in water at (298.15 and 323.15) K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Luisa A.; Macedo, Eugenia A.; Pinho, Simao P.

    2009-01-01

    Using the analytical gravimetric method the solubility of glycine, DL-alanine, L-isoleucine, L-threonine, and L-serine in aqueous systems of (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 , at (298.15 and 323.15) K, were measured for salt concentrations ranging up to 2.0 molal. In the electrolyte molality range studied the experimental observations showed that ammonium sulfate is a salting-in agent for most of the amino acids studied. Furthermore, the change of the relative solubility with electrolyte concentration shows a maximum, which makes the representation of the data by a simple empirical correlation such as the Setschenow equation difficult. For the development and evaluation of a robust thermodynamic framework that makes it possible to more profoundly understand aqueous amino acid solutions with ammonium sulfate additional experimental information is needed

  12. Optimization of ammonium sulfate concentration for purification of colorectal cancer vaccine candidate recombinant protein GA733-FcK isolated from plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Se-Ra ePark

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A protein purification procedure is required to obtain high-value recombinant injectable vaccine proteins produced in plants as a bioreactor. However, existing purification procedures for plant-derived recombinant proteins are often not optimized and are inefficient, with low recovery rates. In our previous study, we used 25-30% ammonium sulfate to precipitate total soluble proteins (TSPs in purification process for recombinant proteins from plant leaf biomass which has not been optimized. Thus, the objective in this study is to optimize the conditions for plant-derived protein purification procedures. Various ammonium sulfate concentrations (15-80% were compared to determine their effects on TSPs yield. With 50% ammonium sulfate, the yield of precipitated TSP was the highest, and that of the plant-derived colorectal cancer-specific surface glycoprotein GA733 fused to the Fc fragment of human IgG tagged with endoplasmic reticulum (ER retention signal KDEL (GA733P-FcK protein significantly increased 1.8-fold. SDS-PAGE analysis showed that the purity of GA733P-FcK protein band appeared to be similar to that of an equal dose of mammalian-derived GA733-Fc (GA733M-Fc. The binding activity of purified GA733P-FcK to anti-GA733 mAb was as efficient as the native GA733M-Fc. Thus, the purification process was effectively optimized for obtaining a high yield of plant-derived antigenic protein with good quality. In conclusion, the purification recovery rate of large quantities of recombinant protein from plant expression systems can be enhanced via optimization of ammonium sulfate concentration during downstream processes, thereby offering a promising solution for production of recombinant GA733-Fc protein in plants.

  13. Optimization of Ammonium Sulfate Concentration for Purification of Colorectal Cancer Vaccine Candidate Recombinant Protein GA733-FcK Isolated from Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Se-Ra; Lim, Chae-Yeon; Kim, Deuk-Su; Ko, Kisung

    2015-01-01

    A protein purification procedure is required to obtain high-value recombinant injectable vaccine proteins produced in plants as a bioreactor. However, existing purification procedures for plant-derived recombinant proteins are often not optimized and are inefficient, with low recovery rates. In our previous study, we used 25-30% ammonium sulfate to precipitate total soluble proteins (TSPs) in purification process for recombinant proteins from plant leaf biomass which has not been optimized. Thus, the objective in this study is to optimize the conditions for plant-derived protein purification procedures. Various ammonium sulfate concentrations (15-80%) were compared to determine their effects on TSPs yield. With 50% ammonium sulfate, the yield of precipitated TSP was the highest, and that of the plant-derived colorectal cancer-specific surface glycoprotein GA733 fused to the Fc fragment of human IgG tagged with endoplasmic reticulum retention signal KDEL (GA733(P)-FcK) protein significantly increased 1.8-fold. SDS-PAGE analysis showed that the purity of GA733(P)-FcK protein band appeared to be similar to that of an equal dose of mammalian-derived GA733-Fc (GA733(M)-Fc). The binding activity of purified GA733(P)-FcK to anti-GA733 mAb was as efficient as the native GA733(M)-Fc. Thus, the purification process was effectively optimized for obtaining a high yield of plant-derived antigenic protein with good quality. In conclusion, the purification recovery rate of large quantities of recombinant protein from plant expression systems can be enhanced via optimization of ammonium sulfate concentration during downstream processes, thereby offering a promising solution for production of recombinant GA733-Fc protein in plants.

  14. Interactions between chloride and sulfate or silica removals from wastewater using an advanced lime-aluminum softening process: equilibrium modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Wahab, Ahmed; Batchelor, Bill

    2007-05-01

    Interactions among chloride, sulfate, and silica removals from recycled industrial wastewater using an ultra-high lime with aluminum process (UHLA) were studied. An equilibrium model that is able to accurately predict the chemical behavior and interactions between chloride and sulfate or silica with UHLA at various initial conditions and chemical reagents was developed. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis was conducted to identify the precipitated solids formed in the UHLA process. Model predictions indicated that simultaneous removal of sulfate and chloride can be best described by the formation of a solid solution containing calcium chloroaluminate, calcium sulfoaluminate (ettringite), calcium monosulfate, tricalcium hydroxyaluminate, and tetracalcium hydroxyaluminate. However, simultaneous removal of silica and chloride can be best described by precipitation of calcium silicate and calcium aluminosilicate in addition to a solid solution containing calcium chloroaluminate, tricalcium hydroxyaluminate, and tetracalcium hydroxyaluminate. The XRD results indicated the presence of the same solids assumed by the equilibrium model.

  15. Thermal decomposition behavior of the rare-earth ammonium sulfate R2(SO4)3.(NH4)2SO4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagai, Tsukasa; Tamura, Shinji; Imanaka, Nobuhito

    2010-01-01

    Rare-earth ammonium sulfate octahydrates of R 2 (SO 4 ) 3 .(NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 .8H 2 O (R=Pr, Nd, Sm, and Eu) were synthesized by a wet process, and the stable temperature region for the anhydrous R 2 (SO 4 ) 3 .(NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 form was clarified by thermogravimetry/differential thermal analysis, infrared, Raman, and electrical conductivity measurements. Detailed characterization of these double salts demonstrated that the thermal stability of anhydrous R 2 (SO 4 ) 3 .(NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 is different between the Pr, Nd salts and the Sm, Eu salts, and the thermal decomposition behavior of these salts was quite different from the previous reports. - Graphical abstract: Stable temperature range of anhydrous rare-earth ammonium sulfate R 2 (SO 4 ) 3 .(NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 was clarified by thermogravimetry/differential thermal analysis, infrared, Raman, and electrical conductivity measurements. Since the previous reports were based only on thermal analysis, the present work has more accurately determined the exact thermal stability of rare-earth ammonium sulfate solids.

  16. The use of a polymer inclusion membrane as a sorbent for online preconcentration in the flow injection determination of thiocyanate impurity in ammonium sulfate fertilizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohshima, Takumi; Kagaya, Shigehiro; Gemmei-Ide, Makoto; Cattrall, Robert W; Kolev, Spas D

    2014-11-01

    A polymer inclusion membrane (PIM) is used for the first time as a sorbent in the construction of a preconcentration column to enhance the sensitivity in flow injection analysis (FIA). The PIM-coated column is readily prepared by coating the PIM containing poly(vinyl chloride), Aliquat 336, and 1-tetradecanol onto glass beads packed in a glass tube. The determination of trace amounts of thiocyanate in ammonium sulfate fertilizer demonstrates the potential of the proposed PIM-coated column in FIA. Thiocyanate standards or samples of relatively large volume (e.g. up to 2000 µL) are injected into a nitrate carrier stream. The sample zone passes through the proposed preconcentration column where thiocyanate is concentrated in a smaller volume of a carrier solution thus resulting in up to 7.4 fold increase in sensitivity. Thiocyanate is detected spectrophotometrically after its reaction with Fe(III) downstream of the preconcentration column. The limits of detection of thiocyanate in the absence and presence of 20 g L(-1) ammonium sulfate (S/N=2) are 0.014 and 0.024 mg L(-1), respectively. Thiocyanate was successfully determined in several samples of ammonium sulfate fertilizer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Different mechanisms for lead acetate, aluminum and cadmium sulfate in rat corpus cavernosum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senbel, Amira M.; Saad, Evan I.; Taha, Safaa S.; Mohamed, Hosny F.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Some heavy metals show adverse vascular and neurological effects, however, their effect on erection is underestimated. This study aims to investigate the effect of Pb, Cd and Al on erectile function and their potential mechanism of action in rats. Methods: Measurement of intracavernosal pressure/mean arterial pressure (ICP/MAP) changes elicited by electrical stimulation of cavernous nerve in anesthetized rats treated with Pb-acetate, Al-sulfate, or Cd-sulfate acutely, and subacutely for 7 days. Serum creatinine, testosterone, TBARs, GSH levels and metal accumulation in corpus cavernosum were measured. Results: Pb, Al and Cd significantly reduced ICP/MAP in rats after acute (2,10–2,10 and 1,3 mg/kg respectively) and sub-acute (3, 3, and 1 mg/kg/day respectively) treatments. They selectively accumulated in the corpus cavernosum reaching 25.107 ± 2.081 μg/g wet weight for Pb, 1.029 ± 0.193 for Cd, 31.343 ± 1.991 for Al, compared to 7.084 ± 1.517, 0.296 ± 0.067, and 8.86 ± 1.115 as controls respectively. Serum creatinine levels were not altered. Cd and Al significantly reduced testosterone level to 0.483 ± 0.059 and 0.419 ± 0.037 ng/ml respectively compared to 0.927 ± 0.105 ng/ml as control. Aluminum elevated TBARs significantly by 27.843%. The acute anti-erectile action of Pb was blocked by non-selective NOS and GC inhibitors and potassium channel blocker. Lead also masked the potentiatory effect of L-arginine and diazoxide on ICP/MAP. No interaction with muscarinic or nicotinic modulators was observed. Conclusions: Pb, Cd and Al show anti-erectile effect independent on renal injury. They don not modulate cholinergic nor ganglionic transmission in corpus cavernosum. Pb may inhibit NO/cGMP/K + channel pathway. The effect of Cd and Al but not Pb seems to be hormonal dependent.

  18. Different mechanisms for lead acetate, aluminum and cadmium sulfate in rat corpus cavernosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senbel, Amira M; Saad, Evan I; Taha, Safaa S; Mohamed, Hosny F

    2016-01-18

    Some heavy metals show adverse vascular and neurological effects, however, their effect on erection is underestimated. This study aims to investigate the effect of Pb, Cd and Al on erectile function and their potential mechanism of action in rats. Measurement of intracavernosal pressure/mean arterial pressure (ICP/MAP) changes elicited by electrical stimulation of cavernous nerve in anesthetized rats treated with Pb-acetate, Al-sulfate, or Cd-sulfate acutely, and subacutely for 7 days. Serum creatinine, testosterone, TBARs, GSH levels and metal accumulation in corpus cavernosum were measured. Pb, Al and Cd significantly reduced ICP/MAP in rats after acute (2,10-2,10 and 1,3 mg/kg respectively) and sub-acute (3, 3, and 1mg/kg/day respectively) treatments. They selectively accumulated in the corpus cavernosum reaching 25.107 ± 2.081 μg/g wet weight for Pb, 1.029 ± 0.193 for Cd, 31.343 ± 1.991 for Al, compared to 7.084 ± 1.517, 0.296 ± 0.067, and 8.86 ± 1.115 as controls respectively. Serum creatinine levels were not altered. Cd and Al significantly reduced testosterone level to 0.483 ± 0.059 and 0.419 ± 0.037 ng/ml respectively compared to 0.927 ± 0.105 ng/ml as control. Aluminum elevated TBARs significantly by 27.843%. The acute anti-erectile action of Pb was blocked by non-selective NOS and GC inhibitors and potassium channel blocker. Lead also masked the potentiatory effect of l-arginine and diazoxide on ICP/MAP. No interaction with muscarinic or nicotinic modulators was observed. Pb, Cd and Al show anti-erectile effect independent on renal injury. They don not modulate cholinergic nor ganglionic transmission in corpus cavernosum. Pb may inhibit NO/cGMP/K+channel pathway. The effect of Cd and Al but not Pb seems to be hormonal dependent. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of submicron ammonium sulfate particles on the growth and yield of komatsuna (Brassica rapa L. var. perviridis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motai, Akira; Nakaba, Satoshi; Lenggoro, I. Wuled; Watanabe, Makoto; Wada, Yoshiharu; Izuta, Takeshi

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of submicron ammonium sulfate (AS) particles on komatsuna (Brassica rapa L. cv. Hakkei) plants. First, we optimized a leaf-washing method to measure the amount of AS particles deposited on the leaf surface of the plants. Then, we used this method to determine the retention time of particles deposited on the leaf surface of the plants. We also investigated the effects of AS particles on the growth and yield of the plants. Almost all the AS particles deposited on the leaf surface were removed within 1 min washing time with ultrapure water, and ion leaching from the leaf was relatively slow but continuous during the leaf-washing procedure. On the basis of these results, we determined that 1 min was a suitable washing time to remove most of the AS particles while minimizing the influence of ion leaching from the leaf. The amount of particulate SO42- deposited on the leaf surface decreased over time, probably because AS particles deposited on the leaf surface deliquesced, allowing ions such as SO42- in the deliquescence solution to be absorbed into the leaf. The plants were grown and exposed to AS particles for 16 days in naturally lit phytotrons. The daily mean increase in the concentration of SO42- in PM2.5 by the exposure to AS particles was 22.5 μg m-3 in the phytotrons. The growth and yield of the plants were significantly reduced by the exposure to AS particles. The exposure to AS particles did not affect the leaf concentrations of nitrogen and chlorophyll, but significantly reduced stomatal conductance. Therefore, stomatal closure is one of the reasons for the AS particle-induced reductions in the growth and yield of komatsuna plants.

  20. Parameterization of N2O5 reaction probabilities on the surface of particles containing ammonium, sulfate, and nitrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. V. Bhave

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A parameterization was developed for the heterogeneous reaction probability (γ of N2O5 as a function of temperature, relative humidity (RH, particle composition, and phase state, for use in advanced air quality models. The reaction probabilities on aqueous NH4HSO4, (NH42SO4, and NH4NO3 were modeled statistically using data and uncertainty values compiled from seven different laboratory studies. A separate regression model was fit to laboratory data for dry NH4HSO4 and (NH42SO4 particles, yielding lower γ values than the corresponding aqueous parameterizations. The regression equations reproduced 80% of the laboratory data within a factor of two and 63% within a factor of 1.5. A fixed value was selected for γ on ice-containing particles based on a review of the literature. The combined parameterization was applied under atmospheric conditions representative of the eastern United States using 3-dimensional fields of temperature, RH, sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium. The resulting spatial distributions of γ were contrasted with three other parameterizations that have been applied in air quality models in the past and with atmospheric observational determinations of γ. Our equations lay the foundation for future research that will parameterize the suppression of γ when inorganic ammoniated particles are mixed or coated with organic material. Our analyses draw attention to a major uncertainty in the available laboratory data at high RH and highlight a critical need for future laboratory measurements of γ at low temperature and high RH to improve model simulations of N2O5 hydrolysis during wintertime conditions.

  1. Studies on Thermal Decomposition of Aluminium Sulfate to Produce Alumina Nano Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Jafar-Tafreshi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum sulfate nano structures have been prepared by solution combustion synthesis using aluminum nitrate nonahydrate (Al(NO33.9H2O and ammonium sulfate ((NH42SO4. The resultant aluminum sulfate nano structures were calcined at different temperatures to study thermal  decomposition of aluminum sulfate. The crystallinity and phase of  the as-synthesized and calcined samples were characterized by both X- ray diffraction and FTIR measurements. These two analyses determined the temperature at which the aluminum sulfate is converted to γ-alumina nano particles. The specific surface area and pore size distribution for  γ-alumina nano particles were determined by BET measurement. TEM measurement confirmed the size of the particles obtained by XRD and BET analyses.

  2. Effect of Ammonium Polyphosphate to Aluminum Hydroxide Mass Ratio on the Properties of Wood-Flour/Polypropylene Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Wang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Two halogen-free inorganic flame retardants, ammonium polyphosphate (APP and aluminum hydroxide (ATH were added to wood-flour/polypropylene composites (WPCs at different APP to ATH mass ratios (APP/ATH ratios, with a constant total loading of 30 wt % (30% by mass. Water soaking tests indicated a low hygroscopicity and/or solubility of ATH as compared to APP. Mechanical property tests showed that the flexural properties were not significantly affected by the APP/ATH ratio, while the impact strength appeared to increase with the increasing ATH/APP ratio. Cone calorimetry indicated that APP appeared to be more effective than ATH in reducing the peak of heat release rate (PHRR. However, when compared to the neat WPCs, total smoke release decreased with the addition of ATH but increased with the addition of APP. Noticeably, WPCs containing the combination of 20 wt % APP and 10 wt % ATH (WPC/APP-20/ATH-10 showed the lowest PHRR and total heat release in all of the formulations. WPCs combustion residues were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, laser Raman spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR. Thermogravimetric analysis coupled with FTIR spectroscopy was used to identify the organic volatiles that were produced during the thermal decomposition of WPCs. WPC/APP-20/ATH-10 showed the most compact carbonaceous residue with the highest degree of graphitization.

  3. Utilization of sulfate additives in biomass combustion: fundamental and modeling aspects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Hao; Jespersen, Jacob Boll; Grell, Morten Nedergaard

    2013-01-01

    Sulfates, such as ammonium sulfate, aluminum sulfate and ferric sulfate, are effective additives for converting the alkali chlorides released from biomass combustion to the less harmful alkali sulfates. Optimization of the use of these additives requires knowledge on their decomposition rate...... was combined with a detailed gas-phase kinetic model of KCl sulfation and a model of K2SO4 condensation to simulate the sulfation of KCl by ferric sulfate addition. The simulation results showed good agreements with the experiments conducted in a biomass grate-firing combustor, where ferric sulfate...... and elemental sulfur were used as additives. The results indicated that the SO3 released from ferric sulfate decomposition was the main contributor to KCl sulfation and that the effectiveness of ferric sulfate addition was sensitive to the applied temperature conditions. Comparison of the effectiveness...

  4. Evaluation of using aluminum sulfate and water-soluble Moringa oleifera seed lectin to reduce turbidity and toxicity of polluted stream water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, José Henrique Edmilson Souza; de Santana, Keissy Vanderley; do Nascimento, Ana Cláudia Claudina; de Paiva, Sérgio Carvalho; de Moura, Maiara Celine; Coelho, Luana Cassandra Breitenbach Barroso; de Oliveira, Maria Betânia Melo; Paiva, Patrícia Maria Guedes; do Nascimento, Aline Elesbão; Napoleão, Thiago Henrique

    2016-11-01

    Aluminum salts are used as coagulants in water treatment; however, the exposure to residual aluminum has been associated with human brain lesions. The water-soluble Moringa oleifera lectin (WSMoL), which is extracted with distilled water and isolated by chitin chromatography, has coagulant activity and is able to reduce the concentration of metal ions in aqueous solutions. This study evaluated the potential of using aluminum sulfate and WSMoL to reduce the turbidity and toxicity of water from the Cavouco stream located in Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil. The water sample used (called P1) was collected from the stream source, which was found to be strongly polluted based on physicochemical and water quality analyses, as well as ecotoxicity assays with Artemia salina and seeds of Eruca sativa and Lactuca sativa. The assays combining WSMoL and aluminum sulfate were more efficient than those that used these agents separately. Furthermore, the greatest reduction in turbidity (96.8%) was obtained with the treatment using aluminum sulfate followed by WSMoL, compared to when they were applied simultaneously (91.3%). In addition, aluminum sulfate followed by WSMoL treatment resulted in residual aluminum concentration (0.3 mg/L) that was much lower than that recorded after the treatment using only the salt (35.5 mg/L). The ecotoxicity of P1 was also strongly reduced after the treatments. In summary, the combined use of aluminum sulfate and WSMoL was efficient in promoting a strong reduction of turbidity and ecotoxicity of a polluted water sample, without resulting in a high residual aluminum concentration at the conclusion of the treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. [Sensitive Determination of Chondroitin Sulfate by Fluorescence Recovery of an Anionic Aluminum Phthalocyanine-Cationic Surfactant Ion-Association Complex Used as a Fluorescent Probe Emitting at Red Region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lin; Huang, Ping; Yang, Hui-qing; Deng, Ya-bin; Guo, Meng-lin; Li, Dong-hui

    2015-08-01

    Determination of chondroitin sulfate in the biomedical field has an important value. The conventional methods for the assay of chondroitin sulfate are still unsatisfactory in sensitivity, selectivity or simplicity. This work aimed at developing a novel method for sensitive and selective determination of chondroitin sulfate by fluorimetry. We found that some kinds of cationic surfactants have the ability to quench the fluorescence of tetrasulfonated aluminum phthalocyanine (AlS4Pc), a strongly fluorescent compound which emits at red region, with high efficiency. But, the fluorescence of the above-mentioned fluorescence quenching system recovered significantly when chondroitin sulfate (CS) exits. Tetradecyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride(TDBAC) which was screened from all of the candidates of cationic surfactants was chosen as the quencher because it shows the most efficient quenching effect. It was found that the fluorescence of AlS4Pc was extremely quenched by TDBAC because of the formation of association complex between AlS4Pc and TDBAC. Fluorescence of the association complex recovered dramatically after the addition of chondroitin sulfate (CS) due to the ability of chondroitin sulfate to shift the association equilibrium of the association, leading to the release of AlS4Pc, thus resulting in an increase in the fluorescence of the reaction system. Based on this phenomenon, a novel method with simplicity, accuracy and sensitivity was developed for quantitative determination of CS. Factors including the reaction time, influencing factors and the effect of coexisting substances were investigated and discussed. Under optimum conditions the linear range of the calibration curve was 0.20~10.0 μg · mL(-1). The detection limit for CS was 0.070 μg · mL(-1). The method has been applied to the analysis of practical samples with satisfied results. This work expands the applications of AlS4Pc in biomedical area.

  6. Combined aluminum potassium sulfate and tannic acid sclerosing therapy and anal encirclement using an elastic artificial ligament for rectal prolapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Tatsuya; Hachiro, Yoshikazu; Kunimoto, Masao

    2014-05-01

    Aluminum potassium sulfate and tannic acid is a sclerosant used for sclerosing therapy in the treatment of hemorrhoids, and a Leeds-Keio artificial ligament is a new anal-encircling material for the management of rectal prolapse. The aim of this study was to evaluate clinical data and recurrence rates in patients with rectal prolapse undergoing combined aluminum potassium sulfate and tannic acid injection and anal encirclement using the Leeds-Keio artificial ligament. This was a retrospective review of patients who underwent this procedure. This study was conducted at a community-based hospital within a specialized colorectal unit. A total of 23 patients (20 women; median age, 83 years) with full-thickness rectal prolapse underwent treatment between 2005 and 2010. The main outcome measures were morbidity and recurrence rate. The median duration of surgery was 36 minutes. Mean total injection dose of aluminum potassium sulfate and tannic acid was 30 mL. There were no postoperative deaths. Wound infection occurred in 2 patients (9%), and new or worsening symptoms of constipation after surgery occurred in 6 patients (26%). There were 3 recurrences at a median follow-up of 36 months (range, 7-86 months). Recurrence rate at 5 years was 14% (95% CI, 5%-35%). The limitations of this study include its retrospective nature, the potential for selection bias, and lack of a control group. This procedure is quick and easy to perform, with no formidable morbidity, and the recurrence rate is reasonably low. Therefore, it seems to be a reasonable alternative for rectal prolapse in frail, elderly, and high-risk patients.

  7. [Microstructure morphology and flocculation mechanism of the decolorizing flocculant poly-aluminum (III)-magnesium (II)-sulfate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Yi-min; Chang, Xue-hong; Che, Yue; Gu, Qing-bao

    2013-09-01

    Crystal structures and morphologic characteristics of poly-aluminum (III)-magnesium (II)-sulfate (PMAS) were discussed using X-radial diffraction and infrared spectrogram and the flocculation mechanism was explored here based on comparisons between decolorization effect of landfill leachate secondary effluent and the system Zeta potential. The results indicated that PMAS was a kind of macromolecular composite polymer of aluminum and magnesium based on -OH bonding. The flocculation mechanism of PMAS was mainly charge neutralization and co-precipitation netting. Charge neutralization was the main mechanism at low dose. Its flocculation behaviors were different along with different pH of wastewater at high doses, namely, it was mainly charge neutralization at low pH and co-precipitation netting at high pH and both of them work together at neutral condition.

  8. Cooperativity between Volatilization of NH3, Evaporation of Water and Crystallization of Na2SO4 in Internally Mixed Sodium Succinate/Ammonium Sulfate Aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pan; Pang, Shu-Feng; Zhang, Yun-Hong

    2017-04-01

    Gas-to-particle partitioning is one of the most important physicochemical process in atmospheric aerosols. The chemical reaction in the internally mixed organic/inorganic aerosols attracts much attention on the volatility and hygroscopicity. In this study, FTIR spectra evolution with time were observed by FTIR-ATR technique at constant relative humidity for the internally mixed sodium succinate/ammonium sulfate aerosols with molar ratio of 1:1. The results showed that sodium succinate and ammonium sulfate in the mixed aerosols could react to form succinate acid and sodium sulfate accompanying NH3 volatile as followings: NaOOCCH2CH2COONa (aq) + (NH4)2SO4 (aq) → HOOCCH2CH2COOH (aq) + Na2SO4 (aq or crystal) + NH3 (g) The volatilization of NH3 speeded up the evaporation of water, and indirectly accelerated the crystallization of Na2SO4 in the mixed aerosols, which synergistically accelerated release of NH3. The complex reaction between dicarboxylic salt and (NH4)2SO4 could help us to understand the cooperativity between the gas-to-particle equilibrium, phase transition, atmospheric composition and volatility, which could reveal the formation mechanism of the secondary organic aerosols.

  9. [Seasonal Variation Characteristics and Potential Source Contribution of Sulfate, Nitrate and Ammonium in Beijing by Using Single Particle Aerosol Mass Spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lang; Zhang, Wen-jie; Du, Shi-yong; Hou, Lu-jian; Han, Bin; Yang, Wen; Chen, Min-dong; Bai, Zhi-peng

    2016-05-15

    Single particle aerosol mass spectrometry (SPAMS) was deployed to continuously observe the aerosol particles of Beijing urban area from 2013-12 to 2014-11, and the hourly average data of sulfate, nitrate and ammonium (SNA) were obtained using the characteristic ion tracer method. The mixing state and size distribution of SNA were analyzed. In addition, based on Hysplit 48 h back air mass trajectory results in combination with Concentration Weighted Trajectory method (CWT), we obtained the seasonal potential source contribution area of SNA. The results showed that the mixture of sulfate, nitrate and ammonium in spring and summer was more stable than that in autumn and winter. The size distribution of sulfate and nitrate was very similar. The size distribution characteristics of SNA followed the order of autumn > summer > spring > winter. The potential source region of SNA had similar spatial distribution characteristics, and the potential source region of SNA was mainly located in Beijing and south areas, especially at Tianjin, Langfang, Hengshui, Baoding and Shijiazhuang.

  10. Role of interfacial water in the heterogeneous uptake of glyoxal by mixed glycine and ammonium sulfate aerosols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trainic, Miri; Riziq, Ali Abo; Lavi, Avi; Rudich, Yinon

    2012-06-21

    This study focuses on the heterogeneous reactions of gas phase glyoxal with aerosols of glycine, the most abundant amino acid in atmospheric aerosols, as well as with a mixture of glycine and ammonium sulfate (AS) at a molar ratio of 1:100 (glycine-AS 1:100). Aerosols were exposed to varying relative humidity (RH) conditions in the presence of gas phase glyoxal for ∼1 h, followed by drying and efflorescence. The changes in size, chemical composition, and optical properties were consequently measured. The reactions occur over a wide range of relative humidities, from ∼30% up to 90% RH, covering values that are substantially lower as well as above the deliquescence point of the investigated aerosols. The product aerosols exhibit a trend of increasing growth in size, in optical extinction cross sections, and in extinction efficiencies (at λ = 355 nm) with decreasing seed aerosol size, and with decreasing RH values from 90% to ∼50%. For glycine-AS 1:100 particles, the ratio of the geometric cross section of the product aerosol to the original seed aerosol reached a value of ∼3, the optical extinction cross section ratio was up to ∼25, and the Q(ext) ratio was up to ∼8, exceeding those of both AS and glycine separately, suggesting a synergistic effect. Aerosol mass spectrometer analyses show that the main products of all the studied reactions are glyoxal oligomers (light scattering compounds), with a minor contribution from imidazoles (absorbing compounds at λ = 355 nm). These findings imply that the changes in the optical properties are likely due to enhanced scattering by the reaction products. The fraction of absorbing substances in the reacted aerosol increases with increasing RH, suggesting that the absorption component may become more substantial after longer reaction times, possibly in cloud or fog droplets. The results suggest that these reactions are possibly important in low RH regions, plausibly due to the reaction occurring in a few interfacial

  11. Hygroscopic properties and cloud condensation nuclei activation of limonene-derived organosulfates and their mixtures with ammonium sulfate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, A. M. K.; Hong, J.; Raatikainen, T.; Kristensen, K.; Ylisirniö, A.; Virtanen, A.; Petäjä, T.; Glasius, M.; Prisle, N. L.

    2015-12-01

    Organosulfates have been observed as constituents of atmospheric aerosols in a wide range of environments; however their hygroscopic properties remain uncharacterised. Here, limonene-derived organosulfates with a molecular weight of 250 Da (L-OS 250) were synthesised and used for simultaneous measurements with a hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyser (H-TDMA) and a cloud condensation nuclei counter (CCNC) to determine the hygroscopicity parameter, κ, for pure L-OS 250 and mixtures of L-OS 250 with ammonium sulfate (AS) over a wide range of humidity conditions. The κ values derived from measurements with H-TDMA decreased with increasing particle dry diameter for all chemical compositions investigated, indicating that κH-TDMA depends on particle diameter and/or surface effects; however, it is not clear if this trend is statistically significant. For pure L-OS 250, κ was found to increase with increasing relative humidity, indicating dilution/solubility effects to be significant. Discrepancies in κ between the sub- and supersaturated measurements were observed for L-OS 250, whereas κ of AS and mixed L-OS 250/AS were similar. This discrepancy was primarily ascribed to limited dissolution of L-OS 250 at subsaturated conditions. In general, hygroscopic growth factor, critical particle diameter and κ for the mixed L-OS 250/AS particles converged towards the values of pure AS for mixtures with ≥ 20 % w / w AS. Surface tension measurements of bulk aqueous L-OS 250/AS solutions showed that L-OS 250 was indeed surface active, as expected from its molecular structure, decreasing the surface tension of solutions with 24 % from the pure water value at a L-OS 250 concentration of 0.0025 mol L-1. Based on these surface tension measurements, we present the first concentration-dependent parametrisation of surface tension for aqueous L-OS 250, which was implemented to different process-level models of L-OS 250 hygroscopicity and CCN activation. The values of κ

  12. Fine-tuning key parameters of an integrated reactor system for the simultaneous removal of COD, sulfate and ammonium and elemental sulfur reclamation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Ye; Chen, Chuan; Liang, Bin; Huang, Cong; Zhao, Youkang; Xu, Xijun; Tan, Wenbo; Zhou, Xu; Gao, Shuang; Sun, Dezhi; Lee, Duujong; Zhou, Jizhong; Wang, Aijie

    2014-03-30

    In this paper, we proposed an integrated reactor system for simultaneous removal of COD, sulfate and ammonium (integrated C-S-N removal system) and investigated the key parameters of the system for a high level of elemental sulfur (S(0)) production. The system consisted of 4 main units: sulfate reduction and organic carbon removal (SR-CR), autotrophic and heterotrophic denitrifying sulfide removal (A&H-DSR), sulfur reclamation (SR), and aerated filter for aerobic nitrification (AN). In the system, the effects of key operational parameters on production of elemental sulfur were investigated, including hydraulic retention time (HRT) of each unit, sulfide/nitrate (S(2-)-S/NO3(-)-N) ratios, reflux ratios between the A&H-DSR and AN units, and loading rates of chemical oxygen demand (COD), sulfate and ammonium. Physico-chemical characteristics of biosulfur were studied for acquiring efficient S(0) recovery. The experiments successfully explored the optimum parameters for each unit and demonstrated 98% COD, 98% sulfate and 78% nitrogen removal efficiency. The optimum HRTs for SR-CR, A&H-DSR and AN were 12h, 3h and 3h, respectively. The reflux ratio of 3 could provide adequate S(2-)-S/NO3(-)-N ratio (approximately 1:1) to the A&H-DSR unit for obtaining maximum sulfur production. In this system, the maximum production of S(0) reached 90%, but only 60% S(0) was reclaimed from effluent. The S(0) that adhered to the outer layer of granules was deposited in the bottom of the A&H-DSR unit. Finally, the microbial community structure of the corresponding unit at different operational stage were analyzed by 16S rRNA gene based high throughput Illumina MiSeq sequencing and the potential function of dominant species were discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Formation of hafnium sulfates with potassium and ammonium in the HfO2-H2SO4-Me2SO4-H2O systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sozinova, Yu.P.; Motov, D.L.

    1978-01-01

    The formation of double hafnium sulfates with potassium and ammonium has been studied by the method of isothermal solubility at 60 deg C. In systems with potassium double hafnium salts have been obtained for the first time for which the ratio between the components is HfO 2 :H 2 SO 4 :K 2 SO 4 :H 2 O=2:2:1:3, 1:1:1:3, and 1:2:1:0.5. In the system with ammonia double salts have been obtained with the ratio between the components HfO 2 :H 2 SO 4 :(NH 4 )SO 4 :H 2 O=2:1:1:1, 2:3:1:-1, 1:2:1:0, and 1:2:2:2. In contrast to potassium salts, solubility of ammonium salts depends to a greater extent on the solution acidity, and to a lesser extent on the content of (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 . The transition of simple sulfates into double in the system with (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 takes place at a high content of (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 in the solution (about 10 mass.%), whereas in the presence of potassium double salts are formed at about 3.5% of K 2 SO 4 in the solution

  14. Salting-out extraction of allicin from garlic (Allium sativum L.) based on ethanol/ammonium sulfate in laboratory and pilot scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fenfang; Li, Qiao; Wu, Shuanggen; Tan, Zhijian

    2017-02-15

    Salting-out extraction (SOE) based on lower molecular organic solvent and inorganic salt was considered as a good substitute for conventional polymers aqueous two-phase extraction (ATPE) used for the extraction of some bioactive compounds from natural plants resources. In this study, the ethanol/ammonium sulfate was screened as the optimal SOE system for the extraction and preliminary purification of allicin from garlic. Response surface methodology (RSM) was developed to optimize the major conditions. The maximum extraction efficiency of 94.17% was obtained at the optimized conditions for routine use: 23% (w/w) ethanol concentration and 24% (w/w) salt concentration, 31g/L loaded sample at 25°C with pH being not adjusted. The extraction efficiency had no obvious decrease after amplification of the extraction. This ethanol/ammonium sulfate SOE is much simpler, cheaper, and effective, which has the potentiality of scale-up production for the extraction and purification of other compounds from plant resources. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Development of an on-line source-tagged model for sulfate, nitrate and ammonium: A modeling study for highly polluted periods in Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jian-Bin; Wang, Zifa; Wang, Qian; Li, Jie; Xu, Jianming; Chen, HuanSheng; Ge, Baozhu; Zhou, Guangqiang; Chang, Luyu

    2017-02-01

    An on-line source-tagged model coupled with an air quality model (Nested Air Quality Prediction Model System, NAQPMS) was applied to estimate source contributions of primary and secondary sulfate, nitrate and ammonium (SNA) during a representative winter period in Shanghai. This source-tagged model system could simultaneously track spatial and temporal sources of SNA, which were apportioned to their respective primary precursors in a simulation run. The results indicate that in the study period, local emissions in Shanghai accounted for over 20% of SNA contributions and that Jiangsu and Shandong were the two major non-local sources. In particular, non-local emissions had higher contributions during recorded pollution periods. This suggests that the transportation of pollutants plays a key role in air pollution in Shanghai. The temporal contributions show that the emissions from the "current day" (emission contribution from the current day during which the model was simulating) contributed 60%-70% of the sulfate and ammonium concentrations but only 10%-20% of the nitrate concentration, while the previous days' contributions increased during the recorded pollution periods. Emissions that were released within three days contributed over 85% averagely for SNA in January 2013. To evaluate the source-tagged model system, the results were compared by sensitivity analysis (emission perturbation of -30%) and backward trajectory analysis. The consistency of the comparison results indicated that the source-tagged model system can track sources of SNA with reasonable accuracy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The optical, physical and chemical properties of the products of glyoxal uptake on ammonium sulfate seed aerosols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Trainic

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The heterogeneous reaction between gas phase glyoxal and ammonium sulfate (AS aerosols, a proxy for inorganic atmospheric aerosol, was studied in terms of the dependence of the optical, physical and chemical properties of the product aerosols on initial particle size and ambient relative humidity (RH. Our experiments imitate an atmospheric scenario of a dry particle hydration at ambient RH conditions in the presence of glyoxal gas followed by efflorescence due to decrease of the ambient RH. The reactions were studied under different RH conditions, starting from dry conditions (~20% RH and up to 90% RH, covering conditions prevalent in many atmospheric environments, and followed by consequent drying of the reacted particles before their analysis by the aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS, cavity ring down (CRD and scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS systems. At λ = 355 nm, the reacted aerosols demonstrate a substantial growth in optical extinction cross section, as well as in mobility diameter under a broad range of RH values (35–90%. The ratio of the product aerosol to seed aerosol geometric cross section reached up to ~3.5, and the optical extinction cross-section up to ~250. The reactions show a trend of increasing physical and optical growth with decreasing seed aerosol size, from 100 nm to 300 nm, as well as with decreasing RH values from 90% to ~40%. Optically inactive aerosols, at the limit of the Mie range (100 nm diameter become optically active as they grow due to the reaction. AMS analyses of the reaction of 300 nm AS at RH values of 50%, 75% and 90% show that the main products of the reaction are glyoxal oligomers, formed by acetal formation in the presence of AS. In addition, imidazole formation, which is a minor channel, is observed for all reactions, yielding a product which absorbs at λ = 290 nm, with possible implications on the radiative properties of the product aerosols. The ratio of absorbing substances (C-N compounds

  17. Fine-tuning key parameters of an integrated reactor system for the simultaneous removal of COD, sulfate and ammonium and elemental sulfur reclamation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Ye; Chen, Chuan; Liang, Bin; Huang, Cong; Zhao, Youkang; Xu, Xijun; Tan, Wenbo; Zhou, Xu; Gao, Shuang; Sun, Dezhi; Lee, DuuJong

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The system achieved simultaneous removal of 98% COD, 98% sulfate and 78% nitrogen. • The HRTs and reflux ratios were key parameters for performance and S 0 recovery. • 60% S 0 reclaimed from effluent, 30% deposited in reactor S 0 (S 0 production ≈ 90%). • Characteristics of bio-S 0 were targeted to acquire high-rate S 0 recovery. • Microbial community succession and function were discussed at different stage. - Abstract: In this paper, we proposed an integrated reactor system for simultaneous removal of COD, sulfate and ammonium (integrated C-S-N removal system) and investigated the key parameters of the system for a high level of elemental sulfur (S 0 ) production. The system consisted of 4 main units: sulfate reduction and organic carbon removal (SR-CR), autotrophic and heterotrophic denitrifying sulfide removal (A and H-DSR), sulfur reclamation (SR), and aerated filter for aerobic nitrification (AN). In the system, the effects of key operational parameters on production of elemental sulfur were investigated, including hydraulic retention time (HRT) of each unit, sulfide/nitrate (S 2− -S/NO 3 − -N) ratios, reflux ratios between the A and H-DSR and AN units, and loading rates of chemical oxygen demand (COD), sulfate and ammonium. Physico-chemical characteristics of biosulfur were studied for acquiring efficient S 0 recovery. The experiments successfully explored the optimum parameters for each unit and demonstrated 98% COD, 98% sulfate and 78% nitrogen removal efficiency. The optimum HRTs for SR-CR, A and H-DSR and AN were 12 h, 3 h and 3 h, respectively. The reflux ratio of 3 could provide adequate S 2− -S/NO 3 − -N ratio (approximately 1:1) to the A and H-DSR unit for obtaining maximum sulfur production. In this system, the maximum production of S 0 reached 90%, but only 60% S 0 was reclaimed from effluent. The S 0 that adhered to the outer layer of granules was deposited in the bottom of the A and H

  18. An aluminum selective electrode via modification of PVC membrane by modified clinoptilolite nanoparticles with hexadecyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (HDTMA-Br) surfactant containing Arsenazo III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdavi, Mostafa; Nezamzadeh-Ejhieh, Alireza

    2017-05-15

    A modified PVC (polyvinyl chloride) membrane with clinoptilolite nanoparticles/hexadecyltrimethyl ammonium bromide surfactant (HDTMABr)/Arsenazo III: (NSMZ-ARS), was used for construction of Al(III) -selective electrode. The raw and modified samples were characterized by XRD, FTIR, SEM and TEM methods. Among the different tested membranes constructed by raw and modified samples, only, the membrane electrode containing NSMZ-ARS showed a suitable Nernstian response to aluminum in the concentration range of 2.04×10 -5 to 1.99×10 -1 M (r=0.9987), with a detection limit of 1.0×10 -5 molL -1 and a Nernstian slope of 19.6±0.5mV per decade of aluminum concentration. The electrode response to aluminum remained constant in the pH range of 2-4. The sensor was selective for aluminum over a wide variety of other ions and exhibited. The electrode had a rapid response time and its response reached to steady potential at 5s. The electrode had also satisfactory long term stability and held its activity at least 3months. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Ferrous ammonium phosphate (FeNH₄PO₄) as a new food fortificant: iron bioavailability compared to ferrous sulfate and ferric pyrophosphate from an instant milk drink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walczyk, Thomas; Kastenmayer, Peter; Storcksdieck Genannt Bonsmann, Stefan; Zeder, Christophe; Grathwohl, Dominik; Hurrell, Richard F

    2013-06-01

    The main purpose of this study was to establish bioavailability data in humans for the new (Fe) fortification compound ferrous ammonium phosphate (FAP), which was specially developed for fortification of difficult-to-fortify foods where soluble Fe compounds cannot be used due to their negative impact on product stability. A double-blind, randomized clinical trial with cross-over design was conducted to obtain bioavailability data for FAP in humans. In this trial, Fe absorption from FAP-fortified full-cream milk powder was compared to that from ferric pyrophosphate (FPP) and ferrous sulfate. Fe absorption was determined in 38 young women using the erythrocyte incorporation dual stable isotope technique (⁵⁷Fe, ⁵⁸Fe). Geometric mean Fe absorption from ferrous sulfate, FAP and FPP was 10.4, 7.4 and 3.3 %, respectively. Fe from FAP was significantly better absorbed from milk than Fe from FPP (p soluble reference compound (p = 0.0002). Absorption ratios of FAP and FPP relative to ferrous sulfate as a measure of relative bioavailability were 0.71 and 0.32, respectively. The results of the present studies show that replacing FPP with FAP in full-cream milk could significantly improve iron bioavailability.

  20. Comparison of ferric chloride and aluminum sulfate on phosphorus removal and membrane fouling in MBR treating BAF effluent of municipal wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Li

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A membrane bioreactor (MBR was used for treating biological aerated filter effluent in a municipal wastewater plant, and chemical phosphorus removal was accomplished in the MBR. The results showed that ferric chloride of 20 mg/L and aluminum sulfate of 30 mg/L were the optimal dosages for total phosphorus (TP removal, and the TP removal efficiency was over 80%. In long-term continuous operations, both ferric chloride and aluminum sulfate effectively mitigated membrane fouling, with the corresponding growth rate of transmembrane pressure decreased to 0.08 and 0.067 kPa/d, respectively. Sludge particle sizes analysis demonstrated that the decrease of particle sizes lower than 50 μm was the main reason for membrane fouling control. Simultaneously, the proteins and polysaccharide (PS concentrations in the MBR supernatant were analyzed, and the PS concentration significantly decreased to 2.02 mg/L at aluminum sulfate of 30 mg/L, indicating the flocculation of aluminum sulfate on PS was the main reason for mitigation of membrane fouling.

  1. Evaluation of aluminum sulfate (alum) as a feedlot surface amendment to reduce ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, and greenhouse gas emissions from beef feedlots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammonia (NH3) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from concentrated feeding operations are a concern. The poultry industry has successfully used aluminum sulfate (Alum) as a litter amendment to reduce NH3 emissions from poultry barns. Alum has not been evaluated for similar uses on cattle feedlot sur...

  2. Sulfate-nitrate-ammonium aerosols over China: response to 2000–2015 emission changes of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and ammonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Wang

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We use a chemical transport model to examine the change of sulfate-nitrate-ammonium (SNA aerosols over China due to anthropogenic emission changes of their precursors (SO2, NOx and NH3 from 2000 to 2015. From 2000 to 2006, annual mean SNA concentrations increased by about 60% over China as a result of the 60% and 80% increases in SO2 and NOx emissions. During this period, sulfate is the dominant component of SNA over South China (SC and Sichuan Basin (SCB, while nitrate and sulfate contribute equally over North China (NC. Based on emission reduction targets in the 12th (2011–2015 Five-Year Plan (FYP, China's total SO2 and NOx emissions are projected to change by −16% and +16% from 2006 to 2015, respectively. The amount of NH3 emissions in 2015 is uncertain, given the lack of sufficient information on the past and present levels of NH3 emissions in China. With no change in NH3 emissions, SNA mass concentrations in 2015 will decrease over SCB and SC compared to their 2006 levels, but increase over NC where the magnitude of nitrate increase exceeds that of sulfate reduction. This suggests that the SO2 emission reduction target set by the 12th FYP, although effective in reducing SNA over SC and SCB, will not be successful over NC, for which NOx emission control needs to be strengthened. If NH3 emissions are allowed to keep their recent growth rate and increase by +16% from 2006 to 2015, the benefit of SO2 reduction will be completely offset over all of China due to the significant increase of nitrate, demonstrating the critical role of NH3 in regulating nitrate. The effective strategy to control SNA and hence PM2.5 pollution over China should thus be based on improving understanding of current NH3 emissions and putting more emphasis on controlling NH3 emissions in the future.

  3. Microextraction in a tetrabutylammonium bromide/ammonium sulfate aqueous two-phase system and electrohydrodynamic generation of a micro-droplet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Young Soo; Choi, Young Hoon; Kim, Do Hyun

    2007-08-31

    Microextraction of methyl orange in the aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) formed by dissolving tetrabutylammonium bromide (TBAB) and ammonium sulfate (AS) is reported. Methyl orange was transported from the AS-rich phase to TBAB-rich phase across the interface of the two immiscible phases. The electrohydrodynamic effect on the shape of the interface of two immiscible flows was also observed by applying dc voltage at the T-junction of the microchannel and the generation of a droplet of AS-rich phase was observed when the potential difference between positive and negative electrodes exceeds a threshold voltage. The minimum voltage necessary for the droplet generation depends on pH due to the degree of dissociation and charge accumulation.

  4. Hygroscopicity of organic surrogate compounds from biomass burning and their effect on the efflorescence of ammonium sulfate in mixed aerosol particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Ting; Zuend, Andreas; Cheng, Yafang; Su, Hang; Wang, Weigang; Ge, Maofa

    2018-01-01

    Hygroscopic growth factors of organic surrogate compounds representing biomass burning and mixed organic-inorganic aerosol particles exhibit variability during dehydration experiments depending on their chemical composition, which we observed using a hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer (HTDMA). We observed that levoglucosan and humic acid aerosol particles release water upon dehumidification in the range from 90 to 5 % relative humidity (RH). However, 4-Hydroxybenzoic acid aerosol particles remain in the solid state upon dehumidification and exhibit a small shrinking in size at higher RH compared to the dry size. For example, the measured growth factor of 4-hyroxybenzoic acid aerosol particles is ˜ 0.96 at 90 % RH. The measurements were accompanied by RH-dependent thermodynamic equilibrium calculations using the Aerosol Inorganic-Organic Mixtures Functional groups Activity Coefficients (AIOMFAC) model and Extended Aerosol Inorganics Model (E-AIM), the Zdanovskii-Stokes-Robinson (ZSR) relation, and a fitted hygroscopicity expression. We observed several effects of organic components on the hygroscopicity behavior of mixtures containing ammonium sulfate (AS) in relation to the different mass fractions of organic compounds: (1) a shift of efflorescence relative humidity (ERH) of ammonium sulfate to higher RH due to the presence of 25 wt % levoglucosan in the mixture. (2) There is a distinct efflorescence transition at 25 % RH for mixtures consisting of 25 wt % of 4-hydroxybenzoic acid compared to the ERH at 35 % for organic-free AS particles. (3) There is indication for a liquid-to-solid phase transition of 4-hydroxybenzoic acid in the mixed particles during dehydration. (4) A humic acid component shows no significant effect on the efflorescence of AS in mixed aerosol particles. In addition, consideration of a composition-dependent degree of dissolution of crystallization AS (solid-liquid equilibrium) in the AIOMFAC and E-AIM models leads to a

  5. Impact of a high ammonia-ammonium-pH system on methane-producing archaea and sulfate-reducing bacteria in mesophilic anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Xiaohu; Hu, Chongliang; Zhang, Dong; Dai, Lingling; Duan, Nina

    2017-12-01

    A novel strategy for acclimation to ammonia stress was implemented by stimulating a high ammonia-ammonium-pH environment in a high-solid anaerobic digestion (AD) system in this study. Three semi-continuously stirred anaerobic reactors performed well over the whole study period under mesophilic conditions, especially in experimental group (R-2) when accommodated from acclimation period which the maximum total ammonia nitrogen (TAN) and free ammonia nitrogen (FAN) increased to 4921 and 2996mg/L, respectively. Moreover, when it accommodated the high ammonia-ammonium-pH system, the daily biogas production and methane content were similar to those in R-1 (the blank control to R-2), but the hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) content lower than the blank control. Moreover, mechanistic studies showed that high ammonia stress enhanced the activity of coenzyme F 420 . The results of real-time fluorescent quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) showed that ammonia stress decreased the abundance of sulfate-reducing bacteria and increased the abundance of methane-producing archaea. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Alleviating aluminum toxicity in an acid sulfate soil from Peninsular Malaysia by calcium silicate application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elisa, A. A.; Ninomiya, S.; Shamshuddin, J.; Roslan, I.

    2016-03-01

    In response to human population increase, the utilization of acid sulfate soils for rice cultivation is one option for increasing production. The main problems associated with such soils are their low pH values and their associated high content of exchangeable Al, which could be detrimental to crop growth. The application of soil amendments is one approach for mitigating this problem, and calcium silicate is an alternative soil amendment that could be used. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to ameliorate soil acidity in rice-cropped soil. The secondary objective was to study the effects of calcium silicate amendment on soil acidity, exchangeable Al, exchangeable Ca, and Si content. The soil was treated with 0, 1, 2, and 3 Mg ha-1 of calcium silicate under submerged conditions and the soil treatments were sampled every 30 days throughout an incubation period of 120 days. Application of calcium silicate induced a positive effect on soil pH and exchangeable Al; soil pH increased from 2.9 (initial) to 3.5, while exchangeable Al was reduced from 4.26 (initial) to 0.82 cmolc kg-1. Furthermore, the exchangeable Ca and Si contents increased from 1.68 (initial) to 4.94 cmolc kg-1 and from 21.21 (initial) to 81.71 mg kg-1, respectively. Therefore, it was noted that calcium silicate was effective at alleviating Al toxicity in acid sulfate, rice-cropped soil, yielding values below the critical level of 2 cmolc kg-1. In addition, application of calcium silicate showed an ameliorative effect as it increased soil pH and supplied substantial amounts of Ca and Si.

  7. Effects of three additives on the removal of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) by coagulation using ferric chloride or aluminum sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishimoto, Naoyuki; Kobayashi, Masanori

    2016-01-01

    Perfluorooctanesulfonic acid and its salts (PFOS) are emerging contaminants with long half-lives in water and human bodies. Accordingly, PFOS removal from water streams is required for controlling the PFOS pollution. To provide a simple PFOS separation technology, effects of three additives, powdered activated carbon (PAC), gelatin, and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), on the PFOS removal by coagulation with ferric chloride or aluminum sulfate were investigated in this study. As a result, coagulation with PAC or CTAB addition was effective in the PFOS removal, though the conventional coagulation and coagulation with gelatin addition were ineffective. A PFOS removal efficiency of over 90% was observed for the CTAB dose of over 1.6 μM (0.58 mg/L) and for the PAC dose of over 40 mg/L, and that of over 95% was achieved by the CTAB dose of over 2.4 μM (0.87 mg/L), when the initial PFOS concentration was 1.84 μM. The positive effect of CTAB would be caused by micelle formation, which was enhanced by both the association of hydrophobic tails and the electrostatic attraction of hydrophilic heads of PFOS and CTAB. Thus, a linear cationic surfactant of CTAB was concluded to be an effective additive for the PFOS removal by coagulation.

  8. Electrophoretic nature and evaluation of poly-aluminum-chloride-sulfate (PACS) as a coagulant for water and wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Bao-yu; Yue, Qin-yan; Wang, Bing-jian

    2003-05-01

    A series of poly-aluminum-chloride-sulfates (PACS), which have different OH/Al (gamma) and Al(3+)/SO4(2-) mole ratios, has been prepared using AlCl3 x 6H2O, A(SO4)3 x 18H2O and Na2CO3 as raw materials. The electrophoretic nature of PACS was investigated by electrophoresis. Laboratory experiments were undertaken to evaluate the PACS in comparison with polyaluminum chloride (PAC) for the coagulation of simulating water and actual wastewaters. The experimental results show that the gamma value and the Al(3+)/SO4(2-) mole ratio affect the electrophoretic nature of PACS. PACS has a maximum zeta potential at about a gamma value of 1.5 and Al(3+)/SO4(2-) mole ratio of 12-16. The zeta potential of PACS varies with pH. The performance of PACS as coagulant is affected by gamma value and Al(3+)/SO4(2-) mole ratio. PACS of gamma = 2.1 and Al(3+)/SO4(2-) = 15 gives best turbidity removal effectiveness. In comparison with PAC of gamma = 2.0, PACS of gamma = 2.0 and Al(3+)/SO4(2-) = 16 gives higher removal efficiency for turbidity and COD, and shows the following advantages in the clarification of waters and wastewaters: rapid aggregation velocity, larger and heavier flocs, and lower required dosage.

  9. Experimental Study on the Feasibility of Using Water Glass and Aluminum Sulfate to Treat Complications in High Liquid Limit Soil Subgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-hui Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The feasibility of using water glass and aluminum sulfate to treat high liquid limit soil subgrade diseases is studied through laboratory experiments, and the following results were observed. After improving the high liquid limit clay with water glass and aluminum sulfate, the liquid limit decreases, the plastic limit increases, and the plasticity index decreases. Compared with untreated soil, the clay content of the improved soil decreases, while the silt and coarse contents increase. The absolute and relative expansion rates of the improved soil are both lower than those of the untreated soil. With the same number of dry and wet cycles, the decreased degrees of cohesion and internal friction angle of the improved soil are, respectively, one-half and one-third of those of the untreated soil. After three dry and wet cycles, the California bearing ratio (CBR of the untreated soil does not meet the requirements of specifications. However, after being cured for seven days and being subjected to three dry and wet cycles, the CBR of the improved soil, with 4% water glass solution and 0.4% aluminum sulfate, meets the requirements of specifications.

  10. Extraction and separation of tungsten (VI) from aqueous media with Triton X-100-ammonium sulfate-water aqueous two-phase system without any extractant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yongqiang Zhang; Tichang Sun; Tieqiang Lu; Chunhuan Yan

    2016-11-25

    An aqueous two-phase system composed of Triton X-100-(NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 -H 2 O was proposed for extraction and separation of tungsten(VI) from aqueous solution without using any extractant. The effects of aqueous pH, concentration of ammonium sulfate, Triton X-100 and tungsten, extracting temperature on the extraction of tungsten were investigated. The extraction of tungsten has remarkable relationship with aqueous pH and are to above 90% at pH=1.0-3.0 under studied pH range (pH=1.0-7.0) and increases gradually with increasing Triton X-100 concentration, but decreases slightly with increasing ammonium sulfate concentration. The extraction percentage of tungsten is hardly relevant to temperature but its distribution coefficient linearly increases with increasing temperature within 303.15-343.15K. The distribution coefficient of tungsten increases with the increase of initial tungsten concentration (0.1-3%) and temperature (303.15 K-333.15K). The solubilization capacity of tungsten in Triton X-100 micellar phase is independent of temperature. FT-IR analysis reveals that there is no evident interaction between polytungstate anion and ether oxygen unit in Triton X-100, and DLS analysis indicates that zeta potential of Triton X-100 micellar phase have a little change from positive to negative after extracting tungsten. Based on the above-mentioned results, it can be deduced that polytungstate anions are solubilized in hydrophilic outer shell of Triton X-100 micelles by electrostatic attraction depending on its relatively high hydrophobic nature. The stripping of tungsten is mainly influenced by temperature and can be easily achieved to 95% in single stage stripping. The tungsten (VI) is separated out from solution containing Fe(III), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II), Al(III), Cr(III) and Mn(II) under the suitable conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Final report on the safety assessment of sodium cetearyl sulfate and related alkyl sulfates as used in cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiume, Monice; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Klaassen, Curtis D; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Alan Andersen, F

    2010-05-01

    Sodium cetearyl sulfate is the sodium salt of a mixture of cetyl and stearyl sulfate. The other ingredients in this safety assessment are also alkyl salts, including ammonium coco-sulfate, ammonium myristyl sulfate, magnesium coco-sulfate, sodium cetyl sulfate, sodium coco/hydrogenated tallow sulfate, sodium coco-sulfate, sodium decyl sulfate, sodium ethylhexyl sulfate, sodium myristyl sulfate, sodium oleyl sulfate, sodium stearyl sulfate, sodium tallow sulfate, sodium tridecyl sulfate, and zinc coco-sulfate. These ingredients are surfactants used at concentrations from 0.1% to 29%, primarily in soaps and shampoos. Many of these ingredients are not in current use. The Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel previously completed a safety assessment of sodium and ammonium lauryl sulfate. The data available for sodium lauryl sulfate and ammonium lauryl sulfate provide sufficient basis for concluding that sodium cetearyl sulfate and related alkyl sulfates are safe in the practices of use and concentration described in the safety assessment.

  12. Development and Characterization of Gas Diffusion Layer Using Carbon Slurry Dispersed by Ammonium Lauryl Sulfate for Proton Exchange Member Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villacorta, Rashida

    Gas diffusion layers (GDLs) are a critical and essential part of proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). They carry out various important functions such as transportation of reactants to and from the reaction sites. The material properties and structural characteristics of the substrate and the microporous layer strongly influence fuel cell performance. The microporous layer of the GDLs was fabricated with the carbon slurry dispersed in water containing ammonium lauryl sulfate (ALS) using the wire rod coating method. GDLs were fabricated with different materials to compose the microporous layer and evaluated the effects on PEMFC power output performance. The consistency of the carbon slurry was achieved by adding 25 wt. % of PTFE, a binding agent with a 75:25 ratio of carbon (Pureblack and vapor grown carbon fiber). The GDLs were investigated in PEMFC under various relative humidity (RH) conditions using H2/O2 and H2/Air. GDLs were also fabricated with the carbon slurry dispersed in water containing sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) with isopropyl alcohol (IPA) based for fuel cell performance comparison. MWCNTs and SDS exhibits the highest performance at 60% and 70% RH with a peak power density of 1100 mW.cm-2 and 850 mW.cm-2 using air and oxygen as an oxidant. This means that the gas diffusion characteristics of these two samples were optimum at 60 and 70 % RH with high limiting current density range. It was also found that the composition of the carbon slurry, specifically ALS concentration has the highest peak power density of 1300 and 500mW.cm-2 for both H2/O 2 and H2/Air at 100% RH. However, SDS and MWCNTs demonstrates the lowest power density using air and oxygen as an oxidants at 100% RH.

  13. Infrared optical constants of aqueous sulfate-nitrate-ammonium multi-component tropospheric aerosols from attenuated total reflectance measurements: Part II. An examination of mixing rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boer, Gregory J.; Sokolik, Irina N.; Martin, Scot T.

    2007-01-01

    We examine the performance of several mixing rules that are commonly used in modeling optical constants of aerosol mixtures either in remote sensing or radiation transfer/climate studies employing the new refractive index data reported in Part I. We demonstrate that the optical constants of the considered mixtures are not accurately modeled using pure solute optical constants (e.g., ammonium sulfate optical constants and the optical constants of pure water) due to the complex ion-ion and ion-water interactions. On the other hand, we do find that ternary and quaternary mixtures can be well modeled by applying the mixing rules to lower order multi-component optical constants data, e.g., binary data to determine ternary optical constants, or binary and ternary data to determine quaternary optical constants. By using lower order optical constants data sets, much of the ion-ion and ion-water effects are captured. Both mass-fraction and volume-fraction weighting of the 'component' optical constants yield satisfactory results, performing as well or better than the more complicated mixing rules. These findings will be of practical use in remote sensing and radiation transfer/climate studies as well as help guide the decision on what optical constants measurements will be required

  14. Determination of ultra-trace formaldehyde in air using ammonium sulfate as derivatization reagent and capillary electrophoresis coupled with on-line electrochemiluminescence detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Biyang; Liu, Yang; Yin, Huihui; Ning, Xi; Lu, Hua; Ye, Li; Xu, Quanxiu

    2012-03-15

    The reaction between formaldehyde and ammonium ion to produce hexamethylenetetramine is well known. The reaction conditions are very easily controlled in situ and the experiment operation is very simple. However, such derivatization reaction for trace formaldehyde determination using capillary electrophoresis (CE) electrochemiluminescence (ECL) has not been reported before. In this study, the application of ammoniun sulfate as derivatization reagent to in-situ determination of formaldehyde in air was reported. Based on ECL enhancement of tris(2,2'-bipyridyl)ruthenium(II) with hexamethylenetetramine, a novel approach for the determination of ultra-trace formaldehyde in air using CE coupled with on-line ECL of tris(2,2'-bipyridyl)ruthenium(II) has been developed. The parameters affecting separation and detection such as detection potential, concentration and pH of phosphate buffer, and electrokinetic voltage, were investigated. Under the optimal conditions, the linear concentration range of formaldehyde in air was from 0.48 μg/m(3) to 96 mg/m(3) (linear range covering 5 orders of magnitude). The limit of detection (3σ) was 0.15 μg/m(3). The relative standard deviations of peak height and migration time for six consecutive injection of 1 ng/mL formaldehyde derivative were 0.9% and 0.8%, respectively. The recoveries of formaldehyde in air were between 99.3% and 101%. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Amplification of GC-rich Putative Mouse PeP Promoter using Betaine and DMSO in Ammonium Sulfate Polymerase Chain Reaction Buffer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifi, Tahere; Ghaedi, Kamran; Salamian, Ahmad; Tanhaei, Sommayeh; Safari, Forouzan; Hojati, Zohreh; Tavassoli, Manuchehr; Baharvand, Hossein; Esfahani, Mohammad-Hossein Nasr

    2012-10-01

    Recently, we have shown that peroxisomal protein expression was induced upon retinoic acid treatment in mouse embryonic stem cells during the process of neurogenesis. Thus, characterization of the respective promoter could elucidate the molecular aspects of transcriptional regulation of this gene. Using the conventional software programs for promoter prediction, a putative promoter region was identified approximately 561 bp upstream of the peroxisomal protein coding sequence. In order to clone this region with a GC-content of 71.01%, a cocktail of ammonium sulfate buffer supplied with two additive components, betaine and dimethyl sulfoxide, and a high concentration of MgCl(2) was used. The modulated polymerase chain reaction composition significantly improved the amplification of GC-rich DNA target sequences. Improved amplification of this region was due to reduction in the formation of secondary structures by the GC-rich region. Therefore, this polymerase chain reaction composition could be generally used to facilitate the amplification of other GC-rich DNA sequences as verified by amplification of different GC rich regions.

  16. Injection sclerotherapy using aluminum potassium sulfate and tannic acid in the treatment of symptomatic rectocele: A prospective case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Tatsuya; Kunimoto, Masao; Hachiro, Yoshikazu; Ebisawa, Yoshiaki

    2016-06-01

    Although various surgical techniques have been described for the treatment of rectocele, there is currently no method exhibiting overall superiority because of the different types of complications and varying rate of recurrence. The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcomes of injection sclerotherapy using aluminum potassium sulfate and tannic acid in the management of symptomatic rectocele. Twelve patients were recruited and treated using injection sclerotherapy. Efficacy measures included changes in the Constipation Scoring System value and rectocele size. The median operative duration was 7.5 min (range, 3-16 min). Three months after treatment, the mean Constipation Scoring System value decreased significantly in comparison with the baseline value (8.9 ± 4.1 vs. 4.9 ± 2.8, P = 0.0014) and the mean rectocele size reduced significantly in comparison with the baseline size (3.8 ± 0.5 vs. 1.7 ± 0.9, P < 0.001). Regarding complications, a patient showed temporary fecal impaction after treatment. The recurrence rate at 4 years was 29% (95% confidence interval, 10%-66%). Injection sclerotherapy is quick, easy to perform, and offers reasonable mid-term outcomes; furthermore, it is associated with a low rate of complications. Therefore, it appears to be a reasonable alternative for patients with symptomatic rectocele. Copyright © 2016 IJS Publishing Group Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Infrared optical constants of aqueous sulfate-nitrate-ammonium multi-component tropospheric aerosols from attenuated total reflectance measurements-Part I: Results and analysis of spectral absorbing features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boer, Gregory J.; Sokolik, Irina N.; Martin, Scot T.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, the first part of two, we present new high-spectral-resolution infrared (IR) optical constants for multi-component aqueous solutions composed of ammonium sulfate, ammonium nitrate, sulfuric acid and nitric acid over a range of compositions and temperatures representative of tropospheric conditions and atmospheric aerosols. The optical constants were determined from ATR measurements via a Kramers-Kronig transformation. To accomplish this, we adapted an existing technique for estimating the real index of refraction of aqueous sulfate and nitrate solutions at multiple visible frequencies as a function of concentration and temperature. An approximation of the low-frequency behavior of the ATR spectrum was also used to reduce the error associated with using ATR data of finite frequency range. This paper also provides a brief examination of absorption spectra for analyzed mixtures in relation to their composition and temperature and discusses possible implications. The new optical constants will be of great utility to high-spectral-resolution IR remote sensing as well as radiative balance analysis in climate studies because they will enable researchers for the first time to model the impacts of tropospheric aqueous sulfate-nitrate-ammonium multi-component aerosols, including their mixtures with other important species such as dust or soot

  18. A giant polyaluminum species S-Al32 and two aluminum polyoxocations involving coordination by sulfate ions S-Al32 and S-K-Al13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhong; Wang, Hui; Tong, Honggeer; Sun, Shaofan

    2011-01-17

    The giant polyaluminum species [Al32O8(OH)60(H2O)28(SO4)2](16+) (S-Al32) and [Al13O4(OH)25(H2O)10(SO4)](4+) (S-K-Al13) [S means that sulfate ions take part in coordination of the aluminum polycation; K represents the Keggin structure] were obtained in the structures of [Al32O8(OH)60(H2O)28(SO4)2][SO4]7[Cl]2·30H2O and [Al13O4(OH)25(H2O)10(SO4)]4[SO4]8·20H2O, respectively. They are the first two aluminum polyoxocations coordinated by sulfate ions. The "core-shell" structure of S-Al32 is similar to that of Al30, but the units are linked by two [Al(OH)2(H2O)3(SO4)](-) groups with replacement of four η(1)-H2O molecules. The structure of S-K-Al13 is similar to the well-known structure of ε-K-Al13, but the units are linked by two (SO4(2-))0.5 with replacement of a H3O(+) ion. It was shown that strong interaction exists between the polyoxocations and counterions. On the basis of their structural features and preparation conditions, a formation and evolution mechanism (from ε-K-Al13 to S-K-Al13 and S-Al32) has been proposed. A local basification degree symmetrical equalization principle was extracted based on a comparison of the calculated results of the local basification degree for each central Al(3+) ion included in a polycation. They can be used to explain how the two aluminum species are formed and evolved and why the sulfate ions can coordinate to them and to predict where the OH-bridging positions will be upon further hydrolysis.

  19. Uranium concentrate obtained from sulfuric liquor by solvent extraction using ammonium sulfate as extractant agent; Obtencao de concentrado de uranio a partir de licor sulfurico por extracao por solventes utilizando sulfato de amonio como agente reextratante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morais, Carlos Antonio de [Centro de Desenvolvimento de Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)]. E-mail: cmorais@cdtn.br; Gomiero, Luiz Alberto [Industrias Nucleares do Brasil S.A. (INB), Caetite, BA (Brazil)]. E-mail: gomiero@inb.gov.br

    2005-07-01

    Results of uranium concentrate obtainment from sulfuric liquor by solvent extraction followed by chemical precipitation techniques are presented. In the extraction process a tertiary amine as extractant agent and ammonium sulfate solution as stripping agent were used. Uranium was precipitated from the pregnant strip solution as ammonium diuranate by addition of ammonium hydroxide solution. Equilibrium pH and chloride content in the loaded solvent were the main interference on the uranium stripping stage. From a chloride-free uranium loaded organic phase a pregnant strip solution containing 33.2 g/L U{sub 3}O{sub 8} and a stripped solvent with 0.006 g/L U{sub 3}O{sub 8} using 5 stages of mixer-settlers were obtained. The chemical precipitation stage yielded a high purity ammonium diuranate precipitate with a recovery of 99.98%. After calcination, the product presented 99.7 % U{sub 3}O{sub 8} content. (author)

  20. Online and offline mass spectrometric study of the impact of oxidation and ageing on glyoxal chemistry and uptake onto ammonium sulfate aerosols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Jacqueline F; Baeza-Romero, M Teresa; Finessi, Emanuela; Rickard, Andrew R; Healy, Robert M; Peppe, Salvatore; Adams, Thomas J; Daniels, Mark J S; Ball, Stephen M; Goodall, Iain C A; Monks, Paul S; Borrás, Esther; Muñoz, Amalia

    2013-01-01

    Recent laboratory and modelling studies have shown that reactive uptake of low molecular weight alpha-dicarbonyls such as glyoxal (GLY) by aerosols is a potentially significant source of secondary organic aerosol (SOA). However, previous studies disagree in the magnitude of the uptake of GLY, the mechanism involved and the physicochemical factors affecting particle formation. In this study, the chemistry of GLY with ammonium sulfate (AS) in both bulk laboratory solutions and in aerosol particles is investigated. For the first time, Aerosol Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (ATOFMS), a single particle technique, is used together with offline (ESI-MS and LC-MS2) mass spectrometric techniques to investigate the change in composition of bulk solutions of GLY and AS resulting from aqueous photooxidation by OH and from ageing of the solutions in the dark. The mass spectral ions obtained in these laboratory studies were used as tracers of GLY uptake and chemistry in AS seed particles in a series of experiments carried out under dark and natural irradiated conditions at the outdoor European Photo-reactor (EUPHORE). Glyoxal oligomers formed were not detected by the ATOFMS, perhaps due to inefficient absorption at the laser wavelength. However, the presence of organic nitrogen compounds, formed by reaction of GLY with ammonia was confirmed, resulting in an increase in the absorption efficiency of the aerosol, and this increased the number of particles successfully ionised by the ATOFMS. A number of light absorbing organic nitrogen species, including 1H-imidazole, 1H-imidazole-2-carboxaldehyde, 2,2'-bis-imidazole and a glyoxal substituted 2,2'-bisimidazole, previously identified in aqueous laboratory solutions, were also identified in chamber aerosol and formed on atmospherically relevant timescales. An additional compound, predicted to be 1,2,5-oxadiazole, had an enhanced formation rate when the chamber was open and is predicted to be formed via a light activated pathway

  1. The ferrous ammonium sulfate solid system, as dosemeter for processes at low temperatures and high doses of gamma radiation; El sistema sulfato ferroso amoniacal solido, como dosimetro para procesos a bajas temperaturas y altas dosis de radiacion gamma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juarez C, J.M.; Ramos B, S.; Negron M, A. [ICN-UNAM, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    This paper presents the results obtained from a study of the radiation induced oxidation of crystalline ferrous ammonium sulfate with gamma rays at 295 K, 263 K and 77 K and dose from 0 to 300 kGy. The radiation induced decomposition of ferrous ammonium sulfate has been studied by the dissolution of the irradiated salt in 0,8 N sulfuric acid. The main product is Fe{sup 3+} and molar concentration of ferric ion was determined spectrophotometrically in the UV region at 304 nm. The optical density values showed a linear dependence with dose, indicating that the data obtained might be used to create a calibrating curve. Color in irradiated salt changes from blue to green, yellow and orange according to the absorbed dose. The accuracy and the reproducibility of the system were tested. In addition, some other characteristics make possible the use of this system as a dosimeter, similar to Fricke chemical dosemeter, at low temperatures and high dose. (Author)

  2. Stability of nicotinate and dodecyl sulfate in a Lewis acidic ionic liquid for aluminum electroplating and characterization of their degradation products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosmus, Patrick; Steiner, Oliver; Goessler, Walter; Gollas, Bernhard; Fauler, Gisela

    2016-04-01

    Plating bath additives are essential for optimization of the morphology of electroplated layers. The ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium (EMIM) chloride plus 1.5 mol equivalents of AlCl3 has great potential for electroplating of aluminum. In this study, the chemical and electrochemical stability of the additives EMIM-nicotinate and sodium dodecyl sulfate and their effect on the stability of EMIM was investigated and analyzed. Nicotinate and its electrochemical decomposition product β-picoline could be detected and we show with a single HPLC-UV-MS method that EMIM is not affected by the decomposition of this additive. An adapted standard HPLC-UV-MS method together with GC-MS and ion chromatography was used to analyze the decomposition products of SDS and possible realkylation products of EMIM. Several volatile medium and short chain-length alkanes as well as sulfate ions have been found as decomposition products of SDS. Alkenium ions formed as intermediates during the decomposition of SDS realkylate EMIM to produce mono- up to pentasubstituted alkyl-imidazoles. A reaction pathway involving Wagner-Meerwein rearrangements and Friedel-Crafts alkylations has been suggested to account for the formation of the detected products. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Replacement of ammonium chloride when processing Scholven coals. (Tests conducted in rotating autoclave at 350 atmosheres. )

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grassl, G.; Schiffmann, F.

    1944-01-03

    Hydrogenation tests were conducted on coal from Scholven in view of difficulties in delivery of ammonium chloride to the Scholven works. The results were, that of the materials containing chlorine, ferrous chloride and water-soluble chlorine-bearing alumina appeared to be first and second choices as replacements for ammonium chloride. Ferrous chloride, used for an equivalent amount of chlorine, gave, other than a bit higher volatilization, the same results as ammonium chloride. Water-soluble chlorine-bearing alumina was found to be just as favorable as the ammonium chloride. But, there was a disadvantage. Since the alumina carried a lesser amount of chloride, a relatively larger amount (5.9%) of the material had to be used. This caused another problem. The increased residual material caused an overload on the reprocessing system. Water-soluble alumina at 1.9% was found to be unsuitable, because volatilization rose considerably with higher temperatures. Hydrated aluminum chloride (AlCl/sub 3/ . 6H/sub 2/O) was significantly more unsuitable than ammonium chloride. It was found that at .3 mV higher temperature, significant improvement could be noted, but certainly at the cost of volatilization, which rose sharply. Two tests of aluminum oxychloride, which contained more chlorine than the water-soluble alumina, showed suitable cracking properties, but figures as good as those obtained with ammonium chloride were not reached in treating asphalt and volatilization. Attempts to activate the chlorine in sodium chloride through ion exchange with ammonium sulfate did not succeed. The resulting substance gave worse results than did aluminum chlorohydrate. 1 table

  4. Treating ammonium-rich wastewater with sludge from water treatment plant to produce ammonium alum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Po Cheng

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study applies a process to treat ammonium-rich wastewater using alum-generated sludge form water purification plant, and gain economic benefit by producing ammonium alum (Al(NH4(SO42·12H2O. The factors affecting production of ammonium alum include molar ratio of ammonium to aluminum concentration, sulfuric acid concentration, mixing speed, mixing time, standing time, and temperature. According to the equation for the ammonium removal reaction, the theoretical quantity of ammonium alum was calculated based on initial and final concentrations of ammonium. Then, the weight of ammonium alum crystal was divided by the theoretical weight to derive the recovery ratio. The optimum sludge and sulfuric acid dosage to treat about 17 g L−1 ammonium wastewater are 300 g L−1 and 100 mL L−1, respectively. The optimal dosage for wastewater is molar ratio of ammonium to aluminum of about 1 due to the aluminum dissolving in acidified wastewater. The ammonium removal efficiency is roughly 70% and the maximum recovery ratio for ammonium alum is 93% when the wastewater is mixed for 10 min at the mixing velocity gradient of 100 s−1. Ammonium alum production or ammonium removal can be enhanced by controlling the reaction at low temperatures.

  5. Producing ammonium uranate in spherical particulate form

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dugua, J.

    1984-01-01

    A novel easily handled substantially particulate ammonium uranate with a mean diameter between 30 and 150 micrometers, an apparent untamped bulk density of 2 to 2.8 g/cm 3 , and a flowability measured on the Carr scale equal to or greater than 95, with a low sulfate ion content between 0.5 and 1%, is calimed together with a fluidized bed process for preparing such ammonium uranate by precipitation of a super-saturated solution of ammonium uranate. The ammonium uranate is obtained by reacting a uranium sulfate solution and an ammoniacal solution, operating at a pH of about 6.6 to 7.2

  6. Ammonium Production in Sediments Inhibited with Molybdate: Implications for the Sources of Ammonium in Anoxic Marine Sediments †

    OpenAIRE

    Jacobson, Myrna E.; Mackin, James E.; Capone, Douglas G.

    1987-01-01

    Ammonium production in the presence of specific inhibitors of sulfate reduction and methanogenesis was investigated in six marine sediments which differed in bulk properties and organic matter input. In all cases, little effect of the inhibitors on ammonium production was observed, although sulfate reduction was suppressed by molybdate. This gives evidence that the processes of fermentation and hydrolysis are of primary importance in ammonium generation at the sites studied. Although sulfate ...

  7. Study of the crystal structure of double ammonium hafnium sulfate of the (NH4)4Hf(SO4)4x4H2O composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chalyj, V.P.; Sheka, I.A.; Fedoryako, L.I.; Fomenko, V.V.

    1978-01-01

    Two new double compounds of (NH 4 ) 2 Hf(SO 4 ) 3 x2H 2 O and (NH 4 ) 4 Hf(SO 4 ) 4 x4H 2 O have been studied. The second compound which forms needle transparent crystals of monoclinic singony, has been studied by the X-ray analysis. The unit cell parametres are as follows: a = 18.12(3), b = 14.89(3), c = 7.25(3) A, γ = 95.5 deg (5), spatial group P 2 /b, N=4. The first structure may be described as an islet structure. Besides basic valent bonds, it contains numerous intermolecular contacts and hydrogen bonds formed by water molecules and ammonium ions

  8. Dessecação de plantas daninhas com glyphosate em mistura com ureia ou sulfato de amônio Weed desiccation with glyphosate mixed with urea or ammonium sulfate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.J.P. Carvalho

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available O glyphosate é um herbicida não-seletivo, sistêmico, usado para controle de plantas daninhas anuais e perenes em todo o mundo. A absorção da molécula do glyphosate ocorre pelos tecidos fotossinteticamente ativos das plantas, porém alguns fatores podem reduzir sua eficácia, como a morfologia e diversidade de espécies, chuva após aplicação, qualidade da água e misturas em tanque com outros defensivos, entre outros. Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar a influência da adição de sulfato de amônio ou ureia em calda na eficácia do herbicida glyphosate para dessecação de plantas daninhas. Dois experimentos foram desenvolvidos em Piracicaba - SP, com aplicações de glyphosate (720 e 1.440 g ha-1 isolado ou combinado com duas doses de sulfato de amônio (7,5 e 15,0 g L-1 ou ureia (2,5 e 5,0 g L-1 sobre as plantas daninhas: apaga-fogo (Alternanthera tenella e capim-massambará (Sorghum halepense. Para a espécie menos suscetível ao herbicida (capim-massambará, a adição de fontes nitrogenadas à menor dose de glyphosate acelerou a morte das plantas, elevando os níveis de controle em até 7,3% na avaliação de 21 dias após aplicação (DAA dos tratamentos. Contudo, os efeitos não foram observados nas avaliações de controle, massa fresca e seca, conduzidas aos 28 DAA. A dose recomendada de glyphosate para cada espécie proporcionou controle satisfatório, sem a necessidade de adição de sulfato de amônio ou ureia.Glyphosate is a non-selective systemic herbicide used to control annual and perennial weeds worldwide. Molecule absorption occurs through the plant's photosynthetically-active tissues; however, some factors might reduce its efficacy, such as morphology and specific diversity, rain after application, water quality and tank mixtures with other chemicals. Thus, this work aimed to evaluate the influence of ammonium sulfate or urea addiction to spray tank on glyphosate efficacy for weed desiccation. Two trials were

  9. Systemic Inflammation in C57BL/6J Mice Receiving Dietary Aluminum Sulfate; Up-Regulation of the Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines IL-6 and TNFα, C-Reactive Protein (CRP) and miRNA-146a in Blood Serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogue, A I; Jaber, V; Zhao, Y; Lukiw, W J

    2017-01-01

    A number of experimental investigations utilizing different murine species have previously reported: (i) that standard mouse-diets supplemented with physiologically realistic amounts of neurotoxic metal salts substantially induce pro-inflammatory signaling in a number of murine tissues; (ii) that these diet-stimulated changes may contribute to a systemic inflammation (SI), a potential precursor to neurodegenerative events in both the central and the peripheral nervous system (CNS, PNS); and (iii) that these events may ultimately contribute to a chronic and progressive inflammatory neurodegeneration, such as that which is observed in Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain. In these experiments we assayed for markers of SI in the blood serum of C57BL/6J mice after 0, 1, 3 and 5 months of exposure to a standard mouse diet that included aluminum-sulfate in the food and drinking water, compared to age-matched controls receiving magnesium-sulfate or no additions. The data indicate that the SI markers that include the pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), the acute phase reactive protein C-reactive protein (CRP) production and a triad of pro-inflammatory microRNAs (miRNA-9, miRNA-125b and miRNA-146a) all increase in the serum after aluminum-sulfate exposure. For the first time these results suggest that ad libitum exposure to aluminum-sulfate at physiologically realistic concentrations, as would be found in the human diet over the long term, may predispose to SI and the potential development of chronic, progressive, inflammatory neurodegeneration with downstream pathogenic consequences.

  10. On the hygroscopic growth of ammoniated sulfate particles of non-stoichiometric composition

    OpenAIRE

    Kokkola, H.; Joutsensaari, J.; Hyppönen, N.; Lehtinen, K. E. J.; Laaksonen, A.

    2006-01-01

    International audience; The hygroscopic growth of ammoniated sulfate particles was studied by measurements and model calculations for particles with varying ammonium-to-sulfate ratio. In the measurements, the ammonium-to-sulfate ratio was adjusted by using mixtures of ammonium sulfate and ammonium bisulfate in generating the solid particles. The hygroscopic growth was measured using a tandem differential mobility analyzer. The measurements were simulated using a thermodynamical equilibrium mo...

  11. Production of ammonium sulfate doubly labeled with the {sup 15}N and {sup 34}S stable isotopes; Producao de sulfato de amonio duplamente marcado com os isotopos estaveis {sup 15}N e {sup 34}S

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maximo, Everaldo; Bendassolli, Jose Albertino; Trivelin, Paulo Cesar Ocheuze; Rossete, Alexssandra Luiza Rodrigues Molina; Oliveira, Claudineia Raquel de; Prestes, Clelber Vieira [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: jab@cena.usp.br

    2005-04-01

    The purpose of this work was the production of ammonium sulfate double labeled with {sup 15}N and {sup 34}S ((15NH{sub 4}){sub 2}{sup 34}SO{sub 4})), employing the ion exchange technique in two different processes. The first one was carried out using Na{sub 2}{sup 34}SO{sub 4} and ({sup 15}NH{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 4} previously enriched. It was possible to obtain about 54g of ({sup 15}NH{sub 4}){sub 2}{sup 34}SO{sub 4} from 70.0g of Na{sub 2}{sup 34}SO{sub 4} and 64.2g of ({sup 15}NH{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 4} . The second method involved the production of H{sub 2}{sup 34}SO{sub 4}, by ion exchange, and its subsequent reaction with {sup 15}NH{sub 3(aq)}, using a distillation system, to yield 58 g of ({sup 15}NH{sub 4}){sub 2}{sup 34}SO{sub 4} from 43.1 g of H{sub 2}{sup 34}SO{sub 4}. (author)

  12. Paleoenvironmental significance of aluminum phosphate-sulfate minerals in the upper Cretaceous ooidal ironstones, E-NE Aswan area, southern Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salama, Walid

    2014-09-01

    Aluminum phosphate-sulfate (APS) minerals are present as small, disseminated crystals in the upper Cretaceous shallow marine ooidal ironstones, E-NE Aswan area, southern Egypt. Their association with the ironstones is considered as a proxy of subaerial weathering and post-diagenetic meteoric water alteration. The mineralogical composition of the ooidal ironstones was investigated by optical and scanning electron microscopes, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared and Raman spectroscopy. The ooidal ironstones are composed mainly of ooids and groundmass, both of which consist of a mixture of detrital (quartz) and diagenetic (fluorapatite, chamosite and pyrite) mineral assemblages. These mineral assemblages are destabilized under acidic and oxidizing, continental conditions. These conditions resulted from the oxidation of pyrite and probably organic matter under warm and humid, tropical climate followed the Santonian Sea regression and subaerial exposure. These pedogenic conditions promoted corrosion of quartz, dissolution of chamosite and apatite and hydrolysis of feldspars of the nearby exposed granitoids. The released Si, Al and Sr from quartz, chamosite and feldspars; Fe and S from pyrite and P, Ca and light rare earth elements (LREE) from apatite are reprecipitated as hematite, kaolinite, apatite and APS minerals from the pore fluids or along fractures. The paragenetic sequence and textural relationships of this post-diagenetic mineral assemblage indicate that hematite was formed by replacement of chamosite followed by formation of a secondary generation of pore filling chlorapatite and APS minerals and finally the precipitation of kaolinite in the remaining pore spaces. The formation of APS minerals and chlorapatite is simultaneous, but APS minerals are stable at shallow depths under acidic to neutral pH conditions, whereas chlorapatite is stable under alkaline pH conditions. Alkaline conditions were maintained at greater depths when the infiltrated

  13. Microemulsion-assisted synthesis of mesoporous aluminum oxyhydroxide nanoflakes for efficient removal of gaseous formaldehyde.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhihua; Yu, Jiaguo; Low, Jingxiang; Jaroniec, Mietek

    2014-02-12

    Mesoporous aluminum oxyhydroxides composed of nanoflakes were prepared via a water-in-oil microemulsion-assisted hydrothermal process at 50 °C using aluminum salts as precursors and ammonium hydroxide as a precipitating agent. The microstructure, morphology, and textural properties of the as-prepared materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), nitrogen adsorption, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) techniques. It is shown that the aluminum oxyhydroxide nanostructures studied are effective adsorbents for removal of formaldehyde (HCHO) at ambient temperature, due to the abundance of surface hydroxyl groups, large specific surface area, and suitable pore size. Also, the type of aluminum precursor was essential for the microstructure formation and adsorption performance of the resulting materials. Namely, the sample prepared from aluminum sulfate (Al-s) exhibited a relatively high HCHO adsorption capacity in the first run, while the samples obtained from aluminum nitrate (Al-n) and chloride (Al-c) exhibited high adsorption capacity and relatively stable recyclability. A combination of high surface area and strong surface affinity of the prepared aluminum oxyhydroxide make this material a promising HCHO adsorbent for indoor air purification.

  14. Modeling dry and wet deposition of sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium ions in Jiuzhaigou National Nature Reserve, China using a source-oriented CMAQ model: Part I. Base case model results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Xue; Tang, Ya; Hu, Jianlin; Zhang, Shuai; Li, Jingyi; Kota, Sri Harsha; Wu, Li; Gao, Huilin; Zhang, Hongliang; Ying, Qi

    2015-11-01

    A source-oriented Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model driven by the meteorological fields generated by the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model was used to study the dry and wet deposition of nitrate (NO3(-)), sulfate (SO4(2-)), and ammonium (NH4(+)) ions in the Jiuzhaigou National Nature Reserve (JNNR), China from June to August 2010 and to identify the contributions of different emission sectors and source regions that were responsible for the deposition fluxes. The model performance is evaluated in this paper and the source contribution analyses are presented in a companion paper. The results show that WRF is capable of reproducing the observed precipitation rates with a Mean Normalized Gross Error (MNGE) of 8.1%. Predicted wet deposition fluxes of SO4(2-) and NO3(-) at the Long Lake (LL) site (3100 m a.s.l.) during the three-month episode are 2.75 and 0.34 kg S(N) ha(-1), which agree well with the observed wet deposition fluxes of 2.42 and 0.39 kg S(N) ha(-1), respectively. Temporal variations in the weekly deposition fluxes at LL are also well predicted. Wet deposition flux of NH4(+) at LL is over-predicted by approximately a factor of 3 (1.60 kg N ha(-1)vs. 0.56 kg N ha(-1)), likely due to missing alkaline earth cations such as Ca(2+) in the current CMAQ simulations. Predicted wet deposition fluxes are also in general agreement with observations at four Acid Deposition Monitoring Network in East Asia (EANET) sites in western China. Predicted dry deposition fluxes of SO4(2-) (including gas deposition of SO2) and NO3(-) (including gas deposition of HNO3) are 0.12 and 0.12 kg S(N) h a(-1) at LL and 0.07 and 0.08 kg S(N) ha(-1) at Jiuzhaigou Bureau (JB) in JNNR, respectively, which are much lower than the corresponding wet deposition fluxes. Dry deposition flux of NH4(+) (including gas deposition of NH3) is 0.21 kg N ha(-1) at LL, and is also much lower than the predicted wet deposition flux. For both dry and wet deposition fluxes, predictions

  15. Modeling dry and wet deposition of sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium ions in Jiuzhaigou National Nature Reserve, China using a source-oriented CMAQ model: Part II. Emission sector and source region contributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Xue; Tang, Ya; Kota, Sri Harsha; Li, Jingyi; Wu, Li; Hu, Jianlin; Zhang, Hongliang; Ying, Qi

    2015-11-01

    A source-oriented Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model driven by the meteorological fields generated by the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model was used to study the dry and wet deposition of nitrate (NO3(-)), sulfate (SO4(2-)), and ammonium (NH4(+)) ions in the Jiuzhaigou National Nature Reserve (JNNR), China from June to August 2010 and to identify the contributions of different emission sectors and source regions that were responsible for the deposition fluxes. Contributions from power plants, industry, transportation, domestic, biogenic, windblown dust, open burning, fertilizer, and manure management sources to deposition fluxes in JNNR watershed and four EANET sites are determined. In JNNR, 96%, 82%, and 87% of the SO4(2-), NO3(-) and NH4(+) deposition fluxes are in the form of wet deposition of the corresponding aerosol species. Industry and power plants are the two major sources of SO4(2-) deposition flux, accounting for 86% of the total wet deposition of SO4(2-), and industry has a higher contribution (56%) than that of power plants (30%). Power plants and industry are also the top sources that are responsible for NO3(-) wet deposition, and contributions from power plants (30%) are generally higher than those from industries (21%). The major sources of NH4(+) wet deposition flux in JNNR are fertilizer (48%) and manure management (39%). Source-region apportionment confirms that SO2 and NOx emissions from local and two nearest counties do not have a significant impact on predicted wet deposition fluxes in JNNR, with contributions less than 10%. While local NH3 emissions account for a higher fraction of the NH4(+) deposition, approximately 70% of NH4(+) wet deposition in JNNR originated from other source regions. This study demonstrates that S and N deposition in JNNR is mostly from long-range transport rather than from local emissions, and to protect JNNR, regional emission reduction controls are needed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All

  16. Effect of Ethylenediaminetetraacetic Acid and Ammonium Oxalate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research was carried out to investigate effect of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and ammonium oxalate on the prevalence of microorganisms and removal of aluminum in soil by bitter leaf plant (Vernonia amygdalina). The test plant was sown in aluminium-polluted soil (conc. = 150mg Al kg-1 soil). One gram of each ...

  17. Chondroitin Sulfate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of osteoarthritis. There is some evidence that a skin cream containing chondroitin sulfate in combination with glucosamine sulfate, shark cartilage, and camphor can reduce osteoarthritis symptoms. However, ...

  18. Optimization of nutritional requirements and ammonium feeding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Through Plackett-Burman design, the major factors of glucose, ammonium sulfate and KCl were selected as the significant factors affecting vitamin B12 biosynthesis and these were further optimized by central composite design with response surface methodology. The maximum Yp of 34.2 μg/gDCW/h was obtained in batch ...

  19. Distribution of nitrogen ammonium sulfate ({sup 15}N) soil-plant system in a no-tillage crop succession; Distribuicao do nitrogenio do sulfato de amonio ({sup 15}N) no sistema solo-planta, em uma sucessao de culturas, sob sistema plantio direto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, Flavia Carvalho da Silva, E-mail: flcsfernandes@gmail.com [Universidade Estadual de Maringa - Campus de Umuarama, PR (Brazil); Libardi, Paulo Leonel, E-mail: pllibard@esalq.usp.br [Departamento de Engenharia de Biossistemas, Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz, Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2012-05-15

    the n use by maize (Zea mays, l.) is affected by n-fertilizer levels. this study was conducted using a sandy-clay texture soil (Hapludox) to evaluate the efficiency of n use by maize in a crop succession, based on {sup 15}N labeled ammonium sulfate (5.5 atom %) at different rates, and to assess the residual fertilizer effect in two no-tillage succession crops (signal grass and corn). Two maize crops were evaluated, the first in the growing season 2006, the second in 2007, and brachiaria in the second growing season. The treatments consisted of n rates of 60, 120 and 180 kg ha{sup -1}in the form of labeled {sup 15}N ammonium sulfate. This fertilizer was applied in previously defined subplots, only to the first maize crop (growing season 2006). The variables total accumulated n; fertilizer-derived n in corn plants and pasture; fertilizer-derived n in the soil; and recovery of fertilizer-n by plants and soil were evaluated.The highest uptake of fertilizer n by corn was observed after application of 120 kg ha{sup -1}N and the residual effect of n fertilizer on subsequent corn and brachiaria was highest after application of 180 kg ha{sup -1}N. After the crop succession, soil n recovery was 32, 23 and 27 % for the respective applications of 60, 120 and 180 kg ha{sup -1}N. (author)

  20. Characterization of tomato growth and fruit quality under foliar ammonium sprays

    OpenAIRE

    Souri Mohammad Kazem; Dehnavard Sara

    2017-01-01

    This study was done to evaluate the effects of foliar application of ammonium sulfate on growth and fruit quality of tomato plants under hydroponic culture system. Over four months of tomato plant growth, plants were sprayed once per week with different concentrations of ammonium sulfate (0, 50, 100 and 200 mM), as well as with 50 mM every second day. Foliar application of ammonium sulfate led to reductions in many growth and quality parameters, and higher ammonium concentrations exerted grea...

  1. Uranium sorption from sulfate solutions by polyampholytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rychkov, V.N.

    2003-01-01

    Uranium sorption from sulfate solutions by aminocarboxylic and aminophosphoric acid polyampholytes is studied. Effect of concentration of sulfuric acid, ammonium sulfate, ph value of solution and concentration of metal in solution on uranium absorptivity by ampholytes is studied. It is determined that sorption process is described satisfactorily by K d =KC p Z equation. Basing on calculated data on uranium ion state in sulfate solutions, analysis of results and data of IR spectroscopy conclusions about uranium sorption process mechanism are made [ru

  2. Efeitos da aplicação de uréia e de sulfato de amônio nas características agronômicas e propriedades tecnológicas da fibra do algodoeiro Effects of urea and ammonium sulfate applications on the characteristics and tecnological properties of cotton fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Paulieri Sabino

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available São apresentados resultados referentes às características agronômicas e propriedades tecnológicas da fibra do algodoeiro, obtidos em dezesseis experimentos de campo, no Estado de São Paulo, entre os anos agrícolas de 1984/85 e 1986/87, nos quais se verificou o efeito da aplicação de adubos nitrogenados. Utilizaram-se a uréia e o sulfato de amônio no sulco de semeadura e, em cobertura, nas doses de 0, 25, 50, 75 e 100 kg/ha de N, obedecendo ao esquema fatorial 2 x 5, com quatro repetições distribuídas em blocos ao acaso. Demonstrou-se que em solos continuamente adubados, nos quais a reação da planta a N é alta em termos de produtividade, os efeitos da adubação podem estender-se às características agronômicas (pesos dos capulhos e de sementes e às propriedades tecnológicas da fibra do algodoeiro (comprimento, uniformidade de comprimento, índice Micronaire, maturidade e resistência intrínseca. De modo geral, o sulfato de amônio e a uréia tiveram comportamento semelhante.The agronomic characteristics and technological properties of the cotton 'IAC 20' in response to urea and ammonium sulfate applications were evaluated. These evaluations were made in three years, involving sixteen field plots. Rates of 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 kg/ha of N were used in a factorial design 2 x 5, with four replications in randomized blocks. In continuously fertilized soil, where the reaction to nitrogen is high in terms of productivity, it was demonstrated that the fertilization with ammonium sulfate and urea improved the agronomic characteristics (boll weight and seed weight and tecnological properties of cotton fibers (length, length uniformity, Micronaire index, maturity and strength fiber. In the present study, the behavior of the ammonium sulfate and urea was similar.

  3. Olfactory discrimination and generalization of ammonium nitrate and structurally related odorants in Labrador retrievers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarowski, Lucia; Foster, Melanie L; Gruen, Margaret E; Sherman, Barbara L; Fish, Richard E; Milgram, Norton W; Dorman, David C

    2015-11-01

    A critical aspect of canine explosive detection involves the animal's ability respond to novel, untrained odors based on prior experience with training odors. In the current study, adult Labrador retrievers (N = 15) were initially trained to discriminate between a rewarded odor (vanillin) and an unrewarded odor (ethanol) by manipulating scented objects with their nose in order to receive a food reward using a canine-adapted discrimination training apparatus. All dogs successfully learned this olfactory discrimination task (≥80 % correct in a mean of 296 trials). Next, dogs were trained on an ammonium nitrate (AN, NH4NO3) olfactory discrimination task [acquired in 60-240 trials, with a mean (±SEM) number of trials to criterion of 120.0 ± 15.6] and then tested for their ability to respond to untrained ammonium- and/or nitrate-containing chemicals as well as variants of AN compounds. Dogs did not respond to sodium nitrate or ammonium sulfate compounds at rates significantly higher than chance (58.8 ± 4.5 and 57.7 ± 3.3 % correct, respectively). Transfer performance to fertilizer-grade AN, AN mixed in Iraqi soil, and AN and flaked aluminum was significantly higher than chance (66.7 ± 3.2, 73.3 ± 4.0, 68.9 ± 4.0 % correct, respectively); however, substantial individual differences were observed. Only 53, 60, and 64 % of dogs had a correct response rate with fertilizer-grade AN, AN and Iraqi soil, and AN and flaked aluminum, respectively, that were greater than chance. Our results suggest that dogs do not readily generalize from AN to similar AN-based odorants at reliable levels desired for explosive detection dogs and that performance varies significantly within Labrador retrievers selected for an explosive detection program.

  4. Immunogenicity of a reduced-dose whole killed rabies vaccine is significantly enhanced by ISCOMATRIX™ adjuvant, Merck amorphous aluminum hydroxylphosphate sulfate (MAA) or a synthetic TLR9 agonist in rhesus macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiStefano, Daniel; Antonello, Joseph M; Bett, Andrew J; Medi, Muneeswara B; Casimiro, Danilo R; ter Meulen, Jan

    2013-10-01

    There is a need for novel rabies vaccines suitable for short course, pre- and post-exposure prophylactic regimens which require reduced doses of antigen to address the current worldwide supply issue. We evaluated in rhesus macaques the immunogenicity of a quarter-dose of a standard rabies vaccine formulated with Merck's amorphous aluminum hydroxylphosphate sulfate adjuvant, the saponin-based ISCOMATRIX™ adjuvant, or a synthetic TLR9 agonist. All adjuvants significantly increased the magnitude and durability of the humoral immune response as measured by rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test (RFFIT). Several three-dose vaccine regimens resulted in adequate neutralizing antibody of ≥ 0.5 IU/ml earlier than the critical day seven post the first dose. Rabies vaccine with ISCOMATRIX™ adjuvant given at days 0 and 3 resulted in neutralizing antibody titers which developed faster and were up to one log10 higher compared to WHO-recommended intramuscular and intradermal regimens and furthermore, passive administration of human rabies immunoglobulin did not interfere with immunogenicity of this reduced dose, short course vaccine regimen. Adjuvantation of whole-killed rabies vaccine for intramuscular injection may therefore be a viable alternative to intradermal application of non-adjuvanted vaccine for both pre- and post-exposure regimens. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Produção de sulfato de amônio duplamente marcado com os isótopos estáveis 15N e 34S Production of ammonium sulfate doubly labeled with the 15N and 34S stable isotopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Everaldo Maximo

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was the production of ammonium sulfate double labeled with 15N and 34S ((15NH42(34SO4, employing the ion exchange technique in two different processes. The first one was carried out using Na2(34SO4 and (15NH42SO4 previously enriched. It was possible to obtain about 54g of (15NH42(34SO4 from 70.0g of Na2(34SO4 and 64.2g of (15NH42SO4 . The second method involved the production of H2(34SO4, by ion exchange, and its subsequent reaction with 15NH3(aq, using a distillation system, to yield 58 g of (15NH42(34SO4 from 43.1 g of H2(34SO4.

  6. On effect of medium composition on strontium sulfate solubility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Likhachev, D.S.; Keskinov, V.A.; Karmanova, E.G.; Pyartman, A.K.

    1987-01-01

    Solubility of strontium sulfate at 25 deg C in aqueous solutions of ammonium sulfate, as well as in solutions of the mixture of lanthanum nitrate and ammonium sulfate, at different acidities of the medium is determined. It is established that an increase in the medium acidity and addition of lanthanum nitrate at the constant total concentration of sulfate-ions in solution results in the increase of SrSO 4 solubility due to the binding of sulfate-ions into forms HSO 4 - and LaSO 4 + . The values of solubility product of SrSO 4 in solutions of the mixture of ammonium sulfate, strontium nitrate and lanthanum nitrate at different temperatures are determined

  7. COMPOSIÇÃO MINERAL DE GRÃOS DE TRIGO SUBMETIDOS A DOSES DE SULFATO DE AMÔNIO E TRINEXAPAC-ETIL MINERAL COMPOSITION OF WHEAT GRAINS SUBJECTED TO AMMONIUM SULFATE AND TRINEXAPAC-ETHYL RATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Henrique Monnerat

    2010-10-01

    -decoration: none;" lang="pt-BR" align="JUSTIFY">Grain mineral composition is important for the establishment of appropriate fertilizer levels, as well as to define the nutritional quality of food and physiological quality of seeds. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of ammonium sulfate (AS and trinexapac-ethyl rates on mineral composition of wheat grains (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Pioneiro. The experiment was carried out in Viçosa, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, from June to October 2006. The treatments consisted of five AS rates (150 kg ha-1, 300 kg ha-1, 450 kg ha-1, 600 kg ha-1, and 750 kg ha-1 combined with four trinexapac-ethyl rates (0 g ha-1, 62.5 g ha-1, 125 g ha-1, and 187.5 g ha-1. The experiment was arranged in a randomized block design with four replications. AS rates increased the concentrations of total-N (protein, Ca, S, Cu, and Zn and decreased the concentrations of P, K, and Mn (at AS rates above 457 kg ha-1. The Mg and Fe concentrations were not influenced by AS rates. Trinexapac-ethyl increased total-N, P, and Mn; reduced Ca; and had no influence on the concentrations of K, S, Cu, Zn, Mg, and Fe. It can be concluded that AS application improves the nutritional quality of grains, while the use of the growth retardant trinexapac-ethyl has no influence on its mineral composition.

    KEY-WORDS: Triticum aestivum L.; nutrition; growth retardant.

  8. Novel Ammonium Metal Borohydrides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grinderslev, Jakob; Jepsen, Lars Haahr; Cerny, Radovan

    halide-free ammonium metal borohydrides is presented, which have the chemical compositions (NH4)xM(BH4)n+x. The ammonium metal borohydrides are synthesized by cryomilling of NH4BH4 – M(BH4)n (M = Li, Na, K, Mg, Sr, Y, Mn, La, Gd) in different ratios. A new range of ammonium metal borohydrides is formed...

  9. Ammonium nitrate explosion hazards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negovanović Milanka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ammonium nitrate (AN primarily is used as a fertilizer but it is also very important compound in the production of industrial explosives. The application of ammonium nitrate in the production of industrial explosives was related with the early era of Nobel dynamite and widely increased with the appearance of blasting agents such as ANFO and Slurry, in the middle of the last Century. Throughout the world millions of tons of ammonium nitrate are produced annually and handled without incident. Although ammonium nitrate generally is used safely, accidental explosions involving AN have high impact resulting in loss of lives and destruction of property. The paper presents the basic properties of ammonium nitrate as well as hazards in handling of ammonium nitrate in order to prevent accidents. Several accidents with explosions of ammonium nitrate resulted in catastrophic consequences are listed in the paper as examples of non-compliance with prescribed procedures.

  10. Effect of SO4 2-/Al3+ ratio and OH-/Al3+ value on the characterization of coagulant poly-aluminum-chloride-sulfate (PACS) and its coagulation performance in water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Baoyu; Yue, Qinyan

    2005-10-01

    A poly-aluminum-chloride-sulfate (PACS) was prepared at various experimental conditions. It was found that the coagulation performance of PACS in water treatment was affected by the PACS particle size distribution and zeta potential value. The experimental results indicated that the PACS particle size distribution and zeta potential value were highly influenced by SO(4)(2-)/Al(3+) molar ratio and bacicities (gamma,gamma=[OH]/[Al]) value. At a fixed gamma value of 2.0, the average PACS particle size increased from 25 to 80nm with the increase of SO(4)(2-)/Al(3+) ratio from 0 to 0.1. Further increase of the SO(4)(2-)/Al(3+) ratio resulted in acute increment particle size of PACS extremely, which can be attributed to its aggregation. At a fixed SO(4)(2-)/Al(3+) ratio of 0.0664, the largest average size of PACS occurred at gamma=2.0. It was also found that the zeta potential value of PACS was strongly influenced by the SO(4)(2-)/Al(3+) ratio, gamma value and pH of the aquatic solution. The zeta potential value of PACS increased with increasing of SO(4)(2-)/Al(3+) ratio. At a fixed SO(4)(2-)/Al(3+) ratio of 0.0664, PACS achieved greatest zeta potential value at gamma value of around 2.0. The maximum positive zeta potential value of PACS was found at pH5.3. At a fixed gamma value of 2.0 and SO(4)(2-)/Al(3+) ratio of 0.0664, the PACS achieved an optimum natural organic matter and turbidity removal efficiency.

  11. Aluminum: Reflective Aluminum Chips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Recca, L.

    1999-01-29

    This fact sheet reveals how the use of reflective aluminum chips on rooftops cuts down significantly on heat absorption, thus decreasing the need for air conditioning. The benefits, including energy savings that could reach the equivalent of 1.3 million barrels of oil annually for approximately 100,000 warehouses, are substantial.

  12. Pseudoideal detonation of mechanoactivated mixtures of ammonium perchlorate with nanoaluminum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevchenko, A. A.; Dolgoborodov, A. Yu; Brazhnikov, M. A.; Kirilenko, V. G.

    2018-01-01

    Detonation properties of mechanochemical activated ammonium perchlorate with aluminum (AP–Al) mixtures with increased detonation velocity was studied. For compositions with nanoscale aluminum was obtained nonmonotonic dependence of the detonation velocity vs reciprocal diameter. The results generally showed that the combined usage of mechanical activation and nanoscale components of explosive mixtures can significantly increase the detonation ability and reduce the critical diameter to d cr = 7 mm.

  13. Glifosato aplicado com diferentes concentrações de uréia ou sulfato de amônio para dessecação de plantas daninhas Glyphosate applied with different concentrations of urea or ammonium sulfate for weed desiccation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saul Jorge Pinto de Carvalho

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de avaliar a eficácia do herbicida glifosato, para a dessecação de trapoeraba (Commelina benghalensis e outras plantas daninhas, quando combinado a diferentes concentrações de sulfato de amônio ou uréia. Foram conduzidos três experimentos com tratamentos semelhantes: dois em campo e um em casa de vegetação. Os tratamentos aplicados em campo foram: glifosato (360 g ha-1 de e.a., isolado ou acrescido de quatro concentrações de sulfato de amônio (2,5, 5, 10 e 20 g L-1 ou uréia (1,5, 3, 6 e 12 g L-1; glifosato a 720 g ha-1 de e.a., aplicado isoladamente; e testemunha sem aplicação. Em casa de vegetação, para o controle específico da trapoeraba, as doses de glifosato foram elevadas para 720 (isolado e nas combinações e 1.440 g ha-1 de e.a. A adição de sulfato de amônio à calda do glifosato elevou o controle das plantas daninhas em campo, para as concentrações com até 10 g L-1. O herbicida glifosato não foi eficaz no controle da trapoeraba, em nenhumas das doses usadas. A adição de uréia não promoveu incrementos de controle em condição de campo; porém, para concentrações de até 6 g L-1, melhorou o controle da trapoeraba, na avaliação conduzida aos 28 dias após aplicação.This work was developed with the objective of evaluating glyphosate efficacy for Bengal dayflower (Commelina benghalensis and other weeds desiccation, when combined to different concentrations of ammonium sulfate or urea. Three experiments were carried out with similar treatments: two in field conditions and one in greenhouse. Treatments applied in field conditions were: glyphosate at 360 g ha-1 a.e., isolated or combined to four concentrations of ammonium sulfate (2.5, 5, 10, and 20 g L-1 or urea (1.5, 3, 6, and 12 g L-1; glyphosate at 720 g ha-1 a.e., applied isolately; and checks without application. In greenhouse, for the specific control on Bengal dayflower, glyphosate rates were increased to

  14. Influence of ammonium salts on the lipase/esterase activity assay using p-nitrophenyl esters as substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Yan, Hong; Zhang, Yin Jun; Liu, Hong Cai; Zheng, Jian Yong; Wang, Zhao

    2013-01-01

    p-Nitrophenyl esters with a short-chain carboxylic group, such as p-nitrophenyl acetate (p-NPA) and p-nitrophenyl butyrate (p-NPB), could be effectively hydrolyzed by ammonium salts. p-Nitrophenyl esters were usually used as substrates to assay the lipase/esterase activity. Ammonium sulfate precipitation was often used to purify proteins, and some ammonium salts were usually used as nitrogen sources or inorganic salts for the lipase/esterase production. To study the effect of ammonium salts on the assay of the lipase/esterase activity, the contributing factors of hydrolysis of p-NPA/p-NPB catalyzed by ammonium salts were investigated. The lipase activities were compared in the presence and absence of ammonium sulfate. The hydrolysis reaction could be catalyzed under neutral and alkaline circumstances. The hydrolysis rate increased with the increase in the reaction temperature or the concentration of ammonium ion. When p-NPA was employed as the substrate for the analysis of the lipase/esterase activity, the effect of ammonium sulfate on the analysis could be neutralized by setting a control when the concentration of ammonium sulfate was less than 40% saturation. However, when the concentration of ammonium sulfate increased from 40% to 100% saturation, the enzyme activities decreased about 13-40%, which could not be ignored for accurate analysis of the enzyme activity. © 2013 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  15. Aluminum chloride restoration of in situ leached uranium ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grant, D.C.; Burgman, M.A.

    1982-01-01

    During in situ uranium mining using ammonium bicarbonate lixiviant, the ammonium exchanges with cations on the ore's clay. After mining is complete, the ammonium may desorb into post-leach ground water. For the particular ore studied, other chemicals (i.e., uranium and selenium) which are mobilized during the leach process, have also been found in the post-leach ground water. Laboratory column tests, used to simulate the leaching process, have shown that aluminum chloride can rapidly remove ammonium from the ore and thus greatly reduce the subsequent ammonium leakage level into ground water. The aluminum chloride has also been found to reduce the leakage levels of uranium and selenium. In addition, the aluminum chloride treatment produces a rapid improvement in permeability

  16. Aluminum Hydroxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aluminum hydroxide is used for the relief of heartburn, sour stomach, and peptic ulcer pain and to ... Aluminum hydroxide comes as a capsule, a tablet, and an oral liquid and suspension. The dose and ...

  17. Crystallization of Chicken Egg White Lysozyme from Sulfate Salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsythe, Elizabeth; Pusey, Marc

    1998-01-01

    It has been "known" that chicken egg white lysozyme does not crystallize from sulfate, particularly ammonium sulfate, salts, but instead gives amorphous precipitates. This has been the basis of several studies using lysozyme comparing macromolecule crystal nucleation and amorphous precipitation. Recently Ries-Kautt et al (Acta Cryst D50, (1994) 366) have shown that purified isoionic CEWL could be crystallized from low concentrations of sulfate at basic pH, and we subsequently showed that in fact CEWL could be purified in both the tetragonal and orthorhombic forms using ammonium sulfate over the pH range 4.0 to 7.8 (Acta Cryst D53, (1997) 795). We have now extended these observations to include a range of common sulfate salts, specifically sodium, potassium, rubidium, magnesium, and manganese sulfates. In all cases but the manganese sulfates both the familiar tetragonal and orthorhombic forms were obtained, with unit cell dimensions close to those known for the "classic" sodium chloride crystallized forms. Manganese sulfate has only yielded orthorhombic crystals to date. All crystallizations were carried out using low (typically less than or equal to 6 M) salt and high (greater than approximately 90 mg/ml) protein concentrations. As with ammonium sulfate, the tetragonal - orthorhombic phase shift appears to be a function of both the temperature and the protein concentration, with higher temperatures and concentrations favoring the orthorhombic and lower the tetragonal form. The phase change range is somewhat reduced for the sulfate salts, depending upon conditions being typically between approximately 15 - 20 C. Both the magnesium and manganese sulfates gave crystals at salt concentrations over 0.6 M as well, with magnesium sulfate giving a very slowly nucleating and growing hexagonal form. A triclinic crystal form, characterized by aggressively small crystals (typically 0.1 mm in size) has been occasionally obtained from ammonium sulfate. Finally, preliminary spot

  18. Elevated ammonium levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Rikke; Novak, Ivana; MacAulay, Nanna

    2012-01-01

    Increased ammonium (NH(4)(+)/NH(3)) in the brain is a significant factor in the pathophysiology of hepatic encephalopathy, which involves altered glutamatergic neurotransmission. In glial cell cultures and brain slices, glutamate uptake either decreases or increases following acute ammonium expos...

  19. Copolymerization of poly (ethylene oxide) and poly (methyl methacrylate) initiated by ceric ammonium nitrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, A.S.; Ferreira, A.A.; Coutinho, F.M.B.; Marinho, J.R.D.

    1984-01-01

    Cerium (IV) salts such as the ceric ammonium nitrate and ceric ammonium sulfate in aqueous acid solution with reducing agents such as alcohols, thiols, glycols, aldehydes and amines are well known initiators of vinyl polymerization. In this work, the polymerization of methyl methacrylate initiated by ceric ammonium nitrate/HNO 3 -poly(ethylene oxide) with hydroxyl end group system was studied in aqueous solution at 25 0 C to obtain block copolymers. (Author) [pt

  20. Sulfate and nitrate levels in aqueous, atmospheric aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, T.W.; Seinfeld, J.H.

    1979-01-01

    The formation of sulfates and nitrates in marine aerosol particles is investigated. A simulation of the growth and chemical reactions of an aerosol particle composed initially of an equilibrium mixture of NaCl and MgCl 2 and exposed to SO 2 , NO, NO 2 , NH 3 and H 2 SO 4 vapor is used to predict the relative compositions of sulfates, nitrates and ammonium, assuming gas-phase sulfur dioxide oxidation and liquid-phase nitrate formation. Results indicate an increase in nitrate concentration and a decrease in sulfate and ammonium concentrations with increasing particle radius and a near-stoichiometric ratio of nitrate and sulfate to ammonium. The noted deviations of this ratio from those observed experimentally are considered to indicate the relative importances of liquid-phase sulfur dioxide oxidation at various locations

  1. Barium Sulfate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... uses a computer to put together x-ray images to create cross-sectional or three dimensional pictures of the inside of the body). Barium sulfate is in a class of medications called radiopaque contrast media. It works by coating the esophagus, stomach, or ...

  2. Extraction of beryllium sulfate by a long chain amine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Etaix, E.S.

    1968-01-01

    The extraction of sulfuric acid in aqueous solution by a primary amine in benzene solution, 3-9 (diethyl) - 6-amino tri-decane (D.E.T. ) - i.e., with American nomenclature 1-3 (ethyl-pentyl) - 4-ethyl-octyl amine (E.P.O.) - has made it possible to calculate the formation constants of alkyl-ammonium sulfate and acid sulfate. The formula of the beryllium and alkyl-ammonium sulfate complex formed in benzene has next been determined, for various initial acidity of the aqueous solution. Lastly, evidence has been given of negatively charged complexes of beryllium and sulfate in aqueous solution, through the dependence of the aqueous sulfate ions concentration upon beryllium extraction. The formation constant of these anionic complexes has been evaluated. (author) [fr

  3. 15N-labeled nitrogen from green manure and ammonium sulfate utilization by the sugarcane ratoon Aproveitamento do nitrogênio-15 da adubação verde e do sulfato de amônio pela soqueira da cana-de-açúcar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmilson José Ambrosano

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Legumes as green manure are alternative sources of nitrogen (N for crops and can supplement or even replace mineral nitrogen fertilization due to their potential for biological nitrogen fixation (BNF. The utilization of nitrogen by sugarcane (Saccharum spp. fertilized with sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L. and ammonium sulfate (AS was evaluated using the 15N tracer technique. N was added at the rate of 196 and 70 kg ha-1 as 15Nlabeled sunn hemp green manure (SH and as ammonium sulfate (AS, respectively. Treatments were: (i Control; (ii AS15N; (iii SH15N + AS; (iv SH15N; and (v AS15N + SH. Sugarcane was cultivated for five years and was harvested three times. 15N recovery was evaluated in the two first harvests. In the sum of the three harvests, the highest stalk yields were obtained with a combination of green manure and inorganic N fertilizer; however, in the second cutting the yields were higher where SH was used than in plots with AS. The recovery of N by the first two consecutive harvests accounted for 19 to 21% of the N applied as leguminous green manure and 46 to 49% of the N applied as AS. The amounts of inorganic N, derived from both N sources, present in the 0-0.4 m layer of soil in the first season after N application and were below 1 kg ha-1.Leguminosas, como adubo verde, são fontes alternativas de nitrogênio para as culturas e podem complementar ou mesmo substituir a adubação mineral nitrogenada, devido ao seu potencial de fixação biológica de nitrogênio (FBN. A utilização do nitrogênio pela cana-de-açúcar (Saccharum spp. fertilizada com crotalária (Crotalaria juncea L. e sulfato de amônio (SA foi avaliada utilizando a técnica de traçador 15N. As quantidades equivalentes a 196 e 70 kg de N por hectare foram adicionados como adubo verde crotalária júncea (CJ e como o sulfato de amônio (SA, respectivamente, nos seguintes tratamentos: (i controle; (ii SA15N; (iii CJ15N + SA; (iv CJ15N; e (v SA15N + CJ. A cana

  4. Size-dependent reactions of ammonium bisulfate clusters with dimethylamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bzdek, Bryan R; Ridge, Douglas P; Johnston, Murray V

    2010-11-04

    The reaction kinetics of ammonium bisulfate clusters with dimethylamine (DMA) gas were investigated using Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTICR-MS). Clusters ranged in size from 1 to 10 bisulfate ions. Although displacement of the first several ammonium ions by DMA occurred with near unit efficiency, displacement of the final ammonium ion was cluster size dependent. For small clusters, all ammonium ions are exposed to incoming DMA molecules, allowing for facile exchange ("surface" exchange). However, with increasing cluster size, an ammonium ion can be trapped in an inaccessible region of the cluster ("core" exchange), thereby rendering exchange difficult. DMA was also observed to add onto existing dimethylaminium bisulfate clusters above a critical size, whereas ammonia did not add onto ammonium bisulfate clusters. The results suggest that as the cluster size increases, di-dimethylaminium sulfate formation becomes more favorable. The results of this study give further evidence to suggest that ambient sub-3 nm diameter particles are likely to contain aminium salts rather than ammonium salts.

  5. Novel Ammonium Metal Borohydrides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grinderslev, Jakob; Jepsen, Lars Haahr; Cerny, Radovan

    , it cannot store hydrogen reversibly. Recently, the first ammonium metal borohydride, NH4Ca(BH4)3 was published, which may be considered as substitution of K+ by NH4+ in KCa(BH4)3, due to the similar sizes of NH4+ and K+[1]. This compound successfully stabilizes NH4BH4. In the present work, a series of novel...... halide-free ammonium metal borohydrides is presented, which have the chemical compositions (NH4)xM(BH4)n+x. The ammonium metal borohydrides are synthesized by cryomilling of NH4BH4 – M(BH4)n (M = Li, Na, K, Mg, Sr, Y, Mn, La, Gd) in different ratios. A new range of ammonium metal borohydrides is formed......, and the crystal structures and thermal decompositions are investigated. Mixtures of NH4BH4 - NaBH4 do not react, while solid solutions, K1-x(NH4)xBH4, are formed for NH4BH4 - KBH4. For the other composites, novel ammonium metal borohydrides are formed. Several of these structures have been solved from high...

  6. 21 CFR 182.90 - Substances migrating to food from paper and paperboard products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (double sulfate of aluminum and ammonium potassium, or sodium). Aluminum hydroxide. Aluminum oleate. Aluminum palmitate. Casein. Cellulose acetate. Cornstarch. Diatomaceous earth filler. Ethyl cellulose..., pregelatinized. Starch, unmodified. Talc. Vanillin. Zinc hydrosulfite. Zinc sulfate. [42 FR 14640, Mar. 15, 1977...

  7. Urine Anion Gap to Predict Urine Ammonium and Related Outcomes in Kidney Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raphael, Kalani L; Gilligan, Sarah; Ix, Joachim H

    2018-02-07

    Low urine ammonium excretion is associated with ESRD in CKD. Few laboratories measure urine ammonium, limiting clinical application. We determined correlations between urine ammonium, the standard urine anion gap, and a modified urine anion gap that includes sulfate and phosphate and compared risks of ESRD or death between these ammonium estimates and directly measured ammonium. We measured ammonium, sodium, potassium, chloride, phosphate, and sulfate from baseline 24-hour urine collections in 1044 African-American Study of Kidney Disease and Hypertension participants. We evaluated the cross-sectional correlations between urine ammonium, the standard urine anion gap (sodium + potassium - chloride), and a modified urine anion gap that includes urine phosphate and sulfate in the calculation. Multivariable-adjusted Cox models determined the associations of the standard urine anion gap and the modified urine anion gap with the composite end point of death or ESRD; these results were compared with results using urine ammonium as the predictor of interest. The standard urine anion gap had a weak and direct correlation with urine ammonium ( r =0.18), whereas the modified urine anion gap had a modest inverse relationship with urine ammonium ( r =-0.58). Compared with the highest tertile of urine ammonium, those in the lowest urine ammonium tertile had higher risk of ESRD or death (hazard ratio, 1.46; 95% confidence interval, 1.13 to 1.87) after adjusting for demographics, GFR, proteinuria, and other confounders. In comparison, participants in the corresponding standard urine anion gap tertile did not have higher risk of ESRD or death (hazard ratio, 0.82; 95% confidence interval, 0.64 to 1.07), whereas the risk for those in the corresponding modified urine anion gap tertile (hazard ratio, 1.32; 95% confidence interval, 1.03 to 1.68) approximated that of directly measured urine ammonium. Urine anion gap is a poor surrogate of urine ammonium in CKD unless phosphate and

  8. Aluminum Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumrall, William J.

    1998-01-01

    Presents three problems based on the price of aluminum designed to encourage students to be cooperative and to use an investigative approach to learning. Students collect and synthesize information, analyze results, and draw conclusions. (AIM)

  9. Evaluating Ammonium, Nitrate and Sulfate Aerosols in 3-Dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezuman, Keren; Bauer, Susanne E.; Tsigaridis, Kostas

    2015-01-01

    The effect aerosols have on climate and air quality is a func-on of their chemical composi-on, concentra-on and spa-al distribu-on. These parameters are controlled by emissions, heterogeneous and homogeneous chemistry, where thermodynamics plays a key role, transport, which includes stratospheric-­- tropospheric exchange, and deposi-onal sinks. In this work we demonstrate the effect of some of these processes on the SO4-NH4­-NO3 system using the GISS ModelE2 Global Circula-on Model (GCM).

  10. Electrodeposition of magnesium and magnesium/aluminum alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, A.

    1988-01-21

    Electrolytes and plating solutions for use in processes for electroplating and electroforming pure magnesium and alloys of aluminum and magnesium and also electrodeposition processes. An electrolyte of this invention is comprised of an alkali metal fluoride or a quaternary ammonium halide, dimethyl magnesium and/or diethyl magnesium, and triethyl aluminum and/or triisobutyl aluminum. An electrolyte may be dissolved in an aromatic hydrocarbon solvent to form a plating solution. The proportions of the component compounds in the electrolyte are varied to produce essentially pure magnesium or magnesium/aluminum alloys having varying selected compositions.

  11. Rocket Solid Propellant Alternative Based on Ammonium Dinitramide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigore CICAN

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to the continuous run for a green environment the current article proposes a new type of solid propellant based on the fairly new synthesized oxidizer, ammonium dinitramide (ADN. Apart of having a higher specific impulse than the worldwide renowned oxidizer, ammonium perchlorate, ADN has the advantage, of leaving behind only nitrogen, oxygen and water after decomposing at high temperatures and therefore totally avoiding the formation of hydrogen chloride fumes. Based on the oxidizer to fuel ratios of the current formulations of the major rocket solid booster (e.g. Space Shuttle’s SRB, Ariane 5’s SRB which comprises mass variations of ammonium perchlorate oxidizer (70-75%, atomized aluminum powder (10-18% and polybutadiene binder (12-20% a new solid propellant was formulated. As previously stated, the new propellant formula and its variations use ADN as oxidizer and erythritol tetranitrate as fuel, keeping the same polybutadiene as binder.

  12. Global simulations of nitrate and ammonium aerosols and their radiative effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Xu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available We examine the formation of nitrate and ammonium on five types of externally mixed pre-existing aerosols using the hybrid dynamic method in a global chemistry transport model. The model developed here predicts a similar spatial pattern of total aerosol nitrate and ammonium to that of several pioneering studies, but separates the effects of nitrate and ammonium on pure sulfate, biomass burning, fossil fuel, dust and sea salt aerosols. Nitrate and ammonium boost the scattering efficiency of sulfate and organic matter but lower the extinction of sea salt particles since the hygroscopicity of a mixed nitrate-ammonium-sea salt particle is less than that of pure sea salt. The direct anthropogenic forcing of particulate nitrate and ammonium at the top of the atmosphere (TOA is estimated to be −0.12 W m−2. Nitrate, ammonium and nitric acid gas also affect aerosol activation and the reflectivity of clouds. The first aerosol indirect forcing by anthropogenic nitrate (gas plus aerosol and ammonium is estimated to be −0.09 W m−2 at the TOA, almost all of which is due to condensation of nitric acid gas onto growing droplets (−0.08 W m−2.

  13. Interactions of aerosols (ammonium sulfate, ammonium nitrate and ammonium chloride) and of gases (HCl, HNO 3) with fogwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruprecht, Heidi; Sigg, Laura

    The concentrations of aerosols (NH 4NO 3, (NH 4) 2SO 4 and NH 4Cl) and of gases (HCl (g), HNO 3(g), NH 3(g) were determined by denuder methods under different conditions (in the absence of fog, before, during and after fog events). At this site situated in an urban region, high concentrations of the gaseous strong acids HCl (g) and HNO 3(g) are observed. NH 4Cl and NH 4NO 3 aerosols represent a major fraction of the Cl - and NO 3- aerosols (fogwater and are released again after fog dissipation.

  14. Ammonium on Ceres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammannito, E.; De Sanctis, M. C.; Carrorro, F. G.; Ciarniello, M.; Combe, J. P.; De Angelis, S.; Ehlmann, B. L.; Frigeri, A.; Longobardo, A.; Mugnuolo, R.; Marchi, S.; Palomba, E.; Raymond, C. A.; Salatti, M.; Tosi, F.; Zambon, F.; Russell, C. T.

    2017-12-01

    Since January 2015, the surface of Ceres has been studied by the Dawn spacecraft through the measurements from the three instruments on board (1). The VIR imaging spectrometer, sensitive to the spectral range 0.25 -5.0 μm, provided information on the surficial composition of Ceres at resolutions ranging from few kilometers to about one hundred meters (2). Analysis of VIR reflectance data revealed that the average spectrum of Ceres is compatible with a mixture of low-albedo minerals, Mg- phyllosilicates, ammoniated clays, and Mg- carbonates, (3) confirming previous studies based on ground based spectra (4, 5). Mineralogical maps of the surface at about 1 km/px show that the components identified in the average spectrum are present all across the surface with variations in their relative abundance and chemical composition (6, 7). While the ammoniated clays have been already studied (6), the presence nature and distribution of additional ammoniated species has never been investigated in detail, although the spectral analysis of the bright faculae within Occator crater already revealed the potential presence of ammonium salts (8). Since the position and shape of the ammonium absorption in the VIS-NIR region are function of the hosting mineral specie (8), we did an inventory and characterization of the ammonium-rich regions, in order to analyze their spectral properties. In addition to the presence of ammonium, also the identification of the hosting species has implication for the evolution of Ceres. Our study, therefore, is a step forward in understanding of evolutionary pathway of Ceres. References: (1) Russell, C. T. et al., Science, 2016. (2) De Sanctis M.C. et al., Space Science Reviews, 2011. (3) De Sanctis M.C. et al., Nature, 2015. (4) King T. et al. Science, 1992. (5) Rivkin A.S. et al. Icarus, 2006. (6) Ammannito E. et al., Science, 2016. (7) Carrozzo F.G. et al., Science Advances, in revision. (8) De Sanctis et al., Nature, 2016. (9) Berg et al., Icarus

  15. Reuse of ammonium fluoride generated in the uranium hexafluoride conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva Neto, J.B.; Carvalho, E.F. Urano de; Durazzo, M.; Riella, H.G

    2010-01-01

    The Nuclear Fuel Centre of IPEN / CNEN - SP develops and manufactures dispersion fuel with high uranium concentration to meet the demand of the IEA-R1 reactor and future research reactors planned to be constructed in Brazil. The fuel uses uranium silicide (U 3 Si 2 ) dispersed in aluminum. For producing the fuel, the processes for uranium hexafluoride (UF 6 ) conversion consist in obtaining U 3 Si 2 and / or U 3 O 8 through the preparation of intermediate compounds, among them ammonium uranyl carbonate - AUC, ammonium diuranate - DUA and uranium tetrafluoride - UF 4 . This work describes a procedure for preparing uranium tetrafluoride by a dry route using as raw material the filtrate generated when producing routinely ammonium uranyl carbonate. The filtrate consists primarily of a solution containing high concentrations of ammonium (NH 4 + ), fluoride (F - ), carbonate (CO 3 -- ) and low concentrations of uranium. The procedure is basically the recovery of NH 4 F and uranium, as UF 4 , through the crystallization of ammonium bifluoride (NH 4 HF 2 ) and, in a later step, the addition of UO 2 , occurring fluoridation and decomposition. The UF 4 obtained is further diluted in the UF 4 produced routinely at IPEN / CNEN-SP by a wet route process. (author)

  16. Role of iron and aluminum coagulant metal residuals and lead release from drinking water pipe materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, Alisha D; Nguyen, Caroline K; Edwards, Marc A; Stoddart, Amina; McIlwain, Brad; Gagnon, Graham A

    2015-01-01

    Bench-scale experiments investigated the role of iron and aluminum residuals in lead release in a low alkalinity and high (> 0.5) chloride-to-sulfate mass ratio (CSMR) in water. Lead leaching was examined for two lead-bearing plumbing materials, including harvested lead pipe and new lead: tin solder, after exposure to water with simulated aluminum sulfate, polyaluminum chloride and ferric sulfate coagulation treatments with 1-25-μM levels of iron or aluminum residuals in the water. The release of lead from systems with harvested lead pipe was highly correlated with levels of residual aluminum or iron present in samples (R(2) = 0.66-0.88), consistent with sorption of lead onto the aluminum and iron hydroxides during stagnation. The results indicate that aluminum and iron coagulant residuals, at levels complying with recommended guidelines, can sometimes play a significant role in lead mobilization from premise plumbing.

  17. Facile synthesis of ammonium vanadate nanofibers by using reflux in aqueous V{sub 2}O{sub 5} solution with ammonium persulfate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Se Hun [Department of Convergence Nanoscience, Hanyang University, 222 Wangsimni-ro, Seongdong-gu, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Koo, Jun Mo [Department of Organic and Nano Engineering, Hanyang University, 222 Wangsimni-ro, Seongdong-gu, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Seong Geun, E-mail: seongoh@hanyang.ac.kr [Department of Chemical Engineering, Hanyang University, 222 Wangsimni-ro, Seongdong-gu, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Im, Seung Soon, E-mail: imss007@hanyang.ac.kr [Department of Convergence Nanoscience, Hanyang University, 222 Wangsimni-ro, Seongdong-gu, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Organic and Nano Engineering, Hanyang University, 222 Wangsimni-ro, Seongdong-gu, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    Ammonium vanadate nanofibers were synthesized by simple reflux method in aqueous V{sub 2}O{sub 5} solution with ammonium persulfate without relying on surfactants, catalysts, harmful solvents and autoclave. The degree of intercalation by cationic ammonium ions into the crystal structure of vanadium oxide along with its change in chemical composition were analyzed by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), infrared spectroscopy (IR). The morphological changes toward nanofiber structure, having diameter of 20–30 nm and a few μm length, were investigated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The influences of synthetic conditions, such as reaction time and concentration of sulfate (SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}), on the crystal structures and morphologies of the resulting products have investigated. As a result, the ammonium vanadate nanofiber was formed in a short reaction time through a simple reflux method and yielded comparable electrical conductivity 1.47 × 10{sup -2} S/cm. - Highlights: • Ammonium vanadate nanofiber (AVFr) was prepared by simple reflux method. • AVFr yielded comparable electrical conductivity 1.47 × 10{sup -2} S/cm. • The electrical conductivity was improved by the increased amount of ammonium ion. • Sulfate ions (SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}) play a crucial role in controlling the morphology of nanofiber.

  18. Crystallisation of mixtures of ammonium nitrate, ammonium sulphate and soot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dougle, P.G.; Veefkind, J.P.; Brink, H.M. ten

    1998-01-01

    Crystallisation of laboratory aerosols of ammonium nitrate and of internal mixtures of this salt with ammonium sulphate were investigated using humidity controlled nephelometry. The aerosol was produced via nebulizing of solutions and then dried to 25% RH, which is a realistic minimum value for

  19. Removal of sulfate interference in the determination of indium and gallium by graphite furnace AAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsusaki, Koji; Sata, Toshikatsu

    1994-01-01

    A mixture of ammonium-EDTA, nickel and aluminium nitrates is suitable as a matrix modifier for the removal of sulfate interference in the determination of indium and gallium by graphite furnace AAS. Nickel and aluminium nitrates act as a thermal stabilizer for the analyte in the furnace before atomization. Since analyte and other cations are masked by EDTA, the coexisting sulfates are converted to ammonium salt, which is readily decomposed and eliminated from the furnace during the ashing step. In the presence of 0.1 M nickel nitrate, 0.001 M aluminium nitrate and 0.1 M ammonium-EDTA, when the concentration of sodium and potassium sulfates are below 0.02 M, the interferences of these sulfates are completely removed. (author)

  20. Efeito da calagem e sulfato de amônio no algodão: II - Concentração de cátions e ânions na solução do solo e absorção de nutrientes pelas plantas Effect of liming and ammonium sulfate in cotton: II - Concentration of cations and anions in the soil solution and plant nutrient uptake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Salvador Simoneti Foloni

    2006-06-01

    soil mobilization. Nitrogen fertilization adds anions that can increase the solubility of basic cations of the soil due to formation of ionic pairs. The objective of this study was to characterize the dynamics of anions (SO4(2- and NO3- and cations (NH4+, Ca2+, Mg2+ and K+ in the soil solution, and the nutrient uptake by cotton plants subjected to different lime application forms and ammonium sulfate fertilization, with straw on the soil surface. Cotton plants (Gossypium hirsutum were grown for 60 days in PVC columns filled with a distroferric Red Latosol (sand loam Rhodic Oxisol. The soil had lime incorporated into the 0-20 cm layer, liming on the soil surface, or received no lime. Nitrogen was used at rates of 0, 50, 100 and 150 kg ha-1 as ammonium sulfate. The pots consisted of PVC columns of 20 cm diameter and 50 cm height, totaling 15.71 dm³. Porous capsules were installed at a depth of 15-20 cm to extract soil solution. The SO4(2- of the soil solution was increased by the nitrogen fertilization, independently of the lime application form. Nitrification was favored in the short-term with the application of ammonium sulfate only in the condition of incorporated lime. After 50 days of plant growth, however, nitrate in the soil solution increased, even in the soil that had not been limed. The Ca, Mg and K concentrations in the soil solution were increased as a response to the nitrogen top dressing. The anion SO4(2- presented greater affinity than NO3- in the formation of ionic pairs with the basic cations in the soil solution. The application of ammonium sulfate was most effective in promoting Ca and Mg uptake by the cotton plants when lime was incorporated.

  1. Ammonium diphosphitoindate(III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farida Hamchaoui

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The crystal structure of the title compound, NH4[In(HPO32], is built up from InIII cations (site symmetry 3m. adopting an octahedral environment and two different phosphite anions (each with site symmetry 3m. exhibiting a triangular–pyramidal geometry. Each InO6 octahedron shares its six apices with hydrogen phosphite groups. Reciprocally, each HPO3 group shares all its O atoms with three different metal cations, leading to [In(HPO32]− layers which propagate in the ab plane. The ammonium cation likewise has site symmetry 3m.. In the structure, the cations are located between the [In(HPO32]− layers of the host framework. The sheets are held together by hydrogen bonds formed between the NH4+ cations and the O atoms of the framework.

  2. Complex crystallographic study of potassium sulfate-ammonium sulfate solid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Punin, Yu.O.; Smetannikov, O.G.; Zhogin, A.N.; Demidova, G.E.

    1999-01-01

    The variation in the morphological, optical, and crystallochemical characteristics of a continuous series of (NH 4 ,K) 2 SO 4 solid solutions have been considered. It has been established that both habit and optical sign of the crystals of these solid solutions change twice. In the composition range studied, the unit-cell parameters have two anomalous ranges of their variation: the dependences of a and c on the (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 content show the inflections at 8-13 mol%(NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 , whereas the dependences of a and b on the (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 content show the discontinuities at 43-60 mol%(NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 . The comparison of the experimental and theoretical intensity ratios, I 002 /I 013 , shows that crystals with different degree of order with respect to K + and the (NH 4 ) + cations can exist. The results obtained indicate that the (K,NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 solid solutions are far from being ideal, which is seen from the nonlinear variation of the properties studied for crystals of different compositions. The phase diagram of the system has been refined

  3. Final report of the amended safety assessment of sodium laureth sulfate and related salts of sulfated ethoxylated alcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Valerie C; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Alan Andersen, F

    2010-07-01

    Sodium laureth sulfate is a member of a group of salts of sulfated ethoxylated alcohols, the safety of which was evaluated by the Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel for use in cosmetics. Sodium and ammonium laureth sulfate have not evoked adverse responses in any toxicological testing. Sodium laureth sulfate was demonstrated to be a dermal and ocular irritant but not a sensitizer. The Expert Panel recognized that there are data gaps regarding use and concentration of these ingredients. However, the overall information available on the types of products in which these ingredients are used and at what concentrations indicates a pattern of use. The potential to produce irritation exists with these salts of sulfated ethoxylated alcohols, but in practice they are not regularly seen to be irritating because of the formulations in which they are used. These ingredients should be used only when they can be formulated to be nonirritating.

  4. Relations of ammonium minerals at several hydrothermal systems in the western U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krohn, M.D.; Kendall, C.; Evans, J.R.; Fries, T.L.

    1993-01-01

    Ammonium bound to silicate and sulfate minerals has recently been located at several major hydrothermal systems in the western U.S. utilizing newly-discovered near-infrared spectral properties. Knowledge of the origin and mineralogic relations of ammonium minerals at known hydrothermal systems is critical for the proper interpretation of remote sensing data and for testing of possible links to mineralization. Submicroscopic analysis of ammonium minerals from two mercury- and gold-bearing hot-springs deposits at Ivanhoe, Nevada and McLaughlin, California shows that the ammonium feldspar, buddingtonite, occurs as fine-grained euhedral crystals coating larger sulfide and quartz crystals. Ammonium feldspar seems to precipitate relatively late in the crystallization sequence and shows evidence for replacement of NH4+ by K+ or other monovalent cations. Some buddingtonite is observed in close association with mercury, but not with gold. Ammonioalunite is found in a variety of isolated crystal forms at both deposits. Nitrogen isotopic values for ammonium-bearing minerals show a 14??? range in composition, precluding assignment of a specific provenance to the nitrogen. The correlations of nitrogen isotopic values with depth and ammonium content suggest some loss of nitrogen in the oxidizing supergene environment, possibly as a metastable mineral. The high ammonium content in these hydrothermal systems, the close association to mercury, and the small crystal size of the ammonium-bearing minerals all suggest that ammonium may be transported in a late-stage vapor phase or as an organic volatile. Such a process could lead to the formation of a non-carbonaceous organic aureole above a buried geothermal source. The discovery of a 10-km outcrop of ammonium minerals confirms that significant substitution of ammonium in minerals is possible over an extensive area and that remote sensing is a feasible means to detect such aureoles. ?? 1993.

  5. Hygroscopic properties of aminium sulfate aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovelli, Grazia; Miles, Rachael E. H.; Reid, Jonathan P.; Clegg, Simon L.

    2017-03-01

    Alkylaminium sulfates originate from the neutralisation reaction between short-chained amines and sulfuric acid and have been detected in atmospheric aerosol particles. Their physicochemical behaviour is less well characterised than their inorganic equivalent, ammonium sulfate, even though they play a role in atmospheric processes such as the nucleation and growth of new particles and cloud droplet formation. In this work, a comparative evaporation kinetics experimental technique using a cylindrical electrodynamic balance is applied to determine the hygroscopic properties of six short-chained alkylaminium sulfates, specifically mono-, di-, and tri-methylaminium sulfate and mono-, di-, and tri-ethyl aminium sulfate. This approach allows for the retrieval of a water-activity-dependent growth curve in less than 10 s, avoiding the uncertainties that can arise from the volatilisation of semi-volatile components. Measurements are made on particles > 5 µm in radius, avoiding the need to correct equilibrium measurements for droplet-surface curvature with assumed values of the droplet-surface tension. Variations in equilibrium solution droplet composition with varying water activity are reported over the range 0.5 to > 0.98, along with accurate parameterisations of solution density and refractive index. The uncertainties in water activities associated with the hygroscopicity measurements are typically 0.9 and ˜ ±1 % below 0.9, with maximum uncertainties in diameter growth factors of ±0.7 %. Comparison with previously reported measurements show deviation across the entire water activity range.

  6. Ammonium Perchlorate and Ammonium Perchlorate- Hydroxyl Terminated Polybutadiene Simulated Combustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rene Francisco Boschi Gonçalves

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The combustion simulation of ammonium perchlorate was carried out with the software Chemkin, in two steps: the burning behavior of pure ammonium perchlorate and the one of formulated ammonium perchlorate with hydroxyl terminated polybutadiene binder. In both cases, the room pressure varied in order to verify its influence in the system. The burning environment conditions were diverse. During the combustion process, the data obtained from the kinetic chemistry simulation software were compiled. The flame structure can be described by the molar fraction of the burning products and the temperature evolution from the surface of the material.

  7. Chronic aluminum intake causes Alzheimer's disease: applying Sir Austin Bradford Hill's causality criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, J R

    2014-01-01

    Industrialized societies produce many convenience foods with aluminum additives that enhance various food properties and use alum (aluminum sulfate or aluminum potassium sulfate) in water treatment to enable delivery of large volumes of drinking water to millions of urban consumers. The present causality analysis evaluates the extent to which the routine, life-long intake, and metabolism of aluminum compounds can account for Alzheimer's disease (AD), using Austin Bradford Hill's nine epidemiological and experimental causality criteria, including strength of the relationship, consistency, specificity, temporality, dose-dependent response, biological rationale, coherence with existing knowledge, experimental evidence, and analogy. Mechanisms that underlie the risk of low concentrations of aluminum relate to (1) aluminum's absorption rates, allowing the impression that aluminum is safe to ingest and as an additive in food and drinking water treatment, (2) aluminum's slow progressive uptake into the brain over a long prodromal phase, and (3) aluminum's similarity to iron, in terms of ionic size, allows aluminum to use iron-evolved mechanisms to enter the highly-active, iron-dependent cells responsible for memory processing. Aluminum particularly accumulates in these iron-dependent cells to toxic levels, dysregulating iron homeostasis and causing microtubule depletion, eventually producing changes that result in disconnection of neuronal afferents and efferents, loss of function and regional atrophy consistent with MRI findings in AD brains. AD is a human form of chronic aluminum neurotoxicity. The causality analysis demonstrates that chronic aluminum intake causes AD.

  8. Recent results of EPR and Moessbauer investigations on lattice dynamics in ammonium sulphate

    CERN Document Server

    Grecu, M N; Grecu, V V

    2003-01-01

    Recent results of the lattice dynamics investigation on ammonium sulfate are reported based on recent experiments carried out using using the non-destructive experimental technique of EPR and NGR. The main results confirm the presence and the contribution of a soft mode, which accompanied the paraferroelectric phase transition in the investigated crystal. (authors)

  9. Recycling of automotive aluminum

    OpenAIRE

    Cui, Jirang; Roven, Hans Jørgen

    2010-01-01

    With the global warming of concern, the secondary aluminum stream is becoming an even more important component of aluminum production and is attractive because of its economic and environmental benefits. In this work, recycling of automotive aluminum is reviewed to highlight environmental benefits of aluminum recycling, use of aluminum alloys in automotive applications, automotive recycling process, and new technologies in aluminum scrap process. Literature survey shows that newly developed t...

  10. Tillage and water management for riceland productivity in acid sulfate soils of the Mekong delta, Vietnam.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minh, L.Q.; Tuong, T.P.; Mensvoort, van M.E.F.; Bouma, J.

    1997-01-01

    Acid sulfate soils are characterized by low pH and high concentrations of aluminum, sulfate, iron and hydrogen sulfide. Removal of at least part of these substances is a prerequisite for land use, at least in severely acid soils. In this study, the effectiveness of harrowing and flushing with

  11. Physiochemical properties of alkylaminium sulfates: hygroscopicity, thermostability, and density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Chong; Zhang, Renyi

    2012-04-17

    Although heterogeneous interaction of amines has been recently shown to play an important role in the formation and growth of atmospheric aerosols, little information is available on the physicochemical properties of aminium sulfates. In this study, the hygroscopicity, thermostability, and density of alkylaminium sulfates (AASs) have been measured by an integrated aerosol analytical system including a tandem differential mobility analyzer and an aerosol particle mass analyzer. AAS aerosols exhibit monotonic size growth at increasing RH without a well-defined deliquescence point. Mixing of ammonium sulfate (AS) with AASs lowers the deliquescence point corresponding to AS. Particles with AASs show comparable or higher thermostability than that of AS. The density of AASs is determined to be 1.2-1.5 g cm(-3), and an empirical model is developed to predict the density of AASs on the basis of the mole ratio of alkyl carbons to total sulfate. Our results reveal that the heterogeneous uptake of amines on sulfate particles may considerably alter the aerosol properties. In particular, the displacement reaction of alkylamines with ammonium sulfate aerosols leads to a transition from the crystalline to an amorphorous phase and an improved water uptake, considerably enhancing their direct and indirect climate forcing.

  12. ELECTRON MICROSCOPIC INVESTIGATION OF YTTRIUM ALUMINUM GARNET POWDERS Y3AL5O12, SYNTHESIZED BY SOL–GEL METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. Baranchikov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Subject of Study. The paper presents results of characterization for neodymium doped yttrium aluminum garnet nanopowders - YAG:Nd3+ by the method of scanning electronic microscopy. Method. Synthesis of YAG:Nd3+ was carried out by sol-gel method from nitrate or acetate - nitrate solutions with addition of some organic compounds and ammonia as well. Such substances were used as the source ones: oxides of neodymium and yttrium with the content of the basic substance equal to 99.999 %; organic compounds: citric acid with the content of the basic substance not less than 99.0 %; ethylene glycol (99.5%; the ammonium lauryl sulfate (99.0 %; urea (99.0 % of Alfa Aesar, Fluka, Aldrich companies. Oxides of yttrium and neodymium (5 at. % were dissolved in 50% acetic acid, nitrate aluminum was added with a view to the resulting product Y2,85Nd0,15Al5,0O12, the solution was stirred and heated to 60С before reaching its transparency and uniformity. The weight of the portion corresponding to the stoichiometry YAG was 2.0 g. 50 % aqueous solutions of organic substances or 5% NH4OH in a weight ratio of 1:1 to the weight of the garnet were added in aqueous solutions, placed into glass cups. The solutions were thoroughly mixed first using a conventional stirrer, then on ultrasonic installation with simultaneous 60 С heating for 2 hours. Drying of solutions to the consistency of a powder or a thick gel was carried out at 110 С. Then the samples were placed into platinum cups and annealed in a tube furnace at 950 - 1050 С for the period from 0.5 to 2 hours. Additional annealing of the powders in the air at 950 - 1060С were carried out for the purpose of powders clarifying for residual amorphous carbon removal. Main Results. The synthesized powder precursors and powders after annealing were examined using a polarizing microscope to identify anisotropic crystalline phases. X-ray analysis of the synthesized samples was carried out on a DRON - 4 and UDR - 63

  13. Influence quaternary ammonium salt in the organophilization of an bentonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, S.V.; Alves, G.P.; Wanderley, A.S.D.; Araujo, E.M.

    2011-01-01

    Clays are natural materials, earthy, fine-grained particles with diameters generally less than 2μm, and formed by chemically hydrated silicates of aluminum, iron and magnesium. The clays have a range of applications, both in pottery and in other technology areas. This work aimed to study the influence of a quaternary ammonium salt to increase the basal distance of a bentonite clay powder obtained thereby promoting to a new structural profile characteristic with organoclay. The bentonite clay was treated with salt Praepragem WB. The following methods were used: X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF). The results indicated the intercalation of ammonium ions of the salt studied within the layers of silicate and expansion of basal spacing d 001 , ie the clay in the study showed 2θ angle shifts to smaller angles, indicating that the clay was organophilization. (author)

  14. Particle size distribution and behavior of sulfate aerosols in a coastal region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujimura, M.; Hashimoto, Y.

    1979-01-01

    To obtain fundamental knowledge about sulfate aerosols, a field research was conducted in a coastal region distant from industrial pollution sources. The aerosol samples were analyzed for some elements, sulfate and ammonium ions. Sulfate was determined by the turbidimetry with 2-aminoperimidine, and ammonium was by the colorimetry of indophenol method. Trace elements with short-lived nuclides were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis. The mass-size distribution curve of total aerosols was the general bimodal pattern, although the concentration level was very low. Most of sulfate and ammonium salts were distributed in the fine particle range less than 2 microns in aerodynamic diameter, but sulfate had another peak, thought to be of maritime origin, in the coarse particle range. Nevertheless, many fine sulfate particles that had been produced secondarily in the atmosphere were found in such a less polluted coastal region. The change of the sulfate concentrations obtained by the two-stage Andersen type sampler showed a correlation with the humidity. This may suggest that the formation of sulfate aerosols from sulfur dioxide could be related to a catalytic oxidation process in water drops.

  15. The Properties of Ammonium Dinitramine (ADN): Part 2: Melt Casting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahma, A.; Edvinsson, H.; Östmark, H.

    2010-04-01

    A melt casting technique for ammonium dinitramine (ADN) and ADN/aluminum was developed. ADN proved relatively easy to cast, when 1% of magnesium oxide was used as a stabilizer and crystallization kernels. Densities of ADN/MgO 99/1 were 92 to 97% of theoretical mean density (TMD) and those of ADN/Al/MgO 64/35/1 were between 95 and 99% of TMD. Sedimentation of Al in the melt was prevented and the particle wetting was ensured by selecting a suitable particle size for Al. No gelling agents or other additives were used. The casting process and factors influencing it are discussed.

  16. Aluminum recovery from water treatment sludges

    OpenAIRE

    Boaventura, Rui A. Rocha; Duarte, António A. L. Sampaio; Almeida, Manuel F.

    2000-01-01

    Aluminum sulfate and polyaluminum chloride are widely used as coagulants in water treatment plants. A chemical sludge containing aluminium hydroxide, adsorbed organic matter and other water insoluble impurities is obtained after the flocculation-clarification process. In Portugal, an estimated amount of 66 000 ton/yr. (wet wt.) water treatment sludge is being disposed of on land or at municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills. Government restrictions to this practice as well as increasing deposit...

  17. Synthesis of [2,4-3H] 17β-dihydroequilin sulfate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhavnani, B.R.

    1994-01-01

    [2,4- 3 H] 17β-dihydroequilin-3-sulfate ammonium salt suitable for in vivo pharmacokinetic studies was synthesized from [2,4- 3 H] equilin. Sulfation of [2,4- 3 H] equilin with pyridine-chlorosulfonic acid mixture gave in high yields [2,4- 3 H] equilin sulfate, which was then reduced with sodium borohydride to yield [2,4- 3 H] 17β-dihydroequilin sulfate. The reduction was sterospecific and no 17α-reduced products were formed. (author)

  18. Rare earth sulfates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komissarova, L.N.; Shatskij, V.M.; Pokrovskij, A.N.; Chizhov, S.M.; Bal'kina, T.I.; Suponitskij, Yu.L.

    1986-01-01

    Results of experimental works on the study of synthesis conditions, structure and physico-chemical properties of rare earth, scandium and yttrium sulfates, have been generalized. Phase diagrams of solubility and fusibility, thermodynamic and crystallochemical characteristics, thermal stability of hydrates and anhydrous sulfates of rare earths, including normal, double (with cations of alkali and alkaline-earth metals), ternary and anion-mixed sulfates of rare earths, as well as their adducts, are considered. The state of ions of rare earths, scandium and yttrium in aqueous sulfuric acid solutions is discussed. Data on the use of rare earth sulfates are given

  19. removal of excess fluoride from water by aluminum hydroxide

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The efficiency of untreated hydrated alumina (UHA) and thermally treated hydrated alumina (THA) obtained from hydrolysis of locally manufactured aluminum sulfate to remove fluoride from aqueous solution has been investigated in batch and continuous operation. The parameters considered were contact time and ...

  20. Recoverable immobilization of transuranic elements in sulfate ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhalgh, Wilbur O.

    1985-01-01

    Disclosed is a method of reversibly immobilizing sulfate ash at least about 20% of which is sulfates of transuranic elements. The ash is mixed with a metal which can be aluminum, cerium, samarium, europium, or a mixture thereof, in amounts sufficient to form an alloy with the transuranic elements, plus an additional amount to reduce the transuranic element sulfates to elemental form. Also added to the ash is a fluxing agent in an amount sufficient to lower the percentage of the transuranic element sulfates to about 1% to about 10%. The mixture of the ash, metal, and fluxing agent is heated to a temperature sufficient to melt the fluxing agent and the metal. The mixture is then cooled and the alloy is separated from the remainder of the mixture.

  1. Uncertainty evaluation on the determination of uranium ores by volumetry of ammonium vanadate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Likui; Wang Yao; Luo Yuanyuan; Li Jinbiao; Zhu Lejie

    2012-01-01

    Uncertainty evaluation on the criteria of 'ferrous sulfate deoxidization/ammonium vanadate oxidation titrimetry to measure uranium' (EJ 267.2-84) issued by Ministry of Nuclear Industry was analyzed. The uncertainty brought by the method itself was obtained through the identification of uncertainty sources, quantification of uncertainty components and determination of uranium content by titration with calibrated ammonium vanadate solution. With the analytical study to uncertainty sources of entire process and components, and the application of statistical treatment based on scientific data, the combined standard uncertainty and expanded uncertainty about different levels of uranium content was reported. (authors)

  2. Solubility of ammonium metavanadate in ammonium carbonate and sodium bicarbonate solutions at 25 deg C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedorov, P.I.; Andreev, V.K.; Slotvinskij-Sidak, N.P.

    1978-01-01

    Solubility at 25 deg C has been studied in the system ammonium metavanadate - sodium bicarbonate - water which is a stable section of the corresponding quaternary mutual system. In the eutonic point the content of ammonium metavanadate is 4.95% and of sodium bicarbonate 12.1%. The crystallization branch of ammonium metavanadate has been studied in the system ammonium metavanadate - ammonium carbonate - water at 25 deg C. Metavanadate solubility attains minimum (0.14%) at ammonium carbonate concentration 2.6%. Three sections have been studied of the quaternary system ammonium - metavanadate - ammonium carbonate - sodium bicarbonate-water at 25 deg C in the crystallization region of ammonium metavanadate at a ratio of sodium bicarbonate to ammonium carbonate 3:1, 1:1, and 1:3. A region of minimum solubility of ammonium metavanadate has been detected (0.1%)

  3. The ceric sulfate dosimeter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjergbakke, Erling

    1970-01-01

    The process employed for the determination of absorbed dose is the reduction of ceric ions to cerous ions in a solution of ceric sulfate and cerous sulfate in 0.8N sulfuric acid: Ce4+→Ce 3+ The absorbed dose is derived from the difference in ceric ion concentration before and after irradiation...

  4. Plagioclase dissolution during CO₂-SO₂ cosequestration: effects of sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Yujia; Kubicki, James D; Jun, Young-Shin

    2015-02-03

    Geologic CO2 sequestration (GCS) is one of the most promising methods to mitigate the adverse impacts of global climate change. The performance of GCS can be affected by mineral dissolution and precipitation induced by injected CO2. Cosequestration with acidic gas such as SO2 can reduce the high cost of GCS, but it will increase the sulfate's concentration in GCS sites, where sulfate can potentially affect plagioclase dissolution/precipitation. This work investigated the effects of 0.05 M sulfate on plagioclase (anorthite) dissolution and subsequent mineral precipitation at 90 °C, 100 atm CO2, and 1 M NaCl, conditions relevant to GCS sites. The adsorption of sulfate on anorthite, a Ca-rich plagioclase, was examined using attenuated total reflectance Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and then simulated using density functional theory calculations. We found that the dissolution rate of anorthite was enhanced by a factor of 1.36 by the formation of inner-sphere monodentate complexes between sulfate and the aluminum sites on anorthite surfaces. However, this effect was almost completely suppressed in the presence of 0.01 M oxalate, an organic ligand that can exist in GCS sites. Interestingly, sulfate also inhibited the formation of secondary mineral precipitation through the formation of aluminum-sulfate complexes in the aqueous phase. This work, for the first time, reports the surface complexation between sulfate and plagioclase that can occur in GCS sites. The results provide new insights for obtaining scientific guidelines for the proper amount of SO2 coinjection and finally for evaluating the economic efficiency and environmental safety of GCS operations.

  5. Fine Grain Aluminum Superplasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-02-01

    Continua on ravaraa sida H nacaaaary and identify by block numbar) Superplastic aluminum, Superplasticity, Superplastic forming. High strength aluminum...size. The presence of precipitate particles also acts to impede grain boundary migration during recrystallization, further aiding in maintaining a

  6. Heparan sulfate biosynthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Multhaupt, Hinke A B; Couchman, John R

    2012-01-01

    Heparan sulfate is perhaps the most complex polysaccharide known from animals. The basic repeating disaccharide is extensively modified by sulfation and uronic acid epimerization. Despite this, the fine structure of heparan sulfate is remarkably consistent with a particular cell type. This suggests...... that the synthesis of heparan sulfate is tightly controlled. Although genomics has identified the enzymes involved in glycosaminoglycan synthesis in a number of vertebrates and invertebrates, the regulation of the process is not understood. Moreover, the localization of the various enzymes in the Golgi apparatus has......-quality resolution of the distribution of enzymes. The EXT2 protein, which when combined as heterodimers with EXT1 comprises the major polymerase in heparan sulfate synthesis, has been studied in depth. All the data are consistent with a cis-Golgi distribution and provide a starting point to establish whether all...

  7. Heterogeneous ice nucleation on phase-separated organic-sulfate particles: effect of liquid vs. glassy coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. P. Schill

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric ice nucleation on aerosol particles relevant to cirrus clouds remains one of the least understood processes in the atmosphere. Upper tropospheric aerosols as well as sub-visible cirrus residues are known to be enhanced in both sulfates and organics. The hygroscopic phase transitions of organic-sulfate particles can have an impact on both the cirrus cloud formation mechanism and resulting cloud microphysical properties. In addition to deliquescence and efflorescence, organic-sulfate particles are known to undergo another phase transition known as liquid–liquid phase separation. The ice nucleation properties of particles that have undergone liquid–liquid phase separation are unknown. Here, Raman microscopy coupled with an environmental cell was used to study the low temperature deliquescence, efflorescence, and liquid–liquid phase separation behavior of 2 : 1 mixtures of organic polyols (1,2,6-hexanetriol and 1 : 1 1,2,6-hexanetriol + 2,2,6,6-tetrakis(hydroxymethylcyclohexanol and ammonium sulfate from 240–265 K. Further, the ice nucleation efficiency of these organic-sulfate systems after liquid–liquid phase separation and efflorescence was investigated from 210–235 K. Raman mapping and volume-geometry analysis indicate that these particles contain solid ammonium sulfate cores fully engulfed in organic shells. For the ice nucleation experiments, we find that if the organic coatings are liquid, water vapor diffuses through the shell and ice nucleates on the ammonium sulfate core. In this case, the coatings minimally affect the ice nucleation efficiency of ammonium sulfate. In contrast, if the coatings become semi-solid or glassy, ice instead nucleates on the organic shell. Consistent with recent findings that glasses can be efficient ice nuclei, the phase-separated particles are nearly as efficient at ice nucleation as pure crystalline ammonium sulfate.

  8. Heterogeneous ice nucleation on phase-separated organic-sulfate particles: effect of liquid vs. glassy coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schill, G. P.; Tolbert, M. A.

    2013-05-01

    Atmospheric ice nucleation on aerosol particles relevant to cirrus clouds remains one of the least understood processes in the atmosphere. Upper tropospheric aerosols as well as sub-visible cirrus residues are known to be enhanced in both sulfates and organics. The hygroscopic phase transitions of organic-sulfate particles can have an impact on both the cirrus cloud formation mechanism and resulting cloud microphysical properties. In addition to deliquescence and efflorescence, organic-sulfate particles are known to undergo another phase transition known as liquid-liquid phase separation. The ice nucleation properties of particles that have undergone liquid-liquid phase separation are unknown. Here, Raman microscopy coupled with an environmental cell was used to study the low temperature deliquescence, efflorescence, and liquid-liquid phase separation behavior of 2 : 1 mixtures of organic polyols (1,2,6-hexanetriol and 1 : 1 1,2,6-hexanetriol + 2,2,6,6-tetrakis(hydroxymethyl)cyclohexanol) and ammonium sulfate from 240-265 K. Further, the ice nucleation efficiency of these organic-sulfate systems after liquid-liquid phase separation and efflorescence was investigated from 210-235 K. Raman mapping and volume-geometry analysis indicate that these particles contain solid ammonium sulfate cores fully engulfed in organic shells. For the ice nucleation experiments, we find that if the organic coatings are liquid, water vapor diffuses through the shell and ice nucleates on the ammonium sulfate core. In this case, the coatings minimally affect the ice nucleation efficiency of ammonium sulfate. In contrast, if the coatings become semi-solid or glassy, ice instead nucleates on the organic shell. Consistent with recent findings that glasses can be efficient ice nuclei, the phase-separated particles are nearly as efficient at ice nucleation as pure crystalline ammonium sulfate.

  9. ALUMINUM BOX BUNDLING PRESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iosif DUMITRESCU

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In municipal solid waste, aluminum is the main nonferrous metal, approximately 80- 85% of the total nonferrous metals. The income per ton gained from aluminum recuperation is 20 times higher than from glass, steel boxes or paper recuperation. The object of this paper is the design of a 300 kN press for aluminum box bundling.

  10. Is Encephalopathy a Mechanism to Renew Sulfate in Autism?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurie Lentz-Marino

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper makes two claims: (1 autism can be characterized as a chronic low-grade encephalopathy, associated with excess exposure to nitric oxide, ammonia and glutamate in the central nervous system, which leads to hippocampal pathologies and resulting cognitive impairment, and (2, encephalitis is provoked by a systemic deficiency in sulfate, but associated seizures and fever support sulfate restoration. We argue that impaired synthesis of cholesterol sulfate in the skin and red blood cells, catalyzed by sunlight and nitric oxide synthase enzymes, creates a state of colloidal instability in the blood manifested as a low zeta potential and increased interfacial stress. Encephalitis, while life-threatening, can result in partial renewal of sulfate supply, promoting neuronal survival. Research is cited showing how taurine may not only help protect neurons from hypochlorite exposure, but also provide a source for sulfate renewal. Several environmental factors can synergistically promote the encephalopathy of autism, including the herbicide, glyphosate, aluminum, mercury, lead, nutritional deficiencies in thiamine and zinc, and yeast overgrowth due to excess dietary sugar. Given these facts, dietary and lifestyle changes, including increased sulfur ingestion, organic whole foods, increased sun exposure, and avoidance of toxins such as aluminum, mercury, and lead, may help to alleviate symptoms or, in some instances, to prevent autism altogether.

  11. Sulfate Salts in Gasoline and Ethanol Fuels -- Historical Perspective and Analysis of Available Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCormick, Robert L. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Alleman, Teresa [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Yanowitz, Janet [Ecoengineering, Inc., Sharonville, OH (United States)

    2017-09-21

    This report reviews the chemistry of sulfate salts dissolved in ethanol and gasoline, potential sources of sulfate salts in ethanol and gasoline, the history of consumer vehicle issues with sulfate salt deposits in the early 2000s, and the corresponding changes to the denatured fuel ethanol specification. Recommendations for future research are provided. During a period of rapid market expansion in 2004-05, issues were reported with vehicles running on E10 provided by certain suppliers in some markets. It was commonly believed that these vehicle problems were caused by sulfate salts precipitating from the fuel. Investigators identified sodium sulfate, and in one case also ammonium sulfate, as the predominate salts found in the engines. Several stakeholders believed the issue was excess sulfate ions in the ethanol portion of the E10, and in 2005 the ASTM specification for ethanol (D4806) was modified to include a 4-part per million (ppm) limit on sulfate ions. While there have been no further reports of consumer vehicle issues, the recently approved increase of ethanol in gasoline from 10 to 15 volume percent has resulted in renewed interest in the sulfate ion concentration in fuel ethanol. This report reviews published data on the solubility of sulfate salts in ethanol. The possible sources of sulfate anions and charge balancing cations (such as sodium) in fuel ethanol and petroleum derived blendstocks are discussed. Examination of historical information on the consumer vehicle issues that occurred in 2004-2005 reveals that a source of sodium or ammonium ions, required for the formation of the observed insoluble salts, was never identified. Recommendations for research to better understand sulfate salt solubility issues in ethanol, hydrocarbon blendstocks, and ethanol-gasoline blends are presented.

  12. 21 CFR 184.1133 - Ammonium alginate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ammonium alginate. 184.1133 Section 184.1133 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1133 Ammonium alginate. (a) Ammonium alginate (CAS Reg. No. 9005... accordance with § 184.1(b)(2), the ingredient is used in food only within the following specific limitations...

  13. 21 CFR 582.1141 - Ammonium phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ammonium phosphate. 582.1141 Section 582.1141 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1141 Ammonium phosphate. (a) Product. Ammonium phosphate (mono- and dibasic). (b) Conditions...

  14. 76 FR 47238 - Ammonium Nitrate From Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-04

    ... COMMISSION Ammonium Nitrate From Russia Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the subject... order on ammonium nitrate from Russia would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material... Commission are contained in USITC Publication 4249 (August 2011), entitled Ammonium Nitrate from Russia...

  15. Characteristics and aluminum reuse of textile sludge incineration residues after acidification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Manhong; Chen, Liang; Chen, Donghui; Zhou, Saijie

    2011-01-01

    The chemical composition and aluminum speciation of sludge incineration residue (SIR) were determined. Cementation of aluminum from sulfuric acid solution using SIR was studied. The results showed that acid-soluble inorganic aluminum was the predominant component in the sludge, and the total leached aluminum increased from 62.2% to 92.9% after incineration. Sulfuric acid dosage and reaction time were found to affect aluminum recovery positively. Conversely, the increase in temperature significantly inhibited recovery reactions. The optimized leaching condition was 1.66 g sulfuric acid per gram of SIR with a reaction time of 3 hr at 20 degrees C, resulting in the highest aluminum leaching rate of 96.7%. Compared to commercial aluminum sulfate solution coagulants, the leaching solution demonstrated higher COD(Cr), turbidity and color removal efficiency for textile wastewater.

  16. Application of Neesler reagent in the ammonium quantification used in the fermentations of biotechnology products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinorah Torres-Idavoy

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The ammonium salts are used in fermentations to supplement the deficient amounts of nitrogen and stabilize the pH of the culture medium. The excess ammonium ion exerts a detrimental effect on the fermentation process inhibiting microbial growth. An analytical method based on Neesler reagent was developed for monitoring and controlling the concentration of ammonium during the fermentation process. The test was standardized, by means of the selection of measuring equipment, and the reaction time as well as comparing standards of ammonium salts. The method was characterized with the evaluation of the next parameters: Specificity, Linearity and Range, Quantification Limit, Accuracy and Precision. The method proved to be specific. Two linear curves were defined in the ranges of concentrations of ammonium chloride salt (2-20 μg/ml and ammonium sulfate salt (5-30 μg/ml. The limits of quantification were the lowest points of each one. The method proved to be accurate and precise. This assay was applied to samples of the yeast culture and bacteria of the genus Saccharomyces and E. coli respectively. A novel method in micro plate for quantification and analytical control of ammonia was developed. This method is used to control this fundamental chemical component in the fermentations, to optimize the culture medium. Thus, an appropriate expression of recombinant proteins and proper vaccine candidates for clinical use are achieved

  17. Influência das características das substâncias húmicas na eficiência da coagulação com sulfato de alumínio The influence of humic substances characteristics on the coagulation efficiency using aluminum sulfate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro Xavier Campos

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho foi estudada a influência das características das substâncias húmicas (SH, em especial a massa molar das moléculas, na eficiência da coagulação com o uso do sulfato de alumínio. Utilizando-se de água proveniente de poço profundo, foram preparadas quatro águas de estudo, todas com cor verdadeira de aproximadamente 100 uH. As SH foram extraídas de turfa e fracionadas em massas molares: i SH filtradas em membranas de 0,45 µm; ii SH filtradas em membranas de 0,45 µm e maiores que 100 kDa, iii SH com moléculas entre 30 e 100 kDa; iv SH com moléculas menores do que 30 kDa. Verificou-se que quanto maior a massa molar das SH maior foi a eficiência de remoção da cor aparente, com as menores dosagens de coagulante.O pH de coagulação ótimo, esteve entre 6,0 e 7,0, para todas as águas de estudo. Os estudos da porcentagem de ácido húmico (AH e ácido fúlvico (AF presentes em cada fração de diferente massa molar mostraram que quanto maior foi à porcentagem de AF presente, maior foi à dosagem de coagulante exigida para se obter os melhores resultados de remoção da cor aparente.The influence of the molecular weight of soil humic substances on the coagulation efficiency with aluminum sulfate was studied in this work. Four types of water were studied, with the same true color of approximately 100 HU, but prepared with different fractions of molecular weights: Water Type 1 (humic substances filtered in membrane of 0,45 µm; Water Type 2 (humic substances filtered in membrane of 0,45 µm and with molecular weight > 100 KDa; Water Type 3 (humic substances with molecular weight between 100 and 30 KDa; Water Type 4 (humic substances with molecular weight < 30 KDa. It was conclude that the higher the molecular weight of the molecules, the lower the coagulant dosages required for efficient coagulation, at the coagulation pH range 6 - 7. The types of water prepared with the fractions of humic substances containing higher

  18. Aluminum reference electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadoway, Donald R.

    1988-01-01

    A stable reference electrode for use in monitoring and controlling the process of electrolytic reduction of a metal. In the case of Hall cell reduction of aluminum, the reference electrode comprises a pool of molten aluminum and a solution of molten cryolite, Na.sub.3 AlF.sub.6, wherein the electrical connection to the molten aluminum does not contact the highly corrosive molten salt solution. This is accomplished by altering the density of either the aluminum (decreasing the density) or the electrolyte (increasing the density) so that the aluminum floats on top of the molten salt solution.

  19. Effects of adding aluminum sulfate to different litters on selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-09-17

    Sep 17, 2008 ... growth rate, feed efficiency, decrease egg production, damage the respiratory tract such as, ... element deficiencies include diarrhoea, anaemia, loss of hair, depigmentation, bone deformities, ..... Rapid procedure for the determination of vitamins A and D in fortified skimmed milk powder using high-.

  20. Potential substitution of ammonium chloride in Ruhr coal hydrogenation. (Previous test results)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grassl

    1943-10-20

    The report related that ammonium chloride could be nearly totally replaced by equivalent amounts of elemental chlorine in the form of gas, chlorinated grinding oil, moderately chlorinated coal, as well as hydrogen chloride. Similar results were obtained using organic chloride compounds, such as carbon tetrachloride. Sulfur monochloride was also considered a substitute for ammonium chloride, since sulfuric acid and ammonium fluoride were considered unfavorable at the time. At a reaction temperature 1/2 mV higher than usual, phosphoric acid gave results similar to those of ammonium chloride except for splitting. By using metal powders (Fe, Al, Zn, Sn, etc.), the amount of chlorine could be reduced from 1/3 to 1/2, yet to attain a favorable reduction in asphalt as with NH/sub 4/Cl, a slight temperature increase was necessary. Tests with chlorine-containing water-soluble aluminum oxide as well as aqueous aluminum chloride appeared to be good prospects and were to be followed up. A number of summaries were referred to in relation to this report.

  1. Ammonium uranate in spherical particles running easily and its fabrication process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dugua, Jacques.

    1980-01-01

    Preparation of ammonium diuranate easy to handle with spherical grains of mean diameter between 40 to 100 microns, of unpressed apparent specific weight between 2 to 2.8 g/cm 3 and with a SO 4 ion content between 0.5 to 1 %. It is obtained by reaction of uranyl sulfate on ammonia and precipitation at a pH value between 6.6 to 7.2 [fr

  2. Holothurian Fucosylated Chondroitin Sulfate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor H. Pomin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fucosylated chondroitin sulfate (FucCS is a structurally distinct glycosaminoglycan found in sea cucumber species. It has the same backbone composition of alternating 4-linked glucuronic acid and 3-linked N-acetyl galactosamine residues within disaccharide repeating units as regularly found in mammalian chondroitin sulfates. However, FucCS has also sulfated fucosyl branching units 3-O-linked to the acid residues. The sulfation patterns of these branches vary accordingly with holothurian species and account for different biological actions and responses. FucCSs may exhibit anticoagulant, antithrombotic, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antiviral, and pro-angiogenic activities, besides its beneficial effects in hemodialysis, cellular growth modulation, fibrosis and hyperglycemia. Through an historical overview, this document covers most of the science regarding the holothurian FucCS. Both structural and medical properties of this unique GAG, investigated during the last 25 years, are systematically discussed herein.

  3. Ferrous Sulfate (Iron)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are allergic to ferrous sulfate, any other medications tartrazine (a yellow dye in some processed foods and ... in, tightly closed, and out of reach of children. Store it at room temperature and away from ...

  4. Hydrazine Sulfate (PDQ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Recent Public Laws Careers Visitor Information Search Search Home About Cancer Cancer Treatment Complementary & Alternative Medicine (CAM) ... This causes tissues to die and muscle to waste away, and the patient loses weight. Hydrazine sulfate ...

  5. Obtaining of barium sulfate from solution formed after desulfation of the active mass of scrap lead-acid batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Kalko

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Analyses of literature data about processes for solution utilization formed after desulfation of the active mass of scrap lead-acid batteries is performed. Optimal conditions for obtaining of barium sulfate sediment from ammonium sulfate solute and chemically pure Ba(OH2×8H2O и BaCl2×2H2O were found experimentally. In laboratory the commercial barium sulfate from sulfate solutions, that are waste of recycling process of battery scrap, with application of chloride and barium hydroxide was production. The possibility of using this product were discussed.

  6. Effect of n-octanol on -uranyl extraction by tri-n-octylammonium sulfate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochkin, A.V.; Kudrov, A.N.

    1984-01-01

    The effect of n-octanol on the extraction of uranyl sulfate by solutions of tri-n-octylamine sulfate in benzene has been studied. With the increase of alcohol concentration the coefficient of uranium distribution passes through the maximum. At low alcohol concentrations a decrease in water content in the organic phase is observed. It is shown that the increase in ammonium salt activity in replacement of part of hydrate At high alcohol concentration the decrease in uranium distribution coefficients is observed, which is related to TOA sulfate solvation by alcohol

  7. Direct Sulfation of Limestone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Guilin; Dam-Johansen, Kim; Wedel, Stig

    2007-01-01

    The direct sulfation of limestone was studied in a laboratory fixed-bed reactor. It is found that the direct sulfation of limestone involves nucleation and crystal grain growth of the solid product (anhydrite). At 823 K and at low-conversions (less than about 0.5 %), the influences of SO2, O-2...... and CO2 on the direct sulfation of limestone corresponds to apparent reaction orders of about 0.2, 0.2 and -0.5, respectively. Water is observed to promote the sulfation reaction and increase the apparent reaction orders of SO2 and O-2. The influence of O-2 at high O-2 concentrations (> about 15...... %) becomes negligible. In the temperature interval from 723 K to 973 K, an apparent activation energy of about 104 kJ/mol is observed for the direct sulfation of limestone. At low temperatures and low conversions, the sulfation process is most likely under mixed control by chemical reaction and solid...

  8. Aluminum powder metallurgy processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flumerfelt, J.F.

    1999-02-12

    The objective of this dissertation is to explore the hypothesis that there is a strong linkage between gas atomization processing conditions, as-atomized aluminum powder characteristics, and the consolidation methodology required to make components from aluminum powder. The hypothesis was tested with pure aluminum powders produced by commercial air atomization, commercial inert gas atomization, and gas atomization reaction synthesis (GARS). A comparison of the GARS aluminum powders with the commercial aluminum powders showed the former to exhibit superior powder characteristics. The powders were compared in terms of size and shape, bulk chemistry, surface oxide chemistry and structure, and oxide film thickness. Minimum explosive concentration measurements assessed the dependence of explosibility hazard on surface area, oxide film thickness, and gas atomization processing conditions. The GARS aluminum powders were exposed to different relative humidity levels, demonstrating the effect of atmospheric conditions on post-atomization processing conditions. The GARS aluminum powders were exposed to different relative humidity levels, demonstrating the effect of atmospheric conditions on post-atomization oxidation of aluminum powder. An Al-Ti-Y GARS alloy exposed in ambient air at different temperatures revealed the effect of reactive alloy elements on post-atomization powder oxidation. The pure aluminum powders were consolidated by two different routes, a conventional consolidation process for fabricating aerospace components with aluminum powder and a proposed alternative. The consolidation procedures were compared by evaluating the consolidated microstructures and the corresponding mechanical properties. A low temperature solid state sintering experiment demonstrated that tap densified GARS aluminum powders can form sintering necks between contacting powder particles, unlike the total resistance to sintering of commercial air atomization aluminum powder.

  9. Physico-chemical characteristics of sulfated mixed oxides of Sn with some rare earth elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jyothi, T.M.; Mirakar, S.P.; Sreekumar, K.; Sugunan, S.; Talawar, M.B.

    2000-01-01

    A series of binary mixed oxides of tin with three rare earth elements viz. La, Ce and Sm were prepared by coprecipitation method and sulfate treatment was performed by treating the mixed hydroxides with sulfuric acid or ammonium sulfate. The physico-chemical characterization has been done by XRD, BET-SA, SEM, EDX, TG-DTA and IR spectroscopy. Adsorption of n-butylamine was used to probe the acidic properties of the catalysts. The strength and distribution of acid sites depend on the mixed metal oxide composition, as well as on the preparation method. The rare earth modified sulfated tin oxide catalysis are more active in the oxidative dehydrogenation of cyclohexanol and cyclohexane, compared to the corresponding mixed oxide systems and sulfated tin oxide. Among the different sulfated oxide systems investigated, cerium promoted catalysts displayed a better selectivity towards dehydrogenation products. (author)

  10. Elimination of aluminum adjuvants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hem, Stanley L

    2002-05-31

    In vitro dissolution experiments although perhaps not at typical body concentrations and temperatures demonstrated that the alpha-hydroxycarboxylic acids present in interstitial fluid (citric acid, lactic acid, and malic acid) are capable of dissolving aluminum-containing adjuvants. Amorphous aluminum phosphate adjuvant dissolved more rapidly than crystalline aluminum hydroxide adjuvant. Intramuscular administration in New Zealand White rabbits of aluminum phosphate and aluminum hydroxide adjuvants, which were labelled with 26Al, revealed that 26Al was present in the first blood sample (1 h) for both adjuvants. The area under the blood level curve for 28 days indicated that three times more aluminum was absorbed from aluminum phosphate adjuvant than aluminum hydroxide adjuvant. In vivo studies using 26Al-labelled adjuvants are relatively safe because accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) can quantify quantities of 26Al as small as 10(-17) g. A similar study in humans would require a whole-body exposure of 0.7 microSv per year compared to the natural background exposure of 3000 microSv per year. The in vitro dissolution and in vivo absorption studies indicate that aluminum-containing adjuvants which are administered intramuscularly are dissolved by alpha-hydroxycarboxylic acids in interstitial fluid, absorbed into the blood, distributed to tissues, and eliminated in the urine.

  11. Syndecan heparan sulfate proteoglycans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gomes, Angélica Maciel; Sinkeviciute, Dovile; Multhaupt, Hinke A.B.

    2016-01-01

    Virtually all animal cells express heparan sulfate proteoglycans on the cell surface and in the extracellular matrix. Syndecans are a major group of transmembrane proteoglycans functioning as receptors that mediate signal transmission from the extracellular microenvironment to the cell. Their hep......Virtually all animal cells express heparan sulfate proteoglycans on the cell surface and in the extracellular matrix. Syndecans are a major group of transmembrane proteoglycans functioning as receptors that mediate signal transmission from the extracellular microenvironment to the cell....... Their heparan sulfate chains, due to their vast structural diversity, interact with a wide array of ligands including potent regulators of adhesion, migration, growth and survival. Frequently, ligands interact with cell surface heparan sulfate in conjunction with high affinity receptors. The consequent...... signaling can therefore be complex, but it is now known that syndecans are capable of independent signaling. This review is divided in two sections, and will first discuss how the assembly of heparan sulfate, the anabolic process, encodes information related to ligand binding and signaling. Second, we...

  12. Ammonium azide under hydrostatic compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landerville, A. C.; Steele, B. A.; Oleynik, I. I.

    2014-05-01

    The properties of ammonium azide NH4N3 upon compression were investigated using first-principles density functional theory. The equation of state was calculated and the mechanism of a phase transition experimentally observed at 3.3 GPa is elucidated. Novel polymorphs of NH4N3 were found using a simple structure search algorithm employing random atomic displacements upon static compression. The structures of three new polymorphs, labelled as B, C, and D, are similar to those of other metal azides.

  13. Isolation and stable nitrogen isotope analysis of ammonium ions in ammonium nitrate prills using sodium tetraphenylborate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howa, John D; Lott, Michael J; Ehleringer, James R

    2014-07-15

    Because of the threat of bombings using improvised explosives containing ammonium nitrate (AN), law enforcement and intelligence communities have been interested in stable isotope techniques for tracking and discriminating AN sources. Separate analysis of the AN component ions ammonium and nitrate would add discriminatory power to these techniques. Ammonium ions in dissolved AN solution were isolated from samples by precipitation using sodium tetraphenylborate solution. We tested the isolation of ammonium from nitrates using solutions of ammonium and nitrate salts with different (15)N/(14)N isotope ratios. Ammonium tetraphenylborate and AN were separately analyzed for their (15)N/(14)N isotope ratios using EA-ConFlo-IRMS, and the (15)N/(14)N isotope ratios of the nitrate ions were calculated using mass balance. Ammonium and nitrate nitrogen isotope ratios were plotted as two separate variables. Isolation of ammonium precipitate from solutions containing dissolved nitrates did not influence the nitrogen isotope ratios of test ammonium salts. A survey set of 42 AN samples showed that the ammonium and nitrate (15)N/(14)N isotope ratios were not significantly correlated, and the paired mean differences were not statistically significant. Both ammonium and nitrate were depleted in (15)N relative to their theoretical atmospheric sources. Isolation of the ammonium ion from AN adds another dimension for the discrimination of forensic AN samples. This technique using sodium tetraphenylborate is robust and does not require specialized equipment. Our observations indicated that ammonium nitrogen and nitrate nitrogen have independent sources of isotopic variation. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Effects of ammonium salts on oleaster (Elaeagnus angustifolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katalin Pilinszky

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Oleaster (Russian olive, Elaeagnus angustifolia trees are highly tolerant against a variety of abiotic stresses (water, temperature, salt, and other chemicals. Therefore, they can be used for rehabilitation of contaminated and/or low quality soils (brownfields, dump sites, wastelands, etc.. In order to study responses of oleaster to environmental stress in vivo and in vitro, we successfully sterilized and initiated its callus cultures, regenerated shoots and roots and finally whole plants from the callus. Application of ammonium (in the form of sulfate salt to the regenerated plantlets at concentrations higher than 10 mg L-1 inhibited root growth, reduced the leaf chlorophyll content and the activity of the enzyme glutamate dehydrogenase. At the same time, it induced activities of the stress marker enzyme glutathione S-transferase in the root and shoot tissues of the plant.

  15. Hot corrosion resistance of nickel-chromium-aluminum alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, G. J.; Barret, C. A.

    1977-01-01

    The hot corrosion resistance of nickel-chromium-aluminum alloys was examined by cyclically oxidizing sodium sulfate-coated specimens in still air at 900, 1000, and 1100 C. The compositions tested were within the ternary region: Ni, Ni-50 at.% Cr, and Ni-50 at.% Al. At each temperature the corrosion data were statistically fitted to a third order regression equation as a function of chromium and aluminum contents. From these equations corrosion isopleths were prepared. Compositional regions with the best hot corrosion resistance were identified.

  16. 21 CFR 184.1138 - Ammonium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ammonium chloride. 184.1138 Section 184.1138 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1138 Ammonium chloride. (a) Ammonium chloride (NH4Cl, CAS Reg..._locations.html. (c) In accordance with § 184.1(b)(1), the ingredient is used in food with no limitation...

  17. 21 CFR 184.1137 - Ammonium carbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ammonium carbonate. 184.1137 Section 184.1137 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1137 Ammonium carbonate. (a) Ammonium carbonate ((NH4)2CO3, CAS.../code_of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html. (c) In accordance with § 184.1(b)(1), the ingredient is...

  18. Effect of ammonium sulfate, ammonium chloride and root-zone acidity on inorganic ion content of tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vessey, J K; Raper, C D; Henry, L T

    1990-01-01

    Tobacco plants (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv NC82) were supplied with (NH4)2SO4 or NH4Cl at root-zone pH of 6.0 and 4.5 in hydroponic culture for 28 days. Dry matter accumulation, total N and C content, and leaf area and number were not affected by the NH4+ source or root-zone pH. Plants supplied with NH4Cl accumulated up to 1.2 mM Cl g DW-1, but accumulated 37% less inorganic H2PO4- and 47% less SO4(2-) than plants supplied with (NH4)2SO4. The large Cl- accumulation resulted in NH4Cl- supplied plants having a 31% higher inorganic anion (NO3-, H2, PO4-, SO4(2-), and Cl-) charge. This higher inorganic anion charge in the NH4Cl-supplied plants was balanced by a similar increase in K+ charge. Plants supplied with NH4Cl accumulated greater concentrations of Cl- in leaves (up to 5.1% of DW) than plants supplied with (NH4)2SO4 (less than -% DW). Despite the high Cl- concentration of leaves in NH4Cl supplied plants, these plants showed no symptoms of Cl- toxicity. This demonstrates that toxicity symptoms are not due solely to an interaction between high Cl- concentration in tissue and NH4+ nutrition. The increase in root-zone acidity to pH 4.5 from 6.0 did not induce toxicity symptoms.

  19. Effect of ammonium sulfate, ammonium chloride and root-zone acidity on inorganic ion content of tobacco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vessey, J. K.; Raper, C. D. Jr; Henry, L. T.; Raper CD, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

    1990-01-01

    Tobacco plants (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv NC82) were supplied with (NH4)2SO4 or NH4Cl at root-zone pH of 6.0 and 4.5 in hydroponic culture for 28 days. Dry matter accumulation, total N and C content, and leaf area and number were not affected by the NH4+ source or root-zone pH. Plants supplied with NH4Cl accumulated up to 1.2 mM Cl g DW-1, but accumulated 37% less inorganic H2PO4- and 47% less SO4(2-) than plants supplied with (NH4)2SO4. The large Cl- accumulation resulted in NH4Cl- supplied plants having a 31% higher inorganic anion (NO3-, H2, PO4-, SO4(2-), and Cl-) charge. This higher inorganic anion charge in the NH4Cl-supplied plants was balanced by a similar increase in K+ charge. Plants supplied with NH4Cl accumulated greater concentrations of Cl- in leaves (up to 5.1% of DW) than plants supplied with (NH4)2SO4 (less than -% DW). Despite the high Cl- concentration of leaves in NH4Cl supplied plants, these plants showed no symptoms of Cl- toxicity. This demonstrates that toxicity symptoms are not due solely to an interaction between high Cl- concentration in tissue and NH4+ nutrition. The increase in root-zone acidity to pH 4.5 from 6.0 did not induce toxicity symptoms.

  20. Glufosinate ammonium selection of transformed Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigel, Detlef; Glazebrook, Jane

    2006-12-01

    INTRODUCTIONOne of the most commonly used markers for the selection of transgenic Arabidopsis is resistance to glufosinate ammonium, an herbicide that is sold under a variety of trade names including Basta and Finale. Resistance to glufosinate ammonium is conferred by the bacterial bialophos resistance gene (BAR) encoding the enzyme phosphinotricin acetyl transferase (PAT). This protocol describes the use of glufosinate ammonium to select transformed Arabidopsis plants. The major advantage of glufosinate ammonium selection is that it can be performed on plants growing in soil and does not require the use of sterile techniques.

  1. Synthesis of cerous ammonium nitrate using ceric ammonium nitrate and anhydrous ammonia as a reducing agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourleaux, G.; Colombet, P.; Rouxel, J.; Gradeff, P.S.; Mauermann, H.

    1988-01-01

    The reduction of ceric ammonium nitrate by anhydrous ammonia has been studied. The reaction yields cerous ammonium nitrate complex. This is an easy method to prepare an anhydrous Ce (III) salt, suitable for synthesis of organo cerium (III) derivatives [fr

  2. Minimizing residual aluminum concentration in treated water by tailoring properties of polyaluminum coagulants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Masaoki; Matsui, Yoshihiko; Kondo, Kenta; Ishikawa, Tairyo B; Matsushita, Taku; Shirasaki, Nobutaka

    2013-04-15

    Aluminum coagulants are widely used in water treatment plants to remove turbidity and dissolved substances. However, because high aluminum concentrations in treated water are associated with increased turbidity and because aluminum exerts undeniable human health effects, its concentration should be controlled in water treatment plants, especially in plants that use aluminum coagulants. In this study, the effect of polyaluminum chloride (PACl) coagulant characteristics on dissolved residual aluminum concentrations after coagulation and filtration was investigated. The dissolved residual aluminum concentrations at a given coagulation pH differed among the PACls tested. Very-high-basicity PACl yielded low dissolved residual aluminum concentrations and higher natural organic matter (NOM) removal. The low residual aluminum concentrations were related to the low content of monomeric aluminum (Ala) in the PACl. Polymeric (Alb)/colloidal (Alc) ratio in PACl did not greatly influence residual aluminum concentration. The presence of sulfate in PACl contributed to lower residual aluminum concentration only when coagulation was performed at around pH 6.5 or lower. At a wide pH range (6.5-8.5), residual aluminum concentrations residual aluminum concentrations did not increase with increasing the dosage of high-basicity PACl, but did increase with increasing the dosage of normal-basicity PACl. We inferred that increasing the basicity of PACl afforded lower dissolved residual aluminum concentrations partly because the high-basicity PACls could have a small percentage of Ala, which tends to form soluble aluminum-NOM complexes with molecular weights of 100 kDa-0.45 μm. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Is the Aluminum Hypothesis Dead?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The Aluminum Hypothesis, the idea that aluminum exposure is involved in the etiology of Alzheimer disease, dates back to a 1965 demonstration that aluminum causes neurofibrillary tangles in the brains of rabbits. Initially the focus of intensive research, the Aluminum Hypothesis has gradually been abandoned by most researchers. Yet, despite this current indifference, the Aluminum Hypothesis continues to attract the attention of a small group of scientists and aluminum continues to be viewed with concern by some of the public. This review article discusses reasons that mainstream science has largely abandoned the Aluminum Hypothesis and explores a possible reason for some in the general public continuing to view aluminum with mistrust. PMID:24806729

  4. DHEA-sulfate test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... decrease in DHEA sulfate may be due to: Adrenal gland disorders that produce lower than normal amounts of adrenal ... and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team. Adrenal Gland Disorders Read more Ovarian Cysts Read more NIH MedlinePlus ...

  5. Sulfate transport in toad skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erik Hviid; Simonsen, K

    1988-01-01

    1. In short-circuited toad skin preparations exposed bilaterally to NaCl-Ringer's containing 1 mM SO2(-4), influx of sulfate was larger than efflux showing that the skin is capable of transporting sulfate actively in an inward direction. 2. This active transport was not abolished by substituting ...... (sulfate:bicarbonate exchange) and self-exchange diffusion take place. Irrespective of the mechanism of transport, sulfate is probably transported as a monovalent anion species....

  6. Sulfate metabolism. I. Sulfate uptake and redistribution of acid rain sulfate by edible plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dallam, R.D.

    1987-01-01

    Sulfur is the major component of polluted air in industrialized societies. Atmospheric sulfur is converted to sulfuric acid through a series of chemical reactions which can eventually reenter many ecosystems. When edible plants are grown in soils containing varying amounts of sulfate, the roots take up and transport inorganic sulfate to the stems and leaves. The sulfate taken up by the roots and the amount transported to the stem and leaves was found to be a function of the concentration of sulfate in the soil. Inorganic sulfate taken up by a corn plant seedling can be rapidly converted to organic sulfate by the root system. Nine days after one of a pair of pea plants was inoculated with artificial acid rain sulfate (dilute H 2 35 SO 4 ) it was found that the sulfate was translocated not only in the inoculated plant, but also to the uninoculated pea plant in the same container. Also, when the leaves of a mature potato plant were inoculated with artificial acid rain sulfate it was found that the sulfate was translocated into the edible potatoes. Fractionation of the potatoes showed that most of the sulfate was water soluble of which 30% was inorganic sulfate and 70% was in the form of organic sulfur. One third of the non-water soluble translocated acid rain sulfate was equally divided between lipid and non-lipid organic sulfur of the potato. 9 references, 2 figures, 5 tables

  7. Atmospheric behaviour of ammonia and ammonium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asman, W.A.H.

    1987-01-01

    1.4.1 Scope of this thesis

    A few models for ammonia and ammonium exist. Russell et al. (1983) made a multi-layer Lagrangian transport model describing the transport and formation of ammonium nitrate aerosol for California. They did not take reactions of ammonia and sulphuric acid

  8. 21 CFR 582.1135 - Ammonium bicarbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ammonium bicarbonate. 582.1135 Section 582.1135 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE General Purpose Food Additives § 582.1135 Ammonium bicarbonate. (a)...

  9. Optimization of nutritional requirements and ammonium feeding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tounukarin

    2011-09-07

    Sep 7, 2011 ... defined medium and to develop an ammonium control strategy to optimize the specific vitamin B12 production rate (Yp) ... Key words: Statistical designs, Pseudomonas denitrificans, chemically defined medium, ammonium controlling strategy ... analysis provides a powerful tool for effective quanti- fication of ...

  10. 76 FR 46907 - Ammonium Nitrate Security Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-03

    ... located in, under, or adjacent to any waters subject to the jurisdiction of the United States. Through its..., marking, labeling, placarding, security plans, emergency response information, training, etc.). f... ``solid ammonium nitrate that is chiefly the ammonium salt of nitric acid and contains not less than 33...

  11. Surface investigation and tribological mechanism of a sulfate-based lubricant deposited on zinc-coated steel sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timma, Christian; Lostak, Thomas; Janssen, Stella; Flock, Jörg; Mayer, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Skin-passed hot-dip galvanized (HDG-) steel sheets were coated with (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 in a common roll-coating method. • A formation of (NH 4 ) 2 Zn(SO 4 ) * xH 2 O was observed and the reaction mainly occurred in the skin-passed areas of the surface. • Sulfate coated samples reveal a superior friction behaviour in oil-like conditions compared non-sulfated specimen. - Abstract: Phosphatation is a well-known technique to improve friction and wear behaviour of zinc coated steel, but has a variety of economic and ecologic limitations. In this study an alternative coating based on ammonium sulfate ((NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 ) is applied on skin-passed hot-dip galvanized steel sheets in order to investigate its surface chemical and tribological behaviour in a Pin-on-Disk Tribometer. Raman- and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic results revealed a formation of ammonium zinc sulfate ((NH 4 ) 2 Zn(SO 4 ) 2 * xH 2 O) on the surface, which is primarily located in the skin-passed areas of the steel material. Sulfate coated samples exhibited a superior friction behaviour in Pin-on-Disk Tests using squalane as a model substance for oil-like lubricated conditions and a formation of a thin lubrication film is obtained in the wear track. Squalane acts as a carrier substance for ammonium zinc sulfate, leading to an effective lubrication film in the wear track.

  12. Effects of ammonium concentration and charge exchange on ammonium recovery from high strength wastewater using a microbial fuel cell

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuntke, P.; Geleij, M.; Bruning, H.; Zeeman, G.; Hamelers, H.V.M.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2011-01-01

    Ammonium recovery using a 2 chamber microbial fuel cell (MFC) was investigated at high ammonium concentration. Increasing the ammonium concentration (from 0.07 g to 4 g ammonium-nitrogen/L) by addition of ammonium chloride did not affect the performance of the MFC. The obtained current densities by

  13. USE OF HYDROGEN RESPIROMETRY TO DETERMINE METAL TOXICITY TO SULFATE REDUCING BACTERIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acid mine drainage (AMD), an acidic metal-bearing wastewater poses a severe pollution problem attributed to post-mining activities. The metals (metal sulfates) encountered in AMD and considered of concern for risk assessment are: arsenic, cadmium, aluminum, manganese, iron, zinc ...

  14. Advances in aluminum pretreatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sudour, Michel; Maintier, Philippe [PPG Industries France, 3 Z.A.E. Les Dix Muids, B.P. 89, F-59583 Marly (France); Simpson, Mark [PPG Industries Inc., 1200 Piedmont Troy, Michigan 48083 (United States); Quaglia, Paolo [PPG Industries Italia, Via Garavelli 21, I-15028 Quattordio (Italy)

    2004-07-01

    As automotive manufacturers continue to look for ways to reduce vehicle weight, aluminum is finding more utility as a body panel component. The substitution of cold-rolled steel and zinc-coated substrates with aluminum has led to new challenges in vehicle pretreatment. As a result, changes to traditional pretreatment chemistries and operating practices are necessary in order to produce an acceptable coating on aluminum body panels. These changes result in increased sludging and other undesirable characteristics. In addition to the chemistry changes, there are also process-related problems to consider. Many existing automotive pretreatment lines simply were not designed to handle aluminum and its increased demands on filtration and circulation equipment. To retrofit such a system is capital intensive and in addition to requiring a significant amount of downtime, may not be totally effective. Thus, the complexities of pre-treating aluminum body panels have actually had a negative effect on efforts to introduce more aluminum into new vehicle design programs. Recent research into ways of reducing the negative effects has led to a new understanding of the nature of zinc phosphate bath -aluminum interactions. Many of the issues associated with the pretreatment of aluminum have been identified and can be mitigated with only minor changes to the zinc phosphate bath chemistry. The use of low levels of soluble Fe ions, together with free fluoride, has been shown to dramatically improve the efficiency of a zinc phosphate system processing aluminum. Appearance of zinc phosphate coatings, coating weights and sludge are all benefited by this chemistry change. (authors)

  15. Dissolution of sulfate scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hen, J.

    1991-11-26

    This patent describes a composition for the removal of sulfate scale from surfaces. It comprises: an aqueous solution of about 0.1 to 1.0 molar concentration of an aminopolycarboxylic acid (APCA) containing 1 to 4 amino groups or a salt thereof, and about 0.1 to 1.0 molar concentration of a second component which is diethylenetriaminepenta (methylenephosphonic acid) (DTPMP) or a salt thereof, or aminotri (methylenephosphonic acid) (ATMP) or a salt thereof as an internal phase enveloped by a hydrocarbon membrane phase which is itself emulsified in an external aqueous phase, the hydrocarbon membrane phase continuing a complexing agent weaker for the cations of the sulfate scale than the APCA and DTPMP or ATMP, any complexing agent for the cations in the external aqueous phase being weaker than that in the hydrocarbon membrane phase.

  16. Gastrointestinal hemorrhage in aluminum phosphide poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugar, Basappa S; Praveen, Shivaramareddy; Hosahally, Jayanth S; Kainoor, Sunilkumar; Shetty, Akshith Raj S

    2015-01-01

    Poisoning, both accidental and intentional, is a significant contributor to the mortality and morbidity throughout the world. The commonest pesticide poisoning is organophosphates followed by phosphides. Ingestion of phosphides can induce severe gastrointestinal irritation leading to hemorrhage and ulcerations. Gastrointestinal hemorrhages and ulcerations beyond the duodenum have not been reported in the literature. Here, we report a case of severe hemorrhages and ulcerations in stomach, duodenum, jejunum, and ileum observed in a 45-year-old male who had consumed five tablets of Celphos(®) (each 3 g with 56% aluminum phosphide and 44% Ammonium carbonate) to commit suicide. He started vomiting after consumption, and the vomitus was blood-tinged. Once the treatment was instituted, he was stable for a day and thereafter his condition gradually deteriorated. He died on the 4th day of hospitalization, and autopsy revealed features of multiorgan failure and extensive gastrointestinal hemorrhages. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  17. Fate of 15N-urea and 15N-ammonium sulphate applied in different periods to cica-8 rice culture in greenhouse conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastidas, O.G.; Alvarez, A.; Victoria, R.L.; Urquiaga C, S.; Muraoka, T.

    1984-01-01

    The fate of nitrogen fertilizers in rice cultivars (Cica-8) is studied. Urea (1.973% at of 15 N) and ammonium sulfate (1.826% at of 15 N) are used. The fertilizers are applied in four levels (0,100,200 and 300 Kg N/ha) in shadow coditions and after 30 days of germination. (M.A.C.) [pt

  18. Corrosion Inhibitors for Aluminum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Bodo

    1995-01-01

    Describes a simple and reliable test method used to investigate the corrosion-inhibiting effects of various chelating agents on aluminum pigments in aqueous alkaline media. The experiments that are presented require no complicated or expensive electronic equipment. (DDR)

  19. Sulfation of chondroitin. Specificity, degree of sulfation, and detergent effects with 4-sulfating and 6-sulfating microsomal systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugumaran, G.; Silbert, J.E.

    1988-01-01

    Microsomal preparations from chondroitin 6-sulfate-producing chick embryo epiphyseal cartilage, and from chondroitin 4-sulfate-producing mouse mastocytoma cells, were incubated with UDP-[14C]glucuronic acid and UDP-N-acetylgalactosamine to form non-sulfated proteo[14C]chondroitin. Aliquots of the incubations were then incubated with 3'-phosphoadenylylphosphosulfate (PAPS) in the presence or absence of various detergents. In the absence of detergents, there was good sulfation of this endogenous proteo[14C]chondroitin by the original microsomes from both sources. Detergents, with the exception of Triton X-100, markedly inhibited sulfation in the mast cell system but not in the chick cartilage system. These results indicate that sulfation and polymerization are closely linked on cell membranes and that in some cases this organization can be disrupted by detergents. When aliquots of the original incubation were heat inactivated, and then reincubated with new microsomes from chick cartilage and/or mouse mastocytoma cells plus PAPS, there was no significant sulfation of this exogenous proteo[14C] chondroitin with either system unless Triton X-100 was added. Sulfation of exogenous chondroitin and chondroitin hexasaccharide was compared with sulfation of endogenous and exogenous proteo[14C]chondroitin. Sulfate incorporation into hexasaccharide and chondroitin decreased as their concentrations (based on uronic acid) approached that of the proteo[14C]chondroitin. At the same time, the degree of sulfation in percent of substituted hexosamine increased. However, the degree of sulfation did not reach that of the endogenous proteo[14C]chondroitin. Hexasaccharide and chondroitin sulfation were stimulated by the presence of Triton X-100. However, in contrast to the exogenous proteo[14C]chondroitin, there was some sulfation of hexasaccharide and chondroitin in the absence of this detergent

  20. Corrosion Protection of Aluminum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalrymple, R. S.; Nelson, W. B.

    1963-07-01

    Treatment of aluminum-base metal surfaces in an autoclave with an aqueous chromic acid solution of 0.5 to 3% by weight and of pH below 2 for 20 to 50 hrs at 160 to 180 deg C produces an extremely corrosion-resistant aluminum oxidechromium film on the surface. A chromic acid concentration of 1 to 2% and a pH of about 1 are preferred.

  1. Disguised as a sulfate reducer: Growth of the Deltaproteobacterium Desulfurivibrio alkaliphilus by Sulfide Oxidation with Nitrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorup, Casper; Schramm, Andreas; Findlay, Alyssa Jean Lehsau

    2017-01-01

    This study demonstrates that the deltaproteobacterium Desulfurivibrio alkaliphilus can grow chemolithotrophically by coupling sulfide oxidation to the dissimilatory reduction of nitrate and nitrite to ammonium. Key genes of known sulfide oxidation pathways are absent from the genome of D...... of the sulfate reduction pathway. This is the first study providing evidence that a reductive-type DSR is involved in a sulfide oxidation pathway. Transcriptome sequencing further suggests that nitrate reduction to ammonium is performed by a novel type of periplasmic nitrate reductase and an unusual membrane......-anchored nitrite reductase....

  2. Off limits: sulfate below the sulfate-methane transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Benjamin; Arnold, Gail; Røy, Hans; Müller, Inigo; Jørgensen, Bo

    2016-07-01

    One of the most intriguing recent discoveries in biogeochemistry is the ubiquity of cryptic sulfur cycling. From subglacial lakes to marine oxygen minimum zones, and in marine sediments, cryptic sulfur cycling - the simultaneous sulfate consumption and production - has been observed. Though this process does not leave an imprint in the sulfur budget of the ambient environment - thus the term cryptic - it may have a massive impact on other element cycles and fundamentally change our understanding of biogeochemical processes in the subsurface. Classically, the sulfate-methane transition (SMT) in marine sediments is considered to be the boundary that delimits sulfate reduction from methanogenesis as the predominant terminal pathway of organic matter mineralization. Two sediment cores from Aarhus Bay, Denmark reveal the constant presence of sulfate (generally 0.1 to 0.2 mM) below the SMT. The sulfur and oxygen isotope signature of this deep sulfate (34S = 18.9‰, 18O = 7.7‰) was close to the isotope signature of bottom-seawater collected from the sampling site (34S = 19.8‰, 18O = 7.3‰). In one of the cores, oxygen isotope values of sulfate at the transition from the base of the SMT to the deep sulfate pool (18O = 4.5‰ to 6.8‰) were distinctly lighter than the deep sulfate pool. Our findings are consistent with a scenario where sulfate enriched in 34S and 18O is removed at the base of the SMT and replaced with isotopically light sulfate below. Here, we explore scenarios that explain this observation, ranging from sampling artifacts, such as contamination with seawater or auto-oxidation of sulfide - to the potential of sulfate generation in a section of the sediment column where sulfate is expected to be absent which enables reductive sulfur cycling, creating the conditions under which sulfate respiration can persist in the methanic zone.

  3. Identification and functional analysis of an ammonium transporter in Streptococcus mutans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arifah Chieko Ardin

    Full Text Available Streptococcus mutans, a Gram-positive bacterium, is considered to be a major etiologic agent of human dental caries and reported to form biofilms known as dental plaque on tooth surfaces. This organism is also known to possess a large number of transport proteins in the cell membrane for export and import of molecules. Nitrogen is an essential nutrient for Gram-positive bacteria, though alternative sources such as ammonium can also be utilized. In order to obtain nitrogen for macromolecular synthesis, nitrogen-containing compounds must be transported into the cell. However, the ammonium transporter in S. mutans remains to be characterized. The present study focused on characterizing the ammonium transporter gene of S. mutans and its operon, while related regulatory genes were also analyzed. The SMU.1658 gene corresponding to nrgA in S. mutans is homologous to the ammonium transporter gene in Bacillus subtilis and SMU.1657, located upstream of the nrgA gene and predicted to be glnB, is a member of the PII protein family. Using a nrgA-deficient mutant strain (NRGD, we examined bacterial growth in the presence of ammonium, calcium chloride, and manganese sulfate. Fluorescent efflux assays were also performed to reveal export molecules associated with the ammonium transporter. The growth rate of NRGD was lower, while its fluorescent intensity was much higher as compared to the parental strain. In addition, confocal laser scanning microscopy revealed that the structure of biofilms formed by NRGD was drastically different than that of the parental strain. Furthermore, transcriptional analysis showed that the nrgA gene was co-transcribed with the glnB gene. These results suggest that the nrgA gene in S. mutans is essential for export of molecules and biofilm formation.

  4. Surface Enrichment by Conventional and Polymerizable Sulfated Nonylphenol Ethoxylate Emulsifiers in Water-Based Pressure-Sensitive Adhesive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jilin Zhang; Yuxi Zhao; Matthew R. Dubay; Steven J. Severtson; Larry E. Gwin; Carl J. Houtman

    2013-01-01

    Comparisons of properties are made for pressure-sensitive adhesives (PSAs) generated via emulsion polymerization using both conventional and reactive emulsifiers. The emulsifiers are ammonium salts of sulfated nonylphenol ethoxylates with similar chemical structures and hydrophilic−lipophilic balances. The polymerizable surfactant possesses a reactive double...

  5. The nitrogen cycle in anaerobic methanotrophic mats of the Black Sea is linked to sulfate reduction and biomass decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegert, Michael; Taubert, Martin; Seifert, Jana; von Bergen-Tomm, Martin; Basen, Mirko; Bastida, Felipe; Gehre, Matthias; Richnow, Hans-Hermann; Krüger, Martin

    2013-11-01

    Anaerobic methanotrophic (ANME) mats host methane-oxidizing archaea and sulfate-reducing prokaryotes. Little is known about the nitrogen cycle in these communities. Here, we link the anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) to the nitrogen cycle in microbial mats of the Black Sea by using stable isotope probing. We used four different (15)N-labeled sources of nitrogen: dinitrogen, nitrate, nitrite and ammonium. We estimated the nitrogen incorporation rates into the total biomass and the methyl coenzyme M reductase (MCR). Dinitrogen played an insignificant role as nitrogen source. Assimilatory and dissimilatory nitrate reduction occurred. High rates of nitrate reduction to dinitrogen were stimulated by methane and sulfate, suggesting that oxidation of reduced sulfur compounds such as sulfides was necessary for AOM with nitrate as electron acceptor. Nitrate reduction to dinitrogen occurred also in the absence of methane as electron donor but at six times slower rates. Dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium was independent of AOM. Ammonium was used for biomass synthesis under all conditions. The pivotal enzyme in AOM coupled to sulfate reduction, MCR, was synthesized from nitrate and ammonium. Results show that AOM coupled to sulfate reduction along with biomass decomposition drive the nitrogen cycle in the ANME mats of the Black Sea and that MCR enzymes are involved in this process. © 2013 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Enhanced sulfate reduction with acidogenic sulfate-reducing bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Aijie; Ren Nanqi; Wang Xu; Lee Duujong

    2008-01-01

    Sulfate reduction in a continuous flow, acidogenic reactor using molasses wastewater as the carbon source was studied at varying chemical oxygen demand/sulfate (COD/SO 4 2- ) ratios. At a critical COD/SO 4 2- ratio of 2.7, neither COD nor sulfate were in excess for extra production of ethanol or acetate in the reactor. An acetic-type microbial metabolism was established with sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) significantly consuming hydrogen and volatile fatty acids produced by acidogenic bacteria and hydrogen producing acetogens in degrading COD, thereby yielding sulfate removal rate >94.6%. A low critical COD/SO 4 2- ratio of 1.6 was also observed with the enriched ASRB population in reactor which overcomes the barrier to the treatment capability of sulfate-laden wastewater treatment with limited COD supply

  7. In-situ leaching of South Texas uranium ores - 2. Oxidative removal of adsorbed ammonium ions with sodium hypochlorite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, J.M.; Johnson, W.F.; Fletcher, A.; Venuto, P.B.

    1981-01-01

    This paper reports a laboratory study of the oxidative destruction, by sodium hypochlorite, of ammonium ions adsorbed on relatively reduced South Texas uranium ore. Included are an assessment of reaction stoichiometry, determination of some major reaction pathways and side reactions, and identification of several intermediates. Adsorbed ammonium ions were completely removed by 0.5% sodium hypochlorite with the concentration of ammonia in the effluent falling to a very low value after 10-15 pore volumes of the oxidant. Substantial quantities of sulfate, reflecting oxidation of sulfide minerals such as pyrite, were formed. Large amounts of uranium were leached out, and substantial amounts of calcium and magnesium ions were also produced during the pre-saturation with ammonium bicarbonate during the oxidation stage. 28 refs

  8. Investigation of sulfate and nitrate formation on mineral dust particles by receptor modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hien, P.D.; Bac, V.T.; Thinh, N.T.H. [Vietnam Atomic Energy Commission, Hanoi (Vietnam)

    2005-12-01

    The formation of sulfate and nitrate by heterogeneous reactions of gaseous precursors on mineral dust particles was investigated using positive matrix factorization (PMF) of coarse PM10 (particulate diameters from 2.2 to 10 {mu} m) collected at urban (Hanoi) and rural (Lucnam) sites in northern Vietnam. Air samples were analyzed for ionic and elemental components using ion chromatography and proton induced X-ray emission methods. PMF revealed six similar sources/types of coarse PM10 at the two sites, namely soil dust containing nitrate and sulfate, coal fly ash from distant and local sources, soil dust containing organic matter and ammonium sulfate and marine aerosol. Traffic (road) dust was found only at the urban site. From the PMF factor models, the yields of NO{sub 3}{sup -}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} and NH{sub 4}{sup +} can be estimated and their possible chemical forms in different particulate types can be suggested. The yields of nitrate and sulfate formation on mineral dust particles increase with the (Ca)/(Si) ratio, which is greater in soil dust than in coal fly ash. Nitrate is bound to Ca-richest soil dust particles. Ammonium was found in dust particles containing soil organic matter, which also hold the largest amount of sulfate. The comparison of urban and rural receptor models provided synergy for the source identification and insights into the properties of mineral dust particles relevant to their interactions with acidic gases in ambient air.

  9. Products and kinetics of the liquid-phase reaction of glyoxal catalyzed by ammonium ions (NH4(+)).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozière, Barbara; Dziedzic, Pawel; Córdova, Armando

    2009-01-08

    Glyoxal, a common atmospheric gas, has been reported to be depleted in some regions of the atmosphere. The corresponding sink could be accounted for by reactions in or at the surface of atmospheric particles, but these reactions were not identified. Recently, we showed that inorganic ammonium ions, NH(4)(+), are efficient catalysts for reactions of carbonyl compounds, including glyoxal, in the liquid phase. To determine whether ammonium-catalyzed reactions can contribute to depletion of glyoxal in the atmosphere, the reactivity of this compound in aqueous solutions containing ammonium salts (ammonium sulfate, chloride, fluoride, and phosphate) at 298 K has been studied. The products identified by LC-HRMS and UV absorption revealed a mechanism involving two distinct pathways: a Bronsted acid pathway and an iminium pathway. The kinetics of the iminium pathway was studied by monitoring formation of a specific product. This pathway was second order in glyoxal in most of the solutions studied and should therefore be second order in most ammonium-containing aerosols in the atmosphere. The corresponding rate constant, k(II) (M(-1) s(-1)), increased strongly with ammonium ion activity, a(NH(4)(+)), and pH: k(II) (M(-1) s(-1)) = (2 +/- 1) x 10(-10) exp((1.5 +/- 0.8)aNH(4)(+)) exp((2.5 +/- 0.2)pH). This iminium pathway is a lower limit for the ammonium-catalyzed consumption of glyoxal, but the contribution of the acid pathway is expected to be small in tropospheric aerosols. With these results the reactive uptake of glyoxal on ammonium-containing aerosols was estimated and shown to be a possible explanation for depletion of this compound in Mexico City.

  10. Electrochemically and Bioelectrochemically Induced Ammonium Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gildemyn, Sylvia; Luther, Amanda K.; Andersen, Stephen J.; Desloover, Joachim; Rabaey, Korneel

    2015-01-01

    Streams such as urine and manure can contain high levels of ammonium, which could be recovered for reuse in agriculture or chemistry. The extraction of ammonium from an ammonium-rich stream is demonstrated using an electrochemical and a bioelectrochemical system. Both systems are controlled by a potentiostat to either fix the current (for the electrochemical cell) or fix the potential of the working electrode (for the bioelectrochemical cell). In the bioelectrochemical cell, electroactive bacteria catalyze the anodic reaction, whereas in the electrochemical cell the potentiostat applies a higher voltage to produce a current. The current and consequent restoration of the charge balance across the cell allow the transport of cations, such as ammonium, across a cation exchange membrane from the anolyte to the catholyte. The high pH of the catholyte leads to formation of ammonia, which can be stripped from the medium and captured in an acid solution, thus enabling the recovery of a valuable nutrient. The flux of ammonium across the membrane is characterized at different anolyte ammonium concentrations and currents for both the abiotic and biotic reactor systems. Both systems are compared based on current and removal efficiencies for ammonium, as well as the energy input required to drive ammonium transfer across the cation exchange membrane. Finally, a comparative analysis considering key aspects such as reliability, electrode cost, and rate is made. This video article and protocol provide the necessary information to conduct electrochemical and bioelectrochemical ammonia recovery experiments. The reactor setup for the two cases is explained, as well as the reactor operation. We elaborate on data analysis for both reactor types and on the advantages and disadvantages of bioelectrochemical and electrochemical systems. PMID:25651406

  11. Aluminum and acid effects on calcium and phosphorus metabolism in young growing chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) and mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capdevielle, M C; Hart, L E; Goff, J; Scanes, C G

    1998-07-01

    Acidification is associated with increased mortality, reduced growth, and bone abnormalities in birds. Associated with acid deposition is an increase in aluminum availability due to solubilization from soil and other sources. (Conversely, experimental diets containing aluminum sulfate have much reduced pHs.) The present studies compare the effects of two levels of dietary acid (sulfuric acid) (0.122 and 0.56 mol H+ per kg feed; 0.056 and 0.277 mol sulfate per kg feed) and dietary aluminum (aluminum sulfate at 0.1 and 0.5%; sulfate at 0. 056 and 0.277 mol sulfate per kg feed) on bone growth, mineralization, and phosphorous/calcium homeostasis in growing birds (chickens and mallard ducks). Growth was reduced by the high acid (chicken) and aluminum (ducks and chickens) diets. A reduction in bone mineralization was observed in birds receiving aluminum-containing diets [low aluminum diet: decreased tibia ash, calcium, and phosphorus (chickens); high aluminum diet: decreased tibia dry weight, % of ash and mg; ash, calcium (chickens, ducks as % of ash), and phosphorus (chickens mg/duck, % of ash)]. Moreover, plasma concentrations of inorganic phosphate were reduced in chicks on the high aluminum diet. There were also marked decreases in bone growth and mineralization [tibia weight, ash (mg), calcium (mg), phosphorus (mg)] and plasma concentrations of 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D3 in chicks on the high acid diet compared to those on a control diet. These changes were probably due to reduced feed intake; changes in bone indices being of a greater or similar magnitude in pairfed control. There was little change in bone indices, growth rate or feed consumption in ducklings receiving either the low or high acid diets. It is concluded that aluminum directly adversely affected bone mineralization whereas acid effects are mediated in part by changes in feed consumption.

  12. Activity staining of pectinesterase on polyacrylamide gels after acidic or sodium dodecyl sulfate electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, W C; Lin, Y H

    1998-05-01

    Pectinesterase (PE), from commercial orange peels or ammonium sulfate fractionation (50-80% saturation) of pea pods, was detected on polyacrylamide gels after native acidic polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) or sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-PAGE by using the synthetic substrate beta-naphthyl acetate (beta-NA). The release of beta-naphthol (at 322 nm) from beta-NA was proportional to PE activity. The PE activity bands on polyacrylamide gels after native acidic PAGE or SDS-PAGE were stained with a combination of tetrazotized o-dianisidine and beta-NA. This fast and sensitive method can be used for enzyme purification and characterization.

  13. 33 CFR 126.28 - Ammonium nitrate, ammonium nitrate fertilizers, fertilizer mixtures, or nitro carbo nitrate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., combustible liquids, corrosive liquids, chlorates, permanganates, finely divided metals, caustic soda... molten ammonium nitrate if a fire occurred (and thus become potential detonators for the storage piles...

  14. Aluminum industry options paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-10-01

    In 1990, Canada's producers of aluminum (third largest in the world) emitted 10 million tonnes of carbon dioxide and equivalent, corresponding to 6.4 tonnes of greenhouse gas intensity per tonne of aluminum. In 2000, the projection is that on a business-as-usual (BAU) basis Canadian producers now producing 60 per cent more aluminum than in 1990, will emit 10.7 million tonnes of carbon dioxide and equivalent, corresponding to a GHG intensity of 4.2 tonnes per tonne of aluminum. This improvement is due to production being based largely on hydro-electricity, and partly because in general, Canadian plants are modern, with technology that is relatively GHG-friendly. The Aluminum Association of Canada estimates that based on anticipated production, and under a BAU scenario, GHG emissions from aluminum production will rise by 18 per cent by 2010 and by 30 per cent by 2020. GHG emissions could be reduced below the BAU forecast first, by new control and monitoring systems at some operations at a cost of $4.5 to 7.5 million per smelter. These systems could reduce carbon dioxide equivalent emissions by 0.8 million tonnes per year. A second alternative would require installation of breaker feeders which would further reduce perfluorocarbon (PFC) emissions by 0.9 million tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent. Cost of the breakers feeders would be in the order of $200 million per smelter. The third option calls for the the shutting down of some of the smelters with older technology by 2015. In this scenario GHG emissions would be reduced by 2010 by 0.8 million tonnes per year of carbon dioxide equivalent. However, the cost in this case would be about $1.36 billion. The industry would support measures that would encourage the first two sets of actions, which would produce GHG emissions from aluminum production in Canada of about 10.2 million tonnes per year of carbon dioxide equivalent, or about two per cent above 1990 levels with double the aluminum production of 1990. Credit for

  15. Extração simultânea de alumínio, cálcio, magnésio, potássio e sódio do solo com solução de cloreto de amônio Simultaneous extraction of aluminum, calcium, magnesium, potassium, and sodium with ammonium chloride solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. Boeira

    2004-10-01

    samples used were from Northeastern Brazil fruit growing region and from the Embrapa Environment Experimental Station, located in Jaguariúna County, São Paulo State. The employed methods were: (a simultaneous extraction of the five cations with a 1 mol L-1 NH4Cl; (b extraction of Ca, Mg, and Al with 1 mol L-1 KCl; and (c extraction of K and Na with the Mehlich-1 solution. The NH4Cl solution has a higher Mg extraction capacity than KCl, but they present similar Ca and Al extraction ability. The NH4Cl solution extracted more K and Na than the Mehlich-1 solution. It is concluded that the ammonium chloride solution is a convenient alternative for the extraction of exchangeable Al, Ca, Mg, K, and Na from soils.

  16. 2-Amino-4-hydroxyethylaminoanisole sulfate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jakob T; Andersen, Klaus E

    2016-01-01

    positive patch test reactions to the coupler 2-amino-4-hydroxyethylaminoanisole sulfate 2% pet. from 2005 to 2014. METHODS: Patch test results from the Allergen Bank database for eczema patients patch tested with 2-amino-4-hydroxyethylaminoanisole sulfate 2% pet. from 2005 to 2014 were reviewed. RESULTS......: A total of 902 dermatitis patients (154 from the dermatology department and 748 from 65 practices) were patch tested with amino-4-hydroxyethylaminoanisole sulfate 2% pet. from 2005 to 2014. Thirteen (1.4%) patients had a positive patch test reaction. Our results do not indicate irritant reactions....... CONCLUSIONS: 2-Amino-4-hydroxyethylaminoanisole sulfate is a new but rare contact allergen....

  17. Ammonium based ionic liquids act as compatible solvents for glycine peptides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasantha, T.; Attri, Pankaj; Venkatesu, Pannuru; Rama Devi, R.S.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We report solubilities of glycine peptides in ionic liquids. ► We have predicted transfer free energies of glycine peptides in ionic liquids. ► UV-vis spectra analysis for glycine peptides in ionic liquids. ► We have synthesized the new ammonium based ILs. ► We have studied the peptide backbone unit contribution in ILs. - Abstract: In this article, we have reported the solubilities, apparent transfer free energies (ΔG′ tr ) and UV-visible absorption measurements of glycine peptides (GPs), such as glycine (Gly), diglycine (Gly 2 ), and cyclic glycylglycine (c(GG)) in aqueous ionic liquids (ILs), bearing sulfate and phosphate anions with ammonium cation, at T = 298.15 K. Values of solubility were obtained from density (ρ) measurements of GPs in water and in aqueous ILs. The ammonium ILs such as diethylammonium hydrogen sulfate (DEAS) [(CH 3 CH 2 ) 2 NH][HSO 4 ], triethylammonium hydrogen sulfate (TEAS) [(CH 3 CH 2 ) 3 NH][HSO 4 ], and triethylammonium dihydrogen phosphate (TEAP) [(CH 3 CH 2 ) 3 NH][H 2 PO 4 ] have been used in the present study. We observed the positive values of ΔG′ tr for Gly, Gly 2 , and c(GG) from water to ILs. These results reveal that the unfavourable interactions are dominated between ILs and the GPs. This indicates that the ammonium based ILs stabilize the GP structure. Further, we have used the ΔG′ tr results to evaluate the transfer free energies (Δg′ tr ) contribution of the peptide backbone unit, also known as glycyl residue, (–CH 2 C=ONH–) as function of ILs concentration. Our results suggest that all the investigated ammonium ILs are compatible with GPs and act as stabilizers for GPs structure through exclusion of ILs from GPs’ surface. Furthermore, UV-vis spectrophotometer measurements are used as evidence for the stability of GPs in aqueous ILs at T = 298.15 K.

  18. Thermal and IR spectroscopic study of double sulfate (NH4)4Ce(SO4)4x2H2O

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondar', S.A.; Mikhajlova, N.L.; Popova, R.A.; Nikitina, S.D.

    1986-01-01

    Results of thermal investigation of ammonium and cerium (4) double sulfate, prepared under equilibrium conditions in system (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 -Ce(SO 4 ) 2 -H 2 SO 4 -H 2 O at 100 deg C in the concentration range 20-40 mass% H 2 SO 4 and mole ratio (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 :Ce(SO 4 ) 2 =2:1, are presented. The character of thermal decomposition is confirmed by IR spectroscopy method. At and intermediate stage of thermal decomposition ammonium and cerium (3) double sulfate, then Ce 2 (SO 4 ) 3 are formed, the decomposition of the latter results in the formation of cerium dioxide

  19. Aluminum for plasmonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Mark W; King, Nicholas S; Liu, Lifei; Everitt, Henry O; Nordlander, Peter; Halas, Naomi J

    2014-01-28

    Unlike silver and gold, aluminum has material properties that enable strong plasmon resonances spanning much of the visible region of the spectrum and into the ultraviolet. This extended response, combined with its natural abundance, low cost, and amenability to manufacturing processes, makes aluminum a highly promising material for commercial applications. Fabricating Al-based nanostructures whose optical properties correspond with theoretical predictions, however, can be a challenge. In this work, the Al plasmon resonance is observed to be remarkably sensitive to the presence of oxide within the metal. For Al nanodisks, we observe that the energy of the plasmon resonance is determined by, and serves as an optical reporter of, the percentage of oxide present within the Al. This understanding paves the way toward the use of aluminum as a low-cost plasmonic material with properties and potential applications similar to those of the coinage metals.

  20. Aluminum Hydroxide and Magnesium Hydroxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aluminum Hydroxide, Magnesium Hydroxide are antacids used together to relieve heartburn, acid indigestion, and upset stomach. They ... They combine with stomach acid and neutralize it. Aluminum Hydroxide, Magnesium Hydroxide are available without a prescription. ...

  1. Regeneration of aluminum hydride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graetz, Jason Allan; Reilly, James J.

    2009-04-21

    The present invention provides methods and materials for the formation of hydrogen storage alanes, AlH.sub.x, where x is greater than 0 and less than or equal to 6 at reduced H.sub.2 pressures and temperatures. The methods rely upon reduction of the change in free energy of the reaction between aluminum and molecular H.sub.2. The change in free energy is reduced by lowering the entropy change during the reaction by providing aluminum in a state of high entropy, by increasing the magnitude of the change in enthalpy of the reaction or combinations thereof.

  2. Regeneration of aluminum hydride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graetz, Jason Allan; Reilly, James J; Wegrzyn, James E

    2012-09-18

    The present invention provides methods and materials for the formation of hydrogen storage alanes, AlH.sub.x, where x is greater than 0 and less than or equal to 6 at reduced H.sub.2 pressures and temperatures. The methods rely upon reduction of the change in free energy of the reaction between aluminum and molecular H.sub.2. The change in free energy is reduced by lowering the entropy change during the reaction by providing aluminum in a state of high entropy, and by increasing the magnitude of the change in enthalpy of the reaction or combinations thereof.

  3. Investigation of Ammonium and Nitrite Removal by Zeolite Material Synthesized on Red Mud Base

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pham Thi Mai Huong

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The zeolite with the unit formula of Na8(Al6Si6O24S.4H2O was synthesized directly on red mud base with addition of single silicon (signed as RH-ZeO-Si and both silicon and aluminum portions (signed as RM-ZeO-SiAl to original Tan Rai (Vietnam red mud. The structure of the zeolite was studied by X-Ray difration and FT-IR absorption spectra. The synthesized materials were studied on their adsorption ability of ammonium and nitrite ions. The results showed that, the adsorption of ammonium cation was mostly allowing ion-exchange mechanism and the zeolite crystaline forms played predominantly role besids minor one of single metal oxides. For nitrite anions, it is otherwise, the adsorption mechanism was mostly leant to electrostatic attraction between nitrite anions and electropositive effect of the hematite surface in light acidic condition. The adsorption isotherms of all ammonium and nitrite ions on both synthesized materials were nearly conformable with Freundlich model than Langmuir model. Those showed that, both materials have unhomogeneous adsorption surface. The maximum adsorption capacity of ammonium and nitrite on RM-ZeO-Si was 5.71 mg/g and 2.73 mg/g respectively, and on RM-ZeO-SiAl was 5.61 mg/g and 3.12 mg/g respectively. The initial test of competitive ions influencing on adsorption ability showed that, for all cases the competition of cations to ammonium ion was more significance than those of anions to nitrite ion in the same conditions.

  4. 49 CFR 176.410 - Division 1.5 materials, ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ammonium nitrate mixtures. 176.410 Section 176.410 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... nitrate and ammonium nitrate mixtures. (a) This section prescribes requirements to be observed with..., blasting, type B, and Explosives, blasting, type E, Division 1.5 compatibility group D. (f) No mixture...

  5. Disguised as a Sulfate Reducer: Growth of the Deltaproteobacterium Desulfurivibrio alkaliphilus by Sulfide Oxidation with Nitrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorup, Casper; Schramm, Andreas; Findlay, Alyssa J; Finster, Kai W; Schreiber, Lars

    2017-07-18

    This study demonstrates that the deltaproteobacterium Desulfurivibrio alkaliphilus can grow chemolithotrophically by coupling sulfide oxidation to the dissimilatory reduction of nitrate and nitrite to ammonium. Key genes of known sulfide oxidation pathways are absent from the genome of D. alkaliphilus Instead, the genome contains all of the genes necessary for sulfate reduction, including a gene for a reductive-type dissimilatory bisulfite reductase (DSR). Despite this, growth by sulfate reduction was not observed. Transcriptomic analysis revealed a very high expression level of sulfate-reduction genes during growth by sulfide oxidation, while inhibition experiments with molybdate pointed to elemental sulfur/polysulfides as intermediates. Consequently, we propose that D. alkaliphilus initially oxidizes sulfide to elemental sulfur, which is then either disproportionated, or oxidized by a reversal of the sulfate reduction pathway. This is the first study providing evidence that a reductive-type DSR is involved in a sulfide oxidation pathway. Transcriptome sequencing further suggests that nitrate reduction to ammonium is performed by a novel type of periplasmic nitrate reductase and an unusual membrane-anchored nitrite reductase. IMPORTANCE Sulfide oxidation and sulfate reduction, the two major branches of the sulfur cycle, are usually ascribed to distinct sets of microbes with distinct diagnostic genes. Here we show a more complex picture, as D. alkaliphilus , with the genomic setup of a sulfate reducer, grows by sulfide oxidation. The high expression of genes typically involved in the sulfate reduction pathway suggests that these genes, including the reductive-type dissimilatory bisulfite reductases, are also involved in as-yet-unresolved sulfide oxidation pathways. Finally, D. alkaliphilus is closely related to cable bacteria, which grow by electrogenic sulfide oxidation. Since there are no pure cultures of cable bacteria, D. alkaliphilus may represent an

  6. Mineral carbonation of phosphogypsum waste for production of useful carbonate and sulfate salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannu-Petteri eMattila

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Phosphogypsum (CaSO4·2H2O waste is produced in large amounts during phosphoric acid (H3PO4 production. Minor quantities are utilized in construction or agriculture, while most of the material is stockpiled, creating an environmental challenge to prevent pollution of natural waters. In principle, the gypsum waste could be used to capture several hundred Mt of carbon dioxide (CO2. For example, when gypsum is converted to ammonium sulfate ((NH42SO4 with ammonia (NH3 and CO2, also solid calcium carbonate (CaCO3 is generated. The ammonium sulfate can be utilized as a fertilizer or in other mineral carbonation processes that use magnesium silicate-based rock as feedstock, while calcium carbonate has various uses as e.g. filler material. The reaction extent of the described process was studied by thermodynamic modeling and experimentally as a function of reactant concentrations and temperature. Other essential properties such as purity and quality of the solid products are also followed. Conversion efficiencies of >95% calcium from phosphogypsum to calcium carbonate are obtained. Scalenohedral, rhombohedral and prismatic calcite particles can be produced, though the precipitates contain certain contaminants such as rare earth metals and sulfur from the gypsum. A reverse osmosis membrane cartridge is also tested as an alternative and energy-efficient method of concentrating the ammonium sulfate salt solution instead of the traditional evaporation of the process solution.

  7. Mineral Carbonation of Phosphogypsum Waste for Production of Useful Carbonate and Sulfate Salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattila, Hannu-Petteri; Zevenhoven, Ron

    2015-01-01

    Phosphogypsum (CaSO 4 ·2H 2 O, PG) waste is produced in large amounts during phosphoric acid (H 3 PO 4 ) production. Minor quantities are utilized in construction or agriculture, while most of the material is stockpiled, creating an environmental challenge to prevent pollution of natural waters. In principle, the gypsum waste could be used to capture several hundred megatonnes of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ). For example, when gypsum is converted to ammonium sulfate [(NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 ] with ammonia (NH 3 ) and CO 2 , also solid calcium carbonate (CaCO 3 ) is generated. The ammonium sulfate can be utilized as a fertilizer or in other mineral carbonation processes that use magnesium silicate-based rock as feedstock, while calcium carbonate has various uses as, e.g., filler material. The reaction extent of the described process was studied by thermodynamic modeling and experimentally as a function of reactant concentrations and temperature. Other essential properties such as purity and quality of the solid products are also followed. Conversion efficiencies of >95% calcium from PG to calcium carbonate are obtained. Scalenohedral, rhombohedral, and prismatic calcite particles can be produced, although the precipitates contain certain contaminants such as rare earth metals and sulfur from the gypsum. A reverse osmosis membrane cartridge is also tested as an alternative and energy-efficient method of concentrating the ammonium sulfate salt solution instead of the traditional evaporation of the process solution.

  8. Off limits: sulfate below the sulfate-methane transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Brunner

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the most intriguing recent discoveries in biogeochemistry is the ubiquity of cryptic sulfur cycling. From subglacial lakes to marine oxygen minimum zones, and in marine sediments, cryptic sulfur cycling – the simultaneous sulfate consumption and production – has been observed. Though this process does not leave an imprint in the sulfur budget of the ambient environment – thus the term cryptic – it may have a massive impact on other element cycles and fundamentally change our understanding of biogeochemical processes in the subsurface.Classically, the sulfate-methane transition (SMT in marine sediments is considered to be the boundary that delimits sulfate reduction from methanogenesis as the predominant terminal pathway of organic matter mineralization. Two sediment cores from Aarhus Bay, Denmark reveal the constant presence of sulfate (generally 0.1 to 0.2 mM below the SMT. The sulfur and oxygen isotope signature of this deep sulfate (34S = 18.9‰, 18O = 7.7‰ was close to the isotope signature of bottom-seawater collected from the sampling site (34S = 19.8‰, 18O = 7.3‰. In one of the cores, oxygen isotope values of sulfate at the transition from the base of the SMT to the deep sulfate pool (18O = 4.5‰ to 6.8‰ were distinctly lighter than the deep sulfate pool.Our findings are consistent with a scenario where sulfate enriched in 34S and 18O is removed at the base of the SMT and replaced with isotopically light sulfate below. Here, we explore scenarios that explain this observation, ranging from sampling artifacts, such as contamination with seawater or auto-oxidation of sulfide – to the potential of sulfate generation in a section of the sediment column where sulfate is expected to be absent which enables reductive sulfur cycling, creating the conditions under which sulfate respiration can persist in the methanic zone.

  9. Crystallization of Chicken Egg White Lysozyme from Assorted Sulfate Salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsythe, Elizabeth L.; Snell, Edward H.; Malone, Christine C.; Pusey, Marc L.

    1999-01-01

    Chicken egg white lysozyme has been found to crystallize from ammonium, sodium, potassium, rubidium, magnesium, and manganese sulfates at acidic and basic pH, with protein concentrations from 60 to 190 mg/ml. Crystals have also been grown at 4 C in the absence of any other added salts using isoionic lysozyme which was titrated to pH 4.6 with dilute sulfuric acid. Four different crystal forms have been obtained, depending upon the temperature, protein concentration, and precipitating salt employed. Crystals grown at 15 C were generally tetragonal, with space group P4(sub 3)2(sub 1)2. Crystallization at 20 C typically resulted in the formation of orthorhombic crystals, space group P2(sub 1)2(sub 1)2(sub 1). The tetragonal reversible reaction orthorhombic transition appeared to be a function of both the temperature and protein concentration, occurring between 15 and 20 C and between 100 and 125 mg/ml protein concentration. Crystallization from 1.2 M magnesium sulfate at pH 7.8 gave a trigonal crystal, space group P3(sub 1)2(sub 1), a = b = 87.4, c = 73.7, gamma = 120 deg, which diffracted to 2.8 A. Crystallization from ammonium sulfate at pH 4.6, generally at lower temperatures, was also found to result in a monoclinic form. space group C2, a = 65.6, b = 95.0, c = 41.2, beta = 119.2 deg. A crystal of approximately 0.2 x 0.2 x 0.5 mm grown from bulk solution diffracted to approximately 3.5 A.

  10. Crystallization of chicken egg white lysozyme from assorted sulfate salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsythe, Elizabeth L.; Snell, Edward H.; Malone, Christine C.; Pusey, Marc L.

    1999-01-01

    Chicken egg white lysozyme has been found to crystallize from ammonium, sodium, potassium, rubidium, magnesium, and manganese sulfates at acidic and basic pH, with protein concentrations from 60 to 190 mg/ml. Crystals have also been grown at 4°C in the absence of any other added salts using isoionic lysozyme which was titrated to pH 4.6 with dilute sulfuric acid. Four different crystal forms have been obtained, depending upon the temperature, protein concentration, and precipitating salt employed. Crystals grown at 15°C were generally tetragonal, with space group P4 32 12. Crystallization at 20°C typically resulted in the formation of orthorhombic crystals, space group P2 12 12 1. The tetragonal ↔ orthorhombic transition appeared to be a function of both the temperature and protein concentration, occurring between 15 and 20°C and between 100 and 125 mg/ml protein concentration. Crystallization from 1.2 M magnesium sulfate at pH 7.8 gave a trigonal crystal, space group P3 12 1, a= b=87.4, c=73.7, γ=120°, which diffracted to 2.8 Å. Crystallization from ammonium sulfate at pH 4.6, generally at lower temperatures, was also found to result in a monoclinic form, space group C2, a=65.6, b=95.0, c=41.2, β=119.2°. A crystal of ˜0.2×0.2×0.5 mm grown from bulk solution diffracted to ˜3.5 Å.

  11. Applied Electrochemistry of Aluminum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Qingfeng; Qiu, Zhuxian

    Electrochemistry of aluminum is of special importance from both theoretical and technological point of view. It covers a wide range of electrolyte systems from molten fluoride melts at around 1000oC to room temperature molten salts, from aqueous to various organic media and from liquid to solid...

  12. Invisible Display in Aluminum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prichystal, Jan Phuklin; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Bladt, Henrik Henriksen

    2005-01-01

    for an integrated display in a metal surface is often ruled by design and functionality of a product. The integration of displays in metal surfaces requires metal removal in order to clear the area of the display to some extent. The idea behind an invisible display in Aluminum concerns the processing of a metal...

  13. Aluminum for Plasmonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    mini - mize the deleterious effects of the bulk metal oxide. Conversely, the optical scattering spectrum of an Al nanodisk can serve as a reporter of Al...Nanoparticles. J. Phys. Chem. C 2008, 112, 13958–13963. 22. Chowdhury, M. H.; Ray, K.; Gray, S. K.; Pond , J.; Lakowicz, J. R. Aluminum Nanoparticles as

  14. Aluminum battery alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, David S.; Scott, Darwin H.

    1985-01-01

    Aluminum alloys suitable for use as anode structures in electrochemical cs are disclosed. These alloys include iron levels higher than previously felt possible, due to the presence of controlled amounts of manganese, with possible additions of magnesium and controlled amounts of gallium.

  15. Sulfation of von Willebrand factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carew, J.A.; Browning, P.J.; Lynch, D.C.

    1990-01-01

    von Willebrand factor (vWF) is a multimeric adhesive glycoprotein essential for normal hemostasis. We have discovered that cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells incorporate inorganic sulfate into vWF. Following immunoisolation and analysis by polyacrylamide or agarose gel electrophoresis, metabolically labeled vWF was found to have incorporated [35S]-sulfate into all secreted multimer species. The time course of incorporation shows that sulfation occurs late in the biosynthesis of vWF, near the point at which multimerization occurs. Quantitative analysis suggests the presence, on average, of one molecule of sulfate per mature vWF subunit. Virtually all the detectable sulfate is released from the mature vWF subunit by treatment with endoglycosidases that remove asparagine-linked carbohydrates. Sulfated carbohydrate was localized first to the N-terminal half of the mature subunit (amino acids 1 through 1,365) by partial proteolytic digestion with protease V8; and subsequently to a smaller fragment within this region (amino acids 273 through 511) by sequential digestions with protease V8 and trypsin. Thus, the carbohydrate at asparagine 384 and/or 468 appears to be the site of sulfate modification. Sodium chlorate, an inhibitor of adenosine triphosphate-sulfurylase, blocks sulfation of vWF without affecting either the ability of vWF to assemble into high molecular weight multimers or the ability of vWF multimers to enter Weible-Palade bodies. The stability of vWF multimers in the presence of an endothelial cell monolayer also was unaffected by the sulfation state. Additionally, we have found that the cleaved propeptide of vWF is sulfated on asparagine-linked carbohydrate

  16. Formation Mechanism of Atmospheric Ammonium Bisulfate: Hydrogen-Bond-Promoted Nearly Barrierless Reactions of SO3 with NH3 and H2 O.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shunwei; Zhao, Yanling; Zhang, Ruiqin

    2018-02-20

    Particulate matter (PM) air pollution threatens the health of people and ecosystems worldwide. As the key component of PM, ammonium sulfate plays a critical role in the formation of aerosol particles; thus, there is an urgent need to know the detailed mechanisms for its formation in the atmosphere. Through a quantum chemistry study, we reveal a series of nearly barrierless reactions that may occur in clusters/droplets in the atmosphere leading to the formation of ammonium bisulfate (NH 4 HSO 4 ), the precursor of ammonium sulfate. In this mechanism, NH 4 HSO 4 is directly formed through one-step reactions of SO 3 with H 2 O and NH 3 promoted by surrounding molecule(s) that substantially lower the reaction activation barrier to ≈0 kcal mol -1 . The promoters of these reactions are found to be various common atmospheric molecules, such as water, ammonia, and sulfuric acid, which can form relatively strong hydrogen bonds with the reaction center. Our results suggest many more similar pathways that can be facilitated by other ambient molecules. Due to its one-step and barrierless reaction characteristics and the great abundance of potential reactions, this mechanism has great implications on the formation of atmospheric ammonium sulfate as well as on the growth of aerosol particles. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Age of Sulfate Methane Transition Zone Determined by Modelling Barium Sulfate Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, S.; Wang, W. C.; Lien, K. L.; Liu, C. C.; Fan, L. F.

    2017-12-01

    Methane seep to the sediment/water interface could initiate anaerobic methane oxidation (AOM) with subsequent build up of chemosynthetic community, carbonate, pyrite and a number of other authigenic mineral formation. Determination the duration, sequence and time of methane seeps are keys to understand how methane seep to the environment and degree of alteration to the vicinity area. However, limited method existed in defining time of methane seep since there are some known problems involving typical dating methods, i.e. old carbon on C14 of fossil test or authigenic carbonate, thorium from surrounding matrix on U/Th authigenic carbonate dating. In this study, we have employed barium determination method (Dickens, 2001) to model timing of methane seep at two locations in the South China Sea. Our objective is to compare timing of the barium accumulation near the sulfate methane transition zone (SMTZ) on these two different locations and to seek if a similar mechanism driving the methane seep at two locations far apart. Dissolved barium, total sediment barium and aluminum were measured as well as pore water sulfate, and sediment pyrite concentrations. Time for the barium sulfate accumulation is calculated by: T = C/F, C= ∫ I x p x (1-Ø) Our results show that SMTZ is stabilized at each site for a duration of about 4000-5000 years. AOM process have been active at both sites at about the same time. In conjunction, pyrite also accumulated at a depth near the SMTZ as a result of methane oxidation. This result show that AOM could stay at the SMTZ for a relatively long period of time, on a scale of thousands of years.

  18. Aluminum enhances inflammation and decreases mucosal healing in experimental colitis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineton de Chambrun, G; Body-Malapel, M; Frey-Wagner, I; Djouina, M; Deknuydt, F; Atrott, K; Esquerre, N; Altare, F; Neut, C; Arrieta, M C; Kanneganti, T-D; Rogler, G; Colombel, J-F; Cortot, A; Desreumaux, P; Vignal, C

    2014-05-01

    The increasing incidence of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) in developing countries has highlighted the critical role of environmental pollutants as causative factors in their pathophysiology. Despite its ubiquity and immune toxicity, the impact of aluminum in the gut is not known. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of environmentally relevant intoxication with aluminum in murine models of colitis and to explore the underlying mechanisms. Oral administration of aluminum worsened intestinal inflammation in mice with 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid- and dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis and chronic colitis in interleukin 10-negative (IL10(-/-)) mice. Aluminum increased the intensity and duration of macroscopic and histologic inflammation, colonic myeloperoxidase activity, inflammatory cytokines expression, and decreased the epithelial cell renewal compared with control animals. Under basal conditions, aluminum impaired intestinal barrier function. In vitro, aluminum induced granuloma formation and synergized with lipopolysaccharide to stimulate inflammatory cytokines expression by epithelial cells. Deleterious effects of aluminum on intestinal inflammation and mucosal repair strongly suggest that aluminum might be an environmental IBD risk factor.

  19. Aluminum enhances inflammation and decreases mucosal healing in experimental colitis in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineton de Chambrun, G; Body-Malapel, M; Frey-Wagner, I; Djouina, M; Deknuydt, F; Atrott, K; Esquerre, N; Altare, F; Neut, C; Arrieta, M C; Kanneganti, T-D; Rogler, G; Colombel, J-F; Cortot, A; Desreumaux, P; Vignal, C

    2014-01-01

    The increasing incidence of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) in developing countries has highlighted the critical role of environmental pollutants as causative factors in their pathophysiology. Despite its ubiquity and immune toxicity, the impact of aluminum in the gut is not known. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of environmentally relevant intoxication with aluminum in murine models of colitis and to explore the underlying mechanisms. Oral administration of aluminum worsened intestinal inflammation in mice with 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid- and dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis and chronic colitis in interleukin 10-negative (IL10−/−) mice. Aluminum increased the intensity and duration of macroscopic and histologic inflammation, colonic myeloperoxidase activity, inflammatory cytokines expression, and decreased the epithelial cell renewal compared with control animals. Under basal conditions, aluminum impaired intestinal barrier function. In vitro, aluminum induced granuloma formation and synergized with lipopolysaccharide to stimulate inflammatory cytokines expression by epithelial cells. Deleterious effects of aluminum on intestinal inflammation and mucosal repair strongly suggest that aluminum might be an environmental IBD risk factor. PMID:24129165

  20. Effects of urea and ammonium sulfate applications on the characteristics and tecnological properties of cotton fiber

    OpenAIRE

    Sabino, Nelson Paulieri; Silva, Nelson Machado da; Kondo, Julio Isao; Igue, Toshio

    1994-01-01

    São apresentados resultados referentes às características agronômicas e propriedades tecnológicas da fibra do algodoeiro, obtidos em dezesseis experimentos de campo, no Estado de São Paulo, entre os anos agrícolas de 1984/85 e 1986/87, nos quais se verificou o efeito da aplicação de adubos nitrogenados. Utilizaram-se a uréia e o sulfato de amônio no sulco de semeadura e, em cobertura, nas doses de 0, 25, 50, 75 e 100 kg/ha de N, obedecendo ao esquema fatorial 2 x 5, com quatro repetições dist...

  1. Electrochemical and AFM study of nickel nucleation mechanisms on vitreous carbon from ammonium sulfate solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grujicic, Darko; Pesic, Batric

    2006-01-01

    Reaction and nucleation mechanisms of nickel in ammoniacal solutions have been investigated as a function of nickel concentration, solution pH, deposition potential, temperature and conditioning potential. Electrochemical mechanisms of nickel reduction were found to be pH dependent, while their kinetics was concentration dependent. A surface film formed by anodic oxidation passivates nickel clusters preventing their further oxidation. Nickel nucleation on vitreous carbon, which proceeds according to the progressive nucleation model, shows a large degree of inhibition at both pH 6 and pH 9. Cluster sizes were larger when electrodeposition was carried out from solutions with higher nickel concentrations. The clusters were also larger at more negative deposition potentials and at higher solution pH. Cluster population density increased with the increasing solution temperature. Different activation energies for the nickel-aquo and nickel-ammino complexes calculated from Arrhenius diagram indicate that electroreduction of nickel-ammino complex is energetically more demanding. All electrochemical results were further verified by the atomic force microscopy investigations

  2. Cobalt electrodeposition onto highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) electrode from ammonium sulfate solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Mendoza-Huizar, Luis Humberto; Rios-Reyes, Clara Hilda; Rivera, Margarita

    2010-01-01

    It was carried out an electrochemical study of the cobalt electrodeposition onto HOPG electrode from an aqueous solution containing 10-2 M of CoSO4 + 1M (NH4)2SO4. Nucleation parameters such as nucleation rate, density of active nucleation sites, saturation nucleus and the rate constant of the proton reduction reaction (kPR) were determined from potentiostatic studies. An increase in kPR values with the decrease in the applied potential suggested a competition between H+ and Co2+ by the activ...

  3. Cobalt electrodeposition onto highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG electrode from ammonium sulfate solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Humberto Mendoza-Huizar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available It was carried out an electrochemical study of the cobalt electrodeposition onto HOPG electrode from an aqueous solution containing 10-2 M of CoSO4 + 1M (NH42SO4. Nucleation parameters such as nucleation rate, density of active nucleation sites, saturation nucleus and the rate constant of the proton reduction reaction (kPR were determined from potentiostatic studies. An increase in kPR values with the decrease in the applied potential suggested a competition between H+ and Co2+ by the active sites on the surface. The ΔG energy calculated for the formation of stable nucleus was 8.21x10-21 J/nuclei. The AFM study indicated the formation of small clusters of 50-400 nm in diameter and 2-120 nm in height.

  4. Thermodynamics and kinetics of extracting zinc from zinc oxide ore by the ammonium sulfate roasting method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yi; Shen, Xiao-yi; Zhai, Yu-chun

    2015-05-01

    Thermodynamic analyses and kinetic studies were performed on zinc oxide ore treatment by (NH4)2SO4 roasting technology. The results show that it is theoretically feasible to realize a roasting reaction between the zinc oxide ore and (NH4)2SO4 in a temperature range of 573-723 K. The effects of reaction temperature and particle size on the extraction rate of zinc were also examined. It is found that a surface chemical reaction is the rate-controlling step in roasting kinetics. The calculated activation energy of this process is about 45.57 kJ/mol, and the kinetic model can be expressed as follows: 1 - (1 - α)1/3 = 30.85 exp(-45.57/ RT)· t. An extraction ratio of zinc as high as 92% could be achieved under the optimum conditions.

  5. Phenol-ammonium sulfate microscopy method for diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritu Singhal

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: Sputum microscopy with PhAS solution is a safe, reliable and inexpensive alternative for direct microscopy. This method can be conveniently applied for usage in microscopy centers with limited bio-safety facilities.

  6. Interactions of proteins in aqueous ammonium-sulfate solutions:Mixtures of lysozyme and ovalbumin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Camille O.; Prausnitz, John M.; Blanch, Harvey W.

    2001-11-10

    We present a three-dimensional, time-dependent simulation of a laboratory-scale rod-stabilized premixed turbulent V-flame. The simulations are performed using an adaptive time-dependent low Mach number model with detailed chemical kinetics and a mixture model for differential species diffusion. The algorithm is based on a second-order projection formulation and does not require an explicit sub grid model for turbulence or turbulence chemistry interaction. Adaptive mesh refinement is used to dynamically resolve the flame and turbulent structures. Here, we briefly discuss the numerical procedure and present detailed comparisons with experimental measurements showing that the computation is able to accurately capture the basic flame morphology and associated mean velocity field. Finally, we discuss key issues that arise in performing these types of simulations and the implications of these issues for using computation to form a bridge between turbulent flame experiments and basic combustion chemistry.

  7. The modulation of cell surface cAMP receptors from Dictyostelium disscoideum by ammonium sulfate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haastert, Peter J.M. van

    1985-01-01

    Dictyostelium discoideum cells contain a heterogeneous population of cell surface cAMP receptors with components possessing different affinities (Kd between 15 and 450 nM) and different off-rates of the cAMP-receptor complex (t½ between 0.7 and 150 s). The association of cAMP to the receptor and the

  8. ASSESSING THE COMPARABILITY OF AMMONIUM, NITRATE AND SULFATE CONCENTRATIONS MEASURED BY THREE AIR QUALITY MONITORING NETWORKS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airborne fine particulate matter across the United States is monitored by different networks, the three prevalent ones presently being the Clean Air Status and Trend Network (CASTNet), the Interagency Monitoring of PROtected Visual Environment Network (IMPROVE) and the Speciati...

  9. Borated aluminum alloy manufacturing technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimojo, Jun; Taniuchi, Hiroaki; Kajihara, Katsura; Aruga, Yasuhiro

    2003-01-01

    Borated aluminum alloy is used as the basket material of cask because of its light weight, thermal conductivity and superior neutron absorbing abilities. Kobe Steel has developed a unique manufacturing process for borated aluminum alloy using a vacuum induction melting method. In this process, aluminum alloy is melted and agitated at higher temperatures than common aluminum alloy fabrication methods. It is then cast into a mold in a vacuum atmosphere. The result is a high quality aluminum alloy which has a uniform boron distribution and no impurities. (author)

  10. Reduction in Ammonium Ions in Sludge Liquor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eglė Šlajūtė

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Liquor rejected from the centrifugation of the digested sludge can contain the concentrations of ammonium ions up to 1750 mg/L. These loads are usually returned to the intake of wastewater treatment plants (WWTP without additional treatment and can have a negative impact on biological wastewater and/or sludge treatment processes, e.g. phosphorus and nitrogen removal. This article deals with the use of naturally obtained sorbent, zeolite, in batch and column test procedure for removing ammonium from the rejected liquor. This research study was carried out using different sizes of zeolite particles: 0.8–1.6 mm and 1.6–2.5 mm. The highest efficiency of ammonium removal (up to 98 % was achieved by applying the zeolite particles of 0.8–1.6 mm.Article in Lithuanian

  11. Synthesis and characterization of the aluminium phosphates modified with ammonium, calcium and molybdenum by hydrothermal method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łuczka Kinga

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Synthesis and characterization of the aluminum phosphates modified with ammonium, calcium and molybdenum were conducted. The influence of process parameters (reactive pressure and molar ratios in the reaction mixture were studied. The contents of the individual components in the products were in the range of: 10.97–17.31 wt% Al, 2.65–13.32 wt% Ca, 0.70–3.11 wt% Mo, 4.36–8.38 wt% NH3, and 35.12–50.54 wt% P2O5. The materials obtained in the experiments were characterized by various physicochemical parameters. The absorption oil number was in the range from 67 to 89 of oil/100 g of product, the surface area was within the range of 4–76 m2/g, whereas the average particle size of products reached 282–370 nm. The Tafel tests revealed comparable anticorrosive properties of aluminum phosphates modified with ammonium, calcium, molybdenum in comparison with commercial phosphate.

  12. Determination of metastable zone width of potassium sulfate in aqueous solution by ultrasonic sensor and FBRM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Mengjie; Liu, Chenglin; Xue, Jin; Li, Ping; Yu, Jianguo

    2017-07-01

    The metastable zone width (MSZW) and nucleation kinetics of potassium sulfate in the aqueous solution were investigated. MSZW was measured using both the ultrasonic velocity sensor and the focused beam reflectance measurement (FBRM) at different cooling rate, stirring rate and impurities concentration (aluminum ions and silicon ions), and the effects of these conditions on MSZW were discussed in details. In addition, the accuracy and sensitivity of detectors to measure the nucleation temperature of potassium sulfate in the aqueous solution were compared between the ultrasonic velocity sensor and FBRM over a wider range of operating conditions. Although two detectors measured MSZW with an acceptable accuracy, the ultrasonic velocity sensor had a higher sensitivity to the phase transition of potassium sulfate in solution since it directly detected the concentration change of potassium sulfate in solution. Furthermore, both self-consistent Nývlt-like equation method and classical 3D nucleation theory approach were applied to estimate MSZW of potassium sulfate in aqueous solution. According to these classical theories, the nucleation kinetics parameters were calculated based on the measured MSZW data for potassium sulfate aqueous solution with 40 °C, 50 °C and 60 °C saturation temperature, respectively. It was found two approaches could describe MSZW of potassium sulfate aqueous system very well.

  13. Sulfate removal from wastewater using ettringite precipitation: Magnesium ion inhibition and process optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Weixiao; Zhou, Zhen; Jiang, Lu-Man; Jiang, Aijian; Huang, Rongwei; Tian, Xiaoce; Zhang, Wei; Chen, Dongqing

    2017-07-01

    One of the main challenges in industrial wastewater treatment and recovery is the removal of sulfate, which usually coexists with Ca 2+ and Mg 2+ . The effect of Mg 2+ on sulfate removal by ettringite precipitation was investigated, and the process was optimized in the absence and presence of Mg 2+ . In the absence of Mg 2+ , the optimum conditions with sulfate removal of 99.7% were obtained at calcium-to-sulfate ratio of 3.20, aluminum-to-sulfate ratio of 1.25 and pH of 11.3 using response surface methodology. In the presence of Mg 2+ , sulfate removal efficiency decreased with increasing Mg 2+ concentration, and the inhibitory effect of Mg 2+ matched the competitive inhibition Monod model with half maximum inhibition concentration of 57.4 mmol/L. X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analyses of precipitates revealed that ettringite was converted to hydrotalcite-type (HT) compound in the presence of Mg 2+ . The morphology of precipitates was transformed from prismatic crystals to stacked layered crystals, which confirmed that Mg 2+ competes with Ca 2+ for Al 3+ to form HT compound. A two-stage process was designed with Mg 2+ removal before ettringite precipitation to eliminate the inhibitory effect, and is potential to realize sludge recovery at the same time of effective removal of sulfate and hardness. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Intensification of sonochemical degradation of ammonium perfluorooctanoate by persulfate oxidant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Feifei; Guo, Weilin; Wang, Anqi; Leng, Yanqiu; Li, Helian

    2014-03-01

    Ammonium perfluorooctanoate (APFO) is an emerging environmental pollutant attracting significant attention due to its global distribution, high persistence, and bioaccumulation properties. The decomposition of APFO in aqueous solution with a combination of persulfate oxidant and ultrasonic irradiation was investigated. The effects of operating parameters, such as ultrasonic power, persulfate concentration, APFO concentration, and initial media pH on APFO degradation were discussed. In the absence of persulfate, 35.5% of initial APFO in 46.4 μmol/L solution under ultrasound irradiation, was decomposed rapidly after 120 min with the defluorination ratio reaching 6.73%. In contrast, when 10 mmol/L persulfate was used, 51.2% of initial APFO (46.4 μmol/L) was decomposed and the defluorination ratio reached 11.15% within 120 min reaction time. Enhancement of the decomposition of APFO can be explained by acceleration of substrate decarboxylation, induced by sulfate radical anions formed from the persulfate during ultrasonic irradiation. The SO4(-•)/APFO reactions at the bubble-water interface appear to be the primary pathway for the sonochemical degradation of the perfluorinated surfactants. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Disguised as a Sulfate Reducer: Growth of the Deltaproteobacterium Desulfurivibrio alkaliphilus by Sulfide Oxidation with Nitrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casper Thorup

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study demonstrates that the deltaproteobacterium Desulfurivibrio alkaliphilus can grow chemolithotrophically by coupling sulfide oxidation to the dissimilatory reduction of nitrate and nitrite to ammonium. Key genes of known sulfide oxidation pathways are absent from the genome of D. alkaliphilus. Instead, the genome contains all of the genes necessary for sulfate reduction, including a gene for a reductive-type dissimilatory bisulfite reductase (DSR. Despite this, growth by sulfate reduction was not observed. Transcriptomic analysis revealed a very high expression level of sulfate-reduction genes during growth by sulfide oxidation, while inhibition experiments with molybdate pointed to elemental sulfur/polysulfides as intermediates. Consequently, we propose that D. alkaliphilus initially oxidizes sulfide to elemental sulfur, which is then either disproportionated, or oxidized by a reversal of the sulfate reduction pathway. This is the first study providing evidence that a reductive-type DSR is involved in a sulfide oxidation pathway. Transcriptome sequencing further suggests that nitrate reduction to ammonium is performed by a novel type of periplasmic nitrate reductase and an unusual membrane-anchored nitrite reductase.

  16. Heparan sulfate and cell division

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Porcionatto M.A.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Heparan sulfate is a component of vertebrate and invertebrate tissues which appears during the cytodifferentiation stage of embryonic development. Its structure varies according to the tissue and species of origin and is modified during neoplastic transformation. Several lines of experimental evidence suggest that heparan sulfate plays a role in cellular recognition, cellular adhesion and growth control. Heparan sulfate can participate in the process of cell division in two distinct ways, either as a positive or negative modulator of cellular proliferation, or as a response to a mitogenic stimulus.

  17. Effects of Aromatic Ammoniums on Methyl Ammonium Lead Iodide Hybrid Perovskite Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianli Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of bulky ammoniums into methyl ammonium lead iodide hybrid perovskites (MAPbI3 has emerged as a promising strategy to improve the properties of these materials. In the present work, we studied the effects of several aromatic ammoniums onto the structural, electronic, and optical properties of MAPbI3. Although powder XRD data suggest that the bulky cations are not involved in the bulk phase of the MAPbI3, a surprisingly large effect of the bulky cations onto the photoluminescence properties was observed.

  18. Optimization of the conditions for producing zirconia by the precipitation of basic zirconium sulfate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ricci, D.R.; Paschoal, J.O.A.

    1988-01-01

    The process of precipitation of the basic sulfate from zirconium oxychlorides solutions has been optimized in order to obtain zirconia of high purity as well as suitable for ceramic processing. The main parameters of this study were obtained from the determination of the pH and of the concentration of the initial oxychloride solution, of the sulfate/zirconium molar ratio and of the reaction temperature. The following experimental procedure has been carried out: a) reaction of each precipitate with ammonium hydroxide followed by drying at 150 0 -C / 5 h and calcination at 1000 0 C / 1 h, yielding the final product (zirconia) b) product characterization by means of spectrographic, X - ray fluorescence and diffractometry analyses, determination of grain size distribution and of apparent density, and morphology study by scanning electron microscopy. The yielding of the overall reaction has been determined by chemical analysis and the composition of the basic zirconium sulfate by thermogravimetric analyses. (author) [pt

  19. p-Cresyl Sulfate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tessa Gryp

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available If chronic kidney disease (CKD is associated with an impairment of kidney function, several uremic solutes are retained. Some of these exert toxic effects, which are called uremic toxins. p-Cresyl sulfate (pCS is a prototype protein-bound uremic toxin to which many biological and biochemical (toxic effects have been attributed. In addition, increased levels of pCS have been associated with worsening outcomes in CKD patients. pCS finds its origin in the intestine where gut bacteria metabolize aromatic amino acids, such as tyrosine and phenylalanine, leading to phenolic end products, of which pCS is one of the components. In this review we summarize the biological effects of pCS and its metabolic origin in the intestine. It appears that, according to in vitro studies, the intestinal bacteria generating phenolic compounds mainly belong to the families Bacteroidaceae, Bifidobacteriaceae, Clostridiaceae, Enterobacteriaceae, Enterococcaceae, Eubacteriaceae, Fusobacteriaceae, Lachnospiraceae, Lactobacillaceae, Porphyromonadaceae, Staphylococcaceae, Ruminococcaceae, and Veillonellaceae. Since pCS remains difficult to remove by dialysis, the gut microbiota could be a future target to decrease pCS levels and its toxicity, even at earlier stages of CKD, aiming at slowing down the progression of the disease and decreasing the cardiovascular burden.

  20. Abundance of interstellar aluminum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, E. S.; Lugger, P. M.; Weiler, E. J.; York, D. G.

    1984-01-01

    New observations of Al II 1670 A, the only line of the dominant ionization stage of interstellar aluminum detected to date, are presented. Observations of ionized silicon are used to define an empirical curve of growth from which aluminum depletions can be derived. The depletion ranges from a factor of 10 in alpha Vir, with E(B-V) of about 0.04, to a factor of 1000 in omicron Per. The depletion is similar to that of iron, but a factor of 2-10 lower than that for silicon in the same stars. The observations of near-UV lines using the Copernicus V1 tubes with removal of a high cosmic-ray-induced fluorescent background are described.

  1. Anaerobic ammonium oxidation in an estuarine sediment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Risgaard-Petersen, N.; Meyer, R.L.; Schmid, M.C.; Jetten, M.S.M.; Enrich-Prast, A.; Rysgaard, S.; Revsbech, N.P.

    2004-01-01

    The occurrence and significance of the anammox (anaerobic ammonium oxidation) process relative to denitrification was studied in photosynthetically active sediment from 2 shallow-water estuaries: Randers Fjord and Norsminde Fjord, Denmark. Anammox accounted for 5 to 24 % of N-2 production in Randers

  2. Anaerobic ammonium oxidation in an estuarine sediment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Risgaard-Petersen, N.; Meyer, R.L.; Schmid, M.; Jetten, M.S.M.; Enrich-Prast, A.; Rysgaard, S.; Revsbech, N.P.

    2004-01-01

    The occurrence and significance of the anammox (anaerobic ammonium oxidation) process relative to denitrification was studied in photosynthetically active sediment from 2 shallow-water estuaries: Randers Fjord and Norsminde Fjord, Denmark. Anammox accounted for 5 to 24% of N2 production in Randers

  3. 21 CFR 558.340 - Maduramicin ammonium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    .... Feed continuously as sole ration. Do not feed to laying hens. Withdraw 5 days before slaughter. (2... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS NEW ANIMAL DRUGS FOR USE IN ANIMAL FEEDS Specific New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds § 558.340 Maduramicin ammonium. (a) Approvals. Type A medicated articles: 4.54...

  4. Lectin status, protein contents and ammonium assimilating ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    activity of the ammonium assimilatory enzyme glutamine synthetase. M. nigra and M. alba extracts contained potent phytoagglutinins in various tissues with highest contents in M. nigra. The leaves and roots of both species of mulberry were used to determine the glutamine synthetase activity and high level of activity was ...

  5. Ammonium ions determination with polypyrrole modified electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Henrique Dall´Antonia

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The present work relates the preparation of polypyrrole films (PPy deposited on surfaces of glass carbon, nickel and ITO (tin oxide doped with indium on PET plastic, in order to study the ammonium detection. The popypyrrole films were polymerized with dodecylbenzenesulfonate (DBSA on the electrodes, at + 0,70 V vs. Ag/AgCl, based on a solution containing the pyrrole monomer and the amphiphilic salt. Films deposited on glass carbon presented better performance. Cyclic voltammetries, between – 1,50 to + 0,5 V vs. Ag/AgCl, were repeated adding different concentrations of NH4Cl, in order to observe the behavior of the film as a possible detector of ions NH4+. The peak current for oxidation varies with the concentration of ammonium. A linear region can be observed in the band of 0 to 80 mM, with a sensibility (Sppy approximately similar to 4,2 mA mM-1 cm-2, showing the efficacy of the electrodes as sensors of ammonium ions. The amount of deposited polymer, controlled by the time of growth, does not influence on the sensor sensibility. The modified electrode was used to determine ammonium in grounded waters.

  6. Ammonium conversion in liquid organic fertilisers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blok, C.; Streminska, M.; Vermeulen, T.

    2017-01-01

    Liquid organic fertilisers allow growers to abandon the use of conventional de novo (mined or synthesised) fertilisers without major technological adaptions to the cultivation system. In prior experiments the conversion by aerobic substrate born bacteria of ammonium into nitrate was plant growth

  7. Effects of ammonium nitrate, cesium chloride and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-10-12

    Oct 12, 2011 ... Key words: Potassium, high affinity transporters, channel blockers, ammonium. .... channel AtAKT1, indicating that channels may be involved in high-affinity. K+ uptake in a range of K+ concentrations (Hirsch et al.,. 1998; Spalding et al., ...... and tissue potassium concentrations by negative feedback effects.

  8. 21 CFR 184.1135 - Ammonium bicarbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ammonium bicarbonate. 184.1135 Section 184.1135 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 18...

  9. 21 CFR 177.1200 - Cellophane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... alcohol Lauryl sulfate salts: ammonium, magnesium, potassium, sodium Maleic acid 1 percent. Maleic acid... Aluminum silicate Ammonium persulfate Ammonium sulfate Behenamide Butadiene-styrene copolymer As the basic... groups are lauryl or stearyl Not to exceed a total of 0.35 percent. Dibutylphthalate Alone or in...

  10. PRN 88-2: Clustering of Quaternary Ammonium Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Notice announces that EPA has clustered the Quaternary Ammonium Compounds into four groups for the purpose of testing chemicals to build a database that will support continued registration of the entire family of quaternary ammonium compounds

  11. Technology for High Pure Aluminum Oxide Production from Aluminum Scrap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambaryan, G. N.; Vlaskin, M. S.; Shkolnikov, E. I.; Zhuk, A. Z.

    2017-10-01

    In this study a simple ecologically benign technology of high purity alumina production is presented. The synthesis process consists of three steps) oxidation of aluminum in water at temperature of 90 °C) calcinations of Al hydroxide in atmosphere at 1100 °C) high temperature vacuum processing of aluminum alpha oxide at 1750 °C. Oxidation of aluminum scrap was carried out under intensive mixing in water with small addition of KOH as a catalyst. It was shown that under implemented experimental conditions alkali was continuously regenerated during oxidation reaction and synergistic effect of low content alkali aqueous solution and intensive mixing worked. The product of oxidation of aluminum scrap is the powder of Al(OH)3. Then it can be preliminary granulated or directly subjected to thermal treatment deleting the impurities from the product (aluminum oxide). It was shown the possibility to produce the high-purity aluminum oxide of 5N grade (99.999 %). Aluminum oxide, synthesized by means of the proposed method, meets the requirements of industrial manufacturers of synthetic sapphire (aluminum oxide monocrystals). Obtained high pure aluminum oxide can be also used for the manufacture of implants, artificial joints, microscalpels, high-purity ceramics and other refractory shapes for manufacture of ultra-pure products.

  12. Aluminum Carbothermic Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruno, Marshall J.

    2005-03-31

    This report documents the non-proprietary research and development conducted on the Aluminum Carbothermic Technology (ACT) project from contract inception on July 01, 2000 to termination on December 31, 2004. The objectives of the program were to demonstrate the technical and economic feasibility of a new carbothermic process for producing commercial grade aluminum, designated as the ''Advanced Reactor Process'' (ARP). The scope of the program ranged from fundamental research through small scale laboratory experiments (65 kW power input) to larger scale test modules at up to 1600 kW power input. The tasks included work on four components of the process, Stages 1 and 2 of the reactor, vapor recovery and metal alloy decarbonization; development of computer models; and economic analyses of capital and operating costs. Justification for developing a new, carbothermic route to aluminum production is defined by the potential benefits in reduced energy, lower costs and more favorable environmental characteristics than the conventional Hall-Heroult process presently used by the industry. The estimated metrics for these advantages include energy rates at approximately 10 kWh/kg Al (versus over 13 kWh/kg Al for Hall-Heroult), capital costs as low as $1250 per MTY (versus 4,000 per MTY for Hall-Heroult), operating cost reductions of over 10%, and up to 37% reduction in CO2 emissions for fossil-fuel power plants. Realization of these benefits would be critical to sustaining the US aluminum industries position as a global leader in primary aluminum production. One very attractive incentive for ARP is its perceived ability to cost effectively produce metal over a range of smelter sizes, not feasible for Hall-Heroult plants which must be large, 240,000 TPY or more, to be economical. Lower capacity stand alone carbothermic smelters could be utilized to supply molten metal at fabrication facilities similar to the mini-mill concept employed by the steel industry

  13. Improved Management of Acid Sulfate Soils for Rice Production in Casamance, Senegal

    OpenAIRE

    Diallo, Ndeye Helene

    2016-01-01

    Casamance is a region in southern Senegal that traditionally produces rainfed rice, but Senegal produces only 1/3 of its rice consumption. Lowland areas, where rice is primarily produced, have acid sulfate soils with low pH and potential aluminum and iron toxicity. The goal of this work was to determine if soil amendments can alleviate soil acidity, counteract the negative biogeochemical effects that occur in flooded conditions, and increase rice yield. A two-year experiment was conducted to ...

  14. Analysis of an explosion accident of nitrogen trichloride in a waste liquid containing ammonium ion and platinum black.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Ken; Akiyoshi, Miyako; Ishizaki, Keiko; Sato, Hiroyasu; Matsunaga, Takehiro

    2014-08-15

    Five liters of sodium hypochlorite aqueous solution (12 mass%) was poured into 300 L of liquid waste containing ammonium ion of about 1.8 mol/L in a 500 L tank in a plant area; then, two minutes later the solution exploded with a flash on March 30th, 2005. The tank cover, the fluorescent lamp and the air duct were broken by the blast wave. Thus, we have conducted 40 runs of laboratory-scale explosion tests under various conditions (solution concentrations of (NH4)2SO4 and NaClO, temperatures, Pt catalysts, pH, etc.) to investigate the causes for such an explosion. When solutions of ammonium sulfate and sodium hypochlorite are mixed in the presence of platinum black, explosions result. This is ascribable to the formation of explosive nitrogen trichloride (NCl3). In the case where it is necessary to mix these 2 solutions (ammonium sulfate and sodium hypochlorite) in the presence of platinum black, the following conditions would reduce a probability of explosion; the initial concentration of NH4(+) should be less than 3 mol/L and the pH should be higher than 6. The hypochlorite solution (in 1/10 in volume) to be added at room temperature is recommended to be less than 0.6 mol/L. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Human pharmacokinetics of ethynyl estradiol 3-sulfate and 17-sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldzieher, J W; Mileikowsky, G; Newburger, J; Dorantes, A; Stavchansky, S A

    1988-01-01

    Pharmacokinetic parameters of ethynyl estradiol 3-sulfate (EE-3) and 17-sulfate (EE-17) were estimated. Each sulfate was administered orally and intravenously to five ovariectomized volunteer women. Blood samples were taken over a period of 24 h. Radioimmunoassay for free and sulfoconjugated ethynyl estradiol (EE) was performed. The analysis of the plasma concentrations obtained after administration of EE-3 and EE-17 indicates significant differences in their pharmacokinetic profiles. EE-3 is cleared more rapidly from the central compartment (systemic circulation), which may indicate that differences in protein binding, tissue binding, metabolism, and distribution exist between EE-3 and EE-17. It has been suggested that these conjugates are a slow-release reservoir for maintenance of blood levels of free EE itself. However, previous studies in baboons have shown that the half-lives of the free and sulfoconjugated EE are similar (ranging from 8.8 to 11.2 h), which is not consistent with this hypothesis. The t1/2 beta (mean 9.28 h) of the 17-sulfate after IV administration was almost identical in women and baboons, and similar to the t1/2 beta of free EE, confirming the previous observation. Only 3.4% of IV and 11.4% of the orally administered 17-sulfate appeared in the blood as free EE; with the 3-sulfate, the conversions were 13.7 and 20.7%, respectively, suggesting that these sulfates are not important slow-release reservoirs. The similarity of pharmacokinetic parameters between women and baboons suggests that this species of nonhuman primate is, in important respects, a suitable animal model for clinical pharmacology.

  16. 21 CFR 73.1645 - Aluminum powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aluminum powder. 73.1645 Section 73.1645 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1645 Aluminum powder. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive aluminum powder shall be composed of finely divided particles of aluminum prepared from virgin aluminum. It...

  17. Fundamental Studies on Aluminum Soaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    1944-06-01

    loosely bound lauric acid in aluminum dilaurate giving results accurate probably to 0.1 - 0.2# and reproducible to ubdtit ,𔃺.05^, The method...proceeds at the steady rate quoted above» Therefore the lauric acid is not hold in the form of solid solution which would give a constantly...both from lauric acid and aluminum dilaurate. It is extremely unlikely that aluminum trilaurate, AIL3, would rapidly yield dilaurate with dry acetone

  18. Uptake and accumulation of ammonium by Alexandrium catenella ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Following nitrogen exhaustion from the medium, ammonium pulses of varying magnitudes were induced, and measurements of extra- and intra-cellular ammonium were carried out for 24–72h along with measurements of ammonium incorporation (15N tracer) and inorganic carbon fixation (13C tracer). During vegetative ...

  19. Spectrometric determination of ammonium-nitrogen with quinol in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Quinol is proposed as a reagent for the spectrometric determination of ammonium-nitrogen (NH4+-N) in aqueous medium. Quinol forms a pink complex with ammonium salt in aqueous medium. Hydrogen peroxide is needed for colour accentuation. The quinol/ammonium charge transfer complex has absorption maximum ...

  20. Surface investigation and tribological mechanism of a sulfate-based lubricant deposited on zinc-coated steel sheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timma, Christian, E-mail: christian.timma@thyssenkrupp.com [ThyssenKrupp Steel Europe AG, Technology & Innovation, Kaiser-Wilhelm Str. 100, 47166 Duisburg (Germany); University of Duisburg-Essen, Faculty of Chemistry, CENIDE, Universitätsstraße 7, 45141 Essen (Germany); Lostak, Thomas; Janssen, Stella; Flock, Jörg [ThyssenKrupp Steel Europe AG, Technology & Innovation, Kaiser-Wilhelm Str. 100, 47166 Duisburg (Germany); Mayer, Christian [University of Duisburg-Essen, Faculty of Chemistry, CENIDE, Universitätsstraße 7, 45141 Essen (Germany)

    2016-12-30

    Highlights: • Skin-passed hot-dip galvanized (HDG-) steel sheets were coated with (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 4} in a common roll-coating method. • A formation of (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}Zn(SO{sub 4}) * xH{sub 2}O was observed and the reaction mainly occurred in the skin-passed areas of the surface. • Sulfate coated samples reveal a superior friction behaviour in oil-like conditions compared non-sulfated specimen. - Abstract: Phosphatation is a well-known technique to improve friction and wear behaviour of zinc coated steel, but has a variety of economic and ecologic limitations. In this study an alternative coating based on ammonium sulfate ((NH{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 4}) is applied on skin-passed hot-dip galvanized steel sheets in order to investigate its surface chemical and tribological behaviour in a Pin-on-Disk Tribometer. Raman- and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic results revealed a formation of ammonium zinc sulfate ((NH{sub 4}){sub 2}Zn(SO{sub 4}){sub 2} * xH{sub 2}O) on the surface, which is primarily located in the skin-passed areas of the steel material. Sulfate coated samples exhibited a superior friction behaviour in Pin-on-Disk Tests using squalane as a model substance for oil-like lubricated conditions and a formation of a thin lubrication film is obtained in the wear track. Squalane acts as a carrier substance for ammonium zinc sulfate, leading to an effective lubrication film in the wear track.

  1. Sulfate mineralogy of fumaroles in the Salton Sea Geothermal Field, Imperial County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Paul M.; Lynch, David K.; Buckland, Kerry N.; Johnson, Patrick D.; Tratt, David M.

    2017-11-01

    The Salton Trough lies in the transition between the San Andreas Fault and oblique spreading centers and transform faults in the Gulf of California. The Salton Sea Geothermal Field is the northernmost expression of those spreading centers. In 2007 two ammonia-emitting fumarole fields that had been submerged beneath the Salton Sea were exposed for the first time in nearly 50 years. As the sea level continued to drop these fields have developed a number of boiling pools, mud pots, gryphons and a unique suite of ammonium sulfate minerals. These have been studied over time with long-wave infrared remote sensing coupled with ground truth surveys backed by laboratory analyses of the minerals. Many vents lie at the center of concentric rings of mineralization with systematic occurrence of different minerals from center to edge. Three semi-concentric zones (fumarole, transition and evaporite) have been defined with respect to ammonia-emitting vents and bubbling pools. The scale of these zones range from several meters, localized around individual vents, to that of the fumarole fields as a whole. The fumarole zone is closest to the vents and locally contains cavernous sulfur crystals and significant deposits of gypsum, mascagnite, boussingaultite and other ammonium sulfates. The transition zone comprises a dark brown surficial band of inconspicuous sodium nitrate underlain by anhydrite/bassanite that is thought to have formed by ammonia-oxidizing microbes interacting with the ammonium sulfates of the outer fumarole zone. The evaporite zone is the outermost and contains blödite, thenardite and glauberite, which are typical of the sulfates associated with the shoreline of the Salton Sea. Remote sensing has shown that the mineral zones have remained relatively stable from 2013 to 2017, with minor variations depending on rainfall, temperature and levels of agricultural runoff.

  2. Production of aluminum metal by electrolysis of aluminum sulfide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minh, N.Q.; Loutfy, R.O.; Yao, N.P.

    1982-04-01

    Metallic aluminum may be produced by the electrolysis of Al/sub 2/S/sub 3/ at 700 to 800/sup 0/C in a chloride melt composed of one or more alkali metal chlorides, and one or more alkaline earth metal chlorides and/or aluminum chloride to provide improved operating characteristics of the process.

  3. Complexation of uranyl ion. I. IR spectroscopic study of the composition of precipitates in sulfate and carbonate media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buskina, I.A.; Stupin, N.P.; Kakhaeva, T.V.; Rodionov, V.V.; Zhukova, N.G.; Vodolazov, L.I.

    1987-01-01

    The composition of uranium(VI) complexes separated from uranyl sulfate solutions at various pH values was studied by IR spectroscopy. A difference was found in the composition of sulfate complexes separated by precipitation at pH 1.5-4.0 and 4-6. At pH above 4 desulfatization occurs, with formation of polymeric ions. At pH 7 in the presence of ammonium bicarbonate, uranyl complexes form with bidentate coordination of the CO 3 2- group

  4. Aluminum nitride grating couplers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Siddhartha; Doerr, Christopher R; Piazza, Gianluca

    2012-06-10

    Grating couplers in sputtered aluminum nitride, a piezoelectric material with low loss in the C band, are demonstrated. Gratings and a waveguide micromachined on a silicon wafer with 600 nm minimum feature size were defined in a single lithography step without partial etching. Silicon dioxide (SiO(2)) was used for cladding layers. Peak coupling efficiency of -6.6 dB and a 1 dB bandwidth of 60 nm have been measured. This demonstration of wire waveguides and wideband grating couplers in a material that also has piezoelectric and elasto-optic properties will enable new functions for integrated photonics and optomechanics.

  5. Dynamic Property of Aluminum Foam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Irie

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum in the foam of metallic foam is in the early stage of industrialization. It has various beneficial characteristics such as being lightweight, heat resistance, and an electromagnetic radiation shield. Therefore, the use of aluminum foam is expected to reduce the weight of equipment for transportation such as the car, trains, and aircraft. The use as energy absorption material is examined. Moreover aluminum foam can absorb the shock wave, and decrease the shock of the blast. Many researchers have reported about aluminum foam, but only a little information is available for high strain rates (103 s-1 or more. Therefore, the aluminum foam at high strain rates hasn't been not characterized yet. The purpose in this research is to evaluate the behavior of the aluminum form in the high-strain rate. In this paper, the collision test on high strain rate of the aluminum foam is investigated. After experiment, the numerical analysis model will be made. In this experiment, a powder gun was used to generate the high strain rate in aluminum foam. In-situ PVDF gauges were used for measuring pressure and the length of effectiveness that acts on the aluminum foam. The aluminum foam was accelerated to about 400 m/s from deflagration of single component powder and the foam were made to collide with the PVDF gauge. The high strain rate deformation of the aluminum form was measured at two collision speeds. As for the result, pressure was observed to go up rapidly when about 70% was compressed. From this result, it is understood that complete crush of the cell is caused when the relative volume is about 70%. In the next stage, this data will be compared with the numerical analysis.

  6. Detonation Properties of Ammonium Dinitramide (ADN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wätterstam, A.; Östmark, H.; Helte, A.; Karlsson, S.

    1999-06-01

    Ammonium Dinitramide, ADN, has a potential as an oxidizer for underwater high explosives. Pure ADN has a large reaction-zone length and shows a strong non-ideal behaviour. The work presented here is an extension of previous work.(Sensitivity and Performance Characterization of Ammonium Dinitramide (ADN). Presented at 11th International Detonation Symposium, Snowmass, CO, 1998.) Experiments for determining the detonation velocity as a function of inverse charge radius and density, reaction-zone length and curvature, and the detonation pressure are presented. Measurements of pressure indicates that no, or weak von-Neumann spike exists, suggesting an immediate chemical decomposition. Experimental data are compared with predicted using thermochemical codes and ZND-theory.

  7. Anaerobic ammonium oxidation in an estuarine sediment

    OpenAIRE

    Risgaard-Petersen, N.; Meyer, R.L.; Schmid, M.C.; Jetten, M.S.M.; Enrich-Prast, A.; Rysgaard, S.; Revsbech, N.P.

    2004-01-01

    The occurrence and significance of the anammox (anaerobic ammonium oxidation) process relative to denitrification was studied in photosynthetically active sediment from 2 shallow-water estuaries: Randers Fjord and Norsminde Fjord, Denmark. Anammox accounted for 5 to 24 % of N-2 production in Randers Fjord sediment, whereas no indication was seen of the process in sediment from Norsminde Fjord, It is suggested that the presence of anammox in Randers Fjord and its absence from Norsminde Fjord i...

  8. Proton dynamics investigation for dimethyl ammonium cation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pislewski, N.; Tritt-Goc, J.; Jakubas, R.

    1995-01-01

    Proton dynamics in dimethyl ammonium cation has been investigated by means of NMR and spin echo methods in polycrystalline salts [NH 2 (CH 3 ) 2 ] + Bi 2 J 9 - and [NH 2 (CH 3 ) 2 ] + SbJ 9 - . Spin-lattice relaxation time as well as second moment of NMR line have been measured for influence study of crystal structure changes on proton dynamics

  9. Equation of State of Ammonium Nitrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, David L.; Sheffield, Stephen A.; Dattelbaum, Dana M.; Velisavljevic, Nenad; Stahl, David B.

    2009-12-01

    Ammonium nitrate (AN) is a widely used fertilizer and mining explosive. AN is commonly used in ammonium nitrate-fuel oil (ANFO), which is a mixture of explosive-grade AN prills and fuel oil in a 94:6 ratio by weight. ANFO is a non-ideal explosive with measured detonation velocities around 4 km/s. The equation of state properties and known initiation behavior of neat AN are limited. We present the results of a series of gas gun-driven plate impact experiments on pressed neat ammonium nitrate at 1.72 g/cm3. No evidence of initiation was observed under shock loading to 22 GPa. High pressure x-ray diffraction experiments in diamond anvil cells provided insight into the high pressure phase behavior over the same pressure range (to 25 GPa), as well as a static isotherm at ambient temperature. From the isotherm and thermodynamic properties at ambient conditions, a preliminary unreacted equation of state (EOS) has been developed based on the Murnaghan isotherm and Helmholtz formalism [1], which compares favorably with the available experimental Hugoniot data on several densities of AN.

  10. Microbial electricity driven anoxic ammonium removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilajeliu-Pons, Anna; Koch, Christin; Balaguer, Maria D; Colprim, Jesús; Harnisch, Falk; Puig, Sebastià

    2018-03-01

    Removal of nitrogen, mainly in form of ammonium (NH 4 + ), in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is a highly energy demanding process, mainly due to aeration. It causes costs of about half a million Euros per year in an average European WWTP. Alternative, more economical technologies for the removal of nitrogen compounds from wastewater are required. This study proves the complete anoxic conversion of ammonium (NH 4 + ) to dinitrogen gas (N 2 ) in continuously operated bioelectrochemical systems at the litre-scale. The removal rate is comparable to conventional WWTPs with 35 ± 10 g N m -3 d -1 with low accumulation of NO 2 - , NO 3 - , N 2 O. In contrast to classical aerobic nitrification, the energy consumption is considerable lower (1.16 ± 0.21 kWh kg -1 N, being more than 35 times less than for the conventional wastewater treatment). Biotic and abiotic control experiments confirmed that the anoxic nitrification was an electrochemical biological process mainly performed by Nitrosomonas with hydroxylamine as the main substrate (mid-point potential, E ox  = +0.67 ± 0.08 V vs. SHE). This article proves the technical feasibility and reduction of costs for ammonium removal from wastewater, investigates the underlying mechanisms and discusses future engineering needs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Chondroitin Sulfate Perlecan Enhances Collagen Fibril Formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvist, A. J.; Johnson, A. E.; Mörgelin, M.

    2006-01-01

    in collagen type II fibril assembly by perlecan-null chondrocytes. Cartilage perlecan is a heparin sulfate or a mixed heparan sulfate/chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan. The latter form binds collagen and accelerates fibril formation in vitro, with more defined fibril morphology and increased fibril diameters...... produced in the presence of perlecan. Interestingly, the enhancement of collagen fibril formation is independent on the core protein and is mimicked by chondroitin sulfate E but neither by chondroitin sulfate D nor dextran sulfate. Furthermore, perlecan chondroitin sulfate contains the 4,6-disulfated...... disaccharides typical for chondroitin sulfate E. Indeed, purified glycosaminoglycans from perlecan-enriched fractions of cartilage extracts contain elevated levels of 4,6-disulfated chondroitin sulfate disaccharides and enhance collagen fibril formation. The effect on collagen assembly is proportional...

  12. Aluminum Nanoholes for Optical Biosensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Angulo Barrios

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Sub-wavelength diameter holes in thin metal layers can exhibit remarkable optical features that make them highly suitable for (biosensing applications. Either as efficient light scattering centers for surface plasmon excitation or metal-clad optical waveguides, they are able to form strongly localized optical fields that can effectively interact with biomolecules and/or nanoparticles on the nanoscale. As the metal of choice, aluminum exhibits good optical and electrical properties, is easy to manufacture and process and, unlike gold and silver, its low cost makes it very promising for commercial applications. However, aluminum has been scarcely used for biosensing purposes due to corrosion and pitting issues. In this short review, we show our recent achievements on aluminum nanohole platforms for (biosensing. These include a method to circumvent aluminum degradation—which has been successfully applied to the demonstration of aluminum nanohole array (NHA immunosensors based on both, glass and polycarbonate compact discs supports—the use of aluminum nanoholes operating as optical waveguides for synthesizing submicron-sized molecularly imprinted polymers by local photopolymerization, and a technique for fabricating transferable aluminum NHAs onto flexible pressure-sensitive adhesive tapes, which could facilitate the development of a wearable technology based on aluminum NHAs.

  13. Aluminum Nanoholes for Optical Biosensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrios, Carlos Angulo; Canalejas-Tejero, Víctor; Herranz, Sonia; Urraca, Javier; Moreno-Bondi, María Cruz; Avella-Oliver, Miquel; Maquieira, Ángel; Puchades, Rosa

    2015-07-09

    Sub-wavelength diameter holes in thin metal layers can exhibit remarkable optical features that make them highly suitable for (bio)sensing applications. Either as efficient light scattering centers for surface plasmon excitation or metal-clad optical waveguides, they are able to form strongly localized optical fields that can effectively interact with biomolecules and/or nanoparticles on the nanoscale. As the metal of choice, aluminum exhibits good optical and electrical properties, is easy to manufacture and process and, unlike gold and silver, its low cost makes it very promising for commercial applications. However, aluminum has been scarcely used for biosensing purposes due to corrosion and pitting issues. In this short review, we show our recent achievements on aluminum nanohole platforms for (bio)sensing. These include a method to circumvent aluminum degradation--which has been successfully applied to the demonstration of aluminum nanohole array (NHA) immunosensors based on both, glass and polycarbonate compact discs supports--the use of aluminum nanoholes operating as optical waveguides for synthesizing submicron-sized molecularly imprinted polymers by local photopolymerization, and a technique for fabricating transferable aluminum NHAs onto flexible pressure-sensitive adhesive tapes, which could facilitate the development of a wearable technology based on aluminum NHAs.

  14. Aluminum Nanoholes for Optical Biosensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrios, Carlos Angulo; Canalejas-Tejero, Víctor; Herranz, Sonia; Urraca, Javier; Moreno-Bondi, María Cruz; Avella-Oliver, Miquel; Maquieira, Ángel; Puchades, Rosa

    2015-01-01

    Sub-wavelength diameter holes in thin metal layers can exhibit remarkable optical features that make them highly suitable for (bio)sensing applications. Either as efficient light scattering centers for surface plasmon excitation or metal-clad optical waveguides, they are able to form strongly localized optical fields that can effectively interact with biomolecules and/or nanoparticles on the nanoscale. As the metal of choice, aluminum exhibits good optical and electrical properties, is easy to manufacture and process and, unlike gold and silver, its low cost makes it very promising for commercial applications. However, aluminum has been scarcely used for biosensing purposes due to corrosion and pitting issues. In this short review, we show our recent achievements on aluminum nanohole platforms for (bio)sensing. These include a method to circumvent aluminum degradation—which has been successfully applied to the demonstration of aluminum nanohole array (NHA) immunosensors based on both, glass and polycarbonate compact discs supports—the use of aluminum nanoholes operating as optical waveguides for synthesizing submicron-sized molecularly imprinted polymers by local photopolymerization, and a technique for fabricating transferable aluminum NHAs onto flexible pressure-sensitive adhesive tapes, which could facilitate the development of a wearable technology based on aluminum NHAs. PMID:26184330

  15. Sulfate reduction in freshwater peatlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oequist, M.

    1996-01-01

    This text consist of two parts: Part A is a literature review on microbial sulfate reduction with emphasis on freshwater peatlands, and part B presents the results from a study of the relative importance of sulfate reduction and methane formation for the anaerobic decomposition in a boreal peatland. The relative importance of sulfate reduction and methane production for the anaerobic decomposition was studied in a small raised bog situated in the boreal zone of southern Sweden. Depth distribution of sulfate reduction- and methane production rates were measured in peat sampled from three sites (A, B, and C) forming an minerotrophic-ombrotrophic gradient. SO 4 2- concentrations in the three profiles were of equal magnitude and ranged from 50 to 150 μM. In contrast, rates of sulfate reduction were vastly different: Maximum rates in the three profiles were obtained at a depth of ca. 20 cm below the water table. In A it was 8 μM h -1 while in B and C they were 1 and 0.05 μM h -1 , respectively. Methane production rates, however, were more uniform across the three nutrient regimes. Maximum rates in A (ca. 1.5 μg d -1 g -1 ) were found 10 cm below the water table, in B (ca. 1.0 μg d -1 g -1 ) in the vicinity of the water table, and in C (0.75 μg d -1 g -1 ) 20 cm below the water table. In all profiles both sulfate reduction and methane production rates were negligible above the water table. The areal estimates of methane production for the profiles were 22.4, 9.0 and 6.4 mmol m -2 d -1 , while the estimates for sulfate reduction were 26.4, 2.5, and 0.1 mmol m -2 d -1 , respectively. The calculated turnover times at the sites were 1.2, 14.2, and 198.7 days, respectively. The study shows that sulfate reducing bacteria are important for the anaerobic degradation in the studied peatland, especially in the minerotrophic sites, while methanogenic bacteria dominate in ombrotrophic sites Examination paper. 67 refs, 6 figs, 3 tabs

  16. Acid Sulfate Alteration on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, D. W.; Morris, R. V.

    2016-01-01

    A variety of mineralogical and geochemical indicators for aqueous alteration on Mars have been identified by a combination of surface and orbital robotic missions, telescopic observations, characterization of Martian meteorites, and laboratory and terrestrial analog studies. Acid sulfate alteration has been identified at all three landing sites visited by NASA rover missions (Spirit, Opportunity, and Curiosity). Spirit landed in Gusev crater in 2004 and discovered Fe-sulfates and materials that have been extensively leached by acid sulfate solutions. Opportunity landing on the plains of Meridiani Planum also in 2004 where the rover encountered large abundances of jarosite and hematite in sedimentary rocks. Curiosity landed in Gale crater in 2012 and has characterized fluvial, deltaic, and lacustrine sediments. Jarosite and hematite were discovered in some of the lacustrine sediments. The high elemental abundance of sulfur in surface materials is obvious evidence that sulfate has played a major role in aqueous processes at all landing sites on Mars. The sulfate-rich outcrop at Meridiani Planum has an SO3 content of up to 25 wt.%. The interiors of rocks and outcrops on the Columbia Hills within Gusev crater have up to 8 wt.% SO3. Soils at both sites generally have between 5 to 14 wt.% SO3, and several soils in Gusev crater contain around 30 wt.% SO3. After normalization of major element compositions to a SO3-free basis, the bulk compositions of these materials are basaltic, with a few exceptions in Gusev crater and in lacustrine mudstones in Gale crater. These observations suggest that materials encountered by the rovers were derived from basaltic precursors by acid sulfate alteration under nearly isochemical conditions (i.e., minimal leaching). There are several cases, however, where acid sulfate alteration minerals (jarosite and hematite) formed in open hydrologic systems, e.g., in Gale crater lacustrine mudstones. Several hypotheses have been suggested for the

  17. Sulfate, chloride and fluoride retention in Andosols exposed to volcanic acid emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delmelle, Pierre; Delfosse, Thomas; Delvaux, Bruno

    2003-01-01

    The continuous emissions of SO 2 , HCl and HF by Masaya volcano, Nicaragua, represent a substantial source of atmospheric S-, Cl- and F-containing acid inputs for local ecosystems. We report on the effects of such acid depositions on the sulfate, chloride and fluoride contents in soils (0-40 cm) from two distinct transects located downwind from the volcano. The first transect corresponds to relatively undifferentiated Vitric Andosols, and the second transect to more weathered Eutric Andosols. These soils are exposed to various rates of volcanogenic acid addition, with the Vitric sites being generally more affected. Prolonged acid inputs have led to a general pH decrease and reduced exchangeable base cation concentrations in the Andosols. The concentrations of 0.5 M NH 4 F- and 0.016 M KH 2 PO 4 -extractable sulfate (NH 4 F-S and KH 2 PO 4 -S, respectively) indicate that volcanic S addition has increased the inorganic sulfate content of the Vitric and Eutric soils at all depths. In this process, the rate of sulfate accumulation is also dependent on soil allophane contents. For all soils, NH 4 F extracted systematically more (up to 40 times) sulfate than KH 2 PO 4 . This difference suggests sulfate incorporation into an aluminum hydroxy sulfate phase, whose contribution to total inorganic sulfate in the Vitric and Eutric Andosols is estimated from ∼34 to 95% and ∼65 to 98%, respectively. The distribution of KH 2 PO 4 -extractable chloride in the Vitric and Eutric Andosols exposed to volcanic Cl inputs reveals that added chloride readily migrates through the soil profiles. In contrast, reaction of fluoride with Al and Fe oxyhydroxides and allophanes is an important sink mechanism in the Masaya Andosols exposed to airborne volcanic F. Fluoride dominates the anion distribution in all soil horizons, although F is the least concentrated element in the volcanic emissions and depositions. The soil anion distribution reflects preferential retention of fluoride over

  18. Aluminum anode for aluminum-air battery - Part I: Influence of aluminum purity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Young-Joo; Park, In-Jun; Lee, Hyeok-Jae; Kim, Jung-Gu

    2015-03-01

    2N5 commercial grade aluminum (99.5% purity) leads to the lower aluminum-air battery performances than 4N high pure grade aluminum (99.99% purity) due to impurities itself and formed impurity complex layer which contained Fe, Si, Cu and others. The impurity complex layer of 2N5 grade Al declines the battery voltage on standby status. It also depletes discharge current and battery efficiency at 1.0 V which is general operating voltage of aluminum-air battery. However, the impurity complex layer of 2N5 grade Al is dissolved with decreasing discharge voltage to 0.8 V. This phenomenon leads to improvement of discharge current density and battery efficiency by reducing self-corrosion reaction. This study demonstrates the possibility of use of 2N5 grade Al which is cheaper than 4N grade Al as the anode for aluminum-air battery.

  19. Sulfate Transporters in Dissimilatory Sulfate Reducing Microorganisms: A Comparative Genomics Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angeliki Marietou

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The first step in the sulfate reduction pathway is the transport of sulfate across the cell membrane. This uptake has a major effect on sulfate reduction rates. Much of the information available on sulfate transport was obtained by studies on assimilatory sulfate reduction, where sulfate transporters were identified among several types of protein families. Despite our growing knowledge on the physiology of dissimilatory sulfate-reducing microorganisms (SRM there are no studies identifying the proteins involved in sulfate uptake in members of this ecologically important group of anaerobes. We surveyed the complete genomes of 44 sulfate-reducing bacteria and archaea across six phyla and identified putative sulfate transporter encoding genes from four out of the five surveyed protein families based on homology. We did not find evidence that ABC-type transporters (SulT are involved in the uptake of sulfate in SRM. We speculate that members of the CysP sulfate transporters could play a key role in the uptake of sulfate in thermophilic SRM. Putative CysZ-type sulfate transporters were present in all genomes examined suggesting that this overlooked group of sulfate transporters might play a role in sulfate transport in dissimilatory sulfate reducers alongside SulP. Our in silico analysis highlights several targets for further molecular studies in order to understand this key step in the metabolism of SRMs.

  20. Effects of addition of surfactants on viscosity of uncured ammonium perchlorate(A/P)/hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB) propellant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koga, M.; Hagihara, Y. [National Defense Academy, Kanagawa (Japan)

    1998-08-31

    In production of ammonium perchlorate (AP)/hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB) propellants, it is preferable that the uncured propellant has a low viscosity during the mixing and forming processes. In this study, effects of surfacant on viscosity of the uncured propellant are studied for a total of 11 types of surfacants. It is found that sodium lauryl sulfate decreases viscosity of the AP/HTPB mixture more efficiently than any other surfacants tested. Apparent viscosity decreases by 30%, and its optimum dosage will be 0.005wt% based on the mixture to sufficiently decrease viscosity of the mixture. Viscosity of the mixture can be also decreased by improving wettability between AP and HTPB prepolymer. Sodium lauryl sulfate also shows an effect of delaying the potlife, i.e., time extending from addition of a curing agent to a thermosetting resin until it is cured to be unserviceable. 6 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Aluminum plasmonic photocatalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Qi; Wang, Chenxi; Huang, Hao; Li, Wan; Du, Deyang; Han, Di; Qiu, Teng; Chu, Paul K.

    2015-01-01

    The effectiveness of photocatalytic processes is dictated largely by plasmonic materials with the capability to enhance light absorption as well as the energy conversion efficiency. Herein, we demonstrate how to improve the plasmonic photocatalytic properties of TiO2/Al nano-void arrays by overlapping the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) modes with the TiO2 band gap. The plasmonic TiO2/Al arrays exhibit superior photocatalytic activity boasting an enhancement of 7.2 folds. The underlying mechanisms concerning the radiative energy transfer and interface energy transfer processes are discussed. Both processes occur at the TiO2/Al interface and their contributions to photocatalysis are evaluated. The results are important to the optimization of aluminum plasmonic materials in photocatalytic applications. PMID:26497411

  2. Determination of Sandoz Black Aluminum Coloring Dye Olive Aluminum Coloring Dye and Sodium Dichromate Aluminum Sealing Solutions by UV-Visible Spectrophotometry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sopok, Samuel

    1992-01-01

    The chemical literature lacks an acceptable method to determine and adequately control Sandoz black aluminum coloring dye, olive aluminum coloring dye, and sodium dichromate aluminum sealing solutions...

  3. Spray Rolling Aluminum Strip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavernia, E.J.; Delplanque, J-P; McHugh, K.M.

    2006-05-10

    Spray forming is a competitive low-cost alternative to ingot metallurgy for manufacturing ferrous and non-ferrous alloy shapes. It produces materials with a reduced number of processing steps, while maintaining materials properties, with the possibility of near-net-shape manufacturing. However, there are several hurdles to large-scale commercial adoption of spray forming: 1) ensuring strip is consistently flat, 2) eliminating porosity, particularly at the deposit/substrate interface, and 3) improving material yield. Through this program, a new strip/sheet casting process, termed spray rolling, has been developed, which is an innovative manufacturing technique to produce aluminum net-shape products. Spray rolling combines the benefits of twin-roll casting and conventional spray forming, showing a promising potential to overcome the above hurdles associated with spray forming. Spray rolling requires less energy and generates less scrap than conventional processes and, consequently, enables the development of materials with lower environmental impacts in both processing and final products. Spray Rolling was developed as a collaborative project between the University of California-Davis, the Colorado School of Mines, the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, and an industry team. The following objectives of this project were achieved: (1) Demonstration of the feasibility of the spray rolling process at the bench-scale level and evaluation of the materials properties of spray rolled aluminum strip alloys; and (2) Demonstration of 2X scalability of the process and documentation of technical hurdles to further scale up and initiate technology transfer to industry for eventual commercialization of the process.

  4. 21 CFR 182.8997 - Zinc sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8997 Zinc sulfate. (a) Product. Zinc sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used in...

  5. Biliary excretion of phenolphthalein sulfate in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Sano, Naoyo; Takikawa, Hajime

    2003-08-01

    Glucuronide and glutathione conjugates have been reported to be substrates of multidrug resistance protein 2 (Mrp2), whereas sulfates of nonbile acid organic anions have never been reported as substrates of Mrp2. To further examine the substrate specificity of Mrp2, we examined the effects of bile acid sulfates on the biliary excretion of phenolphthalein sulfate in rats. The biliary excretion of phenolphthalein sulfate was markedly delayed in Eisai hyperbilirubinemic rats, an Mrp2-deficient strain, and was markedly inhibited by taurolithocholate-3-sulfate. The biliary excretion of leukotriene C(4) metabolites and sulfobromophthalein was inhibited by phenolphthalein sulfate infusion to some extent. These findings suggest that phenolphthalein sulfate is a unique sulfated nonbile acid organic anion which is a substrate of Mrp2. Copyright 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

  6. Relations among pH, sulfate, and metals concentrations in anthracite and bituminous coal-mine discharges, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cravotta, III, Charles A.

    2006-01-01

    Water-quality data for discharges from 140 abandoned mines in the Bituminous and Anthracite Coalfields of Pennsylvania illustrate relations among pH, sulfate, and dissolved metal concentrations. The pH for the 140 samples ranged from 2.7 to 7.3, with two modes at pH 2.5 to 4 (acidic) and 6 to 7 (near neutral). Generally, flow rates were smaller and solute concentrations were greater for low-pH samples; flow rates increased with pH. Although the pH distribution was similar for the bituminous and anthracite subsets, the bituminous discharges had smaller median flow rates, greater concentrations of sulfate, iron, and aluminum, and smaller concentrations of barium and lead than anthracite discharges with the same pH values. The observed relations between the pH and constituent concentrations can be attributed to (1) dilution of acidic water by alkaline ground water; (2) solubility control of aluminum, iron, manganese, barium, and lead by hydroxide, sulfate, and/or carbonate minerals; and (3) aqueous sulfate-complex formation. The formation of AlSO4+ and AlHSO4+2 complexes adds to the total dissolved aluminum concentration at pH of equilibrium with aluminum hydroxide or hydroxysulfate minerals and can account for 10 to 20 times greater concentrations of dissolved aluminum in bituminous discharges compared to anthracite discharges at similar pH. Sulfate complexation also can account for 10 to 30 times greater concentrations of dissolved ferric iron concentrations at equilibrium with ferrihydrite (Fe(OH)3) and/or schwertmannite (Fe8O8(OH)4.5(SO4)1.75) at pH of 3 to 5. In contrast, lower barium and lead concentrations in bituminous than anthracite discharges indicates elevated sulfate concentration could decrease mobility of these metals by the formation of insoluble minerals such as barite (BaSO4) or anglesite (PbSO4). Most samples were saturated with barite, but none were saturated with anglesite. Hence, lead concentrations could be controlled by coprecipitation with

  7. Sorbents based on xerogels of zirconium, aluminum and manganese oxyhydroxides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.V. Smotraiev

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The actual problem of water supply in the world and in Ukraine, in particular, is a high level of pollution in water resources and an insufficient level of drinking water purification. With industrial wastewater, a significant amount of pollutants falls into water bodies, including suspended particles, sulfates, iron compounds, heavy metals, etc. Aim: The aim of this work is to determine the impact of aluminum and manganese ions additives on surface and sorption properties of zirconium oxyhydroxide based sorbents during their production process. Materials and Methods: The sorbents based on xerogels of zirconium, aluminum and manganese oxyhydroxides were prepared by sol-gel method during the hydrolysis of metal chlorides (zirconium oxychloride ZrOCl2, aluminum chloride AlCl3 and manganese chloride MnCl2 with carbamide. Results: The surface and sorption properties of sorbents based on xerogels of zirconium, aluminum and manganese oxyhydroxides were investigated. X-ray amorphous structure and evolved hydroxyl-hydrate cover mainly characterize the obtained xerogels. The composite sorbents based on xerogels of zirconium oxyhydroxide doped with aluminum oxyhydroxide (aS = 537 m2/g and manganese oxyhydroxide (aS = 356 m2/g have more developed specific surface area than single-component xerogels of zirconium oxyhydroxide (aS = 236 m2/g and aluminum oxyhydroxide (aS = 327 m2/g. The sorbent based on the xerogel of zirconium and manganese oxyhydroxides have the maximum SO42--ions sorption capacity. It absorbs 1.5 times more SO42–-ions than the industrial anion exchanger AN-221. The sorbents based on xerogels of zirconium oxyhydroxide has the sorption capacity of Fe3+-ions that is 1.5…2 times greater than the capacity of the industrial cation exchanger KU-2-8. The Na+-ions absorption capacity is 1.47…1.56 mmol/g for each sorbent. Conclusions: Based on these data it can be concluded that the proposed method is effective for sorbents production based on

  8. Aluminum hydroxide issue closure package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergman, T.B.

    1998-01-01

    Aluminum hydroxide coatings on fuel elements stored in aluminum canisters in K West Basin were measured in July and August 1998. Good quality data was produced that enabled statistical analysis to determine a bounding value for aluminum hydroxide at a 99% confidence level. The updated bounding value is 10.6 kg per Multi-Canister Overpack (MCO), compared to the previously estimated bounding value of 8 kg/MCO. Thermal analysis using the updated bounding value, shows that the MCO generates oxygen concentrate that are below the lower flammability limits during the 40-year interim storage period and are, therefore, acceptable

  9. PREPARATION OF URANIUM-ALUMINUM ALLOYS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, R.H.

    1962-09-01

    A process is given for preparing uranium--aluminum alloys from a solution of uranium halide in an about equimolar molten alkali metal halide-- aluminum halide mixture and excess aluminum. The uranium halide is reduced and the uranium is alloyed with the excess aluminum. The alloy and salt are separated from each other. (AEC)

  10. Characterization of aluminum phosphate nanoparticles formed in a water well

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaufhold, S., E-mail: s.kaufhold@bgr.de; Houben, G.; Dietel, J. [Bundesanstalt für Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe (BGR) (Germany); Bertmer, M. [Leipzig University, Institute of Experimental Physics II (Germany); Dohrmann, R. [Energie und Geologie (LBEG), Landesamt für Bergbau (Germany)

    2016-09-15

    In a drinking water well in Nethen, Germany, a yellowish precipitate, dominated by aluminum and phosphorus, affected the operation of the submersible pump by mechanically blocking the impellers. So far, aluminum-dominated well incrustations have been documented in only two cases and their mineralogical characterization was insufficient. The aim of the present study is to (1) present a third finding of Al-incrustations in wells, (2) provide a mineralogical and geochemical in-depth characterization of the precipitate, and (3) try to explain the reason for the problems it causes for drinking water production from this well. The yellow precipitate consists of nanoparticle aggregates and is a short-range ordered phase that could be described as a modified form of evansite with phosphate being the major anion, accompanied by some sulfate and carbonate. Additionally, aggregation with hydrous silicates and organic material is present, which could be simply adsorbed or co-precipitated. The precipitate formed as shallow acidic groundwater containing dissolved aluminum entered the well through a leaky casing seal. In the well it mixed with deeper groundwater of higher pH, causing Al-phosphate precipitations. The aggregates tended to accumulate at the entrance slots of the pump which therefore became blocked and had to be replaced.

  11. Controlling harmful algae blooms using aluminum-modified clay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Cao, Xihua; Yu, Zhiming; Song, Xiuxian; Qiu, Lixia

    2016-02-15

    The performances of aluminum chloride modified clay (AC-MC), aluminum sulfate modified clay (AS-MC) and polyaluminum chloride modified clay (PAC-MC) in the removal of Aureococcus anophagefferens were compared, and the potential mechanisms were analyzed according to the dispersion medium, suspension pH and clay surface charges. The results showed that AC-MC and AS-MC had better efficiencies in removing A.anophagefferens than PAC-MC. The removal mechanisms of the three modified clays varied. At optimal coagulation conditions, the hydrolysates of AC and AS were mainly monomers, and they transformed into Al(OH)3(am) upon their addition to algae culture, with the primary mechanism being sweep flocculation. The PAC mainly hydrolyzed to the polyaluminum compounds, which remained stable when added to the algae culture, and the flocculation mainly occurred through polyaluminum compounds. The suspension pH significantly influenced the aluminum hydrolysate and affected the flocculation between the modified clay and algae cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Reuse of ammonium fluoride generated in the uranium hexafluoride conversion; Reutilizacao do fluoreto de amonio gerado na reconversao do hexafluoreto de uranio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva Neto, J.B.; Carvalho, E.F. Urano de; Durazzo, M., E-mail: jbsneto@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Riella, H.G [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    The Nuclear Fuel Centre of IPEN / CNEN - SP develops and manufactures dispersion fuel with high uranium concentration to meet the demand of the IEA-R1 reactor and future research reactors planned to be constructed in Brazil. The fuel uses uranium silicide (U{sub 3}Si{sub 2}) dispersed in aluminum. For producing the fuel, the processes for uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) conversion consist in obtaining U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} and / or U{sub 3}O{sub 8} through the preparation of intermediate compounds, among them ammonium uranyl carbonate - AUC, ammonium diuranate - DUA and uranium tetrafluoride - UF{sub 4}. This work describes a procedure for preparing uranium tetrafluoride by a dry route using as raw material the filtrate generated when producing routinely ammonium uranyl carbonate. The filtrate consists primarily of a solution containing high concentrations of ammonium (NH{sub 4}{sup +}), fluoride (F{sup -}), carbonate (CO{sub 3}{sup --}) and low concentrations of uranium. The procedure is basically the recovery of NH{sub 4}F and uranium, as UF{sub 4}, through the crystallization of ammonium bifluoride (NH{sub 4}HF{sub 2}) and, in a later step, the addition of UO{sub 2}, occurring fluoridation and decomposition. The UF{sub 4} obtained is further diluted in the UF{sub 4} produced routinely at IPEN / CNEN-SP by a wet route process. (author)

  13. 21 CFR 524.1484e - Neomycin sulfate and polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Neomycin sulfate and polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic solution. 524.1484e Section 524.1484e Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.1484e Neomycin sulfate and polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic solution. (a...

  14. 21 CFR 184.1443 - Magnesium sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Magnesium sulfate. 184.1443 Section 184.1443 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1443 Magnesium sulfate. (a) Magnesium sulfate (MgSO4·7H2O, CAS... magnesium oxide, hydroxide, or carbonate with sulfuric acid and evaporating the solution to crystallization...

  15. EFFECT OF MAGNESIUM SULFATE (A LAXATIVE) ON ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use with little success . Magnesium sulfate also known as Epsom salt or bitter salt is a hydrate salt with a chemical name of magnesium sulfate heptahydrate . Chemical formula is MgSO. 7HO and trade name is. Andrews liver salt. Dried magnesium sulfate is an osmotic laxative or a saline laxative that acts by increasing the.

  16. 21 CFR 582.5443 - Magnesium sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Magnesium sulfate. 582.5443 Section 582.5443 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5443 Magnesium sulfate. (a) Product. Magnesium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  17. 21 CFR 184.1643 - Potassium sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... hydroxide or potassium carbonate. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the “Food Chemicals Codex... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium sulfate. 184.1643 Section 184.1643 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1643 Potassium sulfate. (a) Potassium sulfate (K2SO4, CAS Reg...

  18. Modeling and minimization of barium sulfate scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alan W. Rudie; Peter W. Hart

    2006-01-01

    The majority of the barium present in the pulping process exits the digester as barium carbonate. Barium carbonate dissolves in the bleach plant when the pH drops below 7 and, if barium and sulfate concentrations are too high, begins to precipitate as barium sulfate. Barium is difficult to control because a mill cannot avoid this carbonate-to-sulfate transition using...

  19. Determining fluoride ions in ammonium desulfurization slurry using an ion selective electrode method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Zhengwei; Guo, Mulin; Chen, Huihui; Lian, Zhouyang; Wei, Wuji

    2018-02-01

    Determining fluoride ions in ammonia desulphurization slurry using a fluoride ion selective electrode (ISE) is investigated. The influence of pH was studied and the appropriate total ionic strength adjustment buffer and its dosage were optimized. The impact of Fe3+ concentration on the detection results was analyzed under preferable conditions, and the error analysis of the ISE method’s accuracy and precision for measuring fluoride ion concentration in the range of 0.5-2000 mg/L was conducted. The quantitative recovery of F- in ammonium sulfate slurry was assessed. The results showed that when pH ranged from 5.5˜6 and the Fe3+ concentration was less than 750 mg/L, the accuracy and precision test results with quantitative recovery rates of 92.0%-104.2% were obtained.

  20. Mineral Carbonation of Phosphogypsum Waste for Production of Useful Carbonate and Sulfate Salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattila, Hannu-Petteri, E-mail: hmattila@abo.fi; Zevenhoven, Ron [Thermal and Flow Engineering Laboratory, Åbo Akademi University, Turku (Finland)

    2015-11-16

    Phosphogypsum (CaSO{sub 4}·2H{sub 2}O, PG) waste is produced in large amounts during phosphoric acid (H{sub 3}PO{sub 4}) production. Minor quantities are utilized in construction or agriculture, while most of the material is stockpiled, creating an environmental challenge to prevent pollution of natural waters. In principle, the gypsum waste could be used to capture several hundred megatonnes of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). For example, when gypsum is converted to ammonium sulfate [(NH{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 4}] with ammonia (NH{sub 3}) and CO{sub 2}, also solid calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}) is generated. The ammonium sulfate can be utilized as a fertilizer or in other mineral carbonation processes that use magnesium silicate-based rock as feedstock, while calcium carbonate has various uses as, e.g., filler material. The reaction extent of the described process was studied by thermodynamic modeling and experimentally as a function of reactant concentrations and temperature. Other essential properties such as purity and quality of the solid products are also followed. Conversion efficiencies of >95% calcium from PG to calcium carbonate are obtained. Scalenohedral, rhombohedral, and prismatic calcite particles can be produced, although the precipitates contain certain contaminants such as rare earth metals and sulfur from the gypsum. A reverse osmosis membrane cartridge is also tested as an alternative and energy-efficient method of concentrating the ammonium sulfate salt solution instead of the traditional evaporation of the process solution.