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Sample records for aluminium structures espoo

  1. Fire exposed aluminium structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maljaars, J.; Fellinger, J.E.J.; Soetens, F.

    2005-01-01

    Material properties and mechanical response models for fire design of steel structures are based on extensive research and experience. Contrarily, the behaviour of aluminium load bearing structures exposed to fire is relatively unexplored. This article gives an overview of physical and mechanical

  2. Structural evolution in nanoporous anodic aluminium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocca, Emmanuel; Vantelon, Delphine; Reguer, Solenn; Mirambet, François

    2012-01-01

    Nanoporous and self-organized layers of aluminium alloys are used in many applications as membranes, templates for nanometric objects or corrosion protection for aluminium alloys. The use of this nanometric structure widely remains empirical, especially in the case of very small pores ( 4 into AlO 6 cluster and a partial release of sulphate ions are an important chemical transformation of the amorphous structure. This structural transformation defines the chemistry (pH and surface charge) inside the nanopores, the ageing behaviour and the possible incorporation or diffusion of chemical species in the nanostructure. Highlights: ► Investigations of local chemical environment of aluminium atoms in anodic aluminium oxide. ► The oxide structure is constituted by 2/3 of aluminium in tetrahedral coordination 1/3 in octahedral coordination. ► In contact with water, AlO 4 clusters are transformed into AlO 6 cluster and the aluminium sulphate bonds are hydrolysed. ► These transformations induce a pH decrease inside the nanostructure.

  3. Espoo valmistub elamumessiks ja avab uue kunstimuuseumi / Ave Randviir

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Randviir, Ave, 1981-

    2006-01-01

    14. juulist 13. augustini 2006 Espoos toimuva elamumessi ja kõigi eelnevate messide osast Soome elamuehituspoliitikas. Espoo uuest kunstimuuseumist EMMA (Espoo Museum of Modern Art) ja FMO Tapiola (Finnforesti peakorter) looduslikest materjalidest high-tech-hoonest

  4. Structure of the aluminium-uranium eutectic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambrozio Filho, F.; Vieira, R.R.

    1975-01-01

    The authors discuss the factors which might effect the eutectic structure, including external conditions during solidification as well as factors peculiar to each individual system. They studied the structure of the A1-U eutectic, consisting of the solid solution of uranium in aluminium and UA1 4 , as obtained in ingot moulds and by unidirectional solidification, and found a tendency for the structure to develop in a spiral, in the form of a rhombus. They discuss this structure in terms of certain variables with emphasis on the growth characteristics of the phases comprising the eutectic, the velocity of growth and thermal gradient in the liquid [pt

  5. Irradiation effects on the mechanical properties of aluminium and the structural integrity of aluminium reactor components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, R.P.; McDonald, N.R.; Mitchell, D.R.G.; Hellier, A.K.; Stathers, P.A.; Carr, D.G.; Ripley, M.I.

    2000-01-01

    The results of micro-structural and mechanical property studies on aluminum after being exposed to large fluences of neutrons are presented. These property changes are of importance in determining the structural integrity of the Australian HIFAR reactor aluminium tank, which in turn determines the lifetime of the reactor. (author)

  6. Aluminium based amorphous and nanocrystalline structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sitek, Jozef; Degmova, Jarmila, E-mail: jarmila.degmova@stuba.sk [Slovak University of Technology, Department of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology (Slovakia)

    2005-09-15

    Aluminium based rapidly quenched alloys of nominal composition Al{sub 90}Fe{sub 7}Nb{sub 3} and Al{sub 94}Fe{sub 2}V{sub 4} were studied by Moessbauer spectroscopy. Samples annealed up to 573 K showed amorphous structure represented by quadrupole doublet. From corrected spectra areas the values of f-factor were calculated. In the case of AlFeNb samples f-factor was estimated as f = 0.26 and for AlFeV f = 0.31. The corresponding Debye temperatures were also calculated. Higher temperature annealing at 773 and 873 K induced deformation of nano- and microcrystalline state. Moessbauer spectra of samples of both compositions (with vanadium as well as with niobium) annealed at 773 K showed superposition of crystalline phases with dominant role of Al{sub 3}Fe alloy. During annealing at 873 K, phases with large grains and small amount of FeAl metastable phase were developed (Das et al. Mat. Sci. Eng., A304-A306, 159, 2001; Illekova et al. Mat. Sci. Eng., A375-A377, 946, 2004).

  7. Aluminium based amorphous and nanocrystalline structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sitek, Jozef; Degmova, Jarmila

    2005-01-01

    Aluminium based rapidly quenched alloys of nominal composition Al 90 Fe 7 Nb 3 and Al 94 Fe 2 V 4 were studied by Moessbauer spectroscopy. Samples annealed up to 573 K showed amorphous structure represented by quadrupole doublet. From corrected spectra areas the values of f-factor were calculated. In the case of AlFeNb samples f-factor was estimated as f = 0.26 and for AlFeV f = 0.31. The corresponding Debye temperatures were also calculated. Higher temperature annealing at 773 and 873 K induced deformation of nano- and microcrystalline state. Moessbauer spectra of samples of both compositions (with vanadium as well as with niobium) annealed at 773 K showed superposition of crystalline phases with dominant role of Al 3 Fe alloy. During annealing at 873 K, phases with large grains and small amount of FeAl metastable phase were developed (Das et al. Mat. Sci. Eng., A304-A306, 159, 2001; Illekova et al. Mat. Sci. Eng., A375-A377, 946, 2004).

  8. Constant structure creep experiments on aluminium

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Milička, Karel

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 5 (2011), s. 307-318 ISSN 0023-432X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA2041203 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : mechanical properties * high temperature deformation * creep * aluminium Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.451, year: 2011

  9. The structure of high-quality aluminium cast iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Kopyciński

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study presents the analyse of aluminium iron cast structure (as-cast condition which are used in high temperature. While producing the casts of aluminium iron major influence has been preserve the structure of technological process parameters. The addition to Fe-C-Al alloy V, Ti, Cr leads to the improvement of functional and mechanical cast qualities. In this study, a method was investigated to eliminate the presence of undesirable Al4C3 phases in a aluminium cast iron structure and thus improve the production process. V and Ti additions in aluminium cast iron allows to development of FeAl - VC or TiC alloys. In particular, V or Ti contents above 5 wt.% were found to totally eliminate the presence of Al4C3. In addition, preliminary work indicates that the alloy with the FeAl - VC or TiC structure reveals high oxidation resistance. The introduction of 5 wt.% chromium to aluminium cast iron strengthened Al4C3 precipitate. Thus, the resultant alloy can be considered an intermetallic FeAl matrix strengthened by VC and TiC or modified Al4C3 reinforcements.

  10. Aluminium Structures in Building and Civil Engineering Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soetens, F.

    2010-01-01

    Structural applications of aluminium are considered in this paper. Although the discussion is mainly devoted to Europe, the paper also refers, where possible, to developments in other parts of the world. The problems faced by a designer in creating an optimum design are described, followed by a

  11. Structure analysis of 3104 aluminium alloy applied to deep drawing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klyszewski, A.; Lech-Grega, M.; Zelechowski, J.; Szymanski, W. [Light Metals Div., Skawina (Poland). Inst. of Non-Ferrous Metals

    2000-07-01

    Optical and electron microscopy observations and X-ray investigations of 3104 aluminium alloy ingots and bands after experimental heat treatment were carried out. The influence of ingots homogenisation temperature and parameters of material heat treatment after hot rolling on structure, texture and earing of band 0.3 mm thick was analysed. (orig.)

  12. STRUCTURE OF ECAP ALUMINIUM AFTER DIFFERENT NUMBER OF PASSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Ilucová

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The structure of high purity (99.99% aluminium processed by equal channel angular pressing in the as pressed state after different number of passes was examined using various stereological methods. An extreme inhomogeneity and complicated anisotropy was observed along the body of rod-like specimens.

  13. Study of twist boundaries in aluminium. Structure and intergranular diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemuet, Daniel

    1981-01-01

    This research thesis addresses the study of grain boundaries in oriented crystals, and more particularly the systematic calculation of intergranular structures and energies of twist boundaries of <001> axis in aluminium, the determination of intergranular diffusion coefficients of zinc in a set of twist bi-crystals of same axis encompassing a whole range of disorientations, and the search for a correlation between these experimental results and calculated structures

  14. Influence of nanoporous structure on mechanical strength of aluminium and aluminium alloy adhesive structural joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spadaro, C; Dispenza, C; Sunseri, C

    2006-01-01

    The influence of surface treatments on the mechanical strength of adhesive joints was investigated. The attention was focused on AA2024 alloy because it is extensively used in both the automotive and aerospace industries. Adhesive joints fabricated with pure aluminium were also investigated in order to evidence possible differences in the surface features after identical treatments. Before joining with a commercial epoxy adhesive, metal substrates were subjected to different kinds of treatment and the surfaces were characterized by SEM analysis. The formation of a microporous surface in the AA2024 alloy, upon etching and anodizing, is discussed on the basis of the role of the intermetallic particles and their electrochemical behaviour with respect to the aluminium matrix. Moreover, nanostructured porous oxide layers on both type of substrate were also formed, as a consequence of the anodizing process. Differences in their morphologies were revealed as a function of both the applied voltage and the presence of alloying elements. On this basis, an explanation of the different values of fracture energy measured by means of T-peel tests carried out on the corresponding joints was attempted

  15. Crystal structure and phase composition of aluminium thin films with holmium additions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koleshko, V.M.; Belitskij, V.F.; Obukhov, V.E.; Rumak, N.V.; Urban, T.P.

    1984-01-01

    The effect of holmium additions on the crystal structure and phase composition of thin aluminium films has been studied. A regularity in grain size changes in aluminium thin films versus the holmium content in them is established. The holmium introduction is shown to result in the appearance of axial texture in the aluminium films, the texture axis being determined by the quantity of the addition. During heat treatment of the aluminium films, containing holmium additions, in the range of low ( approximately 100-200 deg C) annealing temperatures holmium monohydroxide is formed, and at annealing temperatures 300 deg C 0 3 is formed

  16. Electron microscope investigation into dislocation structure of cast aluminium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zolotorevskij, V.S.; Orelkina, T.A.; Istomin-Kastrovskij, V.V.

    1978-01-01

    By applying the diffraction electron microscopy method, the general specific features of the disclocation structure of cast binary alloys of aluminium with different additions were established. It is shown that in most alloys, when they undergo cooling in the process of crystallization at the rate of about 850 deg/min, the cellular dislocation structure is formed. It is shown that in all the alloys studied, the total density of dislocations of one order is about-10 9 cm -2 , which exceeds by 1 to 2 orders of magnitude the value which follows from the Tiller theory of concentration stresses. It has been experimentally established that the contribution of shrinkage and thermal stresses to the formation of a dislocation structure is rather insignificant; yet the dislocation density values calculated according to the size of dendritic cells and the medium angles of their disorientation are close to those determined by the electron-microscopic method. This is the basis for making a supposition that the greater part of the dislocations in castings are formed as a result of comparing dendritic branches with one another, which are disoriented in respect to each other

  17. Characterization and structure of precipitates in 6xxx Aluminium Alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmestad, Randi; Bjørge, Ruben; Ehlers, Flemming J H; Torsæter, Malin; Marioara, Calin D; Andersen, Sigmund J

    2012-01-01

    Solute atom nanoscale precipitates are responsible for the favourable mechanical properties of heat treatable aluminium alloys such as Al-Mg-Si (6xxx). The shape, structure and strengthening properties of age-hardening precipitates depend on alloy composition and thermo-mechanical history. We seek an improved understanding of the physics related to nucleation and precipitation on the atomistic level in these alloys. Once these mechanisms are sufficiently well described and understood, the hope is that 'alloy design' simulations can assist tailoring of materials with desired properties. In pure Al-Mg-Si we have determined the structure of nearly all the known metastable precipitate phases, by combining advanced TEM techniques (such as high resolution TEM and nano-beam diffraction) with atom probe tomography and density functional theory. We are now studying effects of additions /substitutions of Cu, Ag and/or Ge that promote formation of more disordered precipitates, employing aberration corrected high angle annular dark field scanning TEM. We find that all metastable precipitates contain variations of a widely spaced 'Si/Ge network'. In spite of disorder or defects, this network is surprisingly well ordered, with hexagonal projected sub-cell dimensions a = b ≅ 0.4 nm and c (along the fully coherent precipitate main growth direction) equal to 0.405 nm or a multiple of it.

  18. Dispersion model computations of urban air pollution in Espoo, Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valkonen, E.; Haerkoenen, J.; Kukkonen, J.; Rantakrans, E.; Jalkanen, L.

    1997-12-31

    This report presents the numerical results of air quality studies of the city of Espoo in southern Finland. This city is one of the four cities in the Helsinki metropolitan area, having a total population of 850 000. A thorough emission inventory was made of both mobile and stationary sources in the Helsinki metropolitan area. The atmospheric dispersion was evaluated using an urban dispersion modelling system, including a Gaussian multiple-source plume model and a meteorological pre-processing model. The hourly time series of CO, NO{sub 2} and SO{sub 2} concentrations were predicted, using the emissions and meteorological data for the year 1990. The predicted results show a clear decrease in the yearly mean concentrations from southeast to northwest. This is due in part to the denser traffic in the southern parts of Espoo, and in part to pollution from the neighbouring cities of Helsinki and Vantaa, located east of Espoo. The statistical concentration parameters found for Espoo were lower than the old national air quality guidelines (1984); however, some occurrences of above-threshold values were found for NO{sub 2} in terms of the new guidelines (1996). The contribution of traffic to the total concentrations varies spatially from 30 to 90 % for NO{sub 2} from 1 to 65 % for SO{sub 2} while for CO it is nearly 100 %. The concentrations database will be further utilised to analyse the influence of urban air pollution on the health of children attending selected day nurseries in Espoo. The results of this study can also be applied in traffic and city planning. In future work the results will also be compared with data from the urban measurement network of the Helsinki Metropolitan Area Council. (orig.) 19 refs.

  19. Simultaneous effects of mechanical vibration and inoculation with niobium on the solidification structure of aluminium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mello, J.D.B. de; Arruda, A.C.F. de

    1980-01-01

    This study concerns the effect of mechanical vibration applied simultaneously with inoculation (0,05% Nb) on the solidification structure of aluminium, with a view to refining the grain size. The results shows that the method used is an efficient way to control the final structure of the aluminium. The best results were found for low values of the frequencies of vibration and for the small amplitudes. (Author) [pt

  20. Columnar structure of reactively sputtered aluminium nitride films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Chisan; Hwang Binghwai; Lu Hongyang; Hsu Tzuchien

    2002-01-01

    Columnar structure of thin aluminium nitride (AlN) films is examined by x-ray diffractometry (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The films were deposited on SiO 2 /Si(100) substrate using radiofrequency reactive sputtering method. Strong [0001] preferred orientation is observed by XRD and confirmed by selected area diffraction pattern of TEM. Columnar grains of ∼50-100 nm inclined at an angle of ∼10 deg. to the substrate normal are observed by SEM. As revealed by TEM, each columnar grain is composed of nano-grains of the order of 10 nm and no faceting is observed in the nano-grains and columns. The [0001] preferred orientation results as columnar grains are oriented at various azimuthal angles with their c-axes perpendicular to the substrate surface. A slight tilt of a few tenths of a degree between adjacent nano-grains within a column is also observed. The random azimuthal orientation of columnar grains and small tilt between nano-grains in the films are accommodated by the amorphous phase present in the grain boundaries

  1. Study of the electronic structure of pure aluminium, aluminium oxide and nitride by spectroscopy of electrons excited under electronic and photonic bombardment (X and UV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gautier-Soyer, Martine

    1985-01-01

    This research thesis reports the use of electron spectroscopy with electrons excited under electronic or photonic (X or UV) bombardment for the study of electronic state density of aluminium, aluminium oxide (Al 2 O 3 ) and aluminium nitride (AlN). The objective is to get an insight into phenomena related to technological problems of adherence, wear, lubrication, corrosion or breakdown met in metals, insulators and semiconductors. The author highlighted the presence of occupied surface states on Al(111) and Al(100), and electronic levels localised in the forbidden band of Al 2 O 3 and AlN, induced by structural defects which promote surface reactivity [fr

  2. Quantitative assessment of Aluminium cast Alloys` structural parameters to optimize ITS properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Kuchariková

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work deals with evaluation of eutectic Si (its shape, size, and distribution, dendrite cell size and dendrite arm spacing in aluminium cast alloys which were cast into different moulds (sand and metallic. Structural parameters were evaluated using NIS-Elements image analyser software. This software is imaging analysis software for the evaluation, capture, archiving and automated measurement of structural parameters. The control of structural parameters by NIS Elements shows that optimum mechanical properties of aluminium cast alloys strongly depend on the distribution, morphology, size of eute ctic Si and matrix parameters.

  3. A Fundamental Approach to Developing Aluminium based Bulk Amorphous Alloys based on Stable Liquid Metal Structures and Electronic Equilibrium - 154041

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-28

    AFRL-AFOSR-JP-TR-2017-0027 A Fundamental Approach to Developing Aluminium -based Bulk Amorphous Alloys based on Stable Liquid-Metal Structures and...to 16 Dec 2016 4.  TITLE AND SUBTITLE A Fundamental Approach to Developing Aluminium -based Bulk Amorphous Alloys based on Stable Liquid-Metal...Air Force Research Laboratory for accurately predicting compositions of new amorphous alloys specifically based on aluminium with properties superior

  4. Fires in storages of LFO: Analysis of hazard of structural collapse of steel–aluminium containers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rebec, A., E-mail: andrej.rebec@zag.si [ZAG – Slovenian National Building and Civil Engineering Institute, Fire Laboratory and Fire Engineering, Dimičeva 12, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Kolšek, J. [ZAG – Slovenian National Building and Civil Engineering Institute, Fire Laboratory and Fire Engineering, Dimičeva 12, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Plešec, P. [ZAG – Slovenian National Building and Civil Engineering Institute, Laboratory for the Efficient Use of Energy, Renewables, and Acoustics, Dimičeva 12, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2016-04-05

    Highlights: • Pool fires of light fuel oil (LFO) in above-ground storages are discussed. • Hazard of structural collapse of steel–aluminium containers of LFO is analysed. • Experiments were performed for determination of heat radiation from LFO pool fires. • Elasto-plastic material data were derived with tests for 3xxx and 6xxx aluminium. • High-temperature creep of 3xxx aluminium is discussed. - Abstract: Pool fires of light fuel oil (LFO) in above-ground storages with steel–aluminium containers are discussed. A model is developed for assessments of risks of between-tank fire spread. Radiative effects of the flame body are accounted for by a solid flame radiation model. Thermal profiles evolved due to fire in the adjacent tanks and their consequential structural response is pursued in an exact (materially and geometrically non-linear) manner. The model's derivation is demonstrated on the LFO tank storage located near the Port of Koper (Slovenia). In support of the model, data from literature are adopted where appropriate. Analytical expressions are derived correspondingly for calculations of emissive characteristics of LFO pool fires. Additional data are collected from experiments. Fire experiments conducted on 300 cm diameter LFO pans and at different wind speeds and high-temperature uniaxial tension tests of the analysed aluminium alloys types 3xxx and 6xxx are presented. The model is of an immediate fire engineering practical value (risk analyses) or can be used for further research purposes (e.g. sensitivity and parametric studies). The latter use is demonstrated in the final part of the paper discussing possible effects of high-temperature creep of 3xxx aluminium.

  5. Role of aluminium addition on structure of Fe substituted Fe73· 5 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-08-26

    Aug 26, 2016 ... Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 36; Issue 4. Role of aluminium addition on structure of Fe substituted Fe73.5−Si13.5B9Nb3Cu1Al alloy ribbons. Gautam Agarwal Himanshu Agrawal M Srinivas B Majumdar N K Mukhopadhyay. Volume 36 Issue 4 August 2013 pp 613-618 ...

  6. Researches focused on structure of aluminium alloys processed by rapid solidification, used in automotive industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sfat, C.; Vasile, T.; Vasilescu, M.

    2001-01-01

    The paper present some new results focused on an aluminium high temperature alloy, obtained by 'melt spinning method'. alloy composition, processing conditions, resulted structures and the influence between them are presented. There are studied the two zone structures of the alloy and the relation between processing conditions and the characteristics of the zones, with implications on mechanical behavior in real conditions. The final conclusion show that is possible to control the structure in order to improve material behavior. (author)

  7. Rintamaa, R. (VTT Industrial Systems, Espoo (FI))

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ageing management

    2005-01-01

    At present, a large number of nuclear reactors have been operating for longer time than 20 years. Therefore, safety of these plants is of increasing concern to the European policymakers and industry. All nuclear plant units are large investments for the owners. They need to be operated with excellent usage factors without any significant outages due to materials or structural integrity problems. The utilities are obviously very much interested to be able to continue safe and efficient operation long in the future. The fact that e.g. the Finnish nuclear reactors (four units) have performed so well, is a good proof of high technology and expertise in operation and preventive maintenance. They need to involve the consideration of a number of factors, such as better understanding and managing materials ageing phenomena, comparison of current safety standards, the socio-political climate and uncertainties relating to spent fuel management and decommissioning. More importantly, the optimisation of the operational conditions of aged reactors and the decision process about plan life management (PLIM) are becoming key issues for those in charge of plant safety and performance. Continuous improvement strategy has been adopted to the nuclear regulation principles in some countries, e.g. in Finland. Instead of getting a licence for 30 or 40 years in a time, the Finnish NPP's operate on shorter operation licences. Each renewal of operation licence is based on a periodic safety review (PSR) which is performed in a period of ten years. The regulatory body requires that the utilities follow the international state of the art and adopt all feasibly available means to maintain and improve the safety. On the other hand, continuous improvement is also needed for effective and long term utilisation of the primary capital investment to the plant, which is a major concern to the utility. The common interest to continuous improvements forms a good platform for co-operation between the

  8. Diffusion bonding of transition structures for integral aluminium-fibre reinforced polymer (FRP) compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hehl, A. von [IWT - Stiftung Institut fuer Werkstofftechnik, Hauptabteilung Werkstofftechnik, Bremen (Germany); Syassen, F. [Airbus Operations GmbH, Metal Technology, Bremen (Germany); Schimanski, K.

    2012-04-15

    Components in hybrid design become more and more important in terms of their lightweight potential. In this context the demand for weight saving in aerospace leads to increasing numbers of applications of fibre composites for primary structural components. In consequence the use of FRP-metal compounds is necessary. Within the investigations of the researcher group ''Schwarz Silber'' (FOR 1224) founded by the DFG (German Research Foundation) material optimised interface structures for advanced CFRP-aluminium compounds are currently being studied. Within their work the researcher group focussed on three concepts realizing the transition structures: the usage of wires (titanium), foils (titanium) and fibres (glass fibre) as transition elements between CFRP and aluminium. For the connection of the aluminium sheet and the transition element die-casting and laser beam welding are basically used. As a possible alternative to the both liquid phase processes a feasibility study haven been done focussing the solid state processes diffusion bonding. The experimental results show the high potential of this process in view of the transferable loads for integral transition structures. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  9. Muusikamaailm : Heliloojafestival Stocholmis. Klaverinädal Espoos. Preemiaid ja aunimetusi. Sena Jurinac 80 / Priit Kuusk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kuusk, Priit, 1938-

    2001-01-01

    Stocholmis algas iga-aastane International Composer Festival. Espoos toimub klaverinädal. Erinevaid preemiaid ja aunimetusi, mida muusikategelased on hiljuti saanud. Kroaatia päritolu Austria sopran Sena Jurinac sai 80 aastaseks

  10. Summary of structural refinement in hi-silicon aluminium piston alloy with phosphorous as grain refiner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, F.A.; Sheikh, S.T.; Choudhry, A.A.

    2003-01-01

    Aluminium Silicon Alloys are extensively used in a wide variety of applications. There are numerous variables in composition, production control, final structure which can influence the mechanical properties of Hi - Silicon Piston alloys. Hypereutectic AlSi alloys develop coarse grain primary silicon crystals, which have a strong negative effect on the tensile strength, the ductility, and the hardness. These crystals slow machining and reduce the tool life considerably. Phosphorous addition produce a fine, evenly spread crystal structure, lamellar structure of the silicon changes into a granular structure. (author)

  11. Influence of aluminium incorporation on the structure of ZrN films deposited at low temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araiza, J J [Unidad Academica de Fisica, Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Paseo a la Bufa esq, Calzada Solidaridad s/n 98060, Zacatecas (Mexico); Sanchez, O [Departamento de Fisica e Ingenieria de Superficies, Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid-CSIC, C/ Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz 3, 28049 Cantoblanco, Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: olgas@icmm.csic.es

    2009-06-07

    We have studied the influence of Al incorporation in the crystalline structure of ZrN thin films deposited by dc magnetron sputtering at low temperature. The amount of aluminium in the films depends directly on the power applied to the aluminium cathode during the deposition. Energy dispersive x-ray analysis and x-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to obtain the chemical composition and crystalline structure of the films, respectively. When Al atoms are incorporated into the ZrN coatings, the strong ZrN (2 0 0) orientation is modified by a combination of other ones such as ZrN (1 1 1), Zr{sub 3}N{sub 4} (2 1 1) and hexagonal AlN (1 0 0) as detected from the XRD spectra for high aluminium concentrations. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy allowed us to identify oxides and nitrides, ZrO, AlO and AlN, incorporated into the deposited films. The effect of a bias voltage applied to the substrate has also been investigated and related to the changes in the microstructure and in the nanohardness values of the ZrAlN films.

  12. Influence of aluminium incorporation on the structure of ZrN films deposited at low temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araiza, J J; Sanchez, O

    2009-01-01

    We have studied the influence of Al incorporation in the crystalline structure of ZrN thin films deposited by dc magnetron sputtering at low temperature. The amount of aluminium in the films depends directly on the power applied to the aluminium cathode during the deposition. Energy dispersive x-ray analysis and x-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to obtain the chemical composition and crystalline structure of the films, respectively. When Al atoms are incorporated into the ZrN coatings, the strong ZrN (2 0 0) orientation is modified by a combination of other ones such as ZrN (1 1 1), Zr 3 N 4 (2 1 1) and hexagonal AlN (1 0 0) as detected from the XRD spectra for high aluminium concentrations. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy allowed us to identify oxides and nitrides, ZrO, AlO and AlN, incorporated into the deposited films. The effect of a bias voltage applied to the substrate has also been investigated and related to the changes in the microstructure and in the nanohardness values of the ZrAlN films.

  13. Interlocking multi-material components made of structured steel sheets and high-pressure die cast aluminium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senge, S.; Brachmann, J.; Hirt, G.; Bührig-Polaczek, A.

    2017-10-01

    Lightweight design is a major driving force of innovation, especially in the automotive industry. Using hybrid components made of two or more different materials is one approach to reduce the vehicles weight and decrease fuel consumption. As a possible way to increase the stiffness of multi-material components, this paper presents a process chain to produce such components made of steel sheets and high-pressure die cast aluminium. Prior to the casting sequence the steel sheets are structured in a modified rolling process which enables continuous interlocking with the aluminium. Two structures manufactured by this rolling process are tested. The first one is a channel like structure and the second one is a channel like structure with undercuts. These undercuts enable the formation of small anchors when the molten aluminium fills them. The correlation between thickness reduction during rolling and the shape of the resulting structure was evaluated for both structures. It can be stated that channels with a depth of up to 0.5 mm and a width of 1 mm could be created. Undercuts with different size depending on the thickness reduction could be realised. Subsequent aluminium high-pressure die casting experiments were performed to determine if the surface structure can be filled gap-free with molten aluminium during the casting sequence and if a gap-free connection can be achieved after contraction of the aluminium. The casting experiments showed that both structures could be filled during the high-pressure die casting. The channel like structure results in a gap between steel and aluminium after contraction of the cast metal whereas the structure with undercuts leads to a good interlocking resulting in a gap-free connection.

  14. Aluminium production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winter, B.; Ayers, J.; Sammer, G.

    2001-01-01

    Aluminium is the most important non-ferrous metal by quantity. Aluminium is produced by electrolysis of aluminium oxide (also known as alumina). Alumina is produced by refining bauxite. The quantity of primary and secondary aluminium production in ECE-countries between 1992 and 1998 is shown. The European aluminium industry employs approximately 200 000 employees. The annual aluminium production in the European Union was 3.58 million tonnes in 1994, of which 44 % was secondary aluminium. In 1996 3.96 million tonnes of aluminium were produced in the EU, of which 44 % was secondary aluminium. (author)

  15. Band structure features of nonlinear optical yttrium aluminium borate crystal

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Reshak, Ali H; Auluck, S.; Majchrowski, A.; Kityk, I. V.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 10 (2008), s. 1445-1448 ISSN 1293-2558 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : Electronic structure * DFF * FPLAPW * LDA Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 1.742, year: 2008

  16. Advances in aluminium alloy products for structural applications in transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staley, J.T.; Lege, D.J.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the needs of the aviation and automotive markets for structural materials and presents examples of developments of aluminum alloy products to fill these needs. Designers of aircraft desire materials which will allow them to design lightweight, cost-effective structures which have the performance characteristics of durability and damage tolerance. Their needs are being met by new and emerging materials varying from Al-Li alloys for thick structure, high-strength plate and extrusions for wings, and new monolithic and aluminum-fiber laminates for fuselages. Increase in fuel economy because of lighter weight structure is the driving force for aluminum alloys in the automotive market, and cost is extremely important. Mechanical properties for automotive use also depend on the application, and corrosion resistance must be adequate. For ''hang-on'' components such as fenders and hoods, formability is typically the limiting mechanical property. Strength must be adequate to resist denting at a thickness which offers cost-effective weight savings over steel. Because formability often decreases with increasing yield strength, alloys which are highly formable in the T4 temper and which age harden during the paint bake operation were developed. Alloys such as 6009 and 6010 are now being challenged by 2008, 6111 and 6016. Body structure components must be made from materials which absorb energy and fail gracefully during a crash. Such components for an automotive space frame are being die cast from an Al-Si-Mg alloy. These ductile die castings are joined to thin 6XXX extrusions which must combine formability, strength, ductility and the ability to deform plastically on impact. Bumpers must combine strength and adequate formability; in the event that current alloys are inadequate for future needs, a new 7XXX alloy offers an improved combination of properties. (orig.)

  17. Structural-morphological variations in pseudo-barrier films of anode aluminium oxide under irradiation with high-energy particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernykh, M.A.; Belov, V.T.

    1988-01-01

    Comparative study of structural-morphological variations under electron beam effect in pseudo-barrier films of anode aluminium oxide, obtained in seven different solutions and proton or X-rays pre-irradiated to determine structure peculiarities of anode aluminium oxides, is presented. Such study is a matter of interest from the solid-phase transformation theory point of view and for anode aluminium films application under radiation. Stability increase of pseudo-barrier films of anode aluminium oxide to the effect of UEhMV-100 K microscope electron beam at standard modes of operation (75 kV) due to proton or X-rays irradiation is found. Difference in structural-monorphological variations obtained in different solutions of anode aluminium films under high-energy particles irradiation is determined. Strucural-phase microinhomogeneity of amorphous pseudo-barrier films of anode aluminium oxide and its influence on solid-phase transformations character under electron bean of maximal intensity are detected

  18. MODELLING STUDIES ON THE USE OF ALUMINIUM ALLOYS IN LIGHTWEIGHT LOAD-CARRYING CRANE STRUCTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damian GĄSKA

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of numerical analysis whose aim was to compare the basic dynamic and strength parameters of lightweight load-carrying crane structures made of aluminium alloys and steel. The analysis covered the typical construction of workshop cranes with a span of 3 to 5 meters, girders in the form of an I-beam and maximum load capacities amounting to 5 tons. The values of stresses, deflections and natural frequencies were compared and then matched with the masses of the various structures. In the simulation a girder model was used and computed by the finite element method.

  19. Magnesium and aluminium-base products. For use as structural materials; Magnesium, aluminium et alliages. Emploi comme materiaux de structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard, J; Boudouresques, B; Alfille, L; Klersy, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    This paper deals with the ability of some Mg and Al-base products to be used as structural materials in thermal reactors. The results presented here are relating to investigations carried out for completing the design of french reactors. (author)Fren. [French] Les auteurs traitent de l'aptitude de quelques materiaux legers et ultra-legers a l'utilisation comme elements de structure des reacteurs thermiques. Les resultats presentes sont relatifs aux etudes effectuees pour l'etablissement des projets de piles fran ises. (auteur)

  20. Magnesium and aluminium-base products. For use as structural materials; Magnesium, aluminium et alliages. Emploi comme materiaux de structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard, J.; Boudouresques, B.; Alfille, L.; Klersy, R. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    This paper deals with the ability of some Mg and Al-base products to be used as structural materials in thermal reactors. The results presented here are relating to investigations carried out for completing the design of french reactors. (author)Fren. [French] Les auteurs traitent de l'aptitude de quelques materiaux legers et ultra-legers a l'utilisation comme elements de structure des reacteurs thermiques. Les resultats presentes sont relatifs aux etudes effectuees pour l'etablissement des projets de piles fran ises. (auteur)

  1. Structure analysis of aluminium silicon manganese nitride precipitates formed in grain-oriented electrical steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernier, Nicolas; Xhoffer, Chris; Van De Putte, Tom; Galceran, Montserrat; Godet, Stéphane

    2013-01-01

    We report a detailed structural and chemical characterisation of aluminium silicon manganese nitrides that act as grain growth inhibitors in industrially processed grain-oriented (GO) electrical steels. The compounds are characterised using energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX) and energy filtered transmission electron microscopy (EFTEM), while their crystal structures are analysed using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and TEM in electron diffraction (ED), dark-field, high-resolution and automated crystallographic orientation mapping (ACOM) modes. The chemical bonding character is determined using electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS). Despite the wide variation in composition, all the precipitates exhibit a hexagonal close-packed (h.c.p.) crystal structure and lattice parameters of aluminium nitride. The EDX measurement of ∼ 900 stoichiometrically different precipitates indicates intermediate structures between pure aluminium nitride and pure silicon manganese nitride, with a constant Si/Mn atomic ratio of ∼ 4. It is demonstrated that aluminium and silicon are interchangeably precipitated with the same local arrangement, while both Mn 2+ and Mn 3+ are incorporated in the h.c.p. silicon nitride interstitial sites. The oxidation of the silicon manganese nitrides most likely originates from the incorporation of oxygen during the decarburisation annealing process, thus creating extended planar defects such as stacking faults and inversion domain boundaries. The chemical composition of the inhibitors may be written as (AlN) x (SiMn 0.25 N y O z ) 1−x with x ranging from 0 to 1. - Highlights: • We study the structure of (Al,Si,Mn)N inhibitors in grain oriented electrical steels. • Inhibitors have the hexagonal close-packed symmetry with lattice parameters of AlN. • Inhibitors are intermediate structures between pure AlN and (Si,Mn)N with Si/Mn ∼ 4. • Al and Si share the same local arrangement; Mn is incorporated in both Mn 2+ and Mn 3+ . • Oxygen

  2. Electronic structure of uranium overlayers on magnesium and aluminium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouder, T.

    1997-06-01

    We studied U overlayers on polycrystalline Mg and Al by X-ray and ultra-violet photoelectron spectroscopies (XPS and UPS, respectively), and compared the mode of growth and the evolution of the electronic structure as a function of coverage. The goal of this work was to detect localization, or at least correlation effects, in U overlayers and U substrate near surface alloys, which were expected to occur because of the reduced U 5f bandwidth in these systems. On Mg, U deposits as a pure overlayer without any interdiffusion, while on Al spontaneous interdiffusion takes place. The U 4f spectra of {U}/{Mg} show only weak correlation satellites. Nevertheless, the asymmetrical shape of the U 4f peak indicates 5f band narrowing. On Al, strong correlation satellites are observed in addition to plasmon loss features. It seems that U-substrate interactions promote correlation effects, while the reduced coordination in overlayers plays a less important role. UPS valence-band (VB) spectra of the two systems look remarkably similar. They do not show any correlation satellites. With decreasing overlayer thickness the 5f peak narrows, which is attributed to 5f band narrowing at the surface.

  3. A density functional theory study of the structure of pure-silica and aluminium-substituted MFI nanosheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez-Tamargo, Carlos E.; Roldan, Alberto [Department of Chemistry, University College London, 20 Gordon Street, London WC1H 0AJ (United Kingdom); School of Chemistry, Cardiff University, Main Building, Park Place, Cardiff CF10 3AT (United Kingdom); Leeuw, Nora H. de, E-mail: deleeuwn@cardiff.ac.uk [Department of Chemistry, University College London, 20 Gordon Street, London WC1H 0AJ (United Kingdom); School of Chemistry, Cardiff University, Main Building, Park Place, Cardiff CF10 3AT (United Kingdom)

    2016-05-15

    The layered MFI zeolite allows a straightforward hierarchization of the pore system which accelerates mass transfer and increases its lifetime as a catalyst. Here, we present a theoretical study of the structural features of the pure-silica and aluminium-substituted MFI nanosheets. We have analysed the effects of aluminium substitution on the vibrational properties of silanols as well as the features of protons as counter-ions. The formation of the two-dimensional system did not lead to appreciable distortions within the framework. Moreover, the effects on the structure due to the aluminium dopants were the same in both the bulk and the slab. The principal differences were related to the silanol groups that form hydrogen-bonds with neighbouring aluminium-substituted silanols, whereas intra-framework hydrogen-bonds increase the stability of aluminium-substituted silanols toward dehydration. Thus, we have complemented previous experimental and theoretical studies, showing the lamellar MFI zeolite to be a very stable material of high crystallinity regardless of its very thin structure. - Graphical abstract: The structure of MFI zeolite nanosheet was investigated using Density Functional Theory. The results showed no differences against the bulk-type material upon aluminium doping. The aluminium-substituted silanol dehydrates toward a more stable configuration composed by a water molecule adsorbed on a Lewis centre. - Highlights: • MFI nanosheets with variable thicknesses were characterised using DFT calculations. • The distortions in the nanosheets after Al substitution reproduced those of the bulk. • H-bonds were only observed between silanol groups when the Al substitution took place. • The kinetic of the Al-silanol dehydration is dependent on intra-framework H-bonds. • Lewis acids with adsorbed water are more stable than Al-silanols. • The proton accessibility was related to the framework O atom binding the proton.

  4. Structural perturbation of diphtheria toxoid upon adsorption to aluminium hydroxide adjuvant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Regnier, M.; Metz, B.; Tilstra, W.; Hendriksen, C.; Jiskoot, W.; Norde, W.; Kersten, G.

    2012-01-01

    Aluminium-containing adjuvants are often used to enhance the potency of vaccines. In the present work we studied whether adsorption of diphtheria toxoid to colloidal aluminium hydroxide induces conformational changes of the antigen. Diphtheria toxoid has a high affinity for the aluminium hydroxide

  5. The Effect of Laser Surface Treatment on Structure and Mechanical Properties Aluminium Alloy ENAC-AlMg9

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pakieła W.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the influence of a high power diode laser surface treatment on the structure and properties of aluminium alloy has been determined. The aim of this study was to improve the mechanical and tribological properties of the surface layer of the aluminium alloy by simultaneously melting and feeding tungsten carbide particles into the molten pool. During the process was used high-power diode laser HPDL. In order to remelt the aluminium alloy surface the HPDL laser of 1.8, 2.0 and 2.2 kW laser beam power has been used. The linear laser scan rate of the beam was set 0.5 cm/s. In order to protect the liquid metal during laser treatment was used argon. As a base material was used aluminium alloy ENAC-AlMg9. To improve the surface mechanical and wear properties of the applied aluminium alloy was used biphasic tungsten carbide WC/W2C. The size of alloying powder was in the range 110-210 µm. The ceramic powder was introduced in the remelting zone by a gravity feeder at a constant rate of 8 g/m.

  6. Aluminium in Infrastructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maljaars, J.

    2016-01-01

    Aluminium alloys are used in infrastructures such as pedestrian bridges or parts of it such as handrail. This paper demonstrates that aluminium alloys are in principle also suited for heavy loaded structures, such as decks of traffic bridges and helicopter landing platforms. Recent developments in

  7. Constructions of aluminium electrolytic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galushkin, N.V.

    1995-01-01

    This chapter of monograph is devoted to constructions of aluminium electrolytic cells. Therefore, the general characteristic and classification of aluminium electrolytic cells was considered. The anode and cathode structure was studied. The lining of cathode casing, the process of collection of anode gases, electrolytic cell cover, and electrical insulation was studied as well. The installation and dismantling of aluminium electrolytic cells was described.

  8. Investigations concerning the effect of aluminium toxicity on the physiology and fine structures of oat plants. Physiologische und feinstrukturelle Untersuchungen zur Aluminium-Toxizitaet an Haferpflanzen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marienfeld, S.

    1992-06-30

    In order to test the toxicity of aluminium to plants, two-week-old oat seedlings were exposed to aluminium concentrations of 0-400 [mu]M in the culture broth. Already after 12-24 hours a decrease in longitudinal root growth is to be noted, resulting from impaired mitosis activity of the root tip. This, and the observed premature cell differentiation are not aluminium-specific but unspecific reactions to unfavourable conditions. Shoot growth is only reduced after 3-4 days, and less so. Magnesium and calcium fertilization did enhance the growth of aluminium-stressed plants, but not to the level of the control plants, although the mineral concentration in the leaves reached normal values. Phosphate concentration in the root increased because of aluminium phosphate precipitation in the cell walls, which has detoxifying effect along with aluminium fixation to negative charges in the cell walls. Aluminium remains almost quantitatively in the cell wall area of the roots and is not accumulated in the cell core. Aluminium stress causes transpiration and CO[sub 2] uptake to be impaired as a reaction to the growth depression in the root area, even before the mineral concentration in the shoots is lowered. Later there follow chlorophyll depletion, chloroplast degradation, and a reduction of the leaf area. (UWA)

  9. Structural study of Al2O3-Na2O-CaO-P2O5 bioactive glasses as a function of aluminium content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J M; King, S P; Barney, E R; Hanna, J V; Newport, R J; Pickup, D M

    2013-01-21

    Calcium phosphate based biomaterials are extensively used in the context of tissue engineering: small changes in composition can lead to significant changes in properties allowing their use in a wide range of applications. Samples of composition (Al(2)O(3))(x)(Na(2)O)(0.11-x)(CaO)(0.445)(P(2)O(5))(0.445), where x = 0, 0.03, 0.05, and 0.08, were prepared by melt quenching. The atomic-scale structure has been studied using neutron diffraction and solid state (27)Al MAS NMR, and these data have been rationalised with the determined density of the final glass product. With increasing aluminium concentration the density increases initially, but beyond about 3 mol. % Al(2)O(3) the density starts to decrease. Neutron diffraction data show a concomitant change in the aluminium speciation, which is confirmed by (27)Al MAS NMR studies. The NMR data reveal that aluminium is present in 4, 5, and 6-fold coordination and that the relative concentrations of these environments change with increasing aluminium concentration. Materials containing aluminium in 6-fold coordination tend to have higher densities than analogous materials with the aluminium found in 4-fold coordination. Thus, the density changes may readily be explained in terms of an increase in the relative concentration of 4-coordinated aluminium at the expense of 6-fold aluminium as the Al(2)O(3) content is increased beyond 3 mol. %.

  10. Thermal properties of highly structured composite and aluminium sheets in an aerodynamic tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulhavy, Petr; Egert, Josef

    This article deals with the thermodynamic behaviour of heat shields - structured metal and composite plates. Experiments have been carried out in a wind tunnel with an additional heating, which simulates the heat source from engine or exhaust pipe and simultaneously the airflow generated during a car movement. The tested sheets with hexagonal structure were a standard commercial made of aluminium and a second manufactured by replication (lamination, diffusion) from glass fabric. The airflow in a parallel way along the sheets was analysed experimentally in order to determine the heat transfer efficiency between surfaces of sheets and surrounding airflow. The temperature on the sheets was chosen to observe the effects of different sheets material, various heat power and airflow velocity. During the experiment a thermal input below the sheets and airflow velocity through the tunnel have been changed. The thermal field distribution on the metal sheet is different than in case of composite sheet. For the composite material the thermal field distribution was more homogeneous. This article describe briefly also methods of obtaining real composite geometry based on scanned data and their reconstruction for using in some future numerical models.

  11. Influence of transport mechanisms on nucleation and grain structure formation in DC cast aluminium alloy ingots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedel, M.; Založnik, M.; Kumar, A.; Combeau, H.; Jarry, P.; Waz, E.

    2012-01-01

    The grain structure formation in direct chill (DC) casting is directly linked to nucleation, which is generally promoted by inoculation. Inoculation prevents defects, but also modifies the physical properties by changing the microstructure. We studied the coupling of the nucleation on inoculant particles and the grain growth in the presence of melt flow induced by thermosolutal convection and of the transport of free-floating equiaxed grains. We used a volume-averaged two-phase multiscale model with a fully coupled description of phenomena on the grain scale (nucleation on grain refiner particles and grain growth) and on the product scale (macroscopic transport). The transport of inoculant particles is also modeled, which accounts for the inhomogeneous distribution of inoculant particles in the melt. The model was applied to an industrial sized (350mm thick) DC cast aluminium alloy ingot. A discretised nuclei size distribution was defined and the impact of different macroscopic phenomena on the grain structure formation was studied: the zone and intensity of nucleation and the resulting grain size distribution. It is shown that nucleation in the presence of macroscopic transport cannot be explained only in terms of cooling rate, but variations of composition, nuclei density and grain density, all affected by transport, must be accounted for.

  12. Thermal properties of highly structured composite and aluminium sheets in an aerodynamic tunnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulhavy Petr

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the thermodynamic behaviour of heat shields - structured metal and composite plates. Experiments have been carried out in a wind tunnel with an additional heating, which simulates the heat source from engine or exhaust pipe and simultaneously the airflow generated during a car movement. The tested sheets with hexagonal structure were a standard commercial made of aluminium and a second manufactured by replication (lamination, diffusion from glass fabric. The airflow in a parallel way along the sheets was analysed experimentally in order to determine the heat transfer efficiency between surfaces of sheets and surrounding airflow. The temperature on the sheets was chosen to observe the effects of different sheets material, various heat power and airflow velocity. During the experiment a thermal input below the sheets and airflow velocity through the tunnel have been changed. The thermal field distribution on the metal sheet is different than in case of composite sheet. For the composite material the thermal field distribution was more homogeneous. This article describe briefly also methods of obtaining real composite geometry based on scanned data and their reconstruction for using in some future numerical models.

  13. Sub-structure and mechanical properties of twist channel angular pressed aluminium

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kocich, R.; Kunčická, L.; Král, Petr; Macháčková, A.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 119, SEP (2016), s. 75-83 ISSN 1044-5803 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : Aluminium * Dislocations * Electron microscopy Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy Impact factor: 2.714, year: 2016

  14. Kilpailevien kokouspalveluiden vertailu Espoon Otaniemen lähi-alueella, Case: Radisson Blu Espoo

    OpenAIRE

    Lepoaho, Petteri

    2014-01-01

    Tämän opinnäytetyön aiheena oli kilpailijavertailun tekeminen jo toimivalle kokouspalvelulle. Työn toimeksiantaja oli Espoon Otaniemessä sijaitseva Radisson Blu Espoo –hotelli, jonka kokouspalvelulle vertailu tehtiin. Vertailun oli maantieteellisesti määrä kattaa Pohjoismaiden suurimman huipputeknologian keskittymän Otaniemen ja sen lähialueiden kokouspalvelut. Työn tarkoituksena oli kartoittaa kyseisen alueen kokouspalveluvaihtoehdot ja vertailla kokouspalveluiden ominaisuuksia. Vertailu...

  15. On the influence of high energy (250MeV) electron irradiation on the structure and properties of aluminium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gindin, I.A.; Neklyudov, I.M.; Okovit, V.S.; Starolat, M.P.; Dyatlov, V.P.

    1974-01-01

    The results of studies on the amplitude dependence of internal friction and structural changes in technically pure aluminium in the initial state and after irradiation with high-energy electrons are presented. Three stages are observed in the internal friction curves from the amplitude of the waves. If the values of the internal friction remain the same, irradiation considerably widens the amplitude-independent region and shifts the second and third regions toward the high-amplitude direction at first. Starting with the Granate-Luke model, changes in the length of the free dislocation segments in irradiated aluminium were determined. Electron microscope studies showed the presence of numerous radiation defects and changes in the configuration with dislocation lines in irradiated aluminum

  16. Affinity of hydroxyapatite to metal cations. A study on the composition and structure of phosphates formed in the presence of titanium and aluminium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, C.C. [Instituto de Eng. Biomedica, Porto (Portugal). Lab. de Biomateriais; Porto Univ. (Portugal). Faculdade de Engenharia; Inst. Superior de Engenharia, Porto (Portugal); Barbosa, M.A. [Instituto de Eng. Biomedica, Porto (Portugal). Lab. de Biomateriais; Porto Univ. (Portugal). Faculdade de Engenharia

    2001-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to contribute to the understanding of the effect of titanium, aluminium and titanium/aluminium on the Hap structure and to investigate if a synergistic effect between the two cations exists. The effect of the metal ion concentration was studied. The solids were analysed by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, FT-Raman spectroscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis. (orig.)

  17. Aluminium bridges, aluminium bridge decks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soetens, F.; Straalen, IJ.J. van

    2003-01-01

    Applications of aluminium have grown considerably in building and civil engineering the last decade. In building and civil engineering the increase of aluminium applications is due to various aspects like light weight, durability and maintenance, use of extrusions, and esthetics. The paper starts

  18. Electron microscopy study of hardened layers structure at electrospark alloying the VT-18 titanium alloy with aluminium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilyankevich, A.N.; Martynenko, A.N.; Verkhoturov, A.D.; Paderno, V.N.

    1979-01-01

    Presented are the results of metallographic, electron-microscopic, and X-ray structure analysis, of microhardness measurements and of the study of the electrode weight changes at electrospark alloying the VT-18 titanium alloy with aluminium. It is shown, that pulsating thermal and mechanical loadings in the process of electrospark alloying result in the electrode surface electroerosion, a discrete relief is being formed, which changes constantly in the process depending on the alloying time. Though with the process time the cathode weight gain increases, microareas of fracture in the hardened layer appear already at the initial stages of electrospark alloying

  19. Fatigue test on aluminium bridges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maljaars, J.; Soetens, F.; Straalen, van IJ.J.

    2005-01-01

    Traffic bridges are subjected to variable loads and should therefore be checked on fatigue. Especially low weight materials, like aluminium, are sensitive to fatigue, because the variable load is a substantial part of the total load. This paper shows the structural design of an aluminium bridge

  20. Influence of dysprosium and terbium additions on aluminium structure and properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fridlyander, I.N.; Sokolovskaya, E.M.; Zimina, E.N.; Tkachenko, E.A.; Artemova, M.S.

    1992-01-01

    The influence of 0.3%Dy and 0.3%Tb additions were investigated on grain size in aluminium ingots and on recrystallization and mechanical properties in 1.5 mm thick sheets. Grain refinement in ingots was revealed along with an increase of sheet recrystallization temperature and grain growth retardation in the process of secondary recrystallization. Ultimate strength was found to rise at some decrease of specific elongation

  1. Hotellin vastaanotto toimivana ja tehokkaana työympäristönä, case: Radisson Blu Espoo

    OpenAIRE

    Lahtinen, Mirjami

    2013-01-01

    Tämän opinnäytetyön toimeksiantajana toimi Otaniemessä sijaitseva Radisson Blu Espoo. Radisson Blu Espoo hotellissa on 209 huonetta ja suurin osa sen asiakkaista on business-matkailijoita, sen sijaitessa lähellä Keilarannan yrityskeskittymää. Radisson Blu kuuluu kansainväliseen Rezidor Hotel Group konserniin. Opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena oli selvittää erilaisia keinoja, joiden avulla hotellin vastaanotosta voidaan luoda toimivampi sekä kustannustehokkaampi. Toimivassa vastaanotossa työntekijät...

  2. Structural and magnetic properties of nickel nanowires grown in porous anodic aluminium oxide template by electrochemical deposition technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugraha Pratama, Sendi; Kurniawan, Yudhi; Muhammady, Shibghatullah; Takase, Kouichi; Darma, Yudi

    2018-03-01

    We study the formation of nickel nanowires (Ni NWs) grown in porous anodic aluminium oxide (AAO) template by the electrochemical deposition technique. Here, the initial AAO template was grown by anodization of aluminium substrate in sulphuric acid solution. The cross-section, crystal structure, and magnetic properties of Ni NWs system were characterized by field-emission SEM, XRD, and SQUID. As a result, the highly-ordered Ni NWs are observed with the uniform diameter of 27 nm and the length from 31 to 163 nm. Based on XRD spectra analysis, Ni NWs have the face-centered cubic structure with the lattice parameter of 0.35 nm and average crystallite size of 17.19 nm. From SQUID measurement at room temperature, by maintaining the magnetic field perpendicular to Ni NWs axis, the magnetic hysteresis of Ni NWs system show the strong ferromagnetism with the coercivity and remanence ratio of ∼148 Oe and ∼0.23, respectively. The magnetic properties are also calculated by means of generalized gradient approximation methods. From the calculation result, we show that the ferromagnetism behavior comes from Ni NWs without any contribution from AAO template or the substrate. This study opens the potential application of Ni NWs system for novel functional magnetic devices.

  3. Implementing the Espoo Convention in transboundary EIA between Germany and Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albrecht, Eike

    2008-01-01

    Poland and Germany have a long common border which leads to the necessity to cooperate and consult each other in the case of large-scale projects or infrastructure measures likely to cause negative transboundary effects on the environment. There are already binding provisions for transboundary EIA. In the area of the UN Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE), transboundary EIA is intended to be legally binding for the Member States by the Espoo Convention which was ratified by Germany 8.8.2002 and by Poland 12.6.1997. Due to corresponding directives, the same is applicable in the context of the European Union. In German legislation, this issue is regulated by Art. 8 of the Federal EIA Act in regard to transboundary participation of administration and by Art. 9a in respect of transboundary public participation. However, these EIA regulations on transboundary participation do not surpass a certain detail level, as they have to be applied between Germany and all neighbouring states. Therefore both countries decided to agree on more detailed provisions in particular regarding procedural questions. During the 12th German-Polish Environmental Council, Germany and Poland reached an agreement on 11.4.2006 in Neuhardenberg/Brandenburg an agreement upon the implementation of the Espoo Convention, the so called Neuhardenberg Agreement. This article assesses the agreement under consideration of already existing law and discusses major improvements and problems

  4. Structural and mechanical behaviour of severe plastically deformed high purity aluminium sheets processed by constrained groove pressing technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satheesh Kumar, S.S.; Raghu, T.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • High purity aluminium sheets constrained groove pressed up to plastic strain of 5.8. • Microstructural evolution studied by TEM and X-ray diffraction profile analysis. • Ultrafine grained structure with grain size ∼900 nm achieved in sheets. • Yield strength increased by 5.3 times and tensile strength doubled after first pass. • Enhanced deformation homogeneity seen with increased accumulated plastic strain. - Abstract: High purity aluminium sheets (∼99.9%) are subjected to intense plastic straining by constrained groove pressing method successfully up to 5 passes thereby imparting an effective plastic strain of 5.8. Transmission electron microscopy studies of constrained groove pressed sheets divulged significant grain refinement and the average grain sizes obtained after five pass is estimated to be ∼0.9 μm. In addition to that, microstructural evolution of constrained groove pressed sheets is characterized by X-ray diffraction peak profile analysis employing Williamson–Hall method and the results obtained fairly concur with electron microscopy findings. The tensile behaviour evolution with increased straining indicates substantial improvement of yield strength by ∼5.3 times from 17 MPa to 90 MPa during first pass corroborated to grain refinement observed. Marginal increase in strengths is noticed during second pass followed by minor drop in strengths attributed to predominance of dislocation recovery is noticed in subsequent passes. Quantitative assessment of degree of deformation homogeneity using microhardness profiles reveal relatively better strain homogeneity at higher number of passes

  5. Industrial based volume manufacturing of lightweight aluminium alloy panel components with high-strength and complex-shape for car body and chassis structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anyasodor, Gerald; Koroschetz, Christian

    2017-09-01

    To achieve the high volume manufacture of lightweight passenger cars at economic cost as required in the automotive industry, low density materials and new process route will be needed. While high strength aluminium alloy grades: AA7075 and AA6082 may provide the alternative material solution, hot stamping process used for high-strength and ultrahigh strength steels such as boron steel 22mnb5 can enable the volume manufacture of panel components with high-strength and complex-shape for car body and chassis structures. These aluminium alloy grades can be used to manufacture panel components with possible yield strengths ≥ 500 MPa. Due to the differences in material behaviors, hot stamping process of 22mnb5 cannot be directly applied to high strength aluminium alloy grades. Despite recorded successes in laboratories, researches and niche hot forming processes of high strength aluminium alloy grades, not much have been achieved for adequate and efficient volume manufacturing system applicable in the automotive industry. Due to lack of such system and based on expert knowledge in hot stamping production-line, AP&T presents in this paper a hot stamping processing route for high strength aluminium alloys been suitable for production-line development and volume manufacturing.

  6. The application of the Espoo Convention on Environmental Impact Assessment in a Transboundary Context to nuclear energy-related activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    The Convention on Environmental Impact Assessment in a Transboundary Context sets out the obligations to assess the environmental impact of certain activities at an early stage of decision making. It also lays down the general obligation for parties to notify and consult each other on all major projects under consideration that are likely to have a significant adverse environmental impact across national borders. The Espoo Convention was adopted in 1991 and entered into force on 10 September 1997. There are currently 45 states party to the Espoo Convention, including 23 countries that are also members of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA). It should be noted that the European Union (EU) is also a party to the Espoo Convention and has transposed the provisions related to the environmental impact assessment (EIA) procedure in its legislation, thus imposing the Espoo Convention principles on all EU member states. The purpose of the Espoo Convention is to enhance international co-operation and allow environmentally sound decisions to be made, paying careful attention to minimising significant adverse impacts, particularly in a transboundary context. In order to do so, the Espoo Convention requires that an EIA be carried out for certain types of activities planned by a party, which are likely to have a significant environmental impact within an area under the jurisdiction of another party. The Espoo Convention specifies what must be considered at an early stage of the decision making and it lays down the obligation for countries to notify and consult each other and the public. It also requires that all comments received from the public and authorities, as well as the findings from the assessment, are taken into account when the final decision is made for the planned activity. In addition, the Protocol on Strategic Environmental Assessment was adopted in Kiev in 2003. It entered into force in 2010 and currently

  7. PARVUS affects aluminium sensitivity by modulating the structure of glucuronoxylan in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiao Fang; Wan, Jiang Xue; Wu, Qi; Zhao, Xu Sheng; Zheng, Shao Jian; Shen, Ren Fang

    2017-09-01

    Glucuronoxylan (GX), an important component of hemicellulose in the cell wall, appears to affect aluminium (Al) sensitivity in plants. To investigate the role of GX in cell-wall-localized xylan, we examined the Arabidopsis thaliana parvus mutant in detail. This mutant lacks α-D-glucuronic acid (GlcA) side chains in GX and has greater resistance to Al stress than wild-type (WT) plants. The parvus mutant accumulated lower levels of Al in its roots and cell walls than WT despite having cell wall pectin content and pectin methylesterase (PME) activity similar to those of WT. Our results suggest that the altered properties of hemicellulose in the mutant contribute to its decreased Al accumulation. Although we observed almost no differences in hemicellulose content between parvus and WT under control conditions, less Al was retained in parvus hemicellulose than in WT. This observation is consistent with the finding that GlcA substitutions in WT GX, but not mutant GX, were increased under Al stress. Taken together, these results suggest that the modulation of GlcA levels in GX affects Al resistance by influencing the Al binding capacity of the root cell wall in Arabidopsis. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Electronic structure investigation of oxidized aluminium films with electron momentum spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, X.; Canney, S.; Kheifets, A.S.; Vos, M.; Fang, Z.; Utteridge, S.; McCarthy, I.E.; Weigold, E.

    1996-09-01

    Electron momentum spectroscopy (EMS) of (e, 2e) measurements with oxidized aluminium thin films have been performed. Due to the surface sensitive mature of the EMS spectrometer employed the measured (e, 2e) events come from the front oxidized layer as viewed by the electron detectors. The measurements show clearly two major features in the spectral momentum density distribution and they are related to the upper valence band and the lower valence band of aluminum oxide. The first is a 'dual parabola' energy-momentum dispersion pattern spanning about 8 eV in the upper valence band. This 'dual parabola' pattern has been qualitatively reproduced by a linear muffin-tin orbital (LMTO) calculation on spherically averaged α-A1 2 O 3 with nearly the same energy span. In the lower valence band, the LMTO calculation indicates a dispersion spanning about 5 eV, and the measured spectral momentum density plot shows a similar 'bowl' shape but with less dispersion. The possible causes which blur the dispersion in the lower valence band are discussed. Other features in the spectral momentum density distribution are also discussed and compared with the LMTO calculation. 45 refs., 1 tab., 10 figs

  9. Aluminium in human sweat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minshall, Clare; Nadal, Jodie; Exley, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    It is of burgeoning importance that the human body burden of aluminium is understood and is measured. There are surprisingly few data to describe human excretion of systemic aluminium and almost no reliable data which relate to aluminium in sweat. We have measured the aluminium content of sweat in 20 healthy volunteers following mild exercise. The concentration of aluminium ranged from 329 to 5329μg/L. These data equate to a daily excretion of between 234 and 7192μg aluminium and they strongly suggest that perspiration is the major route of excretion of systemic aluminium in humans. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Structural and surface properties of highly ordered mesoporous magnesium-aluminium composite oxides derived from facile synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Dahai, E-mail: pandahai@foxmail.com; Dong, Zhaoyang; He, Min; Chen, Wei; Chen, Shuwei; Yu, Feng; Fan, Binbin; Cui, Xingyu; Li, Ruifeng, E-mail: rfli@tyut.edu.cn

    2017-01-15

    Highly ordered mesoporous magnesium-aluminium composite oxides (denoted as OMMA-x) with a variety of n{sub Al}/n{sub Mg} ratios have been successfully synthesized via a facile strategy, and a salt effect was proposed to explain the formation mechanism. The incorporation of Mg can significantly improve the structural and surface properties of ordered mesoporous alumina (OMA) material. The resultant OMMA-x exhibited a much more ordered 2-D hexagonal mesostructure, a narrower pore size distribution, a higher specific surface area and pore volume, and a stronger basicity than those of OMA. More importantly, the highly homogeneous incorporation of Mg at the atomic level and the formation of framework Mg−O−Al bonds could effectively suppress the formation of crystalline alumina during the calcination process. As a result, OMMA-x demonstrated a superior thermal stability. For example, the ordered mesostructure of OMMA-8 could be well maintained with a high surface area of 182 m{sup 2}/g even after thermal treatment at 1000 °C. - Graphical abstract: A schematic procedure to illustrate the preparation of highly ordered mesoporous Mg-Al composite oxides (OMMA-x) with highly homogeneously dispersed Mg species and enhanced structural stability. - Highlights: • Mesoporous Mg-Al composite oxides with excellent structural and surface properties. • A highly homogeneous incorporation of Mg into the mesoporous framework of alumina. • A superior structural stability up to 1000 °C coupled with a large surface area. • A salt effect from the addition of Mg(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}·6H{sub 2}O to explain the formation mechanism.

  11. Structural and luminescence studies of Ho{sup 3+}-doped zinc-aluminium-sodium-phosphate (ZANP) glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brahmachary, K.; Rajesh, D.; Ratnakaram, Y. C., E-mail: ratnakaramsvu@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati-517502 (India)

    2015-06-24

    Trivalent holmium doped zinc-aluminium-sodium-phosphate (ZANP) glasses were prepared by conventional melt-quenching technique and characterized for their structural and luminescence properties. The amorphous nature, elemental analysis and thermal stability of the glasses were studied by using X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive spectrum and differential scanning calorimetry analysis, respectively. The absorption and fluorescence spectra have been recorded at room temperature. Based on the absorption spectra, the Judd-Ofelt parameters and radiative parameters such as spontaneous transition probabilities (A{sub R}), branching ratios (β{sub R}), radiative lifetimes (τ{sub R}) were calculated and discussed. From the emission spectra emission peak positions (λ{sub P}), effective bandwidths (Δλ{sub eff}) and stimulated emission cross-sections (σ{sub P}) were calculated for the observed emission transitions,{sup 5}S{sub 2} ({sup 5}F{sub 4}→{sup 5}I{sub 8}) and {sup 5}F{sub 5}→{sup 5}I{sub 8} in all the glass samples. The stimulated emission cross-section is higher for ZANPHo10 glass matrix and so it may be useful for laser excitation.

  12. An Facile High-Density Polyethylene - Exfoliated Graphite - Aluminium Hydroxide Composite: Manufacture, Morphology, Structure, Antistatic and Fireproof Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihui LI

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Graphite intercalation compounds (GIC and exfoliated graphite (EG as raw materials were prepared with flake graphite, concentrated sulphuric acid (H2SO4, potassium bichromate (K2Cr2O7 and peracetic acid (CH3CO3H and characterized. Then, high-density polyethylene-exfoliated graphite (HDPE-EG composites were fabricated with HDPE and EG via in situ synthesis technique in the different mass ratio, and their resistivity values (ohms/sq were measured. Based on the resistivity values, it was discovered that HDPE-EG composite with the antistatic property could be fabricated while the mass ratio was 5.00 : 0.30. Last, HDPE-EG-aluminium hydroxide (HDPE-EG-Al(OH3 composites were manufactured with HDPE, GIC and Al(OH3 via the in situ synthesis-thermal expansion technique, and their resistivity values and limiting oxygen index (LOI values were measured. Based on the resistivity values and LOI values, it was discovered that HDPE-EG-Al(OH3 composite with the antistatic and fireproof property could be manufactured while HDPE, GICs and Al(OH3 of mass ratio was 5.00 : 0.30 : 1.00. Otherwise, the petal-like morphology and structure of HDPE-EG-Al(OH3 composite were characterized, which consisted of EG, HDPE and Al(OH3. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.20.3.4275

  13. Alloys of uranium and aluminium with low aluminium content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabane, G.; Englander, M.; Lehmann, J.

    1955-01-01

    Uranium, as obtained after spinning in phase γ, presents an heterogeneous structure with large size grains. The anisotropic structure of the metal leads to an important buckling and surface distortion of the fuel slug which is incompatible with its tubular cladding for nuclear fuel uses. Different treatments have been made to obtain an isotropic structure presenting high thermal stability (laminating, hammering and spinning in phase α) without success. Alloys of uranium and aluminium with low aluminium content present important advantage in respect of non allied uranium. The introduction of aluminium in the form of intermetallic compound (UAl 2 ) gives a better resistance to thermal fatigue. Alloys obtained from raw casting present an improved buckling and surface distortion in respect of pure uranium. This improvement is obtained with uranium containing between 0,15 and 0,5 % of aluminium. An even more improvement in thermal stability is obtained by thermal treatments of these alloys. These new characteristics are explained by the fine dispersion of the UAl 2 particles in uranium. The results after treatments obtained from an alloy slug containing 0,4 % of aluminium show no buckling or surface distortion and no elongation. (M.P.)

  14. CCDC 1446069: Experimental Crystal Structure Determination : tris(Pentafluorophenyl)-(triethylsilyl formate)-aluminium

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Jiawei

    2016-01-01

    An entry from the Cambridge Structural Database, the world’s repository for small molecule crystal structures. The entry contains experimental data from a crystal diffraction study. The deposited dataset for this entry is freely available from the CCDC and typically includes 3D coordinates, cell parameters, space group, experimental conditions and quality measures.

  15. Alloys of uranium and aluminium with low aluminium content; Alliages uranium-aluminium a faible teneur en aluminium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabane, G; Englander, M; Lehmann, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1955-07-01

    Uranium, as obtained after spinning in phase {gamma}, presents an heterogeneous structure with large size grains. The anisotropic structure of the metal leads to an important buckling and surface distortion of the fuel slug which is incompatible with its tubular cladding for nuclear fuel uses. Different treatments have been made to obtain an isotropic structure presenting high thermal stability (laminating, hammering and spinning in phase {alpha}) without success. Alloys of uranium and aluminium with low aluminium content present important advantage in respect of non allied uranium. The introduction of aluminium in the form of intermetallic compound (UAl{sub 2}) gives a better resistance to thermal fatigue. Alloys obtained from raw casting present an improved buckling and surface distortion in respect of pure uranium. This improvement is obtained with uranium containing between 0,15 and 0,5 % of aluminium. An even more improvement in thermal stability is obtained by thermal treatments of these alloys. These new characteristics are explained by the fine dispersion of the UAl{sub 2} particles in uranium. The results after treatments obtained from an alloy slug containing 0,4 % of aluminium show no buckling or surface distortion and no elongation. (M.P.)

  16. Steam Assisted Accelerated Growth of Oxide Layer on Aluminium Alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Din, Rameez Ud; Yuksel, Serkan; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl

    2013-01-01

    Corrosion resistance of aluminium alloys is related to the composition and morphology of the oxide film on the surface of aluminium. In this paper we investigated the use of steam on the surface modification of aluminium to produce boehmite films. The study reveals a detailed investigation...... of the effect of vapour pressure, structure of intermetallic particles and thickness of boehmite films on the corrosion behaviour of aluminium alloys....

  17. Human exposure to aluminium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exley, Christopher

    2013-10-01

    Human activities have circumvented the efficient geochemical cycling of aluminium within the lithosphere and therewith opened a door, which was previously only ajar, onto the biotic cycle to instigate and promote the accumulation of aluminium in biota and especially humans. Neither these relatively recent activities nor the entry of aluminium into the living cycle are showing any signs of abating and it is thus now imperative that we understand as fully as possible how humans are exposed to aluminium and the future consequences of a burgeoning exposure and body burden. The aluminium age is upon us and there is now an urgent need to understand how to live safely and effectively with aluminium.

  18. Effect of High Frequency Pulsing on the Interfacial Structure of Anodised Aluminium-TiO2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudla, Visweswara Chakravarthy; Jensen, Flemming; Bordo, Kirill

    2015-01-01

    High frequency anodizing of friction stir processed Al-TiO2 surface composites was investigated. The effect of anodizing parameters on the structure and morphology of the anodic layer including the incorporation of the TiO2 particles into the anodic layer is studied. Anodizing process was carried...... out using a high frequency pulse and pulse reverse pulse technique at a fixed frequency in a sulfuric acid bath. The structure of the composites and the anodized layer was studied using scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The pulse reverse pulse anodizing technique, using a negative...

  19. Optimization of the composition and structure of heat-resistant casting aluminium alloys with additions of cerium, iron, nickel and zirconium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belov, N.A.; Lavrishchev, Yu.V.

    2000-01-01

    A study is made of the effect of composition and structure on mechanical properties of cast alloys of the Al-Ce-Ni-Fe-Zr system in which binary and ternary eutectics with participation of low alloyed aluminium solid solution and Al 4 Ce, Al 3 Ni and Al 9 FeNi phases are crystallized. It is found that microhardness of eutectics is heavily dependent on the volume fraction of aluminides and their dispersivity. It was shown that essential hardening of aluminium matrix can be achieved at the cost of zirconium additive in quantity of 0.6 % when using two-stage manufacturing operation. Experimental compositions of Al-10 % Ce-5% Ni-0.6 % Zr and Al-1.5 % Fe-1.5 % Ni-0.6 % Zr on the basis of ternary and binary eutectics respectively as billets essentially exceed industrial heat-resistant cast aluminium alloys AK12MMgN and AM5 as to a set of room and high-temperature mechanical properties and hot brittleness index [ru

  20. Influence of neodymium-doping on structure and properties of yttrium aluminium garnet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, X.D.; He, W.; Yue, Yuanzheng

    2013-01-01

    We study the impact of the Nd-doping on the grain formation, the crystal structure, and the fluorescence of the Yttrium Aluminum Garnet (YAG). The results show that Nd-doping leads to the YAG lattice expansion and distortion, and hence to an increase in defect concentration. This is attributed to...

  1. Structure and properties of an aluminium alloy welded by electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruzimov, Sh.M.; Palvanov, S.R.; Pogrebnjak, A.D.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: In the given work the experimental results on research of influence of electronic beams on structure of an aluminum alloy are submitted. As a basis of samples the alloy Al-Mg-Zn-Cu by the additives Se-0.5 % and Nb-0.15 % is chosen. Samples from a cast aluminum alloy by thickness of 3 mm such as B-96 were welded with an electronic beam in three different modes at radius circle of a root of a welded seam of 5 mm. The welding was carried out by an alloy Amg 63 and Sv-1571 with application electron team welding joint of parts. The basic influence on the given process makes energy - allocation of an electronic beam. For research of phase structure used of X-ray beams (XRD), DRON-2 in copper K α - Cu measurement. For research of structure and morphology of a surface used optical microscope with increase 800-1500 times and electronic microscope with the microanalysis. On figures of optical microscopy the morphology of a seam sharply differs from morphology of an initial part. The microanalysis carried out with a place of a seam, has shown presence of the whole spectrum of elements, such as, Al; Zn; Na; Mg; Cu; and Mn. All measurements carried out in welding zone and in frontier zones that it was possible to carry out the comparative analysis. The element structure of these zones essentially differs in dependence of a condition of welding

  2. Influence of initial microstructure of aluminium alloy charge after its melting on the hard metal inherited structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Г. О. Іванов

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Metal properties heredity in the chain- initial hard state > liquid state > final solidified state has always been interesting for metallurgists. It is known that after the primary melting of charge there occurs microheterogenеous non-equilibrium melt with crystal-like groups of atoms and disordered area in it. With increase in temperature the melt approaches the equilibrium microhomogeneous state. The aim of this work is to study the charge microstructure influence on melt fluidity in the light of quasi-crystal model of liquid structure. Influence of isothermal heating on fluidity of aluminium melt, smelted from fine-grained and coarse-grained charge has been investigated. It has been stated that for coarse-grained metal additional melting of crystallization «genes» takes place in 1,4-quick time, as compared to fine-grained. The coefficients of exponential function for our experimental data have been calculated. It has been stated that the exponent depends on the charge microstructure, and multiplier depends on the soaking temperature. On the basis of A. Einstein equation for the calculation of liquid viscosity from the known fraction of admixtures and clean liquid viscosity an analogical equation for fluidity and calculation of quasi-crystals volume share in the melt have been derived. It has been found that the charge grain size affects the speed of quasi-crystals additional melting in the melt. The reference amount of quasi-crystals at the initial moment of large- and fine-grained charge melting has been calculated from our metallographic, experimental and estimated data

  3. Investigations of the Electronic Properties and Surface Structures of Aluminium-Rich Quasicrystalline Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrow, Jason A. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2003-01-01

    The work presented in this dissertation has investigated three distinct areas of interest in the field of quasicrystals: bulk structure, transport properties, and electronic structure. First, they have described the results of a study which explored the fundamental interactions between the atomic species of the icosahedral Al-Pd-Mn quasicrystal. The goal of this work was to determine whether the pseudo-MacKay or Bergman type clusters have a special stability or are merely a geometric coincidence. This was carried out by using laser vaporization to produce gas-phase metal clusters, which were analyzed using time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Both the kinetic and thermodynamic stabilities of the clusters were probed. The data indicated no special stability for either pseudo-MacKay or Bergman type clusters as isolated units. This, however, is not proof that these clusters are simply a geometric coincidence. It is possible that such clusters only have stability in the framework of the bulk matrix and do not exist as isolated units. Next, they have reported their investigations of the bulk thermal transport properties of a decagonal Al-Ni-Co two dimensional quasicrystal in the temperature range 373K-873K. The properties of a sample oriented along the periodic axis and another oriented along the aperiodic axis were measured. A high degree of anisotropy was observed between the aperiodic and periodic directions. Additionally, the properties were measured for a sample miscut to an orientation 45° off-axis. The properties of the miscut sample were shown to have good agreement with a theoretical model used to describe thermal transport in metallic single crystals. This model only considers thermal transport by a free-electron gas; therefore, agreement with experimental data suggests the validity of the Drude free-electron model for the decagonal Al-Ni-Co at these temperatures. Consequently, the observed anisotropy may be adequately described using classical transport

  4. Studies on Thermal Decomposition of Aluminium Sulfate to Produce Alumina Nano Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Jafar-Tafreshi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum sulfate nano structures have been prepared by solution combustion synthesis using aluminum nitrate nonahydrate (Al(NO33.9H2O and ammonium sulfate ((NH42SO4. The resultant aluminum sulfate nano structures were calcined at different temperatures to study thermal  decomposition of aluminum sulfate. The crystallinity and phase of  the as-synthesized and calcined samples were characterized by both X- ray diffraction and FTIR measurements. These two analyses determined the temperature at which the aluminum sulfate is converted to γ-alumina nano particles. The specific surface area and pore size distribution for  γ-alumina nano particles were determined by BET measurement. TEM measurement confirmed the size of the particles obtained by XRD and BET analyses.

  5. Computation material science of structural-phase transformation in casting aluminium alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golod, V. M.; Dobosh, L. Yu

    2017-04-01

    Successive stages of computer simulation the formation of the casting microstructure under non-equilibrium conditions of crystallization of multicomponent aluminum alloys are presented. On the basis of computer thermodynamics and heat transfer during solidification of macroscale shaped castings are specified the boundary conditions of local heat exchange at mesoscale modeling of non-equilibrium formation the solid phase and of the component redistribution between phases during coalescence of secondary dendrite branches. Computer analysis of structural - phase transitions based on the principle of additive physico-chemical effect of the alloy components in the process of diffusional - capillary morphological evolution of the dendrite structure and the o of local dendrite heterogeneity which stochastic nature and extent are revealed under metallographic study and modeling by the Monte Carlo method. The integrated computational materials science tools at researches of alloys are focused and implemented on analysis the multiple-factor system of casting processes and prediction of casting microstructure.

  6. Influence of Severe Plastic Deformation on Mechanical Properties and Structure of Aluminium Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondřej Hilšer

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Article is devoted to analysis of ECAP (Equal Channel Angular Pressing method, which uses a high degree of deformation to achieve a very fine-grained structure of formed material. Utilization of The ECAP technology enables attainment of required properties of selected materials by using of severe plastic deformation (SPD methods. In the experimental part the influence of the number of passes through forming tool with classical geometry (angle of 90° between channels was studied to achieve maximum hardening (expressed by deformation resistance and achieved value of hardness HV10. Also the metallographic analysis (detection of achieved grain refinement was carried out. From comparison of results achieved at both alloys it can be stated that for given forming by ECAP method the EN AW-8006 alloy is preferable, because higher strength degree was obtained by achieving of very fine grained structure. When using the same method of forming by ECAP method the EN AW-2024 alloy has lower hardening and structure refinement.

  7. Constitution, structure and magnetic properties of some rare-earth - cobalt-aluminium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, J.; Harris, I.R.

    1982-01-01

    The constitution and structure of the alloys represented by the formulae Cesub(1-x)Alsub(x)Co 5 and Prsub(1-x)Alsub(x)Co 5 (where 0 = 5 produces a mixture of the 1:5 and 2:17 phases based on CeCo 5 and Ce 2 Co 17 ; there are two variations of the 2:17 phase which are isostructural with the hexagonal Th 2 Ni 17 -type and rhombohedral Th 2 Zn 17 -type phases. At the composition Cesub(0.76)Alsub(0.24)Co 5 (4 at % Al) the alloy consists only of the 2:17-type phases and metallographically the alloy is one phase in appearance. Further substitution of Al results in the precipitation of an fcc phase, based on the Co-Al solid solution, in the 2:17 matrix. The crystal structures of the Prsub(1-x)Alsub(x)Co 5 alloys are very similar to those of the equivalent cerium alloys. The metallographic structures of the Pr alloys in the composition range 1 to 3 at % Al show significant differences from the corresponding Ce alloys. Determination of the Curie temperatures of the Rsub(1-x)Alsub(x)Co 5 alloys (R = Ce and Pr) in the composition range 0 = 5 and PrCo 5 phases. (author)

  8. PEPTIDE SOLUBILITY, STRUCTURE AND CHARGE POSITION EFFECT ON ADSORPTION BY ALUMINIUM HYDROXIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Trujillo

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Solubility, structure and position of charges in a peptide antigen sequence can be mentioned as being amongst the basic features of adsorption. In order to study their effect on adsorption, seven analogue series were synthesized from a MSP-1 peptide sequence by systematically replacing each one of the positions in the peptide sequence by aspartic acid, glutamic acid, serine, alanine, asparagine, glutamine or lysine. Such modifications in analogue peptide sequences showed a non-regular tendency regarding solubility and adsorption data. Aspartic acid and Glutamic acid analogue series showed great improvements in adsorption, especially in peptides where Lysine in position 6 and Arginine in position 13 were replaced. Solubility of position 5 analogue was greater than the position 6 analogue in Aspartic acid series; however, the position 6 analogue showed best adsorption results whilst the Aspartic acid in position 5 analogue showed no adsorption in the same conditions. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance structural analysis revealed differences in the -helical structureextension between these analogues. The Aspartic acid in position 6, located in the polar side of the helix, may allow this analogueto fit better onto the adsorption regions suggesting that the local electrostatic charge is responsible for this behavior.

  9. Role of aluminium concentration on the structure behaviour of Cu-Al alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nassar, A.M.; Taha, A.S.; Ragab, K.A.; El-Mossalamy, S.

    1988-06-01

    Effect of Al(5, 10, 15 and 20)% on the structure behaviour of Cu-Al alloys was investigated by both microhardness measurements and optical microscopic investigations. Pure Cu was used for comparison. The analysis of the hardness-temperature curve shows a type of dependence which obeys an empirical exponential law, but consists of several distinguishable regions. For Cu 20% Al, one region is observed, and two regions for pure Cu, while for alloys of 5 and 10% Al concentration three regions were observed. The activation energy varies between 0.03 and 0.9 ev. for these regions, depending on the Al-concentration as well as the annealing temperature. The recrystallization temperature was found to increase with increasing Al-concentration. It was also observed that Cu-20% Al alloy is very hard and brittle owing to the formation of γ2 phase, and also to phase separation as being detected from optical microscopic investigations. (author). 22 refs, 3 figs

  10. Yttrium aluminium garnet under pressure: Structural, elastic, and vibrational properties from ab initio studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monteseguro, V.; Rodríguez-Hernández, P.; Muñoz, A.

    2015-01-01

    The structural, elastic, and vibrational properties of yttrium aluminum garnet Y 3 Al 5 O 12 are studied under high pressure by ab initio calculations in the framework of the density functional theory. The calculated ground state properties are in good agreement with the available experimental data. Pressure dependences of bond length and bulk moduli of the constituent polyhedra are reported. The evolution of the elastic constants and the major elastic properties, Young and shear modulus, Poisson's ratios, and Zener anisotropy ratio, are described. The mechanical stability is analyzed, on the light of “Born generalized stability criteria,” showing that the garnet is mechanically unstable above 116 GPa. Symmetries, frequencies, and pressure coefficients of the Raman-active modes are discussed on the basis of the calculated total and partial phonon density of states, which reflect the dynamical contribution of each atom. The relations between the phonon modes of Y 3 Al 5 O 12 and the internal and external molecular modes of the different polyhedra are discussed. Infrared-active modes, as well as the silent modes, and their pressure dependence are also investigated. No dynamical instabilities were found below 116 GPa

  11. Grain structure, texture and mechanical property evolution of automotive aluminium sheet during high power ultrasonic welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haddadi, Farid; Tsivoulas, Dimitrios

    2016-01-01

    High power ultrasonic spot welding (HPUSW) is a joining technique which is performed within less than a second and provides a more energy-efficient alternative to friction stir spot welding (FSSW), which is considered a longer cycle manufacturing process for joining automotive alloys. To date, only a few reports exist on the deformation mechanisms that take place during high power ultrasonic spot welding. In this work, dynamic recrystallization and grain growth were examined using electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). HPUSW causes extensive deformation within the weld zone where the temperature increases to 440 °C. An ultra-fine grain structure was observed in a thin band of flat weld interface within a short welding time of 0.10 s. With increasing welding time the interface was displaced and ‘folds’ or ‘crests’ appeared together with shear bands. The weld interface progressively changed from flat to sinusoidal and eventually to a convoluted wave-like pattern when the tool fully penetrated the workpiece, having a wavelength of ~ 1 mm after 0.40 s. Finally, the microstructure and texture varied significantly depending on the location within the weld. Although the texture near the weld interface was relatively weak, a shift was observed with increasing welding time from an initially Cube-dominated texture to one where the typical β-fibre Brass component prevailed. - Highlights: •Lap shear strength of ~2.9 kN was achieved in 0.30 sec welding time. •Temperature approached 440 °C along the weld centreline for the highest welding time. •The texture near the teeth was dominated by Brass, P and S components at optimum condition. •The weld interface showed typical β-fibre deformation texture at optimum condition.

  12. Grain structure, texture and mechanical property evolution of automotive aluminium sheet during high power ultrasonic welding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haddadi, Farid, E-mail: farid.haddadi@gmail.com [Clemson University–International Center for Automotive Research (CU-ICAR), #347, 4 Research Drive, Greenville, SC 29607 (United States); School of Materials, The University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Tsivoulas, Dimitrios, E-mail: dim.tsivoulas@gmail.com [School of Materials, The University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Clean Energy/Nuclear Services, Amec Foster Wheeler, 601 Faraday Street, Birchwood Park, Warrington WA3 6GN (United Kingdom)

    2016-08-15

    High power ultrasonic spot welding (HPUSW) is a joining technique which is performed within less than a second and provides a more energy-efficient alternative to friction stir spot welding (FSSW), which is considered a longer cycle manufacturing process for joining automotive alloys. To date, only a few reports exist on the deformation mechanisms that take place during high power ultrasonic spot welding. In this work, dynamic recrystallization and grain growth were examined using electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). HPUSW causes extensive deformation within the weld zone where the temperature increases to 440 °C. An ultra-fine grain structure was observed in a thin band of flat weld interface within a short welding time of 0.10 s. With increasing welding time the interface was displaced and ‘folds’ or ‘crests’ appeared together with shear bands. The weld interface progressively changed from flat to sinusoidal and eventually to a convoluted wave-like pattern when the tool fully penetrated the workpiece, having a wavelength of ~ 1 mm after 0.40 s. Finally, the microstructure and texture varied significantly depending on the location within the weld. Although the texture near the weld interface was relatively weak, a shift was observed with increasing welding time from an initially Cube-dominated texture to one where the typical β-fibre Brass component prevailed. - Highlights: •Lap shear strength of ~2.9 kN was achieved in 0.30 sec welding time. •Temperature approached 440 °C along the weld centreline for the highest welding time. •The texture near the teeth was dominated by Brass, P and S components at optimum condition. •The weld interface showed typical β-fibre deformation texture at optimum condition.

  13. Recent developments in advanced aircraft aluminium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dursun, Tolga; Soutis, Costas

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • To compete with composites, performance of aluminium alloys should be increased. • Al–Li alloys have higher strength, fracture and fatigue/corrosion resistance. • Improvements of aerospace Al alloys are due to optimised solute content and ratios. • In selecting new materials, there should be no reduction in the level of safety. • The use of hybrid materials could provide additional opportunities for Al alloys. - Abstract: Aluminium alloys have been the primary material for the structural parts of aircraft for more than 80 years because of their well known performance, well established design methods, manufacturing and reliable inspection techniques. Nearly for a decade composites have started to be used more widely in large commercial jet airliners for the fuselage, wing as well as other structural components in place of aluminium alloys due their high specific properties, reduced weight, fatigue performance and corrosion resistance. Although the increased use of composite materials reduced the role of aluminium up to some extent, high strength aluminium alloys remain important in airframe construction. Aluminium is a relatively low cost, light weight metal that can be heat treated and loaded to relatively high level of stresses, and it is one of the most easily produced of the high performance materials, which results in lower manufacturing and maintenance costs. There have been important recent advances in aluminium aircraft alloys that can effectively compete with modern composite materials. This study covers latest developments in enhanced mechanical properties of aluminium alloys, and high performance joining techniques. The mechanical properties on newly developed 2000, 7000 series aluminium alloys and new generation Al–Li alloys are compared with the traditional aluminium alloys. The advantages and disadvantages of the joining methods, laser beam welding and friction stir welding, are also discussed

  14. Niobium-base grain refiner for aluminium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva Pontes, P. da; Robert, M.H.; Cupini, N.L.

    1980-01-01

    A new chemical grain refiner for aluminium has been developed, using inoculation of a niobium-base compound. When a bath of molten aluminium is inoculated whith this refiner, an intermetallic aluminium-niobium compound is formed which acts as a powerful nucleant, producing extremely fine structure comparable to those obtained by means of the traditional grain refiner based on titanium and boron. It was found that the refinement of the structure depends upon the weight percentage of the new refiner inoculated as well as the time of holding the bath after inoculation and before pouring, but mainly on the inoculating temperature. (Author) [pt

  15. Experimental Study of Stress-Strain Behaviour of Open-Cell Aluminium Foam Sandwich Panel for Automotive Structural Part

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Asmawiyah Ibrahim

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Because of high stiffness and strength to weight ratio, aluminium foam sandwich (AFS has huge advantage in automotive industries in order to reduce the vehicle’s weight which consequently will reduce the fuel consumption. While reducing the weight, AFS must also maintain high strength and durability compared to other competitive materials used which perform same functionalities. AFS had been proved its suitability for industrial application by previous researchers such as in aerospace, automotive and architecture. However, there is still a gap need to be filled in order to expand the use of the AFS in another application. In this paper, the tensile strength of AFS panel made of from aluminium skin sheets and open-cell aluminium foam core with various thickness is investigated. Design of experiment was developed according to JUMP (JMP statistical software and experimental work was done using universal testing machine. The stress-strain behavior was analysed. The result shows that the effect of skin to core ratio is significant on the stress-strain behavior.

  16. Aarhus and Espoo Conventions: The role in promoting effective public participation in nuclear decision-making. The role of the Aarhus and Espoo Conventions in promoting effective public participation in nuclear decision-making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanush, Maryna; Jendroska, Jerzy

    2017-01-01

    Ms Yanush and Mr Jendroska highlighted the role and importance of the Convention on Access to Information, Public Participation in Decision-Making and Access to Justice in Environmental Matters (the Aarhus Convention) and that of the Convention on Environmental Impact Assessment in a Transboundary Context (the Espoo Convention). These two conventions are open for global accession and, at present, have been ratified mainly by European and Central Asian countries within the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) region. Those two conventions, which apply to a wide range of activities including nuclear, are the only two binding international instruments setting minimum standards for public access to environmental information and public participation in decision making. The Maastricht Recommendations on Promoting Effective Public Participation in Decision-Making in Environmental Matters under the Aarhus Convention and the Good Practice Recommendations on the Application of the Convention to Nuclear Energy-related Activities under the Espoo Convention are instrumental in advancing the implementation in this area. Public participation under the Aarhus Convention goes beyond information or consultation: the decision maker must take into account the views of the 'public concerned' (i.e. the members of the public affected or likely to be affected by the decision making or having an interest in it). As the 'public concerned' is assessed through the potential impact of the proposed activity, including in the case of an accident, the obligation to notify and provide opportunity for public participation is not limited to the territory of the country hosting the proposed activity. Mr Jendroska indicated a particular finding of the Espoo Convention Implementation Committee that decisions regarding modifications, upgrades or extensions to the lifetime/operation of a nuclear installation would be subject to these obligations even though the activity remains exactly

  17. Functional and structural rearrangements of salivary gland polytene chromosomes of Chironomus riparius Mg. (Diptera,Chironomidae) in response to freshly neutralized aluminium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michailova, P.; Ilkova, J.; White, K.N

    2003-05-01

    Aluminium impacts on aquatic biota can be detected using polytene chromosomes as bio-markers - Although recent work has shown that environmentally relevant concentrations of freshly neutralized aluminium (AI) are bioavailable and toxic to freshwater invertebrates, the genotoxicity of Al has not been examined. Here we show that freshly neutralized Al affects structure and function of the salivary gland polytene chromosomes of the ubiquitous chironomid larva Chironomus riparius over three generations. Exposure to 500 {mu}g l{sup -1} added Al for 24-25 days resulted in a significantly higher frequency of numerous somatic aberrations, while no structural aberrations were found in F1 controls and few in the second and third generation. Aberrations also included deletions of sections of chromosome G of C. riparius larvae as well as deletions of one or more Balbiani rings. Changes in functional activity included decreased activity of the Balbiani rings (BR), and an increase in the number of decondensed centromeres. The activity of the nucleolar organizer (NOR) significantly decreased in F1 chironomids exposed to Al, while in the F2 and F3 generations the NOR showed normal (high) activity. First generation chironomids were generally more susceptible to Al although no clear evidence of tolerance was apparent over three generations. The possible use of alterations in chironomid polytene chromosomes as biomarkers of trace metal pollution is discussed.

  18. Functional and structural rearrangements of salivary gland polytene chromosomes of Chironomus riparius Mg. (Diptera,Chironomidae) in response to freshly neutralized aluminium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michailova, P.; Ilkova, J.; White, K.N.

    2003-01-01

    Aluminium impacts on aquatic biota can be detected using polytene chromosomes as bio-markers - Although recent work has shown that environmentally relevant concentrations of freshly neutralized aluminium (AI) are bioavailable and toxic to freshwater invertebrates, the genotoxicity of Al has not been examined. Here we show that freshly neutralized Al affects structure and function of the salivary gland polytene chromosomes of the ubiquitous chironomid larva Chironomus riparius over three generations. Exposure to 500 μg l -1 added Al for 24-25 days resulted in a significantly higher frequency of numerous somatic aberrations, while no structural aberrations were found in F1 controls and few in the second and third generation. Aberrations also included deletions of sections of chromosome G of C. riparius larvae as well as deletions of one or more Balbiani rings. Changes in functional activity included decreased activity of the Balbiani rings (BR), and an increase in the number of decondensed centromeres. The activity of the nucleolar organizer (NOR) significantly decreased in F1 chironomids exposed to Al, while in the F2 and F3 generations the NOR showed normal (high) activity. First generation chironomids were generally more susceptible to Al although no clear evidence of tolerance was apparent over three generations. The possible use of alterations in chironomid polytene chromosomes as biomarkers of trace metal pollution is discussed

  19. Assessment of CPR-D skills of nurses in Göteborg, Sweden and Espoo, Finland: teaching leadership makes a difference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäkinen, M; Aune, S; Niemi-Murola, L; Herlitz, J; Varpula, T; Nurmi, J; Axelsson, A B; Thorén, A-B; Castrén, M

    2007-02-01

    Construction of an effective in-hospital resuscitation programme is challenging. To document and analyse resuscitation skills assessment must provide reliable data. Benchmarking with a hospital having documented excellent results of in-hospital resuscitation is beneficial. The purpose of this study was to assess the resuscitation skills to facilitate construction of an educational programme. Nurses working in a university hospital Jorvi, Espoo (n=110), Finland and Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Göteborg (n=40), Sweden were compared. The nurses were trained in the same way in both hospitals except for the defining and teaching of leadership applied in Sahlgrenska. Jorvi nurses are not trained to be, nor do they act as, leaders in a resuscitation situation. Their cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) skills using an automated external defibrillator (AED) were assessed using Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) which was build up as a case of cardiac arrest with ventricular fibrillation (VF) as the initial rhythm. The subjects were tested in pairs, each pair alone. Group-working skills were registered. All Sahlgrenska nurses, but only 49% of Jorvi nurses, were able to defibrillate. Seventy percent of the nurses working in the Sahlgrenska hospital (mean score 35/49) and 27% of the nurses in Jorvi (mean score 26/49) would have passed the OSCE test. Statistically significant differences were found in activating the alarm (Pskills of Sahlgrenska nurses were also significantly better than those of Jorvi nurses. Assessment of CPR-D skills gave valuable information for further education in both hospitals. Defining and teaching leadership seems to improve resuscitation performance.

  20. Silane based coating of aluminium mold

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    having at least one closed cavity is provided, at least one surface of the at least one cavity being an aluminium surface coated with a silane based coating layer. The silane based anti-stiction coating improves the anti-stiction properties of the mold which may allow for molding and demolding...... of structures which would otherwise be difficult to mold. The resistance of the coated aluminium mold is significantly improved by applying a silane-based coating layer....

  1. Aluminium cyclohexaphosphate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Avignant

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Single crystals of the title compound, Al2P6O18, were obtained by solid-state reaction. The monoclinic structure is isotypic with its CrIII, GaIII and RuIII analogues and is built up of six-membered phosphate ring anions, P6O186−, isolated from each other and further linked by isolated AlO6 octahedra by sharing corners. Each AlO6 octahedron is linked to four P6O186− rings. More accurately, two rings are linked through bidentate diphosphate groups attached in the cis-positions to the AlO6 octahedron. The other two rings are linked to the two remaining corners, also in cis-positions of the AlO6 octahedron.

  2. Aluminium beverage can recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewinski, A von

    1985-08-01

    Canned beverages have become a controversial issue in this era of ecological sensitivity. METALL has already discussed the problem of can recycling. The present article discusses the technical aspects of aluminium can recycling. Two further articles will follow on aluminium can recycling in North America and on the results of European pilot projects.

  3. Rows of Dislocation Loops in Aluminium Irradiated by Aluminium Ions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, L.; Johansen, A.; Koch, J.

    1967-01-01

    Single-crystal aluminium specimens, irradiated with 50-keV aluminium ions, contain dislocation loops that are arranged in regular rows along <110 > directions. ©1967 The American Institute of Physics......Single-crystal aluminium specimens, irradiated with 50-keV aluminium ions, contain dislocation loops that are arranged in regular rows along directions. ©1967 The American Institute of Physics...

  4. Aluminium alloy containing iron and nickel. Influence of structure and composition on the corrosion behaviour in high temperature water; Alliages d'aluminium contenant du fer et du nickel. Influence de la structure et de la teneur sur la resistance a la corrosion par l'eau a haute temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coriou, H; Grall, L; Hure, J; Roux, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1959-07-01

    The corrosion structures are determined on a series of aluminium (A{sub 9}) base alloys which contain a total Fe + Ni not superior to 3%. The tests are carried out to 5,000 hours in 350 deg. C deionized water in autoclave. The principal results were as follows: - For iron and nickel contents superior to 0,5%, the first factor is the distribution structure of insoluble intermetallic compounds: the particles must be as fine and randomly dispersed as possible. - The corrosion products developed on the surface may be subdivided in three distinct layers which total thickness tends rapidly towards a limit and stabilises itself. (author) [French] On a determine les structures de corrosion d'une gamme d'alliages a base d'aluminium A{sub 9} ayant une teneur Fe + Ni ne depassant pas 3%. Les essais ont ete effectues jusqu'a 5000 heures en autoclave a 350 deg. C dans l'eau demineralisee. Les resultats principaux sont les suivants: - Pour les teneurs superieures a 0,5 % en fer et en nickel, le facteur preponderant est la structure de repartition des composes intermetalliques en phase separee, qui doivent etre en particules aussi fines et uniformement reparties que possible. - Les produits de corrosion developpes en surface se subdivisent en trois couches distinctes dont l'epaisseur totale tend rapidement vers une limite et se stabilise. (auteur)

  5. Friction Welding of Aluminium and Aluminium Alloys with Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Ambroziak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents our actual knowledge and experience in joining dissimilar materials with the use of friction welding method. The joints of aluminium and aluminium alloys with the different types of steel were studied. The structural effects occurring during the welding process were described. The mechanical properties using, for example, (i microhardness measurements, (ii tensile tests, (iii bending tests, and (iv shearing tests were determined. In order to obtain high-quality joints the influence of different configurations of the process such as (i changing the geometry of bonding surface, (ii using the interlayer, or (iii heat treatment was analyzed. Finally, the issues related to the selection of optimal parameters of friction welding process were also investigated.

  6. Formation of aluminium nitride and segregation of Cu impurity atoms in aluminium implanted by high dose nitrogen ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Chenglu; Hemment, P.L.F.; Li Jinhua; Zou Shichang

    1994-01-01

    Aluminium films with a thickness of 7000 A (containing 0.85% copper) were deposited on silicon substrates. 400 keV N 2 + or 350 keV N + ions were implanted into the aluminium films or at the interface between the aluminium and silicon, respectively. Automatic spreading resistance (ASR), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Rutherford backscattering (RBS) and channelling were used to characterize the formation of aluminium nitride and the depth distribution of the Cu impurity in the aluminium films after ion implantation and post-annealing. The formation of a stoichiometric AlN layer with high resistance was evident from ASR, RBS analysis and FTIR measurements by the presence of the absorption band at 650 cm -1 . When the implanted nitrogen is near the interface between the aluminium and silicon, a multilayer structure can be obtained, which consists of aluminium, aluminium nitride and the silicon substrate. Cu, which is a background impurity in the deposited aluminium films, segregated into the synthesised aluminium nitride during high dose nitrogen ion implantation. This is due to irradiation-induced segregation during ion implantation. (orig.)

  7. Influence of aluminium source on the crystal structure and framework coordination of Al and Si in fly ash-based zeolite NaA

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ameh, AE

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study zeolite NaA with different crystal sizes and % crystallinity was prepared from a clear solution extract of fused fly ash. Sodium aluminate or aluminium hydroxide was used to adjust the aluminium content in the fused fly ash extract...

  8. Structural and electrochemical properties of aluminium doped LiMn2O4 cathode materials for Li battery: experimental and ab initio calculations

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kebede, MA

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available characterized using scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, energy dispersive spectroscopy and charge/discharge testing. The effect of aluminium doping on the discharge capacity was studied for different aluminium concentration x= 0, 0.05, 0.1 and 0.5...

  9. Muusikamaailm : Berliini Filharmoonikute omalaadne kontserdireis. Klaverinädal Espoos. shtshedrini Klaverikontsert Los Angeleses. Domingo ja Pavarotti kõrvuti Metropolitanis. Pendereckile preemia Duisburgist / Priit Kuusk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kuusk, Priit, 1938-

    1999-01-01

    Berliini Filharmoonikute kontsertreisist II Maailmasõja võitnud riikide pealinnades tähistamaks Saksa Liitvabariigi moodustamise 50. aastapäeva. 12.-17. okt. Soomes Espoos toimunud 5. rahvusvahelisest pianistide festivalist. R.shtshedrini Viienda Klaverikontserdi maailmaesiettekandest Los Angeleses 21. okt. L. Pavarotti laulab ooperis "Tosca"ja P. Domingo ooperites "Talupoja au" ning "Pajatsid" New Yorgi Metropolitan Operas. Tänavune Duisburgi Muusikapreemia anti K. Pendereckile

  10. Recovery in aluminium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gundlach, Carsten

    2006-01-01

    In the present thesis the development of a unique experimental method for volume characterisation of individual embedded crystallites down to a radius of 150 nm is presented. This method is applied to in-situ studies of recovery in aluminium. The method is an extension of 3DXRD microscopy, an X...... are represented as strings. To identify the strings a combination of a 5D connected component type algorithm and multi-peak fitting was found to be superior. The first use of the method was a study of recovery of a deformed aluminium alloy (AA1050). The aluminium alloy was deformed by cold rolling to a thickness...

  11. Argon-arc welding of heat resisting aluminium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryazantsev, V.I.; Fedoseev, V.A.

    1997-01-01

    Welding of aluminium heat resisting alloys of the Al-Cu-Mg system is studied. The hot-shortness of heat-resistant alloys M40, 1150 and 1151 are at the level of aluminium alloys 1201 and by 2-3 times lower as compared to the aluminium alloy AMg6. The M40, 1150 and 1151 alloys have unquestionable advantages against other know aluminium alloys only at temperatures of welded structures operation, beginning with 150-2000 deg C and especially at 250 deg C

  12. Characterisation of nano-structured titanium and aluminium nitride coatings by indentation, transmission electron microscopy and electron energy loss spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girleanu, M., E-mail: maria.girleanu@uha.fr [Mecanique, Materiaux et Procedes de Fabrication, LPMT (EA CNRS 4365), Universite de Haute Alsace, 61 rue Albert Camus, F-68093 Mulhouse (France); Pac, M.-J.; Louis, P. [Mecanique, Materiaux et Procedes de Fabrication, LPMT (EA CNRS 4365), Universite de Haute Alsace, 61 rue Albert Camus, F-68093 Mulhouse (France); Ersen, O.; Werckmann, J. [Departement Structures et Interfaces, IPCMS (UMR CNRS 7504), Universite de Strasbourg, 23 rue du Loess, F-67087 Strasbourg (France); Rousselot, C. [Departement Micro Nano Sciences et Systemes, FEMTO-ST (UMR CNRS 6174), Universite de Franche-Comte, BP 71427, F-25211 Montbeliard (France); Tuilier, M.-H. [Mecanique, Materiaux et Procedes de Fabrication, LPMT (EA CNRS 4365), Universite de Haute Alsace, 61 rue Albert Camus, F-68093 Mulhouse (France)

    2011-07-01

    Titanium and aluminium nitride Ti{sub 1-x}Al{sub x}N films deposited by radiofrequency magnetron reactive sputtering onto steel substrate are examined by transmission electron microscopy over all the range of composition (x = 0, 0.5, 0.68, 0.86, 1). The deposition parameters are optimised in order to grow nitride films with low stress over all the composition range. Transmission electron microscopy cross-section images of Vickers indentation prints performed on that set of coatings show the evolution of their damage behaviour as increasing x Al content. Cubic Ti-rich nitrides consist of small grains clustered in rather large columns sliding along each other during indentation. Hexagonal Al-rich films grow in thinner columns which can be bent under the Vickers tip. Indentation tests carried out on TiN and AlN films are simulated using finite element modelling. Particular aspects of shear stresses and displacements in the coating/substrate are investigated. The growth mode and the nanostructure of two typical films, TiN and Ti{sub 0.14}Al{sub 0.86}N, are studied in detail by combining transmission electron microscopy cross-sections and plan views. Electron energy loss spectrum taken across Ti{sub 0.14}Al{sub 0.86}N film suggests that a part of nitrogen atoms is in cubic-like local environment though the lattice symmetry of Al-rich coatings is hexagonal. The poorly crystallised domains containing Ti and N atoms in cubic-like environment are obviously located in grain boundaries and afford protection of the coating against cracking.

  13. Characterisation of nano-structured titanium and aluminium nitride coatings by indentation, transmission electron microscopy and electron energy loss spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girleanu, M.; Pac, M.-J.; Louis, P.; Ersen, O.; Werckmann, J.; Rousselot, C.; Tuilier, M.-H.

    2011-01-01

    Titanium and aluminium nitride Ti 1-x Al x N films deposited by radiofrequency magnetron reactive sputtering onto steel substrate are examined by transmission electron microscopy over all the range of composition (x = 0, 0.5, 0.68, 0.86, 1). The deposition parameters are optimised in order to grow nitride films with low stress over all the composition range. Transmission electron microscopy cross-section images of Vickers indentation prints performed on that set of coatings show the evolution of their damage behaviour as increasing x Al content. Cubic Ti-rich nitrides consist of small grains clustered in rather large columns sliding along each other during indentation. Hexagonal Al-rich films grow in thinner columns which can be bent under the Vickers tip. Indentation tests carried out on TiN and AlN films are simulated using finite element modelling. Particular aspects of shear stresses and displacements in the coating/substrate are investigated. The growth mode and the nanostructure of two typical films, TiN and Ti 0.14 Al 0.86 N, are studied in detail by combining transmission electron microscopy cross-sections and plan views. Electron energy loss spectrum taken across Ti 0.14 Al 0.86 N film suggests that a part of nitrogen atoms is in cubic-like local environment though the lattice symmetry of Al-rich coatings is hexagonal. The poorly crystallised domains containing Ti and N atoms in cubic-like environment are obviously located in grain boundaries and afford protection of the coating against cracking.

  14. Molecular structure of tetraaqua adenosine 5'-triphosphate aluminium(III) complex: A study involving Raman spectroscopy, theoretical DFT and potentiometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenório, Thaís; Silva, Andréa M.; Ramos, Joanna Maria; Buarque, Camilla D.; Felcman, Judith

    2013-03-01

    The Alzheimer's disease is one of the most common neurodegenerative diseases that affect elderly population, due to the formation of β-amyloid protein aggregate and several symptoms, especially progressive cognitive decline. The result is a decrease in capture of glucose by cells leading to obliteration, meddling in the Krebs cycle, the principal biochemical route to the energy production leading to a decline in the levels of adenosine 5'-triphosphate. Aluminium(III) is connected to Alzheimer's and its ion provides raise fluidity of the plasma membrane, decrease cell viability and aggregation of amyloid plaques. Studies reveal that AlATP complex promotes the formation of reactive fibrils of β-amyloid protein and independent amyloidogenic peptides, suggesting the action of the complex as a chaperone in the role pathogenic process. In this research, one of complexes formed by Al(III) and adenosine 5'-triphosphate in aqueous solution is analyzed by potentiometry, Raman spectroscopy and ab initio calculations. The value of the log KAlATP found was 9.21 ± 0.01 and adenosine 5'-triphosphate should act as a bidentate ligand in the complex. Raman spectroscopy and potentiometry indicate that donor atoms are the oxygen of the phosphate β and the oxygen of the phosphate γ, the terminal phosphates. Computational calculations using Density Functional Theory, with hybrid functions B3LYP and 6-311++G(d,p) basis set regarding water solvent effects, have confirmed the results. Frontier molecular orbitals, electrostatic potential contour surface, electrostatic potential mapped and Mulliken charges of the title molecule were also investigated.

  15. Ion nitriding of aluminium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitz, T.

    2002-09-01

    The present study is devoted to the investigation of the mechanism of aluminium nitriding by a technique that employs implantation of low-energy nitrogen ions and diffusional transport of atoms. The nitriding of aluminium is investigated, because this is a method for surface modification of aluminium and has a potential for application in a broad spectrum of fields such as automobile, marine, aviation, space technologies, etc. However, at present nitriding of aluminium does not find any large scale industrial application, due to problems in the formation of stoichiometric aluminium nitride layers with a sufficient thickness and good quality. For the purposes of this study, ion nitriding is chosen, as an ion beam method with the advantage of good and independent control over the process parameters, which thus can be related uniquely to the physical properties of the resulting layers. Moreover, ion nitriding has a close similarity to plasma nitriding and plasma immersion ion implantation, which are methods with a potential for industrial application. (orig.)

  16. Raw materials for aluminium production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galushkin, N.V.

    1995-01-01

    This chapter of monograph is devoted to to raw materials which used in aluminium production. Therefore, the using of alumina, and fluoride salts in aluminium production was considered. The physical properties of alumina were studied.

  17. Fatal aluminium phosphide poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meena Mahesh Chand

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aluminium phosphide (AlP is a cheap solid fumigant and a highly toxic pesticide which is commonly used for grain preservation. AlP has currently aroused interest with a rising number of cases in the past four decades due to increased use for agricultural and non-agricultural purposes. Its easy availability in the markets has increased also its misuse for committing suicide. Phosphine inhibits cellular oxygen utilization and can induce lipid peroxidation. Poisoning with AlP has often occurred in attempts to commit suicide, and that more often in adults than in teenagers. This is a case of suicidal consumption of aluminium phosphide by a 32-year-old young medical anesthetist. Toxicological analyses detected aluminium phosphide. We believe that free access of celphos tablets in grain markets should be prohibited by law.

  18. Defect generation during solidification of aluminium foams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukherjee, M.; Garcia-Moreno, F.; Banhart, J.

    2010-01-01

    The reason for the frequent occurrence of cell wall defects in metal foams was investigated. Aluminium foams often expand during solidification, a process which is referred as solidification expansion (SE). The effect of SE on the structure of aluminium foams was studied in situ by X-ray radioscopy and ex situ by X-ray tomography. A direct correlation between the magnitude of SE and the number of cell wall ruptures during SE and finally the number of defects in the solidified foams was found.

  19. Mechanical behaviour of aluminium-lithium alloys

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Aluminium-lithium alloys hold promise of providing a breakthrough response to the crying need for lightweight alloys for use as structurals in aerospace applications. Considerable worldwide research has gone into developing a range of these alloys over the last three decades. As a result, substantial understanding has ...

  20. Crystal structures of hydrates of simple inorganic salts. III. Water-rich aluminium halide hydrates: AlCl3 · 15H2O, AlBr3 · 15H2O, AlI3 · 15H2O, AlI3 · 17H2O and AlBr3 · 9H2O.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Horst; Hennings, Erik; Voigt, Wolfgang

    2014-09-01

    Water-rich aluminium halide hydrate structures are not known in the literature. The highest known water content per Al atom is nine for the perchlorate and fluoride. The nonahydrate of aluminium bromide, stable pentadecahydrates of aluminium chloride, bromide and iodide, and a metastable heptadecahydrate of the iodide have now been crystallized from low-temperature solutions. The structures of these hydrates were determined and are discussed in terms of the development of cation hydration spheres. The pentadecahydrate of the chloride and bromide are isostructural. In AlI(3) · 15H2O, half of the Al(3+) cations are surrounded by two complete hydration spheres, with six H2O in the primary and 12 in the secondary. For the heptadecahydrate of aluminium iodide, this hydration was found for every Al(3+).

  1. Effect of pressurized steam on AA1050 aluminium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jariyaboon, Manthana; Møller, Per; Ambat, Rajan

    2012-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to understand the effect of pressurized steam on surface changes, structures of intermetallic particles and corrosion behavior of AA1050 aluminium. Design/methodology/approach - Industrially pure aluminium (AA1050, 99.5 per cent) surfaces were exposed...... reactivities was observed due to the formation of the compact oxide layer. Originality/value - This paper reveals a detailed investigation of how pressurized steam can affect the corrosion behaviour of AA1050 aluminium and the structure of Fe-containing intermetallic particles....

  2. Activation Analysis of Aluminium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brune, Dag

    1961-01-15

    An analysis of pure aluminium alloyed with magnesium was per- formed by means of gamma spectrometry , Chemical separations were not employed. The isotopes to be determined were obtained in conditions of optimum activity by suitably choosing the time of irradiation and decay. The following elements were detected and measured quantitatively: Iron, zinc, copper, gallium, manganese, chromium, scandium and hafnium.

  3. Sintered aluminium powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stepanova, M.G.; Matveev, B.I.

    1974-01-01

    The mechanical and physical properties of aluminium powder alloys and the various methods employed to produce them are considered. Data are given on the hardening of the alloys SAP and SPAK-4, as well as the powder-alloy system Al-Cr-Zr. (L.M.)

  4. The structure of the blue luminescent delta-phase of tris(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminium(III) (Alq3).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cölle, Michael; Dinnebier, Robert E; Brütting, Wolfgang

    2002-12-07

    The existence of the facial isomer in the delta-phase of Alq3 is proven by X-ray structural analysis, revealing that both the different molecular structure and the weaker overlap of the pi-orbitals of hydroxyquinoline ligands belonging to neighboring Alq3 molecules as compared to other phases (alpha, beta) are likely to be the origin of the significantly different optical properties of delta-Alq3.

  5. Ultraviolet sensing properties of polyvinyl alcohol-coated aluminium ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Electrochemical; aluminium-doped zinc oxide; PVA-coated; UV sensing. 1. Introduction ... Metal oxides having good optical and structural proper- ties also require good .... close to the calculated defect level due to zinc interstitial. PL spectra of ...

  6. Eu-doped barium aluminium oxynitride with the ß-alumina-type structure as new blue-emitting phosphor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, S.R.; Migchels, J.M.; Hintzen, H.T.J.M.; Metselaar, R.

    1999-01-01

    Attractive new blue-emitting phosphors for use in low-pressure mercury gas discharge lamps are synthesized by Eu-substitution in the barium aluminum oxynitride host lattice with the -alumina-type structure. The emission spectra of these phosphors for 254 nm excitation show a band at about 450 nm

  7. Structural and magnetic order of ThMn12-type rare earth-iron-aluminium intermetallics studied by neutron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefer, W.; Halevy, I.; Gal, J.

    2000-01-01

    neutron powder diffraction data of ThMn 12 -type compounds RFe 4 Al 8 , RFe 5 Al 7 , and RFe 6 Al 6 (R = heavy rare earth) are compared to work out the structural variations and the different magnetic properties of these ternary intermetallics as a function of increasing iron concentrations. The variations of unit cell metric, of atomic coordinations and of interatomic distances are discussed. A magnetic phase diagram is presented showing the increase of the magnetic ordering temperatures from 120 K to 340 K and the change of the magnetic order from two separate magnetic phase transitions of rare earth and iron sublattices to one common ferrimagnetic transition of both sublattices, when changing the ratio of Fe/Al atoms from 4/8 to 6/6, respectively. Long range order is hampered by frozen spins. Magnetically ordered rare earth and iron moments are given. (orig.)

  8. Structure of the Copper–Enriched Layer Introduced by Anodic Oxidation of Copper-Containing Aluminium Alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, T.; Zhou, X.; Skeldon, P.; Thompson, G.E.

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the structure of the copper–enriched layer formed at the alloy/anodic film interface during anodizing of Al–2 wt.% Cu binary alloy using transmission electron microscopy. It was revealed that θ′ phase was formed within the copper–enriched layer. For the copper–enriched layer formed on {1 0 0} aluminum planes, the interface between the aluminum matrix and the θ′ phase within the copper-enriched layer is coherent. For the copper–enriched layer formed on {1 1 0} and {1 1 1} aluminum planes, the interfaces between the aluminum matrix and the θ′ phase within the copper-enriched layer are semi-coherent or incoherent. The interfacial coherency influences the formation of oxygen gas bubbles within the resultant anodic films.

  9. Crystal structures of titanium–aluminium and –gallium complexes bearing two μ2-CH3 units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Oswald

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The isotypic crystal structures of two titanocene complexes containing an EMe3 unit (E = Al, Ga; Me = methyl with two μ2-coordinating methyl groups, namely [μ-1(η5-(adamantan-1-yl-2κC1cycylopentadienyl]di-μ2-methyl-methyl-2κC-[1(η5-pentamethylcyclopentadienyl]aluminiumtitanium(III, [AlTi(CH33(C10H15(C15H18], and [μ-1(η5-(adamantan-1-yl-2κC1cycylopentadienyl]di-μ2-methyl-methyl-2κC-[1(η5-pentamethylcyclopentadienyl]galliumtitanium(III, [GaTi(CH33(C10H15(C15H18], are reported. Reacting a dinuclear nitrogen-bridged low-valent titanium(III complex with the Lewis acids AlMe3 or GaMe3 results in the loss of molecular dinitrogen and the formation of two monomeric titanocene(III fragments bearing two μ2-bridging methyl groups. Single crystal X-ray diffraction reveals the formation of a new E—C bond involving the pentafulvene ligand while the bridging and terminal methyl groups remain intact.

  10. Laser welding of aluminium alloys

    OpenAIRE

    Forsman, Tomas

    2000-01-01

    This thesis treats laser welding of aluminium alloys from a practical perspective with elements of mathematical analysis. The theoretical work has in all cases been verified experimentally. The aluminium alloys studied are from the 5xxx and 6xxx groups which are common for example in the automotive industry. Aluminium has many unique physical properties. The properties which more than others have been shown to influence the welding process is its high reflection, high thermal conductivity, lo...

  11. Chapter 1. Economic aspects of aluminium production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanko, E.A.; Kabirov, Sh.O.; Safiev, Kh.; Azizov, B.S.; Mirpochaev, Kh.A.

    2011-01-01

    This article is devoted to economic aspects of aluminium production. Therefore, the perspectives of development of aluminium production, the base components of aluminium cost and economic security of enterprise are considered in this chapter.

  12. Roll bonding of strained aluminium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staun, Jakob M.

    2003-01-01

    This report investigates roll bonding of pre-strained (å ~ 4) aluminium sheets to produce high strain material from high purity aluminium (99.996%) and commercial pure aluminium (99.6%). The degree of bonding is investigated by optical microscopy and ultrasonic scanning. Under the right...... of the cross rolled volume fraction is found. To further asses this effect, and the anisotropy, it is necessary to acquire knowledge about both texture and microstructure, e.g. by TEM. Roll bonding of pre-strained aluminium is found to be a possible alternative to ARB in the quest for ultra-fine grained...

  13. Impact of the ABCDE triage in primary care emergency department on the number of patient visits to different parts of the health care system in Espoo City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kantonen Jarmo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many Finnish emergency departments (ED serve both primary and secondary health care patients and are therefore referred to as combined emergency departments. Primary care doctors are responsible for the initial assessment and treatment. They, thereby, also regulate referral and access to secondary care. Primary health care EDs are easy for the public to access, leading to non-acute patient visits to the emergency department. This has caused increased queues and unnecessary difficulties in providing immediate treatment for urgent patients. The primary aim of this study was to assess whether the flow of patients was changed by implementing the ABCDE-triage system in the EDs of Espoo City, Finland. Methods The numbers of monthly visits to doctors were recorded before and after intervention in Espoo primary care EDs. To study if the implementation of the triage system redirects patients to other health services, the numbers of monthly visits to doctors were also scored in the private health care, the public sector health services of Espoo primary care during office hours and local secondary health care ED (Jorvi hospital. A face-to-face triage system was applied in the primary care EDs as an attempt to provide immediate treatment for the most acute patients. It is based on the letters A (patient sent directly to secondary care, B (to be examined within 10 min, C (to be examined within 1 h, D (to be examined within 2 h and E (no need for immediate treatment for assessing the urgency of patients' treatment needs. The first step was an initial patient assessment by a health care professional (triage nurse. The introduction of this triage system was combined with information to the public on the "correct" use of emergency services. Results After implementation of the ABCDE-triage system the number of patient visits to a primary care doctor decreased by up to 24% (962 visits/month as compared to the three previous years in the EDs

  14. Advanced shipbuilding in aluminium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsson, H.; Svensson, L.E.; Karlsson, L.

    1997-01-01

    The applicability of two different welding techniques for welding ships in aluminium is discussed. Conventional MIG welding and the recently developed Friction Super Stir Welding (FSSW) are compared concerning weld metal microstructures and mechanical properties. Results from testing of FSSW welds are also presented. It was observed that the grain size was smaller in FSSW welds are also presented. It was observed that the grain size was smaller in FSSW welds than in MIG welds whereas precipitates generally were larger in FSSW welds. The two methods produced welds with comparable mechanical properties. Good fatigue behaviour was obtained for FSSW welds. Advantages of the welding methods are also discussed. (Author) 7 refs

  15. Aluminium effect on the physical properties of titanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazimov, O.P.; Il'in, A.A.; Zvonova, L.N.

    1977-01-01

    The effect of aluminium on the physical properties of titanium was investigated. Within the framework of the configuration model of matter it is shown that a change in physical properties with an aluminium content of up to 7.5 wt.% in alloys depends on the phase composition and electron structure. In interacting with titanium, aluminium exhibits acceptor properties, causing d→s electron transitions. The electrons which have shifted to the s-state are partly collectivized and partly localized into quasistable sp 3 configurations, with the resulting increase of the interatomic forces. An intensification of d→s transitions in alloying of titanium with aluminium stabilizes the α-phase. Predominance of d 1 configurations in the intermediate spectrum in the region of the α-solution increases the ratio of the axes of the HCP lattice and determines the electron type of conduction of alloys of the Ti-Al system

  16. Characterization of nitrogen-ion-implanted aluminium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauschenbach, B.; Breuer, K.; Leonhardt, G.

    1990-01-01

    Aluminium has been implanted with nitrogen ions at different temperatures. The implanted samples have been characterized by Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS). Deconvolution procedures are needed to separate the influence of the ion sputter profiling by AES and XPS from the nitrogen-ion-beam-induced effects. The chemical state of Al, N, O and C was identified by deconvolution of the measured spectra. In general, there were double-peak structures observed for N 1s and O 1s, identified as contributions from nitrides and weakly bound nitrogen, and oxides and weakly bound oxygen, respectively. Auger analysis confirms the influence of the nitrogen ion fluence on the shape of the concentration distribution. The influence of temperature on the chemical state of implanted aluminium and on the concentration distribution is discussed. (orig.)

  17. Effect of iron and silicon in aluminium and its alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovacs, I.

    1990-01-01

    The iron and silicon are the main impurities in aluminium, they are always present in alloys made from commercially pure base material. The solid solubility of iron in aluminium is very low, therefore its largest amount forms intermetallic compounds the kind of which depends strongly on the other impurities of alloying elements. Although the solid solubility of silicon is much larger than that of the iron, it is the constituent of both the primary and the secondary particles, the structure of which depends in general on the iron-silicon concentration ratio. These Fe and Si containing particles can cause various and basic changes in the macroscopic properties of the alloy. Since commercially pure aluminium has extensive consumer and industrial use, it is very important to know, not only from scientific but also from practical point of view, the effect of iron and silicon on the physical and mechanical properties of aluminium and its alloys. The aim of the ''International Workshop on the Effect of Iron and Silicon in Aluminium and its Alloys'' was to clarify the present knowledge on this subject. The thirty papers presented at the Workshop and collected in this Proceedings cover many important fields of the subject. I hope that they will contribute to both the deeper understanding of the related phenomena and the improvement of technologies for producing better aluminium alloys

  18. Recycling of aluminium swarf by direct incorporation in aluminium melts

    OpenAIRE

    Puga, Hélder; Barbosa, J.; Soares, Delfim; Silva, Filipe Samuel; Ribeiro, Carlos Silva

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to recover a standard AlSi12Cu1 alloy from machining chips inside the foundry plant, by using an environmentally friend technique to produce cast ingots with characteristics similar to those of the commercially available 2nd melt raw material. The recyclability of aluminium swarf using different melting techniques and the influence of chips preparation in the aluminium alloy recovery rate and dross production was experimentally studied and evaluated...

  19. Improving the wettability of 2024 aluminium alloy by means of cold plasma treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polini, W.; Sorrentino, L.

    2003-05-01

    Aluminium alloys are heavily used to manufacture structural parts in the aeronautic industry because of its lightness and its corrosion resistance. These alloys are successfully used in other industrial fields too, such as railway, automotive and naval industries. The need to contrast the severe use conditions and the heavy stresses developing in aeronautic field implies to protect the surfaces of the structures in aluminium alloy by any deterioration. To preserve by deterioration, it is necessary to make aluminium more suitable to be coated by protective paint. In the aeronautic industry, a complex and critical process is used in order to enhance both wettability and adhesive properties of aluminium alloy surfaces. Cold plasma treatment represents an efficient, clean and economic alternative to activate aluminium surfaces. The present work deals with air cold plasma treatment of 2024 aluminium alloy surfaces. The influence of dc electrical discharge cold plasma parameters on wettability of 2024 aluminium alloy surfaces has been studied. A set of process variables (voltage, time and air flow rate) has been identified and used to conduct some experimental tests on the basis of design of experiment (DOE) techniques. The experimental results show that the proposed plasma process may considerably increase aluminium alloy wettability. These results represent the first step in trying to optimise the aluminium adhesion by means of this non-conventional manufacturing process.

  20. Impact of Ni substitution on structural, electrical and thermoelectric properties of zinc aluminium chromites synthesized by sol-gel route and their photocatalytic investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patil, Seema Pandurang; Helavi, Vasant Baburao [Department of chemistry, Rajaram college, Maharashtra (India); Sanadi, Kallappa Ramchandra, E-mail: sanadikishor@gmail.com [Department of chemistry, Doodhsakhar Mahavidyalaya, Maharashtra (India)

    2017-11-15

    Nanostructured nickel substituted zinc aluminium chromites (Zn{sub 1-x}Ni{sub x} AlCrO{sub 4}, where, x= 0.0, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.0) were prepared by simple, cost effective, sol-gel auto combustion method. Temperature of phase formation was analyzed by thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis (TGA/DTA). Crystallographic studies of all the samples show formation of single cubic spinel phase only. The lattice parameter, crystallite size and X-ray density decreases with increase in Nickel content. The surface morphology of Zn1{sub -x}Ni{sub x} AlCrO{sub 4} shows spherical inter linked morphology while elemental studies show desired composition. The nanosize of the synthesized material was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) which was lies in between 19-25 nm. The DC conductivity as well as thermoelectric power studies of the samples reveals their semiconducting nature. The nanocrystalline chromite has optimal charge separation, which make them to enhance their photocatalytic efficiency. 0.100gm palladium loaded nickel aluminium chromite shows excellent mineralization in water. (author)

  1. Aluminium, gallium, indium and thallium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Paul L.; Ekberg, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Aluminium can exist in a number of oxyhydroxide mineral phases including corundum, diaspore, boehmite and gibbsite. The stability constants at zero ionic strength reported for Al(OH) 3 (aq) vary linearly with respect to the inverse of absolute temperature. A full suite of thermodynamic parameters is available for all aluminium phases and hydrolysis species. Gallium hydrolyses to a greater extent than aluminium, with the onset of hydrolysis reactions occurring just above a pHof 1. In fact, even though aluminium has the smallest ionic radius of this series of metals, it has the weakest hydrolysis species and oxide/hydroxide phases.This is due to the presence of stabilising d-orbitals in the heavier metals, gallium, indium and thallium(III). There are few available data for the stability constants of indium(III) hydrolysis species. Of those that are available, the range in the proposed stability constants covers many orders of magnitude.

  2. Morphology of the aluminium-uranium eutectic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambrozio Filho, F.; Vieira, R.R.

    1976-01-01

    The factors which might affect the eutectic structure including external condition during solidification as well as factors peculiar to each individual system is discussed. The structure of the Al-U eutectic, consisting of the solid solution of uranium in aluminium and UAl 4 , as obtained in ingot moulds and by unidirectional solidification. The extructure in terms of certain variables with emphasis on the growth characteristics of the phases comprising the eutectic the velocity of growth and thermal gradient in the liquid is also presented [pt

  3. Sterically crowded monomeric neutral bis(benzamidinato) compounds of aluminium, [PhC(NSiMe(3))(2)](2)AlX (X=Cl, H); X-ray crystal structure of [PhC(NSiMe(3))(2)]2AlH

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duchateau, R; Meetsma, A; Teuben, JH

    1996-01-01

    AlCl3 reacts with [PhC(NSiMe(3))(2)]Li(OEt(2)) to afford the bis(N,N'-bis(trimethylsilyl)benzamidinato)aluminium chloro compound which, on treatment with KBEt(3)H, yields the structurally characterized monomeric hydride derivative, [PhC(NSiMe(3))(2)]2AlH, whose reactivity towards unsaturated

  4. Bioactive type glass-ceramics within incorporated aluminium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volzone, C.; Stabile, F.M.; Ortiga, J.

    2012-01-01

    Bioactive glass-ceramics are used as biomaterials for the reparation of bone tissue. They are prepared, generally, by bioglass of specific composition for each particular use. The aluminium addition in the formulation at very small quantities influences on the structural properties. Two glass-ceramics obtained by P 2 O 5 -Na 2 O-CaO-SiO 2 formulation within aluminium (0.5 % in Al 2 O 3 base) added through a reactive alumina and purified feldspar were analyzed. The results showed structural differences between both glass-ceramics. (author)

  5. Aluminium alloys containing iron and nickel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coriou, H.; Fournier, R.; Grall, L.; Hure, J.; Herenguel, J.; Lelong, P.

    1958-01-01

    The first part of this report addresses mechanism, kinetics and structure factors of aluminium alloys containing iron and nickel in water and high temperature steam. The studied alloys contain from 0.3 to 0.7 per cent of iron, and 0.2 to 1.0 per cent of nickel. Corrosion resistance and corrosion structure have been studied. The experimental installation, process and samples are presented. Corrosion structures in water at 350 C are identified and discussed (structure of corrosion products, structure of metal-oxide interface), and then in steam at different temperatures (350-395 C). Corrosion kinetics is experimentally studied (weight variation in time) in water at 350 C and in steam at different temperatures. Reactions occurring at over-heated steam (more than 400 C) are studied, and the case of welded alloys is also addressed. The second part addresses the metallurgical mechanism and processes influencing aluminium alloy resistance to corrosion by high temperature water as it appeared that separated phases protect the solid solution through a neighbourhood action. In order to avoid deep local corrosions, it seems necessary to multiply protective phases in an as uniform as possible way. Some processes enabling this result are described. They belong to conventional metallurgy or to powder metallurgy (with sintering and extrusion)

  6. Dispersion strengthening of aluminium-aluminium-oxide products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Niels

    1970-01-01

    The true stress-true strain curves at room temperature and at 400°C were determined for various types of aluminium-aluminium-oxide products containing from 0.2 to 4.7 weight per cent of aluminium oxide. The effect of particles on the initial flow stress and the flow stress for 0.2% offset at room...... temperature and at 400°C is in agreement with Orowan's theory. The increase in flow stress at room temperature for strain values below 3 per cent was related to the plastic strain by the equation σ-σoy=k1ε 1/2, where σoy is the initial flow stress and where k1 increases for increasing volume fraction...... and decreasing particle size of the dispersed particles. A general expression for k1 was derived for the relationship between the dislocation density and the strain in dispersion-strengthened products...

  7. Determination of Aluminium Content in Aluminium Hydroxide Formulation by FT-NIR Transmittance Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lai, Xuxin; Zheng, Yiwu; Søndergaard, Ib

    2007-01-01

    A method for determining the aluminium content of an aluminium hydroxide suspension using near infrared (NIR) transmittance spectroscopy has been developed. Inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) was used as reference method. The factors influencing the NIR analysis...... aluminium content in aluminium hydroxide suspension. (c) 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  8. CERN: very large magnet with aluminium winding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wittgenstein, F.A.

    1984-10-25

    The construction of an octagonal solenoid from trapezoidal plates of Al, 6m long and 6cm thick, assembled by electron beam welding, for installation in a laboratory 50m underground is described. The objective is to create a field of 0.5T in a volume of 1000m/sup 3/ for the L3 particle detector of the LEP accelerator project. Principal dimensions and weights of the structure are given and its three stages of implementation are described, with reference to the contributions from the Swiss aluminium industry.

  9. Synthesis and properties of bimetallic aluminium alkoxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vyshinskaya, K.I.; Vasil'ev, G.A.; Vishnyakova, T.A.

    1997-01-01

    A single stage method of aluminium bimetallic alkoxide synthesis, which consists in activated aluminium reaction with metal salts in the relevant alcohols, has been developed. Properties of the compounds prepared are described

  10. Preparation of aluminium lakes by electrocoagulation

    OpenAIRE

    Prapai Pradabkham

    2008-01-01

    Aluminium lakes have been prepared by electrocoagulation employing aluminium as electrodes. The electrocoagulation is conducted in an aqueous alcoholic solution and is completed within one hour. The dye content in the lake ranges approximately between 4-32%.

  11. Effect of hydrogen on aluminium and aluminium alloys: A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambat, Rajan; Dwarakadasa, E.S.

    1996-01-01

    Susceptibility of aluminium and its alloys towards hydrogen embrittlement has been well established. Still a lot of confusion exists on the question of transport of hydrogen and its possible role in stress corrosion cracking. This paper reviews some of the fundamental properties of hydrogen...... in aluminium and its alloys and its effect on mechanical properties. The importance of hydrogen embrittlement over anodic dissolution to explain the stress corrosion cracking mechanism of these alloys is also examined in considerable detail. The various experimental findings concerning the link between...

  12. The varied functions of aluminium-activated malate transporters–much more than aluminium resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Antony J.; Baker, Alison; Muench, Stephen P.

    2016-01-01

    The ALMT (aluminium-activated malate transporter) family comprises a functionally diverse but structurally similar group of ion channels. They are found ubiquitously in plant species, expressed throughout different tissues, and located in either the plasma membrane or tonoplast. The first family member identified was TaALMT1, discovered in wheat root tips, which was found to be involved in aluminium resistance by means of malate exudation into the soil. However, since this discovery other family members have been shown to have many other functions such as roles in stomatal opening, general anionic homoeostasis, and in economically valuable traits such as fruit flavour. Recent evidence has also shown that ALMT proteins can act as key molecular actors in GABA (γ-aminobutyric acid) signalling, the first evidence that GABA can act as a signal transducer in plants. PMID:27284052

  13. The varied functions of aluminium-activated malate transporters-much more than aluminium resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Antony J; Baker, Alison; Muench, Stephen P

    2016-06-15

    The ALMT (aluminium-activated malate transporter) family comprises a functionally diverse but structurally similar group of ion channels. They are found ubiquitously in plant species, expressed throughout different tissues, and located in either the plasma membrane or tonoplast. The first family member identified was TaALMT1, discovered in wheat root tips, which was found to be involved in aluminium resistance by means of malate exudation into the soil. However, since this discovery other family members have been shown to have many other functions such as roles in stomatal opening, general anionic homoeostasis, and in economically valuable traits such as fruit flavour. Recent evidence has also shown that ALMT proteins can act as key molecular actors in GABA (γ-aminobutyric acid) signalling, the first evidence that GABA can act as a signal transducer in plants. © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  14. Impact properties of aluminium - glass fiber reinforced plastics sandwich panels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathivanan Periasamy

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Aluminium - glass fiber reinforced plastics (GFRP sandwich panels are hybrid laminates consisting of GFRP bonded with thin aluminum sheets on either side. Such sandwich materials are increasingly used in airplane and automobile structures. Laminates with varying aluminium thickness fractions, fiber volume fractions and orientation in the layers of GFRP were fabricated by hand lay up method and evaluated for their impact performance by conducting drop weight tests under low velocity impacts. The impact energy required for initiating a crack in the outer aluminium layer as well as the energy required for perforation was recorded. The impact load-time history was also recorded to understand the failure behavior. The damage depth and the damage area were measured to evaluate the impact resistance. Optical photography and scanning electron micrographs were taken to visualize the crack and the damage zone. The bidirectional cross-ply hybrid laminate (CPHL has been found to exhibit better impact performance and damage resistance than the unidirectional hybrid laminate (UDHL. Increase in aluminium thickness fraction (Al tf and fiber volume fraction (Vf resulted in an increase in the impact energy required for cracking and perforation. On an overall basis, the sandwich panels exhibited better impact performance than the monolithic aluminium.

  15. Chapter 2. Theoretical aspects of aluminium production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanko, E.A.; Kabirov, Sh.O.; Safiev, Kh.; Azizov, B.S.; Mirpochaev, Kh.A.

    2011-01-01

    This article is devoted to theoretical aspects of aluminium production. Thus, the electrochemistry of electrolysis process, calculation of base industrial indicators of aluminium electrolytic cell, and processes occurring on anode and cathode were considered. Factors, which increase the current output and electrolytic cell productivity were studied. The side effects, including anode effect, sodium extraction on cathode, aluminium dissolution in the electrolyte, aluminium carbide formation, and influence of admixtures in the electrolyte were studied as well.

  16. Design and analysis of aluminium brdiges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soetens, F.; Straalen, IJ.J. van

    2004-01-01

    Applications of aluminium have grown considerably in building and civil engineering the last decade, which is due to various aspects: light weight, durability and maintenance, use of extrusions. The paper starts with a short history of aluminium bridges and then focuses on aluminium bridges in the

  17. Silver coated aluminium microrods as highly colloidal stable SERS platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazos-Perez, Nicolas; Borke, Tina; Andreeva, Daria V; Alvarez-Puebla, Ramon A

    2011-08-01

    We report on the fabrication of a novel material with the ability to remain in solution even under the very demanding conditions required for structural and dynamic characterization of biomacromolecule assays. This stability is provided by the increase in surface area of a low density material (aluminium) natively coated with a very hydrophilic surface composed of aluminium oxide (Al(2)O(3)) and metallic silver nanoparticles. Additionally, due to the dense collection of active hot spots on their surface, this material offers higher levels of SERS intensity as compared with the same free and aggregated silver nanoparticles. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011

  18. Application of Anodization Process for Cast Aluminium Surface Properties Enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Włodarczyk-Fligier A.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available An huge interest is observed in last years in metal matrix composite, mostly light metal based, which have found their applications in many industry branches, among others in the aircraft industry, automotive-, and armaments ones, as well as in electrical engineering and electronics, where one of the most important issue is related to the corrosion resistance, especially on the surface layer of the used aluminium alloys. This elaboration presents the influence of ceramic phase on the corrosion resistance, quality of the surface layer its thickness and structure of an anodic layer formed on aluminium alloys. As test materials it was applied the aluminium alloys Al-Si-Cu and Al-Cu-Mg, for which heat treatment processes and corrosion tests were carried out. It was presented herein grindability test results and metallographic examination, as well. Hardness of the treated alloys with those ones subjected to corrosion process were compared.

  19. Hot workability of aluminium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Yeon Chul; Oh, Kyung Jin

    1986-01-01

    Hot Workability of aluminium alloys, 2024, 6061 and 7075, has been studied by hot torsion tests at temperatures from 320 to 515 deg C and at strain rates from 1.26 x 10 -3 to 5.71 x 10 -3 sec -1 . Hot working condition of these aluminium alloys was determined quantitatively from the constitutive equations obtained from flow stress curves in torsion. Experimental data of the logarith of the Zener-Hollomonn parameter showed good linear relationships to the logarith of sinh(ασ-bar)

  20. Study of Surface Roughness and Cutting force in machining for 6068 Aluminium alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purushothaman, D.; Kaushik Yanamundra, Krishna; Krishnan, Gokul; Perisamy, C.

    2018-04-01

    Metal matrix composites, in particular, Aluminium Hybrid Composites are gaining increasing attention for applications in air and land because of their superior strength to weight ratio, density and high temperature resistance. Aluminium alloys are being used for a wide range of applications in Aerospace and Automobile industries, to name a few. The Aluminium Alloy 6068 has been used as the specimen. It is mainly composed of Aluminium (93.22 - 97.6 %), Magnesium (0.60 - 1.2 %), Silicon (0.60 - 1.4 %) and Bismuth (0.60 - 1.1 %). Aluminium 6068 is widely used for manufacturing aircraft structures, fuselages and wings. It is also extensively used in fabricating automobile parts such as wheel spacers. In this study, tests for the measurement of surface roughness and cutting force has been carried out on the specimen, the results evaluated and conclusions are drawn. Also the simulation of the same is carried out in a commercial FE software – ABAQUS.

  1. Establishment of Integrated Information Displays in Aluminium Surfaces Using Nanomanufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prichystal, Jan Phuklin; Bladt, Henrik Henriksen; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard

    2005-01-01

    Bang & Olufsen has been working with a method for manufacturing ultra-thin structures in Aluminium that can be penetrated by light. This has resulted in a patent describing how to obtain this effect by etching of local areas in a solid material. The idea behind an invisible display in Aluminum......-short pulses, selective etching + anodizing, and electrochemical machining....

  2. AC-Conductivity measurements on γ-aluminium oxynitride

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, H.X.; Hal, van P.F.; Metselaar, R.; With, de G.

    1995-01-01

    AC-conductivity measurements were performed on aluminium oxynitrides (Alons) because of their interesting defect structure. Although it became apparent that these Alons are not stable in the temperature range used, the electrical properties of the materials could be measured with impedance

  3. Experimental Realisation of Elusive Multiple-bonded Aluminium Compounds: A New Horizon in the Aluminium Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Shigeyoshi; Bag, Prasenjit; Weetman, Catherine

    2018-05-23

    Synthesis and isolation of stable main group compounds featuring multiple bonds has been of keen interest for the last several decades. Multiply bonded complexes were obtained using sterically demanding substituents that provide kinetic and thermodynamic stability. Many of these compounds have unusual structural and electronic properties that challenges the classical concept of covalent multiple bonding. In contrast, analogous aluminium compounds are scarce in spite of its high natural abundance. The parent dialumene (Al2H2) has been calculated to be extremely weak, thus making Al multiple bonds a challenging synthetic target. This review provides an overview of these recent advances in the cutting edge synthetic approaches used to obtain aluminium homo- and heterodiatomic multiply bonded complexes. Additionally, the reactivity of these novel compounds towards various small molecules and reagents will be discussed herein. This review provides an overview on the current progress in aluminium multiple bond chemistry and the careful ligand design required to stabilise these reactive species. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Developments in the US aluminium recycling industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolling, R N

    1983-06-01

    In the USA scrap recovery of aluminium has gained in importance since the war. Today its amounts to about 32% of total supply. On the other hand primary production in the US seems to have hardly any expansion possibilities. The development of the aluminium beverage can is the clearest example for recycling growth. The increased use of aluminium in passenger cars has led to very close technical and local relations of aluminium foundries and secondary smelters. The changing nature of the aluminium business caused by the growth of recycling should be recognized and made use of.

  5. The prophylactic reduction of aluminium intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lione, A

    1983-02-01

    The use of modern analytical methods has demonstrated that aluminium salts can be absorbed from the gut and concentrated in various human tissues, including bone, the parathyroids and brain. The neurotoxicity of aluminium has been extensively characterized in rabbits and cats, and high concentrations of aluminium have been detected in the brain tissue of patients with Alzheimer's disease. Various reports have suggested that high aluminium intakes may be harmful to some patients with bone disease or renal impairment. Fatal aluminium-induced neuropathies have been reported in patients on renal dialysis. Since there are no demonstrable consequences of aluminium deprivation, the prophylactic reduction of aluminium intake by many patients would appear prudent. In this report, the major sources of aluminium in foods and non-prescription drugs are summarized and alternative products are described. The most common foods that contain substantial amounts of aluminium-containing additives include some processed cheeses, baking powders, cake mixes, frozen doughs, pancake mixes, self-raising flours and pickled vegetables. The aluminium-containing non-prescription drugs include some antacids, buffered aspirins, antidiarrhoeal products, douches and haemorrhoidal medications. The advisability of recommending a low aluminium diet for geriatric patients is discussed in detail.

  6. Aluminium and energy. An interview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, E R

    1978-06-01

    The interview between METALL and the president of Aluswuisse refers mainly to aspects of energy and deals more closely with the questions whether western Europe in view of relatively high prices for electricity is still competitive and which part can be played by aluminium in overcoming the energy crisis.

  7. Recovery mechanisms in nanostructured aluminium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Tianbo; Hansen, Niels; Huang, Xiaoxu

    2012-01-01

    Commercial purity aluminium (99.5%) has been cold rolled to a true strain of 5.5 (99.6% reduction in thickness). The material is very strong but low temperature recovery may be a limiting factor. This has been investigated by isothermal annealing treatments in the temperature range 5–100C. Hardness...

  8. Dynamical study of liquid aluminium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubey, G.S.; Chaturvedi, D.K.

    1979-09-01

    Recent molecular dynamics data of Ebbsjoe et al. in liquid aluminium have been analysed through the memory function formalism. Two forms of the memory functions which have correct asymptotic limit at large wavenumbers but accounts for interatomic correlations in a different manner are considered. The results for ω 2 s(q, ω) obtained from both models are compared with experimental data. (author)

  9. Effect of Bio char on Plant Growth and Aluminium Form of Soil under Aluminium Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Lianwen; Li, Qingbiao; Sun, Jingwei; Feng, Ying

    2018-01-01

    Aluminium-enriched acid red soils in South China easily cause aluminium toxicity to plants, but biochip can improve soils and eliminate soil contaminations. In this project, biochip was used in potted plant control test to study the effect of biochip on plant growth in soil under acid aluminium stress and the migration and conversion of aluminium in plant-soil system. The fin dings show that the application of biochip increases the pH value of soil under aluminium stress significantly, changes the existing form of aluminium ion in soil, reduces the plants’ absorption of aluminium, and alleviates the aluminium toxicity to plants, but too much biochip may inhibit the growth of plants. In this case, further study should be carried out as regards the volume and way of biochip input in practical applications as well as the timeliness of aluminium toxicity removal.

  10. Solidification microstructures of aluminium-uranium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambrozio Filho, F.; Vieira, R.R.

    1976-01-01

    The solidification of microstrutures of aluminium-uranium alloys in the range of 4 to 20% uranium is investigated. The solidification was obtained both in ingot molds and under controlled directional solidification. The conditions for the presence of primary crystals and eutectic are discussed and an analysis of the influence of variables (growth rate and thermal gradient in the liquid) on the alloy structure is made. The effect of cooling rate on the alloy structures has been determined. It is found that the resulting structure can be derived from the kinectics concept, as required by the coupled-zone theory. Suggestions on the qualitative intervals of composition and temperatures with eutectic growth are presented [pt

  11. Study of aluminium oxide from high-alumina refractory ceramics by ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wintec

    Keywords. Ceramics; aluminium oxide; X-ray diffraction; scanning electron microscopy; thermolumi- nescence. ... and ruby, consists of a slightly distorted hexagonal O. 2– .... a very complex structure consisting of a broad distribu- .... Imax (a.u.).

  12. Aluminium alloys containing iron and nickel; Alliages d'aluminium contenant du fer et du nickel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coriou, H.; Fournier, R.; Grall, L.; Hure, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie atomique, Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, Departement de Metallurgie et de Chimie Appliquee (France); Herenguel, J.; Lelong, P. [Centre de Recherches d' Antony, des Trefileries et Laminoirs du Havre (France)

    1958-07-01

    The first part of this report addresses mechanism, kinetics and structure factors of aluminium alloys containing iron and nickel in water and high temperature steam. The studied alloys contain from 0.3 to 0.7 per cent of iron, and 0.2 to 1.0 per cent of nickel. Corrosion resistance and corrosion structure have been studied. The experimental installation, process and samples are presented. Corrosion structures in water at 350 C are identified and discussed (structure of corrosion products, structure of metal-oxide interface), and then in steam at different temperatures (350-395 C). Corrosion kinetics is experimentally studied (weight variation in time) in water at 350 C and in steam at different temperatures. Reactions occurring at over-heated steam (more than 400 C) are studied, and the case of welded alloys is also addressed. The second part addresses the metallurgical mechanism and processes influencing aluminium alloy resistance to corrosion by high temperature water as it appeared that separated phases protect the solid solution through a neighbourhood action. In order to avoid deep local corrosions, it seems necessary to multiply protective phases in an as uniform as possible way. Some processes enabling this result are described. They belong to conventional metallurgy or to powder metallurgy (with sintering and extrusion)

  13. Bumblebee pupae contain high levels of aluminium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exley, Christopher; Rotheray, Ellen; Goulson, David

    2015-01-01

    The causes of declines in bees and other pollinators remains an on-going debate. While recent attention has focussed upon pesticides, other environmental pollutants have largely been ignored. Aluminium is the most significant environmental contaminant of recent times and we speculated that it could be a factor in pollinator decline. Herein we have measured the content of aluminium in bumblebee pupae taken from naturally foraging colonies in the UK. Individual pupae were acid-digested in a microwave oven and their aluminium content determined using transversely heated graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Pupae were heavily contaminated with aluminium giving values between 13.4 and 193.4 μg/g dry wt. and a mean (SD) value of 51.0 (33.0) μg/g dry wt. for the 72 pupae tested. Mean aluminium content was shown to be a significant negative predictor of average pupal weight in colonies. While no other statistically significant relationships were found relating aluminium to bee or colony health, the actual content of aluminium in pupae are extremely high and demonstrate significant exposure to aluminium. Bees rely heavily on cognitive function and aluminium is a known neurotoxin with links, for example, to Alzheimer's disease in humans. The significant contamination of bumblebee pupae by aluminium raises the intriguing spectre of cognitive dysfunction playing a role in their population decline.

  14. Power distribution: conductors in aluminium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmid, R.

    2007-01-01

    This article takes a look at the use of aluminium conductors in medium and low-voltage cables. The author discusses how the increasing price of copper has led to the increasing use of aluminium as a material for the production of the conductors used in medium and low-voltage power cables. Aid is provided that is to help purchasers make the correct decisions when buying medium and low-voltage cables. The current market situation is examined and the appropriate norms are looked at. Technical data and economic aspects are discussed, both for medium and low-voltage applications. The electrical characteristics of the type of cable to be used are examined and discussed

  15. Development of Niobium Boron grain retainer for aluminium silicon alloys

    OpenAIRE

    Nowak, Magdalena

    2011-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and awarded by Brunel University Aluminium castings with a large grain structure have poor mechanical properties which are primarily due to casting defects as opposed to fine grain structure. The grain refinement practice using chemical addition is well established for wrought alloys, however in the case of casting alloys, the practice of adding grain refiners and the impact on castability is not well established. The additio...

  16. Neutron Cross Sections for Aluminium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsberg, Leif

    1963-08-15

    Total, elastic, inelastic, (n, 2n), (n, {alpha}), (n, p), and (n, {gamma}) cross sections for aluminium have been compiled from thermal to 100 MeV based upon literature search and theoretical interpolations and estimates. Differential elastic cross sections in the centre of mass system are represented by the Legendre coefficients. This method was chosen in order to obtain the best description of the energy dependence of the anisotropy.

  17. Aluminium and nickel in human albumin solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard, Bente; Sandberg, E

    1989-01-01

    Five different brands of commercially available human albumin solutions for infusion were analysed for their aluminium and nickel contents by atomic absorption spectrometry. The aluminium concentrations ranged from 12 micrograms/l to 1109 micrograms/l and the nickel concentrations ranged from 17...... micrograms/l to 77 micrograms/l. Examination of the aluminium and nickel contents of the constituents for the production of one brand showed too low levels to explain the final contamination of the product. By following the aluminium and nickel concentrations of the same brand during the production...... of a batch of albumin solution, filtration was shown to contribute to contamination, although the largest increase in aluminium as well as nickel concentrations appeared during the bulk concentrating process. To avoid health risks to certain patients, regulations should be established requiring aluminium...

  18. Surface treatments for aluminium alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardelean, M.; Lascău, S.; Ardelean, E.; Josan, A.

    2018-01-01

    Typically, in contact with the atmosphere, the aluminium surface is covered with an aluminium oxide layer, with a thickness of less than 1-2μm. Due to its low thickness, high porosity and low mechanical strength, this layer does not protect the metal from corrosion. Anodizing for protective and decorative purposes is the most common method of superficial oxidation processes and is carried out through anodic oxidation. The oxide films, resulted from anodizing, are porous, have a thickness of 20-50μm, and are heat-resistant, stable to water vapour and other corrosion agents. Hard anodizing complies with the same obtains principles as well as decorative and protective anodization. The difference is in that hard anodizing is achieved at low temperatures and high intensity of electric current. In the paper are presented the results of decorative and hard anodization for specimens made from several aluminium alloys in terms of the appearance of the specimens and of the thickness of the anodized.

  19. Novel package for inhibition of aluminium corrosion in alkaline solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Gaber, A.M.; Khamis, E.; Abo-Eldahab, H.; Adeel, Sh.

    2010-01-01

    Inhibition of aluminium corrosion in 2 M sodium hydroxide solution by a package composed of the cationic surfactant cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) and lupine seed extract has been investigated employing different electrochemical techniques and chemical gasometry measurements. Potentiodynamic polarization curve measurements showed that lupine seed extract controls both the anodic dissolution of aluminium and the hydrogen gas evolved at the cathodic sites of aluminium surface. Nyquist plots showed two capacitive semicircles in the high and low frequency regions separated by an inductive loop at intermediate frequencies. The inductive loop may be explained by the occurrence of adsorbed intermediates on the surface. A proposed equivalent circuit was used to analyse the impedance spectra for aluminium in NaOH solutions. The corrosion inhibition data have been analysed using different isotherms. The results showed excellent agreement between the kinetic-thermodynamic model and Flory-Huggins isotherm. Gasometry measurements showed that the Inhibitive effect of the surfactant increases at a composition around its critical micelle concentration (cmc). The presence of both the surfactant and lupine seed extract did not indicate synergistic action between them. The mode of adsorption of the surfactant molecules corresponding to their structure is also discussed.

  20. Novel package for inhibition of aluminium corrosion in alkaline solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdel-Gaber, A.M., E-mail: ashrafmoustafa@yahoo.com [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Alexandria University, Ibrahimia, P.O. Box 426, Alexandria 21321 (Egypt); Khamis, E.; Abo-Eldahab, H.; Adeel, Sh. [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Alexandria University, Ibrahimia, P.O. Box 426, Alexandria 21321 (Egypt)

    2010-11-01

    Inhibition of aluminium corrosion in 2 M sodium hydroxide solution by a package composed of the cationic surfactant cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) and lupine seed extract has been investigated employing different electrochemical techniques and chemical gasometry measurements. Potentiodynamic polarization curve measurements showed that lupine seed extract controls both the anodic dissolution of aluminium and the hydrogen gas evolved at the cathodic sites of aluminium surface. Nyquist plots showed two capacitive semicircles in the high and low frequency regions separated by an inductive loop at intermediate frequencies. The inductive loop may be explained by the occurrence of adsorbed intermediates on the surface. A proposed equivalent circuit was used to analyse the impedance spectra for aluminium in NaOH solutions. The corrosion inhibition data have been analysed using different isotherms. The results showed excellent agreement between the kinetic-thermodynamic model and Flory-Huggins isotherm. Gasometry measurements showed that the Inhibitive effect of the surfactant increases at a composition around its critical micelle concentration (cmc). The presence of both the surfactant and lupine seed extract did not indicate synergistic action between them. The mode of adsorption of the surfactant molecules corresponding to their structure is also discussed.

  1. On the anodic aluminium oxide refractive index of nanoporous templates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hierro-Rodriguez, A; Rocha-Rodrigues, P; Araujo, J P; Valdés-Bango, F; Alameda, J M; Teixeira, J M; Jorge, P A S; Santos, J L; Guerreiro, A

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we have determined the intrinsic refractive index of anodic aluminium oxide, which is originated by the formation of nanoporous alumina templates. Different templates have been fabricated by the conventional two-step anodization procedure in oxalic acid. Their porosities were modified by chemical wet etching allowing the tuning of their effective refractive indexes (air-filled nanopores  +  anodic aluminium oxide). By standard spectroscopic light transmission measurements, the effective refractive index for each different template was extracted in the VIS–NIR region. The determination of the intrinsic anodic aluminium oxide refractive index was performed by using the Maxwell–Garnett homogenization theory. The results are coincident for all the fabricated samples. The obtained refractive index (∼1.55) is quite lower (∼22%) than the commonly used Al 2 O 3 handbook value (∼1.75), showing that the amorphous nature of the anodic oxide structure strongly conditions its optical properties. This difference is critical for the correct design and modeling of optical plasmonic metamaterials based on anodic aluminium oxide nanoporous templates. (paper)

  2. Detection of aluminium in different culinary media using black ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jacques Blessing

    The interactions between food and aluminium local kitchen utensils can be a potential source of aluminium released which can ... need to be adopted to preserve consumers' health. ..... Corrosion behaviour of different ... Aluminium beverage.

  3. Introduction. Aluminium production on electrolytic cells with calcined anodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galushkin, N.V.

    1995-01-01

    This chapter presents the monograph content, which includes the description of physicochemical processes in aluminium electrolytic cells, and mechanism of electrolytic aluminium obtaining. The short description of aluminium electrolytic cells construction is presented in this book as well.

  4. Coprecipitation of yttrium and aluminium hydroxide for preparation of yttrium aluminium garnet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrolijk, J.W.G.A.; Willems, J.W.M.M.; Metselaar, R.

    1990-01-01

    Coprecipitation of yttrium and aluminium hydroxide for the preparation of pure yttrium aluminium garnet (YAG) powder with small grain size is the subject of this study. Starting materials are sulphates and chlorides of yttrium and aluminium. To obtain pure YAG (Y3Al5O12), the pH during flocculation

  5. Toxicity of aluminium on five aquatic invertebrates; Aluminiums toksisitet paa 5 akvatiske invertebrater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moe, J [Oslo Univ. (Norway)

    1996-01-01

    The conference paper deals with the experiments done by investigating the effects from the toxicity of aluminium on aquatic invertebrates. The aim of the experiments was to compare the toxicity of unstable aluminium compounds with stable forms of aluminium. 8 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Aluminium in foodstuffs and diets in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorhem, L; Haegglund, G

    1992-01-01

    The levels of aluminium have been determined in a number of individual foodstuffs on the Swedish market and in 24 h duplicate diets collected by women living in the Stockholm area. The results show that the levels in most foods are very low and that the level in vegetables can vary by a factor 10. Beverages from aluminium cans were found to have aluminium levels not markedly different from those in glass bottles. Based on the results of the analysis of individual foods, the average Swedish daily diet was calculated to contain about 0.6 mg aluminium, whereas the mean content of the collected duplicate diets was 13 mg. A cake made from a mix containing aluminium phosphate in the baking soda was identified as the most important contributor of aluminium to the duplicate diets. Tea and aluminium utensils were estimated to increase the aluminium content of the diets by approximately 4 and 2 mg/day, respectively. The results also indicate that a considerable amount of aluminium must be introduced from other sources.

  7. Numerical modelling of closed-cell aluminium foam under dynamic loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazell, Paul; Kader, M. A.; Islam, M. A.; Escobedo, J. P.; Saadatfar, M.

    2015-06-01

    Closed-cell aluminium foams are extensively used in aerospace and automobile industries. The understanding of their behaviour under impact loading conditions is extremely important since impact problems are directly related to design of these engineering structures. This research investigates the response of a closed-cell aluminium foam (CYMAT) subjected to dynamic loading using the finite element software ABAQUS/explicit. The aim of this research is to numerically investigate the material and structural properties of closed-cell aluminium foam under impact loading conditions with interest in shock propagation and its effects on cell wall deformation. A μ-CT based 3D foam geometry is developed to simulate the local cell collapse behaviours. A number of numerical techniques are applied for modelling the crush behaviour of aluminium foam to obtain the more accurate results. The simulation results are compared with experimental data. Comparison of the results shows a good correlation between the experimental results and numerical predictions.

  8. Microstructure and properties of aluminium-aluminium oxide graded composite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamaruzaman, F. F.; Nuruzzaman, D. M.; Ismail, N. M.; Hamedon, Z.; Iqbal, A. K. M. A.; Azhari, A.

    2018-03-01

    In this research works, four-layered aluminium-aluminium oxide (Al-Al2O3) graded composite materials were fabricated using powder metallurgy (PM) method. In processing, metal-ceramic graded composite materials of 0%, 10%, 20% and 30% weight percentage of ceramic concentration were prepared under 30 ton compaction load using a cylindrical die-punch set made of steel. After that, two-step pressureless sintering was carried out at sintering temperature and time 600°C and 3 hours respectively. It was observed that the sintered cylindrical specimens of 30 mm diameter were prepared successfully. The graded composite specimens were analysed and the properties such as density, microstructure and hardness were measured. It was found that after sintering process, the diameter of the graded cylindrical structure was decreased. Using both Archimedes method and rule of mixture (ROM), he density of structure was measured. The obtained results revealed that the microvickers hardness was increased as the ceramic component increases in the graded layer. Moreover, it was observed that the interface of the graded structure is clearly distinguished within the multilayer stack and the ceramic particles are almost uniformly distributed in the Al matrix.

  9. CCDC 865899: Experimental Crystal Structure Determination : (1-Methoxy-2-methyl-3-(tri-t-butylphosphoranyl)prop-1-en-1-ol)-tris(perfluorophenyl)-aluminium

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Yuetao; Miyake, G.M.; John, M.G.; Falivene, L.; Caporaso, L.; Cavallo, Luigi; Chen, E.Y.-X.

    2013-01-01

    An entry from the Cambridge Structural Database, the world’s repository for small molecule crystal structures. The entry contains experimental data from a crystal diffraction study. The deposited dataset for this entry is freely available from the CCDC and typically includes 3D coordinates, cell parameters, space group, experimental conditions and quality measures.

  10. CCDC 865898: Experimental Crystal Structure Determination : tris(pentafluorophenyl)-(3-((tri-t-butylphosphoranyl)methyl)dihydrofuran-2(3H)-one)-aluminium

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Yuetao; Miyake, G.M.; John, M.G.; Falivene, L.; Caporaso, L.; Cavallo, Luigi; Chen, E.Y.-X.

    2013-01-01

    An entry from the Cambridge Structural Database, the world’s repository for small molecule crystal structures. The entry contains experimental data from a crystal diffraction study. The deposited dataset for this entry is freely available from the CCDC and typically includes 3D coordinates, cell parameters, space group, experimental conditions and quality measures.

  11. Development of textile-reinforced carbon fibre aluminium composites manufactured with gas pressure infiltration methods

    OpenAIRE

    W. Hufenbach; M. Gude; A. Czulak; J. Śleziona; A. Dolata-Grosz; M. Dyzia

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of his paper is to show potential of textile-reinforced carbon fibre aluminium composite with advantage of the lightweight construction of structural components subjected to thermo-mechanical stress.Design/methodology/approach: The manufacture of specimens of the carbon fibre-reinforced aluminium was realised with the aid of an advanced differential gas pressure infiltration technique, which was developed at ILK, TU Dresden.Findings: The gas pressure infiltration technology e...

  12. Heat transfer modeling in asymmetrical sheet rolling of aluminium alloys with ultra high shear strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pesin Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Asymmetrical sheet rolling is a method of severe plastic deformation (SPD for production of aluminium alloys with UFG structure. Prediction of sheet temperature during SPD is important. The temperature of sheet is changed due to the conversion of mechanical work into heat through sliding on contact surfaces and high shear strain. Paper presents the results of FEM simulation of the effect of contact friction, rolling speed and rolls speed ratio on the heating of aluminium sheets during asymmetrical rolling.

  13. RESISTANCE TEST OF DEPOSITED ALUMINIUM LAYER ON PARABOLIC PARTS OF VEHICLE HEADLIGHT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal ADAMIK

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper documents a basic quality measurement in an automotive light industry. The experiment is based on a verification of reflective aluminium layer resistance against 100% humidity and higher temperature. This simulates the lifetime of a headlight on vehicle. The goal of this test is to prove that the reflective aluminium layer is able to resist to this environment without any changes in its structure. If any change occurs, the modification of production process will be needed.

  14. Chemical mimicking of bio-assisted aluminium extraction by Aspergillus niger's exometabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boriová, Katarína; Urík, Martin; Bujdoš, Marek; Pifková, Ivana; Matúš, Peter

    2016-11-01

    Presence of microorganisms in soils strongly affects mobility of metals. This fact is often excluded when mobile metal fraction in soil is studied using extraction procedures. Thus, the first objective of this paper was to evaluate strain Aspergillus niger's exometabolites contribution on aluminium mobilization. Fungal exudates collected in various time intervals during cultivation were analyzed and used for two-step bio-assisted extraction of alumina and gibbsite. Oxalic, citric and gluconic acids were identified in collected culture media with concentrations up to 68.4, 2.0 and 16.5 mmol L -1 , respectively. These exometabolites proved to be the most efficient agents in mobile aluminium fraction extraction with aluminium extraction efficiency reaching almost 2.2%. However, fungal cultivation is time demanding process. Therefore, the second objective was to simplify acquisition of equally efficient extracting agent by chemically mimicking composition of main organic acid components of fungal exudates. This was successfully achieved with organic acids mixture prepared according to medium composition collected on the 12th day of Aspergillus niger cultivation. This mixture extracted similar amounts of aluminium from alumina compared to culture medium. The aluminium extraction efficiency from gibbsite by organic acids mixture was lesser than 0.09% which is most likely because of more rigid mineral structure of gibbsite compared to alumina. The prepared organic acid mixture was then successfully applied for aluminium extraction from soil samples and compared to standard single step extraction techniques. This showed there is at least 2.9 times higher content of mobile aluminium fraction in soils than it was previously considered, if contribution of microbial metabolites is considered in extraction procedures. Thus, our contribution highlights the significance of fungal metabolites in aluminium extraction from environmental samples, but it also simplifies the

  15. Development of multilayer coatings for forming dies and tools of aluminium alloy from liquid state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, E; Ugues, D; Brytan, Z; Perucca, M

    2009-01-01

    In this work, a nanocomposite (Cr,Al) x N 1-x /Si 3 N 4 coating system was deposited on H11 hot work tool steel, using the Lateral Arc Rotating Cathodes (LARC (registered) ) deposition system and modulating the chemical composition of the chromium and aluminium-silicon content. Structural characterizations were performed using scanning electron microscopy, equipped with energy dispersive spectroscopy probe, and applying x-ray diffraction, for the evaluation of phase constitution and crystallite size. In addition to the structural features, the coatings' resistance to cyclic immersions in molten aluminium alloy was evaluated. The deposited CrAlSiN coatings exhibited an fcc-Cr 1-x Al x N type structure with different aluminium contents, which directly influence hardness and wear and fatigue resistance in cyclic immersion tests. The main failure modes that occurred on the coatings' surface were soldering and thermal fatigue cracks mainly in the form of heat checks. The aluminium rich coatings were able to withstand about 15 000 cycles, whereas the decrease in the aluminium content in the coatings results in a decrease in the resistance to the immersion in molten aluminium bath. It is worthwhile to note that uncoated H11, subjected to similar testing conditions, withstood at maximum 5000 cycles.

  16. Aluminium Matrix Composites Reinforced with Co-continuous Interlaced Phases Aluminium-alumina Needles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvio de Napole Gregolin

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available An Al-5SiO2 (5 wt% of SiO2 aluminium matrix fiber composite was produced where the reinforcement consists of fossil silica fibers needles. After being heat-treated at 600 °C, the original fiber morphology was retained but its microstructure changed from solid silica to an interconnected (Al-Si/Al2O3 interlaced structure named co-continuous composite. A technique of powder metallurgy, using commercial aluminium powder and the silica fibers as starting materials, followed by hot extrusion, was used to produce the composite. The co-continuous microstructure was obtained partially or totally on the fibers as a result of the reaction, which occurs during the heat treatment, first by solid diffusion and finally by the liquid Al-Si in local equilibrium, formed with the silicon released by reaction. The internal structure of the fibers was characterized using field emission electron microscope (FEG-SEM and optical microscopy on polished and fractured samples.

  17. Phase transformation of aluminium hydroxide to aα- alumina prepared from different aluminium salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masliana Muslimin; Meor Yusoff Meor Sulaiman

    2006-01-01

    The study intends to look at the most suitable aluminium salt to produce a single-phase a-alumina by the hydrothermal method. In the process to produce alumina from the calcination of aluminium hydroxide (Al(OH) 3 ), three different aluminium salts namely aluminium sulfate (Al 2 (SO 4) 2), aluminium nitrate (A(NO 3 ) 3 ) and aluminium chloride (AlCl 3 ) were tried. The process involved the used of NH 4 OH as the precipitating medium. Aluminium hydroxide produced from each of these salts were characterised by x-ray diffraction (XRD) technique to identity the crystalline phase. Aluminium hydroxide produced by all the different aluminium salts is present as boehmite or pseudo-boehmite phase. Aluminium hydroxide produced from Al 2 (SO) 2 , Al(NO) 3 and AlCl 3 shows the transformation of the boehmite phase to a α-alumina phase at 500 0 C. On further heating, the α-alumina continuously formed at 800 o C followed soon at 1000 o C. But for the Al(NO3) 3 salts a different phase transitions occurs on heating especially at 1000 o C. Here it was observed not a single alumina phase is presence but the presence of both α and γ--alumina phases. At 1300 o C, the single α-alumina phase was formed. The study concluded that aluminium sulphate is recommended in order to obtain a single-phase α-alumina with the required characteristics. (Author)

  18. Analysis of the dynamics of liquid aluminium: recurrent relation approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mokshin, A V; Yulmetyev, R M; Khusnutdinoff, R M; Haenggi, P

    2007-01-01

    By use of the recurrent relation approach (RRA) we study the microscopic dynamics of liquid aluminium at T = 973 K and develop a theoretical model which satisfies all the corresponding sum rules. The investigation covers the inelastic features as well as the crossover of our theory into the hydrodynamical and the free-particle regimes. A comparison between our theoretical results with those following from a generalized hydrodynamical approach is also presented. In addition to this we report the results of our molecular dynamics simulations for liquid aluminium, which are also discussed and compared to experimental data. The results obtained reveal (i) that the microscopical dynamics of density fluctuations is defined mainly by the first four even frequency moments of the dynamic structure factor, and (ii) the inherent relation of the high-frequency collective excitations observed in experimental spectra of dynamic structure factor S(k,ω) with the two-, three- and four-particle correlations

  19. Preparation of aluminium lakes by electrocoagulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prapai Pradabkham

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Aluminium lakes have been prepared by electrocoagulation employing aluminium as electrodes. The electrocoagulation is conducted in an aqueous alcoholic solution and is completed within one hour. The dye content in the lake ranges approximately between 4-32%.

  20. Electron Conditioning of Technical Aluminium Surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Pimpec, F

    2004-09-02

    The effect of electron conditioning on commercially aluminium alloys 1100 and 6063 were investigated. Contrary to the assumption that electron conditioning, if performed long enough, can reduce and stabilize the SEY to low values (= 1.3, value of many pure elements [1]), the SEY of aluminium did not go lower than 1.8. In fact, it reincreases with continued electron exposure dose.

  1. Thermal formation of corundum from aluminium hydroxides ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Aluminium hydroxides have been precipitated from various aluminium salts and the differences in their thermal behaviour have been investigated. Pseudoboehmite derived from the nitrate, sulfate and chloride all form -Al2O3 at ∼ 400°C but the formation of -Al2O3 at 1200°C occurs more readily in the material derived ...

  2. Characterisation and concentration profile of aluminium during ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An aluminium(Al) characterisation study was conducted at a surface water treatment plant (Buffalo Pound Water Treatment Plant (BPWTP) in Moose Jaw, Saskatchewan, Canada) to understand better the effect of alum coagulant on various Al fractions. The raw water source for BPWTP is Buffalo Pound Lake water. The Al ...

  3. Thermal formation of corundum from aluminium hydroxides ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Aluminium hydroxides have been precipitated from various aluminium salts and the differences in their thermal behaviour have been investigated. Pseudoboehmite derived from the nitrate, sulfate and chloride all form γ-Al2O3 at ~ 400°C but the formation of α-Al2O3 at 1200°C occurs more readily in the material ...

  4. Rapidly solidified aluminium for optical applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gubbels, G.P.H.; Venrooy, B.W.H. van; Bosch, A.J.; Senden, R.

    2008-01-01

    This paper present the results of a diamond turning study of a rapidly solidified aluminium 6061 alloy grade, known as RSA6061. It is shown that this small grain material can be diamond turned to smaller roughness values than standard AA6061 aluminium grades. Also, the results are nearly as good as

  5. Lactobacillus plantarum CCFM639 alleviates aluminium toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Leilei; Zhai, Qixiao; Liu, Xiaoming; Wang, Gang; Zhang, Qiuxiang; Zhao, Jianxin; Narbad, Arjan; Zhang, Hao; Tian, Fengwei; Chen, Wei

    2016-02-01

    Aluminium (Al) is the most abundant metal in the earth's crust. Al exposure can cause a variety of adverse physiological effects in humans and animals. Our aim was to demonstrate that specific probiotic bacteria can play a special physiologically functional role in protection against Al toxicity in mice. Thirty strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were tested for their aluminium-binding ability, aluminium tolerance, their antioxidative capacity, and their ability to survive the exposure to artificial gastrointestinal (GI) juices. Lactobacillus plantarum CCFM639 was selected for animal experiments because of its excellent performance in vitro. Forty mice were divided into four groups: control, Al only, Al plus CCFM639, and Al plus deferiprone (DFP). CCFM639 was administered at 10(9) CFU once daily for 10 days, followed by a single oral dose of aluminium chloride hexahydrate at 5.14 mg aluminium (LD50) for each mouse. The results showed that CCFM639 treatment led to a significant reduction in the mortality rates with corresponding decrease in intestinal aluminium absorption and in accumulation of aluminium in the tissues and amelioration of hepatic histopathological damage. This probiotic treatment also resulted in alleviation of hepatic, renal, and cerebral oxidative stress. The treatment of L. plantarum CCFM639 has potential as a therapeutic dietary strategy against acute aluminium toxicity.

  6. Synthesis of Aluminium Nanoparticles in A Water/Polyethylene Glycol Mixed Solvent using μ-EDM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, R. K.; Hiremath, Somashekhar S.

    2017-08-01

    Nanoparticles present a practical way of retaining the results of the property at the atomic or molecular level. Due to the recent use of nanoparticles in scientific, industrial and medical applications, synthesis of nanoparticles and their characterization have become considerably important. Currently, aluminium nanoparticles have attracted significant research attention because of their reasonable cost, unique properties and interdisciplinary emerging applications. The present paper reports the synthesis of aluminium nanoparticles in the mixture of Deionized water (DI water) and Polyethylene Glycol (PEG) using a developed micro-Electrical Discharge Machining (μ-EDM) method. PEG was used as a stabilizer to prevent nanoparticles from agglomeration produced during the μ -EDM process. The synthesized aluminium nanoparticles were examined by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Energy Dispersive Analysis by X-rays (EDAX) and Selected Area Electron Diffraction (SAED) pattern to determine their size, shape, chemical nature and crystal structure. The average size of the polyhedral aluminium nanoparticles is found to be 196 nm.

  7. Evaluation of mechanical properties of aluminium alloy–alumina–boron carbide metal matrix composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vijaya Ramnath, B.; Elanchezhian, C.; Jaivignesh, M.; Rajesh, S.; Parswajinan, C.; Siddique Ahmed Ghias, A.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Fabrication of MMC with aluminium alloy–alumina–boron carbide is done. • Different proportions of reinforcements are added. • The effects of varying proportions are studied. • Investigation on mechanical properties above composites is performed. • Failure morphology analysis is done using SEM. - Abstract: This paper deals with the fabrication and mechanical investigation of aluminium alloy, alumina (Al 2 O 3 ) and boron carbide metal matrix composites. Aluminium is the matrix metal having properties like light weight, high strength and ease of machinability. Alumina which has better wear resistance, high strength, hardness and boron carbide which has excellent hardness and fracture toughness are added as reinforcements. Here, the fabrication is done by stir casting which involves mixing the required quantities of additives into stirred molten aluminium. After solidification, the samples are prepared and tested to find the various mechanical properties like tensile, flexural, impact and hardness. The internal structure of the composite is observed using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM)

  8. Steam generated conversion coating on aluminium alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Din, Rameez Ud; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl; Ambat, Rajan

    Aluminium and its alloys are widely used in aerospace industry owing to their high strength to weight ratio. The surface of aluminium under normal conditions has a thin oxide film (2.5-10 nm) responsible for its inherent corrosion resistance. This oxide film can further be converted or transformed...... into functional conversion coatings in order to enhance corrosion resistance and adhesion to paint systems. Chromium based conversion coatings have been extensively used on aluminium alloys to improve adhesion of subsequent paint layers and corrosion resistance. However, the use of hexavalent chromium is strictly...... regulated due to its toxic nature and suspected carcinogenicity. So, it is highly imperative to develop other alternatives for chrome conversion coatings. Treatment of aluminium with natural water at elevated temperatures results in the formation of different forms of aluminium oxide (γ-AlO(OH) , Al(OH)3...

  9. STRUCTURE, PHASE COMPOSITION AND PROPERTIES OF GAS-THERMAL COVERINGS OF MECHANICALLY ALLOYED THERMOREACTING COMPOSITE POWDERS OF NICKEL-ALUMINIUM SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. G. Lovshenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The presented results show that coverings from mechanically alloyed thermoreacting powders of system «nickel–aluminum» are nonequilibrium multiphase systems which basis represents solid solution of aluminum in nickel. It has the microcrystalline type of structure which is characterized by an advanced surface of borders of the grains and subgrains stabilized by nanodimensional inclusions of oxides and alyuminid. These coverings surpass by 1,2–1,6 times analogs in durability, hardness and wear resistance.

  10. Method for aluminium dross utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucheva, B.; Petkov, R.; Tzonev, Tz.

    2003-01-01

    A new hydrometallurgical method has been developed for metal aluminum utilization from secondary aluminum dross. Secondary aluminum dross is a powder product with an average of 35% aluminium content (below 1mm). It is waste from primary aluminum dross pyrometallurgical flux less treatment in rotary DC electric arc furnace. This method is based on aluminum leaching in copper chloride water solution. As a result an aluminum oxychloride solution and solids, consisting of copper and oxides are obtained. In order to copper chloride solution regenerate hydrochloric acid is added to the solids. The process is simple, quick, economic and safe. The aluminum oxychloride solution contains 56 g/l Al 2 O 3 . The molar ratios are Al:Cl=0,5; OH:Al=1. The solution has 32 % basicity and 1,1 g/cm 3 density. For increasing the molar ratio of aluminium to chlorine aluminum hydroxide is added to this solution at 80 o C. Aluminum hydroxide is the final product from the secondary aluminum dross alkaline leaching. As a result aluminum oxychloride solution of the following composition is prepared: Al 2 O 3 - 180 g/l; Al:Cl=1,88; OH:Al=4,64; basicity 82%; density 1,22 g/cm 3 , pH=4 -4,5. Aluminum oxychloride solution produced by means of this method can be used in potable and wastewater treatment, paper making, in refractory mixture as a binder etc. (Original)

  11. STUDY OF ARC IMPULSE FREQUENCY EFFECT ON THE STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES OF WELDED CONNECTION ELEMENTS IN ALUMINIUM PIPELINE SYSTEMS, MADE WITH MASTERTIG 3500

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr. Pavel V. Bakhmatov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Summary . The article focuses on the arc impulse frequency effect on the structure and properties of welded connections in aluminum pipeline systems hand-operated with argon-arc welding nonconsumable rod on MasterTig3500. It was revealed that the frequency of the welding current impulses plays an important role in the forming of the welded connection. The authors determined the optimal value of the welding current frequency significantly accelerating the welding process to ensure consistent quality of the weld. The authors detailed some features of cleaning assembly parts with a wire brush prior to welding process.

  12. Enhanced thermal and structural properties of partially phosphorylated polyvinyl alcohol - Aluminum phosphate (PPVA-Alpo4) nanocomposites with aluminium nitrate source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saat, Asmalina Mohamed; Johan, Mohd Rafie

    2017-12-01

    Synthesis of AlPO4 nanocomposite depends on the ratio of aluminum to phosphate, method of synthesis and the source for aluminum and phosphate source used. Variation of phosphate and aluminum source used will form multiple equilibria reactions and affected by ions variability and concentration, stoichiometry, temperature during reaction process and especially the precipitation pH. Aluminum nitrate was used to produce a partially phosphorylated poly vinyl alcohol-aluminum phosphate (PPVA-AlPO4) nanocomposite with various nanoparticle shapes, structural and properties. Synthesis of PPVA-AlPO4 nanocomposite with aluminum nitrate shows enhancement of thermal and structural in comparison with pure PVA and modified PPVA. Thermogravimetric (TGA) analysis shows that the weight residue of PPVA-AlPO4 composite was higher than PPVA and PVA. X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern of PVA shows a single peak broadening after the addition of phosphoric acid. Meanwhile, XRD pattern of PPVA-AlPO4 demonstrates multiple phases of AlPO4 in the nanocomposite. Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) confirmed the existence of multiple geometrical phases and nanosize of spherical particles.

  13. Fine-structured aluminium products with controllable texture by selective laser melting of pre-alloyed AlSi10Mg powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thijs, Lore; Kempen, Karolien; Kruth, Jean-Pierre; Van Humbeeck, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: -- Abstract: This study shows that AlSi10Mg parts with an extremely fine microstructure and a controllable texture can be obtained through selective laser melting (SLM). Selective laser melting creates complex functional products by selectively melting powder particles of a powder bed layer after layer using a high-energy laser beam. The high-energy density applied to the material and the additive character of the process result in a unique material structure. To investigate this material structure, cube-shaped SLM parts were made using different scanning strategies and investigated by microscopy, X-ray diffraction and electron backscattered diffraction. The experimental results show that the high thermal gradients occurring during SLM lead to a very fine microstructure with submicron-sized cells. Consequently, the AlSi10Mg SLM products have a high hardness of 127 ± 3 Hv0.5 even without the application of a precipitation hardening treatment. Furthermore, due to the unique solidification conditions and the additive character of the process, a morphological and crystallographic texture is present in the SLM parts. Thanks to the knowledge gathered in this paper on how this texture is formed and how it depends on the process parameters, this texture can be controlled. A strong fibrous 〈1 0 0〉 texture can be altered into a weak cube texture along the building and scanning directions when a rotation of 90° of the scanning vectors within or between the layers is applied

  14. Variation in aluminium patch test reactivity over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siemund, Ingrid; Mowitz, Martin; Zimerson, Erik; Bruze, Magnus; Hindsén, Monica

    2017-11-01

    Contact allergy to aluminium has been reported more frequently in recent years. It has been pointed out that positive patch test reactions to aluminium may not be reproducible on retesting. To investigate possible variations in patch test reactivity to aluminium over time. Twenty-one adults, who had previously reacted positively to aluminium, were patch tested with equimolar dilution series in pet. of aluminium chloride hexahydrate and aluminium lactate, four times over a period of 8 months. Thirty-six of 84 (43%) serial dilution tests with aluminium chloride hexahydrate and 49 of 84 (58%) serial dilution tests with aluminium lactate gave negative results. The range of reactivity varied between a negative reaction to aluminium chloride hexahydrate at 10% and/or to aluminium lactate at 12%, and a positive reaction to aluminium chloride hexahydrate at 0.1% and/or to aluminium lactate at 0.12%. The highest individual difference in test reactivity noticed was 320-fold when the two most divergent minimal eliciting concentrations were compared. The patch test reactivity to aluminium varies over time. Aluminium-allergic individuals may have false-negative reactions. Therefore, retesting with aluminium should be considered when there is a strong suspicion of aluminium contact allergy. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Nanosized f.c.c. thallium inclusions in aluminium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, E.; Johansen, A.; Thoft, N.B.; Andersen, H.H.; Sarholt-Kristensen, L.

    1993-01-01

    Ion implantation of pure aluminium with thallium induces the formation of nanosized crystalline inclusions of thallium with a f.c.c. structure. The size of the inclusions depends on the implantation conditions and subsequent annealing treatments and is typically in the range from 1 to 10 nm. The inclusions are aligned topotactically with the aluminium matrix with a cube-cube orientation relationship and they have a truncated octahedral shape bounded by {111} and {001} planes. The lattice parameter of the f.c.c. thallium inclusions is 0.484 ± 0.002 nm, which is slightly but significantly larger than in the high-pressure f.c.c. thallium phase known to be stable above 3.8 GPa. (Author)

  16. Optically Designed Anodised Aluminium Surfaces: Microstructural and Electrochemical Aspects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudla, Visweswara Chakravarthy

    is not possible as the anodic pore sizes are an order of magnitude smaller than the traditional white pigments. The approaches presented in this thesis focus on different techniques like modification of the aluminium microstructure, engineering of the aluminium surface, and application on non...... the microstructure in order to impart light scattering ability to the anodised layer. Coatings based on Al-Zr and Al-Ti binary system were studied for their anodising behaviour with and without heat treatment. The structure evolution of the Al-Zr sputtered coatings and the effect of Si during heat treatment...... Emission Spectroscopy, and Scanning Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy. Optical characterization was performed using integrating sphere measurements. Combining the results and understanding obtained from anodising of magnetron sputtered coatings, Al-TiO2 surface composites and their electrochemical behaviour...

  17. Metallurgical aspects of corrosion resistance of aluminium alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reboul, M.C. [Pechiney Voreppe Research Centre France (France); CNRS-INP Grenoble, SIMAP-INP Grenoble, Universite France, Saint Martin d' Heres Cedex (France); Baroux, B. [SIMAP-INP, Grenoble University, 1130 rue de la piscine, Saint Martin d' Heres Cedex (France)

    2011-03-15

    Aluminium is the second most often used metal after steel. In this paper, the most current uses of aluminium alloys are first summarised. Then, their different corrosion modes, i.e. pitting, crevice, filiform, galvanic and structural corrosion (including inter-granular, exfoliation and stress corrosion cracking) are reviewed, with particular attention paid to metallurgical factors controlling the corrosion process. For each mode, some instances of possible in-service failure are given, followed by the discussion of the involved mechanisms and the presentation of appropriate solutions to prevent corrosion. Last, passivity and polarisation behaviour are discussed with reference to stainless steels. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  18. Establishment of integrated information displays in aluminium surfaces using nanomanufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prichystal, Jan; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Bladt, Henrik H.

    2006-01-01

    Bang & Olufsen has been working with a method for manufacturing ultra-thin structures in aluminium that can be penetrated by light. This work has resulted in a patent describing how to obtain this effect by material removal in local areas in a solid material. The idea behind an invisible display...... in aluminium concerns the processing of a metal workpiece in such a way that microcavities are formed from the backside of the workpiece. The microcavities must not penetrate the metal front side, but an ultra-thin layer of metal is left. It is possible to shine light through this layer. By ordering...... microcavities in a matrix, different symbols can be obtained by shining light from the backside of the workpiece. When there is no light from the backside, the front surface seems totally untouched. Three different manufacturing processes were investigated to achieve the desired functionality: laser...

  19. Mechanisms of de cohesion in cutting aluminium matrix composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cichosz, Piotr; Karolczak, Pawel; Kuzinovski, Mikolaj

    2008-01-01

    In this paper properties and applications of aluminium matrix composites are presented with a composite reinforced with saffil fibres selected for topical study. Behavior of matrix and reinforcement during machining with a cutting tool is analyzed. The paper presents an explosive quick-stop device designed to obtain undisturbed machined surface for examination. Meso hardness measurements of deformed structure, resultant chips and built-up-edge were carried out. Scanning micrographs of machined surface are presented with morphology and types of chips analysed. Values of the fibrousness angle ψ and thickening index k h of chip are evaluated. The research performed has enabled the authors to define mechanisms of e cohesion during cutting aluminium matrix composites. The results received for composite material are compared with those pertinent to aluminum alloys.

  20. Electron beam welding of aluminium components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maajid, Ali; Vadali, S.K.; Maury, D.K.

    2015-01-01

    Aluminium is one of the most widely used materials in industries like transportation, shipbuilding, manufacturing, aerospace, nuclear, etc. The challenges in joining of aluminium are distortion, cleanliness and quality. Main difficulties faced during fusion welding of aluminium components are removal of surface oxide layer, weld porosity, high heat input requirement, distortion, hot cracking, etc. Physical properties of aluminium such as its high thermal conductivity, high coefficient of thermal expansion, no change in colour at high temperature, large difference in the melting points of the metal and its oxide (∼ 1400 °C) compound the difficulties faced during welding. Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW), Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW), Plasma Arc Welding (PAW), etc are generally used in industries for fusion welding of aluminium alloys. However in case of thicker jobs the above processes are not suitable due to requirements of elaborate edge preparation, preheating of jobs, fixturing to prevent distortion, etc. Moreover, precise control over the heat input during welding and weld bead penetration is not possible with above processes. Further, if heat sensitive parts are located near the weld joint then high energy density beam welding process like Electron Beam Welding (EBW) is the best possible choice for aluminium welding.This paper discusses EB welding of aluminium components, typical geometry of components, selection/optimization of welding parameters, problems faced during standardization of welding and process parameters and their remedies etc.

  1. Alveolar proteinosis associated with aluminium dust inhalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, R; Nigam, S; Sivakumaran, P

    2016-08-01

    Secondary alveolar proteinosis is a rare lung disease which may be triggered by a variety of inhaled particles. The diagnosis is made by detection of anti-granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor antibodies in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, which appears milky white and contains lamellar bodies. Aluminium has been suggested as a possible cause, but there is little evidence in the literature to support this assertion. We report the case of a 46-year-old former boilermaker and boat builder who developed secondary alveolar proteinosis following sustained heavy aluminium exposure. The presence of aluminium was confirmed both by histological examination and metallurgical analysis of a mediastinal lymph node. Despite cessation of exposure to aluminium and treatment with whole-lung lavage which normally results in improvements in both symptoms and lung function, the outcome was poor and novel therapies are now being used for this patient. It may be that the natural history in aluminium-related alveolar proteinosis is different, with the metal playing a mediating role in the disease process. Our case further supports the link between aluminium and secondary alveolar proteinosis and highlights the need for measures to prevent excessive aluminium inhalation in relevant industries. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Challenges in LCA modelling of multiple loops for aluminium cans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niero, Monia; Olsen, Stig Irving

    considered the case of closed-loop recycling for aluminium cans, where body and lid are different alloys, and discussed the abovementioned challenge. The Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) modelling of aluminium processes is traditionally based on a pure aluminium flow, therefore neglecting the presence of alloying...... elements. We included the effect of alloying elements on the LCA modelling of aluminium can recycling. First, we performed a mass balance of the main alloying elements (Mn, Fe, Si, Cu) in aluminium can recycling at increasing levels of recycling rate. The analysis distinguished between different aluminium...... packaging scrap sources (i.e. used beverage can and mixed aluminium packaging) to understand the limiting factors for multiple loop aluminium can recycling. Secondly, we performed a comparative LCA of aluminium can production and recycling in multiple loops considering the two aluminium packaging scrap...

  3. Investigation of the aluminium-aluminium oxide reversible transformation as observed by hot stage electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grove, C. A.; Judd, G.; Ansell, G. S.

    1972-01-01

    Thin foils of high purity aluminium and an Al-Al2O3 SAP type of alloy were oxidised in a specially designed hot stage specimen chamber in an electron microscope. Below 450 C, amorphous aluminium oxide formed on the foil surface and was first detectable at foil edges, holes, and pits. Islands of aluminium then nucleated in this amorphous oxide. The aluminium islands displayed either a lateral growth with eventual coalescence with other islands, or a reoxidation process which caused the islands to disappear. The aluminium island formation was determined to be related to the presence of the electron beam. A mechanism based upon electron charging due to the electron beam was proposed to explain the nucleation, growth, coalescence, disappearance, and geometry of the aluminium islands.

  4. Confined recrystallization of high-purity aluminium during accumulative roll bonding of aluminium laminates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chekhonin, Paul; Beausir, Benoît; Scharnweber, Juliane; Oertel, Carl-Georg; Hausöl, Tina; Höppel, Heinz Werner; Brokmeier, Heinz-Günter; Skrotzki, Werner

    2012-01-01

    Aluminium laminates consisting of high-purity aluminium and commercially pure aluminium have been produced by accumulative roll bonding (ARB) at ambient temperature for up to 10 cycles. To study the microstructure and texture development of the high-purity aluminium layers with regard to the shrinking layer thickness during ARB, microstructure and texture investigations were carried out by electron backscatter diffraction and neutron and X-ray diffraction, respectively. While the commercially pure aluminium layers develop an ultrafine-grained microstructure, partial discontinuous recrystallization occurs in the high-purity layers. The texture of the high-purity layers mainly consists of Cube and “Tilted Cube” (tilted with respect to the transverse direction) components. The experimental results are discussed with respect to confined recrystallization in the ARB aluminium laminates.

  5. Employee Motivation at IKEA Espoo

    OpenAIRE

    Thapa, Kumar; Adhikari, Devendra

    2013-01-01

    How to motivate employees and the factors affecting motivation have been subjects of concern for many researchers and practitioners for decades. Until recently employees were primarily regarded as a factor of production (i.e. labor), and not, as in the current view, as an integral part of all businesses. Therefore, motivating employees has become essential in order to achieve the strategic goals of any company. However, due to the current state of competition in the job markets it has increas...

  6. Net shape powder processing of aluminium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaffer, G.B.

    2000-01-01

    The increasing interest in light weight materials coupled to the need for cost-effective processing have combined to create a significant opportunity for aluminium powder metallurgy. Net shape processing of aluminium using the classical press-and-sinter powder metallurgy technique is a unique and important metal-forming method which is cost effective in producing complex parts at, or very close to, final dimensions. This paper provides an overview of the net shape powder processing of aluminium. Current research is critically reviewed and the future potential is briefly considered

  7. Effects of aluminium surface morphology and chemical modification on wettability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahimi, Maral; Fojan, Peter; Gurevich, Leonid

    2014-01-01

    -life aluminium surfaces of different morphology: unpolished aluminium, polished aluminium, and aluminium foil, were subjected to surface modification procedures which involved the formation of a layer of hydrophilic hyperbranched polyethyleneglycol via in situ polymerization, molecular vapour deposition...... of a monolayer of fluorinated silane, and a combination of those. The effect of these surface modification techniques on roughness and wettability of the aluminium surfaces was elucidated by ellipsometry, contact angle measurements and atomic force microscopy. We demonstrated that by employing different types...

  8. Aluminium Toxicity Targets in Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sónia Silva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aluminium (Al is the third most abundant metallic element in soil but becomes available to plants only when the soil pH drops below 5.5. At those conditions, plants present several signals of Al toxicity. As reported by literature, major consequences of Al exposure are the decrease of plant production and the inhibition of root growth. The root growth inhibition may be directly/indirectly responsible for the loss of plant production. In this paper the most remarkable symptoms of Al toxicity in plants and the latest findings in this area are addressed. Root growth inhibition, ROS production, alterations on root cell wall and plasma membrane, nutrient unbalances, callose accumulation, and disturbance of cytoplasmic Ca2+ homeostasis, among other signals of Al toxicity are discussed, and, when possible, the behavior of Al-tolerant versus Al-sensitive genotypes under Al is compared.

  9. Aluminium base amorphous and crystalline alloys with Fe impurity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sitek, J.; Degmova, J.

    2006-01-01

    Aluminium base alloys show remarkable mechanical properties, however their low thermal stability still limits the technological applications. Further improvement of mechanical properties can be reached by partial crystallization of amorphous alloys, which gives rise to nanostructured composites. Our work was focused on aluminium based alloys with Fe, Nb and V additions. Samples of nominal composition Al 90 Fe 7 Nb 3 and Al 94 Fe 2 V 4 were studied in amorphous state and after annealing up to 873 K. From Moessbauer spectra taken on the samples in amorphous state the value of f-factor was determined as well as corresponding Debye temperatures were calculated. Annealing at higher temperatures induced nano and microcrystalline crystallization. Moessbauer spectra of samples annealed up to 573 K are fitted only by distribution of quadrupole doublets corresponding to the amorphous state. An increase of annealing temperature leads to the structural transformation, which consists in growth of nanometer sized aluminium nuclei. This is partly reflected in Moessbauer parameters. After annealing at 673 K intermetallic phase Al 3 Fe and other Al-Fe phases are created. In this case Moessbauer spectra are fitted by quadrupole doublets. During annealing up to 873 K large grains of Fe-Al phases are created. (authors)

  10. Steam Initiated Surface Modification of Aluminium Alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Din, Rameez Ud

    The extensive demand of aluminium alloys in various industries such as in transportationis mainly due to the high strength to weight ratio, which could be translated into fuel economy and efficiency. Corrosion protection of aluminium alloys is an important aspect for all applications which includes...... the use of aluminium alloys in the painted form requiring a conversion coating to improve the adhesion. Chromate based conversion coating processes are extremely good for these purposes, however the carcinogenic and toxic nature of hexavalent chromium led to the search for more benign and eco......, crystalline nano-particles, role of steam-based treatment on adhesion of industrially applied powder coating, and investigations of a failed painted aluminium window profile due to defects in the extruded profile. Chapters 13 and 14 describe the overall discussion, conclusions and future work based...

  11. Generation and characterization of nano aluminium powder ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    TECS

    Generation and characterization of nano aluminium powder obtained through wire ... Department of Aerospace Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology. Madras, Chennai 600 .... pressure developed due to current flow (z-Pinch). Figure 2.

  12. Irradiation effects in magnesium and aluminium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sturcken, E.F.

    1979-01-01

    Effects of neutron irradiation on microstructure, mechanical properties and swelling of several magnesium and aluminium alloys were studied. The neutron fluences of 2-3 X 10 22 n/cm 2 , >0.2 MeV produced displacement doses of 20 to 45 displacements per atom (dpa). Ductility of the magnesium alloys was severely reduced by irradiation induced recrystallization and precipitation of various forms. Precipitation of transmuted silicon occurred in the aluminium alloys. However, the effect on ductility was much less than for the magnesium alloys. The magnesium and aluminium alloys had excellent resistance to swelling: The best magnesium alloy was Mg/3.0 wt% Al/0.19 wt% Ca; its density decreased by only 0.13%. The best aluminium alloy was 6063, with a density decrease of 0.22%. (Auth.)

  13. COMBINED ALUMINIUM SULFATE/HYDROXIDE PROCESS FOR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sulfate, and used for fluoride removal from water by combining with Nalgonda Technique. ... effects on human health and could result in fluorosis. ... [23], nanoscale aluminium oxide hydroxide (AlOOH) [24] and natural zeolite [25], were among.

  14. Aluminium reprocessing with local mineral raw material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirsaidov, U.M.

    2002-01-01

    With the purpose of utilization of ice sediment, receiving from mud fields solutions and flotation tails and at using local aluminium and fluorine-containing raw material was elaborated fundamental technologic scheme presented in this chapter of book

  15. Deformation features of aluminium in tensile tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quadros, N.F. de.

    1984-01-01

    It is presented a method to analyse stress-strain curves. Plastic and elastic strains were studied. The strains were done by tensile tests in four types of materials: highly pure aluminium, pure aluminium, commercially pure aluminium and aluminium - uranium. The chemical compositions were obtained by spectroscopy analysis and neutron activation analysis. Tensile tests were carried out at three strain rates, at room temperature, 100,200, 300 and 400 0 C, with knives extensometer and strain-gages to studied the elastic strain region. A multiple spring model based on two springs model to analyse elastic strain caused by tests without extensometers, taking in account moduli of elasticity and, an interactive analysis system with graphic capability were developed. It was suggested a qualitative model to explain the quantized multielasticity of Bell. (M.C.K.) [pt

  16. Characterization of aluminium alloys rapidly solidified

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monteiro, W.A.

    1988-01-01

    This paper discussed the investigation of the microstructural and mechanical properties of the aluminium alloys (3003; 7050; Al-9% Mg) rapidly solidified by melt spinning process (cooling rate 10 4 - 10 6 K/s). The rapidly solidification process of the studied aluminium alloys brought a microcrystallinity, a minimum presence of coarse precipitation and, also, better mechanical properties of them comparing to the same alloys using ingot process. (author) [pt

  17. FIB-SEM investigation of trapped intermetallic particles in anodic oxide films on AA1050 aluminium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jariyaboon, Manthana; Møller, Per; Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.

    2011-01-01

    -containing intermetallic particles incorporated into the anodic oxide films on industrially pure aluminium (AA1050, 99.5 per cent) has been investigated. AA1050 aluminium was anodized in a 100?ml/l sulphuric acid bath with an applied voltage of 14?V at 20°C ±2°C for 10 or 120?min. The anodic film subsequently was analyzed......Purpose - The purpose of this investigation is to understand the structure of trapped intermetallics particles and localized composition changes in the anodized anodic oxide film on AA1050 aluminium substrates. Design/methodology/approach - The morphology and composition of Fe......-shaped particles were embedded in the anodic oxide film as a thin strip structure and located near the top surface of the film, whereas the round-shaped particles were trapped in the film with a spherical structure, but partially dissolved and were located throughout the thickness of the anodic film. The Fe...

  18. Changes of structure and properties in the heat-affected zone during the welding of high-strength aluminium alloys. Gefuege- und Eigenschaftsaenderungen in der Waermeeinflusszone beim Schweissen hochfester Aluminiumlegierungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umgeher, A. (Tyrolitschleifmittelwerke Swarovski KG, Schwaz (Austria)); Cerjak, H. (Technische Univ., Graz (Austria))

    High strength aluminium alloys like AlZnMgCu 1.5 are usually classified as 'non-weldable' alloys. If welding technologies such as TIG-plasma keyhole welding are used, it is possible to weld these alloys successfully. However, the heat input during welding affects the base material adjacent to the fusion zone. The main objective of this investigation was to study the change of microstructure and properties in this heat affected zone (HAZ) of high strength aluminium alloys. The base material was a high strength wrought aluminium alloy AlZnMgCu 1.5 (7075) in the T6 condition. The specimens were welded by TIG-plasma keyhole welding. Additionally, Gleeble welding simulation techniques were used. The specimens were investigated in the 'as welded' condition, 'naturally aged', 'artificially aged', and after a complete post weld heat treatment. The microstructure was investigated using light and electron microscopy. Hardness and electric resistivity measurements and DSC-analysis were made. (orig.)

  19. Application of aluminium in nuclear power plants; the role of corrosion under breakdown conditions within the hermetic zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szontagh, Endre; Eva, Andras; Koevari, Tiborne

    1987-01-01

    Basic corrosion processes of aluminium determining the application possibilities as construction material within the containment of nuclear power plants were studied. The structure and stability of the oxide layers formed on aluminium surfaces depend on the pH, the temperature and the composition of the media and on the presence of alloying elements in the metal. It could be stated that hydrogen evolution due to the corrosion interaction of aluminium with the coolant of WWER-type reactors was less significant than calculated values. (V.N.)

  20. Development of solar selective absorber layers on aluminium. Final report; Entwicklung solarselektiver Absorberschichten auf Aluminium fuer Solarkollektoren. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoenicke, D.; Moeller, T.; Schwarz, T.

    1998-01-31

    A new electrolytic process was developed to form solar selective layers on aluminium. In the developed process, both the formation of the alumina layer and the deposition of metals into the layer takes place in only one treatment step using a single electrolysis bath. The main step of the so called ISOC-method (impulse structured oxide ceramic) is the anodic oxidation of aluminium which was carried out by using a pulse technique at different voltages. During the anodic polarisation a thin alumina ceramic layer was formed, while the cathodic led to the metal deposition as copper and nickel. The conditions of the electrolysis were varied in order to estimate optimal parameters achieving solar selective layers with high selectivity. Furthermore, a scale-up of the lab scale apparatus to a mini plant was carried out. Finally, the corrosion resistance of the absorber layers was improved by the formation of a thin hydrophobic overlayer using a sol-gel treatment. (orig.) [Deutsch] Ein neuartiges Behandlungsverfahren zur Erzeugung von solarselektiven Absorberschichten auf Aluminium wurde entwickelt. Bei dieser elektrochemischen Behandlung wird in einem Einstufenprozess mit einem Elektrolyten durch eine Kombination von anodischer Oxidation und bipolarer Pulsbehandlung auf der Oberflaeche des Aluminiums eine impulsstrukturierte Oxidkeramik (ISOK) erzeugt. Dabei entsteht durch eine anodische Oxidation eine strukturierte Aluminiumoxidschicht. Bei der bipolaren Pulsbehandlung erfolgt dann eine Abscheidung der im ISOK-Elektrolyten befindlichen Metalle Cu und Ni auf oder in die Aluminiumoxidoberflaeche. Die ISOK-Behandlung wurde vom Labormassstab zu einem ISOK-Verfahren im Miniplant-Massstab entwickelt. Der Einfluss der elektrischen Parameter und der chemischen Zusammensetzung der ISOK-Elektrolyte wurde untersucht. Durch eine auf das ISOK-Verfahren abgestimmte Nachbehandlung, ein Tauchverfahren in einer Sol-Gel-Loesung, entsteht ein Schichtsystem mit hoher Solarselektivitaet

  1. [Aluminium content in foods with aluminium-containing food additives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogimoto, Mami; Suzuki, Kumi; Kabashima, Junichiro; Nakazato, Mitsuo; Uematsu, Yoko

    2012-01-01

    The aluminium (Al) content of 105 samples, including bakery products made with baking powder, agricultural products and seafoods treated with alum, was investigated. The amounts of Al detected were as follows (limit of quantification: 0.01 mg/g): 0.01-0.37 mg/g in 26 of 57 bakery products, 0.22-0.57 mg/g in 3 of 6 powder mixes, 0.01-0.05 mg/g in all three agricultural products examined, 0.03-0.90 mg/g in 4 of 6 seafood samples, 0.01-0.03 mg/g in 3 of 11 samples of instant noodles, 0.04-0.14 mg/g in 3 of 4 samples of vermicelli, 0.01 mg/g in 1 of 16 soybean products, but none in soybeans. Amounts equivalent to the PTWI of a 16 kg infant were detected in two samples of bakery products, two samples of powder mixes and one sample of salted jellyfish, if each sample was taken once a week. These results suggest that certain foods, depending on the product and the intake, might exceed the PTWI of children, especially infants.

  2. Aluminium exclusion and aluminium tolerance in woody plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivano eBrunner

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aluminium (Al cation Al3+ is highly rhizotoxic and is a major stress factor to plants on acid soils, which cover large areas of tropical and boreal regions. Many woody plant species are native to acid soils and are well adapted to high Al3+ conditions. In tropical regions, both woody Al accumulator and non-Al accumulator plants occur, whereas in boreal regions woody plants are non-Al accumulators. The mechanisms of these adaptations can be divided into those that facilitate the exclusion of Al3+ from root cells (exclusion mechanisms and those that enable plants to tolerate Al3+ once it has entered the root and shoot symplast (internal tolerance mechanisms. The biochemical and molecular basis of these mechanisms have been intensively studied in several crop plants and the model plant Arabidopsis. In this review, we examine the current understanding of Al3+ exclusion and tolerance mechanisms from woody plants. In addition, we discuss the ecology of woody non-Al accumulator and Al accumulator plants, and present examples of Al3+ adaptations in woody plant populations. This paper complements previous reviews focusing on crop plants and provides insights into evolutionary processes operating in plant communities that are widespread on acid soils.

  3. TEM investigation of aluminium containing precipitates in high aluminium doped silicon carbide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong-Leung, J.; FitzGerald, J.D.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Silicon carbide is a promising semiconductor material for applications in high temperature and high power devices. The successful growth of good quality epilayers in this material has enhanced its potential for device applications. As a novel semiconductor material, there is a need for studying its basic physical properties and the role of dopants in this material. In this study, silicon carbide epilayers were grown on 4H-SiC wafers of (0001) orientation with a miscut angle of 8 deg at a temperature of 1550 deg C. The epilayers contained regions of high aluminium doping well above the solubility of aluminium in silicon carbide. High temperature annealing of this material resulted in the precipitation of aluminium in the wafers. The samples were analysed by secondary ion mass spectrometry and transmission electron microscopy. Selected area diffraction studies show the presence of aluminium carbide and aluminium silicon carbide phases. Copyright (2002) Australian Society for Electron Microscopy Inc

  4. Investigation of aluminium-rich alloy system of aluminium-strontium-silicium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganiev, I.N.; Vakhobov, A.B.; Dzhuraev, T.D.; Alidzhanov, F.N.

    1976-01-01

    An area of the solid solution based on aluminium was studied, and the surface was plotted of the liquidus adjoining the apex of the aluminium corner of the strontium-aluminium-silicon system. The investigation was carried out by microstructure and differential thermal analyses and by the measurement of the microhardness of the component phases. A combined solubility of silicon and strontium in aluminium was studied along three radial sections at Sr-to-Si ratios of 1/2, 1/1 and 2/1. The relationships of ''composition vs. Microhardness'', obtained in these sections, made it possible to define the boundaries of the phase regions in the aluminium corner of the strontium-aluminium-silicon system at 500 deg C. The greatest solubility is that along the Al-SrAl 2 Si 2 section at a Sr/Si ratio of 1/2. A further increase in the content of strontium brings about a drop in the solubility of silicon in solid aluminium. The projection of the liquidus surface of the strontium-aluminium-silicon system, rich in aluminium, includes four surfaces of primary crystallization: α-Al, SrAl 4 , SrAl 2 Si 2 and Si. The system comprises a section of Al-SrAl 2 Si 2 representing a quasibinary system of an eutectic type. The eutectic reaction takes place at a temperature of 640 deg C. The quasibinary Al-SrAl 2 Si 2 section divides the aluminium corner of the Sr-Al-Si system into two independent systems Al-SrAl 4 -SrAl 2 Si 2 and Al-Si-SrAl 2 Si 2 of an eutectic type

  5. Determination of aluminium induced metabolic changes in mice liver: a Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivakumar, S; Sivasubramanian, J; Khatiwada, Chandra Prasad; Manivannan, J; Raja, B

    2013-06-01

    In this study, we made a new approach to evaluate aluminium induced metabolic changes in liver tissue of mice using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis taking one step further in correlation with strong biochemical evidence. This finding reveals the alterations on the major biochemical constituents, such as lipids, proteins, nucleic acids and glycogen of the liver tissues of mice. The peak area value of amide A significantly decrease from 288.278±3.121 to 189.872±2.012 between control and aluminium treated liver tissue respectively. Amide I and amide II peak area value also decrease from 40.749±2.052 to 21.170±1.311 and 13.167±1.441 to 8.953±0.548 in aluminium treated liver tissue respectively. This result suggests an alteration in the protein profile. The absence of olefinicCH stretching band and CO stretching of triglycerides in aluminium treated liver suggests an altered lipid levels due to aluminium exposure. Significant shift in the peak position of glycogen may be the interruption of aluminium in the calcium metabolism and the reduced level of calcium. The overall findings exhibit that the liver metabolic program is altered through increasing the structural modification in proteins, triglycerides and quantitative alteration in proteins, lipids, and glycogen. All the above mentioned modifications were protected in desferrioxamine treated mice. Histopathological results also revealed impairment of aluminium induced alterations in liver tissue. The results of the FTIR study were found to be in agreement with biochemical studies and which demonstrate FTIR can be used successfully to indicate the molecular level changes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Potentiometric titration curves of aluminium salt solutions and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Potentiometric titration curves of aluminium salt solutions and its species conversion ... of aluminium salt solutions under the moderate slow rate of base injection. ... silicate radical, and organic acid radical on the titration curves and its critical ...

  7. Effect of tempering on corrosion resistance of cast aluminium bronzes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aaltonen, P.; Klemetti, K.; Haenninen, H.

    1985-01-01

    The subject of this study is corrosion resistance of aluminium bronzes, which are copper base alloys containing aluminium up to 12% with additions of nickel, iron and manganese. The main conclutions that can be drawn are: (1) The dealloying corrosion resistance of nickel-aluminium bronze is much better than that of aluminium bronze with iron and manganese additions, but it is not immune; (2) The dealloying corrosion resistance of aluminium bronzes can be improved by appropiate heat treatments. The best properties were obtained by temperering between 600 and 800 deg C, depending on the initial microstructure; (3) In crevice conditions, where local acidification can occur, dealloying of aluminium bronzes is a consequence of the preferential attack of aluminium-rich phases. By appropriate tempering, a uniform distribution of aluminium-rich phases is obtained and the continous path for selective corrosion is not formed

  8. Aluminium hydroxide-the carrier for catalysts coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Normatov, I.Sh.; Mirsaidov, U.M.

    2003-01-01

    At present time several methods of receiving aluminium hydroxide are exist. But all they differ by much staging of process connected with preliminary receiving of intermediate compounds, with application of expensive metallic aluminium

  9. Eco-technological process of glass-ceramic production from galvanic sludge and aluminium slag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisavljević M.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Methods of purification of waste water which are most commonly used in the Republic of Serbia belong to the type of conventional systems for purification such as chemical oxidation and reduction, neutralization, sedimentation, coagulation, and flocculation. Consequently, these methods generate waste sludge which, unless adequately stabilized, represents hazardous matter. The aluminium slag generated by melting or diecasting aluminium and its alloys is also hazardous matter. In this sense, this paper establishes ecological risk of galvanic waste sludge and aluminium slag and then describes the process of stabilization of these waste materials by means of transformation into a glass-ceramic structure through sintering. The obtained product was analyzed with Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR and X-ray diffraction (XRD. The object of the paper is the eco-technological process of producing glass-ceramics from galvanic sludge and aluminium slag. The aim of the paper is to incorporate toxic metals from galvanic sludge and aluminium slag into the glass-ceramic product, in the form of solid solutions.

  10. Searching for new aluminium chelating agents: a family of hydroxypyrone ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toso, Leonardo; Crisponi, Guido; Nurchi, Valeria M; Crespo-Alonso, Miriam; Lachowicz, Joanna I; Mansoori, Delara; Arca, Massimiliano; Santos, M Amélia; Marques, Sérgio M; Gano, Lurdes; Niclós-Gutíerrez, Juan; González-Pérez, Josefa M; Domínguez-Martín, Alicia; Choquesillo-Lazarte, Duane; Szewczuk, Zbigniew

    2014-01-01

    Attention is devoted to the role of chelating agents in the treatment of aluminium related diseases. In fact, in spite of the efforts that have drastically reduced the occurrence of aluminium dialysis diseases, they so far constitute a cause of great medical concern. The use of chelating agents for iron and aluminium in different clinical applications has found increasing attention in the last thirty years. With the aim of designing new chelators, we synthesized a series of kojic acid derivatives containing two kojic units joined by different linkers. A huge advantage of these molecules is that they are cheap and easy to produce. Previous works on complex formation equilibria of a first group of these ligands with iron and aluminium highlighted extremely good pMe values and gave evidence of the ability to scavenge iron from inside cells. On these bases a second set of bis-kojic ligands, whose linkers between the kojic chelating moieties are differentiated both in terms of type and size, has been designed, synthesized and characterized. The aluminium(III) complex formation equilibria studied by potentiometry, electrospray ionization mass spectroscopy (ESI-MS), quantum-mechanical calculations and (1)H NMR spectroscopy are here described and discussed, and the structural characterization of one of these new ligands is presented. The in vivo studies show that these new bis-kojic derivatives induce faster clearance from main organs as compared with the monomeric analog. © 2013.

  11. Effect of Sintering Temperature on the Properties of Aluminium-Aluminium Oxide Composite Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewan Muhammad Nuruzzaman

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, aluminium-aluminium oxide (Al-Al2O3 metal matrix composites of different weight percentage reinforcements of aluminium oxide were processed at different sintering temperatures. In order to prepare these composite specimens, conventional powder metallurgy (PM method was used. Three types specimens of different compositions such as 95%Al+5%Al2O3, 90%Al+10%Al2O3 and 85%Al+15%Al2O3 were prepared under 20 Ton compaction load. Then, all the specimens were sintered in a furnace at two different temperatures 550oC and 580oC. In each sintering process, two different heating cycles were used. After the sintering process, it was observed that undistorted flat specimens were successfully prepared for all the compositions. The effects of sintering temperature and weight fraction of aluminium oxide particulates on the density, hardness and microstructure of Al-Al2O3 composites were observed. It was found that density and hardness of the composite specimens were significantly influenced by sintering temperature and percentage aluminium oxide reinforcement. Furthermore, optical microscopy revealed that almost uniform distribution of aluminium oxide reinforcement within the aluminium matrix was achieved.

  12. Elastic and plastic properties of iron-aluminium alloys. Special problems raised by the brittleness of alloys of high aluminium content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mouturat, P.

    1966-06-01

    The present study embodies the results obtained with iron-aluminium alloys whose composition runs from 0 to nearly 50 atoms per cent aluminium. Conditions of elaboration and transformation have been studied successively, as well as the Young's modulus and the flow stress; the last chapter embodies, a study of the Portevin-le-Chatelier effect in alloys of 40 atoms per cent of aluminium. I) The principal difficulty to clear up consisted in the intergranular brittleness of ordered alloys; this brittleness has been considerably reduced with appropriate conditions of elaboration and transformation. II) The studies upon the Young's modulus are in connection with iron-aluminium alloys; transformation temperatures are well shown up. The formation of covalent bonds on and after 25 atoms per cent show the highest values of the modulus. III) The analysis of variations of the flow stress according to the temperature show some connection with ordered structures, the existence of antiphase domains and the existence of sur-structure dislocations. IV) In the ordered Fe Al domain the kinetics of the Portevin-le-Chatelier effect could be explained by a mechanism of diffusion of vacancies. The role they play has been specified by the influence they exert upon the dislocations; this has led us to the inhomogeneous Rudman order; this inhomogeneous order could explain the shape of the traction curves. (author) [fr

  13. Aluminium and the human breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darbre, P D

    2016-06-01

    The human population is exposed to aluminium (Al) from diet, antacids and vaccine adjuvants, but frequent application of Al-based salts to the underarm as antiperspirant adds a high additional exposure directly to the local area of the human breast. Coincidentally the upper outer quadrant of the breast is where there is also a disproportionately high incidence of breast cysts and breast cancer. Al has been measured in human breast tissues/fluids at higher levels than in blood, and experimental evidence suggests that at physiologically relevant concentrations, Al can adversely impact on human breast epithelial cell biology. Gross cystic breast disease is the most common benign disorder of the breast and evidence is presented that Al may be a causative factor in formation of breast cysts. Evidence is also reviewed that Al can enable the development of multiple hallmarks associated with cancer in breast cells, in particular that it can cause genomic instability and inappropriate proliferation in human breast epithelial cells, and can increase migration and invasion of human breast cancer cells. In addition, Al is a metalloestrogen and oestrogen is a risk factor for breast cancer known to influence multiple hallmarks. The microenvironment is established as another determinant of breast cancer development and Al has been shown to cause adverse alterations to the breast microenvironment. If current usage patterns of Al-based antiperspirant salts contribute to causation of breast cysts and breast cancer, then reduction in exposure would offer a strategy for prevention, and regulatory review is now justified. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Advances in development and application of aluminium batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qingfeng, Li; Zhuxian, Qiu

    2001-01-01

    Aluminium has long attracted attention as a potential battery anode because of its high theoretical voltage and specific energy. The protective oxide layer at aluminium surface is however detrimental to its performance to achieve its reversible potential, and also causing the delayed activation o...... aluminium batteres, especially aluminium-air batteries, and a wide range of their applications from emergency power supplies, reserve batteries field portable batteries, to batteries for electric vehicles and underwater propulsion....

  15. Aluminium hydroxide-induced granulomas in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valtulini, S; Macchi, C; Ballanti, P

    2005-01-01

    The effect of intramuscular injection of 40 mg/2 ml aluminium hydroxide in the neck of pigs was examined in a number of ways. The investigation followed repeated slaughterhouse reports, according to which 64.8% of pigs from one particular farm were found at slaughter to have one or more nodules...... in the muscles of the neck (group slaughtered). The pigs had been injected with a vaccine containing 40 mg/2 ml dose of aluminium hydroxide as adjuvant. Research consisted of two phases: first, an epidemiological study was carried out, aimed at determining the risk factors for the granulomas. The results...... and adjuvant) to pigs inoculated twice with apyrogenic bi-distilled water (group water) and to pigs inoculated once with the adjuvant and once with apyrogenic bi-distilled water (group adjuvant/water). Both studies agreed in their conclusions, which indicate that the high amount of aluminium hydroxide...

  16. The chemical transformation of copper in aluminium oxide during heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Y-L; Wang, H-C; Yang, Y-W; Lee, J-F

    2004-01-01

    Thermal treatment has recently been emerging as a promising environmental technology to stabilize heavy metal-containing industrial sludge. This study used x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) to identify the species of copper contaminant contained in aluminium oxide that is one of the main compositions of sludge and soil. Results indicate that the originally loaded copper nitrate was transformed into Cu(OH) 2 after its dissolution in the aluminium oxide slurry. Extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) fitting indicates that the main copper species in the 105 deg. C dried Cu(NO 3 ) 2 -loaded aluminium oxide is Cu(OH) 2 which accounts for ca. 75% of the loaded copper. After thermal treatment at 500 deg. C for 1 h, both x-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) and EXAFS fitting results show that CuO became the prevailing copper species (about 85%); the rest of the copper consisted of ∼ 15% Cu(OH) 2 and a negligible amount of Cu(NO 3 ) 2 . It was found that most Cu(OH) 2 and Cu(NO 3 ) 2 decomposed into CuO at 500 deg. C. Further increase of the heating temperature from 500 to 900 deg. C resulted in more decomposition of Cu(OH) 2 and Cu(NO 3 ) 2 ; therefore CuO remained as the main copper species. However, it was suggested that about 15% of the loaded copper formed CuAl 2 O 4 through the chemical reaction between CuO and Al 2 O 3 at 900 deg. C

  17. Novel manufacturing method by using stainless steel pipes expanded into aluminium profiles for the ITER Neutral Beam cryopumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dremel, Matthias, E-mail: matthias.dremel@iter.org; Boissin, Jean-Claude; Déléage, Vincent; Quinn, Eamonn; Pearce, Robert

    2015-10-15

    This paper describes the novel engineering and manufacturing solution of stainless steel pipe expansion into aluminium extrusion profiles for use at cryogenic temperatures up to 400 K. This fabrication method will be used for the thermal radiation shields and the cryopanels of the ITER Neutral Beam cryopumps. The use of stainless steel pipes expanded into aluminium extrusion profiles is a solution that combines standard stainless steel welding procedures for the manifolds of the cooling circuits with extended aluminium structures taking advantage of the high thermal conductivity of aluminium. The cryogenic cooling circuits of the pump are a first confinement barrier in the ITER vacuum vessel and the risk of a leakage needs to be minimized as far as possible. The expansion method avoids the need of joints of dissimilar materials in the primary confinement barrier. The fabrication method and results of the prototyping of full scaled components for the ITER Neutral Beam cryopumps are outlined in this paper.

  18. Analysis of aluminium in rat following administration of allergen immunotherapy using either aluminium or microcrystalline-tyrosine-based adjuvants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, Stuart A; Heath, Matthew D; Kramer, Matthias F; Skinner, Murray A

    2016-03-01

    Investigation into the absorption, distribution and elimination of aluminium in rat after subcutaneous aluminium adjuvant formulation administration using ICP-MS is described. Assays were verified under the principles of a tiered approach. There was no evidence of systemic exposure of aluminium, in brain or in kidney. Extensive and persistent retention of aluminium at the dose site was observed for at least 180 days after administration. This is the first published work that has quantified aluminium adjuvant retention based on the quantity of aluminium delivered in a typical allergy immunotherapy course. The results indicate that the repeated administration of aluminium-containing adjuvants will likely contribute directly and significantly to an individual's body burden of aluminium.

  19. Aluminium toxicity tolerance in crop plants: Present status of research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... tolerance of which genes of the Aluminium-activated malate transporter (ALMT) and multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) families are prominent. In this review, the progress of research in identifying aluminium toxicity tolerant genes is discussed. Keywords: Aluminium toxicity, soil acidity, hydroponic screening, ...

  20. Aluminium allergy and granulomas induced by vaccinations for children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rosa Marie O; Zachariae, Claus; Johansen, Jeanne Duus

    2014-01-01

    Vaccination with aluminium-adsorbed vaccines can induce aluminium allergy with persistent itching subcutaneous nodules at the injection site - vaccination granulomas. In this article we give an overview of childhood aluminium-adsorbed vaccines available in Denmark. Through literature studies we...... examine the incidence, the symptoms and the prognosis for the vaccination granulomas and the allergy. Finally we discuss the status in Denmark....

  1. Aluminium allergy and granulomas induced by vaccinations for children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rosa Marie O; Zachariae, Claus; Johansen, Jeanne Duus

    2014-01-01

    Vaccination with aluminium-adsorbed vaccines can induce aluminium allergy with persistent itching subcutaneous nodules at the injection site - vaccination granulomas. In this article we give an overview of childhood aluminium-adsorbed vaccines available in Denmark. Through literature studies we...

  2. Spectrophotometric determination of aluminium in steel with xylenol orange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majeed, A.; Javed, N.; Khan, M.S.

    1996-01-01

    Spectrophotometric determination of Aluminium in steel based on colour reaction between Aluminium and xylenol orange has been carried out. Red coloured complex formed in weak acidic solution is measured for its absorbance at 550 nm. The various optimum experimental conditions for Aluminium xylenol orange (Al-Xo) complex have been studied. (author)

  3. Energy Absorption of Monolithic and Fibre Reinforced Aluminium Cylinders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Kanter, J.L.C.G.

    2006-01-01

    Summary accompanying the thesis: Energy Absorption of Monolithic and Fibre Reinforced Aluminium Cylinders by Jens de Kanter This thesis presents the investigation of the crush behaviour of both monolithic aluminium cylinders and externally fibre reinforced aluminium cylinders. The research is based

  4. Corrosion behaviour of borated aluminium used as neutron absorber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emmerich, R. [EaglePicher Technologies GmbH, Oehringen (Germany); Ensinger, W.; Enders, B. [Philipps-Univ. of Marburg, Dept. of Chemistry, Material Science Centre (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    The electrochemical behaviour of pure and borated aluminium was examined. Measurements were performed in two different electrolytes at 90 C containing different trace-amounts of chloride. For borated aluminium current transients, i.e. metastable depassivation events were found. It is suggested to attribute these transients to less stable passivation layers in comparison to pure aluminium.

  5. High-temperature brazing of graphite using aluminium as brazing alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anikin, L.T.; Kravetskij, G.A.; Dergunova, V.S.

    1977-01-01

    The possibility of enhancing the strength of brazed joints, as well as the effect of the parameters of resistance heating of graphite VPP with PA-4 aluminium on the structure, composition and strength of the joint have been studied. It has been established that brazing of graphite materials, using an aluminium solder will produce a heat-resistant joint of a graphitic composition if the brazing temperature exceeds 2200 deg C. Thermocycling in the course of brazing results in a substantial (1.5-fold) increase in the strength of brazed joints

  6. Internal friction in iron-aluminium alloys having a high aluminium content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillairet, J.; Delaplace, J.; Silvent, A.

    1966-01-01

    By using a torsion pendulum to measure the internal friction of iron-aluminium alloys containing between 25 and 50 atom per cent of aluminium, it has been possible to show the existence of three damping peaks due to interstitial carbon. Their evolution is followed as a function of the carbon content, of the thermal treatment and of the aluminium content. A model based on the preferential occupation of tetrahedral sites is proposed as an interpretation of the results. A study of the Zener peak in these substitution alloys shows also that a part of the short distance disorder existing at high temperatures can be preserved by quenching. (author) [fr

  7. Process for the manufacture of plates containing neutron poison from aluminium and aluminium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, G.; Pollmann, E.; Srostlik, P.

    1985-01-01

    A process for guaranteeing sub-critical arrangements of nuclear fuel in tranport and/or storage containers is described, in which a homogeneous distribution of neutron poison in the aluminium matrix is guaranteed. A homogeneous mixture of aluminium powder and neutron poison powder is produced, this is pressed into plates in several stages, dried and made into hollow aluminium profiles of rectangular cross-section. The open ends of the hollow profile are then closed and this is rolled to the required dimension at 470-500 0 C. (orig./HP) [de

  8. TITANIUM CARBON ALUMINIUM : A NOVEL GRAIN REFINER FOR ALUMINIUM-LITHIUM ALLOYS

    OpenAIRE

    Birch , M.; Cowell , A.

    1987-01-01

    This work explores the possibility of achieving grain size control in aluminium-lithium alloys with the titanium carbon aluminium (TiCAl) master alloys invented at the Technical University of Berlin and developed by London and Scandinavian Metallurgical Co Ltd (LSM). Grain refining tests were conducted on a single batch of 8090 alloy using addition rates of 0.2wt% and 0.4wt% of TiCAl and 3/1 titanium boron aluminium (TiBAl). Other tests using 0.4wt% of binary TiAl gave poor results, showing t...

  9. Benzaldehyde, 2-hydroxybenzoyl hydrazone derivatives as inhibitors of the corrosion of aluminium in hydrochloric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouda, A S; Gouda, M M; El-Rahman, S I

    2000-05-01

    The effect of benzaldehyde, 2-hydroxybenzoyl hydrazone derivatives on the corrosion of aluminium in hydrochloric acid has been investigated using thermometric and polarization techniques. The inhibitive efficiency ranking of these compounds from both techniques was found to be: 2>3>1>4. The inhibitors acted as mixed-type inhibitors but the cathode is more polarized. The relative inhibitive efficiency of these compounds has been explained on the basis of structure of the inhibitors and their mode of interaction at the surface. Results show that these additives are adsorbed on an aluminium surface according to the Langmuir isotherm. Polarization measurements indicated that the rate of corrosion of aluminium rapidly increases with temperature over the range 30-55 degrees C both in the absence and in the presence of inhibitors. Some thermodynamic data of the adsorption process are calculated and discussed.

  10. Molybdenum solubility in aluminium nitrate solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heres, X.; Sans, D.; Bertrand, M.; Eysseric, C. [CEA, Centre de Marcoule, Nuclear Energy Division, DRCP, BP 17171, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Ceze Cedex (France); Brackx, E.; Domenger, R.; Excoffier, E. [CEA, Centre de Marcoule, Nuclear Energy Division, DTEC, BP 17171, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Ceze Cedex (France); Valery, J.F. [AREVA-NC, DOR/RDP, Paris - La Defense (France)

    2016-07-01

    For over 60 years, research reactors (RR or RTR for research testing reactors) have been used as neutron sources for research, radioisotope production ({sup 99}Mo/{sup 99m}Tc), nuclear medicine, materials characterization, etc... Currently, over 240 of these reactors are in operation in 56 countries. They are simpler than power reactors and operate at lower temperature (cooled to below 100 C. degrees). The fuel assemblies are typically plates or cylinders of uranium alloy and aluminium (U-Al) coated with pure aluminium. These fuels can be processed in AREVA La Hague plant after batch dissolution in concentrated nitric acid and mixing with UOX fuel streams. The aim of this study is to accurately measure the solubility of molybdenum in nitric acid solution containing high concentrations of aluminium. The higher the molybdenum solubility is, the more flexible reprocessing operations are, especially when the spent fuels contain high amounts of molybdenum. To be most representative of the dissolution process, uranium-molybdenum alloy and molybdenum metal powder were dissolved in solutions of aluminium nitrate at the nominal dissolution temperature. The experiments showed complete dissolution of metallic elements after 30 minutes long stirring, even if molybdenum metal was added in excess. After an induction period, a slow precipitation of molybdic acid occurs for about 15 hours. The data obtained show the molybdenum solubility decreases with increasing aluminium concentration. The solubility law follows an exponential relation around 40 g/L of aluminium with a high determination coefficient. Molybdenum solubility is not impacted by the presence of gadolinium, or by an increasing concentration of uranium. (authors)

  11. An aluminium evaporation source for ion plating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walley, P.A.; Cross, K.B.

    1977-01-01

    Ion plating with aluminium is becoming increasingly accepted as a method of anti-corrosion surface passivation, the usual requirements being for a layer between 12 and 50 microns in thickness, (0.0005 to 0.002). The evaporation system described here offers a number of advantages over high power electron beam sources when used for aluminium ion plating. The source consists of a resistively heated, specially shaped, boron nitride-titanium diboride boat and a metering feed system. Its main features are small physical size, soft vacuum compatibility, low power consumption and metered evaporation output. (author)

  12. The determination of trace oxygen in aluminium and aluminium-silicon alloy by helium-3 activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandecasteele, C.; Goethals, P.; Kieffer, R.; Hoste, J.

    1975-01-01

    The determination of oxygen in aluminium and aluminium-silicon alloy by helium-3 activation is studied. The 18 F formed from oxygen is separated by distillation followed by precipitation of leadfluorochloride. The chemical yield is determined by activation in an isotopic neutron source. Concentrations of resp. 27 and 64 ng.g -1 with a precision for a single determination of resp. 30 and 13% are found in 99.5% aluminium and in aluminium-silicon (3%) alloy. (author)

  13. Does aluminium bind to histidine? An NMR investigation of amyloid β12 and amyloid β16 fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Priya; Krishnarjuna, Bankala; Vishwanathan, Vinaya; Jagadeesh Kumar, Dasappa; Babu, Sudhir; Ramanathan, Krishna Venkatachala; Easwaran, Kalpathy Ramaier Katchap; Nagendra, Holenarasipur Gundurao; Raghothama, Srinivasarao

    2013-07-01

    Aluminium and zinc are known to be the major triggering agents for aggregation of amyloid peptides leading to plaque formation in Alzheimer's disease. While zinc binding to histidine in Aβ (amyloid β) fragments has been implicated as responsible for aggregation, not much information is available on the interaction of aluminium with histidine. In the NMR study of the N-terminal Aβ fragments, DAEFRHDSGYEV (Aβ12) and DAEFRHDSGYEVHHQK (Aβ16) presented here, the interactions of the fragments with aluminium have been investigated. Significant chemical shifts were observed for few residues near the C-terminus when aluminium chloride was titrated with Aβ12 and Aβ16 peptides. Surprisingly, it is nonhistidine residues which seem to be involved in aluminium binding. Based on NMR constrained structure obtained by molecular modelling, aluminium-binding pockets in Aβ12 were around charged residues such as Asp, Glu. The results are discussed in terms of native structure propagation, and the relevance of histidine residues in the sequences for metal-binding interactions. We expect that the study of such short amyloid peptide fragments will not only provide clues for plaque formation in aggregated conditions but also facilitate design of potential drugs for these targets. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  14. Hydrogen analysis and effect of filtration on final quality of castings from aluminium alloy AlSi7Mg0,3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Brůna

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The usage of aluminium and its alloys have increased in many applications and industries over the decades. The automotive industry is the largest market for aluminium castings and cast products. Aluminium is widely used in other applications such as aerospace, marine engines and structures. Parts of small appliances, hand tools and other machinery also use thousands of different aluminium castings. The applications grow as industry seeks new ways to save weight and improve performance and recycling of metals has become an essential part of a sustainable industrial society. The process of recycling has therefore grown to be of great importance, also another aspect has become of critical importance: the achievement of quality and reliability of the products and so is very important to underst and the mechanisms of the formation of defects in aluminium melts, and also to have a reliable and simple means of detection.

  15. On the importance of fast scattering data for aluminium in the interpretation results from H{sub 2}O moderated lattice experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fayers, F J; Terry, M J [General Reactor Physics Division, Atomic Energy Establishment, Winfrith, Dorchester, Dorset (United Kingdom)

    1967-07-15

    Aluminium is often used as a structural material or fuel cladding in lattice experiments with light water moderators. In particular most of the experiments with regular rod lattices of plutonium fuel have contained significant quantities of aluminium. This report examines the importance of scattering data for aluminium in leakage calculations for light water systems. It is shown that some discrepancy exists between calculated plane moments and experimentally measured moments, which may be corrected by an 'ad hoc' adjustment of inelastic scattering data for aluminium. WIMS results are presented for some Battelle plutonium fuelled rod lattices, and it is shown that this adjustment of inelastic data leads to a noticeable correction for the predicted reactivities of these experiments. The influence of scattering data for aluminium on results for some other lattices of interest has been shown to be less important. (author)

  16. Fatigue resistance of welded joints in aluminium high-speed craft : A total stress concept

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Den Besten, J.H.

    2015-01-01

    Crew transfers, surveillance duties and {security, rescue, interception} operations at sea typically require high-speed craft. Aluminium is quite often selected as hull structure material because of its weight save potential in comparison to steel. The fatigue strength, however, may become a point

  17. Dehydration-rehydration behaviour of zirconium hydroxide and aluminium hydroxide coprecipitated hydrogel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitra, N.K.; Guha, P.; Basumajumdar, A.

    1989-01-01

    Equilibrium dehydration loss experiments on zirconium and aluminium hydroxide coprecipitated hyrogels were carried out up to 600deg and the above heat treated samples were subjected to rehydration at various humidities in order to study the structural flexibilties of the above hydrogel with respect to orientation of water molecules. (author). 6 refs., 3 tabs

  18. Parameters of nanodimensional aluminium films deposited by the laser method in vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gusakov, G.A.; Ismailov, D.R.; Puzyrev, M.V.

    2011-01-01

    The investigation of the thickness and structure of a aluminium films surface produced by the laser-plasma deposition has been carried out. The dependence of a film thickness from laser radiation intensity has been determined. Threshold intensity has been determined when an evaporation of a target material begins. (authors)

  19. Durability of bare and anodised aluminium in atmosphere of very different corrosivities I. Bare aluminium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, J. A.; Escudero, E.; Lopez, V.; Simancas, J.; Morcillo, M.

    2004-01-01

    The behaviour of bare aluminium is studied in atmospheric exposure at 11 natural testing stations with salinity levels ranging between 2.1 and 684 mg Cl''- m''-2 d''-1. In atmospheres of low or moderate aggressivity aluminium behaves as a passive material, though the insignificant corrosion that is produced is sufficient to spoil its appearance. In contrast, at salinity levels of 50 mg Cl''- m''-2 ''-1 or above, aluminium is susceptible to pitting corrosion even in the first year of atmospheric exposure, or in the second year at salinities of ≤ 10 mg Cl''- m''-2 d''-1. For comparative purposes, results are included for aluminium protected with an anodic film of 28 μm thickness exposed at the same testing stations. A 28 μm anodic film, correctly sealed, prevents the risk of localised corrosion even in the most unfavourable situations. (Author) 23 refs

  20. Irradiation damage in aluminium single crystals produced by 50-keV aluminium and copper ions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, L.; Johansen, A.; Koch, J.

    1968-01-01

    Aluminium single crystals, thin enough to be examined by electron microscopy, have been irradiated with 50-keV aluminium and copper ions. The irradiation fluxes were in the range 1011–1014 cm−2 s−1 and the doses were from 6 × 1012 to 6 × 1014 cm−2. Irradiation along either a or a direction produces...... rows of dislocation loops all lying parallel to one particular direction. If the aluminium target is quenched from 600 °C and annealed at room temperature prior to irradiation with aluminium ions, the rows of loops are suppressed. The amount of damage observed is considerably less than would...

  1. Silicon Alloying On Aluminium Based Alloy Surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suryanto

    2002-01-01

    Silicon alloying on surface of aluminium based alloy was carried out using electron beam. This is performed in order to enhance tribological properties of the alloy. Silicon is considered most important alloying element in aluminium alloy, particularly for tribological components. Prior to silicon alloying. aluminium substrate were painted with binder and silicon powder and dried in a furnace. Silicon alloying were carried out in a vacuum chamber. The Silicon alloyed materials were assessed using some techniques. The results show that silicon alloying formed a composite metal-non metal system in which silicon particles are dispersed in the alloyed layer. Silicon content in the alloyed layer is about 40% while in other place is only 10.5 %. The hardness of layer changes significantly. The wear properties of the alloying alloys increase. Silicon surface alloying also reduced the coefficient of friction for sliding against a hardened steel counter face, which could otherwise be higher because of the strong adhesion of aluminium to steel. The hardness of the silicon surface alloyed material dropped when it underwent a heating cycle similar to the ion coating process. Hence, silicon alloying is not a suitable choice for use as an intermediate layer for duplex treatment

  2. Warm Deep Drawing of Aluminium Sheet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolt, P.J.; Werkhoven, R.J.; van den Boogaard, Antonius H.

    2003-01-01

    Aluminium sheet drawing processes can be improved by manipulating local flow behaviour by means of elevated temperatures and temperature gradients in the tooling. Forming tests showed that a substantial improvement is possible not only for 5xxx but also for 6xxx series alloys. Finite element method

  3. Complexes of alkylphenols with aluminium halides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golounin, A.V.

    1997-01-01

    Interaction of aluminium halides with alkylphenols is studied through the NMR method. The peculiarity of complex formation of pentamethylphenol with AlI 3 is revealed. By AlI 3 action on the pentamethylphenol the complexes are formed both of keto- and oxy form [ru

  4. Plasma metallization of aluminium oxide powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnov, A.I.; Petrunichev, V.A.

    1981-01-01

    The sintering ability of cermets of metallized granulas of aluminium and matrix materials, such as chromium, nickel and nichrome is studied. Deformation tests of samples of cermets with molybdenum coated granules show satisfactory results at normal and high temperatures without fracture of metall-oxide interfaces [ru

  5. Indentation of aluminium foam at low velocity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi Xiaopeng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The indentation behaviour of aluminium foams at low velocity (10 m/s ∼ 30 m/s was investigated both in experiments and numerical simulation in this paper. A flat-ended indenter was used and the force-displacement history was recorded. The Split Hopkinson Pressure bar was used to obtain the indentation velocity and forces in the dynamic experiments. Because of the low strength of the aluminium foam, PMMA bar was used, and the experimental data were corrected using Bacon's method. The energy absorption characteristics varying with impact velocity were then obtained. It was found that the energy absorption ability of aluminium foam gradually increases in the quasi-static regime and shows a significant increase at ∼10 m/s velocity. Numerical simulation was also conducted to investigate this process. A 3D Voronoi model was used and models with different relative densities were investigated as well as those with different failure strain. The indentation energy increases with both the relative density and failure strain. The analysis of the FE model implies that the significant change in energy absorption ability of aluminium foam in indentation at ∼10 m/s velocity may be caused by plastic wave effect.

  6. Molecular breeding of cereals for aluminium resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aluminium (Al3+) toxicity is the primary factor limiting crop production on acidic soils worldwide. In addition to an application of lime for soil amelioration, Al3+ resistant plant varieties have been deployed to raise productivity on such hostile soils. This has been possible due to the exploita...

  7. Creep properties of aluminium processed by ECAP

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Král, Petr; Dvořák, Jiří; Jäger, Aleš; Kvapilová, Marie; Horita, Z.; Sklenička, Václav

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 6 (2016), s. 441-451 ISSN 0023-432X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LQ1601 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 ; RVO:68378271 Keywords : equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) * aluminium * ultrafine-grained microstructure * creep Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy; JG - Metallurgy (FZU-D) Impact factor: 0.366, year: 2016

  8. Aluminium and breast cancer: Sources of exposure, tissue measurements and mechanisms of toxicological actions on breast biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darbre, Philippa D; Mannello, Ferdinando; Exley, Christopher

    2013-11-01

    This review examines recent evidence linking exposure to aluminium with the aetiology of breast cancer. The human population is exposed to aluminium throughout daily life including through diet, application of antiperspirants, use of antacids and vaccination. Aluminium has now been measured in a range of human breast structures at higher levels than in blood serum and experimental evidence suggests that the tissue concentrations measured have the potential to adversely influence breast epithelial cells including generation of genomic instability, induction of anchorage-independent proliferation and interference in oestrogen action. The presence of aluminium in the human breast may also alter the breast microenvironment causing disruption to iron metabolism, oxidative damage to cellular components, inflammatory responses and alterations to the motility of cells. The main research need is now to investigate whether the concentrations of aluminium measured in the human breast can lead in vivo to any of the effects observed in cells in vitro and this would be aided by the identification of biomarkers specific for aluminium action. © 2013.

  9. Effect of the temperature and the chlorine pressure, over the aluminium chlorides obtained by direct chlorination of the 6061 alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, Fabiola J.; Bohe, Ana E.; Pasquevich, Daniel M.

    2003-01-01

    The aluminium chloride is synthesized by direct chlorination of aluminium, in agreement with the following reaction: Al(s) + 3/2 Cl 2 AlCl 3 (s,g).The present work focuses on the preparation of aluminium chlorides by two methods: (a) Chlorination of 6061 aluminium alloy with gaseous chlorine in sealed containers, filled with different pressures of gas, from 0.8 to 74 Kpa and in the range of temperature between 200 0 and 500 0 C.(b) Chlorination of the same alloy in chlorine flow between 150 0 and 400 0 C.In the sealed systems, the hexahydrated aluminium trichloride predominated over the anhydrous form. For pressures lower than 14 Kpa and temperatures under 250 0 C, the chloride didn't appear.The residues were rich in aluminium, chlorine and magnesium.In the other systems, the anhydrous chloride was found in the areas of the reactor of temperatures above 100 0 C, for all the thermal treatments. The waste was composed by CrCl 3 and AlCl 3 .6H 2 O.The influence of the chlorine pressures and the heating temperature over the characteristics of the product, was studied.The characterization techniques were x-ray diffraction and energy dispersive spectroscopy, and the evolution of the structure was followed by scanning electron microscopy

  10. An investigation of coated aluminium bipolar plates for PEMFC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Chien-Hung; Tsai, Sung-Ying

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Coated aluminium bipolar plates demonstrate the hydrophobic property than the raw material. ► The corrosion behaviour of bipolar plate decreases the PEMFC performance severely. ► These PEMFCs are measured by current–voltage (I–V) curve test. ► The oxide film increases the interfacial contact resistance. -- Abstract: The performance of Al-alloy bipolar plates for the PEMFC (proton exchange membrane fuel cell) system is investigated in this paper. The metallic bipolar plates are modified with a Ni–P coating. The performance of the Al-alloy bipolar plates is evaluated by the coating structure, corrosion resistance, contact angle and single cell performance. The results indicate that the coated aluminium bipolar plates demonstrate hydrophobic and anti-corrosive properties. The hydrophobic property increases the contact angle on the surface from 46.08° to 80.51°. Meanwhile, the corrosion rate of the Ni–P coating can be over 1 order of magnitude lower than that of the substrate. Hence, the substrate with the coating maintains superior performance under the long term test. The present study proves that both the hydrophobicity and corrosion resistance significantly affect the metallic bipolar plate.

  11. Photochemical preparation of aluminium oxide layers via vacuum ultraviolet irradiation of a polymeric hexanoato aluminium complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wennrich, L.; Khalil, H.; Bundesmann, C.; Decker, U.; Gerlach, J.W.; Helmstedt, U.; Manova, D.; Naumov, S.; Prager, L.

    2013-01-01

    By means of photochemical conversion of thin layers of a polymeric hexanoato aluminium complex as the precursor, thin aluminium oxide layers were prepared onto silicon wafers. The precursor compound was synthesized and characterized by several analytical techniques like NMR, FTIR, XPS, ICP, and found to be a polymeric aluminium-containing coordination compound which has been proposed to be a hydroxo-bridged aluminium chain with pendant hexanoyl side-chains ascertained as catena-poly[{di(κ-O,O-hexanoato)aluminium}(μ-hydroxo)] (PHAH). Thin layers deposited from a solution of PHAH in toluene onto silicon wafers were irradiated using VUV radiation from a xenon excimer lamp. The layers were characterized by XPS, XRD, XRR, and spectroscopic ellipsometry. VUV radiation with a radiant exposure of E = 36 J cm −2 led to almost carbon-free amorphous layers with a composition close to that of alumina having a density of about 2.1 g cm −3 . Thus, using the example of a polymeric aluminium complex, the potential of the photochemical conversion of metal complexes into oxides could be shown as an alternative method, in addition to sol–gel techniques, for the generation of thin plane metal-oxide layers at normal temperature and pressure. Highlights: ► A polymeric aluminium complex was synthesized and characterized by NMR, FTIR, XPS and ICP. ► Thin layers of the compound were irradiated using vacuum-UV radiation and converted to AlO x . ► Quantum-chemical calculations explain the conversion mechanism.

  12. Aluminium in brain tissue in familial Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirza, Ambreen; King, Andrew; Troakes, Claire; Exley, Christopher

    2017-03-01

    The genetic predispositions which describe a diagnosis of familial Alzheimer's disease can be considered as cornerstones of the amyloid cascade hypothesis. Essentially they place the expression and metabolism of the amyloid precursor protein as the main tenet of disease aetiology. However, we do not know the cause of Alzheimer's disease and environmental factors may yet be shown to contribute towards its onset and progression. One such environmental factor is human exposure to aluminium and aluminium has been shown to be present in brain tissue in sporadic Alzheimer's disease. We have made the first ever measurements of aluminium in brain tissue from 12 donors diagnosed with familial Alzheimer's disease. The concentrations of aluminium were extremely high, for example, there were values in excess of 10μg/g tissue dry wt. in 5 of the 12 individuals. Overall, the concentrations were higher than all previous measurements of brain aluminium except cases of known aluminium-induced encephalopathy. We have supported our quantitative analyses using a novel method of aluminium-selective fluorescence microscopy to visualise aluminium in all lobes of every brain investigated. The unique quantitative data and the stunning images of aluminium in familial Alzheimer's disease brain tissue raise the spectre of aluminium's role in this devastating disease. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier GmbH.. All rights reserved.

  13. Toxicity of dissolved and precipitated aluminium to marine diatoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillmore, Megan L; Golding, Lisa A; Angel, Brad M; Adams, Merrin S; Jolley, Dianne F

    2016-05-01

    Localised aluminium contamination can lead to high concentrations in coastal waters, which have the potential for adverse effects on aquatic organisms. This research investigated the toxicity of 72-h exposures of aluminium to three marine diatoms (Ceratoneis closterium (formerly Nitzschia closterium), Minutocellus polymorphus and Phaeodactylum tricornutum) by measuring population growth rate inhibition and cell membrane damage (SYTOX Green) as endpoints. Toxicity was correlated to the time-averaged concentrations of different aluminium size-fractions, operationally defined as aluminium exposure varied between diatom species. C. closterium was the most sensitive species (10% inhibition of growth rate (72-h IC10) of 80 (55-100)μg Al/L (95% confidence limits)) while M. polymorphus (540 (460-600)μg Al/L) and P. tricornutum (2100 (2000-2200)μg Al/L) were less sensitive (based on measured total aluminium). Dissolved aluminium was the primary contributor to toxicity in C. closterium, while a combination of dissolved and precipitated aluminium forms contributed to toxicity in M. polymorphus. In contrast, aluminium toxicity to the most tolerant diatom P. tricornutum was due predominantly to precipitated aluminium. Preliminary investigations revealed the sensitivity of C. closterium and M. polymorphus to aluminium was influenced by initial cell density with aluminium toxicity significantly (paluminium toxicity to diatoms do not involve compromising the plasma membrane. These results indicate that marine diatoms have a broad range in sensitivity to aluminium with toxic mechanisms related to both dissolved and precipitated aluminium. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Nanostructural hierarchy increases the strength of aluminium alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddicoat, Peter V; Liao, Xiao-Zhou; Zhao, Yonghao; Zhu, Yuntian; Murashkin, Maxim Y; Lavernia, Enrique J; Valiev, Ruslan Z; Ringer, Simon P

    2010-09-07

    Increasing the strength of metallic alloys while maintaining formability is an interesting challenge for enabling new generations of lightweight structures and technologies. In this paper, we engineer aluminium alloys to contain a hierarchy of nanostructures and possess mechanical properties that expand known performance boundaries-an aerospace-grade 7075 alloy exhibits a yield strength and uniform elongation approaching 1 GPa and 5%, respectively. The nanostructural architecture was observed using novel high-resolution microscopy techniques and comprises a solid solution, free of precipitation, featuring (i) a high density of dislocations, (ii) subnanometre intragranular solute clusters, (iii) two geometries of nanometre-scale intergranular solute structures and (iv) grain sizes tens of nanometres in diameter. Our results demonstrate that this novel architecture offers a design pathway towards a new generation of super-strong materials with new regimes of property-performance space.

  15. Influence of energy input in friction stir welding on structure evolution and mechanical behaviour of precipitation-hardening in aluminium alloys (AA2024-T351, AA6013-T6 and Al-Mg-Sc)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weis Olea, Cesar Afonso [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Werkstofforschung

    2008-12-04

    Aluminium alloys AA2024 T351, AA6013 T6 and the recently developed Al-Mg-Sc for aircraft industry applications, which are usually considered difficult to weld by conventional fusion welding processes, demonstrate outstanding performance when joined by friction stir welding (FSW). The main feature of the process is to produce solid-state welds, where the maximum temperatures attained during the process are about 80 % that of the melting temperature of the base material. The process generates substantial plastic deformation, due to the solid-state stirring, and consequently creates a high dislocation density, which is a precursor to dynamic recrystallization, a metallurgical feature that characterizes the stir zone (weld centre). A relevant aspect considered, regarding precipitation-hardening aluminium alloys, is the deterioration of the mechanical properties in the weld zones, which are fundamentally attributed to changes in the characteristics of strengthening precipitates. Among the strengthening mechanisms acting in these aluminium alloys, the most important is basically dependent on the morphology, size and population of the precipitates. The thermal cycle and deformation generated during the FSW process alter the precipitation characteristics previously present in the base material. FSW input energy regulates the magnitude of the thermal cycle and the intensity of deformation taking place during the process, and it can be controlled by the welding parameters, affecting the precipitates evolution and consequently the mechanical properties of the joint. Nevertheless, there remains a lack of knowledge about the substructural evolution of these alloys during FSW, and its correlation with weld energy input and their respective mechanical properties, particularly for the Al-Mg-Sc alloy. The main objective of this work is to explain the micro and substructural evolution (emphasizing precipitates evolution) of AA2024- T351, AA6013-T6 and Al-Mg-Sc alloys in similar

  16. An investigation on compression strength analysis of commercial aluminium tube to aluminium 2025 tube plate by using TIG welding process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kannan, S., E-mail: kannan.dgl201127@gmail.com [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Mining Machinery Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology (ISM), Dhanbad, Jharkhand, India, 826004 (India); Senthil Kumaran, S., E-mail: sskumaran@ymail.com [Research and Development Center, Department of Mechanical Engineering, RVS Educational Trust' s Group of Institutions, RVS School of Engineering and Technology, Dindigul, Tamilnadu, India, 624005 (India); Kumaraswamidhas, L.A., E-mail: lakdhas1978@gmail.com [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Mining Machinery Engineering, Indian School of Mines University, Dhanbad, Jharkhand, India, 826004 (India)

    2016-05-05

    In this present study, Tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding was applied to weld the dissimilar materials and authenticate the mechanical and metallurgical properties of tube to tube plate made up of commercial aluminium and Al 2025 respectively using an Zirconiated tungsten electrode along with filler material aluminium ER 2219. In total, twenty five pieces has been subjected to compression strength and hardness value to evaluate the optimal joint strength. The three optimization technique has been used in this experiment. Taguchi L{sub 25} orthogonal array is used to identify the most influencing process parameter which affects the joint strength. ANOVA method is measured for both compression strength and hardness to calculate the percentage of contribution for each process parameter. Genetic algorithm is used to validate the results obtained from the both experimental value and optimization value. The micro structural study is depicted the welding joints characterization in between tube to tube plate joints. The radiograph test is conducted to prove the welds are non-defective and no flaws are found during the welding process. The mechanical property of compression strength and hardness has been measured to obtain the optimal joint strength of the welded sample was about 174.846 MPa and 131.364 Hv respectively. - Highlights: • Commercial Al tube and Al 2025 tube plate successfully welded by TIG welding. • Compression strength and hardness value proves to obtain optimal joint strength. • The maximum compression and hardness was achieved in various input parameters.

  17. An investigation on compression strength analysis of commercial aluminium tube to aluminium 2025 tube plate by using TIG welding process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kannan, S.; Senthil Kumaran, S.; Kumaraswamidhas, L.A.

    2016-01-01

    In this present study, Tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding was applied to weld the dissimilar materials and authenticate the mechanical and metallurgical properties of tube to tube plate made up of commercial aluminium and Al 2025 respectively using an Zirconiated tungsten electrode along with filler material aluminium ER 2219. In total, twenty five pieces has been subjected to compression strength and hardness value to evaluate the optimal joint strength. The three optimization technique has been used in this experiment. Taguchi L_2_5 orthogonal array is used to identify the most influencing process parameter which affects the joint strength. ANOVA method is measured for both compression strength and hardness to calculate the percentage of contribution for each process parameter. Genetic algorithm is used to validate the results obtained from the both experimental value and optimization value. The micro structural study is depicted the welding joints characterization in between tube to tube plate joints. The radiograph test is conducted to prove the welds are non-defective and no flaws are found during the welding process. The mechanical property of compression strength and hardness has been measured to obtain the optimal joint strength of the welded sample was about 174.846 MPa and 131.364 Hv respectively. - Highlights: • Commercial Al tube and Al 2025 tube plate successfully welded by TIG welding. • Compression strength and hardness value proves to obtain optimal joint strength. • The maximum compression and hardness was achieved in various input parameters.

  18. [Association between serum aluminium level and methylation of amyloid precursor protein gene in workers engaged in aluminium electrolysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, X J; Yuan, Y Z; Niu, Q

    2016-04-20

    To investigate the association between serum aluminium level and methylation of the promoter region of amyloid precursor protein (APP)gene in workers engaged in aluminium electrolysis. In 2012, 366 electrolysis workers in an aluminium factory were enrolled as exposure group (working years >10 and age >40 years)and divided into low-exposure group and high-exposure group based on the median serum aluminium level. Meanwhile, 102 workers in a cement plant not exposed to aluminium were enrolled as control group. Graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry was used to measure serum aluminium level, methylation specific PCR was used to measure the methylation rate of the promoter region of APP gene, and ELI-SA was used to measure the protein expression of APP in lymphocytes in peripheral blood. The exposure group had a significantly higher serum aluminium level than the control group (45.07 μg/L vs 30.51 μg/L, P0.05). The multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that with reference to the control group, low aluminium exposure (OR=1.86, 95% CI 1.67~3.52)and high aluminium exposure (OR=2.98, 95% CI 1.97~4.15)were risk factors for a reduced methylation rate of the promoter region of APP gene. Reduced methylation of the promoter region of APP gene may be associated with increased serum aluminium level, and downregulated methylation of the promoter region of APP gene may accelerate APP gene transcription.

  19. High temperature internal friction in pure aluminium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aboagye, J.K.; Payida, D.S.

    1982-05-01

    The temperature dependence of internal friction of nearly pure aluminium (99.99% aluminium) has been carefully measured as a function of annealing temperature and hence grain size. The results indicate that, provided the frequency and annealing temperature are held constant, the internal friction increases with temperature until some maximum value is attained and then begins to go down as the temperature is further increased. It is also noted that the internal friction decreases with annealing temperature and that annealing time has the same effect as annealing temperature. It is also noted that the internal friction peak is shifted towards higher temperatures as annealing temperature is increased. It is surmised that the grain size or the total grain boundary volume determines the height of the internal friction curve and that the order-disorder transitions at the grain boundaries induced by both entropy and energy gradients give rise to internal friction peaks in polycrystals. (author)

  20. Mechanical properties of aluminium honeycomb impact limiters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maji, A.K.; Satpathi, D.; Donald, S.

    1992-01-01

    Aluminium honeycombs have been extensively used as impact limiters in nuclear waste transport casks. The mechanical behaviour of these shock absorbing materials was studied to develop an extensive experimental database. A series of tests were performed along various loading paths. Different densities of aluminium honeycombs were tested in different orientations. Static tests included uniaxial tension, uniaxial compression and torsion. Dynamic tests were conducted at different strain rates of up to 100 s -1 , to generate experimental data relevant to accident situations. Dynamic studies included the effects of specimen size and confinement. The purpose of using different loading paths was to generate an extensive experimental database which may also be used to develop constitutive models for these materials. Design charts were constructed which can be accessed by various cask designers to optimise and economise on cask development. (Author)

  1. Diagnostics of ytterbium/aluminium laser plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, J.; Lee, R.W.; Landen, O.L.; Kilkenny, J.D.; Lewis, C.L.; Busquet, M.

    1986-11-01

    Microdot spectroscopy was used to study the x-ray emission from laser-produced plasmas consisting of 10% ytterbium, 90% aluminium. Spectra were recorded with a space-resolving flat crystal (PET) mini-spectrometer in the 4.0-8.0 A range. The Janus research laser at LLNL irradiated the targets with green (0.53 μm) light in a 1 nsec pulse. The power density was varied between 4x10 13 and 3x10 14 W/cm 2 . The plasma electron density and temperature were determined from the aluminium XI, XII and XIII line emission. By examining correlations between changes in the plasma conditions with changes in the ytterbium spectra, we will determine the potential for using ytterbium line emission as a plasma diagnostic

  2. Swedish research on aluminium reactor technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsen, Bjoern

    1960-02-01

    A historical survey of the work done in Sweden this subject is given in the first part of the paper. The second part is elevated to a brief outline of the authors view of the present status of corrosion theories for aluminium in high temperature water. A theory where the crystallization of boehemite from the barrier layer is considered as an important control of the corrosion reaction is presented

  3. Simulation of aluminium STIR casting technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hafizal Yazid; Mohd Harun; Hanani Yazid; Abd Aziz Mohamed; Muhammad Rawi Muhammad Zain; Zaiton Selamat; Mohd Shariff Sattar; Muhamad Jalil; Ismail Mustapha; Razali Kasim

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the objective is to determine the optimum impeller speed correlated with holding time to achieve homogeneous reinforcement distribution for a particular set of experimental condition. Attempts are made to simulate the flow behaviourof the liquid aluminium using FLUENT software. Stepwise impeller speed ranging from 50 to 300 rpm.with 2 impeller angle blades of 45 and 90 degree with respect to the rotational plane were used

  4. Swedish research on aluminium reactor technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsen, Bjoern

    1960-02-15

    A historical survey of the work done in Sweden this subject is given in the first part of the paper. The second part is elevated to a brief outline of the authors view of the present status of corrosion theories for aluminium in high temperature water. A theory where the crystallization of boehemite from the barrier layer is considered as an important control of the corrosion reaction is presented.

  5. Aluminium phosphide poising: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirani, S.A.A.; Rahman, A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports the case of a family in which three children were presented at Emergency Room (ER) with poisoning after the use of a pesticide at home. Initially, the cases were managed as routine cases of organophosphorus poisoning; however, the death of two children made the health team members realise that the poison's effects were delayed and devastating. Later, the compound was identified as Aluminium Phosphide (ALP), and the life of the last surviving child in the family was saved. (author)

  6. Implementation of Video Monitoring In Aluminium Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Hedlund, Ann; Andersson, Ing-Marie; Rosén, Gunnar

    2015-01-01

    The aim was to evaluate results and experiences from development of new technology, a training program and implementation of strategies for the use of a video exposure monitoring method, PIMEX. Starting point of this study is an increased incidence of asthma among workers in the aluminium industry. Exposure peaks of fumes are supposed to play an important role. PIMEX makes it possible to link used work practice, use of control technology, and so forth to peaks. Nine companies participated in ...

  7. Complexometric determination of scandium and aluminium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tikhonov, V.N.

    1980-01-01

    Described is the complexometric determination of scandium and aluminium by the method of reverse titration of EDTA excess by indium salt solution in the presence of the xylenol orange indicator. For the method selectivity increase fluorides are used as a camouflage substance at low pH values (2.5-3.0). The excess fluoride-ions preventing titration are bound by boric acid. Y, Tb, Ti, Zr, Cu, Zn, V, Mo, Co, Cr prevent the determination of Sc and Al

  8. Helium behaviour in aluminium under hydrostatic pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokurskij, Yu.N.; Tebus, V.N.; Zudilin, V.A.; Tumanova, G.M.

    1989-01-01

    Effect of hydrostatic compression on equilibrium helium bubbles in low aluminium-lithium alloy irradiated in reactor at 570 K is investigated. Measurements of hydrostatic density and electron-microscopic investigations have shown, that application of up to 2 GPa pressure reduces equilibrium size of helium bubbles and reduces helium swelling. Kinetics and thermodynamics of the process are considered with application of 'rigid sphere' equation which describes helium state in bubbles

  9. Ion beam analysis of aluminium in thin layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Healy, M.J.F.; Pidduck, A.J.; Dollinger, G.; Gorgens, L.; Bergmaier, A.

    2002-01-01

    This work quantifies aluminium in thin surface and near surface layers. In one example, the layer overlies a thin gallium nitride layer on an aluminium oxide substrate and in a second example the aluminium exists just below the surface of an indium arsenide substrate. The technique of non-Rutherford elastic backscattering of protons was used for the samples where aluminum in the layer of interest needed to be resolved from aluminium in the sapphire substrate and the results were corroborated at the Technische Universitaet Muenchen using heavy ion elastic recoil detection analysis. In the second example, where it was unnecessary to isolate the signal of aluminium in the layer of interest (as the substrate contained no aluminium), then the 27 Al(d,p 01 ) 28 Al nuclear reaction was used. The elastic proton scattering cross section of aluminum was found to vary very rapidly over the energy range of interest

  10. Feet sunk in molten aluminium: The burn and its prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Peña, David; Arnáiz-García, María Elena; Valero-Gasalla, Javier Luis; Arnáiz-García, Ana María; Campillo-Campaña, Ramón; Alonso-Peña, Javier; González-Santos, Jose María; Fernández-Díaz, Alaska Leonor; Arnáiz, Javier

    2015-08-01

    Nowadays, despite improvements in safety rules and inspections in the metal industry, foundry workers are not free from burn accidents. Injuries caused by molten metals include burns secondary to molten iron, aluminium, zinc, copper, brass, bronze, manganese, lead and steel. Molten aluminium is one of the most common causative agents of burns (60%); however, only a few publications exist concerning injuries from molten aluminium. The main mechanisms of lesion from molten aluminium include direct contact of the molten metal with the skin or through safety apparel, or when the metal splash burns through the pants and rolls downward along the leg. Herein, we report three cases of deep dermal burns after 'soaking' the foot in liquid aluminium and its evolutive features. This paper aims to show our experience in the management of burns due to molten aluminium. We describe the current management principles and the key features of injury prevention. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  11. What is the risk of aluminium as a neurotoxin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exley, Christopher

    2014-06-01

    Aluminium is neurotoxic. Its free ion, Al(3+) (aq), is highly biologically reactive and uniquely equipped to do damage to essential cellular (neuronal) biochemistry. This unequivocal fact must be the starting point in examining the risk posed by aluminium as a neurotoxin in humans. Aluminium is present in the human brain and it accumulates with age. The most recent research demonstrates that a significant proportion of individuals older than 70 years of age have a potentially pathological accumulation of aluminium somewhere in their brain. What are the symptoms of chronic aluminium intoxication in humans? What if neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease are the manifestation of the risk of aluminium as a neurotoxin? How might such an (outrageous) hypothesis be tested?

  12. Modelling of heterogeneous clustering in aluminium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, A.E.; Bourgeois, L.; Nie, J.-F.; Muddle, B.C.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Ab initio modelling of heterogeneous clustering in aluminium has been carried out in order to study the precipitation hardening of alloys. This process is based on the addition of small amounts of solute element to the pure metal. With increasing computational power, atomic scale effects can now be better simulated to determine the nature of the hardening mechanism. Comparisons are made between results obtained from two computational packages. These are the Linear Augmented Plane Wave WEEN2K and the plane wave pseudopotential density functional theory package fhi98md. The study of the optimal geometry of very small size clusters inside aluminium has begun with the testing of initial convergence conditions by determination of binding energies for a variety of super cell sizes of the aluminium host crystal. These are compared with total energy calculations for small size precipitates of copper and transition metals of fixed geometry. Such local optimal determinations are seen as precursors to full Monte Carlo calculations of the notional best local geometry for larger precipitates

  13. Grain distinct stratified nanolayers in aluminium alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donatus, U., E-mail: uyimedonatus@yahoo.com [School of Materials, The University of Manchester, Manchester, M13 9PL, England (United Kingdom); Thompson, G.E.; Zhou, X.; Alias, J. [School of Materials, The University of Manchester, Manchester, M13 9PL, England (United Kingdom); Tsai, I.-L. [Oxford Instruments NanoAnalysis, HP12 2SE, High Wycombe (United Kingdom)

    2017-02-15

    The grains of aluminium alloys have stratified nanolayers which determine their mechanical and chemical responses. In this study, the nanolayers were revealed in the grains of AA6082 (T6 and T7 conditions), AA5083-O and AA2024-T3 alloys by etching the alloys in a solution comprising 20 g Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} + 30 ml HPO{sub 3} in 1 L H{sub 2}O. Microstructural examination was conducted on selected grains of interest using scanning electron microscopy and electron backscatter diffraction technique. It was observed that the nanolayers are orientation dependent and are parallel to the {100} planes. They have ordered and repeated tunnel squares that are flawed at the sides which are aligned in the <100> directions. These flawed tunnel squares dictate the tunnelling corrosion morphology as well as appearing to have an affect on the arrangement and sizes of the precipitation hardening particles. The inclination of the stratified nanolayers, their interpacing, and the groove sizes have significant influence on the corrosion behaviour and seeming influence on the strengthening mechanism of the investigated aluminium alloys. - Highlights: • Stratified nanolayers in aluminium alloy grains. • Relationship of the stratified nanolayers with grain orientation. • Influence of the inclinations of the stratified nanolayers on corrosion. • Influence of the nanolayers interspacing and groove sizes on hardness and corrosion.

  14. Process Simulation of Aluminium Sheet Metal Deep Drawing at Elevated Temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winklhofer, Johannes; Trattnig, Gernot; Lind, Christoph; Sommitsch, Christof; Feuerhuber, Hannes

    2010-01-01

    Lightweight design is essential for an economic and environmentally friendly vehicle. Aluminium sheet metal is well known for its ability to improve the strength to weight ratio of lightweight structures. One disadvantage of aluminium is that it is less formable than steel. Therefore complex part geometries can only be realized by expensive multi-step production processes. One method for overcoming this disadvantage is deep drawing at elevated temperatures. In this way the formability of aluminium sheet metal can be improved significantly, and the number of necessary production steps can thereby be reduced. This paper introduces deep drawing of aluminium sheet metal at elevated temperatures, a corresponding simulation method, a characteristic process and its optimization. The temperature and strain rate dependent material properties of a 5xxx series alloy and their modelling are discussed. A three dimensional thermomechanically coupled finite element deep drawing simulation model and its validation are presented. Based on the validated simulation model an optimised process strategy regarding formability, time and cost is introduced.

  15. Effects of iron-aluminium oxides and organic carbon on aggregate stability of bauxite residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Feng; Li, Yubing; Xue, Shengguo; Hartley, William; Wu, Hao

    2016-05-01

    In order to successfully establish vegetation on bauxite residue, properties such as aggregate structure and stability require improvement. Spontaneous plant colonization on the deposits in Central China over the last 20 years has revealed that natural processes may improve the physical condition of bauxite residues. Samples from three different stacking ages were selected to determine aggregate formation and stability and its relationship with iron-aluminium oxides and organic carbon. The residue aggregate particles became coarser in both dry and wet sieving processes. The mean weight diameter (MWD) and geometry mean diameter (GMD) increased significantly, and the proportion of aggregate destruction (PAD) decreased. Natural stacking processes could increase aggregate stability and erosion resistant of bauxite residues. Free iron oxides and amorphous aluminium oxides were the major forms in bauxite residues, but there was no significant correlation between the iron-aluminium oxides and aggregate stability. Aromatic-C, alkanes-C, aliphatic-C and alkenes-C were the major functional groups present in the residues. With increasing stacking age, total organic carbon content and aggregate-associated organic carbon both increased. Alkanes-C, aliphatic-C and alkenes-C increased and were mainly distributed in macro-aggregates, whereas aromatic-C was mainly distributed in aluminium oxides maybe more important for stability of micro-aggregates.

  16. Corrosion of Metal-Matrix Composites with Aluminium Alloy Substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Bobic

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The corrosion behaviour of MMCs with aluminium alloy matrix was presented. The corrosion characteristics of boron-, graphite-, silicon carbide-, alumina- and mica- reinforced aluminium MMCs were reviewed. The reinforcing phase influence on MMCs corrosion rate as well as on various corrosion forms (galvanic, pitting, stress corrosion cracking, corrosion fatique, tribocorrosion was discussed. Some corrosion protection methods of aluminium based MMCs were described

  17. Multiply-negatively charged aluminium clusters and fullerenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, Noelle

    2008-07-15

    Multiply negatively charged aluminium clusters and fullerenes were generated in a Penning trap using the 'electron-bath' technique. Aluminium monoanions were generated using a laser vaporisation source. After this, two-, three- and four-times negatively charged aluminium clusters were generated for the first time. This research marks the first observation of tetra-anionic metal clusters in the gas phase. Additionally, doubly-negatively charged fullerenes were generated. The smallest fullerene dianion observed contained 70 atoms. (orig.)

  18. The aluminium content of infant formulas remains too high.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuchu, Nancy; Patel, Bhavini; Sebastian, Blaise; Exley, Christopher

    2013-10-08

    Recent research published in this journal highlighted the issue of the high content of aluminium in infant formulas. The expectation was that the findings would serve as a catalyst for manufacturers to address a significant problem of these, often necessary, components of infant nutrition. It is critically important that parents and other users have confidence in the safety of infant formulas and that they have reliable information to use in choosing a product with a lower content of aluminium. Herein, we have significantly extended the scope of the previous research and the aluminium content of 30 of the most widely available and often used infant formulas has been measured. Both ready-to-drink milks and milk powders were subjected to microwave digestion in the presence of 15.8 M HNO3 and 30% w/v H2O2 and the aluminium content of the digests was measured by TH GFAAS. Both ready-to-drink milks and milk powders were contaminated with aluminium. The concentration of aluminium across all milk products ranged from ca 100 to 430 μg/L. The concentration of aluminium in two soya-based milk products was 656 and 756 μg/L. The intake of aluminium from non-soya-based infant formulas varied from ca 100 to 300 μg per day. For soya-based milks it could be as high as 700 μg per day. All 30 infant formulas were contaminated with aluminium. There was no clear evidence that subsequent to the problem of aluminium being highlighted in a previous publication in this journal that contamination had been addressed and reduced. It is the opinion of the authors that regulatory and other non-voluntary methods are now required to reduce the aluminium content of infant formulas and thereby protect infants from chronic exposure to dietary aluminium.

  19. Improvement of photodynamic activity of aluminium sulphophthalocyanine due to biotinylation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meerovich, Irina G.; Jerdeva, Victoria V.; Derkacheva, Valentina M.; Meerovich, Gennadii A.; Lukyanets, Eugeny A.; Kogan, Eugenia A.; Savitsky, Alexander P.

    2003-09-01

    The photodynamic activity of dibiotinylated aluminium sulphophthalocyanine in vitro and in vivo were studied. It was obtained that in vitro dibiotinylated aluminium sulphophthalocyanine provides the effective damage of small cell lung carcinoma OAT-75. In vivo dibiotinylated aluminium sulphophthalocyanine causes destruction of tumor (Erlich carcinoma), results in total necrosis of tumor tissue and expresses vascular damage (trombosis and destruction of vascular walls) even in concentration 0.25 mg/kg of a body weight.

  20. Remediation of phosphate-contaminated water by electrocoagulation with aluminium, aluminium alloy and mild steel anodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasudevan, Subramanyan; Lakshmi, Jothinathan; Jayaraj, Jeganathan; Sozhan, Ganapathy

    2009-05-30

    The present study provides an electrocoagulation process for the remediation of phosphate-contaminated water using aluminium, aluminium alloy and mild steel as the anodes and stainless steel as the cathode. The various parameters like effect of anode materials, effect of pH, concentration of phosphate, current density, temperature and co-existing ions, and so forth, and the adsorption capacity was evaluated using both Freundlich and Langmuir isotherm models. The adsorption of phosphate preferably fitting the Langmuir adsorption isotherm suggests monolayer coverage of adsorbed molecules. The results showed that the maximum removal efficiency of 99% was achieved with aluminium alloy anode at a current density of 0.2 A dm(-2), at a pH of 7.0. The adsorption process follows second-order kinetics.

  1. Beryllium electrodeposition on aluminium cathode from chloride melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nichkov, I.F.; Novikov, E.A.; Serebryakov, G.A.; Kanashin, Yu.P.; Sardyko, G.N.

    1980-01-01

    Cathodic processes during beryllium deposition on liquid and solid aluminium cathodes are investigated. Mixture of sodium, potassium and beryllium chloride melts served as an lectrolyte. Beryllium ion discharge at the expense of alloy formation takes place at more positive potentials than on an indifferent cathode at low current densities ( in the case of liquid aluminium cathode). Metallographic analysis and measurements of microhardness have shown, that the cathodic product includes two phases: beryllium solid solution in aluminium and metallic beryllium. It is concluded, that aluminium-beryllium alloys with high cathodic yield by current can be obtained by the electrolytic method

  2. [Determination of aluminium in flour foods with photometric method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lan; Zhao, Xin; Zhou, Shuang; Yang, Dajin

    2012-05-01

    To establish a determination method for aluminium in flour foods with photometric method. After samples being treated with microwave digestion and wet digestion, aluminium in staple flour foods was determined by photometric method. There was a good linearity of the result in the range of 0.25 - 5.0 microg/ml aluminium, r = 0.9998; limit of detection (LOD) : 2.3 ng/ml; limit of quantitation (LOQ) : 7 ng/ml. This method of determining aluminium in flour foods is simple, rapid and reliable.

  3. Effect of smelt aluminium on mechanical properties of steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryabov, V.R.; Dykhno, I.S.; Deev, G.F.; Karikh, V.V.

    1987-01-01

    Effect of smelt aluminium on mechanical properties of armco-iron and 12 Kh18N10T steel is studied. It is stated that in smelt aluminium and aluminium alloy contact with armco-iron the sample ductility is decreased. Corrosion effect of smelt alluminium on (18Kh15N5AM3) steel in the form of reinforced wire in aluminium-steel KAS-1A composite material is investigted. It is stated in experiment that during smelt alluminium-steel contact interaction of heterogeneous phases takes place

  4. Investigation process of alcoholysis of hydride aluminium-adobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numanov, M.I.; Normatov, I.Sh.; Mirsaidov, U.M.

    2001-01-01

    Considering of that process of acid treatment of aluminium-adobe hydride realizes in the ethyl alcohol media it was necessary study the process of alcoholysis of AlH 3 and aluminium additives. In the end of article authors became to conclusion that deficiency of spontaneous alcoholysis of AlH 3 in adobe caused by protective action of fiber; solvate ability of LiCl and alkoxy aluminium hydride of lithium-LiCl·CO 2 H 5 OH, Li Al(OC 2 H 5 ) 4 ·nC 2 H 5 OH decreasing the expectancy of responding of alcohol with aluminium hydride

  5. Serum aluminium levels of workers in the bauxite mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Kom, J F; Dissels, H M; van der Voet, G B; de Wolff, F A

    1997-01-01

    Aluminium is produced from the mineral bauxite. Occupational exposure is reported during the industrial processing of aluminium and is associated with pulmonary and neurotoxicity. However, data on exposure and toxicity of workers in the open bauxite mining industry do not exist. Therefore, a study was performed to explore aluminium exposure in employees involved in this bauxite mining process in a Surinam mine. A group of workers occupationally exposed to aluminium in an open bauxite mine were compared with a group of nonexposed wood processors. Serum aluminium was analyzed using atomic absorption spectrometry Data from the clinical chemistry of the blood and a questionnaire were used to explore determinants for aluminium exposure. No significant difference between serum aluminium in the exposed (4.4 +/- 2.0 micrograms/L, n = 27) and control group (5.1 +/- 1.5 micrograms/L, n = 27) was detected. For the serum concentration of the clinical chemical variables (calcium, citrate, and creatinine), a statistically significant difference was computed (p < or = 0.02) between the exposed and control group. All levels were slightly higher in the exposed group; no statistically significant correlations with serum aluminium were found. In this study, serum aluminium values were in the normal range, no significant difference between the groups could be detected despite long-term occupational exposure.

  6. Friction stir welding (FSW of aluminium foam sandwich panels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bušić

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the influence of welding speed and tool tilt angle upon the mechanical properties at the friction stir welding of aluminium foam sandwich panels. Double side welding was used for producing butt welds of aluminium sandwich panels applying insertion of extruded aluminium profile. Such insertion provided lower pressure of the tool upon the aluminium panels, providing also sufficient volume of the material required for the weldment formation. Ultimate tensile strength and flexural strength for three-point bending test have been determined for samples taken from the welded joints. Results have confirmed anticipated effects of independent variables.

  7. Dielectric aluminium phosphate thin films. Couches minces dielectriques de phosphate d'aluminium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daviero, S. (Lab. Physicochimie des Materiaux Solides, 34 - Montpellier (France)); Avinens, C. (Lab. Physicochimie des Materiaux Solides, 34 - Montpellier (France)); Ibanez, A. (Lab. Physicochimie des Materiaux Solides, 34 - Montpellier (France)); Giuntini, J.C. (Lab. Physicochimie des Materiaux Solides, 34 -Montpellier (France)); Philippot, E. (Lab. Physicochimie des Materiaux Solides, 34 - Montpellier (France))

    1993-04-01

    Aluminium phosphate thin films on silicium substrate have been carried out from tributylphosphate and aluminium acetylacetonate precursors in solution through the ''pyrosol'' process. It can be observed a large range of chemical analysis in terms of experimental conditions. These thin films have been characterized by X-ray diffraction and infrared spectrometry. Their electrical characteristics, defined from direct current and alternative current measurements, are quite different to those of the crystallized phosphate and can be explained by P-O and Al-O ''dangling bond'' existence. (orig.).

  8. Aluminium cables in automotive applications : Prestudy of aluminium cable uses in Scania products&Failure analysis and evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Man, Yu

    2016-01-01

    The increasing demand of light constructed vehicles as well as soaring price of copper metal owing to limited nature resources have been promoting the use of aluminium metal as an alternative conductor of automotive cables. This thesis work is to lay theoretical foundations for further research and development regarding the introduction of new automotive cables i.e. aluminium cables. Current application of automotive aluminium cables in automotive industry as well as failure analysis and eval...

  9. Quasiparticle spin resonance and coherence in superconducting aluminium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quay, C H L; Weideneder, M; Chiffaudel, Y; Strunk, C; Aprili, M

    2015-10-26

    Conventional superconductors were long thought to be spin inert; however, there is now increasing interest in both (the manipulation of) the internal spin structure of the ground-state condensate, as well as recently observed long-lived, spin-polarized excitations (quasiparticles). We demonstrate spin resonance in the quasiparticle population of a mesoscopic superconductor (aluminium) using novel on-chip microwave detection techniques. The spin decoherence time obtained (∼100 ps), and its dependence on the sample thickness are consistent with Elliott-Yafet spin-orbit scattering as the main decoherence mechanism. The striking divergence between the spin coherence time and the previously measured spin imbalance relaxation time (∼10 ns) suggests that the latter is limited instead by inelastic processes. This work stakes out new ground for the nascent field of spin-based electronics with superconductors or superconducting spintronics.

  10. Study of creep microstructure in aluminium at medium temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caillard, Daniel

    1980-01-01

    This research thesis focused on the use of electronic microscopy for the study of the properties of a sub-structure which appears during the second stage of creep in aluminium under intermediate temperatures. The author used conventional observations at 100 kV performed on thin blades manufactured after the macroscopic creep test, and in situ deformation observations in the high voltage microscope for the examination of thicker blades. After a review of knowledge on creep and on creep models, the author describes the used experimental conditions, notably for in situ experiments, their benefits and limitations. Geometric properties of various dislocation networks present in sub-grains and sub-boundaries are then described. A creep model is then proposed, based on the previous observations, and is compared with other published experimental results

  11. Characterization and processing of heat treated aluminium matrix composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doifode, Yogesh; Kulkarni, S. G.

    2018-05-01

    The present study is carried out to determine density and porosity of Aluminium bagasse ash reinforced composite produced by powder metallurgy method. Bagasse ash is used as reinforcement material having high silica and alumina contents and varied from 5 weight % to 40 weight%. The manufactured composite is heat treated, the main objective of heat treatment is to prepare the material structurally and physically fit for engineering application. The results showed that the density decreases with percentage increase in reinforcement of bagasse ash from 2.6618 gm/cm3 to 1.9830 gm/cm3 with the minimum value at 40 weight% bagasse ash without heat treatment whereas after heat treatment density of composite increases due filling up of voids and porous holes. Heat treatment processing is the key to this improvement, with the T6 heat treated composite to convene the reduced porosity of composite. Consequently aluminium metal matrix composite combines the strength of the reinforcement to achieve a combination of desirable properties not available in any single material. It may observe that porosity in case of powder metallurgy samples showed more porosity portions compare to the casting samples. In order to achieve optimality in structure and properties of Bagasse ash-reinforcement heat treatment techniques have evolved. Generally, the ceramic reinforcements increase the density of the base alloy during fabrication of composites. However, the addition of lightweight reinforcements reduces the density of the hybrid composites. The results also showed that, the density varies from to with minimum value at 40 wt. % BA. The results of the statistical analysis showed that there are significant differences among the means of each property of the composites at various levels of BA replacement .It was concluded that bagasse ash can be used as reinforcement and the produced composites have low density and heat treatment reduces porosity which could be used in automobile industry for

  12. Determination of aluminium nitride or free nitrogen in low carbon steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guetaz, V.; Soler, M.; Massardier, V.; Merlin, J.; Ravaine, D.

    2001-01-01

    As the aluminium nitrides play an important role in the manufacturing of steel sheets, a specific methodology was developed based on the thermoelectric power (TEP) technique, in order to determine the AIN nitrogen by an indirect method. The free nitrogen was determined and then the AIN nitrogen was calculated by the difference between the total nitrogen and the free nitrogen. Indeed, it is easier to determine the dissolved nitrogen, the content of which gradually decreases during the AIN precipitation, than the AIN nitrogen. A low carbon aluminium killed steel was employed with 580 ppm of aluminium and 50 ppm of nitrogen. A comparison of the results obtained by TEP with those obtained by other techniques (hot hydrogen extraction, electrochemical dissolution followed by a mineralization, electrochemical dissolution followed by a sodic decomposition and the Beeghly method) was conducted, in order to determine a reliable technique likely to quantify the amount of aluminium nitrides in aluminium killed steels. With these techniques, it is possible to determine either free nitrogen or precipitated nitrogen. From an experimental point of view, the precipitation kinetics of AIN was followed during an annealing performed at 973 K (700 C) by TEP and then different precipitation states of AIN were investigated to compare the different techniques: three annealing states (when no nitrogen, half the nitrogen and the total nitrogen has precipitated) and two soaking states (1403 and 1523 K). Thus, it was possible to compare states where the AIN precipitates are in various forms (different shapes, crystallographic structures, sizes, distributions in the matrix). This work showed that the quantification by TEP, hot hydrogen extraction and electrochemical dissolution followed by a mineralization seem reliable whereas the Beeghly method gives good results only for the precipitates formed at high temperatures. In contrast, the quantification by electrochemical dissolution followed by

  13. There is (still too much aluminium in infant formulas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burrell Shelle-Ann M

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infant formulas are sophisticated milk-based feeds for infants which are used as a substitute for breast milk. Historically they are known to be contaminated by aluminium and in the past this has raised health concerns for exposed infants. We have measured the aluminium content of a number of widely used infant formulas to determine if their contamination by aluminium and consequent issues of child health persists. Methods Samples of ready-made milks and powders used to make milks were prepared by microwave digestion of acid/peroxide mixtures and their aluminium content determined by THGA. Results The concentration of aluminium in ready-made milks varied from ca 176 to 700 μg/L. The latter concentration was for a milk for preterm infants. The aluminium content of powders used to make milks varied from ca 2.4 to 4.3 μg/g. The latter content was for a soya-based formula and equated to a ready-to-drink milk concentration of 629 μg/L. Using the manufacturer's own guidelines of formula consumption the average daily ingestion of aluminium from infant formulas for a child of 6 months varied from ca 200 to 600 μg of aluminium. Generally ingestion was higher from powdered as compared to ready-made formulas. Conclusions The aluminium content of a range of well known brands of infant formulas remains high and particularly so for a product designed for preterm infants and a soya-based product designed for infants with cow's milk intolerances and allergies. Recent research demonstrating the vulnerability of infants to early exposure to aluminium serves to highlight an urgent need to reduce the aluminium content of infant formulas to as low a level as is practically possible.

  14. Effects of aluminium surface morphology and chemical modification on wettability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahimi, M., E-mail: mar@sbi.aau.dk [Department of Energy and Environment, Danish Building Research Institute, Aalborg University, A.C. Meyers Vænge 15, 2450 København SV (Denmark); Fojan, P.; Gurevich, L. [Department of Physics and Nanotechnology, Aalborg University, Skjernvej 4, DK-9220 Aalborg East (Denmark); Afshari, A. [Department of Energy and Environment, Danish Building Research Institute, Aalborg University, A.C. Meyers Vænge 15, 2450 København SV (Denmark)

    2014-03-01

    Highlights: • Successful surface modification procedures on aluminium samples were performed involving formation of the layer of hydrophilic hyperbranched polyethyleneglycol (PEG) via in situ polymerization, molecular vapour deposition of a monolayer of fluorinated silane, and a combination of those. • The groups of surfaces with hydrophobic behavior were found to follow the Wenzel model. • A transition from Cassie–Baxter's to Wenzel's regime was observed due to changing of the surface roughness upon mechanical polishing in aluminium samples. - Abstract: Aluminium alloys are some of the predominant metals in industrial applications such as production of heat exchangers, heat pumps. They have high heat conductivity coupled with a low specific weight. In cold working conditions, there is a risk of frost formation on the surface of aluminium in the presence of water vapour, which can lead to the deterioration of equipment performance. This work addresses the methods of surface modification of aluminium and their effect of the underlying surface morphology and wettability, which are the important parameters for frost formation. Three groups of real-life aluminium surfaces of different morphology: unpolished aluminium, polished aluminium, and aluminium foil, were subjected to surface modification procedures which involved the formation of a layer of hydrophilic hyperbranched polyethyleneglycol via in situ polymerization, molecular vapour deposition of a monolayer of fluorinated silane, and a combination of those. The effect of these surface modification techniques on roughness and wettability of the aluminium surfaces was elucidated by ellipsometry, contact angle measurements and atomic force microscopy. We demonstrated that by employing different types of surface modifications the contact angle of water droplets on aluminium samples can be varied from 12° to more than 120°. A crossover from Cassie–Baxter to Wenzel regime upon changing the surface

  15. Long-term effects of aluminium dust inhalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Susan; Reid, Alison; Fritschi, Lin; de Klerk, Nicholas; Musk, A W Bill

    2013-12-01

    During the 1950s and 1960s, aluminium dust inhalation was used as a potential prophylaxis against silicosis in underground miners, including in Australia. We investigated the association between aluminium dust inhalation and cardiovascular, cerebrovascular and Alzheimer's diseases in a cohort of Australian male underground gold miners. We additionally looked at pneumoconiosis mortality to estimate the effect of the aluminium therapy. SMRs and 95% CI were calculated to compare mortality of the cohort members with that of the Western Australian male population (1961-2009). Internal comparisons on duration of aluminium dust inhalation were examined using Cox regression. Aluminium dust inhalation was reported for 647 out of 1894 underground gold miners. During 42 780 person-years of follow-up, 1577 deaths were observed. An indication of increased mortality of Alzheimer's disease among miners ever exposed to aluminium dust was found (SMR=1.38), although it was not statistically significant (95% CI 0.69 to 2.75). Rates for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular death were above population levels, but were similar for subjects with or without a history of aluminium dust inhalation. HRs suggested an increasing risk of cardiovascular disease with duration of aluminium dust inhalation (HR=1.02, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.04, per year of exposure). No difference in the association between duration of work underground and pneumoconiosis was observed between the groups with or without aluminium dust exposure. No protective effect against silicosis was observed from aluminium dust inhalation. Conversely, exposure to aluminium dust may possibly increase the risk of cardiovascular disease and dementia of the Alzheimer's type.

  16. Recovery by triple junction motion in aluminium deformed to ultrahigh strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Tianbo; Hansen, Niels; Huang, Xiaoxu

    2011-01-01

    during plastic deformation and decreases during isochronal and isothermal annealing. Based on TEM and EBSD observations, thermally activated triple junction motion is identified as the key process during the recovery of highly strained aluminium, leading to the removal of thin lamellae with small...... dihedral angles at the ends and structural coarsening. A mechanism for recovery by triple junction motion is proposed, which can underpin the general observation that a lamellar structure formed by plastic deformation during annealing can evolve into an equiaxed structure, preceding further structural...... coarsening and recrystallization. Within this framework, the grain boundary surface tension on triple junctions is discussed based on the structural parameters characterizing the deformed and annealed microstructure....

  17. Mechanical properties of plasma-sprayed layers of aluminium and aluminium alloy on AZ 91

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kubatík, Tomáš František; Ctibor, Pavel; Mušálek, Radek; Janata, Marek

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 2 (2017), s. 323-327 ISSN 1580-2949 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP14-31538P Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : plasma spraying of aluminium * adhesion of coating * wear * magnesium alloy AZ91 Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy OBOR OECD: Materials engineering Impact factor: 0.436, year: 2016

  18. Aluminium EN AW-2124 alloy matrix composites reinforced with Ti(C,N), BN and Al2O3 particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobrzanski, L.A.; Wlodarczyk, A.; Adamiak, M.

    2003-01-01

    Investigation results of the aluminium alloy EN AW-2124 matrix composite materials with particles of the powders Ti(C,N), BN and Al 2 O 3 (15 wt.%) are presented in the paper. In order to obtain uniform distribution of reinforcement particles in aluminium alloy matrix powders of composite components have been milled in the rotary ball-bearing pulverizer. The composites have been pressed in laboratory vertical press at room temperature under the pressure of 500 kN. Obtained die samplings have been heated to the temperature 520-550 o C and extruded. Bars of diameter 8 mm have been received as a final product. Metallographic examination of the composites materials' structure shows non-uniform distribution of reinforced powders in the aluminium alloy matrix banding of reinforcements particles corresponds to the extrusion direction. Particles of reinforcement distribution in aluminium alloy matrix is irregular, some agglomerations of powder of aluminium oxide and porosity of different size have been noticed. Investigations of hardness and ultimate compressive strength show that the particles of reinforcement improve mechanical properties of composite materials. Investigations of compressive strength, carried out at room temperature, enable to compare mechanical properties of matrix and composite. (author)

  19. Synergistic effects of zinc borate and aluminium trihydroxide on flammability behaviour of aerospace epoxy system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The flame retardancy of mono-component epoxy resin (RTM6, widely used for aerospace composites, treated with zinc borate (ZB, aluminium trihydroxide (ATH and their mixtures at different concentrations have been investigated by morphological and thermal characterization. Cone calorimeter data reveal that combustion behaviour, heat release rate peak (PHRR and heat release rate average (HRR Average of RTM6 resin decrease substantially when synergistic effects of zinc borate and aluminium trihydroxide intervene. Thermogravimetric (TGA results and analysis of the residue show that addition higher than 20% w/w of ZB, ATH, and their mixture greatly promotes RTM6 char formation acting as a barrier layer for the fire development. Depending upon the different used flame additives, SEM micrographs indicate that the morphology of residual char could vary from a compact amalgam-like structure, for the RTM6+ZB system, to a granular structure, characterized by very small particles of degraded resin and additive for the ATH.

  20. Weld metal grain refinement of aluminium alloy 5083 through controlled additions of Ti and B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schempp, Philipp; Rethmeier, Michael [Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing BAM, Berlin (Germany). Div. ' ' Safety of Joined Components' ' ; Fraunhofer Institute for Production Systems and Design Technology IPK, Berlin (Germany). Dept. ' ' Joining and Coating Technology' ' ; Schwenk, Christopher; Cross, Carl Edward [Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und -pruefung (BAM), Berlin (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    The refinement of the weld metal grain structure may lead to a significant change in its mechanical properties and in the weldability of the base metal. One possibility to achieve weld metal grain refinement is the inoculation of the weld pool. In this study, it is shown how additions of titanium and boron influence the weld metal grain structure of GTA welds of the aluminium alloy 5083 (Al Mg4.5Mn0.7). For this purpose, inserts consisting of base metal and additions of the master alloy Al Ti5B1 have been cast, deposited in the base metal and fused in a GTA welding process. The increase of the Ti and B content led to a significant decrease of the weld metal mean grain size and to a change in grain shape. The results provide a basis for a more precise definition of the chemical composition of commercial filler wires and rods for aluminium arc welding. (orig.)

  1. Aluminium. II - A review of deformation properties of high purity aluminium and dilute aluminium alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, R. P.

    1972-01-01

    The elastic and plastic deformation behavior of high-purity aluminum and of dilute aluminum alloys is reviewed. Reliable property data, including elastic moduli, elastic coefficients, tensile, creep, fatigue, hardness, and impact are presented. Single crystal tensile results are discussed. Rather comprehensive reference lists, containing publications of the past 20 years, are included for each of the above categories. Defect structures and mechanisms responsible for mechanical behavior are presented. Strengthening techniques (alloys, cold work, irradiation, quenching, composites) and recovery are briefly reviewed.

  2. Combined Corrosion and Wear of Aluminium Alloy 7075-T6

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Y.; Mol, J.M.C.; Janssen, G.C.A.M.

    2016-01-01

    The aluminium alloy 7075-T6 is widely used in engineering. In some applications, like slurry transport, corrosion and abrasion occur simultaneously, resulting in early material failure. In the present work, we investigated the combined effect of corrosion and wear on the aluminium alloy 7075-T6. We

  3. Sol gel synthesis for preparation of yttrium aluminium garnet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrolijk, J.W.G.A.; Willems, J.W.M.M.; Metselaar, R.; With, de G.; Terpstra, R.A.; Metselaar, R.

    1989-01-01

    Sol-gel—synthesis for preparation of pure yttrium aluminium garnet powder with small grain size is subject of this ongoing study. Starting materials were sulfates and chlorides of yttrium and aluminium. To obtain pure YAG (Y3A1SO1Z) pH during hydrolysis as well as temperature during calcination and

  4. Three body abrasion of laser surface alloyed aluminium AA1200

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mabhali, Luyolo AB

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Laser surface alloying of aluminium AA1200 was performed with a 4 kW Nd:YAG laser to improve the abrasion wear resistance. Aluminium surfaces reinforced with metal matrix composites and intermetallic phases were achieved. The phases present depended...

  5. The effects of aluminium and selenium supplementation on brain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This in vivo study was designed to investigate the potential of aluminium (Al), in the absence of added iron, to participate in either antioxidant or pro-oxidant events. Some markers of oxidative stress were determined in liver and brain of rats exposed to aluminium lactate, either alone or in the presence of dietary supplements ...

  6. Aluminium and Alzheimer's disease: the science that describes the link

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Exley, Christopher

    2001-01-01

    ... that has been encircled is the gene for the amyloid precursor protein. (Thanks to Walter Lukiw for supplying this information.) Aluminium and Alzheimer's Disease: The Science that Describes the LinkAluminium and Alzheimer's Disease The Science that Describes the Link Edited by Christopher Exley Birchall Centre for Inorganic Chemistry and Materials Scienc...

  7. An interesting and efficient green corrosion inhibitor for aluminium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An interesting and efficient green corrosion inhibitor for aluminium from extracts of ... Journal Home > Vol 13, No 1 (2014) > ... possible applications in metal surface anodizing and surface coating in industries. Keywords: Moringa oleifera, Aluminium, Hydrochloric acid, Langmuir isotherm, Plant extracts, Corrosion inhibition ...

  8. Synthesis of aluminium nanoparticles by arc evaporation of an ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Abstract. Aluminium nanoparticles (Al Nps) are synthesized using arc discharge method by applying direct current between aluminium electrodes in liquid environment without any use of vacuum equipment, heat exchangers, high temperatures furnaces and inert gases. After synthesis of Al Nps, in situ coating process on.

  9. Anodization of Aluminium using a fast two-step process

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    283.6 eV. Keywords. Anodization; phosphoric acid; anodization time; anodized aluminium oxide; aluminium. ... of anodization.5–7 The AAO layer has a large band gap, good ..... transmittance increases as the anodised membrane is heated to ...

  10. Aluminium removal from water after defluoridation with the electrocoagulation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Richa; Mathur, Sanjay; Brighu, Urmila

    2015-01-01

    Fluoride is the most electronegative element and has a strong affinity for aluminium. Owing to this fact, most of the techniques used for fluoride removal utilized aluminium compounds, which results in high concentrations of aluminium in treated water. In the present paper, a new approach is presented to meet the WHO guideline for residual aluminium concentration as 0.2 mg/L. In the present work, the electrocoagulation (EC) process was used for fluoride removal. It was found that aluminium content in water increases with an increase in the energy input. Therefore, experiments were optimized for a minimum energy input to achieve the target value (0.7 mg/L) of fluoride in resultant water. These optimized sets were used for further investigations of aluminium control. The experimental investigations revealed that use of bentonite clay as coagulant in clariflocculation brings down the aluminium concentration of water below the WHO guideline. Bentonite dose of 2 g/L was found to be the best for efficient removal of aluminium.

  11. Spark counting technique with an aluminium oxide film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawai, H.; Koga, T.; Morishima, H.; Niwa, T.; Nishiwaki, Y.

    1980-01-01

    Automatic spark counting of etch-pits on a polycarbonate film produced by nuclear fission fragments is now used for neutron monitoring in several countries. A method was developed using an aluminium oxide film instead of a polycarbonate as the neutron detector. Aluminium oxide films were prepared as follows: A cleaned aluminium plate as an anode and a nickel plate as a cathode were immersed in dilute sulfuric acid solution and electric current flowed between the electrodes at 12degC for 10-30 minutes. Electric current density was about 10 mA/cm 2 . The aluminium plate was then kept in boiling water for 10-30 minutes for sealing. The thickness of the aluminium oxide layer formed was about 1μm. The aluminium plate attached to a plate of suitable fissionable material, such as uranium or thorium, was irradiated with neutrons and set in a usual spark counter for fission track counting. One electrode was the aluminium plate and the other was an aluminized polyester sheet. Sparked pulses were counted with a usual scaler. The advantage of using spark counting with an aluminium oxide film for neutron monitoring is rapid measurement of neutron exposure, since chemical etching which is indispensable for spark counting with a polycarbonate detector film, is not needed. (H.K.)

  12. Neutron activation analysis of baths forming conversion layer on aluminium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szilagyi, Istvan; Maleczki, Emil; Bodizs, Denes

    1988-01-01

    Chromate layers were formed on the surface of aluminium using yellow and green chromating solutions. For the determination of the aluminium content neutron activation method was used. Nuclear effects disturbing the determination were eliminated by double irradiation technique. (author) 8 refs.; 4 figs

  13. Friction stir welding of single crystal aluminium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fonda, Richard Warren; Wert, John A.; Reynolds, A.P.

    2007-01-01

    Friction stir welds were prepared in different orientations in an aluminium single crystal. The welds were quenched to preserve the microstructure surrounding the tool and then electron backscattered diffraction was used to reveal the generation of grain boundaries and the evolution...... of crystallographic texture around the tool in each weld. The extent of both dynamic recrystallisation and conventional recrystallisation varied considerably as a function of weld orientation. As the base plate begins to interact with the deformation field surrounding the tool, regions of the single crystal rotate...

  14. Convenient synthesis of deuterated aluminium hydrides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pawelke, Roland H.; Felderhoff, Michael; Weidenthaler, Claudia [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kohlenforschung, Kaiser-Wilhelm-Platz 1, 45470 Muelheim an der Ruhr (Germany); Schueth, Ferdi [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kohlenforschung, Kaiser-Wilhelm-Platz 1, 45470 Muelheim an der Ruhr (Germany)], E-mail: schueth@mpi-muelheim.mpg.de

    2008-09-15

    We describe the ball-milling synthesis of alkali metal deuterides from commercial lithium aluminium deuteride. This reaction principle was exemplified by the mechanochemical synthesis of NaAlD{sub 4} and KAlD{sub 4}. NaAlD{sub 4} was prepared on the multi-gram scale by this procedure and purified by standard wet-chemical separation. Pure NaAlD{sub 4} was obtained and used for the synthesis of Ca(AlD{sub 4}){sub 2}. The formation of all products was verified by X-ray diffraction.

  15. Calculation of electron transmission through aluminium foil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abroyan, M.A.; Mel'ker, A.I.; Mikhajlin, A.I.; Sirotinkin, V.V.; Tokmakov, I.L.

    1987-01-01

    Calculated by Monte Carlo method energy and angular distributions of electrons transmitted through aluminium foil with 50 μm thickness are presented. 200-500 electron energy ranges and angles of electron incidence on foil from 0 to 40 deg C are considered. That allows to use results for more universal accelerator group, for example, for accelerators with scanning beam used in industry. The received values of angular and energy characteristics allow to increase essentially estimation accuracy of accelerator extraction devices and dose distribution on irradiating item

  16. Deviatoric response of the aluminium alloy, 5083

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleby-Thomas, Gareth; Hazell, Paul; Millett, Jeremy; Bourne, Neil

    2009-06-01

    Aluminium alloys such as 5083 are established light weight armour materials. As such, the shock response of these materials is of great importance. The shear strength of a material under shock loading provides an insight into its ballistic performance. In this investigation embedded manganin stress gauges have been employed to measure both the longitudinal and lateral components of stress during plate impact experiments over a range of impact stresses. In turn, these results were used to determine the shear strength and to investigate the time dependence of lateral stress behind the shock front to give an indication of material response.

  17. The failure of aluminium nitride under shock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickup, I.M.; Bourne, N.K.

    2002-01-01

    The shear strength of aluminium nitride has been measured over a range of impact stresses by measuring lateral stresses in plate impact experiments. The range of impact stress spanned several key shock thresholds for the material, pre and post Hugoniot elastic limit and up to values where the hexagonal to cubic phase transition starts. The shear strength measurements indicate significant inelastic damage at stress levels in excess of the HEL, but a significant recovery of strength at the highest impact stress was observed. This stress equates to the phase transition stress. The shear strength behaviour is compared to that of silicon carbide, which does not exhibit a phase change at these impact velocities

  18. Perilaku kekuatan fatigue paduan aluminium seri 2014 akibat proses termomekanikal aging

    OpenAIRE

    Sujita -

    2012-01-01

    Aluminium alloy seri 2014 is material which is often used in industry. Because excellence of mechanic properties. But also have the weakness at properties of strength fatigue. Though fatigue strength is important parameter in desain, especially if application at condition of dinamic loading, so that need the treatment to improve it. Fatigue strength go together the micro structure and mode of failure of failure of effect of stress concentration. Aging treatment ordinary done not yet given the...

  19. Laser beam welding of high strength aluminium-lithium alloys; Laserstrahlschweissen von hochfesten Aluminium-Lithium Legierungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enz, Josephin

    2012-07-01

    The present development in aircraft industry determined by the demand for a higher cost-effectiveness. Laser beam welding is one of the most promising joining technologies for the application in the aircraft industry through the considerable reduction of the production costs. Furthermore the weight of an aircraft structure can be reduced by the use of light and high strength aluminium alloys. This paper deals with the development of a process for the laser beam welding of a skin-stringer-joint where the Al-Li-alloy AA2196 is used as stringer material and the Al-Li-alloy AA2198 is used as skin and stringer material. By the use of design of experiments the optimal welding process parameters for different material combinations were determined which will be used for the welding of a 5-stringer panel. Therefore the weld seams of the joints were tested for irregularities and microstructural characteristics. In addition several mechanical tests were performed, which define the quality of the welded joint. Furthermore the influence of the oxide layer and the welding preparation on the welding performance was investigated. (orig.) [German] Die derzeitigen Entwicklungen im Flugzeugbau werden durch die allgemeine Forderung nach einer Steigerung der Wirtschaftlichkeit bestimmt. Das Laserstrahlschweissen ist dabei eines der vielversprechendsten Fuegeverfahren fuer die Anwendung im Flugzeugbau durch das die Herstellungskosten deutlich reduziert werden koennen. Zudem kann durch die Verwendung von leichten und hochfesten Aluminium-Legierungen das Gewicht einer Flugzeugstruktur zusaetzlich reduziert werden. Die vorliegende Arbeit befasst sich mit der Entwicklung eines Prozesses zum Laserstrahlschweissen einer Skin-Stringer-Verbindung aus den Aluminium-Lithium-Legierungen AA2196 (als Stringer-Werkstoff) und AA2198 (als Skin- und Stringer-Werkstoff). Unter Verwendung der statistischen Versuchsplanung wurden die optimalen Einstellungen der Schweissprozessparameter fuer die

  20. Structure-property investigations on a laser beam welded dissimilar joint of aluminium AA6056 and titanium Ti6Al4V for aeronautical applications Part I: Local gradients in microstructure, hardness and strength

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horstmann, M.; Ventzke, V.; Petrovski, B.; Kocak, M. [GKSS Research Centre Geesthacht (Germany). Institute of Materials Research, Materials Mechanics; Kocik, R.; Tempus, G. [AIRBUS Deutschland GmbH, Metal Technology, Bremen (Germany); Vaidya, W.V.

    2009-08-15

    Sheets of AA6056 and Ti6Al4V were butt-joined by inserting the Ti-sheet into the profiled Al-sheet and by melting the Al-alloy alone using a split beam Nd:YAG laser. To study microstructural effects on properties, the Al-alloy was used in two tempers; T4 followed by post weld heat treatment T6, and in T6 followed by a defined duration of natural ageing at room temperature. As a basic step for fatigue and fracture investigations, local gradients in properties of this dissimilar joint are investigated using microscopy, hardness and tensile tests. Possible sites, from which fracture may initiate, have been then identified. All property changes are found to confine to the aluminium side. An intermetallic layer, although very thin, is found to form on the interface. The changeovers, firstly between the fusion zone and the heat affected zone and secondly between the heat affected zone and the base material, are found to be associated with changes in microstructure, hardness and strength. These are identified as the possible critical sites in addition to the interface. (Abstract Copyright [2009], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.) [German] Durch eine spezielle Stossvorbereitung wurden laserstrahlgeschweisster Mischverbindungen aus den Blechwerkstoffen AA6056 und Ti6Al4V hergestellt und zwar ohne die Verwendung von Zusatzwerkstoffen. Die grosse Differenz der Schmelztemperaturen erlaubt das selektive Erschmelzen des Aluminiumwerkstoffs, der wieder um den Titanwerkstoff benetzt, sodass es zur Ausbildung einer mechanisch-stabilen und tragfaehigen Verbindung kommt. Die Al-Legierung wurde in den Waermebehandlungszustaenden T4 und T6 verschweisst, um den mikrostrukturellen Einfluss auf die Eigenschaften der Verbindungen untersuchen zu koennen. Die Prozessfolgen sahen vor, dass beim Schweissen im Zustand T4 eine Warmauslagerung, beim Schweissen im Zustand T6 eine Kaltauslagerung definierter Dauer folgte. Die Charakterisierung lokaler Eigenschaftsgradienten hinsichtlich Gefuege, Mikrohaerte

  1. Aluminium/iron reinforced polyfurfuryl alcohol resin as advanced biocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Kumar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Aluminium and iron are widely used in construction sectors for the preparation of advanced composites with epoxy resins as matrices. In recent times, there are several reports on the polymerization of polyfufuryl alcohol (PFA a thermoset bioresins from furfuryl alcohol (FA. FA is obtained from waste of sugarcane bagasse. In this work, first the possibility of curing PFA from FA in the presence of aluminium or iron has been explored. Absorbance results from colorimeter/spectrophotometerindicated that the curing of FA to PFA in presence of aluminium started easily while in presence of iron the curing of FA to PFA could not start. Based on the above results, aluminium wire reinforced composites were successfully prepared with three different weight fractions (0.13, 0.09 and 0.07 of aluminium wire. The mechanical properties of these composites were determined theoretically and reported.

  2. Usage of neural network to predict aluminium oxide layer thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michal, Peter; Vagaská, Alena; Gombár, Miroslav; Kmec, Ján; Spišák, Emil; Kučerka, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    This paper shows an influence of chemical composition of used electrolyte, such as amount of sulphuric acid in electrolyte, amount of aluminium cations in electrolyte and amount of oxalic acid in electrolyte, and operating parameters of process of anodic oxidation of aluminium such as the temperature of electrolyte, anodizing time, and voltage applied during anodizing process. The paper shows the influence of those parameters on the resulting thickness of aluminium oxide layer. The impact of these variables is shown by using central composite design of experiment for six factors (amount of sulphuric acid, amount of oxalic acid, amount of aluminium cations, electrolyte temperature, anodizing time, and applied voltage) and by usage of the cubic neural unit with Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm during the results evaluation. The paper also deals with current densities of 1 A · dm(-2) and 3 A · dm(-2) for creating aluminium oxide layer.

  3. Usage of Neural Network to Predict Aluminium Oxide Layer Thickness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Michal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows an influence of chemical composition of used electrolyte, such as amount of sulphuric acid in electrolyte, amount of aluminium cations in electrolyte and amount of oxalic acid in electrolyte, and operating parameters of process of anodic oxidation of aluminium such as the temperature of electrolyte, anodizing time, and voltage applied during anodizing process. The paper shows the influence of those parameters on the resulting thickness of aluminium oxide layer. The impact of these variables is shown by using central composite design of experiment for six factors (amount of sulphuric acid, amount of oxalic acid, amount of aluminium cations, electrolyte temperature, anodizing time, and applied voltage and by usage of the cubic neural unit with Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm during the results evaluation. The paper also deals with current densities of 1 A·dm−2 and 3 A·dm−2 for creating aluminium oxide layer.

  4. Aluminium Electroplating on Steel from a Fused Bromide Electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prabhat Tripathy; Laura Wurth; Eric Dufek; Toni Y. Gutknecht; Natalie Gese; Paula Hahn; Steven Frank; Guy Fredrickson; J Stephen Herring

    2014-08-01

    A quaternary bromide bath (LiBr-KBr-CsBr-AlBr3) was used to electro-coat aluminium on steel substrates. The electrolyte was prepared by the addition of AlBr3 into the eutectic LiBr-KBr-CsBr melt. A smooth, thick, adherent and shiny aluminium coating could be obtained with 80 wt.% AlBr3 in the ternary melt. The SEM photographs of the coated surfaces suggest the formation of thick and dense coatings with good aluminium coverage. Both salt immersion and open circuit potential measurement suggest that the coatings did display good corrosion-resistance behavior. Annealing of the coated surfaces, prior to corrosion tests, suggested the robustness of the metallic aluminium coating in preventing the corrosion of the steel surfaces. Studies also indicated that the quaternary bromide plating bath can potentially provide a better aluminium coating on both ferrous and non-ferrous metals, including complex surfaces/geometries.

  5. Study of corrosion in aluminium using neutron radiography technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Islam, M.N.; Alam, M.K.; Saklayen, M.A.; Ahsan, M.H.; Islam, S.M.A.; Zaman, M.A.

    2000-01-01

    Neutron radiography technique has been adopted for detection of corrosion in aluminium by filling artificially made holes on aluminium slab with Al(OH) 3 . The contrast between the optical densities of corrosion products and aluminium slab was assessed from the densitometric measurements. Variation of optical density difference with sample thickness has also been studied. The results confirm that approximately 0.039 mm thick corrosion products having diameter 10 mm can easily be detected in 2 cm thick aluminium slab. The linear attenuation coefficient of Al(OH) 3 has been obtained as 0.9447. From the present investigation it is confirmed that film neutron radiography (NR) technique is helpful for investigation of Al(OH) 3 type corrosion product in aluminium. (author)

  6. Volatilisation and oxidation of aluminium scraps fed into incineration furnaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biganzoli, Laura; Gorla, Leopoldo; Nessi, Simone; Grosso, Mario

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Aluminium packaging partitioning in MSW incineration residues is evaluated. ► The amount of aluminium packaging recoverable from the bottom ashes is evaluated. ► Aluminium packaging oxidation rate in the residues of MSW incineration is evaluated. ► 80% of aluminium cans, 51% of trays and 27% of foils can be recovered from bottom ashes. - Abstract: Ferrous and non-ferrous metal scraps are increasingly recovered from municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash and used in the production of secondary steel and aluminium. However, during the incineration process, metal scraps contained in the waste undergo volatilisation and oxidation processes, which determine a loss of their recoverable mass. The present paper evaluates the behaviour of different types of aluminium packaging materials in a full-scale waste to energy plant during standard operation. Their partitioning and oxidation level in the residues of the incineration process are evaluated, together with the amount of potentially recoverable aluminium. About 80% of post-consumer cans, 51% of trays and 27% of foils can be recovered through an advanced treatment of bottom ash combined with a melting process in the saline furnace for the production of secondary aluminium. The residual amount of aluminium concentrates in the fly ash or in the fine fraction of the bottom ash and its recovery is virtually impossible using the current eddy current separation technology. The average oxidation levels of the aluminium in the residues of the incineration process is equal to 9.2% for cans, 17.4% for trays and 58.8% for foils. The differences between the tested packaging materials are related to their thickness, mechanical strength and to the alloy.

  7. Volatilisation and oxidation of aluminium scraps fed into incineration furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biganzoli, Laura, E-mail: laura.biganzoli@mail.polimi.it [Politecnico di Milano, Piazza L. Da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Gorla, Leopoldo; Nessi, Simone; Grosso, Mario [Politecnico di Milano, Piazza L. Da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy)

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Aluminium packaging partitioning in MSW incineration residues is evaluated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The amount of aluminium packaging recoverable from the bottom ashes is evaluated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Aluminium packaging oxidation rate in the residues of MSW incineration is evaluated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 80% of aluminium cans, 51% of trays and 27% of foils can be recovered from bottom ashes. - Abstract: Ferrous and non-ferrous metal scraps are increasingly recovered from municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash and used in the production of secondary steel and aluminium. However, during the incineration process, metal scraps contained in the waste undergo volatilisation and oxidation processes, which determine a loss of their recoverable mass. The present paper evaluates the behaviour of different types of aluminium packaging materials in a full-scale waste to energy plant during standard operation. Their partitioning and oxidation level in the residues of the incineration process are evaluated, together with the amount of potentially recoverable aluminium. About 80% of post-consumer cans, 51% of trays and 27% of foils can be recovered through an advanced treatment of bottom ash combined with a melting process in the saline furnace for the production of secondary aluminium. The residual amount of aluminium concentrates in the fly ash or in the fine fraction of the bottom ash and its recovery is virtually impossible using the current eddy current separation technology. The average oxidation levels of the aluminium in the residues of the incineration process is equal to 9.2% for cans, 17.4% for trays and 58.8% for foils. The differences between the tested packaging materials are related to their thickness, mechanical strength and to the alloy.

  8. Precipitate strengthening of nanostructured aluminium alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wawer, Kinga; Lewandowska, Malgorzata; Kurzydlowski, Krzysztof J

    2012-11-01

    Grain boundaries and precipitates are the major microstructural features influencing the mechanical properties of metals and alloys. Refinement of the grain size to the nanometre scale brings about a significant increase in the mechanical strength of the materials because of the increased number of grain boundaries which act as obstacles to sliding dislocations. A similar effect is obtained if nanoscale precipitates are uniformly distributed in coarse grained matrix. The development of nanograin sized alloys raises the important question of whether or not these two mechanisms are "additive" and precipitate strengthening is effective in nanostructured materials. In the reported work, hydrostatic extrusion (HE) was used to obtain nanostructured 7475 aluminium alloy. Nanosized precipitates were obtained by post-HE annealing. It was found that such annealing at the low temperatures (100 degrees C) results in a significant increase in the microhardness (HV0.2) and strength of the nanostructured 7475 aluminium alloy. These results are discussed in terms of the interplay between the precipitation and deformation of nanocrystalline metals.

  9. Reactions on carbon anodes in aluminium electrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eidet, Trygve

    1997-12-31

    The consumption of carbon anodes and energy in aluminium electrolysis is higher than what is required theoretically. This thesis studies the most important of the reactions that consume anode materials. These reactions are the electrochemical anode reaction and the airburn and carboxy reactions. The first part of the thesis deals with the kinetics and mechanism of the electrochemical anode reaction using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The second part deals with air and carboxy reactivity of carbon anodes and studies the effects of inorganic impurities on the reactivity of carbon anodes in the aluminium industry. Special attention is given to sulphur since its effect on the carbon gasification is not well understood. Sulphur is always present in anodes, and it is expected that the sulphur content of available anode cokes will increase in the future. It has also been suggested that sulphur poisons catalyzing impurities in the anodes. Other impurities that were investigated are iron, nickel and vanadium, which are common impurities in anodes which have been reported to catalyze carbon gasification. 88 refs., 92 figs., 24 tabs.

  10. RESEARCH OF FATIGUE AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES AlMg1SiCu ALUMINIUM ALLOYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mária Mihaliková

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper is concerned with an analysis of utility and fatigue properties of industrially produced aluminium alloy, specifically EN AW 6061 (AlMg1SiCu, reinforced with the particles of SiC. The following properties were subject to evaluation: microstructure and sub-structure, mechanical characteristics. All of these mechanical properties in pre- and post- equal channel angular pressed (ECAP state have been studied. The hardness was evaluated by Vickers hardness test at the load of HV10. The significant part the thesis was devoted to the fatigue properties at cyclic load in torsion. The presented results demonstrate well that the combination of fractography and microscopy can give a significant contribution to the knowledge of initiation and propagation crack in the aluminium alloy.

  11. Effect of aluminium on formation of metastable phases in titanium-niobium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trenogina, T.L.; Derevyanko, V.N.; Vozilkin, V.A.

    2001-01-01

    Specific features of phase transformations in the alloy of Ti-20Nb-29Al (at.%) are investigated in comparison with those in the aluminium-free Ti-21Nb alloy. It is states that in the alloy Ti-20Nb-29Al on quenching the ordering of β-solid solution takes place with B2-structure formation. The B2-matrix experiences decomposition with the formation of ordered Ω 0 -phase which field ranges up to 700 deg C. The investigation results show that the sequence of phase formation in Ti-Nb-Al and aluminium-free alloys is much the same. The only difference between them is the formation of ordered phases in the alloy Ti-20Nb-29Al [ru

  12. Braze Welding TIG of Titanium and Aluminium Alloy Type Al – Mg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winiowski A.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the course and the results of technological tests related to TIG-based arc braze welding of titanium and AW-5754 (AlMg3 aluminium alloy. The tests involved the use of an aluminium filler metal (Al99.5 and two filler metals based on Al-Si alloys (AlSi5 and AlSi12. Braze welded joints underwent tensile tests, metallographic examinations using a light microscope as well as structural examinations involving the use of a scanning electron microscope and an X-ray energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS. The highest strength and quality of welds was obtained when the Al99.5 filler metal was used in a braze welding process. The tests enabled the development of the most convenient braze welding conditions and parameters.

  13. Mechanical properties and corrosion behaviour of MIG welded 5083 aluminium alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durmus, Huelya [Celal Bayar Univ., Turgutlu-Manisa (Turkey)

    2011-07-01

    For this study 5083 Aluminium alloy plates, as used in automobiles and watercraft, were experimentally MIG welded. The plates were joined with different wires and at various currents. The effects of welding with different parameters on the mechanical and corrosion properties were investigated. The corrosion behaviour of the MIG welded 5083 Aluminium base material was also investigated. The effects of the chemical composition of the filler material on the mechanical properties were examined by metallographic inspection and tensile testing. By EDS and XRD analyses of specimens it turned out that different structures in the weld metal (Cu3Si) affect its mechanical properties. The mechanical properties of the specimens welded with 5356 filler metal were found as quite well improved as compared to those specimens welded with 4043 and 5183 filler material. The results of the metallographic analysis, and mechanical and corrosion tests exhibited that the 5356 filler material was most suitable for the 5083 Al alloy base material. (orig.)

  14. Composite Ni-Co-fly ash coatings on 5083 aluminium alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panagopoulos, C.N., E-mail: chpanag@metal.ntua.gr [Laboratory of Physical Metallurgy, National Technical University of Athens, Zografos, 15780 Athens (Greece); Georgiou, E.P.; Tsopani, A.; Piperi, L. [Laboratory of Physical Metallurgy, National Technical University of Athens, Zografos, 15780 Athens (Greece)

    2011-03-15

    Ni-Co-fly ash coatings were deposited on zincate treated 5083 wrought aluminium alloy substrates with the aid of the electrodeposition technique. Structural and chemical characterization of the produced composite coatings was performed with the aid of X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electron dispersive X-ray analysis (EDS) techniques. The Ni-Co-fly ash coatings were found to consist of a crystalline Ni-Co solid solution with dispersed fly ash particles. In addition, chemical analysis of the Ni-Co matrix showed that it consisted of 80 wt.% Ni and 20 wt.% Co. The co-deposition of fly ash particles leads to a significant increase of the microhardness of the coating. The corrosion behaviour of the Ni-Co-fly ash/zincate coated aluminium alloy, in a 0.3 M NaCl solution (pH = 3.5), was studied by means of potentiodynamic corrosion experiments.

  15. Analytical study, by modelling methods, of the alkali and alkaline earth cations influence on the stability and the reactivity of aluminium (III) oxides or halides complexes; Etude analytique, par des techniques de modelisation, de l`influence de cations alcalins ou alcalino-terreux sur la stabilite et la reactivite de complexes de l`aluminium(III) avec des ions halogenures ou oxydes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouyer, F

    1995-10-05

    The electric power consumption in aluminium production and electrorefining processes is high. A study of the electrochemical processes can be very useful for a better understanding of phenomena in electrolytic baths and then for reducing the production costs. A structural and vibrational analysis of species which exist in ionic solutions has been carried out with software based on the functional density theory. Concerning the electrolyte used for the aluminium refining, the anions study has shown that the aluminium chloro-fluoride complexes are preferentially tetrahedral. Moreover, the aluminium oxyfluoride complexes structures (which come from the alumina dissolution in cryolitic media) have been analyzed in the same way and the preferential coordination numbers for aluminium and oxygen have been shown clearly. The anionic model (which is limited to the nearest aluminium neighbours) does not allow to account for the thermodynamics of the cryolitic media. A more elaborated model has then been found to obtain the cryolite structure. The reactions enthalpies have been estimated and have lead to the calculus of species concentration gradients in liquid phase. The counterions effects as for instance sodium and calcium have been investigated. A model for the gaseous phase allowing to know the preferential species has been given. At last, a statistic thermochemistry program has been conceived and developed. It gives the thermodynamical functions at all temperature for the different complexes and allows to reckon the reactions coefficients in gaseous phase as well as the partial pressures profiles with those of calcium and sodium fluorides. (O.M.) 204 refs.

  16. Development of Electrochemical Processes for Aluminium-Based Coatings for Fusion Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konys, J. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2016-12-15

    Reduced activation ferritic-martensitic steels (RAFM) are envisaged in future fusion technology as structural material which will be in direct contact with a flowing liquid lead-lithium melt, serving as breeder material. Aluminium-based coatings had proven their ability to protect the structural material from corrosion attack in flowing Pb-15.7Li and to reduce tritium permeation into the coolant, significantly. Coming from scales produced by hot dipping aluminization (HDA), the development of electrochemical-based processes to produce well-defined aluminium-based coatings on RAFM steels gained increased attention in research during the last years. Two different electrochemical processes are described in this paper: The first one, referred to as ECA, is based on the electrodeposition of aluminium from volatile, metal-organic electrolytes. The other process called ECX is based on ionic liquids. All three processes exhibit specific characteristics, for example in the field of processability, control of coating thicknesses (low activation criteria) and heat treatment behavior. The aim of this article is to compare these different coating processes critically, whereby the focus is on the comparison of ECA and ECX processes. New results for ECX will be presented and occurring development needs for the future will be discussed.

  17. Growth and morphology of aluminium contacts on P3HT films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaune, Gunar [TU Muenchen, Physik-Department, Lehrstuhl fuer Funktionelle Materialien, James-Franck-Strasse 1, 85747 Garching (Germany); Martin-Luther-Universitaet Halle-Wittenberg, Institut fuer Physik, Fachgruppe Photovoltaik, Von-Danckelmann-Platz 3, 06120 Halle (Germany); Meier, Robert; Metwalli, Ezzeldin; Koerstgens, Volker; Mueller-Buschbaum, Peter [TU Muenchen, Physik-Department, Lehrstuhl fuer Funktionelle Materialien, James-Franck-Strasse 1, 85747 Garching (Germany); Schlage, Kai; Couet, Sebastien; Roth, Stephan V. [HASYLAB, DESY, Notkestrasse 85, 22603 Hamburg (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    The characteristics of organic electronic devices are strongly influenced by the type and structure of the metal electrodes needed to inject or extract charge carriers. Therefore understanding of the metal growth process and its relation to the interactions at the metal-organic interface are necessary. We investigate the growth of an aluminium layer on the surface of a P3HT thin film by in-situ application of grazing incidence small-angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS). By subsequent modelling of the scattering data the structural parameters of the growing film are extracted and a growth process is found, which proceeds two-dimensional by stacking single atomic layers on top each other. This process results in a homogeneous film with a large contact area to the polymer and is explained by a strong chemical interaction between aluminium and P3HT, which suppresses clustering of the metal on the polymer surface. The diffusion of single aluminium atoms into the P3HT and the formation of an intermixing layer is revealed by X-ray reflectivity measurements.

  18. Application of spectral analysis of the electrochemical noise to the investigation of aluminium alloy pitting corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bataillon, Christian

    1987-01-01

    The objective of this research is to decode (at least partially) the nature of the information contained in the electrochemical noise associated with the pitting corrosion phenomenon in aluminium alloys. After a general presentation of aluminium and its alloys and a report of a bibliographical study on the electrochemical noise, the author gives an overview of a theoretical approach of stochastic phenomena, and of an experimental approach. Then, the experimental investigation of the electrochemical noise in the case of pitting corrosion leads to a noise control law, to a study of the structure of pitting growth, and to the elaboration of a procedure of assessment of spectral characteristics of this noise. The author reports a systematic study of the electrochemical noise with respect to the parameters of the control law. Results allow a quantitative characterization of pitting corrosion resistance of the studied alloys, notably by using the kinetic aspect of pitting growth and the structure of pitting corrosion. The author discusses the physicochemical nature of random fluctuations which build up the noise. He proposes a more precise explanation of phenomena related to initiation and propagation of pitting corrosion on aluminium alloys in marine environment [fr

  19. Development of Electrochemical Processes for Aluminium-Based Coatings for Fusion Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konys, J.

    2016-01-01

    Reduced activation ferritic-martensitic steels (RAFM) are envisaged in future fusion technology as structural material which will be in direct contact with a flowing liquid lead-lithium melt, serving as breeder material. Aluminium-based coatings had proven their ability to protect the structural material from corrosion attack in flowing Pb-15.7Li and to reduce tritium permeation into the coolant, significantly. Coming from scales produced by hot dipping aluminization (HDA), the development of electrochemical-based processes to produce well-defined aluminium-based coatings on RAFM steels gained increased attention in research during the last years. Two different electrochemical processes are described in this paper: The first one, referred to as ECA, is based on the electrodeposition of aluminium from volatile, metal-organic electrolytes. The other process called ECX is based on ionic liquids. All three processes exhibit specific characteristics, for example in the field of processability, control of coating thicknesses (low activation criteria) and heat treatment behavior. The aim of this article is to compare these different coating processes critically, whereby the focus is on the comparison of ECA and ECX processes. New results for ECX will be presented and occurring development needs for the future will be discussed.

  20. Predicting tensile strength of friction stir welded AA6061 aluminium alloy joints by a mathematical model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elangovan, K.; Balasubramanian, V.; Babu, S.

    2009-01-01

    AA6061 aluminium alloy (Al-Mg-Si alloy) has gathered wide acceptance in the fabrication of light weight structures requiring a high strength-to weight ratio and good corrosion resistance. Compared to the fusion welding processes that are routinely used for joining structural aluminium alloys, friction stir welding (FSW) process is an emerging solid state joining process in which the material that is being welded does not melt and recast. This process uses a non-consumable tool to generate frictional heat in the abutting surfaces. The welding parameters such as tool rotational speed, welding speed, axial force etc., and tool pin profile play a major role in deciding the joint strength. An attempt has been made to develop a mathematical model to predict tensile strength of the friction stir welded AA6061 aluminium alloy by incorporating FSW process parameters. Four factors, five levels central composite design has been used to minimize number of experimental conditions. Response surface method (RSM) has been used to develop the model. Statistical tools such as analysis of variance (ANOVA), student's t-test, correlation co-efficient etc. have been used to validate the developed model. The developed mathematical model can be effectively used to predict the tensile strength of FSW joints at 95% confidence level

  1. Recovery of tritium from lithium-sintered aluminium product (SAP) and lithium-aluminium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talbot, J.B.; Wiffen, F.W.

    1979-01-01

    The tritium release rates of irradiated samples of lithium-containing aluminium (Li-Al) and sintered aluminium product (Li-SAP) were investigated to evaluate the potential application of both materials in fusion reactors. The observed release rates followed the pattern expected for bulk diffusion of tritium in a solid. Therefore, diffusion coefficients for tritium in Li-SAP were determined over a temperature range of 383 and 500 0 C and tritium in Li-Al at 450 0 C. At 450 0 C, the diffusion coefficients of tritium in Li-SAP and Li-Al are 2.988 x 10 -10 cm 2 sec -1 and 1.462 x 10 -6 cm 2 sec -1 , respectively. (author)

  2. First results on nitriding aluminium alloys in a low-pressure RF plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fewell, M.P.; Priest, J.M.; Collins, G.A.; Short, K.T.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: Aluminium alloys are now well established as materials of choice for many commercial applications, especially where strength-to-weight ratio is a critical parameter. However, their more widespread use is inhibited by their low surface hardness. For steels, similar problems can be overcome by nitriding. The nitrogen-rich surface layer has high hardness and load-bearing capacity, and is very well bonded to the substrate. The development of a similar surface-treatment process for aluminium alloys is clearly a desirable goal. It is therefore not surprising that many research groups worldwide have attempted to nitride aluminium. Much of this work studied pure aluminium, a material of no interest for structural applications. Previous investigations into nitriding aluminium alloys' had indifferent results. However, they have served to identify the key issues, which are the importance of a pre-cleaning steps to remove the surface oxide, of impurity control during the nitriding and the desirability of using as low a process temperature as possible. In all of these areas, our process using a low-pressure RF plasma is likely to be competitive. In view of this, we have undertaken a comparative study of a range of commercially available aluminium alloys. All treatments were carried out in the hot-wall nitriding reactor at ANSTO. The samples consist of disks 25mm in diameter and ∼3mm thick which were polished and ultrasonically cleaned in alcohol prior to treatment. The samples were stored in air at all times except when in the nitriding reactor. In a series of treatments, the treatment time was varied in the range 1-16 h and the temperature in the range 350-500 deg C. All treatments were preceeded by a plasma cleaning step in a H 2 /50%Ar mixture for a duration of 1.5-2.0 h while the reactor reached processing temperature. The treatments all used pure N 2 at a pressure of 0.4Pa and a nitrogen flow rate of 12μmol s -1 , with 245W of rf power at 13.56MHz applied to

  3. Experimental research on the ultimate strength of hard aluminium alloy 2017 subjected to short-time radioactive heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dafang, Wu; Yuewu, Wang; Bing, Pan; Meng, Mu; Lin, Zhu

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Ultimate strength at transient heating is critical to security design of missiles. ► We measure the ultimate strength of alloy 2017 subjected to transient heating. ► Experimental results at transient heating are lacking in strength design handbook. ► Ultimate strength of alloy 2017 experimented is much higher than handbook value. ► The results provide a new method for optimal design of high-speed flight vehicles. -- Abstract: Alloy 2017 (Al–Cu–Mg) is a hard aluminium alloy strengthened by heat treatment. Because of its higher strength, finer weldability and ductility, hard aluminium alloy 2017 has been widely used in the field of aeronautics and astronautics. However, the ultimate strength and other characteristic mechanical parameters of aluminium alloy 2017 in a transient heating environment are still unclear, as these key mechanical parameters are lacking in the existing strength design handbook. The experimental characterisation of these critical parameters of aluminium alloy 2017 is undoubtedly meaningful for reliably estimating life span of and improving safety in designing high-speed flight vehicles. In this paper, the high-temperature ultimate strength, loading time and other mechanical properties of hard aluminium alloy 2017 under different transient heating temperatures and loading conditions are investigated by combining a transient aerodynamic heating simulation system and a material testing machine. The experimental results reveal that the ultimate strength and loading capability of aluminium alloy 2017 subjected to transient thermal heating are much higher than those tested in a long-time stable high-temperature environment. The research of this work not only provides a substantial basis for the loading capability improvement and optimal design of aerospace materials and structures subject to transient heating but also presents a new research direction with a practical application value.

  4. Stored energy and annealing behavior of heavily deformed aluminium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamikawa, Naoya; Huang, Xiaoxu; Kondo, Yuka

    2012-01-01

    It has been demonstrated in previous work that a two-step annealing treatment, including a low-temperature, long-time annealing and a subsequent high-temperature annealing, is a promising route to control the microstructure of a heavily deformed metal. In the present study, structural parameters...... are quantified such as boundary spacing, misorientation angle and dislocation density for 99.99% aluminium deformed by accumulative roll-bonding to a strain of 4.8. Two different annealing processes have been applied; (i) one-step annealing for 0.5 h at 100-400°C and (ii) two-step annealing for 6 h at 175°C...... followed by 0.5 h annealing at 200-600°C, where the former treatment leads to discontinuous recrystallization and the latter to uniform structural coarsening. This behavior has been analyzed in terms of the relative change during annealing of energy stored as elastic energy in the dislocation structure...

  5. Elastic and plastic properties of iron-aluminium alloys. Special problems raised by the brittleness of alloys of high aluminium content; Proprietes elastiques et plastiques des alliages fer-aluminium. Problemes particuliers poses par la fragilite des alliages a forte teneur en aluminium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mouturat, P. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1966-06-01

    The present study embodies the results obtained with iron-aluminium alloys whose composition runs from 0 to nearly 50 atoms per cent aluminium. Conditions of elaboration and transformation have been studied successively, as well as the Young's modulus and the flow stress; the last chapter embodies, a study of the Portevin-le-Chatelier effect in alloys of 40 atoms per cent of aluminium. I) The principal difficulty to clear up consisted in the intergranular brittleness of ordered alloys; this brittleness has been considerably reduced with appropriate conditions of elaboration and transformation. II) The studies upon the Young's modulus are in connection with iron-aluminium alloys; transformation temperatures are well shown up. The formation of covalent bonds on and after 25 atoms per cent show the highest values of the modulus. III) The analysis of variations of the flow stress according to the temperature show some connection with ordered structures, the existence of antiphase domains and the existence of sur-structure dislocations. IV) In the ordered Fe Al domain the kinetics of the Portevin-le-Chatelier effect could be explained by a mechanism of diffusion of vacancies. The role they play has been specified by the influence they exert upon the dislocations; this has led us to the inhomogeneous Rudman order; this inhomogeneous order could explain the shape of the traction curves. (author) [French] Cette etude comporte les resultats obtenus avec des alliages fer-aluminium dont la composition s'etend de 0 a pres de 50 atomes pour cent d'aluminium. Nous avons etudie successivement les conditions d'elaboration et de transformation, le module elastique et la limite elastique; un dernier chapitre est consacre a l'etude du phenomene Portevin-le-Chatelier dans les alliages a 40 atomes pour cent d'aluminium. I) La principale difficulte a resoudre residait dans la fragilite intergranulaire des alliages ordonnes; celle-ci a ete

  6. Elastic and plastic properties of iron-aluminium alloys. Special problems raised by the brittleness of alloys of high aluminium content; Proprietes elastiques et plastiques des alliages fer-aluminium. Problemes particuliers poses par la fragilite des alliages a forte teneur en aluminium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mouturat, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1966-06-01

    The present study embodies the results obtained with iron-aluminium alloys whose composition runs from 0 to nearly 50 atoms per cent aluminium. Conditions of elaboration and transformation have been studied successively, as well as the Young's modulus and the flow stress; the last chapter embodies, a study of the Portevin-le-Chatelier effect in alloys of 40 atoms per cent of aluminium. I) The principal difficulty to clear up consisted in the intergranular brittleness of ordered alloys; this brittleness has been considerably reduced with appropriate conditions of elaboration and transformation. II) The studies upon the Young's modulus are in connection with iron-aluminium alloys; transformation temperatures are well shown up. The formation of covalent bonds on and after 25 atoms per cent show the highest values of the modulus. III) The analysis of variations of the flow stress according to the temperature show some connection with ordered structures, the existence of antiphase domains and the existence of sur-structure dislocations. IV) In the ordered Fe Al domain the kinetics of the Portevin-le-Chatelier effect could be explained by a mechanism of diffusion of vacancies. The role they play has been specified by the influence they exert upon the dislocations; this has led us to the inhomogeneous Rudman order; this inhomogeneous order could explain the shape of the traction curves. (author) [French] Cette etude comporte les resultats obtenus avec des alliages fer-aluminium dont la composition s'etend de 0 a pres de 50 atomes pour cent d'aluminium. Nous avons etudie successivement les conditions d'elaboration et de transformation, le module elastique et la limite elastique; un dernier chapitre est consacre a l'etude du phenomene Portevin-le-Chatelier dans les alliages a 40 atomes pour cent d'aluminium. I) La principale difficulte a resoudre residait dans la fragilite intergranulaire des alliages ordonnes; celle-ci a ete considerablement reduite par des conditions

  7. Cold forming of aluminium - State of the art

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Niels

    1997-01-01

    The ongoing development of cold forging technology has been manifested lately by the increasing application of components in cold forged aluminium alloys. Applying precipitation hardening alloys components with great strength/weight ratio can be produced with a strength comparable...... to that of unalloyed steel. After description of the different types of alloys and their individual properties and applications, the special requirements for tool design by cold forging in aluminium is discussed. Finally, a large number of industrial examples on cold forged aluminium components are presented. (C) 1997...

  8. Corrosion issues of powder coated AA6060 aluminium profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Din, Rameez Ud; Valgarðsson, Smári; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl

    2015-01-01

    In this study detailed microstructural investigation of the reason for unexpected corrosion of powder coated aluminium alloy AA6060 windows profiles has been performed. The results from this study reveals that the failure of the window profiles was originated from the surface defects present...... on the extruded AA6060 aluminium profile after metallurgical process prior to powder coating. Surface defects are produced due to intermetallic particles in the alloy, which disturb the flow during the extrusion process. The corrosion mechanism leading to the failure of the powder coated AA6060 aluminium profiles...

  9. Application of radioactivation analysis for determination of impurities in aluminium, raw materials and in samples from aluminium production process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vucina, L.J.

    1977-01-01

    Trace elements in aluminium, raw materials and in the samples from different stages of aluminium production were determined by nondestructive neutron radioactivation analysis. The samples were taken from the Bayer's process of alumina production (bauxite, red sludge and alumina), from the components of the reduction cell (anode, criolyte and AlF 3 ) and of the final product - aluminium (purity 99.5-99.7%). Under given set of conditions ten trace elements (V,La,Ga,Mn,Co,Cr,Sc,Sb,Zn and Fe) were determined in aluminium and followed through the production process. It was found that the main impurities in aluminium are iron (0.15%) and zinc (0.O6%). It has been concluded that the purity of produced aluminium depends mainly on the purity of used alumina. The second important source of contamination of aluminium is anode. The results obtained by radioactivation analysis for V, Mn, Cr and Fe fall within the ranges of concentrations of these elements determined by use of other methods (volumetry, spectrophotometry, atomic absorption). Higher values for zinc were obtained by radioactivation analysis, probably due to unsatisfactory irradiation and measuring conditions for this element. The possibilities of application of radioactivation analysis to these kinds of samples are also disscused

  10. Experimental analysis of cut welding in aluminium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dorph, Pernille; De Chiffre, Leonardo; Bay, Niels

    1993-01-01

    Cut welding is a newly developed cold pressure welding process. In the present work, an experimental investigation was carried out analyzing the mechanisms involved in cut welding of a block to a strip. Experiments were carried out in technically pure aluminium. The investigation has involved...... tensile testing and metallographic investigations of the welds. The results show that this variant of cut welding is a very reproducible process giving a weld strength equal to 30-40% the strength of the parent material. The experiments have shown that the reason for this relatively low strength...... is an uneven pressure distribution along the weld due to a wave formed during sliding. Attempts to alter the material flow during sliding are presented....

  11. Heat of solution of hydrogen in aluminium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahajan, S.; Prakash, S.

    1984-01-01

    The heat of solution of hydrogen in aluminium is investigated accounting for both, the lattice dilation and its relaxation. The lattice contribution is evaluated using a linearly screened local model potential for the ions. The non-linear screening in the density functional formalism along with the exchange and correlation corrections in the jellium model is used to evaluate the proton contribution. The dilation enhances the lattice contribution by about 12 % and decreases the protonic contribution by about 5 %. The relaxation energy is reduced by about 40 % for the dilated lattice. Adding all the contributions, the heat of solution is found to be 20 % larger for the dilated lattice than that for the undilated lattice. The calculated heat of solution is found in good agreement with the experimental value. Comparing the results with the calculations of Perrot and Rasolt, the spherical solid model correction is estimated and it is found that it further improves the results. (author)

  12. Slag corrosion of gamma aluminium oxynitride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Xidong; Li Wen Chao [Beijing Univ. of Science and Technology, BJ (China). Dept. of Physical Chemistry of Metals; Sichen Du; Seetharaman, S. [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Materials Science and Technology

    2002-03-01

    Corrosion of {gamma}-aluminium oxynitride (AlON) by CaO-MgO-''FeO''-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-SiO{sub 2} melts corresponding to blast furnace slag was examined from 1693 to 1753 K under static and forced convection conditions. An intermediate layer was observed between the unreacted oxynitride and slag. After a certain time interval, the rate of the growth of this layer was found to be equal to the rate of the dissolution of the layer. Slag corrosion of AlON is a strongly thermally activated process, the overall activation energy being 1002 kJ/mol. The rate of corrosion was found to be significantly enhanced by the addition of ''FeO''. (orig.)

  13. Study of hydrogen implanted in aluminium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bugeat, J.P.; Chami, A.C.; Danielou, R.; Ligeon, E.

    1976-01-01

    An aluminium sample was implanted with deuterium and hydrogen at 5keV and 10keV respectively. The 1 H( 11 B,α) 8 Be* and D( 3 He,p) 4 He reactions were used for the analysis of H and D respectively. The implanted deuterium was shown to be as a whole in a tetrahedral site as far as the implantation temperature is lower than 175K, beyond that temperature the deuterium is randomly located. When the implantation temperature increases from 33K up to 275K the tetrahedral siting remains during annealing. The migration temperatures of hydrogen (or temperature of transition from the tetrahedral siting to a random distribution) experimentally observed during annealing (300K) and for increased implantation temperatures, show that the tetrahedral site is associated with a monovacancy migrating at 300K, the diffusion temperature of hydrogen being lower than 180K [fr

  14. Orbital friction stir welding of aluminium pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engelhard, G.; Hillers, T.

    2002-01-01

    Friction stir welding (FSW) was originally developed for flat plates. This contribution shows how it can be applied to the welding of aluminium pipes. Pipes made of AlMG 3 (EN5754), AlMg 4.5Mn (EN5083) and AlMgSi 0.5 (EN6106) with dimensions of Da 600 and 520 x 10-8 mm were welded. The FSW orbital system comprises an annular cage with integrated FSW head, a hydraulic system, and a control unit. The welds were tested successfully according to EN 288. The mechanical and technical properties of the welds were somewhat better than with the TIG orbital process, and welding times were about 40 percent shorter [de

  15. CCDC 972836: Experimental Crystal Structure Determination : (2-(1-(1,3-bis(2,4,6-trimethylphenyl)-1H-imidazol-3-ium-2-yl)propan-2-ylidene)-1,3-oxazolidin-3-yl)-tris(pentafluorophenyl)-aluminium

    KAUST Repository

    Jianghua,

    2014-01-01

    An entry from the Cambridge Structural Database, the world’s repository for small molecule crystal structures. The entry contains experimental data from a crystal diffraction study. The deposited dataset for this entry is freely available from the CCDC and typically includes 3D coordinates, cell parameters, space group, experimental conditions and quality measures.

  16. CCDC 1432978: Experimental Crystal Structure Determination : catena-[tris(mu-1,4-bis(4,4''-dicarboxylato-1,1':3',1''-terphenyl-5'-yl)benzene)-bis(mu-oxo)-hexaaqua-hexa-aluminium dichloride

    KAUST Repository

    Alezi, Dalal; Belmabkhout, Youssef; Suetin, Mikhail; Bhatt, Prashant; Weseliński, Łukasz J.; Solovyeva, Vera; Adil, Karim; Spanopoulos, Ioannis; Trikalitis, Pantelis N.; Emwas, Abdul-Hamid M.; Eddaoudi, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    An entry from the Cambridge Structural Database, the world’s repository for small molecule crystal structures. The entry contains experimental data from a crystal diffraction study. The deposited dataset for this entry is freely available from the CCDC and typically includes 3D coordinates, cell parameters, space group, experimental conditions and quality measures.

  17. CCDC 1432977: Experimental Crystal Structure Determination : catena-[tris(mu-5',5''-naphthalene-1,4-diylbis(1,1':3',1''-terphenyl-4,4''-dicarboxylato))-bis(mu-oxo)-hexaaqua-hexa-aluminium dichloride

    KAUST Repository

    Alezi, Dalal; Belmabkhout, Youssef; Suetin, Mikhail; Bhatt, Prashant; Weseliński, Łukasz J.; Solovyeva, Vera; Adil, Karim; Spanopoulos, Ioannis; Trikalitis, Pantelis N.; Emwas, Abdul-Hamid M.; Eddaoudi, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    An entry from the Cambridge Structural Database, the world’s repository for small molecule crystal structures. The entry contains experimental data from a crystal diffraction study. The deposited dataset for this entry is freely available from the CCDC and typically includes 3D coordinates, cell parameters, space group, experimental conditions and quality measures.

  18. Effect of temperature and aluminium additions on the mechanical properties of the 13% chromium ferrite stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, S.

    1975-01-01

    The potential interest of the ferritic stainless steels as component materials for nuclear power reactors led to investigate how aluminium influences the mechanical properties of 13% chromium ferritic stainless steels between room temperature and about 700 0 C. Nominal 13% chromium and 0.04 to 0.08% carbon ferritic stainless steels containing 0, 0.13, 2.19 and 4.15% aluminium, respectively, were obtained by vacuum remelting of a commercial martensitic-ferritic stainless steel and suitable additions of aluminium. After successive rolling operations and recrystallizations performed in order to obtain final 0.5 mm thick sheets with similar average grain sizes the specimens of the above mentioned steels were tested in a tensile test Instron machine, with a constant strain rate (approximately equal to 1.6 x 10 -3 min -1 ), at room temperature, 140, 265, 415, 565 and 715 0 C. The results obtained show that strengthening by aluminium is strongly temperature dependent. At 265 0 C all the steels presentes serrated plastic deformation (Portevin-Le Chatelier effect), which is attributed to interactions of the interstitial and substitutional solute atoms with dislocations in the body centered cubic structure. Flow stress drops were still observed at 465 0 C, although the tests performed at 565 and 715 0 C showed work-softening of the materials and total absence of serrations. Stress relaxation tests at room temperature yielded values of the apparent activation volumes, which are scattered between about 100 and 130 b 3 (b-Burgers vector), being almost constant with stress, strain and aluminium content. Therefore, although aluminium appreciably strengthens the 13% chromium steel, the behaviour summarized suggests that the mechanism controlling plastic deformation at room temperature is the same for all the tested steels, the values of the apparent activitation volumes being probably determined by the interstitial content. Stress relaxation tests at 20, 75, 140 and 265 0 C for

  19. Quality control of aluminium casting: X ray radiography or tomography?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munier, B.; Tamziti, J.; Grignard, A.; Peix, G.; Kaftandjian, V.

    2007-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: X ray radiography has been for years a well known method commonly used for controlling parts either on line or off line. The purpose is to detect internal defects or to achieve reverse engineering on the parts. More recently two-dimensional or three-dimensional Computed Tomography has been introduced and provides key advantages over standard X ray radiography, such as dimensional measurement of complex objects with hidden structures and 3D defect localisation. However, from the user point of view, despite the clear advantages of tomography, the time consuming drawback is predominant, and thus, it is worth assessing the added value of tomography with respect to several radioscopic images. It is clear that there is no unique response to that question. If unacceptable defects are already detected in one radioscopic image, then the sample can be rejected and 3D tomography is useless. On another hand, 3D tomography cannot be replaced if internal structures such as holes must be measured with accuracy. The paper will present a comparison between radiography and tomography for controlling parts in the aluminium casting industry. Advantages and drawbacks of both methods will be reviewed. Performance features in both cases will be assessed in this specific industrial case by estimating the defect detection efficiency and image quality parameters. (authors)

  20. Ionic interactions in alkali-aluminium tetrafluoride clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akdeniz, Z.; Cicek, Z.; Karaman, A.; Pastore, G.; Tosi, M.P.

    1999-08-01

    Complex anion structures ((AlF 4 ) - , (AlF 5 ) 2- and (AlF 6 ) 3- ) coexist in liquid mixtures of aluminium trifluoride and alkali fluorides in composition-dependent relative concentrations and are known to interact with the alkali counterions. We present a comparative study of the static and vibrational structures of MAlF 4 molecules (with M = any alkali), with the aim of developing and testing a refined model of the ionic interactions for applications to the Al-M fluoride mixtures. We find that, whereas an edge-bridged coordination is strongly favoured for Li in LiAIF 4 , edge-bridging and face-bridging of the alkali ion become energetically equivalent as one moves from Na to the heavier alkalis. This result is sensitive to the inclusion of alkali polarizability and may be interpreted as implying (for M = K, Rb or Cs) almost free relative rotations of the M + and (AlF 4 ) - partners at temperatures of relevance to experiment. The consistency of such a viewpoint with electron diffraction data on vapours and with Raman spectra on melts is discussed. (author)

  1. Failure of aluminium self-piercing rivets: An experimental and numerical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoang, N.-H.; Hopperstad, O.S.; Langseth, M.; Westermann, I.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We investigated the fracture mechanism of AA7278-T6 aluminium self-piercing rivets. ► Fracture of AA 7278-T6 rivets during the riveting process is a complex phenomenon. ► Microstructure of AA7278-T6 has significant influence on the fracture mechanism. ► Increasing friction will change the deformation mode of the rivet. - Abstract: The present paper investigates the fracture mechanisms of AA7278-T6 aluminium self-piercing rivets under compression during the riveting process. First, a microstructure investigation was conducted to disclose the grain structure and the particle distribution of the extruded aluminium alloy. Transmission electron micrographs revealed precipitate free zones along grain boundaries. Uniaxial tensile tests in three different directions with respect to the extrusion direction revealed anisotropy of the alloy in strength and ductility and a change in fracture mode with tensile direction. The behaviour of the alloy under compression was studied experimentally using upsetting tests and self-piercing riveting tests. Micrographs of the deformed specimens provided insight into the influence of the microstructure on the deformation and fracture of the alloy under compression. Second, numerical analyses were carried out using a 2-D axisymmetric model in LS–DYNA in an attempt to investigate the role of different physical variables on the final failure of the rivet. The numerical results revealed that constituent particles, precipitate free zones, and friction between the rivet and plates are important for strain localisation and fracture in the rivet

  2. Characteristic evaluation of process parameters of friction stir welding of aluminium 2024 hybrid composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadashiva, M.; Shivanand, H. K.; Vidyasagar, H. N.

    2018-04-01

    The Current work is aimed to investigate the effect of process parameters in friction stir welding of Aluminium 2024 base alloy and Aluminium 2024 matrix alloy reinforced with E Glass and Silicon Carbide reinforcements. The process involved a set of synthesis techniques incorporating stir casting methodology resulting in fabrication of the composite material. This composite material that is synthesized is then machined to obtain a plate of dimensions 100 mm * 50 mm * 6 mm. The plate is then friction stir welded at different set of parameters viz. the spindle speed of 600 rpm, 900 rpm and 1200 rpm and feed rate of 40 mm/min, 80 mm/min and 120 mm/min for analyzing the process capability. The study of the given set of parameters is predominantly important to understand the physics of the process that may lead to better properties of the joint, which is very much important in perspective to its use in advanced engineering applications, especially in aerospace domain that uses Aluminium 2024 alloy for wing and fuselage structures under tension.

  3. Mesoporous aluminium organophosphonates: a reusable chemsensor for the detection of explosives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Dongdong; Yu, Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Rapid and sensitive detection of explosives is in high demand for homeland security and public safety. In this work, electron-rich of anthracene functionalized mesoporous aluminium organophosphonates (En-AlPs) were synthesized by a one-pot condensation process. The mesoporous structure and strong blue emission of En-AlPs were confirmed by the N 2 adsorption-desorption isotherms, transmission electron microscopy images and fluorescence spectra. The materials En-AlPs can serve as sensitive chemosensors for various electron deficient nitroderivatives, with the quenching constant and the detection limit up to 1.5×10 6 M −1 and 0.3 ppm in water solution. More importantly, the materials can be recycled for many times by simply washed with ethanol, showing potential applications in explosives detection. - Graphical abstract: Electron-rich of anthracene functionalized mesoporous aluminium organophosphonates can serve as sensitive and recycled chemosensors for nitroderivatives with the quenching constant up to 1.5×10 6 M −1 in water solution. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Anthracene functionalized mesoporous aluminium organophosphonates were synthesized. • The materials serve as sensitive chemosensors for nitroderivatives. • The materials can be recycled for many times by simply washed with ethanol. • The materials show potential applications in explosives detection.

  4. Iron and aluminium oxides containing industrial wastes as adsorbents of heavy metals: Application possibilities and limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacukowicz-Sobala, Irena; Ociński, Daniel; Kociołek-Balawejder, Elżbieta

    2015-07-01

    Industrial wastes with a high iron or aluminium oxide content are produced in huge quantities as by-products of water treatment (water treatment residuals), bauxite processing (red mud) and hard and brown coal burning in power plants (fly ash). Although they vary in their composition, the wastes have one thing in common--a high content of amorphous iron and/or aluminium oxides with a large specific surface area, whereby this group of wastes shows very good adsorbability towards heavy metals, arsenates, selenates, etc. But their physical form makes their utilisation quite difficult, since it is not easy to separate the spent sorbent from the solution and high bed hydraulic resistances occur in dynamic regime processes. Nevertheless, because of the potential benefits of utilising the wastes in industrial effluent treatment, this issue attracts much attention today. This study describes in detail the waste generation processes, the chemical structure of the wastes, their physicochemical properties, and the mechanisms of fixing heavy metals and semimetals on the surface of iron and aluminium oxides. Typical compositions of wastes generated in selected industrial plants are given. A detailed survey of the literature on the adsorption applications of the wastes, including methods of their thermal and chemical activation, as well as regeneration of the spent sorbents, is presented. The existing and potential ways of modifying the physical form of the discussed group of wastes, making it possible to overcome the basic limitation on their practical use, are discussed. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. COMPARATION BETWEEN NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTING METHODS FOR THE ALUMINIUM BRAZED PIECES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan NIŢOI

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Presented paper refers to different control methods used in aluminium brazed joining because of possible defects. Low joining complexity permits exact damages position in relation with materials geometry.

  6. Aluminium alloys in municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yanjun; Rem, Peter

    2009-05-01

    With the increasing growth of incineration of household waste, more and more aluminium is retained in municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash. Therefore recycling of aluminium from bottom ash becomes increasingly important. Previous research suggests that aluminium from different sources is found in different size fractions resulting in different recycling rates. The purpose of this study was to develop analytical and sampling techniques to measure the particle size distribution of individual alloys in bottom ash. In particular, cast aluminium alloys were investigated. Based on the particle size distribution it was computed how well these alloys were recovered in a typical state-of-the-art treatment plant. Assessment of the cast alloy distribution was carried out by wet physical separation processes, as well as chemical methods, X-ray fluorescence analysis and electron microprobe analysis. The results from laboratory analyses showed that cast alloys tend to concentrate in the coarser fractions and therefore are better recovered in bottom ash treatment plants.

  7. Oxygen–induced barrier height changes in aluminium – amorphous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Se) films by exposing the samples to oxygen before the aluminium contacts were deposited. Current – voltage (I-V) measurements were carried out on the samples. The results show that the application of voltage causes charge exchange ...

  8. Analogy and differences between aluminium and titanium electrowinning

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Vuuren, DS

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available larger market. The authors have tested this route experimentally, but could not produce pure titanium. The failure of electrowinning pure, molten titanium has been interpreted in terms of the analogy and differences between aluminium and titanium...

  9. Deposition of aluminium nanoparticles using dense plasma focus device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devi, Naorem Bilasini; Srivastava, M P; Roy, Savita

    2010-01-01

    Plasma route to nanofabrication has drawn much attention recently. The dense plasma focus (DPF) device is used for depositing aluminium nanoparticles on n-type Si (111) wafer. The plasma chamber is filled with argon gas and evacuated at a pressure of 80 Pa. The substrate is placed at distances 4.0 cm, 5.0 cm and 6.0 cm from the top of the central anode. The aluminium is deposited on Si wafer at room temperature with two focused DPF shots. The deposits on the substrate are examined for their morphological properties using atomic force microscopy (AFM). The AFM images have shown the formation of aluminium nanoparticles. From the AFM images, it is found that the size of aluminium nanoparticles increases with increase in distance between the top of anode and the substrate for same number of DPF shots.

  10. Manufacturing and Machining Challenges of Hybrid Aluminium Metal Matix Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baburaja, Kammuluri; Sainadh Teja, S.; Karthik Sri, D.; Kuldeep, J.; Gowtham, V.

    2017-08-01

    Manufacturing which involves material removal processes or material addition processes or material transformation processes. One or all the processes to obtain the final desired properties for a material with desired shape which meets the required precision and accuracy values for the expected service life of a material in working conditions. Researchers found the utility of aluminium to be the second largest after steel. Aluminium and its metal matrix composite possess wide applications in various applications in aerospace industry, automobile industry, Constructions and even in kitchen utensils. Hybrid Al-MMCconsist of two different materials, and one will be from organic origin along with the base material. In this paper an attempt is made to bring out the importance of utilization of aluminium and the challenges concerned in manufacturing and machining of hybrid aluminium MMC.

  11. Finite size melting of spherical solid-liquid aluminium interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chang, J.; Johnson, Erik; Sakai, T.

    2009-01-01

    We have investigated the melting of nano-sized cone shaped aluminium needles coated with amorphous carbon using transmission electron microscopy. The interface between solid and liquid aluminium was found to have spherical topology. For needles with fixed apex angle, the depressed melting tempera...... to the conclusion that the depressed melting temperature is not controlled solely by the inverse radius 1/R. Instead, we found a direct relation between the depressed melting temperature and the ratio between the solid-liquid interface area and the molten volume.......We have investigated the melting of nano-sized cone shaped aluminium needles coated with amorphous carbon using transmission electron microscopy. The interface between solid and liquid aluminium was found to have spherical topology. For needles with fixed apex angle, the depressed melting...

  12. Verification of Some Vegetable Oils as Cutting Fluid for Aluminium

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Akorede

    kerosene (due to the gummy nature of aluminium metal). The parameters ... In the cutting of metals, work is done in the plastic deformation of the layer being cut at the primary shear ... Lathe machine – Model: Metalx WARSZAWA,. Serial No.

  13. Spectrographic determination of trace impurities in reactor grade aluminium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandola, L.C.; Machado, I.J.

    1975-01-01

    A spectrographic method enabling the determination of 21 trace impurities in aluminium oxide is described. The technique involves mixing the sample with graphite buffer in the ratio 1:1, loading it in a graphite electrode and arcing it for 30 sec. in a dc arc to 10 A current against a pointed graphite cathode. The spectra are photographed on Ilford N.30 emulsion employing a large quartz spectrograph. The aluminium line at 2669.2 A 0 serves as the internal standard. The impurities determined are Ag, B, Bi, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ga, In, Mg, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Si, Sn, Ti, V and Zn. The sensitivity varies from 5 to 100 ppm and the precision from +- 5 to +- 22% for different elements. A method for converting aluminium metal to aluminium oxide is described. It is found that boron is not lost during this conversion. (author)

  14. Aluminium leaching from red mud by filamentous fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urík, Martin; Bujdoš, Marek; Milová-Žiaková, Barbora; Mikušová, Petra; Slovák, Marek; Matúš, Peter

    2015-11-01

    This contribution investigates the efficient and environmentally friendly aluminium leaching from red mud (bauxite residue) by 17 species of filamentous fungi. Bioleaching experiments were examined in batch cultures with the red mud in static, 7-day cultivation. The most efficient fungal strains in aluminium bioleaching were Penicillium crustosum G-140 and Aspergillus niger G-10. The A. niger G-10 strain was capable to extract up to approximately 141 mg·L(-1) of aluminium from 0.2 g dry weight red mud. Chemical leaching with organic acids mixture, prepared according to A. niger G-10 strain's respective fungal excretion during cultivation, proved that organic acids significantly contribute to aluminium solubilization from red mud. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Aluminium localization and toxicity symptoms related to root growth ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-10-26

    Oct 26, 2012 ... Aluminium localization and toxicity symptoms related to root growth inhibition in rice (Oryza sativa ... growth of this cultivar when submitted to Al3+ stress. Moreover ..... Caiapó. Previous work has shown the IAC cultivar to be.

  16. Irradiation of aluminium alloy materials with electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konno, Osamu; Masumoto, Kazuyoshi

    1982-01-01

    It is a theme with a room for discussion to employ the stainless steel composed of longer half-life materials for the vacuum system of accelerators, from the viewpoint of radiation exposure. Therefore, it is desirable to use aluminium of shorter half-life in place of stainless steel. As a result of investigation on the above theme in the 1.2 GeV electron linac project in Tohoku University, it has been concluded that aluminium alloy vacuum chambers can reduce exposure dose by about one or two figures as compared with stainless steel ones. Of course, aluminium alloy contains trace amounts of Mg, Si, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Zn, Cu and others. Therefore, four kinds of aluminium alloy considered to be usable have been examined for induced radioactivity by electron beam irradiation. Stainless steel SUS 304 has been also irradiated for comparison. Radiation energy has been 30 MeV and 200 MeV. When stainless steel and aluminium alloy were compared, aluminium alloy was very effective for reducing surface dose in low energy irradiation. In 200 MeV irradiation, the dose ratio of aluminium alloy to stainless steel became 1/30 to 1/100 after one week, though the dose difference between these two materials became smaller in 100 days or more after irradiation. If practical inspection and repair are implemented during the period from a few days to one week after shutdown, the aluminium alloy is preferable for exposure dose reduction even in high energy irradiation. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  17. Adhesive Bonding of Aluminium Alloy A5754 by Epoxy Resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Michalec

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Joining thin sheets of aluminium and its alloys is a promising area in the field of joining materials. Nowadays, joining methods that do not melt the material itself are increasingly being utilised. This paper deals with adhesive bonding of aluminium alloy A5754 by two-component epoxy resins. Theresults show that joints bonded by Hysol 9466 have appropriate mechanical properties, but that joints bonded by Hysol 9492 have better thermal stability.

  18. Purity and surface roughness of vacuum deposited aluminium films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhere, N G; Arsenio, T P [Instituto Militar de Engenharia, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Patnaik, B K [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica; Assuncao, F C.R.; de Souza, A M [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Departamento de Ciencia dos Materiais e Metalurgia

    1975-04-01

    The authors studied the purity, surface roughness and grain size of vacuum-deposited aluminium films, using an intermetallic crucible and a continuous feed of pure aluminium wire. The grain size and roughness were studied by electron difraction, X-ray diffraction and the scanning electron microscope. Purity was determined by X-ray fluorescence produced by proton bombardment in the Van de Graaff accelerator and by X-ray and optical emission spectrometry.

  19. Aluminium-rich corner in Al-Cu-La system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yunusov, I.; Ganiev, I.N.

    1990-01-01

    Aluminium corner of Al-Cu-La system are investigated by means of microstructural and differential thermal analysis. Existence of LaCu 2 Al 10 and LaCu 0.5 Al 3.5 ternary compounds in the system is confirmed and it is shown, as well, both compounds are in two-phase equilibrium with aluminium solid solution and form with it and between each other eutectic type state diagrams. State diagrams for quasibinary sections are plotted

  20. Twenty years of isotope applications in the Hungarian aluminium industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bujdoso, E.

    1982-01-01

    After a short review of the isotope techniques applied in the Hungarian aluminium industry some special applications and their results are briefly outlined. Industrial and laboratory scale trace constituent determinations, isotope and activation analytical methods and the application of sealed radiation sources are discussed. It has been shown that the related R+D activity followed closely the development trends of the aluminium industry. The references given is a comprehensive bibliography of Hungarian publications in this field. (author)

  1. Investigation of different anode materials for aluminium rechargeable batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Torrero, David; Leung, Puiki; García-Quismondo, Enrique; Ventosa, Edgar; Anderson, Marc; Palma, Jesús; Marcilla, Rebeca

    2018-01-01

    In order to shed some light into the importance of the anodic reaction in reversible aluminium batteries, we investigate here the electrodeposition of aluminium in an ionic liquid electrolyte (BMImCl-AlCl3) using different substrates. We explore the influence of the type of anodic material (aluminium, stainless steel and carbon) and its 3D geometry on the reversibility of the anodic reaction by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and galvanostatic charge-discharge. The shape of the CVs confirms that electrodeposition of aluminium was feasible in the three materials but the highest peak currents and smallest peak separation in the CV of the aluminium anode suggested that this material was the most promising. Interestingly, carbon-based substrates appeared as an interesting alternative due to the high peak currents in CV, moderate overpotentials and dual role as anode and cathode. 3D substrates such as fiber-based carbon paper and aluminium mesh showed significantly smaller overpotentials and higher efficiencies for Al reaction suggesting that the use of 3D substrates in full batteries might result in enhanced power. This is corroborated by polarization testing of full Al-batteries.

  2. Compressive Behaviour and Energy Absorption of Aluminium Foam Sandwich

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endut, N. A.; Hazza, M. H. F. Al; Sidek, A. A.; Adesta, E. T. Y.; Ibrahim, N. A.

    2018-01-01

    Development of materials in automotive industries plays an important role in order to retain the safety, performance and cost. Metal foams are one of the idea to evolve new material in automotive industries since it can absorb energy when it deformed and good for crash management. Recently, new technology had been introduced to replace metallic foam by using aluminium foam sandwich (AFS) due to lightweight and high energy absorption behaviour. Therefore, this paper provides reliable data that can be used to analyze the energy absorption behaviour of aluminium foam sandwich by conducting experimental work which is compression test. Six experiments of the compression test were carried out to analyze the stress-strain relationship in terms of energy absorption behavior. The effects of input variables include varying the thickness of aluminium foam core and aluminium sheets on energy absorption behavior were evaluated comprehensively. Stress-strain relationship curves was used for energy absorption of aluminium foam sandwich calculation. The result highlights that the energy absorption of aluminium foam sandwich increases from 12.74 J to 64.42 J respectively with increasing the foam and skin thickness.

  3. Surface roughness when diamond turning RSA 905 optical aluminium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otieno, T.; Abou-El-Hossein, K.; Hsu, W. Y.; Cheng, Y. C.; Mkoko, Z.

    2015-08-01

    Ultra-high precision machining is used intensively in the photonics industry for the production of various optical components. Aluminium alloys have proven to be advantageous and are most commonly used over other materials to make various optical components. Recently, the increasing demand from optical systems for optical aluminium with consistent material properties has led to the development of newly modified grades of aluminium alloys produced by rapid solidification in the foundry process. These new aluminium grades are characterised by their finer microstructures and refined mechanical and physical properties. However the machining database of these new optical aluminium grades is limited and more research is still required to investigate their machinability performance when they are diamond turned in ultrahigh precision manufacturing environment. This work investigates the machinability of rapidly solidified aluminium RSA 905 by varying a number of diamond-turning cutting parameters and measuring the surface roughness over a cutting distance of 4 km. The machining parameters varied in this study were the cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut. The results showed a common trend of decrease in surface roughness with increasing cutting distance. The lowest surface roughness Ra result obtained after 4 km in this study was 3.2 nm. This roughness values was achieved using a cutting speed of 1750 rpm, feed rate of 5 mm/min and depth of cut equal to 25 μm.

  4. The binding, transport and fate of aluminium in biological cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exley, Christopher; Mold, Matthew J

    2015-04-01

    Aluminium is the most abundant metal in the Earth's crust and yet, paradoxically, it has no known biological function. Aluminium is biochemically reactive, it is simply that it is not required for any essential process in extant biota. There is evidence neither of element-specific nor evolutionarily conserved aluminium biochemistry. This means that there are no ligands or chaperones which are specific to its transport, there are no transporters or channels to selectively facilitate its passage across membranes, there are no intracellular storage proteins to aid its cellular homeostasis and there are no pathways which evolved to enable the metabolism and excretion of aluminium. Of course, aluminium is found in every compartment of every cell of every organism, from virus through to Man. Herein we have investigated each of the 'silent' pathways and metabolic events which together constitute a form of aluminium homeostasis in biota, identifying and evaluating as far as is possible what is known and, equally importantly, what is unknown about its uptake, transport, storage and excretion. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of Aluminium Sulfate on Cadmium Accumulation in Rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khamvarn, Vararas; Boontanon, Narin; Prapagdee, Benjaphorn; Kumsopa, Acharaporn; Boonsirichai, Kanokporn

    2011-06-01

    Full text: Cadmium accumulation in Pathum Thani 1 and Suphan Buri 60 rice cultivars was investigated upon treatment with aluminium sulfate as a precipitant. Rice was grown hydroponically in a medium containing 4 ppm cadmium nitrate with or without 4 ppm aluminium sulfate. Root, stem with leaves and grain samples were collected and analyzed for cadmium content using atomic absorption spectroscopy and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. Without the addition of aluminium sulfate, Pathum Thani 1 and Suphan Buri 60 accumulated 24.71∫ 3.14 ppm and 34.43 ∫ 4.51 ppm (dry weight of whole plant) of cadmium, respectively. With aluminium sulfate, cadmium accumulation increased to 40.66 ∫ 2.47 ppm and 62.94 ∫ 10.69 ppm, respectively. The addition of aluminium sulfate to the planting medium did not reduce cadmium accumulation but caused the rice to accumulate more cadmium especially in the shoots and grains. This observation might serve as the basis for future research on the management of agricultural areas that are contaminated with cadmium and aluminium

  6. Direct chill casting of aluminium alloys under electromagnetic interaction by permanent magnet assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojarevičs, Andris; Kaldre, Imants; Milgrāvis, Mikus; Beinerts, Toms

    2018-05-01

    Direct chill casting is one of the methods used in industry to obtain good microstructure and properties of aluminium alloys. Nevertheless, for some alloys grain structure is not optimal. In this study, we offer the use of electromagnetic interaction to modify melt convection near the solidification interface. Solidification under various electromagnetic interactions has been widely studied, but usually at low solidification velocity and high thermal gradient. This type of interaction may succeed fragmentation of dendrite arms and transport of solidification nuclei thus leading to improved material structure and properties. Realization of experimental small-scale crystallizer and electromagnetic system has been described in this article.

  7. Lake restoration with aluminium, bentonite and Phoslock: the effect on sediment stability and light attenuation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egemose, Sara; Reitzel, Kasper; Flindt, Mogens

    treatments on aluminium mobility, sediment stability or light climate. A laboratory flume experiment including three shallow Danish lakes was conducted. We measured the effects of aluminium, Phoslock (a commercial product), bentonite, and a combination of bentonite/aluminium. Each treatment caused a varying...... consolidation of the sediment. The largest consolidation occurred using Phoslock- and bentonite-addition followed by bentonite/aluminium-addition, whereas aluminium alone had no effect. Sediment stability thresholds were measured before and after addition. Especially Phoslock, but also bentonite and bentonite....../aluminium increased sediment erosion threshold, with respectively 200%, 43% and 57%. Aluminium, bentonite/aluminium, and Phoslock improved the light conditions in the water phase, with respectively 60%, 57% and 50%, whereas bentonite created higher turbidity. Conclusively aluminium improved the light conditions...

  8. Investigation of aluminium state in some popular food, which are cooked in aluminium vessels, using spectroscopic analysis methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Shahneh, M.; Saheune, Kh.

    2009-01-01

    Aluminium and lead elements were determined in drinking water and salt solution from chick-pea and faba-bean cooked in aluminium vessels and others from teflon for comparison using atomic absorption spectroscopy by graphite furnace. The relationship between heating time and aluminium quantities transferred to these food solutions was investigated. The lead element was determined taking into consideration the fact that this element may enter in these vessels somehow during the manufacturing process. Results show that the highest value of aluminium quantities was recorded in salt solution ( 17.022 μg/ml) without heating , followed by chick-pea solution (9.95 μg/ml), then faba-bean solution (2.81 μg/ml) when the heated period was 120 minutes. (author)

  9. Wear behavior of carbon fiber/aluminium-composites during abrasive loading; Verschleissverhalten von Kohlenstoffaser/Aluminium-Verbunden unter abrasiver Beanspruchung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wielage, B.; Dorner, A. [Technische Univ. Chemnitz (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Verbundwerkstoffe

    1998-07-01

    Abrasive wear resistance of aluminium is significantly improved by the reinforcement with a high volume percentage of carbon fibres. The wear of unreinforced aluminium after scratching by a diamond indenter can be described as pure microgrooving without any micro-chipping. After integration of 70 vol.-% carbon fibers the damage mechanism is considerably altered and a great amount of micro-chipping occurs. The abrasive wear is strongly influenced by the fiber orientation. The best wear resistance is observed when the fibers are orientated perpendicular to the wear surface. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Verstaerkung von Aluminium mit einem hohen Volumengehalt endloser Kohlenstoffasern verbessert erkennbar dessen Resistenz gegenueber Abrasionsverschleiss. Der Verschleiss von unverstaerktem Aluminium infolge des Ritzens mit einem Diamantindenter erfolgt in Form von reinem Mikrofurchen ohne Spanbildung. Aufgrund der Integration von 70 Vol.-% Kohlenstoffasern wird eine erhebliche Zunahme des Schaedigungsmechanismus Mikrospanen festgestellt. Die Faserorientierung hat merklichen Einfluss auf die Sensibilitaet gegenueber Abrasion. Orientierung der anisotropen Kohlenstoffasern senkrecht zur Verschleissoberflaeche bedingt den geringsten Abrasionsverschleiss. (orig.)

  10. Sustainable recycling service- IKEA Espoo/Vantaa

    OpenAIRE

    Vlahakis, Lindell; Sapkota, Bishnu

    2014-01-01

    Sustainability has been an essential element in business operations over a decade due to the fact of rising concern for the environment; climate change, pollution, wildlife and forest, and social causes. Economic, social and environmental growth needed to be endeavored in order to achieve sustainable development. Corporate social responsibility (CSR) tends to enforce strategies of the company towards social and environmental responsibility. However, CSR is customarily limited to good governan...

  11. Influence of rivet to sheet edge distance on fatigue strength of self-piercing riveted aluminium joints

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Dezhi; Han, Li; Thornton, Martin; Shergold, Mike

    2012-01-01

    Self-piercing riveting (SPR) is one of the main joining methods for lightweight aluminium automotive body structures due to its advantages. In order to further optimise the structure design and reduce the weight but without compromising strength, reduction of redundant materials in the joint flange area can be considered. For this reason, the influence of rivet to sheet edge distance on the fatigue strengths of self-piercing riveted joints was studied. Five edge distances, 5 mm, 6 mm, 8 mm, 1...

  12. Electrical connection for aluminium conductors in automotive applications : Prestudy of available solutions for electrical connection methods of aluminium cables

    OpenAIRE

    Hamedi, Emilia

    2017-01-01

    Due to increasing weight of electrical component and wiring harnesses in a vehicle contrary to the demand of light constructed vehicles as well as the constantly increasing and fluctuating price of copper compared to aluminium’s stable and far lower price, the use of aluminium conductors as an alternative have been promoted.  This thesis work lay theoretical research of the available methods used for electrical connection of aluminium conductors in order to increase the knowledge about the av...

  13. Investigation of the particle size distribution of the ejected material generated during the single femtosecond laser pulse ablation of aluminium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Han; Zhang, Nan; Zhu, Xiaonong

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Single 50 fs laser pulse ablation of an aluminium target in vacuum is investigated in our experiments. • Nanoparticles with large radii of several hundred nanometers are observed. • The nanoparticles are most likely from the mechanical tensile stress relaxation. - Abstract: Single femtosecond laser pulses are employed to ablate an aluminium target in vacuum, and the particle size distribution of the ablated material deposited on a mica substrate is examined with atomic force microscopy (AFM). The recorded AFM images show that these particles have a mean radius of several tens of nanometres. It is also determined that the mean radius of these deposited nanoparticles increases when the laser fluence at the aluminium target increases from 0.44 J/cm 2 to 0.63 J/cm 2 . The mechanism of the laser-induced nanoparticle generation is thought to be photomechanical tensile stress relaxation. Raman spectroscopy measurements confirm that the nanoparticles thus produced have the same structure as the bulk aluminium

  14. Aluminium-27 n.m.r. studies of aluminium fluoro complexes in dichloromethane solution: evidence for tetrafluoroaluminate anion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colton, R.; Eller, P.G.

    1989-01-01

    Mixed aluminium chloro/fluoro anions are formed in dichloromethane solution by the interaction of AlCl 3 and [Ph 3 PhCH 2 P] [H 2 F 3 ]. Aluminium-27 n.m.r. studies are restricted to the stoichiometric ranges F/Al from 1:1 to 3:1 and F/Al>8:1. Between these limits rapid precipitation reactions occur. In the fluoride-rich stoichiometric range there is rapid exchange on the n.m.r. time scale between the aluminium fluoro anion and free fluoride, so that a direct identification of the species by the multiplicity of the resonance is not possible. Indirect evidence strongly suggests that the aluminium species is [AlF 4 ] - . In the F/Al stoichiometry range from 1:1 to 3:1 aluminium-27 resonances were observed for all the other possible [AlCl χ F 4-χ ] - species. Studies on the aluminium iodo/fluoro system support the identification of [AlF 4 ] - , but the system is labile and the mixed iodo/fluoro species undergo rapid disproportionation. 12 refs., 1 fig

  15. Irradiation effects on aluminium and beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bieth, M.

    1992-01-01

    The High Flux Reactor (HFR) in Petten (The Netherlands) is a 45 MW light water cooled and moderated research reactor. The vessel was replaced in 1984 after more than 20 years of operation because doubts had arisen over the condition of the aluminium alloy construction material. Data on the mechanical properties of the aluminium alloy Al 5154 with and without neutron irradiation are necessary for the safety analysis of the new HFR vessel which is constructed from the same material as the old vessel. Fatigue, fracture mechanics (crack growth and fracture toughness) and tensile properties have been obtained from several experimental testing programmes with materials of the new and the old HFR vessel. 1) Low-cycle fatigue testing has been carried out on non-irradiated specimens from stock material of the new HFR vessel. The number of cycles to failure ranges from 90 to more than 50,000 for applied strain from 3.0% to 0.4%; 2) Fatigue crack growth rate testing has been conducted: - with unirradiated specimens from stock material of the new vessel; - with irradiated specimens from the remnants of the old core box. Irradiation has a minor effect on the sub-critical fatigue crack growth rate. The ultimate increase of the mean crack growth rate amounts to a factor of 2. However crack extension is strongly reduced due to the smaller crack length for crack growth instability (reduction of K IC ). - Irradiated material from the core box walls of the old vessel has been used for fracture toughness testing. The conditional fracture toughness values K IQ ranges from 30.3 down to 16.5 MPa√m. The lowermost meaningful 'K IC ' is 17.7 MPa√m corresponding to the thermal fluence of 7.5 10 26 n/m 2 for the End of Life (EOL) of the old vessel. - Testing carried out on irradiated material from the remnants of the old HFR core box shows an ultimate neutron irradiation hardening of 35 points increase of HSR 15N and an ultimate tensile yield stress of 589 MPa corresponding to the

  16. Etude expérimentale et théorique de la structure électronique de l'aluminium en conditions extrêmes par spectroscopie d'absorption X

    OpenAIRE

    Festa , Floriane

    2013-01-01

    Matter in extreme conditions belongs to Warm Dense Matter regime which lays between dense plasma regime and condensed matter. This regime is still not well known, indeed it is very complex to generate such plasma in the laboratory to get experimental data and validate models. The goal of this thesis is to study electronic structure of aluminum in extreme conditions with X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Experimentally aluminum has reached high densities and high temperatures, up to now unexplore...

  17. Trace aluminium determination and sampling problems of archeological bone employing destructive neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blotcky, A.J.; Rack, E.P.; Recker, R.R.; Leffler, J.A.; Teitelbaum, S.

    1978-01-01

    A destructive neutron activation analysis procedure was developed for determining trace aluminium content in bone. The method is based on a carefully planned sample preparation, irradiation at a neutron flux for 3.1x10 11 nxcm -2 xs -1 for 5 minutes, and chemical separation based on ion exchange. It was found that bone samples soaked in aluminium containing soil gave highly elevated aluminium values as a result of the aluminium adsorption into the bone matrix. The maximum aluminium content values for prehistoric bones are larger than those of modern bones and comparable to aluminium levels present in bone from renal patients. (T.G.)

  18. Modelling of Local Necking and Fracture in Aluminium Alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Achani, D.; Eriksson, M.; Hopperstad, O. S.; Lademo, O.-G.

    2007-01-01

    Non-linear Finite Element simulations are extensively used in forming and crashworthiness studies of automotive components and structures in which fracture need to be controlled. For thin-walled ductile materials, the fracture-related phenomena that must be properly represented are thinning instability, ductile fracture and through-thickness shear instability. Proper representation of the fracture process relies on the accuracy of constitutive and fracture models and their parameters that need to be calibrated through well defined experiments. The present study focuses on local necking and fracture which is of high industrial importance, and uses a phenomenological criterion for modelling fracture in aluminium alloys. As an accurate description of plastic anisotropy is important, advanced phenomenological constitutive equations based on the yield criterion YLD2000/YLD2003 are used. Uniaxial tensile tests and disc compression tests are performed for identification of the constitutive model parameters. Ductile fracture is described by the Cockcroft-Latham fracture criterion and an in-plane shear tests is performed to identify the fracture parameter. The reason is that in a well designed in-plane shear test no thinning instability should occur and it thus gives more direct information about the phenomenon of ductile fracture. Numerical simulations have been performed using a user-defined material model implemented in the general-purpose non-linear FE code LS-DYNA. The applicability of the model is demonstrated by correlating the predicted and experimental response in the in-plane shear tests and additional plane strain tension tests

  19. Mushy Zone Properties and Castability of Aluminium Foundry Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahle, A.K.

    1996-01-01

    The growing application and market share of aluminium castings demand better understanding of the mechanisms of defect formation during casting. Although casting is a cost-effective production route, inadequate reproducibility and quality of the cast structure often restrict the utilization of castings. This doctoral thesis aims to (1) determine how the solidification conditions affect the rheological behaviour in the partially solidified state, (2) to measure how alterations in solidification variables influence castability, and (3) to investigate the relationship between mushy zone rheology and castability. The development of mechanical strength in the mushy zone was measured as a function of chemical composition. Measurements of the dendrite coherency point provided accurate determination of the point where the dendrite network is established. The strength measurements confirm that the dendrites are largely independent and free-floating before dendrite coherency. The point and rate of strength development in the subsequently established interdendritic network strongly depend on the size and morphology of the dendrites and fraction solid. The castability investigation was limited to evaluations of fluidity and feeding. Fluidity measurements showed a complex effect of increased grain refinement. Alterations of the concentration and type of main alloying element gave a direct relationship between mushy zone rheology and fluidity. The range of the operating feeding mechanisms during solidification is directly related to the rheological properties of the mushy zone. 251 refs., 77 refs., 25 tabs.

  20. Optical and electrical properties of negatively charged aluminium oxynitride films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Kyungsoo; Jung, Sungwook; Lee, Jeoungin; Lee, Kwangsoo; Kim, Jaehong; Son, Hyukjoo [School of information and communication Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, 300 Chunchun-dong, Jangan-gu, Suwon, 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Yi, Junsin [School of information and communication Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, 300 Chunchun-dong, Jangan-gu, Suwon, 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: yi@yurim.ac.kr

    2008-11-03

    Aluminium oxynitride (AlON) thin films were deposited by Radio Frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering on n-type silicon (Si) substrate of (100) orientation using argon (Ar) and oxygen (O{sub 2}) gases at substrate temperature of 450 {sup o}C. To know the change in electrical properties with gases ratio, a deposition was carried out for 140 s with Ar:O{sub 2} ratio changed from 1:3 to 4:3. After that, electrical properties of Metal-Insulator-Semiconductor (MIS) structure with AlON was analyzed. For Ar:O{sub 2} ratios from 1:3 to 4:3, all samples showed characteristics of negative charge. In particular, when Ar:O{sub 2} were 2:3 and 3:3, the value of flatband voltage in normal C-V curve showed above 14 V. The composition of the AlON in the film was investigated using X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). The flatband voltages (V{sub FB}) in C-V curves were found to depend on compositions. The characteristics of photon energy band gap were obtained by UV/VIS spectrum.

  1. Nano-crystalline P/M aluminium for automotive applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hummert, K; Schattevoy, R; Broda, M; Knappe, M; Beiss, P; Klubberg, F; Schubert, T H; Leuschner, R

    2009-01-01

    The reduction of total vehicle weight and lowering of moving masses within the engine are key elements to overcome future emission challenges of the automotive industry. Within a German BMBF funded project the melt spinning technology will be driven to a series production status. The very fast cooling condition of the melt leads to a nano-structure of the aluminium material. This results in new material properties of known alloys. The strength increases dramatically without lowered forming behaviour. With this process the freedom of designing complex alloys is very flexible. Different alloys have been investigated for several applications, where high strength at room and elevated temperatures and/or high wear resistance is required. This paper presents some results regarding the processing, microstructure and mechanical properties of a developed Al-Ni-Fe alloy. This joined research project with partners from the automotive industry as well as automotive suppliers and universities is funded by the German BMBF 'NanoMobile' Program under Project number 03X3008.

  2. Synthesis and electroluminescence properties of a new aluminium complex [5-choloro-8-hydroxyquinoline] bis [2,2'bipyridine] Aluminium Al(Bpy)2(5-Clq)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rahul; Bhargava, Parag; Srivastava, Ritu; Singh, Punita

    2015-11-01

    We have synthesized a new aluminium complex, [5-choloro-8-hydroxyquinoline] bis[2,2'bipyridine] Aluminium Al(Bpy)2(5-Clq) and characterized it for structural, thermal and photoluminescence properties. The prepared material was characterized by Fourier -transformed infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) and photoluminescence. The prepared material showed thermal stability up to 240 °C. The photoluminescence spectrum of Al(Bpy)2(5-Clq) in toluene solution showed peak at 515 nm. This material was used as an emissive layer in organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs). The fundamental structure of device is ITO/F4-TCNQ(1 nm)/α-NPD(35 nm)/Al(Bpy)2(5-Clq) (35 nm)/BCP(6 nm)/Alq3(28 nm)/LiF(1 nm)/Al(150 nm). The device emits an yellowish green light (CIE coordinates, x = 0.32, y = 0.52) with maximum luminescence 314 Cd/m2 at 18 V. The maximum current efficiency of OLED was 0.09 Cd/A and maximum power efficiency was 0.03 lm/W at 9 V respectively.

  3. Acute aluminium phosphide poisoning, what is new?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yatendra Singh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aluminium phosphide (AlP is a cheap solid fumigant and a highly toxic pesticide that is commonly used for grain preservation. AlP has currently generated interest with increasing number of cases in the past four decades because of its increased use for agricultural and nonagricultural purposes, and also its easy availability in the markets has led to its increased misuse to commit suicide. Ingestion is usually suicidal in intent, uncommonly accidental and rarely homicidal. The poison affects all systems, shock, cardiac arrhythmias with varied ECG changes and gastrointestinal features being the most prominent. Diagnosis is made on the basis of clinical suspicion, a positive silver nitrate paper test to phosphine, and gastric aspirate and viscera biochemistry. Treatment includes early gastric lavage with potassium permanganate or a combination of coconut oil and sodium bicarbonate, administration of charcoal and palliative care. Specific therapy includes intravenous magnesium sulphate and oral coconut oil. Unfortunately, the lack of a specific antidote Results in very high mortality and the key to treatment lies in rapid decontamination and institution of resuscitative measures. This article aims to identify the salient features and mechanism of AlP poisoning along with its management strategies and prognostic variables.

  4. Corrosion of aluminium in soft drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seruga, M; Hasenay, D

    1996-04-01

    The corrosion of aluminium (Al) in several brands of soft drinks (cola- and citrate-based drinks) has been studied, using an electrochemical method, namely potentiodynamic polarization. The results show that the corrosion of Al in soft drinks is a very slow, time-dependent and complex process, strongly influenced by the passivation, complexation and adsorption processes. The corrosion of Al in these drinks occurs principally due to the presence of acids: citric acid in citrate-based drinks and orthophosphoric acid in cola-based drinks. The corrosion rate of Al rose with an increase in the acidity of soft drinks, i.e. with increase of the content of total acids. The corrosion rates are much higher in the cola-based drinks than those in citrate-based drinks, due to the facts that: (1) orthophosphoric acid is more corrosive to Al than is citric acid, (2) a quite different passive oxide layer (with different properties) is formed on Al, depending on whether the drink is cola or citrate based. The method of potentiodynamic polarization was shown as being very suitable for the study of corrosion of Al in soft drinks, especially if it is combined with some non-electrochemical method, e.g. graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS).

  5. Oxidation of {phi}'-aluminium oxynitride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xolin, E. [Universite de Lyon, INSA-Lyon, MATEIS, UMR CNRS 5510, 20, av Albert Einstein, F-69621 Villeurbanne cedex (France); Jorand, Y., E-mail: Yves.Jorand@insa-lyon.f [Universite de Lyon, INSA-Lyon, MATEIS, UMR CNRS 5510, 20, av Albert Einstein, F-69621 Villeurbanne cedex (France); Olagnon, C.; Gremillard, L. [Universite de Lyon, INSA-Lyon, MATEIS, UMR CNRS 5510, 20, av Albert Einstein, F-69621 Villeurbanne cedex (France)

    2011-03-15

    Research highlights: Oxidation of {phi}'-AlON has been studied for the first time. First corrosion products are {gamma}-alumina. Low density {alpha}-alumina is formed at high temperature. Grains are extensively cracked after oxidation. The low density of the {alpha}-alumina is due to a network of nanometric porosities. - Abstract: The oxidation in air of single crystal {phi}'-aluminium oxynitride (AlON) grains has been characterized by thermogravimetry and X-ray diffraction in the 1273-1673 K range. Two oxidation stages have been observed, suggesting the formation of a transitional phase. Below 1473 K, oxidation results in the apparition of platelets and noodle-like crystals on the surface of the initially faceted single crystals. Above 1473 K, low density {alpha}-alumina polycrystals start forming on the grain surface and grow towards the grain core with increasing temperature or time. Their low density is mainly due to the presence of a network of nano-porosities.

  6. Development and applications of ultrafine aluminium powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kearns, Martin

    2004-01-01

    Over the last 20 years or so, a variety of new technologies has been developed to produce sub-micron powders. Among the products attracting interest is nanoaluminium which is being evaluated in specialist propulsion and exothermic end-uses. This paper examines the advances made in 'nanopowder' production in the context of the existing aluminium powder industry where finest commercial grades have a median size of ∼6 μm (one or two orders of magnitude coarser than nanopowders) and which today supplies the markets being targeted by nanopowders with coarser, but effective products. Are there genuine market opportunities for nanoaluminium and if so, how will they be produced? One the one hand there are the novel nanopowder production methods which are high yielding but generally slow and costly, while on the other, there is the very fine fraction from conventional atomising routes which generate a very low yield of sub-micron powder but which nevertheless can translate into a meaningful rate as part of the bulk production. Can conventional routes ever hope to make sufficient volumes of nanopowders cost effectively and which will be the favoured routes in future? Moreover, what of the 'ultrafine' size range (∼0.5-5 μm) which is of more immediate potential interest to today's powder users. This paper seeks to identify the near term opportunities for application of low volume/high value ultrafine and nano powders

  7. Design of Grain Refiners for Aluminium Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tronche, A.; Greer, A. L.

    The efficiency of a grain refiner can be quantified as the number of grains per nucleant particle in the solidified product. Even for effective refiners in aluminium, such as Al-5Ti-1B, it is known from experiments that efficiencies are very low, at best 10-3 to 102. It is of interest to explore the reasons for such low values, and to assess the prospects for increased efficiency though design of refiners. Recently it has been shown [1] that a simple recalescence-based model can make quantitative predictions of grain size as a function of refiner addition level, cooling rate and solute content. In the model, the initiation of grains is limited by the free growth from nucleant particles, the size distribution of which is very important. The present work uses this model as the basis for discussing the effect of particle size distribution on grain refiner performance. Larger particles (of TiB2 in the case of present interest) promote greater efficiency, as do narrower size distributions. It is shown that even if the size distribution could be exactly specified, compromises would have to be made to balance efficiency (defined as above) with other desirable characteristics of a refiner.

  8. Bioaccumulation of Aluminium in Hydromacrophytes in Polish Coastal Lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senze Magdalena

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The research on aluminium content was conducted in water and on aquatic flora of Polish lakes in the central part of the coast. The study included the lakes Sarbsko, Choczewskie, Bia.e, K.odno, D.brze and Salino investigated in the summer of 2013. The examined lakes belong mainly to the direct basin of the Baltic Sea. Samples of aquatic plants and lake waters were collected. In the water samples pH and electrolytic conductivity were measured. The aluminium content was determined both in water and aquatic plants. Submerged hydromacrophyte studies included Myriophyllum alterniflorum L., Potamogeton perfoliatus L. and Ceratophyllum demersum L. Emergent hydromacrophyte studies included Phragmites australis (Cav. Trin. ex Steud., Juncus bulbosus L., Iris pseudacorus L., Eleocharis palustris (L. Roem. % Schult., Phalaris arundinacea L., Carex riparia Curt., Mentha aquatic L., Stratiotes aloides L., Alisma plantago-aquatica L., Glyceria maxima (Hartman Holmb., Sagittaria sagittifolia L., Scirpus lacustris L. and Typha angustifolia L. The purpose of this investigation was the determination of the aluminium content in submerged and emergent hydromacrophytes and also the definition of their bioaccumulative abilities. The average concentration of aluminium in water was 2.68 fęg Al dm.3. The average content of aluminium in plants was 2.8015 mg Al kg.1. The bioaccumulation factor ranged from BCF=19.74 to BCF=16619. On the basis of the analysis of the aluminium content in water and aquatic plants results show that both water and plants were characterized by a moderate level of aluminium. The recorded concentrations indicate a mid-range value and are much lower than those which are quoted for a variety of surface waters in various parts of the world.

  9. Effect of Laser Feeding on Heat Treated Aluminium Alloy Surface Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Labisz K.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper are presented the investigation results concerning microstructure as well as mechanical properties of the surface layer of cast aluminium-silicon-copper alloy after heat treatment alloyed and/ or remelted with SiC ceramic powder using High Power Diode Laser (HPDL. For investigation of the achieved structure following methods were used: light and scanning electron microscopy with EDS microanalysis as well as mechanical properties using Rockwell hardness tester were measured. By mind of scanning electron microscopy, using secondary electron detection was it possible to determine the distribution of ceramic SiC powder phase occurred in the alloy after laser treatment. After the laser surface treatment carried out on the previously heat treated aluminium alloys, in the structure are observed changes concerning the distribution and morphology of the alloy phases as well as the added ceramic powder, these features influence the hardness of the obtained layers. In the structure, there were discovered three zones: the remelting zone (RZ the heat influence zone (HAZ and transition zone, with different structure and properties. In this paper also the laser treatment conditions: the laser power and ceramic powder feed rate were investigated. The surface laser structure changes in a manner, that there zones are revealed in the form of. This carried out investigations make it possible to develop, interesting technology, which could be very attractive for different branches of industry.

  10. Determination of initial stages of recrystallization in aluminium alloys by X-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loew, Marjorie

    2000-01-01

    Aluminium is a metal with a wide variety of application, such as beer cans, pans, door and window borders, and others more advanced, such as airplane structure, car engines, nuclear reactors components, rocket propulsion components and so on. Most of aluminium application is in alloy form. Such alloys must present suitable mechanical and chemical properties that are obtained, not entirely, by microstructure development. In this work, the beginning of recrystallization processes of AA1050 and AA3003 aluminium alloys were studied using X-ray diffraction techniques, transmission electron microscopy and hardness test. For such a sample, an initial heat treatment was done in order to homogenize the samples microstructure, followed by cold rolling and submitted again to a heat treatment in different temperatures in a hot furnace. After that samples were analyzed to verify the beginning of the recrystallization. Vickers hardness test revealed that the beginning of recrystallization is between 150 and 300 deg C for 1050 aluminium alloy and 200 and 300 deg C for 3003 aluminium alloy. X-ray diffraction using transmission chamber showed that the beginning of recrystallization is 240 and 260 deg C for AA1050 and AA3003, respectively. These temperatures were determined as the diffraction patterns recorded in the photographic plates changes when the recrystallization takes place. In this way, the deformed sample shows continuous concentric lines and the beginning of recrystallization is characterized by the occurrence of defined spots in this pattern. The Pole Figures goniometric method revealed that the beginning of recrystallization takes place between 250 and 300 deg C for both alloys. In the same way, orientation distribution functions showed the same temperature range for the recrystallization. However, the analysis by α and β fiber figures, the recrystallization temperatures are 240 and 260 deg C for AA1050 and AA3003, respectively. Finally, after the analysis of all

  11. Report on results concerning development of supermetal technology (FY2000). Development of technology for aluminum-based mesoscopic-structured metallic material; Super metal no gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho (2000 nendo). Aluminium kei mesoscopic soshiki seigyo zairyo no gijutsu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    With the purpose of developing high strength alloys through grain refinement, R and D was conducted, with fiscal 2000 results compiled. This year, using hot rolled plates and cold rolled plates of 5083 based alloys, research was carried out on an optimum warm processing method for forming microstructures. When 5083 alloys were rolled with a large reduction by one pass under a warm to hot temperature range, recrystallized grain structures were obtained having 3-4 {mu}m in the surface and 7-8 {mu}m in the center. The proof stress of these specimens was about 1.3 times as strong as an ordinary 5083 alloy soft material while the elongation was about the same. In the case of 7475 based alloys with Zr added in place of Cr, a warm rolling method, in which the alloys were heated to 350 degrees C and repeatedly reheated by one pass at that temperature, was found effective in forming micro-subgrain structures. By the warm rolling method in which roll temperature was suitably heated, it was made possible to steadily form thermally stable microstructures in 7475 based alloys. The 7475 based alloy plate having a microstructure is superior to an ordinary 7574 plate in resistance against stress corrosion cracking. (NEDO)

  12. Recuperative aluminium recycling plant. A demonstration at J. McIntyre (Aluminium) Ltd. [Nottingham (GB)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-04-01

    Direct energy savings worth up to 470,000 pounds/year are being achieved by J McIntyre (Aluminium) Ltd in the United Kingdom as a result of the development of a recuperative aluminium recycling plant. The overall design incorporates a novel version of a closed-well furnace coupled with a radically improved design of dry hearth furnace. The plant not only treats clean scrap more efficiently than at present, but will also treat contaminated scrap which has not previously been recycled in an environmentally acceptable way. This is because the plant incorporates fume pyrolysis, afterburning of organics, recuperation and fume treatment. At 1987 prices the total installed plant cost was 1.3M.pounds. The direct energy saving at 1987 fuel prices was between 294,000 and 470,000pounds/year. Also, the improved melting technique has reduced metal lost as dross by 2 - 8% (420 -1,680 tonnes/year) when compared to other furnace operations. The improved metal recovery (1987 prices) was worth a further 400,000 pounds - 1,600,000 pounds. Taking median figures for the total fuel-plus-metal savings results in a payback on the project of only 14 months, some six months less than anticipated. Other consequential benefits which have also helped in reducing operating costs have been improvements in output per man, reductions in sickness and absenteeism, and reduced down-time for maintenance and repair. (author).

  13. Aluminium concentration versus the base cation to aluminium ratio as predictors for aluminium toxicity in Pinus sylvestris and Picea abies seedlings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schöll, van L.; Keltjens, W.G.; Hoffland, E.; Breemen, van N.

    2004-01-01

    Aluminium (Al) toxicity is considered an important factor in forest deterioration caused by soil acidification. A ratio of base cations (BC) to Al in the soil solution lower than 1 is widely used as an indicator for potentially adverse effects on tree health. In our view, the validity of the

  14. Effect of pulsed current welding on fatigue behaviour of high strength aluminium alloy joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balasubramanian, V.; Ravisankar, V.; Madhusudhan Reddy, G.

    2008-01-01

    High strength aluminium alloys (Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloys) have gathered wide acceptance in the fabrication of light weight structures requiring high strength-to weight ratio, such as transportable bridge girders, military vehicles, road tankers and railway transport systems. The preferred welding processes of high strength aluminium alloy are frequently gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) process and gas metal arc welding (GMAW) process due to their comparatively easier applicability and better economy. Weld fusion zones typically exhibit coarse columnar grains because of the prevailing thermal conditions during weld metal solidification. This often results inferior weld mechanical properties and poor resistance to hot cracking. In this investigation, an attempt has been made to refine the fusion zone grains by applying pulsed current welding technique. Rolled plates of 6 mm thickness have been used as the base material for preparing single pass welded joints. Single V butt joint configuration has been prepared for joining the plates. The filler metal used for joining the plates is AA 5356 (Al-5Mg (wt%)) grade aluminium alloy. Four different welding techniques have been used to fabricate the joints and they are: (i) continuous current GTAW (CCGTAW), (ii) pulsed current GTAW (PCGTAW), (iii) continuous current GMAW (CCGMAW) and (iv) pulsed current GMAW (PCGMAW) processes. Argon (99.99% pure) has been used as the shielding gas. Fatigue properties of the welded joints have been evaluated by conducting fatigue test using rotary bending fatigue testing machine. Current pulsing leads to relatively finer and more equi-axed grain structure in gas tungsten arc (GTA) and gas metal arc (GMA) welds. In contrast, conventional continuous current welding resulted in predominantly columnar grain structures. Grain refinement is accompanied by an increase in fatigue life and endurance limit

  15. Enhancement of wear and ballistic resistance of armour grade AA7075 aluminium alloy using friction stir processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Sudhakar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Industrial applications of aluminium and its alloys are restricted because of their poor tribological properties. Thermal spraying, laser surfacing, electron beam welding are the most widely used techniques to alter the surface morphology of base metal. Preliminary studies reveal that the coating and layering of aluminium alloys with ceramic particles enhance the ballistic resistance. Furthermore, among aluminium alloys, 7075 aluminium alloy exhibits high strength which can be compared to that of steels and has profound applications in the designing of lightweight fortification structures and integrated protection systems. Having limitations such as poor bond integrity, formation of detrimental phases and interfacial reaction between reinforcement and substrate using fusion route to deposit hard particles paves the way to adopt friction stir processing for fabricating surface composites using different sizes of boron carbide particles as reinforcement on armour grade 7075 aluminium alloy as matrix in the present investigation. Wear and ballistic tests were carried out to assess the performance of friction stir processed AA7075 alloy. Significant improvement in wear resistance of friction stir processed surface composites is attributed to the change in wear mechanism from abrasion to adhesion. It has also been observed that the surface metal matrix composites have shown better ballistic resistance compared to the substrate AA7075 alloy. Addition of solid lubricant MoS2 has reduced the depth of penetration of the projectile to half that of base metal AA7075 alloy. For the first time, the friction stir processing technique was successfully used to improve the wear and ballistic resistances of armour grade high strength AA7075 alloy.

  16. Computer modelling of age hardening for cast aluminium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Linda; Ferguson, W George

    2009-01-01

    Age hardening, or precipitation hardening, is one of the most widely adopted techniques for strengthening of aluminium alloys. Although various age hardening models have been developed for aluminium alloys, from the large volume of literature reviewed, it appears that the bulk of the research has been concentrated on wrought aluminium alloys, only a few of the established precipitation models have been applied to the casting aluminium alloys. In the present work, there are two modelling methods that have been developed and applied to the casting aluminium alloys A356 and A357. One is based on the Shercliff-Ashby methodology to produce a process model, by which we mean a mathematical relationship between process variables (alloy composition, ageing temperature and time) and material properties (yield strength or hardness) through microstructure evolution (precipitate radius, volume fraction). The other method is based on the Kampmann and Wagner Numerical (KWN) model which deals with concomitant nucleation, growth and coarsening and is thus capable of predicting the full evolution of the particle size distribution and then a strength model is used to evaluate the resulting change in hardness or yield strength at room temperature by taking into account contributions from lattice resistance, solid solution hardening and precipitation hardening.

  17. Cancer risk among workers of a secondary aluminium smelter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltseva, A; Serra, C; Kogevinas, M

    2016-07-01

    Cancer risk in secondary aluminium production is not well described. Workers in this industry are exposed to potentially carcinogenic agents from secondary smelters that reprocess aluminium scrap. To evaluate cancer risk in workers in a secondary aluminium plant in Spain. Retrospective cohort study of male workers employed at an aluminium secondary smelter (1960-92). Exposure histories and vital status through 2011 were obtained through personal interviews and hospital records, respectively. Standardized mortality (SMRs) and incidence ratios (SIRs) were calculated. The study group consisted of 98 workers. We found increased incidence and mortality from bladder cancer [SIR = 2.85, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.23-5.62; SMR = 5.90, 95% CI 1.58-15.11]. Increased incidence was also observed for prostate cancer and all other cancers but neither were statistically significant. No increased risk was observed for lung cancer. Results of this study suggest that work at secondary aluminium smelters is associated with bladder cancer risk. Identification of occupational carcinogens in this industry is needed. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. AE Monitoring of Diamond Turned Rapidly Soldified Aluminium 443

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onwuka, G; Abou-El-Hossein, K; Mkoko, Z

    2017-01-01

    The fast replacement of conventional aluminium with rapidly solidified aluminium alloys has become a noticeable trend in the current manufacturing industries involved in the production of optics and optical molding inserts. This is as a result of the improved performance and durability of rapidly solidified aluminium alloys when compared to conventional aluminium. Melt spinning process is vital for manufacturing rapidly solidified aluminium alloys like RSA 905, RSA 6061 and RSA 443 which are common in the industries today. RSA 443 is a newly developed alloy with few research findings and huge research potential. There is no available literature focused on monitoring the machining of RSA 443 alloys. In this research, Acoustic Emission sensing technique was applied to monitor the single point diamond turning of RSA 443 on an ultrahigh precision lathe machine. The machining process was carried out after careful selection of feed, speed and depths of cut. The monitoring process was achieved with a high sampling data acquisition system using different tools while concurrent measurement of the surface roughness and tool wear were initiated after covering a total feed distance of 13km. An increasing trend of raw AE spikes and peak to peak signal were observed with an increase in the surface roughness and tool wear values. Hence, acoustic emission sensing technique proves to be an effective monitoring method for the machining of RSA 443 alloy. (paper)

  19. Interpretation of Wild 2 Dust Fine Structure: Comparison of Stardust Aluminium Foil Craters to the Three-Dimensional Shape of Experimental Impacts by Artificial Aggregate Particles and Meteorite Powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kearsley, A T; Burchell, M J; Price, M C; Graham, G A; Wozniakiewicz, P J; Cole, M J; Foster, N J; Teslich, N

    2009-12-10

    New experimental results show that Stardust crater morphology is consistent with interpretation of many larger Wild 2 dust grains being aggregates, albeit most of low porosity and therefore relatively high density. The majority of large Stardust grains (i.e. those carrying most of the cometary dust mass) probably had density of 2.4 g cm{sup -3} (similar to soda-lime glass used in earlier calibration experiments) or greater, and porosity of 25% or less, akin to consolidated carbonaceous chondrite meteorites, and much lower than the 80% suggested for fractal dust aggregates. Although better size calibration is required for interpretation of the very smallest impacting grains, we suggest that aggregates could have dense components dominated by {micro}m-scale and smaller sub-grains. If porosity of the Wild 2 nucleus is high, with similar bulk density to other comets, much of the pore-space may be at a scale of tens of micrometers, between coarser, denser grains. Successful demonstration of aggregate projectile impacts in the laboratory now opens the possibility of experiments to further constrain the conditions for creation of bulbous (Type C) tracks in aerogel, which we have observed in recent shots. We are also using mixed mineral aggregates to document differential survival of pristine composition and crystalline structure in diverse fine-grained components of aggregate cometary dust analogues, impacted onto both foil and aerogel under Stardust encounter conditions.

  20. Structural influence of aluminium, gallium and indium metal oxides by means of dielectric and spectroscopic properties of CaO-Sb{sub 2}O{sub 3}-B{sub 2}O{sub 3} glass system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srinivasa Reddy, M. [Department of Physics, Acharya Nagarjuna University P.G. Centre, Nuzvid 521 201, AP (India); Naga Raju, G. [Department of Physics, Acharya Nagarjuna University P.G. Centre, Nuzvid 521 201, AP (India); Nagarjuna, G. [Department of Chemistry, Acharya Nagarjuna University, Nagarjunanagar, AP (India); Veeraiah, N. [Department of Physics, Acharya Nagarjuna University P.G. Centre, Nuzvid 521 201, AP (India)]. E-mail: nvr8@rediffmail.com

    2007-07-12

    Dielectric constant ({epsilon}'), loss (tan {delta}), ac conductivity ({sigma}) of CaO-Sb{sub 2}O{sub 3}-B{sub 2}O{sub 3}:M{sub 2}O{sub 3} (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} and In{sub 2}O{sub 3}) glasses with varying concentrations of M{sub 2}O{sub 3} (0-5 mol%), were measured as a function of frequency and temperature over moderately wide ranges. The analysis of results of these studies along with IR, Raman and optical absorption spectra and also DTA studies indicated that in the concentration ranges, 0 {<=} Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} {<=} 4, 0 {<=} Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} {<=} 2 and 1 {<=} In{sub 2}O{sub 3} {<=} 5, Al{sup 3+}, Ga{sup 3+} ions occupy tetrahedral positions whereas In{sup 3+} ions take up octahedral substitutional positions, cross-link with the other structural units in the glass network and increase the rigidity of the glass network.

  1. Rate of solidification of aluminium casting in varying wall thickness of cylindrical metallic moulds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsina Christopher BALA

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The quality of final casting mainly depends on the rate of solidification as rapid solidification produces fine grains structures with better mechanical properties. The analysis of heat transfer during the casting and solidification of aluminium alloy as well as the experimental investigation of the rate of solidification in varying thicknesses of cylindrical metallic mould was carried out. The temperature variation with time of the casting was recorded from which cooling curves were obtained for the determination of solidification time of the cast. The results showed that as the cylindrical mould thickness increases the solidification time decreases due to the chilling effect of the mould.

  2. Influence of the Mould Cooling Process on the Quality and Properties of Aluminium Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktorie Weiss

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the effect on the quality of casting moulds (metal, bentonite mixture on the structure of the alloy AlZn5,5MgCu and selected mechanical properties of the alloy. The effect of foundry moulds can significantly affect formation and range of crystal segregation and the subsequent thermal process of homogenization which has an influence on the final quality of the alloy. The research focuses on the formation and range of crystal segregation and its removal with homogenization annealing, in which the observed influence of individual factors influencing the diffusion process and quality of the aluminium alloy.

  3. Property enhancement by grain refinement of zinc-aluminium foundry alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krajewski, W K; Piwowarski, G; Krajewski, P K; Greer, A L

    2016-01-01

    Development of cast alloys with good mechanical properties and involving less energy consumption during their melting is one of the key demands of today's industry. Zinc foundry alloys of high and medium Al content, i.e. Zn-(15-30) wt.% Al and Zn-(8-12) wt.% Al, can satisfy these requirements. The present paper summarizes the work [1-9] on improving properties of sand-cast ZnAl10 (Zn-10 wt.% Al) and ZnAl25 (Zn-25 wt. % Al) alloys by melt inoculation. Special attention was devoted to improving ductility, whilst preserving high damping properties at the same time. The composition and structural modification of medium- and high-aluminium zinc alloys influence their strength, tribological properties and structural stability. In a series of studies, Zn - (10-12) wt. % Al and Zn - (25-26) wt.% Al - (1-2.5) wt.% Cu alloys have been doped with different levels of added Ti. The melted alloys were inoculated with ZnTi-based refiners and it was observed that the dendritic structure is significantly finer already after addition of 50 - 100 ppm Ti to the melted alloys. The alloy's structure and mechanical properties have been studied using: SEM (scanning electron microscopy), LM (light microscopy), dilatometry, pin-on-disc wear, and tensile strength measurements. Grain refinement leads to significant improvement of ductility in the binary high-aluminium Zn-(25-27) Al alloys while in the medium-aluminium alloys the effect is rather weak. In the ternary alloys Zn-26Al-Cu, replacing a part of Cu with Ti allows dimensional changes to be reduced while preserving good tribological properties. Furthermore, the high initial damping properties were nearly entirely preserved after inoculation. The results obtained allow us to characterize grain refinement of the examined high-aluminium zinc alloys as a promising process leading to the improvement of their properties. At the same time, using low melting ZnTi-based master alloys makes it possible to avoid the excessive melt

  4. Photodynamic effect of aluminium and zinc tetrasulfophthalocyanines on melanoma cancer cells

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Maduray, K

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Aluminium and zinc tetrasulfophthalocyanines were activated with a 672nm wavelength laser to investigate the photodynamic effects on melanoma cancer, dermal fibroblast and epidermal keratinocyte cells. Aluminium tetrasulfophthalocyanine was more...

  5. Study of ionic movements during anodic oxidation of nitrogen-implanted aluminium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terwagne, G.; Lucas, S.; Bodart, F.; Sorensen, G.; Jensen, H.

    1990-01-01

    In recent years there has been a considerable interest in synthesizing aluminium nitrides by ion implantation in order to modify the tribological properties of aluminium. The growth of an oxide layer by anodic process on these synthesized aluminium nitrides gives an interesting oxide-on-semiconductor material with surprising dynamic and decorative properties. During the anodic oxidation, ionic movements are involved in the near-surface region of the aluminium material; these ionic movements have been studied by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) and nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) on thin aluminium foils (7000 A) preimplanted with nitrogen and post-oxidized in an ammonium pentaborate solution. The growth of the oxide layer is reduced when the aluminium is preimplanted with nitrogen: the speed of oxidation depends on the implantation conditions (energy and fluence). Moreover, the aluminium nitride can be dissolved when all metallic aluminium staying between the surface and the AlN are consumed by the anodic process. (orig.)

  6. Effect of friction time on the properties of friction welded YSZ‐alumina composite and 6061 aluminium alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uday M. Basheer

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the effect of friction time on the microstructure and mechanical properties of alumina 0, 25, 50 wt% yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ composite and 6061 aluminium alloy joints formed by friction welding. The alumina-YSZ composites were prepared through slip casting in plaster of Paris molds (POP and subsequently sintered at 1600°C, while the aluminium rods were machined down using a lathe machine to the dimension required. The welding process was carried out under different rotational speeds and friction times, while friction force (0.5 ton-force was kept constant. Scanning electron microscopy was used to characterize the interface of the joints structure. The experimental results showed that the friction time has a significant effect on joint structure and mechanical properties.

  7. PEMBINAAN PENGERAJIN BOKOR ALUMINIUM DI DESA MENYALI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I NYOMAN GDE ANTARA, dkk.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Alluminium bowl craft industrial center is located in Menyali village Sawan district Buleleng regency of Bali province. In this business development, they faced some problems such as increasingly expensive alluminium plate raw materials, decreasing selling product prices due to competition among craftsmen, difficulty in extending the marketing, lack of capital, lack of knowledge in business management, and lack of technical capacity and production innovation. Currently the organization has been formed aluminum bowl craftsmen groups, they are “Sumber Urip” and “Sumur Jaya”. This organization is still limited to tradisional associations such as a community organization, has not led to organize in a micro-enterprise or cooperation. Their organization management should not be arranged. Therefore, they need helps from the government and other institutions to build this bowl craftsmen in developing their businesses through a group of micro-enterprises or cooperations. Wishly, with formal business entity that would facilitate access to a variety of coaching and help governments andother institutions. From the SWOT analysis, it is found some problems and solutions that should be done. Alluminium bowl craftsmen groups, named “Sumber Urip” and “Sumur Jaya” is not in the form of business entity or cooperation yet, so that the results of coaching have agreed to form a cooperation. Venture capital assistance for the development and production are still needed and to be an absolute given, but a way to market more absolute yield is given, through participation in various events exhibition to introduce the product is expected to expandits market share up to overseas or exports. In the production process it has been introduced that is appropriate technology for instant a rolling tool to make a wiring groove on the outside of the bowl, so that it will simplify and speed up the process, especially by aged mothers.Keywords: aluminium bowl, Menyali

  8. Stimulation of eryptosis by aluminium ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemoeller, Olivier M.; Kiedaisch, Valentin; Dreischer, Peter; Wieder, Thomas; Lang, Florian

    2006-01-01

    Aluminium salts are utilized to impede intestinal phosphate absorption in chronic renal failure. Toxic side effects include anemia, which could result from impaired formation or accelerated clearance of circulating erythrocytes. Erythrocytes may be cleared secondary to suicidal erythrocyte death or eryptosis, which is characterized by cell shrinkage and exposure of phosphatidylserine (PS) at the erythrocyte surface. As macrophages are equipped with PS receptors, they bind, engulf and degrade PS-exposing cells. The present experiments have been performed to explore whether Al 3+ ions trigger eryptosis. The PS exposure was estimated from annexin binding and cell volume from forward scatter in FACS analysis. Exposure to Al 3+ ions (≥ 10 μM Al 3+ for 24 h) indeed significantly increased annexin binding, an effect paralleled by decrease of forward scatter at higher concentrations (≥ 30 μM Al 3+ ). According to Fluo3 fluorescence Al 3+ ions (≥ 30 μM for 3 h) increased cytosolic Ca 2+ activity. Al 3+ ions (≥ 10 μM for 24 h) further decreased cytosolic ATP concentrations. Energy depletion by removal of glucose similarly triggered annexin binding, an effect not further enhanced by Al 3+ ions. The eryptosis was paralleled by release of hemoglobin, pointing to loss of cell membrane integrity. In conclusion, Al 3+ ions decrease cytosolic ATP leading to activation of Ca 2+ -permeable cation channels, Ca 2+ entry, stimulation of cell membrane scrambling and cell shrinkage. Moreover, Al 3+ ions lead to loss of cellular hemoglobin, a feature of hemolysis. Both effects are expected to decrease the life span of circulating erythrocytes and presumably contribute to the development of anemia during Al 3+ intoxication

  9. Decomposition of pre calcined aluminium silicate ores of Afghanistan by hydrochloric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khomidi, A.K.; Mamatov, E.D.

    2015-01-01

    Present article is devoted to decomposition of pre calcined aluminium silicate ores of Afghanistan by hydrochloric acid. The physicochemical properties of initial aluminium silicate ores were studied by means of X-ray phase, differential thermal and silicate analysis. The chemical composition of aluminium containing ores was determined. The optimal conditions of interaction of initial and pre calcined siallites with hydrochloric acid were defined. The kinetics of acid decomposition of aluminium silicate ores was studied as well.

  10. IEC 61267: Feasibility of type 1100 aluminium and a copper/aluminium combination for RQA beam qualities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, David L; Rainford, Louise; Zhao, Wei; Brennan, Patrick C

    2016-01-01

    In the course of performance acceptance testing, benchmarking or quality control of X-ray imaging systems, it is sometimes necessary to harden the X-ray beam spectrum. IEC 61267 specifies materials and methods to accomplish beam hardening and, unfortunately, requires the use of 99.9% pure aluminium (Alloy 1190) for the RQA beam quality, which is expensive and difficult to obtain. Less expensive and more readily available filters, such as Alloy 1100 (99.0% pure) aluminium and copper/aluminium combinations, have been used clinically to produce RQA series without rigorous scientific investigation to support their use. In this paper, simulation and experimental methods are developed to determine the differences in beam quality using Alloy 1190 and Alloy 1100. Additional simulation investigated copper/aluminium combinations to produce RQA5 and outputs from this simulation are verified with laboratory tests using different filter samples. The results of the study demonstrate that although Alloy 1100 produces a harder beam spectrum compared to Alloy 1190, it is a reasonable substitute. A combination filter of 0.5 mm copper and 2 mm aluminium produced a spectrum closer to that of Alloy 1190 than Alloy 1100 with the added benefits of lower exposures and lower batch variability. Copyright © 2015 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Sinter aluminium as cladding material for fuel elements; Aluminium fritte comme materiau de gainage pour les elements combustibles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mann, K E; Boudouresques, M B [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Otto Fuchs, Meinerzhagen, Westfalen (Germany)

    1961-07-01

    1. Survey of the production process of sinter aluminium. 2. Description of the forming processes (extrusion, forging and rolling), whereby the production of tubing for atom piles will be explained in detail. 3. Production of ribbed tubes and tubes with close tolerances of sizes. 4. The different SAP-qualities and their properties under special consideration of the properties at elevated temperatures and the creep properties. 5. Diffusion behaviour of SAP with Be, Mg, Al, U and UO{sub 2}. 6. Corrosion behaviour in CO{sub 2} atmosphere at high temperature and in water. 7. Weldability. 8. Effect of irradiation on the mechanical properties. 9. Superiority of SAP compared with normal wrought alloys of the same composition. (author) [French] 1. Apercu des processus de production de l'aluminium fritte. 2. Expose des operations de transformation (filageries, forgeage et laminage), avec explication detaillee de la fabrication de gaine pour reacteurs. 3. Fabrication de tubes canneles et de tubes avec de faibles tolerances. 4. Diverses proprietes de l'aluminium fritte SAP, notamment proprietes aux temperatures elevees et proprietes de fluage. 5. Diffusion de l'aluminium fritte SAP en presence de Be, Mg, Al, U et UO{sub 2}. 6. Resistance a la corrosion dans une atmosphere de CO{sub 2} a temperature elevee et dans l'eau. 7. Possibilites de soudage. 8. Effet de l'irradiation sur les proprietes mecaniques. 9. Superiorite de l'aluminium fritte SAP sur les alliages forges normaux de meme composition. (auteur)

  12. Determination of ultratrace amounts of uranium and thorium in aluminium and aluminium alloys by electrothermal vaporization/ICP-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Yasushi; Kobayashi, Yoshio; Kakurai, Yousuke

    1993-01-01

    A method has been developed for determining the 0.01 ng g -1 level of uranium and thorium in aluminium and aluminium alloys by electrothermal vaporization (ETV)/ICP-MS. This method was found to be significantly interfered with any matrices or other elements contained. An ion-exchange technique was therefore applied to separate uranium and thorium from aluminium and other elements. It was known that uranium are adsorbed on an anion-exchange resin and thorium are adsorbed on cation-exchange resin. However, aluminium and copper were eluted with 6 M hydrochloric acid. Dissolve the sample with hydrochloric acid containing copper which was added for analysis of pure aluminium, and oxidize with hydrogen peroxide. Concentration of hydrochloric acid in the solution was adjusted to 6 M, and then passed the solution through the mixed ion-exchange resin column. After the uranium and thorium were eluted with 1 M hydrofluoric acid-0.1 M hydrochloric acid, the solution was evaporated to dryness. It was then dissolved with 1 M hydrochloric acid. Uranium and thorium were analyzed by ETV/ICP-MS using tungsten and molybdenum boats, respectively, since the tungsten boat contained high-level thorium and the molybdenum boat contained uranium. The determination limit of uranium and thorium were 0.003 and 0.005 ng g -1 , respectively. (author)

  13. Determination of aluminium in groundwater samples by GF-AAS, ICP-AES, ICP-MS and modelling of inorganic aluminium complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankowski, Marcin; Zioła-Frankowska, Anetta; Kurzyca, Iwona; Novotný, Karel; Vaculovič, Tomas; Kanický, Viktor; Siepak, Marcin; Siepak, Jerzy

    2011-11-01

    The paper presents the results of aluminium determinations in ground water samples of the Miocene aquifer from the area of the city of Poznań (Poland). The determined aluminium content amounted from aluminium determinations were performed using three analytical techniques: graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GF-AAS), inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The results of aluminium determinations in groundwater samples for particular analytical techniques were compared. The results were used to identify the ascent of ground water from the Mesozoic aquifer to the Miocene aquifer in the area of the fault graben. Using the Mineql+ program, the modelling of the occurrence of aluminium and the following aluminium complexes: hydroxy, with fluorides and sulphates was performed. The paper presents the results of aluminium determinations in ground water using different analytical techniques as well as the chemical modelling in the Mineql+ program, which was performed for the first time and which enabled the identification of aluminium complexes in the investigated samples. The study confirms the occurrence of aluminium hydroxy complexes and aluminium fluoride complexes in the analysed groundwater samples. Despite the dominance of sulphates and organic matter in the sample, major participation of the complexes with these ligands was not stated based on the modelling.

  14. Tailored Aluminium based Coatings for Optical Appearance and Corrosion Resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aggerbeck, Martin

    potential differences in the microstructure, and protection from the network of the Al3Ti phases precipitated during the heat treatment. Laser surface cladding of aluminium containing up to 20 wt. % Ti6Al4V were studied focusing on the microstructure and the alkaline corrosion properties. Due......The current project investigated the possibility of designing aluminium based coatings focusing on the effect of composition and surface finish on the optical appearance and on the alkaline corrosion properties using titanium as the main alloying element. The main results and discussions...... that the roughness after etching increases with higher amounts of alloying elements (especially iron and silicon). Proper polishing requires some alloy hardness, while alloy purity is required for a glossy appearance after anodisation. Magnetron sputtered aluminium based coatings containing up to 18 wt. % titanium...

  15. Comparative performance of aluminium copper and iron solar stills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dioha, I.J.; Nwagbo, E.E.; Gulma, N.A.

    1990-12-01

    Three different metal sheets have been used in the fabrication of three different single sloping solar stills of the same surface geometry. The metals were galvanized iron, aluminium and copper. This paper presents the performance of the different stills operating under the same environmental conditions. The observed distillate yields was greatest for copper, then aluminium and lastly, iron still. The differences in the yields is attributed to the differences in the thermal conductivities of the metals. The equivalent local costs for the fabrication of the copper, aluminium and iron stills are respectively $160, $95 and $60. Taking the long run costs into consideration, the copper still is preferred because of its availability, durability, weldability and relatively higher conductivity of 380Wm -1 K -1 value. (author). 9 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs

  16. Effect of microcrystallization on pitting corrosion of pure aluminium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng Guozhe; Wei Liyan; Zhang Tao; Shao Yawei; Wang Fuhui; Dong Chaofang; Li Xiaogang

    2009-01-01

    A microcrystalline aluminium film with grain size of about 400 nm was prepared by magnetron sputtering technique. Its corrosion behaviour was investigated in NaCl containing acidic solution by means of potentiodynamic polarization curves and electrochemical noise (EN). The polarization results indicated that the corrosion potential of the sample shifted towards more positive direction, while its corrosion current density decreased compared with that of pure coarse-grain Al. The EN analysis based on stochastic model demonstrated that there existed two kinds of effect of microcrystallization on the pitting behaviour of pure aluminium: (1) the rate of pit initiation is accelerated, (2) the pit growth process was impeded. This leads to the enhancement of pitting resistance for the microcrystallized aluminium.

  17. Modelling of micro- and macrosegregation for industrial multicomponent aluminium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellingsen, K; M'Hamdi, M; Mortensen, D

    2015-01-01

    Realistic predictions of macrosegregation formation during casting of aluminium alloys requires an accurate modeling of solute microsegregation accounting for multicomponent phase diagrams and secondary phase formation. In the present work, the stand alone Alstruc model, a microsegregation model for industrial multicomponent aluminium alloys, is coupled with the continuum model ALSIM which calculates the macroscopic transport of mass, enthalpy, momentum, and solutes as well as stresses and deformation during solidification of aluminium. Alstruc deals with multicomponent alloys accounting for temperature dependent partition coefficients, liquidus slopes and the precipitation of secondary phases. The challenge associated with computation of microsegregation for multicomponent alloys is solved in Alstruc by approximating the phase diagram data by simple, analytical expressions which allows for a CPU-time efficient coupling with the macroscopic transport model. In the present work, the coupled model has been applied in a study of macrosegregation including thermal and solutal convection, solidification shrinkage and surface exudation on an industrial DC-cast billet. (paper)

  18. Different Approach to the Aluminium Oxide Topography Characterisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poljacek, Sanja Mahovic; Gojo, Miroslav; Raos, Pero; Stoic, Antun

    2007-01-01

    Different surface topographic techniques are being widely used for quantitative measurements of typical industrial aluminium oxide surfaces. In this research, specific surface of aluminium oxide layer on the offset printing plate has been investigated by using measuring methods which have previously not been used for characterisation of such surfaces. By using two contact instruments and non-contact laser profilometer (LPM) 2D and 3D roughness parameters have been defined. SEM micrographs of the samples were made. Results have shown that aluminium oxide surfaces with the same average roughness value (Ra) and mean roughness depth (Rz) typically used in the printing plate surface characterisation, have dramatically different surface topographies. According to the type of instrument specific roughness parameters should be used for defining the printing plate surfaces. New surface roughness parameters were defined in order to insure detailed characterisation of the printing plates in graphic reproduction process

  19. Quantitative electron probe microanalysis of borides in aluminium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karduck, P.; Schuerhoff, H.J.; Burchard, W.G.

    1983-01-01

    A procedure for the quantitative analysis of borides in aluminium was introduced. For this purpose the optimal apparative boundary conditions for the EPMA of boron were worked out. With these conditions a satisfactory peak to background ratio of 57 could be achieved for B-Kα-radiation. By application of this method the following conclusion should be drawn concerning the kind of nuclei during grain refinement of aluminium with titanium and boron: For grain refinement of aluminium with titanium and boron in the hypoperitectic region of the binary system Al-Ti TiB 2 -particles in clusters provide the high efficiency of refinement. This entails that the TiB 2 -particles already present in the master alloy remain inert in the melt. Hence, the good efficiency of refinement in this region cannot be attributed to the presence of particles like Al 3 Ti, AlB 2 or (Al, Ti) B 2 . (Author)

  20. Thermodynamic properties of uranium in gallium–aluminium based alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkovich, V.A.; Maltsev, D.S.; Yamshchikov, L.F.; Chukin, A.V.; Smolenski, V.V.; Novoselova, A.V.; Osipenko, A.G.

    2015-01-01

    Activity, activity coefficients and solubility of uranium was determined in gallium-aluminium alloys containing 1.6 (eutectic), 5 and 20 wt.% aluminium. Additionally, activity of uranium was determined in aluminium and Ga–Al alloys containing 0.014–20 wt.% Al. Experiments were performed up to 1073 K. Intermetallic compounds formed in the alloys were characterized by X-ray diffraction. Partial and excess thermodynamic functions of U in the studied alloys were calculated. - Highlights: • Thermodynamics of uranium is determined in Ga–Al alloys of various compositions. • Uranium in the mixed alloys interacts with both components, Ga and Al. • Interaction of U with Al increases with decreasing temperature. • Activity and solubility of uranium depend on Al content in Ga–Al alloys.

  1. Thermodynamic properties of uranium in gallium–aluminium based alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volkovich, V.A., E-mail: v.a.volkovich@urfu.ru [Department of Rare Metals and Nanomaterials, Institute of Physics and Technology, Ural Federal University, Ekaterinburg, 620002 (Russian Federation); Maltsev, D.S.; Yamshchikov, L.F. [Department of Rare Metals and Nanomaterials, Institute of Physics and Technology, Ural Federal University, Ekaterinburg, 620002 (Russian Federation); Chukin, A.V. [Department of Theoretical Physics and Applied Mathematics, Institute of Physics and Technology, Ural Federal University, Ekaterinburg, 620002 (Russian Federation); Smolenski, V.V.; Novoselova, A.V. [Institute of High-Temperature Electrochemistry UD RAS, Ekaterinburg, 620137 (Russian Federation); Osipenko, A.G. [JSC “State Scientific Centre - Research Institute of Atomic Reactors”, Dimitrovgrad, 433510 (Russian Federation)

    2015-10-15

    Activity, activity coefficients and solubility of uranium was determined in gallium-aluminium alloys containing 1.6 (eutectic), 5 and 20 wt.% aluminium. Additionally, activity of uranium was determined in aluminium and Ga–Al alloys containing 0.014–20 wt.% Al. Experiments were performed up to 1073 K. Intermetallic compounds formed in the alloys were characterized by X-ray diffraction. Partial and excess thermodynamic functions of U in the studied alloys were calculated. - Highlights: • Thermodynamics of uranium is determined in Ga–Al alloys of various compositions. • Uranium in the mixed alloys interacts with both components, Ga and Al. • Interaction of U with Al increases with decreasing temperature. • Activity and solubility of uranium depend on Al content in Ga–Al alloys.

  2. Aluminium supplier selection for the automotive parts manufacturer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cieśla

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a methodology for selection of the optimal sources of supply, which is also known as the problem of supplier selection. Theoretical considerations are expanded with research related to aluminium supplier selection for a hypothetical manufacturer of aluminium parts for transportation equipment located in Poland. Evaluation of five suppliers of aluminium from Poland, Germany and Slovenia has been conducted using a weighted scoring method, a strengths and weaknesses method and a graphical method. Choosing the best offer and prioritizing suppliers allows not only the most rational decision in the field of supply logistics to be taken but also the quality of service in the metallurgical industry to be improved.

  3. Influence of aluminium sheet surface modification on the self-piercing riveting process and the joint static lap shear strength

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Dezhi

    2017-01-01

    Self-piercing riveting (SPR) has been widely used in automotive as one of the major joining technologies for aluminium structures due to its advantages over some of the more traditional joining technologies. Research has shown that friction is a very important factor that influences both the riveting process and the joint strength for SPR, but these influences have not been fully understood. In this paper, AA5754 sheets with different surface textures, such as original with solid wax, hot wat...

  4. Study of the oxides nature effect of rare and rare earth elements on the aluminium-chromium catalyst properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dadashev, B.A.; Abbasov, S.G.; Sarydzhanov, A.A.; AN Azerbajdzhanskoj SSR, Baku. Inst. Neftekhimicheskikh Protsessov)

    1975-01-01

    Adsorption studies have shown that oxides of rare and rare earth elements REE appreciably influence the structure of aluminium-chrome catalyst. Alkaline promotors, unlike REE, contribute to the formation of developed contact surface. Electrophysical investigations show that oxides of rare elements introduced into the catalyst increase its conductivity and activation energy. As for REE oxides, they decrease the conductivity and increase the activation energy. Catalysts with developed surface and high conductivity are also more active in the reaction of isopentane dehydration

  5. Light-weight aluminium bridges and bridge decks. An overview of recent applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maljaars, J.; Soetens, F.; Kluyver, D. de

    2008-01-01

    The last decades have shown a large increase in the application of aluminium alloys for light-weight bridges. For bridge construction, aluminium alloys have some specific advantages, but also some points of attention. This paper deals with some recent projects of aluminium bridges, and for these

  6. The Crucial Role of the K+-Aluminium Oxide Interaction in K+-Promoted Alumina- and Hydrotalcite-Based Materials for CO2 Sorption at High Temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walspurger, S.; Boels, L.; Cobden, P.D.; Elzinga, G.D.; Haije, W.G.; Van den Brink, R.W. [Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands ECN, Westerduinweg 3, 1755LE, Petten (Netherlands)

    2008-09-15

    CO2-free hydrogen can be produced from coal gasification power plants by pre-combustion decarbonisation and carbon dioxide capture. Potassium carbonate promoted hydrotalcite-based and alumina-based materials are cheap and excellent materials for high-temperature (300-500C) adsorption of CO2, and particularly promising in the sorption-enhanced water gas shift (SEWGS) reaction. Alkaline promotion significantly improves CO2 reversible sorption capacity at 300-500C for both materials. Hydrotalcites and promoted hydrotalcites, promoted magnesium oxide and promoted -alumina were investigated by in situ analytical methods (IR spectroscopy, sorption experiments, X-ray diffraction) to identify structural and surface rearrangements. All experimental results show that potassium ions actually strongly interact with aluminium oxide centres in the aluminium-containing materials. This study unambiguously shows that potassium promotion of aluminium oxide centres in hydrotalcite generates basic sites which reversibly adsorb CO2 at 400C.

  7. Formation of epitaxial Al 2O 3/NiAl(1 1 0) films: aluminium deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lykhach, Y.; Moroz, V.; Yoshitake, M.

    2005-02-01

    Structure of epitaxial Al 2O 3 layers formed on NiAl(1 1 0) substrates has been studied by means of reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED). The elucidated structure was compared to the model suggested for 0.5 nm-thick Al 2O 3 layers [K. Müller, H. Lindner, D.M. Zehner, G. Ownby, Verh. Dtsch. Phys. Ges. 25 (1990) 1130; R.M. Jaeger, H. Kuhlenbeck, H.J. Freund, Surf. Sci. 259 (1991) 235]. The stepwise growth of Al 2O 3 film, involving deposition and subsequent oxidation of aluminium onto epitaxial 0.5 nm-thick Al 2O 3 layers, has been investigated. Aluminium was deposited at room temperature, whereas its oxidation took place during annealing at 1070 K. The Al 2O 3 thickness was monitored by means of Auger electron spectroscopy (AES). It was found that Al 2O 3 layer follows the structure of 0.5 nm thick Al 2O 3 film, although a tilting of Al 2O 3(1 1 1) surface plane with respect to NiAl(1 1 0) surface appeared after Al deposition.

  8. Simultaneous determination of aluminium and phosphorus by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gatschke, W.; Gawlik, D.

    1980-01-01

    With the use of the pneumatic tube system of the BER II reactor, the irradiation position of which is equipped with a movable cadmium shield, the aluminium and phosphorus levels in bone powder and in human bone biopsies were determined. The contribution of aluminium and phosphorus to the 28 Al activity could be separated mathematically after the samples had been irradiated with and without cadmium shielding. The sensitivity and limit of quantitative determination of the analytical procedure were determined using the addition method and the fact that the levels of each element measured was independent of the amount of the other element was proved. (author)

  9. Electrochemical noise from corroding carbon steel and aluminium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, P.R.; Gaonkar, K.B.; De, P.K.; Banerjee, S.

    1997-05-01

    Electrochemical noise measurements were conducted on carbon steel and aluminium in sodium chloride solutions. Noise parameters like standard deviation of potential and current, noise resistance, pitting index, noise power were studied for the purpose of measuring corrosion rate. These parameters compared well with the corrosion rate. Pitting index was not very reliable. Current noise was more close to the corrosion rates. General corrosion gave rise to white noise type of power spectrum while flicker noise type of spectrum was obtained from pitting attack. Sodium nitrite is shown to inhibit the corrosion of carbon steel. Aluminium corrodes in the early period of exposure and passivates during long exposure

  10. Spectrofluorimetric determination of microquantities of aluminium in uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomiero, L.A.; Nascimento, M.R.L. do; Abraao, A.

    1976-01-01

    A rapid and sensitive method for the separation and spectrofluorimetric determination of microamounts of aluminium in uranium compounds is described. In sodium carbonate solution at pH 9.5-10.0, the uranyl ion forms a very stable anionic complex with the carbonate ion. In these conditions, uranium is not extracted by a chloroform oxine solution, while alumium is isolated as the tris(oxinate)aluminium(III) form. The interferences are previously extracted with chloroform as diethylditiocarbomates in the same tris(oxinate)aluminum(III) pH extraction. The sensitivity is 0,005 μ Al/ml of organic phase and the relative standard deviation is 10% [pt

  11. Determination of cadmium in aluminium by atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batistoni, D.A.; Erlijman, L.H.

    1978-12-01

    A direct method for the determination of cadmium in elemental aluminium is described. Metal samples are dissolved in diluted hydrochloric acid and cadmium is determined by atomic absorption spectrometry in an air-acetylene flame. Interference by non-specific absorption observed at the analytical wavelength incorrected for by means of a non-absorbing line emitted by the hollow-cathode lamp. Relatively large amounts of arsenic do not interfere. The minimun determinable concentration of cadmium for this procedure is 2-3 ppm, expressed on aluminium basis. (author) [es

  12. Materials and ceramics on the base of aluminium titanate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulamova, D.

    1997-01-01

    The influence of the doping and technological parameters on the thermodynamical stability of the aluminium titanate is investigated. The condition necessary to make aluminium titanate stable and established. it is shown, how the condition of the synthesis and the content of the admixture phases affect the stability of the solid solutions. The technology of obtaining the ceramics stable with respect to decay (with thermal expansion coefficient CTE = 26x10/sup -6/ grad/sup -1/ and thermoresistancy > 80 heating cycles, sigma curve equal or greater than 80 Mpa) is worked out. (author)

  13. Prevention of Dealloying in Manganese Aluminium Bronze Propeller: Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Napachat Tareelap

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to the failure of manganese aluminium bronze (MAB propeller caused by dealloying corrosion as described in Part I [1], this work aims to study the prevention of dealloying corrosion using aluminium and zinc sacrificial anodes. The results indicated that both of the sacrificial anodes could prevent the propeller from dealloying. Moreover, the dealloying in seawater was less than that found in brackish water. It was possible that hydroxide ions, from cathodic reaction, reacted with calcium in seawater to form calcium carbonate film protecting the propeller from corrosion.

  14. Towards an understanding of the adjuvant action of aluminium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrack, Philippa; McKee, Amy S.; Munks, Michael W.

    2011-01-01

    The efficacy of vaccines depends on the presence of an adjuvant in conjunction with the antigen. Of these adjuvants, the ones that contain aluminium, which were first discovered empirically in 1926, are currently the most widely used. However, a detailed understanding of their mechanism of action has only started to be revealed. In this Timeline article, we briefly describe the initial discovery of aluminium adjuvants and discuss historically important advances. We also summarize recent progress in the field and discuss their implications and the remaining questions on how these adjuvants work. PMID:19247370

  15. High-purity aluminium creep under high hydrostatic pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zajtsev, V.I.; Lyafer, E.I.; Tokij, V.V.

    1977-01-01

    The effect of the hydrostatic pressure on the rate of steady-state creep of high-purity aluminium was investigated. It is shown that the hydrostatic pressure inhibits the creep. The activation volume of the creep is independent of the direction in the range of (4.7-6.2) kg/mm 2 and of the pressure in the range of (1-7.8000) atm. It is concluded that self-diffusion does not control the creep of high-purity aluminium at room temperature in the investigated stress and pressure range

  16. Influences of pulsed current tungsten inert gas welding parameters on the tensile properties of AA 6061 aluminium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senthil Kumar, T.; Balasubramanian, V.; Sanavullah, M.Y.

    2007-01-01

    Medium strength aluminium alloy (Al-Mg-Si alloy) has gathered wide acceptance in the fabrication of light weight structures requiring a high strength-to-weight ratio, such as transportable bridge girders, military vehicles, road tankers and railway transport systems. In any structural application of this alloy consideration its weldability is of utmost importance as welding is largely used for joining of structural components. The preferred welding process of aluminium alloy is frequently tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding due to its comparatively easier applicability and better economy. In the case of single pass TIG welding of thinner section of this alloy, the pulsed current has been found beneficial due to its advantages over the conventional continuous current process. The use of pulsed current parameters has been found to improve the mechanical properties of the welds compared to those of continuous current welds of this alloy due to grain refinement occurring in the fusion zone. Many considerations come into the picture and one need to carefully balance various pulse current parameters to arrive at an optimum combination. Hence, in this investigation an attempt has been made to study the influence of pulsed current TIG welding parameters on tensile properties of AA 6061 aluminium alloy weldments

  17. Do oral aluminium phosphate binders cause accumulation of aluminium to toxic levels?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberts Norman B

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aluminium (Al toxicity was frequent in the 1980s in patients ingesting Al containing phosphate binders (Alucaps whilst having HD using water potentially contaminated with Al. The aim of this study was to determine the risk of Al toxicity in HD patients receiving Alucaps but never exposed to contaminated dialysate water. Methods HD patients only treated with Reverse Osmosis(RO treated dialysis water with either current or past exposure to Alucaps were given standardised DFO tests. Post-DFO serum Al level > 3.0 μmol/L was defined to indicate toxic loads based on previous bone biopsy studies. Results 39 patients (34 anuric were studied. Mean dose of Alucap was 3.5 capsules/d over 23.0 months. Pre-DFO Al levels were > 1.0 μmol/L in only 2 patients and none were > 3.0 μmol/L. No patients had a post DFO Al levels > 3.0 μmol/L. There were no correlations between the serum Al concentrations (pre-, post- or the incremental rise after DFO administration and the total amount of Al ingested. No patients had unexplained EPO resistance or biochemical evidence of adynamic bone. Conclusions Although this is a small study, oral aluminium exposure was considerable. Yet no patients undergoing HD with RO treated water had evidence of Al toxicity despite doses equivalent to 3.5 capsules of Alucap for 2 years. The relationship between the DFO-Al results and the total amount of Al ingested was weak (R2 = 0.07 and not statistically significant. In an era of financial prudence, and in view of the recognised risk of excess calcium loading in dialysis patients, perhaps we should re-evaluate the risk of using Al-based phosphate binders in HD patients who remain uric.

  18. Accumulation of Aluminium and Physiological Status of Tree Foliage in the Vicinity of a Large Aluminium Smelter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. D. Wannaz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A pollution gradient was observed in tree foliage sampled in the vicinity of a large aluminium production facility in Patagonia (Argentina. Leaves of Eucalyptus rostrata, and Populus hybridus and different needle ages of Pinus spec. were collected and concentrations of aluminium (Al and sulphur (S as well as physiological parameters (chlorophyll and lipid oxidation products were analyzed. Al and S concentrations indicate a steep pollution gradient in the study showing a relationship with the physiological parameters in particular membrane lipid oxidation products. The present study confirms that aluminium smelting results in high Al and sulphur deposition in the study area, and therefore further studies should be carried out taking into account potentially adverse effects of these compounds on human and ecosystem health.

  19. Failure mechanisms of aluminium foams under compressive loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sáenz, E.

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is the investigation of the major failure mechanisms of aluminium foams, which were obtained by powder metallurgy route, under compressive loads. The study was focused on two commonly aluminium alloys AlMg1Si or A 6061 and AlSi12. Due to the fact that the failure mechanisms strongly depend on the density and the macrostructural properties of the material, the mechanical properties always have to be correlated to the structural properties. Therefore, macrostructural investigations were used as a basis to establish the correlation between structural and mechanical properties. This was done with a commercially available image analysis system. The average cell size, the cell size distribution and the cell density (number of cells/area were obtained. In order to evaluate the influence of foaming direction on the cell morphology, some cross sections parallel to the foaming direction were prepared. For the characterization of the mechanical compression properties the compressive or upper yield strength (UYS, the densification strain (eD, the energy absorption (Ea and the efficiency (Eff were obtained. Furthermore, the failure behavior of the samples was in-situ observed with a digital video camera and continuously recorded during the test.

    El objetivo de este estudio es investigar los principales mecanismos de fallo de espumas de aluminio sometidas a cargas de compresión. Las espumas metálicas fueron obtenidas mediante el proceso pulvimetalúrgico, utilizándose como materia prima dos aleaciones comerciales AlMg1Si o A 6061 y AlSi12. Debido a que los mecanismos de fallo en este tipo de materiales depende fuertemente de la densidad y las características macroestructurales del material, en este estudio se busca correlacionar las propiedades mecánicas con estas características. La macroestructura se caracterizó mediante análisis de imagen. El tamaño de celda promedio, la distribución de tamaño y la densidad de

  20. Corrosion of research reactor aluminium clad spent fuel in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This report describes research performed in ten laboratories within the framework of the IAEA Co-ordinated Research Project on Corrosion of Research Reactor Aluminium Clad Spent Fuel in Water. The project consisted of exposure of standard racks of corrosion coupons in the spent fuel pools of the participating research reactor laboratories and the evaluation of the coupons after predetermined exposure times, along with periodic monitoring of the storage water. A group of experts in the field contributed a state of the art review and provided technical supervision of the project. Localized corrosion mechanisms are notoriously difficult to understand, and it was clear from the outset that obtaining consistency in the results and their interpretation from laboratory to laboratory would depend on the development of an excellent set of experimental protocols. These experimental protocols are described in the report together with guidelines for the maintenance of optimum water chemistry to minimize the corrosion of aluminium clad research reactor fuel in wet storage. A large database on corrosion of aluminium clad materials has been generated from the CRP and the SRS corrosion surveillance programme. An evaluation of these data indicates that the most important factors contributing to the corrosion of the aluminium are: (1) High water conductivity (100-200 μS/cm); (2) Aggressive impurity ion concentrations (Cl - ); (3) Deposition of cathodic particles on aluminium (Fe, etc.); (4) Sludge (containing Fe, Cl - and other ions in concentrations greater than ten times the concentrations in the water); (5) Galvanic couples between dissimilar metals (stainless steel-aluminium, aluminium-uranium, etc); (6) Scratches and imperfections (in protective oxide coating on cladding); (7) Poor water circulation. These factors operating both independently and synergistically may cause corrosion of the aluminium. The single most important key to preventing corrosion is maintaining good