WorldWideScience

Sample records for aluminum ammonium sulfate

  1. Experimental additions of aluminum sulfate and ammonium nitrate to in situ mesocosms to reduce cyanobacterial biovolume and microcystin concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Ted D.; Wilhelm, Frank M.; Graham, Jennifer L.; Loftin, Keith A.

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that nitrogen additions to increase the total nitrogen:total phosphorus (TN:TP) ratio may reduce cyanobacterial biovolume and microcystin concentration in reservoirs. In systems where TP is >100 μg/L, however, nitrogen additions to increase the TN:TP ratio could cause ammonia, nitrate, or nitrite toxicity to terrestrial and aquatic organisms. Reducing phosphorus via aluminum sulfate (alum) may be needed prior to nitrogen additions aimed at increasing the TN:TP ratio. We experimentally tested this sequential management approach in large in situ mesocosms (70.7 m3) to examine effects on cyanobacteria and microcystin concentration. Because alum removes nutrients and most seston from the water column, alum treatment reduced both TN and TP, leaving post-treatment TN:TP ratios similar to pre-treatment ratios. Cyanobacterial biovolume was reduced after alum addition, but the percent composition (i.e., relative) cyanobacterial abundance remained unchanged. A single ammonium nitrate (nitrogen) addition increased the TN:TP ratio 7-fold. After the TN:TP ratio was >50 (by weight), cyanobacterial biovolume and abundance were reduced, and chrysophyte and cryptophyte biovolume and abundance increased compared to the alum treatment. Microcystin was not detectable until the TN:TP ratio was <50. Although both treatments reduced cyanobacteria, only the nitrogen treatment seemed to stimulate energy flow from primary producers to zooplankton, which suggests that combining alum and nitrogen treatments may be a viable in-lake management strategy to reduce cyanobacteria and possibly microcystin concentrations in high-phosphorus systems. Additional studies are needed to define best management practices before combined alum and nitrogen additions are implemented as a reservoir management strategy.

  2. 21 CFR 582.1125 - Aluminum sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aluminum sulfate. 582.1125 Section 582.1125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1125 Aluminum sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  3. 21 CFR 182.1125 - Aluminum sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Aluminum sulfate. 182.1125 Section 182.1125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Substances § 182.1125 Aluminum sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  4. Sulfation of corrosive alkali chlorides by ammonium sulfate in a biomass fired CFB boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brostroem, Markus; Backman, Rainer; Nordin, Anders [Energy Technology and Thermal Process Chemistry, Umeaa University, SE-901 87 Umeaa (Sweden); Kassman, Haakan [Vattenfall Power Consultant AB, Box 1046, SE-611 29 Nykoeping (Sweden); Helgesson, Anna; Berg, Magnus; Andersson, Christer [Vattenfall Research and Development AB, SE-814 26 Aelvkarleby (Sweden)

    2007-12-15

    Biomass and waste derived fuels contain relatively high amounts of alkali and chlorine, but contain very little sulfur. Combustion of such fuels can result in increased deposit formation and superheater corrosion. These problems can be reduced by using a sulfur containing additive, such as ammonium sulfate, which reacts with the alkali chlorides and forms less corrosive sulfates. Ammonium sulfate injection together with a so-called in situ alkali chloride monitor (IACM) is patented and known as ''ChlorOut''. IACM measures the concentrations of alkali chlorides (mainly KCl in biomass combustion) at superheater temperatures. Tests with and without spraying ammonium sulfate into the flue gases have been performed in a 96MW{sub th}/25MW{sub e} circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler. The boiler was fired mainly with bark and a chlorine containing waste. KCl concentration was reduced from more than 15 ppm to approximately 2 ppm during injection of ammonium sulfate. Corrosion probe measurements indicated that both deposit formation and material loss due to corrosion were decreased using the additive. Analysis of the deposits showed significantly higher concentration of sulfur and almost no chlorine in the case with ammonium sulfate. Results from impactor measurements supported that KCl was sulfated to potassium sulfate by the additive. (author)

  5. Producing ammonium sulfate from flue gas desulfurization by-products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, I.-Ming; Bruinius, J.A.; Benig, V.; Chou, S.-F.J.; Carty, R.H.

    2005-01-01

    Emission control technologies using flue gas desulfurization (FGD) have been widely adopted by utilities burning high-sulfur fuels. However, these technologies require additional equipment, greater operating expenses, and increased costs for landfill disposal of the solid by-products produced. The financial burdens would be reduced if successful high-volume commercial applications of the FGD solid by-products were developed. In this study, the technical feasibility of producing ammonium sulfate from FGD residues by allowing it to react with ammonium carbonate in an aqueous solution was preliminarily assessed. Reaction temperatures of 60, 70, and 80??C and residence times of 4 and 6 hours were tested to determine the optimal conversion condition and final product evaluations. High yields (up to 83%) of ammonium sulfate with up to 99% purity were achieved under relatively mild conditions. The optimal conversion condition was observed at 60??C and a 4-hour residence time. The results of this study indicate the technical feasibility of producing ammonium sulfate fertilizer from an FGD by-product. Copyright ?? Taylor & Francis Inc.

  6. Sources et marché du sulfate d'ammonium Sources of and Market for Ammonium Sulfate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loussouarn C.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Engrais azoté le plus utilisé dans le monde jusqu'en 1970, le sulfate d'ammonium ne représente plus aujourd'hui que 4 % de la fertilisation azotée. Avec une teneur en azote de 21 % seulement, il a été peu à peu remplacé comme engrais universel par des produits plus concentrés, notamment l'urée et le nitrate d'ammonium. Obtenu pour plus de 40 % comme sous-produit dans la synthèse de monomères comme le caprolactame, l'acrylonitrile ou le méthacrylate de méthyle, et pour près de 10 % dans le traitement des gaz de cokerie, sa production dépend largement des développements du marché des fibres synthétiques, et, dans une moindre mesure, de la sidérurgie et de la métallurgie. Dans les pays développés, où la production est essentiellement fatale, le volume du marché est et sera plus fonction de la disponibilité du sulfate d'ammonium que de la demande ou de facteurs de marché; sa consommation ne résidera plus que dans des applications spécifiques pour lesquelles il sera bien adapté. Par contre, l'intérêt croissant pour compenser le déficit en soufre de certains sols, et les qualités agronomiques propres du sulfate d'ammonium laissent entrevoir la possibilité d'un essor de son utilisation dans certaines régions en voie de développernent. Ammonium sulfate was the most worldwide nitrogenous fertilizer used up to 1970. Today, it makes up only 4% of nitrogenous fertilization. With a nitrogen content of only 21%, it has gradually been replaced as a universal fertilizer by more concentrated products, particularly urea and ammonium nitrate. More than 40% of the ammonium sulfate is obtained as a by-product from the synthesis of monomers such as caprolactam, acrylonitrile or methyl methacrylate, and nearly 10% from coking gas processing. Its production depends extensively on the development of the market for synthetic fibers and, to a lesser extent, on the steel and metallurgical industries. In the industrialized countries

  7. Efflorescence of ammonium sulfate and coated ammonium sulfate particles: evidence for surface nucleation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciobanu, V Gabriela; Marcolli, Claudia; Krieger, Ulrich K; Zuend, Andreas; Peter, Thomas

    2010-09-09

    Using optical microscopy, we investigated the efflorescence of ammonium sulfate (AS) in aqueous AS and in aqueous 1:1 and 8:1 (by dry weight) poly(ethylene glycol)-400 (PEG-400)/AS particles deposited on a hydrophobically coated slide. Aqueous PEG-400/AS particles exposed to decreasing relative humidity (RH) exhibit a liquid-liquid phase separation below approximately 90% RH with the PEG-400-rich phase surrounding the aqueous AS inner phase. Pure aqueous AS particles effloresced in the RH range from 36.3% to 43.7%, in agreement with literature data (31-48% RH). In contrast, aqueous 1:1 (by dry weight) PEG-400/AS particles with diameters of the AS phase from 7.2 to 19.2 mum effloresced between 26.8% and 33.9% RH and aqueous 8:1 (by dry weight) PEG-400/AS particles with diameters of the AS phase from 1.8 to 7.3 mum between 24.3% and 29.3% RH. Such low efflorescence relative humidity (ERH) values have never been reached before for AS particles of this size range. We show that these unprecedented low ERHs of AS in PEG-400/AS particles could not possibly be explained by the presence of low amounts of PEG-400 in the aqueous AS phase, by a potential inhibition of water evaporation via anomalously slow diffusion through the PEG coating, or by different time scales between various experimental techniques. High-speed photography of the efflorescence process allowed the development of the AS crystallization fronts within the particles to be monitored with millisecond time resolution. The nucleation sites were inferred from the initial crystal growth sites. Analysis of the probability distribution of initial sites of 31 and 19 efflorescence events for pure AS and 1:1 (by dry weight) PEG-400/AS particles, respectively, showed that the particle volume can be excluded as the preferred nucleation site in the case of pure AS particles. For aqueous 1:1 (by dry weight) PEG-400/AS particles preferential AS nucleation in the PEG phase and at the PEG/AS/substrate contact line can be

  8. Sources et marché du sulfate d'ammonium Sources of and Market for Ammonium Sulfate

    OpenAIRE

    Loussouarn C.; Chauvel A.; Barthel Y.

    2006-01-01

    Engrais azoté le plus utilisé dans le monde jusqu'en 1970, le sulfate d'ammonium ne représente plus aujourd'hui que 4 % de la fertilisation azotée. Avec une teneur en azote de 21 % seulement, il a été peu à peu remplacé comme engrais universel par des produits plus concentrés, notamment l'urée et le nitrate d'ammonium. Obtenu pour plus de 40 % comme sous-produit dans la synthèse de monomères comme le caprolactame, l'acrylonitrile ou le méthacrylate de méthyle, et pour près de 10 % dans le tra...

  9. Functionalizing aluminum substrata by quaternary ammonium for antifouling performances

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiaoyan; Suo, Xinkun; Bai, Xiuqin; Yuan, Chengqing; Li, Hua

    2018-05-01

    Due to the great loss induced by biofouling, developing new strategies for combating biofouling has attracted extensive attention. Quaternary ammonium salts are potent cationic antimicrobials used in consumer products and their use for surface immobilization could create a contact-active antimicrobial layer. Here we report the facile preparation of a contact-active antifouling coating by tethering polyethyleneimine (PEI) onto flat/nanostructured aluminum surface by hydrogen bonding between PEI and AlOOH. Quaternized PEI (QPEI) is obtained through quaternization reactions. Biofouling testing suggests excellent antifouling performances of the samples by declining the adhesion of 95% Phaeodactylum tricornutum and 98% of Chlorella pyrenoidosa. The antifouling properties of PEI/QPEI are attributed predominately to their hydrophilic and antimicrobial nature. The technical route of PEI/QPEI surface grafting shows great potential for modifying marine infrastructures for enhanced antifouling performances.

  10. Crystallization of aqueous ammonium sulfate particles internally mixed with soot and kaolinite: crystallization relative humidities and nucleation rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pant, Atul; Parsons, Matthew T; Bertram, Allan K

    2006-07-20

    Using optical microscopy, we investigated the crystallization of aqueous ammonium sulfate droplets containing soot and kaolinite, as well as the crystallization of aqueous ammonium sulfate droplets free of solid material. Our results show that soot did not influence the crystallization RH of aqueous ammonium sulfate particles under our experimental conditions. In contrast, kaolinite increased the crystallization RH of the aqueous ammonium sulfate droplets by approximately 10%. In addition, our results show that the crystallization RH of aqueous ammonium sulfate droplets free of solid material does not depend strongly on particle size. This is consistent with conclusions made previously in the literature, based on comparisons of results from different laboratories. From the crystallization results we determined the homogeneous nucleation rates of crystalline ammonium sulfate in aqueous ammonium sulfate droplets and the heterogeneous nucleation rates of crystalline ammonium sulfate in aqueous ammonium sulfate particles containing kaolinite. Using classical nucleation theory and our experimental data, we determined that the interfacial tension between an ammonium sulfate critical nucleus and an aqueous ammonium sulfate solution is 0.064 +/- 0.003 J m(-2) (in agreement with our previous measurements), and the contact angle between an ammonium sulfate critical nucleus and a kaolinite surface is 59 +/- 2 degrees. On the basis of our results, we argue that soot will not influence the crystallization RH of aqueous ammonium sulfate droplets in the atmosphere, but kaolinite can significantly modify the crystallization RH of atmospheric ammonium sulfate droplets. As an example, the CRH50 (the relative humidity at which 50% of the droplets crystallize) ranges from about 41 to 51% RH when the diameter of the kaolinite inclusion ranges from 0.1 to 5 microm. For comparison, the CRH50 of aqueous ammonium sulfate droplets (0.5 microm diameter) free of solid material is

  11. Effects of adding aluminum sulfate to different litters on selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of adding aluminum sulfate to different litters on blood plasma concentrations of some principal microelements and some vitamins in broilers. In this experiment, 645 day old Ross 308 broiler chicks were randomly divided into 4 litter group (straw, sawdust, alum ...

  12. Effects of salinity induced by ammonium sulfate fertilizer on root and shoot growth of highbush blueberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammonium sulfate fertilizer is commonly used in highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.), but due to a high salt index, it often causes salt damage, particularly in young plants, when too much of the fertilizer is applied. A study was done to determine the sensitivity of blueberry to ammonium su...

  13. The boric acid - ammonium rhodanide (nitrate, sulfate) - water system at 25 deg C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skvortsov, V.G.; Molodkin, A.K.; Tsekhanskij, R.S.; Sadetdinov, Sh.V.; Nikonov, F.V.

    1985-01-01

    Methods of isothermal solubility and refractometry have been used to establish that boric acid-ammonium rhodanite (nitrate, sulfate) - water systems are of a simple eutonic type. Rhodanide salts out boric acid, while nitrate and sulfate salt it in. The lyotropic effect referred to the volumetric share of both anion and cation increases in the series SCN - 3 - 4 2-

  14. Urea controlled hydrothermal synthesis of ammonium aluminum carbonate hydroxide rods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fang; Zhu, Jianfeng; Liu, Hui

    2018-03-01

    In this study, ammonium aluminum carbonate hydroxide (AACH) rods were controllably prepared using the hydrothermal method by manipulating the amount of urea in the reaction system. The experimental results showed that AACH in rod shape was able to be gradually transformed from γ-AlOOH in cluster shape during the molar ratios of urea to Al in the reactants were ranged from 8 to 10, and the yield of AACH has increased accordingly. When the molar ratio of urea to Al reaches 11, pure AACH rods with a diameter of 500 nm and a length of 10 μm approximately was able to be produced. Due to the slow decomposition of urea during the hydrothermal reaction, the nucleation and growth of AACH crystal proceed step by step. Therefore, the crystal can fully grow on each crystal plane and eventually produce a highly crystalline rod-shaped product. The role of urea in controlling the morphology and yield of AACH was also discussed in this paper systematically.

  15. DNA amplification fingerprinting using 10 x polymerase chain reaction buffer with ammonium sulfate for human identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baransel, Asyun; Dugler, Hikmat E.; Tokdemir, Mehmet

    2004-01-01

    The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) - based DNA amplification fingerprinting (DAF) or randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) is based on a strategy using a single arbitrary oligonucleotide primer to generate anonymous amplification of genomic DNA. On this basic strategy, in this study, we aimed to test individual differences and usefulness of 2 basic primers (5-CGCGCCGG-3 and 5-TGCCGAGCTG-3) and examined whether there is a positive effect on results of 10 x PCR buffer with ammonium sulfate. A new approach in DNA fingerprinting, 10 x PCR buffer with ammonium sulfate, is presented in the study. Primers with single 8 and 10 nucleotides in length and 2 different PCR buffers with or without ammonium sulfate were used to identify 135 volunteers with no blood relationship. This study was carried out at the Pharmacology Laboratory, University of Gaziantep, School of Medicine, Turkey between 1999 and 2000. An average of 10 major bands representing 500-1500 base pair (bp) in length was determined as amplified DNA products on standard agarose gels for these volunteers. The use of ammonium sulfate in 10 x PCR buffers has increased to 92% success ratio of individual difference obtained from the 8 nucleotides primer. With this study, more reliable results can be obtained by using ammonium sulfate in 10 x PCR buffers. (author)

  16. Volatility of Organic Aerosol: Evaporation of Ammonium Sulfate/Succinic Acid Aqueous Solution Droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Condensation and evaporation modify the properties and effects of atmospheric aerosol particles. We studied the evaporation of aqueous succinic acid and succinic acid/ammonium sulfate droplets to obtain insights on the effect of ammonium sulfate on the gas/particle partitioning of atmospheric organic acids. Droplet evaporation in a laminar flow tube was measured in a Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer setup. A wide range of droplet compositions was investigated, and for some of the experiments the composition was tracked using an Aerosol Mass Spectrometer. The measured evaporation was compared to model predictions where the ammonium sulfate was assumed not to directly affect succinic acid evaporation. The model captured the evaporation rates for droplets with large organic content but overestimated the droplet size change when the molar concentration of succinic acid was similar to or lower than that of ammonium sulfate, suggesting that ammonium sulfate enhances the partitioning of dicarboxylic acids to aqueous particles more than currently expected from simple mixture thermodynamics. If extrapolated to the real atmosphere, these results imply enhanced partitioning of secondary organic compounds to particulate phase in environments dominated by inorganic aerosol. PMID:24107221

  17. Start-up of simultaneous removal of ammonium and sulfate from an anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) process in an anaerobic up-flow bioreactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Zhiquan [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510006 (China); Zhou Shaoqi, E-mail: fesqzhou@scut.edu.cn [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510006 (China); State Key Laboratory of Subtropical Building Science, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510640 (China); Sun Yanbo [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510006 (China)

    2009-09-30

    A laboratory testing of simultaneous removal of ammonium and sulfate (SRAS) was studied from an anammox process in an anaerobic bioreactor filled with granular activated carbon. Two different phases of experiment were investigated to start up the SRAS process, and final batch tests were performed to analyze the SRAS process. The experiment included an anammox process and an SRAS process. During the anammox process, the highest removal efficiency of ammonium and nitrite was up to 97 and 98%, respectively. After 160 days in the stationary phase of anammox process, the ratio of ammonium to nitrite consumption was approximately 1:1.15, which is much higher than 1:1.32 in the traditional anammox process. The extra electron acceptor, such as sulfate, was thought to react with ammonium by bacteria. Synthetic wastewater containing ammonium chlorine and sodium sulfate was used as the feed for the bioreactor in the second phase of experiment. During the SRAS process, the influent concentrations of ammonium and sulfate were controlled to be 50-60 and 210-240 mg L{sup -1} respectively. After start-up and acclimatization of this process for 60 days, the average effluent concentrations of ammonium and sulfate were 30 and 160 mg L{sup -1}, respectively. The simultaneous ammonium and sulfate removal was detected in the reactor. In order to further validate the biochemical interaction between ammonium and sulfate, batch tests was carried out. Abiotic tests were carried out to demonstrate that the pure chemical action between ammonium and sulfate without microorganism was not possible. Biotic assays with different ammonium and sulfate concentrations were further investigated that high concentrations of ammonium and sulfate could promote simultaneous removal of ammonium and sulfate. And elemental sulfur and nitrogen gas as the products measured in the SRAS process helped to demonstrate the occurrence of new interaction between nitrogen and sulfur. The new process of SRAS in the

  18. Start-up of simultaneous removal of ammonium and sulfate from an anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) process in an anaerobic up-flow bioreactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Zhiquan; Zhou Shaoqi; Sun Yanbo

    2009-01-01

    A laboratory testing of simultaneous removal of ammonium and sulfate (SRAS) was studied from an anammox process in an anaerobic bioreactor filled with granular activated carbon. Two different phases of experiment were investigated to start up the SRAS process, and final batch tests were performed to analyze the SRAS process. The experiment included an anammox process and an SRAS process. During the anammox process, the highest removal efficiency of ammonium and nitrite was up to 97 and 98%, respectively. After 160 days in the stationary phase of anammox process, the ratio of ammonium to nitrite consumption was approximately 1:1.15, which is much higher than 1:1.32 in the traditional anammox process. The extra electron acceptor, such as sulfate, was thought to react with ammonium by bacteria. Synthetic wastewater containing ammonium chlorine and sodium sulfate was used as the feed for the bioreactor in the second phase of experiment. During the SRAS process, the influent concentrations of ammonium and sulfate were controlled to be 50-60 and 210-240 mg L -1 respectively. After start-up and acclimatization of this process for 60 days, the average effluent concentrations of ammonium and sulfate were 30 and 160 mg L -1 , respectively. The simultaneous ammonium and sulfate removal was detected in the reactor. In order to further validate the biochemical interaction between ammonium and sulfate, batch tests was carried out. Abiotic tests were carried out to demonstrate that the pure chemical action between ammonium and sulfate without microorganism was not possible. Biotic assays with different ammonium and sulfate concentrations were further investigated that high concentrations of ammonium and sulfate could promote simultaneous removal of ammonium and sulfate. And elemental sulfur and nitrogen gas as the products measured in the SRAS process helped to demonstrate the occurrence of new interaction between nitrogen and sulfur. The new process of SRAS in the inorganic

  19. Synthesis of nano-crystalline hydroxyapatite and ammonium sulfate from phosphogypsum waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mousa, Sahar, E-mail: dollyriri@yahoo.com [Inorganic Chemistry Department, National Research Centre, Dokki, P.O.Box:12622, Postal code: 11787 Cairo (Egypt); King Abdulaziz University, Science and Art College, Chemistry Department, Rabigh Campus, P.O. Box:344, Postal code: 21911 Rabigh (Saudi Arabia); Hanna, Adly [Inorganic Chemistry Department, National Research Centre, Dokki, P.O.Box:12622, Postal code: 11787 Cairo (Egypt)

    2013-02-15

    Graphical abstract: TEM micrograph of dried HAP at 800 °C. -- Abstract: Phosphogypsum (PG) waste which is derived from phosphoric acid manufacture by using wet method was converted into hydroxyapatite (HAP) and ammonium sulfate. Very simple method was applied by reacting PG with phosphoric acid in alkaline medium with adjusting pH using ammonia solution. The obtained nano-HAP was dried at 80 °C and calcined at 600 °C and 900 °C for 2 h. Both of HAP and ammonium sulfate were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and infrared spectroscopy (IR) to study the structural evolution. The thermal behavior of nano-HAP was studied; the particle size and morphology were estimated by using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). All the results showed that HAP nano-crystalline and ammonium sulfate can successfully be produced from phosphogypsum waste.

  20. Synthesis of nano-crystalline hydroxyapatite and ammonium sulfate from phosphogypsum waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mousa, Sahar; Hanna, Adly

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: TEM micrograph of dried HAP at 800 °C. -- Abstract: Phosphogypsum (PG) waste which is derived from phosphoric acid manufacture by using wet method was converted into hydroxyapatite (HAP) and ammonium sulfate. Very simple method was applied by reacting PG with phosphoric acid in alkaline medium with adjusting pH using ammonia solution. The obtained nano-HAP was dried at 80 °C and calcined at 600 °C and 900 °C for 2 h. Both of HAP and ammonium sulfate were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and infrared spectroscopy (IR) to study the structural evolution. The thermal behavior of nano-HAP was studied; the particle size and morphology were estimated by using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). All the results showed that HAP nano-crystalline and ammonium sulfate can successfully be produced from phosphogypsum waste.

  1. Global Distribution of Solid Ammonium Sulfate Aerosols and their Climate Impact Acting as Ice Nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, C.; Penner, J.

    2017-12-01

    Laboratory experiments show that liquid ammonium sulfate particles effloresce when RHw is below 34% to become solid and dissolve when RHw is above 79%. Solid ammonium sulfate aerosols can act as heterogeneous ice nuclei particles (INPs) to form ice particles in deposition mode when the relative humidity over ice is above 120%. In this study we used the coupled IMPACT/CAM5 model to track the efflorescence and deliquescence processes of ammonium sulfate. Results show that about 20% of the total simulated pure sulfate aerosol mass is in the solid state and is mainly distributed in the northern hemisphere (NH) from 50 hPa to 200 hPa. When these solid ammonium sulfate aerosols are allowed to act as ice nuclei particles, they act to increase the ice water path in the NH and reduce ice water path in the tropics. The addition of these particles leads to a positive net radiative effect at the TOA ranging from 0.5-0.9 W/m2 depending on the amounts of other ice nuclei particles (e.g., dust, soot) used in the ice nucleation process. The short-term climate feedback shows that the ITCZ shifts northwards and precipitation increases in the NH. There is also an average warming of 0.05-0.1 K near the surface (at 2 meter) in the NH which is most obvious in the Arctic region.

  2. Boric acid - ammonium rhodanide (nitrate, sulfate) - water system at 25 deg C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skvortsov, V G; Molodkin, A K; Tsekhanskij, R S; Sadetdinov, Sh V; Nikonov, F V [Chuvashskij Gosudarstvennyj Pedagogicheskij Inst., Cheboksary (USSR); Universitet Druzhby Narodov, Moscow (USSR))

    1985-03-01

    Methods of isothermal solubility and refractometry have been used to establish that boric acid-ammonium rhodanite (nitrate, sulfate) - water systems are of a simple eutonic type. Rhodanide salts out boric acid, while nitrate and sulfate salt it in. The lyotropic effect referred to the volumetric share of both anion and cation increases in the series SCN/sup -/ < NO/sub 3//sup -/ < SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/.

  3. Preparation of ammonium sulfate, calcium oxide and rare earth concentrate from phospho-gypsum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrianov, A.M.; Rusin, N.F.; Dejneka, G.F.; Zinchenko, T.A.; Burova, T.I.

    1978-01-01

    A technological scheme is proposed which gives ammonium sulfate, purified (from admixtures of silicon, iron, titanium, aluminium) calcium oxide with direct yield of calcium 91% and rare-earth concentrate, containing 5.6% of Ln 2 O 3 with direct yield of 99.5%

  4. Impact of palmitic acid coating on the water uptake and loss of ammonium sulfate particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Garland

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available While water insoluble organics are prevalent in the atmosphere, it is not clear how the presence of such species alters the chemical and physical properties of atmospheric aerosols. Here we use a combination of FTIR spectroscopy, Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM and Aerosol Mass Spectrometry (AMS to characterize ammonium sulfate particles coated with palmitic acid. Coated aerosols were generated by atomizing pure ammonium sulfate, mixing the particles with a heated flow of nitrogen with palmitic acid vapor, and then flowing the mixture through an in-line oven to create internally mixed particles. The mixing state of the particles was probed using the AMS data and images from the TEM. Both of these probes suggest that the particles were internally mixed. Water uptake by the mixed particles was then probed at 273 K. It was found that for ammonium sulfate containing ~20 wt% palmitic acid the deliquescence relative humidity (DRH was the same as for pure ammonium sulfate (80±3% RH. For particles with ~50 wt% palmitic acid however, the mixed particles began to take up water at relative humidities as low at 69% and continued to slowly take up water to 85% RH without fully deliquescing. In addition to studies of water uptake, water loss was also investigated. Here coatings of up to 50 wt% had no impact on the efflorescence relative humidity. These studies suggest that even if insoluble substances coat salt particles in the atmosphere, there may be relatively little effect on the resulting water uptake and loss.

  5. X-ray diffraction study of lithium hydrazinium sulfate and lithium ammonium sulfate crystals under a static electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebastian, M.T.; Becker, R.A.; Klapper, H.

    1991-01-01

    X-ray diffraction studies are made on proton-conducting polar lithium hydrazinium sulfate and ferroelectric lithium ammonium sulfate. The X-ray rocking curves recorded with in situ electric field along the polar b axis of lithium hydrazinium sulfate (direction of proton conductivity) show a strong enhancement of the 0k0 diffraction intensity. The corresponding 0k0 X-ray topographs reveal extinction contrast consisting of striations parallel to the polar axis. They disappear when the electric field is switched off. The effect is very strong in 0k0 but invisible in h0l reflections. It is present only if the electric field is parallel to the polar axis b. This unusual X-ray topographic contrast is correlated with the proton conduction. It is supposed that, under electric field, an inhomogeneous charge distribution develops, distorting the crystal lattice. Similar experiments on lithium ammonium sulfate also show contrast variations, but of quite different behaviour than before. In this case they result from changes of the ferroelectric domain configuration under electric field. (orig.)

  6. Effect of mechanical activation on structure and thermal decomposition of aluminum sulfate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghasri-Khouzani, M.; Meratian, M.; Panjepour, M.

    2009-01-01

    The thermal decompositions of both non-activated and mechanically activated aluminum sulfates were studied by thermogravimetry (TG). The structural disorder, the specific surface area (SSA) and the morphology of mechanically activated aluminum sulfates were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), laser particle-size analyzer, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. Thermal analyses results indicated that the initial temperature of thermal decomposition (T i ) in TG curves for mechanically activated aluminum sulfates decreased gradually with increasing the milling time. It was also found that the SSA of mechanically activated aluminum sulfates remained almost constant after a certain milling time, and lattice strains (ε) rose but the crystallite sizes (D) decreased with increasing the milling time. These results showed that the decrease of T i in TG curves of mechanically activated aluminum sulfates was mainly caused by the increase of lattice distortions and decrease of the crystallite sizes with increasing the milling time

  7. Vibrational spectra and crystal lattice dynamics of hexahydrates of zinc potassium and ammonium sulfates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barashkov, M. V.; Komyak, A. I.; Shashkov, S. N.

    2000-03-01

    The IR spectra and polarized Raman spectra of crystals of hexahydrates of zinc potassium and ammonium sulfates have been obtained experimentally at 93 K and at room temperature. The frequencies and modes of normal vibrations of the octahedral complex [Zn(H2O)6]2+ have been calculated. The assignment of the observed lines of the internal and external vibrations of the crystal cell has been made by calculations and by factor-group analysis.

  8. Extraction of Oxytetracycline Hydrochloride in Aqueous Two-phase System of Acetone and Ammonium Sulfate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, J.

    2013-01-01

    Summary: Aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) is an efficient implement for separation of various substrates, and extracted by an aqueous two-phase system has been successful ly applied in the downstream processing of various biological compounds. In this research, the extraction of oxytetracycline hydrochloride (OTC-HCl) was carried out in an aqueous two-phase system containing acetone and ammonium sulfate solution, which partitioned the antibiotic to the upper phase. The effects of some parameters on the extraction efficiency of OTC-HCl were studied in detail, including temperature, the volume of acetone, the pH value of ammonium sulfate solution, the concentrations of (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/ SO/sub 4/ and OTC-HCl. The results showed that the volume of acetone, the pH value of ammonium sulfate solution and the concentration of OTC-HCl in feed had significant effects on the extraction efficiency of OTC-HCl, but the effects of temperature on the extraction of OTC-HCl was not obvious. (author)

  9. Extraction of Oxytetracycline Hydrochloride in Aqueous Two-phase System of Acetone and Ammonium Sulfate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, J. [Jiangsu Univ., Zhenjiang (China). Dept. of Food and Biological Engineering

    2013-02-15

    Summary: Aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) is an efficient implement for separation of various substrates, and extracted by an aqueous two-phase system has been successful ly applied in the downstream processing of various biological compounds. In this research, the extraction of oxytetracycline hydrochloride (OTC-HCl) was carried out in an aqueous two-phase system containing acetone and ammonium sulfate solution, which partitioned the antibiotic to the upper phase. The effects of some parameters on the extraction efficiency of OTC-HCl were studied in detail, including temperature, the volume of acetone, the pH value of ammonium sulfate solution, the concentrations of (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/ SO/sub 4/ and OTC-HCl. The results showed that the volume of acetone, the pH value of ammonium sulfate solution and the concentration of OTC-HCl in feed had significant effects on the extraction efficiency of OTC-HCl, but the effects of temperature on the extraction of OTC-HCl was not obvious. (author)

  10. [Inhibition of chlorobenzene formation via various routes during waste incineration by ammonium sulfate and urea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Mi; Qi, Zhi-Fu; Li, Xiao-Dong; Hu, Yan-Jun; Chen, Tong

    2014-01-01

    Chlorobenzene (CBz) is the precursor of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) generated in the processes of waste incineration, and it is regarded as a good indicator of PCDD/Fs for realizing PCDD/Fs online monitoring, moreover, pentachlorobenzene (PeCBz) and Hexachlorobenzene (HxCBz) belong to Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs). However, the emission control of CBz in waste incineration does not attract enough attention, so this study focused on the inhibition of the 3 CBz formation routes in waste combustion by ammonium sulfate and urea, including CB formation from fly ash, CB formation from 1,2-dichlorobenzene (1,2-DiCBz) and the combustion of model medical waste. The results showed that both ammonium sulfate and urea reduced CBz yield during these three thermal processes. For instance, the inhibition rates of tetrachlorobenzene (TeCBz), PeCBz and HxCBz were 66.8%, 57.4% and 50.4%, respectively, when 1% urea was co-combusted with medical waste. By comparing the effect of ammonium sulfate and urea on CBz formation by three routes, urea was considered as a comparatively stable inhibitor for CBz.

  11. Levels of ammonium, sulfate, chloride, calcium, and sodium in snow and ice from southern Greenland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busenberg, E.; Langway, C.C. Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Chemical analysis of surface snows and dated ice core samples from Dye 3, Greenland, suggests that the ammonium cation is a major constituent in all samples and that the annual ammonium levels present in the south Greenland samples have varied from 3.3 to 26.3 μg/kg between the seventeenth century and the present time. The annual range of 1974--1975 surface samples was between 3.8 and 8.8 μg/kg, while the mean was 5.7 +- 1.8 μ/kg. The recent large-scale uses of fixed nitrogen fertilizers and industrial pollution have apparently not affected the levels of ammonia reaching southern Greenland. The sodium and chloride present are predominantly derived from ocean spray, while more than 90% of the calcium is of continental origin. The levels of these three elements have not apparently been affected by human activity since the industrial revolution. Sulfate levels have increased dramatically since the industrial revolution, suggesting that sulfate of anthropogenic origin is the most important source of sulfate in modern snows from southern Greenland. The amount of the sulfuric acid neutralized by the ammonium cations was approximately 100% in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, dropping to approximately 20% in the 1974--1975 samples. These figures imply that there has been in increase in the acidity of precipitation in southern Greenland since the end of the eighteenth ce

  12. Management of ammonium sulfate fertilization on productive performance of corn grown after oats and wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Anita Gonçalves Silva

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The time, dose and applied nutrients in corn have a direct effect on its productivity. Therefore, the objective was to study the application of N and S in corn as ammonium sulfate, in succession to wheat and oats and evaluate different forms of fertilizer management. The experiment was conducted in a randomized block design in Oxisol (Hapludox. The five treatments with N, at a dose of 120 kg ha-1 were applied in 20 plots (5x4, according to the management of fertilizer: T1-N (120 kg ha-1 full at sowing, T2-N (120 kg ha-1 total coverage; T3 –N (40 kg ha-1 at sowing and N (80 kg ha-1 in coverage; T4-N advance in wheat sowing and sowing oats (120 kg ha-1, T5- (control. The S doses were corresponding to their concentrations in the fertilizer. Only wheat received a dose of 24 kg N ha-1 at sowing all plots and oats received 24 kg N ha- 1 at sowing only the portions related to treatment with anticipation of corn N ( T4 . We evaluated the biomass production of winter crops (oats and wheat, according to the fertilization at sowing, and also the influence of winter crops and management of ammonium sulfate, the corn yield. The oats produced more dry matter in relation to wheat, positively influencing the corn yield, regardless of fertilizer management. The anticipation of ammonium sulfate, the sowing of oats, was favorable to corn yield, equating to other forms of management of fertilizer. Rotation corn and oats, forms management, ammonium sulphate, at seeding, topdressing or applied in split were equally efficient in corn yields.

  13. Acidity-Reactivity Relationships in Catalytic Esterification over Ammonium Sulfate-Derived Sulfated Zirconia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdallah I. M. Rabee

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available New insight was gained into the acidity-reactivity relationships of sulfated zirconia (SZ catalysts prepared via (NH42SO4 impregnation of Zr(OH4 for propanoic acid esterification with methanol. A family of systematically related SZs was characterized by bulk and surface analyses including XRD, XPS, TGA-MS, N2 porosimetry, temperature-programmed propylamine decomposition, and FTIR of adsorbed pyridine, as well as methylbutynol (MBOH as a reactive probe molecule. Increasing surface sulfation induces a transition from amphoteric character for the parent zirconia and low S loadings <1.7 wt %, evidenced by MBOH conversion to 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-2-butanone, methylbutyne and acetone, with higher S loadings resulting in strong Brønsted-Lewis acid pairs upon completion of the sulfate monolayer, which favored MBOH conversion to prenal. Catalytic activity for propanoic acid esterification directly correlated with acid strength determined from propylamine decomposition, coincident with the formation of Brønsted-Lewis acid pairs identified by MBOH reactive titration. Monodispersed bisulfate species are likely responsible for superacidity at intermediate sulfur loadings.

  14. Comparison of ammonium sulfate and urea as nitrogen sources in rice production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bufogle, A. Jr.; Bollich, P.K.; Kovar, J.L.; Lindau, C.W.; Macchiavellid, R.E.

    1998-01-01

    Wetland rice agriculture is the major anthropogenic source of methane, an important greenhouse gas. Methane emissions are less when ammonium sulfate (AS) rather than urea is the nitrogen (N) source. However, an agronomic advantage of AS over urea has not been established. The objectives of this study were: (i) to compare the effectiveness of AS, urea, and urea plus elemental sulfur (S) as sources of N in flooded rice culture, (ii) to compare fertilizer recovery of each source of N from application at preflood (PF) and panicle initiation (PI), and (iii) to determine if there is a response to S by rice grown on a soil with a less than optimum level of available S. 'Cypress' rice was drill-seeded in a Crowley silt loam soil (fine, montmorillonitic, thermic Typic Albaqualf) of 7.25 to 10.75 mg S kg-1. Ammonium sulfate, urea, or urea plus S was applied in split applications of 101 kg N ha-1 PF and 50 kg N ha-1 PI. Microplots with retainers and 15N-labeled N were used. Unlabeled N was used in field plots. Microplots were harvested at 50% heading, while field plots were harvested at maturity. Dry matter and total N accumulation at 50% heading and at maturity were similar regardless of N source. Grain dry matter yields were 8.54, 8.47, and 8.79 Mg ha-1 for AS, urea, and urea plus S treatments, respectively. Greater N recovery was generally found from N application at PI than at PF, but this was not reflected by an increase in grain yield. No response to S was detected, although grain yields were slightly higher when S-containing fertilizers were used. Ammonium sulfate and urea were equally effective for flooded rice production in Louisiana

  15. Removal of hydrogen sulfide as ammonium sulfate from hydropyrolysis product vapors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marker, Terry L.; Felix, Larry G.; Linck, Martin B.; Roberts, Michael J.

    2017-03-14

    A system and method for processing biomass into hydrocarbon fuels that includes processing a biomass in a hydropyrolysis reactor resulting in hydrocarbon fuels and a process vapor stream and cooling the process vapor stream to a condensation temperature resulting in an aqueous stream. The aqueous stream is sent to a catalytic reactor where it is oxidized to obtain a product stream containing ammonia and ammonium sulfate. A resulting cooled product vapor stream includes non-condensable process vapors comprising H.sub.2, CH.sub.4, CO, CO.sub.2, ammonia and hydrogen sulfide.

  16. Removal of hydrogen sulfide as ammonium sulfate from hydropyrolysis product vapors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marker, Terry L; Felix, Larry G; Linck, Martin B; Roberts, Michael J

    2014-10-14

    A system and method for processing biomass into hydrocarbon fuels that includes processing a biomass in a hydropyrolysis reactor resulting in hydrocarbon fuels and a process vapor stream and cooling the process vapor stream to a condensation temperature resulting in an aqueous stream. The aqueous stream is sent to a catalytic reactor where it is oxidized to obtain a product stream containing ammonia and ammonium sulfate. A resulting cooled product vapor stream includes non-condensable process vapors comprising H.sub.2, CH.sub.4, CO, CO.sub.2, ammonia and hydrogen sulfide.

  17. Comparative Evaluation of Aluminum Sulfate and Ferric Sulfate-Induced Coagulations as Pretreatment of Microfiltration for Treatment of Surface Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yali Song

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Two coagulants, aluminum sulfate and ferric chloride, were tested to reduce natural organic matter (NOM as a pretreatment prior to polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF microfiltration (MF membranes for potable water treatment. The results showed that the two coagulants exhibited different treatment performance in NOM removal. Molecular weight (MW distributions of NOM in the tested surface raw water were concentrated at 3–5 kDa and approximately 0.2 kDa. Regardless of the coagulant species and dosages, the removal of 0.2 kDa NOM molecules was limited. In contrast, NOM at 3–5 kDa were readily removed with increasing coagulant dosages. In particular, aluminum sulfate favorably removed NOM near 5 kDa, whereas ferric chloride tended to reduce 3 kDa organic substances. Although aluminum sulfate and ferric chloride could improve the flux of the ensuing MF treatment, the optimal coagulant dosages to achieve effective pretreatment were different: 2–30 mg/L for aluminum sulfate and >15 mg/L for ferric chloride. The scanning electron microscope (SEM image of the membrane-filtered coagulated raw water showed that coagulation efficiency dramatically affected membrane flux and that good coagulation properties can reduce membrane fouling.

  18. Phase transitions and phase miscibility of mixed particles of ammonium sulfate, toluene-derived secondary organic material, and water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Mackenzie L; You, Yuan; Kuwata, Mikinori; Bertram, Allan K; Martin, Scot T

    2013-09-12

    The phase states of atmospheric particles influence their roles in physicochemical processes related to air quality and climate. The phases of particles containing secondary organic materials (SOMs) are still uncertain, especially for SOMs produced from aromatic precursor gases. In this work, efflorescence and deliquescence phase transitions, as well as phase separation, in particles composed of toluene-derived SOM, ammonium sulfate, and water were studied by hygroscopic tandem differential mobility analysis (HTDMA) and optical microscopy. The SOM was produced in the Harvard Environmental Chamber by photo-oxidation of toluene at chamber relative humidities of toluene-derived SOM and aqueous ammonium sulfate, suggesting phase immiscibility between the two. Optical microscopy of particles prepared for ε = 0.12 confirmed phase separation for RH 0.5, the DRH values of ammonium sulfate in mixtures with SOM produced at toluene-derived SOM and aqueous ammonium sulfate across a limited range of organic volume fractions differentiates this SOM from previous reports for isoprene-derived SOM of full miscibility and for α-pinene-derived SOM of nearly full immiscibility with aqueous ammonium sulfate.

  19. Modeling the Use of Sulfate Additives for Potassium Chloride Destruction in Biomass Combustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Hao; Pedersen, Morten Nedergaard; Jespersen, Jacob Boll

    2014-01-01

    Potassium chloride, KCl, formed from biomass combustion may lead to ash deposition and corrosion problems in boilers. Sulfates are effective additives for converting KCl to the less harmful K2SO4 and HCl. In the present study, the rate constants for decomposition of ammonium sulfate and aluminum...... sulfate were obtained from experiments in a fast heating rate thermogravimetric analyzer. The yields of SO2 and SO3 from the decomposition were investigated in a tube reactor at 600–900 °C, revealing a constant distribution of about 15% SO2 and 85% SO3 from aluminum sulfate decomposition and a temperature...... fluidized-bed reactor using ammonium sulfate, aluminum sulfate, and ferric sulfate as additives. The simulation results for ammonium sulfate and ferric sulfate addition compared favorably to the experiments. The predictions for aluminum sulfate addition were only partly in agreement with the experimental...

  20. Solid ferrous ammonium sulfate as a dosimeter at low temperatures and high doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juarez-calderon, J.M.; Ramos B, S.; Negron M, A.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the results obtained from a study of the radiation induced oxidation of crystalline ferrous ammonium sulfate with gamma rays at 295 K, 263 K and 77 K and doses from 0 to 300 kGy. The radiation induced decomposition of ferrous ammonium sulfate has been studied by the dissolution of the irradiated salt in 0,8 N sulfuric acid. The main product is ferric ion (Fe 3+ ) and its molar concentration was determined spectrophotometrically in the UV region at 304 nm. The optical density values showed a linear dependence with dose, indicating that the data obtained might be used to create a calibrating curve. Color in irradiated salt changes from blue to green, yellow and orange according to the absorbed dose. The accuracy and the reproducibility of the system were tested. In addition, some other characteristics make possible the use of this system as a dosimeter, similar to Fricke chemical dosimeter, for studies and works at low temperatures and high doses. (authors)

  1. 15N-labeled nitrogen from green manure and ammonium sulfate utilization by the sugarcane ratoon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambrosano, Edmilson Jose; Rossi, Fabricio; Trivelin, Paulo Cesar Ocheuze; Cantarella, Heitor; Ambrosano, Glaucia Maria Bovi; Schammass, Eliana Aparecida; Muraoka, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    Legumes as green manure are alternative sources of nitrogen (N) for crops and can supplement or even replace mineral nitrogen fertilization due to their potential for biological nitrogen fixation (BNF). The utilization of nitrogen by sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) fertilized with sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.) and ammonium sulfate (AS) was evaluated using the 15 N tracer technique. N was added at the rate of 196 and 70 kg ha -1 as 15 N-labeled sunn hemp green manure (SH) and as ammonium sulfate (AS), respectively. Treatments were: (I) Control; (II) AS 15 N; (III) SH 15 N + AS; (IV) SH 15 N; and (V) AS 15 N + SH. Sugarcane was cultivated for five years and was harvested three times. 15 N recovery was evaluated in the two first harvests. In the sum of the three harvests, the highest stalk yields were obtained with a combination of green manure and inorganic N fertilizer; however, in the second cutting the yields were higher where SH was used than in plots with AS. The recovery of N by the first two consecutive harvests accounted for 19 to 21% of the N applied as leguminous green manure and 46 to 49% of the N applied as AS. The amounts of inorganic N, derived from both N sources, present in the 0-0.4 m layer of soil in the first season after N application and were below 1 kg ha -1 . (author)

  2. Solid ferrous ammonium sulfate as a dosimeter at low temperatures and high doses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juarez-calderon, J.M.; Ramos B, S.; Negron M, A. [Mexico Univ. Nacional Autonoma, Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares (Mexico)

    2006-07-01

    This paper presents the results obtained from a study of the radiation induced oxidation of crystalline ferrous ammonium sulfate with gamma rays at 295 K, 263 K and 77 K and doses from 0 to 300 kGy. The radiation induced decomposition of ferrous ammonium sulfate has been studied by the dissolution of the irradiated salt in 0,8 N sulfuric acid. The main product is ferric ion (Fe{sup 3+}) and its molar concentration was determined spectrophotometrically in the UV region at 304 nm. The optical density values showed a linear dependence with dose, indicating that the data obtained might be used to create a calibrating curve. Color in irradiated salt changes from blue to green, yellow and orange according to the absorbed dose. The accuracy and the reproducibility of the system were tested. In addition, some other characteristics make possible the use of this system as a dosimeter, similar to Fricke chemical dosimeter, for studies and works at low temperatures and high doses. (authors)

  3. Preparation of Highly Pure Vanadyl Sulfate from Sulfate Solutions Containing Impurities of Iron and Aluminum by Solvent Extraction Using EHEHPA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Li

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The preparation of highly pure vanadyl sulfate from sulfate solutions containing impurities of iron and aluminumwas investigated by solvent extraction with 2-ethylhexyl phosphoric acid mono-2-ethylhexyl ester (EHEHPA and tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP as the phase modifier. The extraction and stripping conditions of vanadium (IV and its separation from iron and aluminum were optimized. Under the optimal extraction conditions, the extraction of vanadium (IV and iron were 68% and 53%, respectively, while only 2% aluminum was extracted in a single contact, suggesting good separation of vanadium (IV from aluminum. Sulfuric acid solution was used for the stripping. Nearly 100% vanadium (IV and 95% aluminum were stripped, while only 10% iron was stripped under the optimal stripping conditions in a single contact, suggesting good separation of vanadium (IV from iron. After five stages of extraction and stripping, highly pure vanadyl sulfate containing 76.5 g/L V (IV with the impurities of 12 mg/L Fe and 10 mg/L Al was obtained, which is suitable for the electrolyte of a vanadium redox flow battery. Organic solution was well regenerated after stripping by oxalic acid solution to remove the remaining iron. The mechanism of vanadium (IV extraction using EHEHPA was also discussed based on the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR analysis.

  4. Reducing the 2, 4 D+MCPA Antagonism from Hard Spray Waters by Ammonium Sulfate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Hossein Torabi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Water is the main carrier of herbicides (HC that its quality plays an important role in herbicide performance hard water has a high concentration of Ca++ and Mg++ and reviews have shown that calcium, manganese and zinc are the main factors reducing the effectiveness of weak acid herbicides. Weak acid herbicides such as glyphosate, paraquat, clethodim and 2, 4 D are compounds that release the H+ ions once dissolved in water, but just slightly. Therefore, herbicides that are weak acids partially dissociate. Herbicides not dissociated (the compound remains whole are more readily absorbed by plant foliage than those that dissociate. Dissociated herbicide molecules have a negative charge. After being dissociated, herbicides might remain as negatively charged molecules, or they might bind with other positively charged cations. Binding to some cations improves herbicide uptake and absorption, binding to others such as Ca++ and Mg++ antagonizes herbicide activity by decreasing absorption or activity in the cell. To correct such carriers, the use of adjuvants, such as ammonium sulphate (AMS, is recommended, which can reduce the use of herbicides and cause economic savings. The aim of this study was to investigate the simple effects and interactions between different amounts of AMS and carrier hardness (CH levels on 2, 4 D + MCPA herbicide efficacy in controlling white clover (Trifolium repens L. in turf grass. Materials and Methods: The experiment was laid out in a RCBD with three replications for each treatment during spring-summer 2013 in 10 years old mixed cold season turf grass (Festuca rubra + Poa pratensis + Poa pratensis dominated by white clover in Mashhad (Iran. The treatments were the factorial combination of four carrier hardness (CH rates (Deionized, 45, 90 and 180 ppm of Ca++ +Mg++ and three Ammonium Sulfate (AMS rates (0, 2, 3 and 4 Kg per100 L of carrier water were studied. The turf was sprayed with 2, 4 D + MCPA (67.5% SL at

  5. Evaluation of commercial grade ferrous ammonium sulfate as potential dosimeter for technological irradiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juarez-Calderon, J. Manuel; Ramos-Bernal, Sergio; Negron-Mendoza, Alicia

    2008-01-01

    In this work, we have studied the behavior of crystalline ferrous ammonium sulfate (FAS) under gamma irradiation. The doses studied ranged from 33.5 to 270 kGy. The purpose of this study is to explain the setup, measurement, and reporting procedures for using FAS as a dosimeter. The results obtained in the present study show that this salt very easily gave reproducible results, a linear response, as well as, simple sample preparation and reading. The irradiation temperature and dose rate in the response of the iron salt were found to have slight influence. Any storage time up to 18 months resulted in a 36% decreased in the response. The variation in the response obtained for short periods of storage is negligible for this application. Due to the properties of the FAS system also can be use as transfer dosimeter. (author)

  6. Modeling the use of sulfate additives for potassium chloride destruction in biomass combustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Hao; Grell, Morten Nedergaard; Jespersen, Jacob Boll

    2013-01-01

    Potassium chloride, KCl, formed from biomass combustion may lead to ash deposition and corrosion problems in boilers. Sulfates are effective additives for converting KCl to the less harmful K2SO4. In the present study, the decomposition of ammonium sulfate, aluminum sulfate and ferric sulfate...... of ammonium sulfate addition and ferric sulfation addition compared favorably with the experimental results. However, the model for aluminum sulfate addition under-predicted significantly the high sulfation degree of KCl observed in the experiments, possibly because of an under-estimation of the decomposition...... rate of aluminum. Under the boiler conditions of the present work, the simulation results suggested that the desirable temperature for the ferric sulfate injection was around 950-900oC, whereas for ammonium sulfate the preferable injection temperature was below 800oC....

  7. Growth and characterization of ammonium nickel-cobalt sulfate Tutton's salt for UV light applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Santunu; Oliveira, Michelle; Pacheco, Tiago S.; Perpétuo, Genivaldo J.; Franco, Carlos J.

    2018-04-01

    We have obtained a set of sample crystals of the family of Tutton's salt comprise in the isomorphic series with general chemical formula (NH4)2NixCo(1-x) (SO4)2·6H2O, by employing growth from solutions by slow evaporation technique. The samples crystals were characterized by ICP-AES, X-ray powder diffraction analysis, thermogravimetric analysis, UV-Vis-NIR, Raman and FTIR spectroscopy. This type of material has been studied because of its physical and chemical properties not yet understood and they have potential technological applications. Chemical analysis of the samples by ICP-AES method allowed us to investigate the efficiency of the method of growth used. Thermogravimetric analysis provides the information about the thermal stability of the obtained crystals for high temperature applications, and powder X-ray diffraction analysis at ambient and high temperature reveals the structural quality and structural change of the samples respectively. We have used Raman spectroscopy in the range 100-4000 cm-1 and FTIR spectroscopy in the range 400-4000 cm-1 to understand the internal vibrational mode of the octahedral complexes [Ni(H2O)6]2+ and [Co(H2O)6]2+, SO42- and NH4+ tetrahedra. The transmittance of our mixed ammonium nickel cobalt sulfate hexahydrate (ACNSH) crystals is 75% in the UV region, which indicates that they are ideal to use in UV light filters and UV sensors.

  8. Indirect determination of thiocyanate with ammonium sulfate and ethanol by extraction-flotation of copper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Q; Wei, W; Liu, Q

    2000-10-01

    A new method for the indirect determination of thiocyanate with ammonium sulfate and ethanol by extraction-flotation of copper in the presence of ascorbic acid is described. A small amount of Cu(II) is reduced to Cu(I) by ascorbic acid, then Cu(I) is precipitated with SCN-. In the course of phase separation of ethanol from water, the precipitated CuSCN stays in the interface of ethanol and water. A good linear relationship is observed between the flotation yield of Cu(II) and the amount of SCN-. Using 1.0 ml of 1 x 10(-3) M ascorbic acid solution, 50 micrograms of Cu(II), 3.5 g of (NH4)2SO4 and 3.0 ml of ethanol with a total volume of 10 ml, the concentration of thiocyanate could then be determined by determining the flotation yield of Cu(II). The detection limit for thiocyanate is 5 x 10(-5) M. Every parameter was optimized and the reaction mechanism was studied. The method is simple and rapid and it was successfully applied to the determination of thiocyanate in urine and saliva of smokers and non-smokers and in venous blood of patients infused with sodium nitroprusside.

  9. The ferrous ammonium sulfate solid system, as dosemeter for processes at low temperatures and high doses of gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juarez C, J.M.; Ramos B, S.; Negron M, A.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the results obtained from a study of the radiation induced oxidation of crystalline ferrous ammonium sulfate with gamma rays at 295 K, 263 K and 77 K and dose from 0 to 300 kGy. The radiation induced decomposition of ferrous ammonium sulfate has been studied by the dissolution of the irradiated salt in 0,8 N sulfuric acid. The main product is Fe 3+ and molar concentration of ferric ion was determined spectrophotometrically in the UV region at 304 nm. The optical density values showed a linear dependence with dose, indicating that the data obtained might be used to create a calibrating curve. Color in irradiated salt changes from blue to green, yellow and orange according to the absorbed dose. The accuracy and the reproducibility of the system were tested. In addition, some other characteristics make possible the use of this system as a dosimeter, similar to Fricke chemical dosemeter, at low temperatures and high dose. (Author)

  10. Distribution coefficients of purine alkaloids in water-ammonium sulfate-alkyl acetate-dialkyl phthalate systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korenman, Ya. I.; Krivosheeva, O. A.; Mokshina, N. Ya.

    2012-12-01

    The distribution of purine alkaloids (caffeine, theobromine, theophylline) was studied in the systems: alkyl acetates-dialkyl phtalate-salting-out agent (ammonium sulfate). The quantitative characteristics of the extraction-distribution coefficients ( D) and the degree of extraction ( R, %) are calculated. The relationships between the distribution coefficients of alkaloids and the length of the hydrocarbon radical in the molecule of alkyl acetate (dialkyl phtalate) are determined. The possibility of predicting the distribution coefficients is demonstrated.

  11. Effects of Sodium Citrate on the Ammonium Sulfate Recycled Leaching of Low-Grade Zinc Oxide Ores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kun; Li, Shi-wei; Zhang, Li-bo; Peng, Jin-hui; Ma, Ai-yuan; Wang, Bao-bao

    2016-03-01

    The effects of sodium citrate on ammonium sulfate recycled leaching of low-grade zinc oxide ores were studied. By applying various kinds of detection and analysis techniques such as chemical composition analysis, chemical phase method, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectrum (SEM/EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier-transforming infrared spectrum (FT-IR), zinc raw ore, its leaching slag and the functional mechanism of sodium citrate were investigated. Based on a comprehensive analysis, it can be concluded that in contrast to hemimorphite (Zn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O), amorphous smithsonite (ZnCO3) and zinc silicate (Zn2SiO4) prove to be refractory phases under ammonium sulfate leaching, while sodium citrate has a better chelating action with the refractory phases, resulting in a higher zinc leaching rate. Under conditions of [NH3]/[NH3]T molar ratio being 0.5, [NH3]T being 7.5 mol/L, [Na3C6H5O7] being 0.2 mol/L, S/L ratio being 1:5, temperature being 303 K, holding time being 1 h in each of the two stages, and stirring rate being 300 rpm, the leaching rate of zinc reached 93.4%. In this article, sulfate ammonium recycled technology also reveals its unique advantage in processing low-grade zinc oxide ores accompanied by high silicon and high alkaline gangue.

  12. Effects of Cow Manure, Ammonium Sulfate and Potassium Sulfate on Physico-Chemical Indices of Fruit and Leaf of Mazafati Date (Phoenix Dactylifera L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Aryakia

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L. is one of the most important fruit species grown in Iran. This plant is mainly grown in the south of the country, where pH of soil is high, resulting in poor nutrient uptake. Furthermore, because of high yield and annual pruning of date palm, large amounts of macro and micronutrients are removed from soil. So, annual fertilizing should be applied for good performance. Research shows that use of manure alone or in combination with mineral fertilizers improves physico-chemical indices of fruits and leaves of palm trees. Regarding to high nutrition dependency of date palm, it is necessary to evaluate the effect of different fertilizers on physico-chemical indices of its leaf and fruit. The main objectives of this study were thus to evaluate the effect of cow manure, ammonium sulfate and potassium sulfate on physico-chemical indices in fruit and leaf of Mazafati date. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted in bam zone, Kerman, Iran, in 2011- 2012. The area was located at 28°53′40′′N latitude, 58°37′18′′E longitude and 1050 m above sea level. A factorial experiment in a randomized complete block design was performed during month of March. Factors included ammonium sulfate (0, 500 and 1000 g/tree, potassium sulfate (0, 750 and 1500 g/tree accompanied by cow manure (5 kg/tree. For leaf and fruit analysis, sampling was performed during month of June. Physico-chemical indices including nitrogen, potassium, iron, chlorophyll a, b and total, carotenoid, fruit weight, fruit diameter, fruit length, TSS and TSS/TA were evaluated. Chlorophyll was measured by using the method of Lichtenthaler (1987. Total soluble solid (TSS was measured by using refractometer. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software and the treatment means were separated by Duncan’s multiple range tests. Results and Discussion: Results showed that because of supplying nitrogen, sulfur and potassium and their

  13. Importance of including ammonium sulfate ((NH42SO4 aerosols for ice cloud parameterization in GCMs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. S. Bhattacharjee

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available A common deficiency of many cloud-physics parameterizations including the NASA's microphysics of clouds with aerosol-cloud interactions (hereafter called McRAS-AC is that they simulate lesser (larger than the observed ice cloud particle number (size. A single column model (SCM of McRAS-AC physics of the GEOS4 Global Circulation Model (GCM together with an adiabatic parcel model (APM for ice-cloud nucleation (IN of aerosols were used to systematically examine the influence of introducing ammonium sulfate (NH42SO4 aerosols in McRAS-AC and its influence on the optical properties of both liquid and ice clouds. First an (NH42SO4 parameterization was included in the APM to assess its effect on clouds vis-à-vis that of the other aerosols. Subsequently, several evaluation tests were conducted over the ARM Southern Great Plain (SGP and thirteen other locations (sorted into pristine and polluted conditions distributed over marine and continental sites with the SCM. The statistics of the simulated cloud climatology were evaluated against the available ground and satellite data. The results showed that inclusion of (NH42SO4 into McRAS-AC of the SCM made a remarkable improvement in the simulated effective radius of ice cloud particulates. However, the corresponding ice-cloud optical thickness increased even more than the observed. This can be caused by lack of horizontal cloud advection not performed in the SCM. Adjusting the other tunable parameters such as precipitation efficiency can mitigate this deficiency. Inclusion of ice cloud particle splintering invoked empirically further reduced simulation biases. Overall, these changes make a substantial improvement in simulated cloud optical properties and cloud distribution particularly over the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ in the GCM.

  14. Bioethanol Production from Cachaza as Hydrogen Feedstock: Effect of Ammonium Sulfate during Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nestor Sanchez

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Cachaza is a type of non-centrifugal sugarcane press-mud that, if it is not employed efficiently, generates water pollution, soil eutrophication, and the spread of possible pathogens. This biomass can be fermented to produce bioethanol. Our intention is to obtain bioethanol that can be catalytically reformed to produce hydrogen (H2 for further use in fuel cells for electricity production. However, some impurities could negatively affect the catalyst performance during the bioethanol reforming process. Hence, the aim of this study was to assess the fermentation of Cachaza using ammonium sulfate ((NH42SO4 loadings and Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain to produce the highest ethanol concentration with the minimum amount of impurities in anticipation of facilitating further bioethanol purification and reforming for H2 production. The results showed that ethanol production from Cachaza fermentation was about 50 g·L−1 and the (NH42SO4 addition did not affect its production. However, it significantly reduced the production of branched alcohols. When a 160 mg·L−1 (NH42SO4 was added to the fermentation culture, 2-methyl-1-propanol was reduced by 41% and 3-methyl-1-butanol was reduced by 6%, probably due to the repression of the catabolic nitrogen mechanism. Conversely, 1-propanol doubled its concentration likely due to the higher threonine synthesis promoted by the reducing sugar presence. Afterwards, we employed the modified Gompertz model to fit the ethanol, 2M1P, 3M1B, and 1-propanol production, which provided acceptable fits (R2 > 0.881 for the tested compounds during Cachaza fermentation. To the best of our knowledge, there are no reports of the modelling of aliphatic production during fermentation; this model will be employed to calculate yields with further scaling and for life cycle assessment.

  15. Corrosion resistance of sodium sulfate coated cobalt-chromium-aluminum alloys at 900 C, 1000 C, and 1100 C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, G. J.

    1979-01-01

    The corrosion of sodium sulfate coated cobalt alloys was measured and the results compared to the cyclic oxidation of alloys with the same composition, and to the hot corrosion of compositionally equivalent nickel-base alloys. Cobalt alloys with sufficient aluminum content to form aluminum containing scales corrode less than their nickel-base counterparts. The cobalt alloys with lower aluminum levels form CoO scales and corrode more than their nickel-base counterparts which form NiO scales.

  16. Simulations of Sulfate-Nitrate-Ammonium (SNA) aerosols during the extreme haze events over Northern China in 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Dan; Liu, Zhiquan; Fast, Jerome D.; Ban, Junmei

    2016-08-30

    Extreme haze events have occurred frequently over China in recent years. Although many studies have investigated the formation mechanisms associated with PM2.5 for heavily polluted regions in China based on observational data, adequately predicting peak PM2.5 concentrations is still challenging for regional air quality models. In this study, we evaluate the performance of one configuration of the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with chemistry (WRF-Chem) and use the model to investigate the sensitivity of heterogeneous reactions on simulated peak sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium concentrations in the vicinity of Beijing during four extreme haze episodes in October 2014 over the North China Plain. The highest observed PM2.5 concentration of 469 μg m-3 occurred in Beijing. Comparisons with observations show that the model reproduced the temporal variability in PM2.5 with the highest PM2.5 values on polluted days (defined as days in which observed PM2.5 is greater than 75 μg m-3), but predictions of sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium were too low on days with the highest observed concentrations. Observational data indicate that the sulfur/nitric oxidation rates are strongly correlated with relative humidity during periods of peak PM2.5; however, the model failed to reproduce the highest PM2.5 concentrations due to missing heterogeneous reactions. As the parameterizations of those reactions is not well established yet, estimates of SO2-to-H2SO4 and NO2/NO3-to-HNO3 reaction rates that depend on relative humidity were applied which improved the simulation of sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium enhancement on polluted days in terms of both concentrations and partitioning among those species. Sensitivity simulations showed that the extremely high heterogeneous reaction rates and also higher emission rates than those reported in the emission inventory

  17. Ammonium Sulfate Improves Detection of Hydrophilic Quaternary Ammonium Compounds through Decreased Ion Suppression in Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Imaging Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Eiji; Masaki, Noritaka; Matsushita, Shoko; Setou, Mitsutoshi

    2015-11-17

    Hydrophilic quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) include derivatives of carnitine (Car) or choline, which are known to have essential bioactivities. Here we developed a technique for improving the detection of hydrophilic QACs using ammonium sulfate (AS) in matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-imaging mass spectrometry (MALDI-IMS). In MALDI mass spectrometry for brain homogenates, the addition of AS greatly increased the signal intensities of Car, acetylcarnitine (AcCar), and glycerophosphocholine (GPC) by approximately 300-, 700-, and 2500-fold. The marked improvement required a higher AS concentration than that needed for suppressing the potassium adduction on phosphatidylcholine and 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid. Adding AS also increased the signal intensities of Car, AcCar, and GPC by approximately 10-, 20-, and 40-fold in MALDI-IMS. Consequently, the distributions of five hydrophilic QACs (Car, AcCar, GPC, choline, and phosphocholine) were simultaneously visualized by this technique. The distinct mechanism from other techniques such as improved matrix application, derivatization, or postionization suggests the great potential of AS addition to achieve higher sensitivity of MALDI-IMS for various analytes.

  18. Distribution of nitrogen ammonium sulfate (15N) soil-plant system in a no-tillage crop succession

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, Flavia Carvalho da Silva; Libardi, Paulo Leonel

    2012-01-01

    the n use by maize (Zea mays, l.) is affected by n-fertilizer levels. this study was conducted using a sandy-clay texture soil (Hapludox) to evaluate the efficiency of n use by maize in a crop succession, based on 15 N labeled ammonium sulfate (5.5 atom %) at different rates, and to assess the residual fertilizer effect in two no-tillage succession crops (signal grass and corn). Two maize crops were evaluated, the first in the growing season 2006, the second in 2007, and brachiaria in the second growing season. The treatments consisted of n rates of 60, 120 and 180 kg ha -1 in the form of labeled 15 N ammonium sulfate. This fertilizer was applied in previously defined subplots, only to the first maize crop (growing season 2006). The variables total accumulated n; fertilizer-derived n in corn plants and pasture; fertilizer-derived n in the soil; and recovery of fertilizer-n by plants and soil were evaluated.The highest uptake of fertilizer n by corn was observed after application of 120 kg ha -1 N and the residual effect of n fertilizer on subsequent corn and brachiaria was highest after application of 180 kg ha -1 N. After the crop succession, soil n recovery was 32, 23 and 27 % for the respective applications of 60, 120 and 180 kg ha -1 N. (author)

  19. {sup 15}N-labeled nitrogen from green manure and ammonium sulfate utilization by the sugarcane ratoon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambrosano, Edmilson Jose; Rossi, Fabricio, E-mail: ambrosano@apta.sp.gov.b [Agencia Paulista de Tecnologia dos Agronegocios (APTA), Piracicapa, SP (Brazil). Polo Rigional Centro Sul; Trivelin, Paulo Cesar Ocheuze [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Isotopos Estaveis; Cantarella, Heitor [Agencia Paulista de Tecnologia dos Agronegocios (APTA/IAC), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Instituto Agronomico de Campinas. Centro de Solos e Recursos Agroambientais; Ambrosano, Glaucia Maria Bovi [Universidade de Campinas (UNICAMP/FOP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Odontologia de Piracicaba. Dept. de Odontologia Social, Bioestatistica; Schammass, Eliana Aparecida [Agencia Paulista de Tecnologia dos Agronegocios (APTA/IZ), Nova Odessa, SP (Brazil). Instituto de Zootecnia; Muraoka, Takashi [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Fertilidade do solo

    2011-05-15

    Legumes as green manure are alternative sources of nitrogen (N) for crops and can supplement or even replace mineral nitrogen fertilization due to their potential for biological nitrogen fixation (BNF). The utilization of nitrogen by sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) fertilized with sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.) and ammonium sulfate (AS) was evaluated using the {sup 15}N tracer technique. N was added at the rate of 196 and 70 kg ha{sup -1} as {sup 15}N-labeled sunn hemp green manure (SH) and as ammonium sulfate (AS), respectively. Treatments were: (I) Control; (II) AS{sup 15}N; (III) SH{sup 15}N + AS; (IV) SH{sup 15}N; and (V) AS{sup 15}N + SH. Sugarcane was cultivated for five years and was harvested three times. {sup 15}N recovery was evaluated in the two first harvests. In the sum of the three harvests, the highest stalk yields were obtained with a combination of green manure and inorganic N fertilizer; however, in the second cutting the yields were higher where SH was used than in plots with AS. The recovery of N by the first two consecutive harvests accounted for 19 to 21% of the N applied as leguminous green manure and 46 to 49% of the N applied as AS. The amounts of inorganic N, derived from both N sources, present in the 0-0.4 m layer of soil in the first season after N application and were below 1 kg ha{sup -1}. (author)

  20. Life cycle energy and greenhouse gas profile of a process for the production of ammonium sulfate from nitrogen-fixing photosynthetic cyanobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razon, Luis F

    2012-03-01

    In this paper, an alternative means for nitrogen fixation that may consume less energy and release less greenhouse gases than the Haber-Bosch process is explored. A life-cycle assessment was conducted on a process to: culture the cyanobacterium, Anabaena sp. ATCC 33047, in open ponds; harvest the biomass and exopolysaccharides and convert these to biogas; strip and convert the ammonia from the biogas residue to ammonium sulfate; dry the ammonium sulfate solution to ammonium sulfate crystals and transport the finished product. The results suggest that substantial reductions in non-renewable energy use and greenhouse gas emissions may be realized. The study opens the possibility that Haber-Bosch ammonia may be replaced with ammonia from a biomass process which simultaneously generates renewable energy. The process is intrinsically safer than the Haber-Bosch process. However, there are trade-offs in terms of land use and possibly, water. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Slippery liquid-infused porous surfaces fabricated on aluminum as a barrier to corrosion induced by sulfate reducing bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Peng; Lu, Zhou; Zhang, Dun

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Slippery liquid-infused porous surfaces (SLIPS) were fabricated over aluminum. • SLIPS depress the adherence of sulfate reducing bacteria in static seawater. • SLIPS inhibit the microbiological corrosion of aluminum in static seawater. • The possible microbiological corrosion protection mechanism of SLIPS is proposed. - Abstract: Microbiological corrosion induced by sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) is one of the main threatens to the safety of marine structure. To reduce microbiological corrosion, slippery liquid infused porous surfaces (SLIPS) were designed and fabricated on aluminum substrate by constructing rough aluminum oxide layer, followed by fluorination of the rough layer and infiltration with lubricant. The as-fabricated SLIPS were characterized with wettability measurement, SEM and XPS. Their resistances to microbiological corrosion induced by SRB were evaluated with fluorescence microscopy and electrochemical measurement. It was demonstrated that they present high resistance to bacteria adherence and the resultant microbiological corrosion in static seawater

  2. Toxicity detection of sodium nitrite, borax and aluminum potassium sulfate using electrochemical method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Dengbin; Yong, Daming; Dong, Shaojun

    2013-04-01

    Based on the inhibition effect on the respiratory chain activity of microorganisms by toxicants, an electrochemical method has been developed to measure the current variation of a mediator in the presence of microorganisms contacted with a toxicant. Microelectrode arrays were adopted in this study, which can accelerate the mass transfer rate of an analyte to the electrode and also increase the total current signal, resulting in an improvement in detection sensitivity. We selected Escherichia coli as the testee and the standard glucose-glutamic acid as an exogenous material. Under oxygen restriction, the experiments in the presence of toxicant were performed at optimum conditions (solution pH 7.0, 37 degrees C and reaction for 3 hr). The resulting solution was then separated from the suspended microorganisms and was measured by an electrochemical method, using ferricyanide as a mediator. The current signal obtained represents the reoxidation of ferrocyanide, which was transformed to inhibiting efficiency, IC50, as a quantitative measure of toxicity. The IC50 values measured were 410, 570 and 830 mg/L for sodium nitrite, borax and aluminum potassium sulfate, respectively. The results show that the toxicity sequence for these three food additives is consistent with the value reported by other methods. Furthermore, the order of damage degree to the microorganism was also observed to be: sodium nitrite > borax > aluminum potassium sulfate > blank, according to the atomic force microscopy images of E. coli after being incubated for 3 hr with the toxic compound in buffer solutions. The electrochemical method is expected to be a sensitive and simple alternative to toxicity screening for chemical food additives.

  3. Production of Extra-Cellular Proteases from Marine Bacillus Sp. Cultured in Media Containing Ammonium Sulfate as the Sole Nitrogen Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seri Intan, M.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Useful bacterial strains can be used to increase mineralize activity of an aquatic system. These bacteria can specifically degrade targeted compound by producing extra-cellular enzymes. Three species of Bacillus i.e. B. subtilis, B. pumilus and B. licheniformis acquired from shrimp ponds were tested for their ability to utilize ammonia and produce extracellular enzymes. These bacteria were grown in artificial seawater (30 ppt salinity and pH 7.6 supplemented with decreasing yeast extract concentration but increasing ammonium sulfate concentration. All three bacteria grew in artificial seawater containing only 0.01% yeast extract and 1% ammonium sulfate. However, only B. pumilus and B. licheniformis were able to grow in the medium containing only 1% ammonium sulfate as a sole energy source. Bacterialgrowth reduced when alkaline proteases activities was maximum from culture filtrates of all three bacterial cultures during 24 hour culturing in artificial seawater containing 0.01% yeast extract and 1% ammonium sulfate at 30 C when assayed at pH 9. Bacterial growth increased when acid proteases activities was maximum from culture filtrates of all three bacterial cultures during 48 hour culturing in artificial seawater containing 0.01% yeast extract and 1% ammoniumsulfate at 30 C when assayed at pH 5.

  4. DNA damage in the kidney tissue cells of the fish Rhamdia quelen after trophic contamination with aluminum sulfate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiane Klingelfus

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Even though aluminum is the third most common element present in the earth's crust, information regarding its toxicity remains scarce. It is known that in certain cases, aluminum is neurotoxic, but its effect in other tissues is unknown. The aim of this work was to analyze the genotoxic potential of aluminum sulfate in kidney tissue of the fish Rhamdia quelen after trophic contamination for 60 days. Sixty four fish were subdivided into the following groups: negative control, 5 mg, 50 mg and 500 mg of aluminum sulfate per kg of fish. Samples of the posterior kidney were taken and prepared to obtain mitotic metaphase, as well as the comet assay. The three types of chromosomal abnormalities (CA found were categorized as chromatid breaks, decondensation of telomeric region, and early separation of sister chromatids. The tests for CA showed that the 5 mg/kg and 50 mg/kg doses of aluminum sulfate had genotoxic potential. Under these treatments, early separation of the sister chromatids was observed more frequently and decondensation of the telomeric region tended to increase in frequency. We suggest that structural changes in the proteins involved in DNA compaction may have led to the decondensation of the telomeric region, making the DNA susceptible to breaks. Moreover, early separation of the sister chromatids may have occurred due to changes in the mobility of chromosomes or proteins that keep the sister chromatids together. The comet assay confirmed the genotoxicity of aluminum sulfate in the kidney tissue of Rhamdia quelen at the three doses of exposure.

  5. The effect of nitrate addition on efficient use of ammonium sulfate fertilizer under saline soil condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalifa, KH.; Zedan, A.

    1996-01-01

    The effect of addition of nitrate fertilizers on the efficient use of ammonium fertilizers was studied using N sub 1 sub 5 method. In pot experiment using salt affected alluvial soil, the objective of this study was to determine the ideal ratio of NO sub 3/NH sub 4 which enhance the efficiency of ammonium fertilizers. The results showed that the fresh and dry weights of maize (variety LG11) responded significantly to each type of fertilizer alone. Furthermore, the N-NO sub 3 fertilizer showed superiority over N-NH sup 4 fertilizer. Wherever, the highest yield was obtained with a mixture of both (N-NO sub 3 and N-NH sub 4) with NO sub 3/NH sub 4 ratio 1/8, in spite of the fact that the equivalent amounts of N were employed in all treatments. Under the given circumstances it has been recommended in salt affected soil in dry area, to use the above mentioned ratio for nitrogen fertilizer to obtain optimum yield. (author). 8 refs., 3 tabs

  6. Trends in atmospheric ammonium concentrations in relation to atmospheric sulfate and local agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Victoria R; Lovett, Gary M; Weathers, Kathleen C; Likens, Gene E

    2005-06-01

    Ammonium (NH(4)(+)) concentrations in air and precipitation at the Institute of Ecosystem Studies (IES) in southeastern New York, USA declined over an 11-year period from 1988 to 1999, but increased from 1999 to 2001. These trends in particulate NH(4)(+) correlated well with trends in particulate SO(4)(2-) over the 1988-2001 period. The NH(4)(+) trends were not as well correlated with local cattle and milk production, which declined continuously throughout the period. This suggests that regional transport of SO(4)(2-) may have a greater impact on concentrations of NH(4)(+) and subsequent deposition than local agricultural emissions of NH(3). Ammonium concentrations in precipitation correlated significantly with precipitation SO(4)(2-) concentrations for the 1984-2001 period although NH(4)(+) in precipitation increased after 1999 and SO(4)(2-) in precipitation continued to decline after 1999. The correlation between NH(4)(+) and SO(4)(2-) was stronger for particulates than for precipitation. Particulate NH(4)(+) concentrations were also correlated with particulate SO(4)(2-) concentrations at 31 of 35 eastern U.S. CASTNet sites that had at least 10 years of data. Air concentrations of NH(4)(+) and SO(4)(2-) were more strongly correlated at the sites that were located within an agricultural landscape than in forested sites. At most of the sites there was either no trend or a decrease in NH(4)(+) dry deposition during the 1988-2001 period. The sites that showed an increasing trend in NH(4)(+) dry deposition were generally located in the southeastern U.S. The results of this study suggest that, in the northeastern U.S., air concentrations of NH(4)(+) and subsequent deposition may be more closely linked to SO(4)(2-) and thus SO(2) emissions than with NH(3) emissions. These results also suggest that reductions in S emissions have reduced NH(4)(+) transport to and NH(4)(+)-N deposition in the Northeast.

  7. Agronomic performance of green cane fertilized with ammonium sulfate in a coastal tableland soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Pessim Oliveira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The recent approach of eliminating the usage of fire for sugarcane harvesting resulted in managing the crop on a trashblanketed soil, to which a proper recommendation of N fertilization is lacking, a problem that remains in the coastal tablelands of the Espírito Santo State, Brazil. This study aimed at evaluating the effect of increasing N rates on stalk and sugar yields and the N use efficiency by the crop. The experimental area planted with sugarcane, at the first ratoon, is located in Linhares, Espírito Santo State. The treatments consisted of N rates varying from 80 to 160 kg N∙ha−1 as ammonium sulphate, and a control without N, in a completely randomized blocks experimental design. Stalk yield increased with the N rate, and fitting the results to a quadratic function suggests no response to fertilizer rates above 130 kg N∙ha−1. The highest margin of agricultural contribution was obtained at the rate of 100 kg N∙ha−1. The N use efficiency decreased from almost 49 to 38%, when the N rate increased from 100 to 160 kg N∙ha−1. There was no effect of increasing N rates on the sugar concentration, although the sugar yield response was positive and strongly influenced by the stalk production. Results showed the importance of reassessing the adequate N rate for maximizing yield in green cane production systems.

  8. Influence of branched quaternary ammonium surfactant molecules as levelers for copper electroplating from acidic sulfate bath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, An-yin; Chen, Biao; Fang, Lei; Yu, Jian-jun; Wang, Li-min

    2013-01-01

    A family of branched quaternary ammonium surfactants (compounds 1a–1c) with different carbon chains were synthesized for levelers applied in copper electroplating. Their inhibitory actions on copper electroplating were characterized by cyclic voltammetry (CV). Compound 1b, as representative structure type, was tested by means of different electrochemical methods including CV, polarization curve and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) with different concentrations. The interaction between compound 1b and copper surface was investigated using atomic force microscope (AFM) and X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS). The results indicated that our newly synthesized compounds, particular 1b, were effective levelers used for copper electroplating. Compound 1b could adsorb on copper surface to form an adsorption layer. The adsorption behavior of compound 1b on copper surface indicated that compound 1b could inhibit the copper electrodeposition, which provided favorable conditions used as a leveler. Moreover, the addition of compound 1b could increase the cathodic polarization, which was attributed to the adsorption of compound 1b during copper electroplating process. In addition, various surface morphologies and crystalline orientation of the plated copper films caused by different concentrations of compound 1b were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) respectively. Effects of compound 1b on refining the grain size and changing the preferential orientation of the plated copper films were exhibited

  9. A method for the preparation of curcumin by ultrasonic-assisted ammonium sulfate/ethanol aqueous two phase extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Guangkuan; Hao, Changchun; Tian, Suyang; Gao, Feng; Sun, Wenyuan; Sun, Runguang

    2017-01-15

    This study investigated a new and easy-to-industrialized extracting method for curcumin from Curcuma longa rhizomes using ultrasonic extraction technology combined with ammonium sulfate/ethanol aqueous two-phase system (ATPS), and the preparation of curcumin using the semi-preparative HPLC. The single-factor experiments and response surface methodology (RSM) were utilized to determine the optimal material-solvent ratio, ultrasonic intensity (UI) and ultrasonic time. The optimum extraction conditions were finally determined to be material-solvent rate of 3.29:100, ultrasonic intensity of 33.63W/cm 2 and ultrasonic time of 17min. At these optimum conditions, the extraction yield could reach 46.91mg/g. And the extraction yields of curcumin remained stable in the case of amplification, which indicated that scale-up extraction was feasible and efficient. Afterwards, the semi-preparative HPLC experiment was carried out, in which optimal preparation conditions were elected according to the single factor experiment. The prepared curcumin was obtained and the purity could up to 85.58% by the semi-preparative HPLC. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of diesel oil and ammonium sulfate on efficacy of glyphosate on Cyperus rotundus under field conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, N.E.; Babiker, A.G.T.

    1998-01-01

    Under Gezira field conditions, excellent and lasting Cyperus rotundus suppression was achieved, irrespective of application time or cropping conditions. From visual assessments, suppression was achieved when glyphosate as ''Roundup'' at 1.5 kg a.e./ha was applied alone or with the addition of ammonium sulfate, diesel oil emulsified with Triton X-100. At the rate of 0.75kg a.e./ha the herbicide was moderately effective on the cropped fields but on the uncropped fields it was as effective as the higher rate at 8 weeks. At the lowest rate tested (0.5 kg a.e./ha) the herbicide was less effective and was not significantly improved by the addition of adjuvants or charms, the time of spray application. The fresh and dry weights in the 0.75 kg a.e./ha treatments were reduced by 85% to 98% compared with the controls confirming the visual assessments. Unrestricted competition from the natural weed population combined with C. rotundus, reduced the maize stand by 59%, height by 55%, straw yield by 60% and grain yield by 87%, C. rotundus alone was less competitive reducing maize stand, height, straw and grain yields by 21%, 2%, 61% and 68% respectively. (author)

  11. Synthesis, crystal growth, optical, thermal, and mechanical properties of a nonlinear optical single crystal: ammonium sulfate hydrogen sulphamate (ASHS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudhakar, K.; Nandhini, S.; Muniyappan, S.; Arumanayagam, T.; Vivek, P.; Murugakoothan, P.

    2018-04-01

    Ammonium sulfate hydrogen sulphamate (ASHS), an inorganic nonlinear optical crystal, was grown from the aqueous solution by slow evaporation solution growth technique. The single-crystal XRD confirms that the grown single crystal belongs to the orthorhombic system with the space group of Pna21. Powder XRD confirms the crystalline nature and the diffraction planes were indexed. Crystalline perfection of grown crystal was analysed by high-resolution X-ray diffraction rocking curve technique. UV-Vis-NIR studies revealed that ASHS crystal has optical transparency 65% and lower cut-off wavelength at 218 nm. The violet light emission of the crystal was identified by photoluminescence studies. The particle size-dependent second-harmonic generation efficiency for ASHS crystal was evaluated by Kurtz-Perry powder technique using Nd:YAG laser which established the existence of phase matching. Surface laser damage threshold value was evaluated using Nd:YAG laser. Optical homogeneity of the crystal was evaluated using modified channel spectrum method through birefringence study. Thermal analysis reveals that ASHS crystal is stable up to 213 °C. The mechanical behaviour of the ASHS crystal was analysed using Vickers microhardness study.

  12. Hygroscopic behavior and chemical composition evolution of internally mixed aerosols composed of oxalic acid and ammonium sulfate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaowei; Jing, Bo; Tan, Fang; Ma, Jiabi; Zhang, Yunhong; Ge, Maofa

    2017-10-01

    Although water uptake of aerosol particles plays an important role in the atmospheric environment, the effects of interactions between components on chemical composition and hygroscopicity of particles are still not well constrained. The hygroscopic properties and phase transformation of oxalic acid (OA) and mixed particles composed of ammonium sulfate (AS) and OA with different organic to inorganic molar ratios (OIRs) have been investigated by using confocal Raman spectroscopy. It is found that OA droplets first crystallize to form OA dihydrate at 71 % relative humidity (RH), and further lose crystalline water to convert into anhydrous OA around 5 % RH during the dehydration process. The deliquescence and efflorescence point for AS is determined to be 80.1 ± 1.5 % RH and 44.3 ± 2.5 % RH, respectively. The observed efflorescence relative humidity (ERH) for mixed OA / AS droplets with OIRs of 1 : 3, 1 : 1 and 3 : 1 is 34.4 ± 2.0, 44.3 ± 2.5 and 64.4 ± 3.0 % RH, respectively, indicating the elevated OA content appears to favor the crystallization of mixed systems at higher RH. However, the deliquescence relative humidity (DRH) of AS in mixed OA / AS particles with OIRs of 1 : 3 and 1 : 1 is observed to occur at 81.1 ± 1.5 and 77 ± 1.0 % RH, respectively. The Raman spectra of mixed OA / AS droplets indicate the formation of ammonium hydrogen oxalate (NH4HC2O4) and ammonium hydrogen sulfate (NH4HSO4) from interactions between OA and AS in aerosols during the dehydration process on the time scale of hours, which considerably influence the subsequent deliquescence behavior of internally mixed particles with different OIRs. The mixed OA / AS particles with an OIR of 3 : 1 exhibit no deliquescence transition over the RH range studied due to the considerable transformation of (NH4)2SO4 into NH4HC2O4 with a high DRH. Although the hygroscopic growth of mixed OA / AS droplets is comparable to that of AS or OA at high RH during the dehydration process, Raman growth

  13. Hygroscopic behavior and chemical composition evolution of internally mixed aerosols composed of oxalic acid and ammonium sulfate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Wang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Although water uptake of aerosol particles plays an important role in the atmospheric environment, the effects of interactions between components on chemical composition and hygroscopicity of particles are still not well constrained. The hygroscopic properties and phase transformation of oxalic acid (OA and mixed particles composed of ammonium sulfate (AS and OA with different organic to inorganic molar ratios (OIRs have been investigated by using confocal Raman spectroscopy. It is found that OA droplets first crystallize to form OA dihydrate at 71 % relative humidity (RH, and further lose crystalline water to convert into anhydrous OA around 5 % RH during the dehydration process. The deliquescence and efflorescence point for AS is determined to be 80.1 ± 1.5 % RH and 44.3 ± 2.5 % RH, respectively. The observed efflorescence relative humidity (ERH for mixed OA ∕ AS droplets with OIRs of 1 : 3, 1 : 1 and 3 : 1 is 34.4 ± 2.0, 44.3 ± 2.5 and 64.4 ± 3.0 % RH, respectively, indicating the elevated OA content appears to favor the crystallization of mixed systems at higher RH. However, the deliquescence relative humidity (DRH of AS in mixed OA ∕ AS particles with OIRs of 1 : 3 and 1 : 1 is observed to occur at 81.1 ± 1.5 and 77 ± 1.0 % RH, respectively. The Raman spectra of mixed OA ∕ AS droplets indicate the formation of ammonium hydrogen oxalate (NH4HC2O4 and ammonium hydrogen sulfate (NH4HSO4 from interactions between OA and AS in aerosols during the dehydration process on the time scale of hours, which considerably influence the subsequent deliquescence behavior of internally mixed particles with different OIRs. The mixed OA ∕ AS particles with an OIR of 3 : 1 exhibit no deliquescence transition over the RH range studied due to the considerable transformation of (NH42SO4 into NH4HC2O4 with a high DRH. Although the hygroscopic growth of mixed OA

  14. The effect of ammonium sulfate on the solubility of amino acids in water at (298.15 and 323.15) K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Luisa A.; Macedo, Eugenia A. [Laboratory of Separation and Reaction Engineering, Departamento de Engenharia Quimica, Faculdade de Engenharia da Universidade do Porto, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465 Porto (Portugal); Pinho, Simao P. [Laboratory of Separation and Reaction Engineering, Departamento de Tecnologia Quimica e Biologica, Instituto Politecnico de Braganca, Campus e Santa Apolonia, 5301-857 Braganca (Portugal)], E-mail: spinho@ipb.pt

    2009-02-15

    Using the analytical gravimetric method the solubility of glycine, DL-alanine, L-isoleucine, L-threonine, and L-serine in aqueous systems of (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 4}, at (298.15 and 323.15) K, were measured for salt concentrations ranging up to 2.0 molal. In the electrolyte molality range studied the experimental observations showed that ammonium sulfate is a salting-in agent for most of the amino acids studied. Furthermore, the change of the relative solubility with electrolyte concentration shows a maximum, which makes the representation of the data by a simple empirical correlation such as the Setschenow equation difficult. For the development and evaluation of a robust thermodynamic framework that makes it possible to more profoundly understand aqueous amino acid solutions with ammonium sulfate additional experimental information is needed.

  15. Different mechanisms for lead acetate, aluminum and cadmium sulfate in rat corpus cavernosum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senbel, Amira M.; Saad, Evan I.; Taha, Safaa S.; Mohamed, Hosny F.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Some heavy metals show adverse vascular and neurological effects, however, their effect on erection is underestimated. This study aims to investigate the effect of Pb, Cd and Al on erectile function and their potential mechanism of action in rats. Methods: Measurement of intracavernosal pressure/mean arterial pressure (ICP/MAP) changes elicited by electrical stimulation of cavernous nerve in anesthetized rats treated with Pb-acetate, Al-sulfate, or Cd-sulfate acutely, and subacutely for 7 days. Serum creatinine, testosterone, TBARs, GSH levels and metal accumulation in corpus cavernosum were measured. Results: Pb, Al and Cd significantly reduced ICP/MAP in rats after acute (2,10–2,10 and 1,3 mg/kg respectively) and sub-acute (3, 3, and 1 mg/kg/day respectively) treatments. They selectively accumulated in the corpus cavernosum reaching 25.107 ± 2.081 μg/g wet weight for Pb, 1.029 ± 0.193 for Cd, 31.343 ± 1.991 for Al, compared to 7.084 ± 1.517, 0.296 ± 0.067, and 8.86 ± 1.115 as controls respectively. Serum creatinine levels were not altered. Cd and Al significantly reduced testosterone level to 0.483 ± 0.059 and 0.419 ± 0.037 ng/ml respectively compared to 0.927 ± 0.105 ng/ml as control. Aluminum elevated TBARs significantly by 27.843%. The acute anti-erectile action of Pb was blocked by non-selective NOS and GC inhibitors and potassium channel blocker. Lead also masked the potentiatory effect of L-arginine and diazoxide on ICP/MAP. No interaction with muscarinic or nicotinic modulators was observed. Conclusions: Pb, Cd and Al show anti-erectile effect independent on renal injury. They don not modulate cholinergic nor ganglionic transmission in corpus cavernosum. Pb may inhibit NO/cGMP/K + channel pathway. The effect of Cd and Al but not Pb seems to be hormonal dependent.

  16. Reducing phosphorus runoff and inhibiting ammonia loss from poultry manure with aluminum sulfate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, P.A. Jr.; Daniel, T.C.; Edwards, D.R.

    2000-02-01

    Applications of aluminum sulfate (Al{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3} {center_dot} 14H{sub 2}O), commonly referred to as alum, to poultry litter have been shown to decrease P runoff from lands fertilized with litter and to inhibit NH{sub 3} volatilization. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of alum applications in commercial broiler houses on: (1) NH{sub 3} volatilization (in-house), (2) poultry production, (3) litter chemistry, and (4) P runoff following litter application. Two farms were used for this study: one had six poultry houses and the other had four. The litter in half of the houses at each farm was treated with alum; the other houses were controls. Alum was applied at a rate of 1,816 kg/house, which corresponded to 0.091 kg/bird. Each year the houses were cleaned in the spring and the litter was broadcast onto paired watersheds in tall fescue at each farm. Results from this study showed that alum applications lowered the litter pH, particularly during the first 3 to 4 wk of each growout. Reductions in litter pH resulted in less NH{sub 3} volatilization, which led to reductions in atmospheric NH{sub 3} in the alum-treated houses. Broilers grown on alum-treated litter were significantly heavier than controls (1.73 kg vs. 1.66 kg). Soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) concentrations in runoff from pastures fertilized with alum-treated litter averaged 73% lower than that from normal litter throughout a 3-yr period. These results indicate that alum-treatment of poultry litter is a very effective best management practice that reduces nonpoint source pollution while it increases agricultural productivity.

  17. Effects of submicron ammonium sulfate particles on the growth and yield of komatsuna (Brassica rapa L. var. perviridis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motai, Akira; Nakaba, Satoshi; Lenggoro, I. Wuled; Watanabe, Makoto; Wada, Yoshiharu; Izuta, Takeshi

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of submicron ammonium sulfate (AS) particles on komatsuna (Brassica rapa L. cv. Hakkei) plants. First, we optimized a leaf-washing method to measure the amount of AS particles deposited on the leaf surface of the plants. Then, we used this method to determine the retention time of particles deposited on the leaf surface of the plants. We also investigated the effects of AS particles on the growth and yield of the plants. Almost all the AS particles deposited on the leaf surface were removed within 1 min washing time with ultrapure water, and ion leaching from the leaf was relatively slow but continuous during the leaf-washing procedure. On the basis of these results, we determined that 1 min was a suitable washing time to remove most of the AS particles while minimizing the influence of ion leaching from the leaf. The amount of particulate SO42- deposited on the leaf surface decreased over time, probably because AS particles deposited on the leaf surface deliquesced, allowing ions such as SO42- in the deliquescence solution to be absorbed into the leaf. The plants were grown and exposed to AS particles for 16 days in naturally lit phytotrons. The daily mean increase in the concentration of SO42- in PM2.5 by the exposure to AS particles was 22.5 μg m-3 in the phytotrons. The growth and yield of the plants were significantly reduced by the exposure to AS particles. The exposure to AS particles did not affect the leaf concentrations of nitrogen and chlorophyll, but significantly reduced stomatal conductance. Therefore, stomatal closure is one of the reasons for the AS particle-induced reductions in the growth and yield of komatsuna plants.

  18. Studies on Thermal Decomposition of Aluminium Sulfate to Produce Alumina Nano Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Jafar-Tafreshi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum sulfate nano structures have been prepared by solution combustion synthesis using aluminum nitrate nonahydrate (Al(NO33.9H2O and ammonium sulfate ((NH42SO4. The resultant aluminum sulfate nano structures were calcined at different temperatures to study thermal  decomposition of aluminum sulfate. The crystallinity and phase of  the as-synthesized and calcined samples were characterized by both X- ray diffraction and FTIR measurements. These two analyses determined the temperature at which the aluminum sulfate is converted to γ-alumina nano particles. The specific surface area and pore size distribution for  γ-alumina nano particles were determined by BET measurement. TEM measurement confirmed the size of the particles obtained by XRD and BET analyses.

  19. Photoluminescence properties of anodic aluminum oxide formed in a mixture of ammonium fluoride and oxalic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shou-Yi; Wang, Jian; Li, Yan

    2017-06-01

    Highly ordered anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes are fabricated electrochemically in an electrolyte mixture with various concentrations of C2H2O4 or NH4F. Photoluminescence (PL) properties of AAO membranes have been investigated before and after annealing in the range from 300°C to 650°C. X-ray diffraction reveals the amorphous nature of AAO membranes. Energy dispersive spectroscopy indicates the presence of fluorine species incorporated in oxide membranes during the anodizing. PL measurements show a strong PL band in the wavelength range of 350 to 550 nm. With the increase of the concentration of the NH4F or C2H2O4 in the electrolyte mixture, the peak positions of the PL bands have a blueshift or redshift and the intensities have a maximum value. As indicated by the PL excitation spectra, there are two excitation peaks of 285 and 330 nm, which can account for the PL emission band. We have proposed that the PL originates from optical transitions in two kinds of centers that are related to oxygen vacancies, F+ (285 nm) and F (330 nm). This work is not only beneficial to further understanding of the light-emitting property of AAO membranes but also enlarges the application scope.

  20. [Sensitive Determination of Chondroitin Sulfate by Fluorescence Recovery of an Anionic Aluminum Phthalocyanine-Cationic Surfactant Ion-Association Complex Used as a Fluorescent Probe Emitting at Red Region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lin; Huang, Ping; Yang, Hui-qing; Deng, Ya-bin; Guo, Meng-lin; Li, Dong-hui

    2015-08-01

    Determination of chondroitin sulfate in the biomedical field has an important value. The conventional methods for the assay of chondroitin sulfate are still unsatisfactory in sensitivity, selectivity or simplicity. This work aimed at developing a novel method for sensitive and selective determination of chondroitin sulfate by fluorimetry. We found that some kinds of cationic surfactants have the ability to quench the fluorescence of tetrasulfonated aluminum phthalocyanine (AlS4Pc), a strongly fluorescent compound which emits at red region, with high efficiency. But, the fluorescence of the above-mentioned fluorescence quenching system recovered significantly when chondroitin sulfate (CS) exits. Tetradecyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride(TDBAC) which was screened from all of the candidates of cationic surfactants was chosen as the quencher because it shows the most efficient quenching effect. It was found that the fluorescence of AlS4Pc was extremely quenched by TDBAC because of the formation of association complex between AlS4Pc and TDBAC. Fluorescence of the association complex recovered dramatically after the addition of chondroitin sulfate (CS) due to the ability of chondroitin sulfate to shift the association equilibrium of the association, leading to the release of AlS4Pc, thus resulting in an increase in the fluorescence of the reaction system. Based on this phenomenon, a novel method with simplicity, accuracy and sensitivity was developed for quantitative determination of CS. Factors including the reaction time, influencing factors and the effect of coexisting substances were investigated and discussed. Under optimum conditions the linear range of the calibration curve was 0.20~10.0 μg · mL(-1). The detection limit for CS was 0.070 μg · mL(-1). The method has been applied to the analysis of practical samples with satisfied results. This work expands the applications of AlS4Pc in biomedical area.

  1. Comparison of secondary organic aerosol formation from toluene on initially wet and dry ammonium sulfate particles at moderate relative humidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Liu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA has been widely studied in the presence of dry seed particles at low relative humidity (RH. At higher RH, initially dry seed particles can exist as wet particles due to water uptake by the seeds as well as the SOA. Here, we investigated the formation of SOA from the photooxidation of toluene using an oxidation flow reactor in the absence of NOx under a range of OH exposures on initially wet or dry ammonium sulfate (AS seed particles at an RH of 68 %. The ratio of the SOA yield on wet AS seeds to that on dry AS seeds, the relative SOA yield, decreased from 1.31 ± 0.02 at an OH exposure of 4.66 × 1010 molecules cm−3 s to 1.01 ± 0.01 at an OH exposure of 5.28 × 1011 molecules cm−3 s. This decrease may be due to the early deliquescence of initially dry AS seeds after being coated by highly oxidized toluene-derived SOA. SOA formation lowered the deliquescence RH of AS and resulted in the uptake of water by both AS and SOA. Hence the initially dry AS seeds contained aerosol liquid water (ALW soon after SOA formed, and the SOA yield and ALW approached those of the initially wet AS seeds as OH exposure and ALW increased, especially at high OH exposure. However, a higher oxidation state of the SOA on initially wet AS seeds than that on dry AS seeds was observed at all levels of OH exposure. The difference in mass fractions of m ∕ z 29, 43 and 44 of SOA mass spectra, obtained using an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS, indicated that SOA formed on initially wet seeds may be enriched in earlier-generation products containing carbonyl functional groups at low OH exposures and later-generation products containing acidic functional groups at high exposures. Our results suggest that inorganic dry seeds become at least partially deliquesced particles during SOA formation and hence that ALW is inevitably involved in the SOA formation at moderate RH. More laboratory

  2. Comparison of secondary organic aerosol formation from toluene on initially wet and dry ammonium sulfate particles at moderate relative humidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tengyu; Huang, Dan Dan; Li, Zijun; Liu, Qianyun; Chan, ManNin; Chan, Chak K.

    2018-04-01

    The formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) has been widely studied in the presence of dry seed particles at low relative humidity (RH). At higher RH, initially dry seed particles can exist as wet particles due to water uptake by the seeds as well as the SOA. Here, we investigated the formation of SOA from the photooxidation of toluene using an oxidation flow reactor in the absence of NOx under a range of OH exposures on initially wet or dry ammonium sulfate (AS) seed particles at an RH of 68 %. The ratio of the SOA yield on wet AS seeds to that on dry AS seeds, the relative SOA yield, decreased from 1.31 ± 0.02 at an OH exposure of 4.66 × 1010 molecules cm-3 s to 1.01 ± 0.01 at an OH exposure of 5.28 × 1011 molecules cm-3 s. This decrease may be due to the early deliquescence of initially dry AS seeds after being coated by highly oxidized toluene-derived SOA. SOA formation lowered the deliquescence RH of AS and resulted in the uptake of water by both AS and SOA. Hence the initially dry AS seeds contained aerosol liquid water (ALW) soon after SOA formed, and the SOA yield and ALW approached those of the initially wet AS seeds as OH exposure and ALW increased, especially at high OH exposure. However, a higher oxidation state of the SOA on initially wet AS seeds than that on dry AS seeds was observed at all levels of OH exposure. The difference in mass fractions of m / z 29, 43 and 44 of SOA mass spectra, obtained using an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS), indicated that SOA formed on initially wet seeds may be enriched in earlier-generation products containing carbonyl functional groups at low OH exposures and later-generation products containing acidic functional groups at high exposures. Our results suggest that inorganic dry seeds become at least partially deliquesced particles during SOA formation and hence that ALW is inevitably involved in the SOA formation at moderate RH. More laboratory experiments conducted with a wide variety of SOA precursors

  3. Hygroscopic properties and cloud condensation nuclei activation of limonene-derived organosulfates and their mixtures with ammonium sulfate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, A. M. K.; Hong, J.; Raatikainen, T.; Kristensen, K.; Ylisirniö, A.; Virtanen, A.; Petäjä, T.; Glasius, M.; Prisle, N. L.

    2015-12-01

    Organosulfates have been observed as constituents of atmospheric aerosols in a wide range of environments; however their hygroscopic properties remain uncharacterised. Here, limonene-derived organosulfates with a molecular weight of 250 Da (L-OS 250) were synthesised and used for simultaneous measurements with a hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyser (H-TDMA) and a cloud condensation nuclei counter (CCNC) to determine the hygroscopicity parameter, κ, for pure L-OS 250 and mixtures of L-OS 250 with ammonium sulfate (AS) over a wide range of humidity conditions. The κ values derived from measurements with H-TDMA decreased with increasing particle dry diameter for all chemical compositions investigated, indicating that κH-TDMA depends on particle diameter and/or surface effects; however, it is not clear if this trend is statistically significant. For pure L-OS 250, κ was found to increase with increasing relative humidity, indicating dilution/solubility effects to be significant. Discrepancies in κ between the sub- and supersaturated measurements were observed for L-OS 250, whereas κ of AS and mixed L-OS 250/AS were similar. This discrepancy was primarily ascribed to limited dissolution of L-OS 250 at subsaturated conditions. In general, hygroscopic growth factor, critical particle diameter and κ for the mixed L-OS 250/AS particles converged towards the values of pure AS for mixtures with ≥ 20 % w / w AS. Surface tension measurements of bulk aqueous L-OS 250/AS solutions showed that L-OS 250 was indeed surface active, as expected from its molecular structure, decreasing the surface tension of solutions with 24 % from the pure water value at a L-OS 250 concentration of 0.0025 mol L-1. Based on these surface tension measurements, we present the first concentration-dependent parametrisation of surface tension for aqueous L-OS 250, which was implemented to different process-level models of L-OS 250 hygroscopicity and CCN activation. The values of κ

  4. Effect of Ammonium Chloride on the Efficiency with Which Copper Sulfate Activates Marmatite: Change in Solution Composition and Regulation of Surface Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengdong Zhang

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Zinc sulfide minerals are the primary choice for zinc extraction and marmatite is one of the two most common zinc sulphide minerals (sphalerite and marmatite, therefore it is of great significance to study and optimize the flotation of marmatite. To improve the activation of copper sulfate on marmatite, a method involving the addition of ammonium chloride is devised. The method has been proven to be an effective way of improving the activation efficiency of copper sulfate towards marmatite under alkaline conditions. The strengthening mechanism was studied using micro-flotation, adsorption test, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and by analyzing changes in solution composition. Flotation test results show that the activation effect of the copper sulfate towards marmatite is enhanced with the addition of ammonium chloride. According to the results of the adsorption measurements and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis, when the marmatite surface is activated using copper sulfate with added ammonia chloride, it adsorbs more copper sulfide and less copper hydroxide and zinc hydroxide. These changes in surface composition are believed to occur via the following process: NH3(aq promotes the dissolution of zinc hydroxide and then facilitates the conversion of surface copper hydroxide to copper sulfide. In addition, the occurrence of Cu(NH3n2+ can promote the adsorption of copper ions (Cu2+ can be stored as Cu(NH3n2+ via complexation, and then, when the concentration of copper ions decreases, Cu2+ can be released through the decompositionof Cu(NH3n2+. Hence, the copper ion concentration can be maintained and this can facilitate the adsorption of Cu2+ on marmatite. Based on a comprehensive analysis of all our results, we propose that adding ammonium chloride to the copper sulfate changes the solution components (i.e., the presence of NH3(aq and Cu(NH3n2+ and then regulates the surface composition of marmatite. The change in surface composition

  5. Diversification of the Industrial Use of the Land River Layer: Obtaining Aluminum Sulfate for Water Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Rodríguez-Suárez

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available With the objective of obtaining aluminum sulphate to be used as a coagulant in the water treatment, experimental test works were conducted with a sample of the kaolin ore body Río del Callejón located in the special municipality of the Isle of Youth. The sample was characterized from the chemical and granulometric point of view and was subjected to a technological process with calcination and sulphuric acid leaching being the main operations. The Plackett–Burman screening design was used in the technological tests taking calcination temperature, calcination time, leaching temperature, leaching time, agitation velocity, acid concentration and liquid-solid ratio as independent variables. An aluminum sulphate with suitable characteristics to be used as a coagulant substance in water treatment (human consumption and residual was obtained. The experimental results revealed that the aluminum sulphate obtained shows better quality than that of the one currently obtained in the industry using aluminum hydroxide.

  6. Ferrous ammonium phosphate (FeNH₄PO₄) as a new food fortificant: iron bioavailability compared to ferrous sulfate and ferric pyrophosphate from an instant milk drink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walczyk, Thomas; Kastenmayer, Peter; Storcksdieck Genannt Bonsmann, Stefan; Zeder, Christophe; Grathwohl, Dominik; Hurrell, Richard F

    2013-06-01

    The main purpose of this study was to establish bioavailability data in humans for the new (Fe) fortification compound ferrous ammonium phosphate (FAP), which was specially developed for fortification of difficult-to-fortify foods where soluble Fe compounds cannot be used due to their negative impact on product stability. A double-blind, randomized clinical trial with cross-over design was conducted to obtain bioavailability data for FAP in humans. In this trial, Fe absorption from FAP-fortified full-cream milk powder was compared to that from ferric pyrophosphate (FPP) and ferrous sulfate. Fe absorption was determined in 38 young women using the erythrocyte incorporation dual stable isotope technique (⁵⁷Fe, ⁵⁸Fe). Geometric mean Fe absorption from ferrous sulfate, FAP and FPP was 10.4, 7.4 and 3.3 %, respectively. Fe from FAP was significantly better absorbed from milk than Fe from FPP (p soluble reference compound (p = 0.0002). Absorption ratios of FAP and FPP relative to ferrous sulfate as a measure of relative bioavailability were 0.71 and 0.32, respectively. The results of the present studies show that replacing FPP with FAP in full-cream milk could significantly improve iron bioavailability.

  7. Comparison of ferric chloride and aluminum sulfate on phosphorus removal and membrane fouling in MBR treating BAF effluent of municipal wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Li

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A membrane bioreactor (MBR was used for treating biological aerated filter effluent in a municipal wastewater plant, and chemical phosphorus removal was accomplished in the MBR. The results showed that ferric chloride of 20 mg/L and aluminum sulfate of 30 mg/L were the optimal dosages for total phosphorus (TP removal, and the TP removal efficiency was over 80%. In long-term continuous operations, both ferric chloride and aluminum sulfate effectively mitigated membrane fouling, with the corresponding growth rate of transmembrane pressure decreased to 0.08 and 0.067 kPa/d, respectively. Sludge particle sizes analysis demonstrated that the decrease of particle sizes lower than 50 μm was the main reason for membrane fouling control. Simultaneously, the proteins and polysaccharide (PS concentrations in the MBR supernatant were analyzed, and the PS concentration significantly decreased to 2.02 mg/L at aluminum sulfate of 30 mg/L, indicating the flocculation of aluminum sulfate on PS was the main reason for mitigation of membrane fouling.

  8. Evaluation of aluminum sulfate (alum) as a feedlot surface amendment to reduce ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, and greenhouse gas emissions from beef feedlots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammonia (NH3) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from concentrated feeding operations are a concern. The poultry industry has successfully used aluminum sulfate (Alum) as a litter amendment to reduce NH3 emissions from poultry barns. Alum has not been eval­uated for similar uses on cattle feedlot su...

  9. Sulfate-nitrate-ammonium aerosols over China: response to 2000–2015 emission changes of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and ammonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Wang

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We use a chemical transport model to examine the change of sulfate-nitrate-ammonium (SNA aerosols over China due to anthropogenic emission changes of their precursors (SO2, NOx and NH3 from 2000 to 2015. From 2000 to 2006, annual mean SNA concentrations increased by about 60% over China as a result of the 60% and 80% increases in SO2 and NOx emissions. During this period, sulfate is the dominant component of SNA over South China (SC and Sichuan Basin (SCB, while nitrate and sulfate contribute equally over North China (NC. Based on emission reduction targets in the 12th (2011–2015 Five-Year Plan (FYP, China's total SO2 and NOx emissions are projected to change by −16% and +16% from 2006 to 2015, respectively. The amount of NH3 emissions in 2015 is uncertain, given the lack of sufficient information on the past and present levels of NH3 emissions in China. With no change in NH3 emissions, SNA mass concentrations in 2015 will decrease over SCB and SC compared to their 2006 levels, but increase over NC where the magnitude of nitrate increase exceeds that of sulfate reduction. This suggests that the SO2 emission reduction target set by the 12th FYP, although effective in reducing SNA over SC and SCB, will not be successful over NC, for which NOx emission control needs to be strengthened. If NH3 emissions are allowed to keep their recent growth rate and increase by +16% from 2006 to 2015, the benefit of SO2 reduction will be completely offset over all of China due to the significant increase of nitrate, demonstrating the critical role of NH3 in regulating nitrate. The effective strategy to control SNA and hence PM2.5 pollution over China should thus be based on improving understanding of current NH3 emissions and putting more emphasis on controlling NH3 emissions in the future.

  10. Hygroscopicity of organic surrogate compounds from biomass burning and their effect on the efflorescence of ammonium sulfate in mixed aerosol particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Ting; Zuend, Andreas; Cheng, Yafang; Su, Hang; Wang, Weigang; Ge, Maofa

    2018-01-01

    Hygroscopic growth factors of organic surrogate compounds representing biomass burning and mixed organic-inorganic aerosol particles exhibit variability during dehydration experiments depending on their chemical composition, which we observed using a hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer (HTDMA). We observed that levoglucosan and humic acid aerosol particles release water upon dehumidification in the range from 90 to 5 % relative humidity (RH). However, 4-Hydroxybenzoic acid aerosol particles remain in the solid state upon dehumidification and exhibit a small shrinking in size at higher RH compared to the dry size. For example, the measured growth factor of 4-hyroxybenzoic acid aerosol particles is ˜ 0.96 at 90 % RH. The measurements were accompanied by RH-dependent thermodynamic equilibrium calculations using the Aerosol Inorganic-Organic Mixtures Functional groups Activity Coefficients (AIOMFAC) model and Extended Aerosol Inorganics Model (E-AIM), the Zdanovskii-Stokes-Robinson (ZSR) relation, and a fitted hygroscopicity expression. We observed several effects of organic components on the hygroscopicity behavior of mixtures containing ammonium sulfate (AS) in relation to the different mass fractions of organic compounds: (1) a shift of efflorescence relative humidity (ERH) of ammonium sulfate to higher RH due to the presence of 25 wt % levoglucosan in the mixture. (2) There is a distinct efflorescence transition at 25 % RH for mixtures consisting of 25 wt % of 4-hydroxybenzoic acid compared to the ERH at 35 % for organic-free AS particles. (3) There is indication for a liquid-to-solid phase transition of 4-hydroxybenzoic acid in the mixed particles during dehydration. (4) A humic acid component shows no significant effect on the efflorescence of AS in mixed aerosol particles. In addition, consideration of a composition-dependent degree of dissolution of crystallization AS (solid-liquid equilibrium) in the AIOMFAC and E-AIM models leads to a

  11. Modulation of tumor necrosis factor {alpha} expression in mouse brain after exposure to aluminum in drinking water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsunoda, M.; Sharma, R.P. [Georgia Univ., Athens (Greece). College of Veterinary Medicine

    1999-11-01

    Aluminum, a known neurotoxic substance and a ground-water pollutant, is a possible contributing factor in various nervous disorders including Alzheimer's disease. It has been hypothesized that cytokines are involved in aluminum neurotoxicity. We investigated the alterations in mRNA expression of tumor necrosis factor {alpha} (TNF{alpha}), interleukin-1{beta} (IL-1{beta}), and interferon {gamma} (IFN{gamma}), cytokines related to neuronal damage, in cerebrum and peripheral immune cells of mice after exposure to aluminum through drinking water. Groups of male BALB/c mice were administered aluminum ammonium sulfate in drinking water ad libitum at 0, 5, 25, and 125 ppm aluminum for 1 month. An additional group received 250 ppm ammonium as ammonium sulfate. After treatment, the cerebrum, splenic macrophages and lymphocytes were collected. The expression of TNF{alpha} mRNA in cerebrum was significantly increased among aluminum-treated groups compared with the control, in a dose-dependent manner. Other cytokines did not show any aluminum-related effects. In peripheral cells, there were no significant differences of cytokine mRNA expressions among treatment groups. Increased expression of TNF{alpha} mRNA by aluminum in cerebrum may reflect activation of microglia, a major source of TNF{alpha} in this brain region. Because the aluminum-induced alteration in cytokine message occurred at aluminum concentrations similar to those noted in contaminated water, these results may be relevant in considering the risk of aluminum neurotoxicity in drinking water. (orig.)

  12. Alleviating aluminum toxicity in an acid sulfate soil from Peninsular Malaysia by calcium silicate application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elisa, A. A.; Ninomiya, S.; Shamshuddin, J.; Roslan, I.

    2016-03-01

    In response to human population increase, the utilization of acid sulfate soils for rice cultivation is one option for increasing production. The main problems associated with such soils are their low pH values and their associated high content of exchangeable Al, which could be detrimental to crop growth. The application of soil amendments is one approach for mitigating this problem, and calcium silicate is an alternative soil amendment that could be used. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to ameliorate soil acidity in rice-cropped soil. The secondary objective was to study the effects of calcium silicate amendment on soil acidity, exchangeable Al, exchangeable Ca, and Si content. The soil was treated with 0, 1, 2, and 3 Mg ha-1 of calcium silicate under submerged conditions and the soil treatments were sampled every 30 days throughout an incubation period of 120 days. Application of calcium silicate induced a positive effect on soil pH and exchangeable Al; soil pH increased from 2.9 (initial) to 3.5, while exchangeable Al was reduced from 4.26 (initial) to 0.82 cmolc kg-1. Furthermore, the exchangeable Ca and Si contents increased from 1.68 (initial) to 4.94 cmolc kg-1 and from 21.21 (initial) to 81.71 mg kg-1, respectively. Therefore, it was noted that calcium silicate was effective at alleviating Al toxicity in acid sulfate, rice-cropped soil, yielding values below the critical level of 2 cmolc kg-1. In addition, application of calcium silicate showed an ameliorative effect as it increased soil pH and supplied substantial amounts of Ca and Si.

  13. Experimental Study on the Feasibility of Using Water Glass and Aluminum Sulfate to Treat Complications in High Liquid Limit Soil Subgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-hui Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The feasibility of using water glass and aluminum sulfate to treat high liquid limit soil subgrade diseases is studied through laboratory experiments, and the following results were observed. After improving the high liquid limit clay with water glass and aluminum sulfate, the liquid limit decreases, the plastic limit increases, and the plasticity index decreases. Compared with untreated soil, the clay content of the improved soil decreases, while the silt and coarse contents increase. The absolute and relative expansion rates of the improved soil are both lower than those of the untreated soil. With the same number of dry and wet cycles, the decreased degrees of cohesion and internal friction angle of the improved soil are, respectively, one-half and one-third of those of the untreated soil. After three dry and wet cycles, the California bearing ratio (CBR of the untreated soil does not meet the requirements of specifications. However, after being cured for seven days and being subjected to three dry and wet cycles, the CBR of the improved soil, with 4% water glass solution and 0.4% aluminum sulfate, meets the requirements of specifications.

  14. Final report on the safety assessment of sodium cetearyl sulfate and related alkyl sulfates as used in cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiume, Monice; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Klaassen, Curtis D; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Alan Andersen, F

    2010-05-01

    Sodium cetearyl sulfate is the sodium salt of a mixture of cetyl and stearyl sulfate. The other ingredients in this safety assessment are also alkyl salts, including ammonium coco-sulfate, ammonium myristyl sulfate, magnesium coco-sulfate, sodium cetyl sulfate, sodium coco/hydrogenated tallow sulfate, sodium coco-sulfate, sodium decyl sulfate, sodium ethylhexyl sulfate, sodium myristyl sulfate, sodium oleyl sulfate, sodium stearyl sulfate, sodium tallow sulfate, sodium tridecyl sulfate, and zinc coco-sulfate. These ingredients are surfactants used at concentrations from 0.1% to 29%, primarily in soaps and shampoos. Many of these ingredients are not in current use. The Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel previously completed a safety assessment of sodium and ammonium lauryl sulfate. The data available for sodium lauryl sulfate and ammonium lauryl sulfate provide sufficient basis for concluding that sodium cetearyl sulfate and related alkyl sulfates are safe in the practices of use and concentration described in the safety assessment.

  15. Effects of sulfate and nitrate anions on aluminum corrosion in slightly alkaline solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shengyi; Church, Benjamin C.

    2018-05-01

    The corrosion mechanisms and kinetics of AA1085 in Li2SO4 and LiNO3 aqueous rechargeable lithium-ion battery electrolytes were investigated at pH 11 using chronoamperometry. The corrosion kinetics of AA1085 is controlled by the electrolyte concentration level and the anodic potentials. AA1085 is susceptible to crystallographic pitting corrosion in Li2SO4 electrolytes. The rates of pit nucleation and pit growth both decreased at higher Li2SO4 concentrations or at lower anodic potentials. AA1085 passivates against pitting corrosion in LiNO3 electrolytes due to the formation of a thick, uniform corrosion product layer. The growth rate of the passive film was slightly enhanced by increasing the electrolyte concentration and anodic potentials. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy spectra showed the formation of a thin sulfate-incorporated passive film on the electrode, which comprises Al2(SO)418H2O, Al(OH)SO4 and Al(OH)3, before the occurrence of pitting growth in 2 M Li2SO4 electrolyte. The thick corrosion product layer formed in 5 M LiNO3 electrolyte was composed of Al(OH)3 and AlOOH. Raman spectroscopy on deionized water, LiOH solution, Li2SO4 and LiNO3 electrolytes depicted changes of solution structure with increasing electrolyte concentration. The influence of extrinsic and intrinsic factors on the corrosion kinetics of AA1085 in Li2SO4 and LiNO3 electrolytes at pH 11 are discussed in detail.

  16. Development and Characterization of Gas Diffusion Layer Using Carbon Slurry Dispersed by Ammonium Lauryl Sulfate for Proton Exchange Member Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villacorta, Rashida

    Gas diffusion layers (GDLs) are a critical and essential part of proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). They carry out various important functions such as transportation of reactants to and from the reaction sites. The material properties and structural characteristics of the substrate and the microporous layer strongly influence fuel cell performance. The microporous layer of the GDLs was fabricated with the carbon slurry dispersed in water containing ammonium lauryl sulfate (ALS) using the wire rod coating method. GDLs were fabricated with different materials to compose the microporous layer and evaluated the effects on PEMFC power output performance. The consistency of the carbon slurry was achieved by adding 25 wt. % of PTFE, a binding agent with a 75:25 ratio of carbon (Pureblack and vapor grown carbon fiber). The GDLs were investigated in PEMFC under various relative humidity (RH) conditions using H2/O2 and H2/Air. GDLs were also fabricated with the carbon slurry dispersed in water containing sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) with isopropyl alcohol (IPA) based for fuel cell performance comparison. MWCNTs and SDS exhibits the highest performance at 60% and 70% RH with a peak power density of 1100 mW.cm-2 and 850 mW.cm-2 using air and oxygen as an oxidant. This means that the gas diffusion characteristics of these two samples were optimum at 60 and 70 % RH with high limiting current density range. It was also found that the composition of the carbon slurry, specifically ALS concentration has the highest peak power density of 1300 and 500mW.cm-2 for both H2/O 2 and H2/Air at 100% RH. However, SDS and MWCNTs demonstrates the lowest power density using air and oxygen as an oxidants at 100% RH.

  17. Restraining Na-Montmorillonite Delamination in Water by Adsorption of Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate or Octadecyl Trimethyl Ammonium Chloride on the Edges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongliang Li

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The delamination of montmorillonite in water leads to sliming in ore slurry, which is detrimental to mineral flotation and solid/water separation. In this work, the delamination of Na-montmorillonite (Na-MMT has been restrained by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS or octadecyl trimethyl ammonium chloride (1831 through the adsorption on the edge of the mineral. The experimental results have shown that the pretreatment by adding SDS and 1831 could greatly reduce the Stokes size percentage of −1.1 µm particles in the aqueous Na-MMT suspension. From the X-ray diffractometer (XRD results, the interlayer spacing of the MMT pre-treated by SDS and 1831 is smaller than that of original MMT particles. Adsorption position of SDS and 1831 on MMT surfaces was analyzed by the measurements of adsorption capacity of SDS and 1831, inductively-coupled plasma spectra, and zeta potential before and after the plane surface of MMT was covered with tetraethylenepentaminecopper ([Cu(tetren]2+. The results indicated that SDS and 1831 are adsorbed on the edge and the whole surface of Na-MMT, respectively. Delamination of MMT could be well restrained by the adsorption of SDS and 1831 on the edges of MMT.

  18. Infrared optical constants of aqueous sulfate-nitrate-ammonium multi-component tropospheric aerosols from attenuated total reflectance measurements: Part II. An examination of mixing rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boer, Gregory J.; Sokolik, Irina N.; Martin, Scot T.

    2007-01-01

    We examine the performance of several mixing rules that are commonly used in modeling optical constants of aerosol mixtures either in remote sensing or radiation transfer/climate studies employing the new refractive index data reported in Part I. We demonstrate that the optical constants of the considered mixtures are not accurately modeled using pure solute optical constants (e.g., ammonium sulfate optical constants and the optical constants of pure water) due to the complex ion-ion and ion-water interactions. On the other hand, we do find that ternary and quaternary mixtures can be well modeled by applying the mixing rules to lower order multi-component optical constants data, e.g., binary data to determine ternary optical constants, or binary and ternary data to determine quaternary optical constants. By using lower order optical constants data sets, much of the ion-ion and ion-water effects are captured. Both mass-fraction and volume-fraction weighting of the 'component' optical constants yield satisfactory results, performing as well or better than the more complicated mixing rules. These findings will be of practical use in remote sensing and radiation transfer/climate studies as well as help guide the decision on what optical constants measurements will be required

  19. Aluminum potassium sulfate and tannic acid sclerotherapy for Goligher Grades II and III hemorrhoids: Results from a multicenter study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Hidenori; Hada, Takenori; Ishiyama, Gentaro; Ono, Yoshito; Watanabe, Hideo

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To show that aluminum potassium sulfate and tannic acid (ALTA) sclerotherapy has a high success rate for Grade II and III hemorrhoids. METHODS: This study was based on the clinical data of 604 patients with hemorrhoids who underwent ALTA sclerotherapy between January 2009 and February 2015. The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy of this treatment for Grades II and III hemorrhoids. Preoperative and postoperative symptoms, complications and success rate were all assessed retrospectively. Follow-up consisted of a simple questionnaire, physical examination and an anoscopy. Patients were followed-up at one day, one week, two weeks, one month, one year, two years, three years, four years and five years after the ALTA sclerotherapy. RESULTS: One hundred and sixty-nine patients were diagnosed with Grade II hemorrhoids and 435 patients were diagnosed with Grade III hemorrhoids. The one year, three year and five year cumulative success rates of ALTA sclerotherapy for Grades II and III hemorrhoids were 95.9% and 93.1%; 89.3% and 83.7%; and 89.3% and 78.2%, respectively. No significant differences were observed in the cumulative success rates after ALTA sclerotherapy between Grades II and III hemorrhoids (P = 0.09). There were forty-seven post-operative complications (low grade fever; anal pain; urinary retention; rectal ulcer; and others). No serious or life-threatening complications occurred and all cases improved through conservative treatment. At univariate analysis there were no predictive factors of failure. CONCLUSION: ALTA sclerotherapy has had a high success rate for Grade II and III hemorrhoids during five years of post-operative treatment. However, additional studies are needed to evaluate the efficacy of this ALTA sclerotherapy in the management of hemorrhoidal disease. PMID:27458504

  20. The ferrous ammonium sulfate solid system, as dosemeter for processes at low temperatures and high doses of gamma radiation; El sistema sulfato ferroso amoniacal solido, como dosimetro para procesos a bajas temperaturas y altas dosis de radiacion gamma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juarez C, J.M.; Ramos B, S.; Negron M, A. [ICN-UNAM, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    This paper presents the results obtained from a study of the radiation induced oxidation of crystalline ferrous ammonium sulfate with gamma rays at 295 K, 263 K and 77 K and dose from 0 to 300 kGy. The radiation induced decomposition of ferrous ammonium sulfate has been studied by the dissolution of the irradiated salt in 0,8 N sulfuric acid. The main product is Fe{sup 3+} and molar concentration of ferric ion was determined spectrophotometrically in the UV region at 304 nm. The optical density values showed a linear dependence with dose, indicating that the data obtained might be used to create a calibrating curve. Color in irradiated salt changes from blue to green, yellow and orange according to the absorbed dose. The accuracy and the reproducibility of the system were tested. In addition, some other characteristics make possible the use of this system as a dosimeter, similar to Fricke chemical dosemeter, at low temperatures and high dose. (Author)

  1. Kinetics of corrosion inhibition of aluminum in acidic media by water-soluble natural polymeric chondroitin-4-sulfate as anionic polyelectrolyte inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Refat M; Ibrahim, Samia M; Takagi, Hideo D; Sayed, Suzan A

    2018-07-15

    Corrosion inhibition of aluminum (Al) in hydrochloric acid by anionic polyelectrolyte chondroitin-4-sulfate (CS) polysaccharide has been studied using both gasometrical and weight-loss techniques. The results drawn from these two techniques are comparable and exhibit negligible differences. The inhibition efficiency was found to increase with increasing the inhibitor concentration and decreased with increasing temperature. The inhibition action of CS on Al metal surface was found to obey both of Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The factors affecting the corrosion rates such as the concentration and geometrical structure of the inhibitor, concentration of the corrosive medium, and the temperature were examined. The kinetic parameters were evaluated and a suitable corrosion mechanism consistent with the results obtained is discussed. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Stability of nicotinate and dodecyl sulfate in a Lewis acidic ionic liquid for aluminum electroplating and characterization of their degradation products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosmus, Patrick; Steiner, Oliver; Goessler, Walter; Gollas, Bernhard; Fauler, Gisela

    2016-04-01

    Plating bath additives are essential for optimization of the morphology of electroplated layers. The ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium (EMIM) chloride plus 1.5 mol equivalents of AlCl3 has great potential for electroplating of aluminum. In this study, the chemical and electrochemical stability of the additives EMIM-nicotinate and sodium dodecyl sulfate and their effect on the stability of EMIM was investigated and analyzed. Nicotinate and its electrochemical decomposition product β-picoline could be detected and we show with a single HPLC-UV-MS method that EMIM is not affected by the decomposition of this additive. An adapted standard HPLC-UV-MS method together with GC-MS and ion chromatography was used to analyze the decomposition products of SDS and possible realkylation products of EMIM. Several volatile medium and short chain-length alkanes as well as sulfate ions have been found as decomposition products of SDS. Alkenium ions formed as intermediates during the decomposition of SDS realkylate EMIM to produce mono- up to pentasubstituted alkyl-imidazoles. A reaction pathway involving Wagner-Meerwein rearrangements and Friedel-Crafts alkylations has been suggested to account for the formation of the detected products. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Treating ammonium-rich wastewater with sludge from water treatment plant to produce ammonium alum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Po Cheng

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study applies a process to treat ammonium-rich wastewater using alum-generated sludge form water purification plant, and gain economic benefit by producing ammonium alum (Al(NH4(SO42·12H2O. The factors affecting production of ammonium alum include molar ratio of ammonium to aluminum concentration, sulfuric acid concentration, mixing speed, mixing time, standing time, and temperature. According to the equation for the ammonium removal reaction, the theoretical quantity of ammonium alum was calculated based on initial and final concentrations of ammonium. Then, the weight of ammonium alum crystal was divided by the theoretical weight to derive the recovery ratio. The optimum sludge and sulfuric acid dosage to treat about 17 g L−1 ammonium wastewater are 300 g L−1 and 100 mL L−1, respectively. The optimal dosage for wastewater is molar ratio of ammonium to aluminum of about 1 due to the aluminum dissolving in acidified wastewater. The ammonium removal efficiency is roughly 70% and the maximum recovery ratio for ammonium alum is 93% when the wastewater is mixed for 10 min at the mixing velocity gradient of 100 s−1. Ammonium alum production or ammonium removal can be enhanced by controlling the reaction at low temperatures.

  4. Dessecação de plantas daninhas com glyphosate em mistura com ureia ou sulfato de amônio Weed desiccation with glyphosate mixed with urea or ammonium sulfate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.J.P. Carvalho

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available O glyphosate é um herbicida não-seletivo, sistêmico, usado para controle de plantas daninhas anuais e perenes em todo o mundo. A absorção da molécula do glyphosate ocorre pelos tecidos fotossinteticamente ativos das plantas, porém alguns fatores podem reduzir sua eficácia, como a morfologia e diversidade de espécies, chuva após aplicação, qualidade da água e misturas em tanque com outros defensivos, entre outros. Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar a influência da adição de sulfato de amônio ou ureia em calda na eficácia do herbicida glyphosate para dessecação de plantas daninhas. Dois experimentos foram desenvolvidos em Piracicaba - SP, com aplicações de glyphosate (720 e 1.440 g ha-1 isolado ou combinado com duas doses de sulfato de amônio (7,5 e 15,0 g L-1 ou ureia (2,5 e 5,0 g L-1 sobre as plantas daninhas: apaga-fogo (Alternanthera tenella e capim-massambará (Sorghum halepense. Para a espécie menos suscetível ao herbicida (capim-massambará, a adição de fontes nitrogenadas à menor dose de glyphosate acelerou a morte das plantas, elevando os níveis de controle em até 7,3% na avaliação de 21 dias após aplicação (DAA dos tratamentos. Contudo, os efeitos não foram observados nas avaliações de controle, massa fresca e seca, conduzidas aos 28 DAA. A dose recomendada de glyphosate para cada espécie proporcionou controle satisfatório, sem a necessidade de adição de sulfato de amônio ou ureia.Glyphosate is a non-selective systemic herbicide used to control annual and perennial weeds worldwide. Molecule absorption occurs through the plant's photosynthetically-active tissues; however, some factors might reduce its efficacy, such as morphology and specific diversity, rain after application, water quality and tank mixtures with other chemicals. Thus, this work aimed to evaluate the influence of ammonium sulfate or urea addiction to spray tank on glyphosate efficacy for weed desiccation. Two trials were

  5. Determination of plutonium in nitric acid solutions - Method by oxidation by cerium(IV), reduction by iron(II) ammonium sulfate and amperometric back-titration with potassium dichromate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This International Standard specifies a precise and accurate analytical method for determining plutonium in nitric acid solutions. Plutonium is oxidized to plutonium(VI) in a 1 mol/l nitric acid solution with cerium(IV). Addition of sulfamic acid prevents nitrite-induced side reactions. The excess of cerium(IV) is reduced by adding a sodium arsenite solution, catalysed by osmium tetroxide. A slight excess of arsenite is oxidized by adding a 0.2 mol/l potassium permanganate solution. The excess of permanganate is reduced by adding a 0.1 mol/l oxalic acid solution. Iron(III) is used to catalyse the reduction. A small excess of oxalic acid does not interfere in the subsequent plutonium determination. These reduction and oxidation stages can be followed amperometrically and the plutonium is left in the hexavalent state. The sulfuric acid followed by a measured amount of standardized iron(II) ammonium sulfate solution in excess of that required to reduce the plutonium(VI) to plutonium(IV) is added. The excess iron(II) and any plutonium(III) formed to produce iron(III) and plutonium(IV) is amperometrically back-titrated using a standard potassium dichromate solution. The method is almost specifically for plutonium. It is suitable for the direct determination of plutonium in materials ranging from pure product solutions, to fast reactor fuel solutions with a uranium/plutonium ratio of up to 10:1, either before or after irradiation

  6. Effect of aluminum sulfate on litter composition and ammonia emission in a single flock of broilers up to 42 days of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madrid, J; López, M J; Orengo, J; Martínez, S; Valverde, M; Megías, M D; Hernández, F

    2012-08-01

    New alternatives are necessary if the environmental impact linked to intensive poultry production is to be reduced, and different litter handling methods should be explored. Among these, acidifying amendments added to poultry litters has been suggested as a management practice to help reduce the potential environmental effect involved in multiple flock cycles. There have been several studies on the use of aluminum sulfate (alum) and its benefits, but almost no data are available under farm conditions in Europe. An experiment with Ross 308 broilers from 1 to 42 days of age was conducted to evaluate the effect of alum on litter composition, the solubility of some mineral elements and NH3 emission during a single flock-rearing period in commercial houses located in southeast Spain. Broilers were placed on clean wood shavings in four commercial houses, containing 20 000 broilers each. Before filling, alum was applied at a rate of 0.25 kg/m2 to the wood shavings of two poultry houses, whereas the remaining two were used as control. Litter from each poultry house was sampled every 3 to 5 days. Ammonia emissions from the poultry houses were monitored from 37 to 42 days of age. In comparison with the control group, alum treatment significantly reduced the pH level of the litter (P litter showed, on average, a higher electrical conductivity than the control litter (5.52 v. 3.63 dS/m). The dry matter (DM) and total N and P contents did not show differences between the treatments (P > 0.05). Regarding the NH4 +-N content, alum-treated litter showed a higher value than the untreated litter, with an average difference of 0.16 ± 0.07% (on a DM basis). On average, alum-treated litter had lower water-soluble P, Zn and Cu contents than the untreated litter. Alum noticeably reduced the in-house ammonia concentration (P litter, with a corresponding positive effect on the building environment and poultry health. For these reasons, litter amendment with alum could be recommended as a

  7. Modeling dry and wet deposition of sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium ions in Jiuzhaigou National Nature Reserve, China using a source-oriented CMAQ model: Part I. Base case model results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Xue; Tang, Ya; Hu, Jianlin; Zhang, Shuai; Li, Jingyi; Kota, Sri Harsha; Wu, Li; Gao, Huilin; Zhang, Hongliang; Ying, Qi

    2015-11-01

    A source-oriented Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model driven by the meteorological fields generated by the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model was used to study the dry and wet deposition of nitrate (NO3(-)), sulfate (SO4(2-)), and ammonium (NH4(+)) ions in the Jiuzhaigou National Nature Reserve (JNNR), China from June to August 2010 and to identify the contributions of different emission sectors and source regions that were responsible for the deposition fluxes. The model performance is evaluated in this paper and the source contribution analyses are presented in a companion paper. The results show that WRF is capable of reproducing the observed precipitation rates with a Mean Normalized Gross Error (MNGE) of 8.1%. Predicted wet deposition fluxes of SO4(2-) and NO3(-) at the Long Lake (LL) site (3100 m a.s.l.) during the three-month episode are 2.75 and 0.34 kg S(N) ha(-1), which agree well with the observed wet deposition fluxes of 2.42 and 0.39 kg S(N) ha(-1), respectively. Temporal variations in the weekly deposition fluxes at LL are also well predicted. Wet deposition flux of NH4(+) at LL is over-predicted by approximately a factor of 3 (1.60 kg N ha(-1)vs. 0.56 kg N ha(-1)), likely due to missing alkaline earth cations such as Ca(2+) in the current CMAQ simulations. Predicted wet deposition fluxes are also in general agreement with observations at four Acid Deposition Monitoring Network in East Asia (EANET) sites in western China. Predicted dry deposition fluxes of SO4(2-) (including gas deposition of SO2) and NO3(-) (including gas deposition of HNO3) are 0.12 and 0.12 kg S(N) h a(-1) at LL and 0.07 and 0.08 kg S(N) ha(-1) at Jiuzhaigou Bureau (JB) in JNNR, respectively, which are much lower than the corresponding wet deposition fluxes. Dry deposition flux of NH4(+) (including gas deposition of NH3) is 0.21 kg N ha(-1) at LL, and is also much lower than the predicted wet deposition flux. For both dry and wet deposition fluxes, predictions

  8. Modeling dry and wet deposition of sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium ions in Jiuzhaigou National Nature Reserve, China using a source-oriented CMAQ model: Part II. Emission sector and source region contributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Xue; Tang, Ya; Kota, Sri Harsha; Li, Jingyi; Wu, Li; Hu, Jianlin; Zhang, Hongliang; Ying, Qi

    2015-11-01

    A source-oriented Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model driven by the meteorological fields generated by the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model was used to study the dry and wet deposition of nitrate (NO3(-)), sulfate (SO4(2-)), and ammonium (NH4(+)) ions in the Jiuzhaigou National Nature Reserve (JNNR), China from June to August 2010 and to identify the contributions of different emission sectors and source regions that were responsible for the deposition fluxes. Contributions from power plants, industry, transportation, domestic, biogenic, windblown dust, open burning, fertilizer, and manure management sources to deposition fluxes in JNNR watershed and four EANET sites are determined. In JNNR, 96%, 82%, and 87% of the SO4(2-), NO3(-) and NH4(+) deposition fluxes are in the form of wet deposition of the corresponding aerosol species. Industry and power plants are the two major sources of SO4(2-) deposition flux, accounting for 86% of the total wet deposition of SO4(2-), and industry has a higher contribution (56%) than that of power plants (30%). Power plants and industry are also the top sources that are responsible for NO3(-) wet deposition, and contributions from power plants (30%) are generally higher than those from industries (21%). The major sources of NH4(+) wet deposition flux in JNNR are fertilizer (48%) and manure management (39%). Source-region apportionment confirms that SO2 and NOx emissions from local and two nearest counties do not have a significant impact on predicted wet deposition fluxes in JNNR, with contributions less than 10%. While local NH3 emissions account for a higher fraction of the NH4(+) deposition, approximately 70% of NH4(+) wet deposition in JNNR originated from other source regions. This study demonstrates that S and N deposition in JNNR is mostly from long-range transport rather than from local emissions, and to protect JNNR, regional emission reduction controls are needed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All

  9. Effect of Ethylenediaminetetraacetic Acid and Ammonium Oxalate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    acid and ammonium oxalate on the prevalence of microorganisms and removal of aluminum in soil by bitter leaf plant (Vernonia ... highest accumulation of aluminium in the root (16.92mg/kg); however concentrations of aluminium in the roots were .... whereas the sulphate was 13.75mg/kg. Table 2: The total colony count of ...

  10. Distribution of nitrogen ammonium sulfate ({sup 15}N) soil-plant system in a no-tillage crop succession; Distribuicao do nitrogenio do sulfato de amonio ({sup 15}N) no sistema solo-planta, em uma sucessao de culturas, sob sistema plantio direto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, Flavia Carvalho da Silva, E-mail: flcsfernandes@gmail.com [Universidade Estadual de Maringa - Campus de Umuarama, PR (Brazil); Libardi, Paulo Leonel, E-mail: pllibard@esalq.usp.br [Departamento de Engenharia de Biossistemas, Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz, Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2012-05-15

    the n use by maize (Zea mays, l.) is affected by n-fertilizer levels. this study was conducted using a sandy-clay texture soil (Hapludox) to evaluate the efficiency of n use by maize in a crop succession, based on {sup 15}N labeled ammonium sulfate (5.5 atom %) at different rates, and to assess the residual fertilizer effect in two no-tillage succession crops (signal grass and corn). Two maize crops were evaluated, the first in the growing season 2006, the second in 2007, and brachiaria in the second growing season. The treatments consisted of n rates of 60, 120 and 180 kg ha{sup -1}in the form of labeled {sup 15}N ammonium sulfate. This fertilizer was applied in previously defined subplots, only to the first maize crop (growing season 2006). The variables total accumulated n; fertilizer-derived n in corn plants and pasture; fertilizer-derived n in the soil; and recovery of fertilizer-n by plants and soil were evaluated.The highest uptake of fertilizer n by corn was observed after application of 120 kg ha{sup -1}N and the residual effect of n fertilizer on subsequent corn and brachiaria was highest after application of 180 kg ha{sup -1}N. After the crop succession, soil n recovery was 32, 23 and 27 % for the respective applications of 60, 120 and 180 kg ha{sup -1}N. (author)

  11. Adição simultânea de sulfato de amônio e ureia à calda de pulverização do herbicida glyphosate Simultaneous addition of ammonium sulfate and urea to glyphosate spray solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.J.P. Carvalho

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Dois experimentos foram desenvolvidos em casa de vegetação, com o objetivo de avaliar a eficácia do herbicida glyphosate sobre plantas de Digitaria insularis quando soluções de ureia (U; 5 g L-1, sulfato de amônio (SA; 15 g L-1 ou U+SA (2,5 + 7,5 g L-1 foram utilizadas como veículo de pulverização. Aos 28 dias após aplicação, de acordo com as curvas de dose-resposta (primeiro experimento, foram necessários 409 g ha-1 de glyphosate para atingir 50% de controle da planta daninha (C50 quando água sem adjuvantes foi usada como veículo de pulverização. Para obtenção dos mesmos 50% de controle, as doses de glyphosate foram reduzidas para 373, 208 e 189 g ha-1; quando o herbicida foi pulverizado utilizando solução de U, SA ou U+SA, respectivamente. A redução na dose oriunda da combinação de glyphosate e U+SA também foi observada para controles de 80% (C80. No segundo experimento, a adição de U+SA à calda elevou o controle obtido com a menor dose de glyphosate (360 g ha-1, igualando-o à aplicação da maior dose (720 g ha-1 sem adjuvantes. Esses resultados evidenciam efeito complementar de U e SA em elevar a eficácia do glyphosate para controle de D. insularis.Two trials were carried out under greenhouse conditions to evaluate the efficacy of glyphosate on Digitaria insularis plants when urea (U; 5 g L-1; ammonium sulfate (AMS; 15 g L-1 or U+AMS (2.5 + 7.5 g L-1 were used as spray solutions. At 28 days after application, according to dose-response curves (first trial, 409 g ha-1 of glyphosate application were necessary to obtain 50% of weed control (C50 when water without adjuvants was used as spray solution. To reach the same 50% of weed control, glyphosate rates were reduced to 373, 208 and 189 g ha-1, when the herbicide was sprayed using a solution of U, AMS or U+AMS, respectively. Reduction in the dose of glyphosate combined with U+AMS was also observed for controls of 80% (C80. In the second trial, the addition of U

  12. Olfactory discrimination and generalization of ammonium nitrate and structurally related odorants in Labrador retrievers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarowski, Lucia; Foster, Melanie L; Gruen, Margaret E; Sherman, Barbara L; Fish, Richard E; Milgram, Norton W; Dorman, David C

    2015-11-01

    A critical aspect of canine explosive detection involves the animal's ability respond to novel, untrained odors based on prior experience with training odors. In the current study, adult Labrador retrievers (N = 15) were initially trained to discriminate between a rewarded odor (vanillin) and an unrewarded odor (ethanol) by manipulating scented objects with their nose in order to receive a food reward using a canine-adapted discrimination training apparatus. All dogs successfully learned this olfactory discrimination task (≥80 % correct in a mean of 296 trials). Next, dogs were trained on an ammonium nitrate (AN, NH4NO3) olfactory discrimination task [acquired in 60-240 trials, with a mean (±SEM) number of trials to criterion of 120.0 ± 15.6] and then tested for their ability to respond to untrained ammonium- and/or nitrate-containing chemicals as well as variants of AN compounds. Dogs did not respond to sodium nitrate or ammonium sulfate compounds at rates significantly higher than chance (58.8 ± 4.5 and 57.7 ± 3.3 % correct, respectively). Transfer performance to fertilizer-grade AN, AN mixed in Iraqi soil, and AN and flaked aluminum was significantly higher than chance (66.7 ± 3.2, 73.3 ± 4.0, 68.9 ± 4.0 % correct, respectively); however, substantial individual differences were observed. Only 53, 60, and 64 % of dogs had a correct response rate with fertilizer-grade AN, AN and Iraqi soil, and AN and flaked aluminum, respectively, that were greater than chance. Our results suggest that dogs do not readily generalize from AN to similar AN-based odorants at reliable levels desired for explosive detection dogs and that performance varies significantly within Labrador retrievers selected for an explosive detection program.

  13. Determination of extraction equilibria for several metals in the development of a process designed to recover aluminum and other metals from coal combustion ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seeley, F.G.; McDowell, W.J.; Felker, L.K.; Kelmers, A.D.; Egan, B.Z.

    1981-01-01

    Laboratory-scale tests of several methods for the recovery of resource materials from fly ash have led to the development of a sinter/dilute acid leach method (Calsinter process) in which fly ash is sintered with a source of calcium oxide (CaCO/sub 3/, CaSO/sub 4/, CaO, and/or limestone flue-gas desulfurization scrubber sludge) at 1000 to 1200/sup 0/C, followed by a two-stage leach of the sintered solids with dilute sulfuric acid. Recovery of aluminum from this leach solution in a relatively pure form requires that several contaminants, particularly iron, must be separated from the aluminum before it can be precipitated. Therefore, distribution coefficients for iron (III) and 16 other metal ions have been determined in the liquid-liquid extraction system: Primene JM-T - toluene versus aqueous ammonium sulfate (and sodium sulfate) as a function of sulfate, acid, metal ion, and amine sulfate concentration. A study of iron (III) loading equilibria as a function of time indicated that equilibrium was essentially achieved in 1 h; however, some changes, probably in the nature of the extracted species, occurred over a period of approximately 20 h. Iron (III) extraction results obtained under various sulfate concentration matrix conditions suggested the formation of an aqueous complex of ferric ammonium sulfate, which depressed iron distribution to the organic phase. Extraction isotherms for Ag, As, Cd, Cr, and Fe all exhibit linearity at low loading conditions with unit slopes, including the same degree of association of the metal ion species in both the organic and the aqueous phase. Other metal ions for which distribution coefficients are reported are: Ba, Mg, Mn, Na, K, P, Pb, Th, Ti, and U.

  14. Elevated ammonium levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Rikke; Novak, Ivana; MacAulay, Nanna

    2012-01-01

    was not enhanced. The ammonium-induced stimulation of EAAT3 increased with increasing extracellular pH, suggesting that the gaseous form NH(3) mediates the effect. An ammonium-induced intracellular alkalinization was excluded as the cause of the enhanced EAAT3 activity because 1) ammonium acidified the oocyte...

  15. Ammonium nitrate explosion hazards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negovanović Milanka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ammonium nitrate (AN primarily is used as a fertilizer but it is also very important compound in the production of industrial explosives. The application of ammonium nitrate in the production of industrial explosives was related with the early era of Nobel dynamite and widely increased with the appearance of blasting agents such as ANFO and Slurry, in the middle of the last Century. Throughout the world millions of tons of ammonium nitrate are produced annually and handled without incident. Although ammonium nitrate generally is used safely, accidental explosions involving AN have high impact resulting in loss of lives and destruction of property. The paper presents the basic properties of ammonium nitrate as well as hazards in handling of ammonium nitrate in order to prevent accidents. Several accidents with explosions of ammonium nitrate resulted in catastrophic consequences are listed in the paper as examples of non-compliance with prescribed procedures.

  16. Phase diagram of ammonium nitrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunuwille, Mihindra; Yoo, Choong-Shik

    2013-01-01

    Ammonium Nitrate (AN) is a fertilizer, yet becomes an explosive upon a small addition of chemical impurities. The origin of enhanced chemical sensitivity in impure AN (or AN mixtures) is not well understood, posing significant safety issues in using AN even today. To remedy the situation, we have carried out an extensive study to investigate the phase stability of AN and its mixtures with hexane (ANFO–AN mixed with fuel oil) and Aluminum (Ammonal) at high pressures and temperatures, using diamond anvil cells (DAC) and micro-Raman spectroscopy. The results indicate that pure AN decomposes to N 2 , N 2 O, and H 2 O at the onset of the melt, whereas the mixtures, ANFO and Ammonal, decompose at substantially lower temperatures. The present results also confirm the recently proposed phase IV-IV ′ transition above 17 GPa and provide new constraints for the melting and phase diagram of AN to 40 GPa and 400°C

  17. Aluminum chloride restoration of in situ leached uranium ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grant, D.C.; Burgman, M.A.

    1982-01-01

    During in situ uranium mining using ammonium bicarbonate lixiviant, the ammonium exchanges with cations on the ore's clay. After mining is complete, the ammonium may desorb into post-leach ground water. For the particular ore studied, other chemicals (i.e., uranium and selenium) which are mobilized during the leach process, have also been found in the post-leach ground water. Laboratory column tests, used to simulate the leaching process, have shown that aluminum chloride can rapidly remove ammonium from the ore and thus greatly reduce the subsequent ammonium leakage level into ground water. The aluminum chloride has also been found to reduce the leakage levels of uranium and selenium. In addition, the aluminum chloride treatment produces a rapid improvement in permeability

  18. Aluminum Hydroxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aluminum hydroxide is used for the relief of heartburn, sour stomach, and peptic ulcer pain and to ... Aluminum hydroxide comes as a capsule, a tablet, and an oral liquid and suspension. The dose and ...

  19. Copolymerization of poly (ethylene oxide) and poly (methyl methacrylate) initiated by ceric ammonium nitrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, A.S.; Ferreira, A.A.; Coutinho, F.M.B.; Marinho, J.R.D.

    1984-01-01

    Cerium (IV) salts such as the ceric ammonium nitrate and ceric ammonium sulfate in aqueous acid solution with reducing agents such as alcohols, thiols, glycols, aldehydes and amines are well known initiators of vinyl polymerization. In this work, the polymerization of methyl methacrylate initiated by ceric ammonium nitrate/HNO 3 -poly(ethylene oxide) with hydroxyl end group system was studied in aqueous solution at 25 0 C to obtain block copolymers. (Author) [pt

  20. Enhanced sulfidation xanthate flotation of malachite using ammonium ions as activator

    OpenAIRE

    Dandan Wu; Wenhui Ma; Yingbo Mao; Jiushuai Deng; Shuming Wen

    2017-01-01

    In this study, ammonium ion was used to enhance the sulfidation flotation of malachite. The effect of ammonium ion on the sulfidation flotation of malachite was investigated using microflotation test, inductively coupled plasma (ICP) analysis, zeta potential measurements, and scanning electron microscope analysis (SEM). The results of microflotation test show that the addition of sodium sulfide and ammonium sulfate resulted in better sulfidation than the addition of sodium sulfide alone. The ...

  1. Barium Sulfate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... uses a computer to put together x-ray images to create cross-sectional or three dimensional pictures of the inside of the body). Barium sulfate is in a class of medications called radiopaque contrast media. It works by coating the esophagus, stomach, or ...

  2. Extraction of beryllium sulfate by a long chain amine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Etaix, E.S.

    1968-01-01

    The extraction of sulfuric acid in aqueous solution by a primary amine in benzene solution, 3-9 (diethyl) - 6-amino tri-decane (D.E.T. ) - i.e., with American nomenclature 1-3 (ethyl-pentyl) - 4-ethyl-octyl amine (E.P.O.) - has made it possible to calculate the formation constants of alkyl-ammonium sulfate and acid sulfate. The formula of the beryllium and alkyl-ammonium sulfate complex formed in benzene has next been determined, for various initial acidity of the aqueous solution. Lastly, evidence has been given of negatively charged complexes of beryllium and sulfate in aqueous solution, through the dependence of the aqueous sulfate ions concentration upon beryllium extraction. The formation constant of these anionic complexes has been evaluated. (author) [fr

  3. Novel Ammonium Metal Borohydrides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grinderslev, Jakob; Jepsen, Lars Haahr; Cerny, Radovan

    Ammonium borohydride, NH4BH4, has a very high gravimetric (ρm = 24.5 wt% H2) and volumetric (157.3 g·H2/L) hydrogen content and releases 18.4 wt% H2 below 170 °C. However, NH4BH4 is metastable at RT and ambient pressure, with a half-life of ~6 h. The decomposition is strongly exothermic; therefore......, it cannot store hydrogen reversibly. Recently, the first ammonium metal borohydride, NH4Ca(BH4)3 was published, which may be considered as substitution of K+ by NH4+ in KCa(BH4)3, due to the similar sizes of NH4+ and K+[1]. This compound successfully stabilizes NH4BH4. In the present work, a series of novel...... halide-free ammonium metal borohydrides is presented, which have the chemical compositions (NH4)xM(BH4)n+x. The ammonium metal borohydrides are synthesized by cryomilling of NH4BH4 – M(BH4)n (M = Li, Na, K, Mg, Sr, Y, Mn, La, Gd) in different ratios. A new range of ammonium metal borohydrides is formed...

  4. Novel Ammonium Metal Borohydrides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grinderslev, Jakob; Jepsen, Lars Haahr; Cerny, Radovan

    , it cannot store hydrogen reversibly. Recently, the first ammonium metal borohydride, NH4Ca(BH4)3 was published, which may be considered as substitution of K+ by NH4+ in KCa(BH4)3, due to the similar sizes of NH4+ and K+[1]. This compound successfully stabilizes NH4BH4. In the present work, a series of novel...... halide-free ammonium metal borohydrides is presented, which have the chemical compositions (NH4)xM(BH4)n+x. The ammonium metal borohydrides are synthesized by cryomilling of NH4BH4 – M(BH4)n (M = Li, Na, K, Mg, Sr, Y, Mn, La, Gd) in different ratios. A new range of ammonium metal borohydrides is formed......, and the crystal structures and thermal decompositions are investigated. Mixtures of NH4BH4 - NaBH4 do not react, while solid solutions, K1-x(NH4)xBH4, are formed for NH4BH4 - KBH4. For the other composites, novel ammonium metal borohydrides are formed. Several of these structures have been solved from high...

  5. Recovery of aluminum and other metal values from fly ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, W.J.; Seeley, F.G.

    1979-11-01

    The invention relates to a method for improving the acid leachability of aluminum and other metal values found in fly ash which comprises sintering the fly ash, prior to acid leaching, with a calcium sulfate-containing composition at a temperature at which the calcium sulfate is retained in said composition during sintering and for a time sufficient to quantitatively convert the aluminum in said fly ash into an acid-leachable form.

  6. Phase diagram of ammonium nitrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunuwille, Mihindra; Yoo, Choong-Shik, E-mail: csyoo@wsu.edu [Department of Chemistry and Institute for Shock Physics, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington 99164 (United States)

    2013-12-07

    Ammonium Nitrate (AN) is a fertilizer, yet becomes an explosive upon a small addition of chemical impurities. The origin of enhanced chemical sensitivity in impure AN (or AN mixtures) is not well understood, posing significant safety issues in using AN even today. To remedy the situation, we have carried out an extensive study to investigate the phase stability of AN and its mixtures with hexane (ANFO–AN mixed with fuel oil) and Aluminum (Ammonal) at high pressures and temperatures, using diamond anvil cells (DAC) and micro-Raman spectroscopy. The results indicate that pure AN decomposes to N{sub 2}, N{sub 2}O, and H{sub 2}O at the onset of the melt, whereas the mixtures, ANFO and Ammonal, decompose at substantially lower temperatures. The present results also confirm the recently proposed phase IV-IV{sup ′} transition above 17 GPa and provide new constraints for the melting and phase diagram of AN to 40 GPa and 400°C.

  7. Inhibition of sulfate reduction in paddy soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vamos, R

    1958-12-13

    The hydrogen sulfide formed in waterlogged soils is a serious problem in rice cultivation. It inhibits the uptake of water and nutrients and may even cause root-rot. Results can best be obtained by preventing the formation of hydrogen sulfide. It is formed mainly by reduction of sulfate for which the cellulose-butyric acid fermentation provides the hydrogen source. Addition of ammonium or potassium nitrate prevents the formation of H/sub 2/S. The hydrogen produced by butyric acid fermentation is used to reduce nitrate and consequently cannot be utilized by the sulfate-reducing bacteria as a source of energy. 6 references.

  8. Extraction of beryllium sulfate by a long chain amine; Extraction du sulfate de beryllium par une amine a longue chaine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Etaix, E S [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-Aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-06-01

    The extraction of sulfuric acid in aqueous solution by a primary amine in benzene solution, 3-9 (diethyl) - 6-amino tri-decane (D.E.T. ) - i.e., with American nomenclature 1-3 (ethyl-pentyl) - 4-ethyl-octyl amine (E.P.O.) - has made it possible to calculate the formation constants of alkyl-ammonium sulfate and acid sulfate. The formula of the beryllium and alkyl-ammonium sulfate complex formed in benzene has next been determined, for various initial acidity of the aqueous solution. Lastly, evidence has been given of negatively charged complexes of beryllium and sulfate in aqueous solution, through the dependence of the aqueous sulfate ions concentration upon beryllium extraction. The formation constant of these anionic complexes has been evaluated. (author) [French] L'etude de l'extraction de l'acide sulfurique en solution aqueuse par une amine primaire en solution dans le benzene, le diethyl-3,9 amino-6 tridecane (D.E.T.) - autre nom americain 1-3 (ethylpentyl) - 4-ethyloctylamine (E.P.O.) a permis de calculer les constantes de formation du sulfate et de l'hydrogenosulfate d'alkyl-ammonium. La formule du complexe de sulfate de beryllium et d'alkyl-ammonium forme en solution benzenique a ete ensuite determinee pour diverses acidites initiales de la solution aqueuse. Enfin, l'influence de la concentration des ions sulfate de la phase aqueuse sur l'extraction du beryllium a mis en evidence la formation en solution aqueuse de complexes anioniques de sulfate et de beryllium dont la constante de formation a ete evaluee. (auteur)

  9. Extraction of beryllium sulfate by a long chain amine; Extraction du sulfate de beryllium par une amine a longue chaine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Etaix, E.S. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-Aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-06-01

    The extraction of sulfuric acid in aqueous solution by a primary amine in benzene solution, 3-9 (diethyl) - 6-amino tri-decane (D.E.T. ) - i.e., with American nomenclature 1-3 (ethyl-pentyl) - 4-ethyl-octyl amine (E.P.O.) - has made it possible to calculate the formation constants of alkyl-ammonium sulfate and acid sulfate. The formula of the beryllium and alkyl-ammonium sulfate complex formed in benzene has next been determined, for various initial acidity of the aqueous solution. Lastly, evidence has been given of negatively charged complexes of beryllium and sulfate in aqueous solution, through the dependence of the aqueous sulfate ions concentration upon beryllium extraction. The formation constant of these anionic complexes has been evaluated. (author) [French] L'etude de l'extraction de l'acide sulfurique en solution aqueuse par une amine primaire en solution dans le benzene, le diethyl-3,9 amino-6 tridecane (D.E.T.) - autre nom americain 1-3 (ethylpentyl) - 4-ethyloctylamine (E.P.O.) a permis de calculer les constantes de formation du sulfate et de l'hydrogenosulfate d'alkyl-ammonium. La formule du complexe de sulfate de beryllium et d'alkyl-ammonium forme en solution benzenique a ete ensuite determinee pour diverses acidites initiales de la solution aqueuse. Enfin, l'influence de la concentration des ions sulfate de la phase aqueuse sur l'extraction du beryllium a mis en evidence la formation en solution aqueuse de complexes anioniques de sulfate et de beryllium dont la constante de formation a ete evaluee. (auteur)

  10. Waterproofing Materials for Ammonium Nitrate

    OpenAIRE

    R.S. Damse

    2004-01-01

    This study explores the possibility of overcoming the problem of hygroscopicity of ammonium nitrate by coating the particles with selected waterproofing materials. Gravimetric analysis ofthe samples of ammonium nitrate coated with eight different waterproofing materials, vis-a-vis, uncoated ammonium nitrate, were conducted at different relative humidity and exposuretime. The results indicate that mineral jelly is the promising waterproofing material for ammonium nitrate among the materials te...

  11. Rocket Solid Propellant Alternative Based on Ammonium Dinitramide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigore CICAN

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to the continuous run for a green environment the current article proposes a new type of solid propellant based on the fairly new synthesized oxidizer, ammonium dinitramide (ADN. Apart of having a higher specific impulse than the worldwide renowned oxidizer, ammonium perchlorate, ADN has the advantage, of leaving behind only nitrogen, oxygen and water after decomposing at high temperatures and therefore totally avoiding the formation of hydrogen chloride fumes. Based on the oxidizer to fuel ratios of the current formulations of the major rocket solid booster (e.g. Space Shuttle’s SRB, Ariane 5’s SRB which comprises mass variations of ammonium perchlorate oxidizer (70-75%, atomized aluminum powder (10-18% and polybutadiene binder (12-20% a new solid propellant was formulated. As previously stated, the new propellant formula and its variations use ADN as oxidizer and erythritol tetranitrate as fuel, keeping the same polybutadiene as binder.

  12. Interactions of aerosols (ammonium sulfate, ammonium nitrate and ammonium chloride) and of gases (HCl, HNO 3) with fogwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruprecht, Heidi; Sigg, Laura

    The concentrations of aerosols (NH 4NO 3, (NH 4) 2SO 4 and NH 4Cl) and of gases (HCl (g), HNO 3(g), NH 3(g) were determined by denuder methods under different conditions (in the absence of fog, before, during and after fog events). At this site situated in an urban region, high concentrations of the gaseous strong acids HCl (g) and HNO 3(g) are observed. NH 4Cl and NH 4NO 3 aerosols represent a major fraction of the Cl - and NO 3- aerosols (fogwater and are released again after fog dissipation.

  13. Effects of sulphuric acid and acidifying ammonium deposition on water quality and vegetation of simulated soft water ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuurkes, J.A.; Heck, I.C.; Hesen, P.L.; Leuven, R.S.; Roelofs, J.G.

    1986-11-01

    In a greenhouse, seven identical mini-ecosystems, simulating soft water ponds, were exposed to different types of artificial rain water. The effects of rain water containing H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ and nitrate, and rain water containing ammonium sulfate on water quality and vegetation were studied and compared. Causal relations were established between rain water quality, water chemistry and changes in floristic composition. Ammonium sulfate deposition, particularly, strongly affected water quality and vegetation development. Although ammonium sulfate deposition was only slightly acid, due to nitrification it acted as an important acid source, causing acidification to pH = 3.8. Under acidified conditions, ammonium sulfate deposition lead to a luxuriant growth of Juncus bulbosus and Agrostis canina. In the mini-ecosystems, H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ deposition with a pH of 3.5 only decreased the pH of the water to 5.1 within 1 yr. The acidification of water appeared to be coupled with changes in alkalinity, sulfate, Al, Cd, Ca, Mg, K and inorganic-N. It is concluded that in NH/sub 3/-affected regions in The Netherlands, the high atmospheric deposition of ammonium sulfate probably contributes to a large extent in the acidification, eutrophication and floristic changes of oligotrophic soft waters. 10 refs.

  14. Synthesis of N-oleyl O-sulfate chitosan from methyl oleate with O-sulfate chitosan as edible film material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel; Sihaloho, O.; Saleh, C.; Magdaleni, A. R.

    2018-04-01

    The research on the synthesis of N-oleyl O-sulfate chitosan through sulfonation reaction on chitosan with ammonium sulfate and followed by amidation reaction using methyl oleate has been done. In this study, chitosan was chemically modified into N-oleyl O-sulfatechitosan as an edible film making material. N-oleyl O-sulfate chitosan was synthesized by reaction between methyl oleate and O-sulfate chitosan. Wherein the depleted chitosan of O-sulfate chitosan into O-sulfate chitosan was obtained by reaction of sulfonation between ammonium sulfate and chitosan aldimine. While chitosan aldimine was obtained through reaction between chitosan with acetaldehyde. The structure of N-oleyl O-sulfate chitosan was characterized by FT-IR analysis which showed vibration uptake of C-H sp3 group, S=O group, and carbonyl group C=O of the ester. The resulting of N-oleyl O-sulfate chitosan yielded a percentage of 93.52%. Hydrophilic-Lipophilic Balance (HLB) test results gave a value of 6.68. In the toxicity test results of N-oleyl O-sulfate chitosan obtained LC50 value of 3738.4732 ppm. In WVTR (Water Vapor Transmission Rate) test results for chitosan film was 407.625 gram/m2/24 hours and N-oleylO-sulfate chitosan film was 201.125 gram/m2/24 hours.

  15. Ammonium on Ceres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammannito, E.; De Sanctis, M. C.; Carrorro, F. G.; Ciarniello, M.; Combe, J. P.; De Angelis, S.; Ehlmann, B. L.; Frigeri, A.; Longobardo, A.; Mugnuolo, R.; Marchi, S.; Palomba, E.; Raymond, C. A.; Salatti, M.; Tosi, F.; Zambon, F.; Russell, C. T.

    2017-12-01

    Since January 2015, the surface of Ceres has been studied by the Dawn spacecraft through the measurements from the three instruments on board (1). The VIR imaging spectrometer, sensitive to the spectral range 0.25 -5.0 μm, provided information on the surficial composition of Ceres at resolutions ranging from few kilometers to about one hundred meters (2). Analysis of VIR reflectance data revealed that the average spectrum of Ceres is compatible with a mixture of low-albedo minerals, Mg- phyllosilicates, ammoniated clays, and Mg- carbonates, (3) confirming previous studies based on ground based spectra (4, 5). Mineralogical maps of the surface at about 1 km/px show that the components identified in the average spectrum are present all across the surface with variations in their relative abundance and chemical composition (6, 7). While the ammoniated clays have been already studied (6), the presence nature and distribution of additional ammoniated species has never been investigated in detail, although the spectral analysis of the bright faculae within Occator crater already revealed the potential presence of ammonium salts (8). Since the position and shape of the ammonium absorption in the VIS-NIR region are function of the hosting mineral specie (8), we did an inventory and characterization of the ammonium-rich regions, in order to analyze their spectral properties. In addition to the presence of ammonium, also the identification of the hosting species has implication for the evolution of Ceres. Our study, therefore, is a step forward in understanding of evolutionary pathway of Ceres. References: (1) Russell, C. T. et al., Science, 2016. (2) De Sanctis M.C. et al., Space Science Reviews, 2011. (3) De Sanctis M.C. et al., Nature, 2015. (4) King T. et al. Science, 1992. (5) Rivkin A.S. et al. Icarus, 2006. (6) Ammannito E. et al., Science, 2016. (7) Carrozzo F.G. et al., Science Advances, in revision. (8) De Sanctis et al., Nature, 2016. (9) Berg et al., Icarus

  16. Reuse of ammonium fluoride generated in the uranium hexafluoride conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva Neto, J.B.; Carvalho, E.F. Urano de; Durazzo, M.; Riella, H.G

    2010-01-01

    The Nuclear Fuel Centre of IPEN / CNEN - SP develops and manufactures dispersion fuel with high uranium concentration to meet the demand of the IEA-R1 reactor and future research reactors planned to be constructed in Brazil. The fuel uses uranium silicide (U 3 Si 2 ) dispersed in aluminum. For producing the fuel, the processes for uranium hexafluoride (UF 6 ) conversion consist in obtaining U 3 Si 2 and / or U 3 O 8 through the preparation of intermediate compounds, among them ammonium uranyl carbonate - AUC, ammonium diuranate - DUA and uranium tetrafluoride - UF 4 . This work describes a procedure for preparing uranium tetrafluoride by a dry route using as raw material the filtrate generated when producing routinely ammonium uranyl carbonate. The filtrate consists primarily of a solution containing high concentrations of ammonium (NH 4 + ), fluoride (F - ), carbonate (CO 3 -- ) and low concentrations of uranium. The procedure is basically the recovery of NH 4 F and uranium, as UF 4 , through the crystallization of ammonium bifluoride (NH 4 HF 2 ) and, in a later step, the addition of UO 2 , occurring fluoridation and decomposition. The UF 4 obtained is further diluted in the UF 4 produced routinely at IPEN / CNEN-SP by a wet route process. (author)

  17. Role of iron and aluminum coagulant metal residuals and lead release from drinking water pipe materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, Alisha D; Nguyen, Caroline K; Edwards, Marc A; Stoddart, Amina; McIlwain, Brad; Gagnon, Graham A

    2015-01-01

    Bench-scale experiments investigated the role of iron and aluminum residuals in lead release in a low alkalinity and high (> 0.5) chloride-to-sulfate mass ratio (CSMR) in water. Lead leaching was examined for two lead-bearing plumbing materials, including harvested lead pipe and new lead: tin solder, after exposure to water with simulated aluminum sulfate, polyaluminum chloride and ferric sulfate coagulation treatments with 1-25-μM levels of iron or aluminum residuals in the water. The release of lead from systems with harvested lead pipe was highly correlated with levels of residual aluminum or iron present in samples (R(2) = 0.66-0.88), consistent with sorption of lead onto the aluminum and iron hydroxides during stagnation. The results indicate that aluminum and iron coagulant residuals, at levels complying with recommended guidelines, can sometimes play a significant role in lead mobilization from premise plumbing.

  18. Facile synthesis of ammonium vanadate nanofibers by using reflux in aqueous V{sub 2}O{sub 5} solution with ammonium persulfate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Se Hun [Department of Convergence Nanoscience, Hanyang University, 222 Wangsimni-ro, Seongdong-gu, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Koo, Jun Mo [Department of Organic and Nano Engineering, Hanyang University, 222 Wangsimni-ro, Seongdong-gu, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Seong Geun, E-mail: seongoh@hanyang.ac.kr [Department of Chemical Engineering, Hanyang University, 222 Wangsimni-ro, Seongdong-gu, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Im, Seung Soon, E-mail: imss007@hanyang.ac.kr [Department of Convergence Nanoscience, Hanyang University, 222 Wangsimni-ro, Seongdong-gu, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Organic and Nano Engineering, Hanyang University, 222 Wangsimni-ro, Seongdong-gu, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    Ammonium vanadate nanofibers were synthesized by simple reflux method in aqueous V{sub 2}O{sub 5} solution with ammonium persulfate without relying on surfactants, catalysts, harmful solvents and autoclave. The degree of intercalation by cationic ammonium ions into the crystal structure of vanadium oxide along with its change in chemical composition were analyzed by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), infrared spectroscopy (IR). The morphological changes toward nanofiber structure, having diameter of 20–30 nm and a few μm length, were investigated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The influences of synthetic conditions, such as reaction time and concentration of sulfate (SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}), on the crystal structures and morphologies of the resulting products have investigated. As a result, the ammonium vanadate nanofiber was formed in a short reaction time through a simple reflux method and yielded comparable electrical conductivity 1.47 × 10{sup -2} S/cm. - Highlights: • Ammonium vanadate nanofiber (AVFr) was prepared by simple reflux method. • AVFr yielded comparable electrical conductivity 1.47 × 10{sup -2} S/cm. • The electrical conductivity was improved by the increased amount of ammonium ion. • Sulfate ions (SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}) play a crucial role in controlling the morphology of nanofiber.

  19. Crystallisation of mixtures of ammonium nitrate, ammonium sulphate and soot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dougle, P.G.; Veefkind, J.P.; Brink, H.M. ten

    1998-01-01

    Crystallisation of laboratory aerosols of ammonium nitrate and of internal mixtures of this salt with ammonium sulphate were investigated using humidity controlled nephelometry. The aerosol was produced via nebulizing of solutions and then dried to 25% RH, which is a realistic minimum value for

  20. Sulfate adsorption on goethite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rietra, R P.J.J.; Hiemstra, T; Riemsdijk, W.H. van

    1999-10-15

    Recent spectroscopic work has suggested that only one surface species of sulfate is dominant on hematite. Sulfate is therefore a very suitable anion to test and develop adsorption models for variable charge minerals. The authors have studied sulfate adsorption on goethite covering a large range of sulfate concentrations, surface coverages, pH values, and electrolyte concentrations. Four different techniques were used to cover the entire range of conditions. For characterization at low sulfate concentrations, below the detection limit of sulfate with ICP-AES, the authors used proton-sulfate titrations at constant pH. Adsorption isotherms were studied for the intermediate sulfate concentration range. Acid-base titrations in sodium sulfate and electromobility were used for high sulfate concentrations. All the data can be modeled with one adsorbed species if it is assumed that the charge of adsorbed sulfate is spatially distributed in the interface. The charge distribution of sulfate follows directly from modeling the proton-sulfate adsorption stoichoimemtry sine this stoichiometry is independent of the intrinsic affinity constant of sulfate. The charge distribution can be related to the structure of the surface complex by use of the Pauling bond valence concept and is in accordance with the microscopic structure found by spectroscopy. The intrinsic affinity constant follows from the other measurements. Modeling of the proton-ion stoichoimetry with the commonly used 2-pK models, where adsorbed ions are treated as point charges, is possible only if at least two surface species for sulfate are used.

  1. Ammonium diphosphitoindate(III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farida Hamchaoui

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The crystal structure of the title compound, NH4[In(HPO32], is built up from InIII cations (site symmetry 3m. adopting an octahedral environment and two different phosphite anions (each with site symmetry 3m. exhibiting a triangular–pyramidal geometry. Each InO6 octahedron shares its six apices with hydrogen phosphite groups. Reciprocally, each HPO3 group shares all its O atoms with three different metal cations, leading to [In(HPO32]− layers which propagate in the ab plane. The ammonium cation likewise has site symmetry 3m.. In the structure, the cations are located between the [In(HPO32]− layers of the host framework. The sheets are held together by hydrogen bonds formed between the NH4+ cations and the O atoms of the framework.

  2. Ammonium generation during SRAT cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, C.W.

    1992-01-01

    During the IDMS noble-metal demonstration runs ammonium nitrate deposition was found in the vessel vent system of the feed preparation area. In the bench-scale experiments of studying the hydrogen generation during the sludge treatment cycle, ammonium ion production was also monitored. It was found that: During a simulation of the DWPF Cold Chemical Runs SRAT cycle no detectable amount of ammonium ions was generated when treating a non-noble-metal containing sludge simulant according to the nitric acid flowsheet. Ammonium ions were generated during the SRAT-SME cycle when treating the noble-metal containing sludge with either formic acid or nitric acid/late-washing PHA. This is due to the reaction between formic acid and nitrate catalyzed by the noble metals in the sludge simulant. Ammonium ion production closely followed the hydrogen evolution from the catalytic decomposition of formic acid. This report summarizes the results of the production of ammonia during the SRAT cycle

  3. Relations of ammonium minerals at several hydrothermal systems in the western U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krohn, M.D.; Kendall, C.; Evans, J.R.; Fries, T.L.

    1993-01-01

    Ammonium bound to silicate and sulfate minerals has recently been located at several major hydrothermal systems in the western U.S. utilizing newly-discovered near-infrared spectral properties. Knowledge of the origin and mineralogic relations of ammonium minerals at known hydrothermal systems is critical for the proper interpretation of remote sensing data and for testing of possible links to mineralization. Submicroscopic analysis of ammonium minerals from two mercury- and gold-bearing hot-springs deposits at Ivanhoe, Nevada and McLaughlin, California shows that the ammonium feldspar, buddingtonite, occurs as fine-grained euhedral crystals coating larger sulfide and quartz crystals. Ammonium feldspar seems to precipitate relatively late in the crystallization sequence and shows evidence for replacement of NH4+ by K+ or other monovalent cations. Some buddingtonite is observed in close association with mercury, but not with gold. Ammonioalunite is found in a variety of isolated crystal forms at both deposits. Nitrogen isotopic values for ammonium-bearing minerals show a 14??? range in composition, precluding assignment of a specific provenance to the nitrogen. The correlations of nitrogen isotopic values with depth and ammonium content suggest some loss of nitrogen in the oxidizing supergene environment, possibly as a metastable mineral. The high ammonium content in these hydrothermal systems, the close association to mercury, and the small crystal size of the ammonium-bearing minerals all suggest that ammonium may be transported in a late-stage vapor phase or as an organic volatile. Such a process could lead to the formation of a non-carbonaceous organic aureole above a buried geothermal source. The discovery of a 10-km outcrop of ammonium minerals confirms that significant substitution of ammonium in minerals is possible over an extensive area and that remote sensing is a feasible means to detect such aureoles. ?? 1993.

  4. Recent results of EPR and Moessbauer investigations on lattice dynamics in ammonium sulphate

    CERN Document Server

    Grecu, M N; Grecu, V V

    2003-01-01

    Recent results of the lattice dynamics investigation on ammonium sulfate are reported based on recent experiments carried out using using the non-destructive experimental technique of EPR and NGR. The main results confirm the presence and the contribution of a soft mode, which accompanied the paraferroelectric phase transition in the investigated crystal. (authors)

  5. Tillage and water management for riceland productivity in acid sulfate soils of the Mekong delta, Vietnam.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minh, L.Q.; Tuong, T.P.; Mensvoort, van M.E.F.; Bouma, J.

    1997-01-01

    Acid sulfate soils are characterized by low pH and high concentrations of aluminum, sulfate, iron and hydrogen sulfide. Removal of at least part of these substances is a prerequisite for land use, at least in severely acid soils. In this study, the effectiveness of harrowing and flushing with

  6. Molecular regulation of aluminum resistance and sulfur nutrition during root growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alarcón-Poblete, Edith; Inostroza-Blancheteau, Claudio; Alberdi, Miren; Rengel, Zed; Reyes-Díaz, Marjorie

    2018-01-01

    Aluminum toxicity and sulfate deprivation both regulate microRNA395 expression, repressing its low-affinity sulfate transporter ( SULTR2;1 ) target. Sulfate deprivation also induces the high-affinity sulfate transporter gene ( SULTR12 ), allowing enhanced sulfate uptake. Few studies about the relationships between sulfate, a plant nutrient, and aluminum, a toxic ion, are available; hence, the molecular and physiological processes underpinning this interaction are poorly understood. The Al-sulfate interaction occurs in acidic soils, whereby relatively high concentrations of trivalent toxic aluminum (Al 3+ ) may hamper root growth, limiting uptake of nutrients, including sulfur (S). On the other side, Al 3+ may be detoxified by complexation with sulfate in the acid soil solution as well as in the root-cell vacuoles. In this review, we focus on recent insights into the mechanisms governing plant responses to Al toxicity and its relationship with sulfur nutrition, emphasizing the role of phytohormones, microRNAs, and ion transporters in higher plants. It is known that Al 3+ disturbs gene expression and enzymes involved in biosynthesis of S-containing cysteine in root cells. On the other hand, Al 3+ may induce ethylene biosynthesis, enhance reactive oxygen species production, alter phytohormone transport, trigger root growth inhibition and promote sulfate uptake under S deficiency. MicroRNA395, regulated by both Al toxicity and sulfate deprivation, represses its low-affinity Sulfate Transporter 2;1 (SULTR2;1) target. In addition, sulfate deprivation induces High Affinity Sulfate Transporters (HAST; SULTR1;2), improving sulfate uptake from low-sulfate soil solutions. Identification of new microRNAs and cloning of their target genes are necessary for a better understanding of the role of molecular regulation of plant resistance to Al stress and sulfate deprivation.

  7. ELECTRON MICROSCOPIC INVESTIGATION OF YTTRIUM ALUMINUM GARNET POWDERS Y3AL5O12, SYNTHESIZED BY SOL–GEL METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. Baranchikov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Subject of Study. The paper presents results of characterization for neodymium doped yttrium aluminum garnet nanopowders - YAG:Nd3+ by the method of scanning electronic microscopy. Method. Synthesis of YAG:Nd3+ was carried out by sol-gel method from nitrate or acetate - nitrate solutions with addition of some organic compounds and ammonia as well. Such substances were used as the source ones: oxides of neodymium and yttrium with the content of the basic substance equal to 99.999 %; organic compounds: citric acid with the content of the basic substance not less than 99.0 %; ethylene glycol (99.5%; the ammonium lauryl sulfate (99.0 %; urea (99.0 % of Alfa Aesar, Fluka, Aldrich companies. Oxides of yttrium and neodymium (5 at. % were dissolved in 50% acetic acid, nitrate aluminum was added with a view to the resulting product Y2,85Nd0,15Al5,0O12, the solution was stirred and heated to 60С before reaching its transparency and uniformity. The weight of the portion corresponding to the stoichiometry YAG was 2.0 g. 50 % aqueous solutions of organic substances or 5% NH4OH in a weight ratio of 1:1 to the weight of the garnet were added in aqueous solutions, placed into glass cups. The solutions were thoroughly mixed first using a conventional stirrer, then on ultrasonic installation with simultaneous 60 С heating for 2 hours. Drying of solutions to the consistency of a powder or a thick gel was carried out at 110 С. Then the samples were placed into platinum cups and annealed in a tube furnace at 950 - 1050 С for the period from 0.5 to 2 hours. Additional annealing of the powders in the air at 950 - 1060С were carried out for the purpose of powders clarifying for residual amorphous carbon removal. Main Results. The synthesized powder precursors and powders after annealing were examined using a polarizing microscope to identify anisotropic crystalline phases. X-ray analysis of the synthesized samples was carried out on a DRON - 4 and UDR - 63

  8. Surface energy and crystallization phenomena of ammonium dinitramide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teipel, Ulrich; Heintz, Thomas [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Chemische Technologie (ICT), PO Box 1240, D-76318 Pfinztal (Germany)

    2005-12-01

    Ammonium dinitramide (ADN) was characterized during recrystallization from the melt. The surface tension of molten ADN at 97 C was measured to be 89 mN/m. The wetting angles between molten ADN and different solid surfaces (polytetrafluoroethylene, glass, steel, and aluminum) were determined. The wettability depends on the surface tension of molten ADN, the free surface energy of the solid surfaces and the interfacial tension between the solid and liquid. Observations of the recrystallization behavior of molten ADN showed that nucleation does not occur, even at super cooling rates of 70 K. Crystallization can be initiated by the application of seed crystals. (Abstract Copyright [2005], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  9. The Properties of Ammonium Dinitramine (ADN): Part 2: Melt Casting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahma, A.; Edvinsson, H.; Östmark, H.

    2010-04-01

    A melt casting technique for ammonium dinitramine (ADN) and ADN/aluminum was developed. ADN proved relatively easy to cast, when 1% of magnesium oxide was used as a stabilizer and crystallization kernels. Densities of ADN/MgO 99/1 were 92 to 97% of theoretical mean density (TMD) and those of ADN/Al/MgO 64/35/1 were between 95 and 99% of TMD. Sedimentation of Al in the melt was prevented and the particle wetting was ensured by selecting a suitable particle size for Al. No gelling agents or other additives were used. The casting process and factors influencing it are discussed.

  10. 21 CFR 184.1138 - Ammonium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ammonium chloride. 184.1138 Section 184.1138 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1138 Ammonium chloride. (a) Ammonium chloride (NH4Cl, CAS Reg. No. 12125-02-9) is produced by the reaction of sodium chloride and an ammonium salt in solution. The...

  11. Synthesis of [2,4-3H] 17β-dihydroequilin sulfate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhavnani, B.R.

    1994-01-01

    [2,4- 3 H] 17β-dihydroequilin-3-sulfate ammonium salt suitable for in vivo pharmacokinetic studies was synthesized from [2,4- 3 H] equilin. Sulfation of [2,4- 3 H] equilin with pyridine-chlorosulfonic acid mixture gave in high yields [2,4- 3 H] equilin sulfate, which was then reduced with sodium borohydride to yield [2,4- 3 H] 17β-dihydroequilin sulfate. The reduction was sterospecific and no 17α-reduced products were formed. (author)

  12. Rare earth sulfates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komissarova, L.N.; Shatskij, V.M.; Pokrovskij, A.N.; Chizhov, S.M.; Bal'kina, T.I.; Suponitskij, Yu.L.

    1986-01-01

    Results of experimental works on the study of synthesis conditions, structure and physico-chemical properties of rare earth, scandium and yttrium sulfates, have been generalized. Phase diagrams of solubility and fusibility, thermodynamic and crystallochemical characteristics, thermal stability of hydrates and anhydrous sulfates of rare earths, including normal, double (with cations of alkali and alkaline-earth metals), ternary and anion-mixed sulfates of rare earths, as well as their adducts, are considered. The state of ions of rare earths, scandium and yttrium in aqueous sulfuric acid solutions is discussed. Data on the use of rare earth sulfates are given

  13. Influence of ammonium nitrate on kinetics and mechanism of thermal decomposition of ammonium polyuranates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karelin, A.I.; Lobas, O.P.; Zhiganov, A.N.; Vasil'ev, K.F.; Zhiganova, A.A.

    1988-01-01

    The influence of ammonium nitrate on the mechanism and kinetics of dehydration and thermal decomposition of ammonium polyuranates was studied. An appreciable influence of the nitrate ion content in the samples of ammonium polyuranates on the development of thermal stability has been noted. The kinetic parameters of the thermal decomposition of ammonium polyuranates have been evaluated. A mechanism of the dehydration and thermal decomposition of ammonium polyuranates in the presence of ammonium nitrate has been proposed. It was shown that increase in the content of ammonium nitrate in the precipitate of ammonium polyuranates leads to a decrease in the specific surface of uranoso-uranic oxide

  14. Investigation of ammonium nitrate effect on kinetics and mechanism of thermal decomposition of ammonium polyuranates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karelin, A.I.; Lobas, O.P.; Zhiganov, A.N.; Vasil'ev, K.F.; Zhiganova, A.A.

    1987-01-01

    A study was made on ammonium nitrate effect on the mechanism and kinetics of dehydration and thermal decomposition of ammonium polyuranates. Sufficient effect of nitrate ion content in ammonium polyuranate samples on their thermal stability was noted. Kinetic parameters of thermal decomposition of ammonium polyuranates were evaluated. Mechanism of dehydration and thermal decomposition of ammonium polyuranates in the presence of ammonium nitrate was suggested. It was shown that increase of ammonium nitrate content in ammonium polyuranate precipitate resulted to reduction of the specific surface of prepared uranium mixed oxide

  15. Recoverable immobilization of transuranic elements in sulfate ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhalgh, Wilbur O.

    1985-01-01

    Disclosed is a method of reversibly immobilizing sulfate ash at least about 20% of which is sulfates of transuranic elements. The ash is mixed with a metal which can be aluminum, cerium, samarium, europium, or a mixture thereof, in amounts sufficient to form an alloy with the transuranic elements, plus an additional amount to reduce the transuranic element sulfates to elemental form. Also added to the ash is a fluxing agent in an amount sufficient to lower the percentage of the transuranic element sulfates to about 1% to about 10%. The mixture of the ash, metal, and fluxing agent is heated to a temperature sufficient to melt the fluxing agent and the metal. The mixture is then cooled and the alloy is separated from the remainder of the mixture.

  16. Solubility of ammonium metavanadate in ammonium carbonate and sodium bicarbonate solutions at 25 deg C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedorov, P.I.; Andreev, V.K.; Slotvinskij-Sidak, N.P.

    1978-01-01

    Solubility at 25 deg C has been studied in the system ammonium metavanadate - sodium bicarbonate - water which is a stable section of the corresponding quaternary mutual system. In the eutonic point the content of ammonium metavanadate is 4.95% and of sodium bicarbonate 12.1%. The crystallization branch of ammonium metavanadate has been studied in the system ammonium metavanadate - ammonium carbonate - water at 25 deg C. Metavanadate solubility attains minimum (0.14%) at ammonium carbonate concentration 2.6%. Three sections have been studied of the quaternary system ammonium - metavanadate - ammonium carbonate - sodium bicarbonate-water at 25 deg C in the crystallization region of ammonium metavanadate at a ratio of sodium bicarbonate to ammonium carbonate 3:1, 1:1, and 1:3. A region of minimum solubility of ammonium metavanadate has been detected (0.1%)

  17. The ceric sulfate dosimeter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjergbakke, Erling

    1970-01-01

    The process employed for the determination of absorbed dose is the reduction of ceric ions to cerous ions in a solution of ceric sulfate and cerous sulfate in 0.8N sulfuric acid: Ce4+→Ce 3+ The absorbed dose is derived from the difference in ceric ion concentration before and after irradiation...

  18. Heparan sulfate biosynthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Multhaupt, Hinke A B; Couchman, John R

    2012-01-01

    Heparan sulfate is perhaps the most complex polysaccharide known from animals. The basic repeating disaccharide is extensively modified by sulfation and uronic acid epimerization. Despite this, the fine structure of heparan sulfate is remarkably consistent with a particular cell type. This suggests...... that the synthesis of heparan sulfate is tightly controlled. Although genomics has identified the enzymes involved in glycosaminoglycan synthesis in a number of vertebrates and invertebrates, the regulation of the process is not understood. Moreover, the localization of the various enzymes in the Golgi apparatus has......-quality resolution of the distribution of enzymes. The EXT2 protein, which when combined as heterodimers with EXT1 comprises the major polymerase in heparan sulfate synthesis, has been studied in depth. All the data are consistent with a cis-Golgi distribution and provide a starting point to establish whether all...

  19. ALUMINUM BOX BUNDLING PRESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iosif DUMITRESCU

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In municipal solid waste, aluminum is the main nonferrous metal, approximately 80- 85% of the total nonferrous metals. The income per ton gained from aluminum recuperation is 20 times higher than from glass, steel boxes or paper recuperation. The object of this paper is the design of a 300 kN press for aluminum box bundling.

  20. Optimization of nutritional requirements and ammonium feeding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tounukarin

    2011-09-07

    Sep 7, 2011 ... Statistical experiment design and data analysis were used to ... Ammonium control strategies in fed-batch fermentation showed that when ammonium concentration ... environments, combined with the real-time process para-.

  1. Sulfate Salts in Gasoline and Ethanol Fuels -- Historical Perspective and Analysis of Available Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCormick, Robert L. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Alleman, Teresa [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Yanowitz, Janet [Ecoengineering, Inc., Sharonville, OH (United States)

    2017-09-21

    This report reviews the chemistry of sulfate salts dissolved in ethanol and gasoline, potential sources of sulfate salts in ethanol and gasoline, the history of consumer vehicle issues with sulfate salt deposits in the early 2000s, and the corresponding changes to the denatured fuel ethanol specification. Recommendations for future research are provided. During a period of rapid market expansion in 2004-05, issues were reported with vehicles running on E10 provided by certain suppliers in some markets. It was commonly believed that these vehicle problems were caused by sulfate salts precipitating from the fuel. Investigators identified sodium sulfate, and in one case also ammonium sulfate, as the predominate salts found in the engines. Several stakeholders believed the issue was excess sulfate ions in the ethanol portion of the E10, and in 2005 the ASTM specification for ethanol (D4806) was modified to include a 4-part per million (ppm) limit on sulfate ions. While there have been no further reports of consumer vehicle issues, the recently approved increase of ethanol in gasoline from 10 to 15 volume percent has resulted in renewed interest in the sulfate ion concentration in fuel ethanol. This report reviews published data on the solubility of sulfate salts in ethanol. The possible sources of sulfate anions and charge balancing cations (such as sodium) in fuel ethanol and petroleum derived blendstocks are discussed. Examination of historical information on the consumer vehicle issues that occurred in 2004-2005 reveals that a source of sodium or ammonium ions, required for the formation of the observed insoluble salts, was never identified. Recommendations for research to better understand sulfate salt solubility issues in ethanol, hydrocarbon blendstocks, and ethanol-gasoline blends are presented.

  2. Is Encephalopathy a Mechanism to Renew Sulfate in Autism?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurie Lentz-Marino

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper makes two claims: (1 autism can be characterized as a chronic low-grade encephalopathy, associated with excess exposure to nitric oxide, ammonia and glutamate in the central nervous system, which leads to hippocampal pathologies and resulting cognitive impairment, and (2, encephalitis is provoked by a systemic deficiency in sulfate, but associated seizures and fever support sulfate restoration. We argue that impaired synthesis of cholesterol sulfate in the skin and red blood cells, catalyzed by sunlight and nitric oxide synthase enzymes, creates a state of colloidal instability in the blood manifested as a low zeta potential and increased interfacial stress. Encephalitis, while life-threatening, can result in partial renewal of sulfate supply, promoting neuronal survival. Research is cited showing how taurine may not only help protect neurons from hypochlorite exposure, but also provide a source for sulfate renewal. Several environmental factors can synergistically promote the encephalopathy of autism, including the herbicide, glyphosate, aluminum, mercury, lead, nutritional deficiencies in thiamine and zinc, and yeast overgrowth due to excess dietary sugar. Given these facts, dietary and lifestyle changes, including increased sulfur ingestion, organic whole foods, increased sun exposure, and avoidance of toxins such as aluminum, mercury, and lead, may help to alleviate symptoms or, in some instances, to prevent autism altogether.

  3. Process for treating the dialyzed spent liquor from sulphonic acid containing sulfur minerals or tar oils or ammonium salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wernicke, E A

    1936-08-09

    Process for working up the dialyzate from sulfonic acid, sulfur-containing mineral or tar oils, or their ammonium salts, characterized by the combination of known steps, in the dialyzate being reacted with alkaline-earth oxide, hydroxide, or carbonate, and the resulting slightly soluble sulfate being filtered off and evaporated if necessary.

  4. Producing ammonium chloride from coal or shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christenson, O L

    1921-02-25

    Process of producing ammonium chloride consists of mixing the substance to be treated with a chloride of an alkali or alkaline earth metal, free silica, water and free hydrochloric acid, heating the mixture until ammonium chloride distills off and collecting the ammonium chloride.

  5. Application of Neesler reagent in the ammonium quantification used in the fermentations of biotechnology products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinorah Torres-Idavoy

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The ammonium salts are used in fermentations to supplement the deficient amounts of nitrogen and stabilize the pH of the culture medium. The excess ammonium ion exerts a detrimental effect on the fermentation process inhibiting microbial growth. An analytical method based on Neesler reagent was developed for monitoring and controlling the concentration of ammonium during the fermentation process. The test was standardized, by means of the selection of measuring equipment, and the reaction time as well as comparing standards of ammonium salts. The method was characterized with the evaluation of the next parameters: Specificity, Linearity and Range, Quantification Limit, Accuracy and Precision. The method proved to be specific. Two linear curves were defined in the ranges of concentrations of ammonium chloride salt (2-20 μg/ml and ammonium sulfate salt (5-30 μg/ml. The limits of quantification were the lowest points of each one. The method proved to be accurate and precise. This assay was applied to samples of the yeast culture and bacteria of the genus Saccharomyces and E. coli respectively. A novel method in micro plate for quantification and analytical control of ammonia was developed. This method is used to control this fundamental chemical component in the fermentations, to optimize the culture medium. Thus, an appropriate expression of recombinant proteins and proper vaccine candidates for clinical use are achieved

  6. Influência das características das substâncias húmicas na eficiência da coagulação com sulfato de alumínio The influence of humic substances characteristics on the coagulation efficiency using aluminum sulfate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro Xavier Campos

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho foi estudada a influência das características das substâncias húmicas (SH, em especial a massa molar das moléculas, na eficiência da coagulação com o uso do sulfato de alumínio. Utilizando-se de água proveniente de poço profundo, foram preparadas quatro águas de estudo, todas com cor verdadeira de aproximadamente 100 uH. As SH foram extraídas de turfa e fracionadas em massas molares: i SH filtradas em membranas de 0,45 µm; ii SH filtradas em membranas de 0,45 µm e maiores que 100 kDa, iii SH com moléculas entre 30 e 100 kDa; iv SH com moléculas menores do que 30 kDa. Verificou-se que quanto maior a massa molar das SH maior foi a eficiência de remoção da cor aparente, com as menores dosagens de coagulante.O pH de coagulação ótimo, esteve entre 6,0 e 7,0, para todas as águas de estudo. Os estudos da porcentagem de ácido húmico (AH e ácido fúlvico (AF presentes em cada fração de diferente massa molar mostraram que quanto maior foi à porcentagem de AF presente, maior foi à dosagem de coagulante exigida para se obter os melhores resultados de remoção da cor aparente.The influence of the molecular weight of soil humic substances on the coagulation efficiency with aluminum sulfate was studied in this work. Four types of water were studied, with the same true color of approximately 100 HU, but prepared with different fractions of molecular weights: Water Type 1 (humic substances filtered in membrane of 0,45 µm; Water Type 2 (humic substances filtered in membrane of 0,45 µm and with molecular weight > 100 KDa; Water Type 3 (humic substances with molecular weight between 100 and 30 KDa; Water Type 4 (humic substances with molecular weight < 30 KDa. It was conclude that the higher the molecular weight of the molecules, the lower the coagulant dosages required for efficient coagulation, at the coagulation pH range 6 - 7. The types of water prepared with the fractions of humic substances containing higher

  7. Effects of adding aluminum sulfate to different litters on selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-09-17

    Sep 17, 2008 ... on blood plasma concentrations of some principal microelements and some vitamins in broilers. In this experiment, 645 day old Ross 308 ... particularly mineral and trace element deficiencies, caus- ed by insufficient feeding led to .... neural function. Non-ruminant animals require dietary in- take of cobalt in ...

  8. Graphene-aluminum nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartolucci, Stephen F.; Paras, Joseph; Rafiee, Mohammad A.; Rafiee, Javad; Lee, Sabrina; Kapoor, Deepak; Koratkar, Nikhil

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We investigated the mechanical properties of aluminum and aluminum nanocomposites. → Graphene composite had lower strength and hardness compared to nanotube reinforcement. → Processing causes aluminum carbide formation at graphene defects. → The carbides in between grains is a source of weakness and lowers tensile strength. - Abstract: Composites of graphene platelets and powdered aluminum were made using ball milling, hot isostatic pressing and extrusion. The mechanical properties and microstructure were studied using hardness and tensile tests, as well as electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry. Compared to the pure aluminum and multi-walled carbon nanotube composites, the graphene-aluminum composite showed decreased strength and hardness. This is explained in the context of enhanced aluminum carbide formation with the graphene filler.

  9. Ammonium assmilation in spruce ectomycorrhizas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chalot, M.; Brun, A.; Botton, B.; Stewart, G.

    1990-01-01

    Assimilation of labelled NH 4 + into amino acids has been followed in ectomycorrhizal roots of spruce. Over an 18 h period of NH 4 + feeding, Gln, Glu and Ala became the most abundant amino acids. Gln was also the most highly labelled amino acid during the experiment, followed by Glu and Ala. This result indicates that Gln synthesis is an important ammonium utilization reaction in spruce mycorrhizas. Addition of MSX to NH 4 + fed mycorrhizas caused an inhibition of Gln accumulation with a corresponding increase in Glu, Ala and Asn levels. The supply of MSX induced a sharp diminution of 15 N enrichment in both amino and amido groups of glutamine. In contrast, the 15 N incorporation into Glu and derivatives (Ala and Asp) remained very high. This study demonstrates that the fungal glutamate dehydrogenase is quite operative in spruce ectomycorrhizas since it is able to sustain ammonium assimilation when glutamine synthetase is inhibited

  10. Curdlan sulfate-O-linked quaternized chitosan nanoparticles: potential adjuvants to improve the immunogenicity of exogenous antigens via intranasal vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shu; Huang, Shengshi; Lu, Lu; Song, Xinlei; Li, Pingli; Wang, Fengshan

    2018-01-01

    The development of ideal vaccine adjuvants for intranasal vaccination can provide convenience for many vaccinations. As an ideal intranasal vaccine adjuvant, it should have the properties of assisting soluble antigens to pass the mucosal barrier and potentiating both systemic and mucosal immunity via nasal administration. By using the advantages of polysaccharides, which can promote both T-helper 1 and 2 responses, curdlan sulfate (CS)- O -(2-hydroxyl)propyl-3-trimethyl ammonium chitosan chloride ( O -HTCC) nanoparticles were prepared by interacting CS with O -HTCC, and the adjuvancy of the nanoparticles was investigated. The results showed that the polysaccharide-based nanoparticles induced the proliferation and activation of antigen-presenting cells. High protein-loading efficiency was obtained by testing with the model antigen ovalbumin (Ova), and the Ova adsorbed onto the cationic CS/ O -HTCC complexes was taken up easily by the epithelium. To evaluate the capacity of the Ova/CS/ O -HTCC nanoparticles for immune enhancement in vivo, we collected and analyzed immunocytes, serum, and mucosal lavage fluid from intranasally vaccinated mice. The results showed that Ova/CS/ O -HTCC nanoparticles induced activation and maturation of antigen-presenting cells and provoked the proliferation and differentiation of lymphocytes more significantly compared to the immunization of Ova mixed with aluminum hydroxide gel. Furthermore, CS/ O -HTCC evoked a significantly higher level of Ova-specific antibodies. Therefore, these results suggest that CS/ O -HTCC nanoparticles are ideal vaccine adjuvants for soluble antigens used in intranasal or mucosal vaccination.

  11. Headspace Analysis of Ammonium Nitrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-25

    explosive ammonium nitrate produces ammonia and nitric acid in the gaseous headspace above bulk solids, but the concentrations of the products have been...and NO2-, a product of nitrate fragmentation (Figure 7). Brief spikes in the background and dips in oxalic acid signal were observed at the time of...either filtered air or experimental nitric acid vapor sources so that analyte signal could be measured directly opposite background. With oxalic

  12. Obtaining of barium sulfate from solution formed after desulfation of the active mass of scrap lead-acid batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Kalko

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Analyses of literature data about processes for solution utilization formed after desulfation of the active mass of scrap lead-acid batteries is performed. Optimal conditions for obtaining of barium sulfate sediment from ammonium sulfate solute and chemically pure Ba(OH2×8H2O и BaCl2×2H2O were found experimentally. In laboratory the commercial barium sulfate from sulfate solutions, that are waste of recycling process of battery scrap, with application of chloride and barium hydroxide was production. The possibility of using this product were discussed.

  13. Ferrous Sulfate (Iron)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are allergic to ferrous sulfate, any other medications tartrazine (a yellow dye in some processed foods and ... in, tightly closed, and out of reach of children. Store it at room temperature and away from ...

  14. Holothurian Fucosylated Chondroitin Sulfate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor H. Pomin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fucosylated chondroitin sulfate (FucCS is a structurally distinct glycosaminoglycan found in sea cucumber species. It has the same backbone composition of alternating 4-linked glucuronic acid and 3-linked N-acetyl galactosamine residues within disaccharide repeating units as regularly found in mammalian chondroitin sulfates. However, FucCS has also sulfated fucosyl branching units 3-O-linked to the acid residues. The sulfation patterns of these branches vary accordingly with holothurian species and account for different biological actions and responses. FucCSs may exhibit anticoagulant, antithrombotic, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antiviral, and pro-angiogenic activities, besides its beneficial effects in hemodialysis, cellular growth modulation, fibrosis and hyperglycemia. Through an historical overview, this document covers most of the science regarding the holothurian FucCS. Both structural and medical properties of this unique GAG, investigated during the last 25 years, are systematically discussed herein.

  15. DHEA-sulfate test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... DHEA sulfate may be due to: Adrenal gland disorders that produce lower than normal amounts of adrenal hormones, including adrenal insufficiency and Addison disease The pituitary gland not producing normal amounts of its hormones ( hypopituitarism ) ...

  16. Effect of n-octanol on -uranyl extraction by tri-n-octylammonium sulfate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochkin, A.V.; Kudrov, A.N.

    1984-01-01

    The effect of n-octanol on the extraction of uranyl sulfate by solutions of tri-n-octylamine sulfate in benzene has been studied. With the increase of alcohol concentration the coefficient of uranium distribution passes through the maximum. At low alcohol concentrations a decrease in water content in the organic phase is observed. It is shown that the increase in ammonium salt activity in replacement of part of hydrate At high alcohol concentration the decrease in uranium distribution coefficients is observed, which is related to TOA sulfate solvation by alcohol

  17. Direct Sulfation of Limestone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Guilin; Dam-Johansen, Kim; Wedel, Stig

    2007-01-01

    The direct sulfation of limestone was studied in a laboratory fixed-bed reactor. It is found that the direct sulfation of limestone involves nucleation and crystal grain growth of the solid product (anhydrite). At 823 K and at low-conversions (less than about 0.5 %), the influences of SO2, O-2...... and CO2 on the direct sulfation of limestone corresponds to apparent reaction orders of about 0.2, 0.2 and -0.5, respectively. Water is observed to promote the sulfation reaction and increase the apparent reaction orders of SO2 and O-2. The influence of O-2 at high O-2 concentrations (> about 15...... %) becomes negligible. In the temperature interval from 723 K to 973 K, an apparent activation energy of about 104 kJ/mol is observed for the direct sulfation of limestone. At low temperatures and low conversions, the sulfation process is most likely under mixed control by chemical reaction and solid...

  18. BONDING ALUMINUM METALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noland, R.A.; Walker, D.E.

    1961-06-13

    A process is given for bonding aluminum to aluminum. Silicon powder is applied to at least one of the two surfaces of the two elements to be bonded, the two elements are assembled and rubbed against each other at room temperature whereby any oxide film is ruptured by the silicon crystals in the interface; thereafter heat and pressure are applied whereby an aluminum-silicon alloy is formed, squeezed out from the interface together with any oxide film, and the elements are bonded.

  19. Aluminum powder metallurgy processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flumerfelt, J.F.

    1999-02-12

    The objective of this dissertation is to explore the hypothesis that there is a strong linkage between gas atomization processing conditions, as-atomized aluminum powder characteristics, and the consolidation methodology required to make components from aluminum powder. The hypothesis was tested with pure aluminum powders produced by commercial air atomization, commercial inert gas atomization, and gas atomization reaction synthesis (GARS). A comparison of the GARS aluminum powders with the commercial aluminum powders showed the former to exhibit superior powder characteristics. The powders were compared in terms of size and shape, bulk chemistry, surface oxide chemistry and structure, and oxide film thickness. Minimum explosive concentration measurements assessed the dependence of explosibility hazard on surface area, oxide film thickness, and gas atomization processing conditions. The GARS aluminum powders were exposed to different relative humidity levels, demonstrating the effect of atmospheric conditions on post-atomization processing conditions. The GARS aluminum powders were exposed to different relative humidity levels, demonstrating the effect of atmospheric conditions on post-atomization oxidation of aluminum powder. An Al-Ti-Y GARS alloy exposed in ambient air at different temperatures revealed the effect of reactive alloy elements on post-atomization powder oxidation. The pure aluminum powders were consolidated by two different routes, a conventional consolidation process for fabricating aerospace components with aluminum powder and a proposed alternative. The consolidation procedures were compared by evaluating the consolidated microstructures and the corresponding mechanical properties. A low temperature solid state sintering experiment demonstrated that tap densified GARS aluminum powders can form sintering necks between contacting powder particles, unlike the total resistance to sintering of commercial air atomization aluminum powder.

  20. Ammonium Laurate Surfactant for Cleaner Deposition of Carbon Nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, Hanna M. [Department of Material Science and Engineering and ‡Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742, United States; Meany, Brendan [Department of Material Science and Engineering and ‡Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742, United States; Ticey, Jeremy [Department of Material Science and Engineering and ‡Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742, United States; Sun, Chuan-Fu [Department of Material Science and Engineering and ‡Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742, United States; Wang, YuHuang [Department of Material Science and Engineering and ‡Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742, United States; Cumings, John [Department of Material Science and Engineering and ‡Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742, United States

    2015-06-15

    Experiments probing the properties of individual carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and those measuring bulk composites show vastly different results. One major issue limiting the results is that the procedures required to separate and test CNTs introduce contamination that changes the properties of the CNT. These contamination residues often come from the resist used in lithographic processing and the surfactant used to suspend and deposit the CNTs, commonly sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). Here we present ammonium laurate (AL), a surfactant that has previously not been used for this application, which differs from SDS only by substitution of ionic constituents but shows vastly cleaner depositions. In addition, we show that compared to SDS, AL-suspended CNTs have greater shelf stability and more selective dispersion. These results are verified using transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, ζ-potential measurements, and Raman and absorption optical spectroscopy. This surfactant is simple to prepare, and the nanotube solutions require minimal sonication and centrifugation in order to outperform SDS.

  1. 21 CFR 175.105 - Adhesives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    .... Ammonium borate Ammonium citrate Ammonium persulfate Ammonium polyacrylate Ammonium potassium hydrogen... Chromium potassium sulfate Cobaltous acetate Coconut fatty acid amine salt of tetrachlorophenol For use as... of such acids, single or mixed, as follows: Aluminum Ammonium Calcium Magnesium Potassium Sodium Zinc...

  2. Enhanced sulfidation xanthate flotation of malachite using ammonium ions as activator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dandan; Ma, Wenhui; Mao, Yingbo; Deng, Jiushuai; Wen, Shuming

    2017-05-18

    In this study, ammonium ion was used to enhance the sulfidation flotation of malachite. The effect of ammonium ion on the sulfidation flotation of malachite was investigated using microflotation test, inductively coupled plasma (ICP) analysis, zeta potential measurements, and scanning electron microscope analysis (SEM). The results of microflotation test show that the addition of sodium sulfide and ammonium sulfate resulted in better sulfidation than the addition of sodium sulfide alone. The results of ICP analysis indicate that the dissolution of enhanced sulfurized malachite surface is significantly decreased. Zeta potential measurements indicate that a smaller isoelectric point value and a large number of copper-sulfide films formed on the malachite surface by enhancing sulfidation resulted in a large amount of sodium butyl xanthate absorbed onto the enhanced sulfurized malachite surface. EDS semi-quantitative analysis and XPS analysis show that malachite was easily sulfurized by sodium sulfide with ammonium ion. These results show that the addition of ammonium ion plays a significant role in the sulfidation of malachite and results in improved flotation performance.

  3. Glufosinate ammonium selection of transformed Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigel, Detlef; Glazebrook, Jane

    2006-12-01

    INTRODUCTIONOne of the most commonly used markers for the selection of transgenic Arabidopsis is resistance to glufosinate ammonium, an herbicide that is sold under a variety of trade names including Basta and Finale. Resistance to glufosinate ammonium is conferred by the bacterial bialophos resistance gene (BAR) encoding the enzyme phosphinotricin acetyl transferase (PAT). This protocol describes the use of glufosinate ammonium to select transformed Arabidopsis plants. The major advantage of glufosinate ammonium selection is that it can be performed on plants growing in soil and does not require the use of sterile techniques.

  4. 76 FR 46907 - Ammonium Nitrate Security Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-03

    ... Maritime Transportation Security Act NAICS North American Industrial Classification System NPRM Notice of.... Commenters noted, for example, that equipment used for transporting bulk ammonium nitrate, such as hoppers...

  5. Anodizing Aluminum with Frills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doeltz, Anne E.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    "Anodizing Aluminum" (previously reported in this journal) describes a vivid/relevant laboratory experience for general chemistry students explaining the anodizing of aluminum in sulfuric acid and constrasting it to electroplating. Additions to this procedure and the experiment in which they are used are discussed. Reactions involved are…

  6. Is the Aluminum Hypothesis Dead?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The Aluminum Hypothesis, the idea that aluminum exposure is involved in the etiology of Alzheimer disease, dates back to a 1965 demonstration that aluminum causes neurofibrillary tangles in the brains of rabbits. Initially the focus of intensive research, the Aluminum Hypothesis has gradually been abandoned by most researchers. Yet, despite this current indifference, the Aluminum Hypothesis continues to attract the attention of a small group of scientists and aluminum continues to be viewed with concern by some of the public. This review article discusses reasons that mainstream science has largely abandoned the Aluminum Hypothesis and explores a possible reason for some in the general public continuing to view aluminum with mistrust. PMID:24806729

  7. The aluminum smelting process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvande, Halvor

    2014-05-01

    This introduction to the industrial primary aluminum production process presents a short description of the electrolytic reduction technology, the history of aluminum, and the importance of this metal and its production process to modern society. Aluminum's special qualities have enabled advances in technologies coupled with energy and cost savings. Aircraft capabilities have been greatly enhanced, and increases in size and capacity are made possible by advances in aluminum technology. The metal's flexibility for shaping and extruding has led to architectural advances in energy-saving building construction. The high strength-to-weight ratio has meant a substantial reduction in energy consumption for trucks and other vehicles. The aluminum industry is therefore a pivotal one for ecological sustainability and strategic for technological development.

  8. 49 CFR 176.410 - Division 1.5 materials, ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Division 1.5 materials, ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate mixtures. 176.410 Section 176.410 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... nitrate and ammonium nitrate mixtures. (a) This section prescribes requirements to be observed with...

  9. Ammonium-induced inhibition of ammonium-starved Nitrosomonas europaea cells in soil and sand slurries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerards, S.; Duyts, H.; Laanbroek, H.J.

    1998-01-01

    Ammonia-oxidising bacteria are poor competitors for limiting amounts of ammonium. Hence, starvation for ammonium seems to be the regular condition for these bacteria in natural environments. Long-term survival in the absence of ammonium will be dependent on the ability to maintain large population

  10. Photosynthesis of ammonium uranous fluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Fekey, S.A.; Zaki, M.R.; Farah, M.Y.

    1975-01-01

    This study pertains to utilisation of solar energy for ethanol photosynthesis of ammonium uranous fluoride, that satisfies nuclear specifications needed for calcio- or magnesiothermy. Insolation in autumn using 4-10% ethanol in 5-20 g uranium/litre at initial pH 3.25 gave practically 99.8% yield in two hours, independant of 1.0 to 2.0 stoichiometric NH 4 F. With ultraviolet light, the yield varied between 30 and 60%, even after four hours irradiation. Stirring and heating to 60 0 C raised the tap density of the dried double fluorides from 1.48 at 30 0 C, to 1.85 g/cm 3 at 60 0 C. The texture increased also in fineness to 100% 50μ aggregates. The powders satisfy nuclear purity specifications. Thermograms indicated preferential decomposition of double fluoride at 375 0 C in controlled atmosphere to obtain nuclear pure anhydrous uranium tetrafluoride

  11. Sulfate metabolism. I. Sulfate uptake and redistribution of acid rain sulfate by edible plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dallam, R.D.

    1987-01-01

    Sulfur is the major component of polluted air in industrialized societies. Atmospheric sulfur is converted to sulfuric acid through a series of chemical reactions which can eventually reenter many ecosystems. When edible plants are grown in soils containing varying amounts of sulfate, the roots take up and transport inorganic sulfate to the stems and leaves. The sulfate taken up by the roots and the amount transported to the stem and leaves was found to be a function of the concentration of sulfate in the soil. Inorganic sulfate taken up by a corn plant seedling can be rapidly converted to organic sulfate by the root system. Nine days after one of a pair of pea plants was inoculated with artificial acid rain sulfate (dilute H 2 35 SO 4 ) it was found that the sulfate was translocated not only in the inoculated plant, but also to the uninoculated pea plant in the same container. Also, when the leaves of a mature potato plant were inoculated with artificial acid rain sulfate it was found that the sulfate was translocated into the edible potatoes. Fractionation of the potatoes showed that most of the sulfate was water soluble of which 30% was inorganic sulfate and 70% was in the form of organic sulfur. One third of the non-water soluble translocated acid rain sulfate was equally divided between lipid and non-lipid organic sulfur of the potato. 9 references, 2 figures, 5 tables

  12. Atmospheric behaviour of ammonia and ammonium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asman, W.A.H.

    1987-01-01

    1.4.1 Scope of this thesis

    A few models for ammonia and ammonium exist. Russell et al. (1983) made a multi-layer Lagrangian transport model describing the transport and formation of ammonium nitrate aerosol for California. They did not take reactions of ammonia and sulphuric acid

  13. 21 CFR 582.1135 - Ammonium bicarbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ammonium bicarbonate. 582.1135 Section 582.1135 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE General Purpose Food Additives § 582.1135 Ammonium bicarbonate. (a)...

  14. Thermal analysis studies of ammonium uranyl carbonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Xinsheng; Ma Xuezhong; Wang Fapin; Liu Naixin; Ji Changhong

    1988-01-01

    The simultaneous thermogravimetry and differential thermal analysis of the ammonium uranyl carbonate powder were performed with heat balance in the following atmosphers: Air, Ar and Ar-8%H 2 . The thermogravimetry and differential thermal analysis curves of the ammonium uranyl carbonate powder obtained from different source were reported and discussed

  15. Ammonium nitrate-potassium nitrate system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cady, H.H.

    1981-01-01

    A portion of the binary phase diagram for the system ammonium nitrate-potassium nitrate has been determined from -55/sup 0/C to 185/sup 0/C. Results are presented for the ammonium-nitrate-rich end of the system up to 30 wt% potassium nitrate.

  16. 49 CFR 176.415 - Permit requirements for Division 1.5, ammonium nitrates, and certain ammonium nitrate fertilizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... nitrates, and certain ammonium nitrate fertilizers. 176.415 Section 176.415 Transportation Other... requirements for Division 1.5, ammonium nitrates, and certain ammonium nitrate fertilizers. (a) Except as... Captain of the Port (COTP). (1) Ammonium nitrate UN1942, ammonium nitrate fertilizers containing more than...

  17. USE OF HYDROGEN RESPIROMETRY TO DETERMINE METAL TOXICITY TO SULFATE REDUCING BACTERIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acid mine drainage (AMD), an acidic metal-bearing wastewater poses a severe pollution problem attributed to post-mining activities. The metals (metal sulfates) encountered in AMD and considered of concern for risk assessment are: arsenic, cadmium, aluminum, manganese, iron, zinc ...

  18. Effects of aluminum and manganese on the growth of ectomycorrhizal fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, G W; Medve, R J

    1984-09-01

    Cenococcum graniforme, Suillus luteus, Thelephora terrestris, and three isolates of Pisolithus tinctorius were cultured on modified Melin-Norkrans medium at pH 3.4 and adjusted to 0 to 500 ppm (0 to 500 mug/ml) of aluminum or manganese sulfate. Except for T. terrestris, which was intolerant of aluminum at 150 and 250 to 500 ppm, and P. tinctorius isolate 250, which was intolerant of aluminum at 450 ppm, all fungi showed some growth at all concentrations of aluminum. S. luteus was the most tolerant to aluminum. Manganese was less fungitoxic than aluminum, with all fungi showing at least 65% growth at 500 ppm as compared with the control. C. graniforme was not inhibited at any concentration of manganese, and S. luteus was only affected at 500 ppm. P. tinctorius isolate 230 showed no significant variation in growth when subjected to various concentrations of three forms of manganese salts. Significant differences in growth were detected in response to three aluminum salts, but no detectable pattern was apparent. Genotypic responses to aluminum and manganese were evident for P. tinctorius. Isolates 210 and 230 were more tolerant to manganese than was isolate 250. Aluminum tolerance was in the order of isolate 230 > 210 > 250. Results of in vitro studies concerning tolerance responses of ectomycorrhizal fungi to aluminum and manganese were not consistent with field observations of the successional sequence of these fungi on acid coal spoils.

  19. Effects of aluminum and manganese on the growth of ectomycorrhizal fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, G.W.; Medve, R.J.

    1984-09-01

    Cenococcum graniforme, Suillus luteus, Thelephora terrestris, and three isolates of Pisolithus tinctorius were cultured on modified Melin-Norkrans medium at pH 3.4 and adjusted to 0 to 500 ppm (0 to 500 ..mu..g/ml) of aluminum or manganese sulfate. Except for T. terrestris, which was intolerant of aluminum at 150 and 250 to 500 ppm, and P. tinctorius isolate 250, which was intolerant of aluminum at 450 ppm, all fungi showed some growth at all concentrations of aluminum. S. luteus was the most tolerant to aluminum. Manganese was less fungitoxic than aluminum, with all fungi showing at least 65% growth at 500 ppm as compared with the control. C graniforme was not inhibited at any concentration of manganese, and S. luteus was only affected at 500 ppm. P. tinctorius isolate 230 showed no significant variation in growth when subjected to various concentrations of three forms of manganese salts. Significant differences in growth were detected in response to three aluminum salts, but no detectable pattern was apparent. Genotypic responses to aluminum and manganese were evident for P. tinctorius. Isolates 210 and 230 were more tolerant to manganese than was isolate 250. Aluminum tolerance was in the order of isolate 230 > 210 > 250. Results of in vitro studies concerning tolerance responses of ectomycorrhizal fungi to aluminum and manganese were not consistent with field observations of the successional sequence of these fungi on acid coal spoils. 43 references, 3 tables.

  20. Axenic aerobic biofilms inhibit corrosion of copper and aluminum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaraman, A; Ornek, D; Duarte, D A; Lee, C C; Mansfeld, F B; Wood, T K

    1999-11-01

    The corrosion behavior of unalloyed copper and aluminum alloy 2024 in modified Baar's medium has been studied with continuous reactors using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. An axenic aerobic biofilm of either Pseudomonas fragi K or Bacillus brevis 18 was able to lessen corrosion as evidenced by a consistent 20-fold increase in the low-frequency impedance value of copper as well as by a consistent four- to seven-fold increase in the polarization resistance of aluminum 2024 after six days exposure compared to sterile controls. This is the first report of axenic aerobic biofilms inhibiting generalized corrosion of copper and aluminum. Addition of the representative sulfate-reducing bacterium (SRB) Desulfovibrio vulgaris (to simulate consortia corrosion behavior) to either the P. fragi K or B. brevis 18 protective biofilm on copper increased the corrosion to that of the sterile control unless antibiotic (ampicillin) was added to inhibit the growth of SRB in the biofilm.

  1. Fate of 15N-urea and 15N-ammonium sulphate applied in different periods to cica-8 rice culture in greenhouse conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastidas, O.G.; Alvarez, A.; Victoria, R.L.; Urquiaga C, S.; Muraoka, T.

    1984-01-01

    The fate of nitrogen fertilizers in rice cultivars (Cica-8) is studied. Urea (1.973% at of 15 N) and ammonium sulfate (1.826% at of 15 N) are used. The fertilizers are applied in four levels (0,100,200 and 300 Kg N/ha) in shadow coditions and after 30 days of germination. (M.A.C.) [pt

  2. Advances in aluminum anodizing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, K. H.

    1969-01-01

    White anodize is applied to aluminum alloy surfaces by specific surface preparation, anodizing, pigmentation, and sealing techniques. The development techniques resulted in alloys, which are used in space vehicles, with good reflectance values and excellent corrosive resistance.

  3. Corrosion Inhibitors for Aluminum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Bodo

    1995-01-01

    Describes a simple and reliable test method used to investigate the corrosion-inhibiting effects of various chelating agents on aluminum pigments in aqueous alkaline media. The experiments that are presented require no complicated or expensive electronic equipment. (DDR)

  4. Dissolution of sulfate scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hen, J.

    1991-11-26

    This patent describes a composition for the removal of sulfate scale from surfaces. It comprises: an aqueous solution of about 0.1 to 1.0 molar concentration of an aminopolycarboxylic acid (APCA) containing 1 to 4 amino groups or a salt thereof, and about 0.1 to 1.0 molar concentration of a second component which is diethylenetriaminepenta (methylenephosphonic acid) (DTPMP) or a salt thereof, or aminotri (methylenephosphonic acid) (ATMP) or a salt thereof as an internal phase enveloped by a hydrocarbon membrane phase which is itself emulsified in an external aqueous phase, the hydrocarbon membrane phase continuing a complexing agent weaker for the cations of the sulfate scale than the APCA and DTPMP or ATMP, any complexing agent for the cations in the external aqueous phase being weaker than that in the hydrocarbon membrane phase.

  5. Corrosion Protection of Aluminum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalrymple, R. S.; Nelson, W. B.

    1963-07-01

    Treatment of aluminum-base metal surfaces in an autoclave with an aqueous chromic acid solution of 0.5 to 3% by weight and of pH below 2 for 20 to 50 hrs at 160 to 180 deg C produces an extremely corrosion-resistant aluminum oxidechromium film on the surface. A chromic acid concentration of 1 to 2% and a pH of about 1 are preferred.

  6. Radioimmunoassay of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieira, J.G.H.; Furlanetto, R.P.; Russo, E.M.K.; Noguti, K.O.; Chacra, A.R.

    1980-01-01

    The development of a radioimmunological method for the measurement of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate in serum is described. For the immunization of rabbits, a DHA-3-hemissuccinate-bovine serum albumin conjugate was synthetized and a highly specific anti-serum was produced. The method developed requires only simple dilution prior to assay and the normal values for the different age groups were determined in 146 normal individuals. (Author) [pt

  7. Sulfation of chondroitin. Specificity, degree of sulfation, and detergent effects with 4-sulfating and 6-sulfating microsomal systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugumaran, G.; Silbert, J.E.

    1988-01-01

    Microsomal preparations from chondroitin 6-sulfate-producing chick embryo epiphyseal cartilage, and from chondroitin 4-sulfate-producing mouse mastocytoma cells, were incubated with UDP-[14C]glucuronic acid and UDP-N-acetylgalactosamine to form non-sulfated proteo[14C]chondroitin. Aliquots of the incubations were then incubated with 3'-phosphoadenylylphosphosulfate (PAPS) in the presence or absence of various detergents. In the absence of detergents, there was good sulfation of this endogenous proteo[14C]chondroitin by the original microsomes from both sources. Detergents, with the exception of Triton X-100, markedly inhibited sulfation in the mast cell system but not in the chick cartilage system. These results indicate that sulfation and polymerization are closely linked on cell membranes and that in some cases this organization can be disrupted by detergents. When aliquots of the original incubation were heat inactivated, and then reincubated with new microsomes from chick cartilage and/or mouse mastocytoma cells plus PAPS, there was no significant sulfation of this exogenous proteo[14C] chondroitin with either system unless Triton X-100 was added. Sulfation of exogenous chondroitin and chondroitin hexasaccharide was compared with sulfation of endogenous and exogenous proteo[14C]chondroitin. Sulfate incorporation into hexasaccharide and chondroitin decreased as their concentrations (based on uronic acid) approached that of the proteo[14C]chondroitin. At the same time, the degree of sulfation in percent of substituted hexosamine increased. However, the degree of sulfation did not reach that of the endogenous proteo[14C]chondroitin. Hexasaccharide and chondroitin sulfation were stimulated by the presence of Triton X-100. However, in contrast to the exogenous proteo[14C]chondroitin, there was some sulfation of hexasaccharide and chondroitin in the absence of this detergent

  8. Disguised as a sulfate reducer: Growth of the Deltaproteobacterium Desulfurivibrio alkaliphilus by Sulfide Oxidation with Nitrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorup, Casper; Schramm, Andreas; Findlay, Alyssa Jean Lehsau

    2017-01-01

    This study demonstrates that the deltaproteobacterium Desulfurivibrio alkaliphilus can grow chemolithotrophically by coupling sulfide oxidation to the dissimilatory reduction of nitrate and nitrite to ammonium. Key genes of known sulfide oxidation pathways are absent from the genome of D...... of the sulfate reduction pathway. This is the first study providing evidence that a reductive-type DSR is involved in a sulfide oxidation pathway. Transcriptome sequencing further suggests that nitrate reduction to ammonium is performed by a novel type of periplasmic nitrate reductase and an unusual membrane......-anchored nitrite reductase....

  9. Surface Enrichment by Conventional and Polymerizable Sulfated Nonylphenol Ethoxylate Emulsifiers in Water-Based Pressure-Sensitive Adhesive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jilin Zhang; Yuxi Zhao; Matthew R. Dubay; Steven J. Severtson; Larry E. Gwin; Carl J. Houtman

    2013-01-01

    Comparisons of properties are made for pressure-sensitive adhesives (PSAs) generated via emulsion polymerization using both conventional and reactive emulsifiers. The emulsifiers are ammonium salts of sulfated nonylphenol ethoxylates with similar chemical structures and hydrophilic−lipophilic balances. The polymerizable surfactant possesses a reactive double...

  10. The nitrogen cycle in anaerobic methanotrophic mats of the Black Sea is linked to sulfate reduction and biomass decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegert, Michael; Taubert, Martin; Seifert, Jana; von Bergen-Tomm, Martin; Basen, Mirko; Bastida, Felipe; Gehre, Matthias; Richnow, Hans-Hermann; Krüger, Martin

    2013-11-01

    Anaerobic methanotrophic (ANME) mats host methane-oxidizing archaea and sulfate-reducing prokaryotes. Little is known about the nitrogen cycle in these communities. Here, we link the anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) to the nitrogen cycle in microbial mats of the Black Sea by using stable isotope probing. We used four different (15)N-labeled sources of nitrogen: dinitrogen, nitrate, nitrite and ammonium. We estimated the nitrogen incorporation rates into the total biomass and the methyl coenzyme M reductase (MCR). Dinitrogen played an insignificant role as nitrogen source. Assimilatory and dissimilatory nitrate reduction occurred. High rates of nitrate reduction to dinitrogen were stimulated by methane and sulfate, suggesting that oxidation of reduced sulfur compounds such as sulfides was necessary for AOM with nitrate as electron acceptor. Nitrate reduction to dinitrogen occurred also in the absence of methane as electron donor but at six times slower rates. Dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium was independent of AOM. Ammonium was used for biomass synthesis under all conditions. The pivotal enzyme in AOM coupled to sulfate reduction, MCR, was synthesized from nitrate and ammonium. Results show that AOM coupled to sulfate reduction along with biomass decomposition drive the nitrogen cycle in the ANME mats of the Black Sea and that MCR enzymes are involved in this process. © 2013 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Enhanced sulfate reduction with acidogenic sulfate-reducing bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Aijie; Ren Nanqi; Wang Xu; Lee Duujong

    2008-01-01

    Sulfate reduction in a continuous flow, acidogenic reactor using molasses wastewater as the carbon source was studied at varying chemical oxygen demand/sulfate (COD/SO 4 2- ) ratios. At a critical COD/SO 4 2- ratio of 2.7, neither COD nor sulfate were in excess for extra production of ethanol or acetate in the reactor. An acetic-type microbial metabolism was established with sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) significantly consuming hydrogen and volatile fatty acids produced by acidogenic bacteria and hydrogen producing acetogens in degrading COD, thereby yielding sulfate removal rate >94.6%. A low critical COD/SO 4 2- ratio of 1.6 was also observed with the enriched ASRB population in reactor which overcomes the barrier to the treatment capability of sulfate-laden wastewater treatment with limited COD supply

  12. Process for obtaining ammonium uranyl tri carbonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, L.R. dos; Riella, H.G.

    1992-01-01

    The procedure adopted for obtaining Ammonium Uranyl Carbonate (AUC) from uranium hexafluoride (U F 6 ) in a aqueous solutions of ammonium hydrogen carbonate is described in this work. The precipitation is made in temperature and pH controlled. This process consists of three steps: evaporation of U F 6 , AUC precipitation and filtration of the AUC slurry. An attempt is made of correlate the parameters involved in the precipitation process of AUC with its and U O 2 characteristics. (author)

  13. Aluminum industry options paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-10-01

    In 1990, Canada's producers of aluminum (third largest in the world) emitted 10 million tonnes of carbon dioxide and equivalent, corresponding to 6.4 tonnes of greenhouse gas intensity per tonne of aluminum. In 2000, the projection is that on a business-as-usual (BAU) basis Canadian producers now producing 60 per cent more aluminum than in 1990, will emit 10.7 million tonnes of carbon dioxide and equivalent, corresponding to a GHG intensity of 4.2 tonnes per tonne of aluminum. This improvement is due to production being based largely on hydro-electricity, and partly because in general, Canadian plants are modern, with technology that is relatively GHG-friendly. The Aluminum Association of Canada estimates that based on anticipated production, and under a BAU scenario, GHG emissions from aluminum production will rise by 18 per cent by 2010 and by 30 per cent by 2020. GHG emissions could be reduced below the BAU forecast first, by new control and monitoring systems at some operations at a cost of $4.5 to 7.5 million per smelter. These systems could reduce carbon dioxide equivalent emissions by 0.8 million tonnes per year. A second alternative would require installation of breaker feeders which would further reduce perfluorocarbon (PFC) emissions by 0.9 million tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent. Cost of the breakers feeders would be in the order of $200 million per smelter. The third option calls for the the shutting down of some of the smelters with older technology by 2015. In this scenario GHG emissions would be reduced by 2010 by 0.8 million tonnes per year of carbon dioxide equivalent. However, the cost in this case would be about $1.36 billion. The industry would support measures that would encourage the first two sets of actions, which would produce GHG emissions from aluminum production in Canada of about 10.2 million tonnes per year of carbon dioxide equivalent, or about two per cent above 1990 levels with double the aluminum production of 1990. Credit for

  14. Extração simultânea de alumínio, cálcio, magnésio, potássio e sódio do solo com solução de cloreto de amônio Simultaneous extraction of aluminum, calcium, magnesium, potassium, and sodium with ammonium chloride solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. Boeira

    2004-10-01

    samples used were from Northeastern Brazil fruit growing region and from the Embrapa Environment Experimental Station, located in Jaguariúna County, São Paulo State. The employed methods were: (a simultaneous extraction of the five cations with a 1 mol L-1 NH4Cl; (b extraction of Ca, Mg, and Al with 1 mol L-1 KCl; and (c extraction of K and Na with the Mehlich-1 solution. The NH4Cl solution has a higher Mg extraction capacity than KCl, but they present similar Ca and Al extraction ability. The NH4Cl solution extracted more K and Na than the Mehlich-1 solution. It is concluded that the ammonium chloride solution is a convenient alternative for the extraction of exchangeable Al, Ca, Mg, K, and Na from soils.

  15. Mesoporous aluminum phosphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Haskouri, Jamal; Perez-Cabero, Monica; Guillem, Carmen; Latorre, Julio; Beltran, Aurelio; Beltran, Daniel; Amoros, Pedro

    2009-01-01

    High surface area pure mesoporous aluminum-phosphorus oxide-based derivatives have been synthesized through an S + I - surfactant-assisted cooperative mechanism by means of a one-pot preparative procedure from aqueous solution and starting from aluminum atrane complexes and phosphoric and/or phosphorous acids. A soft chemical extraction procedure allows opening the pore system of the parent as-prepared materials by exchanging the surfactant without mesostructure collapse. The nature of the pore wall can be modulated from mesoporous aluminum phosphate (ALPO) up to total incorporation of phosphite entities (mesoporous aluminum phosphite), which results in a gradual evolution of the acidic properties of the final materials. While phosphate groups in ALPO act as network building blocks (bridging Al atoms), the phosphite entities become basically attached to the pore surface, what gives practically empty channels. The mesoporous nature of the final materials is confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and N 2 adsorption-desorption isotherms. The materials present regular unimodal pore systems whose order decreases as the phosphite content increases. NMR spectroscopic results confirm the incorporation of oxo-phosphorus entities to the framework of these materials and also provide us useful information concerning the mechanism through which they are formed. - Abstract: TEM image of the mesoporous aluminum phosphite showing the hexagonal disordered pore array that is generated by using surfactant micelles as template. Also a scheme emphasizing the presence of an alumina-rich core and an ALPO-like pore surface is presented.

  16. Syndecan heparan sulfate proteoglycans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gomes, Angélica Maciel; Sinkeviciute, Dovile; Multhaupt, Hinke A.B.

    2016-01-01

    discuss how, in partial catabolic processes, new roles for HSPGs emerge that affect cell behavior. Examples from tumor studies are emphasized, since HSPGs may be altered in composition and distribution and may also represent targets for the development of new therapeutics....... signaling can therefore be complex, but it is now known that syndecans are capable of independent signaling. This review is divided in two sections, and will first discuss how the assembly of heparan sulfate, the anabolic process, encodes information related to ligand binding and signaling. Second, we...

  17. 2-Amino-4-hydroxyethylaminoanisole sulfate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jakob T; Andersen, Klaus E

    2016-01-01

    positive patch test reactions to the coupler 2-amino-4-hydroxyethylaminoanisole sulfate 2% pet. from 2005 to 2014. METHODS: Patch test results from the Allergen Bank database for eczema patients patch tested with 2-amino-4-hydroxyethylaminoanisole sulfate 2% pet. from 2005 to 2014 were reviewed. RESULTS......: A total of 902 dermatitis patients (154 from the dermatology department and 748 from 65 practices) were patch tested with amino-4-hydroxyethylaminoanisole sulfate 2% pet. from 2005 to 2014. Thirteen (1.4%) patients had a positive patch test reaction. Our results do not indicate irritant reactions....... CONCLUSIONS: 2-Amino-4-hydroxyethylaminoanisole sulfate is a new but rare contact allergen....

  18. Morpholine-4-carboxamidinium sulfate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Tiritiris

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The asymmetric unit of the title salt, 2C5H12N3O+·SO42−, comprises two cations and one sulfate ion. In both cations, the C, N and O atoms of the morpholine rings are disordered over two sets of sites, with refined occupancies of 0.849 (3:0.151 (3 for cation I and 0.684 (4:0.316 (4 for cation II. The C—N bond lengths in both central C3N units of the carboxamidinium ions range between 1.253 (12 and 1.362 (5 Å, indicating a degree of double-bond character. The central C atoms are bonded to the three N atoms in a nearly ideal trigonal–planar geometry and the positive charges are delocalized in both CN3 planes. The crystal structure is stabilized by a three-dimensional network of N—H...O hydrogen bonds between the cations and the sulfate ion. Scheme tiny font, charges and delocalized bonds almost invisible

  19. Regeneration of aluminum hydride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graetz, Jason Allan; Reilly, James J; Wegrzyn, James E

    2012-09-18

    The present invention provides methods and materials for the formation of hydrogen storage alanes, AlH.sub.x, where x is greater than 0 and less than or equal to 6 at reduced H.sub.2 pressures and temperatures. The methods rely upon reduction of the change in free energy of the reaction between aluminum and molecular H.sub.2. The change in free energy is reduced by lowering the entropy change during the reaction by providing aluminum in a state of high entropy, and by increasing the magnitude of the change in enthalpy of the reaction or combinations thereof.

  20. Regeneration of aluminum hydride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graetz, Jason Allan; Reilly, James J.

    2009-04-21

    The present invention provides methods and materials for the formation of hydrogen storage alanes, AlH.sub.x, where x is greater than 0 and less than or equal to 6 at reduced H.sub.2 pressures and temperatures. The methods rely upon reduction of the change in free energy of the reaction between aluminum and molecular H.sub.2. The change in free energy is reduced by lowering the entropy change during the reaction by providing aluminum in a state of high entropy, by increasing the magnitude of the change in enthalpy of the reaction or combinations thereof.

  1. Aluminum Hydroxide and Magnesium Hydroxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aluminum Hydroxide, Magnesium Hydroxide are antacids used together to relieve heartburn, acid indigestion, and upset stomach. They ... They combine with stomach acid and neutralize it. Aluminum Hydroxide, Magnesium Hydroxide are available without a prescription. ...

  2. Electrically conductive anodized aluminum coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alwitt, Robert S. (Inventor); Liu, Yanming (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A process for producing anodized aluminum with enhanced electrical conductivity, comprising anodic oxidation of aluminum alloy substrate, electrolytic deposition of a small amount of metal into the pores of the anodized aluminum, and electrolytic anodic deposition of an electrically conductive oxide, including manganese dioxide, into the pores containing the metal deposit; and the product produced by the process.

  3. Disguised as a Sulfate Reducer: Growth of the Deltaproteobacterium Desulfurivibrio alkaliphilus by Sulfide Oxidation with Nitrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorup, Casper; Schramm, Andreas; Findlay, Alyssa J; Finster, Kai W; Schreiber, Lars

    2017-07-18

    This study demonstrates that the deltaproteobacterium Desulfurivibrio alkaliphilus can grow chemolithotrophically by coupling sulfide oxidation to the dissimilatory reduction of nitrate and nitrite to ammonium. Key genes of known sulfide oxidation pathways are absent from the genome of D. alkaliphilus Instead, the genome contains all of the genes necessary for sulfate reduction, including a gene for a reductive-type dissimilatory bisulfite reductase (DSR). Despite this, growth by sulfate reduction was not observed. Transcriptomic analysis revealed a very high expression level of sulfate-reduction genes during growth by sulfide oxidation, while inhibition experiments with molybdate pointed to elemental sulfur/polysulfides as intermediates. Consequently, we propose that D. alkaliphilus initially oxidizes sulfide to elemental sulfur, which is then either disproportionated, or oxidized by a reversal of the sulfate reduction pathway. This is the first study providing evidence that a reductive-type DSR is involved in a sulfide oxidation pathway. Transcriptome sequencing further suggests that nitrate reduction to ammonium is performed by a novel type of periplasmic nitrate reductase and an unusual membrane-anchored nitrite reductase. IMPORTANCE Sulfide oxidation and sulfate reduction, the two major branches of the sulfur cycle, are usually ascribed to distinct sets of microbes with distinct diagnostic genes. Here we show a more complex picture, as D. alkaliphilus , with the genomic setup of a sulfate reducer, grows by sulfide oxidation. The high expression of genes typically involved in the sulfate reduction pathway suggests that these genes, including the reductive-type dissimilatory bisulfite reductases, are also involved in as-yet-unresolved sulfide oxidation pathways. Finally, D. alkaliphilus is closely related to cable bacteria, which grow by electrogenic sulfide oxidation. Since there are no pure cultures of cable bacteria, D. alkaliphilus may represent an

  4. Mineral carbonation of phosphogypsum waste for production of useful carbonate and sulfate salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannu-Petteri eMattila

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Phosphogypsum (CaSO4·2H2O waste is produced in large amounts during phosphoric acid (H3PO4 production. Minor quantities are utilized in construction or agriculture, while most of the material is stockpiled, creating an environmental challenge to prevent pollution of natural waters. In principle, the gypsum waste could be used to capture several hundred Mt of carbon dioxide (CO2. For example, when gypsum is converted to ammonium sulfate ((NH42SO4 with ammonia (NH3 and CO2, also solid calcium carbonate (CaCO3 is generated. The ammonium sulfate can be utilized as a fertilizer or in other mineral carbonation processes that use magnesium silicate-based rock as feedstock, while calcium carbonate has various uses as e.g. filler material. The reaction extent of the described process was studied by thermodynamic modeling and experimentally as a function of reactant concentrations and temperature. Other essential properties such as purity and quality of the solid products are also followed. Conversion efficiencies of >95% calcium from phosphogypsum to calcium carbonate are obtained. Scalenohedral, rhombohedral and prismatic calcite particles can be produced, though the precipitates contain certain contaminants such as rare earth metals and sulfur from the gypsum. A reverse osmosis membrane cartridge is also tested as an alternative and energy-efficient method of concentrating the ammonium sulfate salt solution instead of the traditional evaporation of the process solution.

  5. Crystallization characteristics of ammonium uranyl carbonate (AUC) in ammonium carbonate solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, T.J.; Jeong, K.C.; Park, J.H.; Chang, I.S.; Choi, C.S.

    1994-01-01

    Ammonium carbonate solutions with an excessive amount of NH 3 were produced in a commercial AUC (ammonium uranyl carbonate) conversion plant. In this study the AUC crystals, precipitated with uranyl nitrate and ammonium carbonate solutions prepared in the laboratory, were characterized to determine the feasibility of recycling ammonium carbonate solution. The AUC crystals were easily agglomerated with the increasing concentration of CO 3 2- and mole ratio of NH 4 + /CO 3 2- in ammonium carbonate solution. Effects of a mixing system for the solution in the AUC crystallizer and the feed location of the solution onthe agglomeration of AUC crystals were also studied along with the effects of agglomerated AUC powders on UO 2 powders. Finally, the feasibility of manufacturing UO 2 fuel with a sintered pellet density of 10.52 g/cm 3 , using the AUC powders generated in this experiment, was demonstrated. (orig.)

  6. Fluxless aluminum brazing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, W.J.

    1974-01-01

    This invention relates to a fluxless brazing alloy for use in forming brazed composites made from members of aluminum and its alloys. The brazing alloy consists of 35-55% Al, 10--20% Si, 25-60% Ge; 65-88% Al, 2-20% Si, 2--18% In; 65--80% Al, 15-- 25% Si, 5- 15% Y. (0fficial Gazette)

  7. Aluminum Corrosion and Turbidity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longtin, F.B.

    2003-01-01

    Aluminum corrosion and turbidity formation in reactors correlate with fuel sheath temperature. To further substantiate this correlation, discharged fuel elements from R-3, P-2 and K-2 cycles were examined for extent of corrosion and evidence of breaking off of the oxide film. This report discusses this study

  8. Aluminum concentration in hydrangeas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagawa, M.; Haruyama, Y.; Saito, M.

    2008-01-01

    We have been trying to measure concentration of aluminum in Ajisai, Hydrangea macrophylla for these days. But due to bad luck, we have encountered detector trouble for two years in a low. Thus, we have few data to analyze and obtained quite limited results. (author)

  9. The use of aluminum oxychlorides to coagulate water having high content of organic impurities and low alkalinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evsyutin, A. V.; Boglovskii, A. V.

    2007-07-01

    Results from laboratory investigations and industrial tests of the coagulation of source water at the Pskov district power station are presented. It is shown that the source water may not be alkalified if it is treated with aluminum oxychlorides. As a result, the clarified water becomes less corrosive and a lower salt load is placed on water treatment plants as compared with the case when aluminum sulfate is used for coagulation.

  10. INTRACELLULAR SYNTHESIS OF CHONDROITIN SULFATE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziewiatkowski, Dominic D.

    1962-01-01

    In autoradiograms of slices of costal cartilage, incubated for 4 hours in a salt solution containing S35-sulfate and then washed extensively and dehydrated, about 85 per cent of the radioactivity was assignable to the chondrocytes. From alkaline extracts of similarly prepared slices of cartilage, 64 to 83 per cent of the total sulfur-35 in the slices was isolated as chondroitin sulfate by chromatography on an anion-exchange resin. In view of the estimate that only about 15 per cent of the radioactivity was in the matrix, the isolation of 64 to 83 per cent of the total sulfur-35 as chondroitin sulfate is a strong argument that the chondrocytes are the loci in which chondroitin sulfate(s) is synthesized. PMID:13888910

  11. Aluminum enhances inflammation and decreases mucosal healing in experimental colitis in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineton de Chambrun, G; Body-Malapel, M; Frey-Wagner, I; Djouina, M; Deknuydt, F; Atrott, K; Esquerre, N; Altare, F; Neut, C; Arrieta, M C; Kanneganti, T-D; Rogler, G; Colombel, J-F; Cortot, A; Desreumaux, P; Vignal, C

    2014-01-01

    The increasing incidence of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) in developing countries has highlighted the critical role of environmental pollutants as causative factors in their pathophysiology. Despite its ubiquity and immune toxicity, the impact of aluminum in the gut is not known. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of environmentally relevant intoxication with aluminum in murine models of colitis and to explore the underlying mechanisms. Oral administration of aluminum worsened intestinal inflammation in mice with 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid- and dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis and chronic colitis in interleukin 10-negative (IL10−/−) mice. Aluminum increased the intensity and duration of macroscopic and histologic inflammation, colonic myeloperoxidase activity, inflammatory cytokines expression, and decreased the epithelial cell renewal compared with control animals. Under basal conditions, aluminum impaired intestinal barrier function. In vitro, aluminum induced granuloma formation and synergized with lipopolysaccharide to stimulate inflammatory cytokines expression by epithelial cells. Deleterious effects of aluminum on intestinal inflammation and mucosal repair strongly suggest that aluminum might be an environmental IBD risk factor. PMID:24129165

  12. Borated aluminum alloy manufacturing technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimojo, Jun; Taniuchi, Hiroaki; Kajihara, Katsura; Aruga, Yasuhiro

    2003-01-01

    Borated aluminum alloy is used as the basket material of cask because of its light weight, thermal conductivity and superior neutron absorbing abilities. Kobe Steel has developed a unique manufacturing process for borated aluminum alloy using a vacuum induction melting method. In this process, aluminum alloy is melted and agitated at higher temperatures than common aluminum alloy fabrication methods. It is then cast into a mold in a vacuum atmosphere. The result is a high quality aluminum alloy which has a uniform boron distribution and no impurities. (author)

  13. Deflagration of thermite - ammonium nitrate based propellant mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duraes, Luisa; Morgado, Joel; Portugal, Antonio; Campos, Jose

    2001-06-01

    Reaction between iron oxide (Fe2O3) and aluminum (Al) is the reference of the classic thermite compositions. The efficency of the reaction, for a given initial composition of Fe2O3 and Al, is evaluated by the final temperature and by the mass ratio of Al2O3 /AlO in products of combustion (in condensed phase). In order to increase pressure in products of thermite reaction, the original composition is mixed, with an original twin screw extruder, with a propellant binder composed of ammonium and sodium nitrates, initialy solved in formamide (CH3NO) and mixed with a polyurethane solution. The products of combustion and pyrolysis of this binder, reacting with thermite products, generates high pressure and high temperature conditions. These experimental conditions are also predicted using THOR code. The study presents DSC and TGA results of components and mixtures, and correlates them to the ignition phenomena and reaction properties. The regression rate of combustion and final attained temperature and pressure, in a closed confinement, as a function of composition of thermite components/propellant binder, are presented and discussed. They show the influence of gaseous combustion and pyrolysis products of binder in final reaction.

  14. Kinetically Determined Hygroscopicity and Efflorescence of Sucrose-Ammonium Sulfate Aerosol Droplets under Lower Relative Humidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin-Na; Cai, Chen; Zhang, Yun-Hong

    2017-09-14

    Organic aerosols will likely form in semisolid, glassy, and high viscous state in the atmosphere, which show nonequilibrium kinetic characteristics at low relative humidity (RH) conditions. In this study, we applied optical tweezers to investigate the water transport in a sucrose/(NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 droplet with high organic to inorganic mole ratio (OIR). The characteristic time ratio between the droplet radius and the RH was used to describe the water mass transfer difference dependent on RH. For OIR greater than 1:1 in sucrose/(NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 droplets, the characteristic time ratio at low RH (∼60%). We also coupled vacuum FTIR spectrometer and a high-speed photography to study the efflorescence process in sucrose/(NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 droplets with low OIR. The crystalline fraction of (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 was used to understand efflorescence behavior when the RH was linearly decreasing with a velocity of 1.2% RH min -1 . Because of suppression of (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 nucleation by addition of sucrose, the efflorescence relative humidity (ERH) of (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 decrease from the range of ∼48.2% to ∼36.1% for pure (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 droplets to from ∼44.7% to ∼25.4%, from ∼43.2% to ∼21.2%, and from ∼41.7% to ∼21.1% for the mixed droplets with OIR of 1:4, 1:3, and 1:2, respectively. No crystallization was observed when the OIR is higher than 1:1. Suppression of (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 crystal growth was also observed under high viscous sucrose/(NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 droplets at lower RH.

  15. Phenol-ammonium sulfate microscopy method for diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritu Singhal

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: Sputum microscopy with PhAS solution is a safe, reliable and inexpensive alternative for direct microscopy. This method can be conveniently applied for usage in microscopy centers with limited bio-safety facilities.

  16. Final report on the safety assessment of sodium sulfite, potassium sulfite, ammonium sulfite, sodium bisulfite, ammonium bisulfite, sodium metabisulfite and potassium metabisulfite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Bindu; Elmore, Amy R

    2003-01-01

    Sodium Sulfite, Ammonium Sulfite, Sodium Bisulfite, Potassium Bisulfite, Ammonium Bisulfite, Sodium Metabisulfite, and Potassium Metabisulfite are inorganic salts that function as reducing agents in cosmetic formulations. All except Sodium Metabisulfite also function as hair-waving/straightening agents. In addition, Sodium Sulfite, Potassium Sulfite, Sodium Bisulfite, and Sodium Metabisulfite function as antioxidants. Although Ammonium Sulfite is not in current use, the others are widely used in hair care products. Sulfites that enter mammals via ingestion, inhalation, or injection are metabolized by sulfite oxidase to sulfate. In oral-dose animal toxicity studies, hyperplastic changes in the gastric mucosa were the most common findings at high doses. Ammonium Sulfite aerosol had an acute LC(50) of >400 mg/m(3) in guinea pigs. A single exposure to low concentrations of a Sodium Sulfite fine aerosol produced dose-related changes in the lung capacity parameters of guinea pigs. A 3-day exposure of rats to a Sodium Sulfite fine aerosol produced mild pulmonary edema and irritation of the tracheal epithelium. Severe epithelial changes were observed in dogs exposed for 290 days to 1 mg/m(3) of a Sodium Metabisulfite fine aerosol. These fine aerosols contained fine respirable particle sizes that are not found in cosmetic aerosols or pump sprays. None of the cosmetic product types, however, in which these ingredients are used are aerosolized. Sodium Bisulfite (tested at 38%) and Sodium Metabisulfite (undiluted) were not irritants to rabbits following occlusive exposures. Sodium Metabisulfite (tested at 50%) was irritating to guinea pigs following repeated exposure. In rats, Sodium Sulfite heptahydrate at large doses (up to 3.3 g/kg) produced fetal toxicity but not teratogenicity. Sodium Bisulfite, Sodium Metabisulfite, and Potassium Metabisulfite were not teratogenic for mice, rats, hamsters, or rabbits at doses up to 160 mg/kg. Generally, Sodium Sulfite, Sodium

  17. Synthesis and characterization of the aluminium phosphates modified with ammonium, calcium and molybdenum by hydrothermal method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łuczka Kinga

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Synthesis and characterization of the aluminum phosphates modified with ammonium, calcium and molybdenum were conducted. The influence of process parameters (reactive pressure and molar ratios in the reaction mixture were studied. The contents of the individual components in the products were in the range of: 10.97–17.31 wt% Al, 2.65–13.32 wt% Ca, 0.70–3.11 wt% Mo, 4.36–8.38 wt% NH3, and 35.12–50.54 wt% P2O5. The materials obtained in the experiments were characterized by various physicochemical parameters. The absorption oil number was in the range from 67 to 89 of oil/100 g of product, the surface area was within the range of 4–76 m2/g, whereas the average particle size of products reached 282–370 nm. The Tafel tests revealed comparable anticorrosive properties of aluminum phosphates modified with ammonium, calcium, molybdenum in comparison with commercial phosphate.

  18. Disguised as a Sulfate Reducer: Growth of the Deltaproteobacterium Desulfurivibrio alkaliphilus by Sulfide Oxidation with Nitrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casper Thorup

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study demonstrates that the deltaproteobacterium Desulfurivibrio alkaliphilus can grow chemolithotrophically by coupling sulfide oxidation to the dissimilatory reduction of nitrate and nitrite to ammonium. Key genes of known sulfide oxidation pathways are absent from the genome of D. alkaliphilus. Instead, the genome contains all of the genes necessary for sulfate reduction, including a gene for a reductive-type dissimilatory bisulfite reductase (DSR. Despite this, growth by sulfate reduction was not observed. Transcriptomic analysis revealed a very high expression level of sulfate-reduction genes during growth by sulfide oxidation, while inhibition experiments with molybdate pointed to elemental sulfur/polysulfides as intermediates. Consequently, we propose that D. alkaliphilus initially oxidizes sulfide to elemental sulfur, which is then either disproportionated, or oxidized by a reversal of the sulfate reduction pathway. This is the first study providing evidence that a reductive-type DSR is involved in a sulfide oxidation pathway. Transcriptome sequencing further suggests that nitrate reduction to ammonium is performed by a novel type of periplasmic nitrate reductase and an unusual membrane-anchored nitrite reductase.

  19. Heparan sulfate and cell division

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Porcionatto M.A.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Heparan sulfate is a component of vertebrate and invertebrate tissues which appears during the cytodifferentiation stage of embryonic development. Its structure varies according to the tissue and species of origin and is modified during neoplastic transformation. Several lines of experimental evidence suggest that heparan sulfate plays a role in cellular recognition, cellular adhesion and growth control. Heparan sulfate can participate in the process of cell division in two distinct ways, either as a positive or negative modulator of cellular proliferation, or as a response to a mitogenic stimulus.

  20. Effects of Aromatic Ammoniums on Methyl Ammonium Lead Iodide Hybrid Perovskite Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianli Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of bulky ammoniums into methyl ammonium lead iodide hybrid perovskites (MAPbI3 has emerged as a promising strategy to improve the properties of these materials. In the present work, we studied the effects of several aromatic ammoniums onto the structural, electronic, and optical properties of MAPbI3. Although powder XRD data suggest that the bulky cations are not involved in the bulk phase of the MAPbI3, a surprisingly large effect of the bulky cations onto the photoluminescence properties was observed.

  1. Evidence of ammonium ion-exchange properties of natural bentonite and application to ammonium detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zazoua, A; Kazane, I; Khedimallah, N; Dernane, C; Errachid, A; Jaffrezic-Renault, N

    2013-12-01

    Ammonium exchange with hybrid PVC-bentonite (mineral montmorillonite clay) thin film was revealed using FTIR spectroscopy, EDX, cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The effect of ammonium exchange on the charge transfer resistance of PVC-bentonite hybrid thin film was attributed to a modification of the intersheet distance and hydration of bentonite crystals. The obtained impedimetric ammonium sensor shows a linear range of detection from 10(-4)M to 1M and a detection limit around 10(-6)M. © 2013.

  2. Optimization of the conditions for producing zirconia by the precipitation of basic zirconium sulfate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ricci, D.R.; Paschoal, J.O.A.

    1988-01-01

    The process of precipitation of the basic sulfate from zirconium oxychlorides solutions has been optimized in order to obtain zirconia of high purity as well as suitable for ceramic processing. The main parameters of this study were obtained from the determination of the pH and of the concentration of the initial oxychloride solution, of the sulfate/zirconium molar ratio and of the reaction temperature. The following experimental procedure has been carried out: a) reaction of each precipitate with ammonium hydroxide followed by drying at 150 0 -C / 5 h and calcination at 1000 0 C / 1 h, yielding the final product (zirconia) b) product characterization by means of spectrographic, X - ray fluorescence and diffractometry analyses, determination of grain size distribution and of apparent density, and morphology study by scanning electron microscopy. The yielding of the overall reaction has been determined by chemical analysis and the composition of the basic zirconium sulfate by thermogravimetric analyses. (author) [pt

  3. Integrated approach for investigating the durability of self-consolidating concrete to sulfate attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassuoni, Mohamed Tamer F.

    The growing use of self-consolidating concrete (SCC) in various infrastructure applications exposed to sulfate-rich environments necessitates conducting comprehensive research to evaluate its durability to external sulfate attack. Since the reliability and adequacy of standard sulfate immersion tests have been questioned, the current thesis introduced an integrated testing approach for assessing the durability of a wide scope of SCC mixtures to external sulfate attack. This testing approach involved progressive levels of complexity from single to multiple damage processes. A new series of sulfate attack tests involving multiple field-like parameters and combined damage mechanisms (various cations, controlled pH, wetting-drying, partial immersion, freezing-thawing, and cyclic cold-hot conditions with or without sustained flexural loading) were designed to evaluate the performance (suitability) of the SCC mixtures under various sulfate attack exposure scenarios. The main mixture design variables of SCC included the type of binder (single, binary, ternary and quaternary), air-entrainment, sand-to-aggregate mass ratio and hybrid fibre reinforcement. The comprehensive database and knowledge obtained from this research were used to develop smart models (fuzzy and neuro-fuzzy inference systems) based on artificial-intelligence to evaluate and predict the performance of the SCC mixtures under various sulfate attack exposure regimes implemented in this study. In full immersion tests involving high concentration sodium and magnesium sulfate solutions with controlled pH, the low penetrability of SCC was responsible for the high durability of specimens. Ternary and quaternary cementitious systems with or without limestone materials provided a passivating layer, with or without acid neutralization capacity, which protected SCC from severe damage in the aggressive sulfuric acid and ammonium sulfate solutions. In contrast to conclusions drawn from the sodium sulfate immersion

  4. Effect of Ethylenediaminetetraacetic Acid and Ammonium Oxalate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of Ethylenediaminetetraacetic Acid and Ammonium Oxalate on the ... The test plant was sown in aluminium-polluted soil (conc. ... The perseverance of the test plant in the aluminium spiked soil is an indication of adaptation to the stress ...

  5. Optimization of nutritional requirements and ammonium feeding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Statistical experiment design and data analysis were used to establish the major factors in a chemically defined medium and to develop an ammonium control strategy to optimize the specific vitamin B12 production rate (Yp) of Pseudomonas denitrificans. Through Plackett-Burman design, the major factors of glucose, ...

  6. 21 CFR 184.1135 - Ammonium bicarbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ammonium bicarbonate. 184.1135 Section 184.1135 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 18...

  7. Ammonium ions determination with polypyrrole modified electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Henrique Dall´Antonia

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The present work relates the preparation of polypyrrole films (PPy deposited on surfaces of glass carbon, nickel and ITO (tin oxide doped with indium on PET plastic, in order to study the ammonium detection. The popypyrrole films were polymerized with dodecylbenzenesulfonate (DBSA on the electrodes, at + 0,70 V vs. Ag/AgCl, based on a solution containing the pyrrole monomer and the amphiphilic salt. Films deposited on glass carbon presented better performance. Cyclic voltammetries, between – 1,50 to + 0,5 V vs. Ag/AgCl, were repeated adding different concentrations of NH4Cl, in order to observe the behavior of the film as a possible detector of ions NH4+. The peak current for oxidation varies with the concentration of ammonium. A linear region can be observed in the band of 0 to 80 mM, with a sensibility (Sppy approximately similar to 4,2 mA mM-1 cm-2, showing the efficacy of the electrodes as sensors of ammonium ions. The amount of deposited polymer, controlled by the time of growth, does not influence on the sensor sensibility. The modified electrode was used to determine ammonium in grounded waters.

  8. 21 CFR 558.340 - Maduramicin ammonium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    .... Feed continuously as sole ration. Do not feed to laying hens. Withdraw 5 days before slaughter. (2... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS NEW ANIMAL DRUGS FOR USE IN ANIMAL FEEDS Specific New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds § 558.340 Maduramicin ammonium. (a) Approvals. Type A medicated articles: 4.54...

  9. Anaerobic oxidation of methane and ammonium.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strous, M.; Jetten, M.S.M.

    2004-01-01

    Anaerobic oxidation of methane and ammonium are two different processes catalyzed by completely unrelated microorganisms. Still, the two processes do have many interesting aspects in common. First, both of them were once deemed biochemically impossible and nonexistent in nature, but have now been

  10. Near infrared detection of ammonium minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krohn, M.D.; Altaner, S.P.

    1987-01-01

    Diagnostic near-infrared spectral features have been identified for minerals with ammonium (NH4+) bound in the crystal structure. Near-infrared detection of NH4-bearing minerals may provide useful information for prospecting for certain ore deposits and may provide a better understanding of the nitrogen cycle within geologic environments.-from Authors

  11. Detonation characteristics of ammonium nitrate products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kersten, R.J.A.; Hengel, E.I.V. van den; Steen, A.C. van der

    2006-01-01

    The detonation properties of ammonium nitrate (AN) products depend on many factors and are therefore, despite the large amount of information on this topic, difficult to assess. In order to further improve the understanding of the safety properties of AN, the European Fertilizer Manufacturers

  12. PRN 88-2: Clustering of Quaternary Ammonium Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Notice announces that EPA has clustered the Quaternary Ammonium Compounds into four groups for the purpose of testing chemicals to build a database that will support continued registration of the entire family of quaternary ammonium compounds

  13. 21 CFR 73.1645 - Aluminum powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aluminum powder. 73.1645 Section 73.1645 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1645 Aluminum powder. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive aluminum powder shall be composed of finely divided particles of aluminum prepared from virgin aluminum. It...

  14. Optimalisation of magnesium ammonium phosphate precipitation and its applicability to the removal of ammonium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demeestere, K; Smet, E; Van Langenhove, H; Galbacs, Z

    2001-12-01

    Among the physico-chemical abatement technologies, mainly acid scrubbers have been used to control NH3-emission. The disadvantage of this technique is that it yields waste water, highly concentrated in ammonia. In this report, the applicability of the magnesium ammonium phosphate (MAP) process to regenerate the liquid phase, produced by scrubbing NH3-loaded waste gases, was investigated. In the MAP process, ammonium is precipitated as magnesium ammonium phosphate, which can be used as a slow release fertilizer. The influence of a number of parameters, e.g. pH, kinetics, molar ratio NH(+)4/Mg2+/PO(3-)4 on the efficiency of the formation of MAP and on the ammonium removal efficiency was investigated. In this way, optimal conditions were determined for the precipitation reaction. Next to this, interference caused by other precipitation reactions was studied. At aqueous NH(+)4-concentrations of about 600 mg l(-1), ammonium removal efficiencies of 97% could be obtained at a molar ratio NH(+)4/Mg2+/PO(3-)4 of 1/1.5/1.5. To obtain this result, the pH was continuously adjusted to a value of 9 during the reaction. According to this study, it is obvious that the MAP-precipitation technology offers opportunities for ammonium removal from scrubbing liquids. The practical applicability of the MAP-process in waste gas treatment systems, however, should be the subject for further investigations.

  15. Aluminum fin-stock alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gul, R.M.; Mutasher, F.

    2007-01-01

    Aluminum alloys have long been used in the production of heat exchanger fins. The comparative properties of the different alloys used for this purpose has not been an issue in the past, because of the significant thickness of the finstock material. However, in order to make fins lighter in weight, there is a growing demand for thinner finstock materials, which has emphasized the need for improved mechanical properties, thermal conductivity and corrosion resistance. The objective of this project is to determine the effect of iron, silicon and manganese percentage increment on the required mechanical properties for this application by analyzing four different aluminum alloys. The four selected aluminum alloys are 1100, 8011, 8079 and 8150, which are wrought non-heat treatable alloys with different amount of the above elements. Aluminum alloy 1100 serve as a control specimen, as it is commercially pure aluminum. The study also reports the effect of different annealing cycles on the mechanical properties of the selected alloys. Metallographic examination was also preformed to study the effect of annealing on the precipitate phases and the distribution of these phases for each alloy. The microstructure analysis of the aluminum alloys studied indicates that the precipitated phase in the case of aluminum alloys 1100 and 8079 is beta-FeAI3, while in 8011 it is a-alfa AIFeSi, and the aluminum alloy 8150 contains AI6(Mn,Fe) phase. The comparison of aluminum alloys 8011 and 8079 with aluminum alloy 1100 show that the addition of iron and silicon improves the percent elongation and reduces strength. The manganese addition increases the stability of mechanical properties along the annealing range as shown by the comparison of aluminum alloy 8150 with aluminum alloy 1100. Alloy 8150 show superior properties over the other alloys due to the reaction of iron and manganese, resulting in a preferable response to thermal treatment and improved mechanical properties. (author)

  16. 40 CFR 180.473 - Glufosinate ammonium; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Glufosinate ammonium; tolerances for... § 180.473 Glufosinate ammonium; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established for residues of the herbicide glufosinate-ammonium (butanoic acid, 2-amino-4-(hydroxymethylphosphinyl...

  17. Spectrometric determination of ammonium-nitrogen with quinol in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Quinol is proposed as a reagent for the spectrometric determination of ammonium-nitrogen (NH4+-N) in aqueous medium. Quinol forms a pink complex with ammonium salt in aqueous medium. Hydrogen peroxide is needed for colour accentuation. The quinol/ammonium charge transfer complex has absorption maximum ...

  18. Surface investigation and tribological mechanism of a sulfate-based lubricant deposited on zinc-coated steel sheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timma, Christian, E-mail: christian.timma@thyssenkrupp.com [ThyssenKrupp Steel Europe AG, Technology & Innovation, Kaiser-Wilhelm Str. 100, 47166 Duisburg (Germany); University of Duisburg-Essen, Faculty of Chemistry, CENIDE, Universitätsstraße 7, 45141 Essen (Germany); Lostak, Thomas; Janssen, Stella; Flock, Jörg [ThyssenKrupp Steel Europe AG, Technology & Innovation, Kaiser-Wilhelm Str. 100, 47166 Duisburg (Germany); Mayer, Christian [University of Duisburg-Essen, Faculty of Chemistry, CENIDE, Universitätsstraße 7, 45141 Essen (Germany)

    2016-12-30

    Highlights: • Skin-passed hot-dip galvanized (HDG-) steel sheets were coated with (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 4} in a common roll-coating method. • A formation of (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}Zn(SO{sub 4}) * xH{sub 2}O was observed and the reaction mainly occurred in the skin-passed areas of the surface. • Sulfate coated samples reveal a superior friction behaviour in oil-like conditions compared non-sulfated specimen. - Abstract: Phosphatation is a well-known technique to improve friction and wear behaviour of zinc coated steel, but has a variety of economic and ecologic limitations. In this study an alternative coating based on ammonium sulfate ((NH{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 4}) is applied on skin-passed hot-dip galvanized steel sheets in order to investigate its surface chemical and tribological behaviour in a Pin-on-Disk Tribometer. Raman- and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic results revealed a formation of ammonium zinc sulfate ((NH{sub 4}){sub 2}Zn(SO{sub 4}){sub 2} * xH{sub 2}O) on the surface, which is primarily located in the skin-passed areas of the steel material. Sulfate coated samples exhibited a superior friction behaviour in Pin-on-Disk Tests using squalane as a model substance for oil-like lubricated conditions and a formation of a thin lubrication film is obtained in the wear track. Squalane acts as a carrier substance for ammonium zinc sulfate, leading to an effective lubrication film in the wear track.

  19. Sulfate mineralogy of fumaroles in the Salton Sea Geothermal Field, Imperial County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Paul M.; Lynch, David K.; Buckland, Kerry N.; Johnson, Patrick D.; Tratt, David M.

    2017-11-01

    The Salton Trough lies in the transition between the San Andreas Fault and oblique spreading centers and transform faults in the Gulf of California. The Salton Sea Geothermal Field is the northernmost expression of those spreading centers. In 2007 two ammonia-emitting fumarole fields that had been submerged beneath the Salton Sea were exposed for the first time in nearly 50 years. As the sea level continued to drop these fields have developed a number of boiling pools, mud pots, gryphons and a unique suite of ammonium sulfate minerals. These have been studied over time with long-wave infrared remote sensing coupled with ground truth surveys backed by laboratory analyses of the minerals. Many vents lie at the center of concentric rings of mineralization with systematic occurrence of different minerals from center to edge. Three semi-concentric zones (fumarole, transition and evaporite) have been defined with respect to ammonia-emitting vents and bubbling pools. The scale of these zones range from several meters, localized around individual vents, to that of the fumarole fields as a whole. The fumarole zone is closest to the vents and locally contains cavernous sulfur crystals and significant deposits of gypsum, mascagnite, boussingaultite and other ammonium sulfates. The transition zone comprises a dark brown surficial band of inconspicuous sodium nitrate underlain by anhydrite/bassanite that is thought to have formed by ammonia-oxidizing microbes interacting with the ammonium sulfates of the outer fumarole zone. The evaporite zone is the outermost and contains blödite, thenardite and glauberite, which are typical of the sulfates associated with the shoreline of the Salton Sea. Remote sensing has shown that the mineral zones have remained relatively stable from 2013 to 2017, with minor variations depending on rainfall, temperature and levels of agricultural runoff.

  20. Production of aluminum metal by electrolysis of aluminum sulfide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minh, Nguyen Q.; Loutfy, Raouf O.; Yao, Neng-Ping

    1984-01-01

    Production of metallic aluminum by the electrolysis of Al.sub.2 S.sub.3 at 700.degree.-800.degree. C. in a chloride melt composed of one or more alkali metal chlorides, and one or more alkaline earth metal chlorides and/or aluminum chloride to provide improved operating characteristics of the process.

  1. Applied Electrochemistry of Aluminum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Qingfeng; Qiu, Zhuxian

    Electrochemistry of aluminum is of special importance from both theoretical and technological point of view. It covers a wide range of electrolyte systems from molten fluoride melts at around 1000oC to room temperature molten salts, from aqueous to various organic media and from liquid to solid...... electrolytes. The book is an updated review of the technological advances in the fields of electrolytic production and refining of metals, electroplating, anodizing and other electrochemical surface treatments, primary and secondary batteries, electrolytic capacitors; corrosion and protection and others....

  2. Helium trapping in aluminum and sintered aluminum powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, S.K.; Kaminsky, M.; Rossing, T.

    1975-01-01

    The surface erosion of annealed aluminum and of sintered aluminum powder (SAP) due to blistering from implantation of 100-keV 4 He + ions at room temperature has been investigated. A substantial reduction in the blistering erosion rate in SAP was observed from that in pure annealed aluminum. In order to determine whether the observed reduction in blistering is due to enhanced helium trapping or due to helium released, the implanted helium profiles in annealed aluminum and in SAP have been studied by Rutherford backscattering. The results show that more helium is trapped in SAP than in aluminum for identical irradiation conditions. The observed reduction in erosion from helium blistering in SAP is more likely due to the dispersion of trapped helium at the large Al-Al 2 O 3 interfaces and at the large grain boundaries in SAP than to helium release

  3. Chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate sulfatases from mammals and bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shumin; Sugahara, Kazuyuki; Li, Fuchuan

    2016-12-01

    Sulfatases that specifically catalyze the hydrolysis of the sulfate groups on chondroitin sulfate (CS)/dermatan sulfate (DS) poly- and oligosaccharides belong to the formylglycine-dependent family of sulfatases and have been widely found in various mammalian and bacterial organisms. However, only a few types of CS/DS sulfatase have been identified so far. Recently, several novel CS/DS sulfatases have been cloned and characterized. Advanced studies have provided significant insight into the biological function and mechanism of action of CS/DS sulfatases. Moreover, further studies will provide powerful tools for structural and functional studies of CS/DS as well as related applications. This article reviews the recent progress in CS/DS sulfatase research and is expected to initiate further research in this field.

  4. Thermophysical properties of hydroxyl ammonium ionic liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurnia, K.A.; Wilfred, C.D.; Murugesan, T.

    2009-01-01

    The thermophysical properties of hydroxyl ammonium ionic liquids: density ρ, T = (293.15 to 363.15) K; dynamic viscosity η, T = (298.2 to 348.2) K; and refractive indices n D , T = (293.15 to 333.15) K have been measured. The coefficients of thermal expansion α, values were calculated from the experimental density results using an empirical correlation for T = (293.15 to 363.15) K. The variation of volume expansion of ionic liquids studied was found to be independent of temperature within the range covered in the present work. The thermal decomposition temperature 'T d ' for all the six hydroxyl ammonium ionic liquids is also investigated using thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA)

  5. Quaternary ammonium compounds – New occupational hazards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Lipińska-Ojrzanowska

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs, quats belong to organic ionic chemical agents which display unique properties of both surfactants and disinfectants. Their wide distribution in the work environment and also in private households brings about new occupational hazards. This paper reviews reports about the health effects of QACs. QACs could play a role of sensitizers and irritants to the skin and mucous membranes. It is suspected that particular QACs can display an immunologic crossreactivity between each other and with other chemical compounds containing ammonium ion, such as muscle relaxants widely used in anesthesia. They may promote the development of airway allergy, however, the background mechanisms are still unclear and need to be further investigated. Until now, a few cases of occupational asthma induced by QACs have been described and their involvement in contact dermatitis has been documented. The possibility of anaphylaxis due to QACs cannot be excluded as well. Med Pr 2014;65(5:675–682

  6. Development of technology for ammonium nitrate dissociation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakharkin, B.S.; Varykhanov, V.P.; Kucherenko, V.S.; Solov'yeva, L.N.; Revyakin, V.V.

    2000-01-01

    Ammonia and ammonium carbonate are frequently used as reagents in fuel production and processing of liquid radioactive wastes. In particular, liquid radioactive wastes that contain ammonium nitrate are generated during operations of metal precipitation. In closed vessels at elevated temperature, for example in evaporators or deposits in tubing, ammonium nitrate may explode due to generation of gaseous nitrogen oxides [2]. In this connection, steps have to be taken to rule out conditions that result in explosion. To do that, ammonium nitrate should be removed even prior to the initial stage of its formation. This report gives results of development of a method of dissociating ammonium nitrate

  7. Decomposition of ammonium nitrate in homogeneous and catalytic denitration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anan'ev, A. V.; Tananaev, I. G.; Shilov, V. P.

    2005-01-01

    Ammonium nitrate is one of potentially explosive by-products of spent fuel reprocessing. Decomposition of ammonium nitrate in the HNO 3 -HCOOH system was studied in the presence or absence of Pt/SiO 2 catalyst. It was found that decomposition of ammonium nitrate is due to homogeneous noncatalytic oxidation of ammonium ion with nitrous acid generated in the HNO 3 -HCOOH system during denitration. The platinum catalyst initiates the reaction of HNO 3 with HCOOH to form HNO 2 . The regular trends were revealed and the optimal conditions of decomposition of ammonium nitrate in nitric acid solutions were found [ru

  8. Oxidation of ammonium sulfite in aqueous solutions using ozone technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yue; Shang, Kefeng; Lu, Na; Li, Jie; Wu, Yan

    2013-03-01

    How to deal with unstable ammonium sulfite, the byproduct of flue gas desulfuration by ammonia absorption methods, has been a difficult problem in recent years. Oxidation of ammonium sulfite in aqueous solutions using ozone produced by a surface discharge system was investigated in the paper. The oxidation efficiency of ammonium sulfite by ozone and traditional air aeration were compared, and the factors including ozone concentration, gas flow rate, initial concentration of ammonium sulfite solution and reaction temperature were discussed. The results show that the oxidation efficiency of ammonium sulfite by ozone technology reached nearly 100% under the optimum conditions, which had a significant increase compared with that by air aeration.

  9. Selective Adsorption of Sodium Aluminum Fluoride Salts from Molten Aluminum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard S. Aubrey; Christine A. Boyle; Eddie M. Williams; David H. DeYoung; Dawid D. Smith; Feng Chi

    2007-08-16

    Aluminum is produced in electrolytic reduction cells where alumina feedstock is dissolved in molten cryolite (sodium aluminum fluoride) along with aluminum and calcium fluorides. The dissolved alumina is then reduced by electrolysis and the molten aluminum separates to the bottom of the cell. The reduction cell is periodically tapped to remove the molten aluminum. During the tapping process, some of the molten electrolyte (commonly referred as “bath” in the aluminum industry) is carried over with the molten aluminum and into the transfer crucible. The carryover of molten bath into the holding furnace can create significant operational problems in aluminum cast houses. Bath carryover can result in several problems. The most troublesome problem is sodium and calcium pickup in magnesium-bearing alloys. Magnesium alloying additions can result in Mg-Na and Mg-Ca exchange reactions with the molten bath, which results in the undesirable pickup of elemental sodium and calcium. This final report presents the findings of a project to evaluate removal of molten bath using a new and novel micro-porous filter media. The theory of selective adsorption or removal is based on interfacial surface energy differences of molten aluminum and bath on the micro-porous filter structure. This report describes the theory of the selective adsorption-filtration process, the development of suitable micro-porous filter media, and the operational results obtained with a micro-porous bed filtration system. The micro-porous filter media was found to very effectively remove molten sodium aluminum fluoride bath by the selective adsorption-filtration mechanism.

  10. Review on Thermal Decomposition of Ammonium Nitrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, Shalini; Dave, Pragnesh N.

    2013-01-01

    In this review data from the literature on thermal decomposition of ammonium nitrate (AN) and the effect of additives to their thermal decomposition are summarized. The effect of additives like oxides, cations, inorganic acids, organic compounds, phase-stablized CuO, etc., is discussed. The effect of an additive mainly occurs at the exothermic peak of pure AN in a temperature range of 200°C to 140°C.

  11. Thermal decomposition kinetics of ammonium uranyl carbonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, E.H.; Park, J.J.; Park, J.H.; Chang, I.S.; Choi, C.S.; Kim, S.D.

    1994-01-01

    The thermal decomposition kinetics of AUC [ammonium uranyl carbonate; (NH 4 ) 4 UO 2 (CO 3 ) 3 [ in an isothermal thermogravimetric (TG) reactor under N 2 atmosphere has been determined. The kinetic data can be represented by the two-dimensional nucleation and growth model. The reaction rate increases and activation energy decreases with increasing particle size and precipitation time which appears in the particle size larger than 30 μm in the mechano-chemical phenomena. (orig.)

  12. 21 CFR 184.1133 - Ammonium alginate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...: Category of food Maximum level of use in food (as served) (percent) Functional use Confections, frostings... chapter 0.4 Do. Sweet sauces, § 170.3(n)(43) of this chapter 0.5 Do. All other food categories 0.1... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ammonium alginate. 184.1133 Section 184.1133 Food...

  13. DETECTION OF THE AMMONIUM ION IN SPACE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cernicharo, J.; Tercero, B.; Fuente, A.; Domenech, J. L.; Cueto, M.; Carrasco, E.; Herrero, V. J.; Tanarro, I.; Marcelino, N.; Roueff, E.; Gerin, M.; Pearson, J.

    2013-01-01

    We report on the detection of a narrow feature at 262816.73 MHz toward Orion and the cold prestellar core B1-bS which we attribute to the 1 0 -0 0 line of the deuterated ammonium ion, NH 3 D + . The observations were performed with the IRAM 30 m radio telescope. The carrier has to be a light molecular species as it is the only feature detected over 3.6 GHz of bandwidth. The hyperfine structure is not resolved, indicating a very low value for the electric quadrupolar coupling constant of nitrogen which is expected for NH 3 D + as the electric field over the N nucleus is practically zero. Moreover, the feature is right at the predicted frequency for the 1 0 -0 0 transition of the ammonium ion, 262817 ± 6 MHz (3σ), using rotational constants derived from new infrared data obtained in our laboratory in Madrid. The estimated column density is (1.1 ± 0.2) × 10 12 cm –2 . Assuming a deuterium enhancement similar to that of NH 2 D, we derive N(NH 4 + ) ≅ 2.6 × 10 13 cm –2 , i.e., an abundance for ammonium of a few 10 –11 .

  14. DETECTION OF THE AMMONIUM ION IN SPACE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cernicharo, J.; Tercero, B. [Deparment of Astrophysics, CAB, INTA-CSIC, Crta Torrejon-Ajalvir Km 4, E-28850 Torrejon de Ardoz, Madrid (Spain); Fuente, A. [Observatorio Astronomico Nacional, Apdo. 112, E-28803 Alcala de Henares (Spain); Domenech, J. L.; Cueto, M.; Carrasco, E.; Herrero, V. J.; Tanarro, I. [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, IEM-CSIC, Serrano 123, E-28006 Madrid (Spain); Marcelino, N. [NRAO, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22902 (United States); Roueff, E. [Luth, Observatoire de Paris, CNRS UMR8102, Place J. Janssen F-92190 Meudon (France); Gerin, M. [LERMA, Observatoire de Paris, CNRS UMR8112 and Ecole Normale Superieure, 61 Avenue de lObservatoire, F-75014 Paris (France); Pearson, J., E-mail: jcernicharo@cab.inta-csic.es [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, MC 168-314, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    We report on the detection of a narrow feature at 262816.73 MHz toward Orion and the cold prestellar core B1-bS which we attribute to the 1{sub 0}-0{sub 0} line of the deuterated ammonium ion, NH{sub 3}D{sup +}. The observations were performed with the IRAM 30 m radio telescope. The carrier has to be a light molecular species as it is the only feature detected over 3.6 GHz of bandwidth. The hyperfine structure is not resolved, indicating a very low value for the electric quadrupolar coupling constant of nitrogen which is expected for NH{sub 3}D{sup +} as the electric field over the N nucleus is practically zero. Moreover, the feature is right at the predicted frequency for the 1{sub 0}-0{sub 0} transition of the ammonium ion, 262817 {+-} 6 MHz (3{sigma}), using rotational constants derived from new infrared data obtained in our laboratory in Madrid. The estimated column density is (1.1 {+-} 0.2) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 12} cm{sup -2}. Assuming a deuterium enhancement similar to that of NH{sub 2}D, we derive N(NH{sub 4}{sup +}) {approx_equal} 2.6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 13} cm{sup -2}, i.e., an abundance for ammonium of a few 10{sup -11}.

  15. Surface deterioration of ammonium acid phthalate crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrus, D.M.; Blake, R.L.; Burek, A.J.

    1976-01-01

    In working with various acid phthalate crystals for low energy X-ray spectroscopy, we have observed a relatively rapid surface degradation of ammonium acid phthalate in comparison with similar crystals was observed. It was found that two different samples degraded in a few days upon exposure to high vacuum (10/sup -6/ - 10/sup -7/ torr). The same crystals showed similar effects when exposed to room atmosphere for two to three weeks. One of these crystals deteriorated while kept constantly in a desiccator jar for about two years. The desiccator environment seems to be the most favorable. The observed difference in the surface of these crystals might be described as a change from a transparent, glasslike condition to a white, powderlike haze somewhat akin to frosted glass. A two week exposure to vacuum for a freshly cleaved crystal caused the integrated coefficient of reflection at 23.6 A to decrease by a factor of 2.5. The degraded surface areas tend to form definite rhombohedral patterns. Since the external symmetry of ammonium acid phthalate crystals is rhombohedral, this suggests that the degradation we observe takes place in the form of large etched figures. A possible mechanism may be sublimation, which would proceed more rapidly in vacuum than in air. It is concluded that ammonium acid phthalate should be kept in a desiccator environment as much as possible. Exposures to vacuum should be brief and critical diffraction measurements should be done using a freshly cleaved surface.

  16. Microbial electricity driven anoxic ammonium removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilajeliu-Pons, Anna; Koch, Christin; Balaguer, Maria D; Colprim, Jesús; Harnisch, Falk; Puig, Sebastià

    2018-03-01

    Removal of nitrogen, mainly in form of ammonium (NH 4 + ), in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is a highly energy demanding process, mainly due to aeration. It causes costs of about half a million Euros per year in an average European WWTP. Alternative, more economical technologies for the removal of nitrogen compounds from wastewater are required. This study proves the complete anoxic conversion of ammonium (NH 4 + ) to dinitrogen gas (N 2 ) in continuously operated bioelectrochemical systems at the litre-scale. The removal rate is comparable to conventional WWTPs with 35 ± 10 g N m -3 d -1 with low accumulation of NO 2 - , NO 3 - , N 2 O. In contrast to classical aerobic nitrification, the energy consumption is considerable lower (1.16 ± 0.21 kWh kg -1 N, being more than 35 times less than for the conventional wastewater treatment). Biotic and abiotic control experiments confirmed that the anoxic nitrification was an electrochemical biological process mainly performed by Nitrosomonas with hydroxylamine as the main substrate (mid-point potential, E ox  = +0.67 ± 0.08 V vs. SHE). This article proves the technical feasibility and reduction of costs for ammonium removal from wastewater, investigates the underlying mechanisms and discusses future engineering needs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Semi-synthesis of chondroitin sulfate-E from chondroitin sulfate-A

    OpenAIRE

    Cai, Chao; Solakyildirim, Kemal; Yang, Bo; Beaudet, Julie M.; Weyer, Amanda; Linhardt, Robert J.; Zhang, Fuming

    2012-01-01

    Chondroitin sulfate-E (chondroitin-4, 6-disulfate) was prepared from chondroitin sulfate-A (chondroitin-4 - sulfate) by regioselective sulfonation, performed using trimethylamine sulfur trioxide in formamide under argon. The structure of semi-synthetic chondroitin sulfate-E was analyzed by PAGE, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, 2D NMR and disaccharide analysis and compared with natural chondroitin sulfate-E. Both semi-synthetic and natural chondroitin sulfate-E were each biotinylated and immobilized on BIAco...

  18. Chondroitin Sulfate Perlecan Enhances Collagen Fibril Formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvist, A. J.; Johnson, A. E.; Mörgelin, M.

    2006-01-01

    in collagen type II fibril assembly by perlecan-null chondrocytes. Cartilage perlecan is a heparin sulfate or a mixed heparan sulfate/chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan. The latter form binds collagen and accelerates fibril formation in vitro, with more defined fibril morphology and increased fibril diameters...... produced in the presence of perlecan. Interestingly, the enhancement of collagen fibril formation is independent on the core protein and is mimicked by chondroitin sulfate E but neither by chondroitin sulfate D nor dextran sulfate. Furthermore, perlecan chondroitin sulfate contains the 4,6-disulfated...... disaccharides typical for chondroitin sulfate E. Indeed, purified glycosaminoglycans from perlecan-enriched fractions of cartilage extracts contain elevated levels of 4,6-disulfated chondroitin sulfate disaccharides and enhance collagen fibril formation. The effect on collagen assembly is proportional...

  19. Sulfate reduction in freshwater peatlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oequist, M.

    1996-12-31

    This text consist of two parts: Part A is a literature review on microbial sulfate reduction with emphasis on freshwater peatlands, and part B presents the results from a study of the relative importance of sulfate reduction and methane formation for the anaerobic decomposition in a boreal peatland. The relative importance of sulfate reduction and methane production for the anaerobic decomposition was studied in a small raised bog situated in the boreal zone of southern Sweden. Depth distribution of sulfate reduction- and methane production rates were measured in peat sampled from three sites (A, B, and C) forming an minerotrophic-ombrotrophic gradient. SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} concentrations in the three profiles were of equal magnitude and ranged from 50 to 150 {mu}M. In contrast, rates of sulfate reduction were vastly different: Maximum rates in the three profiles were obtained at a depth of ca. 20 cm below the water table. In A it was 8 {mu}M h{sup -1} while in B and C they were 1 and 0.05 {mu}M h{sup -1}, respectively. Methane production rates, however, were more uniform across the three nutrient regimes. Maximum rates in A (ca. 1.5 {mu}g d{sup -1} g{sup -1}) were found 10 cm below the water table, in B (ca. 1.0 {mu}g d{sup -1} g{sup -1}) in the vicinity of the water table, and in C (0.75 {mu}g d{sup -1} g{sup -1}) 20 cm below the water table. In all profiles both sulfate reduction and methane production rates were negligible above the water table. The areal estimates of methane production for the profiles were 22.4, 9.0 and 6.4 mmol m{sup -2} d{sup -1}, while the estimates for sulfate reduction were 26.4, 2.5, and 0.1 mmol m{sup -2} d{sup -1}, respectively. The calculated turnover times at the sites were 1.2, 14.2, and 198.7 days, respectively. The study shows that sulfate reducing bacteria are important for the anaerobic degradation in the studied peatland, especially in the minerotrophic sites, while methanogenic bacteria dominate in ombrotrophic sites Examination

  20. Sulfate reduction in freshwater peatlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oequist, M.

    1996-01-01

    This text consist of two parts: Part A is a literature review on microbial sulfate reduction with emphasis on freshwater peatlands, and part B presents the results from a study of the relative importance of sulfate reduction and methane formation for the anaerobic decomposition in a boreal peatland. The relative importance of sulfate reduction and methane production for the anaerobic decomposition was studied in a small raised bog situated in the boreal zone of southern Sweden. Depth distribution of sulfate reduction- and methane production rates were measured in peat sampled from three sites (A, B, and C) forming an minerotrophic-ombrotrophic gradient. SO 4 2- concentrations in the three profiles were of equal magnitude and ranged from 50 to 150 μM. In contrast, rates of sulfate reduction were vastly different: Maximum rates in the three profiles were obtained at a depth of ca. 20 cm below the water table. In A it was 8 μM h -1 while in B and C they were 1 and 0.05 μM h -1 , respectively. Methane production rates, however, were more uniform across the three nutrient regimes. Maximum rates in A (ca. 1.5 μg d -1 g -1 ) were found 10 cm below the water table, in B (ca. 1.0 μg d -1 g -1 ) in the vicinity of the water table, and in C (0.75 μg d -1 g -1 ) 20 cm below the water table. In all profiles both sulfate reduction and methane production rates were negligible above the water table. The areal estimates of methane production for the profiles were 22.4, 9.0 and 6.4 mmol m -2 d -1 , while the estimates for sulfate reduction were 26.4, 2.5, and 0.1 mmol m -2 d -1 , respectively. The calculated turnover times at the sites were 1.2, 14.2, and 198.7 days, respectively. The study shows that sulfate reducing bacteria are important for the anaerobic degradation in the studied peatland, especially in the minerotrophic sites, while methanogenic bacteria dominate in ombrotrophic sites Examination paper. 67 refs, 6 figs, 3 tabs

  1. Acid Sulfate Alteration on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, D. W.; Morris, R. V.

    2016-01-01

    A variety of mineralogical and geochemical indicators for aqueous alteration on Mars have been identified by a combination of surface and orbital robotic missions, telescopic observations, characterization of Martian meteorites, and laboratory and terrestrial analog studies. Acid sulfate alteration has been identified at all three landing sites visited by NASA rover missions (Spirit, Opportunity, and Curiosity). Spirit landed in Gusev crater in 2004 and discovered Fe-sulfates and materials that have been extensively leached by acid sulfate solutions. Opportunity landing on the plains of Meridiani Planum also in 2004 where the rover encountered large abundances of jarosite and hematite in sedimentary rocks. Curiosity landed in Gale crater in 2012 and has characterized fluvial, deltaic, and lacustrine sediments. Jarosite and hematite were discovered in some of the lacustrine sediments. The high elemental abundance of sulfur in surface materials is obvious evidence that sulfate has played a major role in aqueous processes at all landing sites on Mars. The sulfate-rich outcrop at Meridiani Planum has an SO3 content of up to 25 wt.%. The interiors of rocks and outcrops on the Columbia Hills within Gusev crater have up to 8 wt.% SO3. Soils at both sites generally have between 5 to 14 wt.% SO3, and several soils in Gusev crater contain around 30 wt.% SO3. After normalization of major element compositions to a SO3-free basis, the bulk compositions of these materials are basaltic, with a few exceptions in Gusev crater and in lacustrine mudstones in Gale crater. These observations suggest that materials encountered by the rovers were derived from basaltic precursors by acid sulfate alteration under nearly isochemical conditions (i.e., minimal leaching). There are several cases, however, where acid sulfate alteration minerals (jarosite and hematite) formed in open hydrologic systems, e.g., in Gale crater lacustrine mudstones. Several hypotheses have been suggested for the

  2. Aluminum anode for aluminum-air battery - Part I: Influence of aluminum purity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Young-Joo; Park, In-Jun; Lee, Hyeok-Jae; Kim, Jung-Gu

    2015-03-01

    2N5 commercial grade aluminum (99.5% purity) leads to the lower aluminum-air battery performances than 4N high pure grade aluminum (99.99% purity) due to impurities itself and formed impurity complex layer which contained Fe, Si, Cu and others. The impurity complex layer of 2N5 grade Al declines the battery voltage on standby status. It also depletes discharge current and battery efficiency at 1.0 V which is general operating voltage of aluminum-air battery. However, the impurity complex layer of 2N5 grade Al is dissolved with decreasing discharge voltage to 0.8 V. This phenomenon leads to improvement of discharge current density and battery efficiency by reducing self-corrosion reaction. This study demonstrates the possibility of use of 2N5 grade Al which is cheaper than 4N grade Al as the anode for aluminum-air battery.

  3. Effects of addition of surfactants on viscosity of uncured ammonium perchlorate(A/P)/hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB) propellant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koga, M.; Hagihara, Y. [National Defense Academy, Kanagawa (Japan)

    1998-08-31

    In production of ammonium perchlorate (AP)/hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB) propellants, it is preferable that the uncured propellant has a low viscosity during the mixing and forming processes. In this study, effects of surfacant on viscosity of the uncured propellant are studied for a total of 11 types of surfacants. It is found that sodium lauryl sulfate decreases viscosity of the AP/HTPB mixture more efficiently than any other surfacants tested. Apparent viscosity decreases by 30%, and its optimum dosage will be 0.005wt% based on the mixture to sufficiently decrease viscosity of the mixture. Viscosity of the mixture can be also decreased by improving wettability between AP and HTPB prepolymer. Sodium lauryl sulfate also shows an effect of delaying the potlife, i.e., time extending from addition of a curing agent to a thermosetting resin until it is cured to be unserviceable. 6 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Sulfate Transporters in Dissimilatory Sulfate Reducing Microorganisms: A Comparative Genomics Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angeliki Marietou

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The first step in the sulfate reduction pathway is the transport of sulfate across the cell membrane. This uptake has a major effect on sulfate reduction rates. Much of the information available on sulfate transport was obtained by studies on assimilatory sulfate reduction, where sulfate transporters were identified among several types of protein families. Despite our growing knowledge on the physiology of dissimilatory sulfate-reducing microorganisms (SRM there are no studies identifying the proteins involved in sulfate uptake in members of this ecologically important group of anaerobes. We surveyed the complete genomes of 44 sulfate-reducing bacteria and archaea across six phyla and identified putative sulfate transporter encoding genes from four out of the five surveyed protein families based on homology. We did not find evidence that ABC-type transporters (SulT are involved in the uptake of sulfate in SRM. We speculate that members of the CysP sulfate transporters could play a key role in the uptake of sulfate in thermophilic SRM. Putative CysZ-type sulfate transporters were present in all genomes examined suggesting that this overlooked group of sulfate transporters might play a role in sulfate transport in dissimilatory sulfate reducers alongside SulP. Our in silico analysis highlights several targets for further molecular studies in order to understand this key step in the metabolism of SRMs.

  5. Invisible Display in Aluminum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prichystal, Jan Phuklin; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Bladt, Henrik Henriksen

    2005-01-01

    Bang & Olufsen a/s has been working with ideas for invisible integration of displays in metal surfaces. Invisible integration of information displays traditionally has been possible by placing displays behind transparent or semitransparent materials such as plastic or glass. The wish for an integ......Bang & Olufsen a/s has been working with ideas for invisible integration of displays in metal surfaces. Invisible integration of information displays traditionally has been possible by placing displays behind transparent or semitransparent materials such as plastic or glass. The wish...... for an integrated display in a metal surface is often ruled by design and functionality of a product. The integration of displays in metal surfaces requires metal removal in order to clear the area of the display to some extent. The idea behind an invisible display in Aluminum concerns the processing of a metal...

  6. Quartz crystal microbalance sensor using ionophore for ammonium ion detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosaki, Yasuhiro; Takano, Kosuke; Citterio, Daniel; Suzuki, Koji; Shiratori, Seimei

    2012-01-01

    Ionophore-based quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) ammonium ion sensors with a detection limit for ammonium ion concentrations as low as 2.2 microM were fabricated. Ionophores are molecules, which selectively bind a particular ion. In this study, one of the known ionophores for ammonium, nonactin, was used to detect ammonium ions for environmental in-situ monitoring of aquarium water for the first time. To fabricate the sensing films, poly(vinyl chloride) was used as the matrix for the immobilization of nonactin. Furthermore, the anionic additive, tetrakis (4-chlorophenyl) borate potassium salt and the plasticizer dioctyl sebacate were used to enhance the sensor properties. The sensor allowed detecting ammonium ions not only in static solution, but also in flowing water. The sensor showed a nearly linear response with the increase of the ammonium ion concentration. The QCM resonance frequency increased with the increase of ammonium ion concentration, suggesting a decreasing weight of the sensing film. The detailed response mechanism could not be verified yet. However, from the results obtained when using a different plasticizer, nitrophenyl octyl ether, it is considered that this effect is caused by the release of water molecules. Consequently, the newly fabricated sensor detects ammonium ions by discharge of water. It shows high selectivity over potassium and sodium ions. We conclude that the newly fabricated sensor can be applied for detecting ammonium ions in aquarium water, since it allows measuring low ammonium ion concentrations. This sensor will be usable for water quality monitoring and controlling.

  7. Ammonium release from a blanket peatland into headwater stream systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniels, S.M.; Evans, M.G.; Agnew, C.T.; Allott, T.E.H.

    2012-01-01

    Hydrochemical sampling of South Pennine (UK) headwater streams draining eroded upland peatlands demonstrates these systems are nitrogen saturated, with significant leaching of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN), particularly ammonium, during both stormflow and baseflow conditions. DIN leaching at sub-catchment scale is controlled by geomorphological context; in catchments with low gully densities ammonium leaching dominates whereas highly gullied catchments leach ammonium and nitrate since lower water tables and increased aeration encourages nitrification. Stormflow flux calculations indicate that: approximately equivalent amounts of nitrate are deposited and exported; ammonium export significantly exceeds atmospheric inputs. This suggests two ammonium sources: high atmospheric loadings; and mineralisation of organic nitrogen stored in peat. Downstream trends indicate rapid transformation of leached ammonium into nitrate. It is important that low-order headwater streams are adequately considered when assessing impacts of atmospheric loads on the hydrochemistry of stream networks, especially with respect to erosion, climate change and reduced precipitation. - Highlights: ► Headwaters draining eroded South Pennine (UK) peatlands are nitrogen saturated. ► Ammonium and nitrate leaching arises from aeration due to lower water tables. ► Nitrate deposition equals export during storms; ammonium export exceeds input. ► Ammonia input from high atmospheric loading and mineralisation of organic nitrogen. ► Downstream nitrogen trends indicate rapid transformation of ammonium into nitrate. - Inorganic nitrogen leaching from South Pennine peatlands is dominated by ammonium that is rapidly transformed within-streams to nitrate.

  8. Sulfate transport in toad skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erik Hviid; Simonsen, K

    1988-01-01

    1. In short-circuited toad skin preparations exposed bilaterally to NaCl-Ringer's containing 1 mM SO2(-4), influx of sulfate was larger than efflux showing that the skin is capable of transporting sulfate actively in an inward direction. 2. This active transport was not abolished by substituting...... apical Na+ for K+. 3. Following voltage activation of the passive Cl- permeability of the mitochondria-rich (m.r.) cells sulfate flux-ratio increased to a value predicted from the Ussing flux-ratio equation for a monovalent anion. 4. In such skins, which were shown to exhibit vanishingly small leakage...... conductances, the variation of the rate coefficient for sulfate influx (y) was positively correlated with the rate coefficient for Cl- influx (x), y = 0.035 x - 0.0077 cm/sec (r = 0.9935, n = 15). 5. Addition of the phosphodiesterase inhibitor, 3-isobutyl-1-methyl-xanthine to the serosal bath of short...

  9. Relations among pH, sulfate, and metals concentrations in anthracite and bituminous coal-mine discharges, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cravotta, III, Charles A.

    2006-01-01

    Water-quality data for discharges from 140 abandoned mines in the Bituminous and Anthracite Coalfields of Pennsylvania illustrate relations among pH, sulfate, and dissolved metal concentrations. The pH for the 140 samples ranged from 2.7 to 7.3, with two modes at pH 2.5 to 4 (acidic) and 6 to 7 (near neutral). Generally, flow rates were smaller and solute concentrations were greater for low-pH samples; flow rates increased with pH. Although the pH distribution was similar for the bituminous and anthracite subsets, the bituminous discharges had smaller median flow rates, greater concentrations of sulfate, iron, and aluminum, and smaller concentrations of barium and lead than anthracite discharges with the same pH values. The observed relations between the pH and constituent concentrations can be attributed to (1) dilution of acidic water by alkaline ground water; (2) solubility control of aluminum, iron, manganese, barium, and lead by hydroxide, sulfate, and/or carbonate minerals; and (3) aqueous sulfate-complex formation. The formation of AlSO4+ and AlHSO4+2 complexes adds to the total dissolved aluminum concentration at pH of equilibrium with aluminum hydroxide or hydroxysulfate minerals and can account for 10 to 20 times greater concentrations of dissolved aluminum in bituminous discharges compared to anthracite discharges at similar pH. Sulfate complexation also can account for 10 to 30 times greater concentrations of dissolved ferric iron concentrations at equilibrium with ferrihydrite (Fe(OH)3) and/or schwertmannite (Fe8O8(OH)4.5(SO4)1.75) at pH of 3 to 5. In contrast, lower barium and lead concentrations in bituminous than anthracite discharges indicates elevated sulfate concentration could decrease mobility of these metals by the formation of insoluble minerals such as barite (BaSO4) or anglesite (PbSO4). Most samples were saturated with barite, but none were saturated with anglesite. Hence, lead concentrations could be controlled by coprecipitation with

  10. Fabrication of high quality anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) on low purity aluminum—A comparative study with the AAO produced on high purity aluminum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michalska-Domańska, Marta; Norek, Małgorzata; Stępniowski, Wojciech J.; Budner, Bogusław

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Nanoporous alumina was fabricated by anodization in sulfuric acid solution with glycol. • The AAO manufacturing on low- and high-purity Al was compared. • The pores size was ranging between 30 and 50 nm. • No difference in the quality of the AAO fabricated on both Al types was observed. • The current vs. anodization time curves were recorded. -- Abstract: In this work the quality, arrangement, composition, and regularity of nanoporous AAO formed on the low-purity (AA1050) and high-purity aluminum during two-step anodization in a mixture of sulfuric acid solution (0.3 M), water and glycol (3:2, v/v), at various voltages (15, 20, 25, 30, 35 V) and at temperature of −1 °C, are investigated. The electrochemical conditions have allowed to obtain pores with the size ranging from 30 to 50 nm, which are much larger than those usually obtained by anodization in a pure sulfuric acid solution (<20 nm). The mechanism of the AAO growth is discussed. It was found that with the increase of applied anodizing voltage a number of incorporated sulfate ions in the aluminum oxide matrix increases, which was connected with the appearance of an unusual area in the current vs. time curves. On the surface of anodizing low- and high-purity aluminum, the formation of hillocks was observed, which was associated with the sulfate ions incorporation. The sulfate ions are replacing the oxygen atom/atoms in the AAO amorphous crystal structure and, consequently, the AAO template swells, the oxide cracks and uplifts causing the formation of hillocks. The same mechanism occurs for both low- and high-purity aluminum. Nanoporous AAO characterized by a very high regularity, not registered previously for low purity aluminum, was obtained. Furthermore, no significant difference in the regularity ratio between the AAO obtained on low- and high-purity aluminum, was observed. The electrochemical conditions applied in this study can be, thus, used for the fabrication of high quality

  11. Sorbents based on xerogels of zirconium, aluminum and manganese oxyhydroxides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.V. Smotraiev

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The actual problem of water supply in the world and in Ukraine, in particular, is a high level of pollution in water resources and an insufficient level of drinking water purification. With industrial wastewater, a significant amount of pollutants falls into water bodies, including suspended particles, sulfates, iron compounds, heavy metals, etc. Aim: The aim of this work is to determine the impact of aluminum and manganese ions additives on surface and sorption properties of zirconium oxyhydroxide based sorbents during their production process. Materials and Methods: The sorbents based on xerogels of zirconium, aluminum and manganese oxyhydroxides were prepared by sol-gel method during the hydrolysis of metal chlorides (zirconium oxychloride ZrOCl2, aluminum chloride AlCl3 and manganese chloride MnCl2 with carbamide. Results: The surface and sorption properties of sorbents based on xerogels of zirconium, aluminum and manganese oxyhydroxides were investigated. X-ray amorphous structure and evolved hydroxyl-hydrate cover mainly characterize the obtained xerogels. The composite sorbents based on xerogels of zirconium oxyhydroxide doped with aluminum oxyhydroxide (aS = 537 m2/g and manganese oxyhydroxide (aS = 356 m2/g have more developed specific surface area than single-component xerogels of zirconium oxyhydroxide (aS = 236 m2/g and aluminum oxyhydroxide (aS = 327 m2/g. The sorbent based on the xerogel of zirconium and manganese oxyhydroxides have the maximum SO42--ions sorption capacity. It absorbs 1.5 times more SO42–-ions than the industrial anion exchanger AN-221. The sorbents based on xerogels of zirconium oxyhydroxide has the sorption capacity of Fe3+-ions that is 1.5…2 times greater than the capacity of the industrial cation exchanger KU-2-8. The Na+-ions absorption capacity is 1.47…1.56 mmol/g for each sorbent. Conclusions: Based on these data it can be concluded that the proposed method is effective for sorbents production based on

  12. [Microbiological corrosion of aluminum alloys].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, V F; Belov, D V; Sokolova, T N; Kuzina, O V; Kartashov, V R

    2008-01-01

    Biological corrosion of ADO quality aluminum and aluminum-based construction materials (alloys V65, D16, and D16T) was studied. Thirteen microscopic fungus species and six bacterial species proved to be able to attack aluminum and its alloys. It was found that biocorrosion of metals by microscopic fungi and bacteria was mediated by certain exometabolites. Experiments on biocorrosion of the materials by the microscopic fungus Alternaria alternata, the most active biodegrader, demonstrated that the micromycete attack started with the appearance of exudate with pH 8-9 on end faces of the samples.

  13. Aluminum hydroxide issue closure package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergman, T.B.

    1998-01-01

    Aluminum hydroxide coatings on fuel elements stored in aluminum canisters in K West Basin were measured in July and August 1998. Good quality data was produced that enabled statistical analysis to determine a bounding value for aluminum hydroxide at a 99% confidence level. The updated bounding value is 10.6 kg per Multi-Canister Overpack (MCO), compared to the previously estimated bounding value of 8 kg/MCO. Thermal analysis using the updated bounding value, shows that the MCO generates oxygen concentrate that are below the lower flammability limits during the 40-year interim storage period and are, therefore, acceptable

  14. Controlling harmful algae blooms using aluminum-modified clay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Cao, Xihua; Yu, Zhiming; Song, Xiuxian; Qiu, Lixia

    2016-02-15

    The performances of aluminum chloride modified clay (AC-MC), aluminum sulfate modified clay (AS-MC) and polyaluminum chloride modified clay (PAC-MC) in the removal of Aureococcus anophagefferens were compared, and the potential mechanisms were analyzed according to the dispersion medium, suspension pH and clay surface charges. The results showed that AC-MC and AS-MC had better efficiencies in removing A.anophagefferens than PAC-MC. The removal mechanisms of the three modified clays varied. At optimal coagulation conditions, the hydrolysates of AC and AS were mainly monomers, and they transformed into Al(OH)3(am) upon their addition to algae culture, with the primary mechanism being sweep flocculation. The PAC mainly hydrolyzed to the polyaluminum compounds, which remained stable when added to the algae culture, and the flocculation mainly occurred through polyaluminum compounds. The suspension pH significantly influenced the aluminum hydrolysate and affected the flocculation between the modified clay and algae cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Characterization of aluminum phosphate nanoparticles formed in a water well

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaufhold, S., E-mail: s.kaufhold@bgr.de; Houben, G.; Dietel, J. [Bundesanstalt für Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe (BGR) (Germany); Bertmer, M. [Leipzig University, Institute of Experimental Physics II (Germany); Dohrmann, R. [Energie und Geologie (LBEG), Landesamt für Bergbau (Germany)

    2016-09-15

    In a drinking water well in Nethen, Germany, a yellowish precipitate, dominated by aluminum and phosphorus, affected the operation of the submersible pump by mechanically blocking the impellers. So far, aluminum-dominated well incrustations have been documented in only two cases and their mineralogical characterization was insufficient. The aim of the present study is to (1) present a third finding of Al-incrustations in wells, (2) provide a mineralogical and geochemical in-depth characterization of the precipitate, and (3) try to explain the reason for the problems it causes for drinking water production from this well. The yellow precipitate consists of nanoparticle aggregates and is a short-range ordered phase that could be described as a modified form of evansite with phosphate being the major anion, accompanied by some sulfate and carbonate. Additionally, aggregation with hydrous silicates and organic material is present, which could be simply adsorbed or co-precipitated. The precipitate formed as shallow acidic groundwater containing dissolved aluminum entered the well through a leaky casing seal. In the well it mixed with deeper groundwater of higher pH, causing Al-phosphate precipitations. The aggregates tended to accumulate at the entrance slots of the pump which therefore became blocked and had to be replaced.

  16. 21 CFR 184.1261 - Copper sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Copper sulfate. 184.1261 Section 184.1261 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1261 Copper sulfate. (a) Copper sulfate (cupric sulfate, CuSO4·5H2O, CAS... the reaction of sulfuric acid with cupric oxide or with copper metal. (b) The ingredient must be of a...

  17. Periodate Oxidation for Sulfated Glycosaminoglycans, with Special Reference to the Position of Extra Sulfate Groups in Chondroitin Polysulfates, Chondroitin Sulfate D and Chondroitin Sulfate K

    OpenAIRE

    Seno, Nobuko; Murakami, Keiko; Shibusawa, Haru

    1981-01-01

    The optimum conditions for periodate oxidation of sulfated disaccharides were investigated to determine the position of extra sulfate groups on the saturated disulfated disaccharides obtained from chondroitin polysulfates, chondroitin sulfates D and K. Under the conditions: 2mM saturated disulfated disaccharide with 20mM sodium periodate at 37°in the dark, the uronic acid residue in the disulfated disaccharide from chondroitin sulfate D was rapidly and completely destroyed, whereas that in th...

  18. Determining fluoride ions in ammonium desulfurization slurry using an ion selective electrode method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Zhengwei; Guo, Mulin; Chen, Huihui; Lian, Zhouyang; Wei, Wuji

    2018-02-01

    Determining fluoride ions in ammonia desulphurization slurry using a fluoride ion selective electrode (ISE) is investigated. The influence of pH was studied and the appropriate total ionic strength adjustment buffer and its dosage were optimized. The impact of Fe3+ concentration on the detection results was analyzed under preferable conditions, and the error analysis of the ISE method’s accuracy and precision for measuring fluoride ion concentration in the range of 0.5-2000 mg/L was conducted. The quantitative recovery of F- in ammonium sulfate slurry was assessed. The results showed that when pH ranged from 5.5˜6 and the Fe3+ concentration was less than 750 mg/L, the accuracy and precision test results with quantitative recovery rates of 92.0%-104.2% were obtained.

  19. Packaging material and aluminum. Hoso zairyo to aluminum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itaya, T [Mitsubishi Aluminum Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1992-02-01

    The present paper introduces aluminum foil packaging materials among the relation between packing materials and aluminum. The characteristics of aluminum foil in the packaging area are in its barrier performance, non-toxicity, tastelessness and odorlessness. Its excellent functions and processibility suit best as functional materials for food, medicine and industrial material packaging. While an aluminum foil may be used as a single packing material as in foils used in homes, many of it as a packaging material are used in combination with adhesives, papers or plastic films, or coated or printed. It is used as composite materials laminated or coated with other materials according to their use for the purpose of complementing the aluminum foil as the base material. Representative method to laminate aluminum foils include the wet lamination, dry lamination, thermally dissolved lamination and extruded lamination. The most important quality requirement in lamination is the adhesion strength, which requires a close attention in selecting the kinds of adhesive, laminating conditions, and aging conditions. 8 figs., 6 tabs.

  20. An update on toxicology of aluminum phosphide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moghadamnia Ali

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aluminum phosphide (AlP is a cheap solid fumigant and a highly toxic pesticide which is commonly used for grain preservation. In Iran it is known as the “rice tablet”. AlP has currently aroused interest with increasing number of cases in the past four decades due to increased use in agricultural and non-agricultural purposesand also its easy availability in the markets has increased its misuse to commit suicide. Upon contact with moisture in the environment, AlP undergoes a chemical reaction yielding phosphine gas, which is the active pesticidal component. Phosphine inhibits cellular oxygen utilization and can induce lipid peroxidation. It was reported that AlP has a mortality rate more than 50% of intoxication cases. Poisoning with AlP has usually occurred in attempts to suicide. It is a more common case in adults rather than teen agers. In some eastern countries it is a very common agent with rapid action for suicide. Up to date, there is no effective antidote or treatment for its intoxication. Also, some experimental results suggest that magnesium sulfate, N-acetyl cysteine (NAC, glutathione, vitamin C and E, beta-carotenes, coconut oil and melatonin may play an important role in reducing the oxidative outcomes of phosphine. This article reviews the experimental and clinical features of AlP intoxication and tries to suggest a way to encounter its poisoning.

  1. An Update on Toxicology of Aluminum Phosphide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Akbar Moghhadamnia

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum phosphide (AlP is a cheap solid fumigant and a highly toxic pesticide which is commonly used for grain preservation. In Iran it is known as the "rice tablet". AlP has currently aroused interest with increasing number of cases in the past four decades due to increased use in agricultural and non-agricultural purposes and also its easy availability in the markets has increased its misuse to commit suicide. Upon contact with moisture in the environment, AlP undergoes a chemical reaction yielding phosphine gas, which is the active pesticidal component. Phosphine inhibits cellular oxygen utilization and can induce lipid peroxidation. It was reported that AlP has a mortality rate more than 50% of intoxication cases. Poisoning with AlP has usually occurred in attempts to suicide. It is a more common case in adults rather than teen agers. In some eastern countries it is a very common agent with rapid action for suicide. Up to date, there is no effective antidote or treatment for its intoxication. Also, some experimental results suggest that magnesium sulfate, N-acetyl cysteine (NAC, glutathione, vitamin C and E, beta-carotenes, coconut oil and melatonin may play an important role in reducing the oxidative outcomes of phosphine. This article reviews the experimental and clinical features of AlP intoxication and tries to suggest a way to encounter its poisoning.

  2. 21 CFR 582.5230 - Calcium sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium sulfate. 582.5230 Section 582.5230 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5230 Calcium sulfate. (a) Product. Calcium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  3. 21 CFR 184.1643 - Potassium sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... hydroxide or potassium carbonate. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the “Food Chemicals Codex... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium sulfate. 184.1643 Section 184.1643 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1643 Potassium sulfate. (a) Potassium sulfate (K2SO4, CAS Reg...

  4. 21 CFR 184.1443 - Magnesium sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Magnesium sulfate. 184.1443 Section 184.1443 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1443 Magnesium sulfate. (a) Magnesium sulfate (MgSO4·7H2O, CAS... magnesium oxide, hydroxide, or carbonate with sulfuric acid and evaporating the solution to crystallization...

  5. EFFECT OF MAGNESIUM SULFATE (A LAXATIVE) ON ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use with little success . Magnesium sulfate also known as Epsom salt or bitter salt is a hydrate salt with a chemical name of magnesium sulfate heptahydrate . Chemical formula is MgSO. 7HO and trade name is. Andrews liver salt. Dried magnesium sulfate is an osmotic laxative or a saline laxative that acts by increasing the.

  6. 21 CFR 582.5443 - Magnesium sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Magnesium sulfate. 582.5443 Section 582.5443 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5443 Magnesium sulfate. (a) Product. Magnesium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  7. Modeling and minimization of barium sulfate scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alan W. Rudie; Peter W. Hart

    2006-01-01

    The majority of the barium present in the pulping process exits the digester as barium carbonate. Barium carbonate dissolves in the bleach plant when the pH drops below 7 and, if barium and sulfate concentrations are too high, begins to precipitate as barium sulfate. Barium is difficult to control because a mill cannot avoid this carbonate-to-sulfate transition using...

  8. Use of novel composite coagulants for arsenic removal from waters : experimental insight for the application of polyferric sulfate (PFS)

    OpenAIRE

    Katsoyiannis, Ioannis A.; Tzollas, Nikolaos M.; Tolkou, Athanasia K.; Mitrakas, Manassis; Ernst, Mathias; Zouboulis, Anastasios I.

    2017-01-01

    In the present study, several pre-polymerized coagulants of iron and aluminum were tested for their efficiency towards As(V) and As(III) removal from water sources. The results showed that the pre-polymerized coagulants of iron, such as poly-ferric sulfate and poly-ferric silicate chloride, were very efficient for As(V) removal. With regard to As(III) removal, among all examined coagulants, including the conventional ferric chloride, only the poly-ferric sulfate (PFS) was able to reduce As(II...

  9. Reuse of ammonium fluoride generated in the uranium hexafluoride conversion; Reutilizacao do fluoreto de amonio gerado na reconversao do hexafluoreto de uranio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva Neto, J.B.; Carvalho, E.F. Urano de; Durazzo, M., E-mail: jbsneto@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Riella, H.G [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    The Nuclear Fuel Centre of IPEN / CNEN - SP develops and manufactures dispersion fuel with high uranium concentration to meet the demand of the IEA-R1 reactor and future research reactors planned to be constructed in Brazil. The fuel uses uranium silicide (U{sub 3}Si{sub 2}) dispersed in aluminum. For producing the fuel, the processes for uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) conversion consist in obtaining U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} and / or U{sub 3}O{sub 8} through the preparation of intermediate compounds, among them ammonium uranyl carbonate - AUC, ammonium diuranate - DUA and uranium tetrafluoride - UF{sub 4}. This work describes a procedure for preparing uranium tetrafluoride by a dry route using as raw material the filtrate generated when producing routinely ammonium uranyl carbonate. The filtrate consists primarily of a solution containing high concentrations of ammonium (NH{sub 4}{sup +}), fluoride (F{sup -}), carbonate (CO{sub 3}{sup --}) and low concentrations of uranium. The procedure is basically the recovery of NH{sub 4}F and uranium, as UF{sub 4}, through the crystallization of ammonium bifluoride (NH{sub 4}HF{sub 2}) and, in a later step, the addition of UO{sub 2}, occurring fluoridation and decomposition. The UF{sub 4} obtained is further diluted in the UF{sub 4} produced routinely at IPEN / CNEN-SP by a wet route process. (author)

  10. Mineral Carbonation of Phosphogypsum Waste for Production of Useful Carbonate and Sulfate Salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattila, Hannu-Petteri, E-mail: hmattila@abo.fi; Zevenhoven, Ron [Thermal and Flow Engineering Laboratory, Åbo Akademi University, Turku (Finland)

    2015-11-16

    Phosphogypsum (CaSO{sub 4}·2H{sub 2}O, PG) waste is produced in large amounts during phosphoric acid (H{sub 3}PO{sub 4}) production. Minor quantities are utilized in construction or agriculture, while most of the material is stockpiled, creating an environmental challenge to prevent pollution of natural waters. In principle, the gypsum waste could be used to capture several hundred megatonnes of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). For example, when gypsum is converted to ammonium sulfate [(NH{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 4}] with ammonia (NH{sub 3}) and CO{sub 2}, also solid calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}) is generated. The ammonium sulfate can be utilized as a fertilizer or in other mineral carbonation processes that use magnesium silicate-based rock as feedstock, while calcium carbonate has various uses as, e.g., filler material. The reaction extent of the described process was studied by thermodynamic modeling and experimentally as a function of reactant concentrations and temperature. Other essential properties such as purity and quality of the solid products are also followed. Conversion efficiencies of >95% calcium from PG to calcium carbonate are obtained. Scalenohedral, rhombohedral, and prismatic calcite particles can be produced, although the precipitates contain certain contaminants such as rare earth metals and sulfur from the gypsum. A reverse osmosis membrane cartridge is also tested as an alternative and energy-efficient method of concentrating the ammonium sulfate salt solution instead of the traditional evaporation of the process solution.

  11. Modificated ammonium nitrate based on its melt and bentonic clay

    OpenAIRE

    TURDIALIEV UMID MUHTARALIEVICH; NAMAZOV SHAFOAT SATTAROVICH; REYMOV AHMED MAMBETKARIMOVICH; BEGLOV BORIS MIHAYLOVICH; MIRSALIMOVA SAODAT RAHMATJANOVNA

    2016-01-01

    The approaches of nonexplosive ammonium nitrate by mean introduction of different inorganic matter into ammonium nitrate’s composition have been analyzed in the study. The results of thermostable ammonium nitrate obtain using Azkamarsk, Lagonsk, Kattakurgansk, and Navbahorsk bentonite from Uzbekistan as an additive, have been given. Composition and property (granule strength, modification transition temperature, thermal effect of modification transition, dimensions of granule’s micropores and...

  12. Heated Aluminum Tanks Resist Corrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, L. E.

    1983-01-01

    Simple expedient of heating foam-insulated aluminum alloy tanks prevents corrosion by salt-laden moisture. Relatively-small temperature difference between such tank and surrounding air will ensure life of tank is extended by many years.

  13. Preparation of Trivalent Chromium and Rare Earth Composite Conversion Coating on Aluminum Alloy Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jianzhen

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, the surface conversion film on 6063 aluminum alloy was prepared by chemical plating process with chromium sulfate, lanthanum sulfate and sodium phosphate as film forming agent. The corrosion resistance and surface morphology of the conversion film were analyzed by pitting corrosion test of copper sulfate and SEM. The results show that when Cr2(SO4)3 is 10 g/L, La2(SO4)3 is 2 g/L, Na3PO4 is 8 g/L, pH value is 3, temperature is 40 °C, reaction time is 10 min, the corrosion resistance of the surface conversion film is the best. The conversion coating is light green, composed of Cr, La, P, Al, O and other elements.

  14. Safety Testing of Ammonium Nitrate Based Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Jason; Lappo, Karmen; Phelan, James; Peterson, Nathan; Gilbert, Don

    2013-06-01

    Ammonium nitrate (AN)/ammonium nitrate based explosives have a lengthy documented history of use by adversaries in acts of terror. While historical research has been conducted on AN-based explosive mixtures, it has primarily focused on detonation performance while varying the oxygen balance between the oxidizer and fuel components. Similarly, historical safety data on these materials is often lacking in pertinent details such as specific fuel type, particle size parameters, oxidizer form, etc. A variety of AN-based fuel-oxidizer mixtures were tested for small-scale sensitivity in preparation for large-scale testing. Current efforts focus on maintaining a zero oxygen-balance (a stoichiometric ratio for active chemical participants) while varying factors such as charge geometry, oxidizer form, particle size, and inert diluent ratios. Small-scale safety testing was conducted on various mixtures and fuels. It was found that ESD sensitivity is significantly affected by particle size, while this is less so for impact and friction. Thermal testing is in progress to evaluate hazards that may be experienced during large-scale testing.

  15. Quaternary Ammonium Polyethyleneimine: Antibacterial Activity Ira

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farber, Y.; Domb, A.G.; Golenser, J.; Beyth, N.; Weiss, E.I.

    2010-01-01

    Quaternary ammonium polyethyleneimine- (QA-PEI-) based nanoparticles were synthesized using two synthetic methods, reductive amination and N-alkylation. According to the first method, QA-PEI nanoparticles were synthesized by cross-linking with glutaraldehyde followed by reductive amination with octanal and further N-methylation with methyl iodide. The second method is based on crosslinking with dialkyl halide followed by N-alkylation with octyl halide and further N-methylation with methyl iodide. QA-PEI nanoparticles completely inhibited bacterial growth (>106 bacteria), including both Gram-positive, that is, Staphylococcus aureus at 80 μ/mL, and Gram-negative, that is, Escherichia coli at 320 μ/mL. Activity analysis revealed that the degree of alkylation and N-methylation of the QA-PEI nanoparticles plays a significant role in antibacterial activity of the reagent. The most potent compound was octyl alkylated QA-PEI alkylated at 1 : 1 mole ratio (primary amine of PEI monomer units/alkylating agent). Also, cytotoxicity studies on MAT-LyLu and MBT cell lines were performed with QA-PEI nanoparticles. These findings confirm previous reports that poly cations bearing quaternary ammonium moieties inhibit bacterial growth in vitro and have a potential use as additives in medical devices which need antibacterial properties.

  16. Chrome - Free Aluminum Coating System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, John H.; Gugel, Jeffrey D.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation concerns the program to qualify a chrome free coating for aluminum. The program was required due to findings by OSHA and EPA, that hexavalent chromium, used to mitigate corrosion in aerospace aluminum alloys, poses hazards for personnel. This qualification consisted of over 4,000 tests. The tests revealed that a move away from Cr+6, required a system rather than individual components and that the maximum corrosion protection required pretreatment, primer and topcoat.

  17. "Ripples" in an Aluminum Pool?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohr, James; Wang, Si-Yin; Nesterenko, Vitali F.

    2018-05-01

    Our motivation for this article is for students to realize that opportunities for discovery are all around them. Discoveries that can still puzzle present day researchers. Here we explore an observation by a middle school student concerning the production of what appears to be water-like "ripples" produced in aluminum foil when placed between two colliding spheres. We both applaud and explore the student's reasoning that the ripples were formed in a melted aluminum pool.

  18. A Virtual Aluminum Reduction Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongliang; Zhou, Chenn Q.; Wu, Bing; Li, Jie

    2013-11-01

    The most important component in the aluminum industry is the aluminum reduction cell; it has received considerable interests and resources to conduct research to improve its productivity and energy efficiency. The current study focused on the integration of numerical simulation data and virtual reality technology to create a scientifically and practically realistic virtual aluminum reduction cell by presenting complex cell structures and physical-chemical phenomena. The multiphysical field simulation models were first built and solved in ANSYS software (ANSYS Inc., Canonsburg, PA, USA). Then, the methodology of combining the simulation results with virtual reality was introduced, and a virtual aluminum reduction cell was created. The demonstration showed that a computer-based world could be created in which people who are not analysis experts can see the detailed cell structure in a context that they can understand easily. With the application of the virtual aluminum reduction cell, even people who are familiar with aluminum reduction cell operations can gain insights that make it possible to understand the root causes of observed problems and plan design changes in much less time.

  19. Elemental source attribution signatures for calcium ammonium nitrate (CAN) fertilizers used in homemade explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraga, Carlos G.; Mitroshkov, Alexander V.; Mirjankar, Nikhil S.; Dockendorff, Brian P.; Melville, Angie M.

    2017-11-01

    Calcium ammonium nitrate (CAN) is a widely available fertilizer composed of ammonium nitrate mixed with some form of calcium carbonate such as limestone or dolomite. CAN is also frequently used to make homemade explosives. The potential of using elemental profiling and chemometrics to match both pristine and reprocessed CAN fertilizers to their factories for use in future forensic investigations was examined. Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analysis was performed on 64 elements in 125 samples from 11 CAN stocks from 6 different CAN factories. Fisher ratio, degree-of-class-separation, and partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLSDA) were used to develop a model using the concentrations of Na, V, Mn, Cu, Ga, Sr, Ba and U to classify a validation set of CAN samples into 5 factory groups; one group was two factories from the same fertilizer company. In terms of the pristine CAN samples, i.e., unadulterated prills, 64% of the test samples were matched to their correct factory group with zero false positives. The same PLSDA model was used to correctly match 100% of the CAN samples that were reprocessed by crushing and mixing the CAN with powdered sugar. In the case of crushed CAN samples mixed with aluminum powder, correct matches were made for zero to 100% of the samples depending on the factory the CAN originated. Remarkably, for one factory, 100% of the ammonium nitrate samples that were extracted from CAN using tap or bottled water were matched to the correct CAN factory group. Lastly, the water-insoluble (calcium carbonate) portions of CAN provided a greater degree of discrimination between factories than the water-soluble portions of CAN. In summary, this work illustrates that sourcing unadulterated CAN fertilizer can potentially be done with high frequency and high confidence using elemental profiling and chemometrics while the sourcing of reprocessed CAN is dependent on how much an adulterant alters the recovered elemental profile of

  20. Synthesis of thermoplastic elastomer using potassium persulfate and ammonium peroxydisulfate initiator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewi Sondari; Agus Haryono; M Ghozali; Ahmad Randy; Kuntari Adi Suhardjo; Ariyadi B; Surasno

    2010-01-01

    Thermoplastic elastomer is polymeric material that has elastomer and thermoplastic properties. This material can be easily molded into finished and recyclable goods, thus environmentally safe for long term application. In this study we synthesize thermoplastic elastomer using two initiator that are potassium persulfate and ammonium peroxydisulfate with natural rubber to monomer (styrene/methyl methacrylate) ratio of 50 : 50 and 60 : 40 (v/v). The process of thermoplastic elastomer synthesis was conducted with emulsion grafting polymerization method for 6 hours at 65 °C. We used sodium dodecyl sulfate as emulsifier. FT-IR analysis result shows that grafting process had already occurred shown by new peaks that were observed in 1743 and 1519 cm"-"1. These peaks was assigned to carbonyl (C=O) group of methyl methacrylate and C=C benzene of styrene respectively. From "1H-NMR new peaks at δ = 7.1 ppm was aromatic proton from phenyl group of styrene, at δ = 3.5 ppm was methoxy proton of grafted methyl methacrylate acrylic group, and at δ = 5.1 ppm that is resonance of isoprene methine proton. This result showed that methyl methacrylate and styrene had already grafted onto natural rubber backbone. Initiator influenced grafting efficiency. Potassium persulfate gave 97.6 % grafting efficiency while ammonium peroxydisulfate gave 90.2 % grafting efficiency. (author)

  1. Testing of compact electrostatic precipitator for removal of hygroscopic ammonium salts from flue gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iller, E.; Chmielewska, D.K.; Koczy, B.; Rygula, Cz.

    2002-01-01

    Among many new technologies for purification of flue gases the process using electron beam for simultaneous removal of SO 2 and NO x is developing successfully and is entering to industrial applications. The product being the mixture of ammonium sulfate and nitrate is formed during the process of pollution reduction. Solid particles of this product are hydroscopic aerosol with submicron size. Results of investigation of ammonium aerosol salts removal by electrostatic precipitator of special construction co-operating with irradiation purification of the flue gas installation placed in EC 'Kaweczyn' area have been presented in the report. Influence of different parameters on the efficiency is discussed as well. Maximum removal efficiency was equal to 99.7%. Particulate emission and aerosol particle sizes distribution in the electrostatic precipitator inlet and outlet were measured using universal cascade impactor Andersen Mark III. Chemical composition of the soluble part of the by-product collected in electrostatic precipitator was examined with ion chromatography. The insoluble part and water content of the samples was measured as well. (author)

  2. Regeneration of sulfated metal oxides and carbonates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubble, Bill R.; Siegel, Stanley; Cunningham, Paul T.

    1978-03-28

    Alkali metal or alkaline earth metal carbonates such as calcium carbonate and magnesium carbonate found in dolomite or limestone are employed for removal of sulfur dioxide from combustion exhaust gases. The sulfated carbonates are regenerated to oxides through use of a solid-solid reaction, particularly calcium sulfide with calcium sulfate to form calcium oxide and sulfur dioxide gas. The regeneration is performed by contacting the sulfated material with a reductant gas such as hydrogen within an inert diluent to produce calcium sulfide in mixture with the sulfate under process conditions selected to permit the sulfide-sulfate, solid-state reaction to occur.

  3. Aerosol pH buffering in the southeastern US: Fine particles remain highly acidic despite large reductions in sulfate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, R. J.; Guo, H.; Russell, A. G.; Nenes, A.

    2015-12-01

    pH is a critical aerosol property that impacts many atmospheric processes, including biogenic secondary organic aerosol formation, gas-particle phase partitioning, and mineral dust or redox metal mobilization. Particle pH has also been linked to adverse health effects. Using a comprehensive data set from the Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study (SOAS) as the basis for thermodynamic modeling, we have shown that particles are currently highly acidic in the southeastern US, with pH between 0 and 2. Sulfate and ammonium are the main acid-base components that determine particle pH in this region, however they have different sources and their concentrations are changing. Over 15 years of network data show that sulfur dioxide emission reductions have resulted in a roughly 70 percent decrease in sulfate, whereas ammonia emissions, mainly link to agricultural activities, have been largely steady, as have gas phase ammonia concentrations. This has led to the view that particles are becoming more neutralized. However, sensitivity analysis, based on thermodynamic modeling, to changing sulfate concentrations indicates that particles have remained highly acidic over the past decade, despite the large reductions in sulfate. Furthermore, anticipated continued reductions of sulfate and relatively constant ammonia emissions into the future will not significantly change particle pH until sulfate drops to clean continental background levels. The result reshapes our expectation of future particle pH and implies that atmospheric processes and adverse health effects linked to particle acidity will remain unchanged for some time into the future.

  4. Anodized aluminum on LDEF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Johnny L.

    1993-01-01

    A compilation of reported analyses and results obtained for anodized aluminum flown on the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) was prepared. Chromic acid, sulfuric acid, and dyed sulfuric acid anodized surfaces were exposed to the space environment. The vast majority of the anodized surface on LDEF was chromic acid anodize because of its selection as a thermal control coating for use on the spacecraft primary structure, trays, tray clamps, and space end thermal covers. Reports indicate that the chromic acid anodize was stable in solar absorptance and thermal emittance, but that contamination effects caused increases in absorptance on surfaces exposed to low atomic oxygen fluences. There were some discrepancies, however, in that some chromic acid anodized specimens exhibited significant increases in absorptance. Sulfuric acid anodized surfaces also appeared stable, although very little surface area was available for evaluation. One type of dyed sulfuric acid anodize was assessed as an optical baffle coating and was observed to have improved infrared absorptance characteristics with exposure on LDEF.

  5. Dry deposition of sulfate to Quercus rubra and Liriodendron tulipifera foliage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandenberg, J.J.

    1987-01-01

    Estimates were made of the rate of dry deposition to red oak (Quercus rubra) and tulip poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera) foliage. In the laboratory, radioactive ammonium sulfate aerosols were generated in an exposure chamber. These aerosols were dry deposited onto leaves that were sequentially washed to examine the efficacy of washing procedures in removal of surface deposits. Over 90% of dry deposited sulfate was removed after a 30 second wash duration. Laboratory procedures also estimated the magnitude of foliar sulfur that leached into leaf wash solutions. The majority of laboratory leaves demonstrated no leaching of sulfur from the internal pool. However, some leaves showed significant sulfur leaching. It was concluded that leaching of internal sulfur was highly leaf specific. This indicated that each leaf used in field experiments needed to be individually examined for leaching

  6. Reduced sulfation of chondroitin sulfate but not heparan sulfate in kidneys of diabetic db/db mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reine, Trine M; Grøndahl, Frøy; Jenssen, Trond G; Hadler-Olsen, Elin; Prydz, Kristian; Kolset, Svein O

    2013-08-01

    Heparan sulfate proteoglycans are hypothesized to contribute to the filtration barrier in kidney glomeruli and the glycocalyx of endothelial cells. To investigate potential changes in proteoglycans in diabetic kidney, we isolated glycosaminoglycans from kidney cortex from healthy db/+ and diabetic db/db mice. Disaccharide analysis of chondroitin sulfate revealed a significant decrease in the 4-O-sulfated disaccharides (D0a4) from 65% to 40%, whereas 6-O-sulfated disaccharides (D0a6) were reduced from 11% to 6%, with a corresponding increase in unsulfated disaccharides. In contrast, no structural differences were observed in heparan sulfate. Furthermore, no difference was found in the molar amount of glycosaminoglycans, or in the ratio of hyaluronan/heparan sulfate/chondroitin sulfate. Immunohistochemical staining for the heparan sulfate proteoglycan perlecan was similar in both types of material but reduced staining of 4-O-sulfated chondroitin and dermatan was observed in kidney sections from diabetic mice. In support of this, using qRT-PCR, a 53.5% decrease in the expression level of Chst-11 (chondroitin 4-O sulfotransferase) was demonstrated in diabetic kidney. These results suggest that changes in the sulfation of chondroitin need to be addressed in future studies on proteoglycans and kidney function in diabetes.

  7. Gas evolution behavior of aluminum in mortar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashizume, Shuji; Matsumoto, Junko; Banba, Tsunetaka [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1996-10-01

    As a part of study of leaching behavior for solidified dry low level radioactive waste, gas evolution behavior of aluminum in mortar was investigated, and a plan of our research was proposed. The effect of pH on corrosion rate of aluminum, corrosion product, time dependency of corrosion rate of aluminum in mortar, change of corrosion mechanism, the effects of Na, Ca and Cl ions on corrosion rate of aluminum in mortar and corrosion behavior of aluminum when aluminum was used as sacrificed anode in reinforced concrete were previously clarified. Study of the effects of environmental factors such as pH, kind of ions and temperature on gas evolution behavior of aluminum and the effect of aluminum/carbon steel surface ratio no gas evolution behavior of aluminum were planed. (author). 75 refs.

  8. Gas evolution behavior of aluminum in mortar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashizume, Shuji; Matsumoto, Junko; Banba, Tsunetaka

    1996-10-01

    As a part of study of leaching behavior for solidified dry low level radioactive waste, gas evolution behavior of aluminum in mortar was investigated, and a plan of our research was proposed. The effect of pH on corrosion rate of aluminum, corrosion product, time dependency of corrosion rate of aluminum in mortar, change of corrosion mechanism, the effects of Na, Ca and Cl ions on corrosion rate of aluminum in mortar and corrosion behavior of aluminum when aluminum was used as sacrificed anode in reinforced concrete were previously clarified. Study of the effects of environmental factors such as pH, kind of ions and temperature on gas evolution behavior of aluminum and the effect of aluminum/carbon steel surface ratio no gas evolution behavior of aluminum were planed. (author). 75 refs

  9. Modeling of ferric sulfate decomposition and sulfation of potassium chloride during grate‐firing of biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Hao; Jespersen, Jacob Boll; Jappe Frandsen, Flemming

    2013-01-01

    Ferric sulfate is used as an additive in biomass combustion to convert the released potassium chloride to the less harmful potassium sulfate. The decomposition of ferric sulfate is studied in a fast heating rate thermogravimetric analyzer and a volumetric reaction model is proposed to describe...... the process. The yields of sulfur oxides from ferric sulfate decomposition under boiler conditions are investigated experimentally, revealing a distribution of approximately 40% SO3 and 60% SO2. The ferric sulfate decomposition model is combined with a detailed kinetic model of gas‐phase KCl sulfation...... and a model of K2SO4 condensation to simulate the sulfation of KCl by ferric sulfate addition. The simulation results show good agreements with experiments conducted in a biomass grate‐firing reactor. The results indicate that the SO3 released from ferric sulfate decomposition is the main contributor to KCl...

  10. FRACTIONATION AND CHARACTERISATION OF TECHNICAL AMMONIUM LIGNOSULPHONATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl Ann Leger

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available It is difficult to use lignin in any analytical methodology without reducing its considerable polydispersity by fractionation. An ammonium lignosulphonate sample was fractionated using a method of partial solubility in solutions of isopropanol increasingly diluted with distilled water, effectively fractionating by polarity. Selected fractions were characterised by gravimetric determination of the fractions, and determination of acid insoluble lignin, soluble lignin, and carbohydrate contents. Acid-insoluble lignin content was very low, and soluble lignin provided the majority of the lignin content, as should be expected from sulphonated lignin. Carbohydrate contents were also fairly low, the highest percentage at 14.5 being in Fraction 2, with the bulk lignin and Fraction 3 having 6.5% and 3.2%, respectively. Differences in the composition of each fraction support the efficacy of the fractionation process and permitted selection of fractions for use in subsequent studies.

  11. Double selenates of rare earths and ammonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iskhakova, L.D.; Kozlova, N.P.; Makarevich, L.G.

    1991-01-01

    Double selenates of rare earths with ammonium were prepared in result of crystallization. It is shown that NH 4 Ln(SeO 4 ) · nH 2 O crystalline hydrates are presented by penta-and trihydrates. Existance of two modifications was revealed for NH 4 Ln(SeO 4 ) · 5H 2 O: monoclinic form of NH 4 La(SeO 4 ) 2 · 5H 2 O, isostructural RbCe(SeO 4 ) 2 · 5H 2 O, and earlier unknown rhombic form of salts with Ln = Pr, Nd. Trihydrates with Ln = Sm-Yb belong to structural type of RbNd(SeO 4 ) 2 · 3H 2 O. Anhydrous salts NH 4 Ln(SeO 4 ) 2 are isostructural with monoclinic KNd(SO 4 ) 2 modification. Lattice parameters of binary selenates are presented

  12. Hydration Structure of the Quaternary Ammonium Cations

    KAUST Repository

    Babiaczyk, Wojtek Iwo

    2010-11-25

    Two indicators of the hydropathicity of small solutes are introduced and tested by molecular dynamics simulations. These indicators are defined as probabilities of the orientation of water molecules\\' dipoles and hydrogen bond vectors, conditional on a generalized distance from the solute suitable for arbitrarily shaped molecules. Using conditional probabilities, it is possible to distinguish features of the distributions in close proximity of the solute. These regions contain the most significant information on the hydration structure but cannot be adequately represented by using, as is usually done, joint distance-angle probability densities. Our calculations show that using our indicators a relative hydropathicity scale for the interesting test set of the quaternary ammonium cations can be roughly determined. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  13. Ammonium and methylammonium transport in Rhodobacter sphaeroides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordts, M.L.; Gibson, J.

    1987-01-01

    Rhodobacter spheroides maintained intracellular ammonium pools of 1.1 to 2.6 mM during growth in several fixed nitrogen sources as well as during diazotrophic growth. Addition of 0.15 mM NH 4 + to washed, nitrogen-free cell suspensions was followed by linear uptake of NH 4 + from the medium and transient formation of intracellular pools of 0.9 to 1.5 mM NH 4 + . Transport of NH 4 + was shown to be independent of assimilation by glutamine synthetase because intracellular pools of over 1 mM represented NH 4 + concentration gradients of at least 100-fold across the cytoplasmic membrane. Ammonium pools of over 1 mM were also found in non-growing cell suspensions in nitrogen-free medium after glutamine synthetase was inhibited with methionine sulfoximine. In NH 4 + -free cell suspensions, methylammonium ( 14 CH 3 NH 3 + ) was taken up rapidly, and intracellular concentrations of 0.4 to 0.5 mM were maintained. The 14 CN 3 NH 3 + pool was not affected by methionine sulfoximine. Unlike NH 4 + uptake, 14 CH 3 NH 3 + uptake in nitrogen-free cell suspensions was repressed by growth in NH 4 + . These results suggest that R. sphaeroides may produce an NH 4 + -specific transport system in addition to the NH 4 + / 14 CH 3 NH 3 + transporter. This second transporter is able to produce normal-size NH 4 + pools but has very little affinity for 14 CH 3 NH 3 + and is not repressed by growth in high concentrations of NH 4 +

  14. Ammonium and hydroxylamine uptake and accumulation in Nitrosomonas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmidt, I.; Look, C.; Bock, E.; Jetten, M.S.M.

    2004-01-01

    Starved cells of Nitrosomonas europaea and further ammonia oxidizers were able to rapidly accumulate ammonium and hydroxylamine to an internal concentration of about 1 and 0.8 M, respectively. In kinetic studies, the uptake/accumulation rates for ammonium [3.1 mmol (g protein)(-1) min(-1)] and

  15. 78 FR 32690 - Certain Ammonium Nitrate From Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-31

    ... From Ukraine Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the subject five-year review... certain ammonium nitrate from Ukraine would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material... Ammonium Nitrate from Ukraine: Investigation No. 731-TA-894 (Second Review). By order of the Commission...

  16. Ginger-supplemented diet ameliorates ammonium nitrate-induced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was designed to evaluate the capacity of ginger to repair the oxidative stress induced by ammonium nitrate. 50 male rats were divided into 5 groups; they underwent an oral treatment of ammonium nitrate and/or ginger (N mg/kg body weight + G% in diet) during 30 days. Group I served as control (C); ...

  17. Ammonium nitrate-polymer glasses: a new concept for phase and thermal stabilization of ammonium nitrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Anthony J; Vyazovkin, Sergey

    2008-09-11

    Dissolving of ammonium nitrate in highly polar polymers such as poly(vinylpyrrolidone) and/or poly(acrylamide) can result in the formation of single-phase glassy solid materials, in which NH 4 (+) and NO 3 (-) are separated through an ion-dipole interaction with the polymer matrix. Below the glass transition temperature of the polymer matrix the resulting materials remain phase and thermally stable as demonstrated through the absence of decomposition as well as the solid-solid transitions and melting of ammonium nitrate. The structure of the materials is explored by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and density functional calculations. Differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetry, and isoconversional kinetic analysis are applied to characterize the thermal behavior of the materials.

  18. Weld Repair of Thin Aluminum Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beuyukian, C. S.; Mitchell, M. J.

    1986-01-01

    Weld repairing of thin aluminum sheets now possible, using niobium shield and copper heat sinks. Refractory niobium shield protects aluminum adjacent to hole, while copper heat sinks help conduct heat away from repair site. Technique limits tungsten/inert-gas (TIG) welding bombardment zone to melt area, leaving surrounding areas around weld unaffected. Used successfully to repair aluminum cold plates on Space Shuttle, Commercial applications, especially in sealing fractures, dents, and holes in thin aluminum face sheets or clad brazing sheet in cold plates, heat exchangers, coolers, and Solar panels. While particularly suited to thin aluminum sheet, this process also used in thicker aluminum material to prevent surface damage near weld area.

  19. Shock wave synthesis of amino acids from solutions of ammonium formate and ammonium bicarbonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Chizuka; Furukawa, Yoshihiro; Kobayashi, Takamichi; Sekine, Toshimori; Nakazawa, Hiromoto; Kakegawa, Takeshi

    2015-07-01

    The emergence of life's building blocks, such as amino acids and nucleobases, on the prebiotic Earth was a critical step for the beginning of life. Reduced species with low mass, such as ammonia, amines, or carboxylic acids, are potential precursors for these building blocks of life. These precursors may have been provided to the prebiotic ocean by carbonaceous chondrites and chemical reactions related to meteorite impacts on the early Earth. The impact of extraterrestrial objects on Earth occurred more frequently during this period than at present. Such impacts generated shock waves in the ocean, which have the potential to progress chemical reactions to form the building blocks of life from reduced species. To simulate shock-induced reactions in the prebiotic ocean, we conducted shock-recovery experiments on ammonium bicarbonate solution and ammonium formate solution at impact velocities ranging from 0.51 to 0.92 km/s. In the products from the ammonium formate solution, several amino acids (glycine, alanine, ß-alanine, and sarcosine) and aliphatic amines (methylamine, ethylamine, propylamine, and butylamine) were detected, although yields were less than 0.1 mol % of the formic acid reactant. From the ammonium bicarbonate solution, smaller amounts of glycine, methylamine, ethylamine, and propylamine were formed. The impact velocities used in this study represent minimum cases because natural meteorite impacts typically have higher velocities and longer durations. Our results therefore suggest that shock waves could have been involved in forming life's building blocks in the ocean of prebiotic Earth, and potentially in aquifers of other planets, satellites, and asteroids.

  20. Electrolytic treatment of liquid waste containing ammonium nitrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komori, R.; Ogawa, N.; Ohtsuka, K.; Ohuchi, J.

    1981-01-01

    A study was made on the safe decomposition of ammonium nitrate, which is the main component of α-liquid waste from plutonium fuel facilities, by means of electrolytic reduction and thermal decomposition. In the first stage, ammonium nitrate is reduced to ammonium nitrite by electrolytic reduction using an electrolyser with a cation exchange membrane as a diaphragm. In the second stage, ammonium nitrite is decomposed to N 2 and H 2 O. The alkaline region and a low temperature are preferable for electrolytic reduction and the acidic region and high temperature for thermal decomposition. A basis was established for an ammonium nitrate treatment system in aqueous solution through the operation of a bench-scale unit, and the operating data obtained was applied to the basic design of a 10-m 3 /a facility. (author)

  1. Assimilation of ammonium and nitrate nitrogen by bean plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volk, R.J.; Chaillou, S.; Morot-Gaudry, J.F.; Mariotti, A.

    1989-01-01

    Enhanced growth is often observed in plants growing on combined ammonium and nitrate nutrition. The physiological basis for such enhancement was examined by exposing non-nodulated bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) plants to 15 N-labeled, 1.0 mM N solutions containing 0, 33, 67 or 100% of the N as ammonium, the balance being nitrate. Maximal total N uptake and biomass production were attained by plants receiving 33% ammonium. A higher proportion of incoming ammonium than nitrate was incorporated into root protein. This was accompanied by increased partitioning of plant biomass to roots. It was concluded that as a consequence of greater N metabolism in the root under mixed ammonium and nitrate nutrition, the root became a more active sink for photosynthate. Concurrently, the augmented supply of N to the shoot enhanced net photosynthesis as reflected in increased plant biomass

  2. Temperature dependence measurements and structural characterization of trimethyl ammonium ionic liquids with a highly polar solvent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attri, Pankaj; Venkatesu, Pannuru; Hofman, T

    2011-08-25

    We report the synthesis and characterization of a series of an ammonium ionic liquids (ILs) containing acetate, dihydrogen phosphate, and hydrogen sulfate anions with a common cation. To characterize the thermophysical properties of these newly synthesized ILs with the highly polar solvent N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF), precise measurements such as densities (ρ) and ultrasonic sound velocities (u) over the whole composition range have been performed at atmospheric pressure and over wide temperature ranges (25-50 °C). The excess molar volume (V(E)) and the deviation in isentropic compressibilities (Δκ(s)) were predicted using these temperature dependence properties as a function of the concentration of ILs. The Redlich-Kister polynomial was used to correlate the results. The ILs investigated in the present study included trimethylammonium acetate [(CH(3))(3)NH][CH(3)COO] (TMAA), trimethylammonium dihydrogen phosphate [(CH(3))(3)NH][H(2)PO(4)] (TMAP), and trimethylammonium hydrogen sulfate [(CH(3))(3)NH][HSO(4)] (TMAS). The intermolecular interactions and structural effects were analyzed on the basis of the measured and the derived properties. In addition, the hydrogen bonding between ILs and DMF has been demonstrated using semiempirical calculations with help of Hyperchem 7. A qualitative analysis of the results is discussed in terms of the ion-dipole, ion-pair interactions, and hydrogen bonding between ILs and DMF molecules and their structural factors. The influence of the anion of the protic IL, namely, acetate (CH(3)COO), dihydrogen phosphate (H(2)PO(4)), and hydrogen sulfate (HSO(4)), on the thermophysical properties is also provided. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  3. Thermophysical properties of aqueous solution of ammonium-based ionic liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umapathi, Reddicherla; Attri, Pankaj; Venkatesu, Pannuru

    2014-06-05

    Experimental densities (ρ), ultrasonic sound velocities (u), viscosities (η), and refractive indices (n(D)) of binary mixtures of ammonium-based ionic liquids (ILs) such as diethylammonium acetate (DEAA) [(CH3CH2)2NH][CH3COO], triethylammonium acetate (TEAA) [(CH3CH2)3NH][CH3COO], diethylammonium hydrogen sulfate (DEAS) [(CH3CH2)2NH][HSO4], triethylammonium hydrogen sulfate (TEAS) [(CH3CH2)3NH][HSO4], trimethylammonium acetate (TMAA) [(CH3)3NH][CH3COO], and trimethylammonium hydrogen sulfate (TMAS) [(CH3)3NH][HSO4] with water are reported over the wide composition range at 25 °C under atmospheric pressure. The excess molar volumes (V(E)), deviation in isentropic compressibilities (Δκ(s)), deviation in viscosities (Δη) and deviation in refractive indices (Δn(D)) are calculated from experimental values and are correlated by Redlich-Kister polynomial equations. The V(E) and Δκ(s) values for the aforesaid systems are negative over the entire composition range while the Δη and Δn(D) values are positive under the same experimental conditions. The intermolecular interactions and structural effects were analyzed on the basis of measured and derived properties. A qualitative analysis of the results is discussed in terms of the ion-dipole, ion-pair interactions and hydrogen bonding between ILs and water. Furthermore, the hydrogen bonding features between ILs with water were analyzed by using a molecular modeling program with the help of HyperChem7.

  4. Inhibition of synthesis of heparan sulfate by selenate: Possible dependence on sulfation for chain polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietrich, C.P.; Nader, H.B.; Buonassisi, V.; Colburn, P.

    1988-01-01

    Selenate, a sulfation inhibitor, blocks the synthesis of heparan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate by cultured endothelial cells. In contrast, selenate does not affect the production of hyaluronic acid, a nonsulfated glycosaminoglycan. No differences in molecular weight, [ 3 H]glucosamine/[ 35 S]sulfuric acid ratios, or disaccharide composition were observed when the heparan sulfate synthesized by selenate-treated cells was compared with that of control cells. The absence of undersulfated chains in preparations from cultures exposed to selenate supports the concept that, in the intact cell, the polymerization of heparan sulfate might be dependent on the sulfation of the saccharide units added to the growing glycosaminoglycan chain

  5. Ammonium removal using algae-bacteria consortia: the effect of ammonium concentration, algae biomass, and light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Huijun; Yuan, Qiuyan

    2018-04-01

    In this study, the effects of ammonium nitrogen concentration, algae biomass concentration, and light conditions (wavelength and intensity) on the ammonium removal efficiency of algae-bacteria consortia from wastewater were investigated. The results indicated that ammonium concentration and light intensity had a significant impact on nitrification. It was found that the highest ammonia concentration (430 mg N/L) in the influent resulted in the highest ammonia removal rate of 108 ± 3.6 mg N/L/days, which was two times higher than the influent with low ammonia concentration (40 mg N/L). At the lowest light intensity of 1000 Lux, algae biomass concentration, light wavelength, and light cycle did not show a significant effect on the performance of algal-bacterial consortium. Furthermore, the ammonia removal rate was approximately 83 ± 1.0 mg N/L/days, which was up to 40% faster than at the light intensity of 2500 Lux. It was concluded that the algae-bacteria consortia can effectively remove nitrogen from wastewater and the removal performance can be stabilized and enhanced using the low light intensity of 1000 Lux that is also a cost-effective strategy.

  6. Ecotoxicology of aluminum to fish and wildlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparling, D.W.; Lowe, T.P.; Campbell, P.G.C.; Yokel, Robert A.; Golub, Mari S.

    1997-01-01

    The toxicity of aluminum has been studied extensively in fish, less so in invertebrates, amphibians, and birds, and not at all in reptiles and free-ranging mammals. For aquatic organisms, Al bioavailability and toxicity are intimately related to ambient pH; changes in ambient acidity may affect Al solubility, dissolved Al speciation, and organism sensitivity to Al. At moderate acidity (pH 5.5 to 7.0), fish and invertebrates may be stressed due to Al adsorption onto gill surfaces and subsequent asphyxiation. At pH 4.5 to 5.5, Al can impair ion regulation and augment the toxicity of H+. At lower pH, elevated Al can temporarily ameliorate the toxic effects of acidity by competing for binding sites with H+. Aluminum toxicity in aquatic environments is further affected by the concentration of ligands such as dissolved organic matter, fluoride, or sulfate, and of other cations such as Ca and Mg which compete for cellular binding sites. Although risk of Al toxicity is often based on a model of free-ion (Al3+) activity, recent evidence suggests that factors determining Al toxicity may be more complex. In general, aquatic invertebrates are less sensitive to Al toxicity and acidity than fish; thus acidified, Al-rich waters may actually reduce predation pressure. Fish may be affected by asphyxiation at moderate acidic conditions or electrolyte imbalances at lower pH. In amphibians, embryos and young larvae are typically more sensitive than older larvae. Early breeding amphibians, which lay eggs in ephemeral ponds and streams subject to spring runoff, are most at risk from Al and acidification; those that breed later in the year in lakes or rivers are least vulnerable. Birds and mammals are most likely exposed through dietary ingestion of soil or Al-contaminated foods. Concentrations > 1000 mg.kg-1 in food may be toxic to young birds and mammals. Clinical signs in these animals are consistent with rickets because Al precipitates with P in the gut. Suggestions for additional

  7. Chemical equilibrium modeling of organic acids, pH, aluminum, and iron in Swedish surface waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjöstedt, Carin S; Gustafsson, Jon Petter; Köhler, Stephan J

    2010-11-15

    A consistent chemical equilibrium model that calculates pH from charge balance constraints and aluminum and iron speciation in the presence of natural organic matter is presented. The model requires input data for total aluminum, iron, organic carbon, fluoride, sulfate, and charge balance ANC. The model is calibrated to pH measurements (n = 322) by adjusting the fraction of active organic matter only, which results in an error of pH prediction on average below 0.2 pH units. The small systematic discrepancy between the analytical results for the monomeric aluminum fractionation and the model results is corrected for separately for two different fractionation techniques (n = 499) and validated on a large number (n = 3419) of geographically widely spread samples all over Sweden. The resulting average error for inorganic monomeric aluminum is around 1 µM. In its present form the model is the first internally consistent modeling approach for Sweden and may now be used as a tool for environmental quality management. Soil gibbsite with a log *Ks of 8.29 at 25°C together with a pH dependent loading function that uses molar Al/C ratios describes the amount of aluminum in solution in the presence of organic matter if the pH is roughly above 6.0.

  8. Ion-selective solid-phase electrode sensitive to ammonium ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlasov, Yu.G.; Milonova, M.S.; Antonov, P.P.; Bychkov, E.A.; Ehfa, A.Ya.

    1983-01-01

    Ammonium phosphomolybdate is investigated for the purpose of using it as membrane material of ammonium-selective solid-phase electrodes. Estimation of proton mobility and ion conductivity of ammonium phosphomolybdate is performed

  9. Recrystallization in Commercially Pure Aluminum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Bent; Hansen, Niels

    1984-01-01

    Recrystallization behavior in commercial aluminum with a purity of 99.4 pct was studied by techniques such as high voltage electron microscopy, 100 kV transmission electron microscopy, and light microscopy. Sample parameters were the initial grain size (290 and 24 microns) and the degree of defor......Recrystallization behavior in commercial aluminum with a purity of 99.4 pct was studied by techniques such as high voltage electron microscopy, 100 kV transmission electron microscopy, and light microscopy. Sample parameters were the initial grain size (290 and 24 microns) and the degree...... are discussed and compared with results from an earlier study1 covering the recrystallization behavior of commercial aluminum of the same purity deformed at higher degrees of deformation (50 to 90 pct reduction in thickness by cold-rolling)....

  10. Analysis of tyrosine-O-sulfation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard, J.R.; Sen, J.W.; Johnsen, A.H.

    2008-01-01

    Tyrosine O-sulfation was first described about 50 years ago as a post-translational modification of fibrinogen. In the following 30 years it was considered to be a rare modification affecting only a few proteins and peptides. However, in the beginning of the 1980s tyrosine (Tyr) sulfation was shown...... to be a common modification and since then an increasing number of proteins have been identified as sulfated. The target proteins belong to the classes of secretory, plasma membrane, and lysosomal proteins, which reflects the intracellular localization of the enzymes catalyzing Tyr sulfation, the tyrosylprotein...... sulfotransferases (TPSTs).Traditionally, Tyr sulfation has been analyzed by incorporation of radiolabeled sulfate into target cells followed by purification of the target protein. Subsequently, the protein is degraded enzymatically or by alkaline hydrolysis followed by thin-layer electrophoresis to demonstrate...

  11. Aluminum-air battery crystallizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maimoni, A.

    1987-01-01

    A prototype crystallizer system for the aluminum-air battery operated reliably through simulated startup and shutdown cycles and met its design objectives. The crystallizer system allows for crystallization and removal of the aluminium hydroxide reaction product; it is required to allow steady-state and long-term operation of the aluminum-air battery. The system has to minimize volume and maintain low turbulence and shear to minimize secondary nucleation and energy consumption while enhancing agglomeration. A lamella crystallizer satisfies system constraints.

  12. Aluminum-carbon composite electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahmandi, C. Joseph; Dispennette, John M.

    1998-07-07

    A high performance double layer capacitor having an electric double layer formed in the interface between activated carbon and an electrolyte is disclosed. The high performance double layer capacitor includes a pair of aluminum impregnated carbon composite electrodes having an evenly distributed and continuous path of aluminum impregnated within an activated carbon fiber preform saturated with a high performance electrolytic solution. The high performance double layer capacitor is capable of delivering at least 5 Wh/kg of useful energy at power ratings of at least 600 W/kg.

  13. Bactericide for sulfate-reducing bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shklyar, T F; Anoshina, G M; Blokhin, V Ye; Kisarrev, Ye L; Novikovsa, G M

    1981-01-01

    The aim of the invention is to find a bactericide for sulfate-reducing bacteria of oil fields in Western Siberia in order to suppress the biocorrosive activity on oil industry equipment. This goal is achieved by using M-nitroacetanylide as the bactericide of sulfate-reducing bacteria. This agent suppresses the activity of a stored culture of sulfate-reducing bacteria that comes from industrial waste waters injection wells of the Smotlor oil field.

  14. Aluminum nitride insulating films for MOSFET devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewicki, G. W.; Maserjian, J.

    1972-01-01

    Application of aluminum nitrides as electrical insulator for electric capacitors is discussed. Electrical properties of aluminum nitrides are analyzed and specific use with field effect transistors is defined. Operational limits of field effect transistors are developed.

  15. TRAITEMENT DES EAUX USEES PAR COAGULATION-FLOCULATION EN UTILISANT LE SULFATE D’ALUMINIUM COMME COAGULANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora SEGHAIRI

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Domestic wastewater treatment by coagulation-flocculation is widely used internationally. This treatment reduces color and turbidity, indicating organic and inorganic contaminants, but at acceptable levels for treated waste water discharged into the receiving environment. The objective of this study is to optimize the treatment of wastewater by coagulation-flocculation using aluminum sulphate as a coagulant. Various reaction parameters are taken into account, such as the coagulant dose, the pH of the solutions, the conductivity, the BOD5, the nitrates, the ammonium and the phosphates. We found from the different results obtained the optimal dose of aluminum sulphate is 400 mg/l with a reduction of 96.31%, 82.44% 90.95% and 78.74% respectively for phosphates, nitrates, ammonium and BOD5. It is recognized that pH influences the abatement rates of pollution contained in wastewater. For each water, there is a pH range for which coagulation- flocculation takes place rapidly. For our study, the optimum pH for removal of BOD5 and ammonium is between 6 and 7.

  16. The effect of zinc on the aluminum anode of the aluminum-air battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yougen; Lu, Lingbin; Roesky, Herbert W.; Wang, Laiwen; Huang, Baiyun

    Aluminum is an ideal material for batteries, due to its excellent electrochemical performance. Herein, the effect of zinc on the aluminum anode of the aluminum-air battery, as an additive for aluminum alloy and electrolytes, has been studied. The results show that zinc can decrease the anodic polarization, restrain the hydrogen evolution and increase the anodic utilization rate.

  17. 75 FR 70689 - Kaiser Aluminum Fabricated Products, LLC; Kaiser Aluminum-Greenwood Forge Division; Currently...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-70,376] Kaiser Aluminum Fabricated Products, LLC; Kaiser Aluminum- Greenwood Forge Division; Currently Known As Contech Forgings, LLC..., applicable to workers of Kaiser Aluminum Fabricated Products, LLC, Kaiser Aluminum-Greenwood Forge Division...

  18. Ammonium and methylammonium transport in Rhodobacter sphaeroides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordts, M.L.; Gibson, J.

    1987-04-01

    Rhodobacter spheroides maintained intracellular ammonium pools of 1.1 to 2.6 mM during growth in several fixed nitrogen sources as well as during diazotrophic growth. Addition of 0.15 mM NH/sub 4//sup +/ to washed, nitrogen-free cell suspensions was followed by linear uptake of NH/sub 4//sup +/ from the medium and transient formation of intracellular pools of 0.9 to 1.5 mM NH/sub 4//sup +/. Transport of NH/sub 4//sup +/ was shown to be independent of assimilation by glutamine synthetase because intracellular pools of over 1 mM represented NH/sub 4//sup +/ concentration gradients of at least 100-fold across the cytoplasmic membrane. Ammonium pools of over 1 mM were also found in non-growing cell suspensions in nitrogen-free medium after glutamine synthetase was inhibited with methionine sulfoximine. In NH/sub 4//sup +/-free cell suspensions, methylammonium (/sup 14/CH/sub 3/NH/sub 3//sup +/) was taken up rapidly, and intracellular concentrations of 0.4 to 0.5 mM were maintained. The /sup 14/CN/sub 3/NH/sub 3//sup +/ pool was not affected by methionine sulfoximine. Unlike NH/sub 4//sup +/ uptake, /sup 14/CH/sub 3/NH/sub 3//sup +/ uptake in nitrogen-free cell suspensions was repressed by growth in NH/sub 4//sup +/. These results suggest that R. sphaeroides may produce an NH/sub 4//sup +/-specific transport system in addition to the NH/sub 4//sup +///sup 14/CH/sub 3/NH/sub 3//sup +/ transporter. This second transporter is able to produce normal-size NH/sub 4//sup +/ pools but has very little affinity for /sup 14/CH/sub 3/NH/sub 3//sup +/ and is not repressed by growth in high concentrations of NH/sub 4//sup +/.

  19. THERMOCHEMISTRY OF INTERACTION REACTIONS FOR SODIUM AND ALUMINUM SULPHATES WITH COMPONENTS OF HYDRATING PORTLAND CEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. I. Yukhnevskiy

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical additives are widely used in the technology of concrete with the purpose to solve various problems and sulphate-containing additives-electrolytes are also used as accelerators for setting and hardening of cement. Action mechanism of additive accelerators for setting and hardening of cement is rather complicated and can not be considered as well-established. An influence of sulfate-containing additives such as sodium sulfate is reduced to acceleration of cement silicate phase hydration by increasing ionic strength of the solution. In addition to it, exchange reactions of anion additive with portlandite phase (Ca(OH2 and aluminate phases of hardening cement have a significant effect on hardening process that lead to formation of readily soluble hydroxides and hardly soluble calcium salts. The influence of sulfate-containing additives on properties of water cement paste and cement stone is quite diverse and depends on salt concentration and cation type. For example, the action of the aluminum sulphate additive becomes more complicated if the additive is subjected to hydrolysis in water, which is aggravated in an alkaline medium of the water cement paste. Formation of hydrolysis products and their reaction with aluminate phases and cement portlandite lead to a significant acceleration of setting. Thus, despite the similarity of additives ensuring participation of anions in the exchange reactions, the mechanism of their influence on cement setting and hardening varies rather significantly. The present paper considers peculiar features concerning the mechanism of interaction of sodium and aluminum sulfate additives in cement compositions from the viewpoint of thermochemistry. Thermochemical equations for reactions of sulfate-containing additives with phases of hydrated cement clinker have been given in the paper. The paper contains description how to calculate thermal effects of chemical reactions and determine an influence of the formed

  20. Significant role of organic sulfur in supporting sedimentary sulfate reduction in low-sulfate environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhraee, Mojtaba; Li, Jiying; Katsev, Sergei

    2017-09-01

    Dissimilatory sulfate reduction (DSR) is a major carbon mineralization pathway in aquatic sediments, soils, and groundwater, which regulates the production of hydrogen sulfide and the mobilization rates of biologically important elements such as phosphorus and mercury. It has been widely assumed that water-column sulfate is the main sulfur source to fuel this reaction in sediments. While this assumption may be justified in high-sulfate environments such as modern seawater, we argue that in low-sulfate environments mineralization of organic sulfur compounds can be an important source of sulfate. Using a reaction-transport model, we investigate the production of sulfate from sulfur-containing organic matter for a range of environments. The results show that in low sulfate environments (50%) of sulfate reduction. In well-oxygenated systems, porewater sulfate profiles often exhibit sub-interface peaks so that sulfate fluxes are directed out of the sediment. Our measurements in Lake Superior, the world's largest lake, corroborate this conclusion: offshore sediments act as sources rather than sinks of sulfate for the water column, and sediment DSR is supported entirely by the in-sediment production of sulfate. Sulfate reduction rates are correlated to the depth of oxygen penetration and strongly regulated by the supply of reactive organic matter; rate co-regulation by sulfate availability becomes appreciable below 500 μM level. The results indicate the need to consider the mineralization of organic sulfur in the biogeochemical cycling in low-sulfate environments, including several of the world's largest freshwater bodies, deep subsurface, and possibly the sulfate-poor oceans of the Early Earth.

  1. Structure and thermal decomposition of sulfated β-cyclodextrin intercalated in a layered double hydroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ji; Wei Min; Rao Guoying; Evans, D.G.; Duan Xue

    2004-01-01

    The sodium salt of hexasulfated β-cyclodextrin has been synthesized and intercalated into a magnesium-aluminum layered double hydroxide by ion exchange. The structure, composition and thermal decomposition behavior of the intercalated material have been studied by variable temperature X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), inductively coupled plasma emission spectroscopy (ICP), and thermal analysis (TG-DTA) and a model for the structure has been proposed. The thermal stability of the intercalated sulfated β-cyclodextrin is significantly enhanced compared with the pure form before intercalation

  2. Structure and thermal decomposition of sulfated β-cyclodextrin intercalated in a layered double hydroxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ji; Wei, Min; Rao, Guoying; Evans, David G.; Duan, Xue

    2004-01-01

    The sodium salt of hexasulfated β-cyclodextrin has been synthesized and intercalated into a magnesium-aluminum layered double hydroxide by ion exchange. The structure, composition and thermal decomposition behavior of the intercalated material have been studied by variable temperature X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), inductively coupled plasma emission spectroscopy (ICP), and thermal analysis (TG-DTA) and a model for the structure has been proposed. The thermal stability of the intercalated sulfated β-cyclodextrin is significantly enhanced compared with the pure form before intercalation.

  3. Subcellular localization of ammonium transporters in Dictyostelium discoideum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davis Carter T

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the exception of vertebrates, most organisms have plasma membrane associated ammonium transporters which primarily serve to import a source of nitrogen for nutritional purposes. Dictyostelium discoideum has three ammonium transporters, Amts A, B and C. Our present work used fluorescent fusion proteins to determine the cellular localization of the Amts and tested the hypothesis that the transporters mediate removal of ammonia generated endogenously from the elevated protein catabolism common to many protists. Results Using RFP and YFP fusion constructs driven by the actin 15 promoter, we found that the three ammonium transporters were localized on the plasma membrane and on the membranes of subcellular organelles. AmtA and AmtB were localized on the membranes of endolysosomes and phagosomes, with AmtB further localized on the membranes of contractile vacuoles. AmtC also was localized on subcellular organelles when it was stabilized by coexpression with either the AmtA or AmtB fusion transporter. The three ammonium transporters exported ammonia linearly with regard to time during the first 18 hours of the developmental program as revealed by reduced export in the null strains. The fluorescently tagged transporters rescued export when expressed in the null strains, and thus they were functional transporters. Conclusion Unlike ammonium transporters in most organisms, which import NH3/NH4+ as a nitrogen source, those of Dictyostelium export ammonia/ammonium as a waste product from extensive catabolism of exogenously derived and endogenous proteins. Localization on proteolytic organelles and on the neutral contractile vacuole suggests that Dictyostelium ammonium transporters may have unique subcellular functions and play a role in the maintenance of intracellular ammonium distribution. A lack of correlation between the null strain phenotypes and ammonia excretion properties of the ammonium transporters suggests that it is not

  4. 75 FR 80527 - Aluminum Extrusions From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-22

    ...)] Aluminum Extrusions From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Scheduling of... of subsidized and less-than-fair-value imports from China of aluminum extrusions, primarily provided... contained in Aluminum Extrusions From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Preliminary Determination of...

  5. 21 CFR 73.2645 - Aluminum powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aluminum powder. 73.2645 Section 73.2645 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2645 Aluminum powder. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive aluminum powder shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of...

  6. Discovery of a Heparan sulfate 3- o -sulfation specific peeling reaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, Yu; Mao, Yang; Zong, Chengli; Lin, Cheng; Boons, Geert Jan|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/088245489; Zaia, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Heparan sulfate (HS) 3-O-sulfation determines the binding specificity of HS/heparin for antithrombin III and plays a key role in herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection. However, the low natural abundance of HS 3-O-sulfation poses a serious challenge for functional studies other than the two cases

  7. 21 CFR 172.822 - Sodium lauryl sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium lauryl sulfate. 172.822 Section 172.822 Food... Multipurpose Additives § 172.822 Sodium lauryl sulfate. The food additive sodium lauryl sulfate may be safely... specifications: (1) It is a mixture of sodium alkyl sulfates consisting chiefly of sodium lauryl sulfate [CH2(CH2...

  8. 15N-ammonium test in clinical research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, K.; Metzner, C.; Teichmann, B.; Leipzig Univ.

    1989-01-01

    By use of the 15 N-ammonium test the liver function is investigated under influence of hormonal contraceptives in women and in liver diseases in children. With the described noninvasive nonradioactive isotope test the ammonia detoxification capability and the urea synthesis capacity of the liver is determined by measuring of the 15 N excretion in ammonia and urea in urine after oral administering of 15 N-ammonium chloride. The 15 N-ammonium test shows a significant influence of the hormonal contraceptives on the liver function and gives diagnostic evidence for liver diseases in children. (author)

  9. [A case of ammonium urate urinary stones with anorexia nervosa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komori, K; Arai, H; Gotoh, T; Imazu, T; Honda, M; Fujioka, H

    2000-09-01

    A 27-year-old woman had been suffering from bulimia and habitual vomiting for about 7 years and was incidentally found to have right renal stones by computed tomography. She was referred to our hospital for the treatment of these caluculi. On admission, she presented with hypokalemia, hypochloremia and metabolic alkalosis and was diagnosed with anorexia nervosa. Following successful removal by percutaneous nephrolithotripsy and extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy the stones were found to consist of pure ammonium urate. Since the urine of an anorexia nervosa patient tends to be rich in uric acid and ammonium, anorexia nervosa seems to be associated with ammonium urate urinary stones.

  10. The creation of defects in ammonium halides by excitons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, L.M.

    2002-01-01

    The ammonium halides crystals and alkali halides crystals are analogous by kind chemical bonds and crystalline lattices. The anionic sublattice is identical in this crystals. It is known the main mechanism of defect creation by irradiation is radiationless decay of excitons in alkali halides crystals. The F-, H-centers are formation in this processes. However, F, H-centres are not detected in ammonium halides. The goal of this work is investigation the creation of defects in ammonium halides by excitons. We established that excitons in ammonium chlorides and bromides are similar to excitons in alkali halides. It is known excitons are self-trapped and have identical parameters of the exciton-phonon interaction in both kind crystals. It is supposed, that processes of radiationless disintegration of excitons are identical in ammonium and alkali halides. It is necessary to understand why F-, H-centers are absent in ammonium halides. V k -centres are created by the excitation of the ammonium halides crystals in the absorption band of excitons. It was established by thermoluminescence and spectrums of absorption. The V k -centers begin to migrate at 110-120 K in ammonium chlorides and bromides. The curve of thermoluminescence have peak with maximum at this temperatures. It is known V k -centers in ammonium chlorides have the absorption band at 380 nm. We discovered this absorption band after irradiation of crystals by ultra-violet. In alkali halides F-center is anionic vacancy with electron. The wave function of electron are spread ed at the cations around anionic vacancy. We established the cation NH 4 + in ammonium halides can to capture electron. The ion NH 4 2+ is unsteady. It is disintegrated to NH 3 + and H + . We suppose that excitons in ammonium and alkali halides are disintegrated identically. When cation NH 4 + capture electron, in the anionic sublattice the configuration are created in a direction (100) The indicated configuration is unsteady in relation to a

  11. Removal of uranium from ammonium nitrate solution by nanofiltration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Runci; Yuan, Zhongwei; Yan, Taihong; Zheng, Weifang [China Institute of Atomic Energy, Beijing (China). Dept. of Radiochemistry

    2017-07-01

    Two types of nanofiltration membranes were tested to remove uranium dissolved in ammonium nitrate solution, and the influence of operating parameters as transmembrane pressure, tangential velocity and feed temperature was investigated. Experimental results showed NF270 membrane can reject more than 96% uranium and allow most (90% min) ammonium nitrate solution passed by, and with a permeate flux of 60 L/(m{sup 2}.h). Nanofiltration seems to be a promising technology for the removal of uranium and recovery of ammonium nitrate simultaneously.

  12. New quaternary ammonium salts based decontaminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana M. Popescu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Decontamination after terrorist attacks or industrial accidents with biological and/or chemical agents („bio-chem“ must be fast and efficient, in order to reduce the number of victims and to eliminate the consequent damages. The decontamination of living biological agents (bacteria, viruses or nonliving ones (toxins, regulators and toxic chemicals could be accomplished by reactions of hydrolysis in various experimental conditions, in particular in alkaline medium, reactions with amines or ammonia, alcohols, phenols etc. and by their transformation into less toxic degradation products. “Bio-chem” intentional or unintentional contamination is a real risk, towards which an effective management must be available to prevent and control it. Decontamination is an essential measure to protect the personnel and the environment. Synthesis and testing of new „bio-chem“ decontaminants, based on quaternary ammonium salts, complete the arsenal of protection against chemical and biological agents. The most effective selected substances could be produced and used for decontamination in accordance with legal procedures

  13. The phase diagram of ammonium nitrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chellappa, Raja S.; Dattelbaum, Dana M.; Velisavljevic, Nenad; Sheffield, Stephen

    2012-08-01

    The pressure-temperature (P-T) phase diagram of ammonium nitrate (AN) [NH4NO3] has been determined using synchrotron x-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy measurements. Phase boundaries were established by characterizing phase transitions to the high temperature polymorphs during multiple P-T measurements using both XRD and Raman spectroscopy measurements. At room temperature, the ambient pressure orthorhombic (Pmmn) AN-IV phase was stable up to 45 GPa and no phase transitions were observed. AN-IV phase was also observed to be stable in a large P-T phase space. The phase boundaries are steep with a small phase stability regime for high temperature phases. A P-V-T equation of state based on a high temperature Birch-Murnaghan formalism was obtained by simultaneously fitting the P-V isotherms at 298, 325, 446, and 467 K, thermal expansion data at 1 bar, and volumes from P-T ramping experiments. Anomalous thermal expansion behavior of AN was observed at high pressure with a modest negative thermal expansion in the 3-11 GPa range for temperatures up to 467 K. The role of vibrational anharmonicity in this anomalous thermal expansion behavior has been established using high P-T Raman spectroscopy.

  14. Modelling an Ammonium Transporter with SCLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Troina

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The Stochastic Calculus of Looping Sequences (SCLS is a recently proposed modelling language for the representation and simulation of biological systems behaviour. It has been designed with the aim of combining the simplicity of notation of rewrite systems with the advantage of compositionality. It also allows a rather simple and accurate description of biological membranes and their interactions with the environment.In this work we apply SCLS to model a newly discovered ammonium transporter. This transporter is believed to play a fundamental role for plant mineral acquisition, which takes place in the arbuscular mycorrhiza, the most wide-spread plant-fungus symbiosis on earth. Due to its potential application in agriculture this kind of symbiosis is one of the main focuses of the BioBITs project. In our experiments the passage of NH3 / NH4+ from the fungus to the plant has been dissected in known and hypothetical mechanisms; with the model so far we have been able to simulate the behaviour of the system under different conditions. Our simulations confirmed some of the latest experimental results about the LjAMT2;2 transporter. The initial simulation results of the modelling of the symbiosis process are promising and indicate new directions for biological investigations.

  15. Precipitation of ammonium diuranate : a study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnamoorthy, T.S.; Mahadevan, N.; Sankar Das, M.

    1991-01-01

    The precipitation of ammonium diuranate (ADU) forms the first step in the production of UO 2 fuel for reactors, and hence the quality and consistency of the ADU precipitate is very important in industrial operations. An investigation, on the precipitation of ADU, was carried out under conditions similar to those in industrial production, to evaluate the effect of various variables on the consistency and the quality of ADU. The variables studied were concentration of uranium and ammonia, pH, temperature and form of ammonia (gas or solution). The properties studied were the settling rate of the precipitates, surface area of the ADUs and calcined oxides and compositional characteristics of the ADUs. Multifactorial experiments and ruggedness tests were applied to identify the parameters to which the precipitation process is most vulnerable, so that such parameters may be controlled effectively. Besides, the effect and the importance of equilibrium conditions during the precipitation process, on the quality of the final ADU, was also established. The paper presents the results of these studies. (author). 6 refs., 3 figs., 7 tabs

  16. Formation and decomposition of ammoniated ammonium ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikezoe, Yasumasa; Suzuki, Kazuya; Nakashima, Mikio; Yokoyama, Atsushi; Shiraishi, Hirotsugu; Ohno, Shin-ichi

    1998-09-01

    Structures, frequencies, and chemical reactions of ammoniated ammonium ions (NH 4 + .nNH 3 ) were investigated theoretically by ab initio molecular orbital calculations and experimentally by observing their formation and decomposition in a corona discharge-jet expansion process. The ab initio calculations were carried out using a Gaussian 94 program, which gave optimized structures, binding energies and harmonic vibrational frequencies of NH 4 + .nNH 3 . Effects of discharge current, the reactant gas and the diameter of the gas expanding pinhole were examined on the size n distribution of NH 4 + .nNH 3 . The results indicated that the cluster ion, in the jet expansion process, grew in size mostly equal to or less than one unit under experimental conditions employed. Effects of discharge current, pinhole diameter, flight time in vacuum and cluster size were examined on the decomposition rate of cluster ions formed. In our experimental conditions, the internal energies of cluster ions were mainly determined through exo- and/or endo-thermic reactions involved in the cluster formation process. (author)

  17. Origin of high ammonium, arsenic and boron concentrations in the proximity of a mine: Natural vs. anthropogenic processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheiber, Laura, E-mail: scheiber.ls@gmail.com [Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research, CSIC, Jordi Girona 18. E-08034 Barcelona (Spain); Ayora, Carlos; Vázquez-Suñé, Enric [Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research, CSIC, Jordi Girona 18. E-08034 Barcelona (Spain); Cendón, Dioni I. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Locked Bag 2001, Kirrawee DC, NSW 2232 (Australia); School of Biological, Earth and Environmental Sciences (BEES), University of New South Wales (UNSW), NSW 2052 (Australia); Soler, Albert [Departament de Cristallografia, Mineralogia i Dipòsits Minerals, Facultat de Geologia, Universitat de Barcelona, C/Martí Franquès, sn., Barcelona (Spain); Baquero, Juan Carlos [Cobre Las Cruces S.A., Carretera SE-3410 km 4, 41860 Gerena, Sevilla (Spain)

    2016-01-15

    High ammonium (NH{sub 4}), arsenic (As) and boron (B) concentrations are found in aquifers worldwide and are often related to human activities. However, natural processes can also lead to groundwater quality problems. High NH{sub 4}, As and B concentrations have been identified in the confined, deep portion of the Niebla-Posadas aquifer, which is near the Cobre Las Cruces (CLC) mining complex. The mine has implemented a Drainage and Reinjection System comprising two rings of wells around the open pit mine, were the internal ring drains and the external ring is used for water reinjection into the aquifer. Differentiating geogenic and anthropogenic sources and processes is therefore crucial to ensuring good management of groundwater in this sensitive area where groundwater is extensively used for agriculture, industry, mining and human supply. No NH{sub 4}, As and B are found in the recharge area, but their concentrations increase with depth, salinity and residence time of water in the aquifer. The increased salinity down-flow is interpreted as the result of natural mixing between infiltrated meteoric water and the remains of connate waters (up to 8%) trapped within the pores. Ammonium and boron are interpreted as the result of marine solid organic matter degradation by the sulfate dissolved in the recharge water. The light δ{sup 15}N{sub NH4} values confirm that its origin is linked to marine organic matter. High arsenic concentrations in groundwater are interpreted as being derived from reductive dissolution of As-bearing goethite by dissolved organic matter. The lack of correlation between dissolved Fe and As is explained by the massive precipitation of siderite, which is abundantly found in the mineralization. Therefore, the presence of high arsenic, ammonium and boron concentrations is attributed to natural processes. Ammonium, arsenic, boron and salinity define three zones of groundwater quality: the first zone is close to the recharge area and contains water

  18. Origin of high ammonium, arsenic and boron concentrations in the proximity of a mine: Natural vs. anthropogenic processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheiber, Laura; Ayora, Carlos; Vázquez-Suñé, Enric; Cendón, Dioni I.; Soler, Albert; Baquero, Juan Carlos

    2016-01-01

    High ammonium (NH_4), arsenic (As) and boron (B) concentrations are found in aquifers worldwide and are often related to human activities. However, natural processes can also lead to groundwater quality problems. High NH_4, As and B concentrations have been identified in the confined, deep portion of the Niebla-Posadas aquifer, which is near the Cobre Las Cruces (CLC) mining complex. The mine has implemented a Drainage and Reinjection System comprising two rings of wells around the open pit mine, were the internal ring drains and the external ring is used for water reinjection into the aquifer. Differentiating geogenic and anthropogenic sources and processes is therefore crucial to ensuring good management of groundwater in this sensitive area where groundwater is extensively used for agriculture, industry, mining and human supply. No NH_4, As and B are found in the recharge area, but their concentrations increase with depth, salinity and residence time of water in the aquifer. The increased salinity down-flow is interpreted as the result of natural mixing between infiltrated meteoric water and the remains of connate waters (up to 8%) trapped within the pores. Ammonium and boron are interpreted as the result of marine solid organic matter degradation by the sulfate dissolved in the recharge water. The light δ"1"5N_N_H_4 values confirm that its origin is linked to marine organic matter. High arsenic concentrations in groundwater are interpreted as being derived from reductive dissolution of As-bearing goethite by dissolved organic matter. The lack of correlation between dissolved Fe and As is explained by the massive precipitation of siderite, which is abundantly found in the mineralization. Therefore, the presence of high arsenic, ammonium and boron concentrations is attributed to natural processes. Ammonium, arsenic, boron and salinity define three zones of groundwater quality: the first zone is close to the recharge area and contains water of sufficient quality

  19. Origin of high ammonium, arsenic and boron concentrations in the proximity of a mine: Natural vs. anthropogenic processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheiber, Laura; Ayora, Carlos; Vázquez-Suñé, Enric; Cendón, Dioni I; Soler, Albert; Baquero, Juan Carlos

    2016-01-15

    High ammonium (NH4), arsenic (As) and boron (B) concentrations are found in aquifers worldwide and are often related to human activities. However, natural processes can also lead to groundwater quality problems. High NH4, As and B concentrations have been identified in the confined, deep portion of the Niebla-Posadas aquifer, which is near the Cobre Las Cruces (CLC) mining complex. The mine has implemented a Drainage and Reinjection System comprising two rings of wells around the open pit mine, were the internal ring drains and the external ring is used for water reinjection into the aquifer. Differentiating geogenic and anthropogenic sources and processes is therefore crucial to ensuring good management of groundwater in this sensitive area where groundwater is extensively used for agriculture, industry, mining and human supply. No NH4, As and B are found in the recharge area, but their concentrations increase with depth, salinity and residence time of water in the aquifer. The increased salinity down-flow is interpreted as the result of natural mixing between infiltrated meteoric water and the remains of connate waters (up to 8%) trapped within the pores. Ammonium and boron are interpreted as the result of marine solid organic matter degradation by the sulfate dissolved in the recharge water. The light δ(15)NNH4 values confirm that its origin is linked to marine organic matter. High arsenic concentrations in groundwater are interpreted as being derived from reductive dissolution of As-bearing goethite by dissolved organic matter. The lack of correlation between dissolved Fe and As is explained by the massive precipitation of siderite, which is abundantly found in the mineralization. Therefore, the presence of high arsenic, ammonium and boron concentrations is attributed to natural processes. Ammonium, arsenic, boron and salinity define three zones of groundwater quality: the first zone is close to the recharge area and contains water of sufficient quality for

  20. Characterization of ultrafine aluminum nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandstrom, Mary M.; Jorgensen, Betty S.; Mang, Joseph T.; Smith, Bettina L.; Son, Steven F.

    2004-01-01

    Aluminum nanopowders with particle sizes ranging from ∼25 nm to 80 nm were characterized by a variety of methods. We present and compare the results from common powder characterization techniques including transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), BET gas adsorption surface area analysis, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS), and low angle laser light scattering (LALLS). Aluminum nanoparticles consist of an aluminum core with an aluminum oxide coating. HRTEM measurements of both the particle diameter and oxide layer thickness tend to be larger than those obtained from BET and TGA. LALLS measurements show a large degree of particle agglomeration in solution; therefore, primary particle sizes could not be determined. Furthermore, results from small-angle scattering techniques (SAS), including small-angle neutron (SANS) and x-ray (SAXS) scattering are presented and show excellent agreement with the BET, TGA, and HRTEM. The suite of analytical techniques presented in this paper can be used as a powerful tool in the characterization of many types of nanosized powders.

  1. Aluminum break-point contacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinemann, Martina; Groot, R.A. de

    1997-01-01

    Ab initio molecular dynamics is used to study the contribution of a single Al atom to an aluminum breakpoint contact during the final stages of breaking and the initial stages of the formation of such a contact. A hysteresis effect is found in excellent agreement with experiment and the form of the

  2. Removing hydrochloric acid exhaust products from high performance solid rocket propellant using aluminum-lithium alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Brandon C; Sippel, Travis R; Pfeil, Mark A; Gunduz, I Emre; Son, Steven F

    2016-11-05

    Hydrochloric acid (HCl) pollution from perchlorate based propellants is well known for both launch site contamination, as well as the possible ozone layer depletion effects. Past efforts in developing environmentally cleaner solid propellants by scavenging the chlorine ion have focused on replacing a portion of the chorine-containing oxidant (i.e., ammonium perchlorate) with an alkali metal nitrate. The alkali metal (e.g., Li or Na) in the nitrate reacts with the chlorine ion to form an alkali metal chloride (i.e., a salt instead of HCl). While this technique can potentially reduce HCl formation, it also results in reduced ideal specific impulse (ISP). Here, we show using thermochemical calculations that using aluminum-lithium (Al-Li) alloy can reduce HCl formation by more than 95% (with lithium contents ≥15 mass%) and increase the ideal ISP by ∼7s compared to neat aluminum (using 80/20 mass% Al-Li alloy). Two solid propellants were formulated using 80/20 Al-Li alloy or neat aluminum as fuel additives. The halide scavenging effect of Al-Li propellants was verified using wet bomb combustion experiments (75.5±4.8% reduction in pH, ∝ [HCl], when compared to neat aluminum). Additionally, no measurable HCl evolution was detected using differential scanning calorimetry coupled with thermogravimetric analysis, mass spectrometry, and Fourier transform infrared absorption. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The effect of different aluminum alloy surface compositions on barrier anodic film formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panitz, J.K.G.; Sharp, D.J.

    1984-01-01

    The authors have grown barrier anodic coatings on samples of aluminum alloy with different elemental surface compositions. In one series of experiments, they characterized the surface composition present on 6061 aluminum alloy samples after different chemical treatments including a detergent-water and methyl-ethyl ketone solvent clean, a 50% nitric acid-water etch, and a concentrated nitric acid-ammonium bifluoride etch. They anodized samples which were prepared similarly to those analyzed to evaluate the practical effects of the three different surface compositions. The anodization voltage rise time to 950V at constant current was used as a figure of merit. The solvent cleaned and the 50% nitric acid etched samples required, respectively, 113% and 41% more time to reach 950V than the concentrated nitric acidammonium bifloride etched samples. In a second series of experiments, they alternately anodized groups of either 6061 or 1100 (commercially pure) aluminum alloy, observed rise times to 950V, and measured chloride ion concentrations in the electrolyte. Longer rise times and higher chloride ion concentrations were observed for the 1100 samples. It was observed that the chloride ion concentration fell from initially high levels when 6061 samples were anodized. The results of both series of experiments augment the results of other investigators, who report that the surface species initially present on aluminum have a significant effect on anodic film formation

  4. Brittlestars contain highly sulfated chondroitin sulfates/dermatan sulfates that promote fibroblast growth factor 2-induced cell signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandra, Rashmi; Namburi, Ramesh B; Ortega-Martinez, Olga; Shi, Xiaofeng; Zaia, Joseph; Dupont, Sam T; Thorndyke, Michael C; Lindahl, Ulf; Spillmann, Dorothe

    2014-02-01

    Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) isolated from brittlestars, Echinodermata class Ophiuroidea, were characterized, as part of attempts to understand the evolutionary development of these polysaccharides. A population of chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate (CS/DS) chains with a high overall degree of sulfation and hexuronate epimerization was the major GAG found, whereas heparan sulfate (HS) was below detection level. Enzymatic digestion with different chondroitin lyases revealed exceptionally high proportions of di- and trisulfated CS/DS disaccharides. The latter unit appears much more abundant in one of four individual species of brittlestars, Amphiura filiformis, than reported earlier in other marine invertebrates. The brittlestar CS/DS was further shown to bind to growth factors such as fibroblast growth factor 2 and to promote FGF-stimulated cell signaling in GAG-deficient cell lines in a manner similar to that of heparin. These findings point to a potential biological role for the highly sulfated invertebrate GAGs, similar to those ascribed to HS in vertebrates.

  5. Influence quaternary ammonium salt in the organophilization of an bentonite; Influencia de um sal quaternario de amonio na organofilizacao de uma argila bentonitica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, S.V.; Alves, G.P.; Wanderley, A.S.D.; Araujo, E.M., E-mail: saraveruscadeoliveira@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), Campina Grande, PB (Brazil). Depto de Engenharia de Materiais

    2011-07-01

    Clays are natural materials, earthy, fine-grained particles with diameters generally less than 2μm, and formed by chemically hydrated silicates of aluminum, iron and magnesium. The clays have a range of applications, both in pottery and in other technology areas. This work aimed to study the influence of a quaternary ammonium salt to increase the basal distance of a bentonite clay powder obtained thereby promoting to a new structural profile characteristic with organoclay. The bentonite clay was treated with salt Praepragem WB. The following methods were used: X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF). The results indicated the intercalation of ammonium ions of the salt studied within the layers of silicate and expansion of basal spacing d{sub 001}, ie the clay in the study showed 2θ angle shifts to smaller angles, indicating that the clay was organophilization. (author)

  6. The anaerobic treatment of sulfate containing wastewater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, A.

    1995-01-01


    In the anaerobic treatment of sulfate containing wastewater sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) will compete with methanogenic- (MB) and acetogenic bacteria (AB) for the available substrates such as hydrogen, acetate, propionate and butyrate. The outcome of this competition will

  7. The effect of farmyard manure and calcium ammonium nitrate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of farmyard manure and calcium ammonium nitrate fertilisers on micronutrient density (iron, zinc, manganese, calcium and potassium) and seed yields of solanium villosum (black nightshade) and cleome gynandra (cat whiskers) on uetric nitisol.

  8. Stability and Concentration Verification of Ammonium Perchlorate Dosing Solutions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tsui, David

    1998-01-01

    Stability and concentration verification was performed for the ammonium perchlorate dosing solutions used in the on-going 90-Day Oral Toxicity Study conducted by Springborn Laboratories, Inc. (SLI Study No. 3433.1...

  9. Study on Thorium Hidroxide and Ammonium Diuranate precipitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damunir; Sukarsono, R; Busron-Masduki; Indra-Suryawan

    1996-01-01

    Thorium hydroxide and ammonium diuranate precipitation studied by the reaction of mixed thorium nitrate and uranyl nitrate using ammonium hydroxide. The purposes of this research was study of pH condition. U/Th ratio and NH 4 OH concentration on the precipitation. Mixed of thorium nitrate and uranyl nitrate 50 ml was reacted by excess ammonium hydroxide 2 - 10 M, pH 4-8, 40-80 o C of temperature and 5 - 100 % ratio of U/Th. The best of precipitation depend on thorium and uranium content on the precipitation. The experiment result for the best condition of precipitation was 25 % of ratio U/Th, pH 6 - 8, 60-80 o C of temperature, and 6 - 10 M concentration of ammonium hydroxide, was produced precipitate by 3,938 - 5,455 weight percent of mean concentration of U and 22,365-31,873 weight percent of mean concentration of Th

  10. Impact of mineral dust on nitrate, sulfate, and ozone in transpacific Asian pollution plumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. D. Fairlie

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available We use a 3-D global chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem to interpret aircraft observations of nitrate and sulfate partitioning in transpacific dust plumes during the INTEX-B campaign of April–May 2006. The model includes explicit transport of size-resolved mineral dust and its alkalinity, nitrate, and sulfate content. The observations show that particulate nitrate is primarily associated with dust, sulfate is primarily associated with ammonium, and Asian dust remains alkaline across the Pacific. This can be reproduced in the model by using a reactive uptake coefficient for HNO3 on dust (γ(HNO3 ~10−3 much lower than commonly assumed in models and possibly reflecting limitation of uptake by dust dissolution. The model overestimates gas-phase HNO3 by a factor of 2–3, typical of previous model studies; we show that this cannot be corrected by uptake on dust. We find that the fraction of aerosol nitrate on dust in the model increases from ~30% in fresh Asian outflow to 80–90% over the Northeast Pacific, reflecting in part the volatilization of ammonium nitrate and the resulting transfer of nitrate to the dust. Consumption of dust alkalinity by uptake of acid gases in the model is slow relative to the lifetime of dust against deposition, so that dust does not acidify (at least not in the bulk. This limits the potential for dust iron released by acidification to become bio-available upon dust deposition. Observations in INTEX-B show no detectable ozone depletion in Asian dust plumes, consistent with the model. Uptake of HNO3 by dust, suppressing its recycling to NOx, reduces Asian pollution influence on US surface ozone in the model by 10–15% or up to 1 ppb.

  11. Decarbonization process for carbothermically produced aluminum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Marshall J.; Carkin, Gerald E.; DeYoung, David H.; Dunlap, Sr., Ronald M.

    2015-06-30

    A method of recovering aluminum is provided. An alloy melt having Al.sub.4C.sub.3 and aluminum is provided. This mixture is cooled and then a sufficient amount of a finely dispersed gas is added to the alloy melt at a temperature of about 700.degree. C. to about 900.degree. C. The aluminum recovered is a decarbonized carbothermically produced aluminum where the step of adding a sufficient amount of the finely dispersed gas effects separation of the aluminum from the Al.sub.4C.sub.3 precipitates by flotation, resulting in two phases with the Al.sub.4C.sub.3 precipitates being the upper layer and the decarbonized aluminum being the lower layer. The aluminum is then recovered from the Al.sub.4C.sub.3 precipitates through decanting.

  12. The thermal decomposition behavior of ammonium perchlorate and of an ammonium-perchlorate-based composite propellant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behrens, R.; Minier, L.

    1998-03-24

    The thermal decomposition of ammonium perchlorate (AP) and ammonium-perchlorate-based composite propellants is studied using the simultaneous thermogravimetric modulated beam mass spectrometry (STMBMS) technique. The main objective of the present work is to evaluate whether the STMBMS can provide new data on these materials that will have sufficient detail on the reaction mechanisms and associated reaction kinetics to permit creation of a detailed model of the thermal decomposition process. Such a model is a necessary ingredient to engineering models of ignition and slow-cookoff for these AP-based composite propellants. Results show that the decomposition of pure AP is controlled by two processes. One occurs at lower temperatures (240 to 270 C), produces mainly H{sub 2}O, O{sub 2}, Cl{sub 2}, N{sub 2}O and HCl, and is shown to occur in the solid phase within the AP particles. 200{micro} diameter AP particles undergo 25% decomposition in the solid phase, whereas 20{micro} diameter AP particles undergo only 13% decomposition. The second process is dissociative sublimation of AP to NH{sub 3} + HClO{sub 4} followed by the decomposition of, and reaction between, these two products in the gas phase. The dissociative sublimation process occurs over the entire temperature range of AP decomposition, but only becomes dominant at temperatures above those for the solid-phase decomposition. AP-based composite propellants are used extensively in both small tactical rocket motors and large strategic rocket systems.

  13. Burning characteristics of ammonium nitrate-based composite propellants supplemented with ammonium dichromate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohga, Makoto; Nishino, Saeko [Department of Applied Chemistry, National Defense Academy, Yokosuka, Kanagawa 239-8686 (Japan)

    2009-08-15

    Ammonium nitrate (AN)-based composite propellants have attracted much attention, primarily because of the clean burning nature of AN as an oxidizer. However, such propellants have some disadvantages such as poor ignition and low burning rate. Ammonium dichromate (ADC) is used as a burning catalyst for AN-based propellants; however, the effect of ADC on the burning characteristics has yet to be sufficiently delineated. The burning characteristics of AN/ADC propellants prepared with various contents of AN and ADC have been investigated in this study. The theoretical performance of an AN-based propellant is improved by the addition of ADC. The increase in the burning rate is enhanced and the pressure deflagration limit (PDL) becomes lower with increasing amount of ADC added. The increasing ratio of the burning rate with respect to the amount of ADC is independent of the AN content and the combustion pressure. The optimal amount of ADC for improving the burning characteristics has been determined. (Abstract Copyright [2009], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  14. Metabolic Flexibility of Sulfate Reducing Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline M. Plugge

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Dissimilatory sulfate-reducing prokaryotes (SRB are a very diverse group of anaerobic bacteria that are omnipresent in nature and play an imperative role in the global cycling of carbon and sulfur. In anoxic marine sediments sulfate reduction accounts for up to 50% of the entire organic mineralization in coastal and shelf ecosystems where sulfate diffuses several meters deep into the sediment. As a consequence, SRB would be expected in the sulfate-containing upper sediment layers, whereas methanogenic Archaea would be expected to succeed in the deeper sulfate-depleted layers of the sediment. Where sediments are high in organic matter, sulfate is depleted at shallow sediment depths, and biogenic methane production will occur. In the absence of sulfate, many SRB ferment organic acids and alcohols, producing hydrogen, acetate, and carbon dioxide, and may even rely on hydrogen- and acetate-scavenging methanogens to convert organic compounds to methane. SRB can establish two different life styles, and these can be termed as sulfidogenic and acetogenic, hydrogenogenic metabolism. The advantage of having different metabolic capabilities is that it raises the chance of survival in environments when electron acceptors become depleted. In marine sediments, SRB and methanogens do not compete but rather complement each other in the degradation of organic matter.Also in freshwater ecosystems with sulfate concentrations of only 10-200 μM, sulfate is consumed efficiently within the top several cm of the sediments. Here, many of the δ-Proteobacteria present have the genetic machinery to perform dissimilatory sulfate reduction, yet they have an acetogenic, hydrogenogenic way of life.In this review we evaluate the physiology and metabolic mode of SRB in relation with their environment.

  15. Mutagenicity of quaternary ammonium salts containing carbohydrate moieties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dmochowska, Barbara [Department of Carbohydrate Chemistry, University of Gdansk, Sobieskiego 18, 80-952 Gdansk (Poland); Piosik, Jacek; Woziwodzka, Anna [Intercollegiate Faculty of Biotechnology, University of Gdansk and Medical University of Gdansk, Kladki 24, 80-822 Gdansk (Poland); Sikora, Karol; Wisniewski, Andrzej [Department of Carbohydrate Chemistry, University of Gdansk, Sobieskiego 18, 80-952 Gdansk (Poland); Wegrzyn, Grzegorz, E-mail: wegrzyn@biotech.univ.gda.pl [Department of Molecular Biology, University of Gdansk, Kladki 24, 80-822 Gdansk (Poland)

    2011-10-15

    Highlights: {yields} A series of quaternary ammonium salts containing carbohydrate moieties, with configuration D-galacto, D-gluco and D-manno, was synthesized and characterized. {yields} The quaternary ammonium salts containing carbohydrate moieties revealed potent mutagenic activities, as assessed by using the Vibrio harveyi bioluminescence mutagenicity test. {yields} The N-[2-(D-glycopyranosyloxy)ethyl]-N,N,N-trimethylaminium salts were of the highest activity in the mutagenicity assay. {yields} We suggest that quaternary ammonium salts may be more hazardous than previously supposed. - Abstract: Quaternary ammonium salts are widely used in industrial, agricultural, healthcare and domestic applications. They are believed to be safe compounds, with little or no health hazard to humans. However, in this report, we demonstrate that a series of newly synthesized quaternary ammonium salts containing carbohydrate moieties reveal potent mutagenic activities, as assessed by using the Vibrio harveyi bioluminescence mutagenicity test. D-Gluco- and D-galacto-derivatives were found to have a higher mutagenic potential than D-manno-derivatives. Among the former groups of compounds, the N-[2-(D-glycopyranosyloxy)ethyl]-N,N,N-trimethylaminium salts were of the highest activity in the mutagenicity assay. These results suggest that the safety of quaternary ammonium salts may be lower than previously supposed, indicating a need for testing such compounds for their mutagenicity.

  16. Ammonium as sole N source improves grain quality in wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuertes-Mendizábal, Teresa; González-Torralba, Jon; Arregui, Luis M; González-Murua, Carmen; González-Moro, M Begoña; Estavillo, José M

    2013-07-01

    The skilful handling of N fertilizer, including N source type and its timing, is necessary to obtain maximum profitability in wheat crops in terms of production and quality. Studies on grain yield and quality with ammonium as sole N source have not yet been conducted. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of N source management (nitrate vs. ammonium), and splitting it into two or three amendments during the wheat life cycle, on grain yield and quality under irrigated conditions. This experiment demonstrates that Cezanne wheat plants growing with ammonium as exclusive N source are able to achieve the same yield as plants growing with nitrate and that individual wheat plants grown in irrigated pots can efficiently use late N applied in GS37. Ammonium nutrition increased both types of grain reserve proteins (gliadins and glutenins) and also increased the ratio gli/glu with respect to nitrate nutrition. The splitting of the N rate enhanced the ammonium effect on grain protein composition. The application of ammonium N source, especially when split into three amendments, has an analogous effect on grain protein content and composition to applications at a higher N rate, leading to higher N use efficiency. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Mutagenicity of quaternary ammonium salts containing carbohydrate moieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dmochowska, Barbara; Piosik, Jacek; Woziwodzka, Anna; Sikora, Karol; Wisniewski, Andrzej; Wegrzyn, Grzegorz

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → A series of quaternary ammonium salts containing carbohydrate moieties, with configuration D-galacto, D-gluco and D-manno, was synthesized and characterized. → The quaternary ammonium salts containing carbohydrate moieties revealed potent mutagenic activities, as assessed by using the Vibrio harveyi bioluminescence mutagenicity test. → The N-[2-(D-glycopyranosyloxy)ethyl]-N,N,N-trimethylaminium salts were of the highest activity in the mutagenicity assay. → We suggest that quaternary ammonium salts may be more hazardous than previously supposed. - Abstract: Quaternary ammonium salts are widely used in industrial, agricultural, healthcare and domestic applications. They are believed to be safe compounds, with little or no health hazard to humans. However, in this report, we demonstrate that a series of newly synthesized quaternary ammonium salts containing carbohydrate moieties reveal potent mutagenic activities, as assessed by using the Vibrio harveyi bioluminescence mutagenicity test. D-Gluco- and D-galacto-derivatives were found to have a higher mutagenic potential than D-manno-derivatives. Among the former groups of compounds, the N-[2-(D-glycopyranosyloxy)ethyl]-N,N,N-trimethylaminium salts were of the highest activity in the mutagenicity assay. These results suggest that the safety of quaternary ammonium salts may be lower than previously supposed, indicating a need for testing such compounds for their mutagenicity.

  18. Amorphous Aluminum Hydroxide Control on Sulfate and Phosphate in Sediment-Solution Systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Navrátil, T.; Rohovec, Jan; Amirbahman, A.; Norton, S. A.; Fernandez, I. J.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 201, 1-4 (2009), s. 87-98 ISSN 0049-6979 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : adsorption * oligotrophy * Al precipitates * anions * acidification * alkalization Subject RIV: DD - Geochemistry Impact factor: 1.676, year: 2009

  19. Kinetics of aluminum and sulfate release from forest soil by mono- and diprotic aliphatic acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, A. Jr.; Zelazny, L.W. (Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State Univ., Blacksburg (USA))

    1990-06-01

    A batch equilibration study evaluated the influence of naturally occurring low-molecular-weight mono- and diprotic aliphatic acids on the rate of Al and SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} release in a Cecil soil (Typic Hapludult). The authors adjusted the pH of the organic acids (OAs) and of the soil suspension (3.8% w/w) to pH 4.0 and allowed them to equilibrate thermally before the experiment. After rapid addition of OAs to the soil suspension, they took solution samples at various time intervals and analyzed for Al, SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}}, and OA concentration. The initial concentration of OA in suspension was 1 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} mol liter{sup {minus}1}. Both Al and SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} release followed pseudo-first-order kinetics, whereas OA adsorption obeyed simple first-order kinetics. The rate of Al release (k{sub 1}) was more rapid for the diprotic OA treatment (20.4 {times} 10{sup {minus}8} mol s{sup {minus}1}), as was SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} release (1.63 {times} 10{sup {minus}8} mol s{sup {minus}1}), compared to the monoprotic OA treatment. The rate of Al release varied inversely with OA chain length and the distance between -COOH functional groups. The addition of substituent -OH groups between the -COOH groups further reduced K{sub 1}. A similar trend was observed for the rate of SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} release (k{sub 1}) into solution. Monoprotic OAs were more rapidly adsorbed to the particle surfaces than were diprotic OAs. The authors postulate that removal of Al and SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} from solution occurs via selective mineral precipitation.

  20. Use of aluminum sulfate (alum) to decrease ammonia emissions from beef cattle bedded manure packs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Confined cattle facilities are an increasingly common housing system in the Northern Great Plains of the United States. Ammonia volatilization from the surface of the floor and bedding in these confined facilities depends on several variables including pH, temperature, and moisture content. When pH ...

  1. Aluminum precipitation from Hanford DSSF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borgen, D.; Frazier, P.; Staton, G.

    1994-01-01

    A series of pilot scale tests using simulated Double Shell Slurry Feed (DSSF) showed that well-settled aluminum precipitate can be produced in Hanford double shell tank (DST) high level waste by slow neutralization with carbon dioxide. This pretreatment could provide an early grout feed and free tank space, as well as facilitate downstream processes such as ion exchange by providing a less caustic feed. A total of eight test runs were completed using a 10-ft tall 3-in i.d. glass column. The 10-ft height corresponds to about one third of the vertical height of a DST, hence providing a reasonable basis for extrapolating the observed precipitate settling and compaction to the actual waste tank environment. Four runs (three with a simplified simulant and one with a chemically complete simulant) produced well settled precipitates averaging 1.5 to 2 feet high. Aluminum gel rather than settled precipitate resulted from one test where neutralization was too rapid

  2. Electrically Conductive Anodized Aluminum Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Trung Hung

    2006-01-01

    Anodized aluminum components can be treated to make them sufficiently electrically conductive to suppress discharges of static electricity. The treatment was conceived as a means of preventing static electric discharges on exterior satin-anodized aluminum (SAA) surfaces of spacecraft without adversely affecting the thermal-control/optical properties of the SAA and without need to apply electrically conductive paints, which eventually peel off in the harsh environment of outer space. The treatment can also be used to impart electrical conductivity to anodized housings of computers, medical electronic instruments, telephoneexchange equipment, and other terrestrial electronic equipment vulnerable to electrostatic discharge. The electrical resistivity of a typical anodized aluminum surface layer lies between 10(exp 11) and 10(exp 13) Omega-cm. To suppress electrostatic discharge, it is necessary to reduce the electrical resistivity significantly - preferably to anodized surface becomes covered and the pores in the surface filled with a transparent, electrically conductive metal oxide nanocomposite. Filling the pores with the nanocomposite reduces the transverse electrical resistivity and, in the original intended outer-space application, the exterior covering portion of the nanocomposite would afford the requisite electrical contact with the outer-space plasma. The electrical resistivity of the nanocomposite can be tailored to a value between 10(exp 7) and 10(exp 12) Omega-cm. Unlike electrically conductive paint, the nanocomposite becomes an integral part of the anodized aluminum substrate, without need for adhesive bonding material and without risk of subsequent peeling. The electrodeposition process is compatible with commercial anodizing production lines. At present, the electronics industry uses expensive, exotic, electrostaticdischarge- suppressing finishes: examples include silver impregnated anodized, black electroless nickel, black chrome, and black copper. In

  3. Spectrochemical analysis of aluminum and its alloys, and S. A. P

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roca, M.

    1966-01-01

    Three different techniques have been employed for the spectrochemical analysis of aluminum, aluminum alloys, and S.A.P. :1) Point to plane with condensed spark and direct reading spectrometry; from the study on the instantaneous spectral-line intensities a long pre integration time has been established. 1) Powdered samples technique with direct current arc and also direct reading spectrometry; samples are transformed into Al 2 O 3 and mixed with graphite powder (1:1). A complete study on the different elements in aluminium oxide, aluminium sulfate and their mixtures with graphite, has been carried out. 3) Carrier distillation method with photographic recording for very low concentrations of boron and cadmium in S. A.P. (Author) 10 refs

  4. Ammonium Transformation in 14 Lakes along a Trophic Gradient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Leoni

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Ammonia is a widespread pollutant in aquatic ecosystems originating directly and indirectly from human activities, which can strongly affect the structure and functioning of the aquatic foodweb. The biological oxidation of NH4+ to nitrite, and then nitrate is a key part of the complex nitrogen cycle and a fundamental process in aquatic environments, having a profound influence on ecosystem stability and functionality. Environmental studies have shown that our current knowledge of physical and chemical factors that control this process and the abundance and function of involved microorganisms are not entirely understood. In this paper, the efficiency and the transformation velocity of ammonium into oxidised compounds in 14 south-alpine lakes in northern Italy, with a similar origin, but different trophic levels, are compared with lab-scale experimentations (20 °C, dark, oxygen saturation that are performed in artificial microcosms (4 L. The water samples were collected in different months to highlight the possible effect of seasonality on the development of the ammonium oxidation process. In four-liter microcosms, concentrations were increased by 1 mg/L NH4+ and the process of ammonium oxidation was constantly monitored. The time elapsed for the decrease of 25% and 95% of the initial ion ammonium concentration and the rate for that ammonium oxidation were evaluated. Principal Component Analysis and General Linear Model, performed on 56 observations and several chemical and physical parameters, highlighted the important roles of total phosphorus and nitrogen concentrations on the commencement of the oxidation process. Meanwhile, the natural concentration of ammonium influenced the rate of nitrification (µg NH4+/L day. Seasonality did not seem to significantly affect the ammonium transformation. The results highlight the different vulnerabilities of lakes with different trophic statuses.

  5. Early metabolic effects and mechanism of ammonium transport in yeast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pena, A.; Pardo, J.P.; Ramirez, J.

    1987-01-01

    Studies were performed to define the effects and mechanism of NH+4 transport in yeast. The following results were obtained. Glucose was a better facilitator than ethanol-H 2 O 2 for ammonium transport; low concentrations of uncouplers or respiratory inhibitors could inhibit the transport with ethanol as the substrate. With glucose, respiratory inhibitors showed only small inhibitory effects, and only high concentrations of azide or trifluoromethoxy carbonylcyanide phenylhydrazone could inhibit ammonium transport. Ammonium in the free state could be concentrated approximately 200-fold by the cells. Also, the addition of ammonium produced stimulation of both respiration and fermentation; an increased rate of H+ extrusion and an alkalinization of the interior of the cell; a decrease of the membrane potential, as monitored by fluorescent cyanine; an immediate decrease of the levels of ATP and an increase of ADP, which may account for the stimulation of both fermentation and respiration; and an increase of the levels of inorganic phosphate. Ammonium was found to inhibit 86Rb+ transport much less than K+. Also, while K+ produced a competitive type of inhibition, that produced by NH4+ was of the noncompetitive type. From the distribution ratio of ammonium and the pH gradient, an electrochemical potential gradient of around -180 mV was calculated. The results indicate that ammonium is transported in yeast by a mechanism similar to that of monovalent alkaline cations, driven by a membrane potential. The immediate metabolic effects of this cation seem to be due to an increased [H+]ATPase, to which its transport is coupled. However, the carriers seem to be different. The transport system studied in this work was that of low affinity

  6. Ammonium inhibition of nitrogenase activity in Herbaspirillum seropedicae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, H.; Burris, R.H. (Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison (USA))

    1989-06-01

    The effect of oxygen, ammonium ion, and amino acids on nitrogenase activity in the root-associated N{sub 2}-fixing bacterium Herbaspirillum seropedicae was investigated in comparison with Azospirillum spp. and Rhodospirillum rubrum. H. seropedicae is microaerophilic, and its optimal dissolved oxygen level is from 0.04 to 0.2 kPa for dinitrogen fixation but higher when it is supplied with fixed nitrogen. No nitrogenase activity was detected when the dissolved O{sub 2} level corresponded to 4.0 kPa. Ammonium, a product of the nitrogenase reaction, reversible inhibited nitrogenase activity when added to derepressed cell cultures. However, the inhibition of nitrogenase activity was only partial even with concentrations of ammonium chloride as high as 20 mM. Amides such as glutamine and asparagine partially inhibited nitrogenase activity, but glutamate did not. Nitrogenase in crude extracts prepared from ammonium-inhibited cells showed activity as high as in extracts from N{sub 2}-fixing cells. The pattern of the dinitrogenase and the dinitrogenase reductase revealed by the immunoblotting technique did not change upon ammonium chloride treatment of cells in vivo. No homologous sequences were detected with the draT-draG probe from Azospirillum lipoferum. There is no clear evidence that ADP-ribosylation of the dinitrogenase reductase is involved in the ammonium inhibition of H. seropedicae. The uncoupler carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone decreased the intracellular ATP concentration and inhibited the nitrogenase activity of whole cells. The ATP pool was significantly disturbed when cultures were treated with ammonium in vivo.

  7. Extraction of uranyl sulfate with primary amine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mrnka, M.; Bizek, V.; Nekovar, P.; Cizevska, S.; Schroetterova, D.

    1984-01-01

    PRIMENE JM-T was used for extraction. Its composition was found to approach the general formula C 21 H 43 NH 2 . It was found that the extraction of uranyl sulfate is lower in case of a higher steady-state concentration of sulfuric acid in the aqueous phase. Extraction is accompanied with coextraction of water. The results obtained showed that uranyl sulfate passes into the organic phase by two mechanisms: extraction with amine sulfate and extraction with free amine. A mathematical description of the process was made based on the obtained results. (E.S.)

  8. Chlorate: a reversible inhibitor of proteoglycan sulfation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humphries, D.E.; Silbert, J.E.

    1988-01-01

    Bovine aorta endothelial cells were cultured in medium containing [ 3 H]glucosamine, [ 35 S]sulfate, and various concentrations of chlorate. Cell growth was not affected by 10 mM chlorate, while 30 mM chlorate had a slight inhibitory effect. Chlorate concentrations greater than 10 mM resulted in significant undersulfation of chondroitin. With 30 mM chlorate, sulfation of chondroitin was reduced to 10% and heparan to 35% of controls, but [ 3 H]glucosamine incorporation on a per cell basis did not appear to be inhibited. Removal of chlorate from the culture medium of cells resulted in the rapid resumption of sulfation

  9. A continuous analyzer for soluble anionic constituents and ammonium in atmospheric particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Horr, Rida; Samanta, Gautam; Dasgupta, Purnendu K

    2003-12-15

    A new continuous soluble particle collector (PC) that does not use steam is described. Preceded by a denuder and interfaced with an ion chromatograph, this compact collector (3 in. o.d., approximately 5 in. total height) permits collection and continuous extraction of soluble components in atmospheric particulate matter. The PC is mounted atop a parallel plate wetted denuder for removal of soluble gases. The soluble gas denuded air enters the PC through an inlet. One version of the PC contained an integral cyclone-like inlet. For this device, penetration of particles as a function of size was characterized. In the simpler design, the sampled air enters the PC through a nozzle, and deionized water flows through a capillary tube placed close to the exit side of the nozzle by Venturi action or is forcibly pumped. Some growth of the aerosol occurs in the highly humid mist-chamber environment, but the dominant aerosol capture mechanism involves capture by the water film that forms on the hydrophobic PTFE membrane filter that constitutes the top of the PC and the airflow exit. Water drops coalesce on the filter and fall below into a purpose-machined cavity equipped with a liquid sensor. The water and the dissolved constituents are aspirated by a pump onto serial cation and anion preconcentrator columns. NH4+ captured by the cation preconcentrator is eluted with NaOH and is passed across an asymmetric membrane device. NH3 diffuses from the alkaline donor stream into a deionized water flowing countercurrent; the conductivity of the latter provides a measure of ammonium. The anions on the anion preconcentrator column are eluted and measured by a fully automated ion chromatography system. The total system thus provides automated semicontinuous measurement of soluble anions and ammonium. With a 15 min analytical cycle and a sampling rate of 5 L/min, the limit of detection (LOD) for ammonium is 8 ng/m3 and those for sulfate, nitrate, and oxalate are < or = 0.1 ng/m3. The

  10. SECONDARY ORGANIC AEROSOL FORMATION FROM THE OXIDATION OF AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS IN THE PRESENCE OF DRY SUBMICRON AMMONIUM SULFATE AEROSOL

    Science.gov (United States)

    A laboratory study was conducted to examine formation of secondary organic aerosols. A smog chamber system was developed for studying gas-aerosol interactions in a dynamic flow reactor. These experiments were conducted to investigate the fate of gas and aerosol phase compounds ...

  11. Effect of nitrate addition on the efficient use of ammonium sulfate fertilizer on corn under saline conditions . II. field experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalifa, Kh.; Zidan, A

    2003-01-01

    two field experiments during two consecutive seasons, were conducted on corn (Zea mays L. var. Ghota-82), grown on a saline soil under flood irrigation system at ACSAD research station located at the Euphrates valley, Deir-Ez-zor district, east of Syria. The objective was to study the effect of applying different ratios of mixed NO 3 -N and NH 4 -N fertilizers on the biomass yield of corn. Five rates of nitrogen (0, 50, 100, 150 and 200 kg N/ha) were applied either in a single or in combination of two forms of 15 N labelled nitrogen fertilizers ( 15 NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 and Ca( 15 NO 3 ) 2 . Total N, 15 N, nitrogen use efficiency (N recovery) and dry matter yield were the parameters investigated. The results showed that: (1) The high concentrations of NH 4 -N reduced dry matter yield; (2) NO 3 -N was more effective in increasing total N content of plant tissues than the same concentration of NH 4 -N; (3) Combination treatments always induced both higher yields and N content of plant tissues than single treatments of NH 4 -N; (4) NH 4 -N form increased the NO 3 -N uptake, and the NO 3 -N form had an effect on the absorption of NH 4 -N; (5) the recovery of NO 3 -N form was much higher than NH 4 -N form under saline soil conditions. (author)

  12. Nutrients in foliage and wet deposition of nitrate, ammonium and sulfate in washing tree top in Abies religiosa forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    E.R Peña-Mendoza; A. Gómez-Guerrero; Mark Fenn; P. Hernández de la Rosa; D. Alvarado Rosales

    2016-01-01

    The nutritional content and tree top in the forests are evaluated of Abies religiosa, San Miguel Tlaixpan (SMT) and Rio Frio (RF), State of Mexico. The work had two parts. In the first, the nutritional content was evaluated in new foliage (N, P, K, Ca and Mg) in Abies religiosa trees, in periods of spring, summer and winter, in...

  13. Grafted wood pulp containing quaternary ammonium group and its application in the removal of different anions from aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokker, H.H.

    2005-01-01

    Network wood pulp based on acrylonitrile has been chemically modified through different reactions to obtain group capable of anion exchange. Graft copolymerization of acrylonitrile onto wood pulp was carried out by using gamma-radiation 60 Co. Factors affecting the grafting process e.g radiation dose and monomer concentration were investigated.The chemical modification of cyano groups were carried out by reaction with ethanol amine producing oxazoline group followed by quaternization of tertiary amine by reaction with benzyl chloride producing quaternary ammonium salt. The grafted and modified wood pulp were characterized by FTIR, SEM and TGA.Qualitative experiments of adsorption were conducted to evaluate the modified wood pulp on fixing sulfate, phosphate,nitrate and dichromate from aqueous solution using batch extractions. Based on the results obtained, it may be concluded that it is possible to modify chemically wood pulp containing cyano groups by different routes for its usage as anion exchanger

  14. Infrared radiation properties of anodized aluminum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohara, S. [Science Univ. of Tokyo, Noda, Chiba (Japan). Dept. of Materials Science and Technology; Niimi, Y. [Science Univ. of Tokyo, Noda, Chiba (Japan). Dept. of Materials Science and Technology

    1996-12-31

    The infrared radiation heating is an efficient and energy saving heating method. Ceramics have been used as an infrared radiant material, because the emissivity of metals is lower than that of ceramics. However, anodized aluminum could be used as the infrared radiant material since an aluminum oxide film is formed on the surface. In the present study, the infrared radiation properties of anodized aluminum have been investigated by determining the spectral emissivity curve. The spectral emissivity curve of anodized aluminum changed with the anodizing time. The spectral emissivity curve shifted to the higher level after anodizing for 10 min, but little changed afterwards. The infrared radiant material with high level spectral emissivity curve can be achieved by making an oxide film thicker than about 15 {mu}m on the surface of aluminum. Thus, anodized aluminum is applicable for the infrared radiation heating. (orig.)

  15. Polymorphism of nickel sulfate hexahydrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angel, R.J.; Finger, L.W.

    1988-01-01

    NiSO 4 .6H 2 O, M r =262.85; data collections with Mo Kα radiation, λ=0.7093 A, room temperature. Monoclinic polymorph: C2/c, a=9.880(3), b=7.228(2), c=24.130(3) A, β=98.38(2) 0 , V=1704.7(6) A 3 , Z=8, D x =2.05 g cm -3 , μ=25.54 cm -1 , F(000)=1088, R=0.031 (wR=0.038) for 2176 observed reflections. Tetragonal polymorph: P4 1 2 1 2, a=6.780 (1), c=18.285 (2) A, V=840.5 (3) A 3 , Z=4, D x =2.07 g cm -3 , μ=25.81 cm -1 , F(000)=544, R=0.045 (wR=0.050) for 2102 observed reflections. The structure of the tetragonal polymorph originally determined (without H positions) by Beevers and Lipson and refined by O'Connor and Dale and Stadnicka, Glazer and Koralewski, is confirmed by refinement of X-ray diffraction data. The structure of the monoclinic polymorph is confirmed as being isostructural with NiSO 4 .6D 2 O, and a number of other hexahydrate sulfates, e.g. MgSO 4 .6H 2 O. Both structures contain isolated [Ni(H 2 O 6 ] octahedra and [SO 4 ] tetrahedra linked by hydrogen bonding. (orig.)

  16. Removing hydrochloric acid exhaust products from high performance solid rocket propellant using aluminum-lithium alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terry, Brandon C., E-mail: terry13@purdue.edu [School of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Purdue University, Zucrow Laboratories, 500 Allison Rd, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Sippel, Travis R. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Iowa State University, 2025 Black Engineering, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Pfeil, Mark A. [School of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Purdue University, Zucrow Laboratories, 500 Allison Rd, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Gunduz, I.Emre; Son, Steven F. [School of Mechanical Engineering, Purdue University, Zucrow Laboratories, 500 Allison Rd, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States)

    2016-11-05

    Highlights: • Al-Li alloy propellant has increased ideal specific impulse over neat aluminum. • Al-Li alloy propellant has a near complete reduction in HCl acid formation. • Reduction in HCl was verified with wet bomb experiments and DSC/TGA-MS/FTIR. - Abstract: Hydrochloric acid (HCl) pollution from perchlorate based propellants is well known for both launch site contamination, as well as the possible ozone layer depletion effects. Past efforts in developing environmentally cleaner solid propellants by scavenging the chlorine ion have focused on replacing a portion of the chorine-containing oxidant (i.e., ammonium perchlorate) with an alkali metal nitrate. The alkali metal (e.g., Li or Na) in the nitrate reacts with the chlorine ion to form an alkali metal chloride (i.e., a salt instead of HCl). While this technique can potentially reduce HCl formation, it also results in reduced ideal specific impulse (I{sub SP}). Here, we show using thermochemical calculations that using aluminum-lithium (Al-Li) alloy can reduce HCl formation by more than 95% (with lithium contents ≥15 mass%) and increase the ideal I{sub SP} by ∼7 s compared to neat aluminum (using 80/20 mass% Al-Li alloy). Two solid propellants were formulated using 80/20 Al-Li alloy or neat aluminum as fuel additives. The halide scavenging effect of Al-Li propellants was verified using wet bomb combustion experiments (75.5 ± 4.8% reduction in pH, ∝ [HCl], when compared to neat aluminum). Additionally, no measurable HCl evolution was detected using differential scanning calorimetry coupled with thermogravimetric analysis, mass spectrometry, and Fourier transform infrared absorption.

  17. Removing hydrochloric acid exhaust products from high performance solid rocket propellant using aluminum-lithium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terry, Brandon C.; Sippel, Travis R.; Pfeil, Mark A.; Gunduz, I.Emre; Son, Steven F.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Al-Li alloy propellant has increased ideal specific impulse over neat aluminum. • Al-Li alloy propellant has a near complete reduction in HCl acid formation. • Reduction in HCl was verified with wet bomb experiments and DSC/TGA-MS/FTIR. - Abstract: Hydrochloric acid (HCl) pollution from perchlorate based propellants is well known for both launch site contamination, as well as the possible ozone layer depletion effects. Past efforts in developing environmentally cleaner solid propellants by scavenging the chlorine ion have focused on replacing a portion of the chorine-containing oxidant (i.e., ammonium perchlorate) with an alkali metal nitrate. The alkali metal (e.g., Li or Na) in the nitrate reacts with the chlorine ion to form an alkali metal chloride (i.e., a salt instead of HCl). While this technique can potentially reduce HCl formation, it also results in reduced ideal specific impulse (I_S_P). Here, we show using thermochemical calculations that using aluminum-lithium (Al-Li) alloy can reduce HCl formation by more than 95% (with lithium contents ≥15 mass%) and increase the ideal I_S_P by ∼7 s compared to neat aluminum (using 80/20 mass% Al-Li alloy). Two solid propellants were formulated using 80/20 Al-Li alloy or neat aluminum as fuel additives. The halide scavenging effect of Al-Li propellants was verified using wet bomb combustion experiments (75.5 ± 4.8% reduction in pH, ∝ [HCl], when compared to neat aluminum). Additionally, no measurable HCl evolution was detected using differential scanning calorimetry coupled with thermogravimetric analysis, mass spectrometry, and Fourier transform infrared absorption.

  18. Electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry of ammonium cationized polyethers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasioudis, Andreas; Heeren, Ron M A; van Doormalen, Irene; de Wijs-Rot, Nicolette; van den Brink, Oscar F

    2011-05-01

    Quaternary ammonium salts (Quats) and amines are known to facilitate the MS analysis of high molar mass polyethers by forming low charge state adduct ions. The formation, stability, and behavior upon collision-induced dissociation (CID) of adduct ions of polyethers with a variety of Quats and amines were studied by electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight, quadrupole ion trap, and linear ion trap tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). The linear ion trap instrument was part of an Orbitrap hybrid mass spectrometer that allowed accurate mass MS/MS measurements. The Quats and amines studied were of different degree of substitution, structure, and size. The stability of the adduct ions was related to the structure of the cation, especially the amine's degree of substitution. CID of singly/doubly charged primary and tertiary ammonium cationized polymers resulted in the neutral loss of the amine followed by fragmentation of the protonated product ions. The latter reveals information about the monomer unit, polymer sequence, and endgroup structure. In addition, the detection of product ions retaining the ammonium ion was observed. The predominant process in the CID of singly charged quaternary ammonium cationized polymers was cation detachment, whereas their doubly charged adduct ions provided the same information as the primary and tertiary ammonium cationized adduct ions. This study shows the potential of specific amines as tools for the structural elucidation of high molar mass polyethers. © American Society for Mass Spectrometry, 2011

  19. New electrolytes for aluminum production: Ionic liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mingming; Kamavarum, Venkat; Reddy, Ramana G.

    2003-11-01

    In this article, the reduction, refining/recycling, and electroplating of aluminum from room-temperature molten salts are reviewed. In addition, the characteristics of several non-conventional organic solvents, electrolytes, and molten salts are evaluated, and the applicability of these melts for production of aluminum is discussed with special attention to ionic liquids. Also reviewed are electrochemical processes and conditions for electrodeposition of aluminum using ionic liquids at near room temperatures.

  20. PREPARATION OF ACTINIDE-ALUMINUM ALLOYS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, R.H.

    1962-09-01

    BS>A process is given for preparing alloys of aluminum with plutonium, uranium, and/or thorium by chlorinating actinide oxide dissolved in molten alkali metal chloride with hydrochloric acid, chlorine, and/or phosgene, adding aluminum metal, and passing air and/or water vapor through the mass. Actinide metal is formed and alloyed with the aluminum. After cooling to solidification, the alloy is separated from the salt. (AEC)

  1. Sulfate reduction and methanogenesis at a freshwater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Vibeke Margrethe Nyvang; Andersen, Martin Søgaard; Jakobsen, Rasmus

    The freshwater-seawater interface was studied in a ~9-m thick anaerobic aquifer located in marine sand and gravel with thin peat lenses. Very limited amounts of iron-oxides are present. Consequently, the dominating redox processes are sulfate reduction and methanogenesis, and the groundwater...... is enriched in dissolved sulfide, methane and bicarbonate. Under normal conditions the seawater-freshwater interface is found at a depth of 4 m at the coastline and reaches the bottom of the aquifer 40 m inland. However, occasional flooding of the area occurs, introducing sulfate to the aquifer. Groundwater...... chemistry was studied in a 120 m transect perpendicular to the coast. Cores were taken for radiotracer rate measurements of sulfate reduction and methanogenesis. In the saline part of the aquifer 35 m inland, sulfate reduction was the dominant process with rates of 0.1-10 mM/year. In the freshwater part 100...

  2. Lymphocyte mobilization by dextran sulfate in beagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragan, H.A.; Debban, K.H.

    1978-01-01

    Dogs manifesting 239 Pu-induced lymphopenia responded to the lymphocyte-mobilizing agent, dextran sulfate, to a degree similar to that observed in control dogs. No life-threatening increase in prothrombin times or hemorrhagic tendencies were observed

  3. Sulfated cellulose thin films with antithrombin affinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Cellulose thin films were chemically modified by in situ sulfation to produce surfaces with anticoagulant characteristics. Two celluloses differing in their degree of polymerization (DP: CEL I (DP 215–240 and CEL II (DP 1300–1400 were tethered to maleic anhydride copolymer (MA layers and subsequently exposed to SO3•NMe3 solutions at elevated temperature. The impact of the resulting sulfation on the physicochemical properties of the cellulose films was investigated with respect to film thickness, atomic composition, wettability and roughness. The sulfation was optimized to gain a maximal surface concentration of sulfate groups. The scavenging of antithrombin (AT by the surfaces was determined to conclude on their potential anticoagulant properties.

  4. COMBINED ALUMINIUM SULFATE/HYDROXIDE PROCESS FOR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sulfate, and used for fluoride removal from water by combining with Nalgonda Technique. ... effects on human health and could result in fluorosis. ... [23], nanoscale aluminium oxide hydroxide (AlOOH) [24] and natural zeolite [25], were among.

  5. ROE Wet Sulfate Deposition 2009-2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The raster data represent the amount of wet sulfate deposition in kilograms per hectare from 2009 to 2011. Summary data in this indicator were provided by EPA’s...

  6. PENINGKATAN PRODUKTIVITAS KAMBING KACANG DI KELURAHAN PENATIH DENPASAR TIMUR MELALUI DEMOPLOT PEMBERIAN KONSENTRAT YANG DISUPLEMENTASI AMONIUM SULFAT VS MINERAL MIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. PUTRA

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In line with the regional government programs in sustaining the agricultural ? livestock farming system. An informative talk on enhancing performances and productivity of kacang goat was held at Penatih, Badung reegency on the 20th Dec. 2002. The aim of the community service is to fulfill the farmer?s knowledge and their technical skill in choosing and applying proportional feed stuff, especially using ammonium sulfate mineral as feed supplement on grass-legume based diet. This material which has the capasity to promote rumen microbial growth and their activity in digesting low quality diets. Composing and mixing concentrate diets has also been demonstrated and 4 dietary treatments were tested using 12 goats during a period of 15 days. Ration ( R A contained 97% rice bran + 3% am. Sulfate; RB was 97% rice brand + 3% mineral miz; RC was pollard + 3% am. Sulfate and RD was 97% pollard + 3% mineral mix. Body weight gain were monitored through out the trial period. The result indicated that quality of ration caused improvement of performance and productivity of kacang goats. Body weight gain being increased to 0,067 ? 0,300 kg/head/day for diet A, C, and D, which the highest mean values of 0,217 kg/head/day were obtained for diet D. This situation may due to the present of ammonium sulfate plus zinc (Zn mineral to the legumes basal diet, which can act as metabolic modulator . In general, most of the participants (90% have a very good responses and acceptance for the beneficial information given to them.

  7. An all aluminum alloy UHV components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugisaki, Kenzaburo

    1985-01-01

    An all aluminum components was developed for use with UHV system. Aluminum alloy whose advantage are little discharge gas, easy to bake out, light weight, little damage against radieactivity radiation is used. Therefore, as it is all aluminum alloy, baking is possible. Baking temperature is 150 deg C in case of not only ion pump, gate valve, angle valve but also aluminum components. Ion pump have to an ultrahigh vacuum of order 10 -9 torr can be obtained without baking, 10 -10 torr order can be obtained after 24 hour of baking. (author)

  8. Gut: An underestimated target organ for Aluminum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignal, C; Desreumaux, P; Body-Malapel, M

    2016-06-01

    Since World War II, several factors such as an impressive industrial growth, an enhanced environmental bioavailability and intensified food consumption have contributed to a significant amplification of human exposure to aluminum. Aluminum is particularly present in food, beverages, some drugs and airbone dust. In our food, aluminum is superimposed via additives and cooking utensils. Therefore, the tolerable intake of aluminum is exceeded for a significant part of the world population, especially in children who are more vulnerable to toxic effects of pollutants than adults. Faced with this oral aluminum influx, intestinal tract is an essential barrier, especially as 38% of ingested aluminum accumulates at the intestinal mucosa. Although still poorly documented to date, the impact of oral exposure to aluminum in conditions relevant to real human exposure appears to be deleterious for gut homeostasis. Aluminum ingestion affects the regulation of the permeability, the microflora and the immune function of intestine. Nowadays, several arguments are consistent with an involvement of aluminum as an environmental risk factor for inflammatory bowel diseases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Investigating aluminum alloy reinforced by graphene nanoflakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, S.J., E-mail: shaojiuyan@126.com [Beijing Institute of Aeronautical Materials, Beijing 100095 (China); Dai, S.L.; Zhang, X.Y.; Yang, C.; Hong, Q.H.; Chen, J.Z. [Beijing Institute of Aeronautical Materials, Beijing 100095 (China); Lin, Z.M. [Aviation Industry Corporation of China, Beijing 100022 (China)

    2014-08-26

    As one of the most important engineering materials, aluminum alloys have been widely applied in many fields. However, the requirement of enhancing their mechanical properties without sacrificing the ductility is always a challenge in the development of aluminum alloys. Thanks to the excellent physical and mechanical properties, graphene nanoflakes (GNFs) have been applied as promising reinforcing elements in various engineering materials, including polymers and ceramics. However, the investigation of GNFs as reinforcement phase in metals or alloys, especially in aluminum alloys, is still very limited. In this study, the aluminum alloy reinforced by GNFs was successfully prepared via powder metallurgy approach. The GNFs were mixed with aluminum alloy powders through ball milling and followed by hot isostatic pressing. The green body was then hot extruded to obtain the final GNFs reinforced aluminum alloy nanocomposite. The scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscope analysis show that GNFs were well dispersed in the aluminum alloy matrix and no chemical reactions were observed at the interfaces between the GNFs and aluminum alloy matrix. The mechanical properties' testing results show that with increasing filling content of GNFs, both tensile and yield strengths were remarkably increased without losing the ductility performance. These results not only provided a pathway to achieve the goal of preparing high strength aluminum alloys with excellent ductilitybut they also shed light on the development of other metal alloys reinforced by GNFs.

  10. 40 CFR 180.1091 - Aluminum isopropoxide and aluminum secondary butoxide; exemption from the requirement of a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aluminum isopropoxide and aluminum... PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1091 Aluminum isopropoxide and aluminum secondary butoxide; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Aluminum isopropoxide (CAS Reg. No. 555...

  11. Effect of metakaolin on external sulfate attack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramlochan, T.; Thomas, M. [Toronto Univ., Dept. of Civil Engineering, ON (Canada)

    2000-07-01

    The effect of high reactivity metakaolin (HRM) on the sulfate resistance of mortars was studied. Mortar bars with three cements of varying C{sub 3}A content were used for the experiment. After a six month exposure to a 5 per cent solution of sodium sulfate, mortar bars incorporating any level of HRM as a partial replacement for a high-C{sub 3}A was considered 'moderately sulfate resistant'; mortar bars with HRM and a moderate or low C{sub 3}A content as 'high sulfate resistant'. It was also determined that for long term sulfate resistance 15 per cent HRM or more may be required, depending on the C{sub 3}A content. The performance of HRM was found to be significantly influenced by the water-cementitious material ratio, and in turn, by permeability, suggesting that HRM might increase sulfate resistance more by lowering the permeability of the concrete than by any chemical action. 7 refs., 4 tabs., 7 figs.

  12. Properties of the ammonium tartrate/EPR dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yordanov, N.D.; Gancheva, V.

    2004-01-01

    The EPR response of γ-irradiated ammonium tartrate on the absorbed dose of γ-rays up to 22 kGy as well as the changes in the shape of the EPR spectrum upon applied modulation amplitude and microwave power are reported. Also the possibility to use ammonium tartrate together with Mn 2+ magnetically diluted in MgO as an internal reference material is evaluated. The influence of the microwave power and the modulation amplitude on their dose response is investigated. The results show that the radiation-induced EPR spectrum of ammonium tartrate, obtained at a low microwave power is complex consisting several patterns and is more easily saturated than the Mn 2+ EPR spectrum. In this case the following settings of the EPR parameters are recommended: H mod ≤0.05 mT and 10≤P MW ≤13 mW. Using these parameters the dosimeters can be considered for use in intercomparisons

  13. Handling of Ammonium Nitrate Mother-Liquid Radiochemical Production - 13089

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zherebtsov, Alexander; Dvoeglazov, Konstantine; Volk, Vladimir; Zagumenov, Vladimir; Zverev, Dmitriy; Tinin, Vasiliy; Kozyrev, Anatoly; Shamin, Dladimir; Tvilenev, Konstantin

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the work is to develop a basic technology of decomposition of ammonium nitrate stock solutions produced in radiochemical enterprises engaged in the reprocessing of irradiated nuclear fuel and fabrication of fresh fuel. It was necessary to work out how to conduct a one-step thermal decomposition of ammonium nitrate, select and test the catalysts for this process and to prepare proposals for recycling condensation. Necessary accessories were added to a laboratory equipment installation decomposition of ammonium nitrate. It is tested several types of reducing agents and two types of catalyst to neutralize the nitrogen oxides. It is conducted testing of modes of the process to produce condensation, suitable for use in the conversion of a new technological scheme of production. It is studied the structure of the catalysts before and after their use in a laboratory setting. It is tested the selected catalyst in the optimal range for 48 hours of continuous operation. (authors)

  14. Temperature rising characteristics of ammonium diurante in microwave fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Bingguo; Peng JinHui; Huang Daifu; Zhang Libo; Hu Jinming; Zhuang Zebiao; Kong Dongcheng; Guo Shenghui; Li Chunxiang

    2010-01-01

    The temperature rising characteristics of ammonium diurante, triuranium octaoxide (U 3 O 8 ), and their mixture were investigated under microwave irradiation, aiming at exploring newly theoretical foundation for advanced metallurgical methods. The temperature rising curves showed that ammonium diurante had weak capability to absorb microwave energy, while triuranium octaoxide had the very strong absorption capability. The temperature of mixture containing 20% of U 3 O 8 could rise from room temperature to 1171 K within 280 s. The ability to absorb microwave energy for the mixture with different ratios increased with the increase in the amount of U 3 O 8 . These are in good agreement with the results of Maxwell-Garnett effective medium theory. It is feasible to calcine ammonium diurante by adding of small amounts of U 3 O 8 in microwave fields.

  15. Polymorphism of nickel sulfate hexahydrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angel, R.J.; Finger, L.W.

    1988-11-15

    NiSO/sub 4/.6H/sub 2/O, M/sub r/=262.85; data collections with Mo K..cap alpha.. radiation, lambda=0.7093 A, room temperature. Monoclinic polymorph: C2/c, a=9.880(3), b=7.228(2), c=24.130(3) A, ..beta..=98.38(2)/sup 0/, V=1704.7(6) A/sup 3/, Z=8, D/sub x/=2.05 g cm/sup -3/, ..mu..=25.54 cm/sup -1/, F(000)=1088, R=0.031 (wR=0.038) for 2176 observed reflections. Tetragonal polymorph: P4/sub 1/2/sub 1/2, a=6.780 (1), c=18.285 (2) A, V=840.5 (3) A/sup 3/, Z=4, D/sub x/=2.07 g cm/sup -3/, ..mu..=25.81 cm/sup -1/, F(000)=544, R=0.045 (wR=0.050) for 2102 observed reflections. The structure of the tetragonal polymorph originally determined (without H positions) by Beevers and Lipson and refined by O'Connor and Dale and Stadnicka, Glazer and Koralewski, is confirmed by refinement of X-ray diffraction data. The structure of the monoclinic polymorph is confirmed as being isostructural with NiSO/sub 4/.6D/sub 2/O, and a number of other hexahydrate sulfates, e.g. MgSO/sub 4/.6H/sub 2/O. Both structures contain isolated (Ni(H/sub 2/O/sub 6/) octahedra and (SO/sub 4/) tetrahedra linked by hydrogen bonding.

  16. Destruction of organic wastes by ammonium peroxydisulfate with electrolytic regeneration of the oxidant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, J.F.; Wang, J.F.; Krueger, R.; King, K.

    1997-01-01

    Research is reported concerning a new aqueous process for oxidative destruction of solid- and liquid organic wastes. This process uses acidified ammonium peroxydisulfate and operates at ambient pressure and at 80- to 100 degrees C. The oxidant may be efficiently regenerated by electrolysis of the sulfate by-product at Pt anodes, even in the presence of organic and inorganic contaminants expected to be entrained in the cycle. Integral rate constants were determined for the oxidation of 25 diverse organic compounds at low (50 ppm) concentrations through fixed-time experiments with excess oxidant and a Pt wire catalyst. For high initial concentrations, uncatalyzed mineralization rates were measured for waste surrogates including kerosene, triethylamine, ion exchange resin, oxalic acid, trinitrotoluene, and cellulose. A packed bed reactor was tested with ethylene glycol, with offgas analysis by mass spectroscopy. Rate data extrapolate to throughputs of approximately 200 kg/m 3 -day. The process may benefit the destruction of highly toxic or specialized industrial wastes as well as the organic fraction of mixed wastes

  17. Adsorption of ammonium dinitramide (ADN) from aqueous solutions. 1. Adsorption on powdered activated charcoal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhosh, G; Venkatachalam, S; Ninan, K N; Sadhana, R; Alwan, S; Abarna, V; Joseph, M A

    2003-03-17

    Investigations on the adsorption of ammonium dinitramide (NH(4)N(NO(2))(2)) (ADN) from aqueous solutions on powdered activated charcoal (PAC) were carried out in order to find out an effective and easier method of separating ADN from aqueous solutions. The effectiveness of PAC in the selective adsorption of ADN from aqueous solutions of ADN (ADN-F) and ADN in presence of sulfate (SO(4)(2-)) and nitrate (NO(3)(-)) ions (ADN-PS) was examined and compared using batch and column methods. The adsorption process follows both Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherms and the isotherm parameters for the models were determined. The observed data favor the formation of monolayer adsorption. The adsorption capacities were found to be 63.3, 119, 105.3 and 82 mg of ADN per g of PAC for ADN-F (batch), ADN-PS (batch), ADN-F (column) and ADN-PS (column), respectively. Break-through curves for ADN-F and ADN-PS were obtained for the optimization of separation of ADN from aqueous solutions. Elution curves were generated for the desorption of ADN from PAC using hot water as eluent. Copyright 2003 Elsevier Science B.V.

  18. Kinetic and thermodynamic studies on the adsorption of anionic surfactant on quaternary ammonium cationic cellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuanzhang; Shi, Wenjian; Zhou, Hualan; Fu, Xing; Chen, Xuan

    2010-06-01

    Removal of anionic surfactants from aqueous solutions by adsorption onto quaternary ammonium cationic cellulose (QACC) was investigated. The effects of solution acidity, initial concentration, adsorption time, and temperature on the adsorption of sodium dodecyl-benzene sulfonate (SDBS), sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), and sodium dodecyl sulfonate (SDS) were studied. The kinetic experimental data fit well with the pseudo-second-order model; the rate constant of the adsorption increased with temperature. The values of apparent activation energy for the adsorption were calculated as ranging from 10.2 to 17.4 kJ/ mol. The adsorption isotherm can be described by the Langmuir isotherm. The values of thermodynamic parameters (deltaH0, deltaS0, and deltaG0) for the adsorption indicated that this process was spontaneous and endothermic. At 318 K, the saturated adsorption capacities of QACC for SDBS, SLS, and SDS were 1.75, 1.53, and 1.39 mmol/g, respectively. The adsorption process was mainly chemisorption and partially physisorption. The results show that QACC is effective for the removal of anionic surfactants.

  19. Hydrogen effects in aluminum alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louthan, M.R. Jr.; Caskey, G.R. Jr.; Dexter, A.H.

    1976-01-01

    The permeability of six commercial aluminum alloys to deuterium and tritium was determined by several techniques. Surface films inhibited permeation under most conditions; however, contact with lithium deuteride during the tests minimized the surface effects. Under these conditions phi/sub D 2 / = 1.9 x 10 -2 exp (--22,400/RT) cc (NTP)atm/sup -- 1 / 2 / s -1 cm -1 . The six alloys were also tested before, during, and after exposure to high pressure hydrogen, and no hydrogen-induced effects on the tensile properties were observed

  20. Chemical treatment of ammonium fluoride solution in uranium reconversion plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho Frajndlich, E.U. de.

    1992-01-01

    A chemical procedure is described for the treatment of the filtrate, produced from the transformation of uranium hexafluoride (U F 6 ) into ammonium uranyl carbonate (AUC). This filtrate is an intermediate product in the U F 6 to uranium dioxide (U O 2 ) reconversion process. The described procedure recovers uranium as ammonium peroxide fluoro uranate (APOFU) by precipitation with hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ), and as later step, its calcium fluoride (CaF 2 ) co-precipitation. The recovered uranium is recycled to the AUC production plant. (author)

  1. Thermochemistry of certain rare earth and ammonium double chlorides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usubaliev, D.U.; Abramtsev, V.A.; Kydynov, M.K.; Vilyaev, A.N.

    1987-01-01

    In a calorimeter with isothermal casing at 25 deg C dissolution enthalpies of double chlorides of rare earths and ammonium LnCl 3 x2NH 4 Cl (Ln=La, Sm) and LnCl 3 x3NH 4 Cl (Ln=Gd, Tb, Ho) in water, as well as dissolution enthalpy of rare earth chlorides in solution of ammonium chloride and NH 4 Cl in solution of rare earth chloride, have been measured. Formation enthalpies, standard formation enthalpies, dissociation enthalpies of the above-mentioned double chlorides are calculated

  2. Aluminum phosphate microcapsule flame retardants for flexible polyurethane foams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bin; Liu, Hong; Han, Jian

    2018-04-01

    In this study, highly efficient flame-retardant aluminum phosphate (ALP) microcapsules were synthesized from ALP and ammonium phosphomolybdate trihydrate. The chemical structure of the ALP microcapsules was characterized by scanning electron microscopy and elemental analysis, and the thermal degradation behavior was investigated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Subsequently, flexible polyurethane (PU) foams were prepared with the ALP microcapsules. Limiting oxygen index (LOI) tests, vertical burning tests, smoke density rating (SDR), and cone calorimetric tests were employed to investigate the combustion of the materials. The results showed that the flexible PU foams with 15 parts per hundred polyol by weight (pphp) ALP microcapsules passed the vertical burning test and they had an increased LOI value of 28.5%. The SDR value for PU/20 pphp ALP microcapsule composites was about 16.0% and the SDR value for the pure PU was about 29.0%. The corresponding flame-retardant mechanism was investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, TGA, Pyrolysis Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (Py-GC/MS) tests, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry.

  3. Aluminum corrosion product release kinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, Matt, E-mail: Matthew.Edwards@cnl.ca; Semmler, Jaleh; Guzonas, Dave; Chen, Hui Qun; Toor, Arshad; Hoendermis, Seanna

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Release of Al corrosion product was measured in simulated post-LOCA sump solutions. • Increased boron was found to enhance Al release kinetics at similar pH. • Models of Al release as functions of time, temperature, and pH were developed. - Abstract: The kinetics of aluminum corrosion product release was examined in solutions representative of post-LOCA sump water for both pressurized water and pressurized heavy-water reactors. Coupons of AA 6061 T6 were exposed to solutions in the pH 7–11 range at 40, 60, 90 and 130 °C. Solution samples were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy, and coupon samples were analyzed by secondary ion mass spectrometry. The results show a distinct “boron effect” on the release kinetics, expected to be caused by an increase in the solubility of the aluminum corrosion products. New models were developed to describe both sets of data as functions of temperature, time, and pH (where applicable)

  4. Oxygen isotopic fractionation during bacterial sulfate reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balci, N.; Turchyn, A. V.; Lyons, T.; Bruchert, V.; Schrag, D. P.; Wall, J.

    2006-12-01

    Sulfur isotope fractionation during bacterial sulfate reduction (BSR) is understood to depend on a variety of environmental parameters, such as sulfate concentration, temperature, cell specific sulfate reduction rates, and the carbon substrate. What controls oxygen isotope fractionation during BSR is less well understood. Some studies have suggested that carbon substrate is important, whereas others concluded that there is a stoichiometric relationship between the fractionations of sulfur and oxygen during BSR. Studies of oxygen fractionation are complicated by isotopic equilibration between sulfur intermediates, particularly sulfite, and water. This process can modify the isotopic composition of the extracellular sulfate pool (δ18OSO4 ). Given this, the challenge is to distinguish between this isotopic equilibration and fractionations linked to the kinetic effects of the intercellular enzymes and the incorporation of sulfate into the bacterial cell. The δ18OSO4 , in concert with the sulfur isotope composition of sulfate (δ34SSO4), could be a powerful tool for understanding the pathways and environmental controls of BSR in natural systems. We will present δ18OSO4 data measured from batch culture growth of 14 different species of sulfate reducing bacteria for which sulfur isotope data were previously published. A general observation is that δ18OSO4 shows little isotopic change (kinetic effect during BSR and/or equilibration between sulfur intermediates and the isotopically light water (~-5‰) of the growth medium. Our present batch culture data do not allow us to convincingly isolate the magnitude and the controlling parameters of the kinetic isotope effect for oxygen. However, ongoing growth of mutant bacteria missing enzymes critical in the different steps of BSR may assist in this mission.

  5. Aluminum alloy and associated anode and battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarcy, G.P.

    1990-01-01

    This patent describes an aluminum alloy. It comprises: eutectic amounts of at least two alloying elements selected from the group consisting of bismuth, cadmium, scandium, gallium, indium, lead, mercury, thallium, tin, and zinc with the balance being aluminum and the alloying elements being about 0.01 to 3.0 percent by weight of the alloy

  6. Assessment of secondary aluminum reserves of nations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maung, Kyaw Nyunt; Yoshida, Tomoharu; Liu, Gang

    2017-01-01

    aluminum resources are accumulated in landfill sites. Understanding the sizes of primary and secondary aluminum reserves enables us to extend knowledge of efficient raw material sourcing from a narrow perspective of primary reserves alone to a broader perspective of both primary and secondary reserves...

  7. 21 CFR 172.310 - Aluminum nicotinate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Special Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.310 Aluminum nicotinate. Aluminum nicotinate may be safely...

  8. Scientific Background for Processing of Aluminum Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kononchuk, Olga; Alekseev, Alexey; Zubkova, Olga; Udovitsky, Vladimir

    2017-11-01

    Changing the source of raw materials for producing aluminum and the emergence of a huge number of secondary alumina waste (foundry slag, sludge, spent catalysts, mineral parts of coal and others that are formed in various industrial enterprises) require the creation of scientific and theoretical foundations for their processing. In this paper, the aluminum alloys (GOST 4784-97) are used as an aluminum raw material component, containing the aluminum component produced as chips in the machine-building enterprises. The aluminum waste is a whole range of metallic aluminum alloys including elements: magnesium, copper, silica, zinc and iron. Analysis of the aluminum waste A1- Zn-Cu-Si-Fe shows that depending on the content of the metal the dissolution process of an aluminum alloy should be treated as the result of the chemical interaction of the metal with an alkaline solution. It is necessary to consider the behavior of the main components of alloys in an alkaline solution as applied to the system Na2O - Al2O3 - SiO2 - CO2 - H2O.

  9. Aluminum low temperature smelting cell metal collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Theodore R.; Brown, Craig W.

    2002-07-16

    A method of producing aluminum in an electrolytic cell containing alumina dissolved in an electrolyte. The method comprises the steps of providing a molten salt electrolyte in an electrolytic cell having an anodic liner for containing the electrolyte, the liner having an anodic bottom and walls including at least one end wall extending upwardly from the anodic bottom, the anodic liner being substantially inert with respect to the molten electrolyte. A plurality of non-consumable anodes is provided and disposed vertically in the electrolyte. A plurality of cathodes is disposed vertically in the electrolyte in alternating relationship with the anodes. The anodes are electrically connected to the anodic liner. An electric current is passed through the anodic liner to the anodes, through the electrolyte to the cathodes, and aluminum is deposited on said cathodes. Oxygen bubbles are generated at the anodes and the anodic liner, the bubbles stirring the electrolyte. Molten aluminum is collected from the cathodes into a tubular member positioned underneath the cathodes. The tubular member is in liquid communication with each cathode to collect the molten aluminum therefrom while excluding electrolyte. Molten aluminum is delivered through the tubular member to a molten aluminum reservoir located substantially opposite the anodes and cathodes. The molten aluminum is collected from the cathodes and delivered to the reservoir while avoiding contact of the molten aluminum with the anodic bottom.

  10. Laboratory Powder Metallurgy Makes Tough Aluminum Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royster, D. M.; Thomas, J. R.; Singleton, O. R.

    1993-01-01

    Aluminum alloy sheet exhibits high tensile and Kahn tear strengths. Rapid solidification of aluminum alloys in powder form and subsequent consolidation and fabrication processes used to tailor parts made of these alloys to satisfy such specific aerospace design requirements as high strength and toughness.

  11. Aluminum extrusion with a deformable die

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Assaad, W.

    2010-01-01

    Aluminum extrusion process is one of metal forming processes. In aluminum extrusion, a work-piece (billet) is pressed through a die with an opening that closely resembles a desired shape of a profile. By this process, long profiles with an enormous variety of cross-sections can be produced to

  12. 21 CFR 524.1484e - Neomycin sulfate and polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... ophthalmic solution. 524.1484e Section 524.1484e Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS OPHTHALMIC AND TOPICAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.1484e Neomycin sulfate and polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic solution. (a...

  13. Nitrification and ammonium dynamics in Taihu Lake, China: seasonal competition for ammonium between nitrifiers and cyanobacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampel, Justyna J.; McCarthy, Mark J.; Gardner, Wayne S.; Zhang, Lu; Xu, Hai; Zhu, Guangwei; Newell, Silvia E.

    2018-02-01

    Taihu Lake is hypereutrophic and experiences seasonal, cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms. These Microcystis blooms produce microcystin, a potent liver toxin, and are linked to anthropogenic nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) loads to lakes. Microcystis spp. cannot fix atmospheric N and must compete with ammonia-oxidizing and other organisms for ammonium (NH4+). We measured NH4+ regeneration and potential uptake rates and total nitrification using stable-isotope techniques. Nitrification studies included abundance of the functional gene for NH4+ oxidation, amoA, for ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and bacteria (AOB). Potential NH4+ uptake rates ranged from 0.02 to 6.80 µmol L-1 h-1 in the light and from 0.05 to 3.33 µmol L-1 h-1 in the dark, and NH4+ regeneration rates ranged from 0.03 to 2.37 µmol L-1 h-1. Nitrification rates exceeded previously reported rates in most freshwater systems. Total nitrification often exceeded 200 nmol L-1 d-1 and was > 1000 nmol L-1 d-1 at one station near a river discharge. AOA amoA gene copies were more abundant than AOB gene copies (p Internal NH4+ regeneration exceeded external N loading to the lake by a factor of 2 but was ultimately fueled by external N loads. Our results thus support the growing literature calling for watershed N loading reductions in concert with existing management of P loads.

  14. Trends in the global aluminum fabrication industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Subodh; Yin, Weimin

    2007-02-01

    The aluminum fabrication industry has become more vital to the global economy as international aluminum consumption has grown steadily in the past decades. Using innovation, value, and sustainability, the aluminum industry is strengthening its position not only in traditional packaging and construction applications but also in the automotive and aerospace markets to become more competitive and to face challenges from other industries and higher industrial standards. The aluminum fabrication industry has experienced a significant geographical shift caused by rapid growth in emerging markets in countries such as Brazil, Russia, India, and China. Market growth and distribution will vary with different patterns of geography and social development; the aluminum industry must be part of the transformation and keep pace with market developments to benefit.

  15. Aluminum-based metal-air batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, Cody A.; Martinez, Jose Antonio Bautista

    2016-01-12

    Provided in one embodiment is an electrochemical cell, comprising: (i) a plurality of electrodes, comprising a fuel electrode that comprises aluminum and an air electrode that absorbs gaseous oxygen, the electrodes being operable in a discharge mode wherein the aluminum is oxidized at the fuel electrode and oxygen is reduced at the air electrode, and (ii) an ionically conductive medium, comprising an organic solvent; wherein during non-use of the cell, the organic solvent promotes formation of a protective interface between the aluminum of the fuel electrode and the ionically conductive medium, and wherein at an onset of the discharge mode, at least some of the protective interface is removed from the aluminum to thereafter permit oxidation of the aluminum during the discharge mode.

  16. Secondary inorganic aerosols in Europe: sources and the significant influence of biogenic VOC emissions, especially on ammonium nitrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksoyoglu, Sebnem; Ciarelli, Giancarlo; El-Haddad, Imad; Baltensperger, Urs; Prévôt, André S. H.

    2017-06-01

    Contributions of various anthropogenic sources to the secondary inorganic aerosol (SIA) in Europe as well as the role of biogenic emissions on SIA formation were investigated using the three-dimensional regional model CAMx (comprehensive air quality model with extensions). Simulations were carried out for two periods of EMEP field campaigns, February-March 2009 and June 2006, which are representative of cold and warm seasons, respectively. Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) are known mainly as precursors of ozone and secondary organic aerosol (SOA), but their role on inorganic aerosol formation has not attracted much attention so far. In this study, we showed the importance of the chemical reactions of BVOCs and how they affect the oxidant concentrations, leading to significant changes, especially in the formation of ammonium nitrate. A sensitivity test with doubled BVOC emissions in Europe during the warm season showed a large increase in secondary organic aerosol (SOA) concentrations (by about a factor of two), while particulate inorganic nitrate concentrations decreased by up to 35 %, leading to a better agreement between the model results and measurements. Sulfate concentrations decreased as well; the change, however, was smaller. The changes in inorganic nitrate and sulfate concentrations occurred at different locations in Europe, indicating the importance of precursor gases and biogenic emission types for the negative correlation between BVOCs and SIA. Further analysis of the data suggested that reactions of the additional terpenes with nitrate radicals at night were responsible for the decline in inorganic nitrate formation, whereas oxidation of BVOCs with OH radicals led to a decrease in sulfate. Source apportionment results suggest that the main anthropogenic source of precursors leading to formation of particulate inorganic nitrate is road transport (SNAP7; see Table 1 for a description of the categories), whereas combustion in energy and

  17. Modeling of sulfation of potassium chloride by ferric sulfate addition during grate-firing of biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Hao; Jespersen, Jacob Boll; Aho, Martti

    2013-01-01

    Potassium chloride, KCl, formed from critical ash-forming elements released during combustion may lead to severe ash deposition and corrosion problems in biomass-fired boilers. Ferric sulfate, Fe2(SO4)3 is an effective additive, which produces sulfur oxides (SO2 and SO3) to convert KCl to the less...... harmful K2SO4. In the present study the decomposition of ferric sulfate is studied in a fast-heating rate thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA), and a kinetic model is proposed to describe the decomposition process. The yields of SO2 and SO3 from ferric sulfate decomposition are investigated in a laboratory......-scale tube reactor. It is revealed that approximately 40% of the sulfur is released as SO3, the remaining fraction being released as SO2. The proposed decomposition model of ferric sulfate is combined with a detailed gas phase kinetic model of KCl sulfation, and a simplified model of K2SO4 condensation...

  18. Aluminum phosphate shows more adjuvanticity than Aluminum hydroxide in recombinant hepatitis –B vaccine formulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although a number of investigation have been carried out to find alternative adjuvants to aluminum salts in vaccine formulations, they are still extensively used due to their good track record of safety, low cost and proper adjuvanticity with a variety of antigens. Adsorption of antigens onto aluminum compounds depends heavily on electrostatic forces between adjuvant and antigen. Commercial recombinant protein hepatitis B vaccines containing aluminum hydroxide as adjuvant is facing low induction of immunity in some sections of the vaccinated population. To follow the current global efforts in finding more potent hepatitis B vaccine formulation, adjuvanticity of aluminum phosphate has been compared to aluminum hydroxide. Materials and methods: The adjuvant properties of aluminum hydroxide and aluminum phosphate in a vaccine formulation containing a locally manufactured hepatitis B (HBs surface antigen was evaluated in Balb/C mice. The formulations were administered intra peritoneally (i.p. and the titers of antibody which was induced after 28 days were determined using ELISA technique. The geometric mean of antibody titer (GMT, seroconversion and seroprotection rates, ED50 and relative potency of different formulations were determined. Results: All the adjuvanicity markers obtained in aluminum phosphate formulation were significantly higher than aluminum hydroxide. The geometric mean of antibody titer of aluminum phosphate was approximately three folds more than aluminum hydroxide. Conclusion: Aluminum phosphate showed more adjuvanticity than aluminum hydroxide in hepatitis B vaccine. Therefore the use of aluminum phosphate as adjuvant in this vaccine may lead to higher immunity with longer duration of effects in vaccinated groups.

  19. Aluminum recovery as a product with high added value using aluminum hazardous waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, E.; Kopac, J.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Granular and compact aluminum dross were physically and chemically characterized. • A relationship between density, porosity and metal content from dross was established. • Chemical reactions involving aluminum in landfill and negative consequences are shown. • A processing method for aluminum recovering from aluminum dross was developed. • Aluminum was recovered as an value product with high grade purity such as alumina. -- Abstract: The samples of hazardous aluminum solid waste such as dross were physically and chemically characterized. A relationship between density, porosity and metal content of dross was established. The paper also examines the chemical reactions involving aluminum dross in landfill and the negative consequences. To avoid environmental problems and to recovery the aluminum, a processing method was developed and aluminum was recovered as an added value product such as alumina. This method refers to a process at low temperature, in more stages: acid leaching, purification, precipitation and calcination. At the end of this process aluminum was extracted, first as Al 3+ soluble ions and final as alumina product. The composition of the aluminum dross and alumina powder obtained were measured by applying the leaching tests, using atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) and chemical analysis. The mineralogical composition of aluminum dross samples and alumina product were determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the morphological characterization was performed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The method presented in this work allows the use of hazardous aluminum solid waste as raw material to recover an important fraction from soluble aluminum content as an added value product, alumina, with high grade purity (99.28%)

  20. The electrical and thermal properties of sodium sulfate mixed with lithium sulfate, yttrium sulfate, and silicon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imanaka, N.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Adachi, G.; Shiokawa, J.

    1986-01-01

    Sodium sulfate mixed with lithium sulfate, yttrium sulfate, and silicon dioxide was prepared. The thermal and electrical properties of its phases were investigated. The Na 2 SO 4 -Li 2 SO 4 -Y 2 (SO 4 ) 3 SiO 2 samples are similar to the Na 2 SO 4 -I phase (a high temperature phase), which is appreciably effective for Na + ionic conduction. Phase transformation was considerably suppressed by mixing. Electromotive force (EMF) was measured, using Na 2 SO 4 -Li 2 SO 4 -Y 2 (SO 4 ) 3 -SiO 2 as a solid electrolyte, by constructing an SO 2 gas concentration cell. The measured EMF's at 823 and 773 K were in fairly good accordance with the calculated EMF's for inlet SO 2 gas concentration between 30 ppm and 1%, and 500 ppm and 0.5% respectively

  1. Heparan sulfate-chondroitin sulfate hybrid proteoglycan of the cell surface and basement membrane of mouse mammary epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, G.; Van den Berghe, H.

    1985-01-01

    Chondroitin sulfate represents approximately 15% of the 35 SO 4 -labeled glycosaminoglycans carried by the proteoglycans of the cell surface and of the basolateral secretions of normal mouse mammary epithelial cells in culture. Evidence is provided that these chondroitin sulfate-carrying proteoglycans are hybrid proteoglycans, carrying both chondroitin sulfate and heparan sulfate chains. Complete N-desulfation but limited O-desulfation, by treatment with dimethyl sulfoxide, of the proteoglycans decreased the anionic charge of the chondroitin sulfate-carrying proteoglycans to a greater extent than it decreased the charge of their constituent chondroitin sulfate chains. Partial depolymerization of the heparan sulfate residues of the proteoglycans with nitrous acid or with heparin lyase also reduced the effective molecular radius of the chondroitin sulfate-carrying proteoglycans. The effect of heparin lyase on the chondroitin sulfate-carrying proteoglycans was prevented by treating the proteoglycan fractions with dimethyl sulfoxide, while the effect of nitrous acid on the dimethyl sulfoxide-treated proteoglycans was prevented by acetylation. This occurrence of heparan sulfate-chondroitin sulfate hybrid proteoglycans suggests that the substitution of core proteins by heparan sulfate or chondroitin sulfate chains may not solely be determined by the specific routing of these proteins through distinct chondroitin sulfate and heparan sulfate synthesizing mechanisms. Moreover, regional and temporal changes in pericellular glycosaminoglycan compositions might be due to variable postsynthetic modification of a single gene product

  2. Co-existence of Methanogenesis and Sulfate Reduction with Common Substrates in Sulfate-Rich Estuarine Sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Sela-Adler

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The competition between sulfate reducing bacteria and methanogens over common substrates has been proposed as a critical control for methane production. In this study, we examined the co-existence of methanogenesis and sulfate reduction with shared substrates over a large range of sulfate concentrations and rates of sulfate reduction in estuarine systems, where these processes are the key terminal sink for organic carbon. Incubation experiments were carried out with sediment samples from the sulfate-methane transition zone of the Yarqon (Israel estuary with different substrates and inhibitors along a sulfate concentrations gradient from 1 to 10 mM. The results show that methanogenesis and sulfate reduction can co-exist while the microbes share substrates over the tested range of sulfate concentrations and at sulfate reduction rates up to 680 μmol L-1 day-1. Rates of methanogenesis were two orders of magnitude lower than rates of sulfate reduction in incubations with acetate and lactate, suggesting a higher affinity of sulfate reducing bacteria for the available substrates. The co-existence of both processes was also confirmed by the isotopic signatures of δ34S in the residual sulfate and that of δ13C of methane and dissolved inorganic carbon. Copy numbers of dsrA and mcrA genes supported the dominance of sulfate reduction over methanogenesis, while showing also the ability of methanogens to grow under high sulfate concentration and in the presence of active sulfate reduction.

  3. Sodium benzyl(monoethanol)ammonium bis(gluconatoborate)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tel'zhenskaya, P.N.; Shvarts, E.M.; Vitola, I.M.

    1990-01-01

    Boron compounds with gluconic acid and monoethanol- and benzylamines are synthesized and investigated by physicochemical methods (IR-spectroscopy, thermal decomposition, conductometry, Fischer titration). Tetracoordinated boron has two free hydroxyl groups, dimer of boron-gluconate anion is held by hydrogen bonds, sodium ions and ammonium protonated salts are cations

  4. Rapeseed with tolerance to the non selective herbicide glufosinate ammonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasche, E. [Hoechst Schering AgrEvo GmbH, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    Weed control with herbicides is essential to grow rapeseed. Glufosinate Ammonium is used as a non selective herbicide successfully in many countries for over 10 years. It conforms well with ever increasing safety standards for human beings, animals and the environment. The tolerance of rapeseed and other crop plants was achieved by genetic modification. A resistance gene (PAT or BAR) was transfered into previously susceptible rapeseed plants. This new approach allowed the development of Glufosinate Ammonium as an almost ideal selective herbicide. In cooperation with major seed companies and by own breeding programmes new Glufosinate tolerant rapeseed varieties and hybrids are developed. Data on metabolism, toxicity, residues, efficacy etc. were generated to get registration for the selective herbicide use. In addition various studies were done for safety assessments of the PAT gene and the modified rapeseed. In spring 1995 Canadian authorities granted worldwide the first approvals for the selective use of Glufosinate Ammonium (trademark Liberty) and Glufosinate tolerant (trademark and logo Liberty Link) spring rapeseed (Canola). After a successful launch in 1995 about 150.000 ha of Liberty Link Canola were grown and treated with Liberty in 1996. The Liberty Link Canola growers were very well satisfied. In a grower survey 84% stated that they will definitely use the Liberty Link System again. In Europe registrations for Glufosinate Ammonium as a selective herbicide and for the first Glufosinate tolerant rapeseed varieties are expected in the course of 1997. The Liberty Link System will be launched in rapeseed most probably in 1998. (orig.)

  5. Monocrystallomimicry in the aerosols of ammonium and cesium halides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melikhov, I.V.; Kitova, E.N.; Kozlovskaya, EhD.; Kamenskaya, A.N.; Mikheev, N.B.; Kulyukhin, S.A.

    1997-01-01

    It is experimentally shown that initial CsI and NH 4 Hal nanocrystals combining into mixed aggregates of polyhedral form (pseudo monocrystals) are formed in the process of cocrystallization of ammonium halide and cesium iodide. The origination and growth of the pseudo monocrystals on the account of successive addition of initial crystals is described by the Fokker-Plank equation [ru

  6. Thermal and chemical analysis of ammonium uranates and intermediate oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farah, M.Y.; El-Fekey, S.A.

    1977-01-01

    NH + 4 /U ratio, in ammonium uranate, decreases markedly with lower pH of precipitation, dilution of ammonia used for washing as also rinsing by acetone, methanol, or boiling water and it varies between 0.23 and 0.54. Thermogravimetric plots indicated that variation in percentage loss of weight between 220 deg and 660 deg C was seriously influenced by washing mode. Storing UO 3 under ammonium nitrate solution revealed, that a fraction could have been introduced from aqueous media by cation exchange mechanism. The percentage decreases in weight between 220 deg and 660 deg C. increased from 1.9% for nuclear pure UO 3 , to 3,2% for the trioixde immersed in ammonium nitrate, indicating some uptake of ammonia, amounting to a value of 0.053 to NH + 4 /U. To elucidate the type of binding, the behavior during uranate calcination at various temperatures, durations and depth of calcined layers in tray, was investigated in function of NH + 4 /U ratio. Finally, the study suggested an analytical method for determination of uranium in pure ammonium uranate powders, applicable for both routine and academic works

  7. Profiling the origin of ammonium nitrate: proof-of-principle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carol-Visser, J.; Farmache, M.A.; Heijden, A.E.D.M. van der

    2011-01-01

    In many Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs) the main charge consists of ammonium nitrate (AN). For forensic reasons, screening for the origin of AN is of importance. By assessing specifi c characteristics, diff erent AN batches can be profi led, in this way providing extra information which could

  8. Structural characterization of ammonium uranate by infrared spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez S, A.

    1994-01-01

    Infrared spectroscopy have been used to investigate the chemical composition of some ammonium uranates. In this study, I have attempted to establish the interrelationship between the structure of the products, the character of their infrared spectra and x-ray diffraction data capable of consistent interpretation in terms of defining the compounds. (Author)

  9. Nitrate, Nitrite, and Ammonium Variability in Drinking Water Distribution Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schullehner, Jörg; Stayner, Leslie; Hansen, Birgitte

    2017-03-09

    Accurate assessments of exposure to nitrate in drinking water is a crucial part of epidemiological studies investigating long-term adverse human health effects. However, since drinking water nitrate measurements are usually collected for regulatory purposes, assumptions on (1) the intra-distribution system variability and (2) short-term (seasonal) concentration variability have to be made. We assess concentration variability in the distribution system of nitrate, nitrite, and ammonium, and seasonal variability in all Danish public waterworks from 2007 to 2016. Nitrate concentrations at the exit of the waterworks are highly correlated with nitrate concentrations within the distribution net or at the consumers' taps, while nitrite and ammonium concentrations are generally lower within the net compared with the exit of the waterworks due to nitrification. However, nitrification of nitrite and ammonium in the distribution systems only results in a relatively small increase in nitrate concentrations. No seasonal variation for nitrate, nitrite, or ammonium was observed. We conclude that nitrate measurements taken at the exit of the waterworks are suitable to calculate exposures for all consumers connected to that waterworks and that sampling frequencies in the national monitoring programme are sufficient to describe temporal variations in longitudinal studies.

  10. Ammonium transformation in a nitrogen-rich tidal freshwater marsh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gribsholt, B.; Andersson, M.; Boschker, H.T.S.

    2006-01-01

    The fate and transport of watershed-derived ammonium in a tidal freshwater marsh fringing the nutrient rich Scheldt River, Belgium, was quantified in a whole ecosystem 15N labeling experiment. In late summer (September) we added 15N-NH4+ to the flood water entering a 3477 m2 tidal freshwater marsh...

  11. Growth features of ammonium hydrogen d-tartrate single crystals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Abstract. Ammonium hydrogen d-tartrate (d-AHT) single crystals were grown in silica gel. The growth fea- ... solution (specific gravity, 1⋅04 g/cc) with d-tartaric acid solution having ... resulting in the production of crystal nuclei. The interface.

  12. Ammonium dinitramide (ADN)-Prilling, coating, and characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heintz, Thomas; Pontius, Heike; Aniol, Jasmin; Birke, Christoph; Leisinger, Karlfred; Reinhard, Werner [Fraunhofer-Institut Chemische Technologie ICT, Pfinztal (Germany)

    2009-06-15

    Ammonium dinitramide (ADN) is the promising oxidizer, which is expected to be applied, e.g., in solid rocket propellants. The manufacturing of spherical ADN particles (the so-called ADN-Prills) with useful morphology and reproducible quality is realized by means of the emulsion crystallization process. (Abstract Copyright [2009], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  13. Anaerobic ammonium oxidation by Anammox bacteria in the Black Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Kuypers, M.M.M.; Sliekers, O.; Lavik, G.; Schmid, M.; Jørgensen, B.B.; Kuenen, J.G.; Strous, M.; Jetten, M.S.M.

    2003-01-01

    The availability of fixed inorganic nitrogen (nitrate, nitrite and ammonium) limits primary productivity in many oceanic regions1. The conversion of nitrate to N2 by heterotrophic bacteria (denitrification) is believed to be the only important sink for fixed inorganic nitrogen in the ocean2. Here we

  14. Cultivation, detection, and ecophysiology of anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartal, Boran; Geerts, Wim; Jetten, Mike S M

    2011-01-01

    Anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (anammox) bacteria oxidize ammonium with nitrite under anoxic conditions. The anammox process is currently used to remove ammonium from wastewater and contributes significantly to the loss of fixed nitrogen from the oceans. In this chapter, we focus on the ecophysiology of anammox bacteria and describe new methodologies to grow these microorganisms. Now, it is possible to enrich anammox bacteria up to 95% with a membrane bioreactor that removes forces of selection for fast settling aggregates and facilitates the growth of planktonic cells. The biomass from this system has a high anaerobic ammonium oxidation rate (50 fmol NH(4)(+) · cell(-1) day(-1)) and is suitable for many ecophysiological and molecular experiments. A high throughput Percoll density gradient centrifugation protocol may be applied on this biomass for further enrichment (>99.5%) of anammox bacteria. Furthermore, we provide an up-to-date list of commonly used primers and introduce protocols for quantification and detection of functional genes of anammox bacteria in their natural environment. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Cell biology of anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niftrik, L.A.M.P. van

    2008-01-01

    Anammox bacteria perform anaerobic ammonium oxidation to dinitrogen gas and belong to the phylum Planctomycetes. Whereas most Prokaryotes consist of one compartment, the cytoplasm bounded by the cytoplasmic membrane and cell wall, the species within this phylum are compartmentalized by intracellular

  16. Surge ammonium uptake in macroalgae from a coral atoll

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raikar, V.; Wafar, M.V.M.

    of Phycology 36, 680?685. Crossland, C.J., Hatcher, B.G., Smith, S.V., 1991. Role of coral reefs in global ocean production. Coral Reefs 10, 55-64. Danilo, Dy. T., Yap, H.T., 2001. Surge ammonium uptake of the cultured seaweed, Kappaphycus alvarezii (Doty...

  17. Ammonia loss, ammonium and nitrate accumulation from mixing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ammonia loss from urea significantly hinders efficient use of urea in agriculture. In order to reduce ammonia loss and, at the same time, improve beneficial accumulation of soil exchangeable ammonium and nitrate for efficient utilization by plants, this laboratory study was conducted to determine the effect of mixing urea with ...

  18. Effect of nitrogen concentration of urea ammonium nitrate, and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Liquid urea ammonium nitrate (UAN) was applied to dryland Pennisetum clandestinum (Kikuyu (Chiov)) and Cynodon hybrid (Coastcross II (L.) (Pers.)) pastures at two levels (207 and 414 kg N/ha/season) and at three concentrations (10, 5; 21 and 42% N) of nitrogen. The degree of leaf scorch increased as both the amount ...

  19. Nitrate and ammonium levels of some water bodies and their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study examined the nitrate (NO3-) and ammonium (NH4+) levels of Rivers Wouri and Dibamba and some streams that feed them. The interaction of NO3- and NH4+ with some soil properties was also investigated. It was necessitated by the usage of these rivers for livelihood, despite the deposition of discharges ...

  20. Acid mine water neutralisation with ammonium hydroxide and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study showed that NH4OH can be used for treatment of acid mine drainage rich in sulphates and NH4OH can be recycled in the process. Hydrated lime treatment resulted in removal of the remaining ammonia using a rotary evaporator. Keywords: acid mine water, ammonium hydroxide, barium hydroxide, sulphate ...

  1. Sulfation in lead-acid batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catherino, Henry A.; Feres, Fred F.; Trinidad, Francisco

    Virtually, all military land vehicle systems use a lead-acid battery to initiate an engine start. The maintainability of these batteries and as a consequence, system readiness, has suffered from a lack of understanding of the reasons for battery failure. Often, the term most commonly heard for explaining the performance degradation of lead-acid batteries is the word, sulfation. Sulfation is a residual term that came into existence during the early days of lead-acid battery development. The usage is part of the legend that persists as a means for interpreting and justifying the eventual performance deterioration and failure of lead-acid batteries. The usage of this term is confined to the greater user community and, over time, has encouraged a myriad of remedies for solving sulfation problems. One can avoid the connotations associated with the all-inclusive word, sulfation by visualizing the general "sulfation" effect in terms of specific mechanistic models. Also, the mechanistic models are essential for properly understanding the operation and making proper use this battery system. It is evident that the better the model, the better the level of understanding.

  2. Immunohistochemical localization of chondroitin sulfate, chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan, heparan sulfate proteoglycan, entactin, and laminin in basement membranes of postnatal developing and adult rat lungs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sannes, P L; Burch, K K; Khosla, J

    1993-01-01

    Histologic preparations of lungs from 1-, 5-, 10-, 18-, and 25-day-old postnatal and adult rats were examined immunohistochemically with antibodies specific against chondroitin sulfate (CS), basement membrane chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (BM-CSPG), heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG), entactin...

  3. p-Cresyl sulfate and indoxyl sulfate in pediatric patients on chronic dialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye Sun Hyun

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available &lt;b&gt;Purpose:&lt;/b&gt; Indoxyl sulfate and p- cresyl sulfate are important protein-bound uremic retention solutes whose levels can be partially reduced by renal replacement therapy. These solutes originate from intestinal bacterial protein fermentation and are associated with cardiovascular outcomes and chronic kidney disease progression. The aims of this study were to investigate the levels of indoxyl sulfate and p- cresyl sulfate as well as the effect of probiotics on reducing the levels of uremic toxins in pediatric patients on dialysis. &lt;b&gt;Methods:&lt;/b&gt; We enrolled 20 pediatric patients undergoing chronic dialysis; 16 patients completed the study. The patients underwent a 12-week regimen of VSL#3, a high-concentration probiotic preparation, and the serum levels of indoxyl sulfate and p- cresyl sulfate were measured before treatment and at 4, 8, and 12 weeks after the regimen by using fluorescence liquid chromatography. To assess the normal range of indoxyl sulfate and p- cresyl sulfate we enrolled the 16 children with normal glomerular filtration rate who had visited an outpatient clinic for asymptomatic microscopic hematuria that had been detected by a school screening in August 2011. &lt;b&gt;Results:&lt;/b&gt; The baseline serum levels of indoxyl sulfate and p- cresyl sulfate in the patients on chronic dialysis were significantly higher than those in the children with microscopic hematuria. The baseline serum levels of p- cresyl sulfate in the peritoneal dialysis group were significantly higher than those in the hemodialysis group. There were no significant changes in the levels of these uremic solutes after 12-week VSL#3 treatment in the patients on chronic dialysis. &lt;b&gt;Conclusion:&lt;/b&gt; The levels of the uremic toxins p- cresyl sulfate and indoxyl sulfate are highly elevated in pediatric patients on dialysis, but there was no significant effect by

  4. Electrochemical oxidation of quaternary ammonium electrolytes : Unexpected side reactions in organic electrochemistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nouri Nigjeh, Eslam; de Vries, Marcel; Bruins, Andries P.; Bischoff, Rainer; Permentier, Hjalmar P.

    Quaternary ammonium salts are among the most widely used electrolytes in organic electrochemistry, but there is little known about their unwanted side oxidation reactions. We have, therefore, studied the constant potential oxidation products of quaternary ammonium electrolytes using mass

  5. Sulfated glycopeptide nanostructures for multipotent protein activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sungsoo S.; Fyrner, Timmy; Chen, Feng; Álvarez, Zaida; Sleep, Eduard; Chun, Danielle S.; Weiner, Joseph A.; Cook, Ralph W.; Freshman, Ryan D.; Schallmo, Michael S.; Katchko, Karina M.; Schneider, Andrew D.; Smith, Justin T.; Yun, Chawon; Singh, Gurmit; Hashmi, Sohaib Z.; McClendon, Mark T.; Yu, Zhilin; Stock, Stuart R.; Hsu, Wellington K.; Hsu, Erin L.; Stupp , Samuel I. (NWU)

    2017-06-19

    Biological systems have evolved to utilize numerous proteins with capacity to bind polysaccharides for the purpose of optimizing their function. A well-known subset of these proteins with binding domains for the highly diverse sulfated polysaccharides are important growth factors involved in biological development and tissue repair. We report here on supramolecular sulfated glycopeptide nanostructures, which display a trisulfated monosaccharide on their surfaces and bind five critical proteins with different polysaccharide-binding domains. Binding does not disrupt the filamentous shape of the nanostructures or their internal β-sheet backbone, but must involve accessible adaptive configurations to interact with such different proteins. The glycopeptide nanostructures amplified signalling of bone morphogenetic protein 2 significantly more than the natural sulfated polysaccharide heparin, and promoted regeneration of bone in the spine with a protein dose that is 100-fold lower than that required in the animal model. These highly bioactive nanostructures may enable many therapies in the future involving proteins.

  6. Process for anodizing aluminum foil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, J.A.; Scott, J.W.

    1984-01-01

    In an integrated process for the anodization of aluminum foil for electrolytic capacitors including the formation of a hydrous oxide layer on the foil prior to anodization and stabilization of the foil in alkaline borax baths during anodization, the foil is electrochemically anodized in an aqueous solution of boric acid and 2 to 50 ppm phosphate having a pH of 4.0 to 6.0. The anodization is interrupted for stabilization by passing the foil through a bath containing the borax solution having a pH of 8.5 to 9.5 and a temperature above 80 0 C. and then reanodizing the foil. The process is useful in anodizing foil to a voltage of up to 760 V

  7. Oxidation dynamics of aluminum nanorods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Ying [Argonne Leadership Computing Facility, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Kalia, Rajiv K.; Nakano, Aiichiro; Vashishta, Priya [Collaboratory for Advanced Computing and Simulations, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Department of Computer Science, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089-0242 (United States)

    2015-02-23

    Aluminum nanorods (Al-NRs) are promising fuels for pyrotechnics due to the high contact areas with oxidizers, but their oxidation mechanisms are largely unknown. Here, reactive molecular dynamics simulations are performed to study thermally initiated burning of oxide-coated Al-NRs with different diameters (D = 26, 36, and 46 nm) in oxygen environment. We found that thinner Al-NRs burn faster due to the larger surface-to-volume ratio. The reaction initiates with the dissolution of the alumina shell into the molten Al core to generate heat. This is followed by the incorporation of environmental oxygen atoms into the resulting Al-rich shell, thereby accelerating the heat release. These results reveal an unexpectedly active role of the alumina shell as a “nanoreactor” for oxidation.

  8. Formation of the natural sulfate aerosol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerminen, V.M.; Hillamo, R.; Maekinen, M.; Virkkula, A.; Maekelae, T.; Pakkanen, T. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Physics

    1996-12-31

    Anthropogenic sulfate aerosol, together with particles from biomass burning, may significantly reduce the climatic warming due to man-made greenhouse gases. The radiative forcing of aerosol particles is based on their ability to scatter and absorb solar radiation (direct effect), and on their influences on cloud albedos and lifetimes (indirect effect). The direct aerosol effect depends strongly on the size, number and chemical composition of particles, being greatest for particles of 0.1-1 {mu}m in diameter. The indirect aerosol effect is dictated by the number of particles being able to act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). For sulfate particles, the minimum CCN size in tropospheric clouds is of the order of 0.05-0.2 {mu}m. To improve aerosol parameterizations in future climate models, it is required that (1) both primary and secondary sources of various particle types will be characterized at a greater accuracy, and (2) the influences of various atmospheric processes on the spatial and temporal distribution of these particles and their physico-chemical properties are known much better than at the present. In estimating the climatic forcing due to the sulfate particles, one of the major problems is to distinguish between sulfur from anthropogenic sources and that of natural origin. Global emissions of biogenic and anthropogenic sulfate pre-cursors are comparable in magnitude, but over regional scales either of these two source types may dominate. The current presentation is devoted to discussing the natural sulfate aerosol, including the formation of sulfur-derived particles in the marine environment, and the use of particulate methanesulfonic acid (MSA) as a tracer for the natural sulfate

  9. Formation of the natural sulfate aerosol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerminen, V M; Hillamo, R; Maekinen, M; Virkkula, A; Maekelae, T; Pakkanen, T [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Physics

    1997-12-31

    Anthropogenic sulfate aerosol, together with particles from biomass burning, may significantly reduce the climatic warming due to man-made greenhouse gases. The radiative forcing of aerosol particles is based on their ability to scatter and absorb solar radiation (direct effect), and on their influences on cloud albedos and lifetimes (indirect effect). The direct aerosol effect depends strongly on the size, number and chemical composition of particles, being greatest for particles of 0.1-1 {mu}m in diameter. The indirect aerosol effect is dictated by the number of particles being able to act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). For sulfate particles, the minimum CCN size in tropospheric clouds is of the order of 0.05-0.2 {mu}m. To improve aerosol parameterizations in future climate models, it is required that (1) both primary and secondary sources of various particle types will be characterized at a greater accuracy, and (2) the influences of various atmospheric processes on the spatial and temporal distribution of these particles and their physico-chemical properties are known much better than at the present. In estimating the climatic forcing due to the sulfate particles, one of the major problems is to distinguish between sulfur from anthropogenic sources and that of natural origin. Global emissions of biogenic and anthropogenic sulfate pre-cursors are comparable in magnitude, but over regional scales either of these two source types may dominate. The current presentation is devoted to discussing the natural sulfate aerosol, including the formation of sulfur-derived particles in the marine environment, and the use of particulate methanesulfonic acid (MSA) as a tracer for the natural sulfate

  10. Nitrification and N2O production processes in soil incubations after ammonium fertilizer application at high concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deppe, Marianna; Well, Reinhard; Giesemann, Anette; Flessa, Heinz

    2016-04-01

    High concentrations of ammonium as they occur, e.g., after point-injection of ammonium fertilizer solution according to the CULTAN fertilization technique may retard nitrification. Potential advantages in comparison to conventional fertilization include a higher N efficiency of crops, reduced nitrate leaching, and lower N2O and N2 emissions. Dynamics of nitrification due to plant uptake and dilution processes, leading to decreasing ammonium concentrations in fertilizer depots, has only poorly been studied before. Furthermore, there is little information about the relative contribution of different N2O production processes under these conditions. To elucidate the process dynamics a laboratory incubation study was conducted. After fertilization with ammonium sulfate at 5 levels (from 0 to 5000 mg NH4+-N kg-1; 20mg NO3--N kg-1 each), sandy loam soil was incubated in dynamic soil microcosms for 21 days. N2O, CH4 and CO2 fluxes as well as isotope signatures of N2O and, at three dates, NO3- and NH4+ were measured. To identify N2O production processes, acetylene inhibition (0.01 vol.%), 15N tracer approaches, and isotopomer data (15N site preference and δ18O) were used. N2O emissions were highest at 450mg NH4+-N kg-1 and declined with further increasing concentrations. At 5000 mg NH4+-N kg-1 nitrification was completely inhibited. However, approximately 90% of N2O production was inhibited by acetylene application, and there was no change in the relative contribution of nitrification and denitrification to N2O production with N level. Applying the non-equilibrium technique to our 15N tracer data revealed heterogeneous distribution of denitrification in soil, with at least two distinct NO3- pools, and spatial separation of NO3- formation and consumption. In comparison with the acetylene inhibition and 15N tracer approaches the results of the isotopomer approach were reasonable and indicated substantial contribution of nitrifier-denitrification (10-40%) to total N2O

  11. Investigation of electric discharge treatment of water for ammonium nitrogen removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazarenko, O.B.; Shubin, B.G.

    2007-01-01

    The possibility of water purification from ammonium nitrogen using pulsed electric discharge in water-air mixtures was investigated. The model solution of chlorous ammonium was used in experiments. The concentration of ions ammonium was about 300 mg/l. Achieved reduction of ammonium concentration was about 35%. In this paper the mechanism of this process is discussed. The ways to increasing efficiency of this method are proposed

  12. Measurement of chemical leaching potential of sulfate from landfill disposed sulfate containing wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wenjie; Barlaz, Morton A

    2015-02-01

    A number of sulfate-containing wastes are disposed in municipal solid wastes (MSW) landfills including residues from coal, wood, and MSW combustion, and construction and demolition (C&D) waste. Under anaerobic conditions that dominate landfills, the sulfate can be reduced to hydrogen sulfide which is problematic for several reasons including its low odor threshold, toxicity, and corrosive nature. The overall objective of this study was to evaluate existing protocols for the quantification of total leachable sulfate from solid samples and to compare their effectiveness and efficiency with a new protocol described in this study. Methods compared include two existing acid extraction protocols commonly used in the U.S., a pH neutral protocol that requires multiple changes of the leaching solution, and a new acid extraction method. The new acid extraction method was shown to be simple and effective to measure the leaching potential of sulfate from a range of landfill disposed sulfate-containing wastes. However, the acid extraction methods do not distinguish between sulfate and other forms of sulfur and are thus most useful when sulfate is the only form of sulfur present. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Decontamination and reuse of ORGDP aluminum scrap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compere, A.L.; Griffith, W.L.; Hayden, H.W.; Wilson, D.F.

    1996-12-01

    The Gaseous Diffusion Plants, or GDPs, have significant amounts of a number of metals, including nickel, aluminum, copper, and steel. Aluminum was used extensively throughout the GDPs because of its excellent strength to weight ratios and good resistance to corrosion by UF 6 . This report is concerned with the recycle of aluminum stator and rotor blades from axial compressors. Most of the stator and rotor blades were made from 214-X aluminum casting alloy. Used compressor blades were contaminated with uranium both as a result of surface contamination and as an accumulation held in surface-connected voids inside of the blades. A variety of GDP studies were performed to evaluate the amounts of uranium retained in the blades; the volume, area, and location of voids in the blades; and connections between surface defects and voids. Based on experimental data on deposition, uranium content of the blades is 0.3%, or roughly 200 times the value expected from blade surface area. However, this value does correlate with estimated internal surface area and with lengthy deposition times. Based on a literature search, it appears that gaseous decontamination or melt refining using fluxes specific for uranium removal have the potential for removing internal contamination from aluminum blades. A melt refining process was used to recycle blades during the 1950s and 1960s. The process removed roughly one-third of the uranium from the blades. Blade cast from recycled aluminum appeared to perform as well as blades from virgin material. New melt refining and gaseous decontamination processes have been shown to provide substantially better decontamination of pure aluminum. If these techniques can be successfully adapted to treat aluminum 214-X alloy, internal and, possibly, external reuse of aluminum alloys may be possible

  14. Lead exposure from aluminum cookware in Cameroon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weidenhamer, Jeffrey D.; Kobunski, Peter A.; Kuepouo, Gilbert; Corbin, Rebecca W.; Gottesfeld, Perry

    2014-01-01

    Blood lead levels have decreased following the removal of lead from gasoline in most of the world. However, numerous recent studies provide evidence that elevated blood lead levels persist in many low and middle-income countries around the world at much higher prevalence than in the more developed countries. One potential source of lead exposure that has not been widely investigated is the leaching of lead from artisanal aluminum cookware, which is commonly used in the developing world. Twenty-nine samples of aluminum cookware and utensils manufactured by local artisans in Cameroon were collected and analyzed for their potential to release lead during cooking. Source materials for this cookware included scrap metal such as engine parts, radiators, cans, and construction materials. The lead content of this cookware is relatively low (< 1000 ppm by X-ray fluorescence), however significant amounts of lead, as well as aluminum and cadmium were released from many of the samples using dilute acetic acid extractions at boiling and ambient temperatures. Potential exposures to lead per serving were estimated to be as high as 260 μg, indicating that such cookware can pose a serious health hazard. We conclude that lead, aluminum and cadmium can migrate from this aluminum cookware during cooking and enter food at levels exceeding recommended public health guidelines. Our results support the need to regulate lead content of materials used to manufacture these pots. Artisanal aluminum cookware may be a major contributor to lead poisoning throughout the developing world. Testing of aluminum cookware in other developing countries is warranted. - Highlights: • Cookware is manufactured in Cameroon from scrap aluminum including car parts. • Twenty-nine cookware samples were evaluated for their potential to leach lead. • Boiling extractions to simulate the effects of cooking released significant lead. • Potential lead exposures per serving are estimated as high as 260 μg.

  15. Lead exposure from aluminum cookware in Cameroon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weidenhamer, Jeffrey D.; Kobunski, Peter A. [Department of Chemistry, Geology and Physics, 401 College Ave., Ashland University, Ashland, OH 44805 (United States); Kuepouo, Gilbert [Research and Education Centre for Development (CREPD), Yaounde (Cameroon); Corbin, Rebecca W. [Department of Chemistry, Geology and Physics, 401 College Ave., Ashland University, Ashland, OH 44805 (United States); Gottesfeld, Perry, E-mail: pgottesfeld@okinternational.org [Occupational Knowledge International, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2014-10-15

    Blood lead levels have decreased following the removal of lead from gasoline in most of the world. However, numerous recent studies provide evidence that elevated blood lead levels persist in many low and middle-income countries around the world at much higher prevalence than in the more developed countries. One potential source of lead exposure that has not been widely investigated is the leaching of lead from artisanal aluminum cookware, which is commonly used in the developing world. Twenty-nine samples of aluminum cookware and utensils manufactured by local artisans in Cameroon were collected and analyzed for their potential to release lead during cooking. Source materials for this cookware included scrap metal such as engine parts, radiators, cans, and construction materials. The lead content of this cookware is relatively low (< 1000 ppm by X-ray fluorescence), however significant amounts of lead, as well as aluminum and cadmium were released from many of the samples using dilute acetic acid extractions at boiling and ambient temperatures. Potential exposures to lead per serving were estimated to be as high as 260 μg, indicating that such cookware can pose a serious health hazard. We conclude that lead, aluminum and cadmium can migrate from this aluminum cookware during cooking and enter food at levels exceeding recommended public health guidelines. Our results support the need to regulate lead content of materials used to manufacture these pots. Artisanal aluminum cookware may be a major contributor to lead poisoning throughout the developing world. Testing of aluminum cookware in other developing countries is warranted. - Highlights: • Cookware is manufactured in Cameroon from scrap aluminum including car parts. • Twenty-nine cookware samples were evaluated for their potential to leach lead. • Boiling extractions to simulate the effects of cooking released significant lead. • Potential lead exposures per serving are estimated as high as 260 μg.

  16. Sulfates on Mars: A systematic Raman spectroscopic study of hydration states of magnesium sulfates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, A.; Freeman, J.J.; Jolliff, B.L.; Chou, I.-Ming

    2006-01-01

    The martian orbital and landed surface missions, OMEGA on Mar Express and the two Mars Explorations Rovers, respectively, have yielded evidence pointing to the presence of magnesium sulfates on the martian surface. In situ identification of the hydration states of magnesium sulfates, as well as the hydration states of other Ca- and Fe- sulfates, will be crucial in future landed missions on Mars in order to advance our knowledge of the hydrologic history of Mars as well as the potential for hosting life on Mars. Raman spectroscopy is a technique well-suited for landed missions on the martian surface. In this paper, we report a systematic study of the Raman spectra of the hydrates of magnesium sulfate. Characteristic and distinct Raman spectral patterns were observed for each of the 11 distinct hydrates of magnesium sulfates, crystalline and non-crystalline. The unique Raman spectral features along with the general tendency of the shift of the position of the sulfate ??1 band towards higher wavenumbers with a decrease in the degree of hydration allow in situ identification of these hydrated magnesium sulfates from the raw Raman spectra of mixtures. Using these Raman spectral features, we have started the study of the stability field of hydrated magnesium sulfates and the pathways of their transformations at various temperature and relative humidity conditions. In particular we report on the Raman spectrum of an amorphous hydrate of magnesium sulfate (MgSO4??2H2O) that may have specific relevance for the martian surface. ?? 2006 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Novel processes for anaerobic sulfate production from elemental sulfur by sulfate-reducing bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovley, D.R.; Phillips, E.J.P.

    1994-01-01

    Sulfate reducers and related organisms which had previously been found to reduce Fe(III) with H2 or organic electron donors oxidized S0 to sulfate when Mn(IV) was provided as an electron acceptor. Organisms catalyzing this reaction in washed cell suspensions included Desulfovibrio desulfuricans, Desulfomicrobium baculatum. Desulfobacterium autotrophicum, Desulfuromonas acetoxidans, and Geobacter metallireducens. These organisms produced little or no sulfate from S0 with Fe(III) as a potential electron acceptor or in the absence of an electron acceptor. In detailed studies with Desulfovibrio desulfuricans, the stoichiometry of sulfate and Mn(II) production was consistent with the reaction S0 + 3 MnO2 + 4H+ ???SO42- + 3Mn(II) + 2H2O. None of the organisms evaluated could be grown with S0 as the sole electron donor and Mn(IV) as the electron acceptor. In contrast to the other sulfate reducers evaluated, Desulfobulbus propionicus produced sulfate from S0 in the absence of an electron acceptor and Fe(III) oxide stimulated sulfate production. Sulfide also accumulated in the absence of Mn(IV) or Fe(III). The stoichiometry of sulfate and sulfide production indicated that Desulfobulbus propionicus disproportionates S0 as follows: 4S0 + 4H2O???SO42- + 3HS- + 5 H+. Growth of Desulfobulbus propionicus with S0 as the electron donor and Fe(III) as a sulfide sink and/or electron acceptor was very slow. The S0 oxidation coupled to Mn(IV) reduction described here provides a potential explanation for the Mn(IV)-dependent sulfate production that previous studies have observed in anoxic marine sediments. Desulfobulbus propionicus is the first example of a pure culture known to disproportionate S0.

  18. Influence of Ammonium Salt and Fermentation pH on Acarbose ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of ammonium salts and fermentation pH on the biosynthesis of acarbose by Streptomyces M37. Methods: Different ammonium salts were added to the fermentation broth of Streptomyces M37 to explore their effects on acarbose production. The concentration and addition time of ammonium ...

  19. 78 FR 35258 - Solid Agricultural Grade Ammonium Nitrate from Ukraine: Continuation of Antidumping Duty Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-12

    ... agricultural grade ammonium nitrate from Ukraine would likely lead to continuation or recurrence of dumping... the Order on solid agricultural grade ammonium nitrate from Ukraine would be likely to lead to... Ammonium Nitrate from Ukraine: Continuation of Antidumping Duty Order AGENCY: Import Administration...

  20. 76 FR 39847 - Solid Fertilizer Grade Ammonium Nitrate From the Russian Federation; Final Results of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-07

    ... duty order on ammonium nitrate from Russia would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of... Ammonium Nitrate From the Russian Federation; Final Results of the Expedited Sunset Review of Antidumping... review of the suspended antidumping duty investigation on solid fertilizer grade ammonium nitrate...