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Sample records for aluminum ammonium sulfate

  1. Experimental additions of aluminum sulfate and ammonium nitrate to in situ mesocosms to reduce cyanobacterial biovolume and microcystin concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Ted D.; Wilhelm, Frank M.; Graham, Jennifer L.; Loftin, Keith A.

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that nitrogen additions to increase the total nitrogen:total phosphorus (TN:TP) ratio may reduce cyanobacterial biovolume and microcystin concentration in reservoirs. In systems where TP is >100 μg/L, however, nitrogen additions to increase the TN:TP ratio could cause ammonia, nitrate, or nitrite toxicity to terrestrial and aquatic organisms. Reducing phosphorus via aluminum sulfate (alum) may be needed prior to nitrogen additions aimed at increasing the TN:TP ratio. We experimentally tested this sequential management approach in large in situ mesocosms (70.7 m3) to examine effects on cyanobacteria and microcystin concentration. Because alum removes nutrients and most seston from the water column, alum treatment reduced both TN and TP, leaving post-treatment TN:TP ratios similar to pre-treatment ratios. Cyanobacterial biovolume was reduced after alum addition, but the percent composition (i.e., relative) cyanobacterial abundance remained unchanged. A single ammonium nitrate (nitrogen) addition increased the TN:TP ratio 7-fold. After the TN:TP ratio was >50 (by weight), cyanobacterial biovolume and abundance were reduced, and chrysophyte and cryptophyte biovolume and abundance increased compared to the alum treatment. Microcystin was not detectable until the TN:TP ratio was <50. Although both treatments reduced cyanobacteria, only the nitrogen treatment seemed to stimulate energy flow from primary producers to zooplankton, which suggests that combining alum and nitrogen treatments may be a viable in-lake management strategy to reduce cyanobacteria and possibly microcystin concentrations in high-phosphorus systems. Additional studies are needed to define best management practices before combined alum and nitrogen additions are implemented as a reservoir management strategy.

  2. Aluminum Sulfate 18 Hydrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Jay A.

    2004-01-01

    A chemical laboratory information profile (CLIP) of the chemical, aluminum sulfate 18 hydrate, is presented. The profile lists physical and harmful properties, exposure limits, reactivity risks, and symptoms of major exposure for the benefit of teachers and students using the chemical in the laboratory.

  3. Kinetics Analysis on Mixing Calcination Process of Fly Ash and Ammonium Sulfate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng Wang; Laishi Li; Dezhou Wei

    2014-01-01

    abstract The further development of the extraction of alumina that is produced in the calcination process of ammonium sulfate mixed with fly ash was limited because of the lack of systematic theoretical study. In order to aggrandize the research of the calcination process, the kinetics and reaction mechanism of the calcinations were studied. The result suggests that there are two stages in the calcination process, and the alumina extraction rate increases swiftly in the initial stage, but slows down increasing in the later stage. The apparent activation energy of the initial and later stages equals to 13.31 and 35.65 kJ·mol-1, respectively. In the initial stage, ammonium sulfate reacts directly with mullite in the fly ash to form ammonium aluminum sulfate, while in the later stage, alumi-num sulfate is formed by the reaction between ammonium aluminum sulfate and ammonium sulfate.

  4. On the evaporation of ammonium sulfate solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drisdell, Walter S.; Saykally, Richard J.; Cohen, Ronald C.

    2009-07-16

    Aqueous evaporation and condensation kinetics are poorly understood, and uncertainties in their rates affect predictions of cloud behavior and therefore climate. We measured the cooling rate of 3 M ammonium sulfate droplets undergoing free evaporation via Raman thermometry. Analysis of the measurements yields a value of 0.58 {+-} 0.05 for the evaporation coefficient, identical to that previously determined for pure water. These results imply that subsaturated aqueous ammonium sulfate, which is the most abundant inorganic component of atmospheric aerosol, does not affect the vapor-liquid exchange mechanism for cloud droplets, despite reducing the saturation vapor pressure of water significantly.

  5. 21 CFR 184.1143 - Ammonium sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the specifications of the “Food Chemicals Codex,” 3d Ed. (1981), pp. 22-23, which is incorporated by... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ammonium sulfate. 184.1143 Section 184.1143 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD...

  6. 21 CFR 182.1125 - Aluminum sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Aluminum sulfate. 182.1125 Section 182.1125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Substances § 182.1125 Aluminum sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  7. 21 CFR 582.1125 - Aluminum sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aluminum sulfate. 582.1125 Section 582.1125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1125 Aluminum sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  8. Performance of sulfate-dependent anaerobic ammo-nium oxidation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Lei; ZHENG Ping; HE YuHui; JIN RenCun

    2009-01-01

    The performance of sulfate-dependent anaerobic ammonium oxidation was studied. The results showed that both SO42- and NH4+ were chemically stable under anaerobic conditions. They did not react with each other in the absence of biological catalyst (sludge). The anaerobic digested sludge cultivated in an anaerobic reactor for three years took on the ability of oxidizing ammonium with sulfate anaero-bically. The average reduction of sulfate and ammonium was 71.67 mg.L-1 and 56.82 mg.L-1 at high concentrations.The reaction between SO42- and NH4+ was difficult, though feasible, due to its low standard Gibbs free energy change. The experiment demonstrated that high substrate concentrations and low oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) may be favourable for the biological reaction.

  9. Performance of sulfate-dependent anaerobic ammonium oxidation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The performance of sulfate-dependent anaerobic ammonium oxidation was studied.The results showed that both SO42-and NH4+ were chemically stable under anaerobic conditions.They did not react with each other in the absence of biological catalyst(sludge).The anaerobic digested sludge cultivated in an anaerobic reactor for three years took on the ability of oxidizing ammonium with sulfate anaero-bically.The average reduction of sulfate and ammonium was 71.67 mg.L-1 and 56.82 mg.L-1 at high concentrations.The reaction between SO42-and NH4+ was difficult,though feasible,due to its low standard Gibbs free energy change.The experiment demonstrated that high substrate concentrations and low oxidation-reduction potential(ORP) may be favourable for the biological reaction.

  10. 21 CFR 582.1131 - Aluminum sodium sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aluminum sodium sulfate. 582.1131 Section 582.1131 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1131 Aluminum sodium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sodium sulfate. (b) Conditions of...

  11. 21 CFR 182.1131 - Aluminum sodium sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Aluminum sodium sulfate. 182.1131 Section 182.1131 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Substances § 182.1131 Aluminum sodium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sodium sulfate. (b) Conditions of...

  12. Fate of N from Green Manures and Ammonium Sulfate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHISHU-LIAN; WENQI-XIAO; 等

    1991-01-01

    By means of 15N tracer technique the fate of N in ammonium sulfate,milk vetch,sesbania and azolla,and the availability of their residual N were studied in a microplot experiment.Results showed that a) at the end of the first crop of early rice,both plant recovery and loss of N from ammonium sulfate were the highest whereas those from azolla were the lowest with those from milk vetch and sesbania in between;the sequence was reversed in terms of recovery of N in soil;the net residual N from ammonium sulfate was very low,about 1/7-1/4 of that from green manures,indicating that chemical N fertilizer contributes little to the soil N reserve;b) plant recovery of the residual N was low and it did not always decrease with time;the total plant recovery (from the second to the fifth crops) of the residual N from various test fertilizers was only 8-11% of the total N originally applied;c) the plant recovery of the residual N from ammonium sulfate was the highest,followed by those from milk vetch and sesbania,and that from azolla was the lowest,no matter in which cropping season (from the second to the fifth);N availability ratio showed the same trend,indicating that chemical N fertilizer helps renovate soil organic N,maintain and increase availability of soil N.

  13. Temperature dependence of crystals conductivity both potassium sulfates and ammonium sulfates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the work the results of temperature dependence of conductivity of crystals both potassium sulfate and ammonium sulfate are given. The superficial specific conductivity and its dependence on width of a backlash between the central and ring electrodes are determined. (author)

  14. [Achievement of Sulfate-Reducing Anaerobic Ammonium Oxidation Reactor Started with Nitrate-Reducting Anaerobic Ammonium Oxidation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zheng-chuan; Yuan, Lin-jiang; Zhou, Guo-biao; Li, Jing

    2015-09-01

    The transformation of nitrite-reducing anaerobic ammonium oxidation to sulfate-reducing anaerobic ammonium oxidation in an UASB was performed and the changes in microbial community were studied. The result showed that the sulfate reducing anaerobic ammonium oxidation process was successfully accomplished after 177 days' operation. The removal rate of ammonium nitrogen and sulfate were up to 58. 9% and 15. 7%, the removing load of ammonium nitrogen and sulfate were 74. 3 mg.(L.d)-1 and 77. 5 mg.(L.d)-1 while concentration of ammonium nitrogen and sulfate of influent were 130 mg.(L.d)-1 and 500 mg.(L.d)-1, respectively. The lost nitrogen and sulphur was around 2 in molar ratio. The pH value of the effluent was lower than that of the influent. Instead of Candidatus brocadia in nitrite reducing anaerobic ammonium oxidation granular sludge, Bacillus benzoevorans became the dominant species in sulfate reducing anaerobic ammonium oxidation sludge. The dominant bacterium in the two kinds of anaerobic ammonium oxidation process is different. Our results imply that the two anaerobic ammonium oxidation processes are carried out by different kind of bacterium. PMID:26717697

  15. Sources et marché du sulfate d'ammonium Sources of and Market for Ammonium Sulfate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loussouarn C.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Engrais azoté le plus utilisé dans le monde jusqu'en 1970, le sulfate d'ammonium ne représente plus aujourd'hui que 4 % de la fertilisation azotée. Avec une teneur en azote de 21 % seulement, il a été peu à peu remplacé comme engrais universel par des produits plus concentrés, notamment l'urée et le nitrate d'ammonium. Obtenu pour plus de 40 % comme sous-produit dans la synthèse de monomères comme le caprolactame, l'acrylonitrile ou le méthacrylate de méthyle, et pour près de 10 % dans le traitement des gaz de cokerie, sa production dépend largement des développements du marché des fibres synthétiques, et, dans une moindre mesure, de la sidérurgie et de la métallurgie. Dans les pays développés, où la production est essentiellement fatale, le volume du marché est et sera plus fonction de la disponibilité du sulfate d'ammonium que de la demande ou de facteurs de marché; sa consommation ne résidera plus que dans des applications spécifiques pour lesquelles il sera bien adapté. Par contre, l'intérêt croissant pour compenser le déficit en soufre de certains sols, et les qualités agronomiques propres du sulfate d'ammonium laissent entrevoir la possibilité d'un essor de son utilisation dans certaines régions en voie de développernent. Ammonium sulfate was the most worldwide nitrogenous fertilizer used up to 1970. Today, it makes up only 4% of nitrogenous fertilization. With a nitrogen content of only 21%, it has gradually been replaced as a universal fertilizer by more concentrated products, particularly urea and ammonium nitrate. More than 40% of the ammonium sulfate is obtained as a by-product from the synthesis of monomers such as caprolactam, acrylonitrile or methyl methacrylate, and nearly 10% from coking gas processing. Its production depends extensively on the development of the market for synthetic fibers and, to a lesser extent, on the steel and metallurgical industries. In the industrialized countries

  16. Isolation and identification of bacteria responsible for simultaneous anaerobic ammonium and sulfate removal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Sulfate-dependent anaerobic ammonium oxidation is a novel biological reaction,in which ammonium is oxidized with sulfate as the electron acceptor under anoxic conditions.Ammonium and sulfate are cosmopolitan chemical species which are an integral part of the global nitrogen and sulfur cycles.A detailed exploration of sulfate-dependent anaerobic ammonium oxidation is quite practical.In this work,a bacterial strain named ASR has been isolated from an anaerobic ammonia and sulfate removing reactor working under steady-state.On the basis of electron microscopy,physiological tests and 16S rDNA phylogenetic sequence analysis,the strain ASR is found to be related to Bacillus benzoevorans.According to the biological carbon source utilization test,the strain ASR could use many carbon sources.Its optimum pH value and temperature were 8.5 and 30 °C,respectively.The test proves that the strain ASR is able to use sulfate to oxidize ammonia anaerobically.The maximum ammonia and sulfate removal rates were 44.4% and 40.0%,respectively.The present study provided biological evidence for the confirmation and development of sulfate-dependent anaerobic ammonium oxidation and brought new insights into the global nitrogen and sulfur cycles.

  17. Effects of Korean Red Ginseng marc with aluminum sulfate against pathogen populations in poultry litters

    OpenAIRE

    Chung, Tae Ho; Park, Chul; Choi, In Hag

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of Korean Red Ginseng marc with aluminum sulfate as litter amendments on ammonia, soluble reactive phosphorus, and pathogen populations in poultry litters. Methods Increasing levels of Korean Red Ginseng marc with aluminum sulfate were applied onto the surface of rice hull as a top-dress application; untreated rice hulls served as controls. Results: Treatment with Korean Red Ginseng marc with aluminum sulfate or aluminum sulfate alo...

  18. DNA amplification fingerprinting using 10 x polymerase chain reaction buffer with ammonium sulfate for human identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) - based DNA amplification fingerprinting (DAF) or randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) is based on a strategy using a single arbitrary oligonucleotide primer to generate anonymous amplification of genomic DNA. On this basic strategy, in this study, we aimed to test individual differences and usefulness of 2 basic primers (5-CGCGCCGG-3 and 5-TGCCGAGCTG-3) and examined whether there is a positive effect on results of 10 x PCR buffer with ammonium sulfate. A new approach in DNA fingerprinting, 10 x PCR buffer with ammonium sulfate, is presented in the study. Primers with single 8 and 10 nucleotides in length and 2 different PCR buffers with or without ammonium sulfate were used to identify 135 volunteers with no blood relationship. This study was carried out at the Pharmacology Laboratory, University of Gaziantep, School of Medicine, Turkey between 1999 and 2000. An average of 10 major bands representing 500-1500 base pair (bp) in length was determined as amplified DNA products on standard agarose gels for these volunteers. The use of ammonium sulfate in 10 x PCR buffers has increased to 92% success ratio of individual difference obtained from the 8 nucleotides primer. With this study, more reliable results can be obtained by using ammonium sulfate in 10 x PCR buffers. (author)

  19. Start-up of simultaneous removal of ammonium and sulfate from an anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) process in an anaerobic up-flow bioreactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A laboratory testing of simultaneous removal of ammonium and sulfate (SRAS) was studied from an anammox process in an anaerobic bioreactor filled with granular activated carbon. Two different phases of experiment were investigated to start up the SRAS process, and final batch tests were performed to analyze the SRAS process. The experiment included an anammox process and an SRAS process. During the anammox process, the highest removal efficiency of ammonium and nitrite was up to 97 and 98%, respectively. After 160 days in the stationary phase of anammox process, the ratio of ammonium to nitrite consumption was approximately 1:1.15, which is much higher than 1:1.32 in the traditional anammox process. The extra electron acceptor, such as sulfate, was thought to react with ammonium by bacteria. Synthetic wastewater containing ammonium chlorine and sodium sulfate was used as the feed for the bioreactor in the second phase of experiment. During the SRAS process, the influent concentrations of ammonium and sulfate were controlled to be 50-60 and 210-240 mg L-1 respectively. After start-up and acclimatization of this process for 60 days, the average effluent concentrations of ammonium and sulfate were 30 and 160 mg L-1, respectively. The simultaneous ammonium and sulfate removal was detected in the reactor. In order to further validate the biochemical interaction between ammonium and sulfate, batch tests was carried out. Abiotic tests were carried out to demonstrate that the pure chemical action between ammonium and sulfate without microorganism was not possible. Biotic assays with different ammonium and sulfate concentrations were further investigated that high concentrations of ammonium and sulfate could promote simultaneous removal of ammonium and sulfate. And elemental sulfur and nitrogen gas as the products measured in the SRAS process helped to demonstrate the occurrence of new interaction between nitrogen and sulfur. The new process of SRAS in the inorganic

  20. Utilization of sulfate additives in biomass combustion: fundamental and modeling aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Hao; Jespersen, Jacob Boll; Grell, Morten Nedergaard; Aho, Martti; Jappe Frandsen, Flemming; Glarborg, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Sulfates, such as ammonium sulfate, aluminum sulfate and ferric sulfate, are effective additives for converting the alkali chlorides released from biomass combustion to the less harmful alkali sulfates. Optimization of the use of these additives requires knowledge on their decomposition rate and product distribution under high temperature conditions. In the present work, the decomposition of ammonium sulfate, aluminum sulfate and ferric sulfate wasstudied respectively in a fast-heating rate t...

  1. Synthesis of nano-crystalline hydroxyapatite and ammonium sulfate from phosphogypsum waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: TEM micrograph of dried HAP at 800 °C. -- Abstract: Phosphogypsum (PG) waste which is derived from phosphoric acid manufacture by using wet method was converted into hydroxyapatite (HAP) and ammonium sulfate. Very simple method was applied by reacting PG with phosphoric acid in alkaline medium with adjusting pH using ammonia solution. The obtained nano-HAP was dried at 80 °C and calcined at 600 °C and 900 °C for 2 h. Both of HAP and ammonium sulfate were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and infrared spectroscopy (IR) to study the structural evolution. The thermal behavior of nano-HAP was studied; the particle size and morphology were estimated by using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). All the results showed that HAP nano-crystalline and ammonium sulfate can successfully be produced from phosphogypsum waste.

  2. Synthesis of nano-crystalline hydroxyapatite and ammonium sulfate from phosphogypsum waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mousa, Sahar, E-mail: dollyriri@yahoo.com [Inorganic Chemistry Department, National Research Centre, Dokki, P.O.Box:12622, Postal code: 11787 Cairo (Egypt); King Abdulaziz University, Science and Art College, Chemistry Department, Rabigh Campus, P.O. Box:344, Postal code: 21911 Rabigh (Saudi Arabia); Hanna, Adly [Inorganic Chemistry Department, National Research Centre, Dokki, P.O.Box:12622, Postal code: 11787 Cairo (Egypt)

    2013-02-15

    Graphical abstract: TEM micrograph of dried HAP at 800 °C. -- Abstract: Phosphogypsum (PG) waste which is derived from phosphoric acid manufacture by using wet method was converted into hydroxyapatite (HAP) and ammonium sulfate. Very simple method was applied by reacting PG with phosphoric acid in alkaline medium with adjusting pH using ammonia solution. The obtained nano-HAP was dried at 80 °C and calcined at 600 °C and 900 °C for 2 h. Both of HAP and ammonium sulfate were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and infrared spectroscopy (IR) to study the structural evolution. The thermal behavior of nano-HAP was studied; the particle size and morphology were estimated by using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). All the results showed that HAP nano-crystalline and ammonium sulfate can successfully be produced from phosphogypsum waste.

  3. Ceramic characteristics of alumina obtained by using ammonium aluminum sulphate as precursor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method has been developed for the production of alumina for Advanced Ceramics through the synthesis of ammonium aluminum sulphate. A concentrated commercial ammonium hydroxide were used. The yield of the synthesis process was determined by the titration curves. The characterization of the synthesis products was carried out by X-ray diffraction, differential thermal analysis and particle size distribution. After the calcination of ammonium aluminum sulphate and the obtainment of alumina, test bodies were made, sintered at 1650 deg C, and then their ceramical properties were determined and compared against those of reference commercial alumina. (author)

  4. Uranium concentrate obtained from sulfuric liquor by solvent extraction using ammonium sulfate as extractant agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of uranium concentrate obtainment from sulfuric liquor by solvent extraction followed by chemical precipitation techniques are presented. In the extraction process a tertiary amine as extractant agent and ammonium sulfate solution as stripping agent were used. Uranium was precipitated from the pregnant strip solution as ammonium diuranate by addition of ammonium hydroxide solution. Equilibrium pH and chloride content in the loaded solvent were the main interference on the uranium stripping stage. From a chloride-free uranium loaded organic phase a pregnant strip solution containing 33.2 g/L U3O8 and a stripped solvent with 0.006 g/L U3O8 using 5 stages of mixer-settlers were obtained. The chemical precipitation stage yielded a high purity ammonium diuranate precipitate with a recovery of 99.98%. After calcination, the product presented 99.7 % U3O8 content. (author)

  5. LEACHING OF MALACHITE ORE IN AMMONIUM SULFATE SOLUTIONS AND PRODUCTION OF COPPER OXIDE

    OpenAIRE

    A. Ekmekyapar; N. Demirkıran; A. Künkül; Aktaş, E.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Malachite ore is one of the most important of oxidized copper ores. Copper production can be performed by using this ore. In this work, the leaching kinetics of malachite in ammonium sulfate solutions was investigated, and metallic copper was recovered by a cementation method from the resulting actual leach solution. Copper (II) oxide was prepared by an isothermal oxidation method from the cement copper. In the leaching experiments, the effects of reaction temperature, particle size,...

  6. Coefficients of caffeine distribution in aliphatic alcohol-ammonium sulfate-water systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korenman, Ya. I.; Krivosheeva, O. A.; Mokshina, N. Ya.

    2012-11-01

    The extraction of caffeine with aliphatic alcohols C3-C9 from aqueous solutions in the presence of a salting-out agent (ammonium sulfate) is studied. Quantitative characteristics of extraction are calculated: the distribution coefficients ( D) and the degree of recovery ( R, %). Relations are found between log D of caffeine and the length of the hydrocarbon radical in the alcohol molecule, along with certain physicochemical properties of the extragents.

  7. Levels of ammonium, sulfate, chloride, calcium, and sodium in snow and ice from southern Greenland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chemical analysis of surface snows and dated ice core samples from Dye 3, Greenland, suggests that the ammonium cation is a major constituent in all samples and that the annual ammonium levels present in the south Greenland samples have varied from 3.3 to 26.3 μg/kg between the seventeenth century and the present time. The annual range of 1974--1975 surface samples was between 3.8 and 8.8 μg/kg, while the mean was 5.7 +- 1.8 μ/kg. The recent large-scale uses of fixed nitrogen fertilizers and industrial pollution have apparently not affected the levels of ammonia reaching southern Greenland. The sodium and chloride present are predominantly derived from ocean spray, while more than 90% of the calcium is of continental origin. The levels of these three elements have not apparently been affected by human activity since the industrial revolution. Sulfate levels have increased dramatically since the industrial revolution, suggesting that sulfate of anthropogenic origin is the most important source of sulfate in modern snows from southern Greenland. The amount of the sulfuric acid neutralized by the ammonium cations was approximately 100% in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, dropping to approximately 20% in the 1974--1975 samples. These figures imply that there has been in increase in the acidity of precipitation in southern Greenland since the end of the eighteenth ce

  8. Manufacture of ammonium sulfate fertilizer from gypsum-rich byproduct of flue gas desulfurization - A prefeasibility cost estimate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, I.-Ming; Rostam-Abadi, M.; Lytle, J.M.; Achorn, F.P.

    1996-01-01

    Costs for constructing and operating a conceptual plant based on a proposed process that converts flue gas desulfurization (FGD)-gypsum to ammonium sulfate fertilizer has been calculated and used to estimate a market price for the product. The average market price of granular ammonium sulfate ($138/ton) exceeds the rough estimated cost of ammonium sulfate from the proposed process ($111/ ton), by 25 percent, if granular size ammonium sulfate crystals of 1.2 to 3.3 millimeters in diameters can be produced by the proposed process. However, there was at least ??30% margin in the cost estimate calculations. The additional costs for compaction, if needed to create granules of the required size, would make the process uneconomical unless considerable efficiency gains are achieved to balance the additional costs. This study suggests the need both to refine the crystallization process and to find potential markets for the calcium carbonate produced by the process.

  9. Hygroscopicity of organic compounds from biomass burning and their influence on the water uptake of mixed organic ammonium sulfate aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, T.; Zuend, A.; Wang, W. G.; Zhang, Y. H.; Ge, M. F.

    2014-10-01

    Hygroscopic behavior of organic compounds, including levoglucosan, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, and humic acid, as well as their effects on the hygroscopic properties of ammonium sulfate (AS) in internally mixed particles are studied by a hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer (HTDMA). The organic compounds used represent pyrolysis products of wood that are emitted from biomass burning sources. It is found that humic acid aerosol particles only slightly take up water, starting at RH (relative humidity) above ~70%. This is contrasted by the continuous water absorption of levoglucosan aerosol particles in the range 5-90% RH. However, no hygroscopic growth is observed for 4-hydroxybenzoic acid aerosol particles. Predicted water uptake using the ideal solution theory, the AIOMFAC model and the E-AIM (with UNIFAC) model are consistent with measured hygroscopic growth factors of levoglucosan. However, the use of these models without consideration of crystalline organic phases is not appropriate to describe the hygroscopicity of organics that do not exhibit continuous water uptake, such as 4-hydroxybenzoic acid and humic acid. Mixed aerosol particles consisting of ammonium sulfate and levoglucosan, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, or humic acid with different organic mass fractions, take up a reduced amount of water above 80% RH (above AS deliquescence) relative to pure ammonium sulfate aerosol particles of the same mass. Hygroscopic growth of mixtures of ammonium sulfate and levoglucosan with different organic mass fractions agree well with the predictions of the thermodynamic models. Use of the Zdanovskii-Stokes-Robinson (ZSR) relation and AIOMFAC model lead to good agreement with measured growth factors of mixtures of ammonium sulfate with 4-hydroxybenzoic acid assuming an insoluble organic phase. Deviations of model predictions from the HTDMA measurement are mainly due to the occurrence of a microscopical solid phase restructuring at increased humidity (morphology

  10. NUMERICAL SIMULATION WITH A COMPREHENSIVE CHEMICAL TRANSPORT MODEL OF NITRATE, SULFATE, AND AMMONIUM AEROSOL DISTRIBUTIONS OVER EAST ASIA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meigen Zhang

    2005-01-01

    The transport and chemical production processes of nitrate, sulfate, and ammonium aerosols over East Asia were investigated by use of the Models-3 Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system coupled with the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS). For the evaluation of the model's ability in depicting their3-dimensional concentration distributions and temporal variations, modeled concentrations of nitrate, sulfate, and ammonium aerosols are compared with the observations obtained at a ground station in Japan in March 2001 and onboard of an aircraft DC-8 on 18 and 21 March 2001 during the Transport and Chemical Evolution over the Pacific (TRACE-P)field campaign. Comparison shows that simulated values of nitrate, sulfate, and ammonium aerosols are generally in good agreement with their observed data, and the model captures most important observed features, and reproduces temporal and spatial variations of nitrate, sulfate, and ammonium aerosol concentrations reasonably well, e.g., the timing and locations of the concentration spikes of nitrate, sulfate, and ammonium aerosols are well reproduced, but large discrepancies between observed and simulated values are also clearly seen at some points and some times due to the coarse grid resolution and uncertainties of the emissions used in this study. This comparison results indicate that CMAQ is able to simulate the distributions of nitrate, sulfate, and ammonium aerosols and their related species in the troposphere over East Asia reasonably well.

  11. Management of ammonium sulfate fertilization on productive performance of corn grown after oats and wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Anita Gonçalves Silva

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The time, dose and applied nutrients in corn have a direct effect on its productivity. Therefore, the objective was to study the application of N and S in corn as ammonium sulfate, in succession to wheat and oats and evaluate different forms of fertilizer management. The experiment was conducted in a randomized block design in Oxisol (Hapludox. The five treatments with N, at a dose of 120 kg ha-1 were applied in 20 plots (5x4, according to the management of fertilizer: T1-N (120 kg ha-1 full at sowing, T2-N (120 kg ha-1 total coverage; T3 –N (40 kg ha-1 at sowing and N (80 kg ha-1 in coverage; T4-N advance in wheat sowing and sowing oats (120 kg ha-1, T5- (control. The S doses were corresponding to their concentrations in the fertilizer. Only wheat received a dose of 24 kg N ha-1 at sowing all plots and oats received 24 kg N ha- 1 at sowing only the portions related to treatment with anticipation of corn N ( T4 . We evaluated the biomass production of winter crops (oats and wheat, according to the fertilization at sowing, and also the influence of winter crops and management of ammonium sulfate, the corn yield. The oats produced more dry matter in relation to wheat, positively influencing the corn yield, regardless of fertilizer management. The anticipation of ammonium sulfate, the sowing of oats, was favorable to corn yield, equating to other forms of management of fertilizer. Rotation corn and oats, forms management, ammonium sulphate, at seeding, topdressing or applied in split were equally efficient in corn yields.

  12. Aluminum-silicates flotation with quaternary ammonium salts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王毓华; 胡岳华; 陈湘清

    2003-01-01

    The zeta potential measurements show that the flotation separation of diaspore from kaolinite, illite and pyrophyllite could be achieved in the range of pH 46.5 with cationic collectors. A special quaternary ammonium salts(DTAL) shows better selectivity than that the dodecyl amine(DDA) does for the flotation of three silicates. The closed-circuit flotation results show that the reverse flotation de-silicate can be achieved with DTAL as collector, a new inorganic reagent(SFL) as depressant and MIBC as frother to obtain a bauxite concentrate m(Al2O3)/m(SiO2)>10, Al2O3 recovery>86%).

  13. Mass spectrometric investigation into thermal decomposition of double hafnium and ammonium sulfate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The method of pyrolytic mass spectrometry has been used to investigate thermal decomposition doUble hafnium ammonium sulfate of the (Nr4)4Hf(SO4)4X4H2O composition during heating from 20 to 800 deg. In volatile destruction products the following ions are found: H2O+, NH3+, SO+, SO2+, O2+, H2S+, N2+, SO3+ ion is practically absent. Removal of crystallization water occurs in the 85-285 deg range, that of ammonium and sulfur oxides - at 300-775 deg. Higher than 300 deg the ratios of intensities of peaks of SO2+:SO+:O2+ ions do not exceed those standard for SO2, which proves a deeper destruction of sUlfUr dioxide under given conditions

  14. Synthesis and surface-active property of bis-quaternary ammonium-sodium sulfate Gemini surfactant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Qiuling; Gao Zhinong

    2006-01-01

    N,N-dimethyldodecylamine,hydrochloride and epichlorohydrin (molar ration is 2:1:1) were used to synthesize bis-quaternary ammonium Gemini surfactant with a hydroxyl in its spacer group by the one-pot method.This hydroxyl was sulfonated by chlorosulfonic acid and then neutralized to bis-quaternary ammonium-sodium sulfate zwitterionic Gemini surfactant.The yield of the final product was 78%,and the melting point was 231-233℃.Its structure was characterized by IR,1H-NMR,MS,and elemental analyses.The critical micelle concentration (cmc)and surface tension of the novel zwitterionic Gemini surfactant in aqueous solution at 15℃ are 7.2×10-5 mol/L and 34.5 mN/m,respectively.

  15. Comparison of ammonium sulfate and urea as nitrogen sources in rice production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetland rice agriculture is the major anthropogenic source of methane, an important greenhouse gas. Methane emissions are less when ammonium sulfate (AS) rather than urea is the nitrogen (N) source. However, an agronomic advantage of AS over urea has not been established. The objectives of this study were: (i) to compare the effectiveness of AS, urea, and urea plus elemental sulfur (S) as sources of N in flooded rice culture, (ii) to compare fertilizer recovery of each source of N from application at preflood (PF) and panicle initiation (PI), and (iii) to determine if there is a response to S by rice grown on a soil with a less than optimum level of available S. 'Cypress' rice was drill-seeded in a Crowley silt loam soil (fine, montmorillonitic, thermic Typic Albaqualf) of 7.25 to 10.75 mg S kg-1. Ammonium sulfate, urea, or urea plus S was applied in split applications of 101 kg N ha-1 PF and 50 kg N ha-1 PI. Microplots with retainers and 15N-labeled N were used. Unlabeled N was used in field plots. Microplots were harvested at 50% heading, while field plots were harvested at maturity. Dry matter and total N accumulation at 50% heading and at maturity were similar regardless of N source. Grain dry matter yields were 8.54, 8.47, and 8.79 Mg ha-1 for AS, urea, and urea plus S treatments, respectively. Greater N recovery was generally found from N application at PI than at PF, but this was not reflected by an increase in grain yield. No response to S was detected, although grain yields were slightly higher when S-containing fertilizers were used. Ammonium sulfate and urea were equally effective for flooded rice production in Louisiana

  16. Experimental Investigation on Pool Boiling Heat Transfer With Ammonium Dodecyl Sulfate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr.P. Atcha Rao

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We have so many applications related to Pool Boiling. The Pool Boiling is mostly useful in arid areas to produce drinking water from impure water like sea water by distillation process. It is very difficult to distill the only water which having high surface tension. The surface tension is important factor to affect heat transfer enhancement in pool boiling. By reducing the surface tension we can increase the heat transfer rate in pool boiling. From so many years we are using surfactants domestically. It is proven previously by experiments that the addition of little amount of surfactant reduces the surface tension and increase the rate of heat transfer. There are different groups of surfactants. From those I‟m conducting experimentation with anionic surfactant Ammonium Dodecyl Sulfate (ADS, which is most human friendly and three times best soluble than Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate, to test the heat transfer enhancement.

  17. Modeling the Use of Sulfate Additives for Potassium Chloride Destruction in Biomass Combustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Hao; Pedersen, Morten Nedergaard; Jespersen, Jacob Boll;

    2014-01-01

    Potassium chloride, KCl, formed from biomass combustion may lead to ash deposition and corrosion problems in boilers. Sulfates are effective additives for converting KCl to the less harmful K2SO4 and HCl. In the present study, the rate constants for decomposition of ammonium sulfate and aluminum......-dependent distribution of SO2 and SO3 from ammonium sulfate decomposition. On the basis of these data as well as earlier results, a detailed chemical kinetic model for sulfation of KCl by a range of sulfate additives was established. Modeling results were compared to biomass combustion experiments in a bubbling...... fluidized-bed reactor using ammonium sulfate, aluminum sulfate, and ferric sulfate as additives. The simulation results for ammonium sulfate and ferric sulfate addition compared favorably to the experiments. The predictions for aluminum sulfate addition were only partly in agreement with the experimental...

  18. 15N-labeled nitrogen from green manure and ammonium sulfate utilization by the sugarcane ratoon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legumes as green manure are alternative sources of nitrogen (N) for crops and can supplement or even replace mineral nitrogen fertilization due to their potential for biological nitrogen fixation (BNF). The utilization of nitrogen by sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) fertilized with sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.) and ammonium sulfate (AS) was evaluated using the 15N tracer technique. N was added at the rate of 196 and 70 kg ha-1 as 15N-labeled sunn hemp green manure (SH) and as ammonium sulfate (AS), respectively. Treatments were: (I) Control; (II) AS15N; (III) SH15N + AS; (IV) SH15N; and (V) AS15N + SH. Sugarcane was cultivated for five years and was harvested three times. 15N recovery was evaluated in the two first harvests. In the sum of the three harvests, the highest stalk yields were obtained with a combination of green manure and inorganic N fertilizer; however, in the second cutting the yields were higher where SH was used than in plots with AS. The recovery of N by the first two consecutive harvests accounted for 19 to 21% of the N applied as leguminous green manure and 46 to 49% of the N applied as AS. The amounts of inorganic N, derived from both N sources, present in the 0-0.4 m layer of soil in the first season after N application and were below 1 kg ha-1. (author)

  19. Solid ferrous ammonium sulfate as a dosimeter at low temperatures and high doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the results obtained from a study of the radiation induced oxidation of crystalline ferrous ammonium sulfate with gamma rays at 295 K, 263 K and 77 K and doses from 0 to 300 kGy. The radiation induced decomposition of ferrous ammonium sulfate has been studied by the dissolution of the irradiated salt in 0,8 N sulfuric acid. The main product is ferric ion (Fe3+) and its molar concentration was determined spectrophotometrically in the UV region at 304 nm. The optical density values showed a linear dependence with dose, indicating that the data obtained might be used to create a calibrating curve. Color in irradiated salt changes from blue to green, yellow and orange according to the absorbed dose. The accuracy and the reproducibility of the system were tested. In addition, some other characteristics make possible the use of this system as a dosimeter, similar to Fricke chemical dosimeter, for studies and works at low temperatures and high doses. (authors)

  20. Extraction of Caprolactam from Aqueous Ammonium Sulfate Solution in Pulsed Packed Column Using 250Y Meliapak Packings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢方友; 朱明乔; 等

    2002-01-01

    Liquid-lquid equilbrium(LLE)data of water-caprolactam-benzene-(NH4)2SO4 system at 303K were measured for extraction of caprolactam from aqueous ammonium sulfate solution.The influence of fluid flow rate,pulsation intensity on flooding velocity and mass transfer was studied for extraction of caprolactam from ammonium sulfate solution in a laboratory pulsed packed column.The flooding velocities and overall apparent heght of a transfer unit were given under various operation conditions.An industrial column developed based on above study is operated well.The scale-up effect is discussed.

  1. Comparative Evaluation of Aluminum Sulfate and Ferric Sulfate-Induced Coagulations as Pretreatment of Microfiltration for Treatment of Surface Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yali; Dong, Bingzhi; Gao, Naiyun; Deng, Yang

    2015-01-01

    Two coagulants, aluminum sulfate and ferric chloride, were tested to reduce natural organic matter (NOM) as a pretreatment prior to polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) microfiltration (MF) membranes for potable water treatment. The results showed that the two coagulants exhibited different treatment performance in NOM removal. Molecular weight (MW) distributions of NOM in the tested surface raw water were concentrated at 3–5 kDa and approximately 0.2 kDa. Regardless of the coagulant species and dosages, the removal of 0.2 kDa NOM molecules was limited. In contrast, NOM at 3–5 kDa were readily removed with increasing coagulant dosages. In particular, aluminum sulfate favorably removed NOM near 5 kDa, whereas ferric chloride tended to reduce 3 kDa organic substances. Although aluminum sulfate and ferric chloride could improve the flux of the ensuing MF treatment, the optimal coagulant dosages to achieve effective pretreatment were different: 2–30 mg/L for aluminum sulfate and >15 mg/L for ferric chloride. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) image of the membrane-filtered coagulated raw water showed that coagulation efficiency dramatically affected membrane flux and that good coagulation properties can reduce membrane fouling. PMID:26075726

  2. Comparative Evaluation of Aluminum Sulfate and Ferric Sulfate-Induced Coagulations as Pretreatment of Microfiltration for Treatment of Surface Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yali Song

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Two coagulants, aluminum sulfate and ferric chloride, were tested to reduce natural organic matter (NOM as a pretreatment prior to polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF microfiltration (MF membranes for potable water treatment. The results showed that the two coagulants exhibited different treatment performance in NOM removal. Molecular weight (MW distributions of NOM in the tested surface raw water were concentrated at 3–5 kDa and approximately 0.2 kDa. Regardless of the coagulant species and dosages, the removal of 0.2 kDa NOM molecules was limited. In contrast, NOM at 3–5 kDa were readily removed with increasing coagulant dosages. In particular, aluminum sulfate favorably removed NOM near 5 kDa, whereas ferric chloride tended to reduce 3 kDa organic substances. Although aluminum sulfate and ferric chloride could improve the flux of the ensuing MF treatment, the optimal coagulant dosages to achieve effective pretreatment were different: 2–30 mg/L for aluminum sulfate and >15 mg/L for ferric chloride. The scanning electron microscope (SEM image of the membrane-filtered coagulated raw water showed that coagulation efficiency dramatically affected membrane flux and that good coagulation properties can reduce membrane fouling.

  3. Solubility of ammonium aluminum sulfate dodecahydrate in the aluminum sulfate plus ammonium sulfate plus sulfuric acid plus water system at (25, 30, 40, and 50) degrees C

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hostomská, Věra; Hostomský, Jiří

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 1 (2006), s. 243-247. ISSN 0021-9568 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA203/04/1574 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40320502 Keywords : alums Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.642, year: 2006

  4. Evaluation of commercial grade ferrous ammonium sulfate as potential dosimeter for technological irradiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, we have studied the behavior of crystalline ferrous ammonium sulfate (FAS) under gamma irradiation. The doses studied ranged from 33.5 to 270 kGy. The purpose of this study is to explain the setup, measurement, and reporting procedures for using FAS as a dosimeter. The results obtained in the present study show that this salt very easily gave reproducible results, a linear response, as well as, simple sample preparation and reading. The irradiation temperature and dose rate in the response of the iron salt were found to have slight influence. Any storage time up to 18 months resulted in a 36% decreased in the response. The variation in the response obtained for short periods of storage is negligible for this application. Due to the properties of the FAS system also can be use as transfer dosimeter. (author)

  5. Aluminum sulfate significantly reduces the skin test response to common allergens in sensitized patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grier Thomas J

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Avoidance of allergens is still recommended as the first and best way to prevent allergic illnesses and their comorbid diseases. Despite a variety of attempts there has been very limited success in the area of environmental control of allergic disease. Our objective was to identify a non-invasive, non-pharmacological method to reduce indoor allergen loads in atopic persons' homes and public environments. We employed a novel in vivo approach to examine the possibility of using aluminum sulfate to control environmental allergens. Methods Fifty skin test reactive patients were simultaneously skin tested with conventional test materials and the actions of the protein/glycoprotein modifier, aluminum sulfate. Common allergens, dog, cat, dust mite, Alternaria, and cockroach were used in the study. Results Skin test reactivity was significantly reduced by the modifier aluminum sulfate. Our studies demonstrate that the effects of histamine were not affected by the presence of aluminum sulfate. In fact, skin test reactivity was reduced independent of whether aluminum sulfate was present in the allergen test material or removed prior to testing, indicating that the allergens had in some way been inactivated. Conclusion Aluminum sulfate was found to reduce the in vivo allergic reaction cascade induced by skin testing with common allergens. The exact mechanism is not clear but appears to involve the alteration of IgE-binding epitopes on the allergen. Our results indicate that it may be possible to diminish the allergenicity of an environment by application of the active agent aluminum sulfate, thus producing environmental control without complete removal of the allergen.

  6. Hygroscopic and phase separation properties of ammonium sulfate/organic/water ternary solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Zawadowicz

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric aerosol particles are often partially or completely composed of inorganic salts, such as ammonium sulfate and sodium chloride, and therefore exhibit hygroscopic properties. Many inorganic salts have well-defined deliquescence and efflorescence points at which they take up and lose water, respectively. Deliquescence and efflorescence of simple inorganic salt particles have been investigated by a variety of methods, such as IR spectroscopy, tandem mobility analysis and electrodynamic balance. Field measurements have shown that atmospheric aerosols are not typically pure inorganic salt, instead they often also contain organic species. There is ample evidence from laboratory studies that suggests that mixed particles exist in a phase-separated state, with an aqueous inorganic core and organic shell. Although phase separation has not been measured in situ, there is no reason it would not also take place in the atmosphere. Many recent studies have focused on microscopy techniques that require deposition of the aerosol on a glass slide, possibly changing its surface properties. Here, we investigate the deliquescence and efflorescence points, phase separation and ability to exchange gas-phase components of mixed organic and inorganic aerosol using a flow tube coupled with FTIR spectroscopy. Ammonium sulfate aerosol mixed with organic polyols with different O : C ratios, including 1,4-butanediol, glycerol, 1,2,6-hexanetriol, 1,2-hexanediol, and 1,5-pentanediol have been investigated. Those constituents correspond to materials found in the atmosphere in great abundance, and therefore, particles prepared in this study should mimic atmospheric mixed phase aerosol particles. The results of this study tend to be in agreement with previous microscopy experiments, with several key differences, which possibly reveal a size-dependent effect on phase separation in organic/inorganic aerosol particles.

  7. Simulation of nitrate, sulfate, and ammonium aerosols over the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Walker

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric concentrations of inorganic gases and aerosols (nitrate, sulfate, and ammonium are simulated for 2009 over the United States using the chemical transport model GEOS-Chem. This work is motivated, in part, by the inability of previous modeling studies to reproduce observed high nitrate aerosol concentrations in California. Nitrate aerosol concentrations over most of the US are over-predicted relative to Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE and Clean Air Status and Trends Network (CASTNET data. In California, on the other hand, nitrate and ammonium are under-predicted as compared to California Air Resources Board (CARB measurements. Over-prediction of nitrate in the East and Midwest is consistent with results of recent studies, which have suggested that nighttime nitric acid formation by heterogeneous hydrolysis of N2O5 is over-predicted with current values of the N2O5 uptake coefficient, γ, onto aerosols. Accordingly, the value of γ is reduced here by a factor of 10. Despite this, predicted nitrate levels in the US Midwest remain higher than those measured and over-prediction of nitrate in this region remains to be explained. Data from the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI onboard the MetOp-A satellite indicate the presence of a strong ammonia maximum in central and southern California that is not present in the simulations, which are based on the EPA National Emissions Inventory (NEI NH3 emission inventory. In order to predict ammonia columns similar to the satellite measurements in the San Joaquin Valley, CA and Riverside, CA, the current ammonia emission inventory in California would need to be increased substantially. Based on the sensitivity of ammonium nitrate formation to the availability of ammonia, the present results suggest that under-prediction of ammonia emissions is likely the main cause for the under-prediction of

  8. Consequences of Aluminum or Ferrous Sulfate Amended Poultry Litter on Concentrations of Aluminum in Plants and Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amending poultry litter with aluminum sulfate (alum) reduces phosphorous (P) runoff and ammonia volatilization but its effects on soil pH are not completely researched. Greenhouse pot experiments with cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) and soybean (Glycine max. L. Merr) as test crops were conducted with...

  9. Effects of the physical state of tropospheric ammonium-sulfate-nitrate particles on global aerosol direct radiative forcing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. T. Martin

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of aqueous versus crystalline sulfate-nitrate-ammonium tropospheric particles on global aerosol direct radiative forcing is assessed. A global three-dimensional chemical transport model predicts sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium aerosol mass. An aerosol thermodynamics model is called twice, once for the upper side (US and once for lower side (LS of the hysteresis loop of particle phase. On the LS, the sulfate mass budget is 40% solid ammonium sulfate, 12% letovicite, 11% ammonium bisulfate, and 37% aqueous. The LS nitrate mass budget is 26% solid ammonium nitrate, 7% aqueous, and 67% gas-phase nitric acid release due to increased volatility upon crystallization. The LS ammonium budget is 45% solid ammonium sulfate, 10% letovicite, 6% ammonium bisulfate, 4% ammonium nitrate, 7% ammonia release due to increased volatility, and 28% aqueous. LS aerosol water mass partitions as 22% effloresced to the gas-phase and 78% remaining as aerosol mass. The predicted US/LS global fields of aerosol mass are employed in a Mie scattering model to generate global US/LS aerosol optical properties, including scattering efficiency, single scattering albedo, and asymmetry parameter. Global annual average LS optical depth and mass scattering efficiency are, respectively, 0.023 and 10.7 m2 (g SO4-2-1, which compare to US values of 0.030 and 13.9 m2 (g SO4-2-1. Radiative transport is computed, first for a base case having no aerosol and then for the two global fields corresponding to the US and LS of the hysteresis loop. Regional, global, seasonal, and annual averages of top-of-the-atmosphere aerosol radiative forcing on the LS and US (FL and FU, respectively, in W m-2 are calculated. Including both anthropogenic and natural emissions, we obtain global annual averages of FL=-0.750, FU=-0.930, and DFU,L=24% for full sky calculations without clouds and FL=-0.485, FU=-0.605, and DFU,L=25% when clouds are included. Regionally, DFU,L=48% over the USA, 55% over Europe

  10. Potassium alum and aluminum sulfate micro-inclusions in polar ice from Dome Fuji, East Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, Hiroshi; Iizuka, Yoshinori; Horikawa, Shinichiro; Sakurai, Toshimitsu; Hondoh, Takeo; Motoyama, Hideaki

    2014-03-01

    Water-soluble trace constituents affect the physicochemical properties of polar ice. Their structural distribution provides important insights into the formation history of ice and inclusions. We report the first finding of KAl(SO4)2·12H2O (potassium alum) and Al2(SO4)3·nH2O (aluminum sulfate) micro-inclusions in the Dome Fuji ice core, East Antartica, using a micro-Raman technique. Eutectic temperatures of these water-soluble species determined using thermal analysis were -0.4 °C for potassium alum and -8.0 °C for aluminum sulfate. Although the formation process of the aluminum-bearing sulfates remains unclear, the occurrence of these salts largely depends on ice depth.

  11. Simulation of nitrate, sulfate, and ammonium aerosols over the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Walker

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric concentrations of inorganic gases and aerosols (nitrate, sulfate, and ammonium are simulated for 2009 over the United States using the chemical transport model GEOS-Chem. Predicted aerosol concentrations are compared with surface-level measurement data from the Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE, the Clean Air Status and Trends Network (CASTNET, and the California Air Resources Board (CARB. Sulfate predictions nationwide are in reasonably good agreement with observations, while nitrate and ammonium are over-predicted in the East and Midwest, but under-predicted in California, where observed concentrations are the highest in the country. Over-prediction of nitrate in the East and Midwest is consistent with results of recent studies, which suggest that nighttime nitric acid formation by heterogeneous hydrolysis of N2O5 is over-predicted based on current values of the N2O5 uptake coefficient, γ, onto aerosols. After reducing the value of γ by a factor of 10, predicted nitrate levels in the US Midwest and East still remain higher than those measured, and over-prediction of nitrate in this region remains unexplained. Comparison of model predictions with satellite measurements of ammonia from the Tropospheric Emissions Spectrometer (TES indicates that ammonia emissions in GEOS-Chem are underestimated in California and that the nationwide seasonality applied to ammonia emissions in GEOS-Chem does not represent California very well, particularly underestimating winter emissions. An ammonia sensitivity study indicates that GEOS-Chem simulation of nitrate is ammonia-limited in southern California and much of the state, suggesting that an underestimate of ammonia emissions is likely the main cause for the under-prediction of nitrate aerosol in many areas of California. An approximate doubling of ammonia emissions is needed to reproduce observed nitrate concentrations in

  12. Impact of organic coating on growth of ammonium sulfate particles: light extinction measurements relevant for the direct effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, C. B.; Zarzana, K. J.; Hasenkopf, C. A.; Tolbert, M. A.

    2012-12-01

    Light extinction by particles is strongly dependent on chemical composition, particle size, and water uptake. Relative humidity affects extinction by causing changes in refractive index and particle size due to hygroscopic growth. The ability of particles to take up water depends on their composition and structure. In both laboratory and field studies, inorganic salts completely covered by an organic coating have been observed. The impact of this coating on water uptake is uncertain, and a systematic study that examines water uptake as a function of relative humidity is highly desirable. These data are critical to evaluate the aerosol direct effect on climate, which is one of the most uncertain aspects of future climate change. In this study, we probe the connection between aerosol composition, size and light extinction directly by measuring fRHext, the ratio of the extinction coefficient for humidified particles to the extinction coefficient for dry particles. Particles were composed of 1,2,6-hexanetriol and ammonium sulfate, a system that forms organic coatings around the inorganic core. A cavity ring-down aerosol extinction spectrometer at 532 nm is used to measure the optical growth factor as a function of relative humidity. The fRHext values for a range of %RH for pure ammonium sulfate, pure 1,2,6-hexanetriol, and ammonium sulfate particles with 1,2,6-hexanetriol coatings were measured. The coated particles are created using a method of liquid-liquid separation, where the particles are exposed to water vapor creating a RH% above their deliquescence RH%. The particles are then dried with a Nafion dryer to a RH% that is below the point where liquid-liquid phase separation is observed, but above the efflorescence RH%. Pure 1,2,6-hexanetriol takes up little water over the observed RH range of 45-65%, and therefore fRHext ~ 1. With pure ammonium sulfate for the same RH% range, the fRHext varied from 1.5 - 2, depending on the RH% and the particle size. For the

  13. Joint enhancement of lead accumulation in Brassica plants by EDTA and ammonium sulfate in sand culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    When EDTA was added alone in the Pb-contaminated sand, the plant biomass and the total Pb amount in plant decreased in both species, Brassica pekinensis and B. juncea var. multiceps, though the shoot Pb amount increased. In contrast, when (NH4)2 SO4 was added alone in the Pb-contaminated sand, little effect was observed on the shoot Pb amount, though the root Pb amount was significantly increased in B. juncea var. multiceps. When amending EDTA and (NH4)2SO4 in combination, however, the shoot Pb amount in both species substantially increased, being, on an average, 2 times and 9 times higher than that in EDTA alone or (NH4)2 SO4 alone amended treatment, respectively.The two amendments showed antagonism for plant growth, but synergism for Pb bioaccumulation. B. pekinensis showed its highest level of shoot and total Pb amount in the treatment amended with EDTA and (NH4)2 SO4 only a half as much as in the other treatments. It is inferred that the mechanisms responsible for the joint-enhanced Pb accumulation might be concerned with the acidification of the growth medium, cation exchange reaction and relieving EDTA induced toxicity as results by amending ammonium sulfate.

  14. Interaction of cefadroxyl monohydrate with hexadecyltrimethyl ammonium bromide and sodium dodecyl sulfate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Interaction of a cephalosporin antibiotic drug, cefadroxyl monohydrate (CFM) with hexadecyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB), a cationic surfactant, and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), an anionic surfactant, has been studied in aqueous medium by conductivity measurement over a range of temperatures and salt concentrations. Values of critical micelle concentration (c*), degree of micelle ionization (α), and thermodynamic parameters have been determined for both the systems in pure water as well as in aqueous NaCl solution. For both (CFM + CTAB) and (CFM + SDS) systems, ΔGm0 values are negative which indicate that the drug mediated ionic micelle formation processes are thermodynamically spontaneous. For (CFM + CTAB) system, the micellization is entropy controlled at lower temperatures whereas at higher temperatures it becomes both entropy and enthalpy controlled. The micellization of (CFM + SDS) system is entropy controlled over the range of temperatures studied and more so at lower temperature. In the presence of NaCl, enhancement of hydrophobic interaction is observed for both the systems at lower temperatures. A significant decrease of c* values in the presence of NaCl for both the surfactant systems indicates that CFM supported ionic micelle formation is much favoured in NaCl compared to that in pure water

  15. LEACHING OF MALACHITE ORE IN AMMONIUM SULFATE SOLUTIONS AND PRODUCTION OF COPPER OXIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ekmekyapar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Malachite ore is one of the most important of oxidized copper ores. Copper production can be performed by using this ore. In this work, the leaching kinetics of malachite in ammonium sulfate solutions was investigated, and metallic copper was recovered by a cementation method from the resulting actual leach solution. Copper (II oxide was prepared by an isothermal oxidation method from the cement copper. In the leaching experiments, the effects of reaction temperature, particle size, and stirring speed on copper leaching from malachite ore were studied. In the cementation experiments, metallic zinc was used as the reductant metal to recover the copper from the solution. Thermal oxidation of cement copper was performed under isothermal conditions. It was found that the leaching rate increased with increasing stirring speed and temperature, and decreased with particle size. It was observed that the leaching reaction fit to diffusion through the product layer. The activation energy of the leaching process was determined to be 25.4 kJ/mol. It was determined that the copper content of the metallic product obtained by the cementation method increased up to 96%. It was found that copper oxide prepared from cement copper had a tenorite structure.

  16. Revealing Brown Carbon Chromophores Produced in Reactions of Methylglyoxal with Ammonium Sulfate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Peng; Laskin, Julia; Nizkorodov, Sergey A.; Laskin, Alexander

    2015-12-15

    Atmospheric brown carbon (BrC) is an important contributor to light absorption and climate forcing by aerosols. Reactions between small water-soluble carbonyls and ammonia or amines have been identified as one of the potential pathways of BrC formation. However, detailed chemical characterization of BrC chromophores has been challenging and their formation mechanisms are still poorly understood. Understanding BrC formation is impeded by the lack of suitable methods which can unravel the variability and complexity of BrC mixtures. This study applies high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to photodiode array (PDA) detector and high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) to investigate optical properties and chemical composition of individual BrC components produced through reactions of methylglyoxal (MG) and ammonium sulfate (AS), both of which are abundant in the atmospheric environment. A direct relationship between optical properties and chemical composition of 30 major BrC chromophores was established. Nearly all of these chromophores are nitrogen-containing compounds that account for >70% of the overall light absorption by the MG+AS system in the 300-500 nm range. These results suggest that reduced-nitrogen organic compounds formed in reactions between atmospheric carbonyls and ammonia/amines are important BrC chromophores. It is also demonstrated that improved separation of BrC chromophores by HPLC will significantly advance understanding of BrC chemistry.

  17. Dielectric permittivity, ac conductivity and phase transition in hydroxyl ammonium sulfate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdel Kader, M M; Aboud, A I; Abdelmonem, H [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Cairo University (Egypt); Elzayat, M Y [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Fayoum University (Egypt); Hammad, T R, E-mail: mmahmodakader@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Helwan University (Egypt)

    2011-03-15

    The complex dielectric permittivity ({epsilon}*={epsilon}'-j{epsilon}'') and ac conductivity {sigma} ({omega}, T) as a function of temperature (90-375 K) and frequency (0.4 kHz to {approx}100 kHz) were measured in this work for polycrystalline samples of hydroxyl ammonium sulfate, (NH{sub 3}OH){sub 2}SO{sub 4}. The measured electrical parameters revealed the existence of a structural phase transition at T{approx}312 K, which was further confirmed by a differential thermal analysis thermogram, where a clear endothermic peak centered at {approx}312 K is observed. Regarding the charge transport mechanism, it is likely that the behavior of frequency-dependent conductivity follows the universal dynamic response {sigma} ({omega},T)=A(T) {omega}{sup s(T)}. Moreover, the temperature dependence of the frequency exponent s (0{<=}s{<=}1) suggests the quantum mechanical tunneling model to be the most likely one that describes the electrical transport mechanism. The data correlate with the crystal structure and the hydrogen-bonding system.

  18. Nitrous Oxide and Methane Fluxes Following Ammonium Sulfate and Vinasse Application on Sugar Cane Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paredes, Debora da S; Alves, Bruno J R; dos Santos, Marco A; Bolonhezi, Denizart; Sant'Anna, Selenobaldo A C; Urquiaga, Segundo; Lima, Magda A; Boddey, Robert M

    2015-09-15

    This study aimed to quantify nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) emission/sink response from sugar cane soil treated with fertilizer nitrogen (N) and vinasse applied separately or in sequence, the latter being investigated with regard to the time interval between applications for a possible effect on emissions. The study was carried out in a traditional area of unburned sugar cane in São Paulo state, Brazil. Two levels of N fertilization (0 and 100 kg N ha(-1)) with no added vinasse and combined with vinasse additions at different times (100 m(-3) ha(-1) at 3 and 15 days after N fertilization) were evaluated. Methane and N2O fluxes were monitored for 211 days. On average, the soil was a sink for CH4, which was not affected by the treatments. Emissions of N2O were induced by N fertilizer and vinasse applications. For ammonium sulfate, 0.6% of the added N was emitted as N2O, while for vinasse, this ranged from 1.0 to 2.2%. Changes in N2O fluxes were detected the day after application of vinasse on the N fertilized areas, but although the emission factor (EF) was 34% greater, the EF was not significantly different from fertilizer N alone. Nevertheless, we recommend to not apply vinasse after N fertilization to avoid boosting N2O emissions. PMID:26295867

  19. Thermodynamics and kinetics of alumina extraction from fly ash using an ammonium hydrogen sulfate roasting method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ruo-chao Wang; Yu-chun Zhai; Zhi-qiang Ning

    2014-01-01

    A novel method was developed for extracting alumina (Al2O3) from fly ash using an ammonium hydrogen sulfate (NH4HSO4) roasting process, and the thermodynamics and kinetics of this method were investigated. The thermodynamic results were verified experi-mentally. Thermodynamic calculations show that mullite present in the fly ash can react with NH4HSO4 in the 298-723 K range. Process op-timization reveals that the extraction rate can reach up to 90.95% when the fly ash reacts with NH4HSO4 at a 1:8 mole ratio of Al2O3/NH4HSO4 at 673 K for 60 min. Kinetic analysis indicates that the NH4HSO4 roasting process follows the shrinking unreacted core model, and inner diffusion through the product layer is the rate-controlling step. The activation energy is calculated to be 16.627 kJ/mol;and the kinetic equation can be expressed as 1-(2/3)α-(1-α)2/3=0.0374t exp[-16627/(RT)], whereαis the extraction rate and t is the roasting temperature.

  20. Distribution coefficients of purine alkaloids in water-ammonium sulfate-alkyl acetate-dialkyl phthalate systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korenman, Ya. I.; Krivosheeva, O. A.; Mokshina, N. Ya.

    2012-12-01

    The distribution of purine alkaloids (caffeine, theobromine, theophylline) was studied in the systems: alkyl acetates-dialkyl phtalate-salting-out agent (ammonium sulfate). The quantitative characteristics of the extraction-distribution coefficients ( D) and the degree of extraction ( R, %) are calculated. The relationships between the distribution coefficients of alkaloids and the length of the hydrocarbon radical in the molecule of alkyl acetate (dialkyl phtalate) are determined. The possibility of predicting the distribution coefficients is demonstrated.

  1. Effects of Sodium Citrate on the Ammonium Sulfate Recycled Leaching of Low-Grade Zinc Oxide Ores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kun; Li, Shi-wei; Zhang, Li-bo; Peng, Jin-hui; Ma, Ai-yuan; Wang, Bao-bao

    2016-03-01

    The effects of sodium citrate on ammonium sulfate recycled leaching of low-grade zinc oxide ores were studied. By applying various kinds of detection and analysis techniques such as chemical composition analysis, chemical phase method, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectrum (SEM/EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier-transforming infrared spectrum (FT-IR), zinc raw ore, its leaching slag and the functional mechanism of sodium citrate were investigated. Based on a comprehensive analysis, it can be concluded that in contrast to hemimorphite (Zn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O), amorphous smithsonite (ZnCO3) and zinc silicate (Zn2SiO4) prove to be refractory phases under ammonium sulfate leaching, while sodium citrate has a better chelating action with the refractory phases, resulting in a higher zinc leaching rate. Under conditions of [NH3]/[NH3]T molar ratio being 0.5, [NH3]T being 7.5 mol/L, [Na3C6H5O7] being 0.2 mol/L, S/L ratio being 1:5, temperature being 303 K, holding time being 1 h in each of the two stages, and stirring rate being 300 rpm, the leaching rate of zinc reached 93.4%. In this article, sulfate ammonium recycled technology also reveals its unique advantage in processing low-grade zinc oxide ores accompanied by high silicon and high alkaline gangue.

  2. Importance of including ammonium sulfate ((NH42SO4 aerosols for ice cloud parameterization in GCMs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Yang

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available A common deficiency of many cloud-physics parameterizations including the NASA's microphysics of clouds with aerosol-cloud interactions (hereafter called McRAS-AC is that they simulate lesser (larger than the observed ice cloud particle number (size. A single column model (SCM of McRAS-AC physics of the GEOS4 Global Circulation Model (GCM together with an adiabatic parcel model (APM for ice-cloud nucleation (IN of aerosols were used to systematically examine the influence of introducing ammonium sulfate (NH42SO4 aerosols in McRAS-AC and its influence on the optical properties of both liquid and ice clouds. First an (NH42SO4 parameterization was included in the APM to assess its effect on clouds vis-à-vis that of the other aerosols. Subsequently, several evaluation tests were conducted over the ARM Southern Great Plain (SGP and thirteen other locations (sorted into pristine and polluted conditions distributed over marine and continental sites with the SCM. The statistics of the simulated cloud climatology were evaluated against the available ground and satellite data. The results showed that inclusion of (NH42SO4 into McRAS-AC of the SCM made a remarkable improvement in the simulated effective radius of ice cloud particulates. However, the corresponding ice-cloud optical thickness increased even more than the observed. This can be caused by lack of horizontal cloud advection not performed in the SCM. Adjusting the other tunable parameters such as precipitation efficiency can mitigate this deficiency. Inclusion of ice cloud particle splintering invoked empirically further reduced simulation biases. Overall, these changes make a substantial improvement in simulated cloud optical properties and cloud distribution particularly over the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ in the GCM.

  3. Identification and Characterization of Visible Absorption Components in Aqueous Methylglyoxal-Ammonium Sulfate Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGivern, W. S.; Allison, T. C.; Radney, J. G.; Zangmeister, C. D.

    2014-12-01

    The aqueous reaction of methylglyoxal (MG) with ammonium sulfate has been suggested as a source of atmospheric ``brown carbon.'' We have utilized high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy and tandem mass spectrometry to study the products of this reaction at high concentrations. The overall product spectrum shows a large number of distinct components; however, the visible absorption from this mixture is derived a very small number of components. The largest contributor is an imine-substituted (C=N-H) product of aldol condensation/facile dehydration reaction between the parent MG and a hydrated product of the MG + ammonia reaction. The asymmetric nature of this compound relative to the aldol condensation of two MG results in a sufficiently large redshift of the UV absorption spectrum that absorption of visible radiation can occur in the long-wavelength tail. The simplicity of the imine products is a result of a strong bias toward ketimine products due to the extensive hydration of the aldehydic moiety in the parent in aqueous solution. In addition, a strong pH dependence of the absorption cross section was observed with significantly greater absorption under more basic conditions. We have performed time-dependent density functional theory calculations to evaluate the absorption spectra of all of the possible condensation products and their respective ions, and the results are consistent with the experimental observations. We have also observed smaller concentrations of other condensation products of the imine-substituted parent species that do not contribute significantly to the visible absorption but have not been previously discussed.

  4. Natural and transboundary pollution influences on sulfate-nitrate-ammonium aerosols in the United States: Implications for policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Rokjin J.; Jacob, Daniel J.; Field, Brendan D.; Yantosca, Robert M.; Chin, Mian

    2004-08-01

    We use a global three-dimensional coupled oxidant-aerosol model (GEOS-CHEM) to estimate natural and transboundary pollution influences on sulfate-nitrate-ammonium aerosol concentrations in the United States. This work is motivated in part by the Regional Haze Rule of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), which requires immediate action to improve visibility in U.S. wilderness areas along a linear trajectory toward an endpoint of "natural visibility conditions" by 2064. We present full-year simulations for 1998 and 2001 and evaluate them with nationwide networks of observations in the United States and Europe (Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE), Clean Air Status and Trends Network (CASTNET), National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP), European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP)) and with Asian outflow observations from the NASA Transport and Chemical Evolution over the Pacific (TRACE-P) aircraft mission. Shutting off U.S. anthropogenic emissions in the model defines "background" aerosol concentrations representing contributions from both natural and transboundary pollution sources. We find that transboundary transport of pollution from Canada, Mexico, and Asia dominates over natural influences for both sulfate and nitrate. Trans-Pacific transport of Asian pollution accounts for 30% of background sulfate in both the western and eastern United States. Our best estimates of natural concentrations for ammonium sulfate and ammonium nitrate in the United States are either consistent with or lower than the default values recommended by EPA for natural visibility calculations. However, the large transboundary pollution influence in our calculation suggests that a natural visibility objective cannot be approached without international emission controls.

  5. Optimization of isopropanol and ammonium sulfate precipitation steps in the purification of plasmid DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, S S; Santos, J A L; Prazeres, D M F

    2006-01-01

    Large-scale processes used to manufacture grams of plasmid DNA (pDNA) should be cGMP compliant, economically feasible, and environmentally friendly. Alcohol and salt precipitation techniques are frequently used in plasmid DNA (pDNA) downstream processing, as concentration and prepurification steps, respectively. This work describes a study of a standard 2-propanol (IsopOH; 0.7 v/v) and ammonium sulfate (AS; 2.5 M) precipitation. When inserted in a full process, this tandem precipitation scheme represents a high economic and environmental impact due to the large amounts of the two precipitant agents and their environmental relevance. Thus, major goals of the study were the minimization of precipitants and the selection of the best operating conditions for high pDNA recovery and purity. The pDNA concentration in the starting Escherichia coli alkaline lysate strongly affected the efficiency of IsopOH precipitation as a concentration step. The results showed that although an IsopOH concentration of at least 0.6 (v/v) was required to maximize recovery when using lysates with less than 80 microg pDNA/mL, concentrations as low as 0.4 v/v could be used with more concentrated lysates (170 microg pDNA/mL). Following resuspension of pDNA pellets generated by 0.6 v/v IsopOH, precipitation at 4 degrees C with 2.4 M AS consistently resulted in recoveries higher than 80% and in removal of more than 90% of the impurities (essentially RNA). An experimental design further indicated that AS concentrations could be reduced down to 2.0 M, resulting in an acceptable purity (21-23%) without compromising recovery (84-86%). Plasmid recovery and purity after the sequential IsopOH/AS precipitation could be further improved by increasing the concentration factor (CF) upon IsopOH precipitation from 2 up to 25. Under these conditions, IsopOH and AS concentrations of 0.60 v/v and 1.6 M resulted in high recovery (approximately 100%) and purity (32%). In conclusion, it is possible to reduce

  6. Simulations of Sulfate-Nitrate-Ammonium (SNA) aerosols during the extreme haze events over Northern China in 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Dan; Liu, Zhiquan; Fast, Jerome D.; Ban, Junmei

    2016-08-30

    Extreme haze events have occurred frequently over China in recent years. Although many studies have investigated the formation mechanisms associated with PM2.5 for heavily polluted regions in China based on observational data, adequately predicting peak PM2.5 concentrations is still challenging for regional air quality models. In this study, we evaluate the performance of one configuration of the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with chemistry (WRF-Chem) and use the model to investigate the sensitivity of heterogeneous reactions on simulated peak sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium concentrations in the vicinity of Beijing during four extreme haze episodes in October 2014 over the North China Plain. The highest observed PM2.5 concentration of 469 μg m-3 occurred in Beijing. Comparisons with observations show that the model reproduced the temporal variability in PM2.5 with the highest PM2.5 values on polluted days (defined as days in which observed PM2.5 is greater than 75 μg m-3), but predictions of sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium were too low on days with the highest observed concentrations. Observational data indicate that the sulfur/nitric oxidation rates are strongly correlated with relative humidity during periods of peak PM2.5; however, the model failed to reproduce the highest PM2.5 concentrations due to missing heterogeneous reactions. As the parameterizations of those reactions is not well established yet, estimates of SO2-to-H2SO4 and NO2/NO3-to-HNO3 reaction rates that depend on relative humidity were applied which improved the simulation of sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium enhancement on polluted days in terms of both concentrations and partitioning among those species. Sensitivity simulations showed that the extremely high heterogeneous reaction rates and also higher emission rates than those reported in the emission inventory

  7. Liquid-liquid phase separation and morphology of internally mixed dicarboxylic acids/ammonium sulfate/water particles

    OpenAIRE

    Song, M.; Marcolli, C.; U. K. Krieger; A. Zuend; Peter, T

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge of the physical state and morphology of internally mixed organic/inorganic aerosol particles is still largely uncertain. To obtain more detailed information on liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS) and morphology of the particles, we investigated complex mixtures of atmospherically relevant dicarboxylic acids containing 5–7 carbon atoms (C5, C6 and C7) having oxygen-to-carbon atomic ratios (O:C) of 0.80, 0.67, and 0.57, respectively, mixed with ammonium sulfate (AS). With mi...

  8. Natural and transboundary pollution influences on sulfate-nitrate-ammonium aerosols in the United States: Implications for policy

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Rokjin J.; Jacob, Daniel James; Field, Brendan; Yantosca, Robert M.; Chin, Mian

    2004-01-01

    We use a global three-dimensional coupled oxidant-aerosol model (GEOS-CHEM) to estimate natural and transboundary pollution influences on sulfate-nitrate-ammonium aerosol concentrations in the United States. This work is motivated in part by the Regional Haze Rule of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), which requires immediate action to improve visibility in U.S. wilderness areas along a linear trajectory toward an endpoint of “natural visibility conditions” by 2064. We present fu...

  9. Simulation of detonation of ammonium nitrate fuel oil mixture confined by aluminum: edge angles for DSD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Short, Mark [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Quirk, James J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kiyanda, Charles B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Jackson, Scott I [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Briggs, Matthew E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Shinas, Micheal A [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    Non-ideal high explosives are typically porous, low-density materials with a low detonation velocity (3--5 km/s) and long detonation reaction zone ({approx} cms). As a result, the interaction of a non-ideal high explosive with an inert confiner can be markedly different than for a conventional high explosive. Issues arise, for example, with light stiff confiners where the confiner can drive the high explosive (HE) through a Prandtl-Meyer fan at the HE/confiner interface rather than the HE driving the confiner. For a non-ideal high explosive confined by a high sound speed inert such that the detonation velocity is lower than the inert sound speed, the flow is subsonic and thus shockless in the confiner. In such cases, the standard detonation shock dynamics methodology, which requires a positive edge-angle be specified at the HE/confiner interface in order that the detonation shape be divergent, cannot be directly utilized. In order to study how detonation shock dynamics can be utilized in such cases, numerical simulations of the detonation of ammonium nitrate-fuel oil (ANFO) confined by aluminum 6061 are conducted.

  10. Regeneration of FGD waste liquors: Production of ammonium and potassium sulfate mixed fertilizer. Quarterly technical report, July 1993--September 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randolph, A.D.; Kwon, T.M.

    1993-12-01

    Regeneration of the Fe{sup II}-EDTA scrubbing liquors for simultaneous removal of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} in flue gas involves removing the nitrogen-sulfur (N-S) compounds accumulated in the liquor. In this paper, the authors investigated a simple regeneration process which selectively precipitates the N-S compounds as potassium salts and then hydrolyzes them to yield ammonium/potassium sulfate as a marketable byproduct. They believe this is the first report on precipitation and hydrolysis characteristics of the N-S compounds in actual waste scrubbing liquor. Precipitation of the N-S compounds was achieved by adding K{sub 2}SO{sub 4} to the scrubbing liquor. Effects of the amount of added K{sub 2}SO{sub 4} on the amount of removed N-S compounds, precipitated crystals, and the potassium left over in the scrubbing liquor were studied. Hydrolysis of the precipitated N-S compounds to ammonium sulfate was performed in a sulfuric acid environment. Effects of acidity, concentration of N-S compounds, and temperature on the hydrolysis are discussed. Analysis of the observed hydrolysis pattern showed that the reaction proceeded following first order kinetics in terms of N-S compound concentration.

  11. {sup 15}N-labeled nitrogen from green manure and ammonium sulfate utilization by the sugarcane ratoon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambrosano, Edmilson Jose; Rossi, Fabricio, E-mail: ambrosano@apta.sp.gov.b [Agencia Paulista de Tecnologia dos Agronegocios (APTA), Piracicapa, SP (Brazil). Polo Rigional Centro Sul; Trivelin, Paulo Cesar Ocheuze [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Isotopos Estaveis; Cantarella, Heitor [Agencia Paulista de Tecnologia dos Agronegocios (APTA/IAC), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Instituto Agronomico de Campinas. Centro de Solos e Recursos Agroambientais; Ambrosano, Glaucia Maria Bovi [Universidade de Campinas (UNICAMP/FOP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Odontologia de Piracicaba. Dept. de Odontologia Social, Bioestatistica; Schammass, Eliana Aparecida [Agencia Paulista de Tecnologia dos Agronegocios (APTA/IZ), Nova Odessa, SP (Brazil). Instituto de Zootecnia; Muraoka, Takashi [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Fertilidade do solo

    2011-05-15

    Legumes as green manure are alternative sources of nitrogen (N) for crops and can supplement or even replace mineral nitrogen fertilization due to their potential for biological nitrogen fixation (BNF). The utilization of nitrogen by sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) fertilized with sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.) and ammonium sulfate (AS) was evaluated using the {sup 15}N tracer technique. N was added at the rate of 196 and 70 kg ha{sup -1} as {sup 15}N-labeled sunn hemp green manure (SH) and as ammonium sulfate (AS), respectively. Treatments were: (I) Control; (II) AS{sup 15}N; (III) SH{sup 15}N + AS; (IV) SH{sup 15}N; and (V) AS{sup 15}N + SH. Sugarcane was cultivated for five years and was harvested three times. {sup 15}N recovery was evaluated in the two first harvests. In the sum of the three harvests, the highest stalk yields were obtained with a combination of green manure and inorganic N fertilizer; however, in the second cutting the yields were higher where SH was used than in plots with AS. The recovery of N by the first two consecutive harvests accounted for 19 to 21% of the N applied as leguminous green manure and 46 to 49% of the N applied as AS. The amounts of inorganic N, derived from both N sources, present in the 0-0.4 m layer of soil in the first season after N application and were below 1 kg ha{sup -1}. (author)

  12. Second organic aerosol formation from the ozonolysis of α-pinene in the presence of dry submicron ammonium sulfate aerosol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Zhe; HAO Jiming; LI Junhua; WU Shan

    2008-01-01

    An indoor chamber facility is described for investigation of atmospheric aerosol chemistry. Two sets of α-pinene ozonolysisexperiments were conducted in the presence of dry ammonium sulfate seed particle: ozone limited experiments and α-pinene limitedexperiments. The concentration of gas phase and particle phase species was monitored continuously by on-line instruments andrecorded automatically by data sampling system. The evolution of size distribution was measured by a scanning mobility particlesizer (SMPS), and α-pinene consumed was measured using GC-FID. Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) produced for seed-free systemis 100% organic in content, resulting from a sufficient supersaturation of low volatility organics to produce homogeneous nucleationfollowed by condensation to the aerosol. Secondary organic aerosol produced in seeded system is a mixture of organic and inorganicconstituents, initially forms via condensation onto the inorganic particles, and subsequent growth occurs via absorption into the organicsurface coating the inorganic core. Although the formation process and the size distribution for seed-free system and seeded system isdifferent, the ultimate mass of SOA formed is equal, and SOA yield for the two system located in the same regression line when usingone-product model, suggesting that the presence of dry ammonium sulfate seed has no measurable effect on the total aerosol yield, and the dry seed particle acts solely as a site upon which organic deposition occurs.

  13. Distribution of nitrogen ammonium sulfate (15N) soil-plant system in a no-tillage crop succession

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    the n use by maize (Zea mays, l.) is affected by n-fertilizer levels. this study was conducted using a sandy-clay texture soil (Hapludox) to evaluate the efficiency of n use by maize in a crop succession, based on 15N labeled ammonium sulfate (5.5 atom %) at different rates, and to assess the residual fertilizer effect in two no-tillage succession crops (signal grass and corn). Two maize crops were evaluated, the first in the growing season 2006, the second in 2007, and brachiaria in the second growing season. The treatments consisted of n rates of 60, 120 and 180 kg ha-1in the form of labeled 15N ammonium sulfate. This fertilizer was applied in previously defined subplots, only to the first maize crop (growing season 2006). The variables total accumulated n; fertilizer-derived n in corn plants and pasture; fertilizer-derived n in the soil; and recovery of fertilizer-n by plants and soil were evaluated.The highest uptake of fertilizer n by corn was observed after application of 120 kg ha-1N and the residual effect of n fertilizer on subsequent corn and brachiaria was highest after application of 180 kg ha-1N. After the crop succession, soil n recovery was 32, 23 and 27 % for the respective applications of 60, 120 and 180 kg ha-1N. (author)

  14. Evaluation of N sub 2 fixation by applying sup 15 N labeled plant material and ammonium sulfate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiu, C.Y.; Yoshida, T.

    1990-06-01

    Effect of different {sup 15}N labeled sources on the estimation of N{sub 2} fixation was investigated. The combination of {sup 15}N labeled ammonium sulfate, {sup 15}N labeled plant material, and {sup 15}N labeled ammonium sulfate with unlabeled plant material, was examined in pot experiments. Two cultivars of soybean (Glycine max) and one of mungbean (Vigna radiata) were used. No significant difference was observed among the treatments for the estimation of N{sub 2} fixation. This was due to the homogeneity and stability of the {sup 15}N abundance in soil which resulted in a similar N uptake from the soil by the N{sub 2} fixing and reference crops. The plant yield, total N uptake and amount of N{sub 2} fixed were higher in the Yellow Soil than in the Andosol. The amount of N{sub 2} fixed was strongly influenced by the plant growth and consequently it affected the plant yield. The slow decomposition of plant material in the Andosol resulted in a low yield in both the N{sub 2} fixing and reference crops. Thus, the artificial decrease of the available N content in soil, by application of plant material, did not stimulate N{sub 2} fixation but suppressed plant growth and N{sub 2} fixation.

  15. Study on Properties and Synthesize of a new Polymeric Aluminum Sulfate-silicate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Shu-rong; Wang Qing-ning; Zhang Fei-long; Ye Qi-zhi

    2004-01-01

    The polymeric basic aluminum silicate-sulfate can be made from three substances, such as aluminum sulfate, sodium silicate and sodium aluminates. Adoption sort neote ric one synthesis,under high shear mixing condition to produce polymeric Aluminum Sulfate-silicate--inorganic macromolecule flocculants, that is liquid, PH is 3.0, molecular formula: AlA (OH) B (SO4) C (SiOx)Because inorganic macromolecule have capability of electricity neutralized, bigger molecular mass,strong capability of adsorption, and products are relative stabilize, more economical than organic macromolecule flocculants, innocuity and high effect compared with tradition flocculants.We can use the flocculants to make sewages purified .The sewages contain sulfur, oiliness, which are treated sewages of oil refining to organism treatment sump in parturition course of oil refining,and the sewages of dark and white in parturition course of paper mill. We study the properties of the flocculants, change of CODCr and effect of sewerage decolouring and so on.Thus fig. Can be seen to add the flocculants(0.1ml) to the sewages of the oil refining and the paper mill that effect is not distinctly. Yet increase of quantity to remove turbidity and floccules effect is distinctness. When the flocculants (0.5mi) be added to the dark sewage of, the penetrate light rate attain 90~98%, the sewage of the oil refining is about 90%, but when we make floccules experiment, the color of dark green and auras of the sewages of oil refining and the paper mill are all disappear, the PASS that add to the sewage will have certainly time to flocculate. When use pay attention to quantity and horary the connection.As a result in the sewages purified, those products form quickly, granule density is big, and subsided velocity is quickly, Floccules effect and capability of removing turbidity, removing CODCr are ascendancy than tradition flocculants - aluminates, and the remained aluminum of water treatment is little. It has

  16. Life cycle energy and greenhouse gas profile of a process for the production of ammonium sulfate from nitrogen-fixing photosynthetic cyanobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razon, Luis F

    2012-03-01

    In this paper, an alternative means for nitrogen fixation that may consume less energy and release less greenhouse gases than the Haber-Bosch process is explored. A life-cycle assessment was conducted on a process to: culture the cyanobacterium, Anabaena sp. ATCC 33047, in open ponds; harvest the biomass and exopolysaccharides and convert these to biogas; strip and convert the ammonia from the biogas residue to ammonium sulfate; dry the ammonium sulfate solution to ammonium sulfate crystals and transport the finished product. The results suggest that substantial reductions in non-renewable energy use and greenhouse gas emissions may be realized. The study opens the possibility that Haber-Bosch ammonia may be replaced with ammonia from a biomass process which simultaneously generates renewable energy. The process is intrinsically safer than the Haber-Bosch process. However, there are trade-offs in terms of land use and possibly, water. PMID:22226591

  17. Pengaruh Penambahan Ammonium Sulfat (NH4)2SO4 dan Waktu Perendaman Buffer Fosfat terhadap Perolehan Crude Papain Dari Daun Papain (Carica Papaya, L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Alviyulita, Mitha

    2016-01-01

    Papaya leaves is a plant that rich in benefits. Papaya leaves contains papain enzyme which is a protease enzyme that very helpful for the industry. This study aims to determine the effect of the saturation level of ammonium sulfate (NH4)2SO4 and immersion time with phosphate buffer to get yield of protease from crude papaya. In this study varied immersion time with phosphate buffer is 0, 12, 24, and 36 hours and the saturation level of ammonium sulfate (NH4)2SO4 is 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, and 90 ...

  18. Partition of Chiral pharmaceutical intermediate R(-)-Mandelic Acid in Aqueous Two-Phase System of Poly(ethylene glycol)-Ammonium Sulfate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Xiaoping; Li Zhongqin; Chen Jiebo; Huang Xinghua

    2004-01-01

    An aqueous two-phase system of poly (ethylene glycol)-ammonium sulfate was employed to separate R (-)-mandelic acid.The result showed that R (-)-mandelic acid has priority to partition in PEG-rich top phase. This indicated that aqueous two-phase is a very suitable system for separation of R(-)-mandelic acid.

  19. Slippery liquid-infused porous surfaces fabricated on aluminum as a barrier to corrosion induced by sulfate reducing bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Slippery liquid-infused porous surfaces (SLIPS) were fabricated over aluminum. • SLIPS depress the adherence of sulfate reducing bacteria in static seawater. • SLIPS inhibit the microbiological corrosion of aluminum in static seawater. • The possible microbiological corrosion protection mechanism of SLIPS is proposed. - Abstract: Microbiological corrosion induced by sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) is one of the main threatens to the safety of marine structure. To reduce microbiological corrosion, slippery liquid infused porous surfaces (SLIPS) were designed and fabricated on aluminum substrate by constructing rough aluminum oxide layer, followed by fluorination of the rough layer and infiltration with lubricant. The as-fabricated SLIPS were characterized with wettability measurement, SEM and XPS. Their resistances to microbiological corrosion induced by SRB were evaluated with fluorescence microscopy and electrochemical measurement. It was demonstrated that they present high resistance to bacteria adherence and the resultant microbiological corrosion in static seawater

  20. Trends in atmospheric ammonium concentrations in relation to atmospheric sulfate and local agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammonium (NH4+) concentrations in air and precipitation at the Institute of Ecosystem Studies (IES) in southeastern New York, USA declined over an 11-year period from 1988 to 1999, but increased from 1999 to 2001. These trends in particulate NH4+ correlated well with trends in particulate SO42- over the 1988-2001 period. The NH4+ trends were not as well correlated with local cattle and milk production, which declined continuously throughout the period. This suggests that regional transport of SO42- may have a greater impact on concentrations of NH4+ and subsequent deposition than local agricultural emissions of NH3. Ammonium concentrations in precipitation correlated significantly with precipitation SO42- concentrations for the 1984-2001 period although NH4+ in precipitation increased after 1999 and SO42- in precipitation continued to decline after 1999. The correlation between NH4+ and SO42- was stronger for particulates than for precipitation. Particulate NH4+ concentrations were also correlated with particulate SO42- concentrations at 31 of 35 eastern U.S. CASTNet sites that had at least 10 years of data. Air concentrations of NH4+ and SO42- were more strongly correlated at the sites that were located within an agricultural landscape than in forested sites. At most of the sites there was either no trend or a decrease in NH4+ dry deposition during the 1988-2001 period. The sites that showed an increasing trend in NH4+ dry deposition were generally located in the southeastern U.S. The results of this study suggest that, in the northeastern U.S., air concentrations of NH4+ and subsequent deposition may be more closely linked to SO42- and thus SO2 emissions than with NH3 emissions. These results also suggest that reductions in S emissions have reduced NH4+ transport to and NH4+-N deposition in the Northeast. - Relationships between NH4+ and SO42- suggest that aerosol NH4+ may be more strongly linked to SO2 emissions than to local agricultural NH3 emissions

  1. A simple method for isolating chicken egg yolk immunoglobulin using effective delipidation solution and ammonium sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Chenyao; Geng, Fang; He, Zhenjiao; Cai, Zhaoxia; Ma, Meihu

    2015-01-01

    Chicken egg yolk immunoglobulin (IgY) is a superior alternative to mammalian immunoglobulin. However, the practical application of IgY in research, diagnostics, and functional food is limited due to complex or time-consuming purification procedures. The objective of this study was to develop a simple, safe, large-scale separation method for IgY from egg yolk. Egg yolk was diluted with 6-fold delipidation solutions made of different types (pectin, λ-carrageenan, carboxymethylcellulose, methylcellulose, and dextran sulfate) and concentrations (0.01, 0.05, 0.1, 0.15, and 0.2%) of polysaccharides, respectively. The yolk solution was adjusted to pH 5.0, and then kept overnight at 4°C before being centrifuged at 4°C. The resulting supernatant was added to 35% (w/v) (NH4)2SO4 and then centrifuged. The precipitant, which contained IgY, was dissolved in distilled water and then dialyzed. SDS-PAGE and Western blotting were utilized to conduct qualitative analysis of IgY; high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used for quantitative analysis. The immunoreactivity of IgY was measured by ELISA. The results showed that yield, purity, and immunoreactivity varied with types and concentrations of polysaccharides. The optimal isolation of IgY for pectin, λ-carrageenan, dextran sulfate, and carboxymethylcellulose was at the concentration of 0.1%; for methylcellulose, optimal isolation was at 0.15%. The best results were obtained in the presence of 0.1% pectin. In this condition, yield and purity can reach 8.36 mg/mL egg yolk and 83.3%, respectively, and the negative effect of IgY on immunoreactivity can be minimized. The procedure of isolation was simplified to 2 steps with a higher yield of IgY, avoiding energy- and time-consuming methods. Therefore, the isolation condition under study has a great potential for food industry production of IgY on a large scale. PMID:25542196

  2. Feasibility Study on Product Quality Control of Ammonium Dihydrogen Phosphate by Adding Ammonium Sulfate%添加硫酸铵调整磷酸一铵产品质量的可行性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段付岗

    2013-01-01

    The paper introduces the features of two kinds of chemical fertilizer,ammonium dihydrogen phos-phate and ammonium sulfate,studies the feasibility adding ammonium sulfate to control the quality of ammoni-um dihydrogen phosphate through reducing phosphorus level,raising nitrogen level,lowering total nutrient from five aspects,mixability between them,absorbability of soil and agricultural crops,selectivity of adding methods,adaptability of production facility and economic return.%介绍了硫酸铵和磷酸一铵2种化学肥料的特性,从二者的掺配性、土壤和农作物的吸收性、添加方式的可选性、生产装置的适配性和添加的经济性5个方面分析,研究了添加硫酸铵调整磷酸一铵产品质量(主要是降磷、提氮、降低总养分)的可行性。

  3. DNA damage in the kidney tissue cells of the fish Rhamdia quelen after trophic contamination with aluminum sulfate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingelfus, Tatiane; da Costa, Paula Moiana; Scherer, Marcos; Cestari, Marta Margarete

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Even though aluminum is the third most common element present in the earth's crust, information regarding its toxicity remains scarce. It is known that in certain cases, aluminum is neurotoxic, but its effect in other tissues is unknown. The aim of this work was to analyze the genotoxic potential of aluminum sulfate in kidney tissue of the fish Rhamdia quelen after trophic contamination for 60 days. Sixty four fish were subdivided into the following groups: negative control, 5 mg, 50 mg and 500 mg of aluminum sulfate per kg of fish. Samples of the posterior kidney were taken and prepared to obtain mitotic metaphase, as well as the comet assay. The three types of chromosomal abnormalities (CA) found were categorized as chromatid breaks, decondensation of telomeric region, and early separation of sister chromatids. The tests for CA showed that the 5 mg/kg and 50 mg/kg doses of aluminum sulfate had genotoxic potential. Under these treatments, early separation of the sister chromatids was observed more frequently and decondensation of the telomeric region tended to increase in frequency. We suggest that structural changes in the proteins involved in DNA compaction may have led to the decondensation of the telomeric region, making the DNA susceptible to breaks. Moreover, early separation of the sister chromatids may have occurred due to changes in the mobility of chromosomes or proteins that keep the sister chromatids together. The comet assay confirmed the genotoxicity of aluminum sulfate in the kidney tissue of Rhamdia quelen at the three doses of exposure. PMID:26692157

  4. DNA damage in the kidney tissue cells of the fish Rhamdia quelen after trophic contamination with aluminum sulfate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiane Klingelfus

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Even though aluminum is the third most common element present in the earth's crust, information regarding its toxicity remains scarce. It is known that in certain cases, aluminum is neurotoxic, but its effect in other tissues is unknown. The aim of this work was to analyze the genotoxic potential of aluminum sulfate in kidney tissue of the fish Rhamdia quelen after trophic contamination for 60 days. Sixty four fish were subdivided into the following groups: negative control, 5 mg, 50 mg and 500 mg of aluminum sulfate per kg of fish. Samples of the posterior kidney were taken and prepared to obtain mitotic metaphase, as well as the comet assay. The three types of chromosomal abnormalities (CA found were categorized as chromatid breaks, decondensation of telomeric region, and early separation of sister chromatids. The tests for CA showed that the 5 mg/kg and 50 mg/kg doses of aluminum sulfate had genotoxic potential. Under these treatments, early separation of the sister chromatids was observed more frequently and decondensation of the telomeric region tended to increase in frequency. We suggest that structural changes in the proteins involved in DNA compaction may have led to the decondensation of the telomeric region, making the DNA susceptible to breaks. Moreover, early separation of the sister chromatids may have occurred due to changes in the mobility of chromosomes or proteins that keep the sister chromatids together. The comet assay confirmed the genotoxicity of aluminum sulfate in the kidney tissue of Rhamdia quelen at the three doses of exposure.

  5. Effects of aluminum sulfate on delta-aminolevulinate dehydratase from kidney, brain, and liver of adult mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schetinger M.R.C.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to investigate the in vitro and in vivo effects of aluminum sulfate on delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALA-D activity from the brain, liver and kidney of adult mice (Swiss albine. In vitro experiments showed that the aluminum sulfate concentration needed to inhibit the enzyme activity was 1.0-5.0 mM (N = 3 in brain, 4.0-5.0 mM (N = 3 in liver and 0.0-5.0 mM (N = 3 in kidney. The in vivo experiments were performed on three groups for one month: 1 control animals (N = 8; 2 animals treated with 1 g% (34 mM sodium citrate (N = 8 and 3 animals treated with 1 g% (34 mM sodium citrate plus 3.3 g% (49.5 mM aluminum sulfate (N = 8. Exposure to aluminum sulfate in drinking water inhibited ALA-D activity in kidney (23.3 ± 3.7%, mean ± SEM, P<0.05 compared to control, but enhanced it in liver (31.2 ± 15.0%, mean ± SEM, P<0.05. The concentrations of aluminum in the brain, liver and kidney of adult mice were determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. The aluminum concentrations increased significantly in the liver (527 ± 3.9%, mean ± SEM, P<0.05 and kidney (283 ± 1.7%, mean ± SEM, P<0.05 but did not change in the brain of aluminum-exposed mice. One of the most important and striking observations was the increase in hepatic aluminum concentration in the mice treated only with 1 g% sodium citrate (34 mM (217 ± 1.5%, mean ± SEM, P<0.05 compared to control. These results show that aluminum interferes with delta-aminolevulinate dehydratase activity in vitro and in vivo. The accumulation of this element was in the order: liver > kidney > brain. Furthermore, aluminum had only inhibitory properties in vitro, while in vivo it inhibited or stimulated the enzyme depending on the organ studied.

  6. Effect of diesel oil and ammonium sulfate on efficacy of glyphosate on Cyperus rotundus under field conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under Gezira field conditions, excellent and lasting Cyperus rotundus suppression was achieved, irrespective of application time or cropping conditions. From visual assessments, suppression was achieved when glyphosate as ''Roundup'' at 1.5 kg a.e./ha was applied alone or with the addition of ammonium sulfate, diesel oil emulsified with Triton X-100. At the rate of 0.75kg a.e./ha the herbicide was moderately effective on the cropped fields but on the uncropped fields it was as effective as the higher rate at 8 weeks. At the lowest rate tested (0.5 kg a.e./ha) the herbicide was less effective and was not significantly improved by the addition of adjuvants or charms, the time of spray application. The fresh and dry weights in the 0.75 kg a.e./ha treatments were reduced by 85% to 98% compared with the controls confirming the visual assessments. Unrestricted competition from the natural weed population combined with C. rotundus, reduced the maize stand by 59%, height by 55%, straw yield by 60% and grain yield by 87%, C. rotundus alone was less competitive reducing maize stand, height, straw and grain yields by 21%, 2%, 61% and 68% respectively. (author)

  7. Optimization of ammonium sulfate concentration for purification of colorectal cancer vaccine candidate recombinant protein GA733-FcK isolated from plants

    OpenAIRE

    Se-Ra ePark; Chae-Yeon eLim; Deuk-Su eKim; Kisung eKo

    2015-01-01

    A protein purification procedure is required to obtain high-value recombinant injectable vaccine proteins produced in plants as a bioreactor. However, existing purification procedures for plant-derived recombinant proteins are often not optimized and are inefficient, with low recovery rates. In our previous study, we used 25-30% ammonium sulfate to precipitate total soluble proteins (TSPs) in purification process for recombinant proteins from plant leaf biomass which has not been optimized. T...

  8. Optimization of ammonium sulfate concentration for purification of colorectal cancer vaccine candidate recombinant protein GA733-FcK isolated from plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Se-Ra ePark

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A protein purification procedure is required to obtain high-value recombinant injectable vaccine proteins produced in plants as a bioreactor. However, existing purification procedures for plant-derived recombinant proteins are often not optimized and are inefficient, with low recovery rates. In our previous study, we used 25-30% ammonium sulfate to precipitate total soluble proteins (TSPs in purification process for recombinant proteins from plant leaf biomass which has not been optimized. Thus, the objective in this study is to optimize the conditions for plant-derived protein purification procedures. Various ammonium sulfate concentrations (15-80% were compared to determine their effects on TSPs yield. With 50% ammonium sulfate, the yield of precipitated TSP was the highest, and that of the plant-derived colorectal cancer-specific surface glycoprotein GA733 fused to the Fc fragment of human IgG tagged with endoplasmic reticulum (ER retention signal KDEL (GA733P-FcK protein significantly increased 1.8-fold. SDS-PAGE analysis showed that the purity of GA733P-FcK protein band appeared to be similar to that of an equal dose of mammalian-derived GA733-Fc (GA733M-Fc. The binding activity of purified GA733P-FcK to anti-GA733 mAb was as efficient as the native GA733M-Fc. Thus, the purification process was effectively optimized for obtaining a high yield of plant-derived antigenic protein with good quality. In conclusion, the purification recovery rate of large quantities of recombinant protein from plant expression systems can be enhanced via optimization of ammonium sulfate concentration during downstream processes, thereby offering a promising solution for production of recombinant GA733-Fc protein in plants.

  9. Thermal decomposition behavior of the rare-earth ammonium sulfate R2(SO4)3.(NH4)2SO4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rare-earth ammonium sulfate octahydrates of R2(SO4)3.(NH4)2SO4.8H2O (R=Pr, Nd, Sm, and Eu) were synthesized by a wet process, and the stable temperature region for the anhydrous R2(SO4)3.(NH4)2SO4 form was clarified by thermogravimetry/differential thermal analysis, infrared, Raman, and electrical conductivity measurements. Detailed characterization of these double salts demonstrated that the thermal stability of anhydrous R2(SO4)3.(NH4)2SO4 is different between the Pr, Nd salts and the Sm, Eu salts, and the thermal decomposition behavior of these salts was quite different from the previous reports. - Graphical abstract: Stable temperature range of anhydrous rare-earth ammonium sulfate R2(SO4)3.(NH4)2SO4 was clarified by thermogravimetry/differential thermal analysis, infrared, Raman, and electrical conductivity measurements. Since the previous reports were based only on thermal analysis, the present work has more accurately determined the exact thermal stability of rare-earth ammonium sulfate solids.

  10. The Revision of Aluminum-containing Food Additive Provisions in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong; Zhang, Ji Yue; Wang, Hua Li; Luo, Peng Jie; Zhang, Jian Bo

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to revise the provisions for aluminum-containing food additives in GB 2760-2011 (The National Food Safety Standard for Use of Food Additives), in order to reduce aluminum exposure among the Chinese population. According to the latest risk assessment results of JECFA and China on aluminum and the actual use of aluminum-containing food additives in certain products, the aluminum-containing food additive-related provisions in GB 2760-2011 were revised. Those revisions included narrowing down the applicable food categories and adjusting the maximum use level of aluminum potassium sulfate and aluminum ammonium sulfate, repealing nine aluminum-containing food additives in puffed food and repealing the use of sodium aluminum phosphate, sodium aluminosilicate and starch aluminum octenylsuccinate in all food. After revision of the use of aluminum food additive provisions, the weekly dietary intake of aluminum in the Chinese population can be reduced to a safe level. PMID:27470109

  11. Modeling the use of sulfate additives for potassium chloride destruction in biomass combustion

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Hao; Grell, Morten Nedergaard; Jespersen, Jacob Boll; Aho, Martti; Jappe Frandsen, Flemming; Glarborg, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Potassium chloride, KCl, formed from biomass combustion may lead to ash deposition and corrosion problems in boilers. Sulfates are effective additives for converting KCl to the less harmful K2SO4. In the present study, the decomposition of ammonium sulfate, aluminum sulfate and ferric sulfate was studied respectively in a fast-heating rate thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) for deriving a kinetic model. The yields of SO2 and SO3 from the decomposition were studied in a tube reactor, revealing t...

  12. Stacking Time and Aluminum Sulfate Effects on Polyether Ionophores in Broiler Litter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doydora, Sarah A; Sun, Peizhe; Cabrera, Miguel; Thompson, Aaron; Love-Myers, Kimberly; Rema, John; Calvert, Vaughn; Pavlostathis, Spyros G; Huang, Ching-Hua

    2015-11-01

    The use of ionophores as antiparasitic drugs plays an important role in US poultry production, especially in the broiler () industry. However, administered ionophores can pass through the bird's digestive system and appear in broiler litter, which, when applied to agricultural fields, can present an environmental hazard. Stacking (storing or stockpiling) broiler litter for some time might decrease the litter ionophore concentrations before land application. Because ionophores undergo abiotic hydrolysis at low pH, decreasing litter pH with acidic aluminum sulfate (alum) might also decrease ionophore concentrations. We assessed the change in ionophore concentrations in broiler litter in response to the length of time broiler litter was stored (stacking time) and alum addition. We spiked broiler litter with monensin and salinomycin, placed alum-amended litter (∼pH 4-5) and unamended litter (∼pH 8-9) into 1.8-m bins, and repeatedly sampled each bin for 112 d. Our findings showed that stacking broiler litter alone did not have an impact on monensin concentration, but it did slowly reduce salinomycin concentration by 55%. Adding alum to broiler litter reduced monensin concentration by approximately 20% relative to unamended litter, but it did not change salinomycin concentration. These results call for continued search for alternative strategies that could potentially reduce the concentration of ionophores in broiler litter before their application to agricultural soils. PMID:26641344

  13. Comparative study between M. oleifera and aluminum sulfate for water treatment: case study Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar Gámez, Lorena L; Luna-delRisco, Mario; Cano, Roberto Efrain Salazar

    2015-10-01

    The world has a water deficit, mostly located in developing countries. For example, in Colombia, water deficit is a major concern and it increases in rural areas, where the rate of accessibility to drinking water is of 33.26% in 2005. Since the 1970s, the most used technology for water purification is the conventional physicochemical process. The most common coagulant used in this process is aluminum sulfate (alum). This study focuses on a comparison between Moringa oleifera seeds and alum for water treatment in different natural waters. Results showed that M. oleifera removed 90% turbidity and alum 96% from water samples from the tested natural brook. However, color removal for M. oleifera was 95 and 80.3% for alum. For water-polluted samples, both coagulants have shown high efficiency (100%) in color and turbidity removal. Usage of natural coagulants (i.e., M. oleifera) instead of chemical ones (i.e., alum) are more convenient in rural areas where the economic situation and accessibility of those products are key elements to maintain fresh water treatment standards. Additionally, results demonstrated that high dosages M. oleifera did not affect the optimal value in terms of color and turbidity removal. In rural and developing countries, this is important because it does not require a sophisticated dosing equipment. PMID:26437662

  14. Investigation of ozone and coagulant material’s (aluminum sulfate, ferric chloride, poly aluminum chloride and lime efficiency in “Kerman Kork” industry wastewater treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Hussein Javid

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Entry of untreated wastewater of wool scouring factories has been associated with many environmental hazards because of high rate of pollution. Presently effective treatment methods and reducing the costs of operation and maintenance from treatment units have always been under the attention of this industry owners. The aim of this survey is to present a suitable method for the treatment of wool scouring. Methods: In this study, chemical coagulant is used for wastewater treatment (aluminum sulfate, ferric chloride, poly aluminum chloride and lime. And then these materials with “ozone” as a strong oxidative in reduction of the amount of Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD in wastewater effluent has been surveyed. Results: The results of this work showed that only ferric chloride and aluminum sulfate among the above chemical coagulant had a high efficiency in the turbidity removal. Productivity of turbidity removal using ferric chloride with the pH of 4 to 5 was 99%, and turbidity was reduced from 166 Nephelometric Turbidity Units (NTU to 1.5 NTU, and productivity of turbidity removal using aluminum sulfate within the pH 4.5 to 5 was 99.33% that reduced turbidity from 166 to 1.1 NTU. Results of ozonation with 5 g/hour and the oxygen flow of 2.5 litter per min with the pH assess of 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, and 150 min to wastewater from chemical treatment with ferric chloride showed that the rate of COD was reduced from 24700 mg/L to 2940 mg/L. In ozonation to wastewater of chemical treatment with aluminum sulfate within the above rang of time, the rate of COD was reduced from 22500 mg/l to 4800 mg/l. Conclusion: We can be hopeful that in near future, getting the cheap technology of ozone production in industrial scale, one can use this technology for the propose of removal of pollutants having removal preferable by help of advanced treatment approaches.

  15. Liquid-liquid phase separation and morphology of internally mixed dicarboxylic acids/ammonium sulfate/water particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Song

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the physical state and morphology of internally mixed organic/inorganic aerosol particles is still largely uncertain. To obtain more detailed information on liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS and morphology of the particles, we investigated complex mixtures of atmospherically relevant dicarboxylic acids containing 5, 6, and 7 carbon atoms (C5, C6 and C7 having oxygen-to-carbon atomic ratios (O:C of 0.80, 0.67, and 0.57, respectively, mixed with ammonium sulfate (AS. With micrometer-sized particles of C5/AS/H2O, C6/AS/H2O and C7/AS/H2O as model systems deposited on a hydrophobically coated substrate, laboratory experiments were conducted for various organic-to-inorganic dry mass ratios (OIR using optical microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. When exposed to cycles of relative humidity (RH, each system showed significantly different phase transitions. While the C5/AS/H2O particles showed no LLPS with OIR = 2:1, 1:1 and 1:4 down to 20% RH, the C6/AS/H2O and C7/AS/H2O particles exhibit LLPS upon drying at RH 50 to 85% and ~90%, respectively, via spinodal decomposition, growth of a second phase from the particle surface or nucleation-and-growth mechanisms depending on the OIR. This suggests that LLPS commonly occurs within the range of O:C < 0.7 in tropospheric organic/inorganic aerosols. To support the comparison and interpretation of the experimentally observed phase transitions, thermodynamic equilibrium calculations were performed with the AIOMFAC model. For the C7/AS/H2O and C6/AS/H2O systems, the calculated phase diagrams agree well with the observations while for the C5/AS/H2O system LLPS is predicted by the model at RH below 60% and higher AS concentration, but was not observed in the experiments. Both core-shell structures and partially engulfed structures were observed for the investigated particles, suggesting that such

  16. Liquid-liquid phase separation and morphology of internally mixed dicarboxylic acids/ammonium sulfate/water particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Song

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the physical state and morphology of internally mixed organic/inorganic aerosol particles is still largely uncertain. To obtain more detailed information on liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS and morphology of the particles, we investigated complex mixtures of atmospherically relevant dicarboxylic acids containing 5–7 carbon atoms (C5, C6 and C7 having oxygen-to-carbon atomic ratios (O:C of 0.80, 0.67, and 0.57, respectively, mixed with ammonium sulfate (AS. With micrometer-sized particles of C5/AS/H2O, C6/AS/H2O and C7/AS/H2O as model systems deposited on a hydrophobically coated substrate, laboratory experiments were conducted for various organic-to-inorganic dry mass ratios (OIR using optical microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. When exposed to cycles of relative humidity (RH, each system showed significantly different phase transitions. While the C5/AS/H2O particles showed no LLPS with OIR = 2:1, 1:1 and 1:4 down to 20% RH, the C6/AS/H2O and C7/AS/H2O particles exhibit LLPS upon drying at RH 50% to 85% and ~90%, respectively, via spinodal decomposition, growth of a second phase from the particle surface or nucleation-and-growth mechanisms depending on the OIR. This suggests that LLPS commonly occurs within the range of O:C<0.7 in tropospheric organic-inorganic aerosols. To support the comparison and interpretation of the experimentally observed phase transitions, thermodynamic equilibrium calculations were performed with the AIOMFAC model. For the C7/AS/H2O and C6/AS/H2O systems, the calculated phase diagrams agree well with the observations while for the C5/AS/H2O system LLPS is predicted by the model at RH below 60% and higher AS concentration, but was not observed in the experiments. Both core-shell structures and partially engulfed structures were observed for the investigated particles, suggesting that such morphologies

  17. Hygroscopic properties and cloud condensation nuclei activation of limonene-derived organosulfates and their mixtures with ammonium sulfate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, A. M. K.; Hong, J.; Raatikainen, T.; Kristensen, K.; Ylisirniö, A.; Virtanen, A.; Petäjä, T.; Glasius, M.; Prisle, N. L.

    2015-12-01

    Organosulfates have been observed as constituents of atmospheric aerosols in a wide range of environments; however their hygroscopic properties remain uncharacterised. Here, limonene-derived organosulfates with a molecular weight of 250 Da (L-OS 250) were synthesised and used for simultaneous measurements with a hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyser (H-TDMA) and a cloud condensation nuclei counter (CCNC) to determine the hygroscopicity parameter, κ, for pure L-OS 250 and mixtures of L-OS 250 with ammonium sulfate (AS) over a wide range of humidity conditions. The κ values derived from measurements with H-TDMA decreased with increasing particle dry diameter for all chemical compositions investigated, indicating that κH-TDMA depends on particle diameter and/or surface effects; however, it is not clear if this trend is statistically significant. For pure L-OS 250, κ was found to increase with increasing relative humidity, indicating dilution/solubility effects to be significant. Discrepancies in κ between the sub- and supersaturated measurements were observed for L-OS 250, whereas κ of AS and mixed L-OS 250/AS were similar. This discrepancy was primarily ascribed to limited dissolution of L-OS 250 at subsaturated conditions. In general, hygroscopic growth factor, critical particle diameter and κ for the mixed L-OS 250/AS particles converged towards the values of pure AS for mixtures with ≥ 20 % w / w AS. Surface tension measurements of bulk aqueous L-OS 250/AS solutions showed that L-OS 250 was indeed surface active, as expected from its molecular structure, decreasing the surface tension of solutions with 24 % from the pure water value at a L-OS 250 concentration of 0.0025 mol L-1. Based on these surface tension measurements, we present the first concentration-dependent parametrisation of surface tension for aqueous L-OS 250, which was implemented to different process-level models of L-OS 250 hygroscopicity and CCN activation. The values of κ

  18. Isotopic characterization of nitrate, ammonium and sulfate in stack PM2.5 emissions in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region, Alberta, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proemse, Bernadette C.; Mayer, Bernhard; Chow, Judith C.; Watson, John G.

    2012-12-01

    Stable isotope techniques may be a suitable tool for tracing industrial emissions in the atmosphere and the environment provided that the isotopic compositions of industrial emissions are distinct. We determined the isotopic compositions of nitrate, ammonium and sulfate in PM2.5 emitted from two industrial stacks at a large upgrader site in the Athabasca oil sands region (AOSR), northeastern Alberta, Canada, and compared them to the nitrogen and sulfur isotopic compositions of source materials and upgrading by-products. We found distinct isotopic compositions of nitrate and ammonium in PM2.5 compared to those reported for atmospheric nitrate and ammonium in the literature. Nitrate in PM2.5 had δ15N values of 9.4‰ (Stack A) and 16.1 ± 1.2‰ (Stack B) that were significantly enriched in 15N compared to the feedstock materials (˜2.5‰), by-products of upgrading (-0.3-1.3‰), and atmospheric N2 (0‰). δ15N of ammonium in PM2.5 showed a large range with values between - 4.5 to +20.1‰ (Stack B). We report the first measurements of the triple oxygen isotopic composition of industrial emitted nitrate. Nitrate emitted as PM2.5 is not mass-independently enriched in 17O resulting in Δ17O = 0.5 ± 0.9‰ (Stack B) and is therefore distinct from atmospheric nitrate, constituting an excellent indicator of industrial derived nitrate. δ18O values of nitrate in PM2.5 (36.0 and 17.6 ± 1.8‰ for Stack A and B, respectively) were also significantly lower than δ18O values of atmospheric nitrates and hence isotopically distinct. δ34S values of sulfate in PM2.5 were with 7.3 ± 0.3‰ (Stack A) and 9.4 ± 2.0‰ (Stack B) slightly enriched in 34S compared to δ34S in bitumen (4.3 ± 0.3‰) and coke (3.9 ± 0.2‰). δ18O values of sulfate in PM2.5 were 18.9 ± 2.9‰ and 14.2 ± 2.8‰ for Stack A and Stack B, respectively. The isotopic composition of sulfate in PM2.5 was not sufficiently different from δ34S and δ18O values of sulfate in long-range atmospheric

  19. [Sensitive Determination of Chondroitin Sulfate by Fluorescence Recovery of an Anionic Aluminum Phthalocyanine-Cationic Surfactant Ion-Association Complex Used as a Fluorescent Probe Emitting at Red Region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lin; Huang, Ping; Yang, Hui-qing; Deng, Ya-bin; Guo, Meng-lin; Li, Dong-hui

    2015-08-01

    Determination of chondroitin sulfate in the biomedical field has an important value. The conventional methods for the assay of chondroitin sulfate are still unsatisfactory in sensitivity, selectivity or simplicity. This work aimed at developing a novel method for sensitive and selective determination of chondroitin sulfate by fluorimetry. We found that some kinds of cationic surfactants have the ability to quench the fluorescence of tetrasulfonated aluminum phthalocyanine (AlS4Pc), a strongly fluorescent compound which emits at red region, with high efficiency. But, the fluorescence of the above-mentioned fluorescence quenching system recovered significantly when chondroitin sulfate (CS) exits. Tetradecyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride(TDBAC) which was screened from all of the candidates of cationic surfactants was chosen as the quencher because it shows the most efficient quenching effect. It was found that the fluorescence of AlS4Pc was extremely quenched by TDBAC because of the formation of association complex between AlS4Pc and TDBAC. Fluorescence of the association complex recovered dramatically after the addition of chondroitin sulfate (CS) due to the ability of chondroitin sulfate to shift the association equilibrium of the association, leading to the release of AlS4Pc, thus resulting in an increase in the fluorescence of the reaction system. Based on this phenomenon, a novel method with simplicity, accuracy and sensitivity was developed for quantitative determination of CS. Factors including the reaction time, influencing factors and the effect of coexisting substances were investigated and discussed. Under optimum conditions the linear range of the calibration curve was 0.20~10.0 μg · mL(-1). The detection limit for CS was 0.070 μg · mL(-1). The method has been applied to the analysis of practical samples with satisfied results. This work expands the applications of AlS4Pc in biomedical area. PMID:26672294

  20. Synthesis and crystal structure of double ammonium and terbium sulfate (MHΛ4)Λ6TbΛ4(SOΛ4)Λ9x2HΛ2O

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Double ammonium and RE sulfates of the composition NH4Ln(SO4)2xH2O for Ln=Gd, Ho, Yb and Lu and (NH4)6Ln4(SO4)9x2H2O for Ln=Tb, Dy and Er were produced by the isothermal evaporation from solutions at 80-95 deg C. (NH4)6Th4(SO4)9x2H2O crystals are referred to the monoclinic crystal system. Lattice parameters are equal to: a=9.008 (5), b=18.323(8), c=21.39(1) A, β=95.33(5)deg, Z=4 Atom coordinates, interaeltomic distances, valent angs are given. Compound structure represents a framework composed of Tl-polyhedrons of two types and SO4-tetrahedrons. Non-equivalence of crystallochemical functions of NH4-group in (NH4)6Tb4(SO4)9x2H2O structure is revealed. It is shown that in terms of the composition of stable double sulfates ammonium salts have the strongest resemblance with potassium salts

  1. Modeling the use of sulfate additives for potassium chloride destruction in biomass combustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Hao; Grell, Morten Nedergaard; Jespersen, Jacob Boll;

    2013-01-01

    Potassium chloride, KCl, formed from biomass combustion may lead to ash deposition and corrosion problems in boilers. Sulfates are effective additives for converting KCl to the less harmful K2SO4. In the present study, the decomposition of ammonium sulfate, aluminum sulfate and ferric sulfate was...... studied respectively in a fast-heating rate thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) for deriving a kinetic model. The yields of SO2 and SO3 from the decomposition were studied in a tube reactor, revealing that the ratio of the SO3/SO2 released varied for different sulfate and for ammonium sulfate the ratio was...... affected by the decomposition temperature. Based on the experimental data, a model was proposed to simulate the sulfation of KCl by different sulfate addition, and the simulation results were compared with pilot-scale experiments conducted in a bubbling fluidized bed reactor. The simulation results of...

  2. Fine-tuning key parameters of an integrated reactor system for the simultaneous removal of COD, sulfate and ammonium and elemental sulfur reclamation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The system achieved simultaneous removal of 98% COD, 98% sulfate and 78% nitrogen. • The HRTs and reflux ratios were key parameters for performance and S0 recovery. • 60% S0 reclaimed from effluent, 30% deposited in reactor S0 (S0 production ≈ 90%). • Characteristics of bio-S0 were targeted to acquire high-rate S0 recovery. • Microbial community succession and function were discussed at different stage. - Abstract: In this paper, we proposed an integrated reactor system for simultaneous removal of COD, sulfate and ammonium (integrated C-S-N removal system) and investigated the key parameters of the system for a high level of elemental sulfur (S0) production. The system consisted of 4 main units: sulfate reduction and organic carbon removal (SR-CR), autotrophic and heterotrophic denitrifying sulfide removal (A and H-DSR), sulfur reclamation (SR), and aerated filter for aerobic nitrification (AN). In the system, the effects of key operational parameters on production of elemental sulfur were investigated, including hydraulic retention time (HRT) of each unit, sulfide/nitrate (S2−-S/NO3−-N) ratios, reflux ratios between the A and H-DSR and AN units, and loading rates of chemical oxygen demand (COD), sulfate and ammonium. Physico-chemical characteristics of biosulfur were studied for acquiring efficient S0 recovery. The experiments successfully explored the optimum parameters for each unit and demonstrated 98% COD, 98% sulfate and 78% nitrogen removal efficiency. The optimum HRTs for SR-CR, A and H-DSR and AN were 12 h, 3 h and 3 h, respectively. The reflux ratio of 3 could provide adequate S2−-S/NO3−-N ratio (approximately 1:1) to the A and H-DSR unit for obtaining maximum sulfur production. In this system, the maximum production of S0 reached 90%, but only 60% S0 was reclaimed from effluent. The S0 that adhered to the outer layer of granules was deposited in the bottom of the A and H-DSR unit. Finally, the

  3. Fine-tuning key parameters of an integrated reactor system for the simultaneous removal of COD, sulfate and ammonium and elemental sulfur reclamation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Ye, E-mail: yuanye_19840915@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090 (China); Chen, Chuan, E-mail: echo110244@126.com [State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090 (China); Liang, Bin, E-mail: liangbin1214@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090 (China); Huang, Cong, E-mail: hengyue5257@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090 (China); Zhao, Youkang, E-mail: zhaoyoukang@gmail.com [State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090 (China); Xu, Xijun, E-mail: xuxijun3220@sina.com [State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090 (China); Tan, Wenbo, E-mail: tanwenbo1@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090 (China); Zhou, Xu, E-mail: x.zhou@awmc.uq.edu.au [State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090 (China); Gao, Shuang, E-mail: localinna.1990@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090 (China); Sun, Dezhi, E-mail: sundezhi@bjfu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090 (China); Lee, DuuJong, E-mail: djlee@ntu.edu.tw [State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090 (China); Department of Chemical Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); and others

    2014-03-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The system achieved simultaneous removal of 98% COD, 98% sulfate and 78% nitrogen. • The HRTs and reflux ratios were key parameters for performance and S{sup 0} recovery. • 60% S{sup 0} reclaimed from effluent, 30% deposited in reactor S{sup 0} (S{sup 0} production ≈ 90%). • Characteristics of bio-S{sup 0} were targeted to acquire high-rate S{sup 0} recovery. • Microbial community succession and function were discussed at different stage. - Abstract: In this paper, we proposed an integrated reactor system for simultaneous removal of COD, sulfate and ammonium (integrated C-S-N removal system) and investigated the key parameters of the system for a high level of elemental sulfur (S{sup 0}) production. The system consisted of 4 main units: sulfate reduction and organic carbon removal (SR-CR), autotrophic and heterotrophic denitrifying sulfide removal (A and H-DSR), sulfur reclamation (SR), and aerated filter for aerobic nitrification (AN). In the system, the effects of key operational parameters on production of elemental sulfur were investigated, including hydraulic retention time (HRT) of each unit, sulfide/nitrate (S{sup 2−}-S/NO{sub 3}{sup −}-N) ratios, reflux ratios between the A and H-DSR and AN units, and loading rates of chemical oxygen demand (COD), sulfate and ammonium. Physico-chemical characteristics of biosulfur were studied for acquiring efficient S{sup 0} recovery. The experiments successfully explored the optimum parameters for each unit and demonstrated 98% COD, 98% sulfate and 78% nitrogen removal efficiency. The optimum HRTs for SR-CR, A and H-DSR and AN were 12 h, 3 h and 3 h, respectively. The reflux ratio of 3 could provide adequate S{sup 2−}-S/NO{sub 3}{sup −}-N ratio (approximately 1:1) to the A and H-DSR unit for obtaining maximum sulfur production. In this system, the maximum production of S{sup 0} reached 90%, but only 60% S{sup 0} was reclaimed from effluent. The S{sup 0} that adhered

  4. Extraction of Caprolactam from Aqueous Ammonium Sulfate Solution in Pulsed Packed Column Using 250Y Mellapak Packings%在脉冲填料柱中萃取硫酸铵溶液中的己内酰胺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢方友; 朱明乔; 刘建青; 何潮洪

    2002-01-01

    Liquid-liquid equilibrium (LLE) data of water-caprolactam-benzene-(NH4)2SO4 system at 303 K were measured for extraction of caprolactam from aqueous ammonium sulfate solution. The influence of fluid flow rate, pulsation intensity on flooding velocity and mass transfer was studied for extraction of caprolactam from ammonium sulfate solution in a laboratory pulsed packed column. The flooding velocities and overall apparent height of a transfer unit were given under various operation conditions. An industrial column developed based on above study is operated well. The scale-up effect is discussed.

  5. Sulfate-nitrate-ammonium aerosols over China: response to 2000–2015 emission changes of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and ammonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Wang

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We use a chemical transport model to examine the change of sulfate-nitrate-ammonium (SNA aerosols over China due to anthropogenic emission changes of their precursors (SO2, NOx and NH3 from 2000 to 2015. From 2000 to 2006, annual mean SNA concentrations increased by about 60% over China as a result of the 60% and 80% increases in SO2 and NOx emissions. During this period, sulfate is the dominant component of SNA over South China (SC and Sichuan Basin (SCB, while nitrate and sulfate contribute equally over North China (NC. Based on emission reduction targets in the 12th (2011–2015 Five-Year Plan (FYP, China's total SO2 and NOx emissions are projected to change by −16% and +16% from 2006 to 2015, respectively. The amount of NH3 emissions in 2015 is uncertain, given the lack of sufficient information on the past and present levels of NH3 emissions in China. With no change in NH3 emissions, SNA mass concentrations in 2015 will decrease over SCB and SC compared to their 2006 levels, but increase over NC where the magnitude of nitrate increase exceeds that of sulfate reduction. This suggests that the SO2 emission reduction target set by the 12th FYP, although effective in reducing SNA over SC and SCB, will not be successful over NC, for which NOx emission control needs to be strengthened. If NH3 emissions are allowed to keep their recent growth rate and increase by +16% from 2006 to 2015, the benefit of SO2 reduction will be completely offset over all of China due to the significant increase of nitrate, demonstrating the critical role of NH3 in regulating nitrate. The effective strategy to control SNA and hence PM2.5 pollution over China should thus be based on improving understanding of current NH3 emissions and putting more emphasis on controlling NH3 emissions in the future.

  6. Utilization of sulfate additives in biomass combustion: fundamental and modeling aspects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Hao; Jespersen, Jacob Boll; Grell, Morten Nedergaard;

    2013-01-01

    Sulfates, such as ammonium sulfate, aluminum sulfate and ferric sulfate, are effective additives for converting the alkali chlorides released from biomass combustion to the less harmful alkali sulfates. Optimization of the use of these additives requires knowledge on their decomposition rate and...... from the decomposition were investigated experimentally in a tube reactor under different conditions, revealing that the ratio of the SO3/SO2 released varied for different sulfate and the ratio could be influenced by the decomposition temperature. The proposed decomposition model of ferric sulfate was...... elemental sulfur were used as additives. The results indicated that the SO3 released from ferric sulfate decomposition was the main contributor to KCl sulfation and that the effectiveness of ferric sulfate addition was sensitive to the applied temperature conditions. Comparison of the effectiveness of...

  7. Treatment of automotive wastewater by coagulation-flocculation using poly-aluminum chloride (PAC), ferric chloride (FeCl3) and aluminum sulfate (alum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakar, Abdul Fattah Abu; Halim, Azhar Abdul

    2013-11-01

    A physicochemical treatment (coagulation-flocculation) was applied for automotive wastewater using poly-aluminum chloride (PAC), ferric chloride (FeCl3) and aluminum sulfate (alum) aided by anionic polyacrylamide as flocculant to determine the effectiveness of coagulation method for removal of COD, TSS and heavy metals (Fe, Ni and Zn). The results obtained proved that PAC was comparatively more efficient to FeCl3 and alum. At defined optimum experiment condition (coagulant dose: 70 mg/L, coagulant aid dose: 2 mg/L and pH 7), PAC showed 70% removal for (chemical oxygen demand) COD and 98% of (total suspended solid) TSS. For FeCl3 and alum, the maximum removal for COD were 64% and 54%, meanwhile TSS removal were 91% and 94%. Heavy metals removal using PAC also showed better results in which produced 98% of iron removal, 83% of zinc removal and 63% of nickel removal under optimum condition. The comparison revealed that the use of PAC aided by anionic polyacrylamide produced higher removal for COD, TSS and heavy metals compared to FeCl3 and alum for automotive wastewater treatment.

  8. Effect of ammonium-based, non-sulfate fertilizers on CH 4 emissions from a paddy field with a typical Chinese water management regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Haibo; Yao, Zhisheng; Zheng, Xunhua; Mei, Baoling; Xie, Baohua; Wang, Rui; Deng, Jia; Cui, Feng; Zhu, Jianguo

    2011-02-01

    The effects of ammonium-based, non-sulfate fertilizers, such as urea and/or ammonium phosphate (NH 4H 2PO 4), on methane (CH 4) emissions from paddy rice fields deserve attention, as they are being used increasingly for rice cultivation. A four-year field campaign was conducted in the Yangtze River Delta from 2004 to 2007 to assess the effects of different application rates of urea plus NH 4H 2PO 4 on the CH 4 emissions from a paddy rice field. The experimental field was under a typical Chinese water regime that follows a flooding-midseason drainage-reflooding-moist irrigation mode. Over the course of four years, the mean cumulative CH 4 emissions during the rice seasons were 221, 136 and 112 kg C ha -1 for nitrogen addition rates of 0, 150 and 250 kg N ha -1, respectively. Compared to the treatment without nitrogen amendments, the 150 kg N ha -1 decreased the CH 4 emissions by 6-59% ( P nitrate leaching and N loss from denitrification).

  9. 硫磷酸铵复合肥生产技术及配方计算%Production technology of ammonium sulfate phosphate compound fertilizer and its formula calculation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾志伟

    2012-01-01

    以洗涤液中的硫酸、磷酸,以及氨、硫酸铵、过磷酸钙生产硫磷酸铵复合肥,对硫磷酸铵物相组成、生产控制的关键因素进行探讨。通过实例定量测算得出:硫酸铵、过磷酸钙用量一定时,控制造粒机出口物料中和度n(N)/n(P)在1.70~1.85、硫酸消耗在220kg/t左右时,生产状况良好,设备运行良好。%Ammonium sulfate phosphate compound fertilizer is produced with sulfuric acid and phosphoric acid from cleaning mixture, ammonia, ammonium sulfate, SSP. The phase composition of ammonium sulfate phosphate and the key factors of production control are discussed. Based on the quantitatively calculation, it is concluded that: when the dosage of ammonium sulfate and single superphosphate is fixed, the material neutralization degree n(N) /n(P) in granulator export is 1.70- 1.85, sulfuric acid consumption is about 220 kg/t, the production condition and equipment operation are good.

  10. Effect of natural dissolved organic carbon on phosphate removal by ferric chloride and aluminum sulfate treatment of wetland waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qualls, Robert G.; Sherwood, Lindsay J.; Richardson, Curtis J.

    2009-09-01

    The use of wetlands for the removal of excess N and P has become widespread. Some sensitive P-limited ecosystems, however, may require additional reductions in the concentration of P entering the system. It has been proposed that the treatment of wetlands through addition of ferric chloride or aluminum sulfate can augment the natural P removal mechanisms. However, high concentrations of natural dissolved organic matter may interfere with the removal of P by metal addition. We evaluated the doses of ferric chloride and aluminum sulfate necessary to reduce total P concentrations below 0.32 μM (10 μg/L) in water from the Northern Everglades, and we determined the effect of various concentrations (21, 38, and 60 mg/L) of natural dissolved organic carbon (DOC) on the removal of PO4 and total P. High concentrations of natural DOC inhibited both the short-term removal of PO4 and the longer-term removal of total P from the water column. Similar results were observed using 15 μM citric acid in an experiment to determine whether citric acid could effectively mimic the inhibition of phosphorus removal associated with natural DOC. Stoichiometry of these experiments indicates that the mechanism of natural DOC interference was not complexation of the metal ions by the DOC; we hypothesize that it could be adsorption to the terminal hydroxyl groups on a polynuclear Fe or Al colloid, effectively blocking the adsorption sites from a phosphate molecule. Also, the ability of citric acid to mimic the inhibitory effects also suggests that the results of the study are broadly applicable to wetland and other waters with high natural organic acid concentrations.

  11. Alleviating aluminum toxicity in an acid sulfate soil from Peninsular Malaysia by calcium silicate application

    OpenAIRE

    A. A. Elisa; Ninomiya, S.; J. Shamshuddin; Roslan, I.

    2016-01-01

    In response to human population increase, the utilization of acid sulfate soils for rice cultivation is one option for increasing production. The main problems associated with such soils are their low pH values and their associated high content of exchangeable Al, which could be detrimental to crop growth. The application of soil amendments is one approach for mitigating this problem, and calcium silicate is an alternative soil amendment that could be used. Therefore, the ma...

  12. Process optimization of rare earth and aluminum leaching from weathered crust elution-deposited rare earth ore with compound ammonium salts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何正艳; 张臻悦; 余军霞; 徐志高; 池汝安

    2016-01-01

    In order to intensify the leaching process of rare earth (RE) and reduce the impurities in the leachate, ammonium chloride (NH4Cl) and ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3) were mixed as a compound leaching agent to treat the weathered crust elution-deposited RE ore. Effects of molar ratio of NH4Cl and NH4NO3, ammonium (NH4+) concentration, leaching agent pH and flow rate on the leaching process of RE were studied and evaluated by the chromatographic plate theory. Leaching process of the main impurity alu-minium (Al) was also discussed in detail. Results showed that a higher initial ammonium concentration in a certain range could en-hance the mass transfer process of RE and Al by providing a driving force to overcome the resistance of diffusion. pH almost had no effects on the mass transfer efficiency of RE and Al in the range of 4 to 8. The relationship between the flow rate and height equiva-lent to a theoretical plate (HETP) could fit well with the Van Deemter equation, and the flow rate at the lowest HETP was determined. The optimum conditions of column leaching for RE and Al were 1:1 (molar ratio) of NH4Cl and NH4NO3, 0.2 mol/L of ammonium concentration, pH 4–8 of leaching agent and 0.5 mL/min of flow rate. Under this condition, the mass transfer efficiency of RE was improved, but no change was observed for Al compared with the most widely used ammonium sulfate. Moreover, the significant dif-ference value (around 20 mL) of retention volume at the peak concentration between RE and Al provided a possibility for their sepa-ration. It suggested the potential application of the novel compound leaching agent (NH4Cl/NH4NO3). It was found that the relative concentration of RE in the leachate could be easily obtained by monitoring the pH of leachate.

  13. Temperature- and pH-dependent aqueous-phase kinetics of the reactions of glyoxal and methylglyoxal with atmospheric amines and ammonium sulfate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedehi, Nahzaneen; Takano, Hiromi; Blasic, Vanessa A.; Sullivan, Kristin A.; De Haan, David O.

    2013-10-01

    Reactions of glyoxal (Glx) and methylglyoxal (MG) with primary amines and ammonium salts may produce brown carbon and N-containing oligomers in aqueous aerosol. 1H NMR monitoring of reactant losses and product appearance in bulk aqueous reactions were used to derive rate constants and quantify competing reaction pathways as a function of pH and temperature. Glx + ammonium sulfate (AS) and amine reactions generate products containing C-N bonds, with rates depending directly on pH: rate = (70 ± 60) M-1 s-1fAld [Glx]totfAm [Am]tot, where fAld is the fraction of aldehyde with a dehydrated aldehyde functional group, and fAm is the fraction of amine or ammonia that is deprotonated at a given pH. MG + amine reactions generate mostly aldol condensation products and exhibit less pH dependence: rate = 10[(0.36 ± 0.06) × pH - (3.6 ± 0.3)] M-1 s-1fAld [MG]tot [Am]tot. Aldehyde + AS reactions are less temperature-dependent (Ea = 18 ± 8 kJ mol-1) than corresponding amine reactions (Ea = 50 ± 11 kJ mol-1). Using aerosol concentrations of [OH] = 10-12 M, [amine]tot = [AS] = 0.1 M, fGlx = 0.046 and fMG = 0.09, we estimate that OH radical reactions are normally the major aerosol-phase sink for both dicarbonyl compounds. However, reactions with AS and amines together can account for up to 12 and 45% of daytime aerosol-phase glyoxal and methylglyoxal reactivity, respectively, in marine aerosol at pH 5.5. Reactions with AS and amines become less important in acidic or non-marine aerosol, but may still be significant atmospheric sources of brown carbon, imidazoles, and nitrogen-containing oligomers.

  14. Experimental observations of detonation in ammonium-nitrate-fuel-oil (ANFO) surrounded by a high-sound speed, shockless, aluminum confiner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, Scott I [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Klyanda, Charles B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Short, Mark [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    Detonations in explosive mixtures of ammonium-nitrate-fuel-oil (ANFO) confined by aluminum allow for transport of detonation energy ahead of the detonation front due to the aluminum sound speed exceeding the detonation velocity. The net effect of this energy transport on the detonation is unclear. It could enhance the detonation by precompressing the explosive near the wall. Alternatively, it could desensitize the explosive by crushing porosity required for shock initiation or destroying confinement ahead of the detonation. As these phenomena are not well understood, most numerical explosive models are unable to account for them. But with slowly detonating, non-ideal high explosive (NIHE) systems becoming increasing prevalent, proper understanding and prediction of the performance of these metal-confined NIHE systems is desirable. Experiments are discussed that measured the effect of this ANFO detonation energy transported upstream of the front by an aluminum confining tube. Detonation velocity, detonation front curvature, and aluminum response are recorded as a function of confiner wall thickness and length. Front curvature profiles display detonation acceleration near the confining surface, which is attributed to energy transported upstream modifying the flow. Average detonation velocities were seen to increase with increasing confiner thickness due to the additional inertial confinement of the reaction zone flow. Significant radial sidewall tube motion was observed immediately ahead of the detonation. Axial motion was also detected which interfered with the front curvature measurements in some cases. It was concluded that the confiner was able to transport energy ahead of the detonation and that this transport has a definite effect on the detonation.

  15. Novel quaternary ammonium hydroxide cationic surfactants as corrosion inhibitors for carbon steel and as biocides for sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of alkyl dimethylisopropylammonium hydroxide cationic surfactants (DEDIAOH, DODIAOH and HEDIAOH) was synthesized and characterized. The surface properties such as the critical micelle concentration (CMC), the effectiveness of surface tension reduction (ΠCMC), surface excess concentration (Γmax) and surface area per molecule (Amin) have been determined by means of surface tension measurements. The degree of counter ion dissociation (β) and the free energy of micellization (ΔGmic) were calculated. The corrosion inhibition of the synthesized cationic surfactants on carbon steel surface in 1 M HCl solution was investigated. For this purpose, a series of techniques such as gravimetric measurement, potentiodynamic polarization and scanning electron microscope (SEM) were used. The values of activation energy for carbon steel corrosion and the thermodynamic parameters such as adsorption equilibrium constant (Kads), free energy of adsorption (ΔGadso), adsorption heat (ΔHadso) and adsorption entropy (ΔSadso) values were evaluated. Results showed that HEDIAOH had better inhibition effect than DEDIAOH and DODIAOH of the corrosion of carbon steel in 1 M HCl solution and inhibition efficiency is higher than 96% after 24 h at 1 x 10-2 M concentration of the inhibitor. The inhibition efficiency is discussed in terms of strong adsorption of the inhibitor molecules on the metal surface and formation of a protective film. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) showed a good surface coverage on the metal surface. The Biological activity was examined against sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) by dilution method.

  16. Modulation of tumor necrosis factor {alpha} expression in mouse brain after exposure to aluminum in drinking water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsunoda, M.; Sharma, R.P. [Georgia Univ., Athens (Greece). College of Veterinary Medicine

    1999-11-01

    Aluminum, a known neurotoxic substance and a ground-water pollutant, is a possible contributing factor in various nervous disorders including Alzheimer's disease. It has been hypothesized that cytokines are involved in aluminum neurotoxicity. We investigated the alterations in mRNA expression of tumor necrosis factor {alpha} (TNF{alpha}), interleukin-1{beta} (IL-1{beta}), and interferon {gamma} (IFN{gamma}), cytokines related to neuronal damage, in cerebrum and peripheral immune cells of mice after exposure to aluminum through drinking water. Groups of male BALB/c mice were administered aluminum ammonium sulfate in drinking water ad libitum at 0, 5, 25, and 125 ppm aluminum for 1 month. An additional group received 250 ppm ammonium as ammonium sulfate. After treatment, the cerebrum, splenic macrophages and lymphocytes were collected. The expression of TNF{alpha} mRNA in cerebrum was significantly increased among aluminum-treated groups compared with the control, in a dose-dependent manner. Other cytokines did not show any aluminum-related effects. In peripheral cells, there were no significant differences of cytokine mRNA expressions among treatment groups. Increased expression of TNF{alpha} mRNA by aluminum in cerebrum may reflect activation of microglia, a major source of TNF{alpha} in this brain region. Because the aluminum-induced alteration in cytokine message occurred at aluminum concentrations similar to those noted in contaminated water, these results may be relevant in considering the risk of aluminum neurotoxicity in drinking water. (orig.)

  17. Hemorrhagic irradiation cystitis associated with bladder transitional cell carcinoma and effects of aluminium-ammonium sulfate irrigation for massive bladder hemorrage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although pelvic irradiation is carried out widely on patients with uterine cancer, a few reports have dealt with the occurence of secondary bladder tumors due to pelvic irradiation. Herein, we report a case of radiation induced bladder transitional cell carcinoma. A 72-year-old woman suffered hemorrhagic irradiation cystitis for 2 years in duration following 8000 rads radiotherapy received 4 years before. Primary uterine cervical cancer was well controlled and residual tumor or recurrence of tumor was excluded by clinical examination. Cystoscopic and cytologic examination was initiated in 1981 when first episode of hematuria occurred and was repeated there-after to check for neoplasm in the bladder until June 1983, when a bladder tumor was identified. Cystoscopy revealed a small papillary tumor in trigone, and hyperemic edema and bleeding in almost the whole bladder mucosa. The pathology of the tumor was transitional cell carcinoma. Hemorrhagic cystitis was treated successfully with bladder irrigation of 3 litres of 1% aluminium-ammonium sulfate solution after 3 courses of irrigation. (author)

  18. Technology Optimization Research of Calcining Asbestos Tailings with Ammonium Sulfate%石棉尾矿硫酸铵焙烧工艺优化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘姝抒; 宋贝; 胡志波; 牛保军; 郑水林

    2015-01-01

    Asbestos tailings were preprocessed by ball-milling and calcining. This paper studied the influence of calcination temperature, calcination time and milling time on the roasting effect of asbestos tailings and ammonium sulfate. The result showed that the optimum conditions were that calcination temperature was 500℃, calcination time was 1 h, milling time was 18 min. Through being preprocessed, the leaching ratio of MgO was up from 70.03%to 95.29%.%对石棉尾矿进行预先煅烧和研磨处理,研究了煅烧温度、煅烧时间和研磨时间对石棉尾矿硫酸铵焙烧效果的影响,得到最佳的预处理条件:煅烧温度为500℃,煅烧时间为1 h,研磨时间为18 min。经过预处理后,石棉尾矿硫酸铵焙烧氧化镁溶出率从70.03%提高到95.29%。

  19. Alleviating aluminum toxicity in an acid sulfate soil from Peninsular Malaysia by calcium silicate application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elisa, A. A.; Ninomiya, S.; Shamshuddin, J.; Roslan, I.

    2016-03-01

    In response to human population increase, the utilization of acid sulfate soils for rice cultivation is one option for increasing production. The main problems associated with such soils are their low pH values and their associated high content of exchangeable Al, which could be detrimental to crop growth. The application of soil amendments is one approach for mitigating this problem, and calcium silicate is an alternative soil amendment that could be used. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to ameliorate soil acidity in rice-cropped soil. The secondary objective was to study the effects of calcium silicate amendment on soil acidity, exchangeable Al, exchangeable Ca, and Si content. The soil was treated with 0, 1, 2, and 3 Mg ha-1 of calcium silicate under submerged conditions and the soil treatments were sampled every 30 days throughout an incubation period of 120 days. Application of calcium silicate induced a positive effect on soil pH and exchangeable Al; soil pH increased from 2.9 (initial) to 3.5, while exchangeable Al was reduced from 4.26 (initial) to 0.82 cmolc kg-1. Furthermore, the exchangeable Ca and Si contents increased from 1.68 (initial) to 4.94 cmolc kg-1 and from 21.21 (initial) to 81.71 mg kg-1, respectively. Therefore, it was noted that calcium silicate was effective at alleviating Al toxicity in acid sulfate, rice-cropped soil, yielding values below the critical level of 2 cmolc kg-1. In addition, application of calcium silicate showed an ameliorative effect as it increased soil pH and supplied substantial amounts of Ca and Si.

  20. Effects of three additives on the removal of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) by coagulation using ferric chloride or aluminum sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishimoto, Naoyuki; Kobayashi, Masanori

    2016-01-01

    Perfluorooctanesulfonic acid and its salts (PFOS) are emerging contaminants with long half-lives in water and human bodies. Accordingly, PFOS removal from water streams is required for controlling the PFOS pollution. To provide a simple PFOS separation technology, effects of three additives, powdered activated carbon (PAC), gelatin, and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), on the PFOS removal by coagulation with ferric chloride or aluminum sulfate were investigated in this study. As a result, coagulation with PAC or CTAB addition was effective in the PFOS removal, though the conventional coagulation and coagulation with gelatin addition were ineffective. A PFOS removal efficiency of over 90% was observed for the CTAB dose of over 1.6 μM (0.58 mg/L) and for the PAC dose of over 40 mg/L, and that of over 95% was achieved by the CTAB dose of over 2.4 μM (0.87 mg/L), when the initial PFOS concentration was 1.84 μM. The positive effect of CTAB would be caused by micelle formation, which was enhanced by both the association of hydrophobic tails and the electrostatic attraction of hydrophilic heads of PFOS and CTAB. Thus, a linear cationic surfactant of CTAB was concluded to be an effective additive for the PFOS removal by coagulation. PMID:27332843

  1. Research of Magnesium Extracted from Asbestos Tailings by Ammonium Sulfate Calcination Method%硫酸铵焙烧活化石棉尾矿提取镁实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾丽; 孙红娟; 彭同江

    2012-01-01

    本实验采用硫酸铵与石棉尾矿用高温炉焙烧的方法提取镁.首先利用差热-热重法分析石棉尾矿与硫酸铵混合物的热分解和化学反应的热效应,得出石棉尾矿与硫酸铵混合物在240~ 500℃下产生分解、失重.将石棉尾矿与硫酸铵混合均匀后在320℃、400℃和460℃下焙烧1h,用XRD分析焙烧产物,得出在320℃时石棉尾矿和硫酸铵反应主要生成(NH4)2Mg(SO4)2和(NH4)2Mg2(SO4)3;在400℃时主要生成(NH4)2Mg2(SO4)3;在460℃时主要生成MgSO4,由于吸水变为MgSO4·6H2O.研究了硫酸铵与石棉尾矿不同物质的量的配比、焙烧温度和焙烧时间对镁浸取率的影响,得出当硫酸铵与石棉尾矿物质的量之比为2∶1、焙烧温度为460℃、焙烧时间为60 min时,镁的浸取率为83.1%.%In this paper, magnesium was extracted from asbestos tailings by ammonium sulfate calcination method. First the thermal behavior and the chemical calorific effect of the blend of asbestos tailings and ammonium sulfate were characterized by TG-DTA, it showed that asbestos tailings and ammonium sulfate were decompounded at 240~500 ℃. Then the asbestos tailings were uniform mixed with ammonium sulfate and calcined at 320 ℃, 400 ℃, and 460 ℃ for 1 h respectively and the calcinated products were studied by XRD. The results indicated that asbestos tailings and ammonium sulfate react each other to generate (NH4)2Mg(SO4)2 and (NH4)2Mg2(SO4)3 at 320 °C; the main product was (NH4)2Mg2(SO4)3 at 400 ℃ and MgSO4 at 460℃ respectively. Then the influence of the molar ratio of ammonium sulfate and asbestos tailings, the calcination temperature, the calcination time were studied. The results indicated that when the molar ratio of ammonium sulfate and asbestos tailings is 2 : 1, the calcination temperature is 460 ℃, the calcination time is 60 min, the leaching rate of Mg is 83.1%.

  2. On-farm evaluation of aluminum sulfate (alum) as a poultry litter amendment: effects on litter properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, J T; Luka-McCafferty, N J

    2002-01-01

    Aluminum sulfate [alum; Al2(SO4)3] amendment of poultry litters has been suggested as a best management practice to help reduce the potential environmental effects of poultry production. Past research has shown that alum treatment reduced NH3 emissions from litters, decreased the loss in runoff of P and trace metals from litter-amended soils, improved poultry health, and reduced the costs of poultry production. We conducted a large scale, "on-farm" evaluation of alum as a poultry (broiler) litter amendment on the Delmarva peninsula to determine the effect of alum on (i) litter properties and elemental composition and (ii) the solubility of several elements in litter that are of particular concern for water quality (Al, As, Cu, P, and Zn). Alum was applied over a 16-mo period to 97 poultry houses on working poultry farms; 97 houses on other farms served as controls (no alum). Litter samples were analyzed initially and after approximately seven alum applications. We found that alum decreased litter pH and the water solubility of P, As, Cu, and Zn. Alum-treated houses also had higher litter total N, NH4-N, and total S concentrations and thus a greater overall fertilizer value than litters from the control houses. Higher litter NH4-N values also suggest that alum reduced NH3 losses from litters. Thus, alum appears to have promise as a best management practice (BMP) for poultry production. Future research should focus on the long-term transformations of P, Al, As, Cu, and Zn in soils amended with alum-treated litters. PMID:12469858

  3. Simultaneous Removal of Ammonium and Sulfate in Ethanol-Methane Coupled System%酒精-沼气双发酵耦联系统同步脱氨除硫工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐健; 王柯; 杨西昭; 毛忠贵

    2013-01-01

    木薯燃料酒精-沼气双发酵耦联系统中,蒸馏废液含有一定浓度的硫酸盐和有机氮.经传统厌氧生物处理,所产生的氨和硫化氢不仅对厌氧处理体系中的微生物具有毒害作用,还会对酒精发酵酵母的生长和代谢产生不良影响.因此,对蒸馏废液厌氧脱氨除硫新工艺的研究具有重要意义.文章以厌氧流化床为反应器,对模拟废水中的氨和硫酸盐的同步去除进行了研究.模拟废水中含有氯化铵和硫酸钠,分别作为电子供体和电子受体,以葡萄糖作为唯一碳源.实验运行83d,反应器有机容积负荷降至0.4 kg/(m3·d),SO42-和NH4+-N进水浓度分别升高至676 mg/L和200 mg/L.COD、硫酸盐和氨氮的去除率分别达到93.50%、67.22%和58.28%;氨和硫酸盐去除的摩尔比约为2:1,并在反应器出水中检测到了单质硫的存在,且其含量随反应进行不断增加.这些结果证明了厌氧流化床体系中同步脱氨除硫反应的存在.另外通过对不同阶段实验结果的分析初步探讨了该反应的机理.%In cassava-based ethanol -methane coupled system, distillery waste contains high concentration of sulfate and organic nitrogen which are converted to ammonia and hydrogen sulfide by conventional anaerobic biological treatment respectively. Since ammonia and hydrogen sulfide have toxic effect on microorganisms in the anaerobic treatment system, as well as negative effect on the growth and metabolism of yeast in the ethanol fermentation, it is necessary to study new technology of anaerobic simultaneous removal of ammonium and sulfate in the distillery waste. An anaerobic fluidized-bed reactor was used to study simultaneous removal of ammonium and sulfate in synthetic medium which contained sodium sulfate as electron acceptor, ammonium chloride as electron donor and glucose as carbon source for bacteria growth. The process was operated for total 83 d, and loading rates of COD was reduced to 0.4 kg/(m3

  4. The ferrous ammonium sulfate solid system, as dosemeter for processes at low temperatures and high doses of gamma radiation; El sistema sulfato ferroso amoniacal solido, como dosimetro para procesos a bajas temperaturas y altas dosis de radiacion gamma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juarez C, J.M.; Ramos B, S.; Negron M, A. [ICN-UNAM, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    This paper presents the results obtained from a study of the radiation induced oxidation of crystalline ferrous ammonium sulfate with gamma rays at 295 K, 263 K and 77 K and dose from 0 to 300 kGy. The radiation induced decomposition of ferrous ammonium sulfate has been studied by the dissolution of the irradiated salt in 0,8 N sulfuric acid. The main product is Fe{sup 3+} and molar concentration of ferric ion was determined spectrophotometrically in the UV region at 304 nm. The optical density values showed a linear dependence with dose, indicating that the data obtained might be used to create a calibrating curve. Color in irradiated salt changes from blue to green, yellow and orange according to the absorbed dose. The accuracy and the reproducibility of the system were tested. In addition, some other characteristics make possible the use of this system as a dosimeter, similar to Fricke chemical dosemeter, at low temperatures and high dose. (Author)

  5. Experimental studying on phosphorus removal from water by aluminum sulfate residue%硫酸铝渣去除水中磷研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜雅婧; 丛海兵; 黄廷林

    2011-01-01

    The capacity of aluminum sulfate residue for phosphorus removal from aqueous solution, with water and Taihu lake water respectively as examples, was investigated, and the influence of aluminum sulfate residue on Al3+ , SO2/4 concentration and pH of water were discussed. The adsorption capacity of aluminum sulfate residue for phosphorus was tended to a fixed value; the experimental data were well described by the Langmuir adsorption equation, except in Taihu lake water at pH of 9. 0 and 10. 0. While, adsorption capacity data obtained in Taihu lake water at pH of 9. 0 and 10. 0 was better fitted by Freundlich adsorption equation. The maximum adsorption capacity was decreased with increasing the solution pH, when solution pH ranged 6-8, the maximum phosphorus removal quantity in distilled water and Taihu lake water was 2. 92-3. 41, 2. 41-3. 08 mg/g respectively. There was no Al3+ detected in water after isothermal adsorption experiments, the SO2/4- dissolution quantity of aluminum sulfate residue in distilled water and Taihu lake water was 0. 09-0. 37, 0. 24-0. 37 mmol/g. Aluminum sulfate residue could not decrease the pH of Taihu lake water when water to residue ratio ≥2 000. Adding 0. 50 g of aluminum sulfate residue to 240 mL Taihu lake water samples, the alkalinity of water sample decreased from 8. 73 mmol/L to 4. 73 mmol/L, given the alkalinity consumes quantity of 1. 92 mmol/g.%分别以蒸馏水和太湖水为例,研究了硫酸铝渣去除水中磷的能力,并分析了其对水体Al3+、SO24-以及pH的影响.结果表明:(1)除太湖水pH为9.0、10.0两种条件外,随着磷平衡浓度的增加,硫酸铝渣除磷量趋于某一定值,其规律符合Langmuir吸附等温式;太湖水pH为9.0、10.0两种条件下,硫酸铝渣除磷量符合Freundlich吸附等温式.(2)随着pH的增加,硫酸铝渣最大除磷量逐渐减少;当pH为6~8时,蒸馏水、太湖水最大除磷量分别达到2.92~3.41、2.41~3.08mg/g.(3)在

  6. Stability of nicotinate and dodecyl sulfate in a Lewis acidic ionic liquid for aluminum electroplating and characterization of their degradation products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosmus, Patrick; Steiner, Oliver; Goessler, Walter; Gollas, Bernhard; Fauler, Gisela

    2016-04-01

    Plating bath additives are essential for optimization of the morphology of electroplated layers. The ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium (EMIM) chloride plus 1.5 mol equivalents of AlCl3 has great potential for electroplating of aluminum. In this study, the chemical and electrochemical stability of the additives EMIM-nicotinate and sodium dodecyl sulfate and their effect on the stability of EMIM was investigated and analyzed. Nicotinate and its electrochemical decomposition product β-picoline could be detected and we show with a single HPLC-UV-MS method that EMIM is not affected by the decomposition of this additive. An adapted standard HPLC-UV-MS method together with GC-MS and ion chromatography was used to analyze the decomposition products of SDS and possible realkylation products of EMIM. Several volatile medium and short chain-length alkanes as well as sulfate ions have been found as decomposition products of SDS. Alkenium ions formed as intermediates during the decomposition of SDS realkylate EMIM to produce mono- up to pentasubstituted alkyl-imidazoles. A reaction pathway involving Wagner-Meerwein rearrangements and Friedel-Crafts alkylations has been suggested to account for the formation of the detected products. PMID:26864607

  7. Fabrication of a hierarchical dodecyl sulfate-layered double hydroxide nanocomposite on porous aluminum wire as an efficient coating for solid-phase microextraction of phenols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have synthesized, by a hydrothermal crystallization method, a layered double hydroxide of aluminum that is intercalated with the dodecyl sulfate anion. This nanocomposite is formed on a porous aluminum wire and can be used as a fiber coating for solid-phase microextraction. The nanocomposite has a flower like morphology and a high specific surface. The coating can be prepared easily, is mechanically stable, and exhibits relatively high thermal stability. It is capable of extracting phenolic compounds from water samples. Following thermal desorption, the phenols were quantified by GC-MS. The effects of extraction temperature, extraction time, sample ionic strength, stirring rate, pH, desorption temperature and desorption time were studied. Under optimal conditions, the repeatability for one fiber (for n = 5), expressed as the relative standard deviation, is between 3.9 and 7.6 %. The detection limits range from 0.2 to 4 pg mL−1. The method is simple, fast, and inexpensive. The fibers are thermally stable and yield better recoveries than conventional methods of analysis. (author)

  8. Electrochemical corrosion and modeling studies of types 7075 and 2219 aluminum alloys in a nitric acid + ferric sulfate deoxidizer solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savas, Terence P.

    The corrosion behavior of types 7075-T73 and 2219-T852 high strength aluminum alloys have been investigated in a HNO3 + Fe2(SO 4)3 solution. The materials are characterized in the time domain using the electrochemical noise resistance parameter (Rn) and in the frequency-domain using the spectral noise impedance parameter ( Rsn). The Rsn parameter is derived from an equivalent electrical circuit model that represents the corrosion test cell schematic used in the present study. These calculated parameters are correlated to each other, and to corresponding scanning electron microscopy (SEM) examinations of the corroded surfaces. In addition, energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) spectra are used in conjunction with SEM exams for particle mapping and identification. These constituent particles are characterized with respect to their size and composition and their effect on the localized corrosion mechanisms taking place. Pitting mechanisms are identified as 'circumferential' where the particles appeared noble with respect to the aluminum matrix and by 'selective dissolution' where they are anodic to the aluminum matrix. The electrochemical data are found to be in good agreement with the surface examinations. Specifically, the electrochemical parameters Rn and Rsn were consistent in predicting the corrosion resistance of 7075-T73 to be lower than for the 2219-T852 alloy. Other characteristic features used in understanding the corrosion mechanisms include the open circuit potential (OCP) and coupling-current time records.

  9. Study of the crystal structure of double ammonium hafnium sulfate of the (NH4)4Hf(SO4)4x4H2O composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two new double compounds of (NH4)2Hf(SO4)3x2H2O and (NH4)4Hf(SO4)4x4H2O have been studied. The second compound which forms needle transparent crystals of monoclinic singony, has been studied by the X-ray analysis. The unit cell parametres are as follows: a = 18.12(3), b = 14.89(3), c = 7.25(3) A, γ = 95.5 deg (5), spatial group P2/b, N=4. The first structure may be described as an islet structure. Besides basic valent bonds, it contains numerous intermolecular contacts and hydrogen bonds formed by water molecules and ammonium ions

  10. Dessecação de plantas daninhas com glyphosate em mistura com ureia ou sulfato de amônio Weed desiccation with glyphosate mixed with urea or ammonium sulfate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.J.P. Carvalho

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available O glyphosate é um herbicida não-seletivo, sistêmico, usado para controle de plantas daninhas anuais e perenes em todo o mundo. A absorção da molécula do glyphosate ocorre pelos tecidos fotossinteticamente ativos das plantas, porém alguns fatores podem reduzir sua eficácia, como a morfologia e diversidade de espécies, chuva após aplicação, qualidade da água e misturas em tanque com outros defensivos, entre outros. Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar a influência da adição de sulfato de amônio ou ureia em calda na eficácia do herbicida glyphosate para dessecação de plantas daninhas. Dois experimentos foram desenvolvidos em Piracicaba - SP, com aplicações de glyphosate (720 e 1.440 g ha-1 isolado ou combinado com duas doses de sulfato de amônio (7,5 e 15,0 g L-1 ou ureia (2,5 e 5,0 g L-1 sobre as plantas daninhas: apaga-fogo (Alternanthera tenella e capim-massambará (Sorghum halepense. Para a espécie menos suscetível ao herbicida (capim-massambará, a adição de fontes nitrogenadas à menor dose de glyphosate acelerou a morte das plantas, elevando os níveis de controle em até 7,3% na avaliação de 21 dias após aplicação (DAA dos tratamentos. Contudo, os efeitos não foram observados nas avaliações de controle, massa fresca e seca, conduzidas aos 28 DAA. A dose recomendada de glyphosate para cada espécie proporcionou controle satisfatório, sem a necessidade de adição de sulfato de amônio ou ureia.Glyphosate is a non-selective systemic herbicide used to control annual and perennial weeds worldwide. Molecule absorption occurs through the plant's photosynthetically-active tissues; however, some factors might reduce its efficacy, such as morphology and specific diversity, rain after application, water quality and tank mixtures with other chemicals. Thus, this work aimed to evaluate the influence of ammonium sulfate or urea addiction to spray tank on glyphosate efficacy for weed desiccation. Two trials were

  11. ALUMINUM RECLAMATION BY ACIDIC EXTRACTION OF ALUMINUM-ANODIZING SLUDGES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Extraction of aluminum-anodizing sludges with sulfuric acid was examined to determine the potential for production of commercial-strength solutions of aluminum sulfate, that is liquid alum. The research established kinetic and stoichiometric relationships and evaluates product qu...

  12. Determination of plutonium in nitric acid solutions - Method by oxidation by cerium(IV), reduction by iron(II) ammonium sulfate and amperometric back-titration with potassium dichromate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This International Standard specifies a precise and accurate analytical method for determining plutonium in nitric acid solutions. Plutonium is oxidized to plutonium(VI) in a 1 mol/l nitric acid solution with cerium(IV). Addition of sulfamic acid prevents nitrite-induced side reactions. The excess of cerium(IV) is reduced by adding a sodium arsenite solution, catalysed by osmium tetroxide. A slight excess of arsenite is oxidized by adding a 0.2 mol/l potassium permanganate solution. The excess of permanganate is reduced by adding a 0.1 mol/l oxalic acid solution. Iron(III) is used to catalyse the reduction. A small excess of oxalic acid does not interfere in the subsequent plutonium determination. These reduction and oxidation stages can be followed amperometrically and the plutonium is left in the hexavalent state. The sulfuric acid followed by a measured amount of standardized iron(II) ammonium sulfate solution in excess of that required to reduce the plutonium(VI) to plutonium(IV) is added. The excess iron(II) and any plutonium(III) formed to produce iron(III) and plutonium(IV) is amperometrically back-titrated using a standard potassium dichromate solution. The method is almost specifically for plutonium. It is suitable for the direct determination of plutonium in materials ranging from pure product solutions, to fast reactor fuel solutions with a uranium/plutonium ratio of up to 10:1, either before or after irradiation

  13. Effect of aluminum sulfate on litter composition and ammonia emission in a single flock of broilers up to 42 days of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madrid, J; López, M J; Orengo, J; Martínez, S; Valverde, M; Megías, M D; Hernández, F

    2012-08-01

    New alternatives are necessary if the environmental impact linked to intensive poultry production is to be reduced, and different litter handling methods should be explored. Among these, acidifying amendments added to poultry litters has been suggested as a management practice to help reduce the potential environmental effect involved in multiple flock cycles. There have been several studies on the use of aluminum sulfate (alum) and its benefits, but almost no data are available under farm conditions in Europe. An experiment with Ross 308 broilers from 1 to 42 days of age was conducted to evaluate the effect of alum on litter composition, the solubility of some mineral elements and NH3 emission during a single flock-rearing period in commercial houses located in southeast Spain. Broilers were placed on clean wood shavings in four commercial houses, containing 20 000 broilers each. Before filling, alum was applied at a rate of 0.25 kg/m2 to the wood shavings of two poultry houses, whereas the remaining two were used as control. Litter from each poultry house was sampled every 3 to 5 days. Ammonia emissions from the poultry houses were monitored from 37 to 42 days of age. In comparison with the control group, alum treatment significantly reduced the pH level of the litter (P Alum-treated litter showed, on average, a higher electrical conductivity than the control litter (5.52 v. 3.63 dS/m). The dry matter (DM) and total N and P contents did not show differences between the treatments (P > 0.05). Regarding the NH4 +-N content, alum-treated litter showed a higher value than the untreated litter, with an average difference of 0.16 ± 0.07% (on a DM basis). On average, alum-treated litter had lower water-soluble P, Zn and Cu contents than the untreated litter. Alum noticeably reduced the in-house ammonia concentration (P alum treatment (P alum could be recommended as a way of reducing the pollution potential of European broiler facilities during a single flock cycle

  14. EDTA complexometric titration for determination of aluminum in copper sulfate waste solution%EDTA 络合滴定法测定硫酸铜废液中的铝

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白小叶; 迟爱玲

    2014-01-01

    Copper sulfate waste solution generated in metallurgical process is studied in determining aluminum . Ammonia (1+1) is used to separate aluminum in the form of aluminum hydroxide precipitation from the principal part of the solution ,and then the aluminum mass concentration is determined by EDTA complexometry .A series of ex-periments are conducted on the parameters such as copper and iron ionic interference ,solution acidity and the temper-ature of the EDTA complexation reaction ,solving the problems of the determination of the aluminum in this copper sul-fate waste solution .This method compared with spectrophotometry is simple , rapid and has lower analysis cost .The method through the determination in copper sulfate solution with different mass fraction ,obtains a relative standard de-viation of 0.071 %-0.930 %(n=6),and sample measurements are consistent with the azure S value determined by spectrophotometry .%实验研究了冶金工艺过程产生的硫酸铜废液中铝的测定方法。采用氨水(1+1)使铝以氢氧化铝沉淀的形式与主体溶液分离,然后用EDTA络合法测定铝的质量浓度;对该硫酸铜废液中铜、铁干扰离子、溶液的酸度、EDTA络合反应温度等条件进行了一系列的实验,解决了硫酸铜废液中铝的测定难题。该方法与分光光度法比较,简单快速,分析成本低廉;通过对不同硫酸铜废液中铝的质量浓度测定,相对标准偏差为0.071%~0.930%(n=6),样品测定值与络天青S分光光度法测定值相符合。

  15. RECLAMATION OF ALUMINUM FINISHING SLUDGES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The research study of the reclamation of aluminum-anodizing sludges was conducted in two sequential phases focused on enhanced dewatering of aluminum-anodizing sludges to produce commercial-strength solutions of aluminum sulfate, i.e., liquid alum. The use of high-pressure (14 to...

  16. Chondroitin sulfate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in combination with glucosamine sulfate, shark cartilage, and camphor. Some people also inject chondroitin sulfate into the ... in combination with glucosamine sulfate, shark cartilage, and camphor seems to reduce arthritis symptoms. However, any symptom ...

  17. Distribution of nitrogen ammonium sulfate ({sup 15}N) soil-plant system in a no-tillage crop succession; Distribuicao do nitrogenio do sulfato de amonio ({sup 15}N) no sistema solo-planta, em uma sucessao de culturas, sob sistema plantio direto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, Flavia Carvalho da Silva, E-mail: flcsfernandes@gmail.com [Universidade Estadual de Maringa - Campus de Umuarama, PR (Brazil); Libardi, Paulo Leonel, E-mail: pllibard@esalq.usp.br [Departamento de Engenharia de Biossistemas, Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz, Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2012-05-15

    the n use by maize (Zea mays, l.) is affected by n-fertilizer levels. this study was conducted using a sandy-clay texture soil (Hapludox) to evaluate the efficiency of n use by maize in a crop succession, based on {sup 15}N labeled ammonium sulfate (5.5 atom %) at different rates, and to assess the residual fertilizer effect in two no-tillage succession crops (signal grass and corn). Two maize crops were evaluated, the first in the growing season 2006, the second in 2007, and brachiaria in the second growing season. The treatments consisted of n rates of 60, 120 and 180 kg ha{sup -1}in the form of labeled {sup 15}N ammonium sulfate. This fertilizer was applied in previously defined subplots, only to the first maize crop (growing season 2006). The variables total accumulated n; fertilizer-derived n in corn plants and pasture; fertilizer-derived n in the soil; and recovery of fertilizer-n by plants and soil were evaluated.The highest uptake of fertilizer n by corn was observed after application of 120 kg ha{sup -1}N and the residual effect of n fertilizer on subsequent corn and brachiaria was highest after application of 180 kg ha{sup -1}N. After the crop succession, soil n recovery was 32, 23 and 27 % for the respective applications of 60, 120 and 180 kg ha{sup -1}N. (author)

  18. Influence of Ammonium Salts and Cane Molasses on Growth of Alcaligenes eutrophus and Production of Polyhydroxybutyrate

    OpenAIRE

    Beaulieu, M.; Beaulieu, Y.; Melinard, J.; Pandian, S.; GOULET, J.

    1995-01-01

    The production of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) by Alcaligenes eutrophus DSM 545 was studied in a synthetic medium with 3% glucose at pH 7.0 supplemented with several ammonium substrates and cane molasses. Growth was measured by dry cell weight, and the PHB content was measured by gas chromatography. The effects of ammonium sources such as sulfate, nitrate, phosphate, and chloride salts and those of different ammonium sulfate concentrations were evaluated. The best growth and PHB production were ...

  19. Viabilidade econômica e risco do cultivo de mamão em função da lâmina de irrigação e doses de sulfato de amônio = Economic viability and cultivation risk of papaya in function of irrigation depth and ammonium sulfate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Bastos Lyra

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se determinar a viabilidade econômica e o risco do cultivo do mamão na Região Norte do Espírito Santo e comparar os índices econômicos com dados experimentais de irrigação e doses de sulfato de amônio. O experimento foi conduzido na Fazenda Caliman Agrícola S.A., em Linhares, Estado do Espírito Santo. Foram avaliadas, separadamente, duas variedades de mamão, Golden e UENF Caliman 01, em cinco níveis de irrigação (50, 70, 90, 110 e 130% da evapotranspiração de referência, combinados com quatro doses de sulfato de amônio (90, 188, 288 e 377 kg ha-1 mês-1. Na determinação dos riscos e índices da cultura do mamão utilizou-se o cálculo do Valor Presente Líquido, a Taxa Interna de Retorno, a análise de sensibilidade e o método de Monte Carlo. Os tratamentos de irrigação apresentaram diferenças estatísticas significativas (p The aim of this paper was to determine the economic viability and cultivation risk in northern Espírito Santo State and compare theeconomic indices with experimental irrigation data and ammonium sulfate doses. The experiment was carried out at Calima Agricola S.A. farm, in Linhares, ES. Two varieties were evaluated separately, Golden and UENF Caliman 01, in five irrigation levels, combined withfour ammonium sulfate doses. The determination of indices and risks of papaya cultivation utilized the calculation of net present value, internal rate of return, sensitivity analysis and Monte Carlo method. The irrigation treatments showed significant statistical differences (p < 0.05 in relation to productivity. The ammonium sulfate and its interactions with applied irrigation depths did not present significant differences (p < 0.05 for the same variable. By means of a Monte Carlo simulation (triangular simulation, the probability of obtaining negative net present value is 63.2 and 81.4% for Golden and UENF Caliman 01, respectively.

  20. Calibration and measurement uncertainties of a continuous-flow cloud condensation nuclei counter (DMT-CCNC: CCN activation of ammonium sulfate and sodium chloride aerosol particles in theory and experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Rose

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Experimental and theoretical uncertainties in the measurement of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN with a continuous-flow thermal-gradient CCN counter from Droplet Measurement Technologies (DMT-CCNC have been assessed by model calculations and calibration experiments with ammonium sulfate and sodium chloride aerosol particles in the diameter range of 20–220 nm. Experiments have been performed in the laboratory and during field measurement campaigns, extending over a period of more than one year and covering a wide range of operating conditions (650–1020 hPa ambient pressure, 0.5–1.0 L min−1 aerosol flow rate, 20–30°C inlet temperature, 4–34 K m−1 temperature gradient. For each set of conditions, the effective water vapor supersaturation (Seff in the CCNC was determined from the measured CCN activation spectra and Köhler model calculations.

    High measurement precision was achieved under stable laboratory conditions, where relative variations of Seff in the CCNC were generally less than ±2%. During field measurements, however, the relative variability increased up to ±5–7%, which can be mostly attributed to variations of the CCNC column top temperature with ambient temperature.

    To assess the accuracy of the Köhler models used to calculate Seff, we have performed a comprehensive comparison and uncertainty analysis of the various Köhler models and thermodynamic parameterizations commonly used in CCN studies. For the relevant supersaturation range (0.05–2%, the relative deviations between different modeling approaches were as high as 25% for (NH42SO4 and 16% for NaCl. The deviations were mostly caused by the different parameterizations for the activity of water in aqueous solutions of (NH42SO4 and NaCl (activity parameterization, osmotic coefficient, and van't Hoff

  1. 稻壳灰制备聚硅酸硫酸铝絮凝剂及其结构性能%Preparation of poly aluminum silicate sulfate flocculant from rice husk ash and its structure performance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周颖; 刘龙; 李哲; 宋蔺娜; 武文洁

    2014-01-01

    为了进一步充分利用稻壳灰中的硅和碳,该文提出由稻壳灰制备水玻璃并进一步制备聚硅酸硫酸铝(poly aluminum silicate sulfate,PASS)絮凝剂,对PASS进行结构表征,并考察了PASS处理有机废水的絮凝效果。结果表明,由稻壳灰制备水玻璃,可通过碱处理稻壳灰获得模数为3.3的水玻璃并联产活性炭;再由上述水玻璃制备PASS。通过考察二氧化硅质量分数、铝硅摩尔比、pH 值对其絮凝性能的影响,得到较佳工艺条件:二氧化硅质量分数7%,铝硅摩尔比1∶2,pH值为2.0,此条件下投量(以Al2O3计)60 mg/L时有机废水(油墨废水)的除浊率和脱色率分别为97.29%、94.26%,相同投量下处理有机废水(油墨废水和油脂废水),PASS的除浊率和脱色率高于聚合氯化铝(poly aluminum chloride)10%~20%左右;X射线衍射(x-ray diffraction)、傅里叶红外光谱(Fourier transform infrared spectrometer)的结构分析表明PASS是由硅和铝组成的无定型聚合物。研究结果为稻壳灰资源的应用开辟一条新途径,为絮凝剂的原料来源提供参考。%Rice husk ash was a kind of resource, but it was often wasted. In order to better use rice husk ash, the process of poly-generation of sodium silicate and activated carbon from rice husk ash, and the further production of poly aluminum silicate sulfate (PASS)from sodium silicate were reported in this paper. In addition, the flocculation performance of PASS for the treatment of organic waste water was investigated, and the structure of PASS was also characterized with several different analysis methods. As is well known, the ash-alkali ratio has a significant influence on the modulus of sodium silicate and methylene blue adsorption value of activated carbon in the process of poly-generation of sodium silicate and activated carbon from rice husk. In this paper, the reaction of rice husk ash and sodium hydroxide

  2. Barium Sulfate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barium sulfate is used to help doctors examine the esophagus (tube that connects the mouth and stomach), ... dimensional pictures of the inside of the body). Barium sulfate is in a class of medications called ...

  3. Glucosamine sulfate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to control arthritis pain. These creams usually contain camphor and other ingredients in addition to glucosamine. Glucosamine ... in combination with chondroitin sulfate, shark cartilage, and camphor for up to 8 weeks. Glucosamine sulfate can ...

  4. Glifosato aplicado com diferentes concentrações de uréia ou sulfato de amônio para dessecação de plantas daninhas Glyphosate applied with different concentrations of urea or ammonium sulfate for weed desiccation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saul Jorge Pinto de Carvalho

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de avaliar a eficácia do herbicida glifosato, para a dessecação de trapoeraba (Commelina benghalensis e outras plantas daninhas, quando combinado a diferentes concentrações de sulfato de amônio ou uréia. Foram conduzidos três experimentos com tratamentos semelhantes: dois em campo e um em casa de vegetação. Os tratamentos aplicados em campo foram: glifosato (360 g ha-1 de e.a., isolado ou acrescido de quatro concentrações de sulfato de amônio (2,5, 5, 10 e 20 g L-1 ou uréia (1,5, 3, 6 e 12 g L-1; glifosato a 720 g ha-1 de e.a., aplicado isoladamente; e testemunha sem aplicação. Em casa de vegetação, para o controle específico da trapoeraba, as doses de glifosato foram elevadas para 720 (isolado e nas combinações e 1.440 g ha-1 de e.a. A adição de sulfato de amônio à calda do glifosato elevou o controle das plantas daninhas em campo, para as concentrações com até 10 g L-1. O herbicida glifosato não foi eficaz no controle da trapoeraba, em nenhumas das doses usadas. A adição de uréia não promoveu incrementos de controle em condição de campo; porém, para concentrações de até 6 g L-1, melhorou o controle da trapoeraba, na avaliação conduzida aos 28 dias após aplicação.This work was developed with the objective of evaluating glyphosate efficacy for Bengal dayflower (Commelina benghalensis and other weeds desiccation, when combined to different concentrations of ammonium sulfate or urea. Three experiments were carried out with similar treatments: two in field conditions and one in greenhouse. Treatments applied in field conditions were: glyphosate at 360 g ha-1 a.e., isolated or combined to four concentrations of ammonium sulfate (2.5, 5, 10, and 20 g L-1 or urea (1.5, 3, 6, and 12 g L-1; glyphosate at 720 g ha-1 a.e., applied isolately; and checks without application. In greenhouse, for the specific control on Bengal dayflower, glyphosate rates were increased to

  5. 超声法制备聚硅酸硫酸铝及其混凝效能研究%STUDY ON PREPARATION OF POLY SILICATE ALUMINUM SULFATE BY ULTRASONIC METHOD AND ITS COAGULATION PERFORMANCE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周颖; 王东田

    2013-01-01

    采用超声法制备聚硅酸硫酸铝(PASS),对其混凝效能进行了研究,并与PAC混凝效能进行对比.结果表明,采用超声制得PASS的pH低于传统方法制得PASS的pH,但其混凝效能优于后者,且在高投加量时优于PAC;先0.2kW超声1.5 h再0.2 kW超声1.5 h制备的PASS,在其投加量(以A12O3计)为6.0 mg/L时,处理太湖水样沉后浊度为0.377 NTU、滤后CODMn为1.162 mg/L、滤后Al3-质量浓度为40 μg/L,此为PASS的优化超声制备条件.混凝机理主要为电中和与吸附架桥作用.%Poly Silicate Aluminum Sulfate (PASS) is a new type of inorganic high polymer coagulant.Compared with the conventional coagulants it has better coagulation performance.In this paper,PASS is prepared by ultrasonic method.Its coagulation performance is investigated and compared with the coagulation performance of PAC.The experimental results show that pH of PASS prepared by ultrasonic method is lower than that of the PASS prepared by conventional method.However,the coagulation performance is better than the latter and PAC.Tai Lake water samples are processed by the PASS,and the ultrasonic condition was first 0.2 kW for 1.5 h and then 0.2 kW for 1.5 h.This ultrasound condition is proved to be the best by following data.Precipitated turbidity of the Tai Lake water sample is 0.377 NTU,filtered CODMn is 1.162 mg/L,and filtered aluminum ion concentration is 40 μg/L.The coagulation mechanisms of PASS are the electricity neutralization and absorption bridge.

  6. 乙醇-硫酸铵双水相萃取镉-碘化钾-罗丹明B离子缔合物%Extraction of cadmium-potassium iodide-rhodamine B ion association complex by alcohol-ammonium sulfate aqueous two-phase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾云; 覃事栋; 姚康康; 王影; 肖苗

    2012-01-01

    In the presence of ammonium sulphate, the extraction behavior of Cd (Ⅱ) based on potassium iodide-Rhodamine B-alcohol system was studied and the optimal condition of phase separation was selected. Results showed that in the pH1 ~3 media, the extraction rate of [CdI4]2- by alcohol-ammonium sulfate aqueous two-phase system is only 35.5% , and the ion association complex, which is formed by adding rhodamine B, can be extracted completely by the aqueous two-phase system. In the system, Cd2+ can be dissociated completely from Zn2+, Fe3+, Co2+, Cu2+, and Ni2+.%研究了在( NH4) 2SO4存在下,碘化钾-罗丹明B-乙醇体系萃取Cd(Ⅱ)的行为及最佳分相条件.实验表明,在pH 1~3时,乙醇-( NH4 )2SO4双水相体系对[ CdI4]2-络阴离子的萃取率只有35.5%;加入罗丹明B后,该体系能完全萃取镉-碘化钾-罗丹明B形成的离子缔合物,而干扰离子Zn2+、Fe3+、Co2+、Cu2+、Ni2+不被萃取,实现Cd2+与上述离子的分离.

  7. Elevated ammonium levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Rikke; Novak, Ivana; MacAulay, Nanna

    2012-01-01

    Increased ammonium (NH(4)(+)/NH(3)) in the brain is a significant factor in the pathophysiology of hepatic encephalopathy, which involves altered glutamatergic neurotransmission. In glial cell cultures and brain slices, glutamate uptake either decreases or increases following acute ammonium expos...

  8. 天然高分子改性异喹啉季铵盐对SRB杀菌性能及机理的研究%A Study of Bactericidal Effect of Natural Polymeric Modified Isoquinoline Quaternary Ammonium Salt on Sulfate Reducing Bacteria(SRB) and Mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘碌亭; 肖锦

    2001-01-01

    The bactericidal effect of natural polymeric modified isoquinoline quaternary ammonium salt(FIQ-C)on sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) was studied using the vanishing- dilution method. Factors affecting the bactericidal ef- ficiency were investigated, the bectericidal ability of FIQ-C was compared with that of 1227, and the bactericidal mechanism of FIQ-C was approached. The result shows that FIQ - C has a good bactericidal effect on the SRB in sim- ulated oil field waste water and that when the addition of FIQ - C is 5 mg/L, the bactericidal rate may be 99.9% or higher.%采用绝迹稀释法研究了天然高分子改性异喹啉季铵盐(FIQ-C)对硫酸盐还原菌(SRB)的杀灭性能。考察了各种因素对杀菌性能的影响,比较了药剂FIQ-C与1227的杀菌能力,探讨了FIQ-C的杀菌机理。结果表明,药FIQ-C对模拟油田废水中SRB有良好的杀灭性能,当FIQ-C投加量为5 mg/L时,杀菌率可达99.9%以上。

  9. Investigations about the effects of lime application and ammonium sulfate fertilisation on fine roots and ectomycorrhiza of an old beech forest in the Solling mountains. Untersuchungen zum Einfluss von Kalkung und Ammoniumsulfat-Duengung auf Feinwurzeln und Ektomykorrhizen eines Buchenaltbestandes im Solling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rapp, C.

    1991-01-01

    In a 139-year-old beech forest in the Soelling mountains, the effects of lime application and ammonium sulfate fertilisation on fine roots and ectomycorrhiza were investigated. The influence of the fertilizer supply on the fine root mass was quantified by means of the parameters biomass and necromass. From comparative analysis of the fine root concentrations in selected soil depths and the fine root density gradients, effects on the radication intensities and the depth distribution of the fine roots were determined. The temporal development of the fine roots was documented by repeated sampling during the vegetation period. The fine root investigations were carried out parallel to the acquisition of data of some important growth factors, i.e.: Soil temperature, soil suction force and element inventory in the soil solution. Possible relationships were determined by comparison of fine root and soil parameters. The element concentrations in living and dead fine roots as well as in mycorrhized very fine roots were specified for diagnosing soil-chemically induced nutritional disturbances. The influence of fertilisation on the mycorrhization was quantified by the biomass determination of vital mycorrhiza. (orig./VHE).

  10. Aluminum chloride restoration of in-situ leached uranium ores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grant, D.C.; Burgman, H.A.

    1984-01-01

    During in-situ uranium mining using ammonium bicarbonate lixiviant, the ammonium exchanges with cations on the ore's clay. After mining is complete, the ammonium may desorb into post-leach ground water. For the particular ore studied, other elements (uranium and selenium) that are mobilized during the leaching process, have also been found in post-leach ground water. Laboratory column tests, used to simulate the leaching process, have shown that aluminum chloride can rapidly remove ammonium from the ore and, thus, greatly reduce the subsequent ammonium leakage level into ground water. The aluminum chloride has also been found to reduce the leakage levels of uranium and selenium. In addition, the aluminum chloride treatment produces a rapid increase in permeability.

  11. Aluminum chloride restoration of in situ leached uranium ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During in situ uranium mining using ammonium bicarbonate lixiviant, the ammonium exchanges with cations on the ore's clay. After mining is complete, the ammonium may desorb into post-leach ground water. For the particular ore studied, other chemicals (i.e., uranium and selenium) which are mobilized during the leach process, have also been found in the post-leach ground water. Laboratory column tests, used to simulate the leaching process, have shown that aluminum chloride can rapidly remove ammonium from the ore and thus greatly reduce the subsequent ammonium leakage level into ground water. The aluminum chloride has also been found to reduce the leakage levels of uranium and selenium. In addition, the aluminum chloride treatment produces a rapid improvement in permeability

  12. Aluminum chloride restoration of in situ leached uranium ores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grant, D.C.; Burgman, M.A.

    1982-09-01

    During in situ uranium mining using ammonium bicarbonate lixiviant, the ammonium exchanges with cations on the ore's clay. After mining is complete, the ammonium may desorb into post-leach ground water. For the particular ore studied, other chemicals (i.e., uranium and selenium) which are mobilized during the leach process, have also been found in the post-leach ground water. Laboratory column tests, used to simulate the leaching process, have shown that aluminum chloride can rapidly remove ammonium from the ore and thus greatly reduce the subsequent ammonium leakage level into ground water. The aluminum chloride has also been found to reduce the leakage levels of uranium and selenium. In addition, the aluminum chloride treatment produces a rapid improvement in permeability.

  13. Barium Sulfate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... using x-rays or computed tomography (CAT scan, CT scan; a type of body scan that uses ... be clearly seen by x-ray examination or CT scan. ... more times before an x-ray examination or CT scan.If you are using a barium sulfate ...

  14. The Study on Detection of Chloride Ion in Flue Gas Ammonium Sulfate Slurry by Automatic Potentiometric Titration Method%自动电位滴定法测定烟气氨法脱硫模拟浆液中氯离子的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杭蕾; 吕程; 陈慧慧; 连洲洋; 袁礼锐; 魏无际

    2015-01-01

    Chloride ion content of ammonia desulfurization process is an important monitoring indicators and this paper dis-cusses the detection of chloride ions in ammonium sulfate slurry by automatic potentiometric titration .The results show that :adding ethanol helps to increase the magnitude of the potential jump ;when pH=3-5 ,the result is accurate ;the recovery rate keeps between 90% and 110% ;compared with the Mohr method ,the test result is more accurate and precise and free from ash color;also the tested result is close to ion chromatography detection result ,but the high concentrations of chloride ion potentiometric titration is more advantageous .%氯离子含量是氨法脱硫工艺中的一个重要监控指标,用自动电位滴定法测定氨法脱硫浆液中的氯离子。结果表明,实验加入乙醇有利于增大电位突跃幅度;pH值为3~5时实验结果准确;加标回收率为90%~110%;与莫尔法相比,测定结果准确度、精密度更高,且不受灰分颜色干扰;与离子色谱法测定结果准确度、精密度相近,但测定高浓度氯离子电位滴定法更有优势。

  15. Efeito da calagem e sulfato de amônio no algodão: I - Transporte de cátions e ânions no solo Effect of liming and ammonium sulfate on cotton: I - Cation and anion transport in the soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Salvador Simoneti Foloni

    2006-06-01

    no-tillage has caused an excess of basic cations in the most superficial layers of the soil profile. On the other hand, subsoil acidity is considered a constraint to the development of deep plant roots. The objective of this study was to evaluate Ca2+, Mg2+, NO3- and SO4(2- leaching in the soil profile as affected by liming and top dressing nitrogen fertilization in cotton, grown with straw cover on the soil surface. Cotton plants (Gossypium hirsutum were grown for 60 days in PVC columns filled with a Distroferric Red Latosol (sand loam Rhodic Oxisol with liming applied over the straw on the soil surface, incorporated liming 0-20 cm deep, or without liming. Nitrogen was applied at rates of 0, 50, 100 and 150 kg ha-1 as ammonium sulfate. The PVC columns were set up in layers of 0-5, 5-10, 10-20, 20-30 and 30-50 cm, totaling 15.71 dm³. The ammonium sulfate application caused intense leaching of SO4(2- in the soil, irrespective of the lime application method. Liming increased the concentration of NO3- in the 0-20 cm soil layer, whereas the correction of the soil acidity did not affect the NO3- concentration in the 30-50 cm soil layer. The influence of ammonium sulfate on Ca2+ leaching below 20 cm was only observed in the soil with incorporated lime. Nitrogen application resulted in extensive Mg2+ leaching from the soil, regardless of the lime application method. In the soil layer below 30 cm, SO4(2- presented a higher correlation than NO3- in the formation of ionic pairs with Ca2+ and Mg2+.

  16. Aluminum Hydroxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aluminum hydroxide is used for the relief of heartburn, sour stomach, and peptic ulcer pain and to ... Aluminum hydroxide comes as a capsule, a tablet, and an oral liquid and suspension. The dose and ...

  17. Extraction of beryllium sulfate by a long chain amine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The extraction of sulfuric acid in aqueous solution by a primary amine in benzene solution, 3-9 (diethyl) - 6-amino tri-decane (D.E.T. ) - i.e., with American nomenclature 1-3 (ethyl-pentyl) - 4-ethyl-octyl amine (E.P.O.) - has made it possible to calculate the formation constants of alkyl-ammonium sulfate and acid sulfate. The formula of the beryllium and alkyl-ammonium sulfate complex formed in benzene has next been determined, for various initial acidity of the aqueous solution. Lastly, evidence has been given of negatively charged complexes of beryllium and sulfate in aqueous solution, through the dependence of the aqueous sulfate ions concentration upon beryllium extraction. The formation constant of these anionic complexes has been evaluated. (author)

  18. Adamantane-1-ammonium acetate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elise J. C. de Vries

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C10H18N+·C2H3O2−, the ammonium H atoms of the cation are linked to three acetate anions via N—H...O hydrogen bonds, forming a chain structure extending along the b axis.

  19. Susceptibility to bacterial pneumonia of animals exposed to sulfates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehrlich, R.; Findlay, J.C.; Gardner, D.E.

    1978-03-01

    Susceptibility of mice to respiratory infections caused by exposure to sulfate aerosols was investigated. Inhalation of zinc sulfate or zinc ammonium sulfate followed by a respiratory challenge with airborne Streptococcus pyogenes resulted in excess mortality and reduced survival time. Estimated concentration of ZnSO4 that caused 20% excess mortality was 1.45 mg/cu m, and of Zn(NH4)2(SO4)2 was 2.40 mg/cu m for the 3 h inhalation exposure. Studies were extended to include the effects of various sulfates emitted from mobile and stationary sources to streptococcal pneumonia. (2 graphs, 7 references, 1 table)

  20. Response of Atmospheric Methane Consumption by Maine Forest Soils to Exogenous Aluminum Salts†

    OpenAIRE

    Nanba, K.; King, Gary M.

    2000-01-01

    Atmospheric methane consumption by Maine forest soils was inhibited by additions of environmentally relevant levels of aluminum. Aluminum chloride was more inhibitory than nitrate or sulfate salts, but its effect was comparable to that of a chelated form of aluminum. Inhibition could be explained in part by the lower soil pH values which resulted from aluminum addition. However, significantly greater inhibition by aluminum than by mineral acids at equivalent soil pH values indicated that inhi...

  1. Physicochemical Study on the Interface Zone of Concrete Exposed to Different Sulfate Solutions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports the results of the visual observations and micro-analysis of concrete core samples after 6 and 12 months of their exposure to sodium, ammonium and magnesium sulfate solutions with the same concentration of sulfate ions. XRD, SEM and EDS were used for micro-analysis of the microstructure and the composition of the interface zone in the samples. The results indicate that the deterioration of concrete by different sulfate solutions could proceed differently with regard to the mechanism and the mode of damage caused. The damage of concrete exposed to sodium sulfate solution is mainly caused by the gypsum crystals formed in the interface zone, which lead to expansion and cracking. In the case of concrete immersed in magnesium sulfate solutions, a layer of brucite (magnesium hydroxide) and gypsum was produced in the interface zone, which reduces the cohesiveness of the interface zone in concrete. For the concrete immersed in ammonium sulfate solutions, the conversation of mortar to some mush mass by ammonium ions and the formation of a large of gypsum occurred in the interface zone, consequently, serious softening of hydrated cement pastes and expansion and cracking of concrete are the characteristics of the attack by ammonium sulfate solutions. Also, it is considered that using drilled concrete core as samples to evaluate the sulfate resistance of concrete is a good and accelerated method.

  2. Ammonium diphosphitoindate(III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farida Hamchaoui

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The crystal structure of the title compound, NH4[In(HPO32], is built up from InIII cations (site symmetry 3m. adopting an octahedral environment and two different phosphite anions (each with site symmetry 3m. exhibiting a triangular–pyramidal geometry. Each InO6 octahedron shares its six apices with hydrogen phosphite groups. Reciprocally, each HPO3 group shares all its O atoms with three different metal cations, leading to [In(HPO32]− layers which propagate in the ab plane. The ammonium cation likewise has site symmetry 3m.. In the structure, the cations are located between the [In(HPO32]− layers of the host framework. The sheets are held together by hydrogen bonds formed between the NH4+ cations and the O atoms of the framework.

  3. A biamperometric method for the determination of sulfate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A biamperometric method for the determination of sulfate has been developed. Its application to the determination of sulfate content in rubidium uranium trisulfate is discussed. Sulfate is determined by titration with lead nitrate in aqueous ethanolic medium using ferrocyanide - ferricyanide redox system as biamperometric indicator. Initially, the method has been tested for standard. K2SO4 solutions. In case of Rb2U(SO4)3, since uranium interferes, it is precipitated as ammonium diuranate and excess ammonia is removed prior to the titration. Precision of better than 0.3% was achieved with no significant bias. (author) 3 refs.; 2 tabs

  4. On particularities of formation of basic zirconium carbonate from basic sulfate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine optimum conditions of preparing zirconium carbonate with sulfate-ion low content, the interaction of basic zirconium sulfate with sodium carbonate or ammonium carbonate solutions is studied. A continuous substitution of carbonate groups for sulfate groups accompanied by addition of some more carbonate groups which subsequently are washed off with water. The completeness of substitution of carbonate groups for sulfate groups is attained at 30-35% of the precipitator excess. The carbonate number (CO32-:Zr) in the basic carbonate precipitate may be controlled by a proper change of the sulfate number (SO42-:Zr) in the initial product

  5. Electrodeposition of magnesium and magnesium/aluminum alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, A.

    1988-01-21

    Electrolytes and plating solutions for use in processes for electroplating and electroforming pure magnesium and alloys of aluminum and magnesium and also electrodeposition processes. An electrolyte of this invention is comprised of an alkali metal fluoride or a quaternary ammonium halide, dimethyl magnesium and/or diethyl magnesium, and triethyl aluminum and/or triisobutyl aluminum. An electrolyte may be dissolved in an aromatic hydrocarbon solvent to form a plating solution. The proportions of the component compounds in the electrolyte are varied to produce essentially pure magnesium or magnesium/aluminum alloys having varying selected compositions.

  6. Ammonium generation during SRAT cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the IDMS noble-metal demonstration runs ammonium nitrate deposition was found in the vessel vent system of the feed preparation area. In the bench-scale experiments of studying the hydrogen generation during the sludge treatment cycle, ammonium ion production was also monitored. It was found that: During a simulation of the DWPF Cold Chemical Runs SRAT cycle no detectable amount of ammonium ions was generated when treating a non-noble-metal containing sludge simulant according to the nitric acid flowsheet. Ammonium ions were generated during the SRAT-SME cycle when treating the noble-metal containing sludge with either formic acid or nitric acid/late-washing PHA. This is due to the reaction between formic acid and nitrate catalyzed by the noble metals in the sludge simulant. Ammonium ion production closely followed the hydrogen evolution from the catalytic decomposition of formic acid. This report summarizes the results of the production of ammonia during the SRAT cycle

  7. Waterproofing Materials for Ammonium Nitrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.S. Damse

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the possibility of overcoming the problem of hygroscopicity of ammonium nitrate by coating the particles with selected waterproofing materials. Gravimetric analysis ofthe samples of ammonium nitrate coated with eight different waterproofing materials, vis-a-vis, uncoated ammonium nitrate, were conducted at different relative humidity and exposuretime. The results indicate that mineral jelly is the promising waterproofing material for ammonium nitrate among the materials tested, viz, calcium stearate, dioctyl phthalate, kaoline, diethylphthalate, dinitrotoluene, shelac varnish, and beeswax. Attempts were made to confirm the waterproofing ability of mineral jelly to ammonium nitrate using differential thermal analysisand x-ray diffraction patterns as an experimental tool. Suitability of mineral jelly as an additive for the gun propellant was also assessed on the basis of theoretical calculations using THERMprogram.

  8. Efeito da calagem e sulfato de amônio no algodão: II - Concentração de cátions e ânions na solução do solo e absorção de nutrientes pelas plantas Effect of liming and ammonium sulfate in cotton: II - Concentration of cations and anions in the soil solution and plant nutrient uptake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Salvador Simoneti Foloni

    2006-06-01

    soil mobilization. Nitrogen fertilization adds anions that can increase the solubility of basic cations of the soil due to formation of ionic pairs. The objective of this study was to characterize the dynamics of anions (SO4(2- and NO3- and cations (NH4+, Ca2+, Mg2+ and K+ in the soil solution, and the nutrient uptake by cotton plants subjected to different lime application forms and ammonium sulfate fertilization, with straw on the soil surface. Cotton plants (Gossypium hirsutum were grown for 60 days in PVC columns filled with a distroferric Red Latosol (sand loam Rhodic Oxisol. The soil had lime incorporated into the 0-20 cm layer, liming on the soil surface, or received no lime. Nitrogen was used at rates of 0, 50, 100 and 150 kg ha-1 as ammonium sulfate. The pots consisted of PVC columns of 20 cm diameter and 50 cm height, totaling 15.71 dm³. Porous capsules were installed at a depth of 15-20 cm to extract soil solution. The SO4(2- of the soil solution was increased by the nitrogen fertilization, independently of the lime application form. Nitrification was favored in the short-term with the application of ammonium sulfate only in the condition of incorporated lime. After 50 days of plant growth, however, nitrate in the soil solution increased, even in the soil that had not been limed. The Ca, Mg and K concentrations in the soil solution were increased as a response to the nitrogen top dressing. The anion SO4(2- presented greater affinity than NO3- in the formation of ionic pairs with the basic cations in the soil solution. The application of ammonium sulfate was most effective in promoting Ca and Mg uptake by the cotton plants when lime was incorporated.

  9. Removal of sulfate interference in the determination of indium and gallium by graphite furnace AAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A mixture of ammonium-EDTA, nickel and aluminium nitrates is suitable as a matrix modifier for the removal of sulfate interference in the determination of indium and gallium by graphite furnace AAS. Nickel and aluminium nitrates act as a thermal stabilizer for the analyte in the furnace before atomization. Since analyte and other cations are masked by EDTA, the coexisting sulfates are converted to ammonium salt, which is readily decomposed and eliminated from the furnace during the ashing step. In the presence of 0.1 M nickel nitrate, 0.001 M aluminium nitrate and 0.1 M ammonium-EDTA, when the concentration of sodium and potassium sulfates are below 0.02 M, the interferences of these sulfates are completely removed. (author)

  10. Recent results of EPR and Moessbauer investigations on lattice dynamics in ammonium sulphate

    CERN Document Server

    Grecu, M N; Grecu, V V

    2003-01-01

    Recent results of the lattice dynamics investigation on ammonium sulfate are reported based on recent experiments carried out using using the non-destructive experimental technique of EPR and NGR. The main results confirm the presence and the contribution of a soft mode, which accompanied the paraferroelectric phase transition in the investigated crystal. (authors)

  11. The Properties of Ammonium Dinitramine (ADN): Part 2: Melt Casting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahma, A.; Edvinsson, H.; Östmark, H.

    2010-04-01

    A melt casting technique for ammonium dinitramine (ADN) and ADN/aluminum was developed. ADN proved relatively easy to cast, when 1% of magnesium oxide was used as a stabilizer and crystallization kernels. Densities of ADN/MgO 99/1 were 92 to 97% of theoretical mean density (TMD) and those of ADN/Al/MgO 64/35/1 were between 95 and 99% of TMD. Sedimentation of Al in the melt was prevented and the particle wetting was ensured by selecting a suitable particle size for Al. No gelling agents or other additives were used. The casting process and factors influencing it are discussed.

  12. Surface energy and crystallization phenomena of ammonium dinitramide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teipel, Ulrich; Heintz, Thomas [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Chemische Technologie (ICT), PO Box 1240, D-76318 Pfinztal (Germany)

    2005-12-01

    Ammonium dinitramide (ADN) was characterized during recrystallization from the melt. The surface tension of molten ADN at 97 C was measured to be 89 mN/m. The wetting angles between molten ADN and different solid surfaces (polytetrafluoroethylene, glass, steel, and aluminum) were determined. The wettability depends on the surface tension of molten ADN, the free surface energy of the solid surfaces and the interfacial tension between the solid and liquid. Observations of the recrystallization behavior of molten ADN showed that nucleation does not occur, even at super cooling rates of 70 K. Crystallization can be initiated by the application of seed crystals. (Abstract Copyright [2005], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  13. Sulfated glycans in inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomin, Vitor H

    2015-03-01

    Sulfated glycans such as glycosaminoglycans on proteoglycans are key players in both molecular and cellular events of inflammation. They participate in leukocyte rolling along the endothelial surface of inflamed sites; chemokine regulation and its consequential functions in leukocyte guidance, migration and activation; leukocyte transendothelial migration; and structural assembly of the subendothelial basement membrane responsible to control tissue entry of cells. Due to these and other functions, exogenous sulfated glycans of various structures and origins can be used to interventionally down-regulate inflammation processes. In this review article, discussion is given primarily on the anti-inflammatory functions of mammalian heparins, heparan sulfate, chondroitin sulfate, dermatan sulfate and related compounds as well as the holothurian fucosylated chondroitin sulfate and the brown algal fucoidans. Understanding the underlying mechanisms of action of these sulfated glycans in inflammation, helps research programs involved in developing new carbohydrate-based drugs aimed to combat acute and chronic inflammatory disorders. PMID:25576741

  14. Comparative DFT study of crystalline ammonium perchlorate and ammonium dinitramide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Weihua; Wei, Tao; Zhu, Wei; Xiao, Heming

    2008-05-22

    The electronic structure, vibrational properties, absorption spectra, and thermodynamic properties of crystalline ammonium perchlorate (AP) and ammonium dinitramide (ADN) have been comparatively studied using density functional theory in the local density approximation. The results shows that the p states for the two solids play a very important role in their chemical reaction. From the low frequency to high frequency region, ADN has more motion modes for the vibrational frequencies than AP. The absorption spectra of AP and ADN display a few, strong bands in the fundamental absorption region. The thermodynamic properties show that ADN is easier to decompose than AP as the temperature increases. PMID:18396853

  15. Effects of Ca(OH)2 assisted aluminum sulfate coagulation on the removal of humic acid and the formation potentials of tri-halomethanes and haloacetic acids in chlorination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinming Duan; Xiaoting Cao; Cheng Chen; Dongrui Shi; Genmao Li; Dennis Mulcahy

    2012-01-01

    The effects of addition of calcium hydroxide on aluminum sulphate (or alum) coagulation for removal of natural organic matter (NOM) and its subsequent effect on the formation potentials of two major types of regulated disinfection byproducts (DBPs),haloacetic acids (HAAs) and trihalomethanes (THMs),have been examined.The results revealed several noteworthy phenomena.At the optimal coagulation pH (i.e.6),the coagulation behavior of NOM water solutions versus alum dose,showed large variation and a consequent great change in the formation potentials of the DBPs at certain coagulant doses.However,with addition of a relatively small amount of Ca(OH)2,although the zeta potential of coagulated flocs remained almost the same,NOM removal became more consistent with alum dose.Importantly,also the detrimental effect of charge reversal on NOM removal at the low coagulant dose disappeared.This resulted in a steady decrease in the formation potentials of DBPs as a function of the coagulant dose.Moreover,the addition of Ca(OH)2 broadened the pH range of alum coagulation and promoted further reduction of the formation potentials of the DBPs.The enhancement effects of Ca(OH)2 assisted alum coagulation are especially pronounced at pH 7 and 8.Finally,synchronous fluorescence spectra showed that the reduction in DBPs formation potential by Ca(OH)2-assisted alum coagulation was connected to an enhanced removal of small hydrophobic and hydrophilic HA molecules.Ca(OH)2-assistance of alum coagulation appeared to increase substantially the removal of the hydrophilic HA fraction responsible for HAAs formation,prompting further reduction of HAA formation potentials.

  16. Laboratory studies of thin films representative of atmospheric sulfate aerosol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortin, Tara Jean

    Sulfate aerosols are present globally in both the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. These aerosols are of great interest because they have a profound influence on Earth's radiation balance, heterogeneous chemistry, and cloud formation mechanisms throughout the atmosphere. The magnitude of these effects is ultimately determined by the size, phase, and chemical composition of the aerosols themselves. This thesis explores some of the questions that remain concerning the phase of these aerosols under atmospheric conditions and the effects of their chemical composition on heterogeneous chemistry and cloud formation mechanisms. In the upper troposphere, cirrus clouds are thought to form via the homogeneous nucleation of ice out of dilute sulfate aerosols such as ammonium sulfate ((NH4)2SO4). To investigate this, the low-temperature phase behavior of ammonium sulfate films has been studied using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Experiments performed as a function of increasing relative humidity demonstrate that a phase transition from crystalline (NH 4)2SO4 to a metastable aqueous solution can occur at temperatures below the eutectic at 254 K. However, on occasion, direct deposition of ice from the vapor phase was observed, possibly indicating selective heterogeneous nucleation. In addition to serving as nuclei for cirrus clouds, sulfate aerosols can participate in heterogeneous reactions. The interaction of HNO3 with ammonium sulfate has been investigated as a possible loss mechanism for gas-phase HNO3 using a Knudsen cell reactor coupled with transmission FTIR spectroscopy. The results show that HNO3 reacts with solid ammonium sulfate to produce ammonium nitrate and letovicite at 203 K. Furthermore, this reaction is enhanced as a function of relative humidity from 0 to 41%. In the lower stratosphere, polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) are important for springtime ozone depletion. The vapor deposition of ice on sulfuric acid tetrahydrate (SAT) has

  17. Chemical Liquid Phase Deposition of Thin Aluminum Oxide Films

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Jie; Sun, Yingchun

    2007-01-01

    Thin aluminum oxide films were deposited by a new and simple physicochemical method called chemical liquid phase deposition (CLD) on semiconductor materials. Aluminum sulfate with crystallized water and sodium bicarbonate were used as precursors for film growth, and the control of the system pH value played an important role in this experiment. The growth rate is 12 nm/h at room temperature. Post-growth annealing not only densifies and purifies the films, but results in film crystallization a...

  18. Estudio Comparativo de Sulfato de Aluminio y Semillas de Moringa oleifera para la Depuración de Aguas con Baja Turbiedad Comparative Study of Aluminum Sulfate and Moringa oleifera seeds as Coagulants in the Clarification of Water with Low Turbidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia G.S Lédo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo investigar la eficiencia de dos coagulantes, el sulfato de aluminio y semillas de Moringa oleifera, para remoción de turbiedad en muestras del agua provenientes de la Laguna de Jiqui, estado del Rio Grande do Norte, Natal-Brasil. Las dosificaciones y pH de los coagulantes fueron variados entre límites establecidos. Se realizaron pruebas, en tubos de ensayo Jar-Test y medidas de movilidad electroforética para determinar el potencial Zeta y para determinar los posibles mecanismos involucrados en el proceso de coagulación. Los mecanismos de coagulación con semillas de Moringa oleifera son adsorción y neutralización de cargas y adsorción y formación de puentes. Los resultados sugieren que para aguas de baja turbiedad, las semillas de Moringa oleifera pueden ser un sustituto potencialmente viable al sulfato de aluminio para la clarificación de dichas aguas.The objective of the present work is to investigate the efficiency of a coagulant prepared from Moringa oleifera seeds, for clarifying water samples with low turbidity from the Jiqui Lake, in the State of Rio Grande do Norte, Natal-Brazil. The dosages and pH of the coagulants were changed within defined limits. Jar-test essays and measurements of electrophoretic mobility were done to determine the Zeta potential and the possible mechanisms involved in the coagulation process. The mechanisms of coagulation with Moringa oleifera are absorption and neutralization of charges and absorption and bridging. The results suggest that for low turbidity waters, Moringa oleifera seeds represent a potentially viable substitute of aluminum sulfate for water clarification.

  19. Sulfate metabolism in mycobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schelle, Michael W; Bertozzi, Carolyn R

    2006-10-01

    Pathogenic bacteria have developed numerous mechanisms to survive inside a hostile host environment. The human pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb) is thought to control the human immune response with diverse biomolecules, including a variety of exotic lipids. One prevalent M. tb-specific sulfated metabolite, termed sulfolipid-1 (SL-1), has been correlated with virulence though its specific biological function is not known. Recent advances in our understanding of SL-1 biosynthesis will help elucidate the role of this curious metabolite in M. tb infection. Furthermore, the study of SL-1 has led to questions regarding the significance of sulfation in mycobacteria. Examples of sulfated metabolites as mediators of interactions between bacteria and plants suggest that sulfation is a key modulator of extracellular signaling between prokaryotes and eukaryotes. The discovery of novel sulfated metabolites in M. tb and related mycobacteria strengthens this hypothesis. Finally, mechanistic and structural data from sulfate-assimilation enzymes have revealed how M. tb controls the flux of sulfate in the cell. Mutants with defects in sulfate assimilation indicate that the fate of sulfur in M. tb is a critical survival determinant for the bacteria during infection and suggest novel targets for tuberculosis drug therapy. PMID:16933356

  20. The ceric sulfate dosimeter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjergbakke, Erling

    The process employed for the determination of absorbed dose is the reduction of ceric ions to cerous ions in a solution of ceric sulfate and cerous sulfate in 0.8N sulfuric acid: Ce4+→Ce 3+ The absorbed dose is derived from the difference in ceric ion concentration before and after irradiation. The...

  1. 21 CFR 582.1141 - Ammonium phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ammonium phosphate. 582.1141 Section 582.1141 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1141 Ammonium phosphate. (a) Product. Ammonium phosphate (mono- and dibasic). (b)...

  2. 77 FR 50613 - Didecyl Dimethyl Ammonium Carbonate and Didecyl Dimethyl Ammonium Bicarbonate; Exemption From the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-22

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 Didecyl Dimethyl Ammonium Carbonate and Didecyl Dimethyl Ammonium Bicarbonate... Didecyl Dimethyl Ammonium Carbonate and Didecyl Dimethyl Ammonium Bicarbonate, jointly referred to as.... Background and Statutory Findings In the Federal Register of December 8, 2011 (76 FR 76674) (FRL-...

  3. Ammonium assmilation in spruce ectomycorrhizas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assimilation of labelled NH4+ into amino acids has been followed in ectomycorrhizal roots of spruce. Over an 18 h period of NH4+ feeding, Gln, Glu and Ala became the most abundant amino acids. Gln was also the most highly labelled amino acid during the experiment, followed by Glu and Ala. This result indicates that Gln synthesis is an important ammonium utilization reaction in spruce mycorrhizas. Addition of MSX to NH4+ fed mycorrhizas caused an inhibition of Gln accumulation with a corresponding increase in Glu, Ala and Asn levels. The supply of MSX induced a sharp diminution of 15N enrichment in both amino and amido groups of glutamine. In contrast, the 15N incorporation into Glu and derivatives (Ala and Asp) remained very high. This study demonstrates that the fungal glutamate dehydrogenase is quite operative in spruce ectomycorrhizas since it is able to sustain ammonium assimilation when glutamine synthetase is inhibited

  4. Phase diagram of ammonium nitrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammonium Nitrate (AN) has often subjected to uses in improvised explosive devices, due to its wide availability as a fertilizer and its capability of becoming explosive with slight additions of organic and inorganic compounds. Yet, the origin of enhanced energetic properties of impure AN (or AN mixtures) is neither chemically unique nor well understood -resulting in rather catastrophic disasters in the past1 and thereby a significant burden on safety in using ammonium nitrates even today. To remedy this situation, we have carried out an extensive study to investigate the phase stability of AN at high pressure and temperature, using diamond anvil cells and micro-Raman spectroscopy. The present results confirm the recently proposed phase IV-to-IV' transition above 17 GPa2 and provide new constraints for the melting and phase diagram of AN to 40 GPa and 400 °C.

  5. Heparan sulfate biosynthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Multhaupt, Hinke A B; Couchman, John R

    2012-01-01

    Heparan sulfate is perhaps the most complex polysaccharide known from animals. The basic repeating disaccharide is extensively modified by sulfation and uronic acid epimerization. Despite this, the fine structure of heparan sulfate is remarkably consistent with a particular cell type. This suggests...... apparatus has not been carried out in a detailed way using high-resolution microscopy. We have begun this process, using well-known markers for the various Golgi compartments, coupled with the use of characterized antibodies and cDNA expression. Laser scanning confocal microscopy coupled with line scanning...

  6. Is Encephalopathy a Mechanism to Renew Sulfate in Autism?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurie Lentz-Marino

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper makes two claims: (1 autism can be characterized as a chronic low-grade encephalopathy, associated with excess exposure to nitric oxide, ammonia and glutamate in the central nervous system, which leads to hippocampal pathologies and resulting cognitive impairment, and (2, encephalitis is provoked by a systemic deficiency in sulfate, but associated seizures and fever support sulfate restoration. We argue that impaired synthesis of cholesterol sulfate in the skin and red blood cells, catalyzed by sunlight and nitric oxide synthase enzymes, creates a state of colloidal instability in the blood manifested as a low zeta potential and increased interfacial stress. Encephalitis, while life-threatening, can result in partial renewal of sulfate supply, promoting neuronal survival. Research is cited showing how taurine may not only help protect neurons from hypochlorite exposure, but also provide a source for sulfate renewal. Several environmental factors can synergistically promote the encephalopathy of autism, including the herbicide, glyphosate, aluminum, mercury, lead, nutritional deficiencies in thiamine and zinc, and yeast overgrowth due to excess dietary sugar. Given these facts, dietary and lifestyle changes, including increased sulfur ingestion, organic whole foods, increased sun exposure, and avoidance of toxins such as aluminum, mercury, and lead, may help to alleviate symptoms or, in some instances, to prevent autism altogether.

  7. Holothurian Fucosylated Chondroitin Sulfate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor H. Pomin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fucosylated chondroitin sulfate (FucCS is a structurally distinct glycosaminoglycan found in sea cucumber species. It has the same backbone composition of alternating 4-linked glucuronic acid and 3-linked N-acetyl galactosamine residues within disaccharide repeating units as regularly found in mammalian chondroitin sulfates. However, FucCS has also sulfated fucosyl branching units 3-O-linked to the acid residues. The sulfation patterns of these branches vary accordingly with holothurian species and account for different biological actions and responses. FucCSs may exhibit anticoagulant, antithrombotic, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antiviral, and pro-angiogenic activities, besides its beneficial effects in hemodialysis, cellular growth modulation, fibrosis and hyperglycemia. Through an historical overview, this document covers most of the science regarding the holothurian FucCS. Both structural and medical properties of this unique GAG, investigated during the last 25 years, are systematically discussed herein.

  8. Direct Sulfation of Limestone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Guilin; Dam-Johansen, Kim; Wedel, Stig

    2007-01-01

    %) becomes negligible. In the temperature interval from 723 K to 973 K, an apparent activation energy of about 104 kJ/mol is observed for the direct sulfation of limestone. At low temperatures and low conversions, the sulfation process is most likely under mixed control by chemical reaction and solid......The direct sulfation of limestone was studied in a laboratory fixed-bed reactor. It is found that the direct sulfation of limestone involves nucleation and crystal grain growth of the solid product (anhydrite). At 823 K and at low-conversions (less than about 0.5 %), the influences of SO2, O-2 and...... CO2 on the direct sulfation of limestone corresponds to apparent reaction orders of about 0.2, 0.2 and -0.5, respectively. Water is observed to promote the sulfation reaction and increase the apparent reaction orders of SO2 and O-2. The influence of O-2 at high O-2 concentrations (> about 15...

  9. Tailored Architectures of Ammonium Ionenes

    OpenAIRE

    Tamami, Mana

    2009-01-01

    The synthesis and characterization of a variety of ammonium ionenes from water-soluble coatings to high-performance elastomers are discussed. Water-soluble random copolymer ionenes were synthesized using the Menshutkin reaction from 1,12-dibromododecane, N,N,Nâ ²,Nâ ²-tetramethyl-1,6-hexanediamine, and 1,12-bis(N,N-dimethylamino)dodecane. The absolute molecular weights were determined for the first time using a multiangle laser light scattering detector in aqueous size exclusion chromatograph...

  10. Equilibrium oxygen isotope behavior of sulfate in marine sediments: A new paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, R.; Boettcher, M.; Surkov, A.; Ferdelman, T.; Jorgensen, B.

    2006-05-01

    We have determined the oxygen (18O/16O) and sulfur (34S/32S) isotope ratios of porewater sulfate to depths of over 400 mbsf in sediments from open-ocean and upwelling sites in the Eastern Equatorial Pacific ocean. Sulfate δ18O ranges from near-normal seawater values (9.5 permil) at organic-poor open-ocean sites, to approximately 30 permil at sites with higher organic matter content and higher associated microbial activity. Depth-correlative trends of δ18O, δ34S, alkalinity, methane, ammonium and the presence of sulfide, indicate significant oxidation of sedimentary organic matter by sulfate-reducing microbial populations as well as anaerobic oxidation of methane. δ18O ?SO4 values at low-activity sites reveal the presence of significant microbial sulfur-cycling activity despite relatively flat sulfate concentration and δ34S profiles. This activity may include contributions from several processes including: enzyme-catalyzed equilibration between oxygen in sulfate and water superimposed upon microbial sulfate reduction, sulfide oxidation, and bacterial disproportionation of sulfur intermediates. Positive correlation between water and sulfate δ18O values supports sulfate-water O isotope exchange as the dominant process controlling porewater sulfate δ18O values. Results of this study indicate that coupled measurements of S and O isotope ratios of porewater sulfate are essential for interpreting microbial sulfur cycling in marine sediments.

  11. Influência das características das substâncias húmicas na eficiência da coagulação com sulfato de alumínio The influence of humic substances characteristics on the coagulation efficiency using aluminum sulfate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro Xavier Campos

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho foi estudada a influência das características das substâncias húmicas (SH, em especial a massa molar das moléculas, na eficiência da coagulação com o uso do sulfato de alumínio. Utilizando-se de água proveniente de poço profundo, foram preparadas quatro águas de estudo, todas com cor verdadeira de aproximadamente 100 uH. As SH foram extraídas de turfa e fracionadas em massas molares: i SH filtradas em membranas de 0,45 µm; ii SH filtradas em membranas de 0,45 µm e maiores que 100 kDa, iii SH com moléculas entre 30 e 100 kDa; iv SH com moléculas menores do que 30 kDa. Verificou-se que quanto maior a massa molar das SH maior foi a eficiência de remoção da cor aparente, com as menores dosagens de coagulante.O pH de coagulação ótimo, esteve entre 6,0 e 7,0, para todas as águas de estudo. Os estudos da porcentagem de ácido húmico (AH e ácido fúlvico (AF presentes em cada fração de diferente massa molar mostraram que quanto maior foi à porcentagem de AF presente, maior foi à dosagem de coagulante exigida para se obter os melhores resultados de remoção da cor aparente.The influence of the molecular weight of soil humic substances on the coagulation efficiency with aluminum sulfate was studied in this work. Four types of water were studied, with the same true color of approximately 100 HU, but prepared with different fractions of molecular weights: Water Type 1 (humic substances filtered in membrane of 0,45 µm; Water Type 2 (humic substances filtered in membrane of 0,45 µm and with molecular weight > 100 KDa; Water Type 3 (humic substances with molecular weight between 100 and 30 KDa; Water Type 4 (humic substances with molecular weight < 30 KDa. It was conclude that the higher the molecular weight of the molecules, the lower the coagulant dosages required for efficient coagulation, at the coagulation pH range 6 - 7. The types of water prepared with the fractions of humic substances containing higher

  12. Comparison of normal and asthmatic subjects' responses to sulfate pollutant aerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Utell, M.J.; Morrow, P.E.; Hyde, R.W.

    1980-01-01

    Epidemiological studies support an association between elevated levels of sulfates and acute respiratory disease. To determine if these pollutants produce airway hyperreactivity, 16 normal and 17 asthmatic subjects inhaled a control NaCl aerosol and the following sulfates: ammonium sulfate, sodium bisulfate, ammonium bisulfate, and sulfuric acid. A Lovelace generator produced particles with an average MMAD of approx. 1.0 ..mu..m (sigma/sub g/ approx. = 2.0) and concentrations of 0.1 and 1.0 mg/m/sup 3/. By double-blind randomization, all subjects breathed these aerosols for a 16-minute period. To determine if sulfate inhalation caused increased reactivity to a known bronchoconstrictor, all subjects inhaled carbachol following each 16-minute exposure. Before, during, and after exposure, pulmonary function studies were performed. When compared to NaCl, sulfate (1 mg/m/sup 3/) produced significant reductions in airway conductance and flow rates in asthmatics. The two most sensitive asthmatics demonstrated changes even at 0.1 mg/m/sup 3/ sulfate. To a far more significant degree, the bronchoconstrictor action of carbachol was potentiated by sulfates more or less in relation to their acidity in normals and asthmatics.

  13. Ammonium assmilation in spruce ectomycorrhizas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chalot, M.; Brun, A.; Botton, B. (Univ. of nancy, Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France)); Stewart, G. (University College, London (England))

    1990-05-01

    Assimilation of labelled NH{sub 4}{sup +} into amino acids has been followed in ectomycorrhizal roots of spruce. Over an 18 h period of NH{sub 4}{sup +} feeding, Gln, Glu and Ala became the most abundant amino acids. Gln was also the most highly labelled amino acid during the experiment, followed by Glu and Ala. This result indicates that Gln synthesis is an important ammonium utilization reaction in spruce mycorrhizas. Addition of MSX to NH{sub 4}{sup +} fed mycorrhizas caused an inhibition of Gln accumulation with a corresponding increase in Glu, Ala and Asn levels. The supply of MSX induced a sharp diminution of {sup 15}N enrichment in both amino and amido groups of glutamine. In contrast, the {sup 15}N incorporation into Glu and derivatives (Ala and Asp) remained very high. This study demonstrates that the fungal glutamate dehydrogenase is quite operative in spruce ectomycorrhizas since it is able to sustain ammonium assimilation when glutamine synthetase is inhibited.

  14. Synthesis of Chitosan Quaternary Ammonium Salts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A series of N-alkyl or N-aryl chitosan quaternary ammonium salts were prepared via Schiffs base intermediates. Quaternization of N-substituted chitosan derivatives was carried out using methyl iodide to produce water-soluble cationic chitosan quaternary ammonium salt. The products were characterized by IR, 1HNMR and elemental analysis. The degree of substitution of chitosan quaternary ammonium salt was calculated by elemental analysis.

  15. Effect of ammonium sulfate, ammonium chloride and root-zone acidity on inorganic ion content of tobacco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vessey, J. K.; Raper, C. D. Jr; Henry, L. T.; Raper CD, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

    1990-01-01

    Tobacco plants (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv NC82) were supplied with (NH4)2SO4 or NH4Cl at root-zone pH of 6.0 and 4.5 in hydroponic culture for 28 days. Dry matter accumulation, total N and C content, and leaf area and number were not affected by the NH4+ source or root-zone pH. Plants supplied with NH4Cl accumulated up to 1.2 mM Cl g DW-1, but accumulated 37% less inorganic H2PO4- and 47% less SO4(2-) than plants supplied with (NH4)2SO4. The large Cl- accumulation resulted in NH4Cl- supplied plants having a 31% higher inorganic anion (NO3-, H2, PO4-, SO4(2-), and Cl-) charge. This higher inorganic anion charge in the NH4Cl-supplied plants was balanced by a similar increase in K+ charge. Plants supplied with NH4Cl accumulated greater concentrations of Cl- in leaves (up to 5.1% of DW) than plants supplied with (NH4)2SO4 (less than -% DW). Despite the high Cl- concentration of leaves in NH4Cl supplied plants, these plants showed no symptoms of Cl- toxicity. This demonstrates that toxicity symptoms are not due solely to an interaction between high Cl- concentration in tissue and NH4+ nutrition. The increase in root-zone acidity to pH 4.5 from 6.0 did not induce toxicity symptoms.

  16. Impacts of Sulfate Seed Acidity and Water Content on Isoprene Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Jenny P S; Lee, Alex K Y; Abbatt, Jonathan P D

    2015-11-17

    The effects of particle-phase water and the acidity of pre-existing sulfate seed particles on the formation of isoprene secondary organic aerosol (SOA) was investigated. SOA was generated from the photo-oxidation of isoprene in a flow tube reactor at 70% relative humidity (RH) and room temperature in the presence of three different sulfate seeds (effloresced and deliquesced ammonium sulfate and ammonium bisulfate) under low NOx conditions. High OH exposure conditions lead to little isoprene epoxydiol (IEPOX) SOA being generated. The primary result is that particle-phase water had the largest effect on the amount of SOA formed, with 60% more SOA formation occurring with deliquesced ammonium sulfate seeds as compared to that on effloresced ones. The additional organic material was highly oxidized. Although the amount of SOA formed did not exhibit a dependence on the range of seed particle acidity examined, perhaps because of the low amount of IEPOX SOA, the levels of high-molecular-weight material increased with acidity. While the uptake of organics was partially reversible under drying, the results nevertheless indicate that particle-phase water enhanced the amount of organic aerosol material formed and that the RH cycling of sulfate particles may mediate the extent of isoprene SOA formation in the atmosphere. PMID:26460477

  17. Sulfate attack expansion mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Müllauer, Wolfram, E-mail: wolf_m@gmx.at; Beddoe, Robin E.; Heinz, Detlef

    2013-10-15

    A specially constructed stress cell was used to measure the stress generated in thin-walled Portland cement mortar cylinders caused by external sulfate attack. The effects of sulfate concentration of the storage solution and C{sub 3}A content of the cement were studied. Changes in mineralogical composition and pore size distribution were investigated by X-ray diffraction and mercury intrusion porosimetry, respectively. Damage is due to the formation of ettringite in small pores (10–50 nm) which generates stresses up to 8 MPa exceeding the tensile strength of the binder matrix. Higher sulfate concentrations and C{sub 3}A contents result in higher stresses. The results can be understood in terms of the effect of crystal surface energy and size on supersaturation and crystal growth pressure.

  18. The Aluminum Smelting Process

    OpenAIRE

    Kvande, Halvor

    2014-01-01

    This introduction to the industrial primary aluminum production process presents a short description of the electrolytic reduction technology, the history of aluminum, and the importance of this metal and its production process to modern society. Aluminum's special qualities have enabled advances in technologies coupled with energy and cost savings. Aircraft capabilities have been greatly enhanced, and increases in size and capacity are made possible by advances in aluminum technology. The me...

  19. Characteristics and aluminum reuse of textile sludge incineration residues after acidification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Manhong Huang; Liang Chen; Donghui Chen; Saijie Zhou

    2011-01-01

    The chemical composition and aluminum speciation of sludge incineration residue (SIR) were determined.Cementation of aluminum from sulfuric acid solution using SIR was studied.The results showed that acid-soluble inorganic aluminum was the predominant component in the sludge,and the total leached aluminum increased from 62.2% to 92.9% after incineration.Sulfuric acid dosage and reaction time were found to affect aluminum recovery positively.Conversely,the increase in temperature significantly inhibited recovery reactions.The optimized leaching condition was 1.66 g sulfuric acid per gram of SIR with a reaction time of 3 hr at 20°C,resulting in the highest aluminum leaching rate of 96.7%.Compared to commercial aluminum sulfate solution coagulants,the leaching solution demonstrated higher CODcr,turbidity and color removal efficiency for textile wastewater.

  20. The Ettringite formation in sulfate-deficient media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mechanism of a direct formation of the calcium sulfo aluminate hydrates from suspension of calcium hydroxide, aluminum hydroxide and aluminum sulfate at the ambient room temperature (30±1 degree C) was studied. The sulfate concentration was kept less than the stoichiometric amount needed for the ettringite formation and the mole ratio of C/S was gradually increased to attain values of 3 and 6 at a maximum of C/A = 6, in two series of investigations (C = Ca O; A = Al2O3; H = H2O; S = SO3). The composition of the filtrates was determined and the solid phases were identified by means of XRD. It is found that ettringite crystals form with a preferential usage of the dissolved alumina as soon as a respective C/S ratio is satisfied. At a C/S - 2-2.5, limited amount of gibbsite is consumed in addition to the dissolved alumina which reaction takes place at an almost complete depletion of lime and sulfate from the solutions. At C/S = 6, the monosulfate hydrate appears together with the ettringite with a further consumption of gibbsite, free lime is detected in the solid and the solution. The results indicate that the sulfate content of the calcium sulfo aluminate hydrates is less than the stoichiometry. The formation of the calcium sulfo aluminate hydrates in cement pastes plays a dominant role in the decontamination procedures of the radioisotope wastes of low and intermediate radioactive levels

  1. Thermal analysis studies of ammonium uranyl carbonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The simultaneous thermogravimetry and differential thermal analysis of the ammonium uranyl carbonate powder were performed with heat balance in the following atmosphers: Air, Ar and Ar-8%H2. The thermogravimetry and differential thermal analysis curves of the ammonium uranyl carbonate powder obtained from different source were reported and discussed

  2. Evolution of Electrogenic Ammonium Transporters (AMTs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Tami R; Ward, John M

    2016-01-01

    The ammonium transporter gene family consists of three main clades, AMT, MEP, and Rh. The evolutionary history of the AMT/MEP/Rh gene family is characterized by multiple horizontal gene transfer events, gene family expansion and contraction, and gene loss; thus the gene tree for this family of transporters is unlike the organismal tree. The genomes of angiosperms contain genes for both electrogenic and electroneutral ammonium transporters, but it is not clear how far back in the land plant lineage electrogenic ammonium transporters occur. Here, we place Marchantia polymorpha ammonium transporters in the AMT/MEP/Rh phylogeny and we show that AMTs from the liverwort M. polymorpha are electrogenic. This information suggests that electrogenic ammonium transport evolved at least as early as the divergence of bryophytes in the land plant lineage. PMID:27066024

  3. Crystal structure of tris­(piperidinium) hydrogen sulfate sulfate

    OpenAIRE

    Lukianova, Tamara J.; Kinzhybalo, Vasyl; Pietraszko, Adam

    2015-01-01

    A novel mixed hydrogen sulfate–sulfate piperidinium salt comprises three protonated piperidinium cations, one hydrogen sulfate anion and one sulfate anion in the asymmetric unit. Strong hydrogen bonds exist between the cations and the anions giving rise to a three-dimensional structure.

  4. Hydrazine Sulfate (PDQ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... use of hydrazine sulfate as a complementary or alternative treatment for cancer? It has been known since the early 1900s ... of CAM therapies originally considered to be purely alternative approaches are finding a place in cancer treatment—not as cures, but as complementary therapies that ...

  5. 49 CFR 176.415 - Permit requirements for Division 1.5, ammonium nitrates, and certain ammonium nitrate fertilizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... nitrates, and certain ammonium nitrate fertilizers. 176.415 Section 176.415 Transportation Other... requirements for Division 1.5, ammonium nitrates, and certain ammonium nitrate fertilizers. (a) Except as... Captain of the Port (COTP). (1) Ammonium nitrate UN1942, ammonium nitrate fertilizers containing more...

  6. Graphene-aluminum nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → We investigated the mechanical properties of aluminum and aluminum nanocomposites. → Graphene composite had lower strength and hardness compared to nanotube reinforcement. → Processing causes aluminum carbide formation at graphene defects. → The carbides in between grains is a source of weakness and lowers tensile strength. - Abstract: Composites of graphene platelets and powdered aluminum were made using ball milling, hot isostatic pressing and extrusion. The mechanical properties and microstructure were studied using hardness and tensile tests, as well as electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry. Compared to the pure aluminum and multi-walled carbon nanotube composites, the graphene-aluminum composite showed decreased strength and hardness. This is explained in the context of enhanced aluminum carbide formation with the graphene filler.

  7. Graphene-aluminum nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartolucci, Stephen F., E-mail: stephen.bartolucci@us.army.mil [U.S. Army Benet Laboratories, Armaments Research Development and Engineering Center, Watervliet, NY 12189-4000 (United States); Paras, Joseph [U.S. Army Benet Laboratories, Armaments Research Development and Engineering Center, Watervliet, NY 12189-4000 (United States); Rafiee, Mohammad A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Rice University, Houston, TX 77005 (United States); Rafiee, Javad [Department of Mechanical, Aerospace and Nuclear Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180 (United States); Lee, Sabrina; Kapoor, Deepak [U.S. Army Benet Laboratories, Armaments Research Development and Engineering Center, Watervliet, NY 12189-4000 (United States); Koratkar, Nikhil, E-mail: koratn@rpi.edu [Department of Mechanical, Aerospace and Nuclear Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180 (United States)

    2011-10-15

    Highlights: {yields} We investigated the mechanical properties of aluminum and aluminum nanocomposites. {yields} Graphene composite had lower strength and hardness compared to nanotube reinforcement. {yields} Processing causes aluminum carbide formation at graphene defects. {yields} The carbides in between grains is a source of weakness and lowers tensile strength. - Abstract: Composites of graphene platelets and powdered aluminum were made using ball milling, hot isostatic pressing and extrusion. The mechanical properties and microstructure were studied using hardness and tensile tests, as well as electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry. Compared to the pure aluminum and multi-walled carbon nanotube composites, the graphene-aluminum composite showed decreased strength and hardness. This is explained in the context of enhanced aluminum carbide formation with the graphene filler.

  8. The nucleation kinetics of ammonium metavanadate precipitated by ammonium chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Guangchao; Sun, Zhaohui; Xian, Yong; Jing, Han; Chen, Haijun; Yin, Danfeng

    2016-05-01

    The nucleation kinetics of ammonium metavanadate (NH4VO3) was investigated under conditions of the simulated process for precipitation of NH4VO3 from the vanadium-containing solution. Induction periods for the nucleation of NH4VO3 were experimentally determined as a function of supersaturation at temperatures from 30 to 45 °C. Using the classical nucleation theory, the interfacial tension between NH4VO3 and supersaturated solution, the nucleation rate and critical radius of nucleus for the homogeneous nucleation of NH4VO3 were estimated. With temperature increasing, the calculated interfacial tension gradually decreased from 29.78 mJ/m2 at 30 °C to 23.66 mJ/m2 at 45 °C. The nucleation rate was found to proportionally increase but the critical radius of nucleus exponentially decreased, with increase in supersaturation ratio at a constant temperature. The activation energy for NH4VO3 nucleation was obtained from the relationship between temperature and induction period, ranging from 79.17 kJ/mol at S=25 to 115.50 kJ/mol at S=15. FT-IR and Raman spectrum indicated that the crystals obtained in the precipitation process were NH4VO3.

  9. Sulfate metabolism. I. Sulfate uptake and redistribution of acid rain sulfate by edible plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulfur is the major component of polluted air in industrialized societies. Atmospheric sulfur is converted to sulfuric acid through a series of chemical reactions which can eventually reenter many ecosystems. When edible plants are grown in soils containing varying amounts of sulfate, the roots take up and transport inorganic sulfate to the stems and leaves. The sulfate taken up by the roots and the amount transported to the stem and leaves was found to be a function of the concentration of sulfate in the soil. Inorganic sulfate taken up by a corn plant seedling can be rapidly converted to organic sulfate by the root system. Nine days after one of a pair of pea plants was inoculated with artificial acid rain sulfate (dilute H235SO4) it was found that the sulfate was translocated not only in the inoculated plant, but also to the uninoculated pea plant in the same container. Also, when the leaves of a mature potato plant were inoculated with artificial acid rain sulfate it was found that the sulfate was translocated into the edible potatoes. Fractionation of the potatoes showed that most of the sulfate was water soluble of which 30% was inorganic sulfate and 70% was in the form of organic sulfur. One third of the non-water soluble translocated acid rain sulfate was equally divided between lipid and non-lipid organic sulfur of the potato. 9 references, 2 figures, 5 tables

  10. Fate of 15N-urea and 15N-ammonium sulphate applied in different periods to cica-8 rice culture in greenhouse conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fate of nitrogen fertilizers in rice cultivars (Cica-8) is studied. Urea (1.973% at of 15N) and ammonium sulfate (1.826% at of 15N) are used. The fertilizers are applied in four levels (0,100,200 and 300 Kg N/ha) in shadow coditions and after 30 days of germination. (M.A.C.)

  11. Radioimmunoassay of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of a radioimmunological method for the measurement of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate in serum is described. For the immunization of rabbits, a DHA-3-hemissuccinate-bovine serum albumin conjugate was synthetized and a highly specific anti-serum was produced. The method developed requires only simple dilution prior to assay and the normal values for the different age groups were determined in 146 normal individuals. (Author)

  12. Coupling between anammox and autotrophic denitrification for simultaneous removal of ammonium and sulfide by enriched marine sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios-Del Toro, E Emilia; Cervantes, Francisco J

    2016-06-01

    In the present study, the capacity of enrichments derived from marine sediments collected from different sites of the Mexican littoral to perform anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) coupled to sulfide-dependent denitrification for simultaneous removal of ammonium and sulfide linked to nitrite reduction was evaluated. Sulfide-dependent denitrification out-competed anammox during the simultaneous oxidation of sulfide and ammonium. Significant accumulation of elemental sulfur (ca. 14-30 % of added sulfide) occurred during the coupling between the two respiratory processes, while ammonium was partly oxidized (31-47 %) due to nitrite limitation imposed in sediment incubations. Nevertheless, mass balances revealed up to 38 % more oxidation of the electron donors available (ammonium and sulfide) than that expected from stoichiometry. Recycling of nitrite, from nitrate produced through anammox, is proposed to contribute to extra oxidation of sulfide, while additional ammonium oxidation is suggested by sulfate-reducing anammox (SR-anammox). The complex interaction between nitrogenous and sulfurous compounds occurring through the concomitant presence of autotrophic denitrification, conventional anammox and SR-anammox may significantly drive the nitrogen and sulfur fluxes in marine environments. PMID:26994921

  13. Ammonium deficiency caused by heterogeneous reactions during a super Asian dust episode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Lee, Celine Siu Lan; Huh, Chih-An; Shaheen, Robina; Lin, Fei-Jan; Liu, Shaw Chen; Liang, Mao-Chang; Tao, Jun

    2014-06-01

    Mineral dust particles exert profound impacts on air quality, visibility, and ocean biogeochemistry. Interactions between dust particles and other anthropogenic pollutants modify not only the size spectrum and morphology but also physicochemical properties of dust particles, thereby affecting their radiative properties and ability to act as cloud condensation nuclei and in turn their impact on climate. Here we report field observations on the surface chemical transformations in a super Asian dust plume captured in coastal areas of China and the adjacent marginal seas. The dust plume showed enhanced concentrations of sulfate, nitrate, and calcium along with a decrease in ammonium. The percentages of total Ca in water-soluble form increased from an intrinsic value of ~5% to 25-40% at four stations along the path of the dust plume. From these increases, we estimated the extent to which carbonate was modified by heterogeneous reactions and calculated that the enhanced sulfate and nitrate could account for 40-60% of the observed concentrations. Our observation suggests that the formation of ammonium sulfate via the H2SO4-NH3-H2O ternary system was impeded by heterogeneous reactions in the marine boundary layer when dust loads exceeded a certain threshold. A conceptual model is proposed to elucidate the heterogeneous reactions during the super Asian dust event and their impacts on atmospheric chemistry.

  14. Sulfation of chondroitin. Specificity, degree of sulfation, and detergent effects with 4-sulfating and 6-sulfating microsomal systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microsomal preparations from chondroitin 6-sulfate-producing chick embryo epiphyseal cartilage, and from chondroitin 4-sulfate-producing mouse mastocytoma cells, were incubated with UDP-[14C]glucuronic acid and UDP-N-acetylgalactosamine to form non-sulfated proteo[14C]chondroitin. Aliquots of the incubations were then incubated with 3'-phosphoadenylylphosphosulfate (PAPS) in the presence or absence of various detergents. In the absence of detergents, there was good sulfation of this endogenous proteo[14C]chondroitin by the original microsomes from both sources. Detergents, with the exception of Triton X-100, markedly inhibited sulfation in the mast cell system but not in the chick cartilage system. These results indicate that sulfation and polymerization are closely linked on cell membranes and that in some cases this organization can be disrupted by detergents. When aliquots of the original incubation were heat inactivated, and then reincubated with new microsomes from chick cartilage and/or mouse mastocytoma cells plus PAPS, there was no significant sulfation of this exogenous proteo[14C] chondroitin with either system unless Triton X-100 was added. Sulfation of exogenous chondroitin and chondroitin hexasaccharide was compared with sulfation of endogenous and exogenous proteo[14C]chondroitin. Sulfate incorporation into hexasaccharide and chondroitin decreased as their concentrations (based on uronic acid) approached that of the proteo[14C]chondroitin. At the same time, the degree of sulfation in percent of substituted hexosamine increased. However, the degree of sulfation did not reach that of the endogenous proteo[14C]chondroitin. Hexasaccharide and chondroitin sulfation were stimulated by the presence of Triton X-100. However, in contrast to the exogenous proteo[14C]chondroitin, there was some sulfation of hexasaccharide and chondroitin in the absence of this detergent

  15. Aluminum powder metallurgy processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flumerfelt, J.F.

    1999-02-12

    The objective of this dissertation is to explore the hypothesis that there is a strong linkage between gas atomization processing conditions, as-atomized aluminum powder characteristics, and the consolidation methodology required to make components from aluminum powder. The hypothesis was tested with pure aluminum powders produced by commercial air atomization, commercial inert gas atomization, and gas atomization reaction synthesis (GARS). A comparison of the GARS aluminum powders with the commercial aluminum powders showed the former to exhibit superior powder characteristics. The powders were compared in terms of size and shape, bulk chemistry, surface oxide chemistry and structure, and oxide film thickness. Minimum explosive concentration measurements assessed the dependence of explosibility hazard on surface area, oxide film thickness, and gas atomization processing conditions. The GARS aluminum powders were exposed to different relative humidity levels, demonstrating the effect of atmospheric conditions on post-atomization processing conditions. The GARS aluminum powders were exposed to different relative humidity levels, demonstrating the effect of atmospheric conditions on post-atomization oxidation of aluminum powder. An Al-Ti-Y GARS alloy exposed in ambient air at different temperatures revealed the effect of reactive alloy elements on post-atomization powder oxidation. The pure aluminum powders were consolidated by two different routes, a conventional consolidation process for fabricating aerospace components with aluminum powder and a proposed alternative. The consolidation procedures were compared by evaluating the consolidated microstructures and the corresponding mechanical properties. A low temperature solid state sintering experiment demonstrated that tap densified GARS aluminum powders can form sintering necks between contacting powder particles, unlike the total resistance to sintering of commercial air atomization aluminum powder.

  16. 1.2. Substitution of sodium on sodium sulfate in alumina and cryolite production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the problems of wastes processing of aluminum production is utilization of sodium sulphate, obtained by crystallization of circulating solutions of gas purification and mixed salt Na2SO4·NaF obtaining at evaporation of these solutions. Therefore, the dry alkaline method of alumina production where instead of sodium used sodium sulfate was studied.

  17. Hot corrosion resistance of nickel-chromium-aluminum alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, G. J.; Barret, C. A.

    1977-01-01

    The hot corrosion resistance of nickel-chromium-aluminum alloys was examined by cyclically oxidizing sodium sulfate-coated specimens in still air at 900, 1000, and 1100 C. The compositions tested were within the ternary region: Ni, Ni-50 at.% Cr, and Ni-50 at.% Al. At each temperature the corrosion data were statistically fitted to a third order regression equation as a function of chromium and aluminum contents. From these equations corrosion isopleths were prepared. Compositional regions with the best hot corrosion resistance were identified.

  18. Electrochemically and bioelectrochemically induced ammonium recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gildemyn, Sylvia; Luther, Amanda K; Andersen, Stephen J; Desloover, Joachim; Rabaey, Korneel

    2015-01-01

    Streams such as urine and manure can contain high levels of ammonium, which could be recovered for reuse in agriculture or chemistry. The extraction of ammonium from an ammonium-rich stream is demonstrated using an electrochemical and a bioelectrochemical system. Both systems are controlled by a potentiostat to either fix the current (for the electrochemical cell) or fix the potential of the working electrode (for the bioelectrochemical cell). In the bioelectrochemical cell, electroactive bacteria catalyze the anodic reaction, whereas in the electrochemical cell the potentiostat applies a higher voltage to produce a current. The current and consequent restoration of the charge balance across the cell allow the transport of cations, such as ammonium, across a cation exchange membrane from the anolyte to the catholyte. The high pH of the catholyte leads to formation of ammonia, which can be stripped from the medium and captured in an acid solution, thus enabling the recovery of a valuable nutrient. The flux of ammonium across the membrane is characterized at different anolyte ammonium concentrations and currents for both the abiotic and biotic reactor systems. Both systems are compared based on current and removal efficiencies for ammonium, as well as the energy input required to drive ammonium transfer across the cation exchange membrane. Finally, a comparative analysis considering key aspects such as reliability, electrode cost, and rate is made. This video article and protocol provide the necessary information to conduct electrochemical and bioelectrochemical ammonia recovery experiments. The reactor setup for the two cases is explained, as well as the reactor operation. We elaborate on data analysis for both reactor types and on the advantages and disadvantages of bioelectrochemical and electrochemical systems. PMID:25651406

  19. Enhanced sulfate reduction with acidogenic sulfate-reducing bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulfate reduction in a continuous flow, acidogenic reactor using molasses wastewater as the carbon source was studied at varying chemical oxygen demand/sulfate (COD/SO42-) ratios. At a critical COD/SO42- ratio of 2.7, neither COD nor sulfate were in excess for extra production of ethanol or acetate in the reactor. An acetic-type microbial metabolism was established with sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) significantly consuming hydrogen and volatile fatty acids produced by acidogenic bacteria and hydrogen producing acetogens in degrading COD, thereby yielding sulfate removal rate >94.6%. A low critical COD/SO42- ratio of 1.6 was also observed with the enriched ASRB population in reactor which overcomes the barrier to the treatment capability of sulfate-laden wastewater treatment with limited COD supply

  20. Crystal structure of tris­(piperidinium) hydrogen sulfate sulfate

    OpenAIRE

    Tamara J. Lukianova; Vasyl Kinzhybalo; Adam Pietraszko

    2015-01-01

    In the title molecular salt, 3C5H12N+·HSO4−·SO42−, each cation adopts a chair conformation. In the crystal, the hydrogen sulfate ion is connected to the sulfate ion by a strong O—H...O hydrogen bond. The packing also features a number of N—H...O hydrogen bonds, which lead to a three-dimensional network structure. The hydrogen sulfate anion accepts four hydrogen bonds from two cations, whereas the sulfate ion, as an acceptor, binds to five separate piperidinium cations, forming seven hydrogen ...

  1. Is the Aluminum Hypothesis Dead?

    OpenAIRE

    Lidsky, Theodore I.

    2014-01-01

    The Aluminum Hypothesis, the idea that aluminum exposure is involved in the etiology of Alzheimer disease, dates back to a 1965 demonstration that aluminum causes neurofibrillary tangles in the brains of rabbits. Initially the focus of intensive research, the Aluminum Hypothesis has gradually been abandoned by most researchers. Yet, despite this current indifference, the Aluminum Hypothesis continues to attract the attention of a small group of scientists and aluminum continues to be viewed w...

  2. Anodizing Aluminum with Frills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doeltz, Anne E.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    "Anodizing Aluminum" (previously reported in this journal) describes a vivid/relevant laboratory experience for general chemistry students explaining the anodizing of aluminum in sulfuric acid and constrasting it to electroplating. Additions to this procedure and the experiment in which they are used are discussed. Reactions involved are also…

  3. Binding of heparan sulfate to Staphylococcus aureus.

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, O D; Ascencio, F; Fransson, L A; Wadström, T

    1992-01-01

    Heparan sulfate binds to proteins present on the surface of Staphylococcus aureus cells. Binding of 125I-heparan sulfate to S. aureus was time dependent, saturable, and influenced by pH and ionic strength, and cell-bound 125I-heparan sulfate was displaced by unlabelled heparan sulfate or heparin. Other glycosaminoglycans of comparable size (chondroitin sulfate and dermatan sulfate), highly glycosylated glycoprotein (hog gastric mucin), and some anionic polysaccharides (dextran sulfate and RNA...

  4. Ammonium based ionic liquids act as compatible solvents for glycine peptides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► We report solubilities of glycine peptides in ionic liquids. ► We have predicted transfer free energies of glycine peptides in ionic liquids. ► UV-vis spectra analysis for glycine peptides in ionic liquids. ► We have synthesized the new ammonium based ILs. ► We have studied the peptide backbone unit contribution in ILs. - Abstract: In this article, we have reported the solubilities, apparent transfer free energies (ΔG′tr) and UV-visible absorption measurements of glycine peptides (GPs), such as glycine (Gly), diglycine (Gly2), and cyclic glycylglycine (c(GG)) in aqueous ionic liquids (ILs), bearing sulfate and phosphate anions with ammonium cation, at T = 298.15 K. Values of solubility were obtained from density (ρ) measurements of GPs in water and in aqueous ILs. The ammonium ILs such as diethylammonium hydrogen sulfate (DEAS) [(CH3CH2)2NH][HSO4], triethylammonium hydrogen sulfate (TEAS) [(CH3CH2)3NH][HSO4], and triethylammonium dihydrogen phosphate (TEAP) [(CH3CH2)3NH][H2PO4] have been used in the present study. We observed the positive values of ΔG′tr for Gly, Gly2, and c(GG) from water to ILs. These results reveal that the unfavourable interactions are dominated between ILs and the GPs. This indicates that the ammonium based ILs stabilize the GP structure. Further, we have used the ΔG′tr results to evaluate the transfer free energies (Δg′tr) contribution of the peptide backbone unit, also known as glycyl residue, (–CH2C=ONH–) as function of ILs concentration. Our results suggest that all the investigated ammonium ILs are compatible with GPs and act as stabilizers for GPs structure through exclusion of ILs from GPs’ surface. Furthermore, UV-vis spectrophotometer measurements are used as evidence for the stability of GPs in aqueous ILs at T = 298.15 K.

  5. High aerosol acidity despite declining atmospheric sulfate concentrations over the past 15 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Rodney J.; Guo, Hongyu; Russell, Armistead G.; Nenes, Athanasios

    2016-04-01

    Particle acidity affects aerosol concentrations, chemical composition and toxicity. Sulfate is often the main acid component of aerosols, and largely determines the acidity of fine particles under 2.5 μm in diameter, PM2.5. Over the past 15 years, atmospheric sulfate concentrations in the southeastern United States have decreased by 70%, whereas ammonia concentrations have been steady. Similar trends are occurring in many regions globally. Aerosol ammonium nitrate concentrations were assumed to increase to compensate for decreasing sulfate, which would result from increasing neutrality. Here we use observed gas and aerosol composition, humidity, and temperature data collected at a rural southeastern US site in June and July 2013 (ref. ), and a thermodynamic model that predicts pH and the gas-particle equilibrium concentrations of inorganic species from the observations to show that PM2.5 at the site is acidic. pH buffering by partitioning of ammonia between the gas and particle phases produced a relatively constant particle pH of 0-2 throughout the 15 years of decreasing atmospheric sulfate concentrations, and little change in particle ammonium nitrate concentrations. We conclude that the reductions in aerosol acidity widely anticipated from sulfur reductions, and expected acidity-related health and climate benefits, are unlikely to occur until atmospheric sulfate concentrations reach near pre-anthropogenic levels.

  6. The effects of fumed silica and barite on the aluminum resistance of alumina castables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afshar, Saied; Gaubert, Christophe; Allaire, Claude

    2003-11-01

    A study of the effects of microsilica and barium sulfate as additives in high-tabular alumina castables on cold and hot modulus of rupture, porosity, thermal shock, and corrosion resistance to aluminum attack is reported in this article. This investigation underlined the importance of the quality of fumed silica on the physical and mechanical properties of refractory castables, and also confirmed the importance of celsian formation during firing in the protection of refractory against aluminum attack.

  7. The aluminum smelting process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvande, Halvor

    2014-05-01

    This introduction to the industrial primary aluminum production process presents a short description of the electrolytic reduction technology, the history of aluminum, and the importance of this metal and its production process to modern society. Aluminum's special qualities have enabled advances in technologies coupled with energy and cost savings. Aircraft capabilities have been greatly enhanced, and increases in size and capacity are made possible by advances in aluminum technology. The metal's flexibility for shaping and extruding has led to architectural advances in energy-saving building construction. The high strength-to-weight ratio has meant a substantial reduction in energy consumption for trucks and other vehicles. The aluminum industry is therefore a pivotal one for ecological sustainability and strategic for technological development. PMID:24806722

  8. Flotation of kaolinite and diaspore with hexadecyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Yue-hua; OUYANG Kui; CAO Xue-feng; ZHANG Li-min

    2008-01-01

    Tertiary amine was synthesized from fatty amine and formaldehyde. And then the synthesized tertiary amine was used toreact with benzyl chloride to synthesize hexadecyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride (1627) at ambient pressure. Using thesynthesized 1627 as collector, the flotation properties of diaspore and kaolinite were investigated by single mineral and mixedmineral test. The flotation mechanism of diaspore, kaolinite and 1627 was discussed based on FTIR spectra. The results show that themass ratio of aluminum to silicate achieves 15.02 and the recovery of alumina in concentrate is 43.07% using 1627 as a collector. The 1627 is found to be a more effective and a promising collector for reverse flotation to remove aluminum-silicate minerals frombauxite.

  9. Natural Nitrogen—15 Abundance of Ammonium Nitrogen and Fixed Ammonium in Soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHISHU-LIAN; XINGGUANG-XI; 等

    1992-01-01

    The present article deals with the natural nitrogen-15 abundance of ammonium nitrogen and fixed ammonium in different soils.Variations in the natural 15N abundance of ammonium nitrogen mineralized in soils under anaerobic incubation condition were related to soil pH.The δ 15N of mineralizable N in acid soils was lower but that in neutral and calcareous soils was higher compared with the δ 15N of total N in the soils.A variation tendence was also found in the δ 15N of amino-acid N in the hydrolysates of soils.The natural 15N abundance of fixed ammonium was higher than that of total N in most surface soils and other soil horizons,indicating that the increase of δ 15N in the soil borizons beneath subsurface horizon of some forest soils and acid paddy soils was related to the higher δ 15N value of fixed ammonium in the soil.

  10. Benchmark binding energies of ammonium and alkyl-ammonium ions interacting with water. Are ammonium-water hydrogen bonds strong?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallet, Valérie; Masella, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Alkyl-ammonium ion/water interactions are investigated using high level quantum computations, yielding thermodynamics data in good agreement with gas-phase experiments. Alkylation and hydration lead to weaken the NHsbnd O hydrogen bonds. Upon complete hydration by four water molecules, their main features are close to those of the OHsbnd O bond in the isolated water dimer. Energy decomposition analyses indicate that hydration of alkyl-ammonium ions are mainly due to electrostatic/polarization effects, as for hard monoatomic cations, but with a larger effect of dispersion.

  11. Extração simultânea de alumínio, cálcio, magnésio, potássio e sódio do solo com solução de cloreto de amônio Simultaneous extraction of aluminum, calcium, magnesium, potassium, and sodium with ammonium chloride solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. Boeira

    2004-10-01

    samples used were from Northeastern Brazil fruit growing region and from the Embrapa Environment Experimental Station, located in Jaguariúna County, São Paulo State. The employed methods were: (a simultaneous extraction of the five cations with a 1 mol L-1 NH4Cl; (b extraction of Ca, Mg, and Al with 1 mol L-1 KCl; and (c extraction of K and Na with the Mehlich-1 solution. The NH4Cl solution has a higher Mg extraction capacity than KCl, but they present similar Ca and Al extraction ability. The NH4Cl solution extracted more K and Na than the Mehlich-1 solution. It is concluded that the ammonium chloride solution is a convenient alternative for the extraction of exchangeable Al, Ca, Mg, K, and Na from soils.

  12. Reduction in Ammonium Ions in Sludge Liquor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eglė Šlajūtė

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Liquor rejected from the centrifugation of the digested sludge can contain the concentrations of ammonium ions up to 1750 mg/L. These loads are usually returned to the intake of wastewater treatment plants (WWTP without additional treatment and can have a negative impact on biological wastewater and/or sludge treatment processes, e.g. phosphorus and nitrogen removal. This article deals with the use of naturally obtained sorbent, zeolite, in batch and column test procedure for removing ammonium from the rejected liquor. This research study was carried out using different sizes of zeolite particles: 0.8–1.6 mm and 1.6–2.5 mm. The highest efficiency of ammonium removal (up to 98 % was achieved by applying the zeolite particles of 0.8–1.6 mm.Article in Lithuanian

  13. Prompt Reaction of Aluminum in Detonating Explosives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential of aluminum (Al) reaction to boost detonation energy has been studied for decades, most recently spurred by the availability of nanometer-sized particles. A literature review is consistent with results from the small-scale shock reactivity test (SSRT). In this test, <1/2-g samples in confinement are shock loaded on one end, and the output at the other end dents a soft witness block. For samples in which 0.3 g of cyclotetramethylenetetranitramine (HMX) was mixed with 8 μm Al, the deepest dent occurred at 15% Al. When ammonium perchlorate (AP) was mixed with the same Al, the increased dents were consistent with changes in detonation velocity previously reported on similar mixtures. One outcome of this study is a new interpretation for the participation of Al in large scale gap tests on plastic-bonded explosives, which was discussed by Bernecker at this meeting in 1987

  14. The modulation of cell surface cAMP receptors from Dictyostelium disscoideum by ammonium sulfate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haastert, Peter J.M. van

    1985-01-01

    Dictyostelium discoideum cells contain a heterogeneous population of cell surface cAMP receptors with components possessing different affinities (Kd between 15 and 450 nM) and different off-rates of the cAMP-receptor complex (t½ between 0.7 and 150 s). The association of cAMP to the receptor and the

  15. Experimental Investigation on Pool Boiling Heat Transfer With Ammonium Dodecyl Sulfate

    OpenAIRE

    Mr.P. Atcha Rao; Mr.V.V.Ramakrishna

    2015-01-01

    We have so many applications related to Pool Boiling. The Pool Boiling is mostly useful in arid areas to produce drinking water from impure water like sea water by distillation process. It is very difficult to distill the only water which having high surface tension. The surface tension is important factor to affect heat transfer enhancement in pool boiling. By reducing the surface tension we can increase the heat transfer rate in pool boiling. From so many years we are using surf...

  16. Sulfuric Acid and Ammonium Sulfate Leaching of Alumina from Lampang Clay

    OpenAIRE

    Numluk, Paweena; Chaisena, Aphiruk

    2012-01-01

    The rapid development of the global alumina industry has led to a considerable increase in the production alumina and processing of alumina from non-bauxitic sources. Lampang clays comprise various minerals that contain about 22.70 wt% of extractable alumina. Local clay was ground, activated by calcination and treated with sulfuric acid to extract alumina. In the activation step, the effects of temperature and time on the extraction of alumina and iron were investigated. The leaching experime...

  17. Burning characteristics of individual aluminum/aluminum oxide particles

    OpenAIRE

    Ruttenberg, Eric C.

    1996-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited An experimental investigation was conducted in which the burning characteristics of individual aluminum/aluminum oxide particles were measured using a windowed combustion bomb at atmospheric pressure and under gravity-fall conditions. A scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to measure the size distribution of the initial aluminum particles and the aluminum oxide residue. Analysis of the residue indicated that the mass of aluminum...

  18. Axenic aerobic biofilms inhibit corrosion of copper and aluminum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaraman, A; Ornek, D; Duarte, D A; Lee, C C; Mansfeld, F B; Wood, T K

    1999-11-01

    The corrosion behavior of unalloyed copper and aluminum alloy 2024 in modified Baar's medium has been studied with continuous reactors using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. An axenic aerobic biofilm of either Pseudomonas fragi K or Bacillus brevis 18 was able to lessen corrosion as evidenced by a consistent 20-fold increase in the low-frequency impedance value of copper as well as by a consistent four- to seven-fold increase in the polarization resistance of aluminum 2024 after six days exposure compared to sterile controls. This is the first report of axenic aerobic biofilms inhibiting generalized corrosion of copper and aluminum. Addition of the representative sulfate-reducing bacterium (SRB) Desulfovibrio vulgaris (to simulate consortia corrosion behavior) to either the P. fragi K or B. brevis 18 protective biofilm on copper increased the corrosion to that of the sterile control unless antibiotic (ampicillin) was added to inhibit the growth of SRB in the biofilm. PMID:10616712

  19. Effects of liquid aluminum chloride additions to poultry litter on broiler performance, ammonia emissions, soluble phosphorus, total volatile fatty acids, and nitrogen contents of litter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent studies have shown that the use of aluminum sulfate (Al2(SO4)3.14H2O) and aluminum chloride (AlCl3) additions to animal manures are more effective than other chemicals in reducing ammonia (NH3) emissions and phosphorus (P) solubility. Although the use of alum has been intensively used in the ...

  20. Purifying Aluminum by Vacuum Distillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du Fresne, E. R.

    1985-01-01

    Proposed method for purifying aluminum employs one-step vacuum distillation. Raw material for process impure aluminum produced in electrolysis of aluminum ore. Impure metal melted in vacuum. Since aluminum has much higher vapor pressure than other constituents, boils off and condenses on nearby cold surfaces in proportions much greater than those of other constituents.

  1. Occupational Exposure in Ammonium Phosphate Fertilizer Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Occupational exposures and activity concentrations have been assessed in two industrial plants producing mono-ammonium phosphate and di-ammonium phosphate fertilizers, located in south-western Spain. The annual effective doses received by the workers are below 1 mSv/a, with the contribution from external exposure being similar to that from internal exposure. The dose contribution from inhalation of dust has been estimated to be about 0.12 mSv/a, while the 222Rn concentrations inside the plants are of no concern. Consequently, no additional radiation protection measures need to be taken to protect the workers in these facilities. (author)

  2. Mineral carbonation of phosphogypsum waste for production of useful carbonate and sulfate salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannu-Petteri eMattila

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Phosphogypsum (CaSO4·2H2O waste is produced in large amounts during phosphoric acid (H3PO4 production. Minor quantities are utilized in construction or agriculture, while most of the material is stockpiled, creating an environmental challenge to prevent pollution of natural waters. In principle, the gypsum waste could be used to capture several hundred Mt of carbon dioxide (CO2. For example, when gypsum is converted to ammonium sulfate ((NH42SO4 with ammonia (NH3 and CO2, also solid calcium carbonate (CaCO3 is generated. The ammonium sulfate can be utilized as a fertilizer or in other mineral carbonation processes that use magnesium silicate-based rock as feedstock, while calcium carbonate has various uses as e.g. filler material. The reaction extent of the described process was studied by thermodynamic modeling and experimentally as a function of reactant concentrations and temperature. Other essential properties such as purity and quality of the solid products are also followed. Conversion efficiencies of >95% calcium from phosphogypsum to calcium carbonate are obtained. Scalenohedral, rhombohedral and prismatic calcite particles can be produced, though the precipitates contain certain contaminants such as rare earth metals and sulfur from the gypsum. A reverse osmosis membrane cartridge is also tested as an alternative and energy-efficient method of concentrating the ammonium sulfate salt solution instead of the traditional evaporation of the process solution.

  3. Electrochemical behavior of a novel palladium pentacyanonitrosylferrate modified aluminum electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novel inorganic film modified electrodes have been prepared by chemical deposition of a thin palladium pentacyanonitrosylferrate (PdPCNF) film on the surface of aluminum substrate. The modification process including the electroless deposition of metallic palladium on the aluminum electrode surface from PdCl2+25% ammonia solution and chemical derivatization of deposited palladium to the PdPCNF film in 0.1 M Na2[Fe(CN)5NO]+0.5 M KNO3+HNO3 solution (pH 1.5-2.5), are described. The aluminum-based modified electrodes exhibit, one pair of well-defined voltammetric peaks which correspond to the Fe(III)/Fe(II) transition in complex structure. The effect of pH, ammonium, alkali metal and alkaline earth metal cations of supporting electrolyte on the electrochemical characteristics of the modified electrode was studied in detail. Diffusion coefficients of hydrated ammonium and alkali metal cations in the film (D), transfer coefficient (α) and transfer rate constant for electron (ks), were determined. The high stability of this modified electrode makes it attractive in practical application

  4. Corrosion Inhibitors for Aluminum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Bodo

    1995-01-01

    Describes a simple and reliable test method used to investigate the corrosion-inhibiting effects of various chelating agents on aluminum pigments in aqueous alkaline media. The experiments that are presented require no complicated or expensive electronic equipment. (DDR)

  5. Advances in aluminum anodizing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, K. H.

    1969-01-01

    White anodize is applied to aluminum alloy surfaces by specific surface preparation, anodizing, pigmentation, and sealing techniques. The development techniques resulted in alloys, which are used in space vehicles, with good reflectance values and excellent corrosive resistance.

  6. Detonation characteristics of ammonium nitrate products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kersten, R.J.A.; Hengel, E.I.V. van den; Steen, A.C. van der

    2006-01-01

    The detonation properties of ammonium nitrate (AN) products depend on many factors and are therefore, despite the large amount of information on this topic, difficult to assess. In order to further improve the understanding of the safety properties of AN, the European Fertilizer Manufacturers Associ

  7. 76 FR 46907 - Ammonium Nitrate Security Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-03

    ... common example is when fertilizer-grade ammonium nitrate is mixed with fuel oil and creates an explosive... Requirements 1. Mixture Requirement 2. Threshold Weight and Individual Products Exemptions 3. Explosives... Federal Bureau of Investigation FR Federal Register HMR Hazardous Materials Regulations HMT...

  8. Montmorillonite modification by quaternary ammonium epoxide

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Duchek, P.; Špírková, Milena; Šabata, Stanislav

    Kochi: India n Society of Nanoscience And Nanotechnology, 2010. s. 1. [Nanotech India 2010. 19.11.2010-21.11.2010, Kochi] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAAX08240901 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505; CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : montmorillonite * quaternary ammonium epoxide * intercalation Subject RIV: JI - Composite Materials

  9. 21 CFR 184.1135 - Ammonium bicarbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... ingredient meets the specifications of the Food Chemicals Codex, 3d Ed. (1981), p. 19, which is incorporated... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ammonium bicarbonate. 184.1135 Section 184.1135 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED)...

  10. 21 CFR 184.1139 - Ammonium hydroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... specifications of the Food Chemicals Codex, 3d Ed. (1981), p. 20, which is incorporated by reference. Copies are... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ammonium hydroxide. 184.1139 Section 184.1139 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD...

  11. 21 CFR 184.1137 - Ammonium carbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... of the Food Chemicals Codex, 3d Ed. (1981), p. 19, which is incorporated by reference. Copies are... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ammonium carbonate. 184.1137 Section 184.1137 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD...

  12. Fabrication of aluminum foam from aluminum scrap Hamza

    OpenAIRE

    O. A. Osman1 ,; Mining and Petroleum Engineering, Faculty of Engineering- Qena, Al_Azhar University, Egypt

    2015-01-01

    In this study the optimum parameters affecting the preparation of aluminum foam from recycled aluminum were studied, these parameters are: temperature, CaCO3 to aluminum scrap wt. ratio as foaming agent, Al2O3 to aluminum scrap wt. ratio as thickening agent, and stirring time. The results show that, the optimum parameters are the temperature ranged from 800 to 850oC, CaCO3 to aluminum scrap wt. ratio was 5%, Al2O3 to aluminum scrap wt. ratio was 3% and stirring time was 45 second ...

  13. The role of the anion in the reaction of reducing sugars with ammonium salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agyei-Aye, Kwasi; Chian, May X; Lauterbach, John H; Moldoveanu, Serban C

    2002-11-19

    Reactions of reducing sugars with ammonia and its compounds are important commercially, particularly in the preparation of flavors and caramel colors. However, such reactions generally produce a complex series of products ranging from simple molecules to complex polymeric materials, particularly since commercial systems generally involve mixtures of sugars as opposed to single sugars. This complexity has made understanding the mechanisms of such reactions difficult. Therefore, investigatory work has generally been focused on model systems. Herein we report one such study with model systems: the effects of the nature of the anion of the reactions of reducing sugars with ammonium salts. D-Glucose was reacted in aqueous solution with each of the following ammonium salts: acetate, bicarbonate, carbonate, chloride, citrate, formate, monohydrogenphosphate (DAP), sulfate, and sulfite. These reactions were carried out in a Parr bomb at 93 degrees C for 2.5 h. The initial pH of the reaction mixtures was adjusted to pH 8.0 at 25 degrees C. The resulting mixtures were analyzed by LC-MS, and the results were analyzed by comparing the product yields and distributions with those obtained with DAP. The major reaction product of interest was 2,6-deoxyfructosazine, as it had been shown to be a marker for the polymeric material formed from such reactions. It was found that ammonium salts of weak acids were much more effective in effecting the desired reactions than were those of strong acids; however, none was as effective as DAP. PMID:12433492

  14. Multistage Tandem Mass Spectrometry of Chondroitin Sulfate and Dermatan Sulfate

    OpenAIRE

    Bielik, Alicia M.; Zaia, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Chondroitin/dermatan sulfate (CS/DS) is a glycosaminoglycan (GAG) found in abundance in extracellular matrices. In connective tissue, CS/DS proteoglycans play structural roles in maintaining viscoelasticity through the large number of immobilized sulfate groups on CS/DS chains. CS/DS chains also bind protein families including growth factors and growth factor receptors. Through such interactions, CS/DS chains play important roles in neurobiochemical processes, connective tissue homeostasis, c...

  15. Reactivity of Mg-Al hydrotalcites in solid and delaminated forms in ammonium carbonate solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoica, Georgiana; Santiago, Marta; Abelló, Sònia; Pérez-Ramírez, Javier

    2010-10-01

    Treatment of Mg-Al hydrotalcites (LDHs, layered double hydroxides) in aqueous (NH 4) 2CO 3 at 298 K leads to composites of dawsonite, hydrotalcite, and magnesium ammonium carbonate. The mechanism and kinetics of this transformation, ultimately determining the relative amounts of these components in the composite, depend on the treatment time (from 1 h to 9 days), the Mg/Al ratio in the hydrotalcite (2-4), and on the starting layered double hydroxide (solid or delaminated form). The materials at various stages of the treatment were characterized by inductive coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetry, and nitrogen adsorption at 77 K. The progressive transformation of hydrotalcite towards crystalline dawsonite and magnesium ammonium carbonate phases follows a dissolution-precipitation mechanism. A gradual decrease of the Mg/Al ratio in the resulting solids was observed in time due to magnesium leaching in the reacting medium. Dawsonite-hydrotalcite composite formation is favored at high aluminum contents in the starting hydrotalcite, while the formation of magnesium ammonium carbonate is favored at high Mg/Al ratios. The synthetic strategy comprising hydrotalcite delamination in formamide prior to aqueous (NH 4) 2CO 3 treatment is more reactive towards composite formation than starting from the bulk solid hydrotalcite.

  16. 40 CFR 721.4095 - Quaternary ammonium alkyltherpropyl trialkylamine halides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... trialkylamine halides. 721.4095 Section 721.4095 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4095 Quaternary ammonium alkyltherpropyl trialkylamine halides. (a... generically as quaternary ammonium alkyltherpropyl trialkylamine halides (PMNs...

  17. Reversible chain transfer between organoyttrium cations and aluminum: Synthesis of aluminum-terminated polyethylene with extremely narrow molecular-weight distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Kretschmer, Winfried P.; Meetsma, Auke; Hessen, Bart; Schmalz, Thomas; Qayyum, Sadaf; Kempe, Rhett

    2006-01-01

    Aminopyridinato-ligand-stabilized organoyttrium cations are accessible in very good yield through alkane elimination from trialkyl yttrium complexes with sterically demanding aminopyridines, followed by abstraction of one of the two alkyl functions using ammonium borates. At 80 degrees C and in the presence of small amounts of aluminum alkyl compounds, very high ethylene polymerization activities are observed if very bulky aminopyridinato ligands are used. During these polymerizations a rever...

  18. Integrated approach for investigating the durability of self-consolidating concrete to sulfate attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassuoni, Mohamed Tamer F.

    The growing use of self-consolidating concrete (SCC) in various infrastructure applications exposed to sulfate-rich environments necessitates conducting comprehensive research to evaluate its durability to external sulfate attack. Since the reliability and adequacy of standard sulfate immersion tests have been questioned, the current thesis introduced an integrated testing approach for assessing the durability of a wide scope of SCC mixtures to external sulfate attack. This testing approach involved progressive levels of complexity from single to multiple damage processes. A new series of sulfate attack tests involving multiple field-like parameters and combined damage mechanisms (various cations, controlled pH, wetting-drying, partial immersion, freezing-thawing, and cyclic cold-hot conditions with or without sustained flexural loading) were designed to evaluate the performance (suitability) of the SCC mixtures under various sulfate attack exposure scenarios. The main mixture design variables of SCC included the type of binder (single, binary, ternary and quaternary), air-entrainment, sand-to-aggregate mass ratio and hybrid fibre reinforcement. The comprehensive database and knowledge obtained from this research were used to develop smart models (fuzzy and neuro-fuzzy inference systems) based on artificial-intelligence to evaluate and predict the performance of the SCC mixtures under various sulfate attack exposure regimes implemented in this study. In full immersion tests involving high concentration sodium and magnesium sulfate solutions with controlled pH, the low penetrability of SCC was responsible for the high durability of specimens. Ternary and quaternary cementitious systems with or without limestone materials provided a passivating layer, with or without acid neutralization capacity, which protected SCC from severe damage in the aggressive sulfuric acid and ammonium sulfate solutions. In contrast to conclusions drawn from the sodium sulfate immersion

  19. 40 CFR 721.10099 - Dialkyl dimethyl ammonium carbonate (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dialkyl dimethyl ammonium carbonate... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10099 Dialkyl dimethyl ammonium carbonate (generic). (a) Chemical... as dialkyl dimethyl ammonium carbonate (1:1) (PMN P-03-715) is subject to reporting under...

  20. Sulfated compounds from marine organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornprobst, J M; Sallenave, C; Barnathan, G

    1998-01-01

    More than 500 sulfated compounds have been isolated from marine organisms so far but most of them originate from two phyla only, Spongia and Echinodermata. The sulfated compounds are presented according to the phyla they have been identified from and to their chemical structures. Biological activities, when available, are also given. Macromolecules have also been included in this review but without structural details. PMID:9530808

  1. Influence of Sulfur Species on Current Efficiency in the Aluminum Smelting Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meirbekova, Rauan; Haarberg, Geir Martin; Thonstad, Jomar; Saevarsdottir, Gudrun

    2016-04-01

    Anode impurities are the major source of sulfur in aluminum electrolysis. Sulfur in anodes is mainly found as organic compounds. Alumina also introduces small quantities of sulfur, typically in the form of sulfates. The scarcity and cost of low-sulfur raw materials and the possibility of sulfur removal from the cell by means of flue gas may make high-sulfur content anodes a viable option. However, some anode impurities are known to affect current efficiency in aluminum production and caution must be exercised. The effect of increased sulfur content in the aluminum electrolysis electrolyte must be studied. This paper explores the effect of increased sulfur concentration in the electrolyte on current efficiency in a laboratory cell. Sodium sulfate was added to the electrolyte as a source of sulfur at regular time intervals to maintain a constant sulfur concentration. Current efficiency decreased by 1.1 pct per each 100 mg/kg (ppm) increase in sulfur concentration in the electrolyte.

  2. Fabrication of aluminum foam from aluminum scrap Hamza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Osman1 ,

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study the optimum parameters affecting the preparation of aluminum foam from recycled aluminum were studied, these parameters are: temperature, CaCO3 to aluminum scrap wt. ratio as foaming agent, Al2O3 to aluminum scrap wt. ratio as thickening agent, and stirring time. The results show that, the optimum parameters are the temperature ranged from 800 to 850oC, CaCO3 to aluminum scrap wt. ratio was 5%, Al2O3 to aluminum scrap wt. ratio was 3% and stirring time was 45 second with stirring speed 1200 rpm. The produced foam apparent densities ranged from 0.40-0.60 g/cm3. The microstructure of aluminum foam was examined by using SEM, EDX and XRD, the results show that, the aluminum pores were uniformly distributed along the all matrices and the cell walls covered by thin oxide film.

  3. Nano-aluminum as energetic material for rocket propellants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meda, L. [Istituto G. Donegani, Polimeri Europa, 28100 Novara (Italy)], E-mail: laura.meda@polimerieuropa.com; Marra, G. [Istituto G. Donegani, Polimeri Europa, 28100 Novara (Italy); Galfetti, L.; Severini, F.; De Luca, L. [Politecnico di Milano, Solid Propulsion Laboratory (SP Lab), 20158 Milano (Italy)

    2007-09-15

    A characterization of differently sized aluminum powders, by using BET (specific surface measurements), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), was performed in order to evaluate their performance in solid propellant. These aluminum powders were used in manufacturing composite rocket propellants, that are based on Ammonium Perchlorate (AP) as oxidizer and Hydroxyl-Terminated-PolyButadiene (HTPB) as binder. The reference formulation was AP/HTPB/Al with 68/17/15 mass fractions, respectively. The ballistic characterization of studied propellants, made in terms of steady burning rates, showed how better is the performance of nano-aluminized compared to micro-aluminized propellants. Measurements of Al powder ignition time and temperature were also carried out.

  4. Quaternary ammonium compounds – New occupational hazards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Lipińska-Ojrzanowska

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs, quats belong to organic ionic chemical agents which display unique properties of both surfactants and disinfectants. Their wide distribution in the work environment and also in private households brings about new occupational hazards. This paper reviews reports about the health effects of QACs. QACs could play a role of sensitizers and irritants to the skin and mucous membranes. It is suspected that particular QACs can display an immunologic crossreactivity between each other and with other chemical compounds containing ammonium ion, such as muscle relaxants widely used in anesthesia. They may promote the development of airway allergy, however, the background mechanisms are still unclear and need to be further investigated. Until now, a few cases of occupational asthma induced by QACs have been described and their involvement in contact dermatitis has been documented. The possibility of anaphylaxis due to QACs cannot be excluded as well. Med Pr 2014;65(5:675–682

  5. Detonation Properties of Ammonium Dinitramide (ADN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wätterstam, A.; Östmark, H.; Helte, A.; Karlsson, S.

    1999-06-01

    Ammonium Dinitramide, ADN, has a potential as an oxidizer for underwater high explosives. Pure ADN has a large reaction-zone length and shows a strong non-ideal behaviour. The work presented here is an extension of previous work.(Sensitivity and Performance Characterization of Ammonium Dinitramide (ADN). Presented at 11th International Detonation Symposium, Snowmass, CO, 1998.) Experiments for determining the detonation velocity as a function of inverse charge radius and density, reaction-zone length and curvature, and the detonation pressure are presented. Measurements of pressure indicates that no, or weak von-Neumann spike exists, suggesting an immediate chemical decomposition. Experimental data are compared with predicted using thermochemical codes and ZND-theory.

  6. Regeneration of aluminum hydride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graetz, Jason Allan; Reilly, James J; Wegrzyn, James E

    2012-09-18

    The present invention provides methods and materials for the formation of hydrogen storage alanes, AlH.sub.x, where x is greater than 0 and less than or equal to 6 at reduced H.sub.2 pressures and temperatures. The methods rely upon reduction of the change in free energy of the reaction between aluminum and molecular H.sub.2. The change in free energy is reduced by lowering the entropy change during the reaction by providing aluminum in a state of high entropy, and by increasing the magnitude of the change in enthalpy of the reaction or combinations thereof.

  7. Proton dynamics investigation for dimethyl ammonium cation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proton dynamics in dimethyl ammonium cation has been investigated by means of NMR and spin echo methods in polycrystalline salts [NH2(CH3)2]+Bi2J9- and [NH2(CH3)2]+SbJ9-. Spin-lattice relaxation time as well as second moment of NMR line have been measured for influence study of crystal structure changes on proton dynamics

  8. Aluminum Hydroxide and Magnesium Hydroxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aluminum Hydroxide, Magnesium Hydroxide are antacids used together to relieve heartburn, acid indigestion, and upset stomach. They ... They combine with stomach acid and neutralize it. Aluminum Hydroxide, Magnesium Hydroxide are available without a prescription. ...

  9. Development of technology for ammonium nitrate dissociation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammonia and ammonium carbonate are frequently used as reagents in fuel production and processing of liquid radioactive wastes. In particular, liquid radioactive wastes that contain ammonium nitrate are generated during operations of metal precipitation. In closed vessels at elevated temperature, for example in evaporators or deposits in tubing, ammonium nitrate may explode due to generation of gaseous nitrogen oxides [2]. In this connection, steps have to be taken to rule out conditions that result in explosion. To do that, ammonium nitrate should be removed even prior to the initial stage of its formation. This report gives results of development of a method of dissociating ammonium nitrate

  10. DETECTION OF THE AMMONIUM ION IN SPACE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cernicharo, J.; Tercero, B. [Deparment of Astrophysics, CAB, INTA-CSIC, Crta Torrejon-Ajalvir Km 4, E-28850 Torrejon de Ardoz, Madrid (Spain); Fuente, A. [Observatorio Astronomico Nacional, Apdo. 112, E-28803 Alcala de Henares (Spain); Domenech, J. L.; Cueto, M.; Carrasco, E.; Herrero, V. J.; Tanarro, I. [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, IEM-CSIC, Serrano 123, E-28006 Madrid (Spain); Marcelino, N. [NRAO, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22902 (United States); Roueff, E. [Luth, Observatoire de Paris, CNRS UMR8102, Place J. Janssen F-92190 Meudon (France); Gerin, M. [LERMA, Observatoire de Paris, CNRS UMR8112 and Ecole Normale Superieure, 61 Avenue de lObservatoire, F-75014 Paris (France); Pearson, J., E-mail: jcernicharo@cab.inta-csic.es [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, MC 168-314, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    We report on the detection of a narrow feature at 262816.73 MHz toward Orion and the cold prestellar core B1-bS which we attribute to the 1{sub 0}-0{sub 0} line of the deuterated ammonium ion, NH{sub 3}D{sup +}. The observations were performed with the IRAM 30 m radio telescope. The carrier has to be a light molecular species as it is the only feature detected over 3.6 GHz of bandwidth. The hyperfine structure is not resolved, indicating a very low value for the electric quadrupolar coupling constant of nitrogen which is expected for NH{sub 3}D{sup +} as the electric field over the N nucleus is practically zero. Moreover, the feature is right at the predicted frequency for the 1{sub 0}-0{sub 0} transition of the ammonium ion, 262817 {+-} 6 MHz (3{sigma}), using rotational constants derived from new infrared data obtained in our laboratory in Madrid. The estimated column density is (1.1 {+-} 0.2) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 12} cm{sup -2}. Assuming a deuterium enhancement similar to that of NH{sub 2}D, we derive N(NH{sub 4}{sup +}) {approx_equal} 2.6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 13} cm{sup -2}, i.e., an abundance for ammonium of a few 10{sup -11}.

  11. Formation of ettringite, Ca 6Al 2(SO 4) 3(OH) 12·26H 2O, AFt, and monosulfate, Ca 4Al 2O 6(SO 4)·14H 2O, AFm-14, in hydrothermal hydration of Portland cement and of calcium aluminum oxide—calcium sulfate dihydrate mixtures studied by in situ synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Axel Nørlund; Jensen, Torben R.; Hanson, Jonathan C.

    2004-06-01

    In the hydration of calcium aluminum oxide-gypsum mixtures, i.e., Ca 3Al 2O 6, Ca 12Al 14O 33 and CaSO 4·2H 2O, the reaction products can be ettringite, Ca 6Al 2(SO 4) 3(OH) 12·26H 2O, monosulfate, Ca 4Al 2O 6(SO 4)·14H 2O, or the calcium aluminum oxide hydrate, Ca 4Al 2O 7·19H 2O. Ettringite is formed if sufficient CaSO 4·2H 2O is present in the mixture. Ettringite is converted to monosulfate when all CaSO 4·2H 2O is consumed in the synthesis of ettringite. The reactions were investigated in the temperature range 25-170°C using in situ synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction. This technique allows the study of very fast chemical reactions that are observed here under hydrothermal conditions. A new experimental approach was developed to perform in situ mixing of the reactants during X-ray data collection.

  12. Formation of ettringite, Ca6Al2(SO4)3(OH)12·26H2O, AFt, and monosulfate, Ca4Al2O6(SO4)·14H2O, AFm-14, in hydrothermal hydration of Portland cement and of calcium aluminum oxide--calcium sulfate dihydrate mixtures studied by in situ synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the hydration of calcium aluminum oxide-gypsum mixtures, i.e., Ca3Al2O6, Ca12Al14O33 and CaSO4·2H2O, the reaction products can be ettringite, Ca6Al2(SO4)3(OH)12·26H2O, monosulfate, Ca4Al2O6(SO4)·14H2O, or the calcium aluminum oxide hydrate, Ca4Al2O7·19H2O. Ettringite is formed if sufficient CaSO4·2H2O is present in the mixture. Ettringite is converted to monosulfate when all CaSO4·2H2O is consumed in the synthesis of ettringite. The reactions were investigated in the temperature range 25-170 degree sign C using in situ synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction. This technique allows the study of very fast chemical reactions that are observed here under hydrothermal conditions. A new experimental approach was developed to perform in situ mixing of the reactants during X-ray data collection

  13. Electrically conductive anodized aluminum coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alwitt, Robert S. (Inventor); Liu, Yanming (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A process for producing anodized aluminum with enhanced electrical conductivity, comprising anodic oxidation of aluminum alloy substrate, electrolytic deposition of a small amount of metal into the pores of the anodized aluminum, and electrolytic anodic deposition of an electrically conductive oxide, including manganese dioxide, into the pores containing the metal deposit; and the product produced by the process.

  14. Formulasi Sediaan Deodoran Antiperspiran Bentuk Batang (Stick) Dengan Aluminium Kalium Sulfat (Tawas)

    OpenAIRE

    Lase, Bertha Dwi Julinta

    2015-01-01

    Background: Antiperspirant is a cosmetic which is used to suppress sweating by stricted pores of sweat glands, including eccrine and apocrine. Alum (potassium aluminum sulfate) is a traditional antiperspirant, which serves to improve body odor works by inhibiting the secretion of sweat with narrow the pores. In trade, alum is available in powder form antiperspirant deodorant. This form is less effective because it can be dissolved with sweat. Deodorant cosmetic preparations have several forms...

  15. Turnover of ammonium-inducible glutamate dehydrogenase during induction and its rapid inactivation after removal of inducer from Chlorella sorokiniana cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Bascomb, N F; Yeung, A T; Turner, K J; Schmidt, R R

    1981-01-01

    When ammonia was removed from Chlorella sorokiniana cells, which contain an ammonium-inducible nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-specific glutamate dehydrogenase (NADP-GDH), the activity of this enzyme decayed with a half-life of approximately 8 min. By use of rocket immunoelectrophoresis, indirect immunoprecipitation, and indirect immunoadsorption (coupled with pulse-chase experiments with 35S-labeled sulfate), the rapid initial loss in activity was shown to be due to enzyme inacti...

  16. Invisible Display in Aluminum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prichystal, Jan Phuklin; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Bladt, Henrik Henriksen

    2005-01-01

    integrated display in a metal surface is often ruled by design and functionality of a product. The integration of displays in metal surfaces requires metal removal in order to clear the area of the display to some extent. The idea behind an invisible display in Aluminum concerns the processing of a metal...

  17. Hot pressing aluminum nitride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiment was performed on the hot pressing of aluminum nitride, using three kinds of powder which are: a) made by electric arc method, b) made by nitrifying aluminum metal powder, and c) made from alumina and carbon in nitrogen atmosphere. The content of oxygen of these powders was analyzed by activation analysis using high energy neutron irradiation. The density of hot pressed samples was classified into two groups. The high density group contained oxygen more than 3 wt. %, and the low density group contained about 0.5 wt %. Typical density vs. temperature curves have a bending point near 1,5500C, and the sample contains iron impurity of 0.5 wt. %. Needle crystals were found to grow near 1,5500C by VLS mechanism, and molten iron acts a main part of mechanism as a liquid phase. According to the above-mentioned curve, the iron impurity in aluminum nitride prevents densification. The iron impurity accelerates crystal growth. Advance of densification may be expected by adding iron impurity, but in real case, the densification is delayed. Densification and crystal growth are greatly accelerated by oxygen impurity. In conclusion, more efforts must be made for the purification of aluminum nitride. In the present stage, the most pure nitride powder contains about 0.1 wt. % of oxygen, as compared with good silicon carbide crystals containing only 10-5 wt. % of nitrogen. (Iwakiri, K.)

  18. Bioengineered heparins and heparan sulfates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Li; Suflita, Matthew; Linhardt, Robert J

    2016-02-01

    Heparin and heparan sulfates are closely related linear anionic polysaccharides, called glycosaminoglycans, which exhibit a number of important biological and pharmacological activities. These polysaccharides, having complex structures and polydispersity, are biosynthesized in the Golgi of animal cells. While heparan sulfate is a widely distributed membrane and extracellular glycosaminoglycan, heparin is found primarily intracellularly in the granules of mast cells. While heparin has historically received most of the scientific attention for its anticoagulant activity, interest has steadily grown in the multi-faceted role heparan sulfate plays in normal and pathophysiology. The chemical synthesis of these glycosaminoglycans is largely precluded by their structural complexity. Today, we depend on livestock animal tissues for the isolation and the annual commercial production of hundred ton quantities of heparin used in the manufacture of anticoagulant drugs and medical device coatings. The variability of animal-sourced heparin and heparan sulfates, their inherent impurities, the limited availability of source tissues, the poor control of these source materials and their manufacturing processes, suggest a need for new approaches for their production. Over the past decade there have been major efforts in the biotechnological production of these glycosaminoglycans, driven by both therapeutic applications and as probes to study their natural functions. This review focuses on the complex biology of these glycosaminoglycans in human health and disease, and the use of recombinant technology in the chemoenzymatic synthesis and metabolic engineering of heparin and heparan sulfates. PMID:26555370

  19. Bacterial Investigation of Ammonium-rich Sediment in the Pearl River Delta, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, K.; Chunbo, H.; Jiao, J. J.; Jidong, G.

    2011-12-01

    High ammonium loading of groundwater is a major concern because of the potential toxicity to ecosystem and human health. As one of the most complex large-scale delta systems in China, Pearl River Delta (PRD) was reported to have the highest ammonium concentration for natural groundwater ever reported globally. In this research, borehole SD14 was drilled through the aquitard into the basal aquifer in the PRD. 16S rRNA gene library construction and Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis were conducted to reveal bacterial community variation of different geology strata. A total of 161 clones from three 16S rRNA libraries were sequenced and clustered into 55 distinct operational taxonomic units (OTU) at 3% cutoff. The phylogenetic analysis indicated that the predominant bacterial phylum was Proteobacteria (50.9%), followed by Chloroflexi (16.8%), Acidobacteria (4.38%) and Firmicutes (3.73%). In the sediment samples from SD14 at the depths of 6.9m, 22.5m and 37.4m, Proteobacteria made up 60.3%, 42.0% and 35.3% of the communities respectively, showing a declining ratio with the depth. Most of the bacteria in all the samples were previously discovered in marine environments, indicating that SD14 used to be in a marine sedimentary environment. Bacteria associated with iron oxidation and nitrogen fixing were found in the sample at 6.9 m, while in the other two samples there existed bacteria which were associated with methane cycling, sulfate reducing and denitrifying. The DGGE results showed that microbial community structures varied significantly with the increase of depth, and that Delftia acidovorans, a species of Proteobacteria which was able to reduce nitrate to nitrite, was the predominant species in samples at 22.5 and 37.4 m, suggesting ammonium as a control factor shaping the bacterial community. The results of this research provided important information of the bacteria in the PRD sediments. High bacterial diversity was observed in samples, and

  20. Tris(diisopropylammonium hydrogensulfate sulfate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamhossein Sh. Mohammadnezhad

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The cations and anions of the title salt, 3C6H16N+·HSO4−·SO42−, are linked by N—H...O and O—H...O hydrogen bonds into a three-dimensional network. The hydrogensulfate ion, with a single S—O(H bond of 1.563 (2 Å, forms a short O—H...O hydrogen bond [O...O = 2.609 (2 Å] to the sulfate ion. The hydrogensulfate ion accepts two hydrogen bonds from two cations, whereas the sulfate ion, as an acceptor, binds to four cations. The sulfate ion is disordered approximately equally over two sites related by rotation around one of the O—S bonds.

  1. Review:Anaerobic ammonium oxidation for treatment of ammonium-rich wastewaters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei ZHANG; Ping ZHENG; Chongojian TANG; Ren-cun JIN

    2008-01-01

    The concept of anaerobic ammonium oxidation (ANAMMOX) is presently of great interest.The functional bacteria belonging to the Planctomycete phylum and their metabolism are investigated by microbiologists.Meanwhile,the ANAMMOX is equally valuable in treatment of ammonium-rich wastewaters.Related processes including partial nitritation-ANAMMOX and completely autotrophic nitrogen removal over nitrite (CANON) have been developed,and lab-scale experiments proved that both processes were quite feasible in engineering with appropriate control.Successful full-scale practice in the Netherlands will ac-celerate application of the process in future.This review introduces the microbiology and more focuses on application of the ANAMMOX process.

  2. Review: Mechanisms of ammonium toxicity and the quest for tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteban, Raquel; Ariz, Idoia; Cruz, Cristina; Moran, Jose Fernando

    2016-07-01

    Ammonium sensitivity of plants is a worldwide problem, constraining crop production. Prolonged application of ammonium as the sole nitrogen source may result in physiological and morphological disorders that lead to decreased plant growth and toxicity. The main causes of ammonium toxicity/tolerance described until now include high ammonium assimilation by plants and/or low sensitivity to external pH acidification. The various ammonium transport-related components, especially the non-electrogenic influx of NH3 (related to the depletion of (15)N) and the electrogenic influx of NH4(+), may contribute to ammonium accumulation, and therefore to NH3 toxicity. However, this accumulation may be influenced by increasing K(+) concentration in the root medium. Recently, new insights have been provided by "omics" studies, leading to a suggested involvement of GDP mannose-pyrophosphorylase in the response pathways of NH4(+) stress. In this review, we highlight the cross-talk signaling between nitrate, auxins and NO, and the importance of the connection of the plants' urea cycle to metabolism of polyamines. Overall, the tolerance and amelioration of ammonium toxicity are outlined to improve the yield of ammonium-grown plants. This review identifies future directions of research, focusing on the putative importance of aquaporins in ammonium influx, and on genes involved in ammonium sensitivity and tolerance. PMID:27181951

  3. Sulfate reduction in freshwater peatlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This text consist of two parts: Part A is a literature review on microbial sulfate reduction with emphasis on freshwater peatlands, and part B presents the results from a study of the relative importance of sulfate reduction and methane formation for the anaerobic decomposition in a boreal peatland. The relative importance of sulfate reduction and methane production for the anaerobic decomposition was studied in a small raised bog situated in the boreal zone of southern Sweden. Depth distribution of sulfate reduction- and methane production rates were measured in peat sampled from three sites (A, B, and C) forming an minerotrophic-ombrotrophic gradient. SO42- concentrations in the three profiles were of equal magnitude and ranged from 50 to 150 μM. In contrast, rates of sulfate reduction were vastly different: Maximum rates in the three profiles were obtained at a depth of ca. 20 cm below the water table. In A it was 8 μM h-1 while in B and C they were 1 and 0.05 μM h-1, respectively. Methane production rates, however, were more uniform across the three nutrient regimes. Maximum rates in A (ca. 1.5 μg d-1 g-1) were found 10 cm below the water table, in B (ca. 1.0 μg d-1 g-1) in the vicinity of the water table, and in C (0.75 μg d-1 g-1) 20 cm below the water table. In all profiles both sulfate reduction and methane production rates were negligible above the water table. The areal estimates of methane production for the profiles were 22.4, 9.0 and 6.4 mmol m-2 d-1, while the estimates for sulfate reduction were 26.4, 2.5, and 0.1 mmol m-2 d-1, respectively. The calculated turnover times at the sites were 1.2, 14.2, and 198.7 days, respectively. The study shows that sulfate reducing bacteria are important for the anaerobic degradation in the studied peatland, especially in the minerotrophic sites, while methanogenic bacteria dominate in ombrotrophic sites Examination paper. 67 refs, 6 figs, 3 tabs

  4. Acid Sulfate Alteration on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, D. W.; Morris, R. V.

    2016-01-01

    A variety of mineralogical and geochemical indicators for aqueous alteration on Mars have been identified by a combination of surface and orbital robotic missions, telescopic observations, characterization of Martian meteorites, and laboratory and terrestrial analog studies. Acid sulfate alteration has been identified at all three landing sites visited by NASA rover missions (Spirit, Opportunity, and Curiosity). Spirit landed in Gusev crater in 2004 and discovered Fe-sulfates and materials that have been extensively leached by acid sulfate solutions. Opportunity landing on the plains of Meridiani Planum also in 2004 where the rover encountered large abundances of jarosite and hematite in sedimentary rocks. Curiosity landed in Gale crater in 2012 and has characterized fluvial, deltaic, and lacustrine sediments. Jarosite and hematite were discovered in some of the lacustrine sediments. The high elemental abundance of sulfur in surface materials is obvious evidence that sulfate has played a major role in aqueous processes at all landing sites on Mars. The sulfate-rich outcrop at Meridiani Planum has an SO3 content of up to 25 wt.%. The interiors of rocks and outcrops on the Columbia Hills within Gusev crater have up to 8 wt.% SO3. Soils at both sites generally have between 5 to 14 wt.% SO3, and several soils in Gusev crater contain around 30 wt.% SO3. After normalization of major element compositions to a SO3-free basis, the bulk compositions of these materials are basaltic, with a few exceptions in Gusev crater and in lacustrine mudstones in Gale crater. These observations suggest that materials encountered by the rovers were derived from basaltic precursors by acid sulfate alteration under nearly isochemical conditions (i.e., minimal leaching). There are several cases, however, where acid sulfate alteration minerals (jarosite and hematite) formed in open hydrologic systems, e.g., in Gale crater lacustrine mudstones. Several hypotheses have been suggested for the

  5. Reclassification of the sulfate- and nitrate-reducing bacterium Desulfovibrio vulgaris subsp oxamicus as Desulfovibrio oxamicus sp nov., comb. nov

    OpenAIRE

    Lopez Cortes, A.; Fardeau, Marie-Laure; Fauque, Guy; Joulian, C.; Ollivier, Bernard

    2006-01-01

    Desulfovibrio vulgaris subsp. oxamicus (type strain, DSM 1925(T)) was found to use nitrate as a terminal electron acceptor, the latter being reduced to ammonium. Phylogenetic studies indicated that strain DSM 1925 T was distantly related to the type strain of Desulfovibrio vulgaris (95(.)4% similarity of the small-subunit rRNA gene) and had as its closest phylogenetic relatives two other nitrate- and sulfate-reducing bacteria, namely Desulfovibrio termitidis (99(.)4% similarity) and Desulfovi...

  6. Effects of addition of surfactants on viscosity of uncured ammonium perchlorate(A/P)/hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB) propellant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koga, M.; Hagihara, Y. [National Defense Academy, Kanagawa (Japan)

    1998-08-31

    In production of ammonium perchlorate (AP)/hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB) propellants, it is preferable that the uncured propellant has a low viscosity during the mixing and forming processes. In this study, effects of surfacant on viscosity of the uncured propellant are studied for a total of 11 types of surfacants. It is found that sodium lauryl sulfate decreases viscosity of the AP/HTPB mixture more efficiently than any other surfacants tested. Apparent viscosity decreases by 30%, and its optimum dosage will be 0.005wt% based on the mixture to sufficiently decrease viscosity of the mixture. Viscosity of the mixture can be also decreased by improving wettability between AP and HTPB prepolymer. Sodium lauryl sulfate also shows an effect of delaying the potlife, i.e., time extending from addition of a curing agent to a thermosetting resin until it is cured to be unserviceable. 6 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Chemical Liquid Phase Deposition of Thin Aluminum Oxide Films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN,Jie(孙捷); SUN,Ying-Chun(孙迎春)

    2004-01-01

    Thin aluminum oxide films were deposited by a new and simple physicochemical method called chemical liquid phase deposition (CLD) on semiconductor materials. Aluminum sulfate with crystallized water and sodium bicarbonate were used as precursors for film growth, and the control of the system's pH value played an important role in this experiment. The growth rate is 12 nm/h with the deposition at [Al2(SO4)3]=0.0837 mol·L-1, [NaHCO3]=0.214 mol·L-1, 15 ℃. Post-growth annealing not only densifies and purifies the films, but results in film crystallization as well, Excellent quality of A12O3 films in this work is supported by electron dispersion spectroscopy,Fourier transform infrared spectrum, X-ray diffraction spectrum and scanning electron microscopy photograph.

  8. Brittlestars contain highly sulfated chondroitin sulfates/dermatan sulfates that promote fibroblast growth factor 2-induced cell signaling

    OpenAIRE

    Ramachandra, Rashmi; Namburi, Ramesh B; Ortega-Martinez, Olga; Shi, Xiaofeng; Zaia, Joseph; Dupont, Sam T.; Thorndyke, Michael C; Lindahl, Ulf; Spillmann, Dorothe

    2013-01-01

    Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) isolated from brittlestars, Echinodermata class Ophiuroidea, were characterized, as part of attempts to understand the evolutionary development of these polysaccharides. A population of chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate (CS/DS) chains with a high overall degree of sulfation and hexuronate epimerization was the major GAG found, whereas heparan sulfate (HS) was below detection level. Enzymatic digestion with different chondroitin lyases revealed exceptionally high p...

  9. Reduced Sulfation of Chondroitin Sulfate but Not Heparan Sulfate in Kidneys of Diabetic db/db Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Reine, Trine M.; Grøndahl, Frøy; Jenssen, Trond G.; Hadler-Olsen, Elin; Prydz, Kristian; Kolset, Svein O.

    2013-01-01

    Heparan sulfate proteoglycans are hypothesized to contribute to the filtration barrier in kidney glomeruli and the glycocalyx of endothelial cells. To investigate potential changes in proteoglycans in diabetic kidney, we isolated glycosaminoglycans from kidney cortex from healthy db/+ and diabetic db/db mice. Disaccharide analysis of chondroitin sulfate revealed a significant decrease in the 4-O-sulfated disaccharides (D0a4) from 65% to 40%, whereas 6-O-sulfated disaccharides (D0a6) were redu...

  10. Status of copper sulfate - 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is brief overview of the Technical Sections completed and being worked on for the New Animal Drug Application (NADA) for copper sulfate. Initial Label Claim (Ich on catfish): 1) Human Food Safety - Complete for all fin fish – February 2004. This includes human intestinal microflora issues,...

  11. Sulfate transport in toad skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erik Hviid; Simonsen, K

    1988-01-01

    1. In short-circuited toad skin preparations exposed bilaterally to NaCl-Ringer's containing 1 mM SO2(-4), influx of sulfate was larger than efflux showing that the skin is capable of transporting sulfate actively in an inward direction. 2. This active transport was not abolished by substituting...... apical Na+ for K+. 3. Following voltage activation of the passive Cl- permeability of the mitochondria-rich (m.r.) cells sulfate flux-ratio increased to a value predicted from the Ussing flux-ratio equation for a monovalent anion. 4. In such skins, which were shown to exhibit vanishingly small leakage...... conductances, the variation of the rate coefficient for sulfate influx (y) was positively correlated with the rate coefficient for Cl- influx (x), y = 0.035 x - 0.0077 cm/sec (r = 0.9935, n = 15). 5. Addition of the phosphodiesterase inhibitor, 3-isobutyl-1-methyl-xanthine to the serosal bath of short...

  12. Aluminum microstructures on anodic alumina for aluminum wiring boards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Himendra; Kikuchi, Tatsuya; Sakairi, Masatoshi; Takahashi, Hideaki

    2010-03-01

    The paper demonstrates simple methods for the fabrication of aluminum microstructures on the anodic oxide film of aluminum. The aluminum sheets were first engraved (patterned) either by laser beam or by embossing to form deep grooves on the surface. One side of the sheet was then anodized, blocking the other side by using polymer mask to form the anodic alumina. Because of the lower thickness at the bottom part of the grooves, the part was completely anodized before the complete oxidation of the other parts. Such selectively complete anodizing resulted in the patterns of metallic aluminum on anodic alumina. Using the technique, we fabricated microstructures such as line patterns and a simple wiring circuit-board-like structure on the anodic alumina. The aluminum microstructures fabricated by the techniques were embedded in anodic alumina/aluminum sheet, and this technique is promising for applications in electronic packaging and devices. PMID:20356280

  13. Quaternary Ammonium Polyethyleneimine: Antibacterial Activity Ira

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quaternary ammonium polyethyleneimine- (QA-PEI-) based nanoparticles were synthesized using two synthetic methods, reductive amination and N-alkylation. According to the first method, QA-PEI nanoparticles were synthesized by cross-linking with glutaraldehyde followed by reductive amination with octanal and further N-methylation with methyl iodide. The second method is based on crosslinking with dialkyl halide followed by N-alkylation with octyl halide and further N-methylation with methyl iodide. QA-PEI nanoparticles completely inhibited bacterial growth (>106 bacteria), including both Gram-positive, that is, Staphylococcus aureus at 80 μ/mL, and Gram-negative, that is, Escherichia coli at 320 μ/mL. Activity analysis revealed that the degree of alkylation and N-methylation of the QA-PEI nanoparticles plays a significant role in antibacterial activity of the reagent. The most potent compound was octyl alkylated QA-PEI alkylated at 1 : 1 mole ratio (primary amine of PEI monomer units/alkylating agent). Also, cytotoxicity studies on MAT-LyLu and MBT cell lines were performed with QA-PEI nanoparticles. These findings confirm previous reports that poly cations bearing quaternary ammonium moieties inhibit bacterial growth in vitro and have a potential use as additives in medical devices which need antibacterial properties.

  14. Sulfate, chloride and fluoride retention in Andosols exposed to volcanic acid emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delmelle, Pierre; Delfosse, Thomas; Delvaux, Bruno

    2003-12-01

    The continuous emissions of SO{sub 2}, HCl and HF by Masaya volcano, Nicaragua, represent a substantial source of atmospheric S-, Cl- and F-containing acid inputs for local ecosystems. We report on the effects of such acid depositions on the sulfate, chloride and fluoride contents in soils (0-40 cm) from two distinct transects located downwind from the volcano. The first transect corresponds to relatively undifferentiated Vitric Andosols, and the second transect to more weathered Eutric Andosols. These soils are exposed to various rates of volcanogenic acid addition, with the Vitric sites being generally more affected. Prolonged acid inputs have led to a general pH decrease and reduced exchangeable base cation concentrations in the Andosols. The concentrations of 0.5 M NH{sub 4}F- and 0.016 M KH{sub 2}PO{sub 4}-extractable sulfate (NH{sub 4}F-S and KH{sub 2}PO{sub 4}-S, respectively) indicate that volcanic S addition has increased the inorganic sulfate content of the Vitric and Eutric soils at all depths. In this process, the rate of sulfate accumulation is also dependent on soil allophane contents. For all soils, NH{sub 4}F extracted systematically more (up to 40 times) sulfate than KH{sub 2}PO{sub 4}. This difference suggests sulfate incorporation into an aluminum hydroxy sulfate phase, whose contribution to total inorganic sulfate in the Vitric and Eutric Andosols is estimated from {approx}34 to 95% and {approx}65 to 98%, respectively. The distribution of KH{sub 2}PO{sub 4}-extractable chloride in the Vitric and Eutric Andosols exposed to volcanic Cl inputs reveals that added chloride readily migrates through the soil profiles. In contrast, reaction of fluoride with Al and Fe oxyhydroxides and allophanes is an important sink mechanism in the Masaya Andosols exposed to airborne volcanic F. Fluoride dominates the anion distribution in all soil horizons, although F is the least concentrated element in the volcanic emissions and depositions. The soil anion

  15. Sulfate, chloride and fluoride retention in Andosols exposed to volcanic acid emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The continuous emissions of SO2, HCl and HF by Masaya volcano, Nicaragua, represent a substantial source of atmospheric S-, Cl- and F-containing acid inputs for local ecosystems. We report on the effects of such acid depositions on the sulfate, chloride and fluoride contents in soils (0-40 cm) from two distinct transects located downwind from the volcano. The first transect corresponds to relatively undifferentiated Vitric Andosols, and the second transect to more weathered Eutric Andosols. These soils are exposed to various rates of volcanogenic acid addition, with the Vitric sites being generally more affected. Prolonged acid inputs have led to a general pH decrease and reduced exchangeable base cation concentrations in the Andosols. The concentrations of 0.5 M NH4F- and 0.016 M KH2PO4-extractable sulfate (NH4F-S and KH2PO4-S, respectively) indicate that volcanic S addition has increased the inorganic sulfate content of the Vitric and Eutric soils at all depths. In this process, the rate of sulfate accumulation is also dependent on soil allophane contents. For all soils, NH4F extracted systematically more (up to 40 times) sulfate than KH2PO4. This difference suggests sulfate incorporation into an aluminum hydroxy sulfate phase, whose contribution to total inorganic sulfate in the Vitric and Eutric Andosols is estimated from ∼34 to 95% and ∼65 to 98%, respectively. The distribution of KH2PO4-extractable chloride in the Vitric and Eutric Andosols exposed to volcanic Cl inputs reveals that added chloride readily migrates through the soil profiles. In contrast, reaction of fluoride with Al and Fe oxyhydroxides and allophanes is an important sink mechanism in the Masaya Andosols exposed to airborne volcanic F. Fluoride dominates the anion distribution in all soil horizons, although F is the least concentrated element in the volcanic emissions and depositions. The soil anion distribution reflects preferential retention of fluoride over sulfate and chloride, and of

  16. Metabolic Flexibility of Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Plugge, Caroline M.; Zhang, Weiwen; Scholten, Johannes C. M.; Stams, Alfons J. M.

    2011-01-01

    Dissimilatory sulfate-reducing prokaryotes (SRB) are a very diverse group of anaerobic bacteria that are omnipresent in nature and play an imperative role in the global cycling of carbon and sulfur. In anoxic marine sediments sulfate reduction accounts for up to 50% of the entire organic mineralization in coastal and shelf ecosystems where sulfate diffuses several meters deep into the sediment. As a consequence, SRB would be expected in the sulfate-containing upper sediment layers, whereas me...

  17. Sulfate reduction and methanogenesis in marine sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oremland, R. S.; Taylor, B. F.

    1978-01-01

    Methanogenesis and sulfate-reduction were followed in laboratory incubations of sediments taken from tropical seagrass beds. Methanogenesis and sulfate-reduction occurred simultaneously in sediments incubated under N2, thereby indicating that the two processes are not mutually exclusive. Sediments incubated under an atmosphere of H2 developed negative pressures due to the oxidation of H2 by sulfate-respiring bacteria. H2 also stimulated methanogenesis, but methanogenic bacteria could not compete for H2 with the sulfate-respiring bacteria.

  18. 21 CFR 186.1797 - Sodium sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium sulfate. 186.1797 Section 186.1797 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1797 Sodium sulfate. (a) Sodium sulfate (Na2SO4, CAS Reg. No. 7757-82-6... crystalline powder. It is prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with sodium hydroxide. (b)...

  19. Sulfate-reducing prokaryotes in river floodplains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miletto, M.

    2007-01-01

    This thesis constitutes a pioneer attempt at elucidating the ecology of sulfate-reducing prokaryotes in river floodplains. These are non-typical sulfate-reducing environmental settings, given the generally low sulfate concentration that characterize freshwater habitats, and river flow regulation tha

  20. 21 CFR 582.5461 - Manganese sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manganese sulfate. 582.5461 Section 582.5461 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5461 Manganese sulfate. (a) Product. Manganese sulfate. (b) Conditions of use....

  1. 21 CFR 184.1461 - Manganese sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Manganese sulfate. 184.1461 Section 184.1461 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1461 Manganese sulfate. (a) Manganese sulfate (MnSO4·H2O, CAS... manganese compounds with sulfuric acid. It is also obtained as a byproduct in the manufacture...

  2. 21 CFR 184.1443 - Magnesium sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Magnesium sulfate. 184.1443 Section 184.1443 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1443 Magnesium sulfate. (a) Magnesium sulfate (MgSO4·7H2O, CAS... magnesium oxide, hydroxide, or carbonate with sulfuric acid and evaporating the solution to...

  3. 21 CFR 582.5443 - Magnesium sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Magnesium sulfate. 582.5443 Section 582.5443 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5443 Magnesium sulfate. (a) Product. Magnesium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use....

  4. 21 CFR 73.1645 - Aluminum powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aluminum powder. 73.1645 Section 73.1645 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1645 Aluminum powder. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive aluminum powder shall be composed of finely divided particles of aluminum prepared from virgin aluminum....

  5. Reuse of ammonium fluoride generated in the uranium hexafluoride conversion; Reutilizacao do fluoreto de amonio gerado na reconversao do hexafluoreto de uranio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva Neto, J.B.; Carvalho, E.F. Urano de; Durazzo, M., E-mail: jbsneto@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Riella, H.G [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    The Nuclear Fuel Centre of IPEN / CNEN - SP develops and manufactures dispersion fuel with high uranium concentration to meet the demand of the IEA-R1 reactor and future research reactors planned to be constructed in Brazil. The fuel uses uranium silicide (U{sub 3}Si{sub 2}) dispersed in aluminum. For producing the fuel, the processes for uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) conversion consist in obtaining U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} and / or U{sub 3}O{sub 8} through the preparation of intermediate compounds, among them ammonium uranyl carbonate - AUC, ammonium diuranate - DUA and uranium tetrafluoride - UF{sub 4}. This work describes a procedure for preparing uranium tetrafluoride by a dry route using as raw material the filtrate generated when producing routinely ammonium uranyl carbonate. The filtrate consists primarily of a solution containing high concentrations of ammonium (NH{sub 4}{sup +}), fluoride (F{sup -}), carbonate (CO{sub 3}{sup --}) and low concentrations of uranium. The procedure is basically the recovery of NH{sub 4}F and uranium, as UF{sub 4}, through the crystallization of ammonium bifluoride (NH{sub 4}HF{sub 2}) and, in a later step, the addition of UO{sub 2}, occurring fluoridation and decomposition. The UF{sub 4} obtained is further diluted in the UF{sub 4} produced routinely at IPEN / CNEN-SP by a wet route process. (author)

  6. Waveguide terahertz time-domain spectroscopy of ammonium nitrate polycrystalline films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khachatrian, Ani; Melinger, Joseph S.; Qadri, Syed B.

    2012-05-01

    We report temperature-dependent measurements of the terahertz (THz) vibrational spectrum of ammonium nitrate (AN) films and mixed potassium nitrate (KN)-ammonium nitrate films using waveguide THz time domain spectroscopy. The experiments were performed on polycrystalline films on the metal surface of a parallel plate waveguide. At cryogenic temperature and with frequency resolution as high as 7 GHz, our measurements produce a complex vibrational spectrum for AN, and show vibrational resonances not observed in previous far infrared and Raman measurements. We investigate potential interactions between AN and the metal surface by measuring THz spectra of films on aluminum, gold, and a gold surface coated with an organic self-assembled monolayer. Measurements are also performed on a deuterated AN film and indicate that the observed THz modes are due largely to the motion of the nitrate ions in the AN crystal. Finally, the effect of introducing small amounts of an impurity into the AN lattice is examined. We find that introduction of as little as 1%-2% by weight of potassium nitrate into the AN lattice causes line broadening of the THz modes, which is consistent with increased disorder introduced by the impurity.

  7. Hydration Structure of the Quaternary Ammonium Cations

    KAUST Repository

    Babiaczyk, Wojtek Iwo

    2010-11-25

    Two indicators of the hydropathicity of small solutes are introduced and tested by molecular dynamics simulations. These indicators are defined as probabilities of the orientation of water molecules\\' dipoles and hydrogen bond vectors, conditional on a generalized distance from the solute suitable for arbitrarily shaped molecules. Using conditional probabilities, it is possible to distinguish features of the distributions in close proximity of the solute. These regions contain the most significant information on the hydration structure but cannot be adequately represented by using, as is usually done, joint distance-angle probability densities. Our calculations show that using our indicators a relative hydropathicity scale for the interesting test set of the quaternary ammonium cations can be roughly determined. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  8. Sulfates on Mars: Indicators of Aqueous Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Janice L.; Lane, Melissa D.; Dyar, M. Darby; Brown, Adrian J.

    2006-01-01

    Recent analyses by MER instruments at Meridiani Planum and Gusev crater and the OMEGA instrument on Mars Express have provided detailed information about the presence of sulfates on Mars [1,2,3]. We are evaluating these recent data in an integrated multi-disciplinary study of visible-near-infrared, mid-IR and Mossbauer spectra of several sulfate minerals and sulfate-rich analog sites. Our analyses suggest that hydrated iron sulfates may account for features observed in Mossbauer and mid-IR spectra of Martian soils [4]. The sulfate minerals kieserite, gypsum and other hydrated sulfates have been identified in OMEGA spectra in the layered terrains in Valles Marineris and Terra Meridiani [2]. These recent discoveries emphasize the importance of studying sulfate minerals as tracers of aqueous processes. The sulfate-rich rock outcrops observed in Meridiani Planum may have formed in an acidic environment similar to acid rock drainage environments on Earth [5]. Because microorganisms typically are involved in the oxidation of sulfides to sulfates in terrestrial sites, sulfate-rich rock outcrops on Mars may be a good location to search for evidence of past life on that planet. Whether or not life evolved on Mars, following the trail of sulfate minerals will lead to a better understanding of aqueous processes and chemical weathering.

  9. Studies on inorganic exchangers - ammonium phosphomolybdate (AMP) and ammonium phosphotungstate (APW)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Separation of fission product cesium from other accompanying fission products by use of inorganic ion exchangers, namely, ammonium phosphomolybdate (AMP) and ammonium phosphotungstate (APW) has been investigated. The gross fission product solution is passed through a column of AMP or APW conditioned with HNO3 of appropriate molarity say 2M. The column is thoroughly washed with HNO3 till no activity is left in it . Cesium is eluted by 3M NH4NO3 at 40 deg C. The eluate is converted into cesium chloride by wet decomposition method. The radioactive cesium obtained by this procedure is found to be of high purity and free from any other active contaminants. (M.G.B.)

  10. Surge ammonium uptake in macroalgae from a coral atoll

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raikar, V.; Wafar, M.V.M.

    (Phaeophyta)) from Kavaratti atoll (Lakshadweep, India). Addition of ammonium (up to 20 mmol L-1) led to pronounced uptake within 4–6 min, with the amount of ammonium taken up during surge phase (<4 min) accounting for from about half to 10 times that taken up...

  11. Racer (Ammonium Nonanoate) weed control evaluation for onions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racer has been labeled as a herbicide for food use and is currently under consideration as an organic herbicide for organically grown food crops. The main component (40%) of Racer is ammonium nonanoate (ammonium pelargonate), which occurs in nature and primarily formed from biodegradation of higher...

  12. Thermal decomposition of ammonium perchlorate during gamma-ray irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To assess radiation damage effects in propellants, pyrotechnics, and similar materials, thermal decomposition measurements were made on ammonium perchlorate powders and crystals during gamma-ray irradiation. Gas evolution studies were made on single crystals and powders of ammonium perchlorate, both at room temperature and at 2270C. The results are discussed. (U.S.)

  13. Hydrothermal oxidation of organic wastes using reclaimed ammonium nitrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proesmans, P.I.; Luan, L.; Buelow, S.J.

    1996-04-01

    Ammonium nitrate is being studied as an alternative for ammonium perchlorate as an oxidizing agent in Department of Defense 1.1 and 1.3 rocket propellants. Use of ammonium nitrate would eliminate the HCl produced by ammonium perchlorate upon thermal decomposition. To stabilize the ammonium nitrate, which suffers from phase instability, potassium dinitramide (KDN) is added. This increased use of ammonium nitrate will ultimately create a need for environmentally responsible processes to reuse ammonium nitrate extracted from demilitarized rocket motors. Ammonium Nitrate was investigated as an oxidizing agent for methanol, acetic acid and phenol. High removal of organic, ammonia and nitrate was achieved at stoichiometric concentrations. The oxidation of ammonia by nitrate was much faster than the oxidation of either methanol or acetic acid. Phenol, however, was in strong competition with ammonia for the oxidizer (nitrate). Nitrogen products included N{sub 2}, N{sub 2}O, NO{sub 2{sup {minus}}} as well as toxic NO and trace amounts of NO{sub 2}. Carbon products were CO{sub 2}, HCO{sub 3{sup {minus}}}, CO{sub 3}{sup 2{minus}}, and CO.

  14. How to make a living from anaerobic ammonium oxidation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kartal, B.; De Almeida, N.M.; Maalcke, W.J.; Op den Camp, H.J.M.; Jetten, M.S.M.; Keltjens, J.T.

    2013-01-01

    Anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (anammox) bacteria primarily grow by the oxidation of ammonium coupled to nitrite reduction, using CO2 as the sole carbon source. Although they were neglected for a long time, anammox bacteria are encountered in an enormous species (micro)diversity in virtually any anoxi

  15. Photoemission study of tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum/aluminum oxide/tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The evolution of the interface electronic structure of a sandwich structure involving aluminum oxide and tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum (Alq), i.e. (Alq/AlOx/Alq), has been investigated with photoemission spectroscopy. Strong chemical reactions have been observed due to aluminum deposition onto the Alq substrate. The subsequent oxygen exposure releases some of the Alq molecules from the interaction with aluminum. Finally, the deposition of the top Alq layer leads to an asymmetry in the electronic energy level alignment with respect to the AlOx interlayer

  16. Selective Adsorption of Sodium Aluminum Fluoride Salts from Molten Aluminum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard S. Aubrey; Christine A. Boyle; Eddie M. Williams; David H. DeYoung; Dawid D. Smith; Feng Chi

    2007-08-16

    Aluminum is produced in electrolytic reduction cells where alumina feedstock is dissolved in molten cryolite (sodium aluminum fluoride) along with aluminum and calcium fluorides. The dissolved alumina is then reduced by electrolysis and the molten aluminum separates to the bottom of the cell. The reduction cell is periodically tapped to remove the molten aluminum. During the tapping process, some of the molten electrolyte (commonly referred as “bath” in the aluminum industry) is carried over with the molten aluminum and into the transfer crucible. The carryover of molten bath into the holding furnace can create significant operational problems in aluminum cast houses. Bath carryover can result in several problems. The most troublesome problem is sodium and calcium pickup in magnesium-bearing alloys. Magnesium alloying additions can result in Mg-Na and Mg-Ca exchange reactions with the molten bath, which results in the undesirable pickup of elemental sodium and calcium. This final report presents the findings of a project to evaluate removal of molten bath using a new and novel micro-porous filter media. The theory of selective adsorption or removal is based on interfacial surface energy differences of molten aluminum and bath on the micro-porous filter structure. This report describes the theory of the selective adsorption-filtration process, the development of suitable micro-porous filter media, and the operational results obtained with a micro-porous bed filtration system. The micro-porous filter media was found to very effectively remove molten sodium aluminum fluoride bath by the selective adsorption-filtration mechanism.

  17. Neurofibrillary pathology and aluminum in Alzheimer's disease

    OpenAIRE

    Shin, R. W.; Lee, V. M. Y; Trojanowski, J Q

    1995-01-01

    Since the first reports of aluminum-induced neurofibrillary degeneration in experimental animals, extensive studies have been performed to clarify the role played by aluminum in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Additional evidence implicating aluminum in AD includes elevated levels of aluminum in the AD brain, epidemiological data linking aluminum exposure to AD, and interactions between aluminum and protein components in the pathological lesions o...

  18. Aluminum Nanoholes for Optical Biosensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Angulo Barrios

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Sub-wavelength diameter holes in thin metal layers can exhibit remarkable optical features that make them highly suitable for (biosensing applications. Either as efficient light scattering centers for surface plasmon excitation or metal-clad optical waveguides, they are able to form strongly localized optical fields that can effectively interact with biomolecules and/or nanoparticles on the nanoscale. As the metal of choice, aluminum exhibits good optical and electrical properties, is easy to manufacture and process and, unlike gold and silver, its low cost makes it very promising for commercial applications. However, aluminum has been scarcely used for biosensing purposes due to corrosion and pitting issues. In this short review, we show our recent achievements on aluminum nanohole platforms for (biosensing. These include a method to circumvent aluminum degradation—which has been successfully applied to the demonstration of aluminum nanohole array (NHA immunosensors based on both, glass and polycarbonate compact discs supports—the use of aluminum nanoholes operating as optical waveguides for synthesizing submicron-sized molecularly imprinted polymers by local photopolymerization, and a technique for fabricating transferable aluminum NHAs onto flexible pressure-sensitive adhesive tapes, which could facilitate the development of a wearable technology based on aluminum NHAs.

  19. Aluminum Nanoholes for Optical Biosensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrios, Carlos Angulo; Canalejas-Tejero, Víctor; Herranz, Sonia; Urraca, Javier; Moreno-Bondi, María Cruz; Avella-Oliver, Miquel; Maquieira, Ángel; Puchades, Rosa

    2015-01-01

    Sub-wavelength diameter holes in thin metal layers can exhibit remarkable optical features that make them highly suitable for (bio)sensing applications. Either as efficient light scattering centers for surface plasmon excitation or metal-clad optical waveguides, they are able to form strongly localized optical fields that can effectively interact with biomolecules and/or nanoparticles on the nanoscale. As the metal of choice, aluminum exhibits good optical and electrical properties, is easy to manufacture and process and, unlike gold and silver, its low cost makes it very promising for commercial applications. However, aluminum has been scarcely used for biosensing purposes due to corrosion and pitting issues. In this short review, we show our recent achievements on aluminum nanohole platforms for (bio)sensing. These include a method to circumvent aluminum degradation—which has been successfully applied to the demonstration of aluminum nanohole array (NHA) immunosensors based on both, glass and polycarbonate compact discs supports—the use of aluminum nanoholes operating as optical waveguides for synthesizing submicron-sized molecularly imprinted polymers by local photopolymerization, and a technique for fabricating transferable aluminum NHAs onto flexible pressure-sensitive adhesive tapes, which could facilitate the development of a wearable technology based on aluminum NHAs. PMID:26184330

  20. Heparin cofactor II is degraded by heparan sulfate and dextran sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Akio

    2015-02-20

    Heparan sulfate normally binds to heparin cofactor II and modulates the coagulation pathway by inhibiting thrombin. However, when human heparin cofactor II was incubated with heparan sulfate, heparin cofactor II became degraded. Other glycosaminoglycans were tested, including hyaluronic acid, chondroitin sulfates, dermatan sulfate, and heparin, but only dextran sulfate also degraded heparin cofactor II. Pretreatment of heparan sulfate with heparinase reduced its heparin cofactor II-degrading activity. Heparan sulfate and dextran sulfate diminished the thrombin inhibitory activity of heparin cofactor II. Other serpins, including antithrombin III and pigment epithelium-derived factor, were also degraded by heparan sulfate. This is the first evidence of acidic polysaccharides exhibiting protein-degrading activity without the aid of other proteins. PMID:25600805

  1. Modeling of ferric sulfate decomposition and sulfation of potassium chloride during grate‐firing of biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Hao; Jespersen, Jacob Boll; Jappe Frandsen, Flemming;

    2013-01-01

    Ferric sulfate is used as an additive in biomass combustion to convert the released potassium chloride to the less harmful potassium sulfate. The decomposition of ferric sulfate is studied in a fast heating rate thermogravimetric analyzer and a volumetric reaction model is proposed to describe the...... process. The yields of sulfur oxides from ferric sulfate decomposition under boiler conditions are investigated experimentally, revealing a distribution of approximately 40% SO3 and 60% SO2. The ferric sulfate decomposition model is combined with a detailed kinetic model of gas‐phase KCl sulfation and a...... model of K2SO4 condensation to simulate the sulfation of KCl by ferric sulfate addition. The simulation results show good agreements with experiments conducted in a biomass grate‐firing reactor. The results indicate that the SO3 released from ferric sulfate decomposition is the main contributor to KCl...

  2. Thermophysical properties of aqueous solution of ammonium-based ionic liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umapathi, Reddicherla; Attri, Pankaj; Venkatesu, Pannuru

    2014-06-01

    Experimental densities (ρ), ultrasonic sound velocities (u), viscosities (η), and refractive indices (n(D)) of binary mixtures of ammonium-based ionic liquids (ILs) such as diethylammonium acetate (DEAA) [(CH3CH2)2NH][CH3COO], triethylammonium acetate (TEAA) [(CH3CH2)3NH][CH3COO], diethylammonium hydrogen sulfate (DEAS) [(CH3CH2)2NH][HSO4], triethylammonium hydrogen sulfate (TEAS) [(CH3CH2)3NH][HSO4], trimethylammonium acetate (TMAA) [(CH3)3NH][CH3COO], and trimethylammonium hydrogen sulfate (TMAS) [(CH3)3NH][HSO4] with water are reported over the wide composition range at 25 °C under atmospheric pressure. The excess molar volumes (V(E)), deviation in isentropic compressibilities (Δκ(s)), deviation in viscosities (Δη) and deviation in refractive indices (Δn(D)) are calculated from experimental values and are correlated by Redlich-Kister polynomial equations. The V(E) and Δκ(s) values for the aforesaid systems are negative over the entire composition range while the Δη and Δn(D) values are positive under the same experimental conditions. The intermolecular interactions and structural effects were analyzed on the basis of measured and derived properties. A qualitative analysis of the results is discussed in terms of the ion-dipole, ion-pair interactions and hydrogen bonding between ILs and water. Furthermore, the hydrogen bonding features between ILs with water were analyzed by using a molecular modeling program with the help of HyperChem7. PMID:24830564

  3. Hualu Aluminum Will Construct Large Coal-Power-Aluminum Aluminum Processing Industrial Chain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    The reporter learned from relevant departments of Baiyin City that in order to further push forward industrial upgrading,fulfill expansion and consolidation of the enterprise,Gansu Hualu Aluminum Co.,Ltd(Hualu Aluminum)will implement Out-Of-City-Into-Park project,

  4. Precursor detonation wave development in ANFO due to aluminum confinement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, Scott I [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Klyanda, Charles B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Short, Mark [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    Detonations in explosive mixtures of ammonium-nitrate-fuel-oil (ANFO) confined by aluminum allow for transport of detonation energy ahead of the detonation front due to the aluminum sound speed exceeding the detonation velocity. The net effect of this energy transport on the detonation is unclear. It could enhance the detonation by precompressing the explosive near the wall. Alternatively, it could decrease the explosive performance by crushing porosity required for initiation by shock compression or destroying confinement ahead of the detonation. At present, these phenomena are not well understood. But with slowly detonating, non-ideal high explosive (NIHE) systems becoming increasing prevalent, proper understanding and prediction of the performance of these metal-confined NIHE systems is desirable. Experiments are discussed that measured the effect of this ANFO detonation energy transported upstream of the front by a 76-mm-inner-diameter aluminum confining tube. Detonation velocity, detonation-front shape, and aluminum response are recorded as a function of confiner wall thickness and length. Detonation shape profiles display little curvature near the confining surface, which is attributed to energy transported upstream modifying the flow. Average detonation velocities were seen to increase with increasing confiner thickness, while wavefront curvature decreased due to the stiffer, subsonic confinement. Significant radial sidewall tube motion was observed immediately ahead of the detonation. Axial motion was also detected, which interfered with the front shape measurements in some cases. It was concluded that the confiner was able to transport energy ahead of the detonation and that this transport has a definite effect on the detonation by modifying its characteristic shape.

  5. Aluminum Zintl anion moieties within sodium aluminum clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Haopeng; Zhang, Xinxing; Ko, Yeon Jae; Grubisic, Andrej; Li, Xiang; Ganteför, Gerd; Bowen, Kit H., E-mail: AKandalam@wcupa.edu, E-mail: kiran@mcneese.edu, E-mail: kbowen@jhu.edu [Department of Chemistry, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218 (United States); Schnöckel, Hansgeorg [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, 76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); Eichhorn, Bryan W. [Department of Chemistry, University of Maryland at College Park, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); Lee, Mal-Soon; Jena, P. [Department of Physics, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23284 (United States); Kandalam, Anil K., E-mail: AKandalam@wcupa.edu, E-mail: kiran@mcneese.edu, E-mail: kbowen@jhu.edu [Department of Physics, West Chester University of Pennsylvania, West Chester, Pennsylvania 19383 (United States); Kiran, Boggavarapu, E-mail: AKandalam@wcupa.edu, E-mail: kiran@mcneese.edu, E-mail: kbowen@jhu.edu [Department of Chemistry, McNeese State University, Lake Charles, Louisiana 70609 (United States)

    2014-02-07

    Through a synergetic combination of anion photoelectron spectroscopy and density functional theory based calculations, we have established that aluminum moieties within selected sodium-aluminum clusters are Zintl anions. Sodium–aluminum cluster anions, Na{sub m}Al{sub n}{sup −}, were generated in a pulsed arc discharge source. After mass selection, their photoelectron spectra were measured by a magnetic bottle, electron energy analyzer. Calculations on a select sub-set of stoichiometries provided geometric structures and full charge analyses for both cluster anions and their neutral cluster counterparts, as well as photodetachment transition energies (stick spectra), and fragment molecular orbital based correlation diagrams.

  6. Electrodialysis of Pu-contaminated ammonium nitrate solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammonium nitrate is the major component of Pu-contaminated liquid waste generated at the Pu-fuel facilities, and its safe decomposition was experimented by the method of electrodialysis. The process consists of two steps. The one is the electrodialysis of ammonium nitrate to ammonium nitrite in aqueous solution, and the other is the thermal decomposition of the ammonium nitrite to water and nitrogen gas also in aqueous solution. A thermal decomposition column and a heat exchanger were used for the continuous decomposition experiments. The membrane was a cation exchange membrane, the anolyte was 0.1 - 0.5 mol nitric acid, the catholyte was 10 - 50 weight % ammonium nitrate, and the current density was 10 - 50 amp/dm2. The experimental results of the pH and temperature effects on the current efficiency show that electrodialysis is preferable in alkaline region and at lower temperature. It is important to control such minor reactions as ammonium hydroxide byproduction as little as possible. The minor reaction of nitrogen gas generation greatly reduces the current efficiency of ammonium nitrite production. The best current efficiency achieved in the experiments was 85% by selecting the best operating conditions. In order to achieve high current efficiency in electrodialysis, the selection of electrolyzer composition, anode, cation exchange membrane, etc. is indispensable. It is generally preferable to choose the metal which has high hydrogen overvoltage to achieve high current efficiency by controlling hydrogen gas generation. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  7. Sulfate, chloride and fluoride retention in Andosols exposed to volcanic acid emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delmelle, Pierre; Delfosse, Thomas; Delvaux, Bruno

    2003-01-01

    The continuous emissions of SO(2), HCl and HF by Masaya volcano, Nicaragua, represent a substantial source of atmospheric S-, Cl- and F-containing acid inputs for local ecosystems. We report on the effects of such acid depositions on the sulfate, chloride and fluoride contents in soils (0-40 cm) from two distinct transects located downwind from the volcano. The first transect corresponds to relatively undifferentiated Vitric Andosols, and the second transect to more weathered Eutric Andosols. These soils are exposed to various rates of volcanogenic acid addition, with the Vitric sites being generally more affected. Prolonged acid inputs have led to a general pH decrease and reduced exchangeable base cation concentrations in the Andosols. The concentrations of 0.5 M NH(4)F- and 0.016 M KH(2)PO(4)-extractable sulfate (NH(4)F-S and KH(2)PO(4)-S, respectively) indicate that volcanic S addition has increased the inorganic sulfate content of the Vitric and Eutric soils at all depths. In this process, the rate of sulfate accumulation is also dependent on soil allophane contents. For all soils, NH(4)F extracted systematically more (up to 40 times) sulfate than KH(2)PO(4). This difference suggests sulfate incorporation into an aluminum hydroxy sulfate phase, whose contribution to total inorganic sulfate in the Vitric and Eutric Andosols is estimated from approximately 34 to 95% and approximately 65 to 98%, respectively. The distribution of KH(2)PO(4)-extractable chloride in the Vitric and Eutric Andosols exposed to volcanic Cl inputs reveals that added chloride readily migrates through the soil profiles. In contrast, reaction of fluoride with Al and Fe oxyhydroxides and allophanes is an important sink mechanism in the Masaya Andosols exposed to airborne volcanic F. Fluoride dominates the anion distribution in all soil horizons, although F is the least concentrated element in the volcanic emissions and depositions. The soil anion distribution reflects preferential retention

  8. Fabrication of high quality anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) on low purity aluminum—A comparative study with the AAO produced on high purity aluminum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Nanoporous alumina was fabricated by anodization in sulfuric acid solution with glycol. • The AAO manufacturing on low- and high-purity Al was compared. • The pores size was ranging between 30 and 50 nm. • No difference in the quality of the AAO fabricated on both Al types was observed. • The current vs. anodization time curves were recorded. -- Abstract: In this work the quality, arrangement, composition, and regularity of nanoporous AAO formed on the low-purity (AA1050) and high-purity aluminum during two-step anodization in a mixture of sulfuric acid solution (0.3 M), water and glycol (3:2, v/v), at various voltages (15, 20, 25, 30, 35 V) and at temperature of −1 °C, are investigated. The electrochemical conditions have allowed to obtain pores with the size ranging from 30 to 50 nm, which are much larger than those usually obtained by anodization in a pure sulfuric acid solution (<20 nm). The mechanism of the AAO growth is discussed. It was found that with the increase of applied anodizing voltage a number of incorporated sulfate ions in the aluminum oxide matrix increases, which was connected with the appearance of an unusual area in the current vs. time curves. On the surface of anodizing low- and high-purity aluminum, the formation of hillocks was observed, which was associated with the sulfate ions incorporation. The sulfate ions are replacing the oxygen atom/atoms in the AAO amorphous crystal structure and, consequently, the AAO template swells, the oxide cracks and uplifts causing the formation of hillocks. The same mechanism occurs for both low- and high-purity aluminum. Nanoporous AAO characterized by a very high regularity, not registered previously for low purity aluminum, was obtained. Furthermore, no significant difference in the regularity ratio between the AAO obtained on low- and high-purity aluminum, was observed. The electrochemical conditions applied in this study can be, thus, used for the fabrication of high quality

  9. Evaluating Deterioration of Concrete by Sulfate Attack

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Effects of factors such as water to cement ratio, fly ash and silica fume on the resistance of concrete to sulfate attack were investigated by dry-wet cycles and immersion method. The index of the resistance to sulfate attack was used to evaluate the deterioration degree of concrete damaged by sulfate. The relationship between the resistance of concrete to sulfate attack and its permeability/porosity were analyzed as well as its responding mechanism. Results show that the depth of sulfate crystal attack from surface to inner of concrete can be reduced by decreasing w/c and addition of combining fly ash with silica fume. The variation of relative elastic modulus ratio and relative flexural strength ratio of various specimens before and after being subjected to sulfate attack was compared.

  10. Chondroitin Sulfate Perlecan Enhances Collagen Fibril Formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvist, A. J.; Johnson, A. E.; Mörgelin, M.;

    2006-01-01

    disaccharides typical for chondroitin sulfate E. Indeed, purified glycosaminoglycans from perlecan-enriched fractions of cartilage extracts contain elevated levels of 4,6-disulfated chondroitin sulfate disaccharides and enhance collagen fibril formation. The effect on collagen assembly is proportional to the...... content of the 4,6-disulfated disaccharide in the different cartilage extracts, with growth plate cartilage glycosaminoglycan being the most efficient enhancer. These findings demonstrate a role for perlecan chondroitin sulfate side chains in cartilage extracellular matrix assembly and provide an...... collagen type II fibril assembly by perlecan-null chondrocytes. Cartilage perlecan is a heparin sulfate or a mixed heparan sulfate/chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan. The latter form binds collagen and accelerates fibril formation in vitro, with more defined fibril morphology and increased fibril diameters...

  11. Spray Rolling Aluminum Strip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavernia, E.J.; Delplanque, J-P; McHugh, K.M.

    2006-05-10

    Spray forming is a competitive low-cost alternative to ingot metallurgy for manufacturing ferrous and non-ferrous alloy shapes. It produces materials with a reduced number of processing steps, while maintaining materials properties, with the possibility of near-net-shape manufacturing. However, there are several hurdles to large-scale commercial adoption of spray forming: 1) ensuring strip is consistently flat, 2) eliminating porosity, particularly at the deposit/substrate interface, and 3) improving material yield. Through this program, a new strip/sheet casting process, termed spray rolling, has been developed, which is an innovative manufacturing technique to produce aluminum net-shape products. Spray rolling combines the benefits of twin-roll casting and conventional spray forming, showing a promising potential to overcome the above hurdles associated with spray forming. Spray rolling requires less energy and generates less scrap than conventional processes and, consequently, enables the development of materials with lower environmental impacts in both processing and final products. Spray Rolling was developed as a collaborative project between the University of California-Davis, the Colorado School of Mines, the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, and an industry team. The following objectives of this project were achieved: (1) Demonstration of the feasibility of the spray rolling process at the bench-scale level and evaluation of the materials properties of spray rolled aluminum strip alloys; and (2) Demonstration of 2X scalability of the process and documentation of technical hurdles to further scale up and initiate technology transfer to industry for eventual commercialization of the process.

  12. Correlation of anaerobic ammonium oxidation and denitrification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The feasibility of the nitrous organic wastewater treated was studied in seven anaerobic sequencing batch reactors(ASBRs)(0 #-6 #) which had been run under stable anaerobic ammonium oxidation (Anammox). By means of monitoring and data analysis of COD, NH4+-N, NO2--N, NO3--N and pH, and of microbial test, the results revealed that the optimal Anammox performance was achieved from 2# reactor in which COD/NH4+-N was 1.65, Anammox bacteria and denitrification bacteria could coexist, and Anammox reaction and denitrification reaction could occur simultaneously in the reactors. The ratio of NH4+-N consumed: NO2--N consumed: NO3--N produced was 1:1.38:0.19 in 0# reactor which was not added glucose in the wastewater. When different ratio of COD and NH4+-N was fed for the reactors, the ratio of NO2--N consumed: NH4+-N consumed was in the range of 1.51-2.29 and the ratio of NO3-N produced: NH4+-N consumed in the range of 0-0.05.

  13. Modelling an Ammonium Transporter with SCLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Troina

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The Stochastic Calculus of Looping Sequences (SCLS is a recently proposed modelling language for the representation and simulation of biological systems behaviour. It has been designed with the aim of combining the simplicity of notation of rewrite systems with the advantage of compositionality. It also allows a rather simple and accurate description of biological membranes and their interactions with the environment.In this work we apply SCLS to model a newly discovered ammonium transporter. This transporter is believed to play a fundamental role for plant mineral acquisition, which takes place in the arbuscular mycorrhiza, the most wide-spread plant-fungus symbiosis on earth. Due to its potential application in agriculture this kind of symbiosis is one of the main focuses of the BioBITs project. In our experiments the passage of NH3 / NH4+ from the fungus to the plant has been dissected in known and hypothetical mechanisms; with the model so far we have been able to simulate the behaviour of the system under different conditions. Our simulations confirmed some of the latest experimental results about the LjAMT2;2 transporter. The initial simulation results of the modelling of the symbiosis process are promising and indicate new directions for biological investigations.

  14. Ultrahigh vacuum system with aluminum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A bakeable vacuum chamber (1500C continuous) consists of aluminum alloy beam pipe (6063-T6) and bellows (5052-F) with an aluminum alloy flange (2219-T87) and a metal seal [Helicoflex-HN: pure aluminum (1050) O-ring with an elastic core (Ni base super alloy Inconel 750) which supplies the sealing force] has been constructed. The beam pipe and the flange (6063-T6/2219-T87), and the bellows and the flange (5052-F/2219-T87) were welded by an alternate current (50 Hz) TIG process using an aluminum alloy filler wire (4043). The mechanical properties of the aluminum alloy (2219-T87) is suitable for using the Helicoflex O-ring but the groove surface for the gasket is weak for scratching. Cromium-nitride coating by ion plating method was carried out on the aluminum surface of the gasket groove [thickness: 16 μm, micro Vickers hardness: 1800]. Ordinary stainless steel vacuum system can be replaced by the aluminum vacuum system in an accelerator. (author)

  15. 15N-ammonium test in clinical research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By use of the 15N-ammonium test the liver function is investigated under influence of hormonal contraceptives in women and in liver diseases in children. With the described noninvasive nonradioactive isotope test the ammonia detoxification capability and the urea synthesis capacity of the liver is determined by measuring of the 15N excretion in ammonia and urea in urine after oral administering of 15N-ammonium chloride. The 15N-ammonium test shows a significant influence of the hormonal contraceptives on the liver function and gives diagnostic evidence for liver diseases in children. (author)

  16. Effect of Ammonium Nitrate on Nanoparticle Size Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalyana C. Pingali

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Ammonium nitrate was added to the spraying solution as a foaming agent to reduce the particle size of nanoparticles synthesized in the spray-pyrolysis process. Ammonium nitrate was effective in breaking the aerosol droplet size and generating nanoparticles that were of approximately one order-of-magnitude (from 200 to 20 nm smaller diameter than those created in the absence of ammonium nitrate in the feed solution. This technique makes it possible to control the particle diameter of metallic nanoparticles below 20 nm.

  17. Sulfate-reducing bacteria in anaerobic bioreactors.

    OpenAIRE

    Oude Elferink, S.J.W.H.

    1998-01-01

    The treatment of industrial wastewaters containing high amounts of easily degradable organic compounds in anaerobic bioreactors is a well-established process. Similarly, wastewaters which in addition to organic compounds also contain sulfate can be treated in this way. For a long time, the occurrence of sulfate reduction was considered to be undesired. However, there are some recent developments in which sulfate reduction is optimized for the removal of sulfur compounds from waste streams. In...

  18. CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATION IN ACID SULFATE LANDSCAPES

    OpenAIRE

    Chuxia Lin

    2012-01-01

    Oxidation of sulfide minerals produces sulfuric acid and consequently creates Acid Sulfate Landscapes (ASLs), which represent one of the most degraded types of land-surface environments. Although acid sulfate-producing weathering is a naturally occurring process, it is markedly facilitated by human intervention. Mining is by far the dominant anthropogenic cause for the creation of inland acid sulfate footprints while land reclamation in coastal lowlands is the driver for the formation of coas...

  19. Methods for sulfate air quality management

    OpenAIRE

    Cass, Glen R.; McMurry, Pamela S.; Houseworth, James E

    1980-01-01

    Executive Summary Abstract: A study of methods for sulfate air quality control strategy design has been conducted. Analytical tools developed were tested within a case study of the nature and causes of the high sulfate concentrations observed in the Los Angeles area. A principal objective was to investigate the least costly means for sulfate air quality improvement in that locale. A long-run average emissions to air quality model was derived which computes pollutant concentrations fr...

  20. An update on toxicology of aluminum phosphide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moghadamnia Ali

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aluminum phosphide (AlP is a cheap solid fumigant and a highly toxic pesticide which is commonly used for grain preservation. In Iran it is known as the “rice tablet”. AlP has currently aroused interest with increasing number of cases in the past four decades due to increased use in agricultural and non-agricultural purposesand also its easy availability in the markets has increased its misuse to commit suicide. Upon contact with moisture in the environment, AlP undergoes a chemical reaction yielding phosphine gas, which is the active pesticidal component. Phosphine inhibits cellular oxygen utilization and can induce lipid peroxidation. It was reported that AlP has a mortality rate more than 50% of intoxication cases. Poisoning with AlP has usually occurred in attempts to suicide. It is a more common case in adults rather than teen agers. In some eastern countries it is a very common agent with rapid action for suicide. Up to date, there is no effective antidote or treatment for its intoxication. Also, some experimental results suggest that magnesium sulfate, N-acetyl cysteine (NAC, glutathione, vitamin C and E, beta-carotenes, coconut oil and melatonin may play an important role in reducing the oxidative outcomes of phosphine. This article reviews the experimental and clinical features of AlP intoxication and tries to suggest a way to encounter its poisoning.

  1. An Update on Toxicology of Aluminum Phosphide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Akbar Moghhadamnia

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum phosphide (AlP is a cheap solid fumigant and a highly toxic pesticide which is commonly used for grain preservation. In Iran it is known as the "rice tablet". AlP has currently aroused interest with increasing number of cases in the past four decades due to increased use in agricultural and non-agricultural purposes and also its easy availability in the markets has increased its misuse to commit suicide. Upon contact with moisture in the environment, AlP undergoes a chemical reaction yielding phosphine gas, which is the active pesticidal component. Phosphine inhibits cellular oxygen utilization and can induce lipid peroxidation. It was reported that AlP has a mortality rate more than 50% of intoxication cases. Poisoning with AlP has usually occurred in attempts to suicide. It is a more common case in adults rather than teen agers. In some eastern countries it is a very common agent with rapid action for suicide. Up to date, there is no effective antidote or treatment for its intoxication. Also, some experimental results suggest that magnesium sulfate, N-acetyl cysteine (NAC, glutathione, vitamin C and E, beta-carotenes, coconut oil and melatonin may play an important role in reducing the oxidative outcomes of phosphine. This article reviews the experimental and clinical features of AlP intoxication and tries to suggest a way to encounter its poisoning.

  2. [Microbiological corrosion of aluminum alloys].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, V F; Belov, D V; Sokolova, T N; Kuzina, O V; Kartashov, V R

    2008-01-01

    Biological corrosion of ADO quality aluminum and aluminum-based construction materials (alloys V65, D16, and D16T) was studied. Thirteen microscopic fungus species and six bacterial species proved to be able to attack aluminum and its alloys. It was found that biocorrosion of metals by microscopic fungi and bacteria was mediated by certain exometabolites. Experiments on biocorrosion of the materials by the microscopic fungus Alternaria alternata, the most active biodegrader, demonstrated that the micromycete attack started with the appearance of exudate with pH 8-9 on end faces of the samples. PMID:18669265

  3. Anti wetting additives for aluminosilicate refractories in molten aluminum contact applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Devdutt Pramod

    Aluminosilicate based refractories are widely used in furnace installations for melting aluminum because they are inexpensive, readily available and generally exhibit the properties desired from a refractory material. However, they face severe corrosion and degradation issues due to the extremely reducing nature of molten aluminum alloys. Isothermal static cup testing is widely used as a tool to evaluate the performance of refractories against penetration by molten aluminum alloys. Various testing methods were reviewed and an upgraded static cup test was recommended. Commercially available aluminosilicate refractories were tested using this method and their results were studied in order to understand the corrosion process. Barium sulfate, which is widely used as an anti-wetting additive to improve refractory performance by limiting physical contact between molten metal and the refractory, has proved ineffective at temperatures above 1000°C. A literature review suggested that barium sulfate formed barium celsian at high temperatures and that the celsian was responsible for the non-wetting effect. Wetting angle measurements of molten AL 5083 on synthetic celsian discs revealed that barium celsian and strontium celsian were both not wetted by molten aluminum. Static cup tests were performed on aluminosilicate refractories containing barium carbonate and strontium carbonate. These additives led to the in-situ formation of celsian phases within the refractory matrix that led to improved corrosion resistance at 1300°C. Phase analysis revealed that celsian formation suppressed the formation of mullite within refractories, thereby reducing penetration.

  4. Ultrasonication assisted and surfactant mediated synergistic approach for synthesis of calcium sulfate nano-dendrites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bari, Sarang; Chatterjee, Aniruddha; Mishra, Satyendra

    2016-07-01

    Calcium sulfate (CaSO4) nano-dendrimers were fabricated successfully via ultrasonic irradiation method using calcium chloride [CaCl2] and ammonium per sulfate [(NH4)2SO4] as precursors in aqueous solution by using cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) as chemical surfactants. Diffusion-induced branching growth mechanism (DIBGM), influenced with the action of head-group and hydrocarbon chain effect of cationic surfactants, was the backbone in the formation of CaSO4 nano-dendrites. Fourier Transform Infra-red Spectroscopy (FTIR), X-Ray powder Diffraction (XRD), Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (AES), Selected Area Electron Diffraction (SAED), Field-Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM), Energy-Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS), Dynamic Light Spectroscopy (DLS) and BET surface area analyzer were used to characterize the products. Results obtained were compared with conventional stirring method that proved the superiority of sonication method to obtain well-crystalline nanostructures. Also, surfactant concentration, sonication frequency and time were noticed as the critical factors to generate such absolute morphologies at nano-crystalline size. PMID:26964922

  5. Origin of high ammonium, arsenic and boron concentrations in the proximity of a mine: Natural vs. anthropogenic processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheiber, Laura; Ayora, Carlos; Vázquez-Suñé, Enric; Cendón, Dioni I; Soler, Albert; Baquero, Juan Carlos

    2016-01-15

    High ammonium (NH4), arsenic (As) and boron (B) concentrations are found in aquifers worldwide and are often related to human activities. However, natural processes can also lead to groundwater quality problems. High NH4, As and B concentrations have been identified in the confined, deep portion of the Niebla-Posadas aquifer, which is near the Cobre Las Cruces (CLC) mining complex. The mine has implemented a Drainage and Reinjection System comprising two rings of wells around the open pit mine, were the internal ring drains and the external ring is used for water reinjection into the aquifer. Differentiating geogenic and anthropogenic sources and processes is therefore crucial to ensuring good management of groundwater in this sensitive area where groundwater is extensively used for agriculture, industry, mining and human supply. No NH4, As and B are found in the recharge area, but their concentrations increase with depth, salinity and residence time of water in the aquifer. The increased salinity down-flow is interpreted as the result of natural mixing between infiltrated meteoric water and the remains of connate waters (up to 8%) trapped within the pores. Ammonium and boron are interpreted as the result of marine solid organic matter degradation by the sulfate dissolved in the recharge water. The light δ(15)NNH4 values confirm that its origin is linked to marine organic matter. High arsenic concentrations in groundwater are interpreted as being derived from reductive dissolution of As-bearing goethite by dissolved organic matter. The lack of correlation between dissolved Fe and As is explained by the massive precipitation of siderite, which is abundantly found in the mineralization. Therefore, the presence of high arsenic, ammonium and boron concentrations is attributed to natural processes. Ammonium, arsenic, boron and salinity define three zones of groundwater quality: the first zone is close to the recharge area and contains water of sufficient quality for

  6. Expanding the 3-O-Sulfate Proteome-Enhanced Binding of Neuropilin-1 to 3-O-Sulfated Heparan Sulfate Modulates Its Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thacker, Bryan E; Seamen, Emylie; Lawrence, Roger; Parker, Matthew W; Xu, Yongmei; Liu, Jian; Vander Kooi, Craig W; Esko, Jeffrey D

    2016-04-15

    Binding of proteins to heparan sulfate is driven predominantly by electrostatic interactions between positively charged amino acid residues in the protein and negatively charged sulfate groups located at various positions along the polysaccharide chain. Although many heparin/heparan-sulfate-binding proteins have been described, few exhibit preferential binding for heparan sulfates containing relatively rare 3-O-sulfated glucosamine residues. To expand the "3-O-sulfate proteome," affinity matrices were created from Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell heparan sulfate engineered in vitro with and without 3-O-sulfate groups. Fractionation of different animal sera yielded several proteins that bound specifically to columns containing 3-O-sulfated heparan sulfate modified by two members of the heparan sulfate 3-O-sulfotransferase superfamily, Hs3st1 and Hs3st2. Neuropilin-1 was analyzed in detail because it has been implicated in angiogenesis and axon guidance. We show that 3-O-sulfation enhanced the binding of neuropilin-1 to heparan sulfate immobilized on plastic plates and to heparan sulfate present on cultured cells. Chemoenzymatically synthesized 3-O-sulfated heparan sulfate dodecamers protected neuropilin-1 from thermal denaturation and inhibited neuropilin-1-dependent, semaphorin-3a-induced growth cone collapse of neurons derived from murine dorsal root ganglia. The effect of 3-O-sulfation was cell autonomous and specific to Hs3st2 based on collapse assays of neurons derived from Hs3st1- and Hs3st2-deficient mice. Finally, 3-O-sulfated heparan sulfate enhanced the inhibition of endothelial cell sprouting by exogenous heparan sulfate. These findings demonstrate a reliable method to identify members of the 3-O-sulfate proteome and that 3-O-sulfation of heparan sulfate can modulate axonal growth cone collapse and endothelial cell sprouting. PMID:26731579

  7. Ammonium removal by modified zeolite from municipal wastewater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Ya-ping; GAO Ting-yao; JIANG Shang-ying; CAO Da-wen

    2004-01-01

    Ammonium removal by modified zeolite, H-form and Na-form zeolite, were examined by batch-type methods. The adsorption of ammonium on modified zeolite was exothermic process. The saturation adsorption capacity of ammonium on H-form and Na-form zeolite were 21.23 and 41.15 mg/g, respectively. After ten times adsorption- desorption-readsorption cycles the standard deviations of H-form and Na-form zeolite were 6.34% and 6.59%. The zeolite adsorption process has proved cost effective and practical in reducing ammonium by H-form and Na-form zeolite in municipal wastewater from concentration 27.68 mg/L to 2.80 mg/L and 5.91 mg/L.

  8. Fixed Ammonium Content and Maximum Capacity of Ammonium Fixation in Major Types of Tillage Soils in Hunan Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yang-zhu; HUANG Shun-hong; WAN Da-juan; HUANG Yun-xiang; ZHOU Wei-jun; ZOU Ying-bin

    2007-01-01

    In order to understand the status of fixed ammonium, fixed ammonium content, maximum capacity of ammonium fixation, and their influencing factors in major types of tillage soils of Hunan Province, China, were studied with sampling on fields, and laboratory incubation and determination. The main results are summarized as follows: (1) Content of fixed ammonium in the tested soils varies greatly with soil use pattern and the nature of parent material. For the paddy soils, it ranges from 135.4 ± 57.4 to 412.8±32.4 mg kg-1, with 304.7±96.7 mg kg-1 in average; while it ranges from 59.4 to 435.7 mg kg-1, with 230.1 ± 89.2 mg kg1 in average for the upland soils. The soils developed from limnic material and slate had higher fixed ammonium content than the soils developed from granite. The percentage of fixed ammonium to total N in the upland soils is always higher than that in the paddy soils. It ranges from 6.1 ± 3.6% to 16.6 ±4.6%, with 14.0% ± 5.1% in average for the paddy soils and it amounted to 5.8 ±2.0% to 40.1 ± 17.8%, with 23.5 ± 14.2% in average for upland soils. (2) The maximum capacity of ammonium fixation has the same trend with the fixed ammonium content in the tested soils. For all the tested soils, the percentage of recently fixed ammonium to maximum capacity of ammonium fixation is always bellow 20% and it may be due to the fact that the soils have high fertility and high saturation of ammonium-fixing site. (3) The clay content and clay composition in the tested soils are the two important factors influe ncing their fixed ammonium content and maximum capacity of ammonium fixation. The results showed that hydrous mica is the main 2:1 type clay mineral in <0.02 mm clay of the paddy soils, and its content in 0.02-0.002 mm clay is much higher than that in < 0.002 mm clay of the soils. The statistical analysis showed that both the fixed ammonium content and the maximum capacity of ammonium fixation of the paddy soils were positively correlated with

  9. Preferential dissolution behavior of copper-nickel alloys in neutral ammonium acetate solution; Chusei sakusan ammonium yoekichu ni okeru Cu-Ni gokin no yusen yokai kyodo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishimura, R.; Yamakawa, K. [Osaka Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-11-15

    The electrochemical behaviors of copper alloys which show corrosion resistance under ocean circumstances were investigated in acid, neutral chlorides and a sulfate solution from the view point of preferential dissolution like dezincification corrosion. In this study, dissolved ion seeds of copper-nickel (10 to 42%) alloys in a neutral ammonium acetate solution are analyzed by the method of multi-elements simultaneous analysis using an ICP spectrophotometer, the preferential dissolution behavior of the copper-nickel alloys was studied through film formation analyzed by an AES (Auger Electron Spectroscope) and an anode oxidation current decrease with the increase of the Ni content, In regard to the contents of the dissolved ion seeds, the preferential dissolution of the Ni occurs independent from the Ni content in the active region, but in the passive region, only Cu-10%Ni alloy shows the Ni preferential dissolution in the low voltage side and shows the Cu preferential dissolution in the high voltage side. However, while the Ni content increase more, the Ni preferential dissolution occurs not depending on the voltage. 18 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Stoichiometric analysis of ammonium nitrate and ammonium perchlorate with nanosecond laser induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreedhar, S.; Rao, S. Venugopal; Kiran, P. Prem; Tewari, Surya P.; Kumar, G. Manoj

    2010-04-01

    We present our results on the stoichiometric analysis of ammonium nitrate (AN) and ammonium Perchlorate (AP) studied using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) with nanosecond pulses. The LIBS spectra collected for AP and AN, without any gating and using a high resolution spectrometer, exhibited characteristic lines corresponding to O, N, H, C, and K. The Oxygen line at 777.38 nm and three Nitrogen lines (N1, N2, N3) at 742.54 nm, 744.64 nm, 747.12 nm were used for evaluating the Oxygen/Nitrogen ratios. The intensities were calculated using area under the peaks and normalized to their respective transition probabilities and statistical weights. The O/N1 ratios estimated from the LIBS spectra were ~4.94 and ~5.11 for AP and O/N3 ratios were ~1.64 and ~1.47 for AN obtained from two independent measurements. The intensity ratios show good agreement with the actual stoichiometric ratios - four for AP and one for AN.

  11. Subsurface ammonium maxima in northern Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Satyanarayana, D.; Sahu, S.D.; Panigrahy, P.K.; Sarma, V.V.; Suguna, C.

    Environmental Research 31 (1991) 123-136 Subsurface Ammonium Maxima in Northern Bay of Bengal D. Satyanarayana, S. D. Sahu, P. K. Panigrahy School of Chemistry, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam 530 003, India V. V. Sarma & C. Suguna National Institute.... Inorganic phosphate was determined by the method of Murphy & Riley (1962), nitrite by the method of Bendschneider & Robinson (1952) and nitrate by the method of Morris & Riley (1963) as modified by Grasshoff (1964). Ammonium was determined by indophenol...

  12. Chrome - Free Aluminum Coating System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, John H.; Gugel, Jeffrey D.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation concerns the program to qualify a chrome free coating for aluminum. The program was required due to findings by OSHA and EPA, that hexavalent chromium, used to mitigate corrosion in aerospace aluminum alloys, poses hazards for personnel. This qualification consisted of over 4,000 tests. The tests revealed that a move away from Cr+6, required a system rather than individual components and that the maximum corrosion protection required pretreatment, primer and topcoat.

  13. Refinement of Aluminum Thermal Chrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Refinement of aluminum thermal chrome of the X98.5 mark by a high-temperature annealing in high vacuum is explored experimentally. It is shown that at the temperature of annealing 1150 C during 1...6 hours the content of such interstitial impurity as nitrogen is essentially depressed in chrome, and also the content of aluminum and iron admixtures is noticeably moderated

  14. Antinociceptive activity of sulfated carbohydrates from the red algae Bryothamnion seaforthii (Turner) Kütz. and B. triquetrum (S.G. Gmel.) M. Howe

    OpenAIRE

    Viana G.S.B.; Freitas A.L.P.; Lima M.M.L.; Vieira L.A.P.; Andrade M.C.H.; Benevides N.M.B.

    2002-01-01

    We report the antinociceptive activity, determined by the writhing, formalin and hot-plate tests in mice, of crude (F0/60), lectin and carbohydrate fractions isolated by ammonium sulfate precipitation (0 to 60%) from Bryothamnion seaforthii and B. triquetrum, species of red algae. Not only fraction F0/60 but also lectins from both species significantly inhibited acetic acid-induced abdominal contractions after intraperitoneal or oral administrations. In the formalin test, lectins (1 and 5 mg/...

  15. Synthesis, characterization, and bioactivity of rosin quaternary ammonium salt derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Liang

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Two series of rosin quaternary ammonium salts (QAS were synthesized using the same path. The structure of the target products was characterized by HPLC, MS, IR, and 1HNMR, and the bioactivity was determined by filter paper method using Trametes versicolor (white-rot fungus and Gloeophyllum trabeum (brown-rot fungus, which are two kinds of general wood decay fungi in nature. The results showed that all compounds tested had a satisfactory anti-fungal effect at the molarity of 0.025 mmol/mL. Hereinto, acrylpimaric Gemini QAS had better bioactivity than dehydrogenated or tetrahydrogenated rosin QAS against Trametes versicolor. To this fungus, quaternary ammonium groups, which wraps up the membrane of microorganism and disrupts the balance in cell membrane, plays the leading role for its bioactivity. To Gloeophyllum trabeum, the inhibition activity of acrylpimaric QAS and dehydrogenated rosin QAS are almost at the same level and larger than tetrahydrogenated rosin QAS, so we conclude that both quaternary ammonium group and aromatic group play important roles. Compared with dodecyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride (1227, which is a commercially available quaternary ammonium salt type fungicide, acrylpimaric acid quaternary ammonium salts have approximate bioactivity against Gloeophyllum trabeum. In conclusion, rosin derivatives with functional groups would do well in wood preservative applications.

  16. Removal of ammonium from municipal landfill leachate using natural zeolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Zhihong; Wang, Jiawen; Sun, Lingyu; Zhang, Daobin; Zhang, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Ammonium ion-exchange performance of the natural zeolite was investigated in both batch and column studies. The effects of zeolite dosage, contact time, stirring speed and pH on ammonium removal were investigated in batch experiments. The result showed that ammonium removal efficiency increased with an increase in zeolite dosage from 25 to 150 g/L, and an increase in stirring speed from 200 to 250 r/min. But further increase in zeolite dosage and stirring speed would result in an unpronounced increase of ammonium removal. The optimal pH for the removal of ammonium was found as 7.1. In the column studies, the effect of flow rate was investigated, and the total ammonium removal percentage during 180 min operation time decreased with the flow rate though the ion-exchange capacity varied to a very small extent with the flow rate ranging from 4 to 9 mL/min. The spent zeolite was regenerated by sodium chloride solution and the ammonia removal capacity of zeolite changed little or even increased after three regeneration cycles. PMID:26510611

  17. Mutagenicity of quaternary ammonium salts containing carbohydrate moieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → A series of quaternary ammonium salts containing carbohydrate moieties, with configuration D-galacto, D-gluco and D-manno, was synthesized and characterized. → The quaternary ammonium salts containing carbohydrate moieties revealed potent mutagenic activities, as assessed by using the Vibrio harveyi bioluminescence mutagenicity test. → The N-[2-(D-glycopyranosyloxy)ethyl]-N,N,N-trimethylaminium salts were of the highest activity in the mutagenicity assay. → We suggest that quaternary ammonium salts may be more hazardous than previously supposed. - Abstract: Quaternary ammonium salts are widely used in industrial, agricultural, healthcare and domestic applications. They are believed to be safe compounds, with little or no health hazard to humans. However, in this report, we demonstrate that a series of newly synthesized quaternary ammonium salts containing carbohydrate moieties reveal potent mutagenic activities, as assessed by using the Vibrio harveyi bioluminescence mutagenicity test. D-Gluco- and D-galacto-derivatives were found to have a higher mutagenic potential than D-manno-derivatives. Among the former groups of compounds, the N-[2-(D-glycopyranosyloxy)ethyl]-N,N,N-trimethylaminium salts were of the highest activity in the mutagenicity assay. These results suggest that the safety of quaternary ammonium salts may be lower than previously supposed, indicating a need for testing such compounds for their mutagenicity.

  18. Mutagenicity of quaternary ammonium salts containing carbohydrate moieties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dmochowska, Barbara [Department of Carbohydrate Chemistry, University of Gdansk, Sobieskiego 18, 80-952 Gdansk (Poland); Piosik, Jacek; Woziwodzka, Anna [Intercollegiate Faculty of Biotechnology, University of Gdansk and Medical University of Gdansk, Kladki 24, 80-822 Gdansk (Poland); Sikora, Karol; Wisniewski, Andrzej [Department of Carbohydrate Chemistry, University of Gdansk, Sobieskiego 18, 80-952 Gdansk (Poland); Wegrzyn, Grzegorz, E-mail: wegrzyn@biotech.univ.gda.pl [Department of Molecular Biology, University of Gdansk, Kladki 24, 80-822 Gdansk (Poland)

    2011-10-15

    Highlights: {yields} A series of quaternary ammonium salts containing carbohydrate moieties, with configuration D-galacto, D-gluco and D-manno, was synthesized and characterized. {yields} The quaternary ammonium salts containing carbohydrate moieties revealed potent mutagenic activities, as assessed by using the Vibrio harveyi bioluminescence mutagenicity test. {yields} The N-[2-(D-glycopyranosyloxy)ethyl]-N,N,N-trimethylaminium salts were of the highest activity in the mutagenicity assay. {yields} We suggest that quaternary ammonium salts may be more hazardous than previously supposed. - Abstract: Quaternary ammonium salts are widely used in industrial, agricultural, healthcare and domestic applications. They are believed to be safe compounds, with little or no health hazard to humans. However, in this report, we demonstrate that a series of newly synthesized quaternary ammonium salts containing carbohydrate moieties reveal potent mutagenic activities, as assessed by using the Vibrio harveyi bioluminescence mutagenicity test. D-Gluco- and D-galacto-derivatives were found to have a higher mutagenic potential than D-manno-derivatives. Among the former groups of compounds, the N-[2-(D-glycopyranosyloxy)ethyl]-N,N,N-trimethylaminium salts were of the highest activity in the mutagenicity assay. These results suggest that the safety of quaternary ammonium salts may be lower than previously supposed, indicating a need for testing such compounds for their mutagenicity.

  19. Structure and thermal decomposition of sulfated β-cyclodextrin intercalated in a layered double hydroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sodium salt of hexasulfated β-cyclodextrin has been synthesized and intercalated into a magnesium-aluminum layered double hydroxide by ion exchange. The structure, composition and thermal decomposition behavior of the intercalated material have been studied by variable temperature X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), inductively coupled plasma emission spectroscopy (ICP), and thermal analysis (TG-DTA) and a model for the structure has been proposed. The thermal stability of the intercalated sulfated β-cyclodextrin is significantly enhanced compared with the pure form before intercalation

  20. CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATION IN ACID SULFATE LANDSCAPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuxia Lin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidation of sulfide minerals produces sulfuric acid and consequently creates Acid Sulfate Landscapes (ASLs, which represent one of the most degraded types of land-surface environments. Although acid sulfate-producing weathering is a naturally occurring process, it is markedly facilitated by human intervention. Mining is by far the dominant anthropogenic cause for the creation of inland acid sulfate footprints while land reclamation in coastal lowlands is the driver for the formation of coastal ASLs. The projected climate change highlights the possibility of an increase in the frequency and severity of extreme weather events such as droughts and heavy rains, which is likely to accelerate the acid generation in some circumstances and increase the frequency and magnitude of acid discharge. Sea level rise as a result of global warming will cause additional problems with the coastal ASLs. This is a review article. The following aspects are covered: (a the overriding biogeochemical processes leading to acid sulfate-producing weathering, (b a brief introduction to the inland acid sulfate landscapes, (c a brief introduction to the coastal acid sulfate landscapes, (d the likely impacts of climate change on ASLs and (e the possible measures to combat climate change-induced environmental degradation in the identified key acid sulfate footprints. The projected climate change is like to significantly affect the acid sulfate landscapes in different ways. Appropriate management strategies and cost-effective technologies need to be developed in order to minimize the climate change-induced ecological degradation.

  1. Rat pro-opiomelanocortin contains sulfate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoshina, H.; Hortin, G.; Boime, I.

    1982-07-02

    Intermediate lobes isolated from rat pituitary glands incorporated (/sup 35/S)sulfate into pro-opiomelanocortin and other adrenocorticotropic hormone-containing peptides. Incubation of intermediate lobes in medium containing the arginine analog canavanine inhibited the cleavage of pro-opiomelanocortin into smaller products. Pro-opiomelanocortin that accumulated in the presence of canavanine was also sulfated.

  2. New synthetic method and properties of ammonium dinitramide; Ammonium dinitramide no shingoseiho to sono butsuri kagakuteki tokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatano, H.; Onda, T.; Shiino, K. [Hosoya Kako Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan). Technology and Development Center; Miyazaki, S.; Matsuura, S. [Nissan Motor Co. Ltd., Saitama (Japan). Research and Development center

    1996-08-31

    Though, ammonium nitrate (AN) has been thought as solid propellant oxidizer, at present, ammonium perchlorate (AP) is mainly used because of the existence of crystal transition point, the improvement of propellant performance on AN and so forth. Ammonium dinitramide (ADN) can be used as an excellent oxidizer for high performance solid propellants, because it has much available oxygen. Furthermore, this propellant is smokeless, since ADN has no halogen resulting in generation of smoke on burning. ADN can be obtained by a new synthetic method which uses urea as starting substance and acquires nitrourea as intermediate product. According to this method, the yield is about 15% based on the amount of nitrourea. The hygroscopicity of this ADN is slightly higher than that of ammonium nitrate. Therefore, it is recommended to handle this substance at 50% of relative humidity or below. 13 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  3. Anodized aluminum on LDEF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Johnny L.

    1993-01-01

    A compilation of reported analyses and results obtained for anodized aluminum flown on the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) was prepared. Chromic acid, sulfuric acid, and dyed sulfuric acid anodized surfaces were exposed to the space environment. The vast majority of the anodized surface on LDEF was chromic acid anodize because of its selection as a thermal control coating for use on the spacecraft primary structure, trays, tray clamps, and space end thermal covers. Reports indicate that the chromic acid anodize was stable in solar absorptance and thermal emittance, but that contamination effects caused increases in absorptance on surfaces exposed to low atomic oxygen fluences. There were some discrepancies, however, in that some chromic acid anodized specimens exhibited significant increases in absorptance. Sulfuric acid anodized surfaces also appeared stable, although very little surface area was available for evaluation. One type of dyed sulfuric acid anodize was assessed as an optical baffle coating and was observed to have improved infrared absorptance characteristics with exposure on LDEF.

  4. Scintillation properties of lead sulfate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on the scintillation properties of lead sulfate (PbSO4), a scintillator that show promise as a high energy photon detector. It physical properties are well suited for gamma detection, as its has a density of 6.4 gm/cm3, a 1/e attenuation length for 511 keV photons of 1.2 cm, is not affected by air or moisture, and is cut and polished easily. In 99.998% pure PbSO4 crystals at room temperature excited by 511 keV annihilation photons, the fluorescence decay lifetime contains significant fast components having 1.8 ns (5%) and 19 ns (36%) decay times, but with longer components having 95 ns (36%) and 425 ns (23%) decays times. The peak emission wavelength is 335 nm, which is transmitted by borosilicate glass windowed photomultiplier tubes. The total scintillation light output increases with decreasing temperature fro 3,200 photons/MeV at +45 degrees C to 4, 900 photons/MeV at room temperature (+25 degrees C) and 68,500 photons/MeV at -145 degrees C. In an imperfect, 3 mm cube of a naturally occurring mineral form of PbSO4 (anglesite) at room temperature, a 511 keV photopeak is seen with a total light output of 60% that BGO. There are significant sample to sample variations of the light output among anglesite samples, so the light output of lead sulfate may improve when large synthetic crystals become available. 10 refs

  5. Analysis of tyrosine-O-sulfation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard, J.R.; Sen, J.W.; Johnsen, A.H.; Rehfeld, Jens Frederik

    2008-01-01

    Tyrosine O-sulfation was first described about 50 years ago as a post-translational modification of fibrinogen. In the following 30 years it was considered to be a rare modification affecting only a few proteins and peptides. However, in the beginning of the 1980s tyrosine (Tyr) sulfation was shown...... to be a common modification and since then an increasing number of proteins have been identified as sulfated. The target proteins belong to the classes of secretory, plasma membrane, and lysosomal proteins, which reflects the intracellular localization of the enzymes catalyzing Tyr sulfation, the...... to demonstrate the presence of radioactively labeled tyrosine. These techniques have been described in detail previously. The aim of this chapter is to present alternative analytical methods of Tyr sulfation than radioisotope incorporation before analysis Udgivelsesdato: 2008...

  6. Gaseous Sulfate Solubility in Glass: Experimental Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bliss, Mary

    2013-11-30

    Sulfate solubility in glass is a key parameter in many commercial glasses and nuclear waste glasses. This report summarizes key publications specific to sulfate solubility experimental methods and the underlying physical chemistry calculations. The published methods and experimental data are used to verify the calculations in this report and are expanded to a range of current technical interest. The calculations and experimental methods described in this report will guide several experiments on sulfate solubility and saturation for the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Enhanced Waste Glass Models effort. There are several tables of sulfate gas equilibrium values at high temperature to guide experimental gas mixing and to achieve desired SO3 levels. This report also describes the necessary equipment and best practices to perform sulfate saturation experiments for molten glasses. Results and findings will be published when experimental work is finished and this report is validated from the data obtained.

  7. Impact of mineral dust on nitrate, sulfate, and ozone in transpacific Asian pollution plumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. D. Fairlie

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available We use a 3-D global chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem to interpret aircraft observations of nitrate and sulfate partitioning in transpacific dust plumes during the INTEX-B campaign of April–May 2006. The model includes explicit transport of size-resolved mineral dust and its alkalinity, nitrate, and sulfate content. The observations show that particulate nitrate is primarily associated with dust, sulfate is primarily associated with ammonium, and Asian dust remains alkaline across the Pacific. This can be reproduced in the model by using a reactive uptake coefficient for HNO3 on dust (γ(HNO3 ~10−3 much lower than commonly assumed in models and possibly reflecting limitation of uptake by dust dissolution. The model overestimates gas-phase HNO3 by a factor of 2–3, typical of previous model studies; we show that this cannot be corrected by uptake on dust. We find that the fraction of aerosol nitrate on dust in the model increases from ~30% in fresh Asian outflow to 80–90% over the Northeast Pacific, reflecting in part the volatilization of ammonium nitrate and the resulting transfer of nitrate to the dust. Consumption of dust alkalinity by uptake of acid gases in the model is slow relative to the lifetime of dust against deposition, so that dust does not acidify (at least not in the bulk. This limits the potential for dust iron released by acidification to become bio-available upon dust deposition. Observations in INTEX-B show no detectable ozone depletion in Asian dust plumes, consistent with the model. Uptake of HNO3 by dust, suppressing its recycling to NOx, reduces Asian pollution influence on US surface ozone in the model by 10–15% or up to 1 ppb.

  8. Impact of mineral dust on nitrate, sulfate, and ozone in transpacific Asian pollution plumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Zhang

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available We use a 3-d global chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem to interpret aircraft observations of nitrate and sulfate partitioning in transpacific dust plumes during the INTEX-B campaign of April–May 2006. The model includes explicit transport of size-resolved mineral dust and its alkalinity, nitrate, and sulfate content. The observations show that particulate nitrate is primarily associated with dust, sulfate is primarily associated with ammonium, and Asian dust remains alkaline across the Pacific. This can be reproduced in the model by using a reactive uptake coefficient for HNO3 on dust (γ(HNO3~10−3 much lower than commonly assumed in models and likely reflecting limitation of uptake by dust dissolution. The model overestimates gas-phase HNO3 by a factor of 2–3, typical of previous model studies; we show that this cannot be corrected by uptake on dust. We find that the fraction of aerosol nitrate on dust in the model increases from ~30% in fresh Asian outflow to 80–90% over the Northeast Pacific, reflecting in part the volatilization of ammonium nitrate and the resulting transfer of nitrate to the dust. Consumption of dust alkalinity by uptake of acid gases in the model is slow relative to the lifetime of dust against deposition, so that dust in general does not acidify. This argues against the hypothesis that dust iron released by acidification could become bio-available upon dust deposition. Observations in INTEX-B show no detectable ozone depletion in Asian dust plumes, consistent with the model. Uptake of HNO3 by dust, suppressing its recycling to NOx, reduces Asian pollution influence on US surface ozone in the model by 10–15% or up to 1 ppb.

  9. Methods to Stabilize and Destabilize Ammonium Borohydride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Thomas K.; Karkamkar, Abhijeet J.; Bowden, Mark E.; Besenbacher, Fleming; Jensen, Torben R.; Autrey, Thomas

    2013-01-21

    Ammonium borohydride, NH4BH4, has a high hydrogen content of ρm = 24.5 wt% H2 and releases 18 wt% H2 below T = 160 °C. However, the half-life of bulk NH4BH4 at ambient temperatures, ~6 h, is insufficient for practical applications. The decomposition of NH4BH4 (ABH2) was studied at variable hydrogen and argon back pressures to investigate possible pressure mediated stabilization effects. The hydrogen release rate from solid ABH2 at ambient temperatures is reduced by ~16 % upon increasing the hydrogen back pressure from 5 to 54 bar. Similar results were obtained using argon pressure and the observed stabilization may be explained by a positive volume of activation in the transition state leading to hydrogen release. Nanoconfinement in mesoporous silica, MCM-41, was investigated as alternative means to stabilize NH4BH4. However, other factors appear to significantly destabilize NH4BH4 and it rapidly decomposes at ambient temperatures into [(NH3)2BH2][BH4] (DADB) in accordance with the bulk reaction scheme. The hydrogen desorption kinetics from nanoconfined [(NH3)2BH2][BH4] is moderately enhanced as evidenced by a reduction in the DSC decomposition peak temperature of ΔT = -13 °C as compared to the bulk material. Finally, we note a surprising result, storage of DADB at temperature < -30 °C transformed, reversibly, the [(NH3)2BH2][BH4] into a new low temperature polymorph as revealed by both XRD and solid state MAS 11B MAS NMR. TA & AK are thankful for support from the US Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences & Biosciences. A portion of the research was performed using EMSL, a national scientific user facility sponsored by the Department of Energy's Office of Biological and Environmental Research and located at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). PNNL is operated by Battelle.

  10. Modeling of sulfation of potassium chloride by ferric sulfate addition during grate-firing of biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Hao; Jespersen, Jacob Boll; Aho, Martti;

    2013-01-01

    Potassium chloride, KCl, formed from critical ash-forming elements released during combustion may lead to severe ash deposition and corrosion problems in biomass-fired boilers. Ferric sulfate, Fe2(SO4)3 is an effective additive, which produces sulfur oxides (SO2 and SO3) to convert KCl to the less...... order to simulate the sulfation of KCl by ferric sulfate addition during grate-firing of biomass. The simulation results show good agreements with the experimental data obtained in a pilot-scale biomass grate-firing reactor, where different amounts of ferric sulfate was injected on the grate or into the...... freeboard. In addition, the simulations of elemental sulfur addition on the grate fit well with the experimental data. The results suggest that the SO3 released from ferric sulfate decomposition is the main contributor to KCl sulfation, and that the effectiveness of the ferric sulfate addition is sensitive...

  11. Metabolic Flexibility of Sulfate Reducing Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline M. Plugge

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Dissimilatory sulfate-reducing prokaryotes (SRB are a very diverse group of anaerobic bacteria that are omnipresent in nature and play an imperative role in the global cycling of carbon and sulfur. In anoxic marine sediments sulfate reduction accounts for up to 50% of the entire organic mineralization in coastal and shelf ecosystems where sulfate diffuses several meters deep into the sediment. As a consequence, SRB would be expected in the sulfate-containing upper sediment layers, whereas methanogenic Archaea would be expected to succeed in the deeper sulfate-depleted layers of the sediment. Where sediments are high in organic matter, sulfate is depleted at shallow sediment depths, and biogenic methane production will occur. In the absence of sulfate, many SRB ferment organic acids and alcohols, producing hydrogen, acetate, and carbon dioxide, and may even rely on hydrogen- and acetate-scavenging methanogens to convert organic compounds to methane. SRB can establish two different life styles, and these can be termed as sulfidogenic and acetogenic, hydrogenogenic metabolism. The advantage of having different metabolic capabilities is that it raises the chance of survival in environments when electron acceptors become depleted. In marine sediments, SRB and methanogens do not compete but rather complement each other in the degradation of organic matter.Also in freshwater ecosystems with sulfate concentrations of only 10-200 μM, sulfate is consumed efficiently within the top several cm of the sediments. Here, many of the δ-Proteobacteria present have the genetic machinery to perform dissimilatory sulfate reduction, yet they have an acetogenic, hydrogenogenic way of life.In this review we evaluate the physiology and metabolic mode of SRB in relation with their environment.

  12. Activation and transfer of sulfate in biological systems (1960)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It examines in this review the successive stages of active sulfate formation and its role in biological synthesis of sulfuric esters. The possible role of active sulfate as intermediary in sulfate reduction is also discussed. (author)

  13. Effects of Temperature and Drying and Wetting Alternation on Ammonium Fixation in Manured Loessial Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANXIAOLIN; LILING; 等

    1996-01-01

    Effects of temperature and drying and wetting alternation (DWA) on ammonium fixation in manured loessial soil were studied by means of Batch Equilibrium with varying concentration solutions of ammonium chloride.ammonium fixation time,and soil clay contents.The purpose of the research was to find out the pattern of ammonium fixation affected by the varying factors.The results showed a remarkable variation in ammonium fixation.Fixed ammonium increased with temperature and treatments of DWA.The ammonium fixation in manured loessial soil was characterized by the effect of temperature and DWA.

  14. Low-aluminum content iron-aluminum alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikka, V.K.; Goodwin, G.M.; Alexander, D.J. [and others

    1995-06-01

    The low-aluminum-content iron-aluminum program deals with the development of a Fe-Al alloy with aluminum content such as a produce the minimum environmental effect at room temperature. The FAPY is an Fe-16 at. % Al-based alloy developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory as the highest aluminum-containing alloy with essentially no environmental effect. The chemical composition for FAPY in weight percent is: aluminum = 8.46, chromium = 5.50, zirconium = 0.20, carbon = 0.03, molybdenum = 2.00, yttrium = 0.10 and iron = 83.71. The ignots of the alloy can be hot worked by extrusion, forging, and rolling processes. The hot-worked cast structure can be cold worked with intermediate anneals at 800{degrees}C. Typical room-temperature ductility of the fine-grained wrought structure is 20 to 25% for this alloy. In contrast to the wrought structure, the cast ductility at room temperature is approximately 1% with a transition temperature of approximately 100 to 150{degrees}C, above which ductility values exceed 20%. The alloy has been melted and processed into bar, sheet, and foil. The alloy has also been cast into slabs, step-blocks of varying thicknesses, and shapes. The purpose of this section is to describe the welding response of cast slabs of three different thicknesses of FAPY alloy. Tensile, creep, and Charpy-impact data of the welded plates are also presented.

  15. Gas evolution behavior of aluminum in mortar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a part of study of leaching behavior for solidified dry low level radioactive waste, gas evolution behavior of aluminum in mortar was investigated, and a plan of our research was proposed. The effect of pH on corrosion rate of aluminum, corrosion product, time dependency of corrosion rate of aluminum in mortar, change of corrosion mechanism, the effects of Na, Ca and Cl ions on corrosion rate of aluminum in mortar and corrosion behavior of aluminum when aluminum was used as sacrificed anode in reinforced concrete were previously clarified. Study of the effects of environmental factors such as pH, kind of ions and temperature on gas evolution behavior of aluminum and the effect of aluminum/carbon steel surface ratio no gas evolution behavior of aluminum were planed. (author). 75 refs

  16. Surfen, a small molecule antagonist of heparan sulfate

    OpenAIRE

    Schuksz, Manuela; Fuster, Mark M.; Brown, Jillian R.; Crawford, Brett E.; Ditto, David P.; Lawrence, Roger; Glass, Charles A; Wang, Lianchun; Tor, Yitzhak; Esko, Jeffrey D

    2008-01-01

    In a search for small molecule antagonists of heparan sulfate, we examined the activity of bis-2-methyl-4-amino-quinolyl-6-carbamide, also known as surfen. Fluorescence-based titrations indicated that surfen bound to glycosaminoglycans, and the extent of binding increased according to charge density in the order heparin > dermatan sulfate > heparan sulfate > chondroitin sulfate. All charged groups in heparin (N-sulfates, O-sulfates, and carboxyl groups) contributed to binding, consistent with...

  17. Early metabolic effects and mechanism of ammonium transport in yeast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies were performed to define the effects and mechanism of NH+4 transport in yeast. The following results were obtained. Glucose was a better facilitator than ethanol-H2O2 for ammonium transport; low concentrations of uncouplers or respiratory inhibitors could inhibit the transport with ethanol as the substrate. With glucose, respiratory inhibitors showed only small inhibitory effects, and only high concentrations of azide or trifluoromethoxy carbonylcyanide phenylhydrazone could inhibit ammonium transport. Ammonium in the free state could be concentrated approximately 200-fold by the cells. Also, the addition of ammonium produced stimulation of both respiration and fermentation; an increased rate of H+ extrusion and an alkalinization of the interior of the cell; a decrease of the membrane potential, as monitored by fluorescent cyanine; an immediate decrease of the levels of ATP and an increase of ADP, which may account for the stimulation of both fermentation and respiration; and an increase of the levels of inorganic phosphate. Ammonium was found to inhibit 86Rb+ transport much less than K+. Also, while K+ produced a competitive type of inhibition, that produced by NH4+ was of the noncompetitive type. From the distribution ratio of ammonium and the pH gradient, an electrochemical potential gradient of around -180 mV was calculated. The results indicate that ammonium is transported in yeast by a mechanism similar to that of monovalent alkaline cations, driven by a membrane potential. The immediate metabolic effects of this cation seem to be due to an increased [H+]ATPase, to which its transport is coupled. However, the carriers seem to be different. The transport system studied in this work was that of low affinity

  18. Ammonium inhibition of nitrogenase activity in Herbaspirillum seropedicae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, H.; Burris, R.H. (Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison (USA))

    1989-06-01

    The effect of oxygen, ammonium ion, and amino acids on nitrogenase activity in the root-associated N{sub 2}-fixing bacterium Herbaspirillum seropedicae was investigated in comparison with Azospirillum spp. and Rhodospirillum rubrum. H. seropedicae is microaerophilic, and its optimal dissolved oxygen level is from 0.04 to 0.2 kPa for dinitrogen fixation but higher when it is supplied with fixed nitrogen. No nitrogenase activity was detected when the dissolved O{sub 2} level corresponded to 4.0 kPa. Ammonium, a product of the nitrogenase reaction, reversible inhibited nitrogenase activity when added to derepressed cell cultures. However, the inhibition of nitrogenase activity was only partial even with concentrations of ammonium chloride as high as 20 mM. Amides such as glutamine and asparagine partially inhibited nitrogenase activity, but glutamate did not. Nitrogenase in crude extracts prepared from ammonium-inhibited cells showed activity as high as in extracts from N{sub 2}-fixing cells. The pattern of the dinitrogenase and the dinitrogenase reductase revealed by the immunoblotting technique did not change upon ammonium chloride treatment of cells in vivo. No homologous sequences were detected with the draT-draG probe from Azospirillum lipoferum. There is no clear evidence that ADP-ribosylation of the dinitrogenase reductase is involved in the ammonium inhibition of H. seropedicae. The uncoupler carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone decreased the intracellular ATP concentration and inhibited the nitrogenase activity of whole cells. The ATP pool was significantly disturbed when cultures were treated with ammonium in vivo.

  19. Atmospheric Corrosion of Steel A3 Deposited with Ammonium Sulfate and in the Presence of Sulfur Dioxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ye WAN; Chuanwei YAN; Chunan CAO Jun TAN; Jun TAN

    2003-01-01

    A laboratory study of the atmospheric corrosion of carbon steel deposited with (NH4)2SO4 in the presence of SO2 isreported. The different levels of (NH4)2SO4 (0, 15, 30, 45, 60μg.cm-2) were added on the surface of the samplesbefore the exposure. The corrosion was investigated by a combination of gravimetry, Fourier transform infraredspectroscope and scanning electron microscopy. A detailed knowledge about the corrosion products was acquired,both quantitatively and qualitatively. The results show that the metal loss increased and the increasing tendency ofcorrosion rates slowed down with the increasing exposure time. The phase constituents of the corrosion products aremainly c-FeO(OH), γ-FeO(OH), and δ-FeO(OH).

  20. Diisoprop­yl{2-[2-(2-oxopyrrolidin-1-yl)acetamido]eth­yl}ammonium hydrogen sulfate

    OpenAIRE

    Bambagiotti-Alberti, Massimo; Bartolucci, Gianluca; Bruni, Bruno; Coran, Silvia A.; Di Vaira, Massimo

    2008-01-01

    The structure of the title compound, C14H28N3O2 +·HSO4 −, a nootropic drug (pramiracetam) investigated for cognition-enhancing properties, is closely similar to that of the previously determined acetonitrile solvate, both structures being characterized by the presence of ribbons of hydrogen-bonded ions. The pyrrolidine ring adopts an envelope conformation.

  1. Characterization of particulate products for aging of ethylbenzene secondary organic aerosol in the presence of ammonium sulfate seed aerosol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Mingqiang; Zhang, Jiahui; Cai, Shunyou; Liao, Yingmin; Zhao, Weixiong; Hu, Changjin; Gu, Xuejun; Fang, Li; Zhang, Weijun

    2016-09-01

    Aging of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) particles formed from OH- initiated oxidation of ethylbenzene in the presence of high mass (100-300μg/m(3)) concentrations of (NH4)2SO4 seed aerosol was investigated in a home-made smog chamber in this study. The chemical composition of aged ethylbenzene SOA particles was measured using an aerosol laser time-of-flight mass spectrometer (ALTOFMS) coupled with a Fuzzy C-Means (FCM) clustering algorithm. Experimental results showed that nitrophenol, ethyl-nitrophenol, 2,4-dinitrophenol, methyl glyoxylic acid, 5-ethyl-6-oxo-2,4-hexadienoic acid, 2-ethyl-2,4-hexadiendioic acid, 2,3-dihydroxy-5-ethyl-6-oxo-4-hexenoic acid, 1H-imidazole, hydrated N-glyoxal substituted 1H-imidazole, hydrated glyoxal dimer substituted imidazole, 1H-imidazole-2-carbaldehyde, N-glyoxal substituted hydrated 1H-imidazole-2-carbaldehyde and high-molecular-weight (HMW) components were the predominant products in the aged particles. Compared to the previous aromatic SOA aging studies, imidazole compounds, which can absorb solar radiation effectively, were newly detected in aged ethylbenzene SOA in the presence of high concentrations of (NH4)2SO4 seed aerosol. These findings provide new information for discussing aromatic SOA aging mechanisms. PMID:27593289

  2. Chlorobenzene formation from fly ash: effect of moisture, chlorine gas, cupric chloride, urea, ammonia and ammonium sulfate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Yan; Z.F. Qi; X.D. Li; T. Chen; S.Y. Lu; A.G. Buekens; K. Olie; J.H. Yan; K. Olie

    2012-01-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) are formed jointly with numerous products of incomplete combustion during waste incineration. Chlorobenzenes (CBz) are often cited as surrogates or precursors of PCDD/Fs. Experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of some key pa

  3. Detailed analysis of a quench bomb for the study of aluminum agglomeration in solid propellants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallier, S.; Kratz, J.-G.; Quaglia, N.; Fouin, G.

    2016-07-01

    A standard quench bomb (QB) - widely used to characterize condensed phase from metalized solid propellant combustion - is studied in detail. Experimental and numerical investigations proved that collected particles are mostly unburned aluminum (Al) agglomerates despite large quenching distances. Particles are actually found to quench early as propellant surface is swept by inert pressurant. Further improvements of the QB are proposed which allow measuring both Al agglomerates and alumina residue with the same setup. Finally, the results obtained on a typical aluminized ammonium perchlorate (AP) / hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB) propellant are briefly discussed.

  4. Scaleable Clean Aluminum Melting Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Q.; Das, S.K. (Secat, Inc.)

    2008-02-15

    The project entitled 'Scaleable Clean Aluminum Melting Systems' was a Cooperative Research and Development Agreements (CRADAs) between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Secat Inc. The three-year project was initially funded for the first year and was then canceled due to funding cuts at the DOE headquarters. The limited funds allowed the research team to visit industrial sites and investigate the status of using immersion heaters for aluminum melting applications. Primary concepts were proposed on the design of furnaces using immersion heaters for melting. The proposed project can continue if the funding agency resumes the funds to this research. The objective of this project was to develop and demonstrate integrated, retrofitable technologies for clean melting systems for aluminum in both the Metal Casting and integrated aluminum processing industries. The scope focused on immersion heating coupled with metal circulation systems that provide significant opportunity for energy savings as well as reduction of melt loss in the form of dross. The project aimed at the development and integration of technologies that would enable significant reduction in the energy consumption and environmental impacts of melting aluminum through substitution of immersion heating for the conventional radiant burner methods used in reverberatory furnaces. Specifically, the program would couple heater improvements with furnace modeling that would enable cost-effective retrofits to a range of existing furnace sizes, reducing the economic barrier to application.

  5. Empirical Data Confirm Autism Symptoms Related to Aluminum and Acetaminophen Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjing Liu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Autism is a condition characterized by impaired cognitive and social skills, associated with compromised immune function. The incidence is alarmingly on the rise, and environmental factors are increasingly suspected to play a role. This paper investigates word frequency patterns in the U.S. CDC Vaccine Adverse Events Reporting System (VAERS database. Our results provide strong evidence supporting a link between autism and the aluminum in vaccines. A literature review showing toxicity of aluminum in human physiology offers further support. Mentions of autism in VAERS increased steadily at the end of the last century, during a period when mercury was being phased out, while aluminum adjuvant burden was being increased. Using standard log-likelihood ratio techniques, we identify several signs and symptoms that are significantly more prevalent in vaccine reports after 2000, including cellulitis, seizure, depression, fatigue, pain and death, which are also significantly associated with aluminum-containing vaccines. We propose that children with the autism diagnosis are especially vulnerable to toxic metals such as aluminum and mercury due to insufficient serum sulfate and glutathione. A strong correlation between autism and the MMR (Measles, Mumps, Rubella vaccine is also observed, which may be partially explained via an increased sensitivity to acetaminophen administered to control fever.

  6. Impact of human activities on Aluminum contamination in the drainage canals in the Nile Delta, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alne-na-ei A. A.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum is released into Sabal drainage canal through the emissions of recycled aluminum industries, the discharge of stations of water purification that contain huge amount of aluminum sulfate (alum and the extensive use of clay in the industry of packed bricks. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of human activities on Al accumulation on water and fish consumption. The field and laboratory studies of water samples and different fish tissues (muscles, liver and ovary revealed that water samples had higher levels of Aluminum if compared to those collected from other localities. Tissue samples of the fish, Tilapia zillii had higher levels of Al which exceeded the international permissible limits. From a public health standpoint, the increased concentrations of Al in water samples and the fish tissues in the are is a matter of concern. Therefore, the research suggests the elimination of illegal aluminum industries and replace the smaller and old stations of sewage treatment by another modern type capable of collecting and treating huge amount of sewage, with high efficiency of treatment and purification.

  7. Heparan sulfate in skeletal muscle development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noonan, D.M.

    1985-01-01

    In this study, chick breast skeletal muscle cells developing in vitro from myoblasts to myotubes were found to synthesize heparan sulfate (HS), chrondroitin-6-sulfate, chrondroitin-4-sulfate, dermatan sulfate, unsulfated chrondroitin and hyaluronic acid in both the substratum attached material (SAM) and the cellular fraction. SAM was found to contain predominantly chrondroitin-6-sulfate and relatively little HS whereas the cellular fraction contained relatively higher levels of HS and lower levels of chrondroitin-6-sulfate. Hyaluronic acid was also a major component in both fractions with the other glycosaminoglycan isomers present as minor components. Muscle derived fibroblast cultures had higher levels of dermatan sulfate in the cell layer and higher levels of HS in the SAM fraction than did muscle cultures. The structure of the proteoglycans were partially characterized in /sup 35/SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/ radio-labeled cultures which indicated an apparent increase in the hydrodynamic size of the cell fraction heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HS PG). Myotubes incorporated /sup 35/SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/ into HS PG at a rate 3 times higher than myoblasts. The turnover rate of HS in the cellular fraction was the same for myoblasts and myotubes, with a t/sub 1/2/ of approximately 5 hours. Fibroblasts in culture synthesized the smallest HS PG, and incorporated /sup 35/SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/ into HS PG at a rate lower than that of myotubes. Studies in which fusion was reversibly inhibited with decreased medium (Ca/sup + +/) closely linked the increased synthesis of cell fraction, but not SAM fraction, HS with myotube formation. However, decreasing medium calcium appeared to cause significant alterations in the metabolism of inorganic sulfate.

  8. Heparan sulfate in skeletal muscle development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, chick breast skeletal muscle cells developing in vitro from myoblasts to myotubes were found to synthesize heparan sulfate (HS), chrondroitin-6-sulfate, chrondroitin-4-sulfate, dermatan sulfate, unsulfated chrondroitin and hyaluronic acid in both the substratum attached material (SAM) and the cellular fraction. SAM was found to contain predominantly chrondroitin-6-sulfate and relatively little HS whereas the cellular fraction contained relatively higher levels of HS and lower levels of chrondroitin-6-sulfate. Hyaluronic acid was also a major component in both fractions with the other glycosaminoglycan isomers present as minor components. Muscle derived fibroblast cultures had higher levels of dermatan sulfate in the cell layer and higher levels of HS in the SAM fraction than did muscle cultures. The structure of the proteoglycans were partially characterized in 35SO42- radio-labeled cultures which indicated an apparent increase in the hydrodynamic size of the cell fraction heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HS PG). Myotubes incorporated 35SO42- into HS PG at a rate 3 times higher than myoblasts. The turnover rate of HS in the cellular fraction was the same for myoblasts and myotubes, with a t/sub 1/2/ of approximately 5 hours. Fibroblasts in culture synthesized the smallest HS PG, and incorporated 35SO42- into HS PG at a rate lower than that of myotubes. Studies in which fusion was reversibly inhibited with decreased medium [Ca++] closely linked the increased synthesis of cell fraction, but not SAM fraction, HS with myotube formation. However, decreasing medium calcium appeared to cause significant alterations in the metabolism of inorganic sulfate

  9. Ecotoxicology of aluminum to fish and wildlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparling, D.W.; Lowe, T.P.; Campbell, P.G.C.

    1997-01-01

    The toxicity of aluminum has been studied extensively in fish, less so in invertebrates, amphibians, and birds, and not at all in reptiles and free-ranging mammals. For aquatic organisms, Al bioavailability and toxicity are intimately related to ambient pH; changes in ambient acidity may affect Al solubility, dissolved Al speciation, and organism sensitivity to Al. At moderate acidity (pH 5.5 to 7.0), fish and invertebrates may be stressed due to Al adsorption onto gill surfaces and subsequent asphyxiation. At pH 4.5 to 5.5, Al can impair ion regulation and augment the toxicity of H+. At lower pH, elevated Al can temporarily ameliorate the toxic effects of acidity by competing for binding sites with H+. Aluminum toxicity in aquatic environments is further affected by the concentration of ligands such as dissolved organic matter, fluoride, or sulfate, and of other cations such as Ca and Mg which compete for cellular binding sites. Although risk of Al toxicity is often based on a model of free-ion (Al3+) activity, recent evidence suggests that factors determining Al toxicity may be more complex. In general, aquatic invertebrates are less sensitive to Al toxicity and acidity than fish; thus acidified, Al-rich waters may actually reduce predation pressure. Fish may be affected by asphyxiation at moderate acidic conditions or electrolyte imbalances at lower pH. In amphibians, embryos and young larvae are typically more sensitive than older larvae. Early breeding amphibians, which lay eggs in ephemeral ponds and streams subject to spring runoff, are most at risk from Al and acidification; those that breed later in the year in lakes or rivers are least vulnerable. Birds and mammals are most likely exposed through dietary ingestion of soil or Al-contaminated foods. Concentrations > 1000 mg.kg-1 in food may be toxic to young birds and mammals. Clinical signs in these animals are consistent with rickets because Al precipitates with P in the gut. Suggestions for additional

  10. Electromechanical Breakdown of Barrier-Type Anodized Aluminum Oxide Thin Films Under High Electric Field Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianwen; Yao, Manwen; Yao, Xi

    2016-02-01

    Barrier-type anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) thin films were formed on a polished aluminum substrate via electrochemical anodization in 0.1 mol/L aqueous solution of ammonium pentaborate. Electromechanical breakdown occurred under high electric field conditions as a result of the accumulation of mechanical stress in the film-substrate system by subjecting it to rapid thermal treatment. Before the breakdown event, the electricity of the films was transported in a highly nonlinear way. Immediately after the breakdown event, dramatic cracking of the films occurred, and the cracks expanded quickly to form a mesh-like dendrite network. The breakdown strength was significantly reduced because of the electromechanical coupling effect, and was only 34% of the self-healing breakdown strength of the AAO film.

  11. Preparation of nano-sized hydrophilic aluminum fins coating materials for air conditioner

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈志明; 韩峰; 邵利

    2002-01-01

    Semicontinuous seeded emulsion copolymerization of acrylic acid, acrylamide and divinylbenzene was carried out at 80℃ with ammonium persulphate as the initiator and the polyether with comb configuration as the emulsifier to prepare approximately mono-dispersed nano-sized polymer particles with average diameter 90nm. The particles were used to combine with special polyether and de-ionized water was added to obtain nano-sized hydrophilic aluminum fins coating materials with solid content of 10%. The aluminum fins were coated with the materials to get the film showing self-assembly properties in some degree. The obtained hydrophilic fins have contact angles <5° with de-ionized water, minimum value 0°, after 4 cycles of wet and dry, contact angles <10° with de-ionized water.

  12. Modeling of alkyl quaternary ammonium cations intercalated into montmorillonite lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► The modification of montmorillonites by three surfactants increases the basal spacing. ► The model proposed show a bilayer conformation for the surfactant ODTMA. ► The DODMA and TOMA surfactants adopt a paraffin type arrangement. ► Behavior of surfactants in interlayer space was confirmed by TGA and ATR analysis. - Abstract: The objective of this work was to study the conformation of the quaternary ammonium cations viz., octadecyl trimethyl ammonium (ODTMA), dioctadecyl dimethyl ammonium (DMDOA) and trioctadecyl methyl ammonium (TOMA) intercalated within montmorillonite. The modified montmorillonite was characterized by X-ray diffraction in small angle (SAXS), thermal analysis (TGA) and infrared spectroscopy of attenuated total reflection (ATR). The modification of organophilic montmorillonites by the three surfactants ODTMA, DMDOA and TOMA increases the basal spacing from their respective intercalated distances of 1.9 nm, 2.6 nm and 3.4 nm respectively. The increase in the spacing due to the basic organic modification was confirmed by the results of thermal analysis (TGA) and infrared spectroscopy (ATR), and also supported by theoretical calculations of longitudinal and transversal chain sizes of these alkyl quaternary ammonium cations

  13. Recrystallization of 223Ra with barium sulfate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, the kinetics of barium sulfate recrystallization has been studied in acidic 0.01 mol dm-3 sodium sulfate solution using 223Ra and 133Ba tracers at very low total radium concentration, i.e. less than 10-13 mol dm-3. It was found that the system follows the homogeneous recrystallization model and that recrystallization rates, inferred by the decrease of 223Ra and 133Ba in the aqueous solution, are fast. Therefore, even at very low concentrations, below the solubility limit, radium will be retained by barium sulfate-a mineral present in the deep underground repository. (author)

  14. Uranium(VI) extraction from chloride solution with benzyloctadecyldimethyl ammonium chloride (BODMAC) in a liquid membrane process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recovery of uranium(VI) from chloride solution using a liquid emulsion membrane (LEM) technique was studied. The emulsion is constituted by the quaternary salt of benzyloctadecyldimethyl ammonium chloride (BODMAC, R4NCl) as a carrier, kerosene as organic diluent, Span 80 as emulsifying agent and 0.5 mol/l Na2CO3 as stripping phase. The important variables affecting the LEM permeation process such as the concentrations of extractant, internal strip phase, types of organic diluent, and the presence of magnesium chloride or magnesium sulfate were investigated. It was found that, at a given condition, the maximum extraction rate of uranium(VI) reached 80%. The emulsion was stable at low pH in the presence of certain amounts of electrolytes such as NaCl and MgCl2. (author)

  15. Grafted wood pulp containing quaternary ammonium group and its application in the removal of different anions from aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Network wood pulp based on acrylonitrile has been chemically modified through different reactions to obtain group capable of anion exchange. Graft copolymerization of acrylonitrile onto wood pulp was carried out by using gamma-radiation 60Co. Factors affecting the grafting process e.g radiation dose and monomer concentration were investigated.The chemical modification of cyano groups were carried out by reaction with ethanol amine producing oxazoline group followed by quaternization of tertiary amine by reaction with benzyl chloride producing quaternary ammonium salt. The grafted and modified wood pulp were characterized by FTIR, SEM and TGA.Qualitative experiments of adsorption were conducted to evaluate the modified wood pulp on fixing sulfate, phosphate,nitrate and dichromate from aqueous solution using batch extractions. Based on the results obtained, it may be concluded that it is possible to modify chemically wood pulp containing cyano groups by different routes for its usage as anion exchanger

  16. Novel alkylsulfatases required for biodegradation of the branched primary alkyl sulfate surfactant 2-butyloctyl sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Andrew J; Hales, Stephen G; Ur-Rehman, Naheed G A; White, Graham F

    2002-01-01

    Recent reports show that contrary to common perception, branched alkyl sulfate surfactants are readily biodegradable in standard biodegradability tests. We report here the isolation of bacteria capable of biodegrading 2-butyloctyl sulfate and the identification of novel enzymes that initiate the process. Enrichment culturing from activated sewage sludge yielded several strains capable of growth on 2-butyloctyl sulfate. Of these, two were selected for further study and identified as members of the genus Pseudomonas. Strain AE-A was able to utilize either sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) or 2-butyloctyl sulfate as a carbon and energy source for growth, but strain AE-D utilized only the latter. Depending on growth conditions, strain AE-A produced up to three alkylsulfatases, as shown by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis zymography. Growth on either SDS or 2-butyloctyl sulfate or in nutrient broth produced an apparently constitutive, nonspecific primary alkylsulfatase, AP1, weakly active on SDS and on 2-butyloctyl sulfate. Growth on 2-butyloctyl sulfate produced a second enzyme, AP2, active on 2-butyloctyl sulfate but not on SDS, and growth on SDS produced a third enzyme, AP3, active on SDS but not on 2-butyloctyl sulfate. In contrast, strain AE-D, when grown on 2-butyloctyl sulfate (no growth on SDS), produced a single enzyme, DP1, active on 2-butyloctyl sulfate but not on SDS. DP1 was not produced in broth cultures. DP1 was induced when residual 2-butyloctyl sulfate was present in the growth medium, but the enzyme disappeared when the substrate was exhausted. Gas chromatographic analysis of products of incubating 2-butyloctyl sulfate with DP1 in gels revealed the formation of 2-butyloctanol, showing the enzyme to be a true sulfatase. In contrast, Pseudomonas sp. strain C12B, well known for its ability to degrade linear SDS, was unable to grow on 2-butyloctyl sulfate, and its alkylsulfatases responsible for initiating the degradation of SDS by releasing the parent

  17. Process for producing ammonium molybdate from molybdenum trioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A process for producing ammonium molybdate from molybdenum trioxide having iron as an impurity is described comprising: (a) digesting the molybdenum trioxide with ammonia in a sealed vessel which is equipped with one or more stirrers at a temperature of from about 500C. to about 600C., at a pressure of from about 0.5 psig to about 15 psig, with the amount of ammonia being equal to from about 1.01 to about 1.8 times the stoichiometric amount needed to form normal ammonium molybdate, to form an ammonium molybdate solution containing essentially all of the starting molybdenum and a digestion residue containing essentially all of the iron; and (b) separating the solution from the residue

  18. Ammonium as a sustainable proton shuttle in bioelectrochemical systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cord-Ruwisch, Ralf; Law, Yingyu; Cheng, Ka Yu

    2011-10-01

    This work examines a pH control method using ammonium (NH(4)(+)) as a sustainable proton shuttle in a CEM-equipped BES. Current generation was sustained by adding NH(3) or ammonium hydroxide (NH(4)OH) to the anolyte, controlling its pH at 7. Ammonium ion migration maintained the catholyte pH at approximately 9.25. Such NH(4)(+)/NH(3) migration accounted for 90±10% of the ionic flux in the BES. Reintroducing the volatilized NH(3) from the cathode into the anolyte maintained a suitable anolyte pH for sustained microbial-driven current generation. Hence, NH(4)(+)/NH(3) acted as a proton shuttle that is not consumed in the process. PMID:21865037

  19. Handling of Ammonium Nitrate Mother-Liquid Radiochemical Production - 13089

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the work is to develop a basic technology of decomposition of ammonium nitrate stock solutions produced in radiochemical enterprises engaged in the reprocessing of irradiated nuclear fuel and fabrication of fresh fuel. It was necessary to work out how to conduct a one-step thermal decomposition of ammonium nitrate, select and test the catalysts for this process and to prepare proposals for recycling condensation. Necessary accessories were added to a laboratory equipment installation decomposition of ammonium nitrate. It is tested several types of reducing agents and two types of catalyst to neutralize the nitrogen oxides. It is conducted testing of modes of the process to produce condensation, suitable for use in the conversion of a new technological scheme of production. It is studied the structure of the catalysts before and after their use in a laboratory setting. It is tested the selected catalyst in the optimal range for 48 hours of continuous operation. (authors)

  20. Enrichment culture of marine anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) bacteria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUAN Yong-jie

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigates the enrichment of anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) bacteria in the marine environment using sediment samples obtained from the East China Sea and discusses the nitrogen removal efficiency of marine anammox bioreactor. Enrichment of anammox bacteria with simultaneous removal of nitrite and ammonium ions was observed in the Anaerobic Sequencing Batch Reactor under a total nitrogen loading rate of 0.37kg-N m-3day-1. In this study, The nitrogen removal efficiency was up to 80% and the molar-reaction ratio of ammonium, nitrite and nitrate was 1.0:1.22:0.22 which was a little different from a previously reported ratio of 1.0:1.32:0.26 in a freshwater system.

  1. Recrystallization in Commercially Pure Aluminum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Bent; Hansen, Niels

    1984-01-01

    Recrystallization behavior in commercial aluminum with a purity of 99.4 pct was studied by techniques such as high voltage electron microscopy, 100 kV transmission electron microscopy, and light microscopy. Sample parameters were the initial grain size (290 and 24 microns) and the degree of...... are discussed and compared with results from an earlier study1 covering the recrystallization behavior of commercial aluminum of the same purity deformed at higher degrees of deformation (50 to 90 pct reduction in thickness by cold-rolling)....

  2. Baise to Build Ecological Aluminum Industry Base

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>The government of Baise announced the construction of an ecological aluminum industry base over the next few years,pledging to turn the city into a major aluminum industry base in China and the rest of Asia.

  3. Decreasing residual aluminum level in drinking water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志红; 崔福义

    2004-01-01

    The relativity of coagulant dosage, residual turbidity, temperature, pH etc. with residual aluminum concentration were investigated, and several important conclusions were achieved. Firstly, dosage of alum-coagulant or PAC1 influences residual aluminum concentration greatly. There is an optimal-dosage-to-aluminum, a bit less than the optimal-dosage-to-turbidity. Secondly, it proposes that decreasing residual aluminum concentration can be theoretically divided into two methods, either decreasing (even removing) the concentration of particulate aluminum component, or decreasing dissolved aluminum. In these tests there is an optimal value of residual turbidity of postprecipitation at 7.0 NTU. Thirdly, residual aluminum level will increase while water temperature goes higher. At the last, optimal pH value corresponds a minimum dissolved aluminum at a given turbidity. Data shows the optimal pH value decreases with water temperature's increasing.

  4. ROE Wet Sulfate Deposition 2009-2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The raster data represent the amount of wet sulfate deposition in kilograms per hectare from 2009 to 2011. Summary data in this indicator were provided by EPA’s...

  5. Sulfated cellulose thin films with antithrombin affinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Cellulose thin films were chemically modified by in situ sulfation to produce surfaces with anticoagulant characteristics. Two celluloses differing in their degree of polymerization (DP: CEL I (DP 215–240 and CEL II (DP 1300–1400 were tethered to maleic anhydride copolymer (MA layers and subsequently exposed to SO3•NMe3 solutions at elevated temperature. The impact of the resulting sulfation on the physicochemical properties of the cellulose films was investigated with respect to film thickness, atomic composition, wettability and roughness. The sulfation was optimized to gain a maximal surface concentration of sulfate groups. The scavenging of antithrombin (AT by the surfaces was determined to conclude on their potential anticoagulant properties.

  6. Potassium aquaterbium(III oxalate sulfate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Guang Sun

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Single crystals of KTb(C2O4(SO4(H2O, potassium aquaterbium(III oxalate sulfate, were obtained under hydrothermal conditions. In the crystal structure, the Tb(III atom is coordinated by four O atoms from two oxalate anions, three O atoms from three sulfate anions and one O atom from a water molecule within a TbO8 distorted square antiprismatic coordination. The potassium and terbium(III atoms are bridged by the oxalate and sulfate groups, forming a three-dimensional structure. The coordination mode of the oxalate has not yet been reported. O—H...O hydrogen bonding between the water molecules and the oxygen atoms of oxalate and sulfate anions is also observed.

  7. 75 FR 70689 - Kaiser Aluminum Fabricated Products, LLC; Kaiser Aluminum-Greenwood Forge Division; Currently...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-18

    ... in the Federal Register on November 17, 2009 (74 FR 59254). At the request of the State agency and a... Employment and Training Administration Kaiser Aluminum Fabricated Products, LLC; Kaiser Aluminum- Greenwood... Aluminum Fabricated Products, LLC, Kaiser Aluminum-Greenwood Forge Division, including on- site...

  8. Removing hydrochloric acid exhaust products from high performance solid rocket propellant using aluminum-lithium alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Brandon C; Sippel, Travis R; Pfeil, Mark A; Gunduz, I Emre; Son, Steven F

    2016-11-01

    Hydrochloric acid (HCl) pollution from perchlorate based propellants is well known for both launch site contamination, as well as the possible ozone layer depletion effects. Past efforts in developing environmentally cleaner solid propellants by scavenging the chlorine ion have focused on replacing a portion of the chorine-containing oxidant (i.e., ammonium perchlorate) with an alkali metal nitrate. The alkali metal (e.g., Li or Na) in the nitrate reacts with the chlorine ion to form an alkali metal chloride (i.e., a salt instead of HCl). While this technique can potentially reduce HCl formation, it also results in reduced ideal specific impulse (ISP). Here, we show using thermochemical calculations that using aluminum-lithium (Al-Li) alloy can reduce HCl formation by more than 95% (with lithium contents ≥15 mass%) and increase the ideal ISP by ∼7s compared to neat aluminum (using 80/20 mass% Al-Li alloy). Two solid propellants were formulated using 80/20 Al-Li alloy or neat aluminum as fuel additives. The halide scavenging effect of Al-Li propellants was verified using wet bomb combustion experiments (75.5±4.8% reduction in pH, ∝ [HCl], when compared to neat aluminum). Additionally, no measurable HCl evolution was detected using differential scanning calorimetry coupled with thermogravimetric analysis, mass spectrometry, and Fourier transform infrared absorption. PMID:27289269

  9. The effect of different aluminum alloy surface compositions on barrier anodic film formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors have grown barrier anodic coatings on samples of aluminum alloy with different elemental surface compositions. In one series of experiments, they characterized the surface composition present on 6061 aluminum alloy samples after different chemical treatments including a detergent-water and methyl-ethyl ketone solvent clean, a 50% nitric acid-water etch, and a concentrated nitric acid-ammonium bifluoride etch. They anodized samples which were prepared similarly to those analyzed to evaluate the practical effects of the three different surface compositions. The anodization voltage rise time to 950V at constant current was used as a figure of merit. The solvent cleaned and the 50% nitric acid etched samples required, respectively, 113% and 41% more time to reach 950V than the concentrated nitric acidammonium bifloride etched samples. In a second series of experiments, they alternately anodized groups of either 6061 or 1100 (commercially pure) aluminum alloy, observed rise times to 950V, and measured chloride ion concentrations in the electrolyte. Longer rise times and higher chloride ion concentrations were observed for the 1100 samples. It was observed that the chloride ion concentration fell from initially high levels when 6061 samples were anodized. The results of both series of experiments augment the results of other investigators, who report that the surface species initially present on aluminum have a significant effect on anodic film formation

  10. Forest-soil response to acid and salt additions of sulfate. 2. Aluminum and base cations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reconstructed spodosol and intact alfisol soil columns were used to examine the effects of 52 weeks of additions of various simulated throughfall solutions on base cation, Al, acid neutralizing capacity, and pH levels in soil leachates. The work illustrates the importance of soil cation exchange (especially in the forest floor), anion concentrations, and pCO2 levels in controlling the leachate chemistry in response to acidic and 'seasalt' deposition events

  11. THE EFFECT OF FLUORIDE ON THE EFFECTIVENESS OF CONVENTIONAL COAGULATION/FLOCCULATION/SEDIMENTATION USING ALUMINUM SULFATE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Safe Drinking Water Act states that no drinking water facility is reuqired to fluoridate their water, however, any facility fluoridating their water is bound by the Maximum contaminant Level (MCL) of 4 mg/L. A survey of 600 large water utilities was conducted in conjunction w...

  12. Amorphous Aluminum Hydroxide Control on Sulfate and Phosphate in Sediment-Solution Systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Navrátil, T.; Rohovec, Jan; Amirbahman, A.; Norton, S. A.; Fernandez, I. J.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 201, 1-4 (2009), s. 87-98. ISSN 0049-6979 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : adsorption * oligotrophy * Al precipitates * anions * acidification * alkalization Subject RIV: DD - Geochemistry Impact factor: 1.676, year: 2009

  13. THE EFFECT OF FLUORIDE ON CONVENTIONAL WATER TREATMENT USING ALUMINUM SULFATE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Based on the Information Collection Rule survey results of 600 large utilities, approximately 50% of them fluoridate their water and of those, 15-20% do so at the location of coagulant addition. In this case, the effect of fluoride on the coagulation process, floc properties, coa...

  14. Electrochemical Behavior of Aluminum in Nitric Acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN; Hui; ZHU; Li-yang; LIN; Ru-shan; TAN; Hong-bin; HE; Hui

    2013-01-01

    Aluminum is one of cladding materials for nuclear fuel,it is important to investigate the electrolytic dissolution of aluminum in nitric acid.The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy,polarization curve and cyclic voltammetry cure of anodic aluminum electrode in nitric acid under various conditions were collected(Fig.1).It turns out,under steady state,the thickness of the passivated film of aluminum

  15. Mineral resource of the month: aluminum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, E. Lee

    2012-01-01

    The article offers information on aluminum, a mineral resource which is described as the third-most abundant element in Earth's crust. According to the article, aluminum is the second-most used metal. Hans Christian Oersted, a Danish chemist, was the first to isolate aluminum in the laboratory. Aluminum is described as lightweight, corrosion-resistant and an excellent conductor of electricity and heat.

  16. Evaluation of Aluminum in Iranian Consumed Tea

    OpenAIRE

    Alireza Asgari; Mahdi Ahmadi Moghaddam; Amirhossein Mahvi; Masoud Yonesian

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: Black tea leaf is one of the most important sources of Aluminum in dietary. Therefore this research was conducted to assess the amount of Aluminum in Iranian tea infusion. Methods: To assess Aluminum in Iranian consumed tea, 27 tea samples were analyzed for Al concentration for 10 and 60 min infusion, aluminum concentration was measured with atomic absorption and the results were analyzed by SPSS.13 version. Results: The results showed that minimum and maximum concentration of A...

  17. Aerosol isotopic ammonium signatures over the remote Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, C. T.; Jickells, T. D.; Baker, A. R.; Marca, A.; Johnson, M. T.

    2016-05-01

    We report aerosol ammonium 15N signatures for samples collected from research cruises on the South Atlantic and Caribbean using a new high sensitivity method. We confirm a pattern of isotopic signals from generally light (δ15N -5 to -10‰), for aerosols with very low (ocean, to generally heavier values (δ15N +5 to +10‰), for aerosols collected in temperate and tropical latitudes and with higher ammonium concentrations (>2  nmol m-3). We discuss whether this reflects a mixing of aerosols from two end-members (polluted continental and remote marine emissions), or isotopic fractionation during aerosol transport.

  18. Chemical treatment of ammonium fluoride solution in uranium reconversion plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A chemical procedure is described for the treatment of the filtrate, produced from the transformation of uranium hexafluoride (U F6) into ammonium uranyl carbonate (AUC). This filtrate is an intermediate product in the U F6 to uranium dioxide (U O2) reconversion process. The described procedure recovers uranium as ammonium peroxide fluoro uranate (APOFU) by precipitation with hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2), and as later step, its calcium fluoride (CaF2) co-precipitation. The recovered uranium is recycled to the AUC production plant. (author)

  19. Ammonium 1-ammonioethane-1,1-diylbis(hydrogenphosphonate dihydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Pekhnyo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, NH4+·C2H8NO6P2−·2H2O, was obtained by the reaction between 1-aminoethane-1,1-diyldiphosphonic acid and ammonium hydroxide (1:1 in an aqueous solution. The asymmetric unit contains one anion with two H atoms transferred from the phosphonic acid groups to the amino group of the anion and to an ammonia molecule, giving an ammonium cation. The structure displays N—H...O and O—H...O hydrogen bonding, which creates a three-dimensional network.

  20. Tripropyl­ammonium trithio­cyanurate

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Yunxia

    2010-01-01

    In the title compound (systematic name: tripropyl­azanium 2,4,6-tris­ulfanyl­idene­cyclo­hexan-1-ide), (C3H7)3HN+·C3H2N3S3 −, one H atom of trithio­cyanuric acid is accepted by tripropyl­amine to form the ammonium ion. Coplanar trithio­cyanurate and tripropyl­ammonium ions [dihedral angle = 82.33 (8)°] form the salt, which is stabilised by various N—H⋯S and N—H⋯N contacts.

  1. Tripropyl­ammonium trithio­cyanurate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yunxia

    2010-01-01

    In the title compound (systematic name: tripropyl­azanium 2,4,6-tris­ulfanyl­idene­cyclo­hexan-1-ide), (C3H7)3HN+·C3H2N3S3 −, one H atom of trithio­cyanuric acid is accepted by tripropyl­amine to form the ammonium ion. Coplanar trithio­cyanurate and tripropyl­ammonium ions [dihedral angle = 82.33 (8)°] form the salt, which is stabilised by various N—H⋯S and N—H⋯N contacts. PMID:21588990

  2. Recovery of uranium values from ammonium diuranate filtrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the conversion of uranium hexafluoride (UF6) to UO2 or U metal powder, ammonium diuranate filtrate (ADUF) is generated by precipitation of uranyl fluoride solution (UO2F2) with ammonium hydroxide solution (NH4OH). This filtrate contains uranium in the range of 150-200 mg/l and fluoride ions in the range of 10-15 g/l. Uranium is present in the filtrate in hexavalent state as mixed fluoride complex particularly, UO2F2.3NH4F, which is quite soluble in aqueous medium and leads to loss of precious uranium in the effluent stream and also poses disposal issues

  3. Chlorophenol Degradation Coupled to Sulfate Reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Häggblom, M M; Young, L. Y.

    1991-01-01

    We studied chlorophenol degradation under sulfate-reducing conditions with an estuarine sediment inoculum. These cultures degraded 0.1 mM 2-, 3-, and 4-chlorophenol and 2,4-dichlorophenol within 120 to 220 days, but after refeeding with chlorophenols degradation took place in 40 days or less. Further refeeding greatly enhanced the rate of degradation. Sulfate consumption by the cultures corresponded to the stoichiometric values expected for complete oxidation of the chlorophenol to CO2. Forma...

  4. Heparan Sulfate Dependent Mechanisms of Amyloidosis

    OpenAIRE

    Noborn, Fredrik

    2012-01-01

    A common theme in amyloid disorders is the deposition of disease-specific protein aggregates in tissues. Amyloid proteins bind to heparan sulfate (HS), a sulfated glycosaminoglycan, and HS has been found to promote the aggregation process. The present work relates to HS mediated mechanisms of amyloidosis, particularly transthyretin (TTR) amyloidosis, AA-amyloidosis and Alzheimer’s disease (AD). TTR is a transport protein present in the blood and cerebrospinal fluid, which under unclear circum...

  5. PENINGKATAN PRODUKTIVITAS KAMBING KACANG DI KELURAHAN PENATIH DENPASAR TIMUR MELALUI DEMOPLOT PEMBERIAN KONSENTRAT YANG DISUPLEMENTASI AMONIUM SULFAT VS MINERAL MIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. PUTRA

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In line with the regional government programs in sustaining the agricultural ? livestock farming system. An informative talk on enhancing performances and productivity of kacang goat was held at Penatih, Badung reegency on the 20th Dec. 2002. The aim of the community service is to fulfill the farmer?s knowledge and their technical skill in choosing and applying proportional feed stuff, especially using ammonium sulfate mineral as feed supplement on grass-legume based diet. This material which has the capasity to promote rumen microbial growth and their activity in digesting low quality diets. Composing and mixing concentrate diets has also been demonstrated and 4 dietary treatments were tested using 12 goats during a period of 15 days. Ration ( R A contained 97% rice bran + 3% am. Sulfate; RB was 97% rice brand + 3% mineral miz; RC was pollard + 3% am. Sulfate and RD was 97% pollard + 3% mineral mix. Body weight gain were monitored through out the trial period. The result indicated that quality of ration caused improvement of performance and productivity of kacang goats. Body weight gain being increased to 0,067 ? 0,300 kg/head/day for diet A, C, and D, which the highest mean values of 0,217 kg/head/day were obtained for diet D. This situation may due to the present of ammonium sulfate plus zinc (Zn mineral to the legumes basal diet, which can act as metabolic modulator . In general, most of the participants (90% have a very good responses and acceptance for the beneficial information given to them.

  6. In situ studies of Cu deposition in the presence of quaternary ammonium salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eliadis, E.D.; Alkire, R.C. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1998-04-01

    The effect of quaternary ammonium salts on the electrodeposition of Cu from acidified sulfate solutions on Au(111) single-crystal electrodes was studied with in situ atomic force microscopy, electrochemical, and X-ray diffraction techniques. Cyclic voltammetry showed that hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide [CTA(Br{sup {minus}})] adsorbs strongly on the Au substrate, thus inhibiting Cu deposition both in the underpotential deposited (upd) and bulk deposition region. Cu electrodeposits formed in the presence of CTA(Br{sup {minus}}) were found to consist of regularly shaped triangular crystallites, whose orientation was influenced by the topographical characteristics of the Au substrate. The distinctive morphology was attributed to the combined presence of CTA and Br{sup {minus}}. The Cu crystallites were observed to form in a layer-by-layer fashion, and the frequency of layer formation and lateral growth rate were found to depend on the applied overpotential. A one-dimensional transport model was used in order to assess the adatom concentration on the growing crystallites and to provide qualitative insight into the deposit growth habit.

  7. Adsorption of ammonium dinitramide (ADN) from aqueous solutions. 1. Adsorption on powdered activated charcoal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhosh, G; Venkatachalam, S; Ninan, K N; Sadhana, R; Alwan, S; Abarna, V; Joseph, M A

    2003-03-17

    Investigations on the adsorption of ammonium dinitramide (NH(4)N(NO(2))(2)) (ADN) from aqueous solutions on powdered activated charcoal (PAC) were carried out in order to find out an effective and easier method of separating ADN from aqueous solutions. The effectiveness of PAC in the selective adsorption of ADN from aqueous solutions of ADN (ADN-F) and ADN in presence of sulfate (SO(4)(2-)) and nitrate (NO(3)(-)) ions (ADN-PS) was examined and compared using batch and column methods. The adsorption process follows both Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherms and the isotherm parameters for the models were determined. The observed data favor the formation of monolayer adsorption. The adsorption capacities were found to be 63.3, 119, 105.3 and 82 mg of ADN per g of PAC for ADN-F (batch), ADN-PS (batch), ADN-F (column) and ADN-PS (column), respectively. Break-through curves for ADN-F and ADN-PS were obtained for the optimization of separation of ADN from aqueous solutions. Elution curves were generated for the desorption of ADN from PAC using hot water as eluent. PMID:12628781

  8. Guangxi Aluminum Giant Made Investment in Changfeng

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>A aluminum processing and supporting project (450,000 tons) of Hefei Guangyin Aluminum Company kicked off in Xiatang Town of Changfeng County recently. It is a project jointly invested by Guangxi Investment Group and Guangxi Baise Guangyin Aluminum in Xiatang Town of Changfeng County.

  9. 21 CFR 172.310 - Aluminum nicotinate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Aluminum nicotinate. 172.310 Section 172.310 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Special Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.310 Aluminum nicotinate. Aluminum nicotinate may be...

  10. 21 CFR 73.2645 - Aluminum powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aluminum powder. 73.2645 Section 73.2645 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2645 Aluminum powder. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive aluminum powder shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements...

  11. 75 FR 80527 - Aluminum Extrusions From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-22

    ... Affirmative Countervailing Duty Determination, 75 FR 54302, September 7, 2010, and Aluminum Extrusions From... Antidumping Duty Determination, 75 FR 57441, September 21, 2010. \\3\\ See Aluminum Extrusions From the People's... Determination of Targeted Dumping, 75 FR 69403, November 12, 2010, and Aluminum Extrusions From the...

  12. Hormonal control of sulfate uptake and assimilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koprivova, Anna; Kopriva, Stanislav

    2016-08-01

    Plant hormones have a plethora of functions in control of plant development, stress response, and primary metabolism, including nutrient homeostasis. In the plant nutrition, the interplay of hormones with responses to nitrate and phosphate deficiency is well described, but relatively little is known about the interaction between phytohormones and regulation of sulfur metabolism. As for other nutrients, sulfate deficiency results in modulation of root architecture, where hormones are expected to play an important role. Accordingly, sulfate deficiency induces genes involved in metabolism of tryptophane and auxin. Also jasmonate biosynthesis is induced, pointing to the need of increase the defense capabilities of the plants when sulfur is limiting. However, hormones affect also sulfate uptake and assimilation. The pathway is coordinately induced by jasmonate and the key enzyme, adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate reductase, is additionally regulated by ethylene, abscisic acid, nitric oxid, and other phytohormones. Perhaps the most intriguing link between hormones and sulfate assimilation is the fact that the main regulator of the response to sulfate starvation, SULFATE LIMITATION1 (SLIM1) belongs to the family of ethylene related transcription factors. We will review the current knowledge of interplay between phytohormones and control of sulfur metabolism and discuss the main open questions. PMID:26810064

  13. Divergent Synthesis of Heparan Sulfate Oligosaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulaney, Steven B; Xu, Yongmei; Wang, Peng; Tiruchinapally, Gopinath; Wang, Zhen; Kathawa, Jolian; El-Dakdouki, Mohammad H; Yang, Bo; Liu, Jian; Huang, Xuefei

    2015-12-18

    Heparan sulfates are implicated in a wide range of biological processes. A major challenge in deciphering their structure and activity relationship is the synthetic difficulties to access diverse heparan sulfate oligosaccharides with well-defined sulfation patterns. In order to expedite the synthesis, a divergent synthetic strategy was developed. By integrating chemical synthesis and two types of O-sulfo transferases, seven different hexasaccharides were obtained from a single hexasaccharide precursor. This approach combined the flexibility of chemical synthesis with the selectivity of enzyme-catalyzed sulfations, thus simplifying the overall synthetic operations. In an attempt to establish structure activity relationships of heparan sulfate binding with its receptor, the synthesized oligosaccharides were incorporated onto a glycan microarray, and their bindings with a growth factor FGF-2 were examined. The unique combination of chemical and enzymatic approaches expanded the capability of oligosaccharide synthesis. In addition, the well-defined heparan sulfate structures helped shine light on the fine substrate specificities of biosynthetic enzymes and confirm the potential sequence of enzymatic reactions in biosynthesis. PMID:26574650

  14. The hydration of interstitial Portland cement phases in sodium hydroxide and magnesium sulfate solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Boyd Arthur

    tricalcium aluminate were observed. No crystalline magnesium-rich phases were detected by XRD. The products formed by hydration of tetracalcium aluminoferrite (Ca 2AlFeO5) and magnesium sulfate solutions were investigated by isothermal calorimetry, XRD and SEM analyses. Hydration reactions were carried out isothermally at temperatures from 25 to 80°C in 0.25M, 0.5M, 1.0M, 2.0M, and 3.0M magnesium sulfate solutions. Gypsum was the initial hydration product in all magnesium sulfate concentrations and was the only crystalline hydration product in 2.0M and 3.0M magnesium sulfate solutions. Monosulfate was the dominant crystalline phase produced over the entire temperature range when hydration was carried out in magnesium sulfate concentrations between 0.25M and 1.0M. No crystalline phases incorporating iron were observed regardless of magnesium sulfate concentration or temperature. Hydration in 1.0M MgSO 4 solution was more extensively investigated at 50°C. SEM observations indicated gypsum formed initially, consisting of fine particles (ettringite, and monosulfate were present at intermediate times. Monosulfate was the final crystalline hydration product. Amorphous solids produced include a calcium/iron-rich gel and a magnesium/aluminum/sulfate-rich phase. The calcium/iron-rich gel is the only iron-rich phase observed in the hydrated phase assemblage.

  15. Characterization of ultrafine aluminum nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aluminum nanopowders with particle sizes ranging from ∼25 nm to 80 nm were characterized by a variety of methods. We present and compare the results from common powder characterization techniques including transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), BET gas adsorption surface area analysis, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS), and low angle laser light scattering (LALLS). Aluminum nanoparticles consist of an aluminum core with an aluminum oxide coating. HRTEM measurements of both the particle diameter and oxide layer thickness tend to be larger than those obtained from BET and TGA. LALLS measurements show a large degree of particle agglomeration in solution; therefore, primary particle sizes could not be determined. Furthermore, results from small-angle scattering techniques (SAS), including small-angle neutron (SANS) and x-ray (SAXS) scattering are presented and show excellent agreement with the BET, TGA, and HRTEM. The suite of analytical techniques presented in this paper can be used as a powerful tool in the characterization of many types of nanosized powders.

  16. Luminescent properties of aluminum hydride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We studied cathodoluminescence and photoluminescence of α-AlH3– a likely candidate for use as possible hydrogen carrier in hydrogen-fueled vehicles. Luminescence properties of original α-AlH3 and α-AlH3 irradiated with ultraviolet were compared. The latter procedure leads to activation of thermal decomposition of α-AlH3 and thus has a practical implementation. We showed that the original and UV-modified aluminum hydride contain luminescence centers ‐ structural defects of the same type, presumably hydrogen vacancies, characterized by a single set of characteristic bands of radiation. The observed luminescence is the result of radiative intracenter relaxation of the luminescence center (hydrogen vacancy) excited by electrons or photons, and its intensity is defined by the concentration of vacancies, and the area of their possible excitation. UV-activation of the dehydrogenation process of aluminum hydride leads to changes in the spatial distribution of the luminescence centers. For short times of exposure their concentration increases mainly in the surface regions of the crystals. At high exposures, this process extends to the bulk of the aluminum hydride and ends with a decrease in concentration of luminescence centers in the surface region. - Highlights: • Aluminum hydride contains hydrogen vacancies which serve as luminescence centers. • The luminescence is the result of radiative relaxation of excited centers. • Hydride UV-irradiation alters distribution and concentration of luminescence centers

  17. Luminescent properties of aluminum hydride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baraban, A.P.; Gabis, I.E.; Dmitriev, V.A. [Saint-Petersburg State University, Department of Physics, Saint-Petersburg 198504 (Russian Federation); Dobrotvorskii, M.A., E-mail: mstislavd@gmail.com [Saint-Petersburg State University, Department of Physics, Saint-Petersburg 198504 (Russian Federation); Kuznetsov, V.G. [Saint-Petersburg State University, Department of Physics, Saint-Petersburg 198504 (Russian Federation); Matveeva, O.P. [National Mineral Resources University, Saint Petersburg 199106 (Russian Federation); Titov, S.A. [Petersburg State University of Railway Transport, Saint-Petersburg 190031 (Russian Federation); Voyt, A.P.; Elets, D.I. [Saint-Petersburg State University, Department of Physics, Saint-Petersburg 198504 (Russian Federation)

    2015-10-15

    We studied cathodoluminescence and photoluminescence of α-AlH{sub 3}– a likely candidate for use as possible hydrogen carrier in hydrogen-fueled vehicles. Luminescence properties of original α-AlH{sub 3} and α-AlH{sub 3} irradiated with ultraviolet were compared. The latter procedure leads to activation of thermal decomposition of α-AlH{sub 3} and thus has a practical implementation. We showed that the original and UV-modified aluminum hydride contain luminescence centers ‐ structural defects of the same type, presumably hydrogen vacancies, characterized by a single set of characteristic bands of radiation. The observed luminescence is the result of radiative intracenter relaxation of the luminescence center (hydrogen vacancy) excited by electrons or photons, and its intensity is defined by the concentration of vacancies, and the area of their possible excitation. UV-activation of the dehydrogenation process of aluminum hydride leads to changes in the spatial distribution of the luminescence centers. For short times of exposure their concentration increases mainly in the surface regions of the crystals. At high exposures, this process extends to the bulk of the aluminum hydride and ends with a decrease in concentration of luminescence centers in the surface region. - Highlights: • Aluminum hydride contains hydrogen vacancies which serve as luminescence centers. • The luminescence is the result of radiative relaxation of excited centers. • Hydride UV-irradiation alters distribution and concentration of luminescence centers.

  18. Determination of kjeldahl nitrogen in fertilizers by AOAC official methods 978.02: effect of copper sulfate as a catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Dean; Metcalf, David; Hojjatie, Michael

    2014-01-01

    In AOAC Official Method 955.04, Nitrogen (Total) in Fertilizers, Kjeldahl Method, fertilizer materials are analyzed using mercuric oxide or metallic mercury HgO or Hg) as a catalyst. AOAC Official Methods 970.02, Nitrogen (Total) in Fertilizers is a comprehensive total nitrogen (including nitrate nitrogen) method adding chromium metal. AOAC Official Method 978.02, Nitrogen (Total) in Fertilizers is a modified comprehensive nitrogen method used to measure total nitrogen in fertilizers with two types of catalysts. In this method, either copper sulfate or chromium metal is added to analyze for total Kjeldahl nitrogen. In this study, the part of AOAC Official Method 978.02 that is for nitrate-free fertilizer products was modified. The objective was to examine the necessity of copper sulfate as a catalyst for the nitrate-free fertilizer products. Copper salts are not environmentally friendly and are considered pollutants. Products such as ammonium sulfate, diammonium phosphate, monoammonium phosphate, urea-containing fertilizers such as isobutylene diurea (IBDU), and urea-triazone fertilizer solutions were examined. The first part of the study was to measure Kjeldahl nitrogen as recommended by AOAC Official Method 978.02. The second part of the study was to exclude the addition of copper sulfate from AOAC Official Method 978.02 to examine the necessity of copper sulfate as a catalyst in nitrate-free fertilizers, which was the primary objective. Our findings indicate that copper sulfate can be eliminated from the method with no significant difference in the results for the nitrogen content of the fertilizer products. PMID:25051622

  19. Influence of COD/sulfate ratios on the integrated reactor system for simultaneous removal of carbon, sulfur and nitrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Ye; Chen, Chuan; Zhao, Youkang; Wang, Aijie; Sun, Dezhi; Huang, Cong; Liang, Bin; Tan, Wenbo; Xu, Xijun; Zhou, Xu; Lee, Duu-Jung; Ren, Nanqi

    2015-01-01

    An integrated reactor system was developed for the simultaneous removal of carbon, sulfur and nitrogen from sulfate-laden wastewater and for elemental sulfur (S°) reclamation. The system mainly consisted of an expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) for sulfate reduction and organic carbon removal (SR-CR), an EGSB for denitrifying sulfide removal (DSR), a biological aerated filter for nitrification and a sedimentation tank for sulfur reclamation. This work investigated the influence of chemical oxygen demand (COD)/sulfate ratios on the performance of the system. Influent sulfate and ammonium were fixed to the level of 600 mg SO(4)(2-) L⁻¹ and 120 mg NH(4)(+) L⁻¹, respectively. Lactate was introduced to generate COD/SO(4)(2-) = 0.5:1, 1:1, 1.5:1, 2:1, 3:1, 3.5:1 and 4:1. The experimental results indicated that sulfate could be efficiently reduced in the SR-CR unit when the COD/SO(4)(2-) ratio was between 1:1 and 3:1, and sulfate reduction was inhibited by the growth of methanogenic bacteria when the COD/SO(4)(2-) ratio was between 3.5:1 and 4:1. Meanwhile, the Org-C/S²⁻/NO(3)(-) ratios affected the S(0) reclamation efficiency in the DSR unit. When the influent COD/SO(4)(2-) ratio was between 1:1 and 3:1, appropriate Org-C/S²⁻/NO(3)(-) ratios could be achieved to obtain a maximum S° recovery in the DSR unit. For the microbial community of the SR-CR unit at different COD/SO(4)(2-) ratios, 16S rRNA gene-based high throughput Illumina MiSeq sequencing was used to analyze the diversity and potential function of the dominant species. PMID:25768217

  20. Increase of water resistance of ammonium nitrate explosives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulkhair Mansurov

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Developed a method of kapsulating of ammonium nitrate with liquid paraffin increase finding explosives in water for 60 minutes. Placing explosives in the plastic shell, the explosive was, as in standing or running water during the day. When conducting field tests failures were absent.

  1. Growth features of ammonium hydrogen -tartrate single crystals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G Sajeevkumar; R Raveendran; B S Remadevi; Alexander Varghese Vaidyan

    2004-08-01

    Ammonium hydrogen -tartrate (-AHT) single crystals were grown in silica gel. The growth features of these crystals with variation of parameters like specific gravity of the gel, gel pH, acid concentrations, concentration of the feed solution and gel age were studied in detail.

  2. Aqueous Media Oxidation of Alcohols with Ammonium Persulfate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    IMANZADEH, Gholam Hassan; ZAMANLOO, Mohammad R.; MANSOORI, Yaghoob; KHODAYARI, Ali

    2007-01-01

    Oxidation of series of various primary and secondary alcohols to corresponding carbonyl compounds with ammonium persulfate in aqueous media was described. No over oxidation of primary alcohols to carboxylic acids and secondary alcohols to esters was observed. Under such conditions benzoin was converted to benzoic acid.

  3. Characterization of ammonium polyuranate powders from a continuous precipitator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammonium polyuranate powders produced in a continuous, well-mixed precipitator were characterized by means of electron microscopy. The powders were qualitatively analyzed with the scanning electron microscope and the elementary crystallites were quantivatively analyzed with the transmission electron microscope. The results were fit to a kinetic theory of continuous precipitation. A phase analysis was also preformed by x-ray powder diffraction

  4. New synthetic method and properties of ammonium dinitramide (ADN)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatano, H.; Onda, T.; Shi Ino, K.; Kiname, S.I. [Technical Center, Hosoya Kako, Osawa (Japan); Miyazaki, S.; Suzuki, S. [Research et Development Center, Nissan Motor Co, Saitama (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    Ammonium dinitramide (ADN) is one of the energetic materials, its hazard, however, has never been presented yet. In this paper, new synthetic method of ADN and its properties are contained. It has been found out that ADN has little hazard and is a safe energetic compound. (authors) 4 refs.

  5. Ammonium dinitramide (ADN)-Prilling, coating, and characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heintz, Thomas; Pontius, Heike; Aniol, Jasmin; Birke, Christoph; Leisinger, Karlfred; Reinhard, Werner [Fraunhofer-Institut Chemische Technologie ICT, Pfinztal (Germany)

    2009-06-15

    Ammonium dinitramide (ADN) is the promising oxidizer, which is expected to be applied, e.g., in solid rocket propellants. The manufacturing of spherical ADN particles (the so-called ADN-Prills) with useful morphology and reproducible quality is realized by means of the emulsion crystallization process. (Abstract Copyright [2009], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  6. Treating leachate mixture with anaerobic ammonium oxidation technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Hong-guo; ZHOU Shao-qi

    2006-01-01

    Large amounts of ammonium and a low content of biodegradable chemical oxygen demand(COD) are contained in leachate from aged landfills, together with the effluent containing high concentration of nitric nitrogen after biochemical treatment.Treatment effect of anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) process on the mixture of the leachate and its biochemical effluent was investigated. The results show that the average removal efficiencies of ammonium, nitric nitrogen and total nitrogen are 87.51%,74.95% and 79.59%, respectively, corresponding to the average ratio of removed nitric nitrogen to ammonium, i.e. 1.14 during the steady phase of anammox activity. The mean removal efficiency of COD is only 24.01% during the experimental period. The demand of total phosphorous for the anammox process is unobvious. Especially, the alkalinity and pH value of the effluent are close to those of the influent during the steady phase of anammox activity. In addition, it is demonstrated that the status of the anammox bioreactor can be indicated by the alkalinity and pH value during the course of the experiment. The anammox bioreactor has shown potential for nitrogen removal in the leachate mixture. However, COD and total phosphorous in the leachate mixture need further treatment for removal efficiencies of COD and total phosphorous are not good in the anammox bioreactor.

  7. Characterization of ammonium polyuranate powders from a continuous precipitator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oolman, T.

    1979-01-01

    Ammonium polyuranate powders produced in a continuous, well-mixed precipitator were characterized by means of electron microscopy. The powders were qualitatively analyzed with the scanning electron microscope and the elementary crystallites were quantivatively analyzed with the transmission electron microscope. The results were fit to a kinetic theory of continuous precipitation. A phase analysis was also preformed by x-ray powder diffraction.

  8. Ammonium transformation in a nitrogen-rich tidal freshwater marsh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gribsholt, B.; Andersson, M.; Boschker, H.T.S.; Brion, N.; De Brabandere, Loreto; Dehairs, F.; Meire, P.; Middelburg, J.J.; Struyf, E.; Tramper, A.; Van Damme, S.

    2006-01-01

    The fate and transport of watershed-derived ammonium in a tidal freshwater marsh fringing the nutrient rich Scheldt River, Belgium, was quantified in a whole ecosystem 15N labeling experiment. In late summer (September) we added 15N-NH4+ to the flood water entering a 3477 m2 tidal freshwater mars...

  9. 21 CFR 184.1141a - Ammonium phosphate, monobasic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... phosphoric acid at a pH below 5.8. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the Food Chemicals Codex... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ammonium phosphate, monobasic. 184.1141a Section 184.1141a Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  10. 21 CFR 184.1141b - Ammonium phosphate, dibasic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... acid at a pH above 5.8. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the Food Chemicals Codex, 3d Ed... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ammonium phosphate, dibasic. 184.1141b Section 184.1141b Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...

  11. Salmonella enterica Strains with Reduced Susceptibility to Quarternary Ammonium Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Salmonella spp. are responsible for 76 million illnesses per year in the U.S. Quaternary ammonium compounds (QAC) are commonly used antimicrobial agents. Reduced susceptibility to these compounds by a broad spectrum of organisms is a concern. Methods: Salmonella enterica strains with r...

  12. Decarbonization process for carbothermically produced aluminum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruno, Marshall J.; Carkin, Gerald E.; DeYoung, David H.; Dunlap, Sr., Ronald M.

    2015-06-30

    A method of recovering aluminum is provided. An alloy melt having Al.sub.4C.sub.3 and aluminum is provided. This mixture is cooled and then a sufficient amount of a finely dispersed gas is added to the alloy melt at a temperature of about 700.degree. C. to about 900.degree. C. The aluminum recovered is a decarbonized carbothermically produced aluminum where the step of adding a sufficient amount of the finely dispersed gas effects separation of the aluminum from the Al.sub.4C.sub.3 precipitates by flotation, resulting in two phases with the Al.sub.4C.sub.3 precipitates being the upper layer and the decarbonized aluminum being the lower layer. The aluminum is then recovered from the Al.sub.4C.sub.3 precipitates through decanting.

  13. Solubility in aqueous system of potassium sulfate, cadmium sulfate at 50 deg C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solubility in system potassium sulfate-cadmium sulfate-water at 50 deg C is studied using isothermal method. Crystallization limits of K2SO4, CdSO4x8/3H2O double salt 2K2SO4x2CdSO4x3H2O at 50 deg C are determined

  14. 21 CFR 524.1484e - Neomycin sulfate and polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... ophthalmic solution. 524.1484e Section 524.1484e Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS OPHTHALMIC AND TOPICAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.1484e Neomycin sulfate and polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic solution....

  15. Structure, hydrogen bonding and thermal expansion of ammonium carbonate monohydrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortes, A Dominic; Wood, Ian G; Alfè, Dario; Hernández, Eduardo R; Gutmann, Matthias J; Sparkes, Hazel A

    2014-12-01

    We have determined the crystal structure of ammonium carbonate monohydrate, (NH4)2CO3·H2O, using Laue single-crystal diffraction methods with pulsed neutron radiation. The crystal is orthorhombic, space group Pnma (Z = 4), with unit-cell dimensions a = 12.047 (3), b = 4.453 (1), c = 11.023 (3) Å and V = 591.3 (3) Å(3) [ρcalc = 1281.8 (7) kg m(-3)] at 10 K. The single-crystal data collected at 10 and 100 K are complemented by X-ray powder diffraction data measured from 245 to 273 K, Raman spectra measured from 80 to 263 K and an athermal zero-pressure calculation of the electronic structure and phonon spectrum carried out using density functional theory (DFT). We find no evidence of a phase transition between 10 and 273 K; above 273 K, however, the title compound transforms first to ammonium sesquicarbonate monohydrate and subsequently to ammonium bicarbonate. The crystallographic and spectroscopic data and the calculations reveal a quite strongly hydrogen-bonded structure (EHB ≃ 30-40 kJ mol(-1)), on the basis of H...O bond lengths and the topology of the electron density at the bond critical points, in which there is no free rotation of the ammonium cation at any temperature. The barrier to free rotation of the ammonium ions is estimated from the observed librational frequency to be ∼ 36 kJ mol(-1). The c-axis exhibits negative thermal expansion, but the thermal expansion behaviour of the a and b axes is ormal. PMID:25449618

  16. Electrodeposition of aluminum on aluminum surface from molten salt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenmao HUANG; Xiangyu XIA; Bin LIU; Yu LIU; Haowei WANG; Naiheng MA

    2011-01-01

    The surface morphology,microstructure and composition of the aluminum coating of the electrodeposition plates in AlC13-NaC1-KC1 molten salt with a mass ratio of 8:1:1 were investigated by SEM and EDS.The binding force was measured by splat-cooling method and bending method.The results indicate that the coatings with average thicknesses of 12 and 9 μm for both plates treated by simple grinding and phosphating are compacted,continuous and well adhered respectively. Tetramethylammonium chloride (TMAC) can effectively prevent the growth of dendritic crystal,and the anode activation may improve the adhesion of the coating. Binding force analysis shows that both aluminum coatings are strongly adhered to the substrates.

  17. Sanfilippo disease type D: deficiency of N-acetylglucosamine-6-sulfate sulfatase required for heparan sulfate degradation.

    OpenAIRE

    Kresse, H.; Paschke, E; von Figura, K; Gilberg, W; Fuchs, W

    1980-01-01

    Skin fibroblasts from two patients who had symptoms of the Sanfilippo syndrome (mucopolysaccharidosis III) accumulated excessive amounts of heparan sulfate and were unable to release sulfate from N-acetylglucosamine-6-sulfate linkages in heparan sulfate-derived oligosaccharides. Keratan sulfate-derived oligosaccharides bearing the same residue at the nonreducing end and p-nitrophenyl-6-sulfo-2-acetamido-2-deoxy-beta-D-glucopyranoside were degraded normally. Kinetic differences between th sulf...

  18. Phosphoric ore treatment by roasting it with sodium carbonate and leaching it with ammonium citrate for the recovery of soluble phosphate and uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By thermal treatment of phosphoric ore, with low phosphorus contents and iron, aluminum, and silicon impurities, basic fertilizers with P2O5 soluble in citric acid or ammonium citrate, can be produced. The phosphoric ore lightly grinded with alkaline salts like CO3Na2 y SiO2 is roasted between 800 to 1 000°C in rotary kilns. The roasted material contains from 25–30% of alkaline phosphates soluble in citrates. Phosphoric ore from the province of Napo-Ecuador with 24% of P2O5, 40% CaO in form of apatite, 20% of SiO2 and 7 g/ton U is tested by thermic differential analysis, roasting at 800°C for 2 hours with 50% w/w of sodium carbonate and 2% w/w of SiO2 by using a Nichols pilot furnace with 15 L of capacity which uses gas (propane-butane) as fuel, and agitated leaching with ammonium citrate (5% w/w). The initial ore and products are characterized by using atomic absorption spectrophotometry (Perkin Elmer AA400) and x-ray diffraction (Bruker D8 Advance). In the best conditions, 32% of phosphorus soluble in water is obtained as well as 40% of phosphorus and 56% uranium soluble in ammonium citrate. (author)

  19. Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of AA1235 Aluminum Foil Stocks Produced Directly from Electrolytic Aluminum Melt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Hanqing; Yu, Kun; Wen, Li; Yao, Sujuan; Dai, Yilong; Wang, Zhifeng

    2016-02-01

    A new process is developed to obtain high-quality AA1235 aluminum foil stocks and to replace the traditional manufacture process. During the new manufacture process, AA1235 aluminum sheets are twin-roll casted directly through electrolytic aluminum melt (EAM), and subsequently the sheets are processed into aluminum foil stocks by cold rolling and annealing. Microstructure and mechanical properties of the AA1235 aluminum sheets produced through such new process are investigated in each state by optimal microscope, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, orientation imaging microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, etc. The results show that compared with the traditional AA1235 aluminum foil stocks produced through re-melted aluminum melt (RAM), the amount of impurities is decreased in the EAM aluminum foil stocks. The EAM aluminum foil stock obtains less β-FeSiAl5 phases, but more α-Fe2SiAl8 phases. The elongation of EAM aluminum foil stocks is improved significantly owing to more cubic orientation. Especially, the elongation value of the EAM aluminum foil stocks is approximately 25 pct higher than that of the RAM aluminum foil stocks. As a result, the EAM aluminum foil stocks are at an advantage in increasing the processing performance for the aluminum foils during subsequent processes.

  20. Antibacterial activity of reactive quaternary ammonium compounds in solution and in nonleachable coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gozzelino, G.; Romero Tobar, D.E.; Chaitiemwong, N.; Hazeleger, W.C.; Beumer, R.R.

    2011-01-01

    Antibacterial polymers suitable for coating applications without leaching of the biocidal component have been obtained by UV copolymerization of acrylic resins with acrylic monomers containing quaternary ammonium moieties. Suitable reactive biocides, based on quaternary ammonium monomers (QAMs), end

  1. Spectrochemical analysis of aluminum and its alloys, and S. A. P

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three different techniques have been employed for the spectrochemical analysis of aluminum, aluminum alloys, and S.A.P. :1) Point to plane with condensed spark and direct reading spectrometry; from the study on the instantaneous spectral-line intensities a long pre integration time has been established. 1) Powdered samples technique with direct current arc and also direct reading spectrometry; samples are transformed into Al2O3 and mixed with graphite powder (1:1). A complete study on the different elements in aluminium oxide, aluminium sulfate and their mixtures with graphite, has been carried out. 3) Carrier distillation method with photographic recording for very low concentrations of boron and cadmium in S. A.P. (Author) 10 refs

  2. High rates of sulfate reduction in a low-sulfate hot spring microbial mat are driven by a low level of diversity of sulfate-respiring microorganisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dillon, Jesse G; Fishbain, Susan; Miller, Scott R;

    2007-01-01

    The importance of sulfate respiration in the microbial mat found in the low-sulfate thermal outflow of Mushroom Spring in Yellowstone National Park was evaluated using a combination of molecular, microelectrode, and radiotracer studies. Despite very low sulfate concentrations, this mat community...

  3. Investigation of electric discharge treatment of water for ammonium nitrogen removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possibility of water purification from ammonium nitrogen using pulsed electric discharge in water-air mixtures was investigated. The model solution of chlorous ammonium was used in experiments. The concentration of ions ammonium was about 300 mg/l. Achieved reduction of ammonium concentration was about 35%. In this paper the mechanism of this process is discussed. The ways to increasing efficiency of this method are proposed

  4. Implants of aluminum into silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvagno, G.; Scandurra, A.; Raineri, V.; Rimini, E.; La Ferla, A.; Sciascia, V.; Frisina, F.; Raspagliesi, M.; Ferla, G.

    1993-04-01

    The electrical behaviour of ion implanted aluminum into silicon was investigated by varying the beam energy in the 80 keV-6 MeV range, the dose in the 1 × 10 13-1 × 10 14/cm 2 range and the annealing procedure. Aluminum atoms precipitate into exten defects at the end of range damage and where the concentration exceeds the solid solubility value (about 2 × 10 19/cm 3 at 1200°C Escape of Al atoms occurs very easily as soon as they reach the external surface during the thermal diffusion. Using high energy implants, 6 MeV, it was possible to follow in detail the broadening of the diffused profiles. The measured trends between the retained dose and the junction depth and between the outdiffused dose and the annealing time are quite well predicted by the solution of the diffusion equation with the surface acting as a perfect sink for the dopant.

  5. Nitrification and N2O production processes in soil incubations after ammonium fertilizer application at high concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deppe, Marianna; Well, Reinhard; Giesemann, Anette; Flessa, Heinz

    2016-04-01

    High concentrations of ammonium as they occur, e.g., after point-injection of ammonium fertilizer solution according to the CULTAN fertilization technique may retard nitrification. Potential advantages in comparison to conventional fertilization include a higher N efficiency of crops, reduced nitrate leaching, and lower N2O and N2 emissions. Dynamics of nitrification due to plant uptake and dilution processes, leading to decreasing ammonium concentrations in fertilizer depots, has only poorly been studied before. Furthermore, there is little information about the relative contribution of different N2O production processes under these conditions. To elucidate the process dynamics a laboratory incubation study was conducted. After fertilization with ammonium sulfate at 5 levels (from 0 to 5000 mg NH4+-N kg‑1; 20mg NO3‑-N kg‑1 each), sandy loam soil was incubated in dynamic soil microcosms for 21 days. N2O, CH4 and CO2 fluxes as well as isotope signatures of N2O and, at three dates, NO3‑ and NH4+ were measured. To identify N2O production processes, acetylene inhibition (0.01 vol.%), 15N tracer approaches, and isotopomer data (15N site preference and δ18O) were used. N2O emissions were highest at 450mg NH4+-N kg‑1 and declined with further increasing concentrations. At 5000 mg NH4+-N kg‑1 nitrification was completely inhibited. However, approximately 90% of N2O production was inhibited by acetylene application, and there was no change in the relative contribution of nitrification and denitrification to N2O production with N level. Applying the non-equilibrium technique to our 15N tracer data revealed heterogeneous distribution of denitrification in soil, with at least two distinct NO3‑ pools, and spatial separation of NO3‑ formation and consumption. In comparison with the acetylene inhibition and 15N tracer approaches the results of the isotopomer approach were reasonable and indicated substantial contribution of nitrifier-denitrification (10-40%) to

  6. Electrically Conductive Anodized Aluminum Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Trung Hung

    2006-01-01

    Anodized aluminum components can be treated to make them sufficiently electrically conductive to suppress discharges of static electricity. The treatment was conceived as a means of preventing static electric discharges on exterior satin-anodized aluminum (SAA) surfaces of spacecraft without adversely affecting the thermal-control/optical properties of the SAA and without need to apply electrically conductive paints, which eventually peel off in the harsh environment of outer space. The treatment can also be used to impart electrical conductivity to anodized housings of computers, medical electronic instruments, telephoneexchange equipment, and other terrestrial electronic equipment vulnerable to electrostatic discharge. The electrical resistivity of a typical anodized aluminum surface layer lies between 10(exp 11) and 10(exp 13) Omega-cm. To suppress electrostatic discharge, it is necessary to reduce the electrical resistivity significantly - preferably to anodized surface becomes covered and the pores in the surface filled with a transparent, electrically conductive metal oxide nanocomposite. Filling the pores with the nanocomposite reduces the transverse electrical resistivity and, in the original intended outer-space application, the exterior covering portion of the nanocomposite would afford the requisite electrical contact with the outer-space plasma. The electrical resistivity of the nanocomposite can be tailored to a value between 10(exp 7) and 10(exp 12) Omega-cm. Unlike electrically conductive paint, the nanocomposite becomes an integral part of the anodized aluminum substrate, without need for adhesive bonding material and without risk of subsequent peeling. The electrodeposition process is compatible with commercial anodizing production lines. At present, the electronics industry uses expensive, exotic, electrostaticdischarge- suppressing finishes: examples include silver impregnated anodized, black electroless nickel, black chrome, and black copper. In

  7. 40 CFR 721.10100 - Dialkyl dimethyl ammonium carbonate (2:1) (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dialkyl dimethyl ammonium carbonate (2... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10100 Dialkyl dimethyl ammonium carbonate (2:1) (generic). (a) Chemical... as dialkyl dimethyl ammonium carbonate (2:1) (PMN P-03-716) is subject to reporting under...

  8. Long-term atmospheric deposition of nitrogen, phosphorus and sulfate in a large oligotrophic lake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonnie K. Ellis

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We documented significantly increasing trends in atmospheric loading of ammonium (NH4 and nitrate/nitrite (NO2/3 and decreasing trends in total phosphorus (P and sulfate (SO4 to Flathead Lake, Montana, from 1985 to 2004. Atmospheric loading of NO2/3 and NH4 increased by 48 and 198% and total P and SO4 decreased by 135 and 39%. The molar ratio of TN:TP also increased significantly. Severe air inversions occurred periodically year-round and increased the potential for substantial nutrient loading from even small local sources. Correlations between our loading data and various measures of air quality in the basin (e.g., particulate matter <10 µm in size, aerosol fine soil mass, aerosol nutrient species, aerosol index, hectares burned suggest that dust and smoke are important sources. Ammonium was the primary form of N in atmospheric deposition, whereas NO3 was the primary N form in tributary inputs. Atmospheric loading of NH4 to Flathead Lake averaged 44% of the total load and on some years exceeded tributary loading. Primary productivity in the lake is colimited by both N and P most of the year; and in years of high atmospheric loading of inorganic N, deposition may account for up to 6.9% of carbon converted to biomass.

  9. Microbial corrosion of aluminum alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, S S; Chen, C Y; Wei, C B; Lin, Y T

    1996-11-01

    Several microbes were isolated from the contaminated fuel-oil in Taiwan and the microbial corrosion of aluminum alloy A356-T6 was tested by MIL-STD-810E test method. Penicillium sp. AM-F5 and Cladosporium resinac ATCC 22712 had significant adsorption and pitting on the surface of aluminum alloy, Pseudomonas acruginosa AM-B5 had weak adsorption and some precipitation in the bottom, and Candida sp. AM-Y1 had the less adsorption and few cavities formation on the surface. pH of the aqueous phase decreased 0.3 to 0.7 unit for 4 months of incubation. The corrosion of aluminum alloy was very significant in the cultures of Penicillium sp. AM-F2, Penicillium sp. AM-F5 and C. resinac ATCC 22712. The major metabolites in the aqueous phase with the inoculation of C. resinac were citric acid and oxalic acid, while succinic acid and fumaric acid were the minors. PMID:10592801

  10. Aluminum-lithium target behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonell, W.R.

    1989-10-01

    Information on physical properties and irradiation behavior of aluminum-lithium target alloys employed for the production of tritium in Savannah River reactors has been reviewed to support development of technology for the New Production Reactor (NPR). Phase compositions and microstructures, thermal conductivity, mechanical properties, and constituent diffusion phenomena of the alloys, established in prior site studies, are presented. Irradiation behavior, including distributions of product tritium and helium and related exposure limits due to swelling and cracking of the target alloys is discussed, along with gas release processes occurring during subsequent product recovery operations. The property review supports designation of the aluminum-lithium alloys as ideally well-suited target materials for low-temperature, tritium-producing reactors, demonstrated over 35 years of Savannah River reactor operation. Low temperature irradiation and reaction with lithium in the alloy promotes tritium retention during reactor exposure, and the aluminum provides a matrix from which the product is readily recovered on heating following irradiation. 33 refs., 26 figs., 8 tabs.

  11. Purification technology of molten aluminum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙宝德; 丁文江; 疏达; 周尧和

    2004-01-01

    Various purification methods were explored to eliminate the dissolved hydrogen and nonmetallic inclusions from molten aluminum alloys. A novel rotating impeller head with self-oscillation nozzles or an electromagnetic valve in the gas circuit was used to produce pulse gas currents for the rotary impeller degassing method. Water simulation results show that the size of gas bubbles can be decreased by 10%-20% as compared with the constant gas current mode. By coating ceramic filters or particles with active flux or enamels, composite filters were used to filter the scrap A356 alloy and pure aluminum. Experimental results demonstrate that better filtration efficiency and operation performance can be obtained. Based on numerical calculations, the separation efficiency of inclusions by high frequency magnetic field can be significantly improved by using a hollow cylinder-like separator or utilizing the effects of secondary flow of the melt in a square separator. A multi-stage and multi-media purification platform based on these methods was designed and applied in on-line processing of molten aluminum alloys. Mechanical properties of the processed scrap A356 alloy are greatly improved by the composite purification.

  12. Formation of the natural sulfate aerosol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerminen, V.M.; Hillamo, R.; Maekinen, M.; Virkkula, A.; Maekelae, T.; Pakkanen, T. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Physics

    1996-12-31

    Anthropogenic sulfate aerosol, together with particles from biomass burning, may significantly reduce the climatic warming due to man-made greenhouse gases. The radiative forcing of aerosol particles is based on their ability to scatter and absorb solar radiation (direct effect), and on their influences on cloud albedos and lifetimes (indirect effect). The direct aerosol effect depends strongly on the size, number and chemical composition of particles, being greatest for particles of 0.1-1 {mu}m in diameter. The indirect aerosol effect is dictated by the number of particles being able to act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). For sulfate particles, the minimum CCN size in tropospheric clouds is of the order of 0.05-0.2 {mu}m. To improve aerosol parameterizations in future climate models, it is required that (1) both primary and secondary sources of various particle types will be characterized at a greater accuracy, and (2) the influences of various atmospheric processes on the spatial and temporal distribution of these particles and their physico-chemical properties are known much better than at the present. In estimating the climatic forcing due to the sulfate particles, one of the major problems is to distinguish between sulfur from anthropogenic sources and that of natural origin. Global emissions of biogenic and anthropogenic sulfate pre-cursors are comparable in magnitude, but over regional scales either of these two source types may dominate. The current presentation is devoted to discussing the natural sulfate aerosol, including the formation of sulfur-derived particles in the marine environment, and the use of particulate methanesulfonic acid (MSA) as a tracer for the natural sulfate

  13. Anaerobic ammonium oxidation, denitrification and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium in the East China Sea sediment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. D. Song

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Benthic nitrogen transformation pathways were investigated in the sediment of the East China Sea in June of 2010 using the 15N isotope pairing technique. Slurry incubations indicated that denitrification, anammox and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA as well as nitrate release by nitrate storing organisms occurred in the East China Sea sediments. These four processes did not exist independently, the nitrate release therefore diluted the 15N labeling fraction of NO3−, a part of the 15NH4+ derived from DNRA also formed 30N2 via anammox. Therefore current methods of rate calculations led to over and underestimations of anammox and denitrification respectively. Following the procedure outlined in Thampdrup and Dalsgaard (2002, denitrification rates were slightly underestimated by on average 6% without regard to the effect of nitrate release, while this underestimation could be counteracted by the presence of DNRA. On the contrary, anammox rates calculated from 15NO3− experiment were significantly overestimated by 42% without considering nitrate release. In our study this overestimation could only be compensated 14% by taking DNRA into consideration. In a parallel experiment amended with 15NH4+ + 14NO3−, anammox rates were not significantly influenced by DNRA due to the high background of 15NH4+ addition. Excluding measurements in which bioirrigation was present, integrated denitrification rates decreased from 10 to 4 mmol N m−2 d−1 with water depth, while integrated anammox rates increased from 1.5 to 4.0 mmol N m−2 d−1. Consequently, the relative contribution of anammox to the total N-loss increased from 13% at the shallowest site near the Changjiang estuary to 50% at the deepest site on the outer shelf. This study represents the first time in which anammox has been demonstrated to play a significant role in benthic nitrogen cycling in the East China Sea sediment, especially on the outer shelf. N

  14. 2-Amino­pyrimidinium hydrogen sulfate

    OpenAIRE

    Elboulali, Adel; Akriche, Samah Toumi; Salem S. Al-Deyab; Rzaigui, Mohamed

    2011-01-01

    In the crystal structure of the title compound, C4H6N3 +·HSO4 −, hydrogen sulfate anions self-assemble through O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming chains along the b axis, while the cations form centrosymmetric pairs via N—H⋯N hydrogen bonds. The 2-amino­pyrimidinium pairs are linked to the sulfate anions via N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming a two-dimensional network parallel to (10 ). In addition, weak inter­molecular C—H⋯O contacts generate a three-dimensional network.

  15. Advances in the electrodeposition of aluminum from ionic liquid based electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leadbetter, Kirt C.

    . Advancements of this nonaqueous aluminum plating process have the potential to lead to a novel and competitive commercial aluminum deposition process. In this investigation aluminum electrodeposition from ionic liquid based electrolytes onto steel, copper and magnesium substrates without conversion coatings or strike layers was evaluated in six different ionic liquid based electrolytes in two technical setups. Three of which are commercially available aluminum plating electrolytes, three of which, discussed in literature were created on site by research personnel in the laboratory. The three commercially available electrolytes were: 1-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([BMIm]Cl) * 1.5 AlCl3 with proprietary additives from IoLiTec, 1-Ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([EMIm]Cl) * 1.5 AlCl3 with proprietary additives from IoLiTec, and BasionicsTM AL-02, an aluminum plating electrolyte containing [EMIm]Cl * 1.5 AlCl3 with additives from BASF. The three electrolytes created on site were based on the 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ionic liquid with added 1.5 AlCl3 and one with added sodium dodecyl sulfate. Small scale plating tests in a 25-mL plating cell were conducted to provide a comparative analysis of the six different electrolytes considered. From these investigations, two were chosen to be evaluated in a larger 1-liter plating cell; designed and constructed to provide a more realistic evaluation of plating parameters with selected electrolytes to better portray industrial electroplating conditions. The effect of current density (10-40 mA/cm 2), temperature (30-90° Celsius) and plating bath agitation on current efficiency, corrosion resistance by the ASTM B117 method, adhesion, microstructure, and chemical composition (evaluated with energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy) of the plated Al-layer was explored in both the 25-mL and 1-L plating cell investigations. In addition development of pre- and post-treatment processes for the metal substrates was attempted. While

  16. Preparation of nanodispersed titania using stabilized ammonium nitrate melts

    KAUST Repository

    Raciulete, Monica

    2010-10-01

    An expedite one-step approach using simple precursors has been proposed to obtain metallic oxide compounds and exemplified by preparation of highly dispersed TiO2. The technique consists in heating to 400500 °C of molten ammonium nitrate stabilized with an organic nitrogen-containing compound (urea, melamine, ammonium oxalate) and containing dissolved metal salt precursor (TiOCl2). The crystallites of the resulting TiO2 demonstrated variable size and shape as a function of stabilizer used. Their activity in photocatalytic oxidation of formic acid also depends on the nature of the stabilizer. The catalysts as-prepared showed high photocatalytic performance, superior to that of the Degussa P25 reference. Nitrogen containing stabilizers play a double role of increasing the process safety and modifying the properties of the solid products. © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Anaerobic ammonium oxidation in a bioreactor treating slaughterhouse wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Reginatto

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Ammonium oxidation was thought to be an exclusively aerobic process; however, as recently described in the literature, it is also possible under anaerobic conditions and this process was named ANAMMOX. This work describes the operation of a system consisting of a denitrifying reactor coupled to a nitrifying reactor used for removal of nitrogen from slaughterhouse wastewater. During operation of the denitrifying reactor an average nitrogen ammonium removal rate of 50 mg/Ld was observed. This biomass was used to seed a second reactor, operated in repeated fed batch mode, fed with synthetic medium specific to the growth of bacteria responsible for the ANAMMOX process. The nitrogen loading rate varied between 33 and 67 mgN/Ld and average nitrogen removal was 95% and 40%, respectively. Results of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH confirmed the presence of anammox-like microorganisms in the enriched biomass.

  18. Kinetic study of uranium residue dissolution in ammonium carbonate media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to determine the kinetics of the dissolution of a uranium residue in ammonium carbonate media. The residue is generated in the production of medical isotopes. The effects of parameters, such as varying peroxide and carbonate concentrations, dissolution time as well as temperature on the extraction rate have been separately studied. Results indicate complete dissolution of the residue at 60 deg C, after 30 min, in ammonium carbonate solution enriched with hydrogen peroxide. The yield and rate of uranium extraction were found to increase as a function of both temperature, in the range of 25-60 deg C, and hydrogen peroxide concentration. The extraction process was governed by chemical reaction as the activation energy was found to be 45.5 kJ/mol. The order of reaction with respect to uranium concentration was found to be approximately first order. (author)

  19. Tripolyphosphates of potassium-cadmium and ammonium-cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Formation of barely soluble compounds during interaction of ammonium and potassium tripolyphosphates with cadmium nitrate in aqueous solutions (0.1-2.0 mol% concentration, the temperature 20 deg C), is investigated. KCd2P3O10x7H2O, NH4Cd2P3O10x7H2O crystallohydrates and Cd5(P3O10)2xhH2O (x=10-13) X-ray amorphous salt, that are dissolved in potassium and ammonium tripolyphosphate solution with formation of Cd2+:P3O105-=1:1 and 1:2 complexes, are separated. In K5P3O10-Cd(NO3)2-H2O system Cd2+:P3O105-=1:1 complex is crystallized in a mixture with varied composition amorphous phase

  20. Synthesis, antimicrobial activity of lamotrigine and its ammonium derivatives

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Yong Qian; Peng-Cheng Lv; Lei Shi; Rui-Qin Fang; Zhong-Cheng Song; Hai-Liang Zhu

    2009-07-01

    Antiepileptic drug lamotrigine and its thirteen ammonium salt complexes (4a-4m) were synthesized and characterized by IR, elemental analysis, 1H-NMR, and MS spectral methods. Many of the ammonium salts (4a-4m) were first reported. Furthermore, the crystal structure of compound 3 was determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. All these complexes were tested in vitro for their antibacterial activity (Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterobacter cloacae). The results indicated that most of the complexes showed good antibacterial activity against Gram-positive (B. subtilis, S. aureus and S. faecalis), but showed mild, even inactive against Gram-negative bacterial strains.

  1. Precipitation mechanism of ammonium uranate and relative process selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes hydrolytic mechanism of uranyl ion, composition and structure of formed ammonium uranates. Investigations show that uranyl hydrolytic complexes as a main form of dinuclear complexes in solution with further hydrolyze to form sub-stable uranyl hydroxide with the oxonium oxygen bond which can react with cation NH4+, existing in solution, by substituting the hydroxyl bridge hydrogens to form ammonium uranates. Virgin thin grain is small and can easily polymerize into a porous particle by absorption of plate to plate, and the later may aggregate into a second aggregation. Transform of F- system into NO3- system, or use of two-steps precipitation, strictly controlled pH value, in order to quicken speed of formation of the virgin grain, an ADU-derived special UO2 powder can be obtained

  2. Recent Advances in the Synthesis of Ammonium-Based Rotaxanes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominic Thibeault

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The number of synthetic methods enabling the preparation of ammonium-based rotaxanes has increased very rapidly in the past ten years. The challenge in the synthesis of rotaxanes results from the rather weak interactions between the ammonium-containing rod and the crown ether macrocycle in the pseudorotaxane structure that rely mostly on O•H hydrogen bonds. Indeed, no strong base or polar solvent that could break up H-bonding can be used during the formation of rotaxanes because the two components will separate as two distinct entities. Moreover, most of the reactions have to be performed at room temperature to favor the formation of pseudorotaxane in solution. These non-trivial prerequisites have been taken into account to develop efficient reaction conditions for the preparation of rotaxanes and those are described in detail along this review.

  3. Pilot scale for preparation of ammonium uranyl carbonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The procedure adopted for obtaining Ammonium Uranyl Carbonate (AUC) from uranium hexafluoride (UF sub(6)) or aqueous solutions of uranylnitrate (UO sub(2)(NO sub(3)) sub(2)) is described in the present work. This procedure involves the precipitation of AUC in a chemical reactor by the addition of gaseous UF sub(6) or solutions of uranylnitrate to NH sub(3) and CO sub(2) gases in a solution containing ammonium bicarbonate, where pH and temperature are controlled. Details regarding the characterization and quality control methods in the preparation of AUC are presented along with their physical and chemical properties. Some informations about effluents generated during the process are presented too. An attempt is made to correlate the parameters involved in the precipitation process of AUC and their characteristics. (author)

  4. Proton- and ammonium- sensing by histaminergic neurons controlling wakefulness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvgenij eYanovsky

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Orexinergic and histaminergic neurons in the posterior hypothalamus are involved in the control of arousal. Extracellular levels of acid /CO2 are fundamental physicochemical signals controlling wakefulness and breathing. Acidification excites orexinergic neurons like the chemosensory neurons in the brain stem. Hypercapnia induces c-Fos expression, a marker for increased neuronal activity, in the rat histaminergic tuberomamillary nucleus (TMN, but the mechanisms of this excitation are unknown. Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs are gated by protons and also by ammonium. Recordings in rat brain slices revealed now that acidification within the physiological range (pH from 7.3 to 7.0 as well as ammonium chloride (5mM excite histaminergic neurons. We detected variable combinations of 4 known types of ASICs in single TMN neurons, along with the pharmacological properties of pH-induced current. At pH 7.0 however, activation of ASICs in TMN neurons was negligible. Block of type I metabotropic glutamate receptors abolished proton- but not ammonium- induced excitation. Mouse TMN neurons were identified within a novel HDC-Cre transgenic reporter mouse line. In contrast to the rat these lacked pH 7.0-induced excitation and showed only a minimal response to the mGluR I agonist DHPG (0.5µM. Ammonium-induced excitation was similar in mouse and rat. Thus glutamate, which is released by glial cells and orexinergic axons amplifies CO2/acid-induced arousal through the recruitment of the histaminergic system in rat but not in mouse. These results are relevant for the understanding of neuronal mechanisms controlling H+/CO2-induced arousal in hepatic encephalopathy and obstructive sleep apnoea. The new HDC-Cre mouse model will be a useful tool for studying the physiological and pathophysiological roles of the histaminergic system.

  5. Intercalation of quaternary ammonium epoxide into montmorillonite structure

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Duchek, P.; Špírková, Milena; Šabata, Stanislav

    Beijing : Chinese Vacuum Society, 2010. s. 109. [International Vacuum Congress /18./, International Conference on Nanoscience and Technology, International Conference on Solid Surfaces /14./, Vacuum and Surface Sciences Conference of Asia and Australia. 23.08.2010-27.08.2010, Beijing] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAAX08240901 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505; CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : montmorillonite * quaternary ammonium epoxide * intercalation Subject RIV: JI - Composite Materials

  6. Recovering germanium from coal ash by chlorination with ammonium chloride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A new process of enriching germanium from coal ash was developed. The process involves in mixing the coal ash and ammonium chloride and then roasting the mixture to produce germanium chloride that is then absorbed by dilute hydrochloric acid and hydrolyzed to germanium oxide. The germanium recovery reached to 80.2% at the optimum condition: mass ratio of NH4Cl/coal ash is 0.15, roasting temperature 400℃ and roasting time 90 min.

  7. Ammonium photo-production by heterocytous cyanobacteria: potentials and constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grizeau, Dominique; Bui, Lan Anh; Dupré, Catherine; Legrand, Jack

    2016-08-01

    Over the last decades, production of microalgae and cyanobacteria has been developed for several applications, including novel foods, cosmetic ingredients and more recently biofuel. The sustainability of these promising developments can be hindered by some constraints, such as water and nutrient footprints. This review surveys data on N2-fixing cyanobacteria for biomass production and ways to induce and improve the excretion of ammonium within cultures under aerobic conditions. The nitrogenase complex is oxygen sensitive. Nevertheless, nitrogen fixation occurs under oxic conditions due to cyanobacteria-specific characteristics. For instance, in some cyanobacteria, the vegetative cell differentiation in heterocyts provides a well-adapted anaerobic microenvironment for nitrogenase protection. Therefore, cell cultures of oxygenic cyanobacteria have been grown in laboratory and pilot photobioreactors (Dasgupta et al., 2010; Fontes et al., 1987; Moreno et al., 2003; Nayak & Das, 2013). Biomass production under diazotrophic conditions has been shown to be controlled by environmental factors such as light intensity, temperature, aeration rate, and inorganic carbon concentration, also, more specifically, by the concentration of dissolved oxygen in the culture medium. Currently, there is little information regarding the production of extracellular ammonium by heterocytous cyanobacteria. This review compares the available data on maximum ammonium concentrations and analyses the specific rate production in cultures grown as free or immobilized filamentous cyanobacteria. Extracellular production of ammonium could be coupled, as suggested by recent research on non-diazotrophic cyanobacteria, to that of other high value metabolites. There is little information available regarding the possibility for using diazotrophic cyanobacteria as cellular factories may be in regard of the constraints due to nitrogen fixation. PMID:25613641

  8. Ammonium Uptake by Phytoplankton Regulates Nitrification in the Sunlit Ocean

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Jason M.; Chavez, Francisco P.; Francis, Christopher A.

    2014-01-01

    Nitrification, the microbial oxidation of ammonium to nitrate, is a central part of the nitrogen cycle. In the ocean's surface layer, the process alters the distribution of inorganic nitrogen species available to phytoplankton and produces nitrous oxide. A widely held idea among oceanographers is that nitrification is inhibited by light in the ocean. However, recent evidence that the primary organisms involved in nitrification, the ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA), are present and active throu...

  9. Hibiscus sabdariffa Affects Ammonium Chloride-Induced Hyperammonemic Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Subramanian, P.; M. Mohamed Essa

    2007-01-01

    Hibiscus sabdariffa (HS) is an edible medicinal plant, indigenous to India, China and Thailand and is used in Ayurveda and traditional medicine. Alcoholic extract of HS leaves (HSEt) was studied for its anti-hyperammonemic and antioxidant effects in brain tissues of ammonium chloride-induced hyperammonemic rats. Oral administration of HSEt (250 mg kg−1 body weight) significantly normalizes the levels of ammonia, urea, uric acid, creatinine and non-protein nitrogen in the blood. HSEt significa...

  10. Nanomodified vermiculite NMV - a new material for recycling ammonium nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rama, Miradije; Laiho, Taina; Eklund, Olav; Lehto, Kirsi; Shebanov, Alex; Smått, Jan-Henrik

    2016-04-01

    Vermiculites ((Mg,Fe,Al)3(Al,Si)4O10(OH)24H2O) are naturally occurring minerals from hydromica group with a high cation exchange capacity and large surface area. Since vermiculite is a hydrated mineral, its structure can be changed with heat. In this study vermiculite samples were heated in an oven until the interlayer distance of them diminished from 14 Å to 11.7 Å. This method for improving vermiculites intake of ammonium ions by heating, is an invention made at the University of Turku. Nanomodified vermiculite (NMV) is able to absorb up to 4.7 wt% of ammonium. NMV can be used as an efficient filter and immobilizer of ammonium in different environments. NMV has been efficiently tested on waste water from a biogas plant, human urine, combustion experiments, industrial chimneys, excrements from farms etc. Ammonium doped vermiculite (ADV) is further developed for fertilizer use. Performed experiments have testified the usability of ADV as a fertilizer. At first step the NMV was processed with the reject water from a biogas plant, were it absorbed NH4+ into the lattice. At second, the ADV was used as nutrient source for garden plants. Geraniums and begonias were used as test plants of the work. Plant growth rate was evaluated based on plant weight. Results showed that significant increase of the growth of geraniums and of begonias were observed when comparing to those cultivations where plants have got normal fertilization. Moreover, ADV has been tested as a fertilizer in greenhouse experiments with spruces and pines. After five months, the weight of the plants that had grown in a substrate containing ADV was 10 times the weight of plants growing in the reference substrate.

  11. Alicyclic ammonium ionic liquids as lithium battery electrolytes A review

    OpenAIRE

    Puga, A.V.

    2013-01-01

    Ionic liquids are reasonable alternatives to electrolytes used in energy storage devices, such as lithium batteries, both lithium-ion and lithium-metal, given the safety advantages they provide. This is due to the favourable properties they often possess, mainly non­flammability and non­volatility. Candidates with alicyclic ammonium cations exhibit high electrochemical stabilities, especially towards lithium, a unique feature which enables the fabrication of reversible lithium-metal batteries...

  12. Potassium-strontium amd ammonium-strontium tripolyphosphates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preparation of low-soluble compounds during interaction of potassium and ammonium tripolyphosphates and strontium nitrate in aqueous solutions (0.1-1.0 mol.% concentration, 20 deg C temperature) is investigated. Crystal hydrates KSr2P3O10x7H2O, NH4Sr2P3O10x5H2O and amorphous salt Sr5(P3O10)2xXH2O (X=10-12) are extracted

  13. Anaerobic Ammonium-Oxidizing Bacteria: Unique Microorganisms with Exceptional Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Niftrik, L.A.M.P. van; Jetten, M.S.M.

    2012-01-01

    Summary: Anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (anammox) bacteria defy many microbiological concepts and share numerous properties with both eukaryotes and archaea. Among their most intriguing characteristics are their compartmentalized cell plan and archaeon-like cell wall. Here we review our current knowledge about anammox cell biology. The anammox cell is divided into three separate compartments by bilayer membranes. The anammox cell consists of (from outside to inside) the cell wall, paryphoplasm,...

  14. Synthesis and characterization of ammonium phosphate fertilizers with boron

    OpenAIRE

    ANGELA MAGDA; RODICA PODE; CORNELIA MUNTEAN; MIHAI MEDELEANU; ALEXANDRU POPA

    2010-01-01

    The concentration of boron, an essential micronutrient for plants, presents a narrow range between deficiency and toxicity. In order to provide the boron requirement for plants, and to avoid toxicity problems, boron compounds are mixed with basic fertilizers. Sodium borate pentahydrate was used as a boron source. Ammonium orthophosphates fertilizers with boron were prepared by neutralizing phosphoric acid with ammonia and addition of variable amounts of sodium tetraborate pentahydrate to the ...

  15. Separation and Recovery of Tetramethyl Ammonium Hydroxide with Zeolitic Adsorbents

    OpenAIRE

    S. Nishihama; Takatori, K.; K. Yoshizuka

    2010-01-01

    Separation and recovery of tetramethyl ammonium hydroxide (TMAH) has been investigated, employing several zeolites as adsorbents. Zeolite X, prepared by using TMAH as a structure directing agent, possesses highest adsorption ability among the adsorbents investigated in the present work, which corresponds to the specific surface area and pore volume of the zeolite. The adsorption amount of TMAH with the zeolitic adsorbents increases with increase in pH value in the aqueous solution, indicating...

  16. Nitrogen loss by anaerobic oxidation of ammonium in rice rhizosphere

    OpenAIRE

    Nie, San'an; Li, Hu; Yang, Xiaoru; Zhang, Zhaoji; Weng, Bosen; Huang, Fuyi; Zhu, Gui-Bing; Zhu, Yong-Guan

    2015-01-01

    Anaerobic oxidation of ammonium (anammox) is recognized as an important process for nitrogen (N) cycling, yet its role in agricultural ecosystems, which are intensively fertilized, remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the presence, activity, functional gene abundance and role of anammox bacteria in rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere paddy soils using catalyzed reporter deposition–fluorescence in situ hybridization, isotope-tracing technique, quantitative PCR assay and 16S rRNA gene cl...

  17. Development of antibacterial quaternary ammonium silane coatings on polyurethane catheters

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zanini, S.; Polissi, A.; Maccagni, E.A.; Dell'Orto, E.C.; Liberatore, Chiara; Riccardi, C.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 451, Aug (2015), 78-84. ISSN 0021-9797 R&D Projects: GA MŠk EE2.3.20.0143 Grant ostatní: OP VK 6(XE) CZ.1.07/2.3.00/20.0143 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : plasma-induced graft-polymerization * acrylic acid * ATR/FTIR * AFM * quaternary ammonium silane * Escherichia coli Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 3.368, year: 2014

  18. ITP determination of potassium and ammonium in fertilizers and silage

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nováková, Michaela; Křivánková, Ludmila; Skalická, I.; Bartoš, M.; Vytřas, K.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 67, Suppl. (2008), S63-S68. ISSN 0009-5893. [Advances in Chromatography and Electrophoresis 2007 and Chiranal 2007. Olomouc, 24.06.2007-27.06.2007] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/05/2106; GA AV ČR IAA400310703 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : capillary electrophoresis * ammonium * potassium Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 1.312, year: 2008

  19. Study of stripping cristallization processus of AUC with ammonium carbonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study is concerned with direct crystallization of ammonium uranyl carbonate (AUC) from a uranium loaded organic phase (30% TBP in kerosene), with ammonium carbonate (NH4)2CO3. The effects of operating conditions ((NH4)2CO3 concentration, flow-ratio, residence time, temperature) on the physical properties of AUC crystals (particle size distribution, specific surface, density...) are reported. All products were identified (both by chemical analysis, X-Ray diffraction) as being ammonium uranyl carbonate crystals (AUC). The results show that a high phase ratio and (NH4)2CO3 concentration favor the formation of fine AUC grains and aggregates. This is due mainly to the high concentration of NH+4 in the system which leads to a high solution supersaturation and consequently to a rapid formation rate of crystal (germination). The reverse phenomenon is observed at low phase ratio and (NH4)2CO3 concentration, where germination and crystal growth are slow and the product is mainly monocrystal. In the intermediate range, a mixture of polycrystal and aggregates is obtained. Residence and temperature are also shown to have an effect on the processes (the effect of time being more important than temperature). In the course of this study a bench-scale stripper-crystallizer was developped and operated successfully. (author). tables, graphs

  20. Extraction Factor Of Pure Ammonium Paratungstate From Tungsten Scraps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pee J.-H.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Typical oxidation process of tungsten scraps was modified by the rotary kiln with oxygen burner to increase the oxidation rate of tungsten scraps. Also to accelerate the solubility of solid oxidized products, the hydrothermal reflux method was adapted. By heating tungsten scraps in rotary kiln with oxygen burner at around 900° for 2hrs, the scraps was oxidized completely. Then oxidized products (WO3 and CoWO4 was fully dissolved in the solution of NaOH by hydrothermal reflux method at 150° for 2hrs. The dissolution rate of oxidized products was increased with increasing the reaction temperature and concentration of NaOH. And then CaWO4 and H2WO4 could be generated from the aqueous sodium tungstate solution. Ammonium paratungstate (APT also could be produced from tungstic acid using by aqueous ammonium solution. The morphologies (cubic and plate types of APT was controlled by the stirring process of purified solution of ammonium paratungstate.