WorldWideScience

Sample records for aluminium nitrates

  1. Waste treatment of fission product solutions containing aluminium nitrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the Rossendorf molybdenum-99 production facility AMOR short-term irradiated aluminium clad fuel elements from the Rossendorf Research Reactor are reprocessed. Following extractive recovery of the enriched uranium the facility system has to be disposed of the fission product-Al(NO3)3 solution. Investigations on waste conditioning of such solutions are presented. (author)

  2. The effect of anions in the fluorimetric determination of uranium after extraction from acid-deficient aluminium nitrate solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of perchlorate, chloride, sulphate, phosphate and fluoride on the fluorimetric determination of uranium after the extraction of uranium into methyl isobutyl ketone from acid-deficient aluminium nitrate solution has been established. Recoveries of uranium from perchlorate and sulphate media after addition of 1 ml of 15 M nitric acid are 100%. Chloride interferes, and a correction must be made to compensate for the anion effect. Phosphate and fluoride in amounts up to 25 mg give recoveries of at least 95%. The anion effect may be minimized by increasing the volume of the organic phase. (author)

  3. Intercomparison 9711. pH, conductivity, alkalinity, nitrate + nitrite, chloride, sulfate, calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, total aluminium, reactive and non-labile aluminium, dissolved organic carbon, and chemical oxygen demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hovind, Haavard

    1997-09-22

    The work described in this report was a part of an international cooperative programme for assessment and monitoring of acidification of rivers and lakes. Two sample sets were prepared for intercomparison, one for determination of the major ions, the other for determination of aluminium fractions and unspecified organic matter. The samples were sent to 50 laboratories and 47 laboratories from 22 countries submitted results. Good agreement was found for chloride, sulfate, calcium, magnesium, sodium and the unspecific organic compounds, dissolved organic carbon and chemical oxygen demand, more than 80% being evaluated as acceptable for these analytic variables. The results for nitrate + nitrite and aluminium species did not agree well, probably because different methods were used to determine the aluminium species. On the whole, 78% of the results were within the general target accuracy of plus or minus 20%. Laboratories with results outside this accuracy should improve their methods if they want to analyse low-concentration samples. To improve the compatibility of the analytical results for aluminium fractions, it seems necessary to normalize the analytical methods and determination techniques used for these determinations. A total error of plus minus 0.2 pH units seems to be a reasonable assessment of the accuracy for pH measurements when weakly acid or neutral water samples not in CO{sub 2} equilibrium are analyzed. 7 refs., 1 fig., 34 tabs.

  4. Method of aluminium fluoride manufacture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The manufacture of aluminium fluoride is based on waste processing in uranium hexafluoride conversion to uranium oxides within the fuel cycle. The conversion is the stoichiometric conversion of uranium hexafluoride with aluminium nitrate to uranyl nitrate. This is extracted from the water phase by phosphoric acid trialkyl ester to an organic solvent and further processed. The discharge water phase is solidified by evaporation to solid aluminium fluoride and nitric acid. (M.S.)

  5. Automotive Aluminium Recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gelas, B. des

    2000-07-01

    This paper aims at providing an overview on the contribution of aluminium recycling in the supply of new aluminium for automotive applications. Based on a presentation on how the global European automotive aluminium supply requirements are met, an analysis of the present and future contribution of automotive aluminium recycling is first presented. Current situation and future developments for automotive aluminium recycling practices are then commented, together with an outline on design principles for easier aluminium recycling. (orig.)

  6. Aluminium structural elements

    OpenAIRE

    Švent, Nejc

    2016-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the structural analysis of aluminium structural members in accordance with the SIST EN 1999-1-1 standard. In the introduction, historical development of aluminium is summarized, as well as the processes of structural aluminium production and manufacture. Predominantly, resistance control checks of aluminium structural members are covered, with special attention to the major contrasts between aluminium and steel structural analyses. Finally, fundamental examples of resis...

  7. Thermal formation of corundum from aluminium hydroxides prepared from various aluminium salts

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J Temuujin; Ts JADAMBAA; K J D Mackenzie; P Angerer; F Porte; F Riley

    2000-08-01

    Aluminium hydroxides have been precipitated from various aluminium salts and the differences in their thermal behaviour have been investigated. Pseudoboehmite derived from the nitrate, sulfate and chloride all form -Al2O3 at ∼ 400°C but the formation of -Al2O3 at 1200°C occurs more readily in the material derived from the sulfate. This contains a higher concentration of anionic impurities related to differences in the solubility of the original aluminium salts. The sulfate is retained in the gel to higher temperatures at which its eventual decomposition may lead to the formation of a reactive pore structure which facilitates the nucleation of -Al2O3.

  8. Rows of Dislocation Loops in Aluminium Irradiated by Aluminium Ions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, L.; Johansen, A.; Koch, J.;

    1967-01-01

    Single-crystal aluminium specimens, irradiated with 50-keV aluminium ions, contain dislocation loops that are arranged in regular rows along <110 > directions. ©1967 The American Institute of Physics......Single-crystal aluminium specimens, irradiated with 50-keV aluminium ions, contain dislocation loops that are arranged in regular rows along <110 > directions. ©1967 The American Institute of Physics...

  9. Effects of Aluminium Sulfate on Cadmium Accumulation in Rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Cadmium accumulation in Pathum Thani 1 and Suphan Buri 60 rice cultivars was investigated upon treatment with aluminium sulfate as a precipitant. Rice was grown hydroponically in a medium containing 4 ppm cadmium nitrate with or without 4 ppm aluminium sulfate. Root, stem with leaves and grain samples were collected and analyzed for cadmium content using atomic absorption spectroscopy and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. Without the addition of aluminium sulfate, Pathum Thani 1 and Suphan Buri 60 accumulated 24.71∫ 3.14 ppm and 34.43 ∫ 4.51 ppm (dry weight of whole plant) of cadmium, respectively. With aluminium sulfate, cadmium accumulation increased to 40.66 ∫ 2.47 ppm and 62.94 ∫ 10.69 ppm, respectively. The addition of aluminium sulfate to the planting medium did not reduce cadmium accumulation but caused the rice to accumulate more cadmium especially in the shoots and grains. This observation might serve as the basis for future research on the management of agricultural areas that are contaminated with cadmium and aluminium

  10. Recovery in aluminium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gundlach, Carsten

    2006-01-01

    growth curves are represented as strings. To identify the strings a combination of a 5D connected component type algorithm and multi-peak fitting was found to be superior. The first use of the method was a study of recovery of a deformed aluminium alloy (AA1050). The aluminium alloy was deformed by cold......In the present thesis the development of a unique experimental method for volume characterisation of individual embedded crystallites down to a radius of 150 nm is presented. This method is applied to in-situ studies of recovery in aluminium. The method is an extension of 3DXRD microscopy, an X......-ray diffraction technique for studies of the evolution of grains within polycrystalline materials. The much smaller volume of the crystallites of interest here in comparison to grains implies that the existing method is not applicable due to overlap of diffraction spots. In this work this obstacle is overcome by...

  11. Soldering of aluminium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A literature survey about soldering in general and aluminium alloys soldering in particular is presented. The existing methods of soldering aluminium alloys are described. These include soldering with flux, soldering after preliminary plating, vacuum brazipressure and temperature (NTP), sample age calculation based on 14C half life of 5570 and 5730 years, age correction for NTP, dendrochronological corrections and the relative radiocarbon concentration. All results are given with one standard deviation. Input data test (Chauvenet's criterion), gas purity test, standard deviation test and test of the data processor are also included in the program. (author)

  12. Fire exposed aluminium structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maljaars, J.; Fellinger, J.H.H.; Soetens, F.

    2006-01-01

    Material properties and mechanical response models for fire design of steel structures are based on extensive research and experience. Contrarily, the behaviour of aluminium load bearing structures exposed to fire is relatively unexplored. This article gives an overview of physical and mechanical pr

  13. Recovery in aluminium

    OpenAIRE

    Gundlach, Carsten

    2006-01-01

    In the present thesis the development of a unique experimental method for volume characterisation of individual embedded crystallites down to a radius of 150 nm is presented. This method is applied to in-situ studies of recovery in aluminium. The method is an extension of 3DXRD microscopy, an X-ray diffraction technique for studies of the evolution of grains within polycrystalline materials. The much smaller volume of the crystallites of interest here in comparison to grains implies that the ...

  14. Aluminium and human breast diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darbre, P D; Pugazhendhi, D; Mannello, F

    2011-11-01

    The human breast is exposed to aluminium from many sources including diet and personal care products, but dermal application of aluminium-based antiperspirant salts provides a local long-term source of exposure. Recent measurements have shown that aluminium is present in both tissue and fat of the human breast but at levels which vary both between breasts and between tissue samples from the same breast. We have recently found increased levels of aluminium in noninvasively collected nipple aspirate fluids taken from breast cancer patients (mean 268 ± 28 μg/l) compared with control healthy subjects (mean 131 ± 10 μg/l) providing evidence of raised aluminium levels in the breast microenvironment when cancer is present. The measurement of higher levels of aluminium in type I human breast cyst fluids (median 150 μg/l) compared with human serum (median 6 μg/l) or human milk (median 25 μg/l) warrants further investigation into any possible role of aluminium in development of this benign breast disease. Emerging evidence for aluminium in several breast structures now requires biomarkers of aluminium action in order to ascertain whether the presence of aluminium has any biological impact. To this end, we report raised levels of proteins that modulate iron homeostasis (ferritin, transferrin) in parallel with raised aluminium in nipple aspirate fluids in vivo, and we report overexpression of mRNA for several S100 calcium binding proteins following long-term exposure of MCF-7 human breast cancer cells in vitro to aluminium chlorhydrate. PMID:22099158

  15. First Principles Study of Aluminium Vacancy in Wurtzite Aluminium Nitride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Ting-Ge; YI Jue-Min; ZHOU Zi-Yao; HU Xiao-Dong

    2008-01-01

    @@ We report that the aluminium vacancy in wurtzite AIN brings about two impurity levels e and a2 in the band gap, not just one single t2 level The aluminium vacancy carries a magnetic moment of 1 μB in the ground state. The molecule orbit of the aluminium vacancy becomes e↑↑ a2↑ rather than e↑↑ a2↑. The calculation is carried out by using the CASTEP code. The intrinsic symmetry of wurtzite A1N is the driving force for this spin splitting. Finally the symmetry of wurtzite AlN results in an anti-ferromagnetic coupling between the aluminium vacancies, as is predicted. Our findings are helpful to gain a more through understanding of the structural and spin property of aluminium vacancy in wurtzite AIN.

  16. Self-triggering reaction kinetics between nitrates and aluminium powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the night between the 19 and 20 September 2003, a loud explosion occurred at about 3 km from the town of Carignano that was clearly heard at a distance of some tens of kilometres. The explosion almost completely destroyed most of the laboratories of the Panzera Company that were used for the production of fireworks. The results of the research activities that were carried out using a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) on the same raw materials that made up the pyrotechnical mixture that exploded are reported in this paper. This activity was carried out to identify the dynamics of the accident. It proved possible to verify how the event was produced because of a slow exothermic reaction which, after about 8 h, caused the self-triggering of 120 kg of finished product. The detonation can therefore be put down to a runaway reaction in the solid phase, whose primogenial causes can be attributed to a still craftsman type production system, not conformed to the rigorous controls and inspections as those required by a safety management system for major risk plants, as the Panzera Company was

  17. Aluminium nitrate ceramics: A potential UV dosemeter material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trinkler, L.; Bøtter-Jensen, L.; Berzina, B.

    The ceramic material AIN-Y2O3 is proposed as a potential ultraviolet radiation (UVR) dosemeter using optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and thermally stimulated luminescence (TL). Experimental studies have shown that AIN ceramics exhibit attractive characteristics suitable for practical UV...... Al2O3:C; and (4) a large dynamic range TL signal (5 orders of magnitude). Although there is relatively high fading, it is demonstrated that AIN is a feasible material for UVR dosimetry using short integration times....

  18. Aluminium, antiperspirants and breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darbre, P D

    2005-09-01

    Aluminium salts are used as the active antiperspirant agent in underarm cosmetics, but the effects of widespread, long term and increasing use remain unknown, especially in relation to the breast, which is a local area of application. Clinical studies showing a disproportionately high incidence of breast cancer in the upper outer quadrant of the breast together with reports of genomic instability in outer quadrants of the breast provide supporting evidence for a role for locally applied cosmetic chemicals in the development of breast cancer. Aluminium is known to have a genotoxic profile, capable of causing both DNA alterations and epigenetic effects, and this would be consistent with a potential role in breast cancer if such effects occurred in breast cells. Oestrogen is a well established influence in breast cancer and its action, dependent on intracellular receptors which function as ligand-activated zinc finger transcription factors, suggests one possible point of interference from aluminium. Results reported here demonstrate that aluminium in the form of aluminium chloride or aluminium chlorhydrate can interfere with the function of oestrogen receptors of MCF7 human breast cancer cells both in terms of ligand binding and in terms of oestrogen-regulated reporter gene expression. This adds aluminium to the increasing list of metals capable of interfering with oestrogen action and termed metalloestrogens. Further studies are now needed to identify the molecular basis of this action, the longer term effects of aluminium exposure and whether aluminium can cause aberrations to other signalling pathways in breast cells. Given the wide exposure of the human population to antiperspirants, it will be important to establish dermal absorption in the local area of the breast and whether long term low level absorption could play a role in the increasing incidence of breast cancer. PMID:16045991

  19. Aluminium oxide exoelectron dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akselrod, M.S.; Odegov, A.L. (Urals State Technical Univ., Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation)); Durham, J.S. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States))

    1994-01-01

    The exoemission properties of aluminium oxide ([alpha]-Al[sub 2]O[sub 3]:C), in the forms of both a single crystal and of powder, have been investigated. Measurements obtained during readout in a vacuum showed that irradiated Al[sub 2]O[sub 3]:C dosemeters emit exoelectrons with a sensitivity that is 10-20 times higher than that achievable using beryllium oxide (BeO) exoelectron dosemeters (EEDs). This paper presents results of studies using a commercial methane gas reader. The investigators studied the response of the Al[sub 2]O[sub 3]:C EEDs as a function of beta energy and measured the dose-response relationship. The effect of humidity on the dosemeter response was also investigated. (Author).

  20. Roll bonding of strained aluminium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staun, Jakob M.

    2003-01-01

    This report investigates roll bonding of pre-strained (å ~ 4) aluminium sheets to produce high strain material from high purity aluminium (99.996%) and commercial pure aluminium (99.6%). The degree of bonding is investigated by optical microscopy and ultrasonic scanning. Under the right...... circumstances both materials show good bonding, but the high purity material is excluded because of recrystallisation and the resulting loss of mechanical properties. The effect of cross stacking and roll bonding pre-strained sheets of the commercial purity material is investigated and some dependence of the...... cross rolled volume fraction is found. To further asses this effect, and the anisotropy, it is necessary to acquire knowledge about both texture and microstructure, e.g. by TEM. Roll bonding of pre-strained aluminium is found to be a possible alternative to ARB in the quest for ultra-fine grained...

  1. Friction surfacing of aluminium alloys

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Diogo Jorge O. A.

    2012-01-01

    Friction surfacing is a solid state joining process that has attracted much interest in the past decades. This technology allows joining dissimilar metallic materials while avoiding the brittle intermetallic formations, involving temperatures bellow melting point and producing like forged metal structures. Much research using different steels has been made but the same does not happen with aluminium alloys, specially using different aluminium alloys. Friction surface coatings using cons...

  2. Paliperidonium nitrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingshui Ge

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In the title molecular salt (systematic name: 3-{2-[4-(6-fluoro-1,2-benzoxazol-3-ylpiperidin-1-yl]ethyl}-9-hydroxy-2-methyl-1,6,7,8,9,9a-hexahydropyrido[1,2-a]pyrimidin-4-one nitrate, C23H29FN4O3+·NO3−, the piperidine ring displays a chair conformation and its N atom is protonated; the N—H bond is in an axial orientation. The ring bearing the hydroxy group exhibits a half-chair conformation. The hydroxy group as well as the adjacent methylene group are disordered over two sets of sites in a 0.823 (5:0.177 (5 ratio. In the crystal, O—H...N, O—H...O, N—H...O and N—H...N hydrogen bonds connect the components into a three-dimensional network.

  3. Effect of hydrogen on aluminium and aluminium alloys: A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambat, Rajan; Dwarakadasa, E.S.

    1996-01-01

    Susceptibility of aluminium and its alloys towards hydrogen embrittlement has been well established. Still a lot of confusion exists on the question of transport of hydrogen and its possible role in stress corrosion cracking. This paper reviews some of the fundamental properties of hydrogen in...... aluminium and its alloys and its effect on mechanical properties. The importance of hydrogen embrittlement over anodic dissolution to explain the stress corrosion cracking mechanism of these alloys is also examined in considerable detail. The various experimental findings concerning the link between...

  4. Uptake of aluminium ion by the liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The specific uptake by the rat liver of 28Al was shown. There was specific uptake of 28Al by liver cell nuclei and DNA. This uptake was blocked by prior treatment with stable aluminium. It is concluded that aluminium enters the liver cell by some specific mechanism and that the reaction of aluminium with DNA inside the hepatocyte nucleus could be a mechanism responsible for the development of aluminium-induced experimental porphyria in the rat

  5. Buckwheat stomatal traits under aluminium toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksandr E. Smirnov

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Aluminium influence on some stomatal parameters of common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench. was studied. Significant changes in stomatal density, stomatal index and stomatal shape coefficient under aluminium treatment were revealed. Stomatal closure and no difference in total stomatal potential conductance index of treatment plants were suggested as aluminium resistance characteristics.

  6. Investigation of structural, morphological, luminescent and thermal properties of combusted aluminium-based iron oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinde, S. S.; Rajpure, K. Y.

    2010-12-01

    Nanocomposites of aluminium integrated hematite α-Fe 2O 3 are synthesized by combustion route using aqueous solutions of AR grade ferric trichloride and aluminium nitrate as precursors. The influence of aluminium incorporation on to the morphology, XPS, photoluminescence and thermal properties has been investigated. The FESEM and AFM micrographs depict that the samples are compact and have homogeneously distributed grains of varying sizes (˜20-60 nm). Chemical composition and valence states of constituent elements in hematite are analyzed by XPS. In room temperature photoluminescence (PL) study, we observed strong violet emission around 436 nm without any deep-level emission and a small PL FWHM indicating that the concentrations of defects are responsible for deep-level emissions. The specific heat and thermal conductivity study shows the phonon conduction behavior is dominant. We studied interparticle interactions using complex impedance spectroscopy. We report a new potential candidate for its possible applications in optoelectronics and magnetic devices.

  7. A systematic review of aluminium phosphide poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrpour, Omid; Jafarzadeh, Mostafa; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2012-03-01

    Every year, about 300,000 people die because of pesticide poisoning worldwide. The most common pesticide agents are organophosphates and phosphides, aluminium phosphide (AlP) in particular. AlP is known as a suicide poison that can easily be bought and has no effective antidote. Its toxicity results from the release of phosphine gas as the tablet gets into contact with moisture. Phosphine gas primarily affects the heart, lungs, gastrointestinal tract, and kidneys. Poisoning signs and symptoms include nausea, vomiting, restlessness, abdominal pain, palpitation, refractory shock, cardiac arrhythmias, pulmonary oedema, dyspnoea, cyanosis, and sensory alterations. Diagnosis is based on clinical suspicion, positive silver nitrate paper test to phosphine, and gastric aspirate and viscera biochemistry. Treatment includes early gastric lavage with potassium permanganate or a combination with coconut oil and sodium bicarbonate, administration of charcoal, and palliative care. Specific therapy includes intravenous magnesium sulphate and oral coconut oil. Moreover, acidosis can be treated with early intravenous administration of sodium bicarbonate, cardiogenic shock with fluid, vasopresor, and refractory cardiogenic shock with intra-aortic baloon pump or digoxin. Trimetazidine may also have a useful role in the treatment, because it can stop ventricular ectopic beats and bigeminy and preserve oxidative metabolism. This article reviews the epidemiological, toxicological, and clinical/pathological aspects of AlP poisoning and its management. PMID:22450207

  8. Acute aluminium phosphide poisoning, what is new?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yatendra Singh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aluminium phosphide (AlP is a cheap solid fumigant and a highly toxic pesticide that is commonly used for grain preservation. AlP has currently generated interest with increasing number of cases in the past four decades because of its increased use for agricultural and nonagricultural purposes, and also its easy availability in the markets has led to its increased misuse to commit suicide. Ingestion is usually suicidal in intent, uncommonly accidental and rarely homicidal. The poison affects all systems, shock, cardiac arrhythmias with varied ECG changes and gastrointestinal features being the most prominent. Diagnosis is made on the basis of clinical suspicion, a positive silver nitrate paper test to phosphine, and gastric aspirate and viscera biochemistry. Treatment includes early gastric lavage with potassium permanganate or a combination of coconut oil and sodium bicarbonate, administration of charcoal and palliative care. Specific therapy includes intravenous magnesium sulphate and oral coconut oil. Unfortunately, the lack of a specific antidote Results in very high mortality and the key to treatment lies in rapid decontamination and institution of resuscitative measures. This article aims to identify the salient features and mechanism of AlP poisoning along with its management strategies and prognostic variables.

  9. The prophylactic reduction of aluminium intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lione, A

    1983-02-01

    The use of modern analytical methods has demonstrated that aluminium salts can be absorbed from the gut and concentrated in various human tissues, including bone, the parathyroids and brain. The neurotoxicity of aluminium has been extensively characterized in rabbits and cats, and high concentrations of aluminium have been detected in the brain tissue of patients with Alzheimer's disease. Various reports have suggested that high aluminium intakes may be harmful to some patients with bone disease or renal impairment. Fatal aluminium-induced neuropathies have been reported in patients on renal dialysis. Since there are no demonstrable consequences of aluminium deprivation, the prophylactic reduction of aluminium intake by many patients would appear prudent. In this report, the major sources of aluminium in foods and non-prescription drugs are summarized and alternative products are described. The most common foods that contain substantial amounts of aluminium-containing additives include some processed cheeses, baking powders, cake mixes, frozen doughs, pancake mixes, self-raising flours and pickled vegetables. The aluminium-containing non-prescription drugs include some antacids, buffered aspirins, antidiarrhoeal products, douches and haemorrhoidal medications. The advisability of recommending a low aluminium diet for geriatric patients is discussed in detail. PMID:6337934

  10. Dynamical study of liquid aluminium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent molecular dynamics data of Ebbsjoe et al. in liquid aluminium have been analysed through the memory function formalism. Two forms of the memory functions which have correct asymptotic limit at large wavenumbers but accounts for interatomic correlations in a different manner are considered. The results for ω2s(q, ω) obtained from both models are compared with experimental data. (author)

  11. Aluminium foams. manufacture, properties and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aluminium foams are porous to have many interesting combinations of physical and mechanical properties, such as high stiffness in conjunction with very low specific weight. The aluminium foam structure, manufacture processes, physical, chemical and mechanical properties and applications are reviewed in this paper. The various manufacturing processes are classified according to the state of matter in which the metal is processed. Liquid aluminium can be foamed directly by injecting gas or gas-releasing blowing agents. Indirect methods include melting of powder compacts which contain a blowing agent. An inert gas entrapped in powder compacts can produce aluminium foams in solid state after heat treatment. Electron-deposition or metal vapour deposition also allow for the production of aluminium foams. Physical, chemical and mechanical properties and the various ways for characterising the aluminium foams are reviewed in second section of this paper. finally, the various application fields for aluminium foams are discussed. They are divided into different industrial sectors. (Author) 75 refs

  12. Electrochemical properties and thermal stability of epoxy coatings electrodeposited on aluminium and modified aluminium surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZORICA M. KACAREVIC-POPOVIC

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The corrosion behaviour of epoxy coatings electrodeposited on aluminium, as well as on electrochemically and chemically modified aluminium were investigated during exposure to 3 % NaCl. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA were used for the determination of the protective properties of epoxy coatings on aluminium, anodized aluminium, phosphatized and chromatized-phosphatized aluminium. The protective properties of epoxy coatings on anodized and chromatized-phosphatized aluminium are significantly improved with respect to the same epoxy coatings on aluminium and phosphatized aluminium: higher values of the pore resitance and charge-transfer resistance, lower values of the coating capacitance, double-layer capacitance and relative permittivity (from EIS smaller amount of absorbed water inside the coating (From TGA. On the other hand, the lower values of the ipdt temperature indicate a lower thermal stability of the epoxy coatings on anodized and chromatized-phosphatized aluminium.

  13. Friction Welding of Aluminium and Aluminium Alloys with Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Ambroziak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents our actual knowledge and experience in joining dissimilar materials with the use of friction welding method. The joints of aluminium and aluminium alloys with the different types of steel were studied. The structural effects occurring during the welding process were described. The mechanical properties using, for example, (i microhardness measurements, (ii tensile tests, (iii bending tests, and (iv shearing tests were determined. In order to obtain high-quality joints the influence of different configurations of the process such as (i changing the geometry of bonding surface, (ii using the interlayer, or (iii heat treatment was analyzed. Finally, the issues related to the selection of optimal parameters of friction welding process were also investigated.

  14. Modeled Wet Nitrate Deposition

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Modeled data on nitrate wet deposition was obtained from Dr. Jeff Grimm at Penn State Univ. Nitrate wet depostion causes acidification and eutrophication of surface...

  15. Nitrate accumulation in spinach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steingröver, Eveliene Geertruda

    1986-01-01

    Leafy vegetables, like spinach, may contain high concentrations of nitrate. In the Netherlands, about 75% of mean daily intake of nitrate orginates from the consumption of vegatables. Hazards to human health are associated with the reduction of nitrate to nitrite. Acute nitrite poisoning causes meth

  16. On the chemical and electrochemical formation of aluminium carbide in aluminium electrolysis

    OpenAIRE

    Bronislav, Novák

    2013-01-01

    Cathode wear is considered as one of the key factors for limiting the lifetime of aluminium electrolysis cells. This phenomenon has become more important as aluminium smelters have steadily increased the amperage of the cells and shifted towards graphitized cathode materials with higher electrical conductivity. The present work has focused on the fundamentals of the formation of aluminium carbide at the carbon-aluminium interface. The objective was to investigate the mechanism(s) of the forma...

  17. Aluminium Process Fault Detection and Diagnosis

    OpenAIRE

    Nazatul Aini Abd Majid; Taylor, Mark P; Chen, John J. J.; Brent R. Young

    2015-01-01

    The challenges in developing a fault detection and diagnosis system for industrial applications are not inconsiderable, particularly complex materials processing operations such as aluminium smelting. However, the organizing into groups of the various fault detection and diagnostic systems of the aluminium smelting process can assist in the identification of the key elements of an effective monitoring system. This paper reviews aluminium process fault detection and diagnosis systems and propo...

  18. Nitrate pollution of groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concern about the possible health risks associated with the consumption of nitrate has led many countries, including South Africa, to propose that 10mg of nitrogen (as nitrate or nitrite) per liter should be the maximum allowable limit for domestic water supplies. Groundwater in certain parts of South Africa and Namibia contains nitrate in concentrations which exceed this limit. The CSIR's Natural Isotope Division has been studying the nitrogen isotope composition of the nitrate as an aid to investigation into the sources of this nitrate contamination

  19. A bakable aluminium vacuum chamber with an aluminium flange and metal seal for ultrahigh vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A bakable (2000C) aluminium alloy vacuum chamber (6063-T6) with an aluminium alloy (2219-T87) flange and metal seal (Helicoflex-HN: aluminium O-ring) has been constructed. Such components may be used in the construction of the vacuum chamber in proton synchrotrons and electron storage rings. (author)

  20. Toxicity of aluminium on five aquatic invertebrates; Aluminiums toksisitet paa 5 akvatiske invertebrater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moe, J. [Oslo Univ. (Norway)

    1996-01-01

    The conference paper deals with the experiments done by investigating the effects from the toxicity of aluminium on aquatic invertebrates. The aim of the experiments was to compare the toxicity of unstable aluminium compounds with stable forms of aluminium. 8 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Aluminium in foodstuffs and diets in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorhem, L; Haegglund, G

    1992-01-01

    The levels of aluminium have been determined in a number of individual foodstuffs on the Swedish market and in 24 h duplicate diets collected by women living in the Stockholm area. The results show that the levels in most foods are very low and that the level in vegetables can vary by a factor 10. Beverages from aluminium cans were found to have aluminium levels not markedly different from those in glass bottles. Based on the results of the analysis of individual foods, the average Swedish daily diet was calculated to contain about 0.6 mg aluminium, whereas the mean content of the collected duplicate diets was 13 mg. A cake made from a mix containing aluminium phosphate in the baking soda was identified as the most important contributor of aluminium to the duplicate diets. Tea and aluminium utensils were estimated to increase the aluminium content of the diets by approximately 4 and 2 mg/day, respectively. The results also indicate that a considerable amount of aluminium must be introduced from other sources. PMID:1542992

  2. Aluminium exclusion and aluminium tolerance in woody plants

    OpenAIRE

    Ivano eBrunner; Christoph eSperisen

    2013-01-01

    The aluminium (Al) cation Al3+ is highly rhizotoxic and is a major stress factor to plants on acid soils, which cover large areas of tropical and boreal regions. Many woody plant species are native to acid soils and are well adapted to high Al3+ conditions. In tropical regions, both woody Al accumulator and non-Al accumulator plants occur, whereas in boreal regions woody plants are non-Al accumulators. The mechanisms of these adaptations can be divided into those that facilitate the exclusion...

  3. Aluminium and nickel in human albumin solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard, Bente; Sandberg, E

    1989-01-01

    Five different brands of commercially available human albumin solutions for infusion were analysed for their aluminium and nickel contents by atomic absorption spectrometry. The aluminium concentrations ranged from 12 micrograms/l to 1109 micrograms/l and the nickel concentrations ranged from 17...

  4. Preparation of aluminium lakes by electrocoagulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prapai Pradabkham

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Aluminium lakes have been prepared by electrocoagulation employing aluminium as electrodes. The electrocoagulation is conducted in an aqueous alcoholic solution and is completed within one hour. The dye content in the lake ranges approximately between 4-32%.

  5. Nickel-aluminium complex: a simple and effective precursor for nickel aluminate (NiAl2O4 spinel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apirat Laobuthee

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A reaction of aluminium hydroxide, nickel nitrate and triethanolamine in ethylene glycol provided, in one step, a simple and effective nickel-aluminium complex precursor for NiAl2O4 spinel. On the basis of 1H-, 13C-NMR spectroscopy, and mass spectrometry, the possible structure of the complex was proposed as a trimetallic double alkoxide consisting of two four-coordinate TEA-Al (alumatrane moieties linked via a bridging TEA group enfolding the Ni2+ cation. Transformation of the nickel-aluminium complex to pure spinel occurred when the complex precursor was pyrolysed at 1000C for 5 h. The BET surface area of the pyrolysed product was found to be 31 m2/g. In addition, the morphology of the powder product was examined by SEM.

  6. Field determination of nitrate using nitrate reductase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, E.R.; Corrigan, J.S.; Campbell, W.H. [Nitrate Elimination Co., Inc., Lake Linden, MI (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Nitrate is routinely measured in a variety of substrates - water, tissues, soils, and foods - both in the field and in laboratory settings. The most commonly used nitrate test methods involve the reduction of nitrate to nitrite via a copper-cadmium reagent, followed by reaction of the nitrite with the Griess dye reagents. The resulting color is translated into a nitrate concentration by comparison with a calibrated color chart or comparator, or by reading the absorbance in a spectrophotometer. This basic method is reliable and sufficiently sensitive for many applications. However, the cadmium reagent is quite toxic. The trend today is for continued increase in concern for worker health and safety; in addition, there are increasing costs and logistical problems associated with regulatory constraints on transport and disposal of hazardous materials. Some suppliers have substituted a zinc-based reagent powder for the cadmium in an effort to reduce toxicity. We describe here an enzyme-based nitrate detection method as an improvement on the basic Griess method that demonstrates equal or superior sensitivity, superior selectivity, and is more environmentally benign. Comparisons between the enzyme-based method and some standard field test kits being used today are made.

  7. Recent developments in advanced aircraft aluminium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • To compete with composites, performance of aluminium alloys should be increased. • Al–Li alloys have higher strength, fracture and fatigue/corrosion resistance. • Improvements of aerospace Al alloys are due to optimised solute content and ratios. • In selecting new materials, there should be no reduction in the level of safety. • The use of hybrid materials could provide additional opportunities for Al alloys. - Abstract: Aluminium alloys have been the primary material for the structural parts of aircraft for more than 80 years because of their well known performance, well established design methods, manufacturing and reliable inspection techniques. Nearly for a decade composites have started to be used more widely in large commercial jet airliners for the fuselage, wing as well as other structural components in place of aluminium alloys due their high specific properties, reduced weight, fatigue performance and corrosion resistance. Although the increased use of composite materials reduced the role of aluminium up to some extent, high strength aluminium alloys remain important in airframe construction. Aluminium is a relatively low cost, light weight metal that can be heat treated and loaded to relatively high level of stresses, and it is one of the most easily produced of the high performance materials, which results in lower manufacturing and maintenance costs. There have been important recent advances in aluminium aircraft alloys that can effectively compete with modern composite materials. This study covers latest developments in enhanced mechanical properties of aluminium alloys, and high performance joining techniques. The mechanical properties on newly developed 2000, 7000 series aluminium alloys and new generation Al–Li alloys are compared with the traditional aluminium alloys. The advantages and disadvantages of the joining methods, laser beam welding and friction stir welding, are also discussed

  8. Shot peening of aluminium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shot peening is a process of cold-hammering where a metallic surface is pelted with spherical grains. Each grain bumping into the surface acts as a hammer head and creates a small crater. The overlapping of these craters produces a residual compression layer just underneath the surface. It is well known that cracks cannot spread in a compression zone. In most cases of fatigue rupture and stress corrosion cracks propagate from the surface towards the inside so shot peening allows a longer lifetime of castings. Moreover most materials present a better resistance due to the cold-hammering effect of shot peening. Metallic surfaces can be treated in workshops or directly on site. Typical pieces that undergo shot peening on site are storing tanks, gas and steam turbines, tubes of steam generators and piping in oil or nuclear or chemical industries. This article describes shot peening from a theoretical and general point of view and presents the application to aluminium-lithium alloys. In the case of aluminium alloys shot peening can be used to shape the piece (peen-forming). (A.C.)

  9. Method for aluminium dross utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new hydrometallurgical method has been developed for metal aluminum utilization from secondary aluminum dross. Secondary aluminum dross is a powder product with an average of 35% aluminium content (below 1mm). It is waste from primary aluminum dross pyrometallurgical flux less treatment in rotary DC electric arc furnace. This method is based on aluminum leaching in copper chloride water solution. As a result an aluminum oxychloride solution and solids, consisting of copper and oxides are obtained. In order to copper chloride solution regenerate hydrochloric acid is added to the solids. The process is simple, quick, economic and safe. The aluminum oxychloride solution contains 56 g/l Al2O3. The molar ratios are Al:Cl=0,5; OH:Al=1. The solution has 32 % basicity and 1,1 g/cm3 density. For increasing the molar ratio of aluminium to chlorine aluminum hydroxide is added to this solution at 80oC. Aluminum hydroxide is the final product from the secondary aluminum dross alkaline leaching. As a result aluminum oxychloride solution of the following composition is prepared: Al2O3 - 180 g/l; Al:Cl=1,88; OH:Al=4,64; basicity 82%; density 1,22 g/cm3, pH=4 -4,5. Aluminum oxychloride solution produced by means of this method can be used in potable and wastewater treatment, paper making, in refractory mixture as a binder etc. (Original)

  10. Agricultural nitrate pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anker, Helle Tegner

    2015-01-01

    Despite the passing of almost 25 years since the adoption of the EU Nitrates Directive, agricultural nitrate pollution remains a major concern in most EU Member States. This is also the case in Denmark, although a fairly strict regulatory regime has resulted in almost a 50 per cent reduction...

  11. Epoxy coatings electrodeposited on aluminium and modified aluminium surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazarević Zorica Ž.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The corrosion behaviour and thermal stability of epoxy coatings electrodeposited on modified aluminum surfaces (anodized, phosphatized and chromatized-phosphatized aluminium were monitored during exposure to 3% NaCl solution, using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA. Better protective properties of the epoxy coatings on anodized and chromatized-phosphatized aluminum with respect to the same epoxy coatings on aluminum and phosphatized aluminum were obtained: higher values of Rp and Rct and smaller values of Cc and Cd, from EIS, and a smaller amount of absorbed water inside the coating, from TGA. On the other hand, a somewhat lower thermal stability of these coatings was obtained (smaller values of the ipdt temperature. This behavior can be explained by the less porous structure of epoxy coatings on anodized and chromatized-phosphatized aluminum, caused by a lower rate of H2 evolution and better wet ability.

  12. Investigation of the aluminium-aluminium oxide reversible transformation as observed by hot stage electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grove, C. A.; Judd, G.; Ansell, G. S.

    1972-01-01

    Thin foils of high purity aluminium and an Al-Al2O3 SAP type of alloy were oxidised in a specially designed hot stage specimen chamber in an electron microscope. Below 450 C, amorphous aluminium oxide formed on the foil surface and was first detectable at foil edges, holes, and pits. Islands of aluminium then nucleated in this amorphous oxide. The aluminium islands displayed either a lateral growth with eventual coalescence with other islands, or a reoxidation process which caused the islands to disappear. The aluminium island formation was determined to be related to the presence of the electron beam. A mechanism based upon electron charging due to the electron beam was proposed to explain the nucleation, growth, coalescence, disappearance, and geometry of the aluminium islands.

  13. Effects of aluminium surface morphology and chemical modification on wettability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahimi, Maral; Fojan, Peter; Gurevich, Leonid;

    2014-01-01

    -life aluminium surfaces of different morphology: unpolished aluminium, polished aluminium, and aluminium foil, were subjected to surface modification procedures which involved the formation of a layer of hydrophilic hyperbranched polyethyleneglycol via in situ polymerization, molecular vapour deposition of a...... monolayer of fluorinated silane, and a combination of those. The effect of these surface modification techniques on roughness and wettability of the aluminium surfaces was elucidated by ellipsometry, contact angle measurements and atomic force microscopy. We demonstrated that by employing different types of...

  14. Aluminium Process Fault Detection and Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazatul Aini Abd Majid

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The challenges in developing a fault detection and diagnosis system for industrial applications are not inconsiderable, particularly complex materials processing operations such as aluminium smelting. However, the organizing into groups of the various fault detection and diagnostic systems of the aluminium smelting process can assist in the identification of the key elements of an effective monitoring system. This paper reviews aluminium process fault detection and diagnosis systems and proposes a taxonomy that includes four key elements: knowledge, techniques, usage frequency, and results presentation. Each element is explained together with examples of existing systems. A fault detection and diagnosis system developed based on the proposed taxonomy is demonstrated using aluminium smelting data. A potential new strategy for improving fault diagnosis is discussed based on the ability of the new technology, augmented reality, to augment operators’ view of an industrial plant, so that it permits a situation-oriented action in real working environments.

  15. Deformation features of aluminium in tensile tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is presented a method to analyse stress-strain curves. Plastic and elastic strains were studied. The strains were done by tensile tests in four types of materials: highly pure aluminium, pure aluminium, commercially pure aluminium and aluminium - uranium. The chemical compositions were obtained by spectroscopy analysis and neutron activation analysis. Tensile tests were carried out at three strain rates, at room temperature, 100,200, 300 and 4000C, with knives extensometer and strain-gages to studied the elastic strain region. A multiple spring model based on two springs model to analyse elastic strain caused by tests without extensometers, taking in account moduli of elasticity and, an interactive analysis system with graphic capability were developed. It was suggested a qualitative model to explain the quantized multielasticity of Bell. (M.C.K.)

  16. Investigation & Analysis of Different Aluminium Alloys t

    OpenAIRE

    Nibedita Sethi*¹,; Ajit Senapati²

    2014-01-01

    Aluminium alloy LM-29, A-356 AND A-6060 was fabricated in sand casting method. Mach inability of aluminium alloy LM-29, A-356 AND A-6060 was investigated and evaluate the mach inability studying the different parameter such as cutting force, surface roughness, chip thickness, and power consumption during turning at different cutting speed and constant depth of cut and feed rate. In this paper also studies the mechanical properties means hardness, density and tensile strength o...

  17. Removal of aluminium from drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aluminium in drinking water comes from natural sources and the alum used as coagulant in the water treatment process. Exposure to aluminium has been implicated in dialysis dementia, Parkinson and Alzheimer's disease. Drinking water containing aluminium was considered to be one of the main sources of Al intake into human body. For this reason, the removal of aluminium from drinking water is vital to our health. In this study, removal of aluminium was carried out by using a chelating resin. To achieve the purpose, two chelating resin iontosorb oxin (IO) and poly hydroxamic acid (PHA) were used. The effects of concentration, pH, stirring time and resin amount was investigated. The concentration range varied between 10 and 500 ppb, pH range was between 2 and 12, stirring time between 5 and 60 minutes, and resin amount between 100 and 1500 mg. The optimum conditions of these resins were determined in a batch system. The results obtained showed that the optimum condition to remove aluminium for poly hydroxamic acid and iontosorb was pH 5-8 and pH 4-9; concentration range between 50-500 ppb, and 150-500 ppb, resin amount 200 mg and the stirring time was 20 minutes, respectively. (author)

  18. Ongoing characterization of passivated aluminium nanopowders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwok, Q.S.M.; Fouchard, R.C.; Turcotte, A-M.; Abdel-Qader, Z.; Jones, D.E.G. [Natural Resources Canada, CANMET, Canadian Explosives Research Laboratory, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2002-04-01

    For characterization, the thermal behaviour of two aluminium nanopowders - Alss and Alssef - in air was determined using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), simultaneous thermogravimetry-DTA (TG-DTA) and accelerating rate calorimetry (ARC). Alss and Alssef were found to be less reactive to air than previously determined for Als And Alex, possibly due to their thicker and different type of passivating layer. Stability determination for Alss and Alssef in a wet oxidizing environment was carried out using ARC, whereas outgassing behaviour of mixtures of ammonium dinitramide (ADN) and the various aluminium powders was investigated using TG-DTA-FTIR-MS (Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry-Mass Spectrometry). The addition of various aluminium powders resulted in only minimal effect on the thermal stability of ADN. Electrostatic discharge, friction sensitivities of ADN and its mixtures with various aluminium powders, and thermal stability and sensitivity of mixtures of nano-sized molybdenum trioxide with aluminium nanopowders were also studied. The electrostatic discharge sensitivity of molybdenum trioxide was shown to increase by the addition of aluminium nanopowders. 23 refs., 5 tabs., 7 figs.

  19. Aluminium exclusion and aluminium tolerance in woody plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivano eBrunner

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aluminium (Al cation Al3+ is highly rhizotoxic and is a major stress factor to plants on acid soils, which cover large areas of tropical and boreal regions. Many woody plant species are native to acid soils and are well adapted to high Al3+ conditions. In tropical regions, both woody Al accumulator and non-Al accumulator plants occur, whereas in boreal regions woody plants are non-Al accumulators. The mechanisms of these adaptations can be divided into those that facilitate the exclusion of Al3+ from root cells (exclusion mechanisms and those that enable plants to tolerate Al3+ once it has entered the root and shoot symplast (internal tolerance mechanisms. The biochemical and molecular basis of these mechanisms have been intensively studied in several crop plants and the model plant Arabidopsis. In this review, we examine the current understanding of Al3+ exclusion and tolerance mechanisms from woody plants. In addition, we discuss the ecology of woody non-Al accumulator and Al accumulator plants, and present examples of Al3+ adaptations in woody plant populations. This paper complements previous reviews focusing on crop plants and provides insights into evolutionary processes operating in plant communities that are widespread on acid soils.

  20. Thermochemical nitrate reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of preliminary experiments was conducted directed at thermochemically converting nitrate to nitrogen and water. Nitrates are a major constituent of the waste stored in the underground tanks on the Hanford Site, and the characteristics and effects of nitrate compounds on stabilization techniques must be considered before permanent disposal operations begin. For the thermochemical reduction experiments, six reducing agents (ammonia, formate, urea, glucose, methane, and hydrogen) were mixed separately with ∼3 wt% NO3- solutions in a buffered aqueous solution at high pH (13); ammonia and formate were also mixed at low pH (4). Reactions were conducted in an aqueous solution in a batch reactor at temperatures of 200 degrees C to 350 degrees C and pressures of 600 to 2800 psig. Both gas and liquid samples were analyzed. The specific components analyzed were nitrate, nitrite, nitrous oxide, nitrogen, and ammonia. Results of experimental runs showed the following order of nitrate reduction of the six reducing agents in basic solution: formate > glucose > urea > hydrogen > ammonia ∼ methane. Airnmonia was more effective under acidic conditions than basic conditions. Formate was also effective under acidic conditions. A more thorough, fundamental study appears warranted to provide additional data on the mechanism of nitrate reduction. Furthermore, an expanded data base and engineering feasibility study could be used to evaluate conversion conditions for promising reducing agents in more detail and identify new reducing agents with improved performance characteristics

  1. Heat treatment of aluminium strip coils; Gluehbehandlung von Aluminium-Bandbunden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, Dominik; Dambauer, Georg [LOI Thermprocess GmbH, Essen (Germany)

    2012-08-15

    Nowadays, aluminium strip coils are increasingly heat-treated in single-coil lifting hearth furnaces SCL. Flexible, individual heat treatment allows fast reactions to short term requirements for the production of aluminium strip and offers energy saving possibilities. The following report describes the advantages of single-coil hearth furnaces in terms of flexibility, energy consumption and possible configurations. (orig.)

  2. Design of welded aluminium connections (Entwurf und Berechnung von Aluminium Schweissverbindungen)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soetens, F.

    1998-01-01

    In the past two decades considerable research effort has been put into welded aluminium connections in order to better understand their structural behaviour and to up-date the design rules in the existing standards at the time [1]. Since weids in aluminium are more critical compared to steel, the ab

  3. Study of calcium chloride and calcium nitrate purification on inorganic sorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purification of calcium chloride and calcium nitrate from iron, chromium, manganese and cobalt impurities by sorption on some inorganic collectors are considered in this article. Study was conducted by means of radioactive-tracer technique at concurrent use of several γ-radioactive isotopes. As a collectors were used hydrated aluminium and zirconium oxides. Dependence of effectiveness of precipitation by collectors on ph-value of medium, quantity of collector, nature and concentration of components is studied. Optimal parameters of purification of calcium chloride and calcium nitrate are defined.

  4. TEM investigation of aluminium containing precipitates in high aluminium doped silicon carbide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Silicon carbide is a promising semiconductor material for applications in high temperature and high power devices. The successful growth of good quality epilayers in this material has enhanced its potential for device applications. As a novel semiconductor material, there is a need for studying its basic physical properties and the role of dopants in this material. In this study, silicon carbide epilayers were grown on 4H-SiC wafers of (0001) orientation with a miscut angle of 8 deg at a temperature of 1550 deg C. The epilayers contained regions of high aluminium doping well above the solubility of aluminium in silicon carbide. High temperature annealing of this material resulted in the precipitation of aluminium in the wafers. The samples were analysed by secondary ion mass spectrometry and transmission electron microscopy. Selected area diffraction studies show the presence of aluminium carbide and aluminium silicon carbide phases. Copyright (2002) Australian Society for Electron Microscopy Inc

  5. Water atomised aluminium alloy powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neikov, O.D.; Vasilieva, G.I.; Sameljuk, A.V.; Krajnikov, A.V

    2004-10-10

    The new rapid solidification (RS) process based on high-pressure water atomisation (WA) of the melt for manufacturing of advanced aluminium alloys was realised in the form of a pilot plant. The problems of safe operation in the course of Al alloy powder production and powder quality were solved by the use of water solutions of inhibitors, by the control of suspension temperature and hydrogen ion exponent (pH), by the hydraulic classification of atomised products, and by the optimisation of dehydration procedure. The rate of powder-water interaction strongly depends on the value of pH. While the rate of room temperature reactions is very slow at pH 3.0-4.0, the increase of pH to 6.0 leads to an intensive powder oxidation. A set of powder metallurgy (PM) alloys for various applications was produced on the base of water atomised powders. The characteristics of tensile strength of such alloys essentially exceed those of cast materials of similar compositions.

  6. Water atomised aluminium alloy powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The new rapid solidification (RS) process based on high-pressure water atomisation (WA) of the melt for manufacturing of advanced aluminium alloys was realised in the form of a pilot plant. The problems of safe operation in the course of Al alloy powder production and powder quality were solved by the use of water solutions of inhibitors, by the control of suspension temperature and hydrogen ion exponent (pH), by the hydraulic classification of atomised products, and by the optimisation of dehydration procedure. The rate of powder-water interaction strongly depends on the value of pH. While the rate of room temperature reactions is very slow at pH 3.0-4.0, the increase of pH to 6.0 leads to an intensive powder oxidation. A set of powder metallurgy (PM) alloys for various applications was produced on the base of water atomised powders. The characteristics of tensile strength of such alloys essentially exceed those of cast materials of similar compositions

  7. Aluminium as heating fuel. Tests with aluminium powder prove suitability in principle. Aluminium als Heizungs-Brennstoff. Versuche mit Aluminiumpulver beweisen prinzipielle Eignung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, R.

    1990-12-01

    Tests prove that aluminium powder is perfectly suited as fuel and storage material for solar energy. The combustion product itself is again the base material for aluminium production, i.e. aluminium can be recycled. There are three problematic areas: 1. flame stability, 2. combustion duration and 3. environmental compatibility. Further development projects will aim at the construction of practice-orientated plants in which combustion, heat extraction and recovery of aluminium oxide is combined. A further aim is the melting burner to which aluminium is supplied in form of wires, cuttings or rods. (BWI).

  8. 3-dimensional shaped aluminium foam sandwiches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumeister, J. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Fertigungstechnik und Angewandte Materialforschung, Bremen (Germany); Baumgaertner, F. [Schunk Sintermetalltechnik, Giessen (Germany); Gers, H. [Honsel AG, Meschede (Germany); Seeliger, W. [Wilhelm Karmann GmbH, Osnabrueck (Germany)

    2000-07-01

    3-dimensional shaped sandwich panels with a very high stiffness can be produced in an elegant way by combining aluminium face sheets with an aluminium foam core. For this, a mixture of aluminium powder and a foaming agent is compressed to a semi-finished product of nearly vanishing porosity by extrusion, powder rolling or hot isostatic pressing. The resulting foamable semi-finished aluminium material is roll clad with sheets of conventional sheet or aluminium. As a result a precursor material is obtained consisting of two face sheets which are metallurgically bonded to the foamable core layer. This sandwich precursor material can be shaped into a 3-dimensional part by conventional techniques, e.g. by stamping or deep drawing. In a final step the foamable precursor material is heated up to the melting point of the core layer thus initiating its expansion into the desired 3-dimensional shaped sandwich structure. The porosity of the foamed core layer is in the range from 80-90% so that the integral density of the sandwich structure can be as low as 0,7 g/cm{sup 3}. The sandwich materials combine the low weight and high bending stiffness with the advantages of the face sheets, i.e. the high strength and weldability. The manufacturing process will be described in detail and the material properties will be shown. Current and future possible applications will be outlined as well as concrete parts produced up to date. (orig.)

  9. Effect of aluminium phosphate as admixture on oxychloride cement

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M P S Chandrawat; R N Yadav

    2000-02-01

    The effect of admixing of aluminium phosphate on oxychloride cement in the matrix has been investigated. It is shown that aluminium phosphate retards the setting process of the cement and improves water-tightness.

  10. Solidification of spent TBP solvent with aluminium chloride compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The new techniques for processing spent TBP was investigated. It was proved that treatment of TBP containing DBP with aluminium chloride resulted in the formation of aluminium phosphate suitable for long term storage and final disposal

  11. Steam Assisted Accelerated Growth of Oxide Layer on Aluminium Alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Din, Rameez Ud; Yuksel, Serkan; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl; Møller, Per; Ambat, Rajan

    2013-01-01

    Corrosion resistance of aluminium alloys is related to the composition and morphology of the oxide film on the surface of aluminium. In this paper we investigated the use of steam on the surface modification of aluminium to produce boehmite films. The study reveals a detailed investigation of the...... effect of vapour pressure, structure of intermetallic particles and thickness of boehmite films on the corrosion behaviour of aluminium alloys....

  12. Advances in development and application of aluminium batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qingfeng, Li; Zhuxian, Qiu

    2001-01-01

    Aluminium has long attracted attention as a potential battery anode because of its high theoretical voltage and specific energy. The protective oxide layer at aluminium surface is however detrimental to its performance to achieve its reversible potential, and also causing the delayed activation of...... aluminium batteres, especially aluminium-air batteries, and a wide range of their applications from emergency power supplies, reserve batteries field portable batteries, to batteries for electric vehicles and underwater propulsion....

  13. Friction stir welding (FSW) of aluminium foam sandwich panels

    OpenAIRE

    M. Bušić; Kožuh, Z.; D. Klobčar; Samardžić, I.

    2016-01-01

    The article focuses on the influence of welding speed and tool tilt angle upon the mechanical properties at the friction stir welding of aluminium foam sandwich panels. Double side welding was used for producing butt welds of aluminium sandwich panels applying insertion of extruded aluminium profile. Such insertion provided lower pressure of the tool upon the aluminium panels, providing also sufficient volume of the material required for the weldment formation. Ultimate tensile strength and f...

  14. Study on hardening mechanisms in aluminium alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. K. Mandal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Al-Zn-Mg alloys are most commonly used age-hardenable aluminium alloys. The hardening mechanism is further enhanced in addition of Sc. Sc additions to aluminium alloys are more promising. Due to the heterogeneous distribution of nano-sized Al3Sc precipitates hardening effect can be accelerated. Mainly, highlight on hardening mechanism in Al-Zn-Mg alloys with Sc effect is to study. In addition, several characterisations have been done to age-hardening measurements at elevated temperatures from 120oC to 180 oC. The ageing kinetics has also been calculated from Arrhenius equation. Furthermore, friction stir processing (FSP can be introduced to surface modification process and hardened the cast aluminium alloys. In this study, hardening mechanism can be evaluated by Vicker’s hardness measurement and mechanical testing is present task.

  15. Mechanical characteristics of aluminium / aluminium and aluminium / steel joints used for lightening of automobile bodies; Caracteristiques mecaniques d'assemblages aluminium / aluminium et aluminium / acier utilises pour l'allegement des carrosseries automobiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosuge, Haraga [Mitsubishi Electric Corp., Centre de R and D des Technologies Avancees, Dept. des Materiaux et des Eco-Materiaux (Japan)

    2001-06-01

    All the possible solutions used for the steel-aluminium composite bonds are not equal. The riveting, linked or not to the bonding, give the best results. The clinching requires an increase of thicknesses for a mechanical resistance equal to those of homogeneous joints. (O.M.)

  16. Corrosion behaviour of borated aluminium used as neutron absorber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electrochemical behaviour of pure and borated aluminium was examined. Measurements were performed in two different electrolytes at 90 C containing different trace-amounts of chloride. For borated aluminium current transients, i.e. metastable depassivation events were found. It is suggested to attribute these transients to less stable passivation layers in comparison to pure aluminium

  17. Corrosion of Metal-Matrix Composites with Aluminium Alloy Substrate

    OpenAIRE

    B. Bobic; Mitrovic, S.; M. Babic; I. Bobic

    2010-01-01

    The corrosion behaviour of MMCs with aluminium alloy matrix was presented. The corrosion characteristics of boron-, graphite-, silicon carbide-, alumina- and mica- reinforced aluminium MMCs were reviewed. The reinforcing phase influence on MMCs corrosion rate as well as on various corrosion forms (galvanic, pitting, stress corrosion cracking, corrosion fatique, tribocorrosion) was discussed. Some corrosion protection methods of aluminium based MMCs were described

  18. Internal friction in iron-aluminium alloys having a high aluminium content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By using a torsion pendulum to measure the internal friction of iron-aluminium alloys containing between 25 and 50 atom per cent of aluminium, it has been possible to show the existence of three damping peaks due to interstitial carbon. Their evolution is followed as a function of the carbon content, of the thermal treatment and of the aluminium content. A model based on the preferential occupation of tetrahedral sites is proposed as an interpretation of the results. A study of the Zener peak in these substitution alloys shows also that a part of the short distance disorder existing at high temperatures can be preserved by quenching. (author)

  19. Diamond grooving of rapidly solidified optical aluminium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-El-Hossein, Khaled; Hsu, Wei-Yao; Ghobashy, Sameh; Cheng, Yuan-Chieh; Mkoko, Zwelinzima

    2015-10-01

    Traditional optical aluminium grades such as Al 6061 are intensively used for making optical components for applications ranging from mould insert fabrication to laser machine making. However, because of their irregular microstructure and relative inhomogeneity of material properties at micro scale, traditional optical aluminium may exhibit some difficulties when ultra-high precision diamond turned. Inhomogeneity and micro-variation in the material properties combined with uneven and coarse microstructure may cause unacceptable surface finish and accelerated tool wear, especially in grooving operation when the diamond tool edge is fully immersed in the material surface. Recently, new grades of optical aluminium that are featured by their ultra-fine microstructure and improved material properties have been developed to overcome the problem of high tool wear rates. The new aluminium grades have been developed using rapid solidification process which results in extremely small grain sizes combined with improved mechanical properties. The current study is concerned with investigating the performance of single-point diamond turning when grooving two grades of rapidly solidified aluminium (RSA) grades: RSA905 which is a high-alloyed aluminium grade and RSA443 which has a high silicon content. In this study, two series of experiments employed to create radial microgrooves on the two RSA grades. The surface roughness obtained on the groove surface is measured when different combinations of cutting parameters are used. Cutting speed is varied while feed rate and depth of cut were kept constant. The results show that groove surface roughness produced on RSA443 is higher than that obtained on RSA905. Also, the paper reports on the effect of cutting speed on surface roughness for each RSA grade.

  20. Rapidly solidified aluminium for optical applications

    OpenAIRE

    Gubbels, G.P.H.; Venrooy, B.W.H.; Bosch, A.J.; Senden, R

    2008-01-01

    This paper present the results of a diamond turning study of a rapidly solidified aluminium 6061 alloy grade, known as RSA6061. It is shown that this small grain material can be diamond turned to smaller roughness values than standard AA6061 aluminium grades. Also, the results are nearly as good as nickel plated surfaces, but the RSA6061 has the advantage that no additional production steps are needed and that no bi-metallic bending or delamination can occur in a thermally changing environmen...

  1. Defect generation during solidification of aluminium foams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reason for the frequent occurrence of cell wall defects in metal foams was investigated. Aluminium foams often expand during solidification, a process which is referred as solidification expansion (SE). The effect of SE on the structure of aluminium foams was studied in situ by X-ray radioscopy and ex situ by X-ray tomography. A direct correlation between the magnitude of SE and the number of cell wall ruptures during SE and finally the number of defects in the solidified foams was found.

  2. The dissolution and formation enthalpy of alloys and intermetallics of aluminium-lanthanum and aluminium-cerium systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Present article is devoted to dissolution and formation enthalpy of alloys and intermetallics of aluminium-lanthanum and aluminium-cerium systems. Therefore the dissolution temperatures of alloys and intermetallics of aluminium-lanthanum and aluminium-cerium systems were defined by means of calorimetry method. The enthalpy of formation of intermetallics of Al-Ce system was defined as well. The regularities in changes of dissolution and formation enthalpy of alloys and intermetallics depending on composition were studied.

  3. Nitrates and nitrites intoxications’ management

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandra Trif

    2007-01-01

    The study pointed out the major sources for clinical and subclinical intoxications with nitrates/nitrites (drinking water and nitrates containing fertilizers), circumstances that determine fertilizers to became sources of intoxication (excessive fertilization/consecutive high level of nitrates in fodders, free access of animals to the fertilizers, administration into the diet instead of natrium chloride), factors that determine high nitrates accumulation in fodders despite optimal fertilizati...

  4. China’s Production and Market of Aluminium Extruded Profiles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>Chinese aluminium extrusion industry came into existence at the early 1950s with most products used in military industry and national defence.At the beginning of 1980s,the produc- tion of construction aluminium profiles started simultaneously in North and South China.In the following thirty years,the aluminium extru- sion industry entered into a quickly developing stage with a focus on construction aluminium profiles.With the blooming real estate industry, the demand for construction aluminium profiles from the domestic market has a tendency of yearly increase.From 2000,the quick devel- opments of China’s auto and railway vehicle

  5. Aluminium composite casting dispersion reinforced with iron-aluminium and silicon carbide phases

    OpenAIRE

    B. Formanek; J. Piątkowski; J. Szymszal

    2010-01-01

    Aluminium matrix composite with dispersion-reinforced, made by similar to stircasting process was characterised. The mixture of powders was produced by the process of mechanical agglomeration of powdered FexAly and SiC with aluminium. The chemical composition ofagglomerates was selected in a way such as to obtain 25 wt.% reinforcement of the AlSi9Cu4 silumin matrix. Applying thermal analysis ATD, the alloy solidification process was determined, reading out the typical solidification parameter...

  6. Influence of aluminium alloy type on dissimilar friction stir lap welding of aluminium to copper

    OpenAIRE

    Galvão, I; Verdera, D; Gesto, D; Loureiro, A.; Rodrigues, D. M.

    2013-01-01

    A heat-treatable (AA 6082) and a non-heat treatable (AA 5083) aluminium alloys were friction stir lap welded to copper using the same welding parameters. Macro and microscopic analysis of the welds enabled to detect important differences in welding results, according to the aluminium alloy type. Whereas important internal defects, resulting from ineffective materials mixing, were detected for the AA 5083/copper welds, a relatively uniform material mixing was detected in the AA 6082/copper wel...

  7. Decreasing methylation of pectin caused by nitric oxide leads to higher aluminium binding in cell walls and greater aluminium sensitivity of wheat roots

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Chengliang; Lu, Lingli; Yu, Yan; Liu, Lijuan; Hu, Yan; Ye, Yiquan; Jin, Chongwei; Lin, Xianyong

    2015-01-01

    Highlight Aluminium-induced nitric oxide production enhances the aluminium sensitivity of wheat by decreasing pectin methylation of root cell-wall pectin, resulting in greater aluminium binding in root cell walls.

  8. Steam generated conversion coating on aluminium alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Din, Rameez Ud; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl; Ambat, Rajan

    into functional conversion coatings in order to enhance corrosion resistance and adhesion to paint systems. Chromium based conversion coatings have been extensively used on aluminium alloys to improve adhesion of subsequent paint layers and corrosion resistance. However, the use of hexavalent chromium...

  9. Alloys oxidation of aluminium-scandium system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alloys and compounds of rare earth metals with aluminium thanks to their high corrosion stability, durability and small specific weight find to apply in various new techniques. On the base of carried out investigation it could be recommend as de oxidizing and alloying compositions containing 15-50 % of scandium as in possession of minimal oxidation

  10. Constant structure creep experiments on aluminium

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Milička, Karel

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 5 (2011), s. 307-318. ISSN 0023-432X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA2041203 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : mechanical properties * high temperature deformation * creep * aluminium Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.451, year: 2011

  11. An ultrafast rechargeable aluminium-ion battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Meng-Chang; Gong, Ming; Lu, Bingan; Wu, Yingpeng; Wang, Di-Yan; Guan, Mingyun; Angell, Michael; Chen, Changxin; Yang, Jiang; Hwang, Bing-Joe; Dai, Hongjie

    2015-04-01

    The development of new rechargeable battery systems could fuel various energy applications, from personal electronics to grid storage. Rechargeable aluminium-based batteries offer the possibilities of low cost and low flammability, together with three-electron-redox properties leading to high capacity. However, research efforts over the past 30 years have encountered numerous problems, such as cathode material disintegration, low cell discharge voltage (about 0.55 volts ref. 5), capacitive behaviour without discharge voltage plateaus (1.1-0.2 volts or 1.8-0.8 volts) and insufficient cycle life (less than 100 cycles) with rapid capacity decay (by 26-85 per cent over 100 cycles). Here we present a rechargeable aluminium battery with high-rate capability that uses an aluminium metal anode and a three-dimensional graphitic-foam cathode. The battery operates through the electrochemical deposition and dissolution of aluminium at the anode, and intercalation/de-intercalation of chloroaluminate anions in the graphite, using a non-flammable ionic liquid electrolyte. The cell exhibits well-defined discharge voltage plateaus near 2 volts, a specific capacity of about 70 mA h g-1 and a Coulombic efficiency of approximately 98 per cent. The cathode was found to enable fast anion diffusion and intercalation, affording charging times of around one minute with a current density of ~4,000 mA g-1 (equivalent to ~3,000 W kg-1), and to withstand more than 7,500 cycles without capacity decay.

  12. Aluminium hydroxide-induced granulomas in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valtulini, S; Macchi, C; Ballanti, P;

    2005-01-01

    adjuvant) to pigs inoculated twice with apyrogenic bi-distilled water (group water) and to pigs inoculated once with the adjuvant and once with apyrogenic bi-distilled water (group adjuvant/water). Both studies agreed in their conclusions, which indicate that the high amount of aluminium hydroxide was the...

  13. Indentation of aluminium foam at low velocity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi Xiaopeng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The indentation behaviour of aluminium foams at low velocity (10 m/s ∼ 30 m/s was investigated both in experiments and numerical simulation in this paper. A flat-ended indenter was used and the force-displacement history was recorded. The Split Hopkinson Pressure bar was used to obtain the indentation velocity and forces in the dynamic experiments. Because of the low strength of the aluminium foam, PMMA bar was used, and the experimental data were corrected using Bacon's method. The energy absorption characteristics varying with impact velocity were then obtained. It was found that the energy absorption ability of aluminium foam gradually increases in the quasi-static regime and shows a significant increase at ∼10 m/s velocity. Numerical simulation was also conducted to investigate this process. A 3D Voronoi model was used and models with different relative densities were investigated as well as those with different failure strain. The indentation energy increases with both the relative density and failure strain. The analysis of the FE model implies that the significant change in energy absorption ability of aluminium foam in indentation at ∼10 m/s velocity may be caused by plastic wave effect.

  14. Technology of obtaining of cryolite and aluminium fluoride from alumina- and fluoride containing wastes of aluminium production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article is devoted to technology of obtaining of cryolite and aluminium fluoride from alumina- and fluoride containing wastes of aluminium production. Thus, the investigations on elaboration of technology of obtaining of cryolite and aluminium fluoride from alumina- and fluoride containing wastes of aluminium production by means of sulfuric acid decomposition method are carried out. The optimal parameters of technological processes are found. The physicochemical analysis of fluoride containing wastes is conducted. The flowsheet of obtaining of cryolite, aluminium fluoride and alumina from alumina- and fluoride containing wastes is presented.

  15. 33 CFR 126.28 - Ammonium nitrate, ammonium nitrate fertilizers, fertilizer mixtures, or nitro carbo nitrate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., described and defined as an oxidizer by the regulations of 49 CFR part 173 is handled, stored, stowed...) must be eliminated or plugged. Note: See 49 CFR 176.415 for permit requirements for nitro carbo nitrate... nitrate fertilizers, fertilizer mixtures, or nitro carbo nitrate; general provisions. 126.28 Section...

  16. Nitrate in drinking water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schullehner, Jörg; Hansen, Birgitte; Sigsgaard, Torben

    Annual nationwide exposure maps for nitrate in drinking water in Denmark from the 1970s until today will be presented based on the findings in Schullehner & Hansen (2014) and additional work on addressing the issue of private well users and estimating missing data. Drinking water supply in Denmark...... is highly decentralized and fully relying on simple treated groundwater. At the same time, Denmark has an intensive agriculture, making groundwater resources prone to nitrate pollution. Drinking water quality data covering the entire country for over 35 years are registered in the public database Jupiter....... In order to create annual maps of drinking water quality, these data had to be linked to 2,852 water supply areas, which were for the first time digitized, collected in one dataset and connected to the Jupiter database. Analyses of the drinking water quality maps showed that public water supplies...

  17. Nitrates and nitrites intoxications’ management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Trif

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The study pointed out the major sources for clinical and subclinical intoxications with nitrates/nitrites (drinking water and nitrates containing fertilizers, circumstances that determine fertilizers to became sources of intoxication (excessive fertilization/consecutive high level of nitrates in fodders, free access of animals to the fertilizers, administration into the diet instead of natrium chloride, factors that determine high nitrates accumulation in fodders despite optimal fertilization (factors related to the plants, soil, clime, harvest methods, storage, agrotechnical measures, nitrates/nitrites toxicity (over 45 ppm nitrates in drinking water, over 0.5 g nitrate/100 g D.M fodder/diet, the factors that influence nitrates/nitrites toxicity ( species, age, rate of feeding, diet balance especially energetically, pathological effects and symptoms (irritation and congestions on digestive tract, resulting diarrhoea, transformation of hemoglobin into methemoglobin determining severe respiratory insufficiency, vascular collapse, low blood pressure inthe acute nitrates intoxication; hypotiroidism, hypovitaminosis A, reproductive disturbances(abortion, low rate of fertility, dead born offspring, diarrhoea and/or respiratory insufficiency in new born e.g. calves, immunosuppression, decrease of milk production in chronic intoxication. There were presented some suggestions concerning management practices to limit nitrate intoxication (analyze of nitrates/nitrites in water and fodders, good management of the situation of risk ,e .g. dilution of the diet with low nitrate content fodders, feeding with balanced diet in energy, protein, minerals and vitamins, accommodation to high nitrate level diet, avoid grazing one week after a frost period, avoid feeding chop green fodders stored a couple of days, monitoring of health status of animals fed with fodders containing nitrates at risk level, a.o..

  18. Nitrate biosensors and biological methods for nitrate determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohail, Manzar; Adeloju, Samuel B

    2016-06-01

    The inorganic nitrate (NO3‾) anion is present under a variety of both natural and artificial environmental conditions. Nitrate is ubiquitous within the environment, food, industrial and physiological systems and is mostly present as hydrated anion of a corresponding dissolved salt. Due to the significant environmental and toxicological effects of nitrate, its determination and monitoring in environmental and industrial waters are often necessary. A wide range of analytical techniques are available for nitrate determination in various sample matrices. This review discusses biosensors available for nitrate determination using the enzyme nitrate reductase (NaR). We conclude that nitrate determination using biosensors is an excellent non-toxic alternative to all other available analytical methods. Over the last fifteen years biosensing technology for nitrate analysis has progressed very well, however, there is a need to expedite the development of nitrate biosensors as a suitable alternative to non-enzymatic techniques through the use of different polymers, nanostructures, mediators and strategies to overcome oxygen interference. PMID:27130094

  19. Steam Initiated Surface Modification of Aluminium Alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Din, Rameez Ud

    detailed analysis of the structure and morphology of the coating, and interface structure with and without organic top coat. Corrosion performance of the coatings was investigated using electrochemical methods, AASS, and FFC test. The morphology, microstructure, chemical composition, adhesion, and......The extensive demand of aluminium alloys in various industries such as in transportationis mainly due to the high strength to weight ratio, which could be translated into fuel economy and efficiency. Corrosion protection of aluminium alloys is an important aspect for all applications which includes......-friendly alternative processes. In the present work high temperature steam-based process has been investigated as a possible chromate free conversion coating. Investigations in the thesis includes the effect of alloy type, substrate microstructure, surface finish, and various chemistries on the coating formation, and...

  20. Studies on an aluminium-carbon cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, L. K.

    The current-voltage behaviour of an electrochemical cell that consists of an aluminium anode and a carbon cathode in a medium containing aqueous NH 4SCN has been studied, both in the presence and in the absence of a coating on the carbon electrode. It is found that activation polarization is the main factor that limits the current output when using an untreated carbon electrode. This problem is eliminated by coating the carbon electrode with an in situ deposition of HgI 2. In this condition, the current output is reduced mainly by ohmic polarization. Further studies with a coated HgI 2-carbon cathode and an aluminium anode, in a medium containing SCN - and Cl - ions together with a complexing agent (EDTA, sodium salt), revealed that a cell performance close to ideal, (i.e, showing no appreciable polarization) can be obtained at currents up to 0.6 mA/cm 2 and above.

  1. Straggling of heavy ions in aluminium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An effort has been made to determine the straggling in aluminium of 4He, 16O and 35Cl ions of different energies produced by the tandem Van de Graaff at Harwell. The technique consists of scattering the accelerated and collimated ions in a scattering chamber from a 0.100 mg/cm2 gold foil, allowing the scattered ions to pass through a two aperture collimator, using different aluminium foils over one of the apertures and stopping the two emergent beams in a good quality silicon surface barrier detector the output of which is connected to a 4096 channel analyser. The energy widths obtained in the case of helium ions are in fair agreement with both the Bloch and the recent Tschalar (1968) theory. The measured widths in the case of heavy ions are very large and can be explained only if account is taken of their charge distributions in foils. This study should be useful in ion implantation work. (author)

  2. FSW characterization of 6082 aluminium alloys sheets

    OpenAIRE

    K. Mroczka; A. Pietras

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the investigations was to elaborate a set of FSW parameters for connecting 6082 aluminium alloy sheets allowing to produce welds of highest strength.Design/methodology/approach: The FSW was tried at different speeds and at additional cooling. The welds microstructure was studied using optical and scanning electron microscopes. The mechanical properties of produced connections are discussed regarding their tensile test and microhardness measurements.Findings: The FSW we...

  3. Aluminium-based Coatings for Cadmium Replacement

    OpenAIRE

    Cardilli , Emanuele

    2008-01-01

    Cadmium electroplating is widely used in the aerospace industry for the corrosion protection of high strength steels. Cadmium is also used as compatible coating to reduce the galvanic corrosion generated in the assembly of components manufactured with different materials. However, environmental and safety concerns over the high toxicity of cadmium has led to the investigation of suitable replacements. Aluminium coatings are promising coatings for the replacement of electropl...

  4. Aluminium matrix composites fabricated by infiltration method

    OpenAIRE

    L.A. Dobrzański; M. Kremzer; A. J. Nowak; Nagel, A.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this work is to examine the structure and properties of metal matrix composites obtained by infiltration method of porous ceramic preforms by liquid aluminium alloy.Design/methodology/approach: Ceramic preforms were manufactured by the sintering method of ceramic powder. The preform material consists of powder Condea Al2O3 CL 2500, however, as the pore forming the carbon fibers Sigrafil C10 M250 UNS were used. Then ceramic preforms were infiltrated with liquid eutectic EN ...

  5. Quantitative evaluation of the aluminium titanate formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samples of aluminium titanate were obtained under isothermal sintering condition in equimolar Al2 O3 Ti O2 powder mixtures at different soaking time intervals. The formation of Al2 Ti O5 and the effect of Si O2 additive in the reaction and densification were analysed. Quantitative evaluation of Al2 Ti O5 was performed by the Rietveld method and by using an internal standard. Both methods were considered appropriated for the presented purpose. (author)

  6. Methods of inoculation of pure aluminium structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Szajnar

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The main aim of investigations was the reduction of grain size and unification of structure for pure Al casting by introduction of small amount of inoculant (less than obligatory standart PN-EN 573-3, which concerning about aluminium purity, with electromagnetic field and variable casting parameters.Design/methodology/approach: To investigations it was used light microscopy and TEM. Surfaces of samples which were prepared for macro- and microstructure analysis were etched with use of solution of: 50g Cu, 400ml HCl, 300ml HNO3 and 300ml H2O. Thin foils for TEM investigations were electropolished with use of 20 ml HClO4 and 80ml CH3OH.Findings: The results of investigations and their analysis show possibility of effective inoculation of pure aluminium structure by use of some factors such as: different materials of the mould, influencing of stirring electromagnetic field into metal during solidification, inoculation by introducing AlTi5B1 inoculant into liquid aluminium and changing the pouring temperature.Research limitations/implications: I further research, authors of this paper are going to application of introduced method of inoculation in industrial tests.Practical implications: The work presents refinement of structure method which are particularly important in continuous and semi – continuous casting where products are used for plastic forming. Large columnar crystals zone result in forces extrusion rate reduction and during the ingot rolling delamination of external layers can occur. Thus, in some cases ingot skinning is needed, which rises the production costs.Originality/value: Contributes to research on size reduction in pure aluminium structure.

  7. Perforation of aluminium alloy thin plates

    OpenAIRE

    ANTOINAT, Léonard; Kubler, Régis; BAROU, Jean Luc; VIOT, Philippe; BARRALLIER, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    Low velocity perforation of aeronautical aluminium alloy sheets 2024 T3 is studied in this paper. After a literature review on recent experiments and models of plate’s perforation, experimental results for 2 thicknesses (2 mm and 4 mm) of plates are presented. Perforation tests are performed with an instrumented drop test. The striker has a large diameter and a conical shape nose. Two models for perforation are presented and calibrated to bring a better understanding of the experiments. The f...

  8. Aluminium phosphide poising: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports the case of a family in which three children were presented at Emergency Room (ER) with poisoning after the use of a pesticide at home. Initially, the cases were managed as routine cases of organophosphorus poisoning; however, the death of two children made the health team members realise that the poison's effects were delayed and devastating. Later, the compound was identified as Aluminium Phosphide (ALP), and the life of the last surviving child in the family was saved. (author)

  9. Ion beam analysis of aluminium in thin layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Healy, M.J.F. E-mail: m.j.f.healy@rmcs.cranfield.ac.uk; Pidduck, A.J.; Dollinger, G.; Gorgens, L.; Bergmaier, A

    2002-05-01

    This work quantifies aluminium in thin surface and near surface layers. In one example, the layer overlies a thin gallium nitride layer on an aluminium oxide substrate and in a second example the aluminium exists just below the surface of an indium arsenide substrate. The technique of non-Rutherford elastic backscattering of protons was used for the samples where aluminum in the layer of interest needed to be resolved from aluminium in the sapphire substrate and the results were corroborated at the Technische Universitaet Muenchen using heavy ion elastic recoil detection analysis. In the second example, where it was unnecessary to isolate the signal of aluminium in the layer of interest (as the substrate contained no aluminium), then the {sup 27}Al(d,p{sub 01}){sup 28} Al nuclear reaction was used. The elastic proton scattering cross section of aluminum was found to vary very rapidly over the energy range of interest.

  10. First wall design of aluminium alloy R-tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A design study of a low-activation D-T tokamak Reacting Plasma Project In Nagoya has been finished. The study emphasizes the vacuum vessel and the bumper limiter. Our choice of materials (aluminium vacuum vessel, copper conductors, aluminium TF coil case and lead shield) results in a radiation level of about 1 x 10-3 times that of a TFTR type design, and 1 x 10-4 times that of JET type design, at 2 weeks after one D-T shot. Thick graphite tiles will be fixed directly on the aluminium vacuum vessel using aluminium spring washers and bolts. With this simplified structure of the bumper limiter, the inner surface temperature of the thick aluminium vacuum vessel will be less than 1200C which is required to reduce the overaging effect of the aluminium alloy. (orig.)

  11. Feet sunk in molten aluminium: The burn and its prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Peña, David; Arnáiz-García, María Elena; Valero-Gasalla, Javier Luis; Arnáiz-García, Ana María; Campillo-Campaña, Ramón; Alonso-Peña, Javier; González-Santos, Jose María; Fernández-Díaz, Alaska Leonor; Arnáiz, Javier

    2015-08-01

    Nowadays, despite improvements in safety rules and inspections in the metal industry, foundry workers are not free from burn accidents. Injuries caused by molten metals include burns secondary to molten iron, aluminium, zinc, copper, brass, bronze, manganese, lead and steel. Molten aluminium is one of the most common causative agents of burns (60%); however, only a few publications exist concerning injuries from molten aluminium. The main mechanisms of lesion from molten aluminium include direct contact of the molten metal with the skin or through safety apparel, or when the metal splash burns through the pants and rolls downward along the leg. Herein, we report three cases of deep dermal burns after 'soaking' the foot in liquid aluminium and its evolutive features. This paper aims to show our experience in the management of burns due to molten aluminium. We describe the current management principles and the key features of injury prevention. PMID:25687835

  12. Toxicity of dissolved and precipitated aluminium to marine diatoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillmore, Megan L; Golding, Lisa A; Angel, Brad M; Adams, Merrin S; Jolley, Dianne F

    2016-05-01

    Localised aluminium contamination can lead to high concentrations in coastal waters, which have the potential for adverse effects on aquatic organisms. This research investigated the toxicity of 72-h exposures of aluminium to three marine diatoms (Ceratoneis closterium (formerly Nitzschia closterium), Minutocellus polymorphus and Phaeodactylum tricornutum) by measuring population growth rate inhibition and cell membrane damage (SYTOX Green) as endpoints. Toxicity was correlated to the time-averaged concentrations of different aluminium size-fractions, operationally defined as permeability were observed for any of the three diatoms suggesting that mechanisms of aluminium toxicity to diatoms do not involve compromising the plasma membrane. These results indicate that marine diatoms have a broad range in sensitivity to aluminium with toxic mechanisms related to both dissolved and precipitated aluminium. PMID:26921729

  13. Aluminium matrix composites fabricated by infiltration method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A. Dobrzański

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this work is to examine the structure and properties of metal matrix composites obtained by infiltration method of porous ceramic preforms by liquid aluminium alloy.Design/methodology/approach: Ceramic preforms were manufactured by the sintering method of ceramic powder. The preform material consists of powder Condea Al2O3 CL 2500, however, as the pore forming the carbon fibers Sigrafil C10 M250 UNS were used. Then ceramic preforms were infiltrated with liquid eutectic EN AC – AlSi12 aluminum alloy. Stereological and structure investigations of obtained composite materials were made on light microscope. The mechanical properties of obtained composite material were investigated in tensile strength test and hardness test.Findings: It was proved that developed technology of manufacturing of composite materials based on the porous ceramic Al2O3 preforms infiltrated by liquid aluminium alloy ensures expected structure and strength Hardness increased about twice compared to the matrix and this process can be used in practice.Practical implications: The presented metal matrix composites fabrication technology allows to obtain locally reinforced elements and near net shape products.Originality/value: Results show the possibility of obtaining the new aluminium matrix composite materials being the cheaper alternative for other materials based on the ceramic fibers.

  14. Plasmonic enhancement of photoluminescence from aluminium nitride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Chris; Stewart, Matthew

    2016-03-01

    Aluminium nitride (AlN) films were grown on c-plane sapphire wafers by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) under aluminium-rich conditions. The excess aluminium (Al) accumulated on the surface of the films as micro-scale droplets 1-10 μm in size, and as Al nanoparticles with diameters in the range 10-110 nm. Photoluminescence (PL) measurements were performed on the AlN samples using a 193 nm Excimer laser as the excitation source. Prior to PL measurements the wafers were cleaved in half. One half of each wafer was submitted to a 10 min treatment in H3PO4 heated to 70 °C to remove the excess Al from the film surface. The remaining half was left in the as-deposited condition. The mean intensities of the near-band-edge PL peaks of the as-deposited samples were 2.0-3.4 times higher compared to the samples subjected to the H3PO4 Al-removal treatment. This observation motivated calculations to determine the optimal Al surface nanosphere size for plasmonic enhancement of PL from AlN. The PL enhancement was found to peak for an Al nanosphere radius of 15 nm, which is within the range of the experimentally-observed Al nanoparticle sizes.

  15. Behaviour and design of aluminium alloy structural elements

    OpenAIRE

    Su, Meini; 蘇玫妮

    2014-01-01

    Aluminium alloys are nonlinear metallic materials with continuous stress-strain curves that are not well represented by the simplified elastic, perfectly plastic material model used in most existing design specifications. The aims of this study are to develop a more efficient design method for aluminium alloy structures by rationally exploiting strain hardening. The key components of this study include laboratory testing, numerical modelling and development of design guidance for aluminium al...

  16. Friction factor of CP aluminium and aluminium–zinc alloys

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    N Vidhya Sagar; K S Anand; A C Mithun; K Srinivasan

    2006-12-01

    Friction factor has been determined for CP aluminium and aluminium–zinc alloys using ring compression test at different temperatures from 303 K to 773 K. It is found that CP aluminium exhibits sticking whereas Al–Zn alloys do not exhibit sticking at elevated temperatures. Hot working of Al–Zn alloy is easier than that of CP aluminium at 773 K. As zinc content increases up to 10 wt% the friction factor decreases up to 0.02.

  17. Softening Behaviour of Selected Commercially Pure Aluminium Model Alloys

    OpenAIRE

    Sande, Gunnar

    2012-01-01

    A characterization of the softening behaviour of four different commercially pure aluminium alloys has been carried out. The work is related to the MOREAL project (Modelling towards value-added recycling friendly aluminium alloys), where the main goal is to quantify the effect of the elements in recyclable aluminium alloys on microstructure and mechanical properties during thermo-mechanical processing. Typical elements are iron (Fe), silicon (Si) and manganese (Mn), and the alloys studied in ...

  18. Aluminium supplier selection for the automotive parts manufacturer

    OpenAIRE

    M. Cieśla

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a methodology for selection of the optimal sources of supply, which is also known as the problem of supplier selection. Theoretical considerations are expanded with research related to aluminium supplier selection for a hypothetical manufacturer of aluminium parts for transportation equipment located in Poland. Evaluation of five suppliers of aluminium from Poland, Germany and Slovenia has been conducted using a weighted scoring method, a strengths and weaknesses method an...

  19. Multiply-negatively charged aluminium clusters and fullerenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, Noelle

    2008-07-15

    Multiply negatively charged aluminium clusters and fullerenes were generated in a Penning trap using the 'electron-bath' technique. Aluminium monoanions were generated using a laser vaporisation source. After this, two-, three- and four-times negatively charged aluminium clusters were generated for the first time. This research marks the first observation of tetra-anionic metal clusters in the gas phase. Additionally, doubly-negatively charged fullerenes were generated. The smallest fullerene dianion observed contained 70 atoms. (orig.)

  20. Tribological characteristics of coatings on aluminium and its alloys

    OpenAIRE

    Abdul-Mahdi, Fadhil S

    1987-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and awarded by Brunel University. Hard anodising on aluminium and its alloys has been widely practised for many years in order to improve the resistance of the otherwise poor wear characteristics of aluminium. In recent years there has been an increasing interest in other treatments and coatings, on both aluminium and other base metals. The aim of this investigation is to explain the tribological performance and wear mechanis...

  1. Wearing tests on aluminium coated with diamond by triboadhesion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J.M.RodríguezLelis; B.D.Angulo; J.O.Colín; J.PorcayoCalderón

    2001-01-01

    In this work the results obtained from subjecting aluminium coated with diamond by tri-boadhesion to a wearing process with a plane rider. Here it is shown the ratio of the normal toshearing forces, called friction factor, as an indication of the resistance of the surface. It was foundthat the film of the aluminium coated with diamond resisted three times compared with the oxida-tion film of commercial aluminium, which for the purpose of this work was considered withoutcoating.

  2. Un-optimistic Prospects for the Westward Movement of Aluminium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>The westward movement of aluminium is essential for the industrial development.Up till now,the northwestern area has planned to construct more than 40 aluminium projects with a total production capacity of over 20 million tons.The future rate of progress of newly constructed projects are directly related to the supplies of the aluminium market,having critical guiding meaning for the trends of

  3. Corrosion of Metal-Matrix Composites with Aluminium Alloy Substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Bobic

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The corrosion behaviour of MMCs with aluminium alloy matrix was presented. The corrosion characteristics of boron-, graphite-, silicon carbide-, alumina- and mica- reinforced aluminium MMCs were reviewed. The reinforcing phase influence on MMCs corrosion rate as well as on various corrosion forms (galvanic, pitting, stress corrosion cracking, corrosion fatique, tribocorrosion was discussed. Some corrosion protection methods of aluminium based MMCs were described

  4. Synthesis of aluminium nanoparticles by arc evaporation of an aluminium cathode surface

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Gazanfari; M Karimzadeh; S Ghorbani; M R Sadeghi; G Azizi; H Karimi; N Fattahi; Z Karimzadeh

    2014-06-01

    Aluminium nanoparticles (Al Nps) are synthesized using arc discharge method by applying direct current between aluminium electrodes in liquid environment without any use of vacuum equipment, heat exchangers, high temperatures furnaces and inert gases. After synthesis of Al Nps, in situ coating process on the nanoparticles was performed immediately. The effects of media on the yield and morphology of aluminium nanoparticles were investigated. Analysis result of the samples indicated that particle size was less than 30 nm, when 120 A/cm2 arc current was used. In addition, coating agent can affect arc velocity, arc stability, morphology and composition of the nanoparticles. Resultant nanoparticles were identified using X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), also their surface morphology was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and finally the accuracy of coating was assessed with infrared (IR) spectroscopy.

  5. Aluminium composite casting dispersion reinforced with iron-aluminium and silicon carbide phases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Formanek

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Aluminium matrix composite with dispersion-reinforced, made by similar to stircasting process was characterised. The mixture of powders was produced by the process of mechanical agglomeration of powdered FexAly and SiC with aluminium. The chemical composition ofagglomerates was selected in a way such as to obtain 25 wt.% reinforcement of the AlSi9Cu4 silumin matrix. Applying thermal analysis ATD, the alloy solidification process was determined, reading out the typical solidification parameters. The methods of light and scanning microscopy were used to reveal the structure of composite casting. Changes in chemical composition and phase composition of particles of the FeAl intermetallic phase in aluminium matrix were confirmed. The structure of silumin casting with matrix containing microregions of ceramic and intermetallic phases, typical of hybrid reinforcements, was obtained.

  6. Cold-impregnated aluminium. A new source of nickel exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lidén, C

    1994-07-01

    A new technique for finishing anodized aluminium was introduced during the 1980s--cold impregnation with nickel. Nickel is available on the surface of cold-impregnated aluminium, as shown by the dimethylglyoxime test. Chemical analysis with EDXA showed that nickel was in the form of NiSO4. A case of work-related allergic contact dermatitis in an engraver with nickel allergy is reported. It transpired that the patient was exposed to nickel in connection with aluminium. It is concluded that cold-impregnated aluminium is a new source of nickel exposure, probably previously unknown to dermatologists. PMID:7924288

  7. Effects of aluminium surface morphology and chemical modification on wettability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, M.; Fojan, P.; Gurevich, L.; Afshari, A.

    2014-03-01

    Aluminium alloys are some of the predominant metals in industrial applications such as production of heat exchangers, heat pumps. They have high heat conductivity coupled with a low specific weight. In cold working conditions, there is a risk of frost formation on the surface of aluminium in the presence of water vapour, which can lead to the deterioration of equipment performance. This work addresses the methods of surface modification of aluminium and their effect of the underlying surface morphology and wettability, which are the important parameters for frost formation. Three groups of real-life aluminium surfaces of different morphology: unpolished aluminium, polished aluminium, and aluminium foil, were subjected to surface modification procedures which involved the formation of a layer of hydrophilic hyperbranched polyethyleneglycol via in situ polymerization, molecular vapour deposition of a monolayer of fluorinated silane, and a combination of those. The effect of these surface modification techniques on roughness and wettability of the aluminium surfaces was elucidated by ellipsometry, contact angle measurements and atomic force microscopy. We demonstrated that by employing different types of surface modifications the contact angle of water droplets on aluminium samples can be varied from 12° to more than 120°. A crossover from Cassie-Baxter to Wenzel regime upon changing the surface roughness was also observed.

  8. Friction stir welding (FSW of aluminium foam sandwich panels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bušić

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the influence of welding speed and tool tilt angle upon the mechanical properties at the friction stir welding of aluminium foam sandwich panels. Double side welding was used for producing butt welds of aluminium sandwich panels applying insertion of extruded aluminium profile. Such insertion provided lower pressure of the tool upon the aluminium panels, providing also sufficient volume of the material required for the weldment formation. Ultimate tensile strength and flexural strength for three-point bending test have been determined for samples taken from the welded joints. Results have confirmed anticipated effects of independent variables.

  9. A Reaction Coating on Aluminium Alloys by Laser Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, X.B.; De Hosson, J. Th. M.

    1993-01-01

    An aluminium oxide layer of 100 µm in thickness has been successfully coated on aluminium alloy 6061 and pure aluminium using a powder mixture of silicon oxide and aluminium by laser processing. A strong Al/Al2O3 interface was formed. The exothermic chemical reaction between SiO2 and Al may promote the metal/oxide wetting and the formation of Al2O3 layer. This new approach of ceramic coating on metals using a chemical reaction of other ceramics with metals may be applied to other systems.

  10. Nitrate storage and dissimilatory nitrate reduction by eukaryotic microbes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamp, Anja; Høgslund, Signe; Risgaard-Petersen, Nils; Stief, Peter

    2015-01-01

    storage and dissimilatory nitrate reduction by diverse marine eukaryotes placed into an eco-physiological context. The advantage of intracellular nitrate storage for anaerobic energy conservation in oxygen-depleted habitats is explained and the life style enabled by this metabolic trait is described. A...

  11. Cerium-based conversion coatings to improve the corrosion resistance of aluminium alloy 6061-T6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Cerium-based conversion coatings. • Cerium salt sources assisted with hydrogen peroxide. • Protective properties of the conversion coating. - Abstract: Cerium-based conversion coatings were deposited on aluminium alloy 6061-T6 by immersion in two cerium salt sources (chloride- and nitrate-based) assisted with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The morphology and composition of the coatings were analysed using scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Electrochemical measurements to assess corrosion behaviour were performed using free corrosion potential, polarisation and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy with a 3% NaCl solution. The influence of H2O2 on the generation of the coating was studied by cyclic voltammetry tests. The protective properties of the coating generated are heavily dependent upon the chelating effect, chaotropic anion, the pH and H2O2 content

  12. [1-(Carboxymethylcyclohexyl]methanaminium nitrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elise J. C. de Vries

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C9H18NO2+·NO3−, is an anhydrous nitrate salt of gabapentin, which is formed serendipitously in the presence of selected non-coordinating metals. The crystal structure involves extensive hydrogen bonding between the –NH3+ and –COOH groups and the nitrate anion.

  13. Evaluation of nitrate destruction methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A wide variety of high nitrate-concentration aqueous mixed [radioactive and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) hazardous] wastes are stored at various US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. These wastes will ultimately be solidified for final disposal, although the waste acceptance criteria for the final waste form is still being determined. Because the nitrates in the wastes will normally increase the volume or reduce the integrity of all of the waste forms under consideration for final disposal, nitrate destruction before solidification of the waste will generally be beneficial. This report describes and evaluates various technologies that could be used to destroy the nitrates in the stored wastes. This work was funded by the Department of Energy's Office of Technology Development, through the Chemical/Physical Technology Support Group of the Mixed Waste Integrated Program. All the nitrate destruction technologies will require further development work before a facility could be designed and built to treat the majority of the stored wastes. Several of the technologies have particularly attractive features: the nitrate to ammonia and ceramic (NAC) process produces an insoluble waste form with a significant volume reduction, electrochemical reduction destroys nitrates without any chemical addition, and the hydrothermal process can simultaneously treat nitrates and organics in both acidic and alkaline wastes. These three technologies have been tested using lab-scale equipment and surrogate solutions. At their current state of development, it is not possible to predict which process will be the most beneficial for a particular waste stream

  14. A study on the recycling of aluminium alloy 7075 scrap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oezer, Goekhan [Yildiz Technical Univ., Yildiz (TR). Balkan Centre of Advanced Casting Technologies (BACAT); Marsoglu, Muezeyyen [Yildiz Technical Univ., Yildiz (Turkey). Dept. for Metal and Materials Science Engineering; Burgucu, Sarp

    2012-07-01

    Aluminium and its alloys have recently become an important metal whose area and amount of usage increase more and more, due to their mechanical properties, recycling ability, and penetrability. If it is considered that the bauxite, which is the raw material of aluminium is rare on earth, and also the area and amount of aluminium usage increases over time, the importance of aluminium recycling goes up. aluminium recycling has become crucial by means of both, the potential of the scrap's dependant increase on usage and the primary aluminium production, as it is providing energy and cost savings. 7xxx grades of scrap are collected with other scrap of aluminium alloys in one turn and recycled all together. As the regain of these alloys is not done by isolation of the various grades, the finally recycled ingots result in lower grades. High value aluminium scrap is regrettably not recovered, as it was anticipated. This study is dealing with 7075 aluminium alloys originated from discharged blow molding tools and the rest piece cuttings of blocks and plates. The material has been subjected to an induction furnace, and has been remelted into small ingots and hardened according to 7075 aluminium alloy parameters (hardening aluminium tooling). [German] Aluminium und seine Legierungen sind in den letzten Jahren aufgrund ihrer mechanischen Eigenschaften, ihrer Recyclingfaehigkeit und ihrer Durchlaessigkeit immer bedeutendere metallische Werkstoffe geworden. Unter Beruecksichtigung, dass Bauxit als Rohmaterial selten auf der Erde vorkommt und der Verbrauch mit der Zeit steigt, waechst die Bedeutung des Recyclings von Aluminium. Aluminiumrecycling, zumal es Energieund Kosteneinsparungen ermoeglicht, ist sowohl fuer die schrottabhaengigen Verwendungspotentiale und die PrimaerAluminiumproduktion gleichermassen bedeutend geworden. Die 7xxxx Schrottlegierungen werden in einem Arbeitsgang mit dem Schrott aus anderen Aluminiumlegierungen gesammelt und recycled. Da die

  15. There is (still too much aluminium in infant formulas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burrell Shelle-Ann M

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infant formulas are sophisticated milk-based feeds for infants which are used as a substitute for breast milk. Historically they are known to be contaminated by aluminium and in the past this has raised health concerns for exposed infants. We have measured the aluminium content of a number of widely used infant formulas to determine if their contamination by aluminium and consequent issues of child health persists. Methods Samples of ready-made milks and powders used to make milks were prepared by microwave digestion of acid/peroxide mixtures and their aluminium content determined by THGA. Results The concentration of aluminium in ready-made milks varied from ca 176 to 700 μg/L. The latter concentration was for a milk for preterm infants. The aluminium content of powders used to make milks varied from ca 2.4 to 4.3 μg/g. The latter content was for a soya-based formula and equated to a ready-to-drink milk concentration of 629 μg/L. Using the manufacturer's own guidelines of formula consumption the average daily ingestion of aluminium from infant formulas for a child of 6 months varied from ca 200 to 600 μg of aluminium. Generally ingestion was higher from powdered as compared to ready-made formulas. Conclusions The aluminium content of a range of well known brands of infant formulas remains high and particularly so for a product designed for preterm infants and a soya-based product designed for infants with cow's milk intolerances and allergies. Recent research demonstrating the vulnerability of infants to early exposure to aluminium serves to highlight an urgent need to reduce the aluminium content of infant formulas to as low a level as is practically possible.

  16. Effects of aluminium surface morphology and chemical modification on wettability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahimi, M., E-mail: mar@sbi.aau.dk [Department of Energy and Environment, Danish Building Research Institute, Aalborg University, A.C. Meyers Vænge 15, 2450 København SV (Denmark); Fojan, P.; Gurevich, L. [Department of Physics and Nanotechnology, Aalborg University, Skjernvej 4, DK-9220 Aalborg East (Denmark); Afshari, A. [Department of Energy and Environment, Danish Building Research Institute, Aalborg University, A.C. Meyers Vænge 15, 2450 København SV (Denmark)

    2014-03-01

    Highlights: • Successful surface modification procedures on aluminium samples were performed involving formation of the layer of hydrophilic hyperbranched polyethyleneglycol (PEG) via in situ polymerization, molecular vapour deposition of a monolayer of fluorinated silane, and a combination of those. • The groups of surfaces with hydrophobic behavior were found to follow the Wenzel model. • A transition from Cassie–Baxter's to Wenzel's regime was observed due to changing of the surface roughness upon mechanical polishing in aluminium samples. - Abstract: Aluminium alloys are some of the predominant metals in industrial applications such as production of heat exchangers, heat pumps. They have high heat conductivity coupled with a low specific weight. In cold working conditions, there is a risk of frost formation on the surface of aluminium in the presence of water vapour, which can lead to the deterioration of equipment performance. This work addresses the methods of surface modification of aluminium and their effect of the underlying surface morphology and wettability, which are the important parameters for frost formation. Three groups of real-life aluminium surfaces of different morphology: unpolished aluminium, polished aluminium, and aluminium foil, were subjected to surface modification procedures which involved the formation of a layer of hydrophilic hyperbranched polyethyleneglycol via in situ polymerization, molecular vapour deposition of a monolayer of fluorinated silane, and a combination of those. The effect of these surface modification techniques on roughness and wettability of the aluminium surfaces was elucidated by ellipsometry, contact angle measurements and atomic force microscopy. We demonstrated that by employing different types of surface modifications the contact angle of water droplets on aluminium samples can be varied from 12° to more than 120°. A crossover from Cassie–Baxter to Wenzel regime upon changing the surface

  17. Waterproofing Materials for Ammonium Nitrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.S. Damse

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the possibility of overcoming the problem of hygroscopicity of ammonium nitrate by coating the particles with selected waterproofing materials. Gravimetric analysis ofthe samples of ammonium nitrate coated with eight different waterproofing materials, vis-a-vis, uncoated ammonium nitrate, were conducted at different relative humidity and exposuretime. The results indicate that mineral jelly is the promising waterproofing material for ammonium nitrate among the materials tested, viz, calcium stearate, dioctyl phthalate, kaoline, diethylphthalate, dinitrotoluene, shelac varnish, and beeswax. Attempts were made to confirm the waterproofing ability of mineral jelly to ammonium nitrate using differential thermal analysisand x-ray diffraction patterns as an experimental tool. Suitability of mineral jelly as an additive for the gun propellant was also assessed on the basis of theoretical calculations using THERMprogram.

  18. Gas heat treatment plants for the aluminium industry; Gasbeheizte Waermebehandlungsanlagen fuer die Aluminium-Industrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olberts, P.; Hanus, A. [LOI Thermprocess GmbH, Essen (Germany)

    2004-09-01

    LOI Thermoprocess has developed new, flexible, innovative furnace designs for heat treatment of aluminium in general (car industry) and particularly for cylinder heads, engine units, chassis components, textured components, wheels, rolled sheet and extrusions. The furnaces are heated by means of radiant tubes (recuperators) and by the more usual open gas heating system (flue gas recirculation). (orig.)

  19. The aluminium body has been promoted in Canada; La carrosserie aluminium promue au Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2004-02-01

    The aluminium vehicles technology is a technology which allows, with an equivalent structure, to decrease the weight of a car of 40%. Presented by the Alcan firm, this technology is one of the technologies of the year 2003. The Alcan firm has, besides, received the 2003 technology price awarded by the magazine Industry Week. (O.M.)

  20. Enhanced corrosion protection by microstructural control of aluminium brazing sheet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Norouzi Afshar, F.

    2013-01-01

    Aluminium brazing sheet is a sandwich material made out of two aluminium alloys (AA4xxx/AA3xxx) and is widely used in automotive heat exchangers. One of the main performance criteria for heat exchanger units is the lifetime of the product. The lifetime of the heat exchanger units is determined by th

  1. Thermoelectric power of multilayer compositions of aluminium and carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Changing the thermoelectric power monolayer and multilayer aluminium foil and multilayer foils compositions of aluminium and carbon nanotubes is the deformation ε < 60% due to the scattering of conduction electrons at dislocations and ε=(70 ...96)% - due to their scattering on the boundaries between the layers (thermoelectric size effect)

  2. Phase analysis of nickel surface layer implanted by aluminium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experimental result of study of microstructure and phase composition in the surface zone of nickel target under intensive implantation of aluminium ions on a vacuum-arc and plasma flow source Raduga-5 are presented. It was established that the fine dispersed intermetallic precipitates Ni3Al and NiAl and the variable composition solid solution of aluminium in nickel are formed

  3. CAD implementation of design rules for aluminium extrusion dies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ouwerkerk, van Gijs

    2009-01-01

    Aluminium extrusion is an industrial forming process that is used to produce long profiles of a constant cross-section. This cross-section is shaped by the opening in a steel tool known as the die. The understanding of the mechanics of the aluminium extrusion process is still limited. The flow of al

  4. Spark counting technique with an aluminium oxide film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Automatic spark counting of etch-pits on a polycarbonate film produced by nuclear fission fragments is now used for neutron monitoring in several countries. A method was developed using an aluminium oxide film instead of a polycarbonate as the neutron detector. Aluminium oxide films were prepared as follows: A cleaned aluminium plate as an anode and a nickel plate as a cathode were immersed in dilute sulfuric acid solution and electric current flowed between the electrodes at 12degC for 10-30 minutes. Electric current density was about 10 mA/cm2. The aluminium plate was then kept in boiling water for 10-30 minutes for sealing. The thickness of the aluminium oxide layer formed was about 1μm. The aluminium plate attached to a plate of suitable fissionable material, such as uranium or thorium, was irradiated with neutrons and set in a usual spark counter for fission track counting. One electrode was the aluminium plate and the other was an aluminized polyester sheet. Sparked pulses were counted with a usual scaler. The advantage of using spark counting with an aluminium oxide film for neutron monitoring is rapid measurement of neutron exposure, since chemical etching which is indispensable for spark counting with a polycarbonate detector film, is not needed. (H.K.)

  5. The peculiarities of scandium and yttrium dissolution in aluminium melt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The investigation results of dissolution of scandium and yttrium in liquid aluminium at 973-1173 K are presented in this work. It was shown that coefficient value of yttrium diffusion in aluminium melt equals to 3,566-17,9070 m2/sec, and scandium 9,692-4,072 m2/sec.

  6. Haemodialysis related osteomalacia: a staining method to demonstrate aluminium

    OpenAIRE

    Buchanan, Malcolm RC; Ihle, Benno U; Dunn, Cheryl M

    1981-01-01

    A slight modification in tissue processing and staining technique enables a previously described method for staining aluminium to be used to demonstrate aluminium in osteomalacia associated with haemodialysis. The stain appears to be accurate in diagnosing this condition and may assist in establishing the diagnosis before severe osteomalacia develops.

  7. Aluminium Alloy Cast Shell Development for Torpedoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijaya Singh

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The sand-cast aluminium alloy cylindrical shells were developed for the advanced experimental torpedo applications. The components had intricate geometry, thin-walled sections, and stringent property requirements. The casting defects, such as shrinkage, porosity, incomplete filling of thin sections, cold shuts, inclusions and dimensional eccentricity, etc were found inthe initial castings trials. improvements in casting quality were achieved through modified methodology, selective chilling, risering, and by introducing ceramic-foam filters in the gatingsystem. The heat-treated and machined components met radiographic class I grade C/E standards, mechanical properties to BS1490 specifications, and leakage and hydraulic pressure testrequirements relevant for such applications.

  8. Dissolved aluminium in the Southern Ocean

    OpenAIRE

    Middag, R.; Slooten van, C.; Baar, H.J.W. de; Laan, P.

    2011-01-01

    Dissolved aluminium (Al) occurs in a wide range of concentrations in the world oceans. The concentrations of Al in the Southern Ocean are among the lowest ever observed. An all-titanium CTD sampling system makes it possible to study complete deep ocean sections of Al and other trace elements with the same high vertical resolution of 24 depths as normal for traditional CTD/Rosette sampling. Overall, 470 new data points of Al are reported for 22 full depth stations and 24 surface sampling posit...

  9. Roll casting of 5182 aluminium alloy

    OpenAIRE

    Haga, T; M. Mtsuo; D. Kunigo; Hatanaka, Y; R. Nakamuta; H. Watari; S. Kumai

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: of this paper is investigation of the ability of the high speed roll casting of 5182 aluminium alloy. Appropriate twin roll caster to cast the 5182 strip was researched.Design/methodology/approach: Method used in the present study was an unequal diameter twin roll caster and a vertical type high speed twin roll caster equipped with mild steel rolls without parting material.Findings: are that the vertical type high speed twin roll caster was effective to cast 5182 strip at high speed....

  10. On the Crystallization of Terbium Aluminium Garnet

    OpenAIRE

    Ganschow, S.; Klimm, D.; Reiche, P.; Uecker, R.

    2008-01-01

    Attempts to grow terbium aluminium garnet (Tb3Al5O12, TAG) by the Czochralski method lead to crystals of millimeter scale. Larger crystals could not be obtained. DTA measurements within the binary system showed that TAG melts incongruently at 1840 deg. C. The perovskite (TbAlO3, TAP) with a congruent melting point of 1930 deg. C is the most stable phase in this system. The region for primary crystallization of TAP covers the chemical composition of TAG and suppresses the primary crystallizati...

  11. Friction stir welding of single crystal aluminium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fonda, Richard Warren; Wert, John A.; Reynolds, A.P.;

    2007-01-01

    Friction stir welds were prepared in different orientations in an aluminium single crystal. The welds were quenched to preserve the microstructure surrounding the tool and then electron backscattered diffraction was used to reveal the generation of grain boundaries and the evolution of...... crystallographic texture around the tool in each weld. The extent of both dynamic recrystallisation and conventional recrystallisation varied considerably as a function of weld orientation. As the base plate begins to interact with the deformation field surrounding the tool, regions of the single crystal rotate to...

  12. Durability of Lacquered Aluminium Profile Considering Tropical Weather Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rigoberto Marrero Águila

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Searching for solutions against the degradation of materials by corrosion effect, is a common practice to use alloys such as aluminium instead of steel due to the advantages obtained. The lacquered aluminium profiles can substitute other materials like wood, in the carpentry production, becoming an economic saving. There is an increasingly use of aluminium replacing other traditional materials in the constructions in process, but its quality has been reduced in a considerable amount of installations. In this research, aluminium profiles from five different sources were submitted to a trial in natural exposition conditions at the Tropical weather condition Testing Lab, in order to evaluate their behaviour and establish, for the first time in our country, standing rules for lacquered aluminium profiles to be strictly fulfilled by manufacturers and importers. The results will allow modifying thickness standards of this type of coating, to guaranty its durability and to eliminate the failures provoked by our high severe weather conditions.

  13. Volatilisation and oxidation of aluminium scraps fed into incineration furnaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Aluminium packaging partitioning in MSW incineration residues is evaluated. ► The amount of aluminium packaging recoverable from the bottom ashes is evaluated. ► Aluminium packaging oxidation rate in the residues of MSW incineration is evaluated. ► 80% of aluminium cans, 51% of trays and 27% of foils can be recovered from bottom ashes. - Abstract: Ferrous and non-ferrous metal scraps are increasingly recovered from municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash and used in the production of secondary steel and aluminium. However, during the incineration process, metal scraps contained in the waste undergo volatilisation and oxidation processes, which determine a loss of their recoverable mass. The present paper evaluates the behaviour of different types of aluminium packaging materials in a full-scale waste to energy plant during standard operation. Their partitioning and oxidation level in the residues of the incineration process are evaluated, together with the amount of potentially recoverable aluminium. About 80% of post-consumer cans, 51% of trays and 27% of foils can be recovered through an advanced treatment of bottom ash combined with a melting process in the saline furnace for the production of secondary aluminium. The residual amount of aluminium concentrates in the fly ash or in the fine fraction of the bottom ash and its recovery is virtually impossible using the current eddy current separation technology. The average oxidation levels of the aluminium in the residues of the incineration process is equal to 9.2% for cans, 17.4% for trays and 58.8% for foils. The differences between the tested packaging materials are related to their thickness, mechanical strength and to the alloy.

  14. New sheet aluminium qualities for low-cost lightweight constructions; Neue Aluminium-Blechqualitaeten fuer den kosteneffizienten Leichtbau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloeck, M.; Furrer, P. [Novelis Technology AG, Neuhausen (Switzerland)

    2005-11-01

    Aluminium alloys used for car bodies have a wide range of material characteristics. New developments focus on selective development of material and surface characteristics for obtaining sheet aluminium qualities optimized for specific applications. These and further measures taken by Novelis are to reduce material consumption, simplify process steps in motor car manufacturing and reducing the overall system cost. (orig.)

  15. Design of the lines of aluminium drawing. Part 2; Conception des filieres de filage d'aluminium. Partie 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cescutti, J.P.; Ravaille, N. [Pechiney, Div. Filiage, 75 - Paris (France)

    2005-12-15

    This work is the second part of the file 'design of the lines of aluminium drawing'. It gives elements for structuring the analysis of the progress ways in the field of the design of the lines of aluminium extrusion. (O.M.)

  16. Detonator using Nickel Hydrazine Nitrate as Primary Explosive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Hariharanath

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Nickel hydrazine nitrate is an energetic coordination compound having explosiveproperties in between that of primary and secondary. This compound was used to develop a newtype of detonator by replacing the sensitive primary explosive, lead azide in conventionaldetonators and keeping RDX (cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine as the output secondary explosive.The detonator consists of three regions, viz., initiation, deflagration-to-detonation transition(DDT, and output. The initiation and the electrical rating of 1A/1W no-fire were achieved usinga suitable squib. The DDT and the output were taken care of, by pressing requisite quantitiesof Nickel hydrazine nitrate and RDX, respectively at required densities in a stainless steel stemchannel. The detonator assembly involves crimping the squib and the stem channel in a stainlesssteel housing and applying a suitable resin at the crimped-end for leak tightness. The outputwas assessed from the dent depth on aluminium plate, volume expansion on lead block, and byachieving veloctiy of detonation of 8200 m/s in mild detonating cords, containing 0.95 g/m ofRDX, which indicates full-order detonation. The detonators were tested at system level andfound to perform satisfactorily.

  17. Excess nitrate loads to coastal waters reduces nitrate removal efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunau, Mirko; Voss, Maren; Erickson, Matthew;

    2013-01-01

    Terrestrial ecosystems are becoming increasingly nitrogen-saturated due to anthropogenic activities, such as agricultural loading with artificial fertilizer. Thus, more and more reactive nitrogen is entering streams and rivers, primarily as nitrate, where it is eventually transported towards the ...

  18. Extraction of lanthanide (3) nitrates by trialkylmethylammonium nitrate in decane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Extraction of lanthanide (3) nitrates (praseodymium (3) - lutetium (3)) by trialkylmethylammonium nitrate in decane at T=298.15 K and pH2 is studied. The extraction isotherms are described with an account of formation of compounds of the (R4N)i(Ln(NO3)3+i) composition. Extraction constants values, which become reduced in the praseodymium (3)-lutetium (3) series, are calculated

  19. Rare earth(3) nitrates extraction with trialkylmethylammonium nitrate in toluene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Extraction of rare earth(3) nitrates [praseodymium(3)-lutetium(3)] with trialkylmethylammonium nitrate in toluene at T = 298.15 K and pH 2 is studied. Extraction isotherms are described with regard to formation of compounds of (R4N)i[Ln(NO3)3+i] composition (i = 2, 3) in organic phase. Values of extraction constants are calculated, they are decreasing in the praseodymium(3) - lutetium(3) series

  20. Scandium extraction by methyltrialkylammonium nitrate from nitrate solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chemistry of scandium extraction by methyltrialkylammonium (MTAA) nitrate in toluene from nitrate solutions is studied. Methods of saturation, equilibrium shift, physicochemical analysis, isomolar series and UV-spectroscopy are used to determine the composition of extracted complexes. It is shown that with low saturation degrees of extractant (R4N)6Sc(NO3)9 complex is formed in organic phase and with saturation - (R4N)3xSc(NO3)6 complex

  1. Aluminium and its alloys: weldability, welding metallurgy; L'aluminium et ses alliages: soudabilite, metallurgie du soudage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boucher, Ch.

    2000-07-01

    The aim of this book is to give technological and use elements of the welding processes as well as the knowledge in weldability and metallurgy required for a better control of the welding of aluminium alloys. In the first part are detailed the generalities on aluminium alloys, their properties and uses sectors. The bases of the physical metallurgy of the aluminium alloys are dealt with too. The second part concerns the welding and the related techniques as well as the properties of the assemblies. Several supplements give useful data for the construction with aluminium alloys. This book is particularly devoted to engineers and technicians using or having to use for the first time the welding of aluminium alloys. (O.M.)

  2. Hearing conservation in the primary aluminium industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisch, N.; Dixon-Ernst, C.; Chesson, B. J.; Cullen, M. R.

    2016-01-01

    Background Noise-induced hearing loss has been an intractable problem for heavy industry. Aims To report our experience in reducing the incidence of age-corrected confirmed 10 dB hearing shifts (averaged over 2, 3 and 4kHz) in employees in the primary aluminium industry in Australia over the period 2006–13. Methods We analysed annual audiometric data to determine the number of permanent hearing shifts that occurred in employees in two bauxite mines, three alumina refineries and two aluminium smelters. Annual hearing shift rates were calculated based on the number of employees tested per year. Hearing conservation initiatives undertaken during the study period are described. An assessment of similar exposure group noise exposures was also undertaken to determine the magnitude of noise exposure reduction during the study period. Results Across all operations, hearing shift rates declined from 5.5% per year in 2006 to 1.3% per year in 2013 (P < 0.001). The decline in shift rates was greater in mines and refineries, where baseline shift rates were higher, than in smelter workers. Modest reductions in noise exposure occurred during the study period. Conclusions We observed a substantial decline in hearing shift rates during the study period. We describe the hearing conservation initiatives that were collectively associated with this decline. We suspect these initiatives could be deployed relatively easily and at modest cost in other industries with noise-exposed employees. PMID:26470945

  3. Reactions on carbon anodes in aluminium electrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eidet, Trygve

    1997-12-31

    The consumption of carbon anodes and energy in aluminium electrolysis is higher than what is required theoretically. This thesis studies the most important of the reactions that consume anode materials. These reactions are the electrochemical anode reaction and the airburn and carboxy reactions. The first part of the thesis deals with the kinetics and mechanism of the electrochemical anode reaction using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The second part deals with air and carboxy reactivity of carbon anodes and studies the effects of inorganic impurities on the reactivity of carbon anodes in the aluminium industry. Special attention is given to sulphur since its effect on the carbon gasification is not well understood. Sulphur is always present in anodes, and it is expected that the sulphur content of available anode cokes will increase in the future. It has also been suggested that sulphur poisons catalyzing impurities in the anodes. Other impurities that were investigated are iron, nickel and vanadium, which are common impurities in anodes which have been reported to catalyze carbon gasification. 88 refs., 92 figs., 24 tabs.

  4. Study on aluminium-based single films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinod Kumar, G S; García-Moreno, F; Babcsán, N; Brothers, A H; Murty, B S; Banhart, J

    2007-12-28

    In the present paper the authors studied isolated metallic films made from the same material used for making metallic foams, and then characterised their properties. Metal films were made from a liquid aluminium alloy reinforced with ceramic particles of known concentration. Melts without such particles were also investigated. It is shown that stable films could not be made from Al-Si alloy having no particles, and just extremely thin and fragile films could be made from commercially-pure Al. In contrast, aluminium alloys containing particles such as SiC and TiB(2) allowed pulling thin, stable films, which did not rupture. Significant thinning of films was observed when the particle concentration in the melt decreased. By in situ X-ray monitoring of liquid films during pulling, film thickness and drainage effects within the liquid film could be studied. The morphology and microstructure of films was characterised after solidification. Our work shows that the question of how foams are stabilised can be studied using a simplified system such as a film, instead of having to deal with the multitude of different structural elements present in a foam. PMID:18060172

  5. Aluminium matrix composites: Challenges and opportunities

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M K Surappa

    2003-02-01

    Aluminium matrix composites (AMCs) refer to the class of light weight high performance aluminium centric material systems. The reinforcement in AMCs could be in the form of continuous/discontinuous fibres, whisker or particulates, in volume fractions ranging from a few percent to 70%. Properties of AMCs can be tailored to the demands of different industrial applications by suitable combinations of matrix, reinforcement and processing route. Presently several grades of AMCs are manufactured by different routes. Three decades of intensive research have provided a wealth of new scientific knowledge on the intrinsic and extrinsic effects of ceramic reinforcement vis-a-vis physical, mechanical, thermo-mechanical and tribological properties of AMCs. In the last few years, AMCs have been utilised in high-tech structural and functional applications including aerospace, defence, automotive, and thermal management areas, as well as in sports and recreation. It is interesting to note that research on particle-reinforced cast AMCs took root in India during the 70’s, attained industrial maturity in the developed world and is currently in the process of joining the mainstream of materials. This paper presents an overview of AMC material systems on aspects relating to processing, microstructure, properties and applications.

  6. Aluminium alloys containing iron and nickel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first part of this report addresses mechanism, kinetics and structure factors of aluminium alloys containing iron and nickel in water and high temperature steam. The studied alloys contain from 0.3 to 0.7 per cent of iron, and 0.2 to 1.0 per cent of nickel. Corrosion resistance and corrosion structure have been studied. The experimental installation, process and samples are presented. Corrosion structures in water at 350 C are identified and discussed (structure of corrosion products, structure of metal-oxide interface), and then in steam at different temperatures (350-395 C). Corrosion kinetics is experimentally studied (weight variation in time) in water at 350 C and in steam at different temperatures. Reactions occurring at over-heated steam (more than 400 C) are studied, and the case of welded alloys is also addressed. The second part addresses the metallurgical mechanism and processes influencing aluminium alloy resistance to corrosion by high temperature water as it appeared that separated phases protect the solid solution through a neighbourhood action. In order to avoid deep local corrosions, it seems necessary to multiply protective phases in an as uniform as possible way. Some processes enabling this result are described. They belong to conventional metallurgy or to powder metallurgy (with sintering and extrusion)

  7. Biological denitrification of nitrate wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enriched uranium wastes are purified in the Y-12 Plant, and the uranium product is recycled. One purification method involves dissolving the waste in nitric acid followed by solvent extraction to recover uranium. The process generates nitrate waste solutions which must be discarded. For many years, these wastes were stored in unlined ponds. In 1976 a recycle process was installed, and about half of the wastes were recovered and reused. A biological process (stirred tank) was installed, and the remaining nitrate wastes were biologically decomposed to produce nitrogen gas. Some additional nitrate wastes, generated in other parts of the plant, continued to be placed in the open ponds which must now be decommissioned. In 1983 an in-situ biological process was developed and tested whereby the open ponds were successfully biologically treated. This paper describes the results of the stirred tank and the in-situ pond treatment processes used in the plant to decompose nitrate ions

  8. Sensitivity of nitrate aerosols to ammonia emissions and to nitrate chemistry: implications for present and future nitrate optical depth

    OpenAIRE

    F. Paulot; Ginoux, P.; Cooke, W. F.; L. J. Donner; S. Fan; Lin, M; J. Mao; Naik, V.; Horowitz, L.W.

    2015-01-01

    We update and evaluate the treatment of nitrate aerosols in the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) atmospheric model (AM3). Accounting for the radiative effects of nitrate aerosols generally improves the simulated aerosol optical depth, although nitrate concentrations at the surface are biased high. This bias can be reduced by increasing the deposition of nitrate to account for the near-surface volatilization of ammonium nitrate or by neglecting th...

  9. Spectrographic determination of trace amounts of some elements in metallic aluminium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A spectrographic method for the determination of twenty trace elements in aluminium metal by the carrier distillation technique has been developed. The following elements were considered: B, Cd, Bi, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Cr, Pb, Si, Zn, Ti, Ca, Na, Ga, Ni, Sb, V, Sn and Ag. AgCl, In2O3, NaF, Ga2O3, GeO2 and CuF2 were tested as carriers. The best results were obtained by using 2% In2O3 and 6% AgCl on an alumina base. Several aluminum oxide samples with the same chemical composition of aluminum sulfate and nitrate, according to a temperature program, were submitted to spectrochemical analysis. The standards were prepared by means of two differet methods: dry mixing technique and thermal decomposition of aluminum nitrate at 8000C. Some considerations on matrix effects and on the extent to which it affects the accuracy of the method, are presented. The standard deviation of the method varies from + - 5% to + - 27%. The accuracy was examined with the aid of X-ray fluorescence technique. (C.L.B.)

  10. Effect of Aluminium Content in Aluminium Pillared Montmorillonite To Its Surface Acidity Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Is Fatimah

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Aluminium pillared montmorillonites from Indonesian natural montmorillonite has been prepared using Al13 Keggin ion pillaring precursor in varied concentrations. Herein we studied their characterization and catalysis application for esterification reaction. X-ray diffraction (XRD, energy dispersive x-ray analysis (EDX, and BET gas sorption analysis were employed to characterize the prepared materials besides the characterization on surface acidity by pyridine and n-butylammine adsorptions and FTIR analysis. The result showed that significant improvement on physicochemical character data was obtained by a pillarization process. Such a process also provided improvements on catalytic activities in esterification reactions. The effect of aluminium content on material characters was discussed in this paper. It was observed from the catalytic activity tests that pillared montmorillonite samples demonstrated higher activity in esterification reaction relative to the raw montmorillonite. It was found that surface profile of materials consist of specific surface area, pore volume and Lewis acidity were significantly affect the catalyst activity.

  11. Preparation of Aluminium Oxynitride by Carbothermal Reduction of Aluminium Oxide in a Flowing N2 Atmosphere

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIYa-wei; YUANRun-zhang; 等

    1996-01-01

    Carbothermal reduction of alumina into aluminium oxynitride(AlON) spinel in a flowing nitrogen atmosphere was studied.The effects of Al2O3/C ratio temperature,soaking time,heating rate molding pressure of samples,and nitrogen flow rate on reactions were investigated.Then the stability of AlON was elucidated and AlON wa confirmed as an intermediate compound in reduction of alumina.

  12. INTEROGATION OF THE MANUFACTURING ROUTE OF ALUMINIUM AA 1050 USED IN LITHOGRAPHIC APPLICATION

    OpenAIRE

    Witkowska, Malgorzata Danuta

    2013-01-01

    The aluminium AA1050 alloy, known as commercially pure aluminium, contains 99.5% Al, together with Fe and Si as major alloying elements. During fabrication of aluminium substrates for lithographic printing plates in Bridgnorth Aluminium Ltd, the AA 1050 aluminium alloy proceeds through various stages of thermomechanical processing, with the conditions at each processing stage influencing the microstructure of the final coil. Because of its specific gravity, tensile strength, surface performa...

  13. Effect of filtration on reoxidation proceses in aluminium alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Bolibruchova

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is focused on reoxidation processes during filtration of aluminium alloys. Many of our experimental works pointed out, that using filtration media placed in gating system causes reoxidation of poured aluminium alloy. Main aim of our latest work was to validate our arguments, that filter in gating system can be considered as obstacle for continuous pouring, with help of computer simulations. This article is only a small part of our researches focused on reoxidation processes during filtration of aluminium alloys.

  14. Aluminium: Aluminij: kovina izbire: the metal of choice:

    OpenAIRE

    Gándara, María Josefa Freiría

    2013-01-01

    This article summarizes the importance of aluminium as the metal of choice formany applications. Aluminium is a lightweight, durable metal. It is silvery in appearance when freshly cut, is a good conductor of heat and electricity, and is easily shaped by moulding and extruding. Aluminium has two main advantages when compared with other metals. Firstly, it has a low density, about one-third that of iron and copper. Secondly, although it reacts rapidly with the oxygen in air, it forms a thin, t...

  15. Cold forming of aluminium - State of the art

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Niels

    1997-01-01

    The ongoing development of cold forging technology has been manifested lately by the increasing application of components in cold forged aluminium alloys. Applying precipitation hardening alloys components with great strength/weight ratio can be produced with a strength comparable to that of...... unalloyed steel. After description of the different types of alloys and their individual properties and applications, the special requirements for tool design by cold forging in aluminium is discussed. Finally, a large number of industrial examples on cold forged aluminium components are presented. (C) 1997...

  16. Radiation-induced creep of copper, aluminium and their alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of creep studies on copper, aluminium and their alloys with and without neutron irradiation are presented. The experiments are carried out at the WWR-K reactor at the neutron fluence of 1.4.1016 n/m2.s (2.5.1016 n/m2.s, E>0.1 MeV). Polycrystalline copper (99.99 and 99.95%), aluminium (99.99%) and the alloys of copper with 4 at% of titanium, of aluminium with 4.2% of copper are studied within the temperature interval 0.31-0.51 Tm. (orig.)

  17. 59Fe distribution in continuously cast aluminium strip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problems are discussed of the homogeneity of continuously cast aluminium strips by horizontal casting. Theoretically discussed are phenomena present during primary solidification, namely the nonhomogeneous distribution of admixtures and impurities in primary solidified dendritic cells. A survey is given of the distribution of coefficients of basic admixtures and impurities in aluminium. Experimental investigation was carried out within the verification of theoretical research results, of the distribution of iron in continuously cast aluminium strips using radioactive iron 59Fe in form of radioactive foundry alloy containing 1.8% 59Fe. (author). 13 figs., 1 tab

  18. Optimization of Magnesium Metal into Commercially Pure Aluminium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandana J Rao

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation, involve development of Al-Mg systems by addition of magnesium into commercially pure aluminium. The amounts of magnesium added into commercially pure aluminium are of 1 and 2 wt%. The recoveries of magnesium are around 85-90%.Remaining Mg react with oxygen and float on the liquid aluminium. Presence of magnesium creates two phenomena. One is solid solution hardening and other is intermetallics formation. Both the phenomena checked by microstructural changes and by measuring the electrical conductivity values. By increasing the Mg, content mechanical properties (hardness and tensile strength increases and electrical conductivity decreases.

  19. Corrosion issues of powder coated AA6060 aluminium profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Din, Rameez Ud; Valgarðsson, Smári; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl;

    2015-01-01

    In this study detailed microstructural investigation of the reason for unexpected corrosion of powder coated aluminium alloy AA6060 windows profiles has been performed. The results from this study reveals that the failure of the window profiles was originated from the surface defects present...... on the extruded AA6060 aluminium profile after metallurgical process prior to powder coating. Surface defects are produced due to intermetallic particles in the alloy, which disturb the flow during the extrusion process. The corrosion mechanism leading to the failure of the powder coated AA6060 aluminium profiles...

  20. Study of fatigue behaviour of 7475 aluminium alloy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B B Verma; J D Atkinson; M Kumar

    2001-04-01

    Fatigue properties of a thermomechanically treated 7475 aluminium alloy have been studied in the present investigation. The alloy exhibited superior fatigue life compared to conventional structural aluminium alloys and comparable stage II crack growth rate. It was also noticed that the fatigue crack initiated from a surface grain and the crack extension was dominated by ductile striations. Analysis also revealed that this alloy possessed fracture toughness and tensile properties superior to that noticed with other structural aluminium alloys. Therefore the use of this alloy can safely reduce the overall weight of the aircraft.

  1. Mechanical alloying of aluminium-lithium-magnesium alloy powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The production of high-purity aluminium-lithium-magnesium alloy powders, by mechanical alloying through grinding in a vibratory mill under high vacuum at room temperature, is described in details. The source materials for the grinding mixture were: aluminium-lithium alloy powder obtained by thermal vacuum-dehydrogenization of AlLiH4 hydride; magnesium metal powder; and chemically deoxidized aluminium metal powder. The implications which arose from the high reactivity of the component elements are discussed, and the measures taken to overcome them are described. The procedures used for the chemical analysis and powder characterization are given. (orig.)

  2. Aluminium content of some foods and food products in the USA, with aluminium food additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiyed, Salim M; Yokel, Robert A

    2005-03-01

    The primary objective was to determine the aluminium (Al) content of selected foods and food products in the USA which contain Al as an approved food additive. Intake of Al from the labeled serving size of each food product was calculated. The samples were acid or base digested and analysed for Al using electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. Quality control (QC) samples, with matrices matching the samples, were generated and used to verify the Al determinations. Food product Al content ranged from Cheese in a serving of frozen pizzas had up to 14 mg of Al, from basic sodium aluminium phosphate; whereas the same amount of cheese in a ready-to-eat restaurant pizza provided 0.03-0.09 mg. Many single serving packets of non-dairy creamer had approximately 50-600 mg Al kg(-1) as sodium aluminosilicate, providing up to 1.5 mg Al per serving. Many single serving packets of salt also had sodium aluminosilicate as an additive, but the Al content was less than in single-serving non-dairy creamer packets. Acidic sodium aluminium phosphate was present in many food products, pancakes and waffles. Baking powder, some pancake/waffle mixes and frozen products, and ready-to-eat pancakes provided the most Al of the foods tested; up to 180 mg/serving. Many products provide a significant amount of Al compared to the typical intake of 3-12 mg/day reported from dietary Al studies conducted in many countries. PMID:16019791

  3. Modelling crop root development and nitrate uptake

    OpenAIRE

    Pedersen, Anders

    2008-01-01

    Nitrate leaching from agricultural areas is a political and environmental issue at both local scale in Denmark and at global scale. Plant-available nitrogen and nitrate in the rooting zone in the growing season is necessary in order to obtain satisfactory crop yields. However, surplus nitrogen leads to a risk of nitrate losses through leaching and denitrification. In addition to artificial applications of nitrate, nitrate is produced by mineralisation processes in the soil from plant residues...

  4. Orbital friction stir welding of aluminium pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friction stir welding (FSW) was originally developed for flat plates. This contribution shows how it can be applied to the welding of aluminium pipes. Pipes made of AlMG 3 (EN5754), AlMg 4.5Mn (EN5083) and AlMgSi 0.5 (EN6106) with dimensions of Da 600 and 520 x 10-8 mm were welded. The FSW orbital system comprises an annular cage with integrated FSW head, a hydraulic system, and a control unit. The welds were tested successfully according to EN 288. The mechanical and technical properties of the welds were somewhat better than with the TIG orbital process, and welding times were about 40 percent shorter

  5. Silane based coating of aluminium mold

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    A method of preparing an aluminum mold for injection molding is provided, the method comprises the steps of providing an aluminum mold having a least one surface, subjecting the at least one surface to a gas or liquid phase silane to thereby form an anti-stiction coating, the anti-stiction coating...... comprising a chemically bonded monolayer of silane compounds on the at least one surface wherein the silane is a halogenated silane. The at least one surface coated with the anti-stiction coating may be configured to withstand an injection molding process at a pressure above 100 MPa. Furthermore, a mold...... having at least one closed cavity is provided, at least one surface of the at least one cavity being an aluminium surface coated with a silane based coating layer. The silane based anti-stiction coating improves the anti-stiction properties of the mold which may allow for molding and demolding of...

  6. Mechanical behaviour of aluminium-lithium alloys

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    N Eswara Prasad; A A Gokhale; P Rama Rao

    2003-02-01

    Aluminium-lithium alloys hold promise of providing a breakthrough response to the crying need for lightweight alloys for use as structurals in aerospace applications. Considerable worldwide research has gone into developing a range of these alloys over the last three decades. As a result, substantial understanding has been developed of the microstructure-based micromechanisms of strengthening, of fatigue and fracture as well as of anisotropy in mechanical properties. However, these alloys have not yet greatly displaced the conventionally used denser Al alloys on account of their poorer ductility, fracture toughness and low cycle fatigue resistance. This review aims to summarise the work pertaining to study of structure and mechanical properties with a view to indicate the directions that have been and can be pursued to overcome property limitations.

  7. Experimental analysis of cut welding in aluminium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dorph, Pernille; De Chiffre, Leonardo; Bay, Niels

    1993-01-01

    Cut welding is a newly developed cold pressure welding process. In the present work, an experimental investigation was carried out analyzing the mechanisms involved in cut welding of a block to a strip. Experiments were carried out in technically pure aluminium. The investigation has involved...... tensile testing and metallographic investigations of the welds. The results show that this variant of cut welding is a very reproducible process giving a weld strength equal to 30-40% the strength of the parent material. The experiments have shown that the reason for this relatively low strength is an...... uneven pressure distribution along the weld due to a wave formed during sliding. Attempts to alter the material flow during sliding are presented....

  8. Adsorption of aluminium by stream particulates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipping, E; Ohnstad, M; Woof, C

    1989-01-01

    An experimental study was made of the adsorption of aluminium by fine particulates from Whitray Beck, a hill stream in NW England. Adsorption increased with Al(3) activity, pH and concentration of particles, and could be quantitatively described by the empirical equation: [Formula: see text] [particles] where square brackets indicate concentrations, curly brackets, activities, and alpha, beta and gamma are constants with values of 5.14x10(-10) (mol litre(-1))(2.015) (g particles litre(-1))(-1), 0.457, and 1.472, respectively. For the experimental data, the equation gave a correlation ratio of 0.99. The equation accounts reasonably well for the adsorption of Al by particulates from seven other streams. In applying the equation, it must be borne in mind that the desorption kinetics of Al depend on pH, and rapid reversibility (or=10%) of total monomeric Al. PMID:15092454

  9. Aluminium leaching from red mud by filamentous fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urík, Martin; Bujdoš, Marek; Milová-Žiaková, Barbora; Mikušová, Petra; Slovák, Marek; Matúš, Peter

    2015-11-01

    This contribution investigates the efficient and environmentally friendly aluminium leaching from red mud (bauxite residue) by 17 species of filamentous fungi. Bioleaching experiments were examined in batch cultures with the red mud in static, 7-day cultivation. The most efficient fungal strains in aluminium bioleaching were Penicillium crustosum G-140 and Aspergillus niger G-10. The A. niger G-10 strain was capable to extract up to approximately 141 mg·L(-1) of aluminium from 0.2 g dry weight red mud. Chemical leaching with organic acids mixture, prepared according to A. niger G-10 strain's respective fungal excretion during cultivation, proved that organic acids significantly contribute to aluminium solubilization from red mud. PMID:26365318

  10. Corrosion of spent nuclear fuel aluminium cladding in ordinary water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corrosion of aluminium alloy cladding of spent nuclear fuel elements in ordinary water is examined in the spent fuel storage pool of the RA research reactor at the Vinca Institute of Nuclear Sciences, Belgrade, Serbia and Montenegro. Experimental examinations are carried out within framework of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Coordinated Research Project (CRP) 'Corrosion of Research Reactor Aluminium-Clad Spent Fuel in Water', Phase II. Racks with coupons made of different aluminium alloys were exposed to water influence for period of six months to six years. The project comprises also activities on monitoring of the water chemistry and radioactivity in the storage pool. Visual and microscopic examinations of surfaces of aluminium coupons of the test racks have been done recently and results were presented in this paper confirming strong influence of water quality and exposition time to corrosion process. (author)

  11. Advances in development and application of aluminium batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qingfeng, Li; Zhuxian, Qiu

    2001-01-01

    Aluminium has long attracted attention as a potential battery anode because of its high theoretical voltage and specific energy. The protective oxide layer at aluminium surface is however detrimental to its performance to achieve its reversible potential, and also causing the delayed activation of...... anode. The oxide layer can be removed by e.g. amalgamation but this will result in accelerated corrosion and poor shelf life. These difficulties have been successfully overcome by developing alloying elements and electrolyte additives in the recent years. The literature review also includes various...... aluminium batteres, especially aluminium-air batteries, and a wide range of their applications from emergency power supplies, reserve batteries field portable batteries, to batteries for electric vehicles and underwater propulsion....

  12. Deposition of aluminium nanoparticles using dense plasma focus device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plasma route to nanofabrication has drawn much attention recently. The dense plasma focus (DPF) device is used for depositing aluminium nanoparticles on n-type Si (111) wafer. The plasma chamber is filled with argon gas and evacuated at a pressure of 80 Pa. The substrate is placed at distances 4.0 cm, 5.0 cm and 6.0 cm from the top of the central anode. The aluminium is deposited on Si wafer at room temperature with two focused DPF shots. The deposits on the substrate are examined for their morphological properties using atomic force microscopy (AFM). The AFM images have shown the formation of aluminium nanoparticles. From the AFM images, it is found that the size of aluminium nanoparticles increases with increase in distance between the top of anode and the substrate for same number of DPF shots.

  13. Aluminium foam sandwich panels: manufacture, metallurgy and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banhart, J. [Hahn-Meitner-Institut, TU Berlin (Germany); Seeliger, H.W. [Alm GmbH, Saarbruecken (Germany)

    2008-09-15

    Sandwich panels consisting of a highly porous aluminium foam core and aluminium alloy face sheets are manufactured by roll-bonding aluminium alloy sheets to a densified mixture of metal powders - usually Al-Si or Al-Si-Cu alloys with 6-8% Si and 3-10% Cu - and titanium hydride, and foaming the resulting three-layer structure by a thermal treatment. We review the various processing steps of aluminium foam sandwich (AFS) and the metallurgical processes during foaming, compare the process to alternative ways to manufacture AFS, e.g. by adhesive bonding, and give an overview of the available literature. Two ways to treat AFS after foaming are presented, namely forging and age-hardening. Some current and potential applications are described and the market potential of AFS is assessed. (Abstract Copyright [2008], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  14. Local electrochemical behaviour of 7xxx aluminium alloys

    OpenAIRE

    F. Andreatta

    2004-01-01

    Aluminium alloys of the 7xxx series (Al-Zn-Mg-Cu) are susceptible to localized types of corrosion like pitting, intergranular corrosion and exfoliation corrosion. This represents a limitation for the application of these alloys in the aerospace components because localized corrosion might have a negative effect on safety and costs. This PhD thesis investigates the relation between electrochemical behaviour and microstructure of a number of 7xxx aluminium alloys: AA7075, AA7349 and an experime...

  15. Crushing modes of aluminium tubes under axial compression

    OpenAIRE

    Pled, Florent; Yan, Wenyi; Wen, Cui'e

    2014-01-01

    6 pages International audience A numerical study of the crushing of circular aluminium tubes with and without aluminium foam fillers has been carried out to investigate their buckling behaviours under axial compression. A crushing mode classification chart has been established for empty tubes. The influence of boundary conditions on crushing mode has also been investigated. The effect of foam filler on the crushing mode of tubes filled with foam was then examined. The predicted results ...

  16. Adhesive Bonding of Aluminium Alloy A5754 by Epoxy Resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Michalec

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Joining thin sheets of aluminium and its alloys is a promising area in the field of joining materials. Nowadays, joining methods that do not melt the material itself are increasingly being utilised. This paper deals with adhesive bonding of aluminium alloy A5754 by two-component epoxy resins. Theresults show that joints bonded by Hysol 9466 have appropriate mechanical properties, but that joints bonded by Hysol 9492 have better thermal stability.

  17. Modeling of aluminium deposition from chloroaluminate ionic liquids

    OpenAIRE

    Schaltin, Stijn; Ganapathi, Murugan; Binnemans, Koen; Fransaer, Jan

    2011-01-01

    A finite-element model of the electrodeposition of aluminium from chloroaluminate ionic liquids is introduced. The purpose of this model is to give an explanation for the reasonable current densities that can be achieved in chloroaluminate ionic liquids despite the fact that the electrochemically active Al2Cl7- complexes are transformed into inactive AlCl4- complexes during the electrodeposition of aluminium. The obtainable current density in the electrodeposition from chloroaluminate ionic l...

  18. TORSIONAL DEFORMATION AND FATIGUE BEHAVIOUR OF 6061 ALUMINIUM ALLOY

    OpenAIRE

    Marini Marno; Ahmad Badri Ismail

    2012-01-01

    Torsional deformation and fatigue behaviour of both solid and thin-walled tubular specimens were made from as-received and heat treated 6061 aluminium alloy were studied. 6061 aluminium alloy have been widely used as a candidate material in automobile, aerospace, aircraft and structural application because of their superior mechanical properties such as high strength to weight ratio, good ductility and others. The differences in cyclic deformation and fatigue behaviours between round and soli...

  19. Ball Pad Mold Electromagnetic Forming Process for Aluminium Alloy Sheet

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Wen-ping; Wu, Xiang-Dong; Wan, Min; Chen, Xiao-wei; Xiong, Wei-Ren

    2014-01-01

    In order to meet requirements of lightweight technology in the field of aerospace, the new forming technology for aluminium alloy skin parts and integral panel are brought to more attention. Based on the principle of electromagnetic forming (EMF) and energy distribution, a new electromagnetic forming process using ball as pad mold for aluminium alloy sheet forming was suggested and test apparatus was designed. The new method was verified by the finite element simulation and exp...

  20. Blast Loaded Aluminium Plates : Experiments and numerical simulations

    OpenAIRE

    Melby, Emil Arne; Eide, Hilde Olaug Stakvik

    2013-01-01

    Light and flexible protective constructions in aluminium could be subjected to a blast load. In this thesis the effect of blast loading on aluminium plates of the type 1050A ? H14 was studied through experiments and numerical simulations. The effect of fragmentation was idealized with predrilled holes. The thesis was written at the Structural Impact Laboratory (SIMLab) at NTNU in collaboration with the Norwegian Defence Estates Agency (NDEA).Tensile tests revealed a clearly anisotropic behavi...

  1. Adhesive Bonding of Aluminium Alloy A5754 by Epoxy Resins

    OpenAIRE

    Ivan Michalec; Milan Marônek

    2013-01-01

    Joining thin sheets of aluminium and its alloys is a promising area in the field of joining materials. Nowadays, joining methods that do not melt the material itself are increasingly being utilised. This paper deals with adhesive bonding of aluminium alloy A5754 by two-component epoxy resins. Theresults show that joints bonded by Hysol 9466 have appropriate mechanical properties, but that joints bonded by Hysol 9492 have better thermal stability.

  2. Prevention of Dealloying in Manganese Aluminium Bronze Propeller: Part II

    OpenAIRE

    Napachat Tareelap; Kaysinee Sriraksasin; Nakorn Srisukhumbowornchai; Swieng Thuanboon; Choochat Nitipanyawong

    2014-01-01

    Due to the failure of manganese aluminium bronze (MAB) propeller caused by dealloying corrosion as described in Part I [1], this work aims to study the prevention of dealloying corrosion using aluminium and zinc sacrificial anodes. The results indicated that both of the sacrificial anodes could prevent the propeller from dealloying. Moreover, the dealloying in seawater was less than that found in brackish water. It was possible that hydroxide ions, from cathodic reaction, reacted with calcium...

  3. Crystallographic orientation-spray formed hypereutectic aluminium-silicon alloys

    OpenAIRE

    Hamilta de Oliveira Santos; Marilene Morelli Serna; Nelson Batista de Lima; Isolda Costa; Jesualdo Luiz Rossi

    2005-01-01

    Aluminium-silicon alloys have been wide accepted in the automotive, electric and aerospace industries. Preferred orientation is a very common condition for metals and alloys. Particularly, aluminium induces texture during the forming process. The preparation of an aggregate with completely random crystal orientation is a difficult task. The present work was undertaken to analyse the texture by X-ray diffraction techniques, of three spray formed hypereutectic Al-Si alloys. Samples were taken f...

  4. Catalyzed reduction of nitrate in aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sodium nitrate and other nitrate salts in wastes is a major source of difficulty for permanent disposal. Reduction of nitrate using aluminum metal has been demonstrated, but NH3, hydrazine, or organic compounds containing oxygen would be advantageous for reduction of nitrate in sodium nitrate solutions. Objective of this seed money study was to determine minimum conditions for reduction. Proposed procedure was batchwise heating of aqueous solutions in closed vessels with monitoring of temperatures and pressures. A simple, convenient apparatus and procedure were demonstrated for observing formation of gaseous products and collecting samples for analyses. The test conditions were 250 degree C and 1000 psi max. Any useful reduction of sodium nitrate to sodium hydroxide as the primary product was not found. The nitrate present at pHs 3 or NH4NO3 is easily decomposed, and the effect of nitromethane at these low pHs was confirmed. When acetic acid or formic acid was added, 21 to 56% of the nitrate in sodium nitrate solutions was reduced by methanol or formaldehyde. With hydrazine and acetic acid, 73 % of the nitrate was decomposed to convert NaNO3 to sodium acetate. With hydrazine and formic acid, 36% of the nitrate was decomposed. If these products are more acceptable for final disposal than sodium nitrate, the reagents are cheap and the conversion conditions would be practical for easy use. Ammonium acetate or formate salts did not significantly reduce nitrate in sodium nitrate solutions

  5. Volatilisation and oxidation of aluminium scraps fed into incineration furnaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biganzoli, Laura; Gorla, Leopoldo; Nessi, Simone; Grosso, Mario

    2012-12-01

    Ferrous and non-ferrous metal scraps are increasingly recovered from municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash and used in the production of secondary steel and aluminium. However, during the incineration process, metal scraps contained in the waste undergo volatilisation and oxidation processes, which determine a loss of their recoverable mass. The present paper evaluates the behaviour of different types of aluminium packaging materials in a full-scale waste to energy plant during standard operation. Their partitioning and oxidation level in the residues of the incineration process are evaluated, together with the amount of potentially recoverable aluminium. About 80% of post-consumer cans, 51% of trays and 27% of foils can be recovered through an advanced treatment of bottom ash combined with a melting process in the saline furnace for the production of secondary aluminium. The residual amount of aluminium concentrates in the fly ash or in the fine fraction of the bottom ash and its recovery is virtually impossible using the current eddy current separation technology. The average oxidation levels of the aluminium in the residues of the incineration process is equal to 9.2% for cans, 17.4% for trays and 58.8% for foils. The differences between the tested packaging materials are related to their thickness, mechanical strength and to the alloy. PMID:22749723

  6. Surface roughness when diamond turning RSA 905 optical aluminium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otieno, T.; Abou-El-Hossein, K.; Hsu, W. Y.; Cheng, Y. C.; Mkoko, Z.

    2015-08-01

    Ultra-high precision machining is used intensively in the photonics industry for the production of various optical components. Aluminium alloys have proven to be advantageous and are most commonly used over other materials to make various optical components. Recently, the increasing demand from optical systems for optical aluminium with consistent material properties has led to the development of newly modified grades of aluminium alloys produced by rapid solidification in the foundry process. These new aluminium grades are characterised by their finer microstructures and refined mechanical and physical properties. However the machining database of these new optical aluminium grades is limited and more research is still required to investigate their machinability performance when they are diamond turned in ultrahigh precision manufacturing environment. This work investigates the machinability of rapidly solidified aluminium RSA 905 by varying a number of diamond-turning cutting parameters and measuring the surface roughness over a cutting distance of 4 km. The machining parameters varied in this study were the cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut. The results showed a common trend of decrease in surface roughness with increasing cutting distance. The lowest surface roughness Ra result obtained after 4 km in this study was 3.2 nm. This roughness values was achieved using a cutting speed of 1750 rpm, feed rate of 5 mm/min and depth of cut equal to 25 μm.

  7. Corrosion of aluminium alloy test coupons in the TRIGA Mark III Research Reactor of Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of corrosion studies developed in the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ) are presented. The extent of corrosion of the aluminium alloy coupons exposed to the water of ININ TRIGA reactor pool was not significant. Few pits and oxides were observed on the coupon surfaces immersed for different times. This reduced extent of corrosion was similar to those on coupons exposed at other sites as per data obtained by visual inspection, metallographic analysis and image analysis. The water chemistry in the reactor pool was monitored throughout the duration of the project. The main parameters that influence the corrosion of Al alloy fuel cladding were measured. The conductivity of the water in the reactor pool was 1-3 μS/cm, within recommended values to avoid corrosion. The chloride ion concentration was maintained below 1 ppm. Others ions (sulphates, calcium, nitrates) were also below 1 ppm. Another parameter that was measured was the amount of settled solids on coupon surfaces and their influence on corrosion. The sedimentation rate in the TRIGA Reactor pool was 17.66 μg/cm2 and the sediment composition indicated iron oxides, aluminium-silicon compounds and some calcium carbonates. The sedimentation rate was similar in magnitude to that at other storage sites. However, the corrosion racks in the ININ TRIGA Reactor were exposed to high water flow rates, 1324.5 l/min. This high flow rate is considered to reduce the amount of deposited solids on coupon surfaces. The particles deposited on the coupon surfaces influenced pit initiation. (author)

  8. Irradiation effects on aluminium and beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The High Flux Reactor (HFR) in Petten (The Netherlands) is a 45 MW light water cooled and moderated research reactor. The vessel was replaced in 1984 after more than 20 years of operation because doubts had arisen over the condition of the aluminium alloy construction material. Data on the mechanical properties of the aluminium alloy Al 5154 with and without neutron irradiation are necessary for the safety analysis of the new HFR vessel which is constructed from the same material as the old vessel. Fatigue, fracture mechanics (crack growth and fracture toughness) and tensile properties have been obtained from several experimental testing programmes with materials of the new and the old HFR vessel. 1) Low-cycle fatigue testing has been carried out on non-irradiated specimens from stock material of the new HFR vessel. The number of cycles to failure ranges from 90 to more than 50,000 for applied strain from 3.0% to 0.4%; 2) Fatigue crack growth rate testing has been conducted: - with unirradiated specimens from stock material of the new vessel; - with irradiated specimens from the remnants of the old core box. Irradiation has a minor effect on the sub-critical fatigue crack growth rate. The ultimate increase of the mean crack growth rate amounts to a factor of 2. However crack extension is strongly reduced due to the smaller crack length for crack growth instability (reduction of KIC). - Irradiated material from the core box walls of the old vessel has been used for fracture toughness testing. The conditional fracture toughness values KIQ ranges from 30.3 down to 16.5 MPa√m. The lowermost meaningful 'KIC' is 17.7 MPa√m corresponding to the thermal fluence of 7.5 1026 n/m2 for the End of Life (EOL) of the old vessel. - Testing carried out on irradiated material from the remnants of the old HFR core box shows an ultimate neutron irradiation hardening of 35 points increase of HSR15N and an ultimate tensile yield stress of 589 MPa corresponding to the ductility of 1

  9. A biological source of oceanic alkyl nitrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, E. E.; Lewis, C. B.; Velasco, F. L.; Escobar, C.; Kellogg, D.; Velcamp, M.

    2013-12-01

    Alkyl nitrates are an important component of reactive nitrogen in the troposphere. The oceans are a source of alkyl nitrates to the atmosphere, however the source of alkyl nitrates in the oceans is unknown. It has been demonstrated that the reaction of alkyl peroxy radicals (ROO) with nitric oxide (NO) produces alkyl nitrates in the aqueous phase. We hypothesize that alkyl nitrates may be formed by organisms through the same reaction and therefore biological production could be a source of alkyl nitrates to the troposphere. This work focuses on the production of alkyl nitrates by the diatoms Chaetoceros muelleri and Thalassiosira weisfloggi. Using chemostats, we measure alkyl nitrates formed under nitrate limited conditions. We also use triggers and inhibitors of nitric oxide formation to determine if alkyl nitrate formation is affected by changes in NO production. To date, the rates of production of alkyl nitrates in our cultures, lead us to estimate a production rate on the order of femtomolar/day for C1-C3 alkyl nitrates by diatom species in the equatorial Pacific Ocean. This suggests that diatoms may contribute to the overall ocean source of alkyl nitrates; however, it is possible that other types of phytoplankton, such as cyanobacteria, that are more abundant in the open ocean, may contribute to a greater extent.

  10. Nitrate metabolism in the gromiid microbial universe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgslund, Signe; Risgaard-Petersen, Nils; Cedhagen, Tomas

    Eukaryotic nitrate respiration supported by intracellular nitrate storages contributes substantially to the nitrogen cycle. Research focus is currently directed towards two phyla: Foraminifera and diatoms, but the widespread Gromia in the Rhizaria may be another key organism. These giant protists...

  11. Metal nitrate conversion method, patent application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2008-01-01

    A method for converting a supported metal nitrate into the corresponding supported metal comprises heating the metal nitrate to effect its decomposition under a gas mixture that contains nitric oxide and has an oxygen content of

  12. Bioaccumulation of Aluminium in Hydromacrophytes in Polish Coastal Lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senze Magdalena

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The research on aluminium content was conducted in water and on aquatic flora of Polish lakes in the central part of the coast. The study included the lakes Sarbsko, Choczewskie, Bia.e, K.odno, D.brze and Salino investigated in the summer of 2013. The examined lakes belong mainly to the direct basin of the Baltic Sea. Samples of aquatic plants and lake waters were collected. In the water samples pH and electrolytic conductivity were measured. The aluminium content was determined both in water and aquatic plants. Submerged hydromacrophyte studies included Myriophyllum alterniflorum L., Potamogeton perfoliatus L. and Ceratophyllum demersum L. Emergent hydromacrophyte studies included Phragmites australis (Cav. Trin. ex Steud., Juncus bulbosus L., Iris pseudacorus L., Eleocharis palustris (L. Roem. % Schult., Phalaris arundinacea L., Carex riparia Curt., Mentha aquatic L., Stratiotes aloides L., Alisma plantago-aquatica L., Glyceria maxima (Hartman Holmb., Sagittaria sagittifolia L., Scirpus lacustris L. and Typha angustifolia L. The purpose of this investigation was the determination of the aluminium content in submerged and emergent hydromacrophytes and also the definition of their bioaccumulative abilities. The average concentration of aluminium in water was 2.68 fęg Al dm.3. The average content of aluminium in plants was 2.8015 mg Al kg.1. The bioaccumulation factor ranged from BCF=19.74 to BCF=16619. On the basis of the analysis of the aluminium content in water and aquatic plants results show that both water and plants were characterized by a moderate level of aluminium. The recorded concentrations indicate a mid-range value and are much lower than those which are quoted for a variety of surface waters in various parts of the world.

  13. Oxidation of φ'-aluminium oxynitride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: Oxidation of φ'-AlON has been studied for the first time. First corrosion products are γ-alumina. Low density α-alumina is formed at high temperature. Grains are extensively cracked after oxidation. The low density of the α-alumina is due to a network of nanometric porosities. - Abstract: The oxidation in air of single crystal φ'-aluminium oxynitride (AlON) grains has been characterized by thermogravimetry and X-ray diffraction in the 1273-1673 K range. Two oxidation stages have been observed, suggesting the formation of a transitional phase. Below 1473 K, oxidation results in the apparition of platelets and noodle-like crystals on the surface of the initially faceted single crystals. Above 1473 K, low density α-alumina polycrystals start forming on the grain surface and grow towards the grain core with increasing temperature or time. Their low density is mainly due to the presence of a network of nano-porosities.

  14. Eu(III)-doped aluminium yttrium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, we report the synthesis and the photoluminescence features of Eu(III)-doped yttrium-aluminium oxide obtained by non-hydrolytic sol-gel routes. After heating the powders above 600 deg C the XRD patterns show the presence of the Y4Al2O9 (YAM) and Y3Al5O12 (YAG) phases. At 800 and at 1500 deg C the PL spectra display the Eu(III) lines characteristic of the YAM monoclinic phase. The 5D0→7F2 transition is favored relatively to the 5D0→7F1 lines. However, at 1100 deg C the cubic YAG is the preferential phase and the 5D0→7F1 transition dominates the spectrum. The Eu(III) ions lie in a centro symmetrical site. The different solvents used in the sol-gel synthesis also change the relative proportion between these two phases. This is monitored analyzing the modifications in the relative intensity between the 5D0→7F2 and the 5D0→7F1 transitions. (author)

  15. Anomalous Diffusion of Mo Implanted into Aluminium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张通和; 吴瑜光; 邓志威; 钱卫东

    2001-01-01

    Mo ions are implanted into aluminium with a high ion flux and high dose at elevated temperatures of 300℃, 400℃ and 500℃ . X-ray diffraction spectra show that the Al12Mo phases are formed. Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy indicates that a profile of Mo appears in Al around the depth of 550nm and with an atomic concentration of ~7%, when Mo is implanted to the dose of 3 × 1017/cm2 with an ion flux of 45μA/cm2 (400℃).If the dose increases to 1 × 1018/cm2 at the same ion flux, the penetration of Mo ions in Al can reach a depth of 2μm, which is greater than the ion project range Rp (52.5nm). The results show that anomalous diffusion takes place. Owing to the intense atom collision cascades, the diffusion coefficient increases greatly with the increase of the ion flux and dose. The Mo diffusion coefficients in Al are calculated. The Mo retained dose in A1 increases obviously with the increase of the ion flux.

  16. Fuzzy Multicriteria Ranking of Aluminium Coating Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batzias, A. F.

    2007-12-01

    This work deals with multicriteria ranking of aluminium coating methods. The alternatives used are: sulfuric acid anodization, A1; oxalic acid anodization, A2; chromic acid anodization, A3; phosphoric acid anodization, A4; integral color anodizing, A5; chemical conversion coating, A6; electrostatic powder deposition, A7. The criteria used are: cost of production, f1; environmental friendliness of production process, f2; appearance (texture), f3; reflectivity, f4; response to coloring, f5; corrosion resistance, f6; abrasion resistance, f7; fatigue resistance, f8. Five experts coming from relevant industrial units set grades to the criteria vector and the preference matrix according to a properly modified Delphi method. Sensitivity analysis of the ranked first alternative A1 against the `second best', which was A3 at low and A7 at high resolution levels proved that the solution is robust. The dependence of anodized products quality on upstream processes is presented and the impact of energy price increase on industrial cost is discussed.

  17. A Novel Chemical Nitrate Destruction Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dziewinski, J.; Marczak, S.

    1999-03-01

    Nitrates represent one of the most significant pollutant discharged to the Baltic Sea by the Sliiamae hydrometallurgical plant. This article contains a brief overview of the existing nitrate destruction technologies followed by the description of a new process developed by the authors. The new chemical process for nitrate destruction is cost effective and simple to operate. It converts the nitrate to nitrogen gas which goes to the atmosphere.

  18. Aluminium Matrix Composites Reinforced with Co-continuous Interlaced Phases Aluminium-alumina Needles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvio de Napole Gregolin

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available An Al-5SiO2 (5 wt% of SiO2 aluminium matrix fiber composite was produced where the reinforcement consists of fossil silica fibers needles. After being heat-treated at 600 °C, the original fiber morphology was retained but its microstructure changed from solid silica to an interconnected (Al-Si/Al2O3 interlaced structure named co-continuous composite. A technique of powder metallurgy, using commercial aluminium powder and the silica fibers as starting materials, followed by hot extrusion, was used to produce the composite. The co-continuous microstructure was obtained partially or totally on the fibers as a result of the reaction, which occurs during the heat treatment, first by solid diffusion and finally by the liquid Al-Si in local equilibrium, formed with the silicon released by reaction. The internal structure of the fibers was characterized using field emission electron microscope (FEG-SEM and optical microscopy on polished and fractured samples.

  19. Fabrication experience of aluminium clad aluminium matrix dispersion fuels at BARC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aluminium clad, aluminium matrix plate type dispersion fuels have been fabricated in BARC in recent years as part of fuel development programme for small non-power research reactors. The present paper describes the flowsheet developed for fabrication of Al-UAlx, Al-U3Si2 and Al-U3O8 fuels at BARC. The Al-20% U alloy fuel for KAMINI neutron radiography reactor was prepared by 'melting and casting' route, followed by picture framing and roll-bonding. For higher 'U' density fuels namely, Al-UAlx, Al-U3O8 and Al-U3Si2 the 'powder metallurgy' route was followed for preparation of fuel meat. The novel features in fabrication route were: addition of Zr for stabilizing UAl3 phase in Al-20% U alloy; x-ray radiography and microdensitometric scanning of radiographs for location of fuel outline inside fuel element and for confirming homogeneous distribution of fissile atoms; immersion ultrasonic testing for confirming good bonding between mating Al surface of the fuel plate. (author)

  20. Modeling nitrate removal in a denitrification bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denitrification beds are being promoted to reduce nitrate concentrations in agricultural drainage water to alleviate the adverse environmental effects associated with nitrate pollution in surface water. In this system, water flows through a trench filled with a carbon media where nitrate is transfor...

  1. 21 CFR 172.160 - Potassium nitrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium nitrate. 172.160 Section 172.160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Preservatives § 172.160 Potassium nitrate. The food additive potassium nitrate may be safely used as a...

  2. Nitrate Uptake, Nitrate Reductase Distribution and their Relation to Proton Release in Five Nodulated Grain Legumes

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, X. H.; Tang, C; RENGEL, Z.

    2002-01-01

    Nitrate uptake, nitrate reductase activity (NRA) and net proton release were compared in five grain legumes grown at 0·2 and 2 mm nitrate in nutrient solution. Nitrate treatments, imposed on 22‐d‐old, fully nodulated plants, lasted for 21 d. Increasing nitrate supply did not significantly influence the growth of any of the species during the treatment, but yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus) had a higher growth rate than the other species examined. At 0·2 mm nitrate supply, nitrate uptake rates ran...

  3. High temperature interaction studies on equimolar nitrate mixture of uranyl nitrate hexahydrate and gadolinium nitrate hexahydrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rare earths including gadolinium form a sizeable fraction of the fission products in the nuclear fission of fissile material in the reactor. These fission products can interact with uranium dioxide fuel and can form various compounds which can alter the thermal behavior of the fuel. The mixed oxide formed due to the high temperature interactions of mixture of uranyl nitrate hexahydrate (UNH) and gadolinium nitrate hexahydrate (GdNH) has been studied using thermal and X- ray diffraction techniques. The equimolar mixture of UNH and GdNH was prepared by mixing the weighed amount of individual nitrates and grinding gently with mortar and pestle. Thermogravimetry (TG) measurements were carried out by separately heating 100 mg of mixture and individual nitrates at heating rate of 10°C min-1 using Netzsch thermal analyzer (Model No.: STA 409 PC Luxx) in high purity nitrogen atmosphere with a flow rate of 120 mL min-1. The XRD measurement was carried out on a Philips X-ray diffractometer (Model PW1710) using nickel-filtered Cu-Kα radiation

  4. Impact properties of aluminium - glass fiber reinforced plastics sandwich panels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathivanan Periasamy

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Aluminium - glass fiber reinforced plastics (GFRP sandwich panels are hybrid laminates consisting of GFRP bonded with thin aluminum sheets on either side. Such sandwich materials are increasingly used in airplane and automobile structures. Laminates with varying aluminium thickness fractions, fiber volume fractions and orientation in the layers of GFRP were fabricated by hand lay up method and evaluated for their impact performance by conducting drop weight tests under low velocity impacts. The impact energy required for initiating a crack in the outer aluminium layer as well as the energy required for perforation was recorded. The impact load-time history was also recorded to understand the failure behavior. The damage depth and the damage area were measured to evaluate the impact resistance. Optical photography and scanning electron micrographs were taken to visualize the crack and the damage zone. The bidirectional cross-ply hybrid laminate (CPHL has been found to exhibit better impact performance and damage resistance than the unidirectional hybrid laminate (UDHL. Increase in aluminium thickness fraction (Al tf and fiber volume fraction (Vf resulted in an increase in the impact energy required for cracking and perforation. On an overall basis, the sandwich panels exhibited better impact performance than the monolithic aluminium.

  5. Improving Efficiency of Aluminium Sacrificial Anode Using Cold Work Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmara, Y. P.; Siregar, J. P.; Tezara, C.; Ann, Chang Tai

    2016-02-01

    Aluminium is one of the preferred materials to be used as sacrificial anode for carbon steel protection. The efficiency of these can be low due to the formation of oxide layer which passivate the anodes. Currently, to improve its efficiency, there are efforts using a new technique called surface modifications. The objective of this research is to study corrosion mechanism of aluminium sacrificial anode which has been processed by cold work. The cold works are applied by reducing the thickness of aluminium sacrificial anodes at 20% and 40% of thickness reduction. The cathodic protection experiments were performed by immersion of aluminium connected to carbon steel cylinder in 3% NaCl solutions. Visual inspections using SEM had been conducted during the experiments and corrosion rate data were taken in every week for 8 weeks of immersion time. Corrosion rate data were measured using weight loss and linear polarization technique (LPR). From the results, it is observed that cold worked aluminium sacrificial anode have a better corrosion performance. It shows higher corrosion rate and lower corrosion potential. The anodes also provided a long functional for sacrificial anode before it stop working. From SEM investigation, it is shown that cold works have changed the microstructure of anodes which is suspected in increasing corrosion rate and cause de-passivate of the surface anodes.

  6. The structure of high-quality aluminium cast iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Kopyciński

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study presents the analyse of aluminium iron cast structure (as-cast condition which are used in high temperature. While producing the casts of aluminium iron major influence has been preserve the structure of technological process parameters. The addition to Fe-C-Al alloy V, Ti, Cr leads to the improvement of functional and mechanical cast qualities. In this study, a method was investigated to eliminate the presence of undesirable Al4C3 phases in a aluminium cast iron structure and thus improve the production process. V and Ti additions in aluminium cast iron allows to development of FeAl - VC or TiC alloys. In particular, V or Ti contents above 5 wt.% were found to totally eliminate the presence of Al4C3. In addition, preliminary work indicates that the alloy with the FeAl - VC or TiC structure reveals high oxidation resistance. The introduction of 5 wt.% chromium to aluminium cast iron strengthened Al4C3 precipitate. Thus, the resultant alloy can be considered an intermetallic FeAl matrix strengthened by VC and TiC or modified Al4C3 reinforcements.

  7. Corrosion of aluminium metal in OPC- and CAC-based cement matrices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinoshita, Hajime, E-mail: h.kinoshita@sheffield.ac.uk [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Sheffield, Mappin Street, Sheffield, S1 3JD (United Kingdom); Swift, Paul; Utton, Claire [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Sheffield, Mappin Street, Sheffield, S1 3JD (United Kingdom); Carro-Mateo, Beatriz [The Public University of Navarra, C/Esquíroz, 30 trasera, Pamplona 31007 (Spain); Marchand, Geraldine [The National Institute of Applied Sciences (INSA) Lyon, 20 Avenue Albert Einstein 69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Collier, Nick [National Nuclear Laboratory, Chadwick House, Birchwood Park, Warrington, WA3 6AE (United Kingdom); Milestone, Neil [Industrial Research Ltd., 69 Gracefield Road, Lower Hutt, 5040 (New Zealand)

    2013-08-15

    Corrosion of aluminium metal in ordinary Portland cement (OPC) based pastes produces hydrogen gas and expansive reaction products causing problems for the encapsulation of aluminium containing nuclear wastes. Although corrosion of aluminium in cements has been long known, the extent of aluminium corrosion in the cement matrices and effects of such reaction on the cement phases are not well established. The present study investigates the corrosion reaction of aluminium in OPC, OPC-blast furnace slag (BFS) and calcium aluminate cement (CAC) based systems. The total amount of aluminium able to corrode in an OPC and 4:1 BFS:OPC system was determined, and the correlation between the amount of calcium hydroxide in the system and the reaction of aluminium obtained. It was also shown that a CAC-based system could offer a potential matrix to incorporate aluminium metal with a further reduction of pH by introduction of phosphate, producing a calcium phosphate cement.

  8. Nitration of naphthalene and remarks on the mechanism of electrophilic aromatic nitration*

    OpenAIRE

    Olah, George A.; Narang, Subhash C.; Olah, Judith A.

    1981-01-01

    Naphthalene was nitrated with a variety of nitrating agents. Comparison of data with Perrin's electrochemical nitration [Perrin, C. L. (1977) J. Am. Chem. Soc. 99, 5516-5518] shows that nitration of naphthalene gives an α-nitronaphthalene to β-nitronaphthalene ratio that varies between 9 and 29 and is thus not constant. Perrin's data, therefore, are considered to be inconclusive evidence for the proposed one-electron transfer mechanism for the nitration of naphthalene and other reactive aroma...

  9. Residual stress in 7449 aluminium alloy forgings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The through thickness residual stress distributions within three 120 mm thick rectilinear forgings, made from the high strength aluminium alloy 7449 have been measured using both neutron diffraction and deep hole drilling. Neutron diffraction measurements were made on two instruments, one using a pulsed spallation neutron source, the other a steady state reactor source. Heat treatment of the forgings included a rapid quench into cold water and it was the residual stresses arising from this step that were initially measured. Neutron diffraction measurements indicated large magnitude (>250 MPa) tensile residual stresses in the centre of an as quenched forging, balanced by surface regions stressed in compression (<-200 MPa). Sufficient measurements were made to permit the description of the residual stress distribution using area maps. Two forgings were stress relieved by cold compression immediately after quenching. The degree of plastic strain was either 2.5% or 4%, and was applied by a single application of force in the short transverse direction. Cold compressed forgings were found to have far lower residual stress when compared to the as quenched condition. The amount of cold compression was found to cause an insignificant difference in the final residual stress distribution. The neutron diffraction results are compared to measurements made by deep hole drilling and a new incremental variation of the technique. The deep hole was drilled through the centre of the forgings in the short transverse direction. Multiple neutron diffraction measurements were also made on the extracted cores from the deep hole measurements to assess the variation of the unstrained lattice parameter through the thickness of the forgings.

  10. PEMBINAAN PENGERAJIN BOKOR ALUMINIUM DI DESA MENYALI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I NYOMAN GDE ANTARA, dkk.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Alluminium bowl craft industrial center is located in Menyali village Sawan district Buleleng regency of Bali province. In this business development, they faced some problems such as increasingly expensive alluminium plate raw materials, decreasing selling product prices due to competition among craftsmen, difficulty in extending the marketing, lack of capital, lack of knowledge in business management, and lack of technical capacity and production innovation. Currently the organization has been formed aluminum bowl craftsmen groups, they are “Sumber Urip” and “Sumur Jaya”. This organization is still limited to tradisional associations such as a community organization, has not led to organize in a micro-enterprise or cooperation. Their organization management should not be arranged. Therefore, they need helps from the government and other institutions to build this bowl craftsmen in developing their businesses through a group of micro-enterprises or cooperations. Wishly, with formal business entity that would facilitate access to a variety of coaching and help governments andother institutions. From the SWOT analysis, it is found some problems and solutions that should be done. Alluminium bowl craftsmen groups, named “Sumber Urip” and “Sumur Jaya” is not in the form of business entity or cooperation yet, so that the results of coaching have agreed to form a cooperation. Venture capital assistance for the development and production are still needed and to be an absolute given, but a way to market more absolute yield is given, through participation in various events exhibition to introduce the product is expected to expandits market share up to overseas or exports. In the production process it has been introduced that is appropriate technology for instant a rolling tool to make a wiring groove on the outside of the bowl, so that it will simplify and speed up the process, especially by aged mothers.Keywords: aluminium bowl, Menyali

  11. Low Speed Laser Welding of Aluminium Alloys Using Single-Mode Fiber Lasers

    OpenAIRE

    Tu, Jay; Paleocrassas, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    In this chapter, topics related to extending fiber laser welding of aluminium in the low speed range were discussed. General topics, such as the properties of aluminium and welding defects, review of high speed laser welding of aluminium, and fiber laser characteristics and optical setups for safety, were first reviewed. Recent research results on the modelling and validation of laser welding of aluminium, experimental characterization of low speed welding processes, and the instability pheno...

  12. Influence of Alkali Treatment on the Surface Area of Aluminium Dross

    OpenAIRE

    Zauzi, N. S. Ahmad; M. Z. H. Zakaria; Baini, R.; Rahman, M. R.; N. Mohamed Sutan; Hamdan, S

    2016-01-01

    Aluminium dross is an industrial waste from aluminium refining industry and classified as toxic substances. However, the disposal of dross as a waste is a burden to aluminium manufacturer industries due to its negative effects to the ecosystem, surface, and ground water. Therefore the purpose of this study is to evaluate the influence of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) on the surface area and pore size of aluminium dross. There were 3 stages in the treatment activities, which were leaching, precipita...

  13. The determination of boron in high-purity aluminium metal by spark-source mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method is described for the determination of boron in high-purity aluminium metal. Both isotopic boron lines (10B+1 and 11B+1) are used for the analysis. As there are no low-abundance isotopic lines for aluminium, measurements were made direct without reference to aluminium as an internal standard. The boron concentration values of eight aluminium samples analysed by this method compared favourably with results obtained from other techniques

  14. Aluminium salen and salan catalysts for polymerisation of novel monomers and macrostructures

    OpenAIRE

    MacDonald, Jarret Preston

    2016-01-01

    Aluminium salen and aluminium salan complexes are excellent catalysts for the ring-opening polymerisation of lactide. This thesis studied their efficacy in the polymerisation of novel monomers and their ability to build new macrostructures. Aluminium salen and aluminium salan complexes were tested as catalysts for ring-opening polymerisation of common aliphatic monomers where controlled polymer synthesis has not yet been achieved with similar systems. Excellent control over ...

  15. Deconstructing nitrate isotope dynamics in aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granger, J.

    2012-12-01

    The natural abundance N and O stable isotope ratios of nitrate provide an invaluable tool to differentiate N sources to the environment, track their dispersal, and monitor their attenuation by biological transformations. The interpretation of patterns in isotope abundances relies on knowledge of the isotope ratios of the source end-members, as well as on constraints on the isotope discrimination imposed on nitrate by respective biological processes. Emergent observations from mono-culture experiments of denitrifying bacteria reveal nitrate fractionation trends that appear at odds with trends ascribed to denitrification in soils and aquifers. This discrepancy raises the possibility that additional biological N transformations may be acting in tandem with denitrification. Here, the N and O isotope enrichments associated with nitrate removal by denitrification in aquifers are posited to bear evidence of coincident biological nitrate production - from nitrification and/or from anammox. Simulations are presented from a simple time-dependent one-box model of a groundwater mass ageing that is subject to net nitrate loss by denitrification with coincident nitrate production by nitrification or anammox. Within boundary conditions characteristic of freshwater aquifers, the apparent slope of the parallel enrichments in nitrate N and O isotopes associated with net N loss to denitrification can vary in proportion to the nitrate added simultaneous by oxidative processes. Pertinent observations from nitrate plumes in suboxic to anoxic aquifers are examined to validate this premise. In this perspective, nitrate isotope distributions suggest that we may be missing important N fluxes inherent to most aquifers.

  16. IEC 61267: Feasibility of type 1100 aluminium and a copper/aluminium combination for RQA beam qualities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, David L; Rainford, Louise; Zhao, Wei; Brennan, Patrick C

    2016-01-01

    In the course of performance acceptance testing, benchmarking or quality control of X-ray imaging systems, it is sometimes necessary to harden the X-ray beam spectrum. IEC 61267 specifies materials and methods to accomplish beam hardening and, unfortunately, requires the use of 99.9% pure aluminium (Alloy 1190) for the RQA beam quality, which is expensive and difficult to obtain. Less expensive and more readily available filters, such as Alloy 1100 (99.0% pure) aluminium and copper/aluminium combinations, have been used clinically to produce RQA series without rigorous scientific investigation to support their use. In this paper, simulation and experimental methods are developed to determine the differences in beam quality using Alloy 1190 and Alloy 1100. Additional simulation investigated copper/aluminium combinations to produce RQA5 and outputs from this simulation are verified with laboratory tests using different filter samples. The results of the study demonstrate that although Alloy 1100 produces a harder beam spectrum compared to Alloy 1190, it is a reasonable substitute. A combination filter of 0.5 mm copper and 2 mm aluminium produced a spectrum closer to that of Alloy 1190 than Alloy 1100 with the added benefits of lower exposures and lower batch variability. PMID:26776501

  17. Determination of ultratrace amounts of uranium and thorium in aluminium and aluminium alloys by electrothermal vaporization/ICP-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method has been developed for determining the 0.01 ng g-1 level of uranium and thorium in aluminium and aluminium alloys by electrothermal vaporization (ETV)/ICP-MS. This method was found to be significantly interfered with any matrices or other elements contained. An ion-exchange technique was therefore applied to separate uranium and thorium from aluminium and other elements. It was known that uranium are adsorbed on an anion-exchange resin and thorium are adsorbed on cation-exchange resin. However, aluminium and copper were eluted with 6 M hydrochloric acid. Dissolve the sample with hydrochloric acid containing copper which was added for analysis of pure aluminium, and oxidize with hydrogen peroxide. Concentration of hydrochloric acid in the solution was adjusted to 6 M, and then passed the solution through the mixed ion-exchange resin column. After the uranium and thorium were eluted with 1 M hydrofluoric acid-0.1 M hydrochloric acid, the solution was evaporated to dryness. It was then dissolved with 1 M hydrochloric acid. Uranium and thorium were analyzed by ETV/ICP-MS using tungsten and molybdenum boats, respectively, since the tungsten boat contained high-level thorium and the molybdenum boat contained uranium. The determination limit of uranium and thorium were 0.003 and 0.005 ng g-1, respectively. (author)

  18. Phase diagram of ammonium nitrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammonium Nitrate (AN) has often subjected to uses in improvised explosive devices, due to its wide availability as a fertilizer and its capability of becoming explosive with slight additions of organic and inorganic compounds. Yet, the origin of enhanced energetic properties of impure AN (or AN mixtures) is neither chemically unique nor well understood -resulting in rather catastrophic disasters in the past1 and thereby a significant burden on safety in using ammonium nitrates even today. To remedy this situation, we have carried out an extensive study to investigate the phase stability of AN at high pressure and temperature, using diamond anvil cells and micro-Raman spectroscopy. The present results confirm the recently proposed phase IV-to-IV' transition above 17 GPa2 and provide new constraints for the melting and phase diagram of AN to 40 GPa and 400 °C.

  19. Collection of Nitrate in a Denuder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Feig

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Data are given for aerosol nitrate (NO3- size distributions in the atmosphere as recorded by a cascade impactor and by an annular denuder. Using this data, our goal is to find the percent of nitrate in the atmosphere that the denuder is able to detect. This requires that we find the size distribution of nitrate that enters the denuder. From these data and calculations, we find that 32.8% of nitrate in the atmosphere can be detected by the denuder. Nitrate was measured to study its affects on seagrass in the Tampa Bay and to compare nitrate levels with seagrass growth and decline. Using a denuder for routine measurements will not allow scientists to accurately compare nitrate data to seagrass levels.

  20. Behaviour of painted aluminium in Ibero-American atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aluminium generally presents good corrosion resistance to the atmosphere. However, unprotected aluminium and aluminium alloys weather outdoors to an ugly grey colour, which deepens to black in industrial atmospheres, and undergo superficial pitting in marine atmospheres, etc. Finishing technologies are applied for their protection and decoration in a wide range of applications. These technologies basically consist of two protection processes: anodizing and painting: the latter going from conventional solvent base paints to modern water-born, high solids and powder coatings. This paper considers the weathering performance of three paint systems: alkyl, polyurethane and polyester, after more than three years of exposure in a wide spectra of Ibero-American atmospheric conditions. The information reported includes resistance to undercutting corrosion at the scribe, filiform corrosion, fungal attack and change in the physico-chemical properties of the paint surface (loss of gloss, colour changes, chalking, etc.). (Author) 9 refs

  1. Sensitivity analysis on ultimate strength of aluminium stiffened panels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rigo, P.; Sarghiuta, R.; Estefen, S.; Lehmann, E.; Otelea, S. C.; Pasqualino, I.; Simonsen, Bo Cerup; Wan, Z.; Yao, T.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an extensive sensitivity analysis carried out by the Committee III.1 "Ultimate Strength" of ISSC?2003 in the framework of a benchmark on the ultimate strength of aluminium stiffened panels. Previously, different benchmarks were presented by ISSC committees on...... ultimate strength. The goal has typically been to give guidance to the designer on how to predict the ultimate strength and to indicate what level of accuracy would be expected. This time, the target of this benchmark is to present reliable finite element methods to study the behaviour of axial compressed...... stiffened aluminium panels (including extruded profiles). Main objectives are to compare codes/models and to perfom quantitative sensitivity analysis of the ultimate strength of a welded aluminium panel on various parameters (typically the heat-affected zone). Two phases were planned. In Phase A, alle...

  2. Aluminium toxicity in the rat liver and brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate the etiology of Alzheimer's disease, we examined the brain and liver tissue uptake of aluminium 5-75 days after aluminium injection into healthy rats. Ten days after the last injection, Al was detected in the brain and the brain cell nuclei by particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis. Al was also demonstrated in the liver and the liver cell nuclei by PIXE analysis and electron energy loss spectrometry (EELS). The morphological changes of the rat brain examined 75 days after the injection were similar to those which have been reportedly observed in the brain of patients with Alzheimer's disease. These results support the theory that Alzheimer's disease is caused by irreversible accumulation of aluminium in the brain, as well as the nuclei of brain cells. (orig.)

  3. Comparative performance of aluminium copper and iron solar stills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three different metal sheets have been used in the fabrication of three different single sloping solar stills of the same surface geometry. The metals were galvanized iron, aluminium and copper. This paper presents the performance of the different stills operating under the same environmental conditions. The observed distillate yields was greatest for copper, then aluminium and lastly, iron still. The differences in the yields is attributed to the differences in the thermal conductivities of the metals. The equivalent local costs for the fabrication of the copper, aluminium and iron stills are respectively $160, $95 and $60. Taking the long run costs into consideration, the copper still is preferred because of its availability, durability, weldability and relatively higher conductivity of 380Wm-1K-1 value. (author). 9 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs

  4. Pressureless sintered silicon carbide tailored with aluminium nitride sintering agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study reports the influence of aluminium nitride on the pressureless sintering of cubic phase silicon carbide nanoparticles (β-SiC). Pressureless sintering was achieved at 2000 degrees C for 5 min with the additions of boron carbide together with carbon of 1 wt% and 6 wt%, respectively, and a content of aluminium nitride between 0 and 10 wt%. Sintered samples present relative densities higher than 92%. The sintered microstructure was found to be greatly modified by the introduction of aluminium nitride, which reflects the influence of nitrogen on the β-SiC to α-SiC transformation. The toughness of sintered sample was not modified by AlN incorporation and is relatively low (around 2.5 MPa m1/2). Materials exhibited transgranular fracture mode, indicating a strong bonding between SiC grains. (authors)

  5. Reflection of infrared radiation from thin aluminium layers

    CERN Document Server

    Calatroni, Sergio

    2001-01-01

    The thermal shielding of the LHC magnets cryostats will make use of Multi-Layer Insulation. This is a sandwich of several Mylar (polyester) foils 6 µm thick coated with a thin film of aluminium, having a thickness of some 30 nm. The thickness of the aluminium film must be kept at a minimum to minimise lateral thermal conduction. The outer layer of this sandwich stays at a temperature of 20 K or below, and receives IR radiation from surfaces at 77 K (wavelength of 37.6 µm at the peak of blackbody radiation), which should be reflected with the highest efficiency. The minimum thickness for the aluminium layer to avoid transmission of the radiation can be calculated by making use of the skin effect theory, taking into account the changes in electrical properties that are due to the extremely low thickness of the film.

  6. 5-Chloro-8-hydroxyquinolinium nitrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seik Weng Ng

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The 5-chloro-8-hydroxyquinolinium cation in the the title ion pair, C9H7ClNO+·NO3−, is approximately coplanar with the nitrate anion [dihedral angle = 16.1 (1°]. Two ion pairs are hydrogen bonded (2 × O—H...O and 2 × N—H...O about a center of inversion, generating an R44(14 ring.

  7. 2-Amino-5-chloropyridinium nitrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donia Zaouali Zgolli

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The title structure, C5H6ClN2+·NO3−, is held together by extensive hydrogen bonding between the NO3− ions and 2-amino-5-chloropyridinium H atoms. The cation–anion N—H...O hydrogen bonds link the ions into a zigzag- chain which develops parallel to the b axis. The structure may be compared with that of the related 2-amino-5-cyanopyridinium nitrate.

  8. Chapter 12. The initial aluminium as a raw material for goods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aluminium-raw product and methods of its refining including sedimentation, refining by inert gases and by fluxes was considered. The chemical composition of commodity aluminium was considered as well. The initial processing of aluminium-raw product was studied

  9. Bakable aluminium vacuum chamber and bellows with an aluminum flange and metal seal for ultrahigh vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A bakable (2000C) aluminium alloy vacuum chamber and bellows (6063-T6) with an aluminium alloy (2219-T87) flange and metal seal (Helicoflex-HN: aluminium O-ring) has been constructed. Such components may be used in the assemblies of the vacuum chambers in proton synchrotrons and electron storage rings

  10. Structural perturbation of diphtheria toxoid upon adsorption to aluminium hydroxide adjuvant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Regnier, Marie; Metz, Bernard; Tilstra, Wichard; Hendriksen, Coenraad; Jiskoot, Wim; Norde, Willem; Kersten, Gideon

    2012-01-01

    Aluminium-containing adjuvants are often used to enhance the potency of vaccines. In the present work we studied whether adsorption of diphtheria toxoid to colloidal aluminium hydroxide induces conformational changes of the antigen. Diphtheria toxoid has a high affinity for the aluminium hydroxide p

  11. 49 CFR 176.415 - Permit requirements for Division 1.5, ammonium nitrates, and certain ammonium nitrate fertilizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... nitrates, and certain ammonium nitrate fertilizers. 176.415 Section 176.415 Transportation Other... requirements for Division 1.5, ammonium nitrates, and certain ammonium nitrate fertilizers. (a) Except as... Captain of the Port (COTP). (1) Ammonium nitrate UN1942, ammonium nitrate fertilizers containing more...

  12. Electrolytic production of uranous nitrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efficient production of uranous nitrate is important in nuclear fuel reprocessing because U(IV) acts as a plutonium reductant in solvent extraction and can be coprecipitated with plutonium and/or throium as oxalates during fuel reprocessing. Experimental conditions are described for the efficient electrolytic production of uranous nitrate for use as a reductant in the SRP Purex process. The bench-scale, continuous-flow, electrolysis cell exhibits a current efficiency approaching 100% in combination with high conversion rates of U(VI) to U(IV) in simulated and actual SRP Purex solutions. High current efficiency is achieved with a voltage-controlled mercury-plated platinum electrode and the use of hydrazine as a nitrite scavenger. Conversion of U(VI) to U(IV) proceeds at 100% efficiency. Cathodic gas generation is minimal. The low rate of gas generation permits a long residence time within the cathode, a necessary condition for high conversions on a continuous basis. Design proposals are given for a plant-scale, continuous-flow unit to meet SRP production requirements. Results from the bench-scale tests indicate that an 8-kW unit can supply sufficient uranous nitrate reductant to meet the needs of the Purex process at SRP

  13. Characterisation of Ga-coated and Ga-brazed aluminium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferchaud, E. [Universite de Nantes, Polytech' Nantes, Laboratoire Genie des Materiaux et Procedes Associes, Rue Christian Pauc, 44306 Nantes Cedex 3 (France); Christien, F., E-mail: frederic.christien@univ-nantes.fr [Universite de Nantes, Polytech' Nantes, Laboratoire Genie des Materiaux et Procedes Associes, Rue Christian Pauc, 44306 Nantes Cedex 3 (France); Barnier, V. [Ecole Nationale Superieure des Mines, MPI, CNRS UMR5146, Centre SMS, 158 Cours Fauriel, 42023 Saint Etienne (France); Paillard, P. [Universite de Nantes, Polytech' Nantes, Laboratoire Genie des Materiaux et Procedes Associes, Rue Christian Pauc, 44306 Nantes Cedex 3 (France)

    2012-05-15

    This work is devoted to the brazing of aluminium using liquid gallium. Gallium was deposited on aluminium samples at {approx} 50 Degree-Sign C using a liquid gallium 'polishing' technique. Brazing was undertaken for 30 min at 500 Degree-Sign C in air. EDS (Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy) and AES (Auger Electron Spectroscopy) characterisation of Ga-coated samples has shown that the Ga surface layer thickness is of ten (or a few tens of) nanometres. Furthermore, aluminium oxide layer (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) was shown to be 'descaled' during Ga deposition, which ensures good conditions for further brazing. Cross-section examination of Ga-coated samples shows that liquid gallium penetrates into the aluminium grain boundaries during deposition. The thickness of the grain boundary gallium film was measured using an original EDS technique and is found to be of a few tens of nanometres. The depth of gallium grain boundary penetration is about 300 {mu}m at the deposition temperature. The fracture stress of the brazed joints was measured from tensile tests and was determined to be 33 MPa. Cross-section examination of brazed joints shows that gallium has fully dissolved into the bulk and that the joint is really autogenous. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Aluminium can be brazed using liquid gallium deposited by a 'polishing' technique. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The aluminium oxide layer is 'descaled' during liquid Ga 'polishing' deposition. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EDS can be used for determination of surface and grain boundary Ga film thickness. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The surface and grain boundary Ga film thickness is of a few tens of nm. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Surface and grain boundary gallium dissolves in the bulk during brazing.

  14. Sensitivity of nitrate aerosols to ammonia emissions and to nitrate chemistry: implications for present and future nitrate optical depth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Paulot

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We update and evaluate the treatment of nitrate aerosols in the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL atmospheric model (AM3. Accounting for the radiative effects of nitrate aerosols generally improves the simulated aerosol optical depth, although nitrate concentrations at the surface are biased high. This bias can be reduced by increasing the deposition of nitrate to account for the near-surface volatilization of ammonium nitrate or by neglecting the heterogeneous production of nitric acid to account for the inhibition of N2O5 reactive uptake at high nitrate concentrations. Globally, uncertainties in these processes can impact the simulated nitrate optical depth by up to 25 %, much more than the impact of uncertainties in the seasonality of ammonia emissions (6 % or in the uptake of nitric acid on dust (13 %. Our best estimate for present-day fine nitrate optical depth at 550 nm is 0.006 (0.005–0.008. We only find a modest increase of nitrate optical depth (2 (−40 % and ammonia (+38 % from 2010 to 2050. Nitrate burden is projected to increase in the tropics and in the free troposphere, but to decrease at the surface in the midlatitudes because of lower nitric acid concentrations. Our results suggest that better constraints on the heterogeneous chemistry of nitric acid on dust, on tropical ammonia emissions, and on the transport of ammonia to the free troposphere are needed to improve projections of aerosol optical depth.

  15. Sensitivity of nitrate aerosols to ammonia emissions and to nitrate chemistry: implications for present and future nitrate optical depth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulot, F.; Ginoux, P.; Cooke, W. F.; Donner, L. J.; Fan, S.; Lin, M.-Y.; Mao, J.; Naik, V.; Horowitz, L. W.

    2016-02-01

    We update and evaluate the treatment of nitrate aerosols in the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) atmospheric model (AM3). Accounting for the radiative effects of nitrate aerosols generally improves the simulated aerosol optical depth, although nitrate concentrations at the surface are biased high. This bias can be reduced by increasing the deposition of nitrate to account for the near-surface volatilization of ammonium nitrate or by neglecting the heterogeneous production of nitric acid to account for the inhibition of N2O5 reactive uptake at high nitrate concentrations. Globally, uncertainties in these processes can impact the simulated nitrate optical depth by up to 25 %, much more than the impact of uncertainties in the seasonality of ammonia emissions (6 %) or in the uptake of nitric acid on dust (13 %). Our best estimate for fine nitrate optical depth at 550 nm in 2010 is 0.006 (0.005-0.008). In wintertime, nitrate aerosols are simulated to account for over 30 % of the aerosol optical depth over western Europe and North America. Simulated nitrate optical depth increases by less than 30 % (0.0061-0.010) in response to projected changes in anthropogenic emissions from 2010 to 2050 (e.g., -40 % for SO2 and +38 % for ammonia). This increase is primarily driven by greater concentrations of nitrate in the free troposphere, while surface nitrate concentrations decrease in the midlatitudes following lower concentrations of nitric acid. With the projected increase of ammonia emissions, we show that better constraints on the vertical distribution of ammonia (e.g., convective transport and biomass burning injection) and on the sources and sinks of nitric acid (e.g., heterogeneous reaction on dust) are needed to improve estimates of future nitrate optical depth.

  16. Aging of maraging steel welds during aluminium alloy die casting

    OpenAIRE

    Klobčar, Damjan; Pleterski, Matej; Taljat, Boštjan; Kosec, Ladislav; Tušek, Janez

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate precipitation annealing of 18% Ni maraging steel repair welds during aluminium die casting and to predict the prolonged in-service tool life. The emphasis of this study is the influence ofpost-weld precipitation annealing heat treatment and aluminium die casting thermal cycling on metallurgical and mechanical properties. A series of specimens of 1.2344 tool steel is prepared to which 1.6356 maraging steel is GTA weld cladded. Analysis of weld microstructur...

  17. Zinc- and aluminium making processes using HTGR process heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) has frequently been suggested as a source of process heat for steel-making; now it has been suggested that it could also be used in the zinc- and aluminium-making processes. For that purpose, several procedures are proposed whereby the key steps in the reduction of zinc oxyde are the use of a gas produced and heated by the HTGR process heat source. Also for the aluminium making process a series of new techniques in connection with the Toth and Grothe processes, coupled to a HTGR, are discussed. (orig.)

  18. The hydrolysis of aluminium, a mass spectrometric study

    OpenAIRE

    Sarpola, A.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract This thesis is focused on the hydrolysis of aluminium, the polymerisation of the hydrolysis products, and how these can be monitored by mass spectrometric methods. The main aim of this research is to figure out how the aqueous speciation of aluminium changes as a function of pH (3.2–10), concentration (1–100 mM), reaction time (1s–14d), and counter anion (Cl-, SO42-, HCOO-). The method used was electrospray mass spectrometry. The results showed more variable speciation than those ...

  19. Spectrofluorimetric determination of microquantities of aluminium in uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A rapid and sensitive method for the separation and spectrofluorimetric determination of microamounts of aluminium in uranium compounds is described. In sodium carbonate solution at pH 9.5-10.0, the uranyl ion forms a very stable anionic complex with the carbonate ion. In these conditions, uranium is not extracted by a chloroform oxine solution, while alumium is isolated as the tris(oxinate)aluminium(III) form. The interferences are previously extracted with chloroform as diethylditiocarbomates in the same tris(oxinate)aluminum(III) pH extraction. The sensitivity is 0,005 μ Al/ml of organic phase and the relative standard deviation is 10%

  20. Power quality results in energy efficient aluminium smelter operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiestner, Max

    2010-09-15

    New aluminium smelters consume up to 2400MW of electrical energy making the energy efficiency aspect most important. Power quality, optimised power conversion systems and well engineered power plant interfaces are essential for highest energy efficiency. An early optimisation of the power system design will reduce the capital investment cost for the power plant and smelter substation as well as results in most energy efficient aluminium production. This paper describes and intends to discuss the power quality improvement concepts and designs as well as energy cost reduction opportunities which a high power quality system can achieve.

  1. Separation of 35S-sulfate on neutral aluminium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of 35S-sulfate chromatography on neutral aluminium oxide (γ-Al2O3) are presented. Possibility of quantitative adsorption of 35S-sulfate on Al2O3 from acidic or neutral potassium chloride solutions of high concentration is shown. Dynamic adsorption capacity of neutral aluminium oxide with respect to sulfate from weakly acidic potassium chloride solution equals near 10 μmol/ml of adsorbent. Optimal parameters for chromatographic isolation of 35S-sulfate without carrier from irradiated KCl target are determined. (author)

  2. Lubricated sliding wear behaviour of aluminium alloy composites

    OpenAIRE

    J. C. Walker; Rainforth, W. M.; Jones, H.

    2005-01-01

    Interest in aluminium alloy (Al-alloy) composites as wear resistant materials continues to grow. However, the use of the popular Al-alloy-SiC composite can be limited by the abrasive nature of the SiC, leading to increased counterface wear rates. This study reports new Al-alloy composites that offer high wear resistance, to a level similar to Al-alloy-SiC. Aluminium alloy (2124, 5056) matrix composites reinforced by nominally 15 vol.% of Cr3Si, MoSi2, Ni3Al and SiC particles were prepared by ...

  3. Determination of cadmium in aluminium by atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A direct method for the determination of cadmium in elemental aluminium is described. Metal samples are dissolved in diluted hydrochloric acid and cadmium is determined by atomic absorption spectrometry in an air-acetylene flame. Interference by non-specific absorption observed at the analytical wavelength incorrected for by means of a non-absorbing line emitted by the hollow-cathode lamp. Relatively large amounts of arsenic do not interfere. The minimun determinable concentration of cadmium for this procedure is 2-3 ppm, expressed on aluminium basis. (author)

  4. Electrochemical noise from corroding carbon steel and aluminium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electrochemical noise measurements were conducted on carbon steel and aluminium in sodium chloride solutions. Noise parameters like standard deviation of potential and current, noise resistance, pitting index, noise power were studied for the purpose of measuring corrosion rate. These parameters compared well with the corrosion rate. Pitting index was not very reliable. Current noise was more close to the corrosion rates. General corrosion gave rise to white noise type of power spectrum while flicker noise type of spectrum was obtained from pitting attack. Sodium nitrite is shown to inhibit the corrosion of carbon steel. Aluminium corrodes in the early period of exposure and passivates during long exposure

  5. Bioactive type glass-ceramics within incorporated aluminium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bioactive glass-ceramics are used as biomaterials for the reparation of bone tissue. They are prepared, generally, by bioglass of specific composition for each particular use. The aluminium addition in the formulation at very small quantities influences on the structural properties. Two glass-ceramics obtained by P2O5-Na2O-CaO-SiO2 formulation within aluminium (0.5 % in Al2O3 base) added through a reactive alumina and purified feldspar were analyzed. The results showed structural differences between both glass-ceramics. (author)

  6. Prevention of Dealloying in Manganese Aluminium Bronze Propeller: Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Napachat Tareelap

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to the failure of manganese aluminium bronze (MAB propeller caused by dealloying corrosion as described in Part I [1], this work aims to study the prevention of dealloying corrosion using aluminium and zinc sacrificial anodes. The results indicated that both of the sacrificial anodes could prevent the propeller from dealloying. Moreover, the dealloying in seawater was less than that found in brackish water. It was possible that hydroxide ions, from cathodic reaction, reacted with calcium in seawater to form calcium carbonate film protecting the propeller from corrosion.

  7. Monitoring of slurry fields solutions of aluminium production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of annual monitoring of slurry fields solutions of aluminium industrial production of Tajik Aluminium Plant are considered in this work. It is found that in summer period the containing of sulfate, carbonate, hydro carbonate and fluoride salts in slurry fields solutions increase. This is due to intensive evaporation of solvent (water). In autumn-winter period due to air temperature decreasing the precipitation of above mentioned salts is observed. The results of chemical analysis of slurry fields solutions are presented in this work. The slurry fields solutions are analyzed by means of X-ray and thermal analysis. The flowsheet of purification of processed slurry fields solutions from sodium sulphate is proposed.

  8. Gas accumulation at grain boundaries during 800 MeV proton irradiation of aluminium and aluminium-alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samples of pure aluminium (99.9999%) and commercial Al-2.7%Mg (AlMg3) and Al-1.1%Mg-0.5%Si (Al6061) alloys were irradiated with 800 MeV protons at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) at a temperature between 40-1000C to a maximum dose of 0.2 dpa. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed a complete absence of voids or bubbles in the grain interiors of the aluminium and the aluminium-alloys. Bubbles were clearly visible by TEM at grain boundaries in pure Al and the AlMg3 alloy; but bubbles were not visible in the Al6061 alloy. The bubble density in the AlMg3 alloy was considerably higher than in pure Al. The amount of gas accumulation at grain boundaries was found to depend on gas generation rate, alloying and cold-work microstructure. (orig.)

  9. Accumulation of Aluminium and Physiological Status of Tree Foliage in the Vicinity of a Large Aluminium Smelter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. D. Wannaz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A pollution gradient was observed in tree foliage sampled in the vicinity of a large aluminium production facility in Patagonia (Argentina. Leaves of Eucalyptus rostrata, and Populus hybridus and different needle ages of Pinus spec. were collected and concentrations of aluminium (Al and sulphur (S as well as physiological parameters (chlorophyll and lipid oxidation products were analyzed. Al and S concentrations indicate a steep pollution gradient in the study showing a relationship with the physiological parameters in particular membrane lipid oxidation products. The present study confirms that aluminium smelting results in high Al and sulphur deposition in the study area, and therefore further studies should be carried out taking into account potentially adverse effects of these compounds on human and ecosystem health.

  10. Effect of nitrate on microbial perchlorate reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Y.; Coates, J. D.

    2007-12-01

    Over the last decade perchlorate has been recognized as an important emerging water contaminant that poses a significant public health threat. Because of its chemical stability, low ionic charge density, and significant water solubility microbial remediation has been identified as the most feasible method for its in situ attenuation. Our previous studies have demonstrated that dissimilatory perchlorate reducing bacteria (DPRB) capable of the respiratory reduction of perchlorate into innocuous chloride are ubiquitous in soil and sedimentary environments. As part of their metabolism these organisms reduce perchlorate to chlorite which is subsequently dismutated into chloride and molecular oxygen. These initial steps are mediated by the perchlorate reductase and chlorite dismutase enzymes respectively. Previously we found that the activity of these organisms is dependent on the presence of molybdenum and is inhibited by the presence of oxygen and to different extents nitrate. However, to date, there is little understanding of the mechanisms involved in the regulation of perchlorate reduction by oxygen and nitrate. As a continuation of our studies into the factors that control DPRB activity we investigated these regulatory mechanisms in more detail as a model organism, Dechloromonas aromatica strain RCB, transitions from aerobic metabolism through nitrate reduction to perchlorate reduction. In series of growth transition studies where both nitrate and perchlorate were present, preference for nitrate to perchlorate was observed regardless of the nitrate to perchlorate ratio. Even when the organism was pre-grown anaerobically in perchlorate, nitrate was reduced prior to perchlorate. Using non-growth washed cell suspension, perchlorate- grown D. aromatica was capable of reducing both perchlorate and nitrate concomitantly suggesting the preferentially utilization of nitrate was not a result of enzyme functionality. To elucidate the mechanism for preferential utilization of

  11. Fast photolysis of carbonyl nitrates from isoprene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Jean-Francois; Peeters, Jozef; Stavrakou, Trisevgeni

    2014-05-01

    We show that photolysis is, by far, the major atmospheric sink of isoprene-derived carbonyl nitrates. Empirical evidence from published laboratory studies on the absorption cross sections and photolysis rates of α-nitrooxy ketones suggests that the presence of the nitrate group (i) greatly enhances the absorption cross sections, and (ii) facilitates dissociation to a point that the photolysis quantum yield is close to unity, with O-NO2 dissociation as the likely major channel. On this basis, we provide new recommendations for estimating the cross sections and photolysis rates of carbonyl nitrates. The newly estimated photorates are validated using a chemical box model against measured temporal profiles of carbonyl nitrates in an isoprene oxidation experiment by Paulot et al. (2009). The comparisons for ethanal nitrate and for the sum of methacrolein- and methylvinylketone nitrates strongly supports our assumptions of large cross section enhancements and a near-unit quantum yield for these compounds. These findings have significant atmospheric implications, as carbonyl nitrates constitute an important component of the total organic nitrate pool over vegetated areas: the photorates of key carbonyl nitrates from isoprene are estimated to be typically between ~3 and 20 times higher than their sink due to reaction with OH in relevant atmospheric conditions. Moreover, since the reaction is expected to release NO2, photolysis is especially effective in depleting the total organic nitrate pool.

  12. Experimental weathering rates of aluminium silicates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chemical weathering of primary rocks and minerals in natural systems has a major impact on soil development and its composition. Chemical weathering is driven to a large extent by mineral dissolution. Through mineral dissolution, elements are released into groundwater and can readily react to precipitate secondary minerals such as clays, zeolites, and carbonates. Carbonates form from divalent cations (e.g. Ca, Fe and Mg) and CO2, and kaolin clay and gibbsite formation is attributed to the weathering of aluminium-rich minerals, most notably the feldspars. The CarbFix Project in Hellisheidi (SW-Iceland) aims to use natural weathering processes to form carbonate minerals by the re-injection of CO2 from a geothermal power plant back into surrounding basaltic rocks. This process is driven by the dissolution of basaltic rocks, rich in divalent cations, which can combine with injected CO2 to form and precipitate carbonates. This thesis focuses on the dissolution behaviour of Stapafell crystalline basalt, which consists of three major phases (plagioclase, pyroxene, and olivine) and is rich in divalent cations. Steady-state element release rates from crystalline basalt at far-from-equilibrium conditions were measured at pH from 2 to 11 and temperatures from 5 to 75 C in mixed-flow reactors. Steady-state Si and Ca release rates exhibit a U-shaped variation with pH, where rates decrease with increasing pH at acid condition but increase with increasing pH at alkaline conditions. Silicon release rates from crystalline basalt are comparable to Si release rates from basaltic glass of the same chemical composition at low pH and temperatures ≥25 C but slower at alkaline pH and temperatures ≥50 C. In contrast, Mg and Fe release rates decrease continuously with increasing pH at all temperatures. This behaviour is interpreted to stem from the contrasting dissolution behaviours of the three major minerals comprising the basalt: plagioclase, pyroxene, and olivine. Element

  13. Role of acidic chemistries in steam treatment of aluminium alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Din, Rameez Ud; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl; Ambat, Rajan

    2015-01-01

    The effect of acidic chemistry on the accelerated growth of oxide on aluminium alloys Peraluman 706TM and AA6060 under exposure to high temperature steam was investigated. Studied chemistries were based on citrates and phosphates. Results showed that the presence of citrate and phosphate anions...

  14. Aluminium dissolution for spray pulverization with nitric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comparative study of the nitric acid dissolution of aluminium, by immersion and spray pulverization has been carried out in laboratory scale. As a result, the optimum operation conditions to control reaction in the plant are fixed. Operation costs are also evaluated. (author)

  15. STRUCTURE OF ECAP ALUMINIUM AFTER DIFFERENT NUMBER OF PASSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Ilucová

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The structure of high purity (99.99% aluminium processed by equal channel angular pressing in the as pressed state after different number of passes was examined using various stereological methods. An extreme inhomogeneity and complicated anisotropy was observed along the body of rod-like specimens.

  16. 1.3. Processing of aluminium production solid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reprocessing of solid wastes of aluminium production, including fluorine regeneration, carbon regeneration, and extraction of valuable components was considered in this chapter. The main methods of fluorine regeneration, including alkaline, acidic, two-stage leaching, hydrochemical, burning, flotation, sintering, vacuum-thermal pyro hydrolysis were considered as well.

  17. Local electrochemical behaviour of 7xxx aluminium alloys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andreatta, F.

    2004-01-01

    Aluminium alloys of the 7xxx series (Al-Zn-Mg-Cu) are susceptible to localized types of corrosion like pitting, intergranular corrosion and exfoliation corrosion. This represents a limitation for the application of these alloys in the aerospace components because localized corrosion might have a neg

  18. Electrochemical Characterisation of Filiform Corrosion on Aluminium Rolled Products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisert, M.

    2001-01-01

    When aluminium is protected by an organic coating a special form of corrosion can occur underneath the organic coating; filiform corrosion. This form of corrosion manifests itself as threadlike filaments under the coating, it causes local delamination of the coating and the coating cannot protect th

  19. Establishment of Integrated Information Displays in Aluminium Surfaces Using Nanomanufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prichystal, Jan Phuklin; Bladt, Henrik Henriksen; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard

    2005-01-01

    Bang & Olufsen has been working with a method for manufacturing ultra-thin structures in Aluminium that can be penetrated by light. This has resulted in a patent describing how to obtain this effect by etching of local areas in a solid material. The idea behind an invisible display in Aluminum co...... ultra-short pulses, selective etching + anodizing, and electrochemical machining....

  20. On the Numerical Determination of Optimal Textures of Aluminium

    OpenAIRE

    Burgholzer, P; Scherzer, O.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper a mathematical algorithm is studied to improve the deep-drawing quality of an aluminium sheet. The deep-drawing quality is usually expressed in terms of the normal anisotropie. In our mathematical model we use Taylor theory and ideal orientations to reformulate this problem as a nonlinear optimization problem for the normal anisotropie. Some numerical examples are presented.

  1. Hydrogen generation from aluminium corrosion in reactor containment spray solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aluminium corrosion experiments in reactor containment spray solutions, under the conditions expected to prevail during LOCA in BWR and PWR, were performed in order to investigate relationships between temperature, pH and hydrogen production rates. In order to simulate the conditions in a BWR containment realistic ratios between aluminium surface and water volume and between aluminium surface and oxygen volume were used. Three different aluminium alloys were exposed to spray solutions: AA 1050, AA 5052 and AA 6082. The corrosion rates were measured for BWR solutions (deaerated and aerated) with pH 5 and 9 at 50, 100 and 1500C. The pressure was constantly 0.8 MPa. The hydrogen production rate was measured by means of gas chromatography. In deionized BWR water the corrosion rates did not exceed about 0.05 mm/year in all cases, i.e. were practically independent of temperature and pH. Hydrogen concentrations were less than 0.1 vol.% in cooled dry gas. Corrosion rates and hydrogen production in PWR alkaline solution measured at pH 9.7 and 1500C were very high. AA 5052 alloy was the best material

  2. Microstructure and defect chemistry of yttrium aluminium garnet ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis describes basic aspects concerning the defect chemistry and the microstructure of yttrium aluminium garnet ceramics. The work consists of three parts: a literature study, an experimental part and a section giving computer simulation data of defects. (author). 320 refs.; 68 figs.; 72 schemes; 32 tabs

  3. Finite size melting of spherical solid-liquid aluminium interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chang, J.; Johnson, Erik; Sakai, T.; Saka, H.

    2009-01-01

    We have investigated the melting of nano-sized cone shaped aluminium needles coated with amorphous carbon using transmission electron microscopy. The interface between solid and liquid aluminium was found to have spherical topology. For needles with fixed apex angle, the depressed melting tempera...... the conclusion that the depressed melting temperature is not controlled solely by the inverse radius 1/R. Instead, we found a direct relation between the depressed melting temperature and the ratio between the solid-liquid interface area and the molten volume.......We have investigated the melting of nano-sized cone shaped aluminium needles coated with amorphous carbon using transmission electron microscopy. The interface between solid and liquid aluminium was found to have spherical topology. For needles with fixed apex angle, the depressed melting...... temperature of this spherical interface, with radius R, was found to scale linearly with the inverse radius 1/R. However, by varying the apex angle of the needles we show that the proportionality constant between the depressed melting temperature and the inverse radius changes significantly. This led us to...

  4. SOLUBILITY OF SILICON IN CAST ALUMINIUM ALLOY AFTER ELECTROHYDROPULSE TREATMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Dyachenko, S.; Fedchenko, N.

    2006-01-01

    The structure of cast aluminium alloy AЛ9 exposed to electrohydropulse treatment (EHPT) was studied. It has been shown that after EHPT solubility of silicon in alloy matrix was increased. With the help of thermodynemic analysis the structural changes in metal after EHPT were explained.

  5. Effect of Low Strain Rate on Formability of Aluminium Alloy

    OpenAIRE

    Bidulská, J.; T. Kvačkaj; Bidulský, R.; Cabbibo, M.; Evangelista, E.

    2007-01-01

    Effect of low strain rate on formability of aluminium alloy 2014 by means of torsion test was performed. The presented experimental results exhibit decrease of the ductility with increase and decrease of ε and T, respectively, and optimal values of , ε T are thus obtained.

  6. Aluminium enriched diffusion layers on NiAl alloy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bartuška, Pavel; Lašek, Jiří; Paidar, Václav

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 3 (2003), s. 185-188. ISSN 0267-0844 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1041302 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : intermetallics based on Ni-Al * aluminium enriched diffusion layers * local elemental analysis Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.571, year: 2003

  7. Anisotropy of tertiary creep in aluminium-based composites

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dobeš, Ferdinand; Milička, Karel

    Naples : University of Naples, 2005 - (Crivelli-Visconti, I.), s. 225-226 [Advancing with composites 2005. Naples (IT), 11.10.2005-14.10.2005] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : metal matrix composite * tertiary creep * aluminium alloys Subject RIV: JI - Composite Materials

  8. Aluminium in food and daily dietary intake estimate in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratakos, Sotirios M; Lazou, Andriana E; Bratakos, Michael S; Lazos, Evangelos S

    2012-01-01

    Aluminium content of foods, as well as dietary aluminium intake of the Greek adult population, was determined using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy after microwave sample digestion and food consumption data. Al content ranged from 0.02 to 741.2 mg kg⁻¹, with spices, high-spice foods, cereal products, vegetables and pulses found to be high in Al. Differences in aluminium content were found between different food classes from Greece and those from some other countries. Aluminium intake of Greeks is 3.7 mg/day based on DAFNE Food Availability Databank, which uses data from the Household Budget Surveys. On the other hand, according to the per capita food consumption data collected by both national and international organisations, Al intake is 6.4 mg day⁻¹. Greek adult population has an Al intake lower than the Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake of 7 mg kg⁻¹ body weight established by EFSA. Cereals and vegetables are the main Al contributors, providing 72.4% of daily intake. PMID:24779693

  9. Examples on cold forged aluminium components in automotive industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Niels; Kolsgaard, A.

    2000-01-01

    The present paper describes the possibilites of applying cold forging for manufacturing of light weight components in aluminium. A short description of the basic cold forming processes forms the basis for describing the great variety in design of cold forged components. Examples are mainly taken ...... from automotive industry but in a few cases also from other industrial sectors to show the possibilities....

  10. Hydrogen evolution from aluminium in reactor containment spray solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three different aluminium alloys were exposed to conditions similar to BWR and PWR containment spray waters at 50, 100 and 1500C. BWR deionized water gives corrosion rates of at most 0.05 mm/year and hydrogen concentrations less than 0.1-1%. On the contrary PWR alkaline solutions give very high corrosion rates and hydrogen contents. (Auth.)

  11. Persistent Skin Reactions and Aluminium Hypersensitivity Induced by Childhood Vaccines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salik, Elaha; Løvik, Ida; Andersen, Klaus E; Bygum, Anette

    2016-01-01

    There is increasing awareness of reactions to vaccination that include persistent skin reactions. We present here a retrospective investigation of long-lasting skin reactions and aluminium hypersensitivity in children, based on medical records and questionnaires sent to the parents. In the 10-year...

  12. Effects of Aluminium in Forest. Results of a pilot experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulder, J.; Wit, H. de; Nygaard, P.H.

    1996-01-01

    This conference paper deals with an Norwegian pilot project which started in 1995 and finishing early 1999, investigates the solubility and phyto-toxicity of aluminium (Al) in mature forest ecosystems. The project consists of three major parts, including field manipulation study of Norwegian spruce stands, laboratory experiments and modelling Al chemistry in the root zone. 15 refs.

  13. Nitrate contamination of groundwater and its countermeasures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitamura, Hisayoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2003-03-01

    The inevitable increases of food production and energy consumption with an increase in world population become main causes of an increase of nitrate load to the environment. Although nitrogen is essential for the growth of animal and plant as a constituent element of protein, excessive nitrate load to the environment contaminates groundwater resources used as drinking water and leads to seriously adverse effects on the health of man and livestock. In order to clarify the problem of nitrate contamination of groundwater and search a new trend of technology development from the viewpoint of environment remediation and protection, the present paper has reviewed adverse effects of nitrate on human health, the actual state of nitrogen cycle, several kinds of nitrate sources, measures for reducing nitrate level, etc. (author)

  14. Nitrate contamination of groundwater and its countermeasures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The inevitable increases of food production and energy consumption with an increase in world population become main causes of an increase of nitrate load to the environment. Although nitrogen is essential for the growth of animal and plant as a constituent element of protein, excessive nitrate load to the environment contaminates groundwater resources used as drinking water and leads to seriously adverse effects on the health of man and livestock. In order to clarify the problem of nitrate contamination of groundwater and search a new trend of technology development from the viewpoint of environment remediation and protection, the present paper has reviewed adverse effects of nitrate on human health, the actual state of nitrogen cycle, several kinds of nitrate sources, measures for reducing nitrate level, etc. (author)

  15. Inhaled plutonium nitrate in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The major objective of this project is to determine dose-effect relationships of inhaled plutonium nitrate in dogs to aid in predicting health effects of accidental exposure in man. For lifespan dose-effect studies, beagle dogs were given a single inhalation exposure to 239Pu(NO3)4, in 1976 and 1977. The earliest biological effect was on the hematopoietic system; lymphopenia and neutropenia occurred at the two highest dose levels. The authors have also observed radiation pneumonitis, lung cancer, and bone cancer at the three highest dose levels. 1 figure, 4 tables

  16. Inhaled plutonium nitrate in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The major objective of this project is to determine dose-effect relationships of inhaled plutonium nitrate in dogs to aid in predicting health effects of accidental exposure in man. For lifespan dose-effect studies, beagle dogs were given a single inhalation exposure to 239Pu(NO3)4, in 1976 and 1977. The earliest biological effect was on the hematopoietic system; lymphopenia and neutropenia occurred at the two highest dose levels. They have also observed radiation pneumonitis, lung cancer, and bone cancer at the three highest dose levels. 1 figure, 3 tables

  17. Nitrate leaching from Silage Maize

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Elly Møller; Eriksen, Jørgen

    2009-01-01

    During the last 20 years the area with maize in Denmark has increased dramatically and reached 163,000 ha in 2008. Silage maize is easy to grow, is a suitable fodder for cows and goes well with grass-clover in the diet. This means that silage maize is often found in crop rotations with grass-clover on sandy soils in western Denmark. The ploughing in of grass-clover fields poses a serious risk of increased nitrate leaching on a coarse sandy soil, even when carried out in spring. With increased...

  18. Corrosion of research reactor aluminium clad spent fuel in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A large variety of research reactor spent fuel with different fuel meats, different geometries and different enrichments in 235U are presently stored underwater in basins located around the world. More than 90% of these fuels are clad in aluminium or aluminium based alloys that are notoriously susceptible to corrosion in water of less than optimum quality. Some fuel is stored in the reactor pools themselves, some in auxiliary pools (or basins) close to the reactor and some stored at away-from-reactor pools. Since the early 1990s, when corrosion induced degradation of the fuel cladding was observed in many of the pools, corrosion of research reactor aluminium clad spent nuclear fuel stored in light water filled basins has become a major concern, and programmes were implemented at the sites to improve fuel storage conditions. The IAEA has since then established a number of programmatic activities to address corrosion of research reactor aluminium clad spent nuclear fuel in water. Of special relevance was the Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on Corrosion of Research Reactor Aluminium Clad Spent Fuel in Water (Phase I) initiated in 1996, whose results were published in IAEA Technical Reports Series No. 418. At the end of this CRP it was considered necessary that a continuation of the CRP should concentrate on fuel storage basins that had demonstrated significant corrosion problems and would therefore provide additional insight into the fundamentals of localized corrosion of aluminium. As a consequence, the IAEA started a new CRP entitled Corrosion of Research Reactor Aluminium Clad Spent Fuel in Water (Phase II), to carry out more comprehensive research in some specific areas of corrosion of aluminium clad spent nuclear fuel in water. In addition to this CRP, one of the activities under IAEA's Technical Cooperation Regional Project for Latin America Management of Spent Fuel from Research Reactors (2001-2006) was corrosion monitoring and surveillance of research

  19. Water Pollution with Nitrates from Agricultural Sources

    OpenAIRE

    FLESERIU A.; OROIAN I.

    2010-01-01

    One of the biggest water pollution problem is created by nitrates resulted from agriculture. This paper is areview aimin to emphasiz the main water pollution problems produced by nitrates in Romania and EU. The excessnitrates can accumulate in soil in several ways. First, manure effluents containing both ammonia and organic forms ofnitrogen. Organic nitrogen can be converted to ammonia in the soil. The ammonia, together with any ammoniafertilizer applied, is converted to nitrate by soil bacte...

  20. Studies on the production of thorium in nitrate from Eskisehir-Beylikahir thorium ore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A large thorium deposit (380.000 tonne ThO2) has been found in Eskisehir-Beylikahir area in Turkey. Representative sample of 1000 Kg. thorium ore was taken from this deposit for the pre-concentration studies. Thorium pre-concentrate which has 1.41% Th02 grade and minus 0.105 mm. particle size was obtained after the physical treatment tests. Sulphuric acid leach was conducted on the thorium pre-concentrate and the thorium extraction recovery was over 90%. After these leach tests with sulphuric acid, thorium was precipitated as a sulphate from the leach slurry with 96% recovery. Thorium sulphate cake was dissolved in HCl and precipitated with ammonia to give a thorium hydroxide. During this process, aluminium iron and calcium were separated from the thorium. The thorium hydroxide was dissolved in nitric acid and the solution was evaporated to solid thorium nitrate. (author)

  1. Mechanically milled aluminium matrix composites reinforced with halloysite nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A. Dobrzański

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The present work describes fabrication of aluminium AlMg1SiCu matrix composite materials reinforced with halloysite nanotubes by powder metallurgy techniques and hot extrusion.Design/methodology/approach: Mechanical milling, compacting and hot extrusion successively are considering as a method for manufacturing metal composite powders with a controlled fine microstructure and enhanced mechanical properties. It is possible by the repeated welding and fracturing of powders particles mixture in a highly energetic ball mill.Findings: The milling process has a huge influence on the properties of powder materials, changing the spherical morphology of as-received powder during milling process to flattened one due to particle deformation followed by welding and fracturing particles of deformed and hardened enough which allows to receive equiaxial particles morphology again. The investigation shows that so called brittle mineral particles yields to plastic deformation as good as ductile aluminium alloy particles. That indicates that the halloysite powder can play a role of the accelerator during mechanical milling. High energy ball milling as a method of mechanical milling improves the distribution of the halloysite reinforcing particles throughout the aluminium matrix, simultaneously reducing the size of particles. The apparent density changes versus milling time can be used to control the composite powders production by mechanical milling and the presence of halloysite reinforcements particles accelerates the mechanical milling process.Research limitations/implications: Contributes to knowledge about technology, structure and properties of aluminium alloy matrix composite material reinforced with mineral nanoparticles.Practical implications: Conducted research shows that applied technology allows obtaining very good microstructural characteristics.Originality/value: It has been confirmed that halloysite nanotubes can be applied as an effective

  2. Metallurgical Characterisation of Recovered Aluminium Alloys in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Tchotang

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This article is a comparative study of metallurgical characteristics of the different aluminium alloys gotten through recycling of recovered aluminium in Cameroon. A simple experimental device for the foundry of secondary aluminium blend, of very good quality built around a movable charcoal furnace is presented. It enables better energy efficiency, a better distribution of the heat around the crucible and indirectly assures good quality of the products obtained, while respecting the economic constraints and users' safety. Six refining methods are proposed by the addition of polyvinyl chloride (method A, coke rich in carbon CHS (method C, ammonium chloride NH4Cl (method E, manganese dioxide MnO (method T, acrylic nitrite (C2H3Cln (method P and sodium chloride NaCl (method S. A critical analysis of the different recycling techniques is presented as well as a proposed process of melting and refining that enables the obtaining products with high degrees of purity. The results are then compared to the results obtained from the industrial methods of aluminium refining such as fractional crystallization (FC, granular filtration (GF and dissolution in a metal solvent (DS. The later (DS gives the rate of 6.540% of accumulated alloy elements and enables the best purification (93.460%, while the NaCl gives the lowest global rate of additive elements (9.478%, with the best purity index (90.522% amount the proposed methods. Results obtained show that this method of refining improves the metallurgical properties of secondary aluminium alloy blends and guarantees better safety, as well as reducing the risks of environmental pollution.

  3. Denitration of Uranyl Nitrate Using Tridodecyl Amine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitrate extraction from uranyl nitrate using extractant tridodecyl amine and paraffin has been carried out. The aim of this research was to prepare uranyl nitrate with low nitrate content (acid deficiency uranyl nitrate/ADUN). ADUN is a raw material for making kernels uranium oxide in a spherical from which cannot easily be broken/cracked. This ADUN was prepared by extracting nitric acid in uranyl nitrate solution with tridodecyl amine (TDA) and paraffin. Nitric acid in uranyl nitrate solution moved into organic phase due to the complex formation with TDA. The aqueous phase was ADUN, it was than analyzed its nitric and uranium contents using titration method. Tree variables were observed, i.e. uranium contents (80-125 g/l), process temperature (50-100 oC) and TDA/Nitrate molar ratio (0.5-1). Experiment results showed that optimum condition accurate at uranium content of 100 g/l, temperature extraction 60-70 oC and TDA to Nitrate molar ratio 0.75-0.80 with an efficiency of 77 %. (author)

  4. Water Pollution with Nitrates from Agricultural Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FLESERIU A.

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the biggest water pollution problem is created by nitrates resulted from agriculture. This paper is areview aimin to emphasiz the main water pollution problems produced by nitrates in Romania and EU. The excessnitrates can accumulate in soil in several ways. First, manure effluents containing both ammonia and organic forms ofnitrogen. Organic nitrogen can be converted to ammonia in the soil. The ammonia, together with any ammoniafertilizer applied, is converted to nitrate by soil bacteria in a process called nitrification. Nitrification is importantbecause plants can only use nitrogen as nitrate. It is equally harmful in both, animals and humans.

  5. Photochemistry of Nitrate Adsorbed on Mineral Dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gankanda, A.; Grassian, V. H.

    2013-12-01

    Mineral dust particles in the atmosphere are often associated with adsorbed nitrate from heterogeneous reactions with nitrogen oxides including HNO3 and NO2. Although nitrate ion is a well-studied chromophore in natural waters, the photochemistry of adsorbed nitrate on mineral dust particles is yet to be fully explored. In this study, wavelength dependence of the photochemistry of adsorbed nitrate on different model components of mineral dust aerosol has been investigated using transmission FTIR spectroscopy. Al2O3, TiO2 and NaY zeolite were used as model systems to represent non-photoactive oxides, photoactive semiconductor oxides and porous materials respectively, present in mineral dust aerosol. In this study, adsorbed nitrate is irradiated with 254 nm, 310 nm and 350 nm narrow band light. In the irradiation with narrow band light, NO2 is the only detectable gas-phase product formed from nitrate adsorbed on Al2O3 and TiO2. The NO2 yield is highest at 310 nm for both Al2O3 and TiO2. Unlike Al2O3 and TiO2, in zeolite, adsorbed nitrate photolysis to nitrite is observed only at 310 nm during narrow band irradiation. Moreover gas phase products were not detected during nitrate photolysis in zeolite at all three wavelengths. The significance of these differences as related to nitrate photochemistry on different mineral dust components will be highlighted.

  6. High dose potassium-nitrate chemical dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This dosimeter is used to control 10 kGY-order doses (1 Mrad). Nitrate suffers a radiolitic reduction phenomena, which is related to the given dose. The method to use potassium nitrate as dosimeter is described, as well as effects of the temperature of irradiation, pH, nitrate concentration and post-irradiation stability. Nitrate powder was irradiated at a Semi-Industrial Plant, at Centro Atomico Ezeiza, and also in a Gammacell-220 irradiator. The dose rates used were 2,60 and 1,80 KGY/hour, and the given doses varied between 1,0 and 150 KGY. The uncertainty was +-3% in all the range. (author)

  7. Canada: a big investment for the aluminium valorization; Canada: un gros investissement pour la valorisation de l'aluminium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2005-02-01

    An amount of more than 2.4 millions of dollars has been given by the Quebec at the research and development sector for the aluminium valorization. Six plans will be studied by more than 30 searchers and 20 students in technology. (O.M.)

  8. Corrosion of aluminium in copper-aluminium couples under a marine environment: Influence of polyaniline deposited onto copper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vera, Rosa, E-mail: rvera@ucv.c [Instituto de Quimica, Facultad de Ciencias, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Valparaiso, Avda. Brasil 2950, Casilla 4059, Valparaiso (Chile); Verdugo, Patricia [Departamento de Quimica y Bioquimica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valparaiso, Av. Gran Bretana 1111, Valparaiso (Chile); Orellana, Marco; Munoz, Eduardo [Instituto de Quimica, Facultad de Ciencias, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Valparaiso, Avda. Brasil 2950, Casilla 4059, Valparaiso (Chile)

    2010-11-15

    Research highlights: {yields} The presence of Polyaniline in the Al-Cu system produces a decrease in the oxygen reduction reaction. {yields} In the marine enviroment, aluminium in Al-Cu couples, suffers pitting and exfoliation. {yields} The aluminium deterioration increases with chloride and enviromental sulphur dioxide presence, mainly when it is united to bare copper. - Abstract: In this study, we examined how aluminium corrosion in Al-Cu/PANI galvanic couples in a marine environment is influenced by deposition of polyaniline (PANI) on copper. Polarization curves and immersion assays in 0.1 M NaCl were performed. The morphologies of etched Al and corrosion products were observed by SEM, and the Al ions in solution were quantified by atomic absorption spectroscopy. A reduction in aluminium damage due to galvanic corrosion was observed as a result of decreased effective area for the oxygen reduction reaction on Cu/PANI electrode. Furthermore, an electrochemical reduction of PANI from leucoemeraldine to emeraldine base is proposed.

  9. Design of the lines of aluminium drawing. Part 1; Conception des filieres de filage d'aluminium. Partie 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cescutti, J.P.; Ravaille, N. [Pechiney, Div. Filiage, 75 - Paris (France)

    2005-12-15

    After a general presentation, the second paragraph gives the main reasons of the complexity of the problem to be solved. Coming from the 'sciences of design', these aspects give valuable data to structure the analysis of the progress ways in the field of the design of the lines of aluminium extrusion. (O.M.)

  10. Decreased toxicity of aluminium when the ionic strength increases in water; Blir aluminium mindre toksisk naar ionestyrken i vannet oeker?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alstad, E.W. [Oslo Univ. (Norway)

    1996-01-01

    The conference paper evaluates the acute mortality of fish caused by the toxicity of aluminium in water. The evaluation is based on the polymerization hypothesis. According to the author, the level of toxicity decreases when the concentration and charge of ions increase. The paper presents the preliminary results from the executed experiment. 2 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Nitrate reductase assay using sodium nitrate for rapid detection of multidrug resistant tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maíra Bidart Macedo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available We validated the nitrate reductase assay (NRA for the detection of multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MDR-TB using sodium nitrate (NaNO3 in replacement of potassium nitrate (KNO3 as nitrate source. NaNO3 is cheaper than KNO3 and has no restriction on use which facilitates the implementation of NRA to detect MDR-TB.

  12. Energy conversion from aluminium and phosphate rich solution via ZnO activation of aluminium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electrochemical power sources have motivated intense research efforts in the development of alternative ‘green’ power sources for ultra-low powered bioelectronic devices. Biofuel cells employ immobilized enzymes to convert the available chemical energy of organic fuels directly into electricity. However, biofuel cells are limited by short lifetime due to enzyme inactivation and frequent need to incorporate mediators to shuttle electrons to the final electron acceptor. In this context, other electrochemical power sources are necessary in energy conversion and storage device applications. Here we report on the fabrication and characterization of a membrane-free aluminium/phosphate cell based on the activation of aluminium (Al) using ZnO nanocrystal in an Al/phosphate cell as a ‘green’ alternative to the traditional enzymatic biofuel cells. The hybrid cell operates in neutral phosphate buffer solution and physiological saline buffer. The ZnO modifier in the phosphate rich electrolyte activated the pitting of Al resulting in the production of hydrogen, as the reducing agent for the reduction of H2PO4− ions to HPO32− ions at a formal potential of −0.250 V vs. Ag/AgCl. Specifically, the fabricated cell operating in phosphate buffer and physiological saline buffer exhibit an open-circuit voltage of 0.810 V and 0.751 V and delivered a maximum power density of 0.225 mW cm−2 and 1.77 mW cm−2, respectively. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of generating electricity by activating Al as anodic material in a hybrid cell supplied with phosphate rich electrolyte. Our approach simplifies the construction and operation of the electrochemical power source as a novel “green” alternative to the current anodic substrates used in enzymatic biofuel cells for low power bioelectronics applications. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • ZnO activation of metallic Al for generating electricity for bioelectronic applications. • Selective

  13. Energy conversion from aluminium and phosphate rich solution via ZnO activation of aluminium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slaughter, Gymama, E-mail: gslaught@umbc.edu; Sunday, Joshua; Stevens, Brian

    2015-08-01

    Electrochemical power sources have motivated intense research efforts in the development of alternative ‘green’ power sources for ultra-low powered bioelectronic devices. Biofuel cells employ immobilized enzymes to convert the available chemical energy of organic fuels directly into electricity. However, biofuel cells are limited by short lifetime due to enzyme inactivation and frequent need to incorporate mediators to shuttle electrons to the final electron acceptor. In this context, other electrochemical power sources are necessary in energy conversion and storage device applications. Here we report on the fabrication and characterization of a membrane-free aluminium/phosphate cell based on the activation of aluminium (Al) using ZnO nanocrystal in an Al/phosphate cell as a ‘green’ alternative to the traditional enzymatic biofuel cells. The hybrid cell operates in neutral phosphate buffer solution and physiological saline buffer. The ZnO modifier in the phosphate rich electrolyte activated the pitting of Al resulting in the production of hydrogen, as the reducing agent for the reduction of H{sub 2}PO{sub 4}{sup −} ions to HPO{sub 3}{sup 2−} ions at a formal potential of −0.250 V vs. Ag/AgCl. Specifically, the fabricated cell operating in phosphate buffer and physiological saline buffer exhibit an open-circuit voltage of 0.810 V and 0.751 V and delivered a maximum power density of 0.225 mW cm{sup −2} and 1.77 mW cm{sup −2}, respectively. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of generating electricity by activating Al as anodic material in a hybrid cell supplied with phosphate rich electrolyte. Our approach simplifies the construction and operation of the electrochemical power source as a novel “green” alternative to the current anodic substrates used in enzymatic biofuel cells for low power bioelectronics applications. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • ZnO activation of metallic Al for generating electricity for

  14. Evaluation of nitrates in albanian wines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariola Morina

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Nitrates are important compounds in nature but not desirable if they are present in wine at increased amount. The high level of nitrate is attributed to the use of nitrogen fertilizers in the vineyards. Method of the reactive Gries I and Gries II was used for the determination of nitrates in wine. There were analyzed 45 white wines and 55 red wines produced in 2008 – 2010, as well as wines produced from Albanian grape varieties Shesh i Bardhë and Shesh i Zi in 2009 and 2010, as an authentic wines evidence with denominated origin. From the results of analyses was observed that, in 51 % of white wines was found that the content of nitrates were less than 5 mg/l, in 46% of them the nitrates level goes up to 10 mg/l and only in 3 % of them the amount of nitrates is up to 12 mg/l. None of white wine samples have the content of nitrates over 20 mg/l. In this case there is no doubt for water addition during wine preparation. In regards of red wines, in 34% of them the amount of nitrates is up to 5 mg/l, in 30% of them up to 10 mg/l, while in 26% of them the amount of nitrates is 20 mg/l. Only 10 % of red wines have nitrates content over 20 mg/l which raise dubiety for falsified wines where water and sugar is added in the red marc. The level of nitrates in wines with denominated origin was under 20 mg/L.

  15. Nitrate pollution of a karstic groundwater system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Bohemian karst, an extensive karst area formed by Devonian and Silurian limestone, is located SW of Prague. The largest of the karstic springs discharges in the village of Svaty Jan pod Skalou. With about 19 L/s of average discharge, the spring was formerly an important source of good quality drinking water in the ares. Because of increasing agricultural activity after World War II, both shallow and deep water resources, including the karstic systems, have been contaminated by infiltrating nitrates. The nitrate content of the Svaty Jan spring now varies from 40 mg/L to 60 mg/L. To specify the sources of nitrate pollution and collect sufficient data for possible prediction of future development, an extensive study of the spring was initiated in 1994. Flow dynamics, chemical, and isotopic composition (δ18O in water, δ15N in nitrate) are monitored in the spring and precipitation in the recharge area together with possible sources of nitrates (fertilizers, solutes in soil profile). The spring discharge responds to precipitation events very quickly but with a small amplitude and a low variability in δ18O (∼2 per mille). This reflects the large volume of the karstic system that dumps infiltrating precipitation and the low contribution of the direct discharge component. Even more contrasting is the relation between the low variability of nitrate content and periodic changes in δ15N of nitrate (from 5 per mille to 2 per mille). With regard to the specifics of the karstic groundwater system (piston-like flow) two alternative hypotheses of nitrate generation are suggested: (1) different rates of nitrate production in the recharge area and (2) different sources of nitrate localized along the recharge area. To verify the hypotheses, the record of fertilizer applied in the recharge area was studied together with actual nitrate content and its isotopic composition in deep soil profiles. (author)

  16. Treatment of uranyl nitrate and flouride solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A theoretical study on the fluoride complexes contained in uranyl and aluminium solutions has been carried out. Likewise concentration limits and Duhring diagrams for those solutions have been experimentally established. As a result, the optimum operation conditions for concentration by evaporation in the treatment plant, have been deduced. (Author) 12 refs

  17. Steel sheet composite materials with foamed aluminium; Stahlblechverbundwerkstoffe mit geschaeumtem Aluminium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumeister, J.; Weber, M. [Institut fuer Angewandte Materialforschung, Bremen (Germany); Bleck, W.; Hagen, H. von [Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany). Lehrstuhl und Inst. fuer Eisenhuettenkunde

    1999-07-01

    Sandwich structured steel sheets with a core of foamed aluminium can be produced by roll-bonding and glueing. Results of corrosion tests and laser welding tests so far were positive. Several applications have been proposed but none of them has been implemented as yet. The material is recommended for applications with a profile of requirements comprising structurally and functionally relevant characteristics. Recycling is unproblematic. [German] Zur Herstellung von Stahlblechsandwichverbunden mit einem Aluminiumschaumkern lassen sich die Verfahren Walzplattieren und Kleben einsetzen. Es sind Sandwichverbunde mit Gesamtdichten von 0,7 bis 2,0 g/cm{sup 3} und Gesamtdicken zwischen 10 und 32 mm darstellbar. Die Tafelgroessen fuer die vielversprechendsten Verfahren liegen derzeit bei ueber DIN A3 (konventionell geschaeumt) oder 160 mm x mehrere m (kontinuierlich im Banddurchlaufofen geschaeumt) und 2 m x 600 mm (geklebt). Es lassen sich gute mechanische Eigenschaften des Sandwichverbundes (Biegesteifigkeit) und hohe Versagensreserven bei Druck- und Biegebeanspruchungen sowie interessante funktionelle Eigenschaften (z.B. hohe Energieaufnahme) erzielen. Aus Tastversuchen zu Korrosionseigenschaften und Fuegeverfahren (Laserschweissen) konnten positive Resultate gewonnen werden. Vorschlaege zu Anwendungen bestehen, aber ein direkter Einsatz ist noch nicht realisiert worden. Ein Einsatz des Werkstoffverbundes ist sinnvoll in Gebieten, in denen ein Anforderungsprofil von strukturell und funktionell relevanten Eigenschaften vorherrscht. Das Recycling der rein metallischen Verbunde ist problemlos. (orig.)

  18. Aluminium content of foods originating from aluminium-containing food additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogimoto, Mami; Suzuki, Kumi; Haneishi, Nahoko; Kikuchi, Yuu; Takanashi, Mayu; Tomioka, Naoko; Uematsu, Yoko; Monma, Kimio

    2016-09-01

    Aluminium (Al) levels of 90 food samples were investigated. Nineteen samples contained Al levels exceeding the tolerable weekly intake (TWI) for young children [body weight (bw): 16 kg] when consuming two servings/week. These samples were purchased multiple times at specific intervals and were evaluated for Al levels. Al was detected in 27 of the 90 samples at levels ranging from 0.01 (limit of quantitation) to 1.06 mg/g. Of these, the Al intake levels in two samples (cookie and scone mix, 1.3 and 2 mg/kg bw/week, respectively) exceeded the TWI as established by European Food Safety Authority, although the level in the scone mix was equivalent to the provisional TWI (PTWI) as established by Joint Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations/World Health Organization Expert Committee on Food Additives. The Al levels markedly decreased in 14 of the 19 samples with initially high Al levels. These results indicated reductions in the Al levels to below the PTWI limits in all but two previously identified food samples. PMID:27092423

  19. ThermophysicalProperties of Cellular Aluminium andCeramic Particulate / Aluminium Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Almadhoni

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the thermophysical properties of cellular Al and Ceramic Particulate / Al Composites were explored. Thermophysical properties are defined as material properties that vary with temperature without altering the material's chemical identity including thermal conductivity (TC, coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE, energy absorption, porosity and relative density. The significance of cellular Al and AMMCs reinforced by ceramic particles lies in their propertieswhich are difficult to be available combined in other engineering materials. New cellular AMMCs that meet the needs of the required engineering applications could be synthesized by selection an appropriate reinforcements. Different kinds of ceramic particles such as oxides, carbides, nitrides, as well as carbon nanotubes can be utilized as reinforcements for manufacturing of cellular AMMCs. Thermophysicalproperties of cellular AMMCs consisting of Al as continuous matrix phase and ceramic particles as reinforcements are directly influenced by type, size, and geometry of dispersions, also the RVR. In addition, the constituents of ceramic particulate / aluminium composites characterized by different heat transfer mechanisms, wherethe TC mechanism in metals is attributed to free electrons, while phonons are primarily responsible for TC in nonmetallic materials, as well as an interfacial thermal barrier resistance influence effectively on heat transfer inside the composite and thus the thermophysical properties. In this paper, based on the literature review, thermophysical properties of cellular Al and AMMCs reinforced by ceramic particles were discussed.

  20. Numerical and experimental investigations of aluminium powder compaction; Numerische und experimentelle Untersuchungen zum Pulverpressen von Aluminium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanini, K.; Doege, E.; Schmidt-Juergensen, R. [Institut fuer Umformtechnik und Umformmaschinen, (IFUM) Universitaet Hannover, Welfengarten 1A, 30167 Hannover (Germany)

    2003-08-01

    The FEM simulation is a powerful means which can drastically reduce the time to production and costs in the optimization of powder forming processes. The current paper investigates experimentally and numerically die compaction of aluminium powder. The plastic deformation is formulated by using the Drucker-Prager-Cap-model. This yield criterion describes the compressibility of porous bodies and allows the prediction of crack formation in the green compact. Axial compaction tests have been performed to determine material parameters for hardening. Simulation examples are presented to demonstrate the ability of the model to compute the distribution of the relative density. Furthermore, the compaction of an axisymmetric workpiece was simulated in order to determine optimal tools kinematics and to avoid crack formation. (Abstract Copyright [2003], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.) [German] Die Auslegung und Optimierung pulvertechnologischer Umformverfahren basiert bisher zu einem grossen Teil auf Erfahrungswissen. Die numerische Simulation bietet hierbei eine kosten- und zeitsparende Alternative. Besonders hat sich die Finite-Elemente-Methode (FEM) als leistungsfaehiges Simulationsverfahren bewaehrt. Im Rahmen dieser Arbeit wird das Pulverpressen von Aluminiumpulver numerisch und experimentell untersucht. Hierbei wird das Drucker-Prager-Cap-Modell verwendet, um das kompressible Verhalten des Pulvers abzubilden und moegliche Rissbildungen waehrend des Pressvorgangs vorherzusagen. Durch Pressversuche werden die Materialkennwerte fuer dieses Modell hinsichtlich der Verdichtung und Verfestigung des Aluminiumpulvers ermittelt. Der Pressvorgang wird anhand ausgewaehlter Referenzbauteile simuliert. Von besonderem Interesse ist hierbei die Berechnung der Verteilung der relativen Dichte und die Vermeidung der Rissbildung durch Optimierung der Stempelkinematik. (Abstract Copyright [2003], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  1. Nitrate reduction functional genes and nitrate reduction potentials persist in deeper estuarine sediments. Why?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sokratis Papaspyrou

    Full Text Available Denitrification and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA are processes occurring simultaneously under oxygen-limited or anaerobic conditions, where both compete for nitrate and organic carbon. Despite their ecological importance, there has been little investigation of how denitrification and DNRA potentials and related functional genes vary vertically with sediment depth. Nitrate reduction potentials measured in sediment depth profiles along the Colne estuary were in the upper range of nitrate reduction rates reported from other sediments and showed the existence of strong decreasing trends both with increasing depth and along the estuary. Denitrification potential decreased along the estuary, decreasing more rapidly with depth towards the estuary mouth. In contrast, DNRA potential increased along the estuary. Significant decreases in copy numbers of 16S rRNA and nitrate reducing genes were observed along the estuary and from surface to deeper sediments. Both metabolic potentials and functional genes persisted at sediment depths where porewater nitrate was absent. Transport of nitrate by bioturbation, based on macrofauna distributions, could only account for the upper 10 cm depth of sediment. A several fold higher combined freeze-lysable KCl-extractable nitrate pool compared to porewater nitrate was detected. We hypothesised that his could be attributed to intracellular nitrate pools from nitrate accumulating microorganisms like Thioploca or Beggiatoa. However, pyrosequencing analysis did not detect any such organisms, leaving other bacteria, microbenthic algae, or foraminiferans which have also been shown to accumulate nitrate, as possible candidates. The importance and bioavailability of a KCl-extractable nitrate sediment pool remains to be tested. The significant variation in the vertical pattern and abundance of the various nitrate reducing genes phylotypes reasonably suggests differences in their activity throughout the

  2. Nitrate uptake, nitrate reductase distribution and their relation to proton release in five nodulated grain legumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, X H; Tang, C; Rengel, Z

    2002-09-01

    Nitrate uptake, nitrate reductase activity (NRA) and net proton release were compared in five grain legumes grown at 0.2 and 2 mM nitrate in nutrient solution. Nitrate treatments, imposed on 22-d-old, fully nodulated plants, lasted for 21 d. Increasing nitrate supply did not significantly influence the growth of any of the species during the treatment, but yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus) had a higher growth rate than the other species examined. At 0.2 mM nitrate supply, nitrate uptake rates ranged from 0.6 to 1.5 mg N g(-1) d(-1) in the order: yellow lupin > field pea (Pisum sativum) > chickpea (Cicer arietinum) > narrow-leafed lupin (L angustifolius) > white lupin (L albus). At 2 mM nitrate supply, nitrate uptake ranged from 1.7 to 8.2 mg N g(-1) d(-1) in the order: field pea > chickpea > white lupin > yellow lupin > narrow-leafed lupin. Nitrate reductase activity increased with increased nitrate supply, with the majority of NRA being present in shoots. Field pea and chickpea had much higher shoot NRA than the three lupin species. When 0.2 mM nitrate was supplied, narrow-leafed lupinreleased the most H+ per unit root biomass per day, followed by yellow lupin, white lupin, field pea and chickpea. At 2 mM nitrate, narrow-leafed lupin and yellow lupin showed net proton release, whereas the other species, especially field pea, showed net OH- release. Irrespective of legume species and nitrate supply, proton release was negatively correlated with nitrate uptake and NRA in shoots, but not with NRA in roots. PMID:12234143

  3. Effects of Nano-Aluminium on The Combustion of A PolyNIMMO-Based Propellant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Clive Woodley; Peter Henning

    2014-01-01

    Propellants containing micro-aluminium particles have been shown to produce faster burn rates than conventional gun propellants.However,they are also more abrasive than conventional propellants.Nano-material propellants have been reported to give similar benefits to micron-material propellants but without the disadvantage of increased abrasion.Tests were conducted to compare the burn rates,ignitability and wear rates of a propellant loaded with 0% aluminium,15% micro-aluminium and 15%nano-aluminium.Closed vessel tests showed a burn rate increase of 39% in the range 30-250 MPa,and 70% at low pressure (50-100 MPa)for the nano-aluminium propellant compared with the baseline propellant.The micro-aluminium propellant showed only a 10% increase in the burn rate compared with the standard propellant.The ignition delay for the nano-aluminium propellant was slightly shorter than that of the baseline propellant.Substantially increased wear rates were measured for the micro-aluminium propellant.The nano-aluminium propellant showed reduced wear rates compared with the micro-aluminium propellant but these were still substantially greater than those for the baseline propellant.

  4. Dietary Nitrate, Nitric Oxide, and Cardiovascular Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondonno, Catherine P; Croft, Kevin D; Hodgson, Jonathan M

    2016-09-01

    Emerging evidence strongly suggests that dietary nitrate, derived in the diet primarily from vegetables, could contribute to cardiovascular health via effects on nitric oxide (NO) status. NO plays an essential role in cardiovascular health. It is produced via the classical L-arginine-NO-synthase pathway and the recently discovered enterosalivary nitrate-nitrite-NO pathway. The discovery of this alternate pathway has highlighted dietary nitrate as a candidate for the cardioprotective effect of a diet rich in fruit and vegetables. Clinical trials with dietary nitrate have observed improvements in blood pressure, endothelial function, ischemia-reperfusion injury, arterial stiffness, platelet function, and exercise performance with a concomitant augmentation of markers of NO status. While these results are indicative of cardiovascular benefits with dietary nitrate intake, there is still a lingering concern about nitrate in relation to methemoglobinemia, cancer, and cardiovascular disease. It is the purpose of this review to present an overview of NO and its critical role in cardiovascular health; to detail the observed vascular benefits of dietary nitrate intake through effects on NO status as well as to discuss the controversy surrounding the possible toxic effects of nitrate. PMID:25976309

  5. Effect of ammonium nutrition on the nitrate utilization, nitrate reductase actvity and growth of Spirodela polyrrhiza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Tatkowska

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The influence of NH4+ ions on nitrate assimilation and growth of sterile Spirodela polyrrhiza cultures was investigated. S. polyrrhiza utilises both the nitrate and the ammonium form of nitrogen, it prefers, however, NH4+. Ammonium ions present in the nitrate medium inhibit the activity of nitrate reductase (NR, but they do not affect enzyme 'induction and only slightly reduce N03- uptake. These results sugest that the inhibitory effect of NH4+ on the NR activity is the main cause of the decrease in N03- assimilation by S. polyrrhiza cultures growing in nitrate-ammonium medium.

  6. Nitrate Transport, Sensing, and Responses in Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, José A; Vega, Andrea; Bouguyon, Eléonore; Krouk, Gabriel; Gojon, Alain; Coruzzi, Gloria; Gutiérrez, Rodrigo A

    2016-06-01

    Nitrogen (N) is an essential macronutrient that affects plant growth and development. N is an important component of chlorophyll, amino acids, nucleic acids, and secondary metabolites. Nitrate is one of the most abundant N sources in the soil. Because nitrate and other N nutrients are often limiting, plants have developed sophisticated mechanisms to ensure adequate supply of nutrients in a variable environment. Nitrate is absorbed in the root and mobilized to other organs by nitrate transporters. Nitrate sensing activates signaling pathways that impinge upon molecular, metabolic, physiological, and developmental responses locally and at the whole plant level. With the advent of genomics technologies and genetic tools, important advances in our understanding of nitrate and other N nutrient responses have been achieved in the past decade. Furthermore, techniques that take advantage of natural polymorphisms present in divergent individuals from a single species have been essential in uncovering new components. However, there are still gaps in our understanding of how nitrate signaling affects biological processes in plants. Moreover, we still lack an integrated view of how all the regulatory factors identified interact or crosstalk to orchestrate the myriad N responses plants typically exhibit. In this review, we provide an updated overview of mechanisms by which nitrate is sensed and transported throughout the plant. We discuss signaling components and how nitrate sensing crosstalks with hormonal pathways for developmental responses locally and globally in the plant. Understanding how nitrate impacts on plant metabolism, physiology, and growth and development in plants is key to improving crops for sustainable agriculture. PMID:27212387

  7. Microplasma oxidation of aluminium alloy in aqueous solutions containing sodium cyclohexaphosphate and nitrates of La and Eu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The bond between the ionic composition of electrolytes and elementary, phase compositions of the anode layers obtained therein is studied through the methods of the NMR 31P, laser spectrometry and rhoentgenophase analysis. Combined and proportional introduction into the films by microplasma oxidation of Ln and P is determined by presence in the electrolyte volume of complex anions (CA) of the polyphosphate-Ln. The rate of average values at. % P/Ln in the films material is close to 3. General trends of impact of the CA polyphosphate-two- or three-charge cation on the composition and formation of anion-layer are discussed

  8. Active metal brazing of different metals to aluminium nitride ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During recent years aluminium nitride ceramics for substrates, coolers and components have found more applications in micro- and power electronics. Aluminium nitride ceramic with high thermal conductivity, small CTE and good thermal shock resistance is used in aeronautical equipment as well as in drive systems of undergrounds and high speed trains. Different metals and alloys can be bonded to AIN by the so-called 'AMB-process'. The bonding mechanism is based on the use of so-called active metals like Ti, Zr, Hf. Copper conductor lines can be brazed onto AIN-substrates and components, resistor sheets can be applied on ceramic water coolers and a couple of other metals and alloys like tantalium, titanium, KOVAR and steel can be attached to AIN-ceramics by active brazing. Processing, analytical aspects and some special applications will be discussed. (author)

  9. Nano α-alumina powders from aluminium dross waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes a solvo thermal chemical process to recycle aluminium dross waste into nano α-alumina powder. The process includes washing to remove the unwanted sodium follow by dissolving of this waste with dilute acid. The solvo thermal process then proceed with addition of propanol to crystallize the aluminium hydroxide. XRD analysis of this crystal shows that it belongs to Gibbs site (Al(OH)3). The crystals were then calcined at 1300 degree C where white powder was produced. Characteristic studies were then performed on this powder using XRD, SEM, EDX and particle size analysis showing that it has single α-alumina crystal phase with almost spherical shape. As the initial particle size is coarse and had a mean particle size of 3.80 μm, high speed wet milling was used and enable to reduce it to 0.49 μm. (Author)

  10. Effect of pressurized steam on AA1050 aluminium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jariyaboon, Manthana; Møller, Per; Ambat, Rajan

    2012-01-01

    measurements were used to study corrosion behavior. Findings - A 590?nm boehmite oxide layer was generated on AA1050 associated with partially dissolved and/or fallen off Fe-containing intermetallic particles after exposure to pressurized steam. A significant reduction (25 times) in anodic and cathodic......Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to understand the effect of pressurized steam on surface changes, structures of intermetallic particles and corrosion behavior of AA1050 aluminium. Design/methodology/approach - Industrially pure aluminium (AA1050, 99.5 per cent) surfaces were exposed to...... pressurized steam produced from a commercial pressure cooker at the maximum temperature of 116oC for 10?min. Surface morphology was observed using SEM-EDX and FIB-SEM. Phase identification and compositional depth profiling were investigated using XRD and GDOES, respectively. Potentiodynamic polarization...

  11. Production of aluminium oxide from the kaolin waste reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The kaolin processing for paper covering produces a great volume of residues formed primary by clay mineral kaolinite which was in this study, the starting point for the synthesis of ammonium alum aiming to obtain free sodium alumina with fine grade for ceramic manufacture. The synthesis process to obtain ammonium alum consisted of the following procedures: residues calcination and sulphuric leaching of meta kaolinite followed by neutralization/ crystallization of aluminium sulphate solution with ammonium hydroxide concentrated solution. The effect of calcination temperature (650 deg C, 700 deg C and 750 deg C), calcination time of residues (30 min, 60 min and 120 min),sulphuric acid concentration as well as leaching temperature (70 deg C, 80 deg C and 90 deg C) on kinetics of aluminium leaching were studied. The influence of pH on ammonium alum crystallization was also studied. Data on chemical analysis, XRD and DTA of raw material utilized and synthesized are presented and discussed. (author)

  12. The nature of point defects in plastically deformed aluminium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to find out which types of point defect are produced by plastic deformation, 57Co-doped aluminium specimens were cold worked at various temperatures by unidirectional tensile deformation or cyclic torsion. The specimens were then annealed at increasing temperatures, and the trapping of defects at the 57Co probes was studied by Moessbauer spectroscopy. In none of the experiments were interstitials found, although it is known that in aluminium 57Co probes readily trap interstitials after low-temperature particle irradiation. However, vacancy trapping was found in two temperature ranges corresponding to two different migration energies of vacancies: in dislocations Esub(m)sup(d) approx.0.2 to 0.3 eV and in the lattice Esub(m) approx.= 0.6 eV. The consequences of the results on models of point defect production by cold working are discussed. (author)

  13. Impact of Inert Metal Particles Flow on Aluminium Plate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhongqi; LIU Yi; CHEN Yahong; BAI Chunhua

    2008-01-01

    Inert metal explosive, a new kind of explosive, is a mixture of high explosive and inert metal particle.When this kind of explosive is detonated, an inert metal particle flow will be formed by the explosive product driving.To determine the characteristics of the movement of the metal particle flow, a series of aluminium plates were designed to be the targets on which the metal particle flow impacted.The test result was presented and a numerical model was set up to analyze the impact of the high speed inert metal particles on aluminium plate.Based on the numerical analysis, the relationship between the characteristic of the mark on the target plate and the initial condition of the inert metal particles was proposed.From the analysis of the impact on target plates, more information about the movement of the metal particles could be reconstructed.

  14. Mechanisms of de cohesion in cutting aluminium matrix composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper properties and applications of aluminium matrix composites are presented with a composite reinforced with saffil fibres selected for topical study. Behavior of matrix and reinforcement during machining with a cutting tool is analyzed. The paper presents an explosive quick-stop device designed to obtain undisturbed machined surface for examination. Meso hardness measurements of deformed structure, resultant chips and built-up-edge were carried out. Scanning micrographs of machined surface are presented with morphology and types of chips analysed. Values of the fibrousness angle ψ and thickening index kh of chip are evaluated. The research performed has enabled the authors to define mechanisms of e cohesion during cutting aluminium matrix composites. The results received for composite material are compared with those pertinent to aluminum alloys.

  15. Effects and mechanisms of grain refinement in aluminium alloys

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K T Kashyap; T Chandrashekar

    2001-08-01

    Grain refinement plays a crucial role in improving characteristics and properties of cast and wrought aluminium alloys. Generally Al–Ti and Al–Ti–B master alloys are added to the aluminium alloys to grain refine the solidified product. The mechanism of grain refinement is of considerable controversy in the scientific literature. The nucleant effects i.e. which particle and its characteristics nucleate -Al, has been the subject of intensive research. Lately the solute effect i.e. the effect of dissolved titanium on grain refinement, has come into forefront of grain refinement research. The present paper attempts to review the literature on the nucleant effects and solute effects on grain refinement and addresses the importance of dissolved titanium in promoting nucleation of -Al on nucleant particles.

  16. Sorption of strontium-90 on anodized aluminium (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adsorption of the 90Sr+90Y system on anodized aluminium as a function of oxide layer thickness, purity of aluminum and temperature has been studied. It was found that only the adsorption of Sr2+ ions is affected by the oxide layer thickness. The content of admixtures in aluminium was meaningless from the point of view of adsorption capacity. An increase of Sr2+ adsorption with temperature was observed in the range from 20 to 600C. From the investigation of desorption it follows that the irreversibility of adsorption is higher for yttrium than for strontium and that the oxide layers of greater porosity tie up more strongly both kinds of ions. (author)

  17. Structural colours and applications to anodised aluminium surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Villads Egede

    solve the problem. The problem is investigated by first reviewing existing work within colouration and visual appearance. This includes a study on how colours are perceived by humans and an investigation of the characteristics with which a surface appearance is properly described. Subsequently......, nanostructures and surface profiles are investigated using optimisation and topology optimisation in order to understand the limitations and design freedom of colour engineering. This is then followed by a study of the effect of disorder on a nanoscale level in order to tailor surface reflections for a smooth......, pleasing appearance. Afterwards, optical models for scattering of non-deterministic geometries suitable for anodised aluminium are considered. The outcome of the investigations are several different proposals for obtaining a white appearance for aluminium. These are described in the thesis alongside a...

  18. Microstructure evolution and grain refinement in asymmetrically rolled aluminium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aluminium alloy sheets were asymmetrically rolled and annealed. Asymmetric rolling was applied by imposing different velocity ratios between the top and bottom rolls, from 1 to 1.5. After cold rolling, the microstructures of various samples were analysed by electron back scatter diffraction, whereas the mechanical properties were characterized by stress–strain curves and microhardness measurements. The asymmetrical rolling process was examined as an alternative method to obtain fine- or even ultrafine-grained aluminium. The main purpose of this paper is to describe, qualitatively and quantitatively, the influence of asymmetrical rolling on microstructure evolution. Grain size, misorientation, image quality factor and other parameters were characterized and analysed in some detail. In the present study, a unique approach has been used for the first time to examine the possibility of applying the asymmetric rolling process in the preparation of materials with controlled heterogeneity

  19. TORSIONAL DEFORMATION AND FATIGUE BEHAVIOUR OF 6061 ALUMINIUM ALLOY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    marini marno

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Torsional deformation and fatigue behaviour of both solid and thin-walled tubular specimens were made from as-received and heat treated 6061 aluminium alloy were studied. 6061 aluminium alloy have been widely used as a candidate material in automobile, aerospace, aircraft and structural application because of their superior mechanical properties such as high strength to weight ratio, good ductility and others. The differences in cyclic deformation and fatigue behaviours between round and solid specimens where a stress gradient exist, and thin-walled tubular specimens where a uniform stress state is commonly assumed, are also discussed. Von Mises and Tresca criteria has been used to predict the monotonic and cyclic deformation curve and compared to the torsional data obtained from the experiment. The S-N curve was used to present and evaluate the fatigue life of the specimens. Through fractographic analysis, failure criteria of fracture surfaces were observed and discussed. 

  20. Buffering effects on electrograining of aluminium in nitric acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koroleva, E.V. [Corrosion and Protection Centre, UMIST, P.O. Box 88, Manchester M60 1QD (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: e.koroleva@umist.ac.uk; Thompson, G.E. [Corrosion and Protection Centre, UMIST, P.O. Box 88, Manchester M60 1QD (United Kingdom); Skeldon, P. [Corrosion and Protection Centre, UMIST, P.O. Box 88, Manchester M60 1QD (United Kingdom); Hollrigl, G. [Alcan Technology and Management Ltd., Bad. Bahnhofstrasse 16, CH-8212 Neuhausen (Switzerland); Lockwood, S. [Bridgnorth Aluminium Limited, Stourbridge Road, Bridgnorth WV15 6AU (United Kingdom); Smith, G. [Bridgnorth Aluminium Limited, Stourbridge Road, Bridgnorth WV15 6AU (United Kingdom)

    2005-09-01

    Electrograining of a binary Al-Si alloy has been undertaken in nitric acid based electrolytes, with the resultant surfaces examined by scanning and transmission electron microscopies. Depending on electrograining conditions, the pit appearance varies from hemispherical to large lateral pits, with the latter favoured in relatively acidic electrolytes. The conditions prevailing in the pit have been explored through use of aluminium ion additions to the nitric acid electrolyte as well as additions of species which influence the precipitation and dissolution of aluminium hydroxide. These confirm that control of the pit solution pH, through hydroxide generation, as a result of the selected electrograining conditions and consequent anodic and cathodic polarisation, enables tailoring of the resultant electrograined surface appearance.

  1. Experimental evidence for a dynamical crossover in liquid aluminium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demmel, F; Fraile, A; Szubrin, D; Pilgrim, W-C; Morkel, C

    2015-11-18

    The temperature dependence of the dynamic structure factor at next-neighbour distances has been investigated for liquid aluminium. This correlation function is a sensitive parameter for changes in the local environment and its Fourier transform was measured in a coherent inelastic neutron scattering experiment. The zero frequency amplitude decreases in a nonlinear way and indicates a change in dynamics around 1.4 ∙ Tmelting. From that amplitude a generalized viscosity can be derived which is a measure of local stress correlations on next-neighbour distances. The derived generalized longitudinal viscosity shows a changing slope at the same temperature range. At this temperature the freezing out of degrees of freedom for structural relaxation upon cooling sets in which can be understood as a precursor towards the solid state. That crossover in dynamics of liquid aluminium shows the same signatures as previously observed in liquid rubidium and lead, indicating an universal character. PMID:26465204

  2. Environment pollution with aluminium around a coalburning electric power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experiments were carried out from November 1991 till November 1993 on the area surrounding an electric power plant within the circle of 20 km diameter and five geographical directions (N, S, SE, E, W). The results presented in this paper have indicated the threats caused by emissions of the power plant ashes and dusts. Mean aluminium content in soil has been multiply surpassed on the area studied. This must have as impact on fauna and flora. The distribution and intensity of pollution is determined first of all by the distance from the emitters and direction of prevailing winds. A part of aluminium contained in water soluble compounds can be distributed on large areas, what adds a lot to the threat to animals. That is why high chimneys do not solve the problem of pollution around big industrial plants. (author)

  3. Tailored Aluminium based Coatings for Optical Appearance and Corrosion Resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aggerbeck, Martin

    The current project investigated the possibility of designing aluminium based coatings focusing on the effect of composition and surface finish on the optical appearance and on the alkaline corrosion properties using titanium as the main alloying element. The main results and discussions of this...... the previously described magnetron sputtered Al-Ti coatings showed that 13 wt. % titanium and more improved the corrosion resistance at pH 13.5 and this was further improved by heat treatment, especially at 400 °C and more. The improved corrosion properties were ascribed to structural relaxation......, decreased galvanic potential differences in the microstructure, and protection from the network of the Al3Ti phases precipitated during the heat treatment. Laser surface cladding of aluminium containing up to 20 wt. % Ti6Al4V were studied focusing on the microstructure and the alkaline corrosion properties...

  4. Radiative capture of polarized neutrons by aluminium and manganese nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The angular distribution of the intensity is calculated for primary and secondary gamma-rays emitted after polarized neutron capture in a polarized target. Also the circular polarization is derived for capture of polarized neutrons by unoriented nuclei. Interference between the reaction channels and all possible dipole/quadrupole mixing is taken into account. Some aspects of p-wave and s-p interference are discussed. The results of these calculations are applied to the experiments on aluminium and manganese. In the nuclear orientation experiment with aluminium a 'brute force' polarized target was used. For five levels in 28Al the spin value could be determined uniquely. No evidence for significant M2/E1 mixing is found. A ferromagnetic MnSb sample was used to polarize the manganese nuclei. Unique spin values are assigned to 13 states in 56Mn. The magnetic hyperfine field on the Mn nuclei is determined to be negative

  5. Melting defect characterization in aluminium alloys by using computerized tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper analyses the performance of parallel beam X-ray transmission computerized tomography, in the characterization of melting defects on a aluminium alloy. The results obtained presented a spatial resolution approximately of 0.8 mm. The porosity distribution existent in the piece appears as noise at the tomographic images with impossible detection. From the tomograms analyses it was possible to classify two defect regions at the pieces: empty and large pore concentration

  6. Studies on the chelation of aluminium for biological application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potentiometric determinations of the strength of chelation of aluminium(III) by citrate and 3-carboxy-1,5-pentanedioic acid have been made at 37,0 plus minus 0,1 degree Celsius and I = 150 mmol dm-3 NaCl. From these results, the citrate complex is inferred to be tridentate with coordination through the two terminal carboxyl groups and the central hydroxyl group. This structure is confirmed by 13C nuclear magnetic resonance

  7. Characteristics of particulate emissions from aluminium electrolysis cells

    OpenAIRE

    Gaertner, Heiko

    2013-01-01

    Modern sampling and analysis techniques were applied to study the morphology and composition of pot exhaust particles from aluminium smelters. In this study the total spectrum of pot exhaust particles from prebake electrolysis cells was sampled on filters and in a standard cyclone. Application of a cascade impactor allowed for fractionation of raw gas dust into 12 fractions with particle diameters in the range from approximately 7 nm to 10 μm. The performed experiments demonstrated that the p...

  8. Experimental study of friction in aluminium bolted joints

    OpenAIRE

    Vincenzi N.; De Agostinis M.; Croccolo D.

    2010-01-01

    This study aims at developing an experimental tool useful to define accurately the friction coefficients in bolted joints and, therefore, at relating precisely the tightening torque to the bolt preloading force in some special components used in front motorbike suspensions. The components under investigation are some clamped joints made of aluminium alloy. The preloading force is achieved by applying a torque wrench to the bolt head. Some specific specimens have been appropriately desig...

  9. ICT measuring method of small gap in aluminium component

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because of the limitation of image reconstruction theory, the spatial resolution and random dispersion of CT value determine the minimum measuring size of Industrial Computed Tomography (ICT). This paper put forward the local boundary integration conception and found a new method to precisely measure the gap between 0.01-0.15 mm in aluminium component. When the credibility is 95%, the measuring accuracy is better than ± 0.005 mm. (authors)

  10. Load carrying capacity analysis of materials for aluminium rims

    OpenAIRE

    Fajdiga, Matija; Čižman, Jure

    2015-01-01

    In this contribution we present an experimental simulation of the fatique strength of clamped aluminium rims. This is supported by numerical modelling using the Finite Element Method (FEM), which was used for stress-strain analysis of a model representing a clamped detail during bendings. The design and analysis of the model are made simultaneously on an integrated computer controlled test rig for testing the fatique strength of clamped parts subjected to bending. The simulation is evaluated ...

  11. Fatigue Strength of Friction Stir Welded Joints in Aluminium

    OpenAIRE

    Ericsson, Mats

    2005-01-01

    Solid state Friction stir welding (FSW) is of major interest in the welding of aluminium since it improves the joint properties. Many applications where Al-alloys are used are subject to varying load conditions, making fatigue failure a critical issue. In the scope of this thesis, the fatigue performance of friction stir welded AlMgSi-alloy 6082 has been investigated. Static and dynamic properties of different joint configurations and welds produced with varying process parameters have been d...

  12. Fabrication and characterisation of uranium, molybdenum, chromium, niobium and aluminium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes fabrication of binary uranium alloys by melting and casting. The following alloys with nominal composition were obtained by melting in the vacuum furnace: uranium with niobium contents from 0.5%- 4.0% and uranium with molybdenum contents from 0.4% - 1.2%. Uranium alloys with chromium content from 0.4% - 1.2% and uranium alloy with 0.12% of aluminium were obtained by vacuum induction furnace (electric arc melting)

  13. Establishment of integrated information displays in aluminium surfaces using nanomanufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prichystal, Jan; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Bladt, Henrik H.;

    2006-01-01

    Bang & Olufsen has been working with a method for manufacturing ultra-thin structures in aluminium that can be penetrated by light. This work has resulted in a patent describing how to obtain this effect by material removal in local areas in a solid material. The idea behind an invisible display ...... micromachining with ultra-short pulses, selective etching combined with anodizing, and electrochemical machining....

  14. Experimental study of aluminium honeycomb behaviour under dynamic multiaxial loading

    OpenAIRE

    Markiewicz E.; Haugou G.; Chaari F.; Zouari B.; Tounsi R.; Dammak F.

    2012-01-01

    Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar system (SHPB) with large-diameter and Nylon bars introducing a shear-compression loading device is used in order to investigate the dynamic behaviour of aluminium honeycomb under multiaxial loadings conditions. All shear-compression configurations including the loading angle variation from 0∘ to 60∘ are performed with an impact velocity of about 15m/s. The adapted SHPB system with the device are validated numerically and a phenomenon of separation between the inpu...

  15. TEM microstructure investigations of aluminium alloys used as coating substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Tański

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this paper was investigated structure and properties of gradient coatings produced in PVD process on AlSi9Cu aluminium alloys.Design/methodology/approach: The following results concern the structures of the substrates and coatings with the application of electron transmission and scanning microscopy; phase composition of the coatings using X-ray diffraction and grazing incident X-ray diffraction technique (GIXRD; microhardness and wear resistance.Findings: The deposited coatings are characterized by a single, double, or multi-layer structure according to the applied layers system, and the individual layers are coated even and tightly adhere to the substrate as well to each other. The analysis of coatings obtained on the surface of cast aluminium alloys by the PVD processes show a clear - over 100% - increase of the microhardness, compared to the base material microhardness.Practical implications: Achieving of new operational and functional characteristics and properties of commonly used materials, including the Al-Si-Cu alloys is often obtained by heat treatment, ie, precipitation hardening and/or surface treatment due to application or manufacturing of machined surface layer coatings of materials in a given group of materials used for different surface engineering processes.Originality/value: The paper presents the research involving the PVD coatings obtained on an unconventional substrate such as aluminium alloys. Contemporary materials should possess high mechanical properties, physical and chemical, as well as technological ones, to ensure long and reliable use. The above mentioned requirements and expectations regarding the contemporary materials are met by the non-ferrous metals alloys used nowadays, including the aluminium alloys.

  16. Work Hardening and Mechanical Anisotropy of Aluminium Sheets and Profiles

    OpenAIRE

    Ryen, Øyvind

    2003-01-01

    The processing of aluminium alloys from casting to end product is associated with a large number of metallurgical phenomena. In order to further improve and optimise process routes and alloys, a thorough understanding of the thermomechanical treatments by experimental observations and physically based modelling is necessary.In part A of this thesis the work hardening behaviour of non-heat treatable alloys is followed up to large strains. The evolution in strength, microstructure and texture d...

  17. Numerical modeling of aluminium foam on two scales

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Němeček, J.; Denk, F.; Zlámal, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 267, September (2015), s. 506-516. ISSN 0096-3003 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP105/12/0824 Institutional support: RVO:68378297 Keywords : closed-cell aluminium foam * Alporas * multiscale modeling * homogenization * FFT * finite element modeling Subject RIV: JI - Composite Materials Impact factor: 1.551, year: 2014 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0096300315001162

  18. Aluminium extrusion investigated by theory, experiment and FEM-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Khorasani, Sepinood Torabzadeh

    2015-01-01

    The process of aluminium extrusion has important influence in metal forming industry because of its ability to produce profiles with different shapes, sizes and complicated geometries. The required extrusion load is depending on the process parameters such as the flow stress of the billet material, velocity field, strain rate distribution, and thermal conditions within extrusion. These conditions are so important for industries, and interesting for academia, that research has been...

  19. Texture development during recrystallization of aluminium containing large particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul Jensen, Dorte; Hansen, Niels; Humphreys, F. J.

    1985-01-01

    The recrystallization process in heavily deformed commercially pure aluminium containing large intermetallic particles was studied by in situ neutron diffraction texture measurements and various microscopical techniques including texture measurements in local areas and simultaneous determination of...... size and orientation of individual grains. The formation and growth of recrystallization nuclei at the particles and in the matrix were examined by correlating the measured change in texture to the observed change in microstructure. It was found that prolific nucleation of grains having a wide spread...

  20. Structural use of aluminium in the construction industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nethercot, D.A. [Imperial Coll., London (United Kingdom)

    2002-07-01

    Examples are given of the structural use of aluminium in the Civil Engineering and Building Industries. These are taken from various periods within the past 50 years. The contrast between relatively widespread use for quite major structures in the 50' and 60's with the niche markets of today is striking. Paradoxically, availability of technical guidance, linked to professionally prepared educational material, has never been better. (orig.)

  1. Oxidation of solid aluminium-magnesium alloy doped by scandium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The oxidation of solid aluminium-magnesium alloy with scandium was studied by means of thermogravimetry method. The kinetic and energy parameters of oxidation process were defined. The kinetics of oxidation was studied by means of thermogravimetry method. The apparent activation energy was defined as well. The products of oxidation were studied by means of X-ray analysis method. It was shown that the main products of oxidation were γ-Al2O3 and Mg O.

  2. Study of twist boundaries in aluminium. Structure and intergranular diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research thesis addresses the study of grain boundaries in oriented crystals, and more particularly the systematic calculation of intergranular structures and energies of twist boundaries of <001> axis in aluminium, the determination of intergranular diffusion coefficients of zinc in a set of twist bi-crystals of same axis encompassing a whole range of disorientations, and the search for a correlation between these experimental results and calculated structures

  3. Wrought Aluminium Alloy Corrosion Propensity in Domestic Food Cooking Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Adeosun, S. O.; E. I. Akpan; S. A. Balogun

    2012-01-01

    The study on corrosion behaviour of wrought aluminium alloy in domestic food cooking conditions has been examined using the gravimetric approach. Flat cold rolled and annealed sheets were subjected to solutions of Capsicum annuum, L. esculentum, Allium cepa, and their blend under three conditions, namely, heating and cooling in still air, heating and cooling in refrigerator, and leaving some in open still atmosphere. Results show that corrosion occurred within the test period (288 hours) in t...

  4. Outstanding inhibitive effect of colchicine on aluminium alloy 6061 corrosion

    OpenAIRE

    Mudigere Krishnegowda Pavithra; Thimmappa Venkatarangaiah Venkateha; Mudigere Krishnegowda Punith Kumar; Nanjanagudu Subba Rao Anantha

    2015-01-01

    The corrosion protection ability of colchicine (CC) on Aluminium alloy 6061 (AA6061) in 3.5% NaCl medium was examined by potentiodynamic polarization, electrochemical impedance, and chronoamperometric techniques. About 99 % of protection efficiency was achieved by 2 mM concentration of CC in 3.5% NaCl solution.The adsorption of CC on AA6061 surface obeys Langmuir isotherm by following both physisorption and chemisorption mechanism. Variation in the surface morphology of inhibited and uninhibi...

  5. State diagram of copper-aluminium alloys after neutron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is ascertained that under reactor irradiation of copper-aluminium alloys (18.0-31.2 at% of Al) radiation-induced phase transformations occur, alpha-phase is decomposed into two ones with alpha'-phase precipitation, in gamma2-phase separate regions of its high-temperature disordered modification (gamma1-phase) are formed. Thermal stability of precipitations is investigated, regions of their existence are defined on the state diagram

  6. Hole quality and burr reduction in drilling aluminium sheets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilny, Lukas; De Chiffre, Leonardo; Piska, Miroslav;

    2011-01-01

    Optimization of the metal drilling process requires creation of minimum amount of burrs and uniform appearance of the drilled holes. In this paper, an experimental investigation was performed on 2 mm sheets of wrought aluminium alloy Al99.7Mg0.5Cu-H24, using 1.6 and 2 mm diameter drills. Cutting ...... drilled holes was fulfilled as well as high productivity achieved. Such optimized process results in a noticeable production cost reduction....

  7. METAL MATRIX COMPOSITES BASED ON ALUMINIUM LITHIUM AND SILICON CARBIDE

    OpenAIRE

    White, J.; Hughes, I; Willis, T.; Jordan, R.

    1987-01-01

    The present study tests the feasibility of producing metal matrix composites based on aluminium-lithium alloys. The first step in this process has been to produce an MMC based on 8090 with SiC. This has been successfully produced by Alcan International using the "Osprey" spray deposition process. The raw billets have been processed initially by extrusion. The tensile properties of this material have been determined and the strength compares favourably with DC cast alloys. Modulus is improved ...

  8. Noncontact ultrasonic thickness measurements of thin aluminium sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method has been described for the noncontact ultrasonic thickness measurements of thin aluminium sheets, using a Q-switched ruby laser generation concentric with an annular electro-magnetic acoustic transducer (EMAT) detection to imitate pulse-echo system. The detected waveforms were analyzed with the cut-off frequences of the higher order lamb modes. The results show in a good egreement with micrometer measurements within 2% discrepancy. (authors). 22 refs, 6 figs

  9. Modelling of semi-liquid aluminium flow in extrusion

    OpenAIRE

    G. Skorulski; J. Piwnik

    2007-01-01

    characterizing by low cost. The significant results may be quickly applying using theory of probability. The way of modelling the deformation mechanisms during extrusion of aluminium alloys in semi - liquid phase, the way of preparing samples and experimental technique has been analysed in the following work. On the ground of received results (i.e. registrations of consecutive process steps) the grid of the flow velocity vectors on a flat sample surface was done. It allowed to draw conclusion...

  10. Uranium and thorium behavior at aluminium floating-zone refining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranium and thorium behaviour during aluminium refining by crystallization from the melt is ascertained. Measurements of of uranium and thorium radioactive impurities content in high-purity aluminiumn samples using the surface α-activity method are carried out. The content of the given impurities happened to be less than 1 x 10-7 mass.%. Such purity satisfies the requirements to materials applied in the low background 71Ge detection system of gallium-germanium solar neutrino detector

  11. Melting Transition of Small Aluminium Clusters Al11-20

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Wei; ZHANG Feng-Shou; ZHU Zhi-Yuan

    2007-01-01

    Heat capacities of small aluminium clusters Al11-20 are investigated using MD simulation with empirical manybody Gupta potential. The heat capacities of some clusters Al11, Al12, Al13 and Al19 show well-defined peaks while the heat capacities of Al15-18 indicate a gradual melting transition. The spectra of isomers obtained by quenches along the MD trajectory give good interpretation for those results.

  12. Preparation of polymeric aluminium ferric chloride from bauxite tailings

    OpenAIRE

    Ma D; Guo M; Zhang M

    2013-01-01

    Bauxite tailings are the main solid wastes in the ore dressing process. The Al2O3 and Fe2O3 contents in bauxite tailings can reach 50% and 13% respectively. The present study proposed a feasible method to use bauxite tailings to prepare polymeric aluminium ferric chloride (PAFC), a new composite inorganic polymer for water purification. Bauxite tailings roasted reacting with hydrochloric acid under air, pickle liquor which mainly contains Fe3+, Al3+ was generated, then calcium aluminate...

  13. INVESTIGATION OF THE POTENTIAL PHYSIO-PATOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF ALUMINIUM IN PATIENTS WITH ALZHEIMER SPECIFIC SYMPTOMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin Bǎlǎeț

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In the past few years, there has been developed an idea about the connection between the Presence of aluminium in human blood and Alzheimer disease. The goal of our study was to demonstrate that there is a connection between the aluminium in the patients’ blood (who presented specific symptoms and Alzheimer disease’s occurrence, having a physiopathological determination. Aluminium dosage in a group of patients was analyzed (according to some pre-established procedures. 65% of the patients had 1-5% higher than normal values for aluminium level. Aluminium intoxication could lead to syndromes which could affect peoples’ activity. The general physicians must be aware of the need for detecting the aluminium in blood, of interpreting the physiopathological changes and of monitoring these changes in order to detect early symptoms of Alzheimer disease.

  14. RESPONSE OF PHENOLIC METABOLISM INDUCED BY ALUMINIUM TOXICITY IN FAGOPYRUM ESCULENTUM MOENCH. PLANTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, O E; Kosyan, A M; Kosyk, O I; Taran, N Yu

    2015-01-01

    Buckwheat genus (Fagopyrum Mill.) is one of the aluminium tolerant taxonomic units of plants. The aim of the study was an evaluation of the aluminium (50 μM effect on phenolic accumulation in various parts of buckwheat plants (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench). Detection of increasing of total phenolic content, changes in flavonoid and anthocyanin content and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase activity (PAL) were revealed over a period of 10 days of exposure to aluminium. The most significant effects of aluminium treatment on phenolic compounds accumulation were total phenolic content increasing (by 27.2%) and PAL activity rising by 2.5 times observed in leaves tissues. Received data could be helpful to understand the aluminium tolerance principles and relationships of phenolic compounds to aluminium phytotoxicity. PMID:27025067

  15. Modelling of detonation cellular structure in aluminium suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briand, A.; Veyssiere, B.; Khasainov, B. A.

    2010-12-01

    Heterogeneous detonations involving aluminium suspensions have been studied for many years for industrial safety policies, and for military and propulsion applications. Owing to their weak detonability and to the lack of available experimental results on the detonation cellular structure, numerical simulations provide a convenient way to improve the knowledge of such detonations. One major difficulty arising in numerical study of heterogeneous detonations involving suspensions of aluminium particles in oxidizing atmospheres is the modelling of aluminium combustion. Our previous two-step model provided results on the effect on the detonation cellular structure of particle diameter and characteristic chemical lengths. In this study, a hybrid model is incorporated in the numerical code EFAE, combining both kinetic and diffusion regimes in parallel. This more realistic model provides good agreement with the previous two-step model and confirms the correlations found between the detonation cell width, and particle diameter and characteristic lengths. Moreover, the linear dependence found between the detonation cell width and the induction length remains valid with the hybrid model.

  16. 68Ga radionuclide generator on the aluminium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The method of 68Ga generator on the base of aluminium oxide is supposed. The method includes the preliminarily treatment of the aluminium oxide by NaOH solution (0.1 mol/l) and following dynamical sorption of 68Ge maternal radionuclide on the treated aluminium oxide. Value of the 68Ge sorption makes up more than 97 %. Sorption of 68Ge is proceeding at pH water solution not more than 12, but elution the 68Ga daughterly radionuclide is carried out by HCl solution (0.1 mol/l). Testing of the 68Ga pilot radionuclide preparation shows, that the generator provides the production of 300 eluates of 68Ga preparation with output 50-70 %. The 68Ge impurities in 68Ga eluate makes up 2·10-4 %. Aluminum content in the all 68Ga fractions makes up 1 μg/ml. Influence of HCl concentration in eluent and time interval between elution on the 68Ga and 68Ge breakthrough is studied

  17. Aluminium intake by INAA of hair: The aerosol intoxication pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aluminium is present in healthy human organisms in concentrations that appear to be neither useful nor noxious. However, long term higher Al levels can produce severe bone, renal and cerebral troubles. Here we report the results of the first investigation using the Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis of human hair aimed to assess the Al contamination in workers from aluminium industry due to aerosol inhalation. Seventy five subjects working at 'Alprom' Inc., Slatina, Romania aluminium processing plant were included in this study. The exposed subjects were casters, crane operators and rolling mill operators. Hair samples were washed with acetone-water-water-water-acetone using bi-distilled water and re-distilled-purified p.a. grade acetone and irradiated for 3 min at a thermal neutron flux of 2.3 x 1012 n/cm2s in the VVR-S reactor. Student's t-test showed the arithmetical mean values of all exposed groups to differ of the control group's one with a good statistical confidence level. In most workers the Al concentration in hair is 2 times higher than normal but in one third of the casters and in two of the rolling mill operators it is on average up to 7 times higher. Substantial Al overload can cause severe osteoporosis or encephalopathies even after retirement from activity. Protection filtering masks and medical therapy based on strong chelant drug deferoxamine are recommended, (authors)

  18. Mechanical behaviour of nitrogen-implanted aluminium alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guzman, L. [Centro Materiali e Biofisica Medica, Trento (Italy); Bonini, G. [Dipt. di Ingegneria Nucleare del Politecnico, Milano (Italy); Adami, M. [Dipt. di Meccanica Strutturale, Univ. degli Studi di Trento (Italy); Ossi, P.M. [Dipt. di Ingegneria Nucleare del Politecnico, Milano (Italy)]|[Trento Univ., Povo (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica; Miotello, A. [Ist. Nazionale per la Fisica della Materia, Univ. degli Studi di Trento (Italy)]|[Trento Univ., Povo (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica; Vittori-Antisari, M. [ENEA, C.R. Casaccia, Settore Nuovi Materiali, Roma (Italy); Serventi, A.M. [ENEA, C.R. Casaccia, Settore Nuovi Materiali, Roma (Italy); Voltolini, E. [Centro Materiali e Biofisica Medica, Trento (Italy)

    1996-09-01

    The effect of nitrogen implantation into pure aluminium has been extensively explored, taking into account the variation of several physical and technological properties of the implanted layer. In particular, the formation of aluminium nitride, which occurs under specific choices of the implantation parameters, is associated with an increase in hardness. In this work, we consider two Al alloys (Al-7075 and Al-2011), frequently employed in the mechanical industry, with properties strongly dependent on the thermomechanical treatment. Molecular nitrogen bombardment at 150 keV (75 keV N{sup +}) was employed, up to a total dose of 3.10{sup 17} N cm{sup -2}, varying the substrate temperature from 373 to 473 K. The samples were then characterized with respect to composition, structure, morphology, microhardness, scratch resistance (also performing multi-pass testing) and friction coefficient. The results were interpreted within the framework of micromechanical models describing the hardness of thin coatings deposited onto soft substrates; the microhardness of the implanted layer increased by a factor of five. It appears that nitrogen-implanted aluminium alloy layers, in spite of their shallow thickness, behave better than hard TiN coated surfaces. Care must be taken to implant both alloys at the lowest possible temperature to avoid degradation of the substrate properties. (orig.)

  19. Welding metallurgy of aluminium for radiation tube of reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The metallurgy of TIG weldment in aluminium alloy was examined based on physical metallurgy characteristics. The presence of weld defects have been detected by x-ray radiographic and metallographic methods. The lack of penetration in the aluminium weldment was possibly caused by the formation of aluminium oxide layer, insufficient heating flow and fast speed of work piece rotation. Segregation of major elements such as Mg and Si were varied between the weld zone and parent metal depending on the heat input during welding. Microstructure and microhardness across the weldment were markedly changed by heat-treatments. Minimum hardness was found in the heat-affected zone (HAZ) - fusion zone boundary and maximum hardness was found in the fusion zone. Both these extremes can produce premature failure of the weldment. Such failure especially embrittlement cracking could be hindered by heat-treated at 4130C, 2 1/2 hours and furnace cooled, where the distribution of hardness has been minimized and homogenized. (author)

  20. Weldability of high strength aluminium-scandium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Australia possesses a significant percentage of the world reserves of the ores required for the production of light alloys such as aluminium, magnesium and titanium. However, most of these minerals deposits are exported for processing, losing the potential of value adding benefits. Scandium has been known for some time to possess excellent grain refining properties when alloyed with aluminium. Although this adds considerable benefits to the mechanical properties of these alloys, it has not been fully exploited due to the high cost of producing the scandium metal. Deposits of scandium containing ore have recently been identified in Australia that are far more accessible than other deposits throughout the world. CSIRO Manufacturing Science and Technology had initiated a research project to investigate the effect of scandium and other grain refining additions on the properties of selected aluminium alloys in order to develop the market and maximise the potential benefits from Australian resources. The major objective of the project is to develop high strength aluminum alloys that exhibit good processing characteristics, particularly good weldability

  1. Analysis of Orthogonal Cutting of Aluminium-based Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Ravinder Reddy

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available A turning test on aluminium-based metal-matrix composites (MMCs (aluminium-30% silicon carbide was performed with K-20 carbide tool material and wear patterns and the wear land growth rates were analysed to evaluate the wear characteristics and to classify the relationship between the physical (mechanical properties and the flank wear of cutting tools. The study was also extended to the machining aspects and the width of cuts on MMCs and the influence of various cutting parameters. The experiments were conducted to measure the temperature along the cutting tool edge using thermocouple at various cutting speeds, and depth of cuts, keeping the feed rate constant while turning with K-20 carbide cutting tool. The finite-element method was used to simulate the orthogonal cutting of aluminium-based MMCs. The heat generation at the chip-tool interface, frictional heat generation at the tool flank, and the heat generation at the work tool interface were calculated analytically and imposed as boundary conditions. The analysis of the steady-state heat transfer was carried out and the temperature distribution at cutting edge, shear zone, and interface regions have been reported.

  2. The Effect of Thickness of Aluminium Films on Optical Reflectance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Lugolole

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In Uganda and Africa at large, up to 90% of the total energy used for food preparation and water pasteurization is from fossil fuels particularly firewood and kerosene which pollute the environment, yet there is abundant solar energy throughout the year, which could also be used. Uganda is abundantly rich in clay minerals such as ball clay, kaolin, feldspar, and quartz from which ceramic substrates were developed. Aluminium films of different thicknesses were deposited on different substrates in the diffusion pump microprocessor vacuum coater (Edwards AUTO 306. The optical reflectance of the aluminium films was obtained using a spectrophotometer (SolidSpec-3700/DUV-UV-VIS-NIR at various wave lengths. The analysis of the results of the study revealed that the optical reflectance of the aluminium films was above 50% and increased with increasing film thickness and wavelength. Thus, this method can be used to produce reflector systems in the technology of solar cooking and other appliances which use solar energy.

  3. Effect of ultrasonic energy on nanoscale interfacial structure in copper wire bonding on aluminium pads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of ultrasonic vibration on nanoscale interfacial structure of thermosonic copper wire bonding on aluminium pads was investigated. It was found that bonding strength was determined by the extent of fragmentation of a native aluminium oxide overlayer (5-10 nm thick) on aluminium pads, forming paths for formation of intermetallic compound CuAl2 in areas of direct contact of bonded metal surfaces. The degree of fracture of the oxide layer was strongly affected by a level of ultrasonic power.

  4. Subgrain Growth, Recovery Kinetics and Nucleation of Recrystallization of Cold Deformed Aluminium Alloys

    OpenAIRE

    Bunkholt, Sindre

    2013-01-01

    Phenomena related to annealing of aluminium alloys are among the least understood in aluminium metallurgy but very important for industrial thermo-mechanical processing i.e. deformation and annealing. Physical models are used to predict recovery and recrystallization behaviour, and associated material properties, industrially. However, alloy development, e.g. to incorporate more recycled aluminium, has shown that current softening models are not satisfactory. Thus, improvements do require a b...

  5. Selected properties of the aluminium alloy base composites reinforced with intermetallic particles

    OpenAIRE

    M. Adamiak

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The main aim of this work is to investigate two types of intermetallics TiAl and Ti3Al as reinforcement and their influence on selected properties and microstructure of aluminium matrix composites.Design/methodology/approach: Aluminium matrix composites were produced employing the atomised aluminium alloy AA6061 as metal matrix, when as reinforcement TiAl and Ti3Al intermetallics particles were used. The powders were cold pressed and then hot extruded. To evaluate the effect of mecha...

  6. Anisotropic behaviour law for sheets used in stamping: A comparative study of steel and aluminium

    OpenAIRE

    Sinou, Jean-Jacques; Macquaire, Bruno

    2003-01-01

    International audience For a car manufacturer, reducing the weight of vehicles is an obvious aim. Replacing steel by aluminium moves towards that goal. Unfortunately, aluminium's stamping numerical simulation results are not yet as reliable as those of steel. Punch-strength and spring-back phenomena are not correctly described. This study on aluminium validates the behaviour law Hill 48 quadratic yield criterion with both isotropic and kinematic hardening. It is based on the yield surface ...

  7. Electrodeposition of aluminium film on P90 Li-Al alloy as protective coating against corrosion

    OpenAIRE

    U. Bardi; Caporali, S; M. Craig; A. Giorgetti; Perissi, I; Nicholls, J. R.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we report on the electrodeposition of thin aluminium layers on P90 lithium–aluminium alloy at room temperature from a chloroaluminate ionic liquid (1-butyl-3-methyl imidazolium heptachloroaluminate [BMIm]Al2Cl7). We found that the treatment of the P90 sample's surface is a key point to obtain good quality coatings. On freshly mechanically polished surfaces, thin (about 24 µm), homogeneous and dense aluminium layers were obtained at 10 µm h− 1 deposition rate. F...

  8. Improvement in Wear Properties of a Hypereutectic Aluminium Silicon Alloy with Manganese

    OpenAIRE

    Prabhkiran Kaur; D.K. Dwivedi; P.M. Pathak; Sunil Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Improvement in wear properties of rare earth Cerium base hypereutectic Aluminium-Silicon alloy with Manganese modification has been reported in this paper. Wear studies were carried out on cast samples of hypereutectic Aluminium-Silicon alloy (Al-Si) with rare earth Cerium oxide (CeO2) and Manganese (Mn) modification. Final wear properties of rare earth Cerium oxide and Manganese modified hypereutectic Aluminium Silicon alloy were compared with the values of author?s previous work on rare ear...

  9. Insight into the cellular fate and toxicity of aluminium adjuvants used in clinically approved human vaccinations

    OpenAIRE

    Mold, M; Shardlow, E; Exley, C.

    2016-01-01

    Aluminium adjuvants remain the most widely used and effective adjuvants in vaccination and immunotherapy. Herein, the particle size distribution (PSD) of aluminium oxyhydroxide and aluminium hydroxyphosphate adjuvants was elucidated in attempt to correlate these properties with the biological responses observed post vaccination. Heightened solubility and potentially the generation of Al3+ in the lysosomal environment were positively correlated with an increase in cell mortality in vitro, pote...

  10. Comparative evaluation of nitrate removal technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to the extensive application of artificial nitrogen-based fertilizers and animal manure on land, many water agencies face problems of increasing concentrations of nitrate in groundwater. The contamination of groundwater by nitrate may pose a significant public health problem. The threat of methemoglobinemia is well documented and reflected in the U.S. drinking water standard of 10 mg/L as nitrate-nitrogen. Approximately 45% of Saskatchewan's population use groundwater for drinking purposes, out of which, approximately 23% (230,000) are rural residents. The water used is made available from over 48,000 privately owned wells in regions where there is an extensive application of chemical fertilizers. Biological denitrification, ion exchange and reveres osmosis (RO) processes were selected for further study. Field studies were conducted on these processes. The sulfur/limestone autotrophic denitrification (SLAD) process was selected to achieve biological removal of nitrate from groundwater. The feasibility of the system was evaluated under anaerobic conditions. An ion exchange study was conducted using Ionac A554 which is strong anion exchange resins. In the case of groundwater containing low sulfate concentrations, A554 offered high nitrate removal. However, the disposal of regenerant brine can be a problem. A reverse osmosis unit with Filmtec membrane elements (FT30-Element Family) was used in the study on nitrate removal. The unit effluent average nitrate concentration was less than the maximum allowable concentration. (author)

  11. Microbial Uranium Immobilization Independent of Nitrate Reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At many uranium processing and handling facilities, including sites in the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) complex, high levels of nitrate are present as co-contamination with uranium in groundwater. The daunting prospect of complete nitrate removal prior to the reduction of uranium provides a strong incentive to explore bioremediation strategies that allow for uranium bioreduction and stabilization in the presence of nitrate. Typical in-situ strategies involving the stimulation of metal-reducing bacteria are hindered by low pH environments at this study site and require that the persistent nitrate must first and continuously be removed or transformed prior to uranium being a preferred electron acceptor. This project investigates the possibility of stimulating nitrate-indifferent, pH-tolerant microorganisms to achieve bioreduction of U(VI) despite nitrate persistence. Successful enrichments from U-contaminated sediments demonstrated nearly complete reduction of uranium with very little loss of nitrate from pH 4.9-5.6 using methanol or glycerol as a carbon source. Higher pH enrichments also demonstrated similar U reduction capacity with 5-30% nitrate loss within one week. Bacterial 16S rRNA genes were amplified from uranium-reducing enrichments (pH 5.7-6.7) and sequenced. Phylogenetic analyses classified the clone sequences into four distinct clusters. Data from sequencing and T-RFLP profiles indicated that the majority of the microorganisms stimulated by these enrichment conditions consisted of low G+C Gram-positive bacteria most closely related to Clostridium and Clostridium-like organisms. This research demonstrates that the stimulation of a natural microbial community to immobilize U through bioreduction is possible without the removal of nitrate.

  12. Determination of aluminium contents in selected food samples by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Food and food products are the main sources of Aluminium entering the human body. In order to know aluminium contents in food and food products, selected 26 samples from local market were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) using reactor neutrons and high resolution gamma-ray spectrometry. INAA using 1,779 keV γ-ray of 28Al (2.24 min) was used for aluminium concentrations in the range of 33-529 mg kg-1. Two NIST standard reference materials (SRMs) and two IAEA reference materials (RMs) were analyzed by INAA for quantification of aluminium as a part of method validation. (author)

  13. Comparison of the x-ray attenuation properties of breast calcifications, aluminium, hydroxyapatite and calcium oxalate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aluminium is often used as a substitute material for calcifications in phantom measurements in mammography. Additionally, calcium oxalate, hydroxyapatite and aluminium are used in simulation studies. This assumes that these materials have similar attenuation properties to calcification, and this assumption is examined in this work. Sliced mastectomy samples containing calcification were imaged at ×5 magnification using a digital specimen cabinet. Images of the individual calcifications were extracted, and the diameter and contrast of each calculated. The thicknesses of aluminium required to achieve the same contrast as each calcification when imaged under the same conditions were calculated using measurements of the contrast of aluminium foils. As hydroxyapatite and calcium oxalate are also used to simulate calcifications, the equivalent aluminium thicknesses of these materials were also calculated using tabulated attenuation coefficients. On average the equivalent aluminium thickness was 0.85 times the calcification diameter. For calcium oxalate and hydroxyapatite, the equivalent aluminium thicknesses were 1.01 and 2.19 times the thickness of these materials respectively. Aluminium and calcium oxalate are suitable substitute materials for calcifications. Hydroxyapatite is much more attenuating than the calcifications and aluminium. Using solid hydroxyapatite as a substitute for calcification of the same size would lead to excessive contrast in the mammographic image. (note)

  14. Low temperature oxidation of niobium alloy with silicon-aluminium coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using the gravimetry methods heat resistance of niobium-titanium-aluminium alloy in the air and at 700 deg C in the initial state and when it is protected by silicide-aluminium coatings (with variable content of aluminium) is investigated. Using X-ray diffraction and micro X-ray diffraction analyses, mechanisms of the alloy oxidation and the coating protective effect are studied. The role of aluminium in the formation of coatings is analyzed and according to bend tests the plasticity of the coatings is evaluated

  15. Thermoelectric power in low-density interstitial-free iron-aluminium alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Radhakanta; Liu, Cheng

    2013-09-01

    Thermoelectric power (TEP) studies on low-density interstitial-free iron-aluminium alloys reveal that the TEP decreases with increase in the aluminium content on account of the introduction of lattice dispersion centres. The TEP coefficients, determined from the Nordheim-Gorter law, for 6.8 and 8.1 wt.% aluminium additions to α-iron are found to be higher than values reported in previous literature for small aluminium additions. The grain size has a very weak effect on the TEP of these alloys.

  16. Photodegradation of Paracetamol in Nitrate Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Cui; Qu, Ruijuan; Liang, Jinyan; Yang, Xi

    2010-11-01

    The photodegradation of paracetamol in nitrate solution under simulated solar irradiation has been investigated. The degradation rates were compared by varying environmental parameters including concentrations of nitrate ion, humic substance and pH values. The quantifications of paracetamol were conducted by HPLC method. The results demonstrate that the photodegradation of paracetamol followed first-order kinetics. The photoproducts and intermediates of paracetamol in the presence of nitrate ions were identified by extensive GC-MS method. The photodegradation pathways involving. OH radicals as reactive species were proposed.

  17. Photodegradation of Paracetamol in Nitrate Solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The photodegradation of paracetamol in nitrate solution under simulated solar irradiation has been investigated. The degradation rates were compared by varying environmental parameters including concentrations of nitrate ion, humic substance and pH values. The quantifications of paracetamol were conducted by HPLC method. The results demonstrate that the photodegradation of paracetamol followed first-order kinetics. The photoproducts and intermediates of paracetamol in the presence of nitrate ions were identified by extensive GC-MS method. The photodegradation pathways involving. OH radicals as reactive species were proposed.

  18. Wear and chemistry of zirconium-silicate, aluminium-silicate and zirconium-aluminium-silicate glasses in alkaline medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study of the chemical durability, in alkaline solutions, of zirconium silicate, aluminium silicate, zirconium/aluminium silicate glasses as a function of glass composition is carried out. The glasses were tested using standard DIN-52322 method, where the glass samples are prepared in small polished pieces and attacked for 3 hours in a 800 ml solution of 1N (NaOH + NA2CO3) at 970C. The results show that the presence of ZrO2 in the glass composition increases its chemical durability to alkaline attack. Glasses of the aluminium/zirconium silicate series were melted with and without TiO2. It was shown experimentally that for this series of glasses, the presence of both TiO2 and ZrO2 gave better chemical durability results. However, the best overall results were obtained from the simpler zirconium silicate glasses, where it was possible to make glasses with higher values of ZrO2. (Author)

  19. Elevated Carboxyhaemoglobin Concentrations by Pulse CO-Oximetry is Associated with Severe Aluminium Phosphide Poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashayekhian, Mohammad; Hassanian-Moghaddam, Hossein; Rahimi, Mitra; Zamani, Nasim; Aghabiklooei, Abbas; Shadnia, Shahin

    2016-09-01

    In pulse CO-oximetry of aluminium phosphide (ALP)-poisoned patients, we discovered that carboxyhaemoglobin (CO-Hb) level was elevated. We aimed to determine whether a higher CO level was detected in patients with severe ALP poisoning and if this could be used as a prognostic factor in these patients. In a prospective case-control study, 96 suspected cases of ALP poisoning were evaluated. In the ALP-poisoned group, demographic characteristics, gastric and exhalation silver nitrate test results, average CO-Hb saturation, methaemoglobin saturation, and blood pressure and blood gas analysis until death/discharge were recorded. Severely poisoned patients were defined as those with systolic blood pressure ≤80 mmHg, pH ≤7.2, or HCO3 ≤15 meq/L or those who died, while patients with minor poisoning were those without any of these signs/symptoms. A control group (37 patients) was taken from other medically ill patients to detect probable effects of hypotension and metabolic acidosis on CO-Hb and methaemoglobin saturations. Of 96 patients, 27 died and 37 fulfilled the criteria for severe poisoning. All patients with carbon monoxide saturation >18% met the criteria to be included in the severe poisoning group and all with a SpCO >25% died. Concerning all significant variables in univariate analysis of severe ALP toxicity, the only significant variable which could independently predict death was carbon monoxide saturation. Due to high mortality rate and need for intensive care support, early prediction of outcome is vital for choosing an appropriate setting (ICU or ordinary ward). CO-oximetry is a good diagnostic and prognostic factor in patients with ALP poisoning even before any clinical evidence of toxicity will develop. PMID:26899262

  20. Historic nitrate storage in groundwater system - a non-negligible process in nitrate water pollution management

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Lei; Ward, Robert; Stuart, Marianne

    2014-01-01

    Nitrate water pollution is not only an environmental issue but also a threat to the economy and human health. It remains an international problem and has been identified as a major threat to water quality and the delivery of the EU Water Framework and Nitrates Directives targets. It could take decades for nitrate derived from historic fertiliser application, which leaches into groundwater, to travel through thick unsaturated zones (UZs) and saturated zones, and arrive at rivers and boreho...

  1. ROE Wet Nitrate Deposition 1989-1991

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The raster data represent the amount of wet nitrate deposition in kilograms per hectare from 1989 to 1991. Summary data in this indicator were provided by EPA’s...

  2. Introduction to the nitrate in groundwater papers

    OpenAIRE

    Gooddy, Daren; Besien, T.

    2007-01-01

    Escalating concentrations of nitrate in groundwater supplies resulting from major changes in post-WWII agricultural production were first widely recognised in the 1970s, prompting discussion on the ‘nitrate time-bomb’ problem. The implications of this problem are now becoming clear with increasing numbers of water company groundwater abstractions needing expensive and energy intensive treatment. Since the 1970s, considerable research effort has been directed towards understanding and pred...

  3. Nitrate Concentration in Groundwater in Isfahan Province

    OpenAIRE

    S.F Mousavi; M. Afyuni; A. Jafari Malekabadi; Khosravi, A.

    2004-01-01

    In recent decades, the use of nitrogen fertilizers has increased irrespective of their effects on soil properties, agricultural products and, particularly, on environmental pollution. Nitrate easily leaches from soils into groundwater. The objective of this study was to determine temporal and spatial nitrate concentrations in groundwater in agricultural, industrial and urban regions in some parts of Isfahan Province. Water samples were collected monthly from 75 agricultural, industrial, and u...

  4. Nitrate Contamination of Groundwater: Determinants and Indicators

    OpenAIRE

    Wick, Katharina; Heumesser, Christine; Schmid, Erwin

    2010-01-01

    Nitrogen is an important input to agricultural production but also detrimentally affects the environmental quality of air, soil and water. Identifying the determinants of nitrate pollution and in turn defining sensible performance indicators to design, enforce and monitor regulatory policies is therefore of utmost importance. Using data on more than 1000 Austrian municipalities, we provide a detailed econometric analysis of (1) the determinants of nitrate concentration in groundwater, and (2)...

  5. Nitrate Adsorption on Clay Kaolin: Batch Tests

    OpenAIRE

    Morteza Mohsenipour; Shamsuddin Shahid; Kumars Ebrahimi

    2015-01-01

    Soils possessing kaolin, gibbsite, goethite, and hematite particles have been found to have a natural capacity to attenuate pollution in aqueous phase. On the other hand, the hydroxyl group in soil increases anion exchange capacity under a low pH condition. The main objective of this paper was to evaluate effects of kaolin on nitrate reduction under acidic condition. In order to analyze the kaolin adsorption behaviour under various conditions, four different concentrations of nitrate, 45, 112...

  6. Is beetroot juice more effective than sodium nitrate? The effects of equimolar nitrate dosages of nitrate-rich beetroot juice and sodium nitrate on oxygen consumption during exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flueck, Joelle Leonie; Bogdanova, Anna; Mettler, Samuel; Perret, Claudio

    2016-04-01

    Dietary nitrate has been reported to lower oxygen consumption in moderate- and severe-intensity exercise. To date, it is unproven that sodium nitrate (NaNO3(-); NIT) and nitrate-rich beetroot juice (BR) have the same effects on oxygen consumption, blood pressure, and plasma nitrate and nitrite concentrations or not. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of different dosages of NIT and BR on oxygen consumption in male athletes. Twelve healthy, well-trained men (median [minimum; maximum]; peak oxygen consumption: 59.4 mL·min(-1)·kg(-1) [40.5; 67.0]) performed 7 trials on different days, ingesting different nitrate dosages and placebo (PLC). Dosages were 3, 6, and 12 mmol nitrate as concentrated BR or NIT dissolved in plain water. Plasma nitrate and nitrite concentrations were measured before, 3 h after ingestion, and postexercise. Participants cycled for 5 min at moderate intensity and further 8 min at severe intensity. End-exercise oxygen consumption at moderate intensity was not significantly different between the 7 trials (p = 0.08). At severe-intensity exercise, end-exercise oxygen consumption was ∼4% lower in the 6-mmol BR trial compared with the 6-mmol NIT (p = 0.003) trial as well as compared with PLC (p = 0.010). Plasma nitrite and nitrate concentrations were significantly increased after the ingestion of BR and NIT with the highest concentrations in the 12-mmol trials. Plasma nitrite concentration between NIT and BR did not significantly differ in the 6-mmol (p = 0.27) and in the 12-mmol (p = 0.75) trials. In conclusion, BR might reduce oxygen consumption to a greater extent compared with NIT. PMID:26988767

  7. Nitrate concentrations in the Morestead borehole, Twyford

    OpenAIRE

    Stuart, M.E.; Chilton, P J; Newell, A. J.; Butcher, A.S.

    2008-01-01

    This report describes work carried out at Morestead, Twyford as part of a BGS research project “Nitrate Mass Balance in the Saturated Zone”. The project aimed to evaluate the role of the diffusive exchange of nitrate between fracture water and porewater in the saturated zone of the aquifer. The approach adopted attempted to obtain a mass balance for the catchment to a public supply borehole by comparing nitrogen released from the soil with nitrogen held in the aquifer and nitro...

  8. Synthesis of a new energetic nitrate ester

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavez, David E [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    Nitrate esters have been known as useful energetic materials since the discovery of nitroglycerin by Ascanio Sobrero in 1846. The development of methods to increase the safety and utility of nitroglycerin by Alfred Nobel led to the revolutionary improvement in the utility of nitroglycerin in explosive applications in the form of dynamite. Since then, many nitrate esters have been prepared and incorporated into military applications such as double-based propellants, detonators and as energetic plasticizers. Nitrate esters have also been shown to have vasodilatory effects in humans and thus have been studied and used for treatments of ailments such as angina. The mechanism of the biological response towards nitrate esters has been elucidated recently. Interestingly, many of the nitrate esters used for military purposes are liquids (ethylene glycol dinitrate, propylene glycol dinitrate, etc). Pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) is one of the only solid nitrate esters, besides nitrocellulose, that is used in any application. Unfortunately, PETN melting point is above 100 {sup o}C, and thus must be pressed as a solid for detonator applications. A more practical material would be a melt-castable explosive, for potential simplification of manufacturing processes. Herein we describe the synthesis of a new energetic nitrate ester (1) that is a solid at ambient temperatures, has a melting point of 85-86 {sup o}C and has the highest density of any known nitrate ester composed only of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and oxygen. We also describe the chemical, thermal and sensitivity properties of 1 as well as some preliminary explosive performance data.

  9. European Community Measures to Reduce Nitrate Pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Al-hedny, Suhad

    2010-01-01

    Water protection proves to be a difficult task, whether it is dealt with through legislation or the implementation of a process to reduce further pollution. This study considers how the issue of water pollution from nitrates in agricultural practices has become better understood through the reforms of the common agriculture policy (CAP) and the enactment of various regulations and directives by EU. The implementation of the EC Nitrate Directive is a main focus of this study because it was a m...

  10. Bio nitrate Project: a new technology for water nitrate elimination by means of ionic exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of ion exchange resins for nitrate elimination from water generates a waste containing a sodium chloride mixture plus the retained nitrates. this waste must be correctly disposed. In this project, the resin ionic form is modified to be regenerated with other compounds, different from the common salt, which are interesting because of the presence of mineral nutrition. So, with Bio nitrate Project, nitrates are recovered and the regeneration waste is apt to be use as fertilizer, for agricultural uses, or as complementary contribution of nutrients in biological water treatment. (Author) 27 refs.

  11. Phase relations in the lanthanum nitrate (copper nitrate) - poly(vinylpyrrolidone) - water systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Room-temperature isothermal sections of the phase diagrams of lanthanum nitrate-poly(vinylpyrrolidone)-water and copper nitrate-poly(vinylpyrrolidone)-water systems were studied. The following features were found: a wide region of homogeneous water-polymer solutions, liquid-liquid phase separation field, and a three-phase region in which two liquids coexist with salt crystals. In the lanthanum nitrate system, liquid-liquid phase separation has a lower critical solution point (polythermal sections were studied); in the copper nitrate system, it has an upper critical solution point. The type of diagram for unstudied systems is predicted based on the analysis of polymer-salt phase diagrams

  12. Solvent extraction of rare earth (3) nitrates by trialkylmethylammonium nitrate from multicomponent solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The extraction of rare earth (3) [praseodymium-lutetium, yttrium (3)] nitrates 0.4-1.10 mol/dm3 by solution of trialkyl-methylammonium in kerosene was studied. It is found that di- and trisolvates of rare earth (3) nitrates is formed in organic phase, extraction constants are determined. Physicochemical and mathematical models descriptive of distribution of metal (3) nitrates in binary and multicomponent systems are given. Optimum field of concentrations of rare earth mixture in rare earths was established during use of solutions of trialkylmethyl-ammonium nitrate in diluent

  13. Supercritical fluid extraction of uranium and neodymium nitrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) of uranyl nitrate and neodymium nitrate salts from a mixture was investigated in the present study using Sc-CO2 modified with various ligands such as organophosphorous compounds, amides, and diketones. Preferential extraction of uranyl nitrate over neodymium nitrate was demonstrated using Sc-CO2 modified with amide, di-(2ethylhexyl) isobutyramide (D2EHIBA). (author)

  14. Groundwater nitrate pollution in intensively farmed regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2011-12-01

    Intensified agricultural practices that have developed during the past century have helped improve food security for many people but have also added to nitrate pollution in water supply. Balancing the water needs for agriculture with the need for clean groundwater for drinking requires understanding factors such as the routes by which nitrate enters the water supply and how long nitrate remains in the water. The Thames River catchment provides a good study example because the water quality in the river, which supplies drinking water to millions of people, has been monitored for the past 140 years, and the region has undergone significant agricultural development over the past century. Howden et al. studied nitrate transport from agricultural land to water in the Thames basin using a simple model that considers an estimate of the amount of nitrate that could leach the groundwater based on land use practices along with an algorithm that determines the route nitrate would take to reach surface water or groundwater from agricultural areas.

  15. Nitrate Adsorption on Clay Kaolin: Batch Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Mohsenipour

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Soils possessing kaolin, gibbsite, goethite, and hematite particles have been found to have a natural capacity to attenuate pollution in aqueous phase. On the other hand, the hydroxyl group in soil increases anion exchange capacity under a low pH condition. The main objective of this paper was to evaluate effects of kaolin on nitrate reduction under acidic condition. In order to analyze the kaolin adsorption behaviour under various conditions, four different concentrations of nitrate, 45, 112.5, 225, and 450 mgNO3-/L, with a constant pH equal to 2, constant temperature equal to 25°C, and exposure period varying from 0 to 150 minutes were considered. The capacity of nitrate adsorption on kaolin has also been studied involving two well-known adsorption isotherm models, namely, Freundlich and Longmuir. The results revealed that approximately 25% of the nitrate present in the solution was adsorbed on clay kaolin. The laboratory experimental data revealed that Freundlich adsorption isotherm model was more accurate than Longmuir adsorption model in predicting of nitrate adsorption. Furthermore, the retardation factor of nitrate pollution in saturated zone has been found to be approximately 4 in presence of kaolin, which indicated that kaolin can be used for natural scavenger of pollution in the environment.

  16. Denitrification inhibition by high nitrate wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The processing of radioactive metal products at nuclear weapons plants and research labs has produced wastewaters containing high concentrations of nitrate, often greater than 50,000 mg/l N. The adaptation of activated sludge and inhibition of denitrification at high nitrate concentrations was studied using pH controlled bench-scale sequencing batch reactors (SBRs), operated with 50% of the SBR volume recycled (recycle volume = influent volume). Denitrification of 1,350 and 2,700 mg/l NO3--N was completed after approximately 5 hours and 15 hours, respectively. No denitrification of 5,400 mg/l NO3--N was observed. These results suggest that there is a progressive inhibition of denitrification as nitrate concentrations increase from 1,350 to 5,400 mg/l NO3--N. In a subsequent series of experiments at an initial reactor nitrate concentration of 1,350 mg/l N, a significant accumulation of nitrate was observed, resulting once in destabilization with loss of denitrification and once in successful adaptation of the activated sludge. At a nitrate concentration of 1,350 mg/l N, the adaptation of activated sludge appears to be unstable, resulting sometimes in stable denitrification and sometimes in biomass washout

  17. Recovery of uranium from uranyl nitrate raffinate. Contributed Paper PE-06

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At New Uranium Oxide Fuel Plant, NUOFP(O) of Nuclear Fuel Complex (NFC), the Uranyl Nitrate Raffinate (UNR) generated during solvent extraction process is washed with Treated Lean Solvent(TLS) to recover residual U. Earlier this UNR consisting of 0.5-1 gm/l and 2.5 FA was neutralised with vapour ammonia. The slurry was then filtered over pre coat drum filter and the resultant Uranyl Nitrate Raffinate cake (UNRC) was stored in polyethylene lined MS drums. The valuable U was thus being locked up in UNRC. Also, the storage of UNRC drums required lot of floor space which have to be repacked frequently to contain the radioactivity. Hence the need has come to avoid the generation of UNRC and the recovery of U from the already generated UNRC. The generation of UNRC was avoided by developing alternate process of UNR treatment with Treated Lean Solvent for the removal of residual U and the resulting Acidic Raffinate Slurry (ARS) is disposed. The Uranium recovery from UNRC is done by dissolving the cake in Uranyl Nitrate Raffinate solution to leach the hexavalent Uranium by utilizing the free acidity in UNR. The leaching time is about six hours and the uranium forms uranyl nitrate. The resulting leach solutions are relatively dilute but complex acidic nitrate solutions containing wide variety of ions. Metallic ions commonly present include uranium, iron, magnesium, aluminium, sodium, calcium etc. The uranium concentration is normally 1-1.5 g/L. This uranium is separated by solvent extraction. The active agent in solvent extraction is Tri Butyl Phosphate in kerosene that can selectively extract uranium into an organic complex which is insoluble in aqueous. The organic used for extraction is Treated Lean Solvent in the quality of freshly prepared solvent and the resulting Acidic Raffinate Slurry is disposed by sale. The leaching of Uranium from UNRC was done in plant scale and about 1200 kgs of UNRC was successfully processed in trial batch. The paper deals with details of

  18. Enhancement of wear and ballistic resistance of armour grade AA7075 aluminium alloy using friction stir processing

    OpenAIRE

    I. Sudhakar; V. Madhu; G. Madhusudhan Reddy; K. Srinivasa Rao

    2015-01-01

    Industrial applications of aluminium and its alloys are restricted because of their poor tribological properties. Thermal spraying, laser surfacing, electron beam welding are the most widely used techniques to alter the surface morphology of base metal. Preliminary studies reveal that the coating and layering of aluminium alloys with ceramic particles enhance the ballistic resistance. Furthermore, among aluminium alloys, 7075 aluminium alloy exhibits high strength which can be compared to tha...

  19. Open-Source Photometric System for Enzymatic Nitrate Quantification

    OpenAIRE

    Wittbrodt, B. T.; Squires, D. A.; Walbeck, J.; Campbell, E.; Campbell, W. H.; Pearce, J. M.

    2015-01-01

    Nitrate, the most oxidized form of nitrogen, is regulated to protect people and animals from harmful levels as there is a large over abundance due to anthropogenic factors. Widespread field testing for nitrate could begin to address the nitrate pollution problem, however, the Cadmium Reduction Method, the leading certified method to detect and quantify nitrate, demands the use of a toxic heavy metal. An alternative, the recently proposed Environmental Protection Agency Nitrate Reductase Nitra...

  20. Nitrate ammonification in mangrove soils: A hidden source of nitrite?

    OpenAIRE

    Balk, Melike; Anniet M Laverman; Keuskamp, Joost A.; Laanbroek, Hendrikus J.

    2015-01-01

    Nitrate reduction is considered to be a minor microbial pathway in the oxidation of mangrove-derived organic matter due to a limited supply of nitrate in mangrove soils. At a limited availability of this electron acceptor compared to the supply of degradable carbon, nitrate ammonification is thought to be the preferential pathway of nitrate reduction. Mangrove forest mutually differ in their productivity, which may lead to different available carbon to nitrate ratios in their soil. Hence, nit...

  1. Influence of Alkali Treatment on the Surface Area of Aluminium Dross

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. S. Ahmad Zauzi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aluminium dross is an industrial waste from aluminium refining industry and classified as toxic substances. However, the disposal of dross as a waste is a burden to aluminium manufacturer industries due to its negative effects to the ecosystem, surface, and ground water. Therefore the purpose of this study is to evaluate the influence of sodium hydroxide (NaOH on the surface area and pore size of aluminium dross. There were 3 stages in the treatment activities, which were leaching, precipitation, and calcination process. The optimum result from this study was the surface area of aluminium dross increases from 10.1 m2/g up to 80.0 m2/g at 40°C, 1% NaOH, and 15-minute reaction time. Thus, aluminium dross has a potential to be converted into other useful material such as catalyst and absorbent. The benefit of this research is that the hazardous industrial waste can be turned into wealth to be used in other applications such as in catalytic activities and absorber in waste water treatment. Further investigation on the physicochemical of aluminium dross with different acid or alkali should be conducted to get deeper understanding on the aluminium dross as a catalyst-type material.

  2. Void formation in pure aluminium irradiated with high-energetic electron beams and gamma-quanta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gan, V. V.; Ozhigou, L. S.; Yamnitsky, V. A.; Singh, Bachu Narain; Leffers, Torben; Bilde-Sørensen, Jørgen

    The spatial distribution of displaced atoms and helium atoms and also the spectra of damaging energies of primary displaced atoms in a thick aluminium target irradiated with electrons of 225 MeV energy were calculated. Pure aluminium (99.9999%) irradiated up to 0.04 dose was studied by electron...

  3. The effect of aluminium chlorhydrate on sweat gland activity in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees-Jones, A M; Jenkinson, D M

    1978-03-01

    Topical application of aluminium chlorhydrate had no appreciable antiperspirant action on the epitrichial glands of cattle. There was no evidence of penetration of the salt into the dermis or of any change in the morphology of the glands. It is probable that the antiperspirant activity of aluminium chlorhydrate in the human axilla, is only on the atrichial glands. PMID:632617

  4. Fatigue testing of large scale details of a large size aluminium surface effect ship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, O.D.; Vredeveldt, A.W.; Janssen, G.Th.M.; Ortmans, P.

    1998-01-01

    The paper presents the results of two large scale fatigue tests on a detail of an aluminium surface effect ship. The overall dimensions of the specimens were: length 4.8 m, height 3.2 m and width 1.5 m (equal to the main frame spacing). The specimens consist of an aluminium structure of welded plate

  5. Synthesis and reactivity of aluminium nitride obtained by action of ammonia on alumina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aluminium nitride is a ceramic with potential nuclear applications because of its exceptional structural resistance to neutrons. To improve quality and reactivity a new preparation process by reaction between ammonia and alumina is presented. The aluminium nitride thus obtained, white colored, is pure and its reactivity gives an useful product for a lot of synthesis in the area of nitrided ceramics and glasses

  6. Synthesis and reactivity of aluminium nitride obtained by action of ammonia on alumina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocherulle, J.; Guyader, J.; Verdier, P.; Laurent, Y.

    1985-01-01

    Aluminium nitride is a ceramic with potential nuclear applications because of its exceptional structural resistance to neutrons. To improve quality and reactivity a new preparation process by reaction between ammonia and alumina is presented. The aluminium nitride thus obtained, white colored, is pure and its reactivity gives an useful product for a lot of synthesis in the area of nitrided ceramics and glasses.

  7. Insight into the cellular fate and toxicity of aluminium adjuvants used in clinically approved human vaccinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mold, Matthew; Shardlow, Emma; Exley, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Aluminium adjuvants remain the most widely used and effective adjuvants in vaccination and immunotherapy. Herein, the particle size distribution (PSD) of aluminium oxyhydroxide and aluminium hydroxyphosphate adjuvants was elucidated in attempt to correlate these properties with the biological responses observed post vaccination. Heightened solubility and potentially the generation of Al3+ in the lysosomal environment were positively correlated with an increase in cell mortality in vitro, potentially generating a greater inflammatory response at the site of simulated injection. The cellular uptake of aluminium based adjuvants (ABAs) used in clinically approved vaccinations are compared to a commonly used experimental ABA, in an in vitro THP-1 cell model. Using lumogallion as a direct-fluorescent molecular probe for aluminium, complemented with transmission electron microscopy provides further insight into the morphology of internalised particulates, driven by the physicochemical variations of the ABAs investigated. We demonstrate that not all aluminium adjuvants are equal neither in terms of their physical properties nor their biological reactivity and potential toxicities both at the injection site and beyond. High loading of aluminium oxyhydroxide in the cytoplasm of THP-1 cells without immediate cytotoxicity might predispose this form of aluminium adjuvant to its subsequent transport throughout the body including access to the brain. PMID:27515230

  8. The role of magnesium in the electrochemical behaviour of 5XXX aluminium-magnesium alloys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flores Ramirez, J.R.

    2006-01-01

    An investigation concerning the effects of magnesium on the intergranular corrosion susceptibility of AA5XXX aluminium alloys was carried out. In the present work, magnesium is found to be highly mobile in the bulk metal as well as in the aluminium oxide. This mobility is also found to be dependent

  9. European welding technology for an Australian yacht in aluminium; Soudage a l'europeenne pour un yacht australien en aluminium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2005-02-01

    It is a European welding technology which has been retained for the Australian shipbuilding yard: 'Shipworks' for manufacturing a luxury yacht in aluminium. This yacht has been manufactured under the American standards specifications. (O.M.)

  10. TEM microstructure investigations of aluminium alloys used for laser alloying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Labisz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In this paper there are presented results of Transmission Electron Microscope investigation concerning the structure of the AlSi7Cu4 cast aluminium alloy using for alloying and remelting with the high power diode laser (HPDL. There are also presented the results of the thermo-derivative analysis performed using the UMSA (Universal Metallurgical Simulator and Analyser device, allowing to determine the specific points of the solidifying alloy, what is helpful for phase determination occurred in this alloy. In this work especially the changes of the precipitation type, size and shape were determined.Design/methodology/approach: The investigations were performed using electron microscopy for the microstructure and phases determination. By mind of the transmission electron microscopy, especially selected area diffraction method appliance it was possible to determine the phases occurred in the alloy in the as cast state. The morphology and size of the Mg2Si was also possible to determine as well the lattice parameters for this phase.Findings: : The reason of this work was also to present the laser treatment technology, which will be used for further alloying and remelting with ceramic powders – especially carbides and oxides. Particularly the overview will be directed on the laser power to achieve good layer hardness for protection of this hot work tool steel from losing their work stability and to make the tool surface more resistant to action in external conditions. The structure of the surface laser tray changes in a way, that there are very high roughness of the surface zone and the flatness or geometry changes in an important manner, crucial for further investigation.Research limitations/implications: The aluminium samples were examined metallographically using transmission electron microscope with different image techniques.Practical implications: Developing of new technology with appliance of Al alloys, High Power Diode Laser and

  11. Regularities in aluminium and indium chemisorption on chelating polymeric sorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complexation properties of synthesized polymer chelate sorbents: substituted of polystyrene-azo-pyrocatechol are investigated and correlations between pK'OH of functional groups of sorbents as well as pH50 values of chelation and constants of stability (lgKstab) are established for studying regularities of effect of structure and acid-base properties of functional groups of sorbents on the parameters of Al3+ and In3+ chemical sorption. Established correlations make it possible to predict the physicochemical parameters of sorbents and sorption of metal ions with the aim of separation and concentration of aluminium and indium micro account from the objects of different origin

  12. Effects of silicon on gastrointestinal absorption of aluminium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwardson, J.A.; Moore, P.B.; Ferrier, I.N.; Lilley, J.S.; Newton, G.W.A.; Barker, J.; Templar, J.; Day, J.P.

    1993-07-24

    The reported geographical association between Alzheimer's disease and levels of aluminium (Al) in water supplies may reflect the inverse relation between Al and silicon (Si) concentrations in water, and the potential for Si to reduce the bioavailability of the metal. The authors tested this hypothesis using isotopic [sup 26]Al tracer administered orally to five healthy volunteers in the presence and absence of Si. Dissolved Si, at a concentration found in some water supplies reduced the peak plasma [sup 26]Al concentration to 15% of the value obtained in the absence of Si. The results indicate that dissolved Si is an important factor in limiting the absorption of dietary Al.

  13. Interface reaction in aluminium matrix composite at laser welding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Interface reaction of SiCw/6061Al aluminium matrix composite subjected to laser welding was studied. It is pointed out that the main reason for bad weldability of the material is concerned with the interface reaction during the welding. Effects of welding parameters on interface reaction were also investigated. The results show that the interface bonding state can be improved by laser beam, and the main welding parameter affecting the strength of weld is laser output power. The smaller the output power, the lower the extent of interface reaction and the better the mechanical properties.

  14. Spectrum Simulation of Li-Like Aluminium Plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Feng; JIANG Gang; ZHU Zheng-He

    2006-01-01

    X-ray emission spectra for L-shell of Li-like aluminium ions are simulated by using the flexible atomic code based on the collisional radiative model. Atomic processes including radiative recombination, dielectronic recombination, collisional ionization and resonance excitation from the neighbouring ion (Al9+ and Al11+) charge states of the target ion (Al10+) are considered in the model. In addition, the contributions of different atomic processes to the x-ray spectrum are analysed. The results show that dielectronic recombination, radiative recombination, collisional ionization and resonance excitation, other than direct collisional excitation, are very important processes.

  15. Fatigue behaviour of 6061 aluminium alloy and its composite

    OpenAIRE

    Hwa, Ping

    2001-01-01

    Fatigue behaviour of an artificial aged powder metallurgy 6061 aluminium alloy, and a composite made of this alloy with 15% volume fraction of SiCp was investigated. The alloy was subjected to T6 heat treatment, as was the composite material chosen (which incorporated SiC particles of average size 30pm). An extensive experimental programme was carried out in which fatigue lives were determined using load-controlled axial loading of unnotched cylindrical samples, at stress ratios of-1 and 0.1....

  16. Slip lines in scandium and lithium containing aluminium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intensive slip lines in cold rolled sheets of scandium or lithium containing aluminium base alloys are under study. Slip lines are shown to be the places of concentrated shear strain which arise due to the occurrence of secondary δ'(Al3Li) and Al3Sc particles completely coherent to the matrix. The formation of slip lines has a detrimental effect on cold rolled sheet mechanical properties after heat hardening. To avoid the appearance of slip lines it is necessary to roll sheets with low reductions in area and to choose appropriate conditions of intermediate heat treatments. 5 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  17. Damage of repeatedly nitrocarburised steel dies for aluminium extrusion

    OpenAIRE

    Firrao, Donato; Scavino, Giorgio; Matteis, Paolo

    2009-01-01

    The dies employed for the hot extrusion of aluminium alloys are subjected to repeated cycles of nitriding, or nitrocarburising, after service periods of given length. Three dies, fabricated with ISO X40CrMoV5-1 (AISI H13) steel and liquid nitrocarburised, were examined either in the asfabricated condition, or after one service period, or after 12 nitrocarburising and service cycles (end of life). Samples cut from the die subjected to one service period were re-nitrocarburised for increasing d...

  18. Physical model of aluminium refining process in URC-7000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Saternus

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents short characteristics of the most frequently used reactors for the continuous refining of aluminium and its alloys. Refining depends on the flow rate of refining gas. It influences the shape and size of gas bubbles. So the physical model was created to determine the level of gas bubble dispersion in liquids. Schemes of gas dispersion in liquid metal were presented taking into consideration that the gas flow rate is changing from 2 to 30 dm3/min. The range selection of the flow rate of refining gas value for five patterns of the dispersion (no dispersion, minimum, intimate, uniform and overdispersion was also done.

  19. The fracture of boron fibre-reinforced 6061 aluminium alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, M. A.; Welch, D.; Jollay, J.

    1979-01-01

    The fracture of 6061 aluminium alloy reinforced with unidirectional and cross-plied 0/90 deg, 0/90/+ or - 45 deg boron fibres has been investigated. The results have been described in terms of a critical stress intensity, K(Q). Critical stress intensity factors were obtained by substituting the failure stress and the initial crack length into the appropriate expression for K(Q). Values were obtained that depended on the dimensions of the specimens. It was therefore concluded that, for the size of specimen tested, the values of K(Q) did not reflect any basic materials property.

  20. Determination of phosphorus in hypereutectic aluminium-silicon alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukai, K

    1972-04-01

    A reproducible method is described for determination of small amounts of phosphorus (from 0.0005% to 0.02%) in hypereutectic aluminium-silicon complex alloys. The method permits the separate determination of phosphorus in acid-soluble and acid-insoluble fractions. Phosphomolybdate is extracted with n-butanol-chloroform solvent mixture and back-extracted with a btannous chloride reducing solution. The phosphorus content of a sample cut into small pieces decreases during storage; loss of phosphorus is negligible on acid dissolution under oxidizing conditions. PMID:18961077

  1. Tailored Aluminium based Coatings for Optical Appearance and Corrosion Resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aggerbeck, Martin

    that the roughness after etching increases with higher amounts of alloying elements (especially iron and silicon). Proper polishing requires some alloy hardness, while alloy purity is required for a glossy appearance after anodisation. Magnetron sputtered aluminium based coatings containing up to 18 wt...... the optical effect of partially oxidised intermetallics and the subsurface morphology after anodisation. It was suggested, that the darkening of the anodised specimens happened due to roughness of the oxide-substrate interface causing light trapping and optical scattering and absorption by the...

  2. Multi-element study in aluminium by activation analysis technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The instrumental activation analysis is a technique relatively quickly that help to know the elemental composition of materials. It is used mainly in the trace elements determination but in the case of major elements it is necessary to make some considerations as the different nuclear reactions carried out due to the neutron flux is a mixture of thermal and fast neutrons. This could be interpreted for the presence and or erroneous quantification about some elements. In this work, is described the way in which was analyzed a container piece with approximately a 85% of aluminium. The elements Zn, Mn, Sb, Ga, Cu, Cl and Sm were determined. (Author)

  3. Modeling of recrystallization texture of aluminium: symmetric and asymmetric rolling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierzbanowski, K.; Kotra, M.; Wronski, M.; Sztwiertnia, K.; Wronski, S.; Lodini, A.

    2015-04-01

    In some metallic materials the dominating recrystallization mechanism can be described by the oriented growth behaviour. Phenomenological laws state that in selected materials only these nuclei grow intensively which have a given misorientation relation with the deformed matrix. This description is frequently verified in f.c.c. metals and generally reported misorientations correspond approximately to 400 rotation around the axis. Basing on the above ideas the recrystallization model, including the compromise condition, was formulated and applied to the study of recrystallization textures of rolled polycrystalline aluminium.

  4. Design considerations for HFQ® hot stamped aluminium structural panels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foster Alistair

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available HFQ is a deep drawing process for alloyed aluminium sheet that can be used to produce complex-stamped forms while maintaining the high-strength of 6xxx and 7xxx alloys. By adopting a strategy to design for HFQ at the platform level, designers can reduce part count (thereby reducing cost and weight, reduce gauge (thereby reducing weight, and improve part packaging. Two simple design examples are given to assist designers in evolving traditionally formed panel designs to HFQ formed solutions. Example features are used to illustrate the effect of geometry, thickness and strength on the final structural component.

  5. Tailored Aluminium based Coatings for Optical Appearance and Corrosion Resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Aggerbeck, Martin; Ambat, Rajan

    2014-01-01

    I dette projekt blev muligheden for at designe aluminiumsbaserede coatings undersøgt med fokus på hvordan den kemiske sammensætning og overfladens beskaffenhed påvirker den visuelle fremtoning og de basiske korrosionsegenskaber med titan anvendt som det primære legeringselement. De primære resultater og diskussioner fra dette arbejde præsenteres i form af i bilag som fire artikelmanuskripter indsendt til publikation i tidsskrifter. Anvendelsen af aluminium er bred, fra transportmidler, bygnin...

  6. The effect of atmospheric corona treatment on AA1050 aluminium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jariyaboon, Manthana; Møller, Per; Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.;

    2010-01-01

    The effect of atmospheric corona discharge on AM 050 aluminium surface was investigated using electrochemical polarization, SEM-EDX, FIB-SEM. and XPS. The corona treatment was performed with varying time (1, 5, and 15 min) in atmospheric air. A 200 nm oxide layer was generated on AA1050 after the...... 15 min air corona treatment. A significant reduction in anodic and cathodic reactivities was observed starting from 1 min exposure, which further decreased with prolonged exposure (15 min) and after delayed testing (after 30 days). The reduction in surface reactivity is due to the formation of...

  7. Radiation Induced Removal of Stacking Faults in Quenched Aluminium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of neutron irradiation on specimens of quenched aluminium containing Frank sessile dislocation loops has been studied by means of electron microscopy. The Frank loops were found to trans. form into perfect loops at doses less than 1017 nvt. A possible reason for the removal of the stacking faults is the displacement of a number of atoms at the faults, leading to the passage of a Shockley partial. Unfaulting induced by stress fields from dislocations, released during the irradiation, can also be important

  8. Nouveau procédé de synthèse du nitrure d'aluminium

    OpenAIRE

    Haussonne, J.; Lostec, J.; Bertot, J.; Lostec, L.; Sadou, S.

    1993-01-01

    Les calculs thermodynamiques montrent que, même à température ambiante, l'aluminium pur peut réagir avec l'azote pour former le nitrure d'aluminium AlN. Cependant, la poudre d'aluminium pur n'existe pas : ses grains sont toujours entourés d'une couche d'alumine protectrice. De plus, dans l'hypothèse où l'on pourrait faire réagir de la poudre d'aluminium avec de l'azote, il se formerait de même une couche protectrice de nitrure d'aluminium qui empêcherait le centre des grains de réagir. S'insp...

  9. The influence of aluminium upon electronic transport in r.f. sputtered amorphous Si:H

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A range of specimens has been prepared in which aluminium is introduced into hydrogenated amorphous silicon by a co-sputtering technique. With increasing aluminium content, the activation energy of the dark d.c. conductivity and the optical energy gap are both found to decrease, whilst the magnitude of the d.c. conductivity is increased at all temperatures within the range of study. The inclusion of aluminium is found to quench the photoconductivity to a level below the resolution of the measurement system. Thermoelectric power measurements on films with a high aluminium content indicate that transport is dominated by holes. The data are interpreted in terms of the semiconducting properties of a silicon - aluminium alloy. High-temperature transport is dominated by holes in extended valence-band states, whilst at low temperatures carrier motion is through localized states situated between the Fermi level and the valence-band mobility edge. (author)

  10. Influence of aluminium upon electronic transport in RF sputtered amorphous Si:H

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fortuna, H.S.; Marshall, J.M.

    1986-05-01

    A range of specimens has been prepared in which aluminium is introduced into hydrogenated amorphous silicon by a co-sputtering technique. With increasing aluminium content, the activation energy of the dark d.c. conductivity and the optical energy gap are both found to decrease, whilst the magnitude of the d.c. conductivity is increased at all temperatures within the range of study. The inclusion of aluminium is found to quench the photoconductivity to a level below the resolution of the measurement system. Thermoelectric power measurements on films with a high aluminium content indicate that transport is dominated by holes. The data are interpreted in terms of the semiconducting properties of a silicon -aluminium alloy. High-temperature transport is dominated by holes in extended valence-band states, whilst at low temperatures carrier motion is through localized states situated between the Fermi level and the valence-band mobility edge.

  11. Low-temperature Electrodeposition of Aluminium from Lewis Acidic 1-Allyl-3-methylimidazolium Chloroaluminate Ionic Liquids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑勇; 张锁江; 吕兴梅; 王倩; 左勇; 刘恋

    2012-01-01

    Lewis acidic 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium chloroaluminate ionic liquids were used as promising electrolytes in the low-temperature electrodeposition of aluminium. Systematic studies on deposition process have been performed by cYClic voltammetry and chronoamperometry. The surface morphology and X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns of deposits prepared at different experimental conditions were also investigated. It was shown that the nucleation density and growth rate of crystallites had a great effect on the structure of aluminium deposited. The crys- tallographic orientation of deposits was mainly influenced by temperature and current density. Smooth, dense and well adherent aluminium coatings were obtained on copper substrates at 10-25 mA.cm^-2 and 313.2-353.2 K. More- over, the current efficiency of deposition and purity of aluminium have been significantly improved, demonstrating that the ionic liquids tested have a prospectful potential in electroplating and electrorefining of aluminium.

  12. Production and some properties of Si3N4 reinforced aluminium alloy composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pardeep Sharma

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The present research work focuses on the production of aluminium (AA6082-T6 matrix composites reinforced with various weight percentage of silicon nitride particles by conventional stir casting route. The percentage of reinforcement is varied from 0 wt.% to 12 wt.% in a stage of 3%. The microstructures and mechanical properties of the fabricated aluminium matrix composites are investigated. The scanning electron microstructure images reveal the presence of Si3N4 particles in the aluminium matrix. The distribution of Si3N4 particles has also been recognized with X-ray diffraction technique. The mechanical properties such as ultimate tensile strength and hardness have improved at the cost of reduction in ductility with increase in weight percentage of silicon nitride particulates in the aluminium metal matrix. The density and porosity of the composites also show an increasing trend with increase in volume fraction of Si3N4 particles in the aluminium matrix.

  13. Electrodeposition of gallium and zinc onto aluminium. Influence of the electrodeposited metals on the activation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electrodeposition of gallium and/or zinc on aluminium, aluminium-zinc alloy and vitreous carbon electrodes in chloride solutions is analysed. The electrodissolution of the formed interfaces is also described and discussed. For this purpose, potentiodynamic and potentiostatic techniques and open circuit potential measurements were employed and surface characterisation was performed by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis. The presence of zinc, electrodeposited from the solution or as an alloying component, facilitates gallium enrichment at the interface and improves the wetting on the aluminium oxide. These conditions ensure the formation of a surface Ga-Al amalgam. As a result, the dissolution process occurs at potentials which are more active than those observed for aluminium or aluminium-zinc alloy in halide solutions

  14. Relationships between nitrate uptake and nitrate reductase activity in Cucumis sativus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grażyna Kłobus

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Anti-NR IgG fragments obtained after papain digestion of polyclonal antibodies gave the positive immunological reaction with both, a soluble and plasma membrane-bound nitrate reductase. Anti-NR antibody as well as IgG fragments almost totally inhibited the nitrate reductase activity in cytosol proving a crossreaction of antibody with the catalytic site of a soluble NR. Anti-NR IgG fragments, but not undigested polyclonal antibodies affected the activity of the nitrate reductase associated with plasma membranes. Discrepancy in the action of intact antibodies and fragments obtained after they digestion were interpreted as a consequence of same differences in the ability of those molecules to the penetration through the membrane. Undigested anti-NR antibody have no effect on the nitrate uptake by intact plants, as well as by the right-side plasma membrane vesicles. On the other hand, IgG fragments of polyclonal antibodies abolished almost totally the nitrate uptake in the case of intact seedlings, but have only slight effect on the N03 uptake in plasma membranes. On the basis of above findings, some relations between nitrate uptake and its assimilation inside the cell are suggested. Since IgG fragments only slightly changed the N03 absorption in vesicles whereas the activity of plasmalemma associated nitrate reductase was strongly repressed, we concluded that the PM-NR is not structurally involved in the nitrate transport through the membrane.

  15. Nitration of naphthalene and remarks on the mechanism of electrophilic aromatic nitration*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olah, George A.; Narang, Subhash C.; Olah, Judith A.

    1981-01-01

    Naphthalene was nitrated with a variety of nitrating agents. Comparison of data with Perrin's electrochemical nitration [Perrin, C. L. (1977) J. Am. Chem. Soc. 99, 5516-5518] shows that nitration of naphthalene gives an α-nitronaphthalene to β-nitronaphthalene ratio that varies between 9 and 29 and is thus not constant. Perrin's data, therefore, are considered to be inconclusive evidence for the proposed one-electron transfer mechanism for the nitration of naphthalene and other reactive aromatics. Moodie and Schoefield [Hoggett, J. G., Moodie, R. B., Penton, J. R. & Schoefield, K. (1971) Nitration and Aromatic Reactivity (Cambridge Univ. Press, London)], as well as Perrin, independently concluded that, in the general scheme of nitration of reactive aromatics, there is the necessity to introduce into the classical Ingold mechanism an additional step involving a distinct intermediate preceding the formation of the Wheland intermediate (σ complexes). This view coincides with our two-step mechanistic picture [Kuhn, S. J. & Olah, G. A. (1961) J. Am. Chem. Soc. 83, 4564-4571] of the nitronium salt nitration of aromatic hydrocarbons (including benzene and toluene), in which low substrate selectivity but high positional selectivity was found, indicating the independence of substrate from positional selectivity. PMID:16593026

  16. Nitration of naphthalene and remarks on the mechanism of electrophilic aromatic nitration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olah, G A; Narang, S C; Olah, J A

    1981-06-01

    Naphthalene was nitrated with a variety of nitrating agents. Comparison of data with Perrin's electrochemical nitration [Perrin, C. L. (1977) J. Am. Chem. Soc. 99, 5516-5518] shows that nitration of naphthalene gives an alpha-nitronaphthalene to beta-nitronaphthalene ratio that varies between 9 and 29 and is thus not constant. Perrin's data, therefore, are considered to be inconclusive evidence for the proposed one-electron transfer mechanism for the nitration of naphthalene and other reactive aromatics. Moodie and Schoefield [Hoggett, J. G., Moodie, R. B., Penton, J. R. & Schoefield, K. (1971) Nitration and Aromatic Reactivity (Cambridge Univ. Press, London)], as well as Perrin, independently concluded that, in the general scheme of nitration of reactive aromatics, there is the necessity to introduce into the classical Ingold mechanism an additional step involving a distinct intermediate preceding the formation of the Wheland intermediate (sigma complexes). This view coincides with our two-step mechanistic picture [Kuhn, S. J. & Olah, G. A. (1961) J. Am. Chem. Soc. 83, 4564-4571] of the nitronium salt nitration of aromatic hydrocarbons (including benzene and toluene), in which low substrate selectivity but high positional selectivity was found, indicating the independence of substrate from positional selectivity. PMID:16593026

  17. Imbalance between vertical nitrate flux and nitrate assimilation on a continental shelf: Implications of nitrification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiozaki, Takuhei; Furuya, Ken; Kurotori, Hiroyuki; Kodama, Taketoshi; Takeda, Shigenobu; Endoh, Takahiro; Yoshikawa, Yutaka; Ishizaka, Joji; Matsuno, Takeshi

    2011-10-01

    The nitrate assimilation rate and diapycnal nitrate flux were simultaneously determined on the continental shelf of the East China Sea (ECS). Further, the archaeal amoA gene was quantified to examine the potential distribution of nitrification activity. Nitrate assimilation rates and distribution of the archaeal amoA gene were also investigated in the Philippine Sea and in the Kuroshio Current. At all the stations, while the surface nitrate was depleted (amoA was observed at shallower light depths, namely at or above 10% light depth, in the ECS than in other regions, suggesting that nitrification occurred within the euphotic zone in the ECS, especially on the shelf. Moreover, a station on the continental shelf of the ECS exhibited a considerable discrepancy between the nitrate assimilation rate (1500 μmolN m-2 d-1) and vertical nitrate flux (98 μmolN m-2 d-1). Here, 6.7 ± 3.1 × 103 and 2.5 ± 0.7 × 105 copies mL-1 of archaeal amoA were detected at 10% and 1% light depths relative to the surface, respectively. Thus nitrification within the euphotic zone would be attributed at least in part to the observed discrepancy between nitrate assimilation and vertical flux. These observations imply that the assumption of a direct relationship between new production, export production, and measured nitrate assimilation is misplaced, particularly regarding the continental shelf of the ECS.

  18. Nitrate removal and denitrification affected by soil characteristics in nitrate treatment wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ying-Feng; Jing, Shuh-Ren; Lee, Der-Yuan; Chang, Yih-Feng; Shih, Kai-Chung

    2007-03-01

    Several small-scale surface flow constructed wetlands unplanted and planted (monoculture) with various macrophytes (Phragmites australis, Typha orientalis, Pennisetum purpureum, Ipomoea aquatica, and Pistia stratiotes) were established to continuously receive nitrate-contaminated groundwater. Soil characteristics and their effects on nitrate removal and soil denitrification were investigated. The results showed that planted wetland cells exhibited significantly higher (P < 0.05) nitrate removal efficiencies (70-99%) and soil denitrification rates (3.78-15.02 microg N2O-N/g dry soil/h) than an unplanted covered wetland cell (1%, 0.11 microg N2O-N/g/h). However, the unplanted uncovered wetland cell showed a nitrate removal efficiency (55%) lower than but a soil denitrification rate (9.12 microg N2O-N/g/h) comparable to the planted cells. The nitrate removal rate correlated closely and positively with the soil denitrification rate for the planted cells, indicating that soil denitrification is an important process for removing nitrate in constructed wetlands. The results of nitrogen budget revealed that around 68.9-90.7% of the overall nitrogen removal could be attributed to the total denitrification. The soil denitrification rate was found to correlate significantly (P < 0.01) with the extractable organic carbon, organic matter, and in situ-measured redox potential of wetland soil, which accordingly were concluded as suitable indicators of soil denitrification rate and nitrate removal rate in nitrate treatment wetlands. PMID:17365317

  19. Gas accumulation at grain boundaries during 800 MeV proton irradiation of aluminium and aluminium-alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Bachu Narain; Horsewell, Andy; Sommer, W. F.;

    1986-01-01

    Samples of pure aluminium (99.9999%) and commercial Al-2.7%Mg(AlMg3) and Al-1.1%Mg-0.5%Si(Al6061) alloys were irradiated with 800 MeV protons at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) at a temperature between 40-100°C to a maximum dose of 0.2 dpa. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) sho...... higher than in the pure Al. The amount of gas accumulation at grain boundaries was found to depend on gas generation rate, alloying and cold-work microstructure...

  20. Structural and mechanistic insights on nitrate reductases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Catarina; Romão, Maria João

    2015-12-01

    Nitrate reductases (NR) belong to the DMSO reductase family of Mo-containing enzymes and perform key roles in the metabolism of the nitrogen cycle, reducing nitrate to nitrite. Due to variable cell location, structure and function, they have been divided into periplasmic (Nap), cytoplasmic, and membrane-bound (Nar) nitrate reductases. The first crystal structure obtained for a NR was that of the monomeric NapA from Desulfovibrio desulfuricans in 1999. Since then several new crystal structures were solved providing novel insights that led to the revision of the commonly accepted reaction mechanism for periplasmic nitrate reductases. The two crystal structures available for the NarGHI protein are from the same organism (Escherichia coli) and the combination with electrochemical and spectroscopic studies also lead to the proposal of a reaction mechanism for this group of enzymes. Here we present an overview on the current advances in structural and functional aspects of bacterial nitrate reductases, focusing on the mechanistic implications drawn from the crystallographic data. PMID:26362109

  1. Schiff bases as corrosion inhibitor for aluminium in HCl solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Three Schiff bases have been tested as possible corrosion inhibitors for aluminium. ► Corrosion tests have been performed via EIS and Tafel polarisation methods. ► Experimental inhibition efficiencies were correlated with quantum chemical parameters. - Abstract: Three Schiff bases named 1,5-bis[2-(2-hydroxybenzylideneamino)phenoxy]-3-oxopentane (D1), 1,5-bis[2-(5-chloro-2-hydroxybenzylideneamino)phenoxy]-3-oxopentane (D2) and 1,5-bis[2-(5-bromo-2-hydroxybenzylideneamino)phenoxy]-3-oxopentane (D3) were synthesized and their inhibitive capabilities on the aluminium corrosion in 0.1 M HCl were investigated by means of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, Tafel polarisation and scanning electron microscopy techniques. Results showed that, compounds under study exhibit inhibitor properties and adsorption of these compounds was found to accord with Temkin adsorption isotherm. Polarisation curves indicated that the studied Schiff bases were cathodic inhibitor and the effectiveness of these inhibitors decreased in the order of D3 > D2 > D1. Quantum chemical calculations were performed to provide further insight into the inhibition efficiencies determined experimentally.

  2. Experimental study of friction in aluminium bolted joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croccolo, D.; de Agostinis, M.; Vincenzi, N.

    2010-06-01

    This study aims at developing an experimental tool useful to define accurately the friction coefficients in bolted joints and, therefore, at relating precisely the tightening torque to the bolt preloading force in some special components used in front motorbike suspensions. The components under investigation are some clamped joints made of aluminium alloy. The preloading force is achieved by applying a torque wrench to the bolt head. Some specific specimens have been appropriately designed and realized in order to study the tribological aspects of the tightening phase. Experimental tests have been performed by applying the Design of Experiment (DOE) method in order to obtain a mathematical model for the friction coefficients. Three replicas of a full factorial DOE at two levels for each variable have been carried out. The levels include cast versus forged aluminium alloy, anodized versus spray-painted surface, lubricated versus unlubricated screw, and first tightening (fresh unspoiled surfaces) versus sixth tightening (spoiled surfaces). The study considers M8x1.25 8.8 galvanized screws.

  3. Experimental study of aluminium honeycomb behaviour under dynamic multiaxial loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markiewicz E.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar system (SHPB with large-diameter and Nylon bars introducing a shear-compression loading device is used in order to investigate the dynamic behaviour of aluminium honeycomb under multiaxial loadings conditions. All shear-compression configurations including the loading angle variation from 0∘ to 60∘ are performed with an impact velocity of about 15m/s. The adapted SHPB system with the device are validated numerically and a phenomenon of separation between the input bar and the input beveled bar is observed. Numerical results suggest that this phenomenon provides a cutting of the reflected wave. An electro optical extensometer is employed in experiments. A good agreement between the numerical elastic waves and the experimental ones is obtained. Experimental results show a significant effect of the loading angle on the apparent stress-strain curves. The initial peak value and the plateau stress decrease with the increase of the loading angle. The combined shear-compression device with an enhancement at the alignment set-up provides efficient results for samples dynamically loaded. This device will be used to investigate the influence of the in-plane orientation angle on the deformation mechanisms and multiaxial behaviour of aluminium honeycomb under dynamic and quasi-static loading conditions.

  4. High-Rate Compaction of Aluminium Alloy Foams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The response of aluminium foams to impact can be categorised according to the impact velocity. Tests have been carried out at a range of impact velocities from quasi-static to velocities approaching the speed of sound in the foam. Various experimental arrangements have been employed including pneumatic launcher tests and plate impact experimants at velocities greater than 1000 m s-1. The quasi-static compression behaviour was approximately elastic, perfectly-plastic, locking. For static and dynamic compression at low impact velocities the deformation pattern was through the cumulative multiplication of discrete, non-contiguous crush bands. Selected impact tests are presented here for which the impact velocity is less than the velocity of sound, but above a certain critical impact velocity so that the plastic compression occurs in a shock-like manner and the specimens deform by progressive cell crushing. Laboratory X-ray microtomography has been employed to acquire tomographic datasets of aluminium foams before and after tests. The morphology of the underformed foam was used as the input dataset to an Eulerian code. Hydrocode simulations were then carried out on a real microstructure. These simulations provide insight to mechanisms associated with the localization of deformation

  5. Graded open-cell aluminium foam core sandwich beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We show that the replication process can be extended towards the production of functionally graded porous structures by fabricating and testing structures in which outer layers of dense metal encase a central part made of foam with graded porosity. Samples of this kind are produced by pressing individual layers of NaCl powder of granulometry 60-90 μm, and then stacking these layers between two skins of dense aluminium. The stacked preforms are then infiltrated with pure aluminium and solidified before dissolution of the salt in water. Specimens containing up to five layers of porous Al of different density between two dense outer skins of pure Al are produced; selected samples are tested in three-point bending. Data show good agreement with analysis based on sandwich beam theory and the Deshpande-Fleck yield criterion. Results of this work indicate that whereas lightweight graded metal/metal foam beams show little promise from the standpoint of stiffness-limited design, they may be of interest from the standpoint of load-limited design

  6. A 3D printed superconducting aluminium microwave cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creedon, Daniel L.; Goryachev, Maxim; Kostylev, Nikita; Sercombe, Timothy B.; Tobar, Michael E.

    2016-07-01

    3D printing of plastics, ceramics, and metals has existed for several decades and has revolutionized many areas of manufacturing and science. Printing of metals, in particular, has found a number of applications in fields as diverse as customized medical implants, jet engine bearings, and rapid prototyping in the automotive industry. Although many techniques are used for 3D printing metals, they commonly rely on computer controlled melting or sintering of a metal alloy powder using a laser or electron beam. The mechanical properties of parts produced in such a way have been well studied, but little attention has been paid to their electrical properties. Here we show that a microwave cavity (resonant frequencies 9.9 and 11.2 GHz) 3D printed using an Al-12Si alloy exhibits superconductivity when cooled below the critical temperature of aluminium (1.2 K), with a performance comparable with the common 6061 alloy of aluminium. Superconducting cavities find application in numerous areas of physics, from particle accelerators to cavity quantum electrodynamics experiments. The result is achieved even with a very large concentration of non-superconducting silicon in the alloy of 12.18%, compared with Al-6061, which has between 0.4% and 0.8%. Our results may pave the way for the possibility of 3D printing superconducting cavity configurations that are otherwise impossible to machine.

  7. Experimental study of friction in aluminium bolted joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzi N.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at developing an experimental tool useful to define accurately the friction coefficients in bolted joints and, therefore, at relating precisely the tightening torque to the bolt preloading force in some special components used in front motorbike suspensions. The components under investigation are some clamped joints made of aluminium alloy. The preloading force is achieved by applying a torque wrench to the bolt head. Some specific specimens have been appropriately designed and realized in order to study the tribological aspects of the tightening phase. Experimental tests have been performed by applying the Design of Experiment (DOE method in order to obtain a mathematical model for the friction coefficients. Three replicas of a full factorial DOE at two levels for each variable have been carried out. The levels include cast versus forged aluminium alloy, anodized versus spray-painted surface, lubricated versus unlubricated screw, and first tightening (fresh unspoiled surfaces versus sixth tightening (spoiled surfaces. The study considers M8x1.25 8.8 galvanized screws.

  8. Modelling of semi-liquid aluminium flow in extrusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Skorulski

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available characterizing by low cost. The significant results may be quickly applying using theory of probability. The way of modelling the deformation mechanisms during extrusion of aluminium alloys in semi - liquid phase, the way of preparing samples and experimental technique has been analysed in the following work. On the ground of received results (i.e. registrations of consecutive process steps the grid of the flow velocity vectors on a flat sample surface was done. It allowed to draw conclusions which one of the basic deformation mechanisms is dominant in particular stage of the process. The technique of measurement has been shown as well. Experiments are made using plasticine and rape oil as a substiute materials. Some kind of different variants have been investigated. To ensure that such model experiments provide useful information it is essential to select model materials and prepare samples that would exhibit (preferably at room temperature similar behaviour and similar deformation mechanisms as those present during the actual deformation process of aluminium alloys in a semi-liquid state. In particular the FLS, SS and PDS mechanisms should be adequately reproduced.

  9. Aluminium surface treatment with ceramic phases using diode laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labisz, K.; Tański, T.; Brytan, Z.; Pakieła, W.; Wiśniowski, M.

    2016-07-01

    Ceramic particles powder feeding into surface layer of engineering metal alloy is a well-known and widely used technique. New approach into the topic is to obtain finely distributed nano-sized particles involved in the aluminium matrix using the traditional laser technology. In this paper are presented results of microstructure investigation of cast aluminium-silicon-copper alloys surface layer after heat treatment and alloying with ceramic carbides of WC and ZrO2 using high-power diode laser. The surface layer was specially prepared for the reason of reducing the reflectivity, which is the main problem in the up-to-date metal matrix composites production. With scanning electron microscopy, it was possible to determine the deformation process and distribution of WC and ZrO2 ceramic powder phase. Structure of the surface after laser treatment changes, revealing three zones—remelting zone, heat-affected zone and transition zone placed over the Al substrate. The structural changes of ceramic powder, its distribution and morphology as well as microstructure of the matrix material influence on functional properties, especially wear resistance and hardness of the achieved layer, were investigated.

  10. A 3D Printed Superconducting Aluminium Microwave Cavity

    CERN Document Server

    Creedon, Daniel L; Kostylev, Nikita; Sercombe, Tim; Tobar, Michael E

    2016-01-01

    3D printing of plastics, ceramics, and metals has existed for several decades and has revolutionized many areas of manufacturing and science. Printing of metals in particular has found a number of novel applications in fields as diverse as customized medical implants, jet engine bearings, and rapid prototyping in the automotive industry. Whilst many techniques can be used for 3D printing metals, they commonly rely on computer controlled melting or sintering of a metal alloy powder using a laser or electron beam. The mechanical properties of parts produced in such a way have been well studied, but little attention has been paid to their electrical properties. Here we show that a resonant microwave cavity 3D printed using an Al-12Si alloy exhibits superconductivity when cooled below the critical temperature of aluminium (1.2 K), with a performance comparable to the common 6061 alloy of aluminium. Superconducting cavities find application in numerous areas of physics, from particle accelerators to cavity quantum...

  11. The determination of boron in aluminium of high purity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A description is given of the investigations that led to the development of chemical methods for the determination of boron within the range 0,25 to 1,0 p.p.m. in aluminium of high purity. Methods were developed that incorporated fluorimetry, directly in solutions containing aluminium and after separation of boron by liquid-liquid extraction into 2-ethyl-1,3 hexanediol. A published spectrophotometric method, involving extraction of the BF4sup(-) complex with methylene blue into dichloroethane, was modified for application to alluminium samples. Details of this modified procedure and the fluorimetric-extraction procedure are appended. The precision of the methylene-blue method is about 6 percent relative and is recommended for precision and speed in preference to others. Separation of boron by distillation and spectrophotometric determination with curcumin gave low values in comparison with those obtained by the other methods. Agreement between the boron values obtained on the samples tested was good for the fluorimetric and methylene-blue spectrophotometric methods

  12. Solidification and precipitation in aluminium-zirconium alloys. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cast structure and the precipitating primary phases were investigated in Al-Zr alloys on the basis of high-purity Aluminium with 0.1 to 1.2 wt.% Zr after fast solidification in a watercooled mold. With higher Zr-saturation of the melt the tetragonal ZrAl3-equilibrium phase appears, which is already known from slowly cooled samples. In alloys with lower Zr-supersaturation with respect to the raised Zr-solubility of about 0.6 wt.% due to the fast solidification there appears solely or additionally the new metastable cubic ZrAl3-phase as the primary precipitation. The particles show cubic or fourfold symmetric star form and have nearly the same lattice parameters as Aluminium. By coherent epitaxi of the Al-lattice they act as prefered nuclei for the solidification of the α-phase. Consequently an intensive grain refining takes place in a critical concentration range depending on temperature of pouring and cooling rate. (orig.)

  13. An investigation of coated aluminium bipolar plates for PEMFC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Coated aluminium bipolar plates demonstrate the hydrophobic property than the raw material. ► The corrosion behaviour of bipolar plate decreases the PEMFC performance severely. ► These PEMFCs are measured by current–voltage (I–V) curve test. ► The oxide film increases the interfacial contact resistance. -- Abstract: The performance of Al-alloy bipolar plates for the PEMFC (proton exchange membrane fuel cell) system is investigated in this paper. The metallic bipolar plates are modified with a Ni–P coating. The performance of the Al-alloy bipolar plates is evaluated by the coating structure, corrosion resistance, contact angle and single cell performance. The results indicate that the coated aluminium bipolar plates demonstrate hydrophobic and anti-corrosive properties. The hydrophobic property increases the contact angle on the surface from 46.08° to 80.51°. Meanwhile, the corrosion rate of the Ni–P coating can be over 1 order of magnitude lower than that of the substrate. Hence, the substrate with the coating maintains superior performance under the long term test. The present study proves that both the hydrophobicity and corrosion resistance significantly affect the metallic bipolar plate.

  14. Crystallographic orientation-spray formed hypereutectic aluminium-silicon alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamilta de Oliveira Santos

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Aluminium-silicon alloys have been wide accepted in the automotive, electric and aerospace industries. Preferred orientation is a very common condition for metals and alloys. Particularly, aluminium induces texture during the forming process. The preparation of an aggregate with completely random crystal orientation is a difficult task. The present work was undertaken to analyse the texture by X-ray diffraction techniques, of three spray formed hypereutectic Al-Si alloys. Samples were taken from a billet of an experimental alloy (alloy 1 and were subsequently hot-rolled and cold-rolled (height reduction, 72% and 70%, respectively. The other used samples, alloys 2 and 3, were taken from cylinders liners. The results from the Laue camera showed texture just in the axial direction of alloy 3. The pole figures also indicated the presence of a typical low intensity deformation texture, especially for alloy 3. The spray formed microstructure, which is very fine, hinders the Al-Si texture formation during mechanical work.

  15. Ammonium and nitrate tolerance in lichens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since lichens lack roots and take up water, solutes and gases over the entire thallus surface, these organisms respond more sensitively to changes in atmospheric purity than vascular plants. After centuries where effects of sulphur dioxide and acidity were in the focus of research on atmospheric chemistry and lichens, recently the globally increased levels of ammonia and nitrate increasingly affect lichen vegetation and gave rise to intense research on the tolerance of lichens to nitrogen pollution. The present paper discusses the main findings on the uptake of ammonia and nitrate in the lichen symbiosis and to the tolerance of lichens to eutrophication. Ammonia and nitrate are both efficiently taken up under ambient conditions. The tolerance to high nitrogen levels depends, among others, on the capability of the photobiont to provide sufficient amounts of carbon skeletons for ammonia assimilation. Lowly productive lichens are apparently predisposed to be sensitive to excess nitrogen. - Eutrophication has become a global threat for lichen diversity.

  16. Nitrate reduction in an unconfined sandy aquifer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Postma, Diederik Jan; Boesen, Carsten; Kristiansen, Henning;

    1991-01-01

    vertical component of the water transport was modeled since, in contrast to rates along flow lines, the vertical rates are close to constant as required by the one-dimensional model. Average vertical transport rates of water in the saturated zone were obtained by tritium dating. The modeling process is a......Nitrate distribution and reduction processes were investigated in an unconfined sandy aquifer of Quaternary age. Groundwater chemistry was studied in a series of eight multilevel samplers along a flow line, deriving water from both arable and forested land. Results show that plumes of nitrate...... processes of O2 and NO3- occur at rates that are fast compared to the rate of downward water transport. Nitrate-contaminated groundwater contains total contents of dissolved ions that are two to four times higher than in groundwater derived from the forested area. The persistence of the high content of...

  17. Trend Analyses of Nitrate in Danish Groundwater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, B.; Thorling, L.; Dalgaard, Tommy;

    2012-01-01

    This presentation assesses the long-term development in the oxic groundwater nitrate concentration and nitrogen (N) loss due to intensive farming in Denmark. Firstly, up to 20-year time-series from the national groundwater monitoring network enable a statistically systematic analysis...... of distribution, trends and trend reversals in the groundwater nitrate concentration. Secondly, knowledge about the N surplus in Danish agriculture since 1950 is used as an indicator of the potential loss of N. Thirdly, groundwater recharge CFC (Chlorofluorocarbon) age determination allows linking of the first...... two dataset. The development in the nitrate concentration of oxic groundwater clearly mirrors the development in the national agricultural N surplus, and a corresponding trend reversal is found in groundwater. Regulation and technical improvements in the intensive farming in Denmark have succeeded...

  18. Extraction of metal nitrates and nitric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Considered are the effects of uranyl nitrate extraction with diethyl ether (DE) from binary and ternary solutions. Data are presented describing the extraction of uranyl nitrate at 25 deg C and a characteristic is given for the effect of salinators (NaNO3, Mg(NO3)2, Ca(NO3)2, Sr(NO3)2, Co(NO3)2, Zn(NO3)2 and Cd(NO3)2) on the extraction. A possibility is shown of describing the equilibrium in extraction of micro- and macro-quantities of uranyl nitrate from its binary and ternary solutions. Thermodynamic extraction and distribution constants have been calculated and tabulated basing on the assumption of the nonstochiometric hydration of solvates in organic phase

  19. Nitrate reduction in an unconfined sandy aquifer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Postma, Diederik Jan; Boesen, Carsten; Kristiansen, Henning; Larsen, Flemming

    1991-01-01

    Nitrate distribution and reduction processes were investigated in an unconfined sandy aquifer of Quaternary age. Groundwater chemistry was studied in a series of eight multilevel samplers along a flow line, deriving water from both arable and forested land. Results show that plumes of nitrate......-contaminated groundwater emanate from the agricultural areas and spread through the aquifer. The aquifer can be subdivided into an upper 10- to 15-m thick oxic zone that contains O2 and NO3-, and a lower anoxic zone characterized by Fe2+-rich waters. The redox boundary is very sharp, which suggests that reduction...... processes of O2 and NO3- occur at rates that are fast compared to the rate of downward water transport. Nitrate-contaminated groundwater contains total contents of dissolved ions that are two to four times higher than in groundwater derived from the forested area. The persistence of the high content of...

  20. Determination of local material properties of laser beam welded aluminium-steel and aluminium-titanium compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunkel, M.; Hehl, A. von [IWT Stiftung Institut fuer Werkstofftechnik Bremen (Germany); Barr, A.

    2012-04-15

    The combination of different metallic materials, such as aluminium and steel or aluminium and titanium, by firmly bonding via laser beam welding enables the production of customised hybrid lightweight designs with enhanced properties. Both weld geometry and local material behaviour, which are responsible for the final load characteristics of the compound, are influenced by the process parameters during welding. A novel approach of coupling process, microstructure and mechanical simulation, considering the development of weld geometry and local material conditions is intended to deliver a fast and reliable method for evaluating the quasi-static strength of laser beam welded hybrid compounds. Besides the objective to promote a reduction of expensive welding experiments, the developed method can enhance the performance of hybrid structures as well as their lightweight potential for automotive and aircraft applications. The experimental determination of the local mechanical properties as the basis for the regarded simulation approach is an essential part of a running research project. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  1. Isotope tracing of nitrate : lessons from Malta

    OpenAIRE

    Heaton, Timothy; Stuart, Marianne; Sapiano, M.; Micallef Sultana, M.

    2010-01-01

    Average concentrations of nitrate in Malta’s groundwaters are probably the highest among EU member states. This compromises the quality of an important resource -almost 60% of Malta’s water supply being provided by groundwater. An 15N/14N + 18O/16O isotope study was undertaken as a core part of wide-ranging investigations into the potential sources of the nitrate pollution, its likely future trends, and possible ameliorative actions. The dual isotope (15N/14N + 18O/16O) approach was important...

  2. Factors controlling nitrate cracking of mild steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitrite and hydroxide ions inhibit the growth of nitrate stress corrosion cracks in mild steel. Crack growth measurements showed that sufficient concentrations of nitrite and hydroxide ions can prevent crack growth; however, insufficient concentrations of these ions did not influence the Stage II growth rate or the threshold stress intensity, but extended the initiation time. Stage III growth was discontinuous. Oxide formed in the grain boundaries ahead of the crack tip and oxide dissolution (Stage II) and fracture (Stage III) are the proposed mechanisms of nitrate stress corrosion crack growth

  3. Nouveau procédé de synthèse du nitrure d'aluminium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haussonne, J. M.; Lostec, J.; Bertot, J. P.; Lostec, L.; Sadou, S.

    1993-04-01

    Thermodynamic considerations show that, even at room temperature, pure aluminium can react with nitrogen to form the aluminium nitride AlN. However, pure aluminium does not exist: it is always surrounded by an alumina shell that protects the metal from further reactions. Furthermore, in the hypothesis where one has been able to make aluminium react with nitrogen, an aluminium nitride shell will protect as well the metal core from further oxidation. Prompted by the Lanxide process allowing to form Al/Al2O3 composites, we have mixed aluminium powders with lithium salts, and easily synthesized pure aluminium nitride by heating the mixed powders in nitrogen at temperatures ranging from 800 to 1200 °C. Starting from aluminium powders with a specific area ranging from 0.3 to 4 m^2/g, we have been able to produce aluminium nitride with specific are ranging from 1 to 20 m^2/g. Mixed with Y203-CaO and sintered at 1720 °C in N2, we obtained AIN ceramics owning 92% density and 160 W/m.K thermal conductivity. Les calculs thermodynamiques montrent que, même à température ambiante, l'aluminium pur peut réagir avec l'azote pour former le nitrure d'aluminium AlN. Cependant, la poudre d'aluminium pur n'existe pas : ses grains sont toujours entourés d'une couche d'alumine protectrice. De plus, dans l'hypothèse où l'on pourrait faire réagir de la poudre d'aluminium avec de l'azote, il se formerait de même une couche protectrice de nitrure d'aluminium qui empêcherait le centre des grains de réagir. S'inspirant du “procédé Lanxide” permettant de réaliser des composites Al/Al2O3, nous avons mélangé de la poudre d'aluminium avec des sels de lithium, et synthétisé du nitrure d'aluminium pur en portant ce mélange dans l'azote à une température pouvant être comprise entre 800 et 1 200 °C. Utilisant des poudres d'aluminium possédant une surface spécifique comprise entre 0,3 et 4 m^2/g, nous avons obtenu une poudre de nitrure d'aluminium avec une surface sp

  4. Innovative mechanical design: Foamed aluminium for automotive applications; Innovative Bauweisen: Aluminiumschaum fuer den Fahrzeugbau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banhart, J.; Baumeister, J.; Melzer, A.; Weber, M. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Angewandte Materialforschung (Germany); Seeliger, W. [Karmann (W.) GmbH, Osnabrueck (Germany)

    1998-12-01

    Foamed metals as a material for innovative applications in the motor vehicle industry have been tested and evaluated over the last few years by industrial establishments and research institutes. Particularly composite materials - consisting of foamed aluminium and conventional shaped parts or sheets made of steel or aluminium - promise interesting applications. The paper discusses the technology for producing such composites. The basis is a method for preparing foamed aluminium from powdered source materials. Metal powders are blended with foaming agents and pressed to form a compact pre-product, subsequent heat treatment resulting in the foamed metal. An example is given illustrating the advantages of the foamed aluminium-aluminium sandwich material for automotive applications.(orig./CB) [Deutsch] Metallschaum als Werkstoff fuer innovative Anwendungen im Fahrzeugbau wurde in den letzten Jahren von Industrie und Forschungsinstituten intensiv evaluiert. Besonders Verbundloesungen - bestehend aus Aluminiumschaum und konventionellen Profilen oder Blechen aus Stahl oder Aluminium - versprechen hier interessante Anwendungsfelder. Die Moeglichkeiten zur Herstellung solcher Verbunde werden diskutiert. Als Grundlage dient ein Verfahren zur Herstellung von Aluminiumschaum auf Basis von pulverfoermigen Ausgangsmaterialien. Hierbei werden Metallpulver mit Treibmitteln gemischt, zu einem kompakten Vorprodukt verpresst und anschliessend in einem Waermebehandlungsprozess aufgeschaeumt. Als Beispiel fuer den Einsatz eines Aluminiumschaum-Aluminium-Sandwiches wird ein Teil vorgestellt, das die aus konventionellem Stahlblech gefertigte Rueckwand im Fahrzeug ersetzen soll und dabei bei reduziertem Gewicht eine erheblich hoehere Steifigkeit aufweist. (orig.)

  5. The Role Of Melatonin In Aluminium Induced Genotoxicity In Female Albino Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeinab E. Hanafy

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the work, In spite of the wide range of use of aluminium. With the increasing awareness of possible health hazards associated with their use, more attention have been focused on their biological and biochemical activity. Aluminium salts are used as the active antiperspirant in under cosmetics, but the effects of widespread, long term and increasing use remain unknown. Aluminium is known to have genotoxic profile, capable of causing both DNA alterations and epigenetic effects. Melatonin reduces the free radical generation and metal detoxification .This study was planned to determine the effects of melatonin on aluminium induced toxicity in the chromosomes of bone marrow cell . Material and Methods ,Forty female albino rats were used in the present work for the chromosomal analysis. Four groups of adult female albino rats were used in the following way: Group -I, control group; Group-II,50 mg /kg b.wt aluminium orally; Group-III, 50g / kg b.wt melatonin orally and Group- IV, 50 mg /kg b.wt aluminium orally (am +50 g / kg b.wt melatonin orally(pm. Doses were given 30 days. All animals were sacrificed and the bone marrow of femur bones was taken for subsequent cytogenetic studies. The results, Aluminium treatment induced a significant increase in the structural as well as numerical chromosomal aberrations . The frequency of chromosomal aberrations showed significant decrease when rats treated with melatonin and aluminium .In conclusion, the results indicated that melatonin showed a significant improvement of genetic damages induced by aluminium

  6. Effect of Fiber Surface Structure on Interfacial Reaction between Carbon Fiber and Aluminium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Kuang-Chih; Matsugi, Kazuhiro; Sasaki, Gen; Yanagisawa, Osamu

    Surface structure of carbon fiber and interfacial reaction between fiber and aluminium in carbon fiber reinforced aluminium composites were investigated by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. Low and high graphitized carbon fiber reinforced pure aluminium composites were prepared by ultrasonic liquid infiltration. Vapor grown carbon nano fiber (VGCF) reinforced pure aluminium composites were prepared by hot-pressing. Heteroatoms, which existed abundantly in the surface of low graphitized carbon fiber, caused carbon lamellar structure in the fiber surface pronounced curvature. VGCF surface structure appeared regular and linear graphitic lamellae. Low graphitized fiber reinforced pure aluminium composites revealed serious interfacial reaction produced crystalline aluminium carbides (Al4C3), compared to composites reinforced by high graphitized fiber. On the other hand, Al4C3 crystalline reactants were not found at the interface of VGCF reinforced pure aluminium composites, but formation of interlayer was observed. In order to promote Al4C3 growth, carbon fiber reinforced composites were heat-treated at 573K and 873K for 1.8ks. Al4C3 interfacial phases in low and high graphitized fiber reinforced aluminium composites grew with the rise in the temperature. The heat-treatment resulted in the formation of non-crystalline Al4C3 interlayer by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis of electron microscopy. At high temperature, Al4C3 was not grew and increased merely at the interface between carbon fiber and pure aluminium matrix, and moreover, the formation of new Al4C3 crystal occurred in this interlayer.

  7. Determination of the total nitrate content of thorium nitrate solution with a selective electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nitrate content of thorium nitrate solutions is determined with a liquid membrane nitrate selective electrode utilizing the known addition method in 0.1 M potassium fluoride medium as ionic strength adjustor. It is studied the influence of pH and the presence of chloride, sulphate, phosphate, meta-silicate, thorium, rare earths, iron, titanium, uranium and zirconium at the same concentrations as for the aqueous feed solutions in the thorium purification process. The method is tested in synthetic samples and in samples proceeding from nitric dissolutions of thorium hidroxide and thorium oxicarbonate utilized as thorium concentrates to be purified

  8. Behaviour of painted aluminium in Ibero-American atmospheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morcillo, M.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Aluminium generally presents good corrosion resistance to the atmosphere. However, unprotected aluminium and aluminium alloys weather outdoors to an ugly grey colour, which deepens to black in industrial atmospheres, and undergo superficial pitting in marine atmospheres, etc. Finishing technologies are applied for their protection and decoration in a wide range of applications. These technologies basically consist of two protection processes: anodizing and painting; the latter going from conventional solvent base paints to modem water-borne, high solids and powder coatings. This paper considers the weathering performance of three paint systems: alkyd, polyurethane and polyester, after more than three years of exposure in a wide spectra of Ibero-American atmospheric conditions. The information reported includes resistance to undercutting corrosion at the scribe, filiform corrosion, fungal attack and change in the physical-chemical properties of the paint surface (loss of gloss, colour changes, chalking, etc..

    El aluminio, en general, presenta una buena resistencia a la corrosión en la atmósfera. Sin embargo, el aluminio sin ninguna protección y las aleaciones de aluminio expuestas a la intemperie envejecen mostrando un color gris, negro en el caso de atmósferas industriales, sufren la formación de picaduras en atmósferas marinas, etc. Para su protección, o a efectos decorativos, se le aplican diferentes procesos de acabado en un amplio rango de aplicaciones. Estos procesos de acabado, básicamente consisten en dos métodos de protección: anodizado y pintado; este último abarca desde pinturas convencionales de base disolvente hasta modernos sistemas base agua, de alto contenido en sólidos o pinturas en polvo. Este trabajo considera el comportamiento de tres sistemas de pinturas: alquídico, poliuretano y poliéster, tras más de tres años de exposición en un amplio espectro de condiciones atmosféricas de Iberoamérica. La

  9. Influence of Aluminium on Performance of HTPB-based Aluminised PBXs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinay Prakash

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the development of aluminised plastic-bonded explosives (PBXs based on aluminium and nitramine explosives using hydroxy-terminated polybutadiene as polymer matrix. The PBXs were processed as per standard procedures. Compositions with different formulations were prepared by varying the percentages of aluminium and RDX and their explosive properties, including velocity of detonation (VOD, peak overpressure, duration, impulse and sensitivity to different types of stimuli, were studied. The experimental and theoretical values of the VOD have been compared. It is observed that about 15 per cent aluminium content in the aluminised PBXs shows the optimum VOD.

  10. Car-Parrinello Simulation of the Aluminium Oxidation: Questioning the Role of 'Hot Adatoms'

    CERN Document Server

    Schulte, Marius

    2012-01-01

    We present Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics simulations of the initial reaction steps leading to an inert oxide layer on aluminium. The mechanism of the reaction of the aluminium surface with single oxygen molecules is analysed. After adsorption at the surface the oxygen molecules dissociate at a femtosecond timescale and the atoms are chemisorbed at the surface at a distance of several angstrom which falsifies earlier STM results. When the aluminium surface is exposed to higher oxygen pressure, a surface layer essentially consisting of threefold coordinated oxygen atoms starts to form.

  11. Bioavailability and Toxicity of Aluminium to the Freshwater Crayfish, Pacifastacus leniusculus

    OpenAIRE

    Woodburn, Katie

    2012-01-01

    Aluminium is found in large amounts all over the world but plants and animals have no use for this metal. However, because it is everywhere, aluminium can get into animals and stops cells, tissues and organs from working properly. The aim of this thesis was to look at where aluminium goes when it is eaten by crayfish and whether it causes any damage to body systems such as the digestive system and the nervous system. Crayfish are freshwater crustaceans; they have a hard outer exoskeleton and ...

  12. Microscopic observation of pattern attack by aggressive ions on finished surface of aluminium alloy sacrificial anode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the results of a microscopic observation on submerged finished surface of aluminium alloy sacrificial anode. Experimental tests were carried out on polished surface aluminium anode exposed to seawater containing aggressive ions in order to observe of pattern corrosion attack on corroding surface of anode. Results have shown, at least under the present testing condition, that surface of sacrificial anode were attack by an aggressive ion such as chloride along grain boundaries. In addition, results of microanalysis showed that the corrosion products on surface of aluminium alloy have Al, Zn and O element for all sample and within the pit was consists of Al, Zn, O and Cl element. (author)

  13. Developments in electrode materials and electrolytes for aluminium-air batteries

    OpenAIRE

    Egan, D; Ponce De Leon, Carlos; R.J.K. Wood; Jones, R. L.; Stokes, K.R.; Walsh, F. C.

    2013-01-01

    Aluminium-air cells are high-energy density (< 400 W h kg-1), primary batteries first developed in the 1960s. The review shows how the performance of the battery is influenced by the choice of materials, including the type of aluminium alloy, oxygen reduction catalyst and electrolyte type. Two continuing issues with these batteries are (a) the parasitic corrosion of the aluminium, at open-circuit and under discharge, due to the reduction of water on the anode surface and (b) the passive hydro...

  14. Laser-Doping through Anodic Aluminium Oxide Layers for Silicon Solar Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Pei Hsuan Doris Lu; Alison Lennon; Stuart Wenham

    2015-01-01

    This paper demonstrates that silicon can be locally doped with aluminium to form localised p+ surface regions by laser-doping through anodic aluminium oxide (AAO) layers formed on the silicon surface. The resulting p+ regions can extend more than 10 μm into the silicon and the electrically active p-type dopant concentration exceeds 1020 cm−3 for the first 6-7 μm of the formed p+ region. Anodic aluminium oxide layers can be doped with other impurities, such as boron and phosphorus, by anodisin...

  15. PROCESS CAPABILITY STUDY OF A RAPID CASTING SOLUTION FOR ALUMINIUM ALLOYS USING THREE-DIMENSIONAL PRINTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Singh

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, the best shell wall thickness of a mould cavity was investigated in a process capability study of a rapid casting solution for aluminium alloys using three-dimensional printing (3DP. Starting from the identification of a component/benchmark, an aluminium-alloy casting prototype was produced with different shell wall thicknesses by three dimensional printing. The results of the study suggest that, at the best shell wall thickness (5 mm for aluminium alloys, the rapid casting solution using a 3DP process lies within the ±3.999 sigma (σ limit.

  16. Determination of gadolinium in aluminium plates for intended use in upgraded Apsara reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apsara is Asia's first nuclear research reactor commissioned in the year 1956. It employed highly enriched uranium-aluminium alloy in plate form as the fuel, light water as the coolant, moderator and reflector. The main interest in the analysis of aluminium chips was to determine the concentrations of boron (B), gadolinium (Gd) and cadmium (Cd) due to their high neutron absorption cross section. These elements can be present as trace impurities in the sample matrix. The method used for analysis of aluminium plate samples is described here

  17. Scandium effect on corrosion resistance of aluminium and its alloys in 3% NaCl solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scandium effect on corrosion and electrochemical features of aluminium and its high-impact alloys in NaCl 3%-solution is studied. Positive effect of scandium doping of alloys was determined. Mechanism of scandium behaviour when aluminium corrosion resistance is improved is suggested. The suggested mechanism takes account of scandium ability to be selectively dissolved and oxidized by water oxygen with formation of Sc2O3 oxide accumulated at the surface in the form of fine-dispersed precipitation insoluble in electrolyte and forming no mixed oxides with aluminium

  18. Anisotropic behaviour law for sheets used in stamping: A comparative study of steel and aluminium

    CERN Document Server

    Sinou, Jean-Jacques

    2008-01-01

    For a car manufacturer, reducing the weight of vehicles is an obvious aim. Replacing steel by aluminium moves towards that goal. Unfortunately, aluminium's stamping numerical simulation results are not yet as reliable as those of steel. Punch-strength and spring-back phenomena are not correctly described. This study on aluminium validates the behaviour law Hill 48 quadratic yield criterion with both isotropic and kinematic hardening. It is based on the yield surface and on associated experimental tests (uniaxial test, plane tensile test, plane compression and tensile shearing).

  19. Corrosion Behaviour of Alpha Phase Aluminium Bronze Alloy in Selected Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Oluwayomi BALOGUN; Joseph BORODE; Kenneth ALANEME; Michael BODUNRIN

    2014-01-01

    This research investigated the corrosion behaviour of aluminium (8 wt %) bronze alloys produced via sand casting in acidic, alkaline, and marine environments. The aluminium bronze was produced from aluminium (6063) alloy and copper scraps by sand casting according to European standard specification (UNS. C61400-CuAl8), after which they were cut into smaller sizes and immersed in the selected corrosive media for corrosion test investigation. H2SO4, NaCl, NaOH, and HCl of 0.1 M, 0.2 M, 0.3 M, 0...

  20. A super-ductile alloy for the die-casting of aluminium automotive body structural components

    OpenAIRE

    Watson, D.; Ji, S; Fan, Z.

    2014-01-01

    Super-ductile die-cast aluminium alloys are critical to future light-weighting of automotive body structures. This paper introduces a die-cast aluminium alloy that can satisfy the requirements of these applications. After a review of currently available alloys, the requirement of a die-cast aluminium alloy for automotive body structural parts is proposed and an Al-Mg-Si system is suggested. The effect of the alloying elements, in the composition, has been investigated on the microstructure an...