WorldWideScience

Sample records for aluminium iodides

  1. Inhibition of Aluminium Corrosion in Hydrochloric Acid Using Nizoral and the Effect of Iodide Ion Addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. B. Obot

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of nizoral (NZR on the corrosion inhibition of aluminium alloy AA 1060 in 2 M HCl solution was investigated using the mylius thermometric technique. Results of the study revealed that nizoral acts as corrosion inhibitor for aluminium in the acidic medium. In general, at constant acid concentration, the inhibition efficiency increases with increase in the inhibitor concentration. The addition of KI to the inhibitor enhanced the inhibition efficiency to a considerable extent. The adsorption of nizoral onto the aluminium surface was found to obey the Fruendlich adsorption isotherm. The value of the free energy for the adsorption process shows that the process is spontaneous.

  2. Potassium Iodide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potassium iodide is used to protect the thyroid gland from taking in radioactive iodine that may be released ... damage the thyroid gland. You should only take potassium iodide if there is a nuclear radiation emergency and ...

  3. Some Phthalocyanine and Naphthalocyanine Derivatives as Corrosion Inhibitors for Aluminium in Acidic Medium: Experimental, Quantum Chemical Calculations, QSAR Studies and Synergistic Effect of Iodide Ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dibetsoe, Masego; Olasunkanmi, Lukman O; Fayemi, Omolola E; Yesudass, Sasikumar; Ramaganthan, Baskar; Bahadur, Indra; Adekunle, Abolanle S; Kabanda, Mwadham M; Ebenso, Eno E

    2015-08-28

    The effects of seven macrocyclic compounds comprising four phthalocyanines (Pcs) namely 1,4,8,11,15,18,22,25-octabutoxy-29H,31H-phthalocyanine (Pc1), 2,3,9,10,16,17,23,24-octakis(octyloxy)-29H,31H-phthalocyanine (Pc2), 2,9,16,23-tetra-tert-butyl-29H,31H-phthalocyanine (Pc3) and 29H,31H-phthalocyanine (Pc4), and three naphthalocyanines namely 5,9,14,18,23,27,32,36-octabutoxy-2,3-naphthalocyanine (nPc1), 2,11,20,29-tetra-tert-butyl-2,3-naphthalocyanine (nPc2) and 2,3-naphthalocyanine (nP3) were investigated on the corrosion of aluminium (Al) in 1 M HCl using a gravimetric method, potentiodynamic polarization technique, quantum chemical calculations and quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR). Synergistic effects of KI on the corrosion inhibition properties of the compounds were also investigated. All the studied compounds showed appreciable inhibition efficiencies, which decrease with increasing temperature from 30 °C to 70 °C. At each concentration of the inhibitor, addition of 0.1% KI increased the inhibition efficiency compared to the absence of KI indicating the occurrence of synergistic interactions between the studied molecules and I(-) ions. From the potentiodynamic polarization studies, the studied Pcs and nPcs are mixed type corrosion inhibitors both without and with addition of KI. The adsorption of the studied molecules on Al surface obeys the Langmuir adsorption isotherm, while the thermodynamic and kinetic parameters revealed that the adsorption of the studied compounds on Al surface is spontaneous and involves competitive physisorption and chemisorption mechanisms. The experimental results revealed the aggregated interactions between the inhibitor molecules and the results further indicated that the peripheral groups on the compounds affect these interactions. The calculated quantum chemical parameters and the QSAR results revealed the possibility of strong interactions between the studied inhibitors and metal surface. QSAR analysis on the

  4. Some Phthalocyanine and Naphthalocyanine Derivatives as Corrosion Inhibitors for Aluminium in Acidic Medium: Experimental, Quantum Chemical Calculations, QSAR Studies and Synergistic Effect of Iodide Ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masego Dibetsoe

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The effects of seven macrocyclic compounds comprising four phthalocyanines (Pcs namely 1,4,8,11,15,18,22,25-octabutoxy-29H,31H-phthalocyanine (Pc1, 2,3,9,10,16,17,23,24-octakis(octyloxy-29H,31H-phthalocyanine (Pc2, 2,9,16,23-tetra-tert-butyl-29H,31H-phthalocyanine (Pc3 and 29H,31H-phthalocyanine (Pc4, and three naphthalocyanines namely 5,9,14,18,23,27,32,36-octabutoxy-2,3-naphthalocyanine (nPc1, 2,11,20,29-tetra-tert-butyl-2,3-naphthalocyanine (nPc2 and 2,3-naphthalocyanine (nP3 were investigated on the corrosion of aluminium (Al in 1 M HCl using a gravimetric method, potentiodynamic polarization technique, quantum chemical calculations and quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR. Synergistic effects of KI on the corrosion inhibition properties of the compounds were also investigated. All the studied compounds showed appreciable inhibition efficiencies, which decrease with increasing temperature from 30 °C to 70 °C. At each concentration of the inhibitor, addition of 0.1% KI increased the inhibition efficiency compared to the absence of KI indicating the occurrence of synergistic interactions between the studied molecules and I− ions. From the potentiodynamic polarization studies, the studied Pcs and nPcs are mixed type corrosion inhibitors both without and with addition of KI. The adsorption of the studied molecules on Al surface obeys the Langmuir adsorption isotherm, while the thermodynamic and kinetic parameters revealed that the adsorption of the studied compounds on Al surface is spontaneous and involves competitive physisorption and chemisorption mechanisms. The experimental results revealed the aggregated interactions between the inhibitor molecules and the results further indicated that the peripheral groups on the compounds affect these interactions. The calculated quantum chemical parameters and the QSAR results revealed the possibility of strong interactions between the studied inhibitors and metal surface. QSAR

  5. Potassium Iodide (KI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Matters Information on Specific Types of Emergencies Potassium Iodide (KI) Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... can I get KI (potassium iodide)? What is Potassium Iodide (KI)? KI (potassium iodide) is a salt of ...

  6. Aluminium bridges, aluminium bridge decks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soetens, F.; Straalen, IJ.J. van

    2003-01-01

    Applications of aluminium have grown considerably in building and civil engineering the last decade. In building and civil engineering the increase of aluminium applications is due to various aspects like light weight, durability and maintenance, use of extrusions, and esthetics. The paper starts wi

  7. Aluminium in human sweat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minshall, Clare; Nadal, Jodie; Exley, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    It is of burgeoning importance that the human body burden of aluminium is understood and is measured. There are surprisingly few data to describe human excretion of systemic aluminium and almost no reliable data which relate to aluminium in sweat. We have measured the aluminium content of sweat in 20 healthy volunteers following mild exercise. The concentration of aluminium ranged from 329 to 5329μg/L. These data equate to a daily excretion of between 234 and 7192μg aluminium and they strongly suggest that perspiration is the major route of excretion of systemic aluminium in humans.

  8. dl-Alaninium iodide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Lamberts

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The crystal structure of dl-alanine hydroiodide (1-carboxyethanaminium iodide, C3H8NO2+·I−, is that of an organic salt consisting of N-protonated cations and iodide anions. The compound features homochiral helices of N—H...O hydrogen-bonded cations in the [010] direction; neighbouring chains are related by crystallographic inversion centers and hence show opposite chirality. The iodide counter-anions act as hydrogen-bond acceptors towards H atoms of the ammonium and carboxy groups, and cross-link the chains along [100]. Thus, an overall two-dimensional network is formed in the ab plane. No short contacts occur between iodide anions.

  9. Human exposure to aluminium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exley, Christopher

    2013-10-01

    Human activities have circumvented the efficient geochemical cycling of aluminium within the lithosphere and therewith opened a door, which was previously only ajar, onto the biotic cycle to instigate and promote the accumulation of aluminium in biota and especially humans. Neither these relatively recent activities nor the entry of aluminium into the living cycle are showing any signs of abating and it is thus now imperative that we understand as fully as possible how humans are exposed to aluminium and the future consequences of a burgeoning exposure and body burden. The aluminium age is upon us and there is now an urgent need to understand how to live safely and effectively with aluminium.

  10. Sustainable Aluminium Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio R. Ermolli

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, an analytical presentation of some popular aluminium systems that contribute to sustainability of structures is presented. Special emphasis has been given to the properties of aluminium, while the influence of these systems in the overall performance of the structure regarding environment and economy is described. In particular, characteristics of aluminium elements such as high reflectivity and recyclability and their role in life cycle analysis (LCA are analyzed. The connections between energy efficiency and conservation of buildings and aluminium application are also discussed. Building applications such as curtain walls, window frames and facade sheets are presented and thoroughly investigated, considering their environmental and economic aspects. Furthermore, many innovative techniques that use aluminium elements in collaboration with other systems in order to produce renewable energy, such as solar panels and photovoltaics, are introduced. Finally, environmental innovations such as optimized ventilation mechanisms and light and shade management systems based on aluminium members are presented.

  11. 21 CFR 184.1265 - Cuprous iodide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... with potassium iodide under slightly acidic conditions. (b) The ingredient must be of a purity suitable... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Cuprous iodide. 184.1265 Section 184.1265 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1265 Cuprous iodide. (a) Cuprous iodide (copper (I) iodide, CuI, CAS...

  12. Rows of Dislocation Loops in Aluminium Irradiated by Aluminium Ions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, L.; Johansen, A.; Koch, J.

    1967-01-01

    Single-crystal aluminium specimens, irradiated with 50-keV aluminium ions, contain dislocation loops that are arranged in regular rows along <110 > directions. ©1967 The American Institute of Physics......Single-crystal aluminium specimens, irradiated with 50-keV aluminium ions, contain dislocation loops that are arranged in regular rows along directions. ©1967 The American Institute of Physics...

  13. Recovery in aluminium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gundlach, Carsten

    2006-01-01

    In the present thesis the development of a unique experimental method for volume characterisation of individual embedded crystallites down to a radius of 150 nm is presented. This method is applied to in-situ studies of recovery in aluminium. The method is an extension of 3DXRD microscopy, an X...... are represented as strings. To identify the strings a combination of a 5D connected component type algorithm and multi-peak fitting was found to be superior. The first use of the method was a study of recovery of a deformed aluminium alloy (AA1050). The aluminium alloy was deformed by cold rolling to a thickness...

  14. Synthesis of mercuric iodide and bismuth tri-iodide nanoparticles for heavy metal iodide films nucleation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fornaro, L.; Pereira, H.Bentos [Compound Semiconductors Group, CURE, Universidad de la Republica, Rocha (Uruguay); Aguiar, I.; Perez Barthaburu, M. [Compound Semiconductors Group, Facultad de Quimica, Univ. de la Republica, Montevideo (Uruguay)

    2011-12-15

    We synthesized mercuric iodide and bismuth tri-iodide nanoparticles by suspension in octadecene, from Hg(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}.H{sub 2}O and I{sub 2}, and from Bi(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}.5H{sub 2}O and I{sub 2}, respectively. The best synthesis conditions were 2 h at 70-80 C, followed by 10 min at 110 C for mercuric iodide nanoparticles, and 4 h at 80-110 C, followed by 10 min at 180-210 C for bismuth tri-iodide ones. Nanoparticles were then washed and centrifuged with ether repeatedly. Compounds identity was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS). We found shifts of the X-ray diffraction maxima for nanoparticles of both compounds. We characterized the nanoparticles by transmission (TEM) and scanning (SEM) electron microscopy. We obtained disk-like and squared mercuric iodide nanostructures, 80-140 nm and 100-125 nm in size respectively. We also obtained rounded and rod-like bismuth tri-iodide nanoparticles, 30-500 nm in size. Acetonitrile and isopropanol suspensions of mercuric iodide nanoparticles, and acetonitrile suspension of bismuth tri-iodide nanoparticles exhibited peak maxima shifts in their UV-Vis spectra. We synthesized for the first time mercuric iodide and bismuth tri-iodide nanoparticles by the suspension method, although we have not yet obtained uniform shape and size distributions. They offer interesting perspectives for crystalline film nucleation and for improving current applications of these materials, as well as for opening new ones. (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  15. 21 CFR 172.375 - Potassium iodide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium iodide. 172.375 Section 172.375 Food and... Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.375 Potassium iodide. The food additive potassium iodide may be safely used in accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) Potassium iodide may be...

  16. Iodide transport and breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Vikki L; McCabe, Christopher J

    2015-10-01

    Breast cancer is the second most common cancer worldwide and the leading cause of cancer death in women, with incidence rates that continue to rise. The heterogeneity of the disease makes breast cancer exceptionally difficult to treat, particularly for those patients with triple-negative disease. To address the therapeutic complexity of these tumours, new strategies for diagnosis and treatment are urgently required. The ability of lactating and malignant breast cells to uptake and transport iodide has led to the hypothesis that radioiodide therapy could be a potentially viable treatment for many breast cancer patients. Understanding how iodide is transported, and the factors regulating the expression and function of the proteins responsible for iodide transport, is critical for translating this hypothesis into reality. This review covers the three known iodide transporters - the sodium iodide symporter, pendrin and the sodium-coupled monocarboxylate transporter - and their role in iodide transport in breast cells, along with efforts to manipulate them to increase the potential for radioiodide therapy as a treatment for breast cancer.

  17. The cellular toxicity of aluminium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exley, C; Birchall, J D

    1992-11-07

    Aluminium is a serious environmental toxicant and is inimical to biota. Omnipresent, it is linked with a number of disorders in man including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's dementia and osteomalacia. Evidence supporting aluminium as an aetiological agent in such disorders is not conclusive and suffers principally from a lack of consensus with respect to aluminium's toxic mode of action. Obligatory to the elucidation of toxic mechanisms is an understanding of the biological availability of aluminium. This describes the fate of and response to aluminium in any biological system and is thus an important influence of the toxicity of aluminium. A general theme in much aluminium toxicity is an accelerated cell death. Herein mechanisms are described to account for cell death from both acute and chronic aluminium challenges. Aluminium associations with both extracellular surfaces and intracellular ligands are implicated. The cellular response to aluminium is found to be biphasic having both stimulatory and inhibitory components. In either case the disruption of second messenger systems is observed and GTPase cycles are potential target sites. Specific ligands for aluminium at these sites are unknown though are likely to be proteins upon which oxygen-based functional groups are orientated to give exceptionally strong binding with the free aluminium ion.

  18. Fatal aluminium phosphide poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meena Mahesh Chand

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aluminium phosphide (AlP is a cheap solid fumigant and a highly toxic pesticide which is commonly used for grain preservation. AlP has currently aroused interest with a rising number of cases in the past four decades due to increased use for agricultural and non-agricultural purposes. Its easy availability in the markets has increased also its misuse for committing suicide. Phosphine inhibits cellular oxygen utilization and can induce lipid peroxidation. Poisoning with AlP has often occurred in attempts to commit suicide, and that more often in adults than in teenagers. This is a case of suicidal consumption of aluminium phosphide by a 32-year-old young medical anesthetist. Toxicological analyses detected aluminium phosphide. We believe that free access of celphos tablets in grain markets should be prohibited by law.

  19. Aluminium in human breast tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exley, Christopher; Charles, Lisa M; Barr, Lester; Martin, Claire; Polwart, Anthony; Darbre, Philippa D

    2007-09-01

    Aluminium is omnipresent in everyday life and increased exposure is resulting in a burgeoning body burden of this non-essential metal. Personal care products are potential contributors to the body burden of aluminium and recent evidence has linked breast cancer with aluminium-based antiperspirants. We have used graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) to measure the aluminium content in breast biopsies obtained following mastectomies. The aluminium content of breast tissue and breast tissue fat were in the range 4-437 nmol/g dry wt. and 3-192 nmol/g oil, respectively. The aluminium content of breast tissue in the outer regions (axilla and lateral) was significantly higher (P=0.033) than the inner regions (middle and medial) of the breast. Whether differences in the regional distribution of aluminium in the breast are related to the known higher incidence of tumours in the outer upper quadrant of the breast remains to be ascertained.

  20. Fire exposed aluminium structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maljaars, J.; Fellinger, J.H.H.; Soetens, F.

    2006-01-01

    Material properties and mechanical response models for fire design of steel structures are based on extensive research and experience. Contrarily, the behaviour of aluminium load bearing structures exposed to fire is relatively unexplored. This article gives an overview of physical and mechanical pr

  1. Frequently Asked Questions on Potassium Iodide (KI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bioterrorism and Drug Preparedness Frequently Asked Questions on Potassium Iodide (KI) Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... Drug Administration (FDA) issued a final Guidance on Potassium Iodide as a Thyroid Blocking Agent in Radiation Emergencies) ( ...

  2. 21 CFR 582.5634 - Potassium iodide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potassium iodide. 582.5634 Section 582.5634 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5634 Potassium iodide. (a) Product. Potassium iodide. (b) Tolerance. 0.01 percent....

  3. 21 CFR 184.1634 - Potassium iodide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium iodide. 184.1634 Section 184.1634 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1634 Potassium iodide. (a) Potassium iodide (KI, CAS Reg. No. 7681-11-0) is the potassium salt of hydriodic acid. It occurs naturally in sea water and in...

  4. Aluminium and human breast diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darbre, P D; Pugazhendhi, D; Mannello, F

    2011-11-01

    The human breast is exposed to aluminium from many sources including diet and personal care products, but dermal application of aluminium-based antiperspirant salts provides a local long-term source of exposure. Recent measurements have shown that aluminium is present in both tissue and fat of the human breast but at levels which vary both between breasts and between tissue samples from the same breast. We have recently found increased levels of aluminium in noninvasively collected nipple aspirate fluids taken from breast cancer patients (mean 268 ± 28 μg/l) compared with control healthy subjects (mean 131 ± 10 μg/l) providing evidence of raised aluminium levels in the breast microenvironment when cancer is present. The measurement of higher levels of aluminium in type I human breast cyst fluids (median 150 μg/l) compared with human serum (median 6 μg/l) or human milk (median 25 μg/l) warrants further investigation into any possible role of aluminium in development of this benign breast disease. Emerging evidence for aluminium in several breast structures now requires biomarkers of aluminium action in order to ascertain whether the presence of aluminium has any biological impact. To this end, we report raised levels of proteins that modulate iron homeostasis (ferritin, transferrin) in parallel with raised aluminium in nipple aspirate fluids in vivo, and we report overexpression of mRNA for several S100 calcium binding proteins following long-term exposure of MCF-7 human breast cancer cells in vitro to aluminium chlorhydrate.

  5. Roll bonding of strained aluminium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staun, Jakob M.

    2003-01-01

    This report investigates roll bonding of pre-strained (å ~ 4) aluminium sheets to produce high strain material from high purity aluminium (99.996%) and commercial pure aluminium (99.6%). The degree of bonding is investigated by optical microscopy and ultrasonic scanning. Under the right...... of the cross rolled volume fraction is found. To further asses this effect, and the anisotropy, it is necessary to acquire knowledge about both texture and microstructure, e.g. by TEM. Roll bonding of pre-strained aluminium is found to be a possible alternative to ARB in the quest for ultra-fine grained...

  6. Crystal structures of hydrates of simple inorganic salts. III. Water-rich aluminium halide hydrates: AlCl3 · 15H2O, AlBr3 · 15H2O, AlI3 · 15H2O, AlI3 · 17H2O and AlBr3 · 9H2O.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Horst; Hennings, Erik; Voigt, Wolfgang

    2014-09-01

    Water-rich aluminium halide hydrate structures are not known in the literature. The highest known water content per Al atom is nine for the perchlorate and fluoride. The nonahydrate of aluminium bromide, stable pentadecahydrates of aluminium chloride, bromide and iodide, and a metastable heptadecahydrate of the iodide have now been crystallized from low-temperature solutions. The structures of these hydrates were determined and are discussed in terms of the development of cation hydration spheres. The pentadecahydrate of the chloride and bromide are isostructural. In AlI(3) · 15H2O, half of the Al(3+) cations are surrounded by two complete hydration spheres, with six H2O in the primary and 12 in the secondary. For the heptadecahydrate of aluminium iodide, this hydration was found for every Al(3+).

  7. First Principles Study of Aluminium Vacancy in Wurtzite Aluminium Nitride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Ting-Ge; YI Jue-Min; ZHOU Zi-Yao; HU Xiao-Dong

    2008-01-01

    @@ We report that the aluminium vacancy in wurtzite AIN brings about two impurity levels e and a2 in the band gap, not just one single t2 level The aluminium vacancy carries a magnetic moment of 1 μB in the ground state. The molecule orbit of the aluminium vacancy becomes e↑↑ a2↑ rather than e↑↑ a2↑. The calculation is carried out by using the CASTEP code. The intrinsic symmetry of wurtzite A1N is the driving force for this spin splitting. Finally the symmetry of wurtzite AlN results in an anti-ferromagnetic coupling between the aluminium vacancies, as is predicted. Our findings are helpful to gain a more through understanding of the structural and spin property of aluminium vacancy in wurtzite AIN.

  8. Fatigue tests on aluminium bridges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maljaars, J.; Soetens, F.; Straalen, IJ.J. van

    2004-01-01

    Traffic bridges are subjected to variable loads and should therefore be checked on fatigue. Especially low weight materials, like aluminium, are sensitive to fatigue, because the variable load is a substantial part of the total load. This paper shows the structural design of an aluminium bridge load

  9. Fatigue tests on aluminium bridges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maljaars, J.; Soetens, F.; Straalen, IJ.J. van

    2005-01-01

    Traffic bridges are subjected to variable loads and should therefore be checked on fatigue. Especially low weight materials, like aluminium, are sensitive to fatigue, because the variable load is a substantial part of the total load. This paper shows the structural design of an aluminium bridge load

  10. [Rare, severe hypersensitivity reaction to potassium iodide].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korsholm, Anne Sofie; Ebbehøj, Eva; Richelsen, Bjørn

    2014-07-07

    The literature reports a large variety of adverse reactions to potassium iodide. A severe hypersensitivity reaction to potassium iodide in a 51-year-old woman with Graves' thyrotoxicosis is described. Following administration the patient developed sialadenitis, conjunctivitis, stomatitis and acneiform iododerma that responded dramatically to withdrawal of the potassium iodide and administration with corticosteroids. Awareness of these adverse reactions may prevent prolonged hospitalization and unnecessary tests and treatments.

  11. Aluminium in Drinkwater: voorkomen, herkomst en gezondheidsaspecten

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versteegh JFM; de Boer JLM; van den Velde-Koerts T

    1992-01-01

    Aluminium can occur in drinking water because of the application of aluminium salts as a coagulant in the treatment of drinking water. In the Netherlands mostly iron salts are used instead of aluminium. Besides this aluminium can be present in the source for drinking water. In shallow groundwater

  12. Uptake of iodide in the marine haptophyte Isochrysis sp. (T.ISO) driven by iodide oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bergeijk, Stef A; Hernández Javier, Laura; Heyland, Andreas; Manchado, Manuel; Pedro Cañavate, José

    2013-08-01

    Uptake of iodide was studied in the marine microalga Isochrysis sp. (isol. Haines, T.ISO) during short-term incubations with radioactive iodide ((125) I(-) ). Typical inhibitors of the sodium/iodide symporter (NIS) did not inhibit iodide uptake, suggesting that iodide is not taken up through this transport protein, as is the case in most vertebrate animals. Oxidation of iodide was found to be an essential step for its uptake by T.ISO and it seemed likely that hypoiodous acid (HOI) was the form of iodine taken up. Uptake of iodide was inhibited by the addition of thiourea and of other reducing agents, like L-ascorbic acid, L-glutathione and L-cysteine and increased after the addition of oxidized forms of the transition metals Fe and Mn. The simultaneous addition of both hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) and a known iodide-oxidizing myeloperoxidase (MPO) significantly increased iodine uptake, but the addition of H2 O2 or MPO separately, had no effect on uptake. This confirms the observation that iodide is oxidized prior to uptake, but it puts into doubt the involvement of H2 O2 excretion and membrane-bound or extracellular haloperoxidase activity of T.ISO. The increase of iodide uptake by T.ISO upon Fe(III) addition suggests the nonenzymatic oxidation of iodide by Fe(III) in a redox reaction and subsequent influx of HOI. This is the first report on the mechanism of iodide uptake in a marine microalga.

  13. Aluminium, antiperspirants and breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darbre, P D

    2005-09-01

    Aluminium salts are used as the active antiperspirant agent in underarm cosmetics, but the effects of widespread, long term and increasing use remain unknown, especially in relation to the breast, which is a local area of application. Clinical studies showing a disproportionately high incidence of breast cancer in the upper outer quadrant of the breast together with reports of genomic instability in outer quadrants of the breast provide supporting evidence for a role for locally applied cosmetic chemicals in the development of breast cancer. Aluminium is known to have a genotoxic profile, capable of causing both DNA alterations and epigenetic effects, and this would be consistent with a potential role in breast cancer if such effects occurred in breast cells. Oestrogen is a well established influence in breast cancer and its action, dependent on intracellular receptors which function as ligand-activated zinc finger transcription factors, suggests one possible point of interference from aluminium. Results reported here demonstrate that aluminium in the form of aluminium chloride or aluminium chlorhydrate can interfere with the function of oestrogen receptors of MCF7 human breast cancer cells both in terms of ligand binding and in terms of oestrogen-regulated reporter gene expression. This adds aluminium to the increasing list of metals capable of interfering with oestrogen action and termed metalloestrogens. Further studies are now needed to identify the molecular basis of this action, the longer term effects of aluminium exposure and whether aluminium can cause aberrations to other signalling pathways in breast cells. Given the wide exposure of the human population to antiperspirants, it will be important to establish dermal absorption in the local area of the breast and whether long term low level absorption could play a role in the increasing incidence of breast cancer.

  14. Neutron Detection with Mercuric Iodide

    CERN Document Server

    Bell, Z A

    2003-01-01

    Mercuric iodide is a high-density, high-Z semiconducting material useful for gamma ray detection. This makes it convertible to a thermal neutron detector by covering it with a boron rich material and detecting the 478 keV gamma rays resulting from the sup 1 sup 0 B(n, alpha) sup 7 Li* reaction. However, the 374 barn thermal capture cross section of sup n sup a sup t Hg, makes the detector itself an attractive absorber, and this has been exploited previously. Since previous work indicates that there are no low-energy gamma rays emitted in coincidence with the 368 keV capture gamma from the dominant sup 1 sup 9 sup 9 Hg(n, gamma) sup 2 sup 0 sup 0 Hg reaction, only the 368 keV capture gamma is seen with any efficiency a relatively thin (few mm) detector. In this paper we report preliminary measurements of neutrons via capture reactions in a bare mercuric iodide crystal and a crystal covered in sup 1 sup 0 B-loaded epoxy. The covered detector is an improvement over the bare detector because the presence of both ...

  15. The toxicity of aluminium in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exley, C

    2016-06-01

    We are living in the 'aluminium age'. Human exposure to aluminium is inevitable and, perhaps, inestimable. Aluminium's free metal cation, Alaq(3+), is highly biologically reactive and biologically available aluminium is non-essential and essentially toxic. Biologically reactive aluminium is present throughout the human body and while, rarely, it can be acutely toxic, much less is understood about chronic aluminium intoxication. Herein the question is asked as to how to diagnose aluminium toxicity in an individual. While there are as yet, no unequivocal answers to this problem, there are procedures to follow to ascertain the nature of human exposure to aluminium. It is also important to recognise critical factors in exposure regimes and specifically that not all forms of aluminium are toxicologically equivalent and not all routes of exposure are equivalent in their delivery of aluminium to target sites. To ascertain if Alzheimer's disease is a symptom of chronic aluminium intoxication over decades or breast cancer is aggravated by the topical application of an aluminium salt or if autism could result from an immune cascade initiated by an aluminium adjuvant requires that each of these is considered independently and in the light of the most up to date scientific evidence. The aluminium age has taught us that there are no inevitabilities where chronic aluminium toxicity is concerned though there are clear possibilities and these require proving or discounting but not simply ignored.

  16. Predissociation dynamics of lithium iodide

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt, H; Stienkemeier, F; Bogomolov, A S; Baklanov, A V; Reich, D M; Skomorowski, W; Koch, C P; Mudrich, M

    2015-01-01

    The predissociation dynamics of lithium iodide (LiI) in the first excited A-state is investigated for molecules in the gas phase and embedded in helium nanodroplets, using femtosecond pump-probe photoionization spectroscopy. In the gas phase, the transient Li+ and LiI+ ion signals feature damped oscillations due to the excitation and decay of a vibrational wave packet. Based on high-level ab initio calculations of the electronic structure of LiI and simulations of the wave packet dynamics, the exponential signal decay is found to result from predissociation predominantly at the lowest avoided X-A potential curve crossing, for which we infer a coupling constant V=650(20) reciprocal cm. The lack of a pump-probe delay dependence for the case of LiI embedded in helium nanodroplets indicates fast droplet-induced relaxation of the vibrational excitation.

  17. Predissociation dynamics of lithium iodide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, H.; Vangerow, J. von; Stienkemeier, F.; Mudrich, M., E-mail: mudrich@physik.uni-freiburg.de [Physikalisches Institut, Universität Freiburg, 79104 Freiburg (Germany); Bogomolov, A. S. [Institute of Chemical Kinetics and Combustion, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Baklanov, A. V. [Institute of Chemical Kinetics and Combustion, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Reich, D. M.; Skomorowski, W.; Koch, C. P. [Theoretische Physik, Universität Kassel, Heinrich-Plett-Str. 40, 34132 Kassel (Germany)

    2015-01-28

    The predissociation dynamics of lithium iodide (LiI) in the first excited A-state is investigated for molecules in the gas phase and embedded in helium nanodroplets, using femtosecond pump-probe photoionization spectroscopy. In the gas phase, the transient Li{sup +} and LiI{sup +} ion signals feature damped oscillations due to the excitation and decay of a vibrational wave packet. Based on high-level ab initio calculations of the electronic structure of LiI and simulations of the wave packet dynamics, the exponential signal decay is found to result from predissociation predominantly at the lowest avoided X-A potential curve crossing, for which we infer a coupling constant V{sub XA} = 650(20) cm{sup −1}. The lack of a pump-probe delay dependence for the case of LiI embedded in helium nanodroplets indicates fast droplet-induced relaxation of the vibrational excitation.

  18. Dispersion strengthening of aluminium-aluminium-oxide products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Niels

    1970-01-01

    The true stress-true strain curves at room temperature and at 400°C were determined for various types of aluminium-aluminium-oxide products containing from 0.2 to 4.7 weight per cent of aluminium oxide. The effect of particles on the initial flow stress and the flow stress for 0.2% offset at room...... temperature and at 400°C is in agreement with Orowan's theory. The increase in flow stress at room temperature for strain values below 3 per cent was related to the plastic strain by the equation σ-σoy=k1ε 1/2, where σoy is the initial flow stress and where k1 increases for increasing volume fraction...... and decreasing particle size of the dispersed particles. A general expression for k1 was derived for the relationship between the dislocation density and the strain in dispersion-strengthened products...

  19. Preparation of aluminium lakes by electrocoagulation

    OpenAIRE

    Prapai Pradabkham

    2008-01-01

    Aluminium lakes have been prepared by electrocoagulation employing aluminium as electrodes. The electrocoagulation is conducted in an aqueous alcoholic solution and is completed within one hour. The dye content in the lake ranges approximately between 4-32%.

  20. Alloys of uranium and aluminium with low aluminium content; Alliages uranium-aluminium a faible teneur en aluminium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabane, G.; Englander, M.; Lehmann, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1955-07-01

    Uranium, as obtained after spinning in phase {gamma}, presents an heterogeneous structure with large size grains. The anisotropic structure of the metal leads to an important buckling and surface distortion of the fuel slug which is incompatible with its tubular cladding for nuclear fuel uses. Different treatments have been made to obtain an isotropic structure presenting high thermal stability (laminating, hammering and spinning in phase {alpha}) without success. Alloys of uranium and aluminium with low aluminium content present important advantage in respect of non allied uranium. The introduction of aluminium in the form of intermetallic compound (UAl{sub 2}) gives a better resistance to thermal fatigue. Alloys obtained from raw casting present an improved buckling and surface distortion in respect of pure uranium. This improvement is obtained with uranium containing between 0,15 and 0,5 % of aluminium. An even more improvement in thermal stability is obtained by thermal treatments of these alloys. These new characteristics are explained by the fine dispersion of the UAl{sub 2} particles in uranium. The results after treatments obtained from an alloy slug containing 0,4 % of aluminium show no buckling or surface distortion and no elongation. (M.P.)

  1. Design and analysis of aluminium brdiges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soetens, F.; Straalen, IJ.J. van

    2004-01-01

    Applications of aluminium have grown considerably in building and civil engineering the last decade, which is due to various aspects: light weight, durability and maintenance, use of extrusions. The paper starts with a short history of aluminium bridges and then focuses on aluminium bridges in the N

  2. Buckwheat stomatal traits under aluminium toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksandr E. Smirnov

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Aluminium influence on some stomatal parameters of common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench. was studied. Significant changes in stomatal density, stomatal index and stomatal shape coefficient under aluminium treatment were revealed. Stomatal closure and no difference in total stomatal potential conductance index of treatment plants were suggested as aluminium resistance characteristics.

  3. Effect of hydrogen on aluminium and aluminium alloys: A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambat, Rajan; Dwarakadasa, E.S.

    1996-01-01

    in aluminium and its alloys and its effect on mechanical properties. The importance of hydrogen embrittlement over anodic dissolution to explain the stress corrosion cracking mechanism of these alloys is also examined in considerable detail. The various experimental findings concerning the link between...

  4. Mechanism of Nickel-Aluminium Alloy Electroplating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The effect of operating conditions on the aluminium content of Ni-Al alloy deposit and the catalytic function of NaF on electrodeposition in the nonaqueous solution containing aluminium are investigated.The results indicate that the plated aluminuim content will be increased with the rise of current density in a given range.When the current density is 2.5A/dm2,nickle-aluminium alloy containing 13.1 wt% aluminium will be deposited.The plated aluminium content will be increased by 2wt% as 0.1mol/L NaF is added to the bath.

  5. Microchemistry in aluminium sheet production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lok, Z.J.

    2005-01-01

    The production of aluminium sheet alloys from as-cast ingots is a complex process, involving several rolling operations in combination with various thermal heat treatments. Through their influence on the alloy microchemistry and microstructure, these thermomechanical treatments are all aimed at cont

  6. Bumblebee pupae contain high levels of aluminium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Exley

    Full Text Available The causes of declines in bees and other pollinators remains an on-going debate. While recent attention has focussed upon pesticides, other environmental pollutants have largely been ignored. Aluminium is the most significant environmental contaminant of recent times and we speculated that it could be a factor in pollinator decline. Herein we have measured the content of aluminium in bumblebee pupae taken from naturally foraging colonies in the UK. Individual pupae were acid-digested in a microwave oven and their aluminium content determined using transversely heated graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Pupae were heavily contaminated with aluminium giving values between 13.4 and 193.4 μg/g dry wt. and a mean (SD value of 51.0 (33.0 μg/g dry wt. for the 72 pupae tested. Mean aluminium content was shown to be a significant negative predictor of average pupal weight in colonies. While no other statistically significant relationships were found relating aluminium to bee or colony health, the actual content of aluminium in pupae are extremely high and demonstrate significant exposure to aluminium. Bees rely heavily on cognitive function and aluminium is a known neurotoxin with links, for example, to Alzheimer's disease in humans. The significant contamination of bumblebee pupae by aluminium raises the intriguing spectre of cognitive dysfunction playing a role in their population decline.

  7. Bumblebee pupae contain high levels of aluminium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exley, Christopher; Rotheray, Ellen; Goulson, David

    2015-01-01

    The causes of declines in bees and other pollinators remains an on-going debate. While recent attention has focussed upon pesticides, other environmental pollutants have largely been ignored. Aluminium is the most significant environmental contaminant of recent times and we speculated that it could be a factor in pollinator decline. Herein we have measured the content of aluminium in bumblebee pupae taken from naturally foraging colonies in the UK. Individual pupae were acid-digested in a microwave oven and their aluminium content determined using transversely heated graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Pupae were heavily contaminated with aluminium giving values between 13.4 and 193.4 μg/g dry wt. and a mean (SD) value of 51.0 (33.0) μg/g dry wt. for the 72 pupae tested. Mean aluminium content was shown to be a significant negative predictor of average pupal weight in colonies. While no other statistically significant relationships were found relating aluminium to bee or colony health, the actual content of aluminium in pupae are extremely high and demonstrate significant exposure to aluminium. Bees rely heavily on cognitive function and aluminium is a known neurotoxin with links, for example, to Alzheimer's disease in humans. The significant contamination of bumblebee pupae by aluminium raises the intriguing spectre of cognitive dysfunction playing a role in their population decline.

  8. Friction Welding of Aluminium and Aluminium Alloys with Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Ambroziak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents our actual knowledge and experience in joining dissimilar materials with the use of friction welding method. The joints of aluminium and aluminium alloys with the different types of steel were studied. The structural effects occurring during the welding process were described. The mechanical properties using, for example, (i microhardness measurements, (ii tensile tests, (iii bending tests, and (iv shearing tests were determined. In order to obtain high-quality joints the influence of different configurations of the process such as (i changing the geometry of bonding surface, (ii using the interlayer, or (iii heat treatment was analyzed. Finally, the issues related to the selection of optimal parameters of friction welding process were also investigated.

  9. Aluminium in Allergies and Allergen immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen-Jarolim, Erika

    2015-01-01

    Aluminium is a hot topic in the current debate. Exposure occurs due to environmental, dietary and intentional exposure to aluminium, such as in vaccines where it was introduced in 1926. In spite of the fact that it is a typical Th2 adjuvant, aluminium redirects the immune response in systemic allergen immunotherapy (SIT) upon prolonged immunization. SIT in the US, and SLIT in general, are at present non-adjuvanted therapies, but in Europe aluminium is used as adjuvant in most SIT preparations. It enhances the safety of SIT by local deposition of the allergen. Undesired properties of aluminium adjuvants comprise acute and chronic inflammation at the injection site, its Th2 immune stimulatory capacity, its accumulation besides biodistribution in the body. The adjuvant and safety profile of aluminium adjuvants in allergy vaccines are discussed, as well as the need for putting modern delivery systems and adjuvants on the fast track.

  10. Aluminium and nickel in human albumin solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard, Bente; Sandberg, E

    1989-01-01

    Five different brands of commercially available human albumin solutions for infusion were analysed for their aluminium and nickel contents by atomic absorption spectrometry. The aluminium concentrations ranged from 12 micrograms/l to 1109 micrograms/l and the nickel concentrations ranged from 17...... micrograms/l to 77 micrograms/l. Examination of the aluminium and nickel contents of the constituents for the production of one brand showed too low levels to explain the final contamination of the product. By following the aluminium and nickel concentrations of the same brand during the production...... of a batch of albumin solution, filtration was shown to contribute to contamination, although the largest increase in aluminium as well as nickel concentrations appeared during the bulk concentrating process. To avoid health risks to certain patients, regulations should be established requiring aluminium...

  11. Dietary aluminium Intake Level for Rent Animals in a Primary and Secondary Aluminium Industry Surrounding Area

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    The study was carried out in an aluminium industry surrounding area on purpose to evaluate dietary aluminium intake level for rent animals originated from fodder and water consumed by them. There were taken feed and water samples in different periods and from increasing distances from industrial platform, determined the aluminium level by atomic spectroscopy and calculated the rations for cattle and poultry. Conclusions: aluminium dietary intake level by ration depends by forage period for st...

  12. Simplest Formula of Copper Iodide: A Stoichiometry Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, D. J.

    1983-01-01

    Describes an experiment presented to students as a problem in determining the stoichiometry of "copper iodide" to decide whether it is cuprous iodide or cupric iodide. The experiment illustrates stoichiometry principles, providing experiences with laboratory techniques and numerical computation. Detailed outline (written for student use) is…

  13. Toxicity of aluminium on five aquatic invertebrates; Aluminiums toksisitet paa 5 akvatiske invertebrater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moe, J. [Oslo Univ. (Norway)

    1996-01-01

    The conference paper deals with the experiments done by investigating the effects from the toxicity of aluminium on aquatic invertebrates. The aim of the experiments was to compare the toxicity of unstable aluminium compounds with stable forms of aluminium. 8 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Electrochemical reaction rates in a dye sentisised solar cell - the iodide/tri-iodide redox system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Lasse; West, Keld; Winter-Jensen, Bjørn

    2006-01-01

    The electrochemical reaction rate of the redox couple iodide / tri-iodide in acetonitrile is characterised by impedance spectroscopy. Different electrode materials relevant for the function of dye-sensitised solar cells (DSSC) are investigated. Preferably, the reaction with the iodide / tri......-iodide couple should be fast at the counter electrode, i.e. this electrode must have a high catalytic activity towards the redox couple, and the same reaction must be slow on the photo electrode. The catalytic activity is investigated for platinum, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT), polypyrrole (PPy......), and polyaniline (PANI) - all deposited onto fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) glass. Both Pt and PEDOT are found to have sufficiently high catalytic activities for practical use as counter electrode in DSSC. The reaction resistance on FTO and anatase confirmed the beneficial effect of a compact anatase layer on top...

  15. Barium iodide and strontium iodide crystals andd scintillators implementing the same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Stephen A; Cherepy, Nerine J; Hull, Giulia E; Drobshoff, Alexander D; Burger, Arnold

    2013-11-12

    In one embodiment, a material comprises a crystal comprising strontium iodide providing at least 50,000 photons per MeV. A scintillator radiation detector according to another embodiment includes a scintillator optic comprising europium-doped strontium iodide providing at least 50,000 photons per MeV. A scintillator radiation detector in yet another embodiment includes a scintillator optic comprising SrI.sub.2 and BaI.sub.2, wherein a ratio of SrI.sub.2 to BaI.sub.2 is in a range of between 0:1 A method for manufacturing a crystal suitable for use in a scintillator includes mixing strontium iodide-containing crystals with a source of Eu.sup.2+, heating the mixture above a melting point of the strontium iodide-containing crystals, and cooling the heated mixture near the seed crystal for growing a crystal. Additional materials, systems, and methods are presented.

  16. Methyl Iodide Fumigation of Bacillus anthracis Spores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Mark; Kane, Staci R; Wollard, Jessica R

    2015-09-01

    Fumigation techniques such as chlorine dioxide, vaporous hydrogen peroxide, and paraformaldehyde previously used to decontaminate items, rooms, and buildings following contamination with Bacillus anthracis spores are often incompatible with materials (e.g., porous surfaces, organics, and metals), causing damage or residue. Alternative fumigation with methyl bromide is subject to U.S. and international restrictions due to its ozone-depleting properties. Methyl iodide, however, does not pose a risk to the ozone layer and has previously been demonstrated as a fumigant for fungi, insects, and nematodes. Until now, methyl iodide has not been evaluated against Bacillus anthracis. Sterne strain Bacillus anthracis spores were subjected to methyl iodide fumigation at room temperature and at 550C. Efficacy was measured on a log-scale with a 6-log reduction in CFUs being considered successful compared to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency biocide standard. Such efficacies were obtained after just one hour at 55 °C and after 12 hours at room temperature. No detrimental effects were observed on glassware, PTFE O-rings, or stainless steel. This is the first reported efficacy of methyl iodide in the reduction of Bacillus anthracis spore contamination at ambient and elevated temperatures.

  17. Potassium iodide capsule treatment of feline sporotrichosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Erica G; Gremião, Isabella D F; Kitada, Amanda A B; Rocha, Raphael F D B; Castro, Verônica S P; Barros, Mônica B L; Menezes, Rodrigo C; Pereira, Sandro A; Schubach, Tânia M P

    2012-06-01

    Sporotrichosis is a mycosis caused by Sporothrix schenckii. The most affected animal is the cat; it has played an important role in the zoonotic transmission of this disease, especially in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, since 1998. In order to evaluate the treatment of feline sporotrichosis with potassium iodide, an observational cohort was conducted in 48 cats with sporotrichosis at Instituto de Pesquisa Clínica Evandro Chagas, Fiocruz. All cats received potassium iodide capsules, 2.5 mg/kg to 20 mg/kg q24h. The cure rate was 47.9%, treatment failure was 37.5%, treatment abandonment was 10.4% and death was 4.2%. Clinical adverse effects were observed in 52.1% of the cases. Thirteen cats had a mild increase in hepatic transaminase levels during the treatment, six of them presented clinical signs suggestive of hepatotoxicity. Compared to previous studies with itraconazole and iodide in saturated solution, potassium iodide capsules are an alternative for feline sporotrichosis treatment.

  18. A biogeochemical cycle for aluminium?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exley, Christopher

    2003-09-15

    The elaboration of biogeochemical cycles for elements which are known to be essential for life has enabled a broad appreciation of the homeostatic mechanisms which underlie element essentiality. In particular they can be used effectively to identify any part played by human activities in element cycling and to predict how such activities might impact upon the lithospheric and biospheric availability of an element in the future. The same criteria were the driving force behind the construction of a biogeochemical cycle for aluminium, a non-essential element which is a known ecotoxicant and a suspected health risk in humans. The purpose of this exercise was to examine the concept of a biogeochemical cycle for aluminium and not to review the biogeochemistry of this element. The cycle as presented is rudimentary and qualitative though, even in this nascent form, it is informative and predictive and, for these reasons alone, it is deserving of future quantification. A fully fledged biogeochemical cycle for aluminium should explain the biospheric abundance of this element and whether we should expect its (continued) active involvement in biochemical evolution.

  19. Atomic force microscopy of lead iodide crystal surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, M. A.; Azoulay, M.; Jayatirtha, H. N.; Biao, Y.; Burger, A.; Collins, W. E.; Silberman, E.

    1994-03-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to characterize the surface of lead iodide crystals. The high vapor pressure of lead iodide prohibits the use of traditional high resolution surface study techniques that require high vacuum conditions. AFM was used to image numerous insulating surface in various ambients, with very little sample preparation techniques needed. Freshly cleaved and modified surfaces, including, chemical and vacuum etched, and air aged surfaces, were examined. Both intrinsic and induced defects were imaged with high resolution. The results were compared to a similar AFM study of mercuric iodide surfaces and it was found that, at ambient conditions, lead iodide is significantly more stable than mercuric iodide.

  20. Partial molar volumes of aluminium chloride, aluminium sulphate and aluminium nitrate in water-rich binary aqueous mixtures of tetrahydrofuran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. Thakur

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Partial molar volumes of aluminium chloride, aluminium sulphate and aluminium nitrate have been determined in water rich binary aqueous mixtures of tetrahydrofuran (5, 10, 15, 20% by weight of tetrahydrofuran with the help of density measurements. The density measurements were made by using Ward and Millero method and results have been analysed by Masson’s equation and interpreted in terms of ion-ion or ion –solvent interactions. The partial molar volumes vary with temperature as a power series of temperature. Structure making or breaking capacities of aluminium salts have been inferred from the sign à2/ Φvo p i.e second derivative of partial molar volume with respect to temperature at constant pressure. The aluminium salts have been found as structure breakers in binary aqueous mixture of tetrahydrofuran.

  1. Novel Synthesis of Aluminium Oxide Nanofibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-11-01

    UNCLASSIFIED Defense Technical Information Center Compilation Part Notice ADP012177 TITLE: Novel Synthesis of Aluminium Oxide Nanofibers DISTRIBUTION...ADP012174 thru ADP012259 UNCLASSIFIED Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. Vol. 703 © 2002 Materials Research Society V1.8 Novel Synthesis of Aluminium Oxide Nanofibers

  2. Preparation of aluminium lakes by electrocoagulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prapai Pradabkham

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Aluminium lakes have been prepared by electrocoagulation employing aluminium as electrodes. The electrocoagulation is conducted in an aqueous alcoholic solution and is completed within one hour. The dye content in the lake ranges approximately between 4-32%.

  3. Lactobacillus plantarum CCFM639 alleviates aluminium toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Leilei; Zhai, Qixiao; Liu, Xiaoming; Wang, Gang; Zhang, Qiuxiang; Zhao, Jianxin; Narbad, Arjan; Zhang, Hao; Tian, Fengwei; Chen, Wei

    2016-02-01

    Aluminium (Al) is the most abundant metal in the earth's crust. Al exposure can cause a variety of adverse physiological effects in humans and animals. Our aim was to demonstrate that specific probiotic bacteria can play a special physiologically functional role in protection against Al toxicity in mice. Thirty strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were tested for their aluminium-binding ability, aluminium tolerance, their antioxidative capacity, and their ability to survive the exposure to artificial gastrointestinal (GI) juices. Lactobacillus plantarum CCFM639 was selected for animal experiments because of its excellent performance in vitro. Forty mice were divided into four groups: control, Al only, Al plus CCFM639, and Al plus deferiprone (DFP). CCFM639 was administered at 10(9) CFU once daily for 10 days, followed by a single oral dose of aluminium chloride hexahydrate at 5.14 mg aluminium (LD50) for each mouse. The results showed that CCFM639 treatment led to a significant reduction in the mortality rates with corresponding decrease in intestinal aluminium absorption and in accumulation of aluminium in the tissues and amelioration of hepatic histopathological damage. This probiotic treatment also resulted in alleviation of hepatic, renal, and cerebral oxidative stress. The treatment of L. plantarum CCFM639 has potential as a therapeutic dietary strategy against acute aluminium toxicity.

  4. Locale instabiliteit van aluminium constructiedelen bij brand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maljaars, J.; Soetens, F.

    2006-01-01

    Dragende constructiedelen van aluminium legeringen, zoals toegepast in bouwconstructies maar ook in schepen en offshore platforms, moeten zodanig ontworpen worden dat mensen veilig kunnen vluchten als er brand uitbreekt. Door de lage smelttemperatuur van aluminium vraagt brand de nodige aandacht in

  5. Rapidly solidified aluminium for optical applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gubbels, G.P.H.; Venrooy, B.W.H. van; Bosch, A.J.; Senden, R.

    2008-01-01

    This paper present the results of a diamond turning study of a rapidly solidified aluminium 6061 alloy grade, known as RSA6061. It is shown that this small grain material can be diamond turned to smaller roughness values than standard AA6061 aluminium grades. Also, the results are nearly as good as

  6. Acoustic properties of aluminium foams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García, L. E.

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses normal incidence sound absorption by aluminium foam manufactured with powder metallurgy technology. Aluminium foams with different surface morphologies were obtained by varying the type of precursor and adding filler materials during the foaming process. The sound absorption coefficients found for these aluminium foams were compared to the coefficient for commercial foams marketed under the name ALPORAS. The effect of foam thickness on the absorption coefficient was studied for each sample prepared. The combination of good acoustic and mechanical properties makes aluminium foams particularly attractive products. The study included an analysis of the effect of 2-, 5- and 10-cm air gaps on the sound absorption coefficient. The results showed that such gaps, which are routinely used in construction to reduce the reverberation period in indoor premises, raised the low frequency absorption coefficient significantly. This increase was found to depend on aluminium foam density and thickness and the depth of the air gap. In this same line, we have investigated the absorption coefficient of the aluminium foams combined with a mineral fiber panel.Se presenta un estudio del coeficiente de absorción acústica a incidencia normal de espumas de aluminio fabricadas mediante la técnica pulvimetalúrgica. Se fabricaron espumas de aluminio de distinta morfología superficial variando el tipo de precursor y usando materiales de relleno durante el proceso de espumación. Se muestra un estudio comparativo del coeficiente de absorción acústica de las espumas de aluminio fabricadas y las espumas comerciales conocidas como ALPORAS. Para cada muestra fabricada se estudió la influencia del espesor sobre el valor del coeficiente de absorción.El atractivo de las espumas de aluminio radica en que en ellas se combinan interesantes propiedades acústicas y mecánicas. Se analizó el efecto de una cámara de aire de 2, 5 y 10 cm de anchura sobre el

  7. Aluminium Diphosphamethanides: Hidden Frustrated Lewis Pairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Styra, Steffen; Radius, Michael; Moos, Eric; Bihlmeier, Angela; Breher, Frank

    2016-07-04

    The synthesis and characterisation of two aluminium diphosphamethanide complexes, [Al(tBu)2 {κ(2) P,P'-Mes*PCHPMes*}] (3) and [Al(C6 F5 )2 {κ(2) P,P'-Mes*PCHPMes*}] (4), and the silylated analogue, Mes*PCHP(SiMe3 )Mes* (5), are reported. The aluminium complexes feature four-membered PCPAl core structures consisting of diphosphaallyl ligands. The silylated phosphine 5 was found to be a valuable precursor for the synthesis of 4 as it cleanly reacts with the diaryl aluminium chloride [(C6 F5 )2 AlCl]2 . The aluminium complex 3 reacts with molecular dihydrogen at room temperature under formation of the acyclic σ(2) λ(3) ,σ(3) λ(3) -diphosphine Mes*PCHP(H)Mes* and the corresponding dialkyl aluminium hydride [tBu2 AlH]3 . Thus, 3 belongs to the family of so-called hidden frustrated Lewis pairs.

  8. Hydroxyaluminosilicates and acute aluminium toxicity in fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exley; Pinnegar; Taylor

    1997-11-21

    The essentiality of silicon in biology might be explained in the terms of its chemistry with aluminium. In a previous study we demonstrated the elimination of acute aluminium toxicity in fish by silicon. We suggested that the reaction of silicic acid with aluminium to form hydroxyaluminosilicates reduced the biological availability, and hence toxicity, of aluminium. Though assumed in a burgeoning number of studies and contended in others this detoxification mechanism has remained unproven. Herein we have tested the toxicity of hydroxyaluminosilicates in fish and in doing so we have provided evidence which strongly supports a role for hydroxyaluminiosilicates in the elimination of acute aluminium toxicity in fish by silicon.Copyright 1997 Academic Press Limited Copyright 1997 Academic Press Limited

  9. Formulation and optimization of potassium iodide tablets

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Achi, Antoine; Patel, Binit

    2014-01-01

    The use of potassium iodide (KI) as a protective agent against accidental radioactive exposure is well established. In this study, we aimed to prepare a KI tablet formulation using a direct compression method. We utilized Design of Experiment (DoE)/mixture design to define the best formulation with predetermined physical qualities as to its dissolution, hardness, assay, disintegration, and angle of repose. Based on the results from the DoE, the formulation had the following components (%w/w):...

  10. Formulation and optimization of potassium iodide tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Achi, Antoine; Patel, Binit

    2015-01-01

    The use of potassium iodide (KI) as a protective agent against accidental radioactive exposure is well established. In this study, we aimed to prepare a KI tablet formulation using a direct compression method. We utilized Design of Experiment (DoE)/mixture design to define the best formulation with predetermined physical qualities as to its dissolution, hardness, assay, disintegration, and angle of repose. Based on the results from the DoE, the formulation had the following components (%w/w): Avicel 48.70%, silicon dioxide 0.27%, stearic acid (1.00%), magnesium stearate 2.45%, and dicalcium phosphate 18.69%, in addition to potassium iodide 28.89% (130 mg/tablet). This formulation was scaled-up using two tablet presses, a single-punch press and a rotary mini tablet press. The final scaled-up formulation was subjected to a variety of quality control tests, including photo-stability testing. The results indicate that potassium iodide tablets prepared by a rotary mini tablet press had good pharmaceutical characteristics and a shelf-life of 25 days when stored at room temperature protected from light.

  11. Formation of cyanogen iodide by lactoperoxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlorke, Denise; Flemmig, Jörg; Birkemeyer, Claudia; Arnhold, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    The haem protein lactoperoxidase (LPO) is an important component of the anti-microbial immune defence in external secretions and is also applied as preservative in food, oral care and cosmetic products. Upon oxidation of SCN(-) and I(-) by the LPO-hydrogen peroxide system, oxidised species are formed with bacteriostatic and/or bactericidal activity. Here we describe the formation of the inter(pseudo)halogen cyanogen iodide (ICN) by LPO. This product is formed when both, thiocyanate and iodide, are present together in the reaction mixture. Using (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry we could identify this inter(pseudo)halogen after applying iodide in slight excess over thiocyanate. The formation of ICN is based on the reaction of oxidised iodine species with thiocyanate. Further, we could demonstrate that ICN is also formed by the related haem enzyme myeloperoxidase and, in lower amounts, in the enzyme-free system. As I(-) is not competitive for SCN(-) under physiologically relevant conditions, the formation of ICN is not expected in secretions but may be relevant for LPO-containing products.

  12. A Reaction Coating on Aluminium Alloys by Laser Processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, X.B.; Hosson, J.Th.M. De

    1993-01-01

    An aluminium oxide layer of 100 µm in thickness has been successfully coated on aluminium alloy 6061 and pure aluminium using a powder mixture of silicon oxide and aluminium by laser processing. A strong Al/Al2O3 interface was formed. The exothermic chemical reaction between SiO2 and Al may promote

  13. Cu-catalyzed trifluoromethylation of aryl iodides with trifluoromethylzinc reagent prepared in situ from trifluoromethyl iodide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuzo Nakamura

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The trifluoromethylation of aryl iodides catalyzed by copper(I salt with trifluoromethylzinc reagent prepared in situ from trifluoromethyl iodide and Zn dust was accomplished. The catalytic reactions proceeded under mild reaction conditions, providing the corresponding aromatic trifluoromethylated products in moderate to high yields. The advantage of this method is that additives such as metal fluoride (MF, which are indispensable to activate silyl groups for transmetallation in the corresponding reactions catalyzed by copper salt by using the Ruppert–Prakash reagents (CF3SiR3, are not required.

  14. Investigation of the aluminium-aluminium oxide reversible transformation as observed by hot stage electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grove, C. A.; Judd, G.; Ansell, G. S.

    1972-01-01

    Thin foils of high purity aluminium and an Al-Al2O3 SAP type of alloy were oxidised in a specially designed hot stage specimen chamber in an electron microscope. Below 450 C, amorphous aluminium oxide formed on the foil surface and was first detectable at foil edges, holes, and pits. Islands of aluminium then nucleated in this amorphous oxide. The aluminium islands displayed either a lateral growth with eventual coalescence with other islands, or a reoxidation process which caused the islands to disappear. The aluminium island formation was determined to be related to the presence of the electron beam. A mechanism based upon electron charging due to the electron beam was proposed to explain the nucleation, growth, coalescence, disappearance, and geometry of the aluminium islands.

  15. Characteristics of cast and welded aluminium nodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oedegaard, J.; Polanco, M.; Syvertsen, F.; Sund, H. [SINTEF, Trondheim (Norway). Materials Technology

    2000-07-01

    It has been demonstrated that sand cast aluminium nodes can be produced with properties that gives competitive energy absorption capacity compared with welded aluminium nodes. Sand cast nodes could be mass-produced to a low cost and with properties that should be competitive to the properties of fusion welded nodes. This may open for simpler and more cost-effective joint alternatives when production of aluminium space-frames and subassemblies are in focus. Cast nodes joined to extruded members by adhesive bonding could be one example. (orig.)

  16. Vapor Growth of Mercuric Iodide Tetragonal Prismatic Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    These steps were followed by immersion in 1% potassium iodide (KI) solution. The apparatus were then cleaned and rinsed thoroughly with deionized (DI...Pergamon Press, 1973. [34] N. Lyakh, “Composition and kinetic characteristics of vapour phase during mercuric iodide growing,” Crystal Res. Technol...DTRA-TR-13-6 Vapor Growth of Mercuric Iodide Tetragonal Prismatic Crystals Approved for public release, distribution is unlimited. March 2013

  17. Thermal transformations of aluminium-aluminium oxide systems in nanosize layers

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Aluminium film of more than 2 nm thick indicates, but less than 2 nm do not indicate characteristic absorption and reflection bands for aluminium in range ?=190...1100 nm. By spectrophotometric, gravimetric and microscopic methods it is stated that thickness, mass and absorption, reflection spectrum of aluminium films (d=2...200 nm) undergo considerable transformations as a result of heat treatment in an interval of temperatures 373...600 K during 1...140 min in atmospheric conditions. Kineti...

  18. Elevated brain aluminium and early onset Alzheimer’s disease in an individual occupationally exposed to aluminium: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Aluminium is a known neurotoxin and occupational exposure to aluminium has been implicated in neurological disease including Alzheimer’s disease. Here we present the first comprehensive and unequivocal data demonstrating significantly elevated brain aluminium content in an individual occupationally exposed to aluminium. Case presentation A 66-year-old Caucasian man who died with Alzheimer’s disease showed significantly elevated brain aluminium content, 2.98 (2.73) μg/g dry weight...

  19. Effect of nitrogen and oxygen on radiolysis of iodide solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karasawa, H.; Endo, M. [Hitachi Ltd., Power and Industrial System R+D Divisions, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1996-12-01

    The effect of nitrogen and oxygen on radiolysis of iodide solution was examined. Direct decomposition of nitrogen by {gamma}-radiation produced nitric acid to decrease a water pH. This resulted in the iodine formation in the radiolysis of iodide solution. Hydrogen peroxide was produced by the radiolysis of water containing oxygen. This worked a reducing agent to suppress the formation of iodine in the radiolysis of iodide solution. In the analytical model, fourteen iodine species were considered and reaction scheme consisted in 124 reactions. The analytical model could estimate the oxidation state of iodide ions. (author) 4 figs., 4 refs.

  20. Mercuric Iodide Anticoincidence Shield for Gamma-Ray Spectrometer Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to utilize a new detector material, polycrystalline mercuric iodide, for background suppression by active anticoincidence shielding in gamma-ray...

  1. Mercuric Iodide Anticoincidence Shield for Gamma-Ray Spectrometer Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We utilize a new detector material, polycrystalline mercuric iodide, for background suppression by active anticoincidence shielding in gamma-ray spectrometers. Two...

  2. Dietary aluminium Intake Level for Rent Animals in a Primary and Secondary Aluminium Industry Surrounding Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mărioara Drugă

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out in an aluminium industry surrounding area on purpose to evaluate dietary aluminium intake level for rent animals originated from fodder and water consumed by them. There were taken feed and water samples in different periods and from increasing distances from industrial platform, determined the aluminium level by atomic spectroscopy and calculated the rations for cattle and poultry. Conclusions: aluminium dietary intake level by ration depends by forage period for studied species, rations structure and distance from industrial platform and didn’t reach toxic level in any case.

  3. The meaning of aluminium exposure on human health and aluminium-related diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisponi, Guido; Fanni, Daniela; Gerosa, Clara; Nemolato, Sonia; Nurchi, Valeria M; Crespo-Alonso, Miriam; Lachowicz, Joanna I; Faa, Gavino

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this review is to attempt to answer extremely important questions related to aluminium-related diseases. Starting from an overview on the main sources of aluminium exposure in everyday life, the principal aspects of aluminium metabolism in humans have been taken into consideration in an attempt to enlighten the main metabolic pathways utilised by trivalent metal ions in different organs. The second part of this review is focused on the available evidence concerning the pathogenetic consequences of aluminium overload in human health, with particular attention to its putative role in bone and neurodegenerative human diseases.

  4. The addition of iodine to tetramethylammonium iodide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foote, H.W.; Fleischer, M.

    1953-01-01

    The system tetramethylammonium iodide-iodine-toluene has been studied by the solubility method at 6 and at 25??. The compounds (CH3)4NI3, (CH3)4NI5 and (CH3)4NI11 were found to be stable phases at both temperatures. In addition, the compound (CH3)4NI10 was found at 6?? and the compound (CH3)4NI9 at 25??. The dissociation pressures of the compounds at these temperatures were calculated from the solubility data.

  5. Electronic and optical properties of lead iodide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahuja, R.; Arwin, H.; Ferreira da Silva, A.

    2002-01-01

    The electronic properties and the optical absorption of lead iodide (PbI2) have been investigated experimentally by means of optical absorption and spectroscopic ellipsometry, and theoretically by a full-potential linear muffin-tin-orbital method. PbI2 has been recognized as a very promising...... detector material with a large technological applicability. Its band-gap energy as a function of temperature has also been measured by optical absorption. The temperature dependence has been fitted by two different relations, and a discussion of these fittings is given. ©2002 American Institute of Physics....

  6. Novel mercuric iodide polycrystalline nuclear particles counters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schieber, M. [Hebrew Univ. of Jerusalem (Israel)]|[Sandia National Lab., Livermore, CA (United States); Zuck, A.; Braiman, M.; Nissenbaum, J. [Hebrew Univ. of Jerusalem (Israel)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    Polycrystalline mercuric iodide nuclear radiation detectors having areas between 0.01 to 100 cm{sup 2} and thicknesses 30 to 600 microns, have been fabricated with single, linear strip and square pixel contact. The large area detectors 10 to 600 cm{sup 2} were produced by industrial ceramic equipment while the smaller ones, about 1 cm{sup 2} area, were produced in the laboratory. The large detectors still had large leakage currents and the production process is being revised. The smaller detectors were tested and their response to lower and higher gamma energy, beta and even 100 GeV muons at CERN will be reported.

  7. Shear Viscosity of Aluminium under Shock Compression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Fu-Sheng; YANG Mei-Xia; LIU Qi-Wen; CHEN Jun-Xiang; JING Fu-Qian

    2005-01-01

    @@ Based on the Newtonian viscous fluid model and the analytic perturbation theory of Miller and Ahrens for the oscillatory damping of a sinusoidal shock front, a flyer-impact technique is developed to investigate the effecti veviscosity of shocked aluminium.

  8. Production of Molecular Iodine and Tri-iodide in the Frozen Solution of Iodide: Implication for Polar Atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kitae; Yabushita, Akihiro; Okumura, Masanori; Saiz-Lopez, Alfonso; Cuevas, Carlos A; Blaszczak-Boxe, Christopher S; Min, Dae Wi; Yoon, Ho-Il; Choi, Wonyong

    2016-02-01

    The chemistry of reactive halogens in the polar atmosphere plays important roles in ozone and mercury depletion events, oxidizing capacity, and dimethylsulfide oxidation to form cloud-condensation nuclei. Among halogen species, the sources and emission mechanisms of inorganic iodine compounds in the polar boundary layer remain unknown. Here, we demonstrate that the production of tri-iodide (I3(-)) via iodide oxidation, which is negligible in aqueous solution, is significantly accelerated in frozen solution, both in the presence and the absence of solar irradiation. Field experiments carried out in the Antarctic region (King George Island, 62°13'S, 58°47'W) also showed that the generation of tri-iodide via solar photo-oxidation was enhanced when iodide was added to various ice media. The emission of gaseous I2 from the irradiated frozen solution of iodide to the gas phase was detected by using cavity ring-down spectroscopy, which was observed both in the frozen state at 253 K and after thawing the ice at 298 K. The accelerated (photo-)oxidation of iodide and the subsequent formation of tri-iodide and I2 in ice appear to be related with the freeze concentration of iodide and dissolved O2 trapped in the ice crystal grain boundaries. We propose that an accelerated abiotic transformation of iodide to gaseous I2 in ice media provides a previously unrecognized formation pathway of active iodine species in the polar atmosphere.

  9. Electrical Conductivity of Aluminium Alloy Foams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    凤仪; 郑海务; 朱震刚; 祖方遒

    2002-01-01

    Closed-cell aluminium alloy foams were produced using the powder metallurgical technique. The effect of porosityand cell diameter on the electrical conductivity of foams was investigated and the results were compared with anumber of models. It was found that the percolation theory can be successfully applied to describe the dependenceof the electrical conductivity of aluminium alloy foams on the relative density. The cell diameter has a negligibleeffect on the electrical conductivity of foams.

  10. DETERMINATION OF IMPURITY ELEMENTS IN ALUMINIUM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯小琳; 张永保

    1994-01-01

    Twenty five impurity elements in aluminium applied as reactor material are determined.Titanium and nickel are determined with epithermal neutron activation analysis(NAA),magnesium and silicon by inductance coupling plasma emission spectra(ICP),other elements by thermal NAA.The fission coefficient of uranium is given by an experiment,the interferences of uranium to Ce,Nd,Mo,Zr,La,Sm are subtracted.The detection limits of these methods to all of impurity elements in aluminium are calculated.

  11. Bumblebee Pupae Contain High Levels of Aluminium

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The causes of declines in bees and other pollinators remains an on-going debate. While recent attention has focussed upon pesticides, other environmental pollutants have largely been ignored. Aluminium is the most significant environmental contaminant of recent times and we speculated that it could be a factor in pollinator decline. Herein we have measured the content of aluminium in bumblebee pupae taken from naturally foraging colonies in the UK. Individual pupae were acid-digested in a mic...

  12. Bumblebee pupae contain high levels of aluminium

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The causes of declines in bees and other pollinators remains an on-going debate. While recent attention has focussed upon pesticides, other environmental pollutants have largely been ignored. Aluminium is the most significant environmental contaminant of recent times and we speculated that it could be a factor in pollinator decline. Herein we have measured the content of aluminium in bumblebee pupae taken from naturally foraging colonies in the UK. Individual pupae were acid-digested in a mic...

  13. Phase 2 Methyl Iodide Deep-Bed Adsorption Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soelberg, Nick [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Watson, Tony [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Nuclear fission produces fission products (FPs) and activation products, including iodine-129, which could evolve into used fuel reprocessing facility off-gas systems, and could require off-gas control to limit air emissions to levels within acceptable emission limits. Research, demonstrations, and some reprocessing plant experience have indicated that diatomic iodine can be captured with efficiencies high enough to meet regulatory requirements. Research on the capture of organic iodides has also been performed, but to a lesser extent. Several questions remain open regarding the capture of iodine bound in organic compounds. Deep-bed methyl iodide adsorption testing has progressed according to a multi-laboratory methyl iodide adsorption test plan. This report summarizes the second phase of methyl iodide adsorption work performed according to this test plan using the deep-bed iodine adsorption test system at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), performed during the second half of Fiscal Year (FY) 2014. Test results continue to show that methyl iodide adsorption using AgZ can achieve total iodine decontamination factors (DFs, ratios of uncontrolled and controlled total iodine levels) above 1,000, until breakthrough occurred. However, mass transfer zone depths are deeper for methyl iodide adsorption compared to diatomic iodine (I2) adsorption. Methyl iodide DFs for the Ag Aerogel test adsorption efficiencies were less than 1,000, and the methyl iodide mass transfer zone depth exceeded 8 inches. Additional deep-bed testing and analyses are recommended to (a) expand the data base for methyl iodide adsorption under various conditions specified in the methyl iodide test plan, and (b) provide more data for evaluating organic iodide reactions and reaction byproducts for different potential adsorption conditions.

  14. Kinetic Isotope Effects in the Reduction of Methyl Iodide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Torkil

    1999-01-01

    a-Deuterium kinetic isotope effects (KIE's) have been determined for the reaction of methyl iodide with a series of reducing agents. Reagents which transfer hydride ion in an SN2 reaction show small inverse or small normal KIE's. Reagents which transfer an electron to methyl iodide to produce...

  15. High Momentum Particle Identification Detector The Study of Cesium Iodide Quantum Efficiency Dependency on Substrate Material, Temperature and Quartz Window

    CERN Document Server

    Wisna, Gde Bimananda M

    2014-01-01

    The Cesium Iodide (CsI) is used as a material for detecting Cherenkov radiation produced by high momentum particle in High Momentum Particle Identification Detector (HMPID) at ALICE Experiment at CERN. This work provides investigation and analysis of The Quantum Efficiency (QE) result of CsI which is deposited on five samples substrates such as copper passivated red, copper passivated yellow, aluminium, copper coated with nickel and copper coated with nickel then coated with gold. The measurement of five samples is held under temperature $60^{0}$ C and $25^{0}$ C (room temperature) and also with optical quartz window which can be adjusted to limit the wavelength range which reach the CsI. The result shows there are dependency of substrate, temperature due to enhancement effect and also quartz windows usage on QE of CsI. The results of five samples is then compared and analyzed.

  16. A preliminary study of the dermal absorption of aluminium from antiperspirants using aluminium-26.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flarend, R; Bin, T; Elmore, D; Hem, S L

    2001-02-01

    Aluminium chlorohydrate (ACH), the active ingredient in many antiperspirants, was labeled with the radioisotope 26Al. The labeled ACH was then fractionated into about 100 samples using gel filtration chromatography. Each fraction was analyzed for 26Al and total aluminium content. Aluminium-26 was only detected in the fractions that also contained aluminium, which verified that the ACH was uniformly labeled. 84 mg of the labeled ACH was then applied to a single underarm of two adult subjects with blood and urine samples being collected over 7 weeks. Tape-stripping and mild washings of the skin were also collected for the first 6 days. Results indicate that only 0.012% of the applied aluminium was absorbed through the skin. At this rate, about 4 microg of aluminium is absorbed from a single use of ACH on both underarms. This is about 2.5% of the aluminium typically absorbed by the gut from food over the same time period. Therefore, a one-time use of ACH applied to the skin is not a significant contribution to the body burden of aluminium.

  17. Determination of Aluminium Content in Aluminium Hydroxide Formulation by FT-NIR Transmittance Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lai, Xuxin; Zheng, Yiwu; Søndergaard, Ib;

    2007-01-01

    A method for determining the aluminium content of an aluminium hydroxide suspension using near infrared (NIR) transmittance spectroscopy has been developed. Inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) was used as reference method. The factors influencing the NIR analysis...

  18. Aluminium exclusion and aluminium tolerance in woody plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivano eBrunner

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aluminium (Al cation Al3+ is highly rhizotoxic and is a major stress factor to plants on acid soils, which cover large areas of tropical and boreal regions. Many woody plant species are native to acid soils and are well adapted to high Al3+ conditions. In tropical regions, both woody Al accumulator and non-Al accumulator plants occur, whereas in boreal regions woody plants are non-Al accumulators. The mechanisms of these adaptations can be divided into those that facilitate the exclusion of Al3+ from root cells (exclusion mechanisms and those that enable plants to tolerate Al3+ once it has entered the root and shoot symplast (internal tolerance mechanisms. The biochemical and molecular basis of these mechanisms have been intensively studied in several crop plants and the model plant Arabidopsis. In this review, we examine the current understanding of Al3+ exclusion and tolerance mechanisms from woody plants. In addition, we discuss the ecology of woody non-Al accumulator and Al accumulator plants, and present examples of Al3+ adaptations in woody plant populations. This paper complements previous reviews focusing on crop plants and provides insights into evolutionary processes operating in plant communities that are widespread on acid soils.

  19. Toxicity of dissolved and precipitated aluminium to marine diatoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillmore, Megan L; Golding, Lisa A; Angel, Brad M; Adams, Merrin S; Jolley, Dianne F

    2016-05-01

    Localised aluminium contamination can lead to high concentrations in coastal waters, which have the potential for adverse effects on aquatic organisms. This research investigated the toxicity of 72-h exposures of aluminium to three marine diatoms (Ceratoneis closterium (formerly Nitzschia closterium), Minutocellus polymorphus and Phaeodactylum tricornutum) by measuring population growth rate inhibition and cell membrane damage (SYTOX Green) as endpoints. Toxicity was correlated to the time-averaged concentrations of different aluminium size-fractions, operationally defined as aluminium exposure varied between diatom species. C. closterium was the most sensitive species (10% inhibition of growth rate (72-h IC10) of 80 (55-100)μg Al/L (95% confidence limits)) while M. polymorphus (540 (460-600)μg Al/L) and P. tricornutum (2100 (2000-2200)μg Al/L) were less sensitive (based on measured total aluminium). Dissolved aluminium was the primary contributor to toxicity in C. closterium, while a combination of dissolved and precipitated aluminium forms contributed to toxicity in M. polymorphus. In contrast, aluminium toxicity to the most tolerant diatom P. tricornutum was due predominantly to precipitated aluminium. Preliminary investigations revealed the sensitivity of C. closterium and M. polymorphus to aluminium was influenced by initial cell density with aluminium toxicity significantly (paluminium toxicity to diatoms do not involve compromising the plasma membrane. These results indicate that marine diatoms have a broad range in sensitivity to aluminium with toxic mechanisms related to both dissolved and precipitated aluminium.

  20. Aluminium toxicity in winter wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szabó A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aluminium is the most frequent metal of the earth crust; it occurs mainly as biologically inactive, insoluble deposit. Environmental problems, industrial contaminations and acid rains increase the soil acidity, leading to the mobilization of Al. Half of the world’s potential arable lands are acidic; therefore, Al-toxicity decreases crop productivity. Wheat is a staple food for 35% of the world population. The effects of Al-stress (0.1 mM were studied on winter wheat; seedlings were grown hydroponically, at acidic pH. After two weeks, the root weight was decreased; a significant difference was found in the P- and Ca-content. The shoot weight and element content changed slightly; Al-content in the root was one magnitude higher than in the shoot, while Al-translocation was limited. The root plasma membrane H+-ATPase has central role in the uptake processes; Al-stress increased the Mg2+-ATPase activity of the microsomal fraction.

  1. Silver iodide sodalite for 129I immobilisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vance, E. R.; Gregg, D. J.; Grant, C.; Stopic, A.; Maddrell, E. R.

    2016-11-01

    Silver iodide sodalite was initially synthesised as a fine-grained major phase in a nominally stoichiometric composition following hot isostatic pressing at 850 °C with 100 MPa and its composition, Ag4Al3Si3O12I, was approximately verified by scanning electron microscopy. An alternative preparative method yielded a more dense and stoichiometric AgI sodalite on sintering and HIPing. As found for AgI, the I is released from AgI sodalite much more readily in reducing water than in ordinary water. Thus in normal PCT-B tests, the I release was <0.3 g/L in water, but it was ∼70 g/L under highly reducing conditions. This is an important point with regard to can material if HIPing is used for consolidation.

  2. Novel mercuric iodide polycrystalline nuclear particle counters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schieber, M. [Hebrew Univ. of Jerusalem (Israel)]|[Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States); Zuck, A.; Braiman, M.; Nissenbaum, J. [Hebrew Univ. of Jerusalem (Israel); Turchetta, R.; Dulinski, W.; Husson, D.; Riester, J.L. [LEPSI, Strasbourg (France)

    1997-12-01

    Polycrystalline mercuric iodide nuclear radiation detectors have been produced in a novel technology. Unlike the normal single-crystal technology, there is no intrinsic limit to the surface on which these detectors can be produced. Detectors with areas up to about 1.5 cm{sup 2}, thicknesses from 30 to 600 {micro}m, and with single electrodes as well as microstrip and pixel contacts have been fabricated and successfully tested with photons in the range of 40--660 keV, {beta} particle`s emitted from a Sr-Y source, and high energy (100 GeV) muons. Results on both charge collection and counting efficiency are reported as well as some very preliminary imaging results. The experimental results on charge collection have been compared with simulation, and a combined {mu}{tau} product 10{sup {minus}7} cm{sup 2}/V for electrons has been estimated.

  3. Ferroelastic Fingerprints in Methylammonium Lead Iodide Perovskite

    KAUST Repository

    Hermes, Ilka M.

    2016-02-12

    Methylammonium lead iodide (MAPbI3) perovskite materials show an outstanding performance in photovoltaic devices. However, certain material properties, especially the possible ferroic behavior, remain unclear. We observed distinct nanoscale periodic domains in the piezoresponse of MAPbI3(Cl) grains. The structure and the orientation of these striped domains indicate ferroelasticity as their origin. By correlating vertical and lateral piezoresponse force microscopy experiments performed at different sample orientations with x-ray diffraction, the preferred domain orientation was suggested to be the a1-a2-phase. The observation of these ferroelastic fingerprints appears to strongly depend on the film texture and thus the preparation route. The formation of the ferroelastic twin domains could be induced by internal strain during the cubic-tetragonal phase transition.

  4. Conserved charged amino acid residues in the extracellular region of sodium/iodide symporter are critical for iodide transport activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Ji-An

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sodium/iodide symporter (NIS mediates the active transport and accumulation of iodide from the blood into the thyroid gland. His-226 located in the extracellular region of NIS has been demonstrated to be critical for iodide transport in our previous study. The conserved charged amino acid residues in the extracellular region of NIS were therefore characterized in this study. Methods Fourteen charged residues (Arg-9, Glu-79, Arg-82, Lys-86, Asp-163, His-226, Arg-228, Asp-233, Asp-237, Arg-239, Arg-241, Asp-311, Asp-322, and Asp-331 were replaced by alanine. Iodide uptake abilities of mutants were evaluated by steady-state and kinetic analysis. The three-dimensional comparative protein structure of NIS was further modeled using sodium/glucose transporter as the reference protein. Results All the NIS mutants were expressed normally in the cells and targeted correctly to the plasma membrane. However, these mutants, except R9A, displayed severe defects on the iodide uptake. Further kinetic analysis revealed that mutations at conserved positively charged amino acid residues in the extracellular region of NIS led to decrease NIS-mediated iodide uptake activity by reducing the maximal rate of iodide transport, while mutations at conserved negatively charged residues led to decrease iodide transport by increasing dissociation between NIS mutants and iodide. Conclusions This is the first report characterizing thoroughly the functional significance of conserved charged amino acid residues in the extracellular region of NIS. Our data suggested that conserved charged amino acid residues, except Arg-9, in the extracellular region of NIS were critical for iodide transport.

  5. Investigation of the formability of aluminium alloys at elevated temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tisza, M.; Budai, D.; Kovács, P. Z.; Lukács, Zs

    2016-11-01

    Aluminium alloys are more and more widely applied in car body manufacturing. Increasing the formability of aluminium alloys are one of the most relevant tasks in todays’ research topics. In this paper, the focus will be on the investigation of the formability of aluminium alloys concerning those material grades that are more widely applied in the automotive industry including the 5xxx and 6xxx aluminium alloy series. Recently, besides the cold forming of aluminium sheets the forming of aluminium alloys at elevated temperatures became a hot research topic, too. In our experimental investigations, we mostly examined the EN AW 5754 and EN AW 6082 aluminium alloys at elevated temperatures. We analysed the effect of various material and process parameters (e.g. temperature, sheet thickness) on the formability of aluminium alloys with particular emphasis on the Forming Limit Diagrams at elevated temperatures in order to find the optimum forming conditions for these alloys.

  6. Structural colours and applications to anodised aluminium surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Villads Egede

    This thesis investigates possible ways of creating aluminium with a milky white, metallic appearance for decorative purposes. Since white cannot be obtained through traditional absorption based dyeing of aluminium, optical mechanisms based on scattering by nanostructures are studied in order...

  7. Effect of aluminium phosphate as admixture on oxychloride cement

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M P S Chandrawat; R N Yadav

    2000-02-01

    The effect of admixing of aluminium phosphate on oxychloride cement in the matrix has been investigated. It is shown that aluminium phosphate retards the setting process of the cement and improves water-tightness.

  8. Barium iodide and strontium iodide crystals and scintillators implementing the same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Payne, Stephen A.; Cherepy, Nerine J.; Hull, Giulia E.; Drobshoff, Alexander D.; Burger, Arnold

    2016-11-29

    In one embodiment, a material comprises a crystal comprising strontium iodide providing at least 50,000 photons per MeV, where the strontium iodide material is characterized by a volume not less than 1 cm.sup.3. In another embodiment, a scintillator optic includes europium-doped strontium iodide providing at least 50,000 photons per MeV, where the europium in the crystal is primarily Eu.sup.2+, and the europium is present in an amount greater than about 1.6%. A scintillator radiation detector in yet another embodiment includes a scintillator optic comprising SrI.sub.2 and BaI.sub.2, where a ratio of SrI.sub.2 to BaI.sub.2 is in a range of between 0:1 and 1.0, the scintillator optic is a crystal that provides at least 50,000 scintillation photons per MeV and energy resolution of less than about 5% at 662 keV, and the crystal has a volume of 1 cm.sup.3 or more; the scintillator optic contains more than about 2% europium.

  9. Steam Assisted Accelerated Growth of Oxide Layer on Aluminium Alloys

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Corrosion resistance of aluminium alloys is related to the composition and morphology of the oxide film on the surface of aluminium. In this paper we investigated the use of steam on the surface modification of aluminium to produce boehmite films. The study reveals a detailed investigation of the effect of vapour pressure, structure of intermetallic particles and thickness of boehmite films on the corrosion behaviour of aluminium alloys.

  10. Aluminium allergy and granulomas induced by vaccinations for children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rosa Marie O; Zachariae, Claus; Johansen, Jeanne Duus

    2014-01-01

    Vaccination with aluminium-adsorbed vaccines can induce aluminium allergy with persistent itching subcutaneous nodules at the injection site - vaccination granulomas. In this article we give an overview of childhood aluminium-adsorbed vaccines available in Denmark. Through literature studies we...... examine the incidence, the symptoms and the prognosis for the vaccination granulomas and the allergy. Finally we discuss the status in Denmark....

  11. Stability of aluminium beams in case of fire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulen, O.R. van der; Soetens, F.; Maljaars, J.

    2014-01-01

    Fire is often the dominant design criterion for aluminium structures. Present design rules for aluminium constructions in fire neglect both the decrease in susceptibility to local buckling and the effects of creep, that are intrinsic to aluminium. They may therefore either overestimate or underestim

  12. [Aluminium allergy and granulomas induced by vaccinations for children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Rosa Marie Ø; Zachariae, Claus; Johansen, Jeanne Duus

    2015-04-27

    Vaccination with aluminium-adsorbed vaccines can induce aluminium allergy with persistent itching subcutaneous nodules at the injection site – vaccination granulomas. In this article we give an overview of childhood aluminium-adsorbed vaccines available in Denmark. Through literature studies we examine the incidence, the symptoms and the prognosis for the vaccination granulomas and the allergy. Finally we discuss the status in Denmark.

  13. Energy Absorption of Monolithic and Fibre Reinforced Aluminium Cylinders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Kanter, J.L.C.G.

    2006-01-01

    Summary accompanying the thesis: Energy Absorption of Monolithic and Fibre Reinforced Aluminium Cylinders by Jens de Kanter This thesis presents the investigation of the crush behaviour of both monolithic aluminium cylinders and externally fibre reinforced aluminium cylinders. The research is based

  14. Aluminium hydroxide-induced granulomas in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valtulini, S; Macchi, C; Ballanti, P

    2005-01-01

    The effect of intramuscular injection of 40 mg/2 ml aluminium hydroxide in the neck of pigs was examined in a number of ways. The investigation followed repeated slaughterhouse reports, according to which 64.8% of pigs from one particular farm were found at slaughter to have one or more nodules...... in the muscles of the neck (group slaughtered). The pigs had been injected with a vaccine containing 40 mg/2 ml dose of aluminium hydroxide as adjuvant. Research consisted of two phases: first, an epidemiological study was carried out, aimed at determining the risk factors for the granulomas. The results...... and adjuvant) to pigs inoculated twice with apyrogenic bi-distilled water (group water) and to pigs inoculated once with the adjuvant and once with apyrogenic bi-distilled water (group adjuvant/water). Both studies agreed in their conclusions, which indicate that the high amount of aluminium hydroxide...

  15. The binding of phosphonic acids at aluminium oxide surfaces and correlation with passivation of aluminium flake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Rachel J; Camp, Philip J; Henderson, David K; Lovatt, Paul A; Nation, David A; Richards, Stuart; Tasker, Peter A

    2007-04-07

    Measurements of adsorption isotherms of a series of thirteen mono- and di-phosphonic acids have shown that these bind strongly to the surface of high surface area aluminium trihydroxide. The incorporation of such phosphonates into a suspension of aluminium flake in an aqueous medium, modelling the continuous phase of a water-based paint, greatly suppresses the evolution of hydrogen. Whilst strong binding of the phosphonate to aluminium oxides is an essential criterion for good passivation, other factors such as the hydrophobicity of the ligand are also important in suppressing hydrogen-evolution.

  16. Diamond grooving of rapidly solidified optical aluminium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-El-Hossein, Khaled; Hsu, Wei-Yao; Ghobashy, Sameh; Cheng, Yuan-Chieh; Mkoko, Zwelinzima

    2015-10-01

    Traditional optical aluminium grades such as Al 6061 are intensively used for making optical components for applications ranging from mould insert fabrication to laser machine making. However, because of their irregular microstructure and relative inhomogeneity of material properties at micro scale, traditional optical aluminium may exhibit some difficulties when ultra-high precision diamond turned. Inhomogeneity and micro-variation in the material properties combined with uneven and coarse microstructure may cause unacceptable surface finish and accelerated tool wear, especially in grooving operation when the diamond tool edge is fully immersed in the material surface. Recently, new grades of optical aluminium that are featured by their ultra-fine microstructure and improved material properties have been developed to overcome the problem of high tool wear rates. The new aluminium grades have been developed using rapid solidification process which results in extremely small grain sizes combined with improved mechanical properties. The current study is concerned with investigating the performance of single-point diamond turning when grooving two grades of rapidly solidified aluminium (RSA) grades: RSA905 which is a high-alloyed aluminium grade and RSA443 which has a high silicon content. In this study, two series of experiments employed to create radial microgrooves on the two RSA grades. The surface roughness obtained on the groove surface is measured when different combinations of cutting parameters are used. Cutting speed is varied while feed rate and depth of cut were kept constant. The results show that groove surface roughness produced on RSA443 is higher than that obtained on RSA905. Also, the paper reports on the effect of cutting speed on surface roughness for each RSA grade.

  17. New aluminium alloys with high lithium content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schemme, K.; Velten, B.

    1989-06-01

    Since the early 80's there have been made great efforts to replace the high strength aluminium alloys for the aircraft and space industry by a new generation of aluminium-lithium alloys. The attractivity of this kind of alloys could be increased by a further reduction of their density, caused by an increasing lithium content (/ge/ 5 wt.% Li). Therefore binary high-lithium containing alloys with low density are produced and metallografically investigated. A survey of their strength and wear behavior is given by using tensile tests and pin abrasing tests. (orig.).

  18. Expression of the human sodium/iodide symporter (hNIS) in xenotransplanted human thyroid carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, J.W.A.; Schröder - van der Elst, J.P.; Karperien, M.; Que, I.; Romijn, J.A.; Heide, van der D.

    2001-01-01

    The uptake of iodide in thyroid epithelial cells is mediated by the sodium/iodide symporter (NIS). The uptake of iodide is of vital importance for thyroid physiology and is a prerequisite for radioiodine therapy in thyroid cancer. Loss of iodide uptake due to diminished expression of the human NIS (

  19. China’s Aluminium Consumption and the Related Policies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    <正>China is a major aluminium consumer country in the world. In 2005, China produced 7.81 million tons aluminium and imported 640,000 tons. Meanwhile, China also exported 1.32 million tons aluminium in 2005. China’s apparent consumption of aluminium in 2005 was about 7.1 million tons, which was 9.3 times over that in 1990. China’s aluminium consumption growth has kept at an annual average of 16.1 per cent since 1990, which makes China the

  20. China’s Production and Market of Aluminium Extruded Profiles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>Chinese aluminium extrusion industry came into existence at the early 1950s with most products used in military industry and national defence.At the beginning of 1980s,the produc- tion of construction aluminium profiles started simultaneously in North and South China.In the following thirty years,the aluminium extru- sion industry entered into a quickly developing stage with a focus on construction aluminium profiles.With the blooming real estate industry, the demand for construction aluminium profiles from the domestic market has a tendency of yearly increase.From 2000,the quick devel- opments of China’s auto and railway vehicle

  1. Challenges in LCA modelling of multiple loops for aluminium cans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niero, Monia; Olsen, Stig Irving

    packaging scrap sources (i.e. used beverage can and mixed aluminium packaging) to understand the limiting factors for multiple loop aluminium can recycling. Secondly, we performed a comparative LCA of aluminium can production and recycling in multiple loops considering the two aluminium packaging scrap...... this information to perform an LCA of 30 recycling loops based on the actual alloy composition. From the comparative LCA the closed product loop option (i.e. using used beverage can scraps) turned out to have lower environmental impact than the open loop option (i.e. using mixed aluminium packaging scraps...

  2. Aluminium: a natural adjuvant in Leishmania transmission via sand flies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maingon, Rhayza; Khela, Amandeep; Sampson, Christopher; Ward, Richard; Walker, Karen; Exley, Christopher

    2008-11-01

    Genetically identical Leishmania chagasi/infantum parasites cause both atypical cutaneous leishmaniasis and visceral leishmaniasis. In this report we have tested the first part of a hypothesis that states that the form of this disease that is manifested depends upon the adjuvant-like activity of aluminium of dietary origin accumulated in the salivary gland of the sand fly vector. In sand flies fed aluminium-supplemented sucrose we have used histochemistry to qualitatively identify aluminium in their salivary glands and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry to quantify the aluminium content of dissected salivary glands. Aluminium may be acting as a natural adjuvant in some forms of leishmaniasis.

  3. Improved Stability of Mercuric Iodide Detectors for Anticoincidence Shields Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to utilize guard ring electrode structures and a new film growth technique to create improved polycrystalline mercuric iodide detectors for background...

  4. Prevention of organic iodide formation in BWR`s

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karjunen, T. [Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety, Helsinki (Finland); Laitinen, T.; Piippo, J.; Sirkiae, P. [VTT Manufacturing Technology (Finland)

    1996-12-01

    During an accident, many different forms of iodine may emerge. Organic iodides, such as methyl iodide and ethyl iodide, are relatively volatile, and thus their appearance leads to increased concentration of gaseous iodine. Since organic iodides are also relatively immune to most accident mitigation measures, such as sprays and filters, they can affect the accident source term significantly even when only a small portion of iodine is in organic form. Formation of organic iodides may not be limited by the amount of organic substances available. Excessive amounts of methane can be produced, for example, during oxidation of boron carbide, which is used in BWR`s as a neutron absorber material. Another important source is cable insulation. In a BWR, a large quantity of cables is placed below the pressure vessel. Thus a large quantity of pyrolyse gases will be produced, should the vessel fail. Organic iodides can be formed as a result of many different reactions, but at least in certain conditions the main reaction takes place between an organic radical produced by radiolysis and elemental iodine. A necessary requirement for prevention of organic iodide production is therefore that the pH in the containment water pools is kept high enough to eliminate formation of elemental iodine. In a typical BWR the suppression pool water is usually unbuffered. As a result, the pH may be dominated by chemicals introduced during an accident. If no system for adding basic chemicals is operable, the main factor affecting pool water pH may be hydrochloric acid released during cable degradation. Should this occur, the conditions could be very favorable for production of elemental iodine and, consequently, formation of organic iodides. Although high pH is necessary for iodine retention, it could have also adverse effects. High pH may, for example, accelerate corrosion of containment materials and alter the characteristics of the solid corrosion products. (author) 6 figs., 1 tab., 13 refs.

  5. Irradiation damage in aluminium single crystals produced by 50-keV aluminium and copper ions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, L.; Johansen, A.; Koch, J.;

    1968-01-01

    Aluminium single crystals, thin enough to be examined by electron microscopy, have been irradiated with 50-keV aluminium and copper ions. The irradiation fluxes were in the range 1011–1014 cm−2 s−1 and the doses were from 6 × 1012 to 6 × 1014 cm−2. Irradiation along either a or a direction produc...

  6. Chloride, bromide and iodide scintillators with europium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuravleva, Mariya; Yang, Kan

    2016-09-27

    A halide scintillator material is disclosed where the halide may comprise chloride, bromide or iodide. The material is single-crystalline and has a composition of the general formula ABX.sub.3 where A is an alkali, B is an alkali earth and X is a halide which general composition was investigated. In particular, crystals of the formula ACa.sub.1-yEu.sub.yI.sub.3 where A=K, Rb and Cs were formed as well as crystals of the formula CsA.sub.1-yEu.sub.yX.sub.3 (where A=Ca, Sr, Ba, or a combination thereof and X=Cl, Br or I or a combination thereof) with divalent Europium doping where 0.ltoreq.y.ltoreq.1, and more particularly Eu doping has been studied at one to ten mol %. The disclosed scintillator materials are suitable for making scintillation detectors used in applications such as medical imaging and homeland security.

  7. Flexural buckling of fire exposed aluminium columns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maljaars, J.; Twilt, L.; Soetens, F.

    2009-01-01

    In order to study buckling of fire exposed aluminium columns, a finite element model is developed. The results of this model are verified with experiments. Based on a parametric study with the finite element model, it is concluded that the simple calculation model for flexural buckling of fire expos

  8. Aluminium building and civil engineering structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soetens, F.; Mennink, J.

    1999-01-01

    The design of aluminium structures in building and civil engineering applications is different from designing in traditional materials. This difference is based on the physical and mechanical properties of the material and the freedom of cross-sectional shape provided by the extrusion manufacturing

  9. Dissolved aluminium in the Southern Ocean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middag, R.; van Slooten, C.; de Baar, H. J. W.; Laan, P.

    2011-01-01

    Dissolved aluminium (Al) occurs in a wide range of concentrations in the world oceans. The concentrations of Al in the Southern Ocean are among the lowest ever observed. An all-titanium CTD sampling system makes it possible to study complete deep ocean sections of Al and other trace elements with th

  10. Aluminium overhead highway traffic sign structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Courage, W.M.G.; Soetens, F.; Noordzij, R.; Drabbels, J.

    1998-01-01

    This paper deals with the design and manufacturing of aluminium overhead sign structures. These gantries are built up by using two X-shaped column frames connected by a triangular space frame girder. Slenderness and a low solidity ratio were objectives in the architectonic design. Braces and main ch

  11. Steam generated conversion coating on aluminium alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Din, Rameez Ud; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl; Ambat, Rajan

    pressure steam produced by an autoclave at a temperature of 107 – 121 °C and pressure of 15 -17 psi for 10 minutes to produce a thin coating of aluminium oxide. The aim of this study is to understand the effect of high pressure steam with and without different chemical additives on surface morphology...

  12. Molecular breeding of cereals for aluminium resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aluminium (Al3+) toxicity is the primary factor limiting crop production on acidic soils worldwide. In addition to an application of lime for soil amelioration, Al3+ resistant plant varieties have been deployed to raise productivity on such hostile soils. This has been possible due to the exploita...

  13. Indentation of aluminium foam at low velocity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi Xiaopeng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The indentation behaviour of aluminium foams at low velocity (10 m/s ∼ 30 m/s was investigated both in experiments and numerical simulation in this paper. A flat-ended indenter was used and the force-displacement history was recorded. The Split Hopkinson Pressure bar was used to obtain the indentation velocity and forces in the dynamic experiments. Because of the low strength of the aluminium foam, PMMA bar was used, and the experimental data were corrected using Bacon's method. The energy absorption characteristics varying with impact velocity were then obtained. It was found that the energy absorption ability of aluminium foam gradually increases in the quasi-static regime and shows a significant increase at ∼10 m/s velocity. Numerical simulation was also conducted to investigate this process. A 3D Voronoi model was used and models with different relative densities were investigated as well as those with different failure strain. The indentation energy increases with both the relative density and failure strain. The analysis of the FE model implies that the significant change in energy absorption ability of aluminium foam in indentation at ∼10 m/s velocity may be caused by plastic wave effect.

  14. Electrochemical reaction rates in a dye-sensitised solar cell - the iodide/tri-iodide redox system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, L.; West, K.; Winther-Jensen, B.

    2006-01-01

    The electrochemical reaction rate of the redox couple iodide/tri-iodide in acetonitrile is characterised by impedance spectroscopy. Different electrode materials relevant for the function of dye-sensitised solar cells (DSSC) are investigated. Preferably, the reaction with the iodide....../tri-iodide couple should be fast at the counter electrode, i.e. this electrode must have a high catalytic activity towards the redox couple, and the same reaction must be slow on the photo electrode. The catalytic activity is investigated for platinum, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT), polypyrrole (PPy......), and polyaniline (PANI)-all deposited onto fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) glass. Both Pt and PEDOT are found to have sufficiently high catalytic activities for practical use as counter electrodes in DSSC. The reaction resistance on FTO and anatase confirmed the beneficial effect of a compact anatase layer on top...

  15. Iodide kinetics and experimental I-131 therapy in a xenotransplanted human sodium-iodide symporter-transfected human follicular thyroid carcinoma cell line

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, J.W.A.; Elst, van der J.P.; Karperien, M.; Que, I.; Stokkel, M.; Heide, van der D.; Romijn, J.A.

    2002-01-01

    Uptake of iodide is a prerequisite for radioiodide therapy in thyroid cancer. However, loss of iodide uptake is frequently observed in metastasized thyroid cancer, which may be explained by diminished expression of the human sodium-iodide symporter (hNIS). We studied whether transfection of hNIS int

  16. Molecular imaging using sodium iodide symporter (NIS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Je Yoel [School of Dentistry, Kyungpook National Univ., Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-04-01

    Radioiodide uptake in thyroid follicular epithelial cells, mediated by a plasma membrane transporter, sodium iodide symporter (NIS), provides a first step mechanism for thyroid cancer detection by radioiodide injection and effective radioiodide treatment for patients with invasive, recurrent, and/or metastatic thyroid cancers after total thyroidectomy. NIS gene transfer to tumor cells may significantly and specifically enhance internal radioactive accumulation of tumors following radioiodide administration, and result in better tumor control. NIS gene transfers have been successfully performed in a variety of tumor animal models by either plasmid-mediated transfection or virus (adenovirus or retrovirus)-mediated gene delivery. These animal models include nude mice xenografted with human melanoma, glioma, breast cancer of prostate cancer, rats with subcutaneous thyroid tumor implantation, as well as the rat intracranial glioma model. In these animal models, non-invasive imaging of in vivo tumors by gamma camera scintigraphy after radioiodide or technetium injection has been performed successfully, suggesting that the NIS can serve as an imaging reporter gene for gene therapy trials. In addition, the tumor killing effects of I-131, ReO4-188 and At-211 after NIS gene transfer have been demonstrated in in vitro clonogenic assays and in vivo radioiodide therapy studies, suggesting that NIS gene can also serve as a therapeutic requires a more efficient and specific system of gene delivery with better retention of radioiodide in tumor. Results thus far are, however, promising, and suggest that NIS gene transfer followed by radioiodide treatment will allow non-invasive in vivo imaging to assess the outcome of gene therapy and provide a therapeutic strategy for a variety of human diseases.

  17. Evaluation of mercuric iodide ceramic semiconductor detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schieber, M.; Zuck, A.; Braiman, M.; Nissenbaum, J. [Hebrew Univ., Jerusalem (Israel); Turchetta, R.; Dulinski, W.; Husson, D.; Riester, J.L. [LEPSI (ULP/IN2P3), Strasbourg (France)

    1998-02-01

    Mercuric iodide ceramic radiation detectors, which can act as nuclear particle counters, have been fabricated with single continuos electrical contacts and with linear strip contacts. They have been tested with different kinds of {gamma} and {beta} sources as well as in a high energy beam at CERN. The detectors were also successfully tested for radiation hardness with irradiation of 5*10{sup 14} neutrons/cm{sup 2}. The ratio of detected photons over the number of absorbed photons has been measured with {gamma} sources of different energies, and it ranges from 20% at 44 keV up to about 30% at 660 keV. An absolute efficiency of 70% has been measured for a 350 {mu}m thick detector for {beta} particles emitted by a {sup 90}Sr source. Charge collection efficiency, defined as the amount of charge induced on the electrodes by a mminimum ionizing particle (MIP) traversing the detector, has been measured in two samples. The average collected charge fits well with a linear curve with slope of 35 electrons/(kV/cm) per 100 {mu}m. This result is well described by a dynamic device simulation, where the free carrier mean lifetime is used as a free parameter, adjusted to a value of 1.5 ns, i.e. about 1/100 of the corresponding lifetime in single crystal HgI{sub 2} detectors. The response to MIP has also been studied with a high energy (100 GeV) muon beam in CERN. A preliminary beam profile is presented while a more detailed analysis is still in progress and will be presented elsewhere. These results together with the low cost of the material make ceramic HgI{sub 2} detectors excellent candidates for large area particle tracking and imaging applications, even in a radiation harsh environment. (orig.). 14 refs.

  18. Aluminium in brain tissue in familial Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirza, Ambreen; King, Andrew; Troakes, Claire; Exley, Christopher

    2017-03-01

    The genetic predispositions which describe a diagnosis of familial Alzheimer's disease can be considered as cornerstones of the amyloid cascade hypothesis. Essentially they place the expression and metabolism of the amyloid precursor protein as the main tenet of disease aetiology. However, we do not know the cause of Alzheimer's disease and environmental factors may yet be shown to contribute towards its onset and progression. One such environmental factor is human exposure to aluminium and aluminium has been shown to be present in brain tissue in sporadic Alzheimer's disease. We have made the first ever measurements of aluminium in brain tissue from 12 donors diagnosed with familial Alzheimer's disease. The concentrations of aluminium were extremely high, for example, there were values in excess of 10μg/g tissue dry wt. in 5 of the 12 individuals. Overall, the concentrations were higher than all previous measurements of brain aluminium except cases of known aluminium-induced encephalopathy. We have supported our quantitative analyses using a novel method of aluminium-selective fluorescence microscopy to visualise aluminium in all lobes of every brain investigated. The unique quantitative data and the stunning images of aluminium in familial Alzheimer's disease brain tissue raise the spectre of aluminium's role in this devastating disease.

  19. Microemulsion extraction separation and determination of aluminium species by spectrofluorimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jusheng; Tian, Jiuying; Guo, Na; Wang, Yan; Pan, Yichun

    2011-01-30

    A simple and sensitive microemulsion extraction separation method was developed for the speciation of aluminium in tea samples by spectrofluorimetry. With 8-hydroxyquinoline (8-HQ) as the chelating agent and Triton X-100 Winsor II microemulsion as the extractant, separation of aluminium species in different pH solutions was achieved by microemulsion extraction. The formation of microemulsion, the conditions of extraction and determination of aluminium species were studied. The results showed that, the contents of aluminium species in tea leaves and infusions samples, such as total aluminium, total soluble aluminium, total granular aluminium, inorganic aluminium except Al-F, and (Al-F+Al-org), were obtained successfully under the optimal conditions. The limit of detection was 0.23 μg L(-1) in pH 9.5 solution, and 0.59 μg L(-1) in pH 6.0 solution respectively; the precision (RSD) for 11 replicate measurements of 10 μg L(-1) aluminium was 2.1% in pH 9.5 solution, and 2.8% in pH 6.0 solution respectively; the recoveries for the spiked samples were 96.8-103.5%. The proposed method is simple and efficient, which has been applied to the speciation of aluminium in tea samples with satisfactory results.

  20. Feet sunk in molten aluminium: The burn and its prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Peña, David; Arnáiz-García, María Elena; Valero-Gasalla, Javier Luis; Arnáiz-García, Ana María; Campillo-Campaña, Ramón; Alonso-Peña, Javier; González-Santos, Jose María; Fernández-Díaz, Alaska Leonor; Arnáiz, Javier

    2015-08-01

    Nowadays, despite improvements in safety rules and inspections in the metal industry, foundry workers are not free from burn accidents. Injuries caused by molten metals include burns secondary to molten iron, aluminium, zinc, copper, brass, bronze, manganese, lead and steel. Molten aluminium is one of the most common causative agents of burns (60%); however, only a few publications exist concerning injuries from molten aluminium. The main mechanisms of lesion from molten aluminium include direct contact of the molten metal with the skin or through safety apparel, or when the metal splash burns through the pants and rolls downward along the leg. Herein, we report three cases of deep dermal burns after 'soaking' the foot in liquid aluminium and its evolutive features. This paper aims to show our experience in the management of burns due to molten aluminium. We describe the current management principles and the key features of injury prevention.

  1. What is the risk of aluminium as a neurotoxin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exley, Christopher

    2014-06-01

    Aluminium is neurotoxic. Its free ion, Al(3+) (aq), is highly biologically reactive and uniquely equipped to do damage to essential cellular (neuronal) biochemistry. This unequivocal fact must be the starting point in examining the risk posed by aluminium as a neurotoxin in humans. Aluminium is present in the human brain and it accumulates with age. The most recent research demonstrates that a significant proportion of individuals older than 70 years of age have a potentially pathological accumulation of aluminium somewhere in their brain. What are the symptoms of chronic aluminium intoxication in humans? What if neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease are the manifestation of the risk of aluminium as a neurotoxin? How might such an (outrageous) hypothesis be tested?

  2. Photoluminescence from Nd Doped Anodic Aluminium Oxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Zhang-Kai; PENG Xiao-Niu; SU Xiong-Rui; HAO Zhong-Hua

    2009-01-01

    We prepare Nd doped anodic aluminium oxide (Nd:AAO) template by using Nd doped aluminium foils through two-step anodization processes. Photoluminescence (PL) from the Nd:AAO template with the annealing temper-ature higher than 400℃ is observed, and the PL intensity enhanced with the increasing annealing temperature is found. We investigate the crystallization of Nd:AAO template and the excitation wavelength dependence of PL intensity, showing that the PL results from the Nd doped in the template. The approach presented may probably facilitate the fabricating of AAO with good light-emitting property, which can be used in fabrication of multifunctional nanosized films and may find applications in photonic devices.

  3. Nanoporous Aluminium Oxide Membranes as Cell Interfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorothea Brüggemann

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanoporous anodic aluminium oxide (AAO has become increasingly important in biomedical applications over the past years due to its biocompatibility, increased surface area, and the possibility to tailor this nanomaterial with a wide range of surface modifications. AAO nanopores are formed in an inexpensive anodisation process of pure aluminium, which results in the self-assembly of highly ordered, vertical nanochannels with well-controllable pore diameters, depths, and interpore distances. Because of these outstanding properties AAO nanopores have become excellent candidates as nanostructured substrates for cell-interface studies. In this comprehensive review previous surveys on cell adhesion and proliferation on different AAO nanopore geometries and surface modifications are highlighted and summarised tabularly. Future applications of nanoporous alumina membranes in biotechnology and medicine are also outlined, for instance, the use of nanoporous AAO as implant modifications, coculture substrates, or immunoisolation devices.

  4. The Friction of Saline Ice on Aluminium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Wallen-Russell

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The friction of ice on other materials controls loading on offshore structures and vessels in the Arctic. However, ice friction is complicated, because ice in nature exists near to its melting point. Frictional heating can cause local softening and perhaps melting and lubrication, thus affecting the friction and creating a feedback loop. Ice friction is therefore likely to depend on sliding speed and sliding history, as well as bulk temperature. The roughness of the sliding materials may also affect the friction. Here we present results of a series of laboratory experiments, sliding saline ice on aluminium, and controlling for roughness and temperature. We find that the friction of saline ice on aluminium μice-al=0.1 typically, but that this value varies with sliding conditions. We propose physical models which explain the variations in sliding friction.

  5. Macrosegregation during Plane Front Solidification of Cesium Iodide wt Percent Thallium Iodide Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidawi, Ibrahim M. S.

    Macrosegregation produced during directional solidification of CsI-1 wt% TlI by vertical Bridgman technique has been examined in crucibles of varying diameter, from 0.5 to 2.0 cm. Phase diagram and temperature dependence of the thermal conductivity have been determined. The experimentally observed liquid-solid interface shape and the fluid flow behavior have been compared with that computed from the commercially available code FIDAP. Thallium iodide content of the alloy was observed to increase along the length of the directionally solidified specimens, resulting in continuously decreasing light output. The experimentally observed solutal distribution agrees with predictions from the boundary layer model of Favier. The observed macrosegregation behavior suggests that there is a significant convection in the melt even in the smallest crucible diameter of 0.5 cm.

  6. Bismuth tri-iodide radiation detector development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokhale, Sasmit S.

    Bismuth tri-iodide is an attractive material for room temperature radiation detection. BiI3 demonstrates a number of properties that are apt for semiconductor radiation detection, especially gamma ray spectroscopy. The high atomic number (ZBi = 83 and ZI = 53) and the relatively high density (5.78 g/cm3) cause the material to have good photon stopping power, while the large band-gap (1.67 eV ) allows it to function as a room temperature radiation detector without any cooling mechanism. This work presents the fabrication and characterization of BiI3 radiation detectors. For the purpose of this research detectors were fabricated by cutting BiI3 crystal boules, followed by mechanical and chemical surface treatments. Detectors with various electrode geometries enabling single polarity charge sensing were fabricated. The electrical characteristics and the radiation response of the detectors were measured. The radiation response measurement was performed at room temperature using a 241Am alpha particle source and a 241Am sealed gamma-ray source. The spectral resolutions of the detectors varied from 2.09% - 6.1% for 59.5 keV gamma-rays and between 26% - 40% for 5.48 MeV alpha particles. Charge carrier properties such as the electron and hole mobility and lifetime were also estimated. The electron mobility for an ultrapure BiI 3 detector was estimated to be approximately 433 cm 2/Vs while that for antimony doped BiI3 was estimated to be around 956 cm2/Vs and the mobility-lifetime product for electrons was estimated to be around 5.44 x 10-4 cm 2/V. Detector simulation was performed using the Monte Carlo simulation code MCNP5. A Matlab script which incorporates charge carrier trapping and statistical variation was written to generate a gamma-ray spectrum from the simulated energy deposition spectra. Measured and simulated spectra were compared to extract the charge carrier mobility-lifetime products, which for electrons and holes were estimated to be 5 x 10-3 cm2/V and 1.3 x

  7. Multiply-negatively charged aluminium clusters and fullerenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, Noelle

    2008-07-15

    Multiply negatively charged aluminium clusters and fullerenes were generated in a Penning trap using the 'electron-bath' technique. Aluminium monoanions were generated using a laser vaporisation source. After this, two-, three- and four-times negatively charged aluminium clusters were generated for the first time. This research marks the first observation of tetra-anionic metal clusters in the gas phase. Additionally, doubly-negatively charged fullerenes were generated. The smallest fullerene dianion observed contained 70 atoms. (orig.)

  8. Improvement of photodynamic activity of aluminium sulphophthalocyanine due to biotinylation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meerovich, Irina G.; Jerdeva, Victoria V.; Derkacheva, Valentina M.; Meerovich, Gennadii A.; Lukyanets, Eugeny A.; Kogan, Eugenia A.; Savitsky, Alexander P.

    2003-09-01

    The photodynamic activity of dibiotinylated aluminium sulphophthalocyanine in vitro and in vivo were studied. It was obtained that in vitro dibiotinylated aluminium sulphophthalocyanine provides the effective damage of small cell lung carcinoma OAT-75. In vivo dibiotinylated aluminium sulphophthalocyanine causes destruction of tumor (Erlich carcinoma), results in total necrosis of tumor tissue and expresses vascular damage (trombosis and destruction of vascular walls) even in concentration 0.25 mg/kg of a body weight.

  9. Usage of Neural Network to Predict Aluminium Oxide Layer Thickness

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    This paper shows an influence of chemical composition of used electrolyte, such as amount of sulphuric acid in electrolyte, amount of aluminium cations in electrolyte and amount of oxalic acid in electrolyte, and operating parameters of process of anodic oxidation of aluminium such as the temperature of electrolyte, anodizing time, and voltage applied during anodizing process. The paper shows the influence of those parameters on the resulting thickness of aluminium oxide layer. The impact of...

  10. Corrosion of Metal-Matrix Composites with Aluminium Alloy Substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Bobic

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The corrosion behaviour of MMCs with aluminium alloy matrix was presented. The corrosion characteristics of boron-, graphite-, silicon carbide-, alumina- and mica- reinforced aluminium MMCs were reviewed. The reinforcing phase influence on MMCs corrosion rate as well as on various corrosion forms (galvanic, pitting, stress corrosion cracking, corrosion fatique, tribocorrosion was discussed. Some corrosion protection methods of aluminium based MMCs were described

  11. Un-optimistic Prospects for the Westward Movement of Aluminium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>The westward movement of aluminium is essential for the industrial development.Up till now,the northwestern area has planned to construct more than 40 aluminium projects with a total production capacity of over 20 million tons.The future rate of progress of newly constructed projects are directly related to the supplies of the aluminium market,having critical guiding meaning for the trends of

  12. Wearing tests on aluminium coated with diamond by triboadhesion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J.M.RodríguezLelis; B.D.Angulo; J.O.Colín; J.PorcayoCalderón

    2001-01-01

    In this work the results obtained from subjecting aluminium coated with diamond by tri-boadhesion to a wearing process with a plane rider. Here it is shown the ratio of the normal toshearing forces, called friction factor, as an indication of the resistance of the surface. It was foundthat the film of the aluminium coated with diamond resisted three times compared with the oxida-tion film of commercial aluminium, which for the purpose of this work was considered withoutcoating.

  13. Friction factor of CP aluminium and aluminium–zinc alloys

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    N Vidhya Sagar; K S Anand; A C Mithun; K Srinivasan

    2006-12-01

    Friction factor has been determined for CP aluminium and aluminium–zinc alloys using ring compression test at different temperatures from 303 K to 773 K. It is found that CP aluminium exhibits sticking whereas Al–Zn alloys do not exhibit sticking at elevated temperatures. Hot working of Al–Zn alloy is easier than that of CP aluminium at 773 K. As zinc content increases up to 10 wt% the friction factor decreases up to 0.02.

  14. Telangiectasia in aluminium workers: a follow up.

    OpenAIRE

    Thériault, G.; Gingras, S.; Provencher, S

    1984-01-01

    A five step investigation was carried out to gain a better understanding of the morbidity that accompanied the development of telangiectasia on aluminium workers and to find its cause. Fifty workers with multiple telangiectasia when matched with normal controls showed the same amount of illness except that evidence of ischaemia on the ECG was found in nine cases and one control. The cases did not show an excess of abnormal biochemical tests. The basic histopathological lesion affected the sur...

  15. Welding distortion of aluminium structural members

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goglio, L. [Politecnico di Torino (Italy). Dept. of Mech.; Gugliotta, A. [Politecnico di Torino (Italy). Dept. of Mech.; Pasquino, D. [Politecnico di Torino (Italy). Dept. of Mech.

    1996-12-31

    The paper deals with the angular distortion induced in aluminium tubular beams during welding to prepare T junctions. The research, based on experimental measurements, makes use of statistical methods to identify the parameters (beam section, weld length, welding direction, etc.) that influence the angular change. The results are discussed also considering a model known from the literature. It is found that the distortion is generally low and can be minimized by a proper welding process. (orig.)

  16. China will Reduce Aluminium Export in 2005

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    <正>Starting from January 1, 2005, China eliminated the 8 per cent export tax rebate for aluminium, and further more, the exporters will have to pay 5 per cent export tax. This is beyond the expectations of the producers, for most of them thought only the 8 per cent export tax rebate would be eliminated and it was still too early to add the export tax.

  17. Standard free energy of formation of iron iodide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandkar, A.; Tare, V. B.; Wagner, J. B., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    An experiment is reported where silver iodide is used to determine the standard free energy of formation of iron iodide. By using silver iodide as a solid electrolyte, a galvanic cell, Ag/AgI/Fe-FeI2, is formulated. The standard free energy of formation of AgI is known, and hence it is possible to estimate the standard free energy of formation of FeI2 by measuring the open-circuit emf of the above cell as a function of temperature. The free standard energy of formation of FeI2 determined by this method is -38784 + 24.165T cal/mol. It is estimated that the maximum error associated with this method is plus or minus 2500 cal/mol.

  18. Phase 1 Methyl Iodide Deep-Bed Adsorption Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soelberg, Nick [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Watson, Tony [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-08-22

    Nuclear fission results in the production of fission products (FPs) and activation products including iodine-129, which could evolve into used fuel reprocessing facility off-gas systems, and could require off-gas control to limit air emissions to levels within acceptable emission limits. Research, demonstrations, and some reprocessing plant experience have indicated that diatomic iodine can be captured with efficiencies high enough to meet regulatory requirements. Research on the capture of organic iodides has also been performed, but to a lesser extent [Jubin 2012b]. Several questions remain open regarding the capture of iodine bound in organic compounds. Deep-bed methyl iodide adsorption testing has progressed according to a multi-laboratory methyl iodide adsorption test plan. This report summarizes the first phase of methyl iodide adsorption work performed according to this test plan using the deep-bed iodine adsorption test system at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), performed during Fiscal Year (FY) 2013 and early FY-2014. Testing has been performed to address questions posed in the test plan, and followed the testing outline in the test plan. Tests established detection limits, developed procedures for sample analysis with minimal analytical interferences, and confirmed earlier results that show that the methyl iodide reacts when in contact with the AgZ sorbent, and not significantly in the gas flow upstream of the sorbent. The reaction(s) enable separation of the iodine from the organic moiety, so that the iodine can chemisorb onto the sorbent. The organic moiety can form other compounds, some of which are organic compounds that are detected and can be tentatively identified using GC-FID and GCMS. Test results also show that other gas constituents (NOx and/or H2O) can affect the methyl iodide reactions. With NOx and H2O present in the gas stream, the majority of uncaptured iodine exiting iodine-laden sorbent beds is in the form of I2 or HI, species that

  19. Thermal formation of corundum from aluminium hydroxides prepared from various aluminium salts

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J Temuujin; Ts JADAMBAA; K J D Mackenzie; P Angerer; F Porte; F Riley

    2000-08-01

    Aluminium hydroxides have been precipitated from various aluminium salts and the differences in their thermal behaviour have been investigated. Pseudoboehmite derived from the nitrate, sulfate and chloride all form -Al2O3 at ∼ 400°C but the formation of -Al2O3 at 1200°C occurs more readily in the material derived from the sulfate. This contains a higher concentration of anionic impurities related to differences in the solubility of the original aluminium salts. The sulfate is retained in the gel to higher temperatures at which its eventual decomposition may lead to the formation of a reactive pore structure which facilitates the nucleation of -Al2O3.

  20. Structural engineering of nanoporous anodic aluminium oxide by pulse anodization of aluminium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Woo; Schwirn, Kathrin; Steinhart, Martin; Pippel, Eckhard; Scholz, Roland; Gösele, Ulrich

    2008-04-01

    Nanoporous anodic aluminium oxide has traditionally been made in one of two ways: mild anodization or hard anodization. The first method produces self-ordered pore structures, but it is slow and only works for a narrow range of processing conditions; the second method, which is widely used in the aluminium industry, is faster, but it produces films with disordered pore structures. Here we report a novel approach termed "pulse anodization" that combines the advantages of the mild and hard anodization processes. By designing the pulse sequences it is possible to control both the composition and pore structure of the anodic aluminium oxide films while maintaining high throughput. We use pulse anodization to delaminate a single as-prepared anodic film into a stack of well-defined nanoporous alumina membrane sheets, and also to fabricate novel three-dimensional nanostructures.

  1. Synthesis of aluminium nanoparticles by arc evaporation of an aluminium cathode surface

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Gazanfari; M Karimzadeh; S Ghorbani; M R Sadeghi; G Azizi; H Karimi; N Fattahi; Z Karimzadeh

    2014-06-01

    Aluminium nanoparticles (Al Nps) are synthesized using arc discharge method by applying direct current between aluminium electrodes in liquid environment without any use of vacuum equipment, heat exchangers, high temperatures furnaces and inert gases. After synthesis of Al Nps, in situ coating process on the nanoparticles was performed immediately. The effects of media on the yield and morphology of aluminium nanoparticles were investigated. Analysis result of the samples indicated that particle size was less than 30 nm, when 120 A/cm2 arc current was used. In addition, coating agent can affect arc velocity, arc stability, morphology and composition of the nanoparticles. Resultant nanoparticles were identified using X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), also their surface morphology was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and finally the accuracy of coating was assessed with infrared (IR) spectroscopy.

  2. Friction stir welding (FSW of aluminium foam sandwich panels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bušić

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the influence of welding speed and tool tilt angle upon the mechanical properties at the friction stir welding of aluminium foam sandwich panels. Double side welding was used for producing butt welds of aluminium sandwich panels applying insertion of extruded aluminium profile. Such insertion provided lower pressure of the tool upon the aluminium panels, providing also sufficient volume of the material required for the weldment formation. Ultimate tensile strength and flexural strength for three-point bending test have been determined for samples taken from the welded joints. Results have confirmed anticipated effects of independent variables.

  3. A Reaction Coating on Aluminium Alloys by Laser Processing

    OpenAIRE

    1993-01-01

    An aluminium oxide layer of 100 µm in thickness has been successfully coated on aluminium alloy 6061 and pure aluminium using a powder mixture of silicon oxide and aluminium by laser processing. A strong Al/Al2O3 interface was formed. The exothermic chemical reaction between SiO2 and Al may promote the metal/oxide wetting and the formation of Al2O3 layer. This new approach of ceramic coating on metals using a chemical reaction of other ceramics with metals may be applied to other systems.

  4. Low energy background in mercuric iodide X-ray spectrometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bao, X.J. [TN Technol., Inc., Round Rock, TX (United States). Dept. of Anal. Instrum.; Natarajan, M. [TN Technol., Inc., Round Rock, TX (United States). Dept. of Anal. Instrum.; Henderson, J. [TN Technol., Inc., Round Rock, TX (United States). Dept. of Anal. Instrum.

    1996-10-01

    The origins of the continuous background (window effect or dead layer) in mercuric iodide X-ray spectrometers are investigated. It is found that photo-electron escape and carrier diffusion are the dominant mechanisms of incomplete charge collection in the energy range of interest (from 3-60 keV). X-ray spectra measurements, computer calculation and photo-response measurements are presented in support of the proposed model. Many observations of detector behavior made in the manufacturing and application of mercuric iodide X-ray detectors can be explained by this model. (orig.).

  5. Enhanced Olefin Cross Metathesis Reactions: The Copper Iodide Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigtritter, Karl; Ghorai, Subir

    2011-01-01

    Copper iodide has been shown to be an effective co-catalyst for the olefin cross metathesis reaction. In particular, it has both a catalyst stabilizing effect due to iodide ion, as well as copper(I)-based phosphine-scavenging properties that apply to use of the Grubbs-2 catalyst. A variety of Michael acceptors and olefinic partners can be cross-coupled under mild conditions in refluxing diethyl ether that avoid chlorinated solvents. This effect has also been applied to chemistry in water at room temperature using the new surfactant TPGS-750-M. PMID:21528868

  6. DBU-Promoted Trifluoromethylation of Aryl Iodides with Difluoromethyltriphenylphosphonium Bromide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yun Wei; Liuying Yu; Jinhong Lin; Xing Zheng; Jichang Xiao

    2016-01-01

    DBU-promoted trifluoromethylation of aryl iodides with difluoromethyltriphenylphosphonium bromide (DFPB) in the presence of copper source is described.In this transformation,DBU not only acts as base to deprotonate the difluoromethyl group in DFPB to generate difluoromethylene phosphonium ylide Ph3P+CF2,but also converts the difluorocarbene generated from ylide Ph3P+CF2 into trifluoromethyl anion,finally resulting in the trifluoromethylation of aryl iodides.The reactions proceeded smoothly to afford expected products in moderate to good yields.

  7. Mercuric iodide dosimeter response to high energy electron beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loewinger, E.; Nissenbaum, J.; Schieber, M.M.

    1988-01-01

    Mercuric iodide solid state dosimeter response to high energy electron beams of up to 35 MeV is reported. High sensitivity of up to 1.5 V/cGy was observed with a 200 V external bias, as well as several mV/cGy, with no external bias for small volume (approx. 10 mm/sup 3/) detectors. The physical characteristics of the detector response are discussed, showing the feasibility of mercuric iodide as a reliable dosimeter for high energy electron beams.

  8. A new synthesis process for aluminium nitride. Nouveau procede de synthese du nitrure d'aluminium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haussonne, J.M. (CNET, Centre Lannion B, 22 (France)); Lostec, J. (CNET, Centre Lannion B, 22 (France)); Bertot, J.P. (CNET, Centre Lannion B, 22 (France)); Lostec, L. (CNET, Centre Lannion B, 22 (France)); Sadou, S. (CNET, Centre Lannion B, 22 (France))

    1993-04-01

    Thermodynamic considerations show that, even at room temperature, pure aluminium can react with nitrogen to form the aluminium nitride AlN. However, pure aluminium does not exist: it is always surrounded by an alumina shell that protects the metal from further reactions. Furthermore, in the hypothesis where one has been able to make aluminium react with nitrogen, an aluminium nitride shell will protect as well the metal core from further oxidation. Prompted by the Lanxide process allowing to form Al/Al[sub 2]O[sub 3] composites, we have mixed aluminium powders with lithium salts, and easily synthesized pure aluminium nitride by heating the mixed powders in nitrigen at temperatures ranging from 800 to 1200 C. Starting from aluminium powders with a specific area ranging from 0.3 to 4 m[sup 2]/g, we have been able to produce aluminium nitride with specific are ranging from 1 to 20 m[sup 2]/g. Mixed with Y[sub 2]O[sub 3]-CaO and sintered at 1720 C in N[sub 2], we obtained AlN ceramics owning 92% density and 160 W/m.K thermal conductivity. (orig.).

  9. There is (still too much aluminium in infant formulas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burrell Shelle-Ann M

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infant formulas are sophisticated milk-based feeds for infants which are used as a substitute for breast milk. Historically they are known to be contaminated by aluminium and in the past this has raised health concerns for exposed infants. We have measured the aluminium content of a number of widely used infant formulas to determine if their contamination by aluminium and consequent issues of child health persists. Methods Samples of ready-made milks and powders used to make milks were prepared by microwave digestion of acid/peroxide mixtures and their aluminium content determined by THGA. Results The concentration of aluminium in ready-made milks varied from ca 176 to 700 μg/L. The latter concentration was for a milk for preterm infants. The aluminium content of powders used to make milks varied from ca 2.4 to 4.3 μg/g. The latter content was for a soya-based formula and equated to a ready-to-drink milk concentration of 629 μg/L. Using the manufacturer's own guidelines of formula consumption the average daily ingestion of aluminium from infant formulas for a child of 6 months varied from ca 200 to 600 μg of aluminium. Generally ingestion was higher from powdered as compared to ready-made formulas. Conclusions The aluminium content of a range of well known brands of infant formulas remains high and particularly so for a product designed for preterm infants and a soya-based product designed for infants with cow's milk intolerances and allergies. Recent research demonstrating the vulnerability of infants to early exposure to aluminium serves to highlight an urgent need to reduce the aluminium content of infant formulas to as low a level as is practically possible.

  10. Electrolytic deposition of aluminium-magnesium-alloys from electrolytes containing organo-aluminium complexes; Elektrolytische Abscheidung von Aluminium-Magnesium-Legierungen aus aluminiumorganischen Komplexelektrolyten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehmkuhl, H.; Mehler, K.; Bongard, H.; Tesche, B. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kohlenforschung, Muelheim an der Ruhr (Germany); Reinhold, B. [Audi AG, Ingolstadt (Germany). Technische Entwicklung

    2000-10-01

    The galvanic deposition of pure aluminium from fluoride-containing electrolytes has been developed further and for the first time aluminium and magnesium have been deposited from a toluene-solution of a halide-free organo-aluminium complex electrolyte. The rate of incorporation of magnesium can be controlled over a wide range by either adjusting the composition of the aluminium-magnesium anode or by using separate aluminium or magnesium anodic circuits. The current efficiency for both anode and cathode approaches 100%. The resulting coating is optically attractive and, depending upon the magnesium-content or the cathodic current density, can be formed as a dull or polished surface. Investigations using an electron microscope show that the surface, in contrast to that of pure aluminium, consists of spherical particles. The aluminium-magnesium coating provides excellent protection against the corrosion of magnesium components. Electrochemical investigations using, for example 25% by weight magnesium incorporation, indicate a pronounced passivity interval compared to the alloy AZ91hp. In contrast to galvanic zinc-plated and silicate-sealed examples, cyclic corrosion tests on screws simulating 10 years of exposure, show no corrosion. (orig.)

  11. 40 CFR 415.510 - Applicability; description of the potassium iodide production subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... potassium iodide production subcategory. 415.510 Section 415.510 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SOURCE CATEGORY Potassium Iodide Production Subcategory § 415.510 Applicability; description of the potassium iodide production subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to...

  12. The electrosorption of tetraalkylammonium ions on silver iodide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keizer, de A.

    1981-01-01

    The object of the present investigations was to study the ef fect of the adsorption of charged organic ions on electrically charged, solid-liquid interfaces. To that end, symmetrical quater nary ammonium ions were adsorbed on a silver iodide-electrolyte interface at various surface charges. The elec

  13. Confinement Effects in Low-Dimensional Lead Iodide Perovskite Hybrids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamminga, Machteld E.; Fang, Honghua; Filip, Marina R.; Giustino, Feliciano; Baas, Jacobus; Blake, Graeme R.; Loi, Maria Antonietta; Palstra, Thomas T. M.

    2016-01-01

    We use a layered solution crystal growth technique to synthesize high-quality single crystals of phenylalkylammonium lead iodide organic/inorganic hybrid compounds. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction reveals low-dimensional structures consisting of inorganic sheets separated by bilayers of the organic

  14. Radiation-hard polycrystalline mercuric iodide semiconductor particle counters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schieber, M. [Hebrew Univ., Jerusalem (Israel)]|[Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore Ca 94556 (United States); Zuck, A.; Melekhov, L.; Nissenbaum, J. [Hebrew Univ., Jerusalem (Israel); Turchetta, R.; Dulinski, W.; Husson, D.; Riester, J.L. [LEPSI (ULP/IN2P3), Strasbourg (France)

    1998-06-01

    Mercuric iodide polycrystalline radiation detectors, which can act as nuclear particle counters and for large area imaging devices, have been fabricated using three different methods. Response to X- and gamma rays, beta particles and to 100GeV muons, as well as radiation hardness results are briefly described. (orig.) 8 refs.

  15. 21 CFR 520.763b - Dithiazanine iodide powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ....763b Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... is administered to dogs by mixing the proper dosage in the dog's food, using the following dosage... contraindicated in animals sensitive to dithiazanine iodide and should be used cautiously, if at all, in dogs...

  16. Speciation analysis of aluminium and aluminium fluoride complexes by HPIC-UVVIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankowski, Marcin; Zioła-Frankowska, Anetta

    2010-10-15

    The study presents a new analytical method for speciation analysis in fractionation of aluminium fluoride complexes and free Al(3+) in soil samples. Aluminium speciation was studied in model solutions and soil extract samples by means of high performance ion chromatography (HPIC) with UV-VIS detection using post-column reaction with tiron for the separation and detection of aluminium fluoride complex and Al(3+) forms during one analysis. The paper presents particular stages of the chromatographic process optimization involving selecting the appropriate eluent strength, type of elution or concentration and quantity of derivatization reagent. HPIC was performed on a bifunctional analytical column Dionex IonPac CS5A. The use of gradient elution and the eluents A: 1M NH(4)Cl and B: water acidified to pH of eluent phase, enabled full separation of fluoride aluminium forms as AlF(2)(+), AlF(3)(0), AlF(4)(-) (first signal), AlF(2+) (second signal) and form Al(3+) in a single analytical procedure. The proposed new method HPIC-UVVIS was applied successfully in the quantitative and qualitative analysis of soil samples.

  17. Aluminium and iron air pollution near an iron casting and aluminium foundry in Turin district (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polizzi, Salvatore; Ferrara, Mauro; Bugiani, Massimiliano; Barbero, Domenico; Baccolo, Tiziana

    2007-09-01

    This work reports the results of an environmental survey carried out in an industrial area in the Province of Turin: its main aim is to assess the levels of iron and aluminium in the outside air during the period from July to September to assess the influence of industrial activity (a cast-iron and aluminium foundry) which is interrupted during the month of August, on the level of metals present in the air. Conducting the analysis during this period of time made it possible to avoid the confounding effect of pollution due to domestic central heating. The measurements were taken from nine areas at different distances from the foundry in the area and according to the direction of the prevailing winds, as deduced from the historical data. The results of this survey show a statistically significant difference in iron and aluminium levels in the outside air in the geographic areas between the two main periods examined: during August (no foundry activity) v/s July-September (foundry activity). The values recorded are: Aluminium 0.4+/-0.45 microg/m(3) v/s 1.12+/-1.29 microg/m(3) (pIron 0.95+/-0.56 microg/m(3) v/s 1.6+/-1.0 microg/m(3) (piron tended to be higher in the areas farther away from the foundry site in the areas located along the path of the prevailing winds.

  18. Tailored Aluminium based Coatings for Optical Appearance and Corrosion Resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aggerbeck, Martin

    of these applications, but the use of recycled aluminium compromises this due to the presence of increased levels of impurity and alloying elements. Knowledge on how different alloying elements affect the optical appearance might therefore increase the applicability of recycled aluminium. It was investigated how...

  19. Enhanced corrosion protection by microstructural control of aluminium brazing sheet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Norouzi Afshar, F.

    2013-01-01

    Aluminium brazing sheet is a sandwich material made out of two aluminium alloys (AA4xxx/AA3xxx) and is widely used in automotive heat exchangers. One of the main performance criteria for heat exchanger units is the lifetime of the product. The lifetime of the heat exchanger units is determined by th

  20. CAD implementation of design rules for aluminium extrusion dies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ouwerkerk, van Gijs

    2009-01-01

    Aluminium extrusion is an industrial forming process that is used to produce long profiles of a constant cross-section. This cross-section is shaped by the opening in a steel tool known as the die. The understanding of the mechanics of the aluminium extrusion process is still limited. The flow of al

  1. New Policies to Control the Aluminium Industry Expansion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    <正>Information from China Nonferrous Metals Industry Association (CNIA) shows that new government policies on China’s aluminium industry will be released soon in order to control the rapid expansion of the aluminium industry which consumes large amount of power resources. Based on the new policies, investors of

  2. Aluminium salt slag characterization and utilization--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsakiridis, P E

    2012-05-30

    Aluminium salt slag (also known as aluminium salt cake), which is produced by the secondary aluminium industry, is formed during aluminium scrap/dross melting and contains 15-30% aluminium oxide, 30-55% sodium chloride, 15-30% potassium chloride, 5-7% metallic aluminium and impurities (carbides, nitrides, sulphides and phosphides). Depending on the raw mix the amount of salt slag produced per tonne of secondary aluminium ranges from 200 to 500 kg. As salt slag has been classified as toxic and hazardous waste, it should be managed in compliance with the current legislation. Its landfill disposal is forbidden in most of the European countries and it should be recycled and processed in a proper way by taking the environmental impact into consideration. This paper presents a review of the aluminium salt slag chemical and mineralogical characteristics, as well as various processes for metal recovery, recycling of sodium and potassium chlorides content back to the smelting process and preparation of value added products from the final non metallic residue.

  3. Aluminium removal from water after defluoridation with the electrocoagulation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Richa; Mathur, Sanjay; Brighu, Urmila

    2015-01-01

    Fluoride is the most electronegative element and has a strong affinity for aluminium. Owing to this fact, most of the techniques used for fluoride removal utilized aluminium compounds, which results in high concentrations of aluminium in treated water. In the present paper, a new approach is presented to meet the WHO guideline for residual aluminium concentration as 0.2 mg/L. In the present work, the electrocoagulation (EC) process was used for fluoride removal. It was found that aluminium content in water increases with an increase in the energy input. Therefore, experiments were optimized for a minimum energy input to achieve the target value (0.7 mg/L) of fluoride in resultant water. These optimized sets were used for further investigations of aluminium control. The experimental investigations revealed that use of bentonite clay as coagulant in clariflocculation brings down the aluminium concentration of water below the WHO guideline. Bentonite dose of 2 g/L was found to be the best for efficient removal of aluminium.

  4. Chalco Calls for End of More Control Measures on Aluminium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正> To control the investment rush in electrolyticaluminium in recent years and ensure thehealthy development of China’s aluminium in-dustry, the State Council recently released aseries of adjustment policies and control meas-ures,which effectively prevented theinvestment rush and limited the aluminium out-put growth.

  5. Combined Corrosion and Wear of Aluminium Alloy 7075-T6

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Y.; Mol, J.M.C.; Janssen, G.C.A.M.

    2016-01-01

    The aluminium alloy 7075-T6 is widely used in engineering. In some applications, like slurry transport, corrosion and abrasion occur simultaneously, resulting in early material failure. In the present work, we investigated the combined effect of corrosion and wear on the aluminium alloy 7075-T6. We

  6. FY-2015 Methyl Iodide Deep-Bed Adsorption Test Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soelberg, Nicholas Ray [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Watson, Tony Leroy [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-09-30

    Nuclear fission produces fission and activation products, including iodine-129, which could evolve into used fuel reprocessing facility off-gas systems, and could require off-gas control to limit air emissions to levels within acceptable emission limits. Deep-bed methyl iodide adsorption testing has continued in Fiscal Year 2015 according to a multi-laboratory methyl iodide adsorption test plan. Updates to the deep-bed test system have also been performed to enable the inclusion of evaporated HNO3 and increased NO2 concentrations in future tests. This report summarizes the result of those activities. Test results showed that iodine adsorption from gaseous methyl iodide using reduced silver zeolite (AgZ) resulted in initial iodine decontamination factors (DFs, ratios of uncontrolled and controlled total iodine levels) under 1,000 for the conditions of the long-duration test performed this year (45 ppm CH3I, 1,000 ppm each NO and NO2, very low H2O levels [3 ppm] in balance air). The mass transfer zone depth exceeded the cumulative 5-inch depth of 4 bed segments, which is deeper than the 2-4 inch depth estimated for the mass transfer zone for adsorbing I2 using AgZ in prior deep-bed tests. The maximum iodine adsorption capacity for the AgZ under the conditions of this test was 6.2% (6.2 g adsorbed I per 100 g sorbent). The maximum Ag utilization was 51%. Additional deep-bed testing and analyses are recommended to (a) expand the data base for methyl iodide adsorption and (b) provide more data for evaluating organic iodide reactions and reaction byproducts for different potential adsorption conditions.

  7. Usage of neural network to predict aluminium oxide layer thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michal, Peter; Vagaská, Alena; Gombár, Miroslav; Kmec, Ján; Spišák, Emil; Kučerka, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    This paper shows an influence of chemical composition of used electrolyte, such as amount of sulphuric acid in electrolyte, amount of aluminium cations in electrolyte and amount of oxalic acid in electrolyte, and operating parameters of process of anodic oxidation of aluminium such as the temperature of electrolyte, anodizing time, and voltage applied during anodizing process. The paper shows the influence of those parameters on the resulting thickness of aluminium oxide layer. The impact of these variables is shown by using central composite design of experiment for six factors (amount of sulphuric acid, amount of oxalic acid, amount of aluminium cations, electrolyte temperature, anodizing time, and applied voltage) and by usage of the cubic neural unit with Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm during the results evaluation. The paper also deals with current densities of 1 A · dm(-2) and 3 A · dm(-2) for creating aluminium oxide layer.

  8. Durability of Lacquered Aluminium Profile Considering Tropical Weather Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rigoberto Marrero Águila

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Searching for solutions against the degradation of materials by corrosion effect, is a common practice to use alloys such as aluminium instead of steel due to the advantages obtained. The lacquered aluminium profiles can substitute other materials like wood, in the carpentry production, becoming an economic saving. There is an increasingly use of aluminium replacing other traditional materials in the constructions in process, but its quality has been reduced in a considerable amount of installations. In this research, aluminium profiles from five different sources were submitted to a trial in natural exposition conditions at the Tropical weather condition Testing Lab, in order to evaluate their behaviour and establish, for the first time in our country, standing rules for lacquered aluminium profiles to be strictly fulfilled by manufacturers and importers. The results will allow modifying thickness standards of this type of coating, to guaranty its durability and to eliminate the failures provoked by our high severe weather conditions.

  9. Experimental investigations on mechanical behavior of aluminium metal matrix composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajesh, A. M.; Kaleemulla, Mohammed

    2016-09-01

    Today we are widely using aluminium based metal matrix composite for structural, aerospace, marine and automobile applications for its light weight, high strength and low production cost. The purpose of designing metal matrix composite is to add the desirable attributes of metals and ceramics to the base metal. In this study we developed aluminium metal matrix hybrid composite by reinforced Aluminium7075 alloy with silicon carbide (SiC) and aluminium oxide (alumina) by method of stir casting. This technique is less expensive and very effective. The Hardness test and Wear test were performed on the specimens which are prepared by stir casting techniques. The result reveals that the addition of silicon carbide and alumina particles in aluminium matrix improves the mechanical properties.

  10. Aluminium/iron reinforced polyfurfuryl alcohol resin as advanced biocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Kumar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Aluminium and iron are widely used in construction sectors for the preparation of advanced composites with epoxy resins as matrices. In recent times, there are several reports on the polymerization of polyfufuryl alcohol (PFA a thermoset bioresins from furfuryl alcohol (FA. FA is obtained from waste of sugarcane bagasse. In this work, first the possibility of curing PFA from FA in the presence of aluminium or iron has been explored. Absorbance results from colorimeter/spectrophotometerindicated that the curing of FA to PFA in presence of aluminium started easily while in presence of iron the curing of FA to PFA could not start. Based on the above results, aluminium wire reinforced composites were successfully prepared with three different weight fractions (0.13, 0.09 and 0.07 of aluminium wire. The mechanical properties of these composites were determined theoretically and reported.

  11. Forming of aluminium alloy friction stir welds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruni, Carlo

    2016-10-01

    The present paper aims at investigating, through analytical models, numerical models and experiments, the effect of the warm deformation phase, realised with an in temperature upsetting, on the weld previously performed by friction stir lap welding on aluminium alloy blanks. The investigation allows to show the deformation zones after upsetting that determine the homogenisation of the weld section. The analytical model allows to relate the friction factor with the upsetting load. The presence on the weld of not elevated friction factor values determines the deformation and localisation levels very useful for the weld. Such methodology allows to improve the weld itself with the forming phase.

  12. Friction stir welding of single crystal aluminium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fonda, Richard Warren; Wert, John A.; Reynolds, A.P.

    2007-01-01

    Friction stir welds were prepared in different orientations in an aluminium single crystal. The welds were quenched to preserve the microstructure surrounding the tool and then electron backscattered diffraction was used to reveal the generation of grain boundaries and the evolution...... of crystallographic texture around the tool in each weld. The extent of both dynamic recrystallisation and conventional recrystallisation varied considerably as a function of weld orientation. As the base plate begins to interact with the deformation field surrounding the tool, regions of the single crystal rotate...

  13. CERN: very large magnet with aluminium winding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wittgenstein, F.A.

    1984-10-25

    The construction of an octagonal solenoid from trapezoidal plates of Al, 6m long and 6cm thick, assembled by electron beam welding, for installation in a laboratory 50m underground is described. The objective is to create a field of 0.5T in a volume of 1000m/sup 3/ for the L3 particle detector of the LEP accelerator project. Principal dimensions and weights of the structure are given and its three stages of implementation are described, with reference to the contributions from the Swiss aluminium industry.

  14. Volatilisation and oxidation of aluminium scraps fed into incineration furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biganzoli, Laura, E-mail: laura.biganzoli@mail.polimi.it [Politecnico di Milano, Piazza L. Da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Gorla, Leopoldo; Nessi, Simone; Grosso, Mario [Politecnico di Milano, Piazza L. Da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy)

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Aluminium packaging partitioning in MSW incineration residues is evaluated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The amount of aluminium packaging recoverable from the bottom ashes is evaluated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Aluminium packaging oxidation rate in the residues of MSW incineration is evaluated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 80% of aluminium cans, 51% of trays and 27% of foils can be recovered from bottom ashes. - Abstract: Ferrous and non-ferrous metal scraps are increasingly recovered from municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash and used in the production of secondary steel and aluminium. However, during the incineration process, metal scraps contained in the waste undergo volatilisation and oxidation processes, which determine a loss of their recoverable mass. The present paper evaluates the behaviour of different types of aluminium packaging materials in a full-scale waste to energy plant during standard operation. Their partitioning and oxidation level in the residues of the incineration process are evaluated, together with the amount of potentially recoverable aluminium. About 80% of post-consumer cans, 51% of trays and 27% of foils can be recovered through an advanced treatment of bottom ash combined with a melting process in the saline furnace for the production of secondary aluminium. The residual amount of aluminium concentrates in the fly ash or in the fine fraction of the bottom ash and its recovery is virtually impossible using the current eddy current separation technology. The average oxidation levels of the aluminium in the residues of the incineration process is equal to 9.2% for cans, 17.4% for trays and 58.8% for foils. The differences between the tested packaging materials are related to their thickness, mechanical strength and to the alloy.

  15. Aluminium matrix composites: Challenges and opportunities

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M K Surappa

    2003-02-01

    Aluminium matrix composites (AMCs) refer to the class of light weight high performance aluminium centric material systems. The reinforcement in AMCs could be in the form of continuous/discontinuous fibres, whisker or particulates, in volume fractions ranging from a few percent to 70%. Properties of AMCs can be tailored to the demands of different industrial applications by suitable combinations of matrix, reinforcement and processing route. Presently several grades of AMCs are manufactured by different routes. Three decades of intensive research have provided a wealth of new scientific knowledge on the intrinsic and extrinsic effects of ceramic reinforcement vis-a-vis physical, mechanical, thermo-mechanical and tribological properties of AMCs. In the last few years, AMCs have been utilised in high-tech structural and functional applications including aerospace, defence, automotive, and thermal management areas, as well as in sports and recreation. It is interesting to note that research on particle-reinforced cast AMCs took root in India during the 70’s, attained industrial maturity in the developed world and is currently in the process of joining the mainstream of materials. This paper presents an overview of AMC material systems on aspects relating to processing, microstructure, properties and applications.

  16. Reactions on carbon anodes in aluminium electrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eidet, Trygve

    1997-12-31

    The consumption of carbon anodes and energy in aluminium electrolysis is higher than what is required theoretically. This thesis studies the most important of the reactions that consume anode materials. These reactions are the electrochemical anode reaction and the airburn and carboxy reactions. The first part of the thesis deals with the kinetics and mechanism of the electrochemical anode reaction using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The second part deals with air and carboxy reactivity of carbon anodes and studies the effects of inorganic impurities on the reactivity of carbon anodes in the aluminium industry. Special attention is given to sulphur since its effect on the carbon gasification is not well understood. Sulphur is always present in anodes, and it is expected that the sulphur content of available anode cokes will increase in the future. It has also been suggested that sulphur poisons catalyzing impurities in the anodes. Other impurities that were investigated are iron, nickel and vanadium, which are common impurities in anodes which have been reported to catalyze carbon gasification. 88 refs., 92 figs., 24 tabs.

  17. Defective organification of iodide causing congenital goitrous hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, N; Eguchi, K; Ohmori, T; Momotani, N; Nagayama, Y; Hosoya, T; Oguchi, H; Mimura, T; Kimura, S; Nagataki, S; Ito, K

    1996-01-01

    A 26-yr-old Japanese woman with congenital goitrous hypo-thyroidism and sensorineural deafness underwent a thyroidectomy. Examination of the thyroid gland revealed characteristic features of multinodular goiter. The T3 and T4 content in thyroglobulin (Tg) were 0.03 and 0.02 mol/mol Tg, respectively. Iodide incorporation into Tg, using slices of the thyroid tissue, revealed that iodide organification of thyroid tissue from our patient was markedly lower than that of normal controls. Then, guaiacol and iodide oxidation activities of thyroid peroxidase (TPO) in our patient's thyroid tissue were lower than those of normal controls (guaiacol assay: 1.92 vs. 30.0 +/- 5.7 mGU/mg protein; iodide assay: 1.1 vs. 6.6 +/- 2.8 mIU/mg protein). Lineweaver-Burk plot analysis of the oxidation rates of guaiacol and iodide indicated that this patient's TPO had a defect in the binding of guaiacol and iodide, but the coupling activity of the patient's TPO was not decreased compared with those of two normal thyroids. In this case and in control subjects, Nothern gel analysis of TPO messenger RNA from unstimulated and TSH-stimulated thyroid cells revealed a 3.2 kilobase species in the former and four distinct messenger RNA species of 4.0, 3.2, 2.1, and 1.7 kilobases in the latter. Western blot analysis of TPOs obtained from this patient and from control subjects identified the same 107 kDa protein, using antimicrosomal antibody-positive serum. We analyzed the coding sequence in the patient's TPO gene by using polymerase chain reaction technique. A single point mutation of G-->C at 1265 base pair was detected only in the TPO gene, but this point mutation does not alter the amino acid residue. It is possible that posttranslational modification such as abnormal glycosylation may occur in the TPO molecules. Furthermore, it is possible that there are differences in the tertiary structures of the TPO molecules between our patient and normal subjects. The above abnormalities of TPO molecules

  18. [Evaluation of potassium iodide in Polish dietary salt].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrzejewska, E; Rokicka, B; Gajda, J; Jarecka, J; Oraczewska, A; Karłowski, K

    1996-01-01

    The consequences of iodine deficiency occurring still in Poland include serious health disorders in the population, such as psycho- somatic retardation, hypothyroidism, endemic goitre, even cretinism. Administration of iodized edible salt with daily diet is an effective method for prevention of iodine deficiency. The condition of success is the proper level of potassium iodide in this salt and adequate distribution of iodized salt in various regions of the country. Successful iodine prophylaxis should be based on iodination of edible salt in amounts of 30 +/- 10 mg of KJ/kg. The permission given in the period from February to May 1994 by the General Sanitary Inspector for the production and marketing of edible salt iodized in proportions of 30 +/- 10 mg KJ/kg opened the possibility of starting its production in salt mines. The purpose of the presently reported work was to assess, in cooperation with the Province Sanitary Epidemiological Stations, the adequacy of iodination of the Polish edible salt produced in the years 1994-1995. The study was carried out according to the Polish Standard "Salt (Sodium Chloride) /PN-80/C-84081.35. Potassium iodide determination by photo colorimetric method." In 1995 the number of edible salt samples analyzed was 2484, and this number included 2129 samples of iodized salt. Potassium iodide content agreeing with the above permission was found in 122 samples, that is in 57.4% of iodized salt samples. In 603 samples (28.3%) of iodized salt this content was below that given in the permissions. In 1994 this study was carried out taking 2172 samples of edible salt, including 1586 samples of iodized salt. The content of potassium iodide agreeing with the permissions (30 +/- 10 mg/kg) was found in 342 samples (28, 1%), but 272 (22.4%) samples of iodized salt produced by salt mines contained lower amounts of potassium iodide than the amount indicated in the permissions, but still within the limits set down in the Polish Standard (20 +/- 5 mg

  19. Study of ac electrical properties of aluminium-epoxy composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elimat, Z M [Applied Science Department, Ajloun University College, Al-Balqa Applied University, Amman (Jordan); Zihlif, A M [Physics Department, University of Jordan, Amman (Jordan); Ragosta, G [Institute of Chemistry and Polymer Technology (ICTP), CNR-Possouli, Napoli (Italy)], E-mail: adzh@ju.edu.jo

    2008-08-21

    Ac electrical properties of aluminium flakes-epoxy composites were studied as a function of the composition, frequency and temperature. The dielectric constant increased smoothly with an increase in the concentration of aluminium. An increase in the dielectric constant was observed with the temperature as well as with a decrease in the frequency. The observed increase in the values of the dielectric constant with the aluminium concentration was attributed to interfacial polarization. It was found that ac electrical conductivity increases with increasing content of aluminium, temperature and frequency. The observed enhancement in ac conductivity is attributed to the increase in the number of conduction paths created by the aluminium flake contacts in the composite to give a higher electrical conductivity. Also, the activation energy of aluminium flakes-epoxy composites was determined, as well as the values of the dielectric constant. Compared with various theoretical models, Bruggman's formula gives a better fit. The universal power-law model of ac conductivity is observed in epoxy-aluminium composites. The calculated power exponent (about unity) is physically acceptable within this applied model.

  20. Does allergen-specific immunotherapy induce contact allergy to aluminium?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netterlid, Eva; Hindsén, Monica; Siemund, Ingrid; Björk, Jonas; Werner, Sonja; Jacobsson, Helene; Güner, Nuray; Bruze, Magnus

    2013-01-01

    Persistent, itching nodules have been reported to appear at the injection site after allergen-specific immuno-therapy with aluminium-precipitated antigen extract, occasionally in conjunction with contact allergy to aluminium. This study aimed to quantify the development of contact allergy to aluminium during allergen-specific immunotherapy. A randomized, controlled, single-blind multicentre study of children and adults entering allergen-specific immunotherapy was performed using questionnaires and patch-testing. A total of 205 individuals completed the study. In the 3 study groups all subjects tested negative to aluminium before allergen-specific immunotherapy and 4 tested positive after therapy. In the control group 4 participants tested positive to aluminium. Six out of 8 who tested positive also had atopic dermatitis. Positive test results were found in 5/78 children and 3/127 adults. Allergen-specific immunotherapy was not shown to be a risk factor for contact allergy to aluminium. Among those who did develop aluminium allergy, children and those with atopic dermatitis were more highly represented.

  1. Purification and deposition of silicon by an iodide disproportionation reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Tihu (Littleton, CO); Ciszek, Theodore F. (Evergreen, CO)

    2002-01-01

    Method and apparatus for producing purified bulk silicon from highly impure metallurgical-grade silicon source material at atmospheric pressure. Method involves: (1) initially reacting iodine and metallurgical-grade silicon to create silicon tetraiodide and impurity iodide byproducts in a cold-wall reactor chamber; (2) isolating silicon tetraiodide from the impurity iodide byproducts and purifying it by distillation in a distillation chamber; and (3) transferring the purified silicon tetraiodide back to the cold-wall reactor chamber, reacting it with additional iodine and metallurgical-grade silicon to produce silicon diiodide and depositing the silicon diiodide onto a substrate within the cold-wall reactor chamber. The two chambers are at atmospheric pressure and the system is open to allow the introduction of additional source material and to remove and replace finished substrates.

  2. Synthesis and Structure of Bis(4-nitrobenzaldehyde thiosemicarbazone) Cadmium Iodide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The title complex, bis(4-nitrobenzaldehyde thiosemicarbazone) cadmium iodide (C16H16CdI2N8O4S2) crystallizes in the triclinic system, space group P1 with a=9.632(2), b=11.227(2), c=14.031(3), α= 67.50(3), β= 86.99(3), γ= 66.64(3)°, V=1278.13, Z = 2, Dc = 2.117gcm-3, F(000) = 772, μ =3.472mm-1 MoKα radiation (λ=0.71073), R = 0.0443, wR= 0.1425 for 4529 observed reflections [I>2σ(I)] of 4731 independent reflections. The result shows that the structure contains CdL2I2 (where L = 4-nitrobenzaldehyde thiosemicarbazone) distorted tetrahedral units in which the two ligands are S-bonded as monodentate to cadmium ion; the two iodide ions are also coordinated to Cd(II).

  3. Thickness Evaluation of Aluminium Plate Using Pulsed Eddy Current Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gurpartap; Bapat, Harsh Madhukar; Singh, Bhanu Pratap; Bandyopadhyay, Manojit; Puri, Rakesh Kumar; Badodkar, Deepak Narayanrao

    2013-10-01

    This paper describes a pulsed eddy current (PEC) based non-destructive testing system used for detection of thickness variation in aluminium plate. A giant magneto-resistive sensor has been used instead of pick up coil for detecting resultant magnetic field. The PEC response signals obtained from 1 to 5 mm thickness change in aluminium plate were investigated. Two time domain features, namely peak value and time to peak, of PEC response were used for extracting information about thickness variation in aluminium plate. The variation of peak value and time to peak with thickness was compared. A program was developed to display the thickness variation of the tested sample.

  4. Corrosion issues of powder coated AA6060 aluminium profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Din, Rameez Ud; Valgarðsson, Smári; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl

    2015-01-01

    In this study detailed microstructural investigation of the reason for unexpected corrosion of powder coated aluminium alloy AA6060 windows profiles has been performed. The results from this study reveals that the failure of the window profiles was originated from the surface defects present...... on the extruded AA6060 aluminium profile after metallurgical process prior to powder coating. Surface defects are produced due to intermetallic particles in the alloy, which disturb the flow during the extrusion process. The corrosion mechanism leading to the failure of the powder coated AA6060 aluminium profiles...

  5. Effects of aluminium surface morphology and chemical modification on wettability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahimi, Maral; Fojan, Peter; Gurevich, Leonid;

    2014-01-01

    Aluminium alloys are some of the predominant metals in industrial applications such as production of heat exchangers, heat pumps. They have high heat conductivity coupled with a low specific weight. In cold working conditions, there is a risk of frost formation on the surface of aluminium...... in the presence of water vapour, which can lead to the deterioration of equipment performance. This work addresses the methods of surface modification of aluminium and their effect of the underlying surface morphology and wettability, which are the important parameters for frost formation. Three groups of real...

  6. Cold forming of aluminium - State of the art

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Niels

    1997-01-01

    to that of unalloyed steel. After description of the different types of alloys and their individual properties and applications, the special requirements for tool design by cold forging in aluminium is discussed. Finally, a large number of industrial examples on cold forged aluminium components are presented. (C) 1997......The ongoing development of cold forging technology has been manifested lately by the increasing application of components in cold forged aluminium alloys. Applying precipitation hardening alloys components with great strength/weight ratio can be produced with a strength comparable...

  7. Study of fatigue behaviour of 7475 aluminium alloy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B B Verma; J D Atkinson; M Kumar

    2001-04-01

    Fatigue properties of a thermomechanically treated 7475 aluminium alloy have been studied in the present investigation. The alloy exhibited superior fatigue life compared to conventional structural aluminium alloys and comparable stage II crack growth rate. It was also noticed that the fatigue crack initiated from a surface grain and the crack extension was dominated by ductile striations. Analysis also revealed that this alloy possessed fracture toughness and tensile properties superior to that noticed with other structural aluminium alloys. Therefore the use of this alloy can safely reduce the overall weight of the aircraft.

  8. Optimization of Magnesium Metal into Commercially Pure Aluminium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandana J Rao

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation, involve development of Al-Mg systems by addition of magnesium into commercially pure aluminium. The amounts of magnesium added into commercially pure aluminium are of 1 and 2 wt%. The recoveries of magnesium are around 85-90%.Remaining Mg react with oxygen and float on the liquid aluminium. Presence of magnesium creates two phenomena. One is solid solution hardening and other is intermetallics formation. Both the phenomena checked by microstructural changes and by measuring the electrical conductivity values. By increasing the Mg, content mechanical properties (hardness and tensile strength increases and electrical conductivity decreases.

  9. Effect of pressurized steam on AA1050 aluminium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jariyaboon, Manthana; Møller, Per; Ambat, Rajan

    2012-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to understand the effect of pressurized steam on surface changes, structures of intermetallic particles and corrosion behavior of AA1050 aluminium. Design/methodology/approach - Industrially pure aluminium (AA1050, 99.5 per cent) surfaces were exposed...... reactivities was observed due to the formation of the compact oxide layer. Originality/value - This paper reveals a detailed investigation of how pressurized steam can affect the corrosion behaviour of AA1050 aluminium and the structure of Fe-containing intermetallic particles....

  10. Caloric Effects in Methylammonium Lead Iodide from Molecular Dynamics Simulations

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Shi; Cohen, Ronald E.

    2016-01-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite architecture could serve as a robust platform for materials design to realize functionalities beyond photovoltaic applications. We explore caloric effects in organometal halide perovskites, taking methylammonium lead iodide (MAPbI$_3$) as an example, using all-atom molecular dynamics simulations with a first-principles based interatomic potential. The adiabatic thermal change is estimated directly by introducing different driving fields in the simulations. ...

  11. Structural insight into iodide uptake by AFm phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aimoz, Laure; Wieland, Erich; Taviot-Guého, Christine; Dähn, Rainer; Vespa, Marika; Churakov, Sergey V

    2012-04-03

    The ability of cement phases carrying positively charged surfaces to retard the mobility of (129)I, present as iodide (I(-)) in groundwater, was investigated in the context of safe disposal of radioactive waste. (125)I sorption experiments on ettringite, hydrotalcite, chloride-, carbonate- and sulfate-containing AFm phases indicated that calcium-monosulfate (AFm-SO(4)) is the only phase that takes up trace levels of iodide. The structures of AFm phases prepared by coprecipitating iodide with other anions were investigated in order to understand this preferential uptake mechanism. X-ray diffraction (XRD) investigations showed a segregation of monoiodide (AFm-I(2)) and Friedel's salt (AFm-Cl(2)) for I-Cl mixtures, whereas interstratifications of AFm-I(2) and hemicarboaluminate (AFm-OH-(CO(3))(0.5)) were observed for the I-CO(3) systems. In contrast, XRD measurements indicated the formation of a solid solution between AFm-I(2) and AFm-SO(4) for the I-SO(4) mixtures. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy showed a modification of the coordination environment of iodine in I-CO(3) and in I-SO(4) samples compared to pure AFm-I(2). This is assumed to be due to the introduction of stacking faults in I-CO(3) samples on one hand and due to the presence of sulfate and associated space-filling water molecules as close neighbors in I-SO(4) samples on the other hand. The formation of a solid solution between AFm-I(2) and AFm-SO(4), with a short-range mixing of iodide and sulfate, implies that AFm-SO(4) bears the potential to retard (129)I.

  12. Preparation of Aluminium Oxynitride by Carbothermal Reduction of Aluminium Oxide in a Flowing N2 Atmosphere

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIYa-wei; YUANRun-zhang; 等

    1996-01-01

    Carbothermal reduction of alumina into aluminium oxynitride(AlON) spinel in a flowing nitrogen atmosphere was studied.The effects of Al2O3/C ratio temperature,soaking time,heating rate molding pressure of samples,and nitrogen flow rate on reactions were investigated.Then the stability of AlON was elucidated and AlON wa confirmed as an intermediate compound in reduction of alumina.

  13. Development of the strontium iodide coded aperture (SICA) instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Lee J.; Phlips, Bernard F.; Grove, J. Eric; Cordes, Ryan

    2015-08-01

    The work reports on the development of a Strontium Iodide Coded Aperture (SICA) instrument for use in space-based astrophysics, solar physics, and high-energy atmospheric physics. The Naval Research Laboratory is developing a prototype coded aperture imager that will consist of an 8 x 8 array of SrI2:Eu detectors, each read out by a silicon photomultiplier. The array would be used to demonstrate SrI2:Eu detector performance for space-based missions. Europium-doped strontium iodide (SrI2:Eu) detectors have recently become available, and the material is a strong candidate to replace existing detector technology currently used for space-based gamma-ray astrophysics research. The detectors have a typical energy resolution of 3.2% at 662 keV, a significant improvement over the 6.5% energy resolution of thallium-doped sodium iodide. With a density of 4.59 g/cm and a Zeff of 49, SrI2:Eu has a high efficiency for MeV gamma-ray detection. Coupling this with recent improvements in silicon photomultiplier technology (i.e., no bulky photomultiplier tubes) creates high-density, large-area, low-power detector arrays with good energy resolution. Also, the energy resolution of SrI2:Eu makes it ideal for use as the back plane of a Compton telescope.

  14. Gold nanoelectrode ensembles for direct trace electroanalysis of iodide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Francisco C; Moretto, Ligia M; De Leo, Manuela; Zanoni, Maria V Boldrin; Ugo, Paolo

    2006-08-01

    A procedure for the standardization of ensembles of gold nanodisk electrodes (NEE) of 30 nm diameter is presented, which is based on the analytical comparison between experimental cyclic voltammograms (CV) obtained at the NEEs in diluted solutions of redox probes and CV patterns obtained by digital simulation. Possible origins of defects sometimes found in NEEs are discussed. Selected NEEs are then employed for the study of the electrochemical oxidation of iodide in acidic solutions. CV patterns display typical quasi-reversible behavior which involves associated chemical reactions between adsorbed and solution species. The main CV characteristics at the NEE compare with those observed at millimeter sized gold disk electrodes (Au-macro), apart a slight shift in E1/2 values and slightly higher peak to peak separation at the NEE. The detection limit (DL) at NEEs is 0.3 microM, which is more than one order of magnitude lower than DL at the Au-macro (4 microM). The mechanism of the electrochemical oxidation of iodide at NEEs is discussed. Finally, NEEs are applied to the direct determination of iodide at micromolar concentration levels in real samples, namely in some ophthalmic drugs and iodized table salt.

  15. Enhanced iodide sequestration by 3-biphenyl-5,6-dihydroimidazo 2,1-b thiazole in sodium/iodide sym-porter (NIS)-expressing cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lecat-Guillet, N.; Ambroise, Y. [CEA, DSV, Dept Bioorgan Chem andt IsotopLabelling, Inst Biol and Technol, iBiTecS, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette (France)

    2008-07-01

    The ability of the sodium/iodide sym-porter (NIS) to take up iodide has long provided the basis for cyto-reductive gene therapy and cancer treatment with radio-iodide. One of the major limitations of this approach is that radio-iodide retention in NIS-expressing cells is not sufficient for their destruction. We identified and characterized a small organic molecule capable of increasing iodide retention in HEK293 cells permanently transfected with human NIS cDNA (hNIS-HEK293) and in the rat thyroid-derived cell line FRTL-5. In the presence of 3-biphenyl-4'-yl-5,6-dihydroimidazo[2,1-b)thiazole (ISA1), the transmembrane iodide concentration gradient was increased up to 4.5-fold. Our experiments indicate that the imidazo-thiazole derivative acts either by inhibiting anion efflux mechanisms, or by promoting the relocation of iodide into subcellular compartments. This new compound is not only an attractive chemical tool to investigate the mechanisms of iodide flux at the cellular level, but also opens promising perspectives in the treatment of cancer after NIS gene transfer. (authors)

  16. Removal and sequestration of iodide using silver-impregnated activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoskins, Jay S; Karanfil, Tanju; Serkiz, Steven M

    2002-02-15

    Two silver-impregnated activated carbons (SIACs) (0.05 and 1.05 wt % silver) and their virgin (i.e., unimpregnated) granular activated carbon (GAC) precursors were investigated for their ability to remove and sequester iodide from aqueous solutions in a series of batch sorption and leaching experiments. Silver content, total iodide concentration, and pH were the factors controlling the removal mechanisms of iodide. Iodide uptake increased with decreasing pH for both SIACs and their virgin GACs. The 0.05% SIAC behaved similarly to its virgin GAC in all experimental conditions because of its low silver content. At pH values of 7 and 8 there was a marked increased in iodide removal for the 1.05% SIAC over that of its virgin GAC, while their performances were similar at a pH of 5. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) analyses prior to reaction with iodide showed the presence of metallic silver agglomerates on the 1.05% SIAC surface. After the reaction, elemental mapping with EDX showed the formation of silver iodide agglomerates. Oxidation of metallic silver was observed in the presence of oxygen, and the carbon surface appears to catalyze this reaction. When the molar ratio of silver to iodide was greater than 1 (i.e., M(Ag,SIAC) > M(I,TOTAL)), precipitation of silver iodide was the dominant removal mechanism. However, unreacted silver leached into solution with decreasing pH while iodide leaching did not occur. When M(Ag,SIAC) silver iodide precipitation occurred until all available silver had reacted, and additional iodide was removed from solution by pH-dependent adsorption to the GAC. Under this condition, silver leaching did not occur while iodide leaching increased with increasing pH.

  17. Protection of aluminium by duplex coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musil, J. [Ceska Akademie Ved, Prague (Czech Republic). Fyzikalni Ustav; Vlcek, J. [West Bohemia Univ., Plzen (Czech Republic). Dept. of Phys.; Jezek, V. [West Bohemia Univ., Plzen (Czech Republic). Dept. of Phys.; Benda, M. [West Bohemia Univ., Plzen (Czech Republic). Dept. of Phys.

    1995-11-01

    The paper reports on a new way of producing duplex coatings consisting of two steps. First, the substrate is coated by a physically vapour-deposited coating. Then, this precoated substrate is plasma nitrided or vacuum heat treated. This method was tested in the protection of substrates made of aluminium with a sputtered Ti coating about 5 {mu}m thick. The as-deposited and then plasma-nitrided or vacuum-heat-treated (Ti coating)/(Al substrate) couple was characterized by elemental depth profiles measured by glow discharge optical spectroscopy. It was shown that both the plasma nitriding and vacuum heat treatment process can stimulate a strong interdiffusion between Ti and the substrate elements. It results not only in the formation of a very broad interfacial region with a dramatic redistribution of the substrate elements in the Ti film but also in a formation of intermetallic Ti-Al compounds. This new duplex coating technique is described in detail. (orig.)

  18. Telangiectasia in aluminium workers: a follow up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thériault, G; Gingras, S; Provencher, S

    1984-08-01

    A five step investigation was carried out to gain a better understanding of the morbidity that accompanied the development of telangiectasia on aluminium workers and to find its cause. Fifty workers with multiple telangiectasia when matched with normal controls showed the same amount of illness except that evidence of ischaemia on the ECG was found in nine cases and one control. The cases did not show an excess of abnormal biochemical tests. The basic histopathological lesion affected the surrounding tissue rather than the vessels themselves. Working in the current environment and wearing masks seems to protect young workers from developing the lesions. The Soderberg and not the prebake process was associated with the lesions; the causative agent is probably a gas that contains both hydrocarbons and fluoride components emitted from the electrolytic reactors.

  19. Mechanical behaviour of aluminium-lithium alloys

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    N Eswara Prasad; A A Gokhale; P Rama Rao

    2003-02-01

    Aluminium-lithium alloys hold promise of providing a breakthrough response to the crying need for lightweight alloys for use as structurals in aerospace applications. Considerable worldwide research has gone into developing a range of these alloys over the last three decades. As a result, substantial understanding has been developed of the microstructure-based micromechanisms of strengthening, of fatigue and fracture as well as of anisotropy in mechanical properties. However, these alloys have not yet greatly displaced the conventionally used denser Al alloys on account of their poorer ductility, fracture toughness and low cycle fatigue resistance. This review aims to summarise the work pertaining to study of structure and mechanical properties with a view to indicate the directions that have been and can be pursued to overcome property limitations.

  20. Experimental analysis of cut welding in aluminium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dorph, Pernille; De Chiffre, Leonardo; Bay, Niels

    1993-01-01

    Cut welding is a newly developed cold pressure welding process. In the present work, an experimental investigation was carried out analyzing the mechanisms involved in cut welding of a block to a strip. Experiments were carried out in technically pure aluminium. The investigation has involved...... tensile testing and metallographic investigations of the welds. The results show that this variant of cut welding is a very reproducible process giving a weld strength equal to 30-40% the strength of the parent material. The experiments have shown that the reason for this relatively low strength...... is an uneven pressure distribution along the weld due to a wave formed during sliding. Attempts to alter the material flow during sliding are presented....

  1. Silane based coating of aluminium mold

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    comprising a chemically bonded monolayer of silane compounds on the at least one surface wherein the silane is a halogenated silane. The at least one surface coated with the anti-stiction coating may be configured to withstand an injection molding process at a pressure above 100 MPa. Furthermore, a mold......A method of preparing an aluminum mold for injection molding is provided, the method comprises the steps of providing an aluminum mold having a least one surface, subjecting the at least one surface to a gas or liquid phase silane to thereby form an anti-stiction coating, the anti-stiction coating...... having at least one closed cavity is provided, at least one surface of the at least one cavity being an aluminium surface coated with a silane based coating layer. The silane based anti-stiction coating improves the anti-stiction properties of the mold which may allow for molding and demolding...

  2. Electrochemistry of silver iodide the capacity of the double layer at the silver iodide-water interface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lyklema, J.; Overbeek, J.Th.G.

    1961-01-01

    A method is described for obtaining differential double layer capacities on silver iodide. Especially the influence of the nature and concentration of indifferent electrolytes was investigated, viz., the nitrates of Li·, K·, Rb·, NH4·, H·, Tl·, Mg··, Ba··, Co··, Cd··, Pb··, La···, Th····, the fluori

  3. Anodic aluminium oxide catalytic membranes for asymmetric epoxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, So-Hye; Walther, Nolan D; Nguyen, SonBinh T; Hupp, Joseph T

    2005-11-14

    Catechol-functionalized (salen)Mn complexes can be supported on mesoporous anodized aluminium oxide disks to yield catalytic membranes that are highly active in the enantioselective epoxidation of olefins when being deployed in a forced-through-flow reactor.

  4. COMPARATION BETWEEN NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTING METHODS FOR THE ALUMINIUM BRAZED PIECES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan NIŢOI

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Presented paper refers to different control methods used in aluminium brazed joining because of possible defects. Low joining complexity permits exact damages position in relation with materials geometry.

  5. Aluminium leaching from red mud by filamentous fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urík, Martin; Bujdoš, Marek; Milová-Žiaková, Barbora; Mikušová, Petra; Slovák, Marek; Matúš, Peter

    2015-11-01

    This contribution investigates the efficient and environmentally friendly aluminium leaching from red mud (bauxite residue) by 17 species of filamentous fungi. Bioleaching experiments were examined in batch cultures with the red mud in static, 7-day cultivation. The most efficient fungal strains in aluminium bioleaching were Penicillium crustosum G-140 and Aspergillus niger G-10. The A. niger G-10 strain was capable to extract up to approximately 141 mg·L(-1) of aluminium from 0.2 g dry weight red mud. Chemical leaching with organic acids mixture, prepared according to A. niger G-10 strain's respective fungal excretion during cultivation, proved that organic acids significantly contribute to aluminium solubilization from red mud.

  6. Incremental forming of aluminium alloys in cryogenic environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhove, Hans; Mohammadi, Amirahmad; Duflou, Joost R.

    2016-10-01

    Incremental Sheet Forming processes suffer from stringent forming limits, restricting the range of producible geometries. Through in-process cooling of the sheet to cryogenic level, this paper explores the potential of altering material properties benefiting the formability and residual hardness of different aluminium alloys. Global cooling of aluminium sheets with liquid nitrogen and dry ice allows to reach temperatures of 78K and 193K respectively. Extended with experiments at room temperature (293K), these tests form a base for comparison of surface quality, formability and residual hardness. As an aluminium alloy commonly used for its high strength to weight ratio, but suffering from limited formability compared to draw-quality steels, AA5083-H111 is of interest for cryogenic treatment. AA1050-H24 is included in the test campaign as a base for commercially pure aluminium.

  7. Aluminium dynamics and proton buttering in undistributed samples of acidified forest soils; Aluminium-Dynamik und Protonenpufferung in ungestoerten Proben versauerter Waldboeden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuchs, E.

    1992-12-31

    In this work non-displaced soil samples were used to test the reaction of acidified forest soils in the aluminium buffering range to different proton concentrations. The examined quantities were the proton buffering rate in the macropore spaces and the correlated rate of aluminium release. Furthermore, the types of aluminium bondage occuring in the soil solution and their influence on the aluminium dynamics within the profile were determined. The significance of species distribution for the interpretation of the toxic potential of aluminium is illuminated. The influence of soil structure on proton buffering, aluminium release and species distribution is described from a global viewpoint. (orig.) [Deutsch] In der vorliegenden Arbeit wird an natuerlich gelagerten Bodenproben die Reaktion versauerter Waldboeden im Aluminium-Pufferbereich auf unterschiedlich starke Protonenbelastungen untersucht. Dabei interessiert die Rate der Protonenpufferung im Makroporenraum einhergehend mit der Menge freigesetzten Aluminiums. Darueberhinaus wird untersucht, welche Aluminium-Bindungsformen in der Bodenloesung vorliegen und welchen Einfluss diese auf die Aluminium-Dynamik innerhalb des Profils haben. Die Bedeutung der Speziesverteilung fuer die Interpretation potentieller Aluminium-Toxizitaet wird beleuchtet. Uebergreifend wird der Einfluss der Bodenstruktur auf Protonenpufferung, Aluminium-Freisetzung sowie Speziesverteilung herausgestellt. (orig.)

  8. Metal-Ceramic Interfaces in Laser Coated Aluminium Alloys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, X.B.; Hosson, J.Th.M. De

    1994-01-01

    A novel process was developed to firmly coat an aluminium alloy, Al6061, with α-Al2O3 by means of laser processing. In this approach a mixture of SiO2 and Al powder was used to inject in the laser melted surface of aluminium. A reaction product α-Al2O3 layer of a thickness of 100 µm was created whic

  9. China’s Export of Fabricated Aluminium Keeps Rising

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    <正>Affected by the State macro economic adjustment policies, China’s export of primary aluminium has decreased obviously. However, China’s export of fabricated aluminum is increasing rapidly, which has led to the investment rush of the aluminium industry, leading to the serious concern by the government. Market rumors are spreading that the government will soon adjust the export tax rebate rates so as to curb such a trend.

  10. Behaviour and modelling of selfpiercing riveted connections using aluminium rivets

    OpenAIRE

    Hoang, Nguyen-Hieu

    2011-01-01

    The present thesis is concerned with the behaviour and modelling of self-piercing riveted connections using aluminium rivets. The objective has been to establish a database on the behaviour of self-piercing riveted connections using aluminium rivets with respect to the riveting process, the mechanical behaviour of single riveted connections and the structural behaviour of riveted joints. The objective has been met by a combination of laboratory tests, modelling and non-linear finite element n...

  11. Adhesive Bonding of Aluminium Alloy A5754 by Epoxy Resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Michalec

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Joining thin sheets of aluminium and its alloys is a promising area in the field of joining materials. Nowadays, joining methods that do not melt the material itself are increasingly being utilised. This paper deals with adhesive bonding of aluminium alloy A5754 by two-component epoxy resins. Theresults show that joints bonded by Hysol 9466 have appropriate mechanical properties, but that joints bonded by Hysol 9492 have better thermal stability.

  12. An interaction of beta-amyloid with aluminium in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exley, C; Price, N C; Kelly, S M; Birchall, J D

    1993-06-21

    We have used circular dichroism spectroscopy to confirm that, in a membrane-mimicking solvent, A beta P(1-40) adopts a partially helical conformation and we have demonstrated the loss of this structure in the presence of physiologically relevant concentrations of aluminium. This is the first evidence of a direct biochemical interaction between aluminium and beta-amyloid and may have important implications for the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease.

  13. Melting and solidification of bismuth inclusions in aluminium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft, N.B.; Bohr, J.; Buras, B.

    1995-01-01

    Supercooling of crystalline bismuth inclusions in aluminium crystals has been observed and studied with different techniques: x-ray diffraction, in situ Rutherford backscattering/channelling spectrometry and transmission electron microscopy. The results of the measurements with different experime......Supercooling of crystalline bismuth inclusions in aluminium crystals has been observed and studied with different techniques: x-ray diffraction, in situ Rutherford backscattering/channelling spectrometry and transmission electron microscopy. The results of the measurements with different...

  14. Lake restoration with aluminium, bentonite and Phoslock: the effect on sediment stability and light attenuation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egemose, Sara; Reitzel, Kasper; Flindt, Mogens

    treatments on aluminium mobility, sediment stability or light climate. A laboratory flume experiment including three shallow Danish lakes was conducted. We measured the effects of aluminium, Phoslock (a commercial product), bentonite, and a combination of bentonite/aluminium. Each treatment caused a varying...... consolidation of the sediment. The largest consolidation occurred using Phoslock- and bentonite-addition followed by bentonite/aluminium-addition, whereas aluminium alone had no effect. Sediment stability thresholds were measured before and after addition. Especially Phoslock, but also bentonite and bentonite....../aluminium increased sediment erosion threshold, with respectively 200%, 43% and 57%. Aluminium, bentonite/aluminium, and Phoslock improved the light conditions in the water phase, with respectively 60%, 57% and 50%, whereas bentonite created higher turbidity. Conclusively aluminium improved the light conditions...

  15. Crystal structure of hexakis(dmpu-di-μ2-hydroxido-dialuminium tetraiodide dmpu tetrasolvate [dmpu is 1,3-dimethyltetrahydropyrimidin-2(1H-one]: a centrosymmetric dinuclear aluminium complex containing AlO5 polyhedra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Lundberg

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The structure of the title compound, [Al2(OH2(C6H12N2O6]I4·4C6H12N2O (systematic name: di-μ2-hydroxido-bis{tris[1,3-dimethyltetrahydropyrimidin-2(1H-one-κO]aluminium} tetraiodide 1,3-dimethyltetrahydropyrimidin-2(1H-one tetrasolvate, is composed of two Al(C6H12N2O3 moieties linked into a centrosymmetric dinuclear unit by a pair of bridging hydroxide ions. The aluminium cations show a distorted trigonal bipyramidal AlO5 coordination environment formed only by monodentate ligands. The Al—O bond lengths are in the range 1.789 (2–1.859 (2 Å (mean bond length = 1.818 Å. The non-coordinating iodide anions compensate the charge of the complex cation. The remaining solvent molecules and the iodide counter-anions interact with the complex cation by weak non-classical C—H...I and C—H...O hydrogen bonds.

  16. The binding, transport and fate of aluminium in biological cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exley, Christopher; Mold, Matthew J

    2015-04-01

    Aluminium is the most abundant metal in the Earth's crust and yet, paradoxically, it has no known biological function. Aluminium is biochemically reactive, it is simply that it is not required for any essential process in extant biota. There is evidence neither of element-specific nor evolutionarily conserved aluminium biochemistry. This means that there are no ligands or chaperones which are specific to its transport, there are no transporters or channels to selectively facilitate its passage across membranes, there are no intracellular storage proteins to aid its cellular homeostasis and there are no pathways which evolved to enable the metabolism and excretion of aluminium. Of course, aluminium is found in every compartment of every cell of every organism, from virus through to Man. Herein we have investigated each of the 'silent' pathways and metabolic events which together constitute a form of aluminium homeostasis in biota, identifying and evaluating as far as is possible what is known and, equally importantly, what is unknown about its uptake, transport, storage and excretion.

  17. Volatilisation and oxidation of aluminium scraps fed into incineration furnaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biganzoli, Laura; Gorla, Leopoldo; Nessi, Simone; Grosso, Mario

    2012-12-01

    Ferrous and non-ferrous metal scraps are increasingly recovered from municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash and used in the production of secondary steel and aluminium. However, during the incineration process, metal scraps contained in the waste undergo volatilisation and oxidation processes, which determine a loss of their recoverable mass. The present paper evaluates the behaviour of different types of aluminium packaging materials in a full-scale waste to energy plant during standard operation. Their partitioning and oxidation level in the residues of the incineration process are evaluated, together with the amount of potentially recoverable aluminium. About 80% of post-consumer cans, 51% of trays and 27% of foils can be recovered through an advanced treatment of bottom ash combined with a melting process in the saline furnace for the production of secondary aluminium. The residual amount of aluminium concentrates in the fly ash or in the fine fraction of the bottom ash and its recovery is virtually impossible using the current eddy current separation technology. The average oxidation levels of the aluminium in the residues of the incineration process is equal to 9.2% for cans, 17.4% for trays and 58.8% for foils. The differences between the tested packaging materials are related to their thickness, mechanical strength and to the alloy.

  18. Role of magnesium in alleviation of aluminium toxicity in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Jayakumar; Babourina, Olga; Rengel, Zed

    2011-04-01

    Magnesium is pivotal for activating a large number of enzymes; hence, magnesium plays an important role in numerous physiological and biochemical processes affecting plant growth and development. Magnesium can also ameliorate aluminium phytotoxicity, but literature reports on the dynamics of magnesium homeostasis upon exposure to aluminium are rare. Herein existing knowledge on the magnesium transport mechanisms and homeostasis maintenance in plant cells is critically reviewed. Even though overexpression of magnesium transporters can alleviate aluminium toxicity in plants, the mechanisms governing such alleviation remain obscure. Possible magnesium-dependent mechanisms include (i) better carbon partitioning from shoots to roots; (ii) increased synthesis and exudation of organic acid anions; (iii) enhanced acid phosphatase activity; (iv) maintenance of proton-ATPase activity and cytoplasmic pH regulation; (v) protection against an aluminium-induced cytosolic calcium increase; and (vi) protection against reactive oxygen species. Future research should concentrate on assessing aluminium toxicity and tolerance in plants with overexpressed or antisense magnesium transporters to increase understanding of the aluminium-magnesium interaction.

  19. A mechanism for acute aluminium toxicity in fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exley, C; Chappell, J S; Birchall, J D

    1991-08-07

    Aluminium is acutely toxic to fish in acid waters. The gill is the principal target organ and death is due to a combination of ionoregulatory, osmoregulatory and respiratory dysfunction. The toxic mechanism has hitherto received little direct consideration and is unknown. In this paper the mechanism of acute aluminium toxicity is approached from a chemical perspective. Symptomatic evidence of toxicity is taken from the literature and combined with our own research to elucidate a biochemically sound model to describe a possible mechanism of acute aluminium toxicity in fish. The proposed model delineates the chemical conditions immediately adjacent to the gill surface and emphasizes their importance in aluminium's toxic mode of action. The mechanism is shown to be bipartite. Aluminium binding to functional groups both apically located at the gill surface and intracellularly located within lamellar epithelial cells disrupts the barrier properties of the gill epithelium. The concomitant iono- and osmoregulatory dysfunction results in accelerated cell necrosis, sloughing and death of the fish. The mechanism of epithelial cell death is proposed as a general mechanism of aluminium-induced accelerated cell death.

  20. Iron- Catalyzed 1,2-Addition of Perfluoroalkyl Iodides to Alkynes and Alkenes

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Tao; Cheung, Chi Wai; Hu, Xile

    2014-01-01

    Iron catalysis has been developed for the intermolecular 1,2-addition of perfluoroalkyl iodides to alkynes and alkenes. The catalysis has a wide substrate scope and high functional-group tolerance. A variety of perfluoroalkyl iodides including CF3I can be employed. The resulting perfluoroalkylated alkyl and alkenyl iodides can be further functionalized by cross-coupling reactions. This methodology provides a straightforward and streamlined access to perfluoroalkylated organic molecules.

  1. Expression of sodium-iodide symporter in thyroid gland tumors: immunohistochemical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bondarenko O.O.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the key moments of radioiodine therapy, and also radioisotope diagnostics of cancers of a thyroid gland is ability of their cells to accumulate iodide. This ability is provided with activity of the specific transporter – sodium-iodide symporter. Our research has shown disorders of sodium-iodide symporter immunoexpression in all tumors of thyroid gland: from overexpression and absence of plasma membrane expression in differentiated carcinomas, up to weak or actually absent in low differentiated cancers and Hurtle-cells tumors. Thus, there is a prospect of application of the sodium-iodide symporter, as the prognostic marker of thyroid cancers.

  2. Optical properties and surface morphology studies of palladium contacts on mercuric iodide single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George, M.A.; Azoulay, M.; Burger, A.; Biao, Y.; Silberman, E. [Fisk Univ., Nashville, TN (United States). Dept. of Physics; Nason, D. [EG and G Energy Measurements, Inc., Goleta, CA (United States). Santa Barbara Operations

    1993-05-01

    Palladium is chemically suitable for electric contacts on mercuric iodide detectors for photon and nuclear radiation detection, so the understanding of palladium contacts is important for fundamental and practical scientific purposes. A study has been conducted on the surface morphology of evaporated contacts using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and optical transmission and reflection. Evaporated palladium coatings are typically nonuniform and may deposit selectively on mercuric iodide surface defects. Reflection measurements show that coating thickness and surface treatment affect intensity, position and shape of a reflected peak characteristic of the mercuric iodide structure. Results indicate that the band gap energy in the surface of the mercuric iodide is lowered by palladium contacts.

  3. Optical properties and surface morphology studies of palladium contacts on mercuric iodide single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, M. A.; Azoulay, M.; Burger, A.; Biao, Y.; Silberman, E.; Nason, D.

    1993-04-01

    Palladium is chemically suitable for electric contacts on mercuric iodide detectors for photon and nuclear radiation detection, so the understanding of palladium contacts is important for fundamental and practical scientific purposes. A study has been conducted on the surface morphology of evaporated contacts using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and optical transmission and reflection. Evaporated palladium coatings are typically nonuniform and may deposit selectively on mercuric iodide surface defects. Reflection measurements show that coating thickness and surface treatment affect intensity, position, and shape of a reflected peak characteristic of the mercuric iodide structure. Results indicate that the band gap energy in the surface of the mercuric iodide is lowered by palladium contacts.

  4. China Rescinds the Export Tax on Aluminium Alloys Made by Scrap

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    <正>According to an official from the Tax Regulations Office under China’s State Council, from July 1st 2005, China will rescind the 5 per cent export tax on the aluminium alloys produced by using aluminium alloys scrap. An official from the State Council’s office said that through investigation they found that most aluminium alloys produced from aluminium scrap are not that energy consuming compared to primary aluminium. Starting from January 1st 2005, China decided to collect 5 per cent export tax on aluminium so as to control the industry development connected with high energy cost.

  5. Strontium iodide gamma ray spectrometers for planetary science (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prettyman, Thomas H.; Rowe, Emmanuel; Butler, Jarrhett; Groza, Michael; Burger, Arnold; Yamashita, Naoyuki; Lambert, James L.; Stassun, Keivan G.; Beck, Patrick R.; Cherepy, Nerine J.; Payne, Stephen A.; Castillo-Rogez, Julie C.; Feldman, Sabrina M.; Raymond, Carol A.

    2016-09-01

    Gamma rays produced passively by cosmic ray interactions and by the decay of radioelements convey information about the elemental makeup of planetary surfaces and atmospheres. Orbital missions mapped the composition of the Moon, Mars, Mercury, Vesta, and now Ceres. Active neutron interrogation will enable and/or enhance in situ measurements (rovers, landers, and sondes). Elemental measurements support planetary science objectives as well as resource utilization and planetary defense initiatives. Strontium iodide, an ultra-bright scintillator with low nonproportionality, offers significantly better energy resolution than most previously flown scintillators, enabling improved accuracy for identification and quantification of key elements. Lanthanum bromide achieves similar resolution; however, radiolanthanum emissions obscure planetary gamma rays from radioelements K, Th, and U. The response of silicon-based optical sensors optimally overlaps the emission spectrum of strontium iodide, enabling the development of compact, low-power sensors required for space applications, including burgeoning microsatellite programs. While crystals of the size needed for planetary measurements (>100 cm3) are on the way, pulse-shape corrections to account for variations in absorption/re-emission of light are needed to achieve maximum resolution. Additional challenges for implementation of large-volume detectors include optimization of light collection using silicon-based sensors and assessment of radiation damage effects and energetic-particle induced backgrounds. Using laboratory experiments, archived planetary data, and modeling, we evaluate the performance of strontium iodide for future missions to small bodies (asteroids and comets) and surfaces of the Moon and Venus. We report progress on instrument design and preliminary assessment of radiation damage effects in comparison to technology with flight heritage.

  6. Electronic properties and Compton profiles of silver iodide

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Alpa Dashora; Ambica Marwal; K R Soni; B L Ahuja

    2010-06-01

    We have carried out an extensive study of electronic properties of silver iodide in - and -phases. The theoretical Compton profiles, energy bands, density of states and anisotropies in momentum densities are computed using density functional theories. We have also employed full-potential linearized augmented plane-wave method to derive the energy bands and the density of states. To compare our theoretical data, isotropic Compton profile measurement on -AgI using 137Cs Compton spectrometer at an intermediate resolution of 0.38 a.u. has been undertaken. The theoretical anisotropies are also interpreted on the basis of energy bands.

  7. Temperature dependent energy levels of methylammonium lead iodide perovskite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foley, Benjamin J.; Marlowe, Daniel L.; Choi, Joshua J., E-mail: jjc6z@virginia.edu, E-mail: mgupta@virginia.edu, E-mail: scudiero@wsu.edu [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22904 (United States); Sun, Keye; Gupta, Mool C., E-mail: jjc6z@virginia.edu, E-mail: mgupta@virginia.edu, E-mail: scudiero@wsu.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22904 (United States); Saidi, Wissam A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15261 (United States); Scudiero, Louis, E-mail: jjc6z@virginia.edu, E-mail: mgupta@virginia.edu, E-mail: scudiero@wsu.edu [Chemistry Department and Materials Science and Engineering Program, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington 99164 (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Temperature dependent energy levels of methylammonium lead iodide are investigated using a combination of ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy and optical spectroscopy. Our results show that the valence band maximum and conduction band minimum shift down in energy by 110 meV and 77 meV as temperature increases from 28 °C to 85 °C. Density functional theory calculations using slab structures show that the decreased orbital splitting due to thermal expansion is a major contribution to the experimentally observed shift in energy levels. Our results have implications for solar cell performance under operating conditions with continued sunlight exposure and increased temperature.

  8. Polarized spectral complexes of optical functions of monovalent mercury iodide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobolev, V. V.; Sobolev, V. Val.; Anisimov, D. V.

    2015-12-01

    Spectral complexes of optical functions of monovalent mercury iodide Hg2I2 were determined for E ⊥ c and E || c polarizations in the range from 2 to 5.5 eV at 4.2 K. The permittivity and characteristic electron energy loss spectra were expanded in simple components with the determination of their main parameters, including the energy of the maximum and the oscillator strength. The calculations were performed based on known reflectance spectra. Computer programs based on Kramers-Kronig relations and the improved parameter-free method of Argand diagrams were used.

  9. Electrolytic coloration of hydroxyl-doped potassium iodide polycrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Na; Gu, Hongen; Han, Li; Guo, Meili; Qin, Fang

    2007-03-01

    Hydroxyl-doped potassium iodide polycrystals were successfully colored electrolytically by using a pointed cathode and a flat anode at various temperatures and electric field strengths, which mainly benefits appropriate coloration temperatures and electric field strengths. Characteristic OH-, O2--Va+ , U, V2, V3, Cu+, Cu-related, I2- , I2, K, F, R1 and R2 spectral bands were observed in Kubelka-Munk functions of the colored polycrystals, and the OH- and O2--Va+ spectral bands at room temperature were determined from Mollwo-Ivey plots. Color center formation in the electrolytic coloration was explained.

  10. Accumulation and toxicity of aluminium-contaminated food in the freshwater crayfish, Pacifastacus leniusculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodburn, Katie; Walton, Rachel; McCrohan, Catherine; White, Keith

    2011-10-01

    The accumulation and toxicity of aluminium in freshwater organisms have primarily been examined following aqueous exposure. This study investigated the uptake, excretion and toxicity of aluminium when presented as aluminium-contaminated food. Adult Pacifastacus leniusculus were fed control (3 μg aluminium/g) or aluminium-spiked pellets (420 μg aluminium/g) over 28 days. Half the crayfish in each group were then killed and the remainder fed control pellets for a further 10 days (clearance period). Concentrations of aluminium plus the essential metals calcium, copper, potassium and sodium were measured in the gill, hepatopancreas, flexor muscle, antennal gland (kidney) and haemolymph. Histopathological analysis of tissue damage and sub-cellular distribution of aluminium were examined in the hepatopancreas. Haemocyte number and protein concentration in the haemolymph were analysed as indicators of toxicity. The hepatopancreas of aluminium-fed crayfish contained significantly more aluminium than controls on days 28 and 38, and this amount was positively correlated with the amount ingested. More than 50% of the aluminium in the hepatopancreas of aluminium-fed crayfish was located in sub-cellular fractions thought to be involved in metal detoxification. Aluminium concentrations were also high in the antennal glands of aluminium-fed crayfish suggesting that some of the aluminium lost from the hepatopancreas is excreted. Aluminium exposure via contaminated food caused inflammation in the hepatopancreas but did not affect the number of circulating haemocytes, haemolymph ion concentrations or protein levels. In conclusion, crayfish accumulate, store and excrete aluminium from contaminated food with only localised toxicity.

  11. Bioaccumulation of Aluminium in Hydromacrophytes in Polish Coastal Lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senze Magdalena

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The research on aluminium content was conducted in water and on aquatic flora of Polish lakes in the central part of the coast. The study included the lakes Sarbsko, Choczewskie, Bia.e, K.odno, D.brze and Salino investigated in the summer of 2013. The examined lakes belong mainly to the direct basin of the Baltic Sea. Samples of aquatic plants and lake waters were collected. In the water samples pH and electrolytic conductivity were measured. The aluminium content was determined both in water and aquatic plants. Submerged hydromacrophyte studies included Myriophyllum alterniflorum L., Potamogeton perfoliatus L. and Ceratophyllum demersum L. Emergent hydromacrophyte studies included Phragmites australis (Cav. Trin. ex Steud., Juncus bulbosus L., Iris pseudacorus L., Eleocharis palustris (L. Roem. % Schult., Phalaris arundinacea L., Carex riparia Curt., Mentha aquatic L., Stratiotes aloides L., Alisma plantago-aquatica L., Glyceria maxima (Hartman Holmb., Sagittaria sagittifolia L., Scirpus lacustris L. and Typha angustifolia L. The purpose of this investigation was the determination of the aluminium content in submerged and emergent hydromacrophytes and also the definition of their bioaccumulative abilities. The average concentration of aluminium in water was 2.68 fęg Al dm.3. The average content of aluminium in plants was 2.8015 mg Al kg.1. The bioaccumulation factor ranged from BCF=19.74 to BCF=16619. On the basis of the analysis of the aluminium content in water and aquatic plants results show that both water and plants were characterized by a moderate level of aluminium. The recorded concentrations indicate a mid-range value and are much lower than those which are quoted for a variety of surface waters in various parts of the world.

  12. Acute aluminium phosphide poisoning, what is new?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yatendra Singh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aluminium phosphide (AlP is a cheap solid fumigant and a highly toxic pesticide that is commonly used for grain preservation. AlP has currently generated interest with increasing number of cases in the past four decades because of its increased use for agricultural and nonagricultural purposes, and also its easy availability in the markets has led to its increased misuse to commit suicide. Ingestion is usually suicidal in intent, uncommonly accidental and rarely homicidal. The poison affects all systems, shock, cardiac arrhythmias with varied ECG changes and gastrointestinal features being the most prominent. Diagnosis is made on the basis of clinical suspicion, a positive silver nitrate paper test to phosphine, and gastric aspirate and viscera biochemistry. Treatment includes early gastric lavage with potassium permanganate or a combination of coconut oil and sodium bicarbonate, administration of charcoal and palliative care. Specific therapy includes intravenous magnesium sulphate and oral coconut oil. Unfortunately, the lack of a specific antidote Results in very high mortality and the key to treatment lies in rapid decontamination and institution of resuscitative measures. This article aims to identify the salient features and mechanism of AlP poisoning along with its management strategies and prognostic variables.

  13. Low cost aluminium metal matrix composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Withers, G.

    2007-03-15

    Low cost, light weight Ultalite{reg_sign} is an Aluminium Metal Matrix Composite (AL-MMC) which utilises wear resistant ceramic particles derived from flyash. Ultalite AL-MMC typically contains between 10 and 30 per cent ceramic particles, and is formulated for the manufacture of wear resistant automotive components. Due to its low density and ease of processing into net shape die casting, Ultalite AL-MMC provides weight savings of up to 60 per cent over components fabricated from cast iron, thereby providing improved fuel efficiency with reduced greenhouse emissions. The original flyash material was sourced from a black coal power station in Queensland, where it contained a wide range of particles sizes. To narrow the size range and to remove impurities, a proprietary pretreatment developed by Dr Thomas Robl and co-researchers at the University of Kentucky was employed. The University of Kentucky developed the technology for the classification and benefaction of flyash to produce high-grade Pozzolan, which is used in Portland Cement product. This technology is now being applied to the production of Ultalite AL-MMC. Testing performed by Dr Robl has shown that the proprietary technology can eliminate the hollow particles, extract detrimental carbon-based impurities and remove the extremely fine and coarse particles. All that remains are dense ceramic particles with an average particle size of approximately 30 {mu}m. 9 refs., 3 figs.

  14. Persistent Energetic Electrons in Methylammonium Lead Iodide Perovskite Thin Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niesner, Daniel; Zhu, Haiming; Miyata, Kiyoshi; Joshi, Prakriti P; Evans, Tyler J S; Kudisch, Bryan J; Trinh, M Tuan; Marks, Manuel; Zhu, X-Y

    2016-12-07

    In conventional semiconductor solar cells, carriers are extracted at the band edges and the excess electronic energy (E*) is lost as heat. If E* is harvested, power conversion efficiency can be as high as twice the Shockley-Queisser limit. To date, materials suitable for hot carrier solar cells have not been found due to efficient electron/optical-phonon scattering in most semiconductors, but our recent experiments revealed long-lived hot carriers in single-crystal hybrid lead bromide perovskites. Here we turn to polycrystalline methylammonium lead iodide perovskite, which has emerged as the material for highly efficient solar cells. We observe energetic electrons with excess energy ⟨E*⟩ ≈ 0.25 eV above the conduction band minimum and with lifetime as long as ∼100 ps, which is 2-3 orders of magnitude longer than those in conventional semiconductors. The energetic carriers also give rise to hot fluorescence emission with pseudo-electronic temperatures as high as 1900 K. These findings point to a suppression of hot carrier scattering with optical phonons in methylammonium lead iodide perovskite. We address mechanistic origins of this suppression and, in particular, the correlation of this suppression with dynamic disorder. We discuss potential harvesting of energetic carriers for solar energy conversion.

  15. Ionic transport in hybrid lead iodide perovskite solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eames, Christopher; Frost, Jarvist M.; Barnes, Piers R. F.; O'Regan, Brian C.; Walsh, Aron; Islam, M. Saiful

    2015-01-01

    Solar cells based on organic–inorganic halide perovskites have recently shown rapidly rising power conversion efficiencies, but exhibit unusual behaviour such as current–voltage hysteresis and a low-frequency giant dielectric response. Ionic transport has been suggested to be an important factor contributing to these effects; however, the chemical origin of this transport and the mobile species are unclear. Here, the activation energies for ionic migration in methylammonium lead iodide (CH3NH3PbI3) are derived from first principles, and are compared with kinetic data extracted from the current–voltage response of a perovskite-based solar cell. We identify the microscopic transport mechanisms, and find facile vacancy-assisted migration of iodide ions with an activation energy of 0.6 eV, in good agreement with the kinetic measurements. The results of this combined computational and experimental study suggest that hybrid halide perovskites are mixed ionic–electronic conductors, a finding that has major implications for solar cell device architectures. PMID:26105623

  16. Numerical modelling of methyl iodide in the eastern tropical Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Stemmler

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Methyl iodide (CH3I is a volatile organic halogen compound that contributes significantly to the transport of iodine from the ocean to the atmosphere, where it plays an important role in tropospheric chemistry. CH3I is naturally produced and occurs in the global ocean. The processes involved in the formation of CH3I, however, are not fully understood. In fact, there is an ongoing debate whether production by phytoplankton or photochemical degradation of organic matter is the main source term. Here, both the biological and photochemical production mechanisms are considered in a biogeochemical module that is coupled to a one-dimensional water column model for the eastern tropical Atlantic. The model is able to reproduce observed subsurface maxima of CH3I concentrations. But, the dominating source process cannot be clearly identified as subsurface maxima can occur due to both direct biological and photochemical production. However, good agreement between the observed and simulated difference between surface and subsurface methyl iodide concentrations is achieved only when direct biological production is taken into account. Production rates for the biological CH3I source that were derived from published laboratory studies are shown to be inappropriate for explaining CH3I concentrations in the eastern tropical Atlantic.

  17. Nuclear detonation, thyroid cancer and potassium iodide prophylaxis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viroj Wiwanitkit

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent nuclear disaster at Japan has raised global concerns about effects of radioactive leakage in the environment, associated hazards, and how they can be prevented. In this article, we have tried to explain about the guidelines laid down by World Health Organization for a potassium iodide prophylaxis following a nuclear disaster, and its mechanism of action in preventing thyroid cancer. Data was collected mainly from the studies carried out during the Chernobyl disaster of Russia in 1986 and the hazardous effects especially on the thyroid gland were studied. It was seen that radioactive iodine leakage from the nuclear plants mainly affected the thyroid gland, and especially children were at a higher risk at developing the cancers. Potassium Iodide prophylaxis can be administered in order to prevent an increase in the incidence of thyroid cancers in the population of an area affected by a nuclear disaster. However, one has to be cautious while giving it, as using it without indication has its own risks.

  18. PHASE CONVERSIONS IN METAL-OXIDE COMPOSITIONS ON THE BASIS OF ALUMINIUM AND SILICON OXIDE

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    The regularities of phase conversions in metal-oxide compositions on the basis of aluminium and silicon oxide with the purpose of silumins synthesis by means of direct restoration of aluminium silicon are studied.

  19. The General Situation of the Scale and Layout of Aluminium Industry in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>Since 2002, aluminium industry has become a key industry under the macro control of the country, for which the reason is the aluminium industry in China has seen "repeated construc-tion", "blind investment", "excessive capacity",

  20. Aluminium Matrix Composites Reinforced with Co-continuous Interlaced Phases Aluminium-alumina Needles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvio de Napole Gregolin

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available An Al-5SiO2 (5 wt% of SiO2 aluminium matrix fiber composite was produced where the reinforcement consists of fossil silica fibers needles. After being heat-treated at 600 °C, the original fiber morphology was retained but its microstructure changed from solid silica to an interconnected (Al-Si/Al2O3 interlaced structure named co-continuous composite. A technique of powder metallurgy, using commercial aluminium powder and the silica fibers as starting materials, followed by hot extrusion, was used to produce the composite. The co-continuous microstructure was obtained partially or totally on the fibers as a result of the reaction, which occurs during the heat treatment, first by solid diffusion and finally by the liquid Al-Si in local equilibrium, formed with the silicon released by reaction. The internal structure of the fibers was characterized using field emission electron microscope (FEG-SEM and optical microscopy on polished and fractured samples.

  1. Impact properties of aluminium - glass fiber reinforced plastics sandwich panels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathivanan Periasamy

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Aluminium - glass fiber reinforced plastics (GFRP sandwich panels are hybrid laminates consisting of GFRP bonded with thin aluminum sheets on either side. Such sandwich materials are increasingly used in airplane and automobile structures. Laminates with varying aluminium thickness fractions, fiber volume fractions and orientation in the layers of GFRP were fabricated by hand lay up method and evaluated for their impact performance by conducting drop weight tests under low velocity impacts. The impact energy required for initiating a crack in the outer aluminium layer as well as the energy required for perforation was recorded. The impact load-time history was also recorded to understand the failure behavior. The damage depth and the damage area were measured to evaluate the impact resistance. Optical photography and scanning electron micrographs were taken to visualize the crack and the damage zone. The bidirectional cross-ply hybrid laminate (CPHL has been found to exhibit better impact performance and damage resistance than the unidirectional hybrid laminate (UDHL. Increase in aluminium thickness fraction (Al tf and fiber volume fraction (Vf resulted in an increase in the impact energy required for cracking and perforation. On an overall basis, the sandwich panels exhibited better impact performance than the monolithic aluminium.

  2. Elevated urinary excretion of aluminium and iron in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exley, Christopher; Mamutse, Godwin; Korchazhkina, Olga; Pye, Eleanor; Strekopytov, Stanislav; Polwart, Anthony; Hawkins, Clive

    2006-10-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic, immune-mediated, demyelinating disease of the central nervous system of as yet unknown aetiology. A consensus of opinion has suggested that the disorder is the result of an interplay between environmental factors and susceptibility genes. We have used a battery of analytical techniques to determine if the urinary excretion of i) markers of oxidative damage; ii) iron and iii) the environmental toxin aluminium and its antagonist, silicon, are altered in relapsing-remitting (RRMS) and secondary progressive MS (SPMS). Urinary concentrations of oxidative biomarkers, MDA and TBARS, were not found to be useful indicators of inflammatory disease in MS. However, urinary concentrations of another potential marker for inflammation and oxidative stress, iron, were significantly increased in SPMS (P0.05). Urinary concentrations of aluminium were also significantly increased in RRMS (Paluminium excretion in the former were similar to those observed in individuals undergoing metal chelation therapy. The excretion of silicon was lower in MS and significantly so in SPMS (Paluminium excretion similar to those seen in aluminium intoxication suggested that aluminium may be a hitherto unrecognized environmental factor associated with the aetiology of MS. If aluminium is involved in MS then an increased dietary intake of its natural antagonist, silicon, might be a therapeutic option.

  3. Thyroid hormones and iodide in the near-term pregnant rat.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versloot, P.M.

    1998-01-01

    Thyroid hormones, thyroxine (T4) and 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3), are produced by the thyroid gland. To synthesize thyroid hormones the thyroid needs iodide. The uptake of iodide as well as the production and secretion of T4 and T3 by the thyroid gland is regulated by thyrotropin (TSH), which is pr

  4. Effects of radiation and temperature on iodide sorption by surfactant-modified bentonite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choung, Sungwook; Kim, Minkyung; Yang, Jung-Seok; Kim, Min-Gyu; Um, Wooyong

    2014-08-19

    Bentonite, which is used as an engineered barrier in geological repositories, is ineffective for sorbing anionic radionuclides because of its negatively charged surface. This study modified raw bentonite using a cationic surfactant (i.e., hexadecyltrimethylammonium [HDTMA]-Br) to improve its sorption capability for radioactive iodide. The effects of temperature and radiation on the iodide sorption of surfactant-modified bentonite (SMB) were also evaluated under alkaline pH condition similar to that found in repository environments. Different amounts of surfactant, equivalent to the 50, 100, and 200% cation-exchange capacity of the bentonite, were used to produce the HDTMA-SMB for iodide sorption. The sorption reaction of the SMB with iodide reached equilibrium rapidly within 10 min regardless of temperature and radiation conditions. The rate of iodide sorption increased as the amount of the added surfactant was increased and nonlinear sorption behavior was exhibited. However, high temperature and γ-irradiation ((60)Co) resulted in significantly (∼2-10 times) lower iodide Kd values for the SMB. The results of FTIR, NMR, and XANES spectroscopy analysis suggested that the decrease in iodide sorption may be caused by weakened physical electrostatic force between the HDTMA and iodide, and by the surfactant becoming detached from the SMB during the heating and irradiation processes.

  5. Tungstosilicic Acid: An Efficient and Ecofriendly Catalyst for the Conversion of Alcohols to Alkyl Iodides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Mokhtary

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of a range of benzylic, allylic, and secondary aliphatic alcohols with potassium iodides in the presence of H4SiW12O40 affords the corresponding alkyl iodides in good to excellent yield with straightforward purification at room temperature in CH3CN.

  6. Bibenzimidazole containing mixed ligand cobalt(III) complex as a selective receptor for iodide

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Indumathy, R.; Parameswarana, P.S.; Aiswarya, C.V.; Nair, B.U.

    -, OH- and OAc- do not bring about any dramatic visual colorimetric changes. However, metallo-receptor 2 brings about vivid color change with iodide anion visually and this could be due to charge transfer transition via ion pair formation with iodide ion...

  7. CuI-catalyzed Synthesis of Aryl Thiocyanates from Aryl Iodides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ye Feng WANG; Yuan ZHOU; Jia Rui WANG; Lei LIU; Qing Xiang GUO

    2006-01-01

    An operationally simple and inexpensive catalyst system was developed for the cross coupling of potassium thiocyanate with aryl iodides by using CuI as catalyst, 1, 10-phenanthroline as ligand, and tetraethylammonium iodide as activator. The procedure is applicable for the synthesis of diverse aryl thiocyanates without any exotic, poisonous reagents.

  8. Microfabrication of an anodic oxide film by anodizing laser-textured aluminium

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    A simple method for the fabrication of microstructures of an aluminium anodic oxide film (anodic alumina) by anodizing laser-textured aluminium is demonstrated. In the process, the aluminium substrate was first textured by a low power laser beam, and then the textured aluminium was subjected to anodizing, to develop a continuous, thick porous layer on the textured surface. Microstructures with a depth of a few to several tens of micrometres were fabricated successfully on the anodic oxide fil...

  9. Does antiperspirant use increase the risk of aluminium-related disease, including Alzheimer's disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exley, C

    1998-03-01

    Aluminium salts are the major constituent of many widely used antiperspirant products. The use of such antiperspirants has been linked with the systemic accumulation of aluminium and an increased risk of Alzheimer's disease. But can the frequent use of aluminium-based antiperspirants lead to the accumulation of toxic levels of aluminium? And are there measures that we can take to reduce such accumulation without reducing the effectiveness of antiperspirants?

  10. Determination of aluminium in groundwater samples by GF-AAS, ICP-AES, ICP-MS and modelling of inorganic aluminium complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankowski, Marcin; Zioła-Frankowska, Anetta; Kurzyca, Iwona; Novotný, Karel; Vaculovič, Tomas; Kanický, Viktor; Siepak, Marcin; Siepak, Jerzy

    2011-11-01

    The paper presents the results of aluminium determinations in ground water samples of the Miocene aquifer from the area of the city of Poznań (Poland). The determined aluminium content amounted from aluminium determinations were performed using three analytical techniques: graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GF-AAS), inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The results of aluminium determinations in groundwater samples for particular analytical techniques were compared. The results were used to identify the ascent of ground water from the Mesozoic aquifer to the Miocene aquifer in the area of the fault graben. Using the Mineql+ program, the modelling of the occurrence of aluminium and the following aluminium complexes: hydroxy, with fluorides and sulphates was performed. The paper presents the results of aluminium determinations in ground water using different analytical techniques as well as the chemical modelling in the Mineql+ program, which was performed for the first time and which enabled the identification of aluminium complexes in the investigated samples. The study confirms the occurrence of aluminium hydroxy complexes and aluminium fluoride complexes in the analysed groundwater samples. Despite the dominance of sulphates and organic matter in the sample, major participation of the complexes with these ligands was not stated based on the modelling.

  11. Determination of Trace Iodide in Sodium Bisulfite Aqueous Solution by Ion Chromatography with UV Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Y.S.; Kim, D.Y.; Choi, K.S.; Park, S.D.; Han, S.H. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    2000-06-01

    The iodide was recovered from a simulated spent fuel to the sodium bisulfite aqueous solution. It was discussed that the trace iodide (below 1 ppm) was determined without the matrix effect of 0.1 M sodium bisulfite and 1 mM HNO{sub 3} in aqueous solution by ion chromatography with UV detection. AS4A-SC(DIONEX) column and UV-absorption spectrophotometer were used. The UV-absorption spectra of sodium bisulfite nitric acid and iodide were obtained, and then 230 nm was selected as an absorption wavelength for iodide determination. 0.1 M NaCl eluent was optimum condition. In this condition the calibration curve of iodide was obtained on the range of about 0-1,000 ppb. The linear coefficient was 0.99993 and the detection limit was 5 ppb. The relative standard deviation was 1.26%. (author). 17 refs., 3 tabs., 4 figs.

  12. The Determination of Iodide Based on a Flow-injection Coupling Irreversible Biamperometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Jun LI; Hao CHENG; Wen Yi HUANG; Hong Xing KONG; Jian Ling WU; Jian Ping LU; Wei GAO; Jun Feng SONG

    2005-01-01

    A novel flow-injection irreversible biamperometric method is described for the direct determination of iodide. The method is based on electrochemical oxidation of iodide at the gold electrode and the reduction of permanganate at the platinum electrode to form an irreversible biamperometric detection system. Under the applied potential difference of 0 V, in the 0.05mol/L sulfuric acid, iodide can be determined over the range 4.00×10-7-l.00×l0-5 mol/L with a sampling frequency of 120 samples per hour. The detection limit for Ⅰ- is 3.0× 10-7 mol/L and the RSD for 40 replicate determinations of 4.0×10-5 mol/L potassium iodide is 1.68%. The new method was applied to the analysis of iodide in table salt with satisfactory results.

  13. Synthesis, growth, structural, thermal, optical properties of new metal-organic crystals: Methyltriphenylphosphonium iodide thiourea and methyltriphenylphosphonium iodide chloroform hemisolvate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivachev, Boris L.; Kossev, Krassimir; Dimowa, Louiza T.; Yankov, Georgi; Petrov, Todor; Nikolova, Rositsa P.; Petrova, Nadia

    2013-08-01

    Crystals of methyltriphenylphosphonium iodide thiourea (1) and methyltriphenylphosphonium iodide chloroform hemisolvate (2) were obtained for the first time. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectral studies have been performed to identify the functional groups. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential thermal analysis (DTA) were used to study their thermal properties. The optical transmittance window and the lower cutoff wavelength have been identified by UV-vis studies. Crystals of the title compounds suitable for single crystal X-ray analyses were successfully grown by slow evaporation and diffraction data were collected to elucidate the molecular structure and interactions. The proton donors (phosphonium) and proton acceptor (iodine) in the structure of 1 provide infrastructure to introduce charge asymmetry while in 2 chloroform molecule is not involved in the charge transfer. An optical quality crystal of 1 (5×4×2 mm3) was obtained by macroseeding. The crystal has developed facets with major ones (001) and (00¯1). A crystal of 1 was tested with 1060 nm laser radiation and showed second harmonic generation (SHG).

  14. Fabrication of Efficient Low-Bandgap Perovskite Solar Cells by Combining Formamidinium Tin Iodide with Methylammonium Lead Iodide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, Weiqiang; Zhao, Dewei; Yu, Yue; Shrestha, Niraj; Ghimire, Kiran; Grice, Corey R.; Wang, Changlei; Xiao, Yuqing; Cimaroli, Alexander J.; Ellingson, Randy J.; Podraza, Nikolas J.; Zhu, Kai; Xiong, Ren-Gen; Yan, Yanfa

    2016-09-28

    Mixed tin (Sn)-lead (Pb) perovskites with high Sn content exhibit low bandgaps suitable for fabricating the bottom cell of perovskite-based tandem solar cells. In this work, we report on the fabrication of efficient mixed Sn-Pb perovskite solar cells using precursors combining formamidinium tin iodide (FASnI3) and methylammonium lead iodide (MAPbI3). The best-performing cell fabricated using a (FASnI3)0.6(MAPbI3)0.4 absorber with an absorption edge of ~1.2 eV achieved a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 15.08 (15.00)% with an open-circuit voltage of 0.795 (0.799) V, a short-circuit current density of 26.86(26.82) mA/cm2, and a fill factor of 70.6(70.0)% when measured under forward (reverse) voltage scan. The average PCE of 50 cells we have fabricated is 14.39 +/- 0.33%, indicating good reproducibility.

  15. Energy efficiency improvement and GHG abatement in the global production of primary aluminium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kermeli, Katerina; Ter Weer, Peter Hans; Crijns - Graus, Wina; Worrell, Ernst

    2015-01-01

    Primary aluminium production is a highly energy-intensive and greenhouse gas (GHG)-emitting process responsible for about 1 % of global GHG emissions. In 2009, the two most energy-intensive processes in primary aluminium production, alumina refining and aluminium smelting consumed 3.1 EJ, of which 2

  16. The Prospect of China’s Alumin-ium Extrusion Product Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>China’s aluminium extrusion industry can be dated back to the 1950s-70s,when the North- east 101 Plant was established in 1956,the Northwest Aluminium and Southwest Alumin- ium were completed and put into operation in 1968-1969.The three plants’ extrusion assem- bly lines were designed to produce aluminium

  17. The Net Exporting Trends Remains for China’s Aluminium Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>The oversupply of China’s raw aluminium has caused the continuing net exporting for China’s aluminium products.As the situation is wors- ened due to the growing raw aluminium pro- duction and curbed demand,it is estimated that the continuation of net exporting of China’s

  18. Light-weight aluminium bridges and bridge decks. An overview of recent applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maljaars, J.; Soetens, F.; Kluyver, D. de

    2008-01-01

    The last decades have shown a large increase in the application of aluminium alloys for light-weight bridges. For bridge construction, aluminium alloys have some specific advantages, but also some points of attention. This paper deals with some recent projects of aluminium bridges, and for these pro

  19. IEC 61267: Feasibility of type 1100 aluminium and a copper/aluminium combination for RQA beam qualities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, David L; Rainford, Louise; Zhao, Wei; Brennan, Patrick C

    2016-01-01

    In the course of performance acceptance testing, benchmarking or quality control of X-ray imaging systems, it is sometimes necessary to harden the X-ray beam spectrum. IEC 61267 specifies materials and methods to accomplish beam hardening and, unfortunately, requires the use of 99.9% pure aluminium (Alloy 1190) for the RQA beam quality, which is expensive and difficult to obtain. Less expensive and more readily available filters, such as Alloy 1100 (99.0% pure) aluminium and copper/aluminium combinations, have been used clinically to produce RQA series without rigorous scientific investigation to support their use. In this paper, simulation and experimental methods are developed to determine the differences in beam quality using Alloy 1190 and Alloy 1100. Additional simulation investigated copper/aluminium combinations to produce RQA5 and outputs from this simulation are verified with laboratory tests using different filter samples. The results of the study demonstrate that although Alloy 1100 produces a harder beam spectrum compared to Alloy 1190, it is a reasonable substitute. A combination filter of 0.5 mm copper and 2 mm aluminium produced a spectrum closer to that of Alloy 1190 than Alloy 1100 with the added benefits of lower exposures and lower batch variability.

  20. Langmuir-Blodgett Films from Schiff Base Aluminium ( Ⅲ ) Complex

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The characteristics of the LB films of Schiff base aluminium( Ⅲ ), tris(2-hydroxy-5-nitro N-dodecyl-benzylideneaminato) aluminium ( Ⅲ ) [Al (TA 12) 3], were studied. The surface pres sure-area(r-A) isotherm of Al(TA12)3 in the pure water subphase was investigated. The molec ular area, 0.48 nm2, is one-third of the expected value that indicates the formation of an aggre gate. The Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films of Al(TA12) 3 were transferred and characterized. The UV-Vis spectra and the AFM image both confirmed that the J-aggregates formed. The polarized UV-Vis spectra indicated that the complex plane had to be oriented with an angle of about 30° to the substrate surface. The IR spectra suggested that the complexation took place between aluminium ions and the oxygen atoms of the ligand rather than the nitrogen atom.

  1. Reflection of infrared radiation from thin aluminium layers

    CERN Document Server

    Calatroni, Sergio

    2001-01-01

    The thermal shielding of the LHC magnets cryostats will make use of Multi-Layer Insulation. This is a sandwich of several Mylar (polyester) foils 6 µm thick coated with a thin film of aluminium, having a thickness of some 30 nm. The thickness of the aluminium film must be kept at a minimum to minimise lateral thermal conduction. The outer layer of this sandwich stays at a temperature of 20 K or below, and receives IR radiation from surfaces at 77 K (wavelength of 37.6 µm at the peak of blackbody radiation), which should be reflected with the highest efficiency. The minimum thickness for the aluminium layer to avoid transmission of the radiation can be calculated by making use of the skin effect theory, taking into account the changes in electrical properties that are due to the extremely low thickness of the film.

  2. Aluminium supplier selection for the automotive parts manufacturer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cieśla

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a methodology for selection of the optimal sources of supply, which is also known as the problem of supplier selection. Theoretical considerations are expanded with research related to aluminium supplier selection for a hypothetical manufacturer of aluminium parts for transportation equipment located in Poland. Evaluation of five suppliers of aluminium from Poland, Germany and Slovenia has been conducted using a weighted scoring method, a strengths and weaknesses method and a graphical method. Choosing the best offer and prioritizing suppliers allows not only the most rational decision in the field of supply logistics to be taken but also the quality of service in the metallurgical industry to be improved.

  3. Application of Anodization Process for Cast Aluminium Surface Properties Enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Włodarczyk-Fligier A.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available An huge interest is observed in last years in metal matrix composite, mostly light metal based, which have found their applications in many industry branches, among others in the aircraft industry, automotive-, and armaments ones, as well as in electrical engineering and electronics, where one of the most important issue is related to the corrosion resistance, especially on the surface layer of the used aluminium alloys. This elaboration presents the influence of ceramic phase on the corrosion resistance, quality of the surface layer its thickness and structure of an anodic layer formed on aluminium alloys. As test materials it was applied the aluminium alloys Al-Si-Cu and Al-Cu-Mg, for which heat treatment processes and corrosion tests were carried out. It was presented herein grindability test results and metallographic examination, as well. Hardness of the treated alloys with those ones subjected to corrosion process were compared.

  4. Effect of Heat Treatment on Microstructural Changes in Aluminium Bronze

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hájek J.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to summarise the microstructural changes which take place in aluminium bronzes during heat treatment. Another objective of this study was to map the potential of a certain type of aluminium bronzes for undergoing martensitic transformation. The methods, which were chosen for assessing the results of heat treatment with regard to their availability, included measurement of hardness and observation of microstructure using light and scanning electron microscopy, Additional tools for evaluation of microstructure comprised measurement of microhardness and chemical analysis by EDS. An important part of the experiment is observation of microstructural changes in the Jominy bar during the end-quench test. Upon completing experiments of this kind, one can define the heat treatment conditions necessary for obtaining optimum properties. In addition, the paper presents important findings on how to improve the corrosion resistance of aluminium bronzes by special heat treatment sequences.

  5. [Photophysical properties and photodynamic activity of nanostructured aluminium phthalocyanines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udartseva, O O; Lobanov, A V; Andeeva, E R; Dmitrieva, G S; Mel'nikov, M Ia; Buravkova, L B

    2014-01-01

    We developed water-soluble supramolecular complexes of aluminium phthalocyanine based on mesoporous silica nanoparticles and polyvinylpirrolidone containing rare photoactive nanoaggregates. Radiative lifetimes, extinction coefficients and energy of electronic transitions of isolated and associated metal phthalocyanine complexes were calculated. Nontoxic concentrations of synthesized nanocomposite photosensibilizers were in vitro determined. In present study we compared photodynamic treatment efficacy using different modifications of aluminium phthalocyanine (Photosens®, AlPc-nSiO2 and AlPc-PVP). Mesenchymal stromal cells were used as a model for photodynamic treatment. Intracellular accumulation of aluminium phthalocyanine based on mesoporous silica nanoparticles AlPc-nSiO2 was the most efficient. Illumination of phthalocyanine-loaded cells led to reactive oxygen species generation and subsequent apoptotic cell death. Silica nanoparticles provided a significant decrease of effective phthalocyanine concentration and enhanced cytotoxicity of photodynamic treatment.

  6. The immunobiology of aluminium adjuvants: how do they really work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exley, Christopher; Siesjö, Peter; Eriksson, Håkan

    2010-03-01

    Aluminium adjuvants potentiate the immune response, thereby ensuring the potency and efficacy of typically sparingly available antigen. Their concomitant critical importance in mass vaccination programmes may have prompted recent intense interest in understanding how they work and their safety. Progress in these areas is stymied, however, by a lack of accessible knowledge pertaining to the bioinorganic chemistry of aluminium adjuvants, and, consequently, the inappropriate application and interpretation of experimental models of their mode of action. The objective herein is, therefore, to identify the many ways that aluminium chemistry contributes to the wide and versatile armoury of its adjuvants, such that future research might be guided towards a fuller understanding of their role in human vaccinations.

  7. Aluminium in parenteral nutrition: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Sánchez, A; Tejada-González, P; Arteta-Jiménez, M

    2013-03-01

    Aluminium (Al) toxicity problem in parenteral nutrition solutions (PNS) is decades old and is still unresolved. The aim of this review is to gather updated information about this matter, regarding legislation, manifestations, diagnostics and treatment, patient population at risk and the actions to be taken to limit its accumulation. A structured search using MeSH vocabulary and Title/Abstract searches was conducted in PubMed (http://www.pubmed.gov) up to November 2012. Al is ubiquitous, facilitating its potential for exposure. Nevertheless, humans have several mechanisms to prevent significant absorption and to aid its elimination; therefore, the vast majority of the population is not at risk for Al toxicity. However, when protective gastrointestinal mechanisms are bypassed (for example, parenteral fluids), renal function is impaired (for example, adult patients with renal compromise and neonates) or exposure is high (for example, long-term PNS), Al is prone to accumulate in the body, including manifestations such as impaired neurological development, Alzheimer's disease, metabolic bone disease, dyslipemia and even genotoxic activity. A high Al content in PNS is largely the result of three parenteral nutrient additives: calcium gluconate, inorganic phosphates and cysteine hydrochloride. Despite the legislative efforts, some factors make difficult to comply with the rule and, therefore, to limit the Al toxicity. Unfortunately, manufacturers have not universally changed their processes to obtain a lower Al content of parenteral drug products (PDP). In addition, the imprecise information provided by PDP labels and the high lot-to-lot variation make the prediction of Al content rather inaccurate.

  8. PEMBINAAN PENGERAJIN BOKOR ALUMINIUM DI DESA MENYALI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I NYOMAN GDE ANTARA, dkk.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Alluminium bowl craft industrial center is located in Menyali village Sawan district Buleleng regency of Bali province. In this business development, they faced some problems such as increasingly expensive alluminium plate raw materials, decreasing selling product prices due to competition among craftsmen, difficulty in extending the marketing, lack of capital, lack of knowledge in business management, and lack of technical capacity and production innovation. Currently the organization has been formed aluminum bowl craftsmen groups, they are “Sumber Urip” and “Sumur Jaya”. This organization is still limited to tradisional associations such as a community organization, has not led to organize in a micro-enterprise or cooperation. Their organization management should not be arranged. Therefore, they need helps from the government and other institutions to build this bowl craftsmen in developing their businesses through a group of micro-enterprises or cooperations. Wishly, with formal business entity that would facilitate access to a variety of coaching and help governments andother institutions. From the SWOT analysis, it is found some problems and solutions that should be done. Alluminium bowl craftsmen groups, named “Sumber Urip” and “Sumur Jaya” is not in the form of business entity or cooperation yet, so that the results of coaching have agreed to form a cooperation. Venture capital assistance for the development and production are still needed and to be an absolute given, but a way to market more absolute yield is given, through participation in various events exhibition to introduce the product is expected to expandits market share up to overseas or exports. In the production process it has been introduced that is appropriate technology for instant a rolling tool to make a wiring groove on the outside of the bowl, so that it will simplify and speed up the process, especially by aged mothers.Keywords: aluminium bowl, Menyali

  9. Horizontal Ampoule Growth and Characterization of Mercuric Iodide at Controlled Gas Pressures for X-Ray and Gamma Ray Spectrometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGregor, Douglas S. [Kansas State Univ., Manhattan, KS (United States). Semiconductor Materials and Radiological Technologies Lab., Dept. of Nuclear and Mechanical Engineering; Ariesanti, Elsa [Kansas State Univ., Manhattan, KS (United States). Semiconductor Materials and Radiological Technologies Lab., Dept. of Nuclear and Mechanical Engineering; Corcoran, Bridget [Kansas State Univ., Manhattan, KS (United States). Semiconductor Materials and Radiological Technologies Lab., Dept. of Nuclear and Mechanical Engineering

    2004-04-30

    The project developed a new method for producing high quality mercuric iodide crystals of x-ray and gamma spectrometers. Included are characterization of mercuric iodide crystal properties as a function of growth environment and fabrication and demonstration of room-temperature-operated high-resolution mercuric iodide spectrometers.

  10. Aluminium Price Looks Down Due To Increased Capacities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>Speaking at a recent forum on China’S alumin- ium industry,Wen Xianjun,director of the aluminium branch under China Nonferrous Metals Industry Association,said that the alu- minium price in 2007 looks going downward due to the production capacity expansion out of the high market price last year.He estimates that the downward development of the alumin- ium price in China will be more obvious than that in the rest part of the world.He predicts that in 2007 the average aluminium price in

  11. Washery tailings from coal preparation used as aluminium feedstock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuehn, L.; Schieder, T.; Belsky, M.; Lotze, J.; Winkhaus, G.

    1982-06-01

    Kaolinite clays and washery tailings of coal mines are the major feedstocks of the West German aluminium industry. Statistics are given in order to assess the amount of washery tailings available and their suitability as feedstocks for aluminium production. The chemical and mineralogical composition are similar for washery tailings from different mines; accordingly, also their behaviour regarding decomposition by acids will be almost identical. Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ extraction yields are satisfactory with strongly precalcinated material using concentrated sulphuric acid or azeotropic hydrochloric acid - in the latter case, however, only if fluoride is added to the acid.

  12. Power quality results in energy efficient aluminium smelter operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiestner, Max

    2010-09-15

    New aluminium smelters consume up to 2400MW of electrical energy making the energy efficiency aspect most important. Power quality, optimised power conversion systems and well engineered power plant interfaces are essential for highest energy efficiency. An early optimisation of the power system design will reduce the capital investment cost for the power plant and smelter substation as well as results in most energy efficient aluminium production. This paper describes and intends to discuss the power quality improvement concepts and designs as well as energy cost reduction opportunities which a high power quality system can achieve.

  13. Transmittance jump in a thin aluminium layer during laser ablation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bykovsky, N E; Senatsky, Yu V [P N Lebedev Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Pershin, S M; Samokhin, A A [A M Prokhorov General Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2016-02-28

    A jump in the transmittance (from ∼0.1% to ∼50% for ∼1 ns) of an optical gate on a Mylar film (a thin aluminium layer on a Lavsan substrate) irradiated by nanosecond (10{sup -7} – 10{sup -8} s) pulses of a neodymium laser with an intensity up to 0.1 GW cm{sup -2} has been recorded. The mechanism of a fast (10{sup -10} – 10{sup -11} s) increase in the transmittance of the aluminium layer upon its overheating (without boiling) to the metal – insulator phase-transition temperature is discussed. (interaction of laser radiation with matter. laser plasma)

  14. Silver coated aluminium microrods as highly colloidal stable SERS platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazos-Perez, Nicolas; Borke, Tina; Andreeva, Daria V; Alvarez-Puebla, Ramon A

    2011-08-01

    We report on the fabrication of a novel material with the ability to remain in solution even under the very demanding conditions required for structural and dynamic characterization of biomacromolecule assays. This stability is provided by the increase in surface area of a low density material (aluminium) natively coated with a very hydrophilic surface composed of aluminium oxide (Al(2)O(3)) and metallic silver nanoparticles. Additionally, due to the dense collection of active hot spots on their surface, this material offers higher levels of SERS intensity as compared with the same free and aggregated silver nanoparticles.

  15. Aluminium, beta-amyloid and non-enzymatic glycosylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exley, C; Schley, L; Murray, S; Hackney, C M; Birchall, J D

    1995-05-08

    The non-enzymatic glycosylation of beta-amyloid is implicated in the aetiology of Alzheimer's disease. However, controversy surrounds the nature of any involvement and a potential mechanism has not been fully elucidated. We present evidence of an aluminium-induced aggregation of the A beta P(25-35) peptide and speculate that the mechanism of formation of our ordered beta-amyloid aggregates might involve non-enzymatic glycosylation and/or site-specific crosslinking of beta-amyloid fibrils by atomic aluminium.

  16. Accumulation of Aluminium and Physiological Status of Tree Foliage in the Vicinity of a Large Aluminium Smelter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. D. Wannaz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A pollution gradient was observed in tree foliage sampled in the vicinity of a large aluminium production facility in Patagonia (Argentina. Leaves of Eucalyptus rostrata, and Populus hybridus and different needle ages of Pinus spec. were collected and concentrations of aluminium (Al and sulphur (S as well as physiological parameters (chlorophyll and lipid oxidation products were analyzed. Al and S concentrations indicate a steep pollution gradient in the study showing a relationship with the physiological parameters in particular membrane lipid oxidation products. The present study confirms that aluminium smelting results in high Al and sulphur deposition in the study area, and therefore further studies should be carried out taking into account potentially adverse effects of these compounds on human and ecosystem health.

  17. Gas accumulation at grain boundaries during 800 MeV proton irradiation of aluminium and aluminium-alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Bachu Narain; Horsewell, Andy; Sommer, W. F.;

    1986-01-01

    Samples of pure aluminium (99.9999%) and commercial Al-2.7%Mg(AlMg3) and Al-1.1%Mg-0.5%Si(Al6061) alloys were irradiated with 800 MeV protons at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) at a temperature between 40-100°C to a maximum dose of 0.2 dpa. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM......) showed a complete absence of voids or bubbles in the grain interiors of the aluminium and the aluminium-alloys. Bubbles were clearly visible by TEM at grain boundaries in pure Al and the AlMg3 alloy; but bubbles were not visible in the Al6061 alloy. The bubble density in the AlMg3 alloy was considerably...

  18. Morphological effects in the quantum yield of cesium iodide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, J. [Ecole Politechnique Federale, Lausanne (Switzerland). DP-IPA PH-Ecublens; Barbo, F. [Sincrotrone Trieste SpA, Padriciano 99, 34012 Trieste (Italy); Bertolo, M. [Sincrotrone Trieste SpA, Padriciano 99, 34012 Trieste (Italy); Bianco, A. [Sincrotrone Trieste SpA, Padriciano 99, 34012 Trieste (Italy); Braem, A. [European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland). Div. Particle Physics Experiments; Cerasari, S. [Sincrotrone Trieste SpA, Padriciano 99, 34012 Trieste (Italy); Coluzza, C. [Ecole Politechnique Federale, Lausanne (Switzerland). DP-IPA PH-Ecublens; Dell`Orto, T. [Ecole Politechnique Federale, Lausanne (Switzerland). DP-IPA PH-Ecublens; Fontana, S. [Sincrotrone Trieste SpA, Padriciano 99, 34012 Trieste (Italy); Margaritondo, G. [Ecole Politechnique Federale, Lausanne (Switzerland). DP-IPA PH-Ecublens; Nappi, E. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Bari (Italy); Paic, G. [European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland). Div. Particle Physics Experiments; Piuz, F. [European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland). Div. Particle Physics Experiments; Sanjines, R. [Ecole Politechnique Federale, Lausanne (Switzerland). DP-IPA PH-Ecublens; Scognetti, T. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Bari (Italy); Sgobba, S. [European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland). Div. Particle Physics Experiments

    1995-07-15

    We demonstrated that polycrystalline cesium iodide (CsI) on large area Ni/Au coated printed board provides a quantum efficiency (QE) higher by a factor of 2 than the films deposited on the standard Cu/Au printed circuits. This is the most important result of the present systematic study of the QE lateral inhomogeneity for CsI on different substrates. We found a strong correlation between the QE lateral variation and the morphological homogeneity of the films. The QE was measured by UV photoelectron emission microscopy and spatially resolved X-ray photoemission, and the morphology studies were performed by secondary electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and scanning tunneling microscopy. (orig.).

  19. Electronic characterization of mercuric iodide gamma ray spectrometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerrish, V.M.

    1993-01-01

    During the past four years the yield of high resolution mercuric iodide (HgI[sub 2]) gamma ray spectrometers produced at EG G/EM has increased dramatically. Data is presented which demonstrates a strong correlation between starting material and spectrometer performance. Improved spectrometer yields are attributed to the method of HgI[sub 2] synthesis and to material purification procedures. Data is presented which shows that spectrometer performance is correlated with hole mobility-lifetime products. In addition, the measurement of Schottky barrier heights on HgI[sub 2] spectrometers has been performed using I-V curves and the photoelectric method. Barrier heights near 1.1 eV have been obtained using various contacts and contact deposition methods. These data suggest the pinning of the Fermi level at midgap at the HgI[sub 2] surface, probably due to surface states formed prior to contact deposition.

  20. Electronic characterization of mercuric iodide gamma ray spectrometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerrish, V.M.

    1993-06-01

    During the past four years the yield of high resolution mercuric iodide (HgI{sub 2}) gamma ray spectrometers produced at EG&G/EM has increased dramatically. Data is presented which demonstrates a strong correlation between starting material and spectrometer performance. Improved spectrometer yields are attributed to the method of HgI{sub 2} synthesis and to material purification procedures. Data is presented which shows that spectrometer performance is correlated with hole mobility-lifetime products. In addition, the measurement of Schottky barrier heights on HgI{sub 2} spectrometers has been performed using I-V curves and the photoelectric method. Barrier heights near 1.1 eV have been obtained using various contacts and contact deposition methods. These data suggest the pinning of the Fermi level at midgap at the HgI{sub 2} surface, probably due to surface states formed prior to contact deposition.

  1. Dual frequency cavitation event sensor with iodide dosimeter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahiminia, Ali; Mokhtari-Dizaji, Manijhe; Toliyat, Tayebeh

    2016-01-01

    The inertial cavitation activity depends on the sonication parameters. The purpose of this work is development of dual frequency inertial cavitation meter for therapeutic applications of ultrasound waves. In this study, the chemical effects of sonication parameters in dual frequency sonication (40 kHz and 1 MHz) were investigated in the progressive wave mode using iodide dosimetry. For this purpose, efficacy of different exposure parameters such as intensity, sonication duration, sonication mode, duty factor and net ultrasound energy on the inertial cavitation activity have been studied. To quantify cavitational effects, the KI dosimeter solution was sonicated and its absorbance at a wavelength of 350 nm was measured. The absorbance values in continuous sonication mode was significantly higher than the absorbance corresponding to the pulsed mode having duty factors of 20-80% (plevel intensity (sensor can be useful for ultrasonic treatments.

  2. Development of mercuric iodide detectors for XAS and XRD measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warburton, W.K.; Iwanczyk, J.S.; Dabrowski, A.J.; Hedman, B.; Penner-Hakn, J.E.; Roe, A.L.; Hodgson, K.O.; Beyerle, A.

    1985-07-01

    A prototype element for an energy dispersive detector (EDD) array was constructed using a Mercuric Iodide detector. Both detector and front end FET could be thermoelectrically cooled. Tested at SSRL, the detector had 250 eV electronic noise and 315 eV resolution at 5.9 keV. K line fluorescence spectra were collected for selected elements between Cl (2622 eV) and Zn (8638 eV). Count rate capability to 60,000 cps was demonstrated. Several detector parameters were measured, including energy linearity, resolution vs. shaping time, and detector dead time. An EXAFS (extended x-ray absorption fine structure) spectrum was recorded and compared to simultaneously collected transmission data.

  3. Radiative efficiency of lead iodide based perovskite solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tvingstedt, Kristofer; Malinkiewicz, Olga; Baumann, Andreas; Deibel, Carsten; Snaith, Henry J.; Dyakonov, Vladimir; Bolink, Henk J.

    2014-08-01

    The maximum efficiency of any solar cell can be evaluated in terms of its corresponding ability to emit light. We herein determine the important figure of merit of radiative efficiency for Methylammonium Lead Iodide perovskite solar cells and, to put in context, relate it to an organic photovoltaic (OPV) model device. We evaluate the reciprocity relation between electroluminescence and photovoltaic quantum efficiency and conclude that the emission from the perovskite devices is dominated by a sharp band-to-band transition that has a radiative efficiency much higher than that of an average OPV device. As a consequence, the perovskite have the benefit of retaining an open circuit voltage ~0.14 V closer to its radiative limit than the OPV cell. Additionally, and in contrast to OPVs, we show that the photoluminescence of the perovskite solar cell is substantially quenched under short circuit conditions in accordance with how an ideal photovoltaic cell should operate.

  4. Carbon treated commercial aluminium alloys as anodes for aluminium-air batteries in sodium chloride electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pino, M.; Herranz, D.; Chacón, J.; Fatás, E.; Ocón, P.

    2016-09-01

    An easy treatment based in carbon layer deposition into aluminium alloys is presented to enhance the performance of Al-air primary batteries with neutral pH electrolyte. The jellification of aluminate in the anode surface is described and avoided by the carbon covering. Treated commercial Al alloys namely Al1085 and Al7475 are tested as anodes achieving specific capacities above 1.2 Ah g-1vs 0.5 Ah g-1 without carbon covering. The influence of the binder proportion in the treatment as well as different carbonaceous materials, Carbon Black, Graphene and Pyrolytic Graphite are evaluated as candidates for the covering. Current densities of 1-10 mA cm-2 are measured and the influence of the alloy explored. A final battery design of 4 cells in series is presented for discharges with a voltage plateau of 2 V and 1 Wh g-1 energy density.

  5. New Investment Rush Brings up Concern for China’s Aluminium Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正> Although the blind construction of the electro-lytic aluminium industry has been restricted inChina this year,an investment rush in aluminaand aluminium processing has started,whichhas brought up new concern for the industry.Whether this will follow the route of the much-heated electrolytic aluminium industry remainsa question to be answered.According to someindustry analysts,under the pressure of themacro control measures of the State on theelectrolytic aluminium industry expansion,some producers of aluminium have shiftedtheir interests to the upper and lower fields soas to raise their competitiveness over the mar-

  6. Development of w/o microemulsion for transdermal delivery of iodide ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Hao; Qiu, Ni; Crill, Catherine; Helms, Richard; Almoazen, Hassan

    2013-03-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a water-in-oil (w/o) microemulsion which can be utilized as a transdermal delivery for iodide ions. Several w/o microemulsion formulations were prepared utilizing Span 20, ethanol, Capryol 90®, and water. The selected formulations had 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, and a maximum of 23% w/w water content. Potassium iodide (KI) was incorporated in all formulations at 5% w/v. Physicochemical characterizations were conducted to evaluate the structure and stability. These studies included: mean droplet size, pH, viscosity, conductivity, and chemical stability tests. In vitro human skin permeation studies were conducted to evaluate the diffusion of the iodide ion through human skin. The w/o microemulsion formulations were stable and compatible with iodide ions with water content ranging from 5% to 23% w/w. The addition of KI influenced the physicochemical properties of microemulsion as compared to blank microemulsion formulations. In vitro human skin permeation studies indicated that selected formulations improved iodide ion diffusion significantly as compared to control (KI solution; P valueIodide ions were entrapped within the aqueous core of w/o microemulsion. Span 20, ethanol and Capryol 90 protected the iodide ions against oxidation and formed a stable microemulsion. It is worth to note that according to Hofmeister series, iodide ions tend to lower the interfacial tension between water and oil and consequently enhance overall stability. This work illustrates that microemulsion system can be utilized as a vehicle for the transdermal administration of iodide.

  7. Mechanochemical route to the synthesis of nanostructured Aluminium nitride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rounaghi, S A; Eshghi, H; Scudino, S; Vyalikh, A; Vanpoucke, D E P; Gruner, W; Oswald, S; Kiani Rashid, A R; Samadi Khoshkhoo, M; Scheler, U; Eckert, J

    2016-09-21

    Hexagonal Aluminium nitride (h-AlN) is an important wide-bandgap semiconductor material which is conventionally fabricated by high temperature carbothermal reduction of alumina under toxic ammonia atmosphere. Here we report a simple, low cost and potentially scalable mechanochemical procedure for the green synthesis of nanostructured h-AlN from a powder mixture of Aluminium and melamine precursors. A combination of experimental and theoretical techniques has been employed to provide comprehensive mechanistic insights on the reactivity of melamine, solid state metal-organic interactions and the structural transformation of Al to h-AlN under non-equilibrium ball milling conditions. The results reveal that melamine is adsorbed through the amine groups on the Aluminium surface due to the long-range van der Waals forces. The high energy provided by milling leads to the deammoniation of melamine at the initial stages followed by the polymerization and formation of a carbon nitride network, by the decomposition of the amine groups and, finally, by the subsequent diffusion of nitrogen into the Aluminium structure to form h-AlN.

  8. Electrochemical Characterisation of Filiform Corrosion on Aluminium Rolled Products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisert, M.

    2001-01-01

    When aluminium is protected by an organic coating a special form of corrosion can occur underneath the organic coating; filiform corrosion. This form of corrosion manifests itself as threadlike filaments under the coating, it causes local delamination of the coating and the coating cannot protect th

  9. Modelling aluminium wire bond reliability in high power OMP devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kregting, R.; Yuan, C.A.; Xiao, A.; Bruijn, F. de

    2011-01-01

    In a RF power application such as the OMP, the wires are subjected to high current (because of the high power) and high temperature (because of the heat from IC and joule-heating from the wire itself). Moreover, the wire shape is essential to the RF performance. Hence, the aluminium wire is preferre

  10. Highly sensitive thermoluminescent carbon doped nanoporous aluminium oxide detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Azevedo, W M; de Oliveira, G B; da Silva, E F; Khoury, H J; Oliveira de Jesus, E F

    2006-01-01

    In this work we present the synthesis, characterisation and the thermoluminescence (TL) response of nanoporous carbon doped aluminium oxide Al2O3:C produced by anodic oxidation of aluminium in organic and inorganic solvents. The X-ray and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) measurements reveal that the synthesised samples are amorphous and present highly ordered structures with uniform pore distribution with diameter of the order 50 nm. The photoluminescence and spectroscopic analysis in the visible and infrared regions show that the luminescence properties presented by the samples prepared in organic acid are due to carboxylate species, incorporated in anodic alumina films during the synthesis process. After an annealing treatment, part of the incorporated species decomposes and is incorporated into the structure of the aluminium oxide yielding a highly thermoluminescent detector (TL) . The results for X-ray irradiation in the range from 21 to 80 keV indicate a linear TL response with the dose in the range from 5 mGy to 1 Gy, suggesting that nanoporous aluminium oxide produced in the present route of synthesis is a suitable detector for radiation measurements.

  11. Superhydrophobic coatings for aluminium surfaces synthesized by chemical etching process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya Varshney

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the superhydrophobic coatings on aluminium surfaces were prepared by two-step (chemical etching followed by coating and one-step (chemical etching and coating in a single step processes using potassium hydroxide and lauric acid. Besides, surface immersion time in solutions was varied in both processes. Wettability and surface morphologies of treated aluminium surfaces were characterized using contact angle measurement technique and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. Microstructures are formed on the treated aluminium surfaces which lead to increase in contact angle of the surface (>150°. Also on increasing immersion time, contact angle further increases due to increase in size and depth of microstructures. Additionally, these superhydrophobic coatings show excellent self-cleaning and corrosion-resistant behavior. Water jet impact, floatation on water surface, and low temperature condensation tests assert the excellent water-repellent nature of coatings. Further, coatings are to be found mechanically, thermally, and ultraviolet stable. Along with, these coatings are found to be excellent regeneration ability as verified experimentally. Although aforesaid both processes generate durable and regenerable superhydrophobic aluminium surfaces with excellent self-cleaning, corrosion-resistant, and water-repellent characteristics, but one-step process is proved more efficient and less time consuming than two-step process and promises to produce superhydrophobic coatings for industrial applications.

  12. Energy situation and competitiveness of the aluminium industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Legler, H.

    1984-04-01

    The west german aluminium industry has heavily run into the wake of price competition; the high energy price level in the FRG in international comparison carries heavy weight. The technological potential of energy saving is limited. The electricity prices to aluminium smelters are politically determined: They depend on the importance which economic policy attaches to the competitiveness of electricity intensive industries. Since the end of the seventies the tendency of improved results in international trade has been broken. Other important supply factors are not advantageous. Compared to a lot of other economies the west german aluminium industry invests too little in research and development. Although the share of unskilled workers is high, it does not seem impossible to close the technological gap. - The environmental protection expenditures are considerable. Energy is not the only problem of the aluminium industry Electricity price subsidies do not produce any effect in the long run. The prospects of cheap electricity in comparison with other nations are not bright. Without a doubt the considerable regional and sectoral discriminations in setting electricity prices could be - and have to be - removed. Then the competition within FRG between electricity users would be less heavily distorted. The electricity price level will tend to drop significantly in an economy which applies more competitive pressure to power companies than today.

  13. Zonal distribution of dissolved aluminium in the Mediterranean Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rolison, J. M.; Middag, R.; Stirling, C. H.; Rijkenberg, M. J. A.; de Baar, H. J. W.

    2015-01-01

    Dissolved aluminium (Al) is an important tracer of atmospheric dust input to the oceans. The GEOTRACES expedition to the highly dust impacted Mediterranean Sea afforded the opportunity to study the distribution of dissolved Al in the Mediterranean Sea in detail. Interestingly, the elevated concentra

  14. Establishment of integrated information displays in aluminium surfaces using nanomanufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prichystal, Jan; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Bladt, Henrik H.

    2006-01-01

    in aluminium concerns the processing of a metal workpiece in such a way that microcavities are formed from the backside of the workpiece. The microcavities must not penetrate the metal front side, but an ultra-thin layer of metal is left. It is possible to shine light through this layer. By ordering...

  15. Porphyry copper enrichment linked to excess aluminium in plagioclase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, B. J.; Herrington, R. J.; Morris, A.

    2016-03-01

    Porphyry copper deposits provide around 75%, 50% and 20% of world copper, molybdenum and gold, respectively. The deposits are mainly centred on calc-alkaline porphyry magmatic systems in subduction zone settings. Although calc-alkaline magmas are relatively common, large porphyry copper deposits are extremely rare and increasingly difficult to discover. Here, we compile existing geochemical data for magmatic plagioclase, a dominant mineral in calc-alkaline rocks, from fertile (porphyry-associated) and barren magmatic systems worldwide, barren examples having no associated porphyry deposit. We show that plagioclase from fertile systems is distinct in containing `excess’ aluminium. This signature is clearly demonstrated in a case study carried out on plagioclase from the fertile La Paloma and Los Sulfatos copper porphyry systems in Chile. Further, the presence of concentric zones of high excess aluminium suggests its incorporation as a result of magmatic processes. As excess aluminium has been linked to high melt water contents, the concentric zones may record injections of hydrous fluid or fluid-rich melts into the sub-porphyry magma chamber. We propose that excess aluminium may exclude copper from plagioclase, so enriching the remaining melts. Furthermore, this chemical signature can be used as an exploration indicator for copper porphyry deposits.

  16. Cavitation-aided grain refinement in aluminium alloys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atamanenko, T.V.

    2010-01-01

    This thesis deals with grain refinement under the influence of ultrasonic-driven cavitation in aluminium casting processes. Three major goals of this research were: (1) to identify the mechanism of the cavitation-aided grain refinement at different stages of solidification; (2) to reveal the conditi

  17. Silicon Carbide Tiles for Sidewall Lining in Aluminium Electrolysis Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RUANBo; ZHAOJunguo; 等

    1999-01-01

    The paper introduces the nitride bonded silicon carbide used for sidewall lining in aluminium eletrolysis cells ,including technical process,main properties and application results.Comparison tests on various physical properties of silicon carbide products made by LIRR and other producers worldwide have also been conducted in an independent laboratory.

  18. Treatment of dairy effluents by electrocoagulation using aluminium electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchamango, Serge; Nanseu-Njiki, Charles P; Ngameni, Emmanuel; Hadjiev, Dimiter; Darchen, André

    2010-01-15

    This work sets out to examine the efficiency of an electrolytic treatment: electrocoagulation, applied to dairy effluents. The experiments were carried out using a soluble aluminium anode on artificial wastewater derived from solutions of milk powder. The flocks generated during this treatment were separated by filtration. The analysis of the filtrates showed that the chemical oxygen demand (COD) was reduced by up to 61% while the removal of phosphorus, nitrogen contents, and turbidity were 89, 81 and 100%, respectively. An analogous treatment applied to phosphate and lactose solutions revealed that lactose was not eliminated, a fact that could account for the rather poor lowering of the COD. Compared to the chemical coagulation treatment with aluminium sulphate, the efficiency of the electrocoagulation technique was almost identical. However the wastewaters treated by electrocoagulation differed by the fact that they exhibited a lower conductivity and a neutral pH value (by contrast to the acid nature of the solution treated by the chemical coagulation). This result (low conductivity, neutral pH) tends to show that it may be possible to recycle the treated water for some industrial uses. Moreover, the electrocoagulation process uses fewer reagents: the mass of the aluminium anode dissolved during the treatment is lower compared to the quantity of the aluminium salt used in chemical coagulation. These two observations clearly show that the electrocoagulation technique is more performing.

  19. Reactive ion beam figuring of optical aluminium surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Jens; Frost, Frank; Arnold, Thomas

    2017-03-01

    Ultra-smooth and arbitrarily shaped reflective optics are necessary for further progress in EUV/XUV lithography, x-ray and synchrotron technology. As one of the most important technological mirror optic materials, aluminium behaves in a rather difficult way in ultra-precision machining with such standard techniques as diamond-turning and subsequent ion beam figuring (IBF). In particular, in the latter, a strong surface roughening is obtained. Hence, up to now it has not been possible to attain the surface qualities required for UV or just visible spectral range applications. To overcome the limitations mainly caused by the aluminium alloy structural and compositional conditions, a reactive ion beam machining process using oxygen process gas is evaluated. To clarify the principle differences in the effect of oxygen gas contrary to oxygen ions on aluminium surface machining, we firstly focus on chemical-assisted ion beam etching (CAIBE) and reactive ion beam etching (RIBE) experiments in a phenomenological manner. Then, the optimum process route will be explored within a more quantitative analysis applying the concept of power spectral density (PSD) for a sophisticated treatment of the surface topography. Eventually, the surface composition is examined by means of dynamic secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) suggesting a characteristic model scheme for the chemical modification of the aluminium surface during oxygen ion beam machining. Monte Carlo simulations were applied to achieve a more detailed process conception.

  20. Local electrochemical behaviour of 7xxx aluminium alloys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andreatta, F.

    2004-01-01

    Aluminium alloys of the 7xxx series (Al-Zn-Mg-Cu) are susceptible to localized types of corrosion like pitting, intergranular corrosion and exfoliation corrosion. This represents a limitation for the application of these alloys in the aerospace components because localized corrosion might have a neg

  1. Molecular Characterization of Aluminium (aluminum) Tolerance in Rye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aluminium (Al) toxicity, affecting around half of the world’s arable land, severely hinders the ability of crop plants to utilize moisture and nutrients by restricting root growth and function. Among the cultivated cereals, rye is the most Al-tolerant and represents an important potential source of ...

  2. Aluminium in food and daily dietary intake estimate in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratakos, Sotirios M; Lazou, Andriana E; Bratakos, Michael S; Lazos, Evangelos S

    2012-01-01

    Aluminium content of foods, as well as dietary aluminium intake of the Greek adult population, was determined using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy after microwave sample digestion and food consumption data. Al content ranged from 0.02 to 741.2 mg kg⁻¹, with spices, high-spice foods, cereal products, vegetables and pulses found to be high in Al. Differences in aluminium content were found between different food classes from Greece and those from some other countries. Aluminium intake of Greeks is 3.7 mg/day based on DAFNE Food Availability Databank, which uses data from the Household Budget Surveys. On the other hand, according to the per capita food consumption data collected by both national and international organisations, Al intake is 6.4 mg day⁻¹. Greek adult population has an Al intake lower than the Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake of 7 mg kg⁻¹ body weight established by EFSA. Cereals and vegetables are the main Al contributors, providing 72.4% of daily intake.

  3. Mechanochemical route to the synthesis of nanostructured Aluminium nitride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rounaghi, S. A.; Eshghi, H.; Scudino, S.; Vyalikh, A.; Vanpoucke, D. E. P.; Gruner, W.; Oswald, S.; Kiani Rashid, A. R.; Samadi Khoshkhoo, M.; Scheler, U.; Eckert, J.

    2016-09-01

    Hexagonal Aluminium nitride (h-AlN) is an important wide-bandgap semiconductor material which is conventionally fabricated by high temperature carbothermal reduction of alumina under toxic ammonia atmosphere. Here we report a simple, low cost and potentially scalable mechanochemical procedure for the green synthesis of nanostructured h-AlN from a powder mixture of Aluminium and melamine precursors. A combination of experimental and theoretical techniques has been employed to provide comprehensive mechanistic insights on the reactivity of melamine, solid state metal-organic interactions and the structural transformation of Al to h-AlN under non-equilibrium ball milling conditions. The results reveal that melamine is adsorbed through the amine groups on the Aluminium surface due to the long-range van der Waals forces. The high energy provided by milling leads to the deammoniation of melamine at the initial stages followed by the polymerization and formation of a carbon nitride network, by the decomposition of the amine groups and, finally, by the subsequent diffusion of nitrogen into the Aluminium structure to form h-AlN.

  4. Examples on cold forged aluminium components in automotive industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Niels; Kolsgaard, A.

    2000-01-01

    The present paper describes the possibilites of applying cold forging for manufacturing of light weight components in aluminium. A short description of the basic cold forming processes forms the basis for describing the great variety in design of cold forged components. Examples are mainly taken ...

  5. Diamond turning and polishing tests on new RSP aluminium alloys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horst, R. ter; Haan, M. de; Gubbels, G.P.H.; Senden, R.; Venrooy, B.W.H. van; Hoogstrate, A.M.

    2012-01-01

    For years now conventional aluminium 6061 T6 has widely been used for mirrors in astronomical instruments, being diamond turned or since a few years also being optically polished. This allows the development of optical systems that can be tested and operated at any temperature, without being affecte

  6. Effects of Aluminium in Forest. Results of a pilot experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulder, J.; Wit, H. de; Nygaard, P.H.

    1996-01-01

    This conference paper deals with an Norwegian pilot project which started in 1995 and finishing early 1999, investigates the solubility and phyto-toxicity of aluminium (Al) in mature forest ecosystems. The project consists of three major parts, including field manipulation study of Norwegian spruce stands, laboratory experiments and modelling Al chemistry in the root zone. 15 refs.

  7. Development of an aluminium stabilized reinforced superconducting conductor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritz, D. [PTR Praezisionstechnik GmbH Maintal (Germany); Horvath, I.L. [Swiss Federal Inst. of Tech., Zuerich (Switzerland); Harzenmoser, M.; Neuenschwander, J. [Swiss Federal Labs. for Materials Testing and Research, Duebendorf (Switzerland); Wittgenstein, F. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland)

    1996-07-01

    For high performance superconducting magnets as used in large detectors for the High Energy Physics or for magnets of magnetic storage devices (SMES) the mechanical stresses on the conductor go beyond the yield stress level of the high purity matrix stabilizer, specially if aluminium is used. Therefore, a novel method is proposed to join high strength aluminium strips to high purity aluminium stabilizer by using the electron beam (EB) welding. The proposed EB-welding, combined with roll-pressing under vacuum, provides the minimum heat input on the conductor in comparison with other welding techniques. This method provides the advantage to allow the production of very long conductor lengths and includes the potentiality of repairing without losing expensive material. As this process has to be adapted to the high purity aluminium on the one side and to the high strength material on the other, the authors started in a first step with investigation and development of the process, using standard laboratory machines together with laboratory-size tooling. In this report the development program is described and first results of the quality control measurements are presented.

  8. Research Regarding Aluminium Eloxation from Phosphoric Acid Electrolyte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cretu Carmen Monica

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The study presents the influence of production parameters on the aluminium eloxation from H3PO4 solution. The thickness and aspect of the deposited Al2O3 were determined. The electrodeposition experiments was to determine the optimum conditions for the producing of bright, continuous, adherent and compact Al2O3 layers.

  9. Aluminium in allergen-specific subcutaneous immunotherapy--a German perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Matthias F; Heath, Matthew D

    2014-07-16

    We are living in an "aluminium age" with increasing bioavailability of the metal for approximately 125 years, contributing significantly to the aluminium body burden of humans. Over the course of life, aluminium accumulates and is stored predominantly in the lungs, bones, liver, kidneys and brain. The toxicity of aluminium in humans is briefly summarised, highlighting links and possible causal relationships between a high aluminium body burden and a number of neurological disorders and disease states. Aluminium salts have been used as depot-adjuvants successfully in essential prophylactic vaccinations for almost 100 years, with a convincing positive benefit-risk assessment which remains unchanged. However, allergen-specific immunotherapy commonly consists of administering a long-course programme of subcutaneous injections using preparations of relevant allergens. Regulatory authorities currently set aluminium limits for vaccines per dose, rather than per treatment course. Unlike prophylactic vaccinations, numerous injections with higher proportions of aluminium-adjuvant per injection are applied in subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT) and will significantly contribute to a higher cumulative life dose of aluminium. While the human body may cope robustly with a daily aluminium overload from the environment, regulatory cumulative threshold values in immunotherapy need further addressing. Based on the current literature, predisposing an individual to an unusually high level of aluminium, such as through subcutaneous immunotherapy, has the potential to form focal accumulations in the body with the propensity to exert forms of toxicity. Particularly in relation to longer-term health effects, the safety of aluminium adjuvants in immunotherapy remains unchallenged by health authorities - evoking the need for more consideration, guidance, and transparency on what is known and not known about its safety in long-course therapy and what measures can be taken to prevent or

  10. Mechanically milled aluminium matrix composites reinforced with halloysite nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A. Dobrzański

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The present work describes fabrication of aluminium AlMg1SiCu matrix composite materials reinforced with halloysite nanotubes by powder metallurgy techniques and hot extrusion.Design/methodology/approach: Mechanical milling, compacting and hot extrusion successively are considering as a method for manufacturing metal composite powders with a controlled fine microstructure and enhanced mechanical properties. It is possible by the repeated welding and fracturing of powders particles mixture in a highly energetic ball mill.Findings: The milling process has a huge influence on the properties of powder materials, changing the spherical morphology of as-received powder during milling process to flattened one due to particle deformation followed by welding and fracturing particles of deformed and hardened enough which allows to receive equiaxial particles morphology again. The investigation shows that so called brittle mineral particles yields to plastic deformation as good as ductile aluminium alloy particles. That indicates that the halloysite powder can play a role of the accelerator during mechanical milling. High energy ball milling as a method of mechanical milling improves the distribution of the halloysite reinforcing particles throughout the aluminium matrix, simultaneously reducing the size of particles. The apparent density changes versus milling time can be used to control the composite powders production by mechanical milling and the presence of halloysite reinforcements particles accelerates the mechanical milling process.Research limitations/implications: Contributes to knowledge about technology, structure and properties of aluminium alloy matrix composite material reinforced with mineral nanoparticles.Practical implications: Conducted research shows that applied technology allows obtaining very good microstructural characteristics.Originality/value: It has been confirmed that halloysite nanotubes can be applied as an effective

  11. Corrosion of aluminium in copper-aluminium couples under a marine environment: Influence of polyaniline deposited onto copper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vera, Rosa, E-mail: rvera@ucv.c [Instituto de Quimica, Facultad de Ciencias, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Valparaiso, Avda. Brasil 2950, Casilla 4059, Valparaiso (Chile); Verdugo, Patricia [Departamento de Quimica y Bioquimica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valparaiso, Av. Gran Bretana 1111, Valparaiso (Chile); Orellana, Marco; Munoz, Eduardo [Instituto de Quimica, Facultad de Ciencias, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Valparaiso, Avda. Brasil 2950, Casilla 4059, Valparaiso (Chile)

    2010-11-15

    Research highlights: {yields} The presence of Polyaniline in the Al-Cu system produces a decrease in the oxygen reduction reaction. {yields} In the marine enviroment, aluminium in Al-Cu couples, suffers pitting and exfoliation. {yields} The aluminium deterioration increases with chloride and enviromental sulphur dioxide presence, mainly when it is united to bare copper. - Abstract: In this study, we examined how aluminium corrosion in Al-Cu/PANI galvanic couples in a marine environment is influenced by deposition of polyaniline (PANI) on copper. Polarization curves and immersion assays in 0.1 M NaCl were performed. The morphologies of etched Al and corrosion products were observed by SEM, and the Al ions in solution were quantified by atomic absorption spectroscopy. A reduction in aluminium damage due to galvanic corrosion was observed as a result of decreased effective area for the oxygen reduction reaction on Cu/PANI electrode. Furthermore, an electrochemical reduction of PANI from leucoemeraldine to emeraldine base is proposed.

  12. Decreased toxicity of aluminium when the ionic strength increases in water; Blir aluminium mindre toksisk naar ionestyrken i vannet oeker?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alstad, E.W. [Oslo Univ. (Norway)

    1996-01-01

    The conference paper evaluates the acute mortality of fish caused by the toxicity of aluminium in water. The evaluation is based on the polymerization hypothesis. According to the author, the level of toxicity decreases when the concentration and charge of ions increase. The paper presents the preliminary results from the executed experiment. 2 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Energy conversion from aluminium and phosphate rich solution via ZnO activation of aluminium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slaughter, Gymama, E-mail: gslaught@umbc.edu; Sunday, Joshua; Stevens, Brian

    2015-08-01

    Electrochemical power sources have motivated intense research efforts in the development of alternative ‘green’ power sources for ultra-low powered bioelectronic devices. Biofuel cells employ immobilized enzymes to convert the available chemical energy of organic fuels directly into electricity. However, biofuel cells are limited by short lifetime due to enzyme inactivation and frequent need to incorporate mediators to shuttle electrons to the final electron acceptor. In this context, other electrochemical power sources are necessary in energy conversion and storage device applications. Here we report on the fabrication and characterization of a membrane-free aluminium/phosphate cell based on the activation of aluminium (Al) using ZnO nanocrystal in an Al/phosphate cell as a ‘green’ alternative to the traditional enzymatic biofuel cells. The hybrid cell operates in neutral phosphate buffer solution and physiological saline buffer. The ZnO modifier in the phosphate rich electrolyte activated the pitting of Al resulting in the production of hydrogen, as the reducing agent for the reduction of H{sub 2}PO{sub 4}{sup −} ions to HPO{sub 3}{sup 2−} ions at a formal potential of −0.250 V vs. Ag/AgCl. Specifically, the fabricated cell operating in phosphate buffer and physiological saline buffer exhibit an open-circuit voltage of 0.810 V and 0.751 V and delivered a maximum power density of 0.225 mW cm{sup −2} and 1.77 mW cm{sup −2}, respectively. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of generating electricity by activating Al as anodic material in a hybrid cell supplied with phosphate rich electrolyte. Our approach simplifies the construction and operation of the electrochemical power source as a novel “green” alternative to the current anodic substrates used in enzymatic biofuel cells for low power bioelectronics applications. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • ZnO activation of metallic Al for generating electricity for

  14. A Direct Transformation of Aryl Aldehydes to Benzyl Iodides Via Reductive Iodination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruso, Jayaraman Sembian; Rajendiran, Nagappan; Kumaran, Rajendran Senthil [Univ. of Madras, Chennai (India)

    2014-02-15

    A facile transformation of aryl aldehydes to benzyl iodides through one-pot reductive iodination is reported. This protocol displays remarkable functional group tolerance and the title compound was obtained in good to excellent yield.

  15. Kinetics and mechanism of the mercury(II)-assisted hydrolysis of methyl iodide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celo, Valbona; Scott, Susannah L

    2005-04-01

    The kinetics and mechanism of the reaction of aqueous Hg(II) with methyl iodide have been investigated. The overall reaction is best described as Hg(II)-assisted hydrolysis, resulting in quantitative formation of methanol and, in the presence of excess methyl iodide, ultimately, HgI2 via the intermediate HgI+. The kinetics are biexponential when methyl iodide is in excess. At 25 degrees C, the acceleration provided by Hg2+ is 7.5 times greater than that caused by HgI+, while assistance of hydrolysis was not observed for HgI2. Thus, the reactions are not catalytic in Hg(II). The kinetics are consistent with an SN2-M+ mechanism involving electrophilic attack at iodide. As expected, methylation of mercury is not a reaction pathway; traces of methylmercury(II) are artifacts of the extraction/preconcentration procedure used for methylmercury analysis.

  16. Fluorescence characteristics of 5-amino salicylic acid: An iodide recognition study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Priyanka; Suyal, Kanchan; Joshi, Neeraj K.; Joshi, Hem Chandra; Pant, Sanjay

    In this paper we report the effect of iodide on the fluorescence of 5-amino salicylic acid (5-ASA). In the absence of iodide, prominent blue green (BG) emission band at ˜465 nm (broad) is observed in aprotic solvents whereas violet (V) emission at ˜408 nm, blue green (BG) at ˜480 nm and green (G) at ˜500 nm are observed in case of protic solvents. On the addition of iodide ion (I-), the intensity of BG fluorescence is enhanced in case of aprotic solvents. On the other hand the G band is enhanced in protic solvents and decrease in the intensity of the V band is observed. The effect of hydrogen bonding as well as the interplay of neutral and ionic species is invoked to explain the observed results. The study projects the application of this system in iodide recognition in protic/aprotic environments.

  17. Effects of Nano-Aluminium on The Combustion of A PolyNIMMO-Based Propellant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Clive Woodley; Peter Henning

    2014-01-01

    Propellants containing micro-aluminium particles have been shown to produce faster burn rates than conventional gun propellants.However,they are also more abrasive than conventional propellants.Nano-material propellants have been reported to give similar benefits to micron-material propellants but without the disadvantage of increased abrasion.Tests were conducted to compare the burn rates,ignitability and wear rates of a propellant loaded with 0% aluminium,15% micro-aluminium and 15%nano-aluminium.Closed vessel tests showed a burn rate increase of 39% in the range 30-250 MPa,and 70% at low pressure (50-100 MPa)for the nano-aluminium propellant compared with the baseline propellant.The micro-aluminium propellant showed only a 10% increase in the burn rate compared with the standard propellant.The ignition delay for the nano-aluminium propellant was slightly shorter than that of the baseline propellant.Substantially increased wear rates were measured for the micro-aluminium propellant.The nano-aluminium propellant showed reduced wear rates compared with the micro-aluminium propellant but these were still substantially greater than those for the baseline propellant.

  18. Elevated urinary aluminium in current and past users of illicit heroin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exley, Christopher; Ahmed, Usman; Polwart, Anthony; Bloor, Roger N

    2007-06-01

    The use of illicit heroin is associated with aberrant neurology of unknown aetiology and various psychiatric illnesses. Aluminium, which is a proven neurotoxin, is present in significant amounts in illicit heroin and may also be volatilized and inhaled following the vaporization of heroin off aluminium foil ('Chasing the Dragon'). The purpose of this study was to establish if the use of illicit heroin was associated with an increase in the body burden of aluminium. We have used graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry to measure the aluminium and iron contents of the urine of current and past users of illicit heroin and used these data to estimate body burdens of aluminium. Urinary excretion of aluminium is the most effective non-invasive indicator of the body burden of aluminium and was found to be significantly (P aluminium from the use of illicit heroin may be of particular significance because the urinary excretion of iron, another major contaminant of illicit heroin, in users (mean +/- SD; 53 +/- 63 nmol/mmol creatinine) was not significantly different (P > 0.05) from the control population (mean +/- SD; 38 +/- 18 nmol/mmol creatinine). We have shown for the first time that the use of illicit heroin may be a significant contributor to the body burden of aluminium. Further research will be required to determine if adventitious aluminium has a role in heroin use-related neuropathology and neurology.

  19. Non-invasive therapy to reduce the body burden of aluminium in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exley, Christopher; Korchazhkina, Olga; Job, Deborah; Strekopytov, Stanislav; Polwart, Anthony; Crome, Peter

    2006-09-01

    There are unexplained links between human exposure to aluminium and the incidence, progression and aetiology of Alzheimer's disease. The null hypothesis which underlies any link is that there would be no Alzheimer's disease in the effective absence of a body burden of aluminium. To test this the latter would have to be reduced to and retained at a level that was commensurate with an Alzheimer's disease-free population. In the absence of recent human interference in the biogeochemical cycle of aluminium the reaction of silicic acid with aluminium has acted as a geochemical control of the biological availability of aluminium. This same mechanism might now be applied to both the removal of aluminium from the body and the reduced entry of aluminium into the body while ensuring that essential metals, such as iron, are unaffected. Based upon the premise that urinary aluminium is the best non-invasive estimate of body burden of aluminium patients with Alzheimer's disease were asked to drink 1.5 L of a silicic acid-rich mineral water each day for five days and, by comparison of their urinary excretion of aluminium pre-and post this simple procedure, the influence upon their body burden of aluminium was determined. Drinking the mineral water increased significantly (Paluminium (86.0 +/- 24.3 to 62.2 +/- 23.2 nmol/mmol creatinine). The latter was achieved without any significant (P>0.05) influence upon the urinary excretion of iron (20.7 +/- 9.5 to 21.7 +/- 13.8 nmol/mmol creatinine). The reduction in urinary aluminium supported the future longer-term use of silicic acid as non-invasive therapy for reducing the body burden of aluminium in Alzheimer's disease.

  20. Horseradish Peroxidase-Mediated, Iodide-Catalyzed Cascade Reaction for Plasmonic Immunoassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xianyu, Yunlei; Chen, Yiping; Jiang, Xingyu

    2015-11-01

    This report outlines an enzymatic cascade reaction for signal transduction and amplification for plasmonic immunoassays by using horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-mediated aggregation of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). HRP-catalyzed oxidation of iodide and iodide-catalyzed oxidation of cysteine is employed to modulate the plasmonic signals of AuNPs. It agrees well with the current immunoassay platforms and allows naked-eye readout with enhanced sensitivity, which holds great promise for applications in resource-constrained settings.

  1. Air-Driven Potassium Iodide-Mediated Oxidative Photocyclization of Stilbene Derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushima, Tomoya; Kobayashi, Sayaka; Watanabe, Soichiro

    2016-09-02

    A new method has been developed for the potassium iodide-mediated oxidative photocyclization of stilbene derivatives. Compared with conventional iodine-mediated oxidative photocyclization reactions, this new method requires shorter reaction times and affords cyclized products in yields of 45-97%. This reaction proceeds with a catalytic amount of potassium iodide and works in an air-driven manner without the addition of an external scavenger. The radical-mediated oxidative photocyclization of stilbene derivatives using TEMPO was also investigated.

  2. [Study on the stability of potassium iodide of the iodized salt].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voudouris, E

    1975-04-29

    The stability of potassium iodide in iodized salt has been studied with respect to the purity of the salt used as raw material. It has been found that the iodized salt prepared from high purity salt and preserved under proper conditions (protection from light, humidity and high temperatures) keeps, for several months, the most of the initially added potassium iodide, without any addition of stabilizers, except for a small bicarbonate.

  3. Permeation of iodide from iodine-enriched yeast through porcine intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryszka, Florian; Dolińska, Barbara; Zieliński, Michał; Chyra, Dagmara; Dobrzański, Zbigniew

    2013-01-01

    Iodine deficiency is a common phenomenon, threatening the whole global human population. Recommended daily intake of iodine is 150 μg for adults and 250 μg for pregnant and breastfeeding women. About 50% of human population can be at risk of moderate iodine deficiency. Due to this fact, increased iodine supplementation is recommended, through intake of iodized mineral water and salt iodization. The aim of this study was to investigate permeation and absorption of iodide from iodine bioplex (experimental group) in comparison with potassium iodide (controls). Permeation and absorption processes were investigated in vitro using a porcine intestine. The experimental model was based on a standard Franz diffusion cell (FD-Cell). The iodine bioplex was produced using Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast and whey powder: iodine content - 388 μg/g, total protein - 28.5%, total fat - 0.9%., glutamic acid - 41.2%, asparaginic acid - 29.4%, lysine - 24.8%; purchased from: F.Z.N.P. Biochefa, Sosnowiec, Poland. Potassium iodide was used as controls, at 388 μg iodine concentration, which was the same as in iodine-enriched yeast bioplex. A statistically significant increase in iodide permeation was observed for iodine-enriched yeast bioplex in comparison with controls - potassium iodide. After 5h the total amount of permeated iodide from iodine-enriched yeast bioplex was 85%, which is ~ 2-fold higher than controls - 37%. Iodide absorption was by contrast statistically significantly higher in controls - 7.3%, in comparison with 4.5% in experimental group with iodine-enriched yeast bioplex. Presented results show that iodide permeation process dominates over absorption in case of iodine-enriched yeast bioplex.

  4. Modelling iodide – iodate speciation in atmospheric aerosol: Contributions of inorganic and organic iodine chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pechtl

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The speciation of iodine in atmospheric aerosol is currently poorly understood. Models predict negligible iodide concentrations but accumulation of iodate in aerosol, both of which is not confirmed by recent measurements. We present an updated aqueous phase iodine chemistry scheme for use in atmospheric chemistry models and discuss sensitivity studies with the marine boundary layer model MISTRA. These studies show that iodate can be reduced in acidic aerosol by inorganic reactions, i.e., iodate does not necessarily accumulate in particles. Furthermore, the transformation of particulate iodide to volatile iodine species likely has been overestimated in previous model studies due to negligence of collision-induced upper limits for the reaction rates. However, inorganic reaction cycles still do not seem to be sufficient to reproduce the observed range of iodide – iodate speciation in atmospheric aerosol. Therefore, we also investigate the effects of the recently suggested reaction of HOI with dissolved organic matter to produce iodide. If this reaction is fast enough to compete with the inorganic mechanism, it would not only directly lead to enhanced iodide concentrations but, indirectly via speed-up of the inorganic iodate reduction cycles, also to a decrease in iodate concentrations. Hence, according to our model studies, organic iodine chemistry, combined with inorganic reaction cycles, is able to reproduce observations. The presented chemistry cycles are highly dependent on pH and thus offer an explanation for the large observed variability of the iodide – iodate speciation in atmospheric aerosol.

  5. Mechanistic aspects of ingested chlorine dioxide on thyroid function: impact of oxidants on iodide metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bercz, J.P.; Jones, L.L.; Harrington, R.M.; Bawa, R.; Condie, L.

    1986-11-01

    Toxicological studies dealing with recent findings of health effects of drinking water disinfectants are reviewed. Experiments with monkeys and rodents indicate that the biological activity of ingested disinfectants is expressed via their chemical interaction with the mucosal epithelia, secretory products, and nutritional contents of the alimentary tract. Evidence exists that a principal partner of this redox interaction is the iodide of nutritional origin that is ubiquitous in the gastrointestinal tract. Thus the observation that subchronic exposure to chlorine dioxide (ClO/sub 2/) in drinking water decreases serum thyroxine levels in mammalian species can be best explained with changes produced in the chemical form of the bioavailable iodide. Ongoing and previously reported mechanistic studies indicate that oxidizing agents such as chlorine-based disinfectants oxidize the basal iodide content of the gastrointestinal tract. The resulting reactive iodine species readily attaches to organic matter by covalent bonding. Evidence suggests that the extent to which such iodinated organics are formed is proportional to the magnitude of the electromotive force and stoichiometry of the redox couple between iodide and the disinfectant. Because the extent of thyroid uptake of the bioavailable iodide does not decrease during ClO/sub 2/ ingestion, it seems that ClO/sub 2/ does not cause iodide deficiency of sufficient magnitude to account for the decease in hormonogenesis. Absorption of one or more of iodinated molecules, e.g., nutrient, hormones, or cellular constituents of the alimentary tract having thyromimetic or thyroid inhibitory properties, is a better hypothesis for the effects seen.

  6. Lead iodide X-ray and gamma-ray spectrometers for room and high temperature operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermon, H.; James, R.B.; Cross, E. [and others

    1997-02-01

    In this study, we report on the results of the investigation of lead iodide material properties. The effectiveness of zone refining purification methods on the material purity is determined by ICP-MS and ICP-OES and correlated to the electrical and physical material properties. We show that this zone refining method is very efficient in removing impurities from lead iodide and we also determine the segregation coefficient for some of these impurities. Triple axis x- ray diffraction (TAD) analysis has been used to determine the crystalline perfection of the lead iodide after applying various cutting, etching, and fabrication methods. The soft lead iodide crystal was found to be damaged when cleaved by a razor blade, but by using a diamond wheel saw, followed by etching, the crystallinity of the material was improved, as observed by TAD. Low temperature photoluminescence also indicates an improvement in the material properties of the purified lead iodide. Electrical properties of lead iodide such as carrier mobility, were calculated based on carrier- phonon scattering. The results for the electrical properties were in good agreement with the experimental data.

  7. Critical evaluation of acetylthiocholine iodide and acetylthiocholine chloride as substrates for amperometric biosensors based on acetylcholinesterase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucur, Madalina-Petruta; Bucur, Bogdan; Radu, Gabriel-Lucian

    2013-01-25

    Numerous amperometric biosensors have been developed for the fast analysis of neurotoxic insecticides based on inhibition of cholinesterase (AChE). The analytical signal is quantified by the oxidation of the thiocholine that is produced enzymatically by the hydrolysis of the acetylthiocholine pseudosubstrate. The pseudosubstrate is a cation and it is associated with chloride or iodide as corresponding anion to form a salt. The iodide salt is cheaper, but it is electrochemically active and consequently more difficult to use in electrochemical analytical devices. We investigate the possibility of using acetylthiocholine iodide as pseudosubstrate for amperometric detection. Our investigation demonstrates that operational conditions for any amperometric biosensor that use acetylthiocholine iodide must be thoroughly optimized to avoid false analytical signals or a reduced sensitivity. The working overpotential determined for different screen-printed electrodes was: carbon-nanotubes (360 mV), platinum (560 mV), gold (370 mV, based on a catalytic effect of iodide) or cobalt phthalocyanine (110 mV, but with a significant reduced sensitivity in the presence of iodide anions).

  8. Stability and electronic properties of two-dimensional indium iodide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jizhang; Dong, Baojuan; Guo, Huaihong; Yang, Teng; Zhu, Zhen; Hu, Gan; Saito, Riichiro; Zhang, Zhidong

    2017-01-01

    Based on ab initio density functional calculations, we studied the stability and electronic properties of two-dimensional indium iodide (InI). The calculated results show that monolayer and few-layer InI can be as stable as its bulk counterpart. The stability of the monolayer structure is further supported by examining the electronic and dynamic stability. The interlayer interaction is found to be fairly weak (˜160 meV/atom) and mechanical exfoliation to obtain monolayer and few-layer structures will be applicable. A direct band gap of 1.88 eV of the bulk structure is obtained from the hybrid functional method, and is comparable to the experimental one (˜2.00 eV). The electronic structure can be tuned by layer stacking and external strain. The size of the gap is a linear function of an inverse number of layers, suggesting that we can design few-layer structures for optoelectronic applications in the visible optical range. In-plane tensile or hydrostatic compressive stress is found to be useful not only in varying the gap size to cover the whole visible optical range, but also in inducing a semiconductor-metal transition with an experimentally accessible stress. The present result strongly supports the strategy of broadening the scope of group-V semiconductors by looking for isoelectronic III-VII atomic-layered materials.

  9. Persistent photovoltage in methylammonium lead iodide perovskite solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, A.; Tvingstedt, K.; Heiber, M. C.; Väth, S.; Momblona, C.; Bolink, H. J.; Dyakonov, V.

    2014-08-01

    We herein perform open circuit voltage decay (OCVD) measurements on methylammonium lead iodide (CH3NH3PbI3) perovskite solar cells to increase the understanding of the charge carrier recombination dynamics in this emerging technology. Optically pulsed OCVD measurements are conducted on CH3NH3PbI3 solar cells and compared to results from another type of thin-film photovoltaics, namely, the two reference polymer-fullerene bulk heterojunction solar cell devices based on P3HT:PC60BM and PTB7:PC70BM blends. We observe two very different time domains of the voltage transient in the perovskite solar cell with a first drop on a short time scale that is similar to the decay in the studied organic solar cells. However, 65%-70% of the maximum photovoltage persists on much longer timescales in the perovskite solar cell than in the organic devices. In addition, we find that the recombination dynamics in all time regimes are dependent on the starting illumination intensity, which is also not observed in the organic devices. We then discuss the potential origins of these unique behaviors.

  10. Structural Effects on the Bandstructure of Methylammonium Lead Iodide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, Marco; Barker, Bradford A.; Vigil-Fowler, Derek; Neaton, Jeffrey B.; Louie, Steven G.; Louie Team

    Metal-organic halide perovskites possess peculiar physical properties. The carrier diffusion length in methylammonium lead iodide (MAPbI) exceeds 1 μm, but this unusually high value for a solution-processed material is poorly understood. We developed first-principles calculations of carrier lifetimes and diffusion lengths in semiconductors, which require accurate knowledge of the bandstructure. In this talk, we show that in MAPbI the structure strongly affects the bandstructure and band edges, and that density functional theory (DFT) is unable to predict the room temperature tetragonal structure due to the polymorphism of MAPbI. The Rashba splitting induced by the spin-orbit interaction, and the DFT band gap and effective masses, all depend strongly on the chosen structure, a point that previous work failed to address. Working with multiple stochastic realizations of large unit cells with random methylammonium orientations, we compute average effective masses and show that the effective mass depends linearly on the band gap. The average Rashba coefficient we find is an order of magnitude smaller than previously reported, and the band edges are almost parabolic. Our structures possess the correct symmetry and are free of the spurious Pb off-centering assumed in previous work. We identify the correct starting point for GW bandstructure calculations and to compute the carrier lifetime and diffusion length.

  11. Chloride, bromide and iodide scintillators with europium doping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuravleva, Mariya; Yang, Kan

    2014-08-26

    A halide scintillator material is disclosed where the halide may comprise chloride, bromide or iodide. The material is single-crystalline and has a composition of the general formula ABX.sub.3 where A is an alkali, B is an alkali earth and X is a halide which general composition was investigated. In particular, crystals of the formula ACa.sub.1-yEu.sub.yI.sub.3 where A=K, Rb and Cs were formed as well as crystals of the formula CsA.sub.1-yEu.sub.yX.sub.3 (where A=Ca, Sr, Ba, or a combination thereof and X=Cl, Br or I or a combination thereof) with divalent Europium doping where 0.ltoreq.y.ltoreq.1, and more particularly Eu doping has been studied at one to ten mol %. The disclosed scintillator materials are suitable for making scintillation detectors used in applications such as medical imaging and homeland security.

  12. Aluminium content of foods originating from aluminium-containing food additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogimoto, Mami; Suzuki, Kumi; Haneishi, Nahoko; Kikuchi, Yuu; Takanashi, Mayu; Tomioka, Naoko; Uematsu, Yoko; Monma, Kimio

    2016-09-01

    Aluminium (Al) levels of 90 food samples were investigated. Nineteen samples contained Al levels exceeding the tolerable weekly intake (TWI) for young children [body weight (bw): 16 kg] when consuming two servings/week. These samples were purchased multiple times at specific intervals and were evaluated for Al levels. Al was detected in 27 of the 90 samples at levels ranging from 0.01 (limit of quantitation) to 1.06 mg/g. Of these, the Al intake levels in two samples (cookie and scone mix, 1.3 and 2 mg/kg bw/week, respectively) exceeded the TWI as established by European Food Safety Authority, although the level in the scone mix was equivalent to the provisional TWI (PTWI) as established by Joint Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations/World Health Organization Expert Committee on Food Additives. The Al levels markedly decreased in 14 of the 19 samples with initially high Al levels. These results indicated reductions in the Al levels to below the PTWI limits in all but two previously identified food samples.

  13. RESPONSE OF PHENOLIC METABOLISM INDUCED BY ALUMINIUM TOXICITY IN FAGOPYRUM ESCULENTUM MOENCH. PLANTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, O E; Kosyan, A M; Kosyk, O I; Taran, N Yu

    2015-01-01

    Buckwheat genus (Fagopyrum Mill.) is one of the aluminium tolerant taxonomic units of plants. The aim of the study was an evaluation of the aluminium (50 μM effect on phenolic accumulation in various parts of buckwheat plants (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench). Detection of increasing of total phenolic content, changes in flavonoid and anthocyanin content and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase activity (PAL) were revealed over a period of 10 days of exposure to aluminium. The most significant effects of aluminium treatment on phenolic compounds accumulation were total phenolic content increasing (by 27.2%) and PAL activity rising by 2.5 times observed in leaves tissues. Received data could be helpful to understand the aluminium tolerance principles and relationships of phenolic compounds to aluminium phytotoxicity.

  14. Aluminium in food and daily dietary intake assessment from 15 food groups in Zhejiang Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hexiang; Tang, Jun; Huang, Lichun; Shen, Xianghong; Zhang, Ronghua; Chen, Jiang

    2016-06-01

    Aluminium was measured in 2580 samples of 15 food groups and dietary exposure was estimated. Samples were purchased and analysed during 2010 to 2014. High aluminium levels were found in jellyfish (mean 4862 mg/kg), laver (mean 455.2 mg/kg) and fried twisted cruller (mean 392.4 mg/kg). Dietary exposure to aluminium was estimated for Zhejiang residents. The average dietary exposure to aluminium via 15 food groups in Zhejiang Province was 1.15 mg/kg bw/week, which is below the provisional tolerable weekly intake of 2 mg/kg bw /week. Jellyfish is the main Al contributor, providing 37.6% of the daily intake via these 15 food groups. This study provided new information on aluminium levels and assessment of aluminium (Al) dietary exposure in Zhejiang Province of China.

  15. High-pressure direct synthesis of aluminium nitride

    CERN Document Server

    Bockowski, M; Grzegory, I; Krukowski, S; Wróblewski, M; Porowski, S

    2002-01-01

    We report the results of direct synthesis of aluminium nitride (AlN) under high nitrogen pressure up to 1 GPa and temperatures up to 2000 K. At pressure from 10 to 650 MPa we observe the combustion synthesis of AlN. As the result of the combustion process one can obtain the AlN sintered powder or AlN/Al metal matrix composites. For N sub 2 pressure higher than 650 MPa the crystal growth of AlN from the solution of atomic nitrogen in aluminium is possible. Both needle-like and bulk AlN single crystals, up to 1 cm and 1 mm, respectively, have been obtained.

  16. Thermal Effect of Ceramic Nanofiller Aluminium Nitride on Polyethylene Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omer Bin Sohail

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethylene polymerization was done to form polyethylene nano-composite with nanoaluminum nitride using zirconocene catalysts. Results show that the catalytic activity is maximum at a filler loading of 15 mg nanoaluminum nitride. Differential scanning calorimeter (DSC and X-ray diffraction (XRD results show that percentage crystallinity was also marginally higher at this amount of filler. Thermal behavior of polyethylene nanocomposites (0, 15, 30, and 45 mg was studied by DSC and thermal gravimetric analyzer (TGA. Morphology of the component with 15 mg aluminium nitride is more fibrous as compared to 0 mg aluminium nitride and higher filler loading as shown by SEM images. In order to understand combustibility behavior, tests were performed on microcalorimeter. Its results showed decrease in combustibility in polyethylene nanocomposites as the filler loading increases.

  17. Fabrication of anodic aluminium oxide templates on curved surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Aijun; Guico, Rodney S; Xu, Jimmy

    2007-01-24

    Aluminium anodization provides a simple and inexpensive way to obtain nanoporous templates with uniform and controllable pore diameters and periods over a wide range. Moreover, one of the interesting possibilities afforded by the anodization process is that the anodization can take place on arbitrary surfaces, such as curved surfaces, which has not yet been well studied or applied in nanofabrication. In this paper, we characterize the anodization of Al films on silicon substrates with a curved top surface. The structures of the resultant anodic aluminium oxide (AAO) films are examined by scanning electron microscopy. Unique features including cessation, bending, and branching of pore channels are observed in the curved area. Possible growth mechanisms are proposed, which can also contribute to the understanding of the self-organization mechanism in the formation of porous AAO membranes. The new structures may open new opportunities in optical, electronic and electrochemical applications.

  18. Impact of Inert Metal Particles Flow on Aluminium Plate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhongqi; LIU Yi; CHEN Yahong; BAI Chunhua

    2008-01-01

    Inert metal explosive, a new kind of explosive, is a mixture of high explosive and inert metal particle.When this kind of explosive is detonated, an inert metal particle flow will be formed by the explosive product driving.To determine the characteristics of the movement of the metal particle flow, a series of aluminium plates were designed to be the targets on which the metal particle flow impacted.The test result was presented and a numerical model was set up to analyze the impact of the high speed inert metal particles on aluminium plate.Based on the numerical analysis, the relationship between the characteristic of the mark on the target plate and the initial condition of the inert metal particles was proposed.From the analysis of the impact on target plates, more information about the movement of the metal particles could be reconstructed.

  19. TORSIONAL DEFORMATION AND FATIGUE BEHAVIOUR OF 6061 ALUMINIUM ALLOY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    marini marno

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Torsional deformation and fatigue behaviour of both solid and thin-walled tubular specimens were made from as-received and heat treated 6061 aluminium alloy were studied. 6061 aluminium alloy have been widely used as a candidate material in automobile, aerospace, aircraft and structural application because of their superior mechanical properties such as high strength to weight ratio, good ductility and others. The differences in cyclic deformation and fatigue behaviours between round and solid specimens where a stress gradient exist, and thin-walled tubular specimens where a uniform stress state is commonly assumed, are also discussed. Von Mises and Tresca criteria has been used to predict the monotonic and cyclic deformation curve and compared to the torsional data obtained from the experiment. The S-N curve was used to present and evaluate the fatigue life of the specimens. Through fractographic analysis, failure criteria of fracture surfaces were observed and discussed. 

  20. Effects and mechanisms of grain refinement in aluminium alloys

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K T Kashyap; T Chandrashekar

    2001-08-01

    Grain refinement plays a crucial role in improving characteristics and properties of cast and wrought aluminium alloys. Generally Al–Ti and Al–Ti–B master alloys are added to the aluminium alloys to grain refine the solidified product. The mechanism of grain refinement is of considerable controversy in the scientific literature. The nucleant effects i.e. which particle and its characteristics nucleate -Al, has been the subject of intensive research. Lately the solute effect i.e. the effect of dissolved titanium on grain refinement, has come into forefront of grain refinement research. The present paper attempts to review the literature on the nucleant effects and solute effects on grain refinement and addresses the importance of dissolved titanium in promoting nucleation of -Al on nucleant particles.

  1. Potentiostatic Electrochemical Preparation and Characterisation of Aluminium Containing Nickel Selenide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Gohar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The wide range of properties exhibited by Al based alloy makes them suitable for different applications. Aluminium containing nickel Selenide ternary alloy possess considerable corrosion resistance as compared to their pure metal counterparts. The objective of the present work has been focused on the preparation and characterisation of its thin film. Alloying with Aluminium improve the oxidation resistance and increases the heat conductivity of the alloy. There is always a high demand for plating Al and its alloys in automotive and aerospace products, house-hold goods, and artificial jewellery etc,. The morphological and the structural studies of the electrodeposited thin film were determined by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM images and X-Ray Diffraction Pattern (XRD while elemental composition has been done by Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDAX analysis.

  2. Surface roughness effects on aluminium-based ultraviolet plasmonic nanolasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Yi-Cheng; Cheng, Pi-Ju; Chou, Yu-Hsun; Chou, Bo-Tsun; Hong, Kuo-Bin; Shih, Jheng-Hong; Lin, Sheng-Di; Lu, Tien-Chang; Lin, Tzy-Rong

    2017-01-01

    We systematically investigate the effects of surface roughness on the characteristics of ultraviolet zinc oxide plasmonic nanolasers fabricated on aluminium films with two different degrees of surface roughness. We demonstrate that the effective dielectric functions of aluminium interfaces with distinct roughness can be analysed from reflectivity measurements. By considering the scattering losses, including Rayleigh scattering, electron scattering, and grain boundary scattering, we adopt the modified Drude-Lorentz model to describe the scattering effect caused by surface roughness and obtain the effective dielectric functions of different Al samples. The sample with higher surface roughness induces more electron scattering and light scattering for SPP modes, leading to a higher threshold gain for the plasmonic nanolaser. By considering the pumping efficiency, our theoretical analysis shows that diminishing the detrimental optical losses caused by the roughness of the metallic interface could effectively lower (~33.1%) the pumping threshold of the plasmonic nanolasers, which is consistent with the experimental results.

  3. Finite size melting of spherical solid-liquid aluminium interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chang, J.; Johnson, Erik; Sakai, T.;

    2009-01-01

    We have investigated the melting of nano-sized cone shaped aluminium needles coated with amorphous carbon using transmission electron microscopy. The interface between solid and liquid aluminium was found to have spherical topology. For needles with fixed apex angle, the depressed melting...... to the conclusion that the depressed melting temperature is not controlled solely by the inverse radius 1/R. Instead, we found a direct relation between the depressed melting temperature and the ratio between the solid-liquid interface area and the molten volume....... temperature of this spherical interface, with radius R, was found to scale linearly with the inverse radius 1/R. However, by varying the apex angle of the needles we show that the proportionality constant between the depressed melting temperature and the inverse radius changes significantly. This led us...

  4. Prediction of the ballistic limit of an aluminium sandwich panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, J.; De Vuyst, T.; Vignjevic, R.; Hughes, K.

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents research on modelling the impact of a 150g projectile on a 35mm thick aluminium sandwich panel. The objective of the work is a predictive modelling capability for the ballistic limit of the panel. A predictive modelling capability supports the design of capture and deorbit missions for large items of space debris such as satellites and rocket upper stages. A detailed explicit finite element model was built using the LSDYNA software and results were compared with experimental data for the projectile exit velocity to establish key parameters. The primary parameters influencing the model behaviour were the strength and failure of the aluminium face sheets and the friction between projectile and panel. The model results showed good agreement with experimental results for ogive nose projectiles, but overestimated the exit velocity for flat nose projectiles.

  5. Properties of native ultrathin aluminium oxide tunnel barriers

    CERN Document Server

    Gloos, K; Pekola, J P

    2003-01-01

    We have investigated planar metal-insulator-metal tunnel junctions with aluminium oxide as the dielectricum. These oxide barriers were grown on an aluminium electrode in pure oxygen at room temperature till saturation. By applying the Simmons model we derived discrete widths of the tunnelling barrier, separated by DELTA s approx 0.38 nm. This corresponds to the addition of single layers of oxygen atoms. The minimum thickness of s sub 0 approx 0.54 nm is then due to a double layer of oxygen. We found a strong and systematic dependence of the barrier height on the barrier thickness. Breakdown fields up to 5 GV m sup - sup 1 were reached. They decreased strongly with increasing barrier thickness. Electrical breakdown could be described by a metal-insulator like transition of the dielectric barrier due to the large density of tunnelling electrons.

  6. Persistent Skin Reactions and Aluminium Hypersensitivity Induced by Childhood Vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salik, Elaha; Løvik, Ida; Andersen, Klaus E; Bygum, Anette

    2016-11-02

    There is increasing awareness of reactions to vaccination that include persistent skin reactions. We present here a retrospective investigation of long-lasting skin reactions and aluminium hypersensitivity in children, based on medical records and questionnaires sent to the parents. In the 10-year period 2003 to 2013 we identified 47 children with persistent skin reactions caused by childhood vaccinations. Most patients had a typical presentation of persisting pruritic subcutaneous nodules. Five children had a complex diagnostic process involving paediatricians, orthopaedics and plastic surgeons. Two patients had skin biopsies performed from their skin lesions, and 2 patients had the nodules surgically removed. Forty-two children had a patch-test performed with 2% aluminium chloride hexahydrate in petrolatum and 39 of them (92%) had a positive reaction. The persistent skin reactions were treated with potent topical corticosteroids and disappeared slowly. Although we advised families to continue vaccination of their children, one-third of parents omitted or postponed further vaccinations.

  7. Lewis acid fragmentation of a lithium aryloxide cage: generation of new heterometallic aluminium-lithium species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Ma Teresa; Urbaneja, Carmen; Temprado, Manuel; Mosquera, Marta E G; Cuenca, Tomás

    2011-11-14

    Heterometallic aluminium-lithium species were prepared by the fragmentation reaction of the hexametallic cage compound [Li{2,6-(MeO)(2)C(6)H(3)O}](6) (1) with alkyl aluminium derivatives. Depending on the aluminium precursor, the species formed present different nuclearities in the solid state as shown by single crystal X-ray analysis. Spectroscopic and computational studies have been performed to study the nuclearity of the synthesized compounds in solution.

  8. Insight into the cellular fate and toxicity of aluminium adjuvants used in clinically approved human vaccinations

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Aluminium adjuvants remain the most widely used and effective adjuvants in vaccination and immunotherapy. Herein, the particle size distribution (PSD) of aluminium oxyhydroxide and aluminium hydroxyphosphate adjuvants was elucidated in attempt to correlate these properties with the biological responses observed post vaccination. Heightened solubility and potentially the generation of Al3+ in the lysosomal environment were positively correlated with an increase in cell mortality in vitro, pote...

  9. Sintering of nano crystalline silicon carbide doping with aluminium nitride

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M S Datta; A K Bandyopadhyay; B Chaudhuri

    2002-04-01

    Sinterable silicon carbide powders were prepared by attrition milling and chemical processing of an acheson type -SiC. Pressureless sintering of these powders was achieved by addition of aluminium nitride together with carbon. Nearly 99% sintered density was obtained. The mechanism of sintering was studied by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. This study shows that the mechanism is a solid sintering process.

  10. Dispersionen für den Korrosionsschutz von Aluminium

    OpenAIRE

    Henke, Axel

    2001-01-01

    The adsorption and organization of reactive microgels has been investigated on technical aluminium. By means of a two-step emulsion polymerisation with phosphate substituted monomer we obtain polymeric nano-particles with phosphate groups on the surface. In a first step cross-linked butyl acrylate/styrene particles were formed. In a second step a mixture of functionalised acrylate and butyl acrylate/styrene was added to the system. In this way, the composite particles were obtained. Particle ...

  11. Estimation of Beta-Naphthol in Aluminium Soap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. C. Ganguli

    1962-01-01

    Full Text Available A method is described for the determination of naphtha in aluminium soaps based on the Formation of dye para red by coupling the former with diazotised p-nitraniline under controlled temperature and pH and estimation of the colour developed after extraction with alcoholic NaOH. The method has been found to be reasonably accurate under the experimental conditions.

  12. Oblique Impact of Projectile on Thin Aluminium Plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.U. Khan

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Experiments were performed, wherein cylindrical projectiles made of hardened steel were impacted on commercially available aluminium plates at different angles. Projectiles were of 12.8 mm diameter and plates were of 0.81 mm, 1.52mm and 1.91mm thicknesses. Based on the experimental results, an analytical model has been developed to predict the residual velocity of the projectile and the ballistic limit of the plate.

  13. Inoculation of aluminium with titanium and boron addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Szajnar

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The main aim of studies was to determine mechanism of inocualtion of pure alumnium EN AW-Al99,5 structure with addition of titanium and boron, which are introduced to liquid metal in small ammount - less than obligatory standard PN-EN 573-3 (concerning about aluminium purity.Design/methodology/approach: To investigations it was used light microscopy, X-ray Phase Analysis and TEM. Surfaces of samples which were prepared for macrostructure analysis were etched with use of solution of: 50g Cu, 400ml HCl, 300ml HNO3 and 300ml H2O. Surfaces of samples which were were prepared for microstructure analysis were etched with use of solution of: 0,5ml HF, 99,5ml H2O. Thin foils for TEM investigations were electropolished with use of 20 ml HClO4 and 80ml CH3OH.Findings: The results of investigations and their analysis show, that increase of size reduction in aluminium EN AW-Al99,5 after inoculation with (Ti+B result from “washers” of type Ti3Al and CuTi2 to heterogeneous nucleation formation.Research limitations/implications: I further research, authors of this paper are going to identifiy the “washers” to heterogeneous nucleation, in aluminium structure after inoculation with zirconium and vanadium addition.Practical implications: The work presents refinement of structure method which are particularly important in continuous and semi – continuous casting where products are used for plastic forming. Large columnar crystals zone result in forces extrusion rate reduction and during the ingot rolling delamination of external layers can occur. Thus, in some cases ingot skinning is needed, which rises the production costs.Originality/value: Contributes to research on size reduction in pure aluminium structure.

  14. The aluminium content of infant formulas remains too high

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Background Recent research published in this journal highlighted the issue of the high content of aluminium in infant formulas. The expectation was that the findings would serve as a catalyst for manufacturers to address a significant problem of these, often necessary, components of infant nutrition. It is critically important that parents and other users have confidence in the safety of infant formulas and that they have reliable information to use in choosing a product with a lower content ...

  15. Spectroscopic diagnostics of plasma during laser processing of aluminium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lober, R.; Mazumder, J.

    2007-10-01

    The role of the plasma in laser-metal interaction is of considerable interest due to its influence in the energy transfer mechanism in industrial laser materials processing. A 10 kW CO2 laser was used to study its interaction with aluminium under an argon environment. The objective was to determine the absorption and refraction of the laser beam through the plasma during the processing of aluminium. Laser processing of aluminium is becoming an important topic for many industries, including the automobile industry. The spectroscopic relative line to continuum method was used to determine the electron temperature distribution within the plasma by investigating the 4158 Å Ar I line emission and the continuum adjacent to it. The plasmas are induced in 1.0 atm pure Ar environment over a translating Al target, using f/7 and 10 kW CO2 laser. Spectroscopic data indicated that the plasma composition and behaviour were Ar-dominated. Experimental results indicated the plasma core temperature to be 14 000-15 300 K over the incident range of laser powers investigated from 5 to 7 kW. It was found that 7.5-29% of the incident laser power was absorbed by the plasma. Cross-section analysis of the melt pools from the Al samples revealed the absence of any key-hole formation and confirmed that the energy transfer mechanism in the targets was conduction dominated for the reported range of experimental data.

  16. The Effect of Thickness of Aluminium Films on Optical Reflectance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Lugolole

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In Uganda and Africa at large, up to 90% of the total energy used for food preparation and water pasteurization is from fossil fuels particularly firewood and kerosene which pollute the environment, yet there is abundant solar energy throughout the year, which could also be used. Uganda is abundantly rich in clay minerals such as ball clay, kaolin, feldspar, and quartz from which ceramic substrates were developed. Aluminium films of different thicknesses were deposited on different substrates in the diffusion pump microprocessor vacuum coater (Edwards AUTO 306. The optical reflectance of the aluminium films was obtained using a spectrophotometer (SolidSpec-3700/DUV-UV-VIS-NIR at various wave lengths. The analysis of the results of the study revealed that the optical reflectance of the aluminium films was above 50% and increased with increasing film thickness and wavelength. Thus, this method can be used to produce reflector systems in the technology of solar cooking and other appliances which use solar energy.

  17. Analysis of Orthogonal Cutting of Aluminium-based Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Ravinder Reddy

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available A turning test on aluminium-based metal-matrix composites (MMCs (aluminium-30% silicon carbide was performed with K-20 carbide tool material and wear patterns and the wear land growth rates were analysed to evaluate the wear characteristics and to classify the relationship between the physical (mechanical properties and the flank wear of cutting tools. The study was also extended to the machining aspects and the width of cuts on MMCs and the influence of various cutting parameters. The experiments were conducted to measure the temperature along the cutting tool edge using thermocouple at various cutting speeds, and depth of cuts, keeping the feed rate constant while turning with K-20 carbide cutting tool. The finite-element method was used to simulate the orthogonal cutting of aluminium-based MMCs. The heat generation at the chip-tool interface, frictional heat generation at the tool flank, and the heat generation at the work tool interface were calculated analytically and imposed as boundary conditions. The analysis of the steady-state heat transfer was carried out and the temperature distribution at cutting edge, shear zone, and interface regions have been reported.

  18. Control of Microthrix parvicella by aluminium salts addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durban, N; Juzan, L; Krier, J; Gillot, S

    2016-01-01

    Aluminium and iron chloride were added to a biological nutrient removal pilot plant (1,500 population equivalent) treating urban wastewater to investigate the control of Microthrix parvicella bulking and foaming by metallic salts. Monitoring plant performance over two 6-month periods showed a slight impact on the removal efficiencies. Addition of metallic salts (Me; aluminium or aluminium + iron) at a concentration of 41 mmol Me(kg MLSS·d) (MLSS: mixed liquor suspended solids) over 70 days allowed a stabilization of the diluted sludge volume index (DSVI), whereas higher dosages (94 mmol Me(kg MLSS·d) over 35 days or 137 mmol Me(kg MLSS·d) over 14 days induced a significant improvement of the settling conditions. Microscopic observations showed a compaction of biological aggregates with an embedding of filamentous bacteria into the flocs that is not specific to M. parvicella as bacteria from phylum Chloroflexi are embedded too. The quantitative polymerase chain reaction targeting M. parvicella further indicated a possible growth limitation in addition to the flocculation impact at the high dosages of metallic salts investigated. DSVI appeared to be correlated with the relative abundance of M. parvicella.

  19. Neuroprotective effect of Allium cepa L. in aluminium chloride induced neurotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Tanveer; Goel, Rajesh Kumar

    2015-07-01

    The present study was envisaged to investigate the neuroprotective potential of Allium cepa (A. cepa) in aluminium chloride induced neurotoxicity. Aluminium chloride (50 mg/kg/day) was administered orally in mice supplemented with different doses of A. cepa hydroethanolic extract for a period of 60 days. Various behavioural, biochemical and histopathological parameters were estimated in aluminium exposed animals. Chronic aluminium administration resulted in significant motor incoordination and memory deficits, which were also endorsed biochemically as there was increased oxidative stress as well as elevated acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and aluminium levels in the brain. Supplementation with A. cepa in aluminium exposed animals significantly improved muscle coordination and memory deficits as well as reduced oxidative stress, AChE and decreased abnormal aluminium deposition in the brain. Histopathologically, there was marked deterioration visualized as decreased vacuolated cytoplasm as well as decreased pyramidal cells in the hippocampal area of mice brain which were found to be reversed with A. cepa supplementation. Administration of BADGE (PPARγ antagonist) in aluminium exposed animals reversed the neuroprotective potential of A. cepa as assessed with various behavioural, biochemical, neurochemical and histopathological estimations. In conclusion, finding of this study suggested significant neuroprotective potential of A. cepa in aluminium induced neurotoxicity. Further, the role of PPARγ receptor agonism has also been suggested as a putative neuroprotective mechanism of A. cepa, which needs further studies for confirmation.

  20. Dietary exposure to aluminium and health risk assessment in the residents of Shenzhen, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei Yang

    Full Text Available Although there are great changes of dietary in the past few decades in China, few are known about the aluminium exposure in Chinese diet. The aim of this study is to systematically evaluate the dietary aluminium intake level in residents of Shenzhen, China. A total of 853 persons from 244 household were investigated their diet by three days food records. Finally, 149 kinds of foods in 17 food groups were selected to be the most consumed foods. From them, 1399 food samples were collected from market to test aluminium concentration. High aluminium levels were found in jellyfish (median, 527.5 mg/kg, fried twisted cruller (median, 466.0 mg/kg, shell (median, 107.1 mg/kg. The Shenzhen residents' average dietary aluminium exposure was estimated at 1.263 mg/kg bw/week which is lower than the PTWI (provisional tolerable weekly intake. But 0-2 and 3-13 age groups have the highest aluminium intake exceeding the PTWI (3.356 mg/kg bw/week and 3.248 mg/kg bw/week than other age groups. And the main dietary aluminium exposure sources are fried twisted cruller, leaf vegetables and bean products. Our study suggested that even three decades rapid economy development, children in Shenzhen still have high dietary aluminium exposure risk. How to control high dietary aluminium exposure still is a great public health challenge in Shenzhen, China.

  1. Comparison of the x-ray attenuation properties of breast calcifications, aluminium, hydroxyapatite and calcium oxalate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, L M; Mackenzie, A; Dance, D R; Young, K C

    2013-04-07

    Aluminium is often used as a substitute material for calcifications in phantom measurements in mammography. Additionally, calcium oxalate, hydroxyapatite and aluminium are used in simulation studies. This assumes that these materials have similar attenuation properties to calcification, and this assumption is examined in this work. Sliced mastectomy samples containing calcification were imaged at ×5 magnification using a digital specimen cabinet. Images of the individual calcifications were extracted, and the diameter and contrast of each calculated. The thicknesses of aluminium required to achieve the same contrast as each calcification when imaged under the same conditions were calculated using measurements of the contrast of aluminium foils. As hydroxyapatite and calcium oxalate are also used to simulate calcifications, the equivalent aluminium thicknesses of these materials were also calculated using tabulated attenuation coefficients. On average the equivalent aluminium thickness was 0.85 times the calcification diameter. For calcium oxalate and hydroxyapatite, the equivalent aluminium thicknesses were 1.01 and 2.19 times the thickness of these materials respectively. Aluminium and calcium oxalate are suitable substitute materials for calcifications. Hydroxyapatite is much more attenuating than the calcifications and aluminium. Using solid hydroxyapatite as a substitute for calcification of the same size would lead to excessive contrast in the mammographic image.

  2. Protective effect of curcumin (Curcuma longa), against aluminium toxicity: Possible behavioral and biochemical alterations in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Anil; Dogra, Samrita; Prakash, Atish

    2009-12-28

    Aluminium is a potent neurotoxin and has been associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) causality for decades. Prolonged aluminium exposure induces oxidative stress and increases amyloid beta levels in vivo. Current treatment modalities for AD provide only symptomatic relief thus necessitating the development of new drugs with fewer side effects. The aim of the study was to demonstrate the protective effect of chronic curcumin administration against aluminium-induced cognitive dysfunction and oxidative damage in rats. Aluminium chloride (100 mg/kg, p.o.) was administered to rats daily for 6 weeks. Rats were concomitantly treated with curcumin (per se; 30 and 60 mg/kg, p.o.) daily for a period of 6 weeks. On the 21st and 42nd day of the study behavioral studies to evaluate memory (Morris water maze and elevated plus maze task paradigms) and locomotion (photoactometer) were done. The rats were sacrificed on 43rd day following the last behavioral test and various biochemical tests were performed to assess the extent of oxidative damage. Chronic aluminium chloride administration resulted in poor retention of memory in Morris water maze, elevated plus maze task paradigms and caused marked oxidative damage. It also caused a significant increase in the acetylcholinesterase activity and aluminium concentration in aluminium treated rats. Chronic administration of curcumin significantly improved memory retention in both tasks, attenuated oxidative damage, acetylcholinesterase activity and aluminium concentration in aluminium treated rats (Paluminium-induced cognitive dysfunction and oxidative damage.

  3. Dietary exposure to aluminium and health risk assessment in the residents of Shenzhen, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mei; Jiang, Lixin; Huang, Huiping; Zeng, Shengbo; Qiu, Fen; Yu, Miao; Li, Xiaorong; Wei, Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Although there are great changes of dietary in the past few decades in China, few are known about the aluminium exposure in Chinese diet. The aim of this study is to systematically evaluate the dietary aluminium intake level in residents of Shenzhen, China. A total of 853 persons from 244 household were investigated their diet by three days food records. Finally, 149 kinds of foods in 17 food groups were selected to be the most consumed foods. From them, 1399 food samples were collected from market to test aluminium concentration. High aluminium levels were found in jellyfish (median, 527.5 mg/kg), fried twisted cruller (median, 466.0 mg/kg), shell (median, 107.1 mg/kg). The Shenzhen residents' average dietary aluminium exposure was estimated at 1.263 mg/kg bw/week which is lower than the PTWI (provisional tolerable weekly intake). But 0-2 and 3-13 age groups have the highest aluminium intake exceeding the PTWI (3.356 mg/kg bw/week and 3.248 mg/kg bw/week) than other age groups. And the main dietary aluminium exposure sources are fried twisted cruller, leaf vegetables and bean products. Our study suggested that even three decades rapid economy development, children in Shenzhen still have high dietary aluminium exposure risk. How to control high dietary aluminium exposure still is a great public health challenge in Shenzhen, China.

  4. Imaging with polycrystalline mercuric iodide detectors using VLSI readout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turchetta, R.; Dulinski, W.; Husson, D.; Riester, J.L.; Schieber, M.; Zuck, A.; Melekhov, L.; Saado, Y.; Hermon, H.; Nissenbaum, J

    1999-06-01

    Potentially low cost and large area polycrystalline mercuric iodide room-temperature radiation detectors, with thickness of 100-600 {mu}m have been successfully tested with dedicated low-noise, low-power mixed signal VLSI electronics which can be used for compact, imaging solutions. The detectors are fabricated by depositing HgI{sub 2} directly on an insulating substrate having electrodes in the form of microstrips and pixels with an upper continuous electrode. The deposition is made either by direct evaporation or by screen printing HgI{sub 2} mixed with glue such as Poly-Vinyl-Butiral. The properties of these first-generation detectors are quite uniform from one detector to another. Also for each single detector the response is quite uniform and no charge loss in the inter-electrode space have been detected. Because of the low cost and of the polycrystallinity, detectors can be potentially fabricated in any size and shape, using standard ceramic technology equipment, which is an attractive feature where low cost and large area applications are needed. The detectors which act as radiation counters have been tested with a beta source as well as in a high-energy beam of 100 GeV muons at CERN, connected to VLSI, low noise electronics. Charge collection efficiency and uniformity have been studied. The charge is efficiently collected even in the space between strips indicating that fill factors of 100% could be reached in imaging applications with direct detection of radiation. Single photon counting capability is reached with VLSI electronics. These results show the potential of this material for applications demanding position sensitive, radiation resistant, room-temperature operating radiation detectors, where position resolution is essential, as it can be found in some applications in high-energy physics, nuclear medicine and astrophysics.

  5. Effect of Excessive Potassium Iodide on Rat Aorta Endothelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Man; Zou, Xiaoyan; Lin, Xinying; Bian, Jianchao; Meng, Huicui; Liu, Dan

    2015-08-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of excess iodine on rat aorta endothelial cells and the potential underlying mechanisms. Rat aorta endothelial cells were cultured with iodide ion (3506, 4076, 4647, 5218, 5789, 6360, 6931, and 7512 mg/L) for 48 h. Morphological changes of cells were observed with microscope after Wright-Giemsa staining and acridine orange staining. Cell proliferation was determined with 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, and cell apoptosis was assessed with flow cytometry. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), induced nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and concentrations of malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH), and protein carbonyl in culture medium were determined with colorimetric method. The expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) was detected by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. The results showed that excess iodine induced abnormal morphologic changes of cells, inhibited cell proliferation, and increased apoptosis rate. Iodine also reduced the activity of SOD, GSH-Px, and concentrations of GSH and increased the concentrations of MDA and protein carbonyl in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, excess iodine decreased the activity of eNOS and increased the activity of iNOS and the expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 in culture medium. Our results suggested that excess iodine exposure increased oxidative stress, caused damage of vascular endothelial cells, and altered the expression of adhesion factors and the activity of NOS. These changes may explain the mechanisms underlying excess iodine-induced vascular injury.

  6. THERAPY OF GRAVES’ DISEASE WITH SODIUM IODIDE-131

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Wayan Hartadi Noor

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Graves’ disease is the most common form of thyrotoxicosis, with a peak incidence in the 20-40 year of age group. Females are involved about five times more commonly than male. The easiest sign to recognize patients with Graves’ disease is the present of Graves’ ophthalmopathy. The diagnosis of Graves’ disease may sometimes base only on a physical examination and a medical history. Diffuse thyroid enlargement and sign of thyrotoxicosis, mainly ophthalmopathy and to lesser extent dermopathy, usually adequate for diagnosis. TSH test combined with FT4 test is usually the first laboratory test performs in these patients. The patients suffered Graves’ disease can be treated with antithyroid drug therapy or undergo subtotal Thyroidectomy. Another therapy is by using sodium iodide-131, where this therapy has advantages including easy administration, effectiveness, low expense, and absence of pain. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  7. Aluminium localization in root tips of the aluminium-accumulating plant species buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klug, Benjamin; Specht, André; Horst, Walter J

    2011-11-01

    Aluminium (Al) uptake and transport in the root tip of buckwheat is not yet completely understood. For localization of Al in root tips, fluorescent dyes and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) were compared. The staining of Al with morin is an appropriate means to study qualitatively the radial distribution along the root tip axis of Al which is complexed by oxalate and citrate in buckwheat roots. The results compare well with the distribution of total Al determined by LA-ICP-MS which could be reliably calibrated to compare with Al contents by conventional total Al determination using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. The Al localization in root cross-sections along the root tip showed that in buckwheat Al is highly mobile in the radial direction. The root apex predominantly accumulated Al in the cortex. The subapical root section showed a homogenous Al distribution across the whole section. In the following root section Al was located particularly in the pericycle and the xylem parenchyma cells. With further increasing distance from the root apex Al could be detected only in individual xylem vessels. The results support the view that the 10 mm apical root tip is the main site of Al uptake into the symplast of the cortex, while the subapical 10-20 mm zone is the main site of xylem loading through the pericycle and xylem parenchyma cells. Progress in the better molecular understanding of Al transport in buckwheat will depend on the consideration of the tissue specificity of Al transport and complexation.

  8. Modeling the Detection of Organic and Inorganic Compounds Using Iodide-Based Chemical Ionization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Siddharth; Lopez-Hilfiker, Felipe; Lee, Ben H; Thornton, Joel A; Kurtén, Theo

    2016-02-04

    Iodide-based chemical ionization mass spectrometry (CIMS) has been used to detect and measure concentrations of several atmospherically relevant organic and inorganic compounds. The significant electronegativity of iodide and the strong acidity of hydroiodic acid makes electron transfer and proton abstraction essentially negligible, and the soft nature of the adduct formation ionization technique reduces the chances of sample fragmentation. In addition, iodide has a large negative mass defect, which, when combined with the high resolving power of a high resolution time-of-flight chemical ionization mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-CIMS), provides good selectivity. In this work, we use quantum chemical methods to calculate the binding energies, enthalpies and free energies for clusters of an iodide ion with a number of atmospherically relevant organic and inorganic compounds. Systematic configurational sampling of the free molecules and clusters was carried out at the B3LYP/6-31G* level, followed by subsequent calculations at the PBE/SDD and DLPNO-CCSD(T)/def2-QZVPP//PBE/aug-cc-pVTZ-PP levels. The binding energies, enthalpies, and free energies thus obtained were then compared to the iodide-based University of Washington HR-ToF-CIMS (UW-CIMS) instrument sensitivities for these molecules. We observed a reasonably linear relationship between the cluster binding enthalpies and logarithmic instrument sensitivities already at the PBE/SDD level, which indicates that relatively simple quantum chemical methods can predict the sensitivity of an iodide-based CIMS instrument toward most molecules. However, higher level calculations were needed to treat some outlier molecules, most notably oxalic acid and methylerythritol. Our calculations also corroborated the recent experimental findings that the molecules that the UW-CIMS detects at maximum sensitivity usually have binding enthalpies to iodide which are higher than about 26 kcal/mol, depending slightly on the level of theory.

  9. Iodide Residues in Milk Vary between Iodine-Based Teat Disinfectants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Elizabeth A; Mukai, Motoko; Zurakowski, Michael; Rauch, Bradley; Gioia, Gloria; Hillebrandt, Joseph R; Henderson, Mark; Schukken, Ynte H; Hemling, Thomas C

    2016-07-01

    Majority of iodine found in dairy milk comes from the diet and teat disinfection products used during milking process. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of 4 iodine-based teat dips on milk iodide concentrations varying in iodine level (0.25% vs. 0.5%, w/w), normal low viscosity dip versus barrier dip, and application method (dip vs. spray) to ensure safe iodine levels in dairy milk when these products are used. The iodine exposure study was performed during a 2-wk period. The trial farm was purged of all iodine-based disinfection products for 21 d during a prestudy "washout period," which resulted in baseline milk iodide range of 145 to 182 ppb. During the experiment, iodine-based teat dips were used as post-milking teat disinfectants and compared to a non-iodine control disinfectant. Milk iodide residue levels for each treatment was evaluated from composited group samples. Introduction of different iodine-based teat disinfectants increased iodide residue content in milk relative to the control by between 8 and 29 μg/L when averaged across the full trial period. However, residues levels for any treatment remained well below the consumable limit of 500 μg/L. The 0.5% iodine disinfectant increased milk iodide levels by 20 μg/L more compared to the 0.25% iodine. Compared to dip-cup application, spray application significantly increased milk iodide residue by 21 μg/L and utilized approximately 23% more teat dip. This carefully controlled study demonstrated an increase in milk iodide concentrations from iodine disinfectants, but increases were small and within acceptable limits.

  10. Aluminium nitride: from the powder to the substrate. Le nitrure d'aluminium: de la poudre au substrat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarrige, J. (Lab. de Ceramiques Nouvelles, Limoges (France)); Mexmain, J. (Lab. de Ceramiques Nouvelles, Limoges (France)); Oumaloul, M. (Lab. de Ceramiques Nouvelles, Limoges (France)); Bachelard, R. (CRRA ELF ATOCHEM, Pierre Benite (France)); Disson, J.P. (CRRA ELF ATOCHEM, Pierre Benite (France))

    1993-04-01

    The aluminium nitride is a material which should replace alumina or beryllia as substrate for power electronic applications. The powder, prepared by carbothermal nitridation, is dispersed in a butanone-2-ethanol azeotrop solvent with a phosphate ester. Electrical conductivity, sedimentation, viscosity have been used to determine which phenomena take place in the defloculation of the suspension. The stability of AlN suspensions is due mainly to an electrostatic mechanism, with a steric contribution. The aluminium nitride tape-casting slip has been sintered at 1850 C in a nitrogen atmosphere. Removing of the binder and plasticizer can be performed in the same oven at 650 C, due to their nature and low concentration. The thermal conductivity of the substrates has been measured and is in the 160 to 200 W/m.K range. (orig.).

  11. Development of solar selective absorber layers on aluminium. Final report; Entwicklung solarselektiver Absorberschichten auf Aluminium fuer Solarkollektoren. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoenicke, D.; Moeller, T.; Schwarz, T.

    1998-01-31

    A new electrolytic process was developed to form solar selective layers on aluminium. In the developed process, both the formation of the alumina layer and the deposition of metals into the layer takes place in only one treatment step using a single electrolysis bath. The main step of the so called ISOC-method (impulse structured oxide ceramic) is the anodic oxidation of aluminium which was carried out by using a pulse technique at different voltages. During the anodic polarisation a thin alumina ceramic layer was formed, while the cathodic led to the metal deposition as copper and nickel. The conditions of the electrolysis were varied in order to estimate optimal parameters achieving solar selective layers with high selectivity. Furthermore, a scale-up of the lab scale apparatus to a mini plant was carried out. Finally, the corrosion resistance of the absorber layers was improved by the formation of a thin hydrophobic overlayer using a sol-gel treatment. (orig.) [Deutsch] Ein neuartiges Behandlungsverfahren zur Erzeugung von solarselektiven Absorberschichten auf Aluminium wurde entwickelt. Bei dieser elektrochemischen Behandlung wird in einem Einstufenprozess mit einem Elektrolyten durch eine Kombination von anodischer Oxidation und bipolarer Pulsbehandlung auf der Oberflaeche des Aluminiums eine impulsstrukturierte Oxidkeramik (ISOK) erzeugt. Dabei entsteht durch eine anodische Oxidation eine strukturierte Aluminiumoxidschicht. Bei der bipolaren Pulsbehandlung erfolgt dann eine Abscheidung der im ISOK-Elektrolyten befindlichen Metalle Cu und Ni auf oder in die Aluminiumoxidoberflaeche. Die ISOK-Behandlung wurde vom Labormassstab zu einem ISOK-Verfahren im Miniplant-Massstab entwickelt. Der Einfluss der elektrischen Parameter und der chemischen Zusammensetzung der ISOK-Elektrolyte wurde untersucht. Durch eine auf das ISOK-Verfahren abgestimmte Nachbehandlung, ein Tauchverfahren in einer Sol-Gel-Loesung, entsteht ein Schichtsystem mit hoher Solarselektivitaet

  12. [Determination of iodide, thiocyanate and perchlorate ions in environmental water by two-dimensional ion chromatography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Li; Wang, Haibo; Shi, Yali

    2013-03-01

    A procedure for the determination of iodide, thiocyanate and perchlorate ions in environmental water by two-dimensional ion chromatography has been developed. At first the iodide, thiocyanate and perchlorate ions were separated from interfering ions by a column (IonPac AS16, 250 mm x 4 mm). The iodide ion, thiocyanate and perchlorate ions were then enriched with an enrichment column (MAC-200, 80 mm x 0.75 mm). In the 2nd-dimensional chromatography, iodide thiocyanate and perchlorate ions were separated and quantified by a capillary column (IonPac AS20 Capillary, 250 mm x 0.4 mm). The linear ranges were 0.05 -100 pg/L with correlation coefficients of 0. 999 9, and the detection limits were 0. 02 - 0.05 micro gg/L. The spiked recoveries of iodide, thiocyanate and perchlorate ions were in the range of 85.1% to 100.1%. The relative standard deviations of the recoveries were 1.7% to 4.9%.

  13. Trapping radiodine, in the form of methyl iodide, on nuclear carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nacapricha, D. [Mahidol Univ., Bangkok (Thailand); Taylor, C. [John Moores Univ., Liverpool (United Kingdom)

    1996-12-31

    Studies have been performed on potassium-iodide-impregnated charcoals of the type used in the nuclear industry for trapping radioiodine released during nuclear fission. The effects of various parameters on the trapping efficiency of methyl iodide have been investigated. A variation in particle size within a bulk charcoal caused poor precision in K value measurements because of differences in surface area, pore volume, and bed density, leading to differences in the deposition of the impregnant. Precision is improved by sieving the charcoal to a narrower size because smaller particles have a higher porosity. This finding is supported by surface area and pore measurements. Two methods of impregnation are compared by measuring K values and the deposition of potassium iodide. Charcoal impregnated by rotary evaporation exhibits both higher K values and higher potassium iodide contents than sprayed charcoal. Two designs of spraying drum are compared: a drum with helical vanes allows more efficient deposition and more uniform distribution of impregnant than a drum with axial vanes. A decrease in the K value with increasing humidity correlates with the available surface area. A similar correlation exists between water content and available pore volume. Aging of potassium-iodide-impregnated charcoal, caused by the formation of oxygen complexes on the surface, is associated with significant falls in K value. K values of charcoals also can be restored to at least their original values by heat treatment in the absence of air. 12 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Estradiol decreases iodide uptake by rat thyroid follicular FRTL-5 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Furlanetto T.W.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Estradiol has well-known indirect effects on the thyroid. A direct effect of estradiol on thyroid follicular cells, increasing cell growth and reducing the expression of the sodium-iodide symporter gene, has been recently reported. The aim of the present investigation was to study the effect of estradiol on iodide uptake by thyroid follicular cells, using FRTL-5 cells as a model. Estradiol decreased basal iodide uptake by FRTL-5 cells from control levels of 2.490 ± 0.370 to 2.085 ± 0.364 pmol I-/µg DNA at 1 ng/ml (P<0.02, to 1.970 ± 0.302 pmol I-/µg DNA at 10 ng/ml (P<0.003, and to 2.038 ± 0.389 pmol I-/µg DNA at 100 ng/ml (P<0.02. In addition, 4 ng/ml estradiol decreased iodide uptake induced by 0.02 mIU/ml thyrotropin from 8.678 ± 0.408 to 7.312 ± 0.506 pmol I-/µg DNA (P<0.02. A decrease in iodide uptake by thyroid cells caused by estradiol has not been described previously and may have a role in goiter pathogenesis.

  15. Processes of adsorption/desorption of iodides and cadmium cations onto/from Ag(111

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VLADIMIR D. JOVIĆ

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the adsorption/desorption processes of iodides and cadmium cations in the presence of iodides onto/from Ag(111 were investigated. It was shown that both processes were complex, characterized by several peaks on the cyclic voltammograms (CVs. By PeakFit analysis of the recorded CVs and subsequent fitting of the obtained peaks by the Frumkin adsorption isotherm, the interaction parameter (f and the Gibbs energy of adsorption (DGads for each adsorbed phase were determined. In the case of iodide adsorption, four peaks were characterized by negative values of f, indicating attractive lateral interaction between the adsorbed anions, while two of them possessed value of f < –4, indicating phase transition processes. The adsorption/desorption processes of cadmium cations (underpotential deposition – UPD of cadmium in the presence of iodide anions was characterized by two main peaks, each of them being composed of two or three peaks with negative values of f. By the analysis of charge vs. potential dependences obtained either from the CVs or current transients on potentiostatic pulses, it was concluded that adsorbed iodides did not undergo desorption during the process of Cd UPD, but became replaced by Cd ad-atoms and remained adsorbed on top of a Cd layer and/or in between Cd the ad-atoms.

  16. Proton and iodine-127 nuclear magnetic resonance studies on the binding of iodide by lactoperoxidase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakurada, J.; Takahashi, S.; Shimizu, T.; Hatano, M.; Nakamura, S.; Hosoya, T.

    1987-10-06

    Interaction of an iodide ion with lactoperoxidase was studied by the use of /sup 1/H NMR, /sup 127/I NMR, and optical difference spectrum techniques. /sup 1/H NMR spectra demonstrated that a major broad hyperfine-shifted signal at about 60 ppm, which is ascribed to the heme peripheral methyl protons, was shifted toward high field by adding KI, indicating the binding of iodide to the active site of the enzyme; the dissociation constant was estimated to be 38 mM at pH 6.1. The binding was further detected by /sup 127/I NMR, showing no competition with cyanide. Both /sup 1/H NMR and /sup 127/I NMR revealed that the binding of iodide to the enzyme is facilitated by the protonation of an ionizable group with a pK/sup a/ value of 6.0-6.8, which is presumably the distal histidyl residue. Optical difference spectra showed that the binding of an aromatic donor molecule to the enzyme is slightly but distinctly affected by adding KI. On the basis of these results, it was suggested that an iodide ion binds to lactoperoxidase outside the heme crevice but at the position close enough to interact with the distal histidyl residue which possibly mediates electron transport in the iodide oxidation reaction.

  17. Enhancement of wear and ballistic resistance of armour grade AA7075 aluminium alloy using friction stir processing

    OpenAIRE

    I. Sudhakar; V. Madhu; G. Madhusudhan Reddy; K. Srinivasa Rao

    2015-01-01

    Industrial applications of aluminium and its alloys are restricted because of their poor tribological properties. Thermal spraying, laser surfacing, electron beam welding are the most widely used techniques to alter the surface morphology of base metal. Preliminary studies reveal that the coating and layering of aluminium alloys with ceramic particles enhance the ballistic resistance. Furthermore, among aluminium alloys, 7075 aluminium alloy exhibits high strength which can be compared to tha...

  18. The Hamlet dilemma for aluminium cans in the circular economy: to be or not to be in a closed loop

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niero, Monia; Boas, Simon H.; Langen, Håkon

    2015-01-01

    can recycling. We performed a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) comparing different sources of aluminium: primary aluminium and mixed scraps, Used Beverage Can (UBC) scrap, mixed aluminium packaging scrap and building scrap. The preliminary LCA results show that the lowest environmental impacts come from...... the use of UBC scraps. This suggests that in a circular economy context for aluminium cans it is better to be in a closed loop....

  19. Quantification of propidium iodide delivery with millisecond electric pulses: A model study

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Miao

    2014-01-01

    A model study of propidium iodide delivery with millisecond electric pulses is presented; this work is a companion of the experimental efforts by Sadik et al. [1]. Both membrane permeabilization and delivery are examined with respect to six extra-cellular conductivities. The transmembrane potential of the permeabilized regions exhibits a consistent value, which corresponds to a bifurcation point in the pore-radius-potential relation. Both the pore area density and membrane conductance increase with an increasing extra-cellular conductivity. On the other hand, the inverse correlation between propidium iodide delivery and extra-cellular conductivity as observed in the experiments is quantitatively captured by the model. This agreement confirms that this behavior is primarily mediated by electrophoretic transport during the pulse. The results suggest that electrophoresis is important even for the delivery of small molecules such as propidium iodide. The direct comparison between model prediction and experimental...

  20. Salty glycerol versus salty water surface organization: bromide and iodide surface propensities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zishuai; Hua, Wei; Verreault, Dominique; Allen, Heather C

    2013-07-25

    Salty NaBr and NaI glycerol solution interfaces are examined in the OH stretching region using broadband vibrational sum frequency generation (VSFG) spectroscopy. Raman and infrared (IR) spectroscopy are used to further understand the VSFG spectroscopic signature. The VSFG spectra of salty glycerol solutions reveal that bromide and iodide anions perturb the interfacial glycerol organization in a manner similar as that found in aqueous halide salt solutions, thus confirming the presence of bromide and iodide anions at the glycerol surface. Surface tension measurements are consistent with the surface propensity suggested by the VSFG data and also show that the surface excess increases with increasing salt concentration, similar to that of water. In addition, iodide is shown to have more surface prevalence than bromide, as has also been determined from aqueous solutions. These results suggest that glycerol behaves similarly to water with respect to surface activity and solvation of halide anions at its air/liquid interface.

  1. Preparation, Characterization and Optical Properties of Host-guest Nanocomposite Material Mordenite-silver Iodide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Silver iodide nanoclusters were successfully prepared in the channels of mordenite by a heat diffusion method. Powder X-ray diffraction, adsorption technique and infrared spectroscopy were used to characterize the prepared materials, which showed that the guest silver iodide had been encapsulated in the channels of mordenite. The optical properties of the solid phase diffuse reflectance absorption of nanocomposite material NaM-AgI were studied, showing that the absorption bands of the diffuse reflectance absorption of the prepared material moved to the region of high energy. The absorption peak of the material prepared shifted to the region of high energy. Namely, blue shift was caused. This has demonstrated the incorporation of silver iodide into the channels of the zeolite. We observed the luminescence and surface photovoltage spectra of NaM-AgI sample, proposing the mechanisms of the photoluminescence and photovoltaic responses.

  2. New Microporous Polymer Electrolyte Based on Polysiloxane Grafted with Imidazolium Iodide Moieties for DSSC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Yang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Two types of polysiloxane grafted with different ratio of imidazolium iodide moieties (IL-SiO2 have been synthesized to develop a micro-porous polymer electrolyte for quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells. The samples were characterized by 1HNMR, FT-IR spectrum, XRD, TEM and SEM, respectively. Moreover, the ionic conductivity of the electrolytes was measured by electrochemical workstation. Nanostructured polysiloxane containing imidazolium iodide showed excellent compatibility with organic solvent and polymer matrix for its ionic liquid characteristics. Increasing the proportion of imidazolium iodide moieties in polysiloxane improved the electrochemical behavior of the gel polymer electrolyte. A dye-sensitized solar cell with gel polymer electrolyte yielded an open-circuit voltage of 0.70 V, short-circuit current of 11.19 mA cm−2, and the conversion efficiency of 3.61% at 1 sun illumination.

  3. Optimization of mercuric iodide platelets growth by the polymer controlled vapor transport method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fornaro L.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Mercuric iodide crystals in their platelet habit were grown by the polymer controlled vapor transport method. Mercuric iodide 99% in purity was sublimated at temperatures about 122 - 126 °C and vacuum conditions (10-5 mmHg, after selecting an appropriate polymer. Temperature profiles and experimental heat transfer models were determined for two growth furnaces using different insulator configurations for the cold extreme (air, ceramic wool, grilon, copper and ceramic wool. Growth conditions for few and separate nucleation points and large crystals were determined. Representative samples were characterized by optical microscopy and by measuring the current density and apparent resistivity of the material. Future optimization and comparisons with others mercuric iodide crystal growth methods are included.

  4. Effect of Cytokine on the Expression of Sodium Iodide Symporter Gene in Breast Cancer Cell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIAYue; LIUChao; TANGWei; LIUCui-ping; QINYou-wen; YUANQing-xing; LIQian; MAOXiao-dong; DIFu-song

    2004-01-01

    To investigate the effect of cytokines (TNF-α, IFN-γ and IL-6) on the expression of sodi-um-iodide symporter(NIS) gene in breast cancer cell (MCF-7). Methods:The breast cancer cell was cultureds with negative control culture or cultures with different concentrations of cytokines for 72 h. NIS germ mRNA in breast cancer cells cultured was determined by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction(RT-PCR). Results:Expression of sodium-iodide symporter mRNA can be found decreasing along with increasing the concentration of cytokine dose-depen-dently. Conchzs/on ~ Cytokine may play a role in iodide-uptake modulating in breast cancer cells by their effect on NIS germ expression.

  5. Influence of Alkali Treatment on the Surface Area of Aluminium Dross

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. S. Ahmad Zauzi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aluminium dross is an industrial waste from aluminium refining industry and classified as toxic substances. However, the disposal of dross as a waste is a burden to aluminium manufacturer industries due to its negative effects to the ecosystem, surface, and ground water. Therefore the purpose of this study is to evaluate the influence of sodium hydroxide (NaOH on the surface area and pore size of aluminium dross. There were 3 stages in the treatment activities, which were leaching, precipitation, and calcination process. The optimum result from this study was the surface area of aluminium dross increases from 10.1 m2/g up to 80.0 m2/g at 40°C, 1% NaOH, and 15-minute reaction time. Thus, aluminium dross has a potential to be converted into other useful material such as catalyst and absorbent. The benefit of this research is that the hazardous industrial waste can be turned into wealth to be used in other applications such as in catalytic activities and absorber in waste water treatment. Further investigation on the physicochemical of aluminium dross with different acid or alkali should be conducted to get deeper understanding on the aluminium dross as a catalyst-type material.

  6. The role of magnesium in the electrochemical behaviour of 5XXX aluminium-magnesium alloys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flores Ramirez, J.R.

    2006-01-01

    An investigation concerning the effects of magnesium on the intergranular corrosion susceptibility of AA5XXX aluminium alloys was carried out. In the present work, magnesium is found to be highly mobile in the bulk metal as well as in the aluminium oxide. This mobility is also found to be dependent

  7. Design of an aluminium bicycle path integrated in a steel bridge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maljaars, J.; Soetens, F.; Burggraaf, H.G.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the design of the aluminium structure of a bicycle path which is mounted on an existing steel brige. The benefits of aluminium, being low self weight, freedom in design obtained by extrusion and good corrosion resistance were maximal utilized. One of the main drawbacks of alumin

  8. Domestic Output of Aluminium Alloy Hub Surpassing 70 million in 2007

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>According to a report from the hub branch of China Association of Automobile Manufactur- ers,China has produced a total of more than 70 million aluminium alloy hubs in 2007,a year- on-year growth over 25%,while consuming over 700,000 tons of primary aluminium the whole year.

  9. Aluminium in an ocean general circulation model compared with the West Atlantic Geotraces cruises

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hulten, M. M. P.; Sterl, A.; Tagliabue, A.; Dutay, J. -C.; Gehlen, M.; de Baar, H. J. W.; Middag, R.

    2013-01-01

    A model of aluminium has been developed and implemented in an Ocean General Circulation Model (NEMO-PISCES). In the model, aluminium enters the ocean by means of dust deposition. The internal oceanic processes are described by advection, mixing and reversible scavenging. The model has been evaluated

  10. Microstructure and interfaces of a reaction coating on aluminium alloys by laser processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, X.B.; Hosson, J.Th.M. De

    1993-01-01

    This paper reports an approach to coat a ceramic layer on aluminium alloys by means of chemical reaction. The reaction product of Al2O3 layer of 100 µm in thickness has been formed using a powder mixture of silicon oxide and aluminium by laser processing. It turns out that the large amount of heat f

  11. Application of surface plasmon polaritons in the laser ablation and characterisation of thin aluminium films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairns, G. F.; McNeill, D. A.; Dawson, P.

    1999-06-01

    Surface modification of thin aluminium films is both produced and characterised by exciting surface plasmon polaritons in an attenuated total reflection geometry: silica prism/aluminium/ aluminium oxide system. The modification is performed, under ambient conditions, by exposure to a low fluence (pulse of radiation from an excimer laser at wavelength 248 nm. Pre- and post-ablation characterisation of samples is performed at a centre wavelength of 250 nm by using a xenon lamp and optical filtration. Modelling of the characteristic reflectance-angle curves from areas exposed to the laser shows both an increased oxide thickness and the presence of an optically absorbing cermet layer, a region of mixed metal and oxide, between the aluminium and the aluminium oxide. Analysis of the results suggests that the interfacial aluminium/oxide region supporting the surface mode is ablated by means of a non-thermal, bond-breaking mechanism leading to further surface oxide formation and a progressively less complete oxidation process for a finite distance into the aluminium film. However, the ablation is frustrated in the sense that there is little or no net loss of aluminium from the system.

  12. The Macro-Adjustment Policies on China’s Aluminium Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    <正>In recent years, China’s aluminium industry has developed rapidly with considerable expansion of the production scale. Presently, China’s aluminum production capacity has taken a quarter of the world total, and China has become the largest aluminium producer in the world, However, such large scaled expan-

  13. Insight into the cellular fate and toxicity of aluminium adjuvants used in clinically approved human vaccinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mold, Matthew; Shardlow, Emma; Exley, Christopher

    2016-08-12

    Aluminium adjuvants remain the most widely used and effective adjuvants in vaccination and immunotherapy. Herein, the particle size distribution (PSD) of aluminium oxyhydroxide and aluminium hydroxyphosphate adjuvants was elucidated in attempt to correlate these properties with the biological responses observed post vaccination. Heightened solubility and potentially the generation of Al(3+) in the lysosomal environment were positively correlated with an increase in cell mortality in vitro, potentially generating a greater inflammatory response at the site of simulated injection. The cellular uptake of aluminium based adjuvants (ABAs) used in clinically approved vaccinations are compared to a commonly used experimental ABA, in an in vitro THP-1 cell model. Using lumogallion as a direct-fluorescent molecular probe for aluminium, complemented with transmission electron microscopy provides further insight into the morphology of internalised particulates, driven by the physicochemical variations of the ABAs investigated. We demonstrate that not all aluminium adjuvants are equal neither in terms of their physical properties nor their biological reactivity and potential toxicities both at the injection site and beyond. High loading of aluminium oxyhydroxide in the cytoplasm of THP-1 cells without immediate cytotoxicity might predispose this form of aluminium adjuvant to its subsequent transport throughout the body including access to the brain.

  14. Aluminium based adjuvants and their effects on mitochondria and lysosomes of phagocytosing cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlsson, Lars; Exley, Christopher; Darabi, Anna; Sandén, Emma; Siesjö, Peter; Eriksson, Håkan

    2013-11-01

    Aluminium oxyhydroxide, Al(OH)3 is one of few compounds approved as an adjuvant in human vaccines. However, the mechanism behind its immune stimulating properties is still poorly understood. In vitro co-culture of an aluminium adjuvant and the human monocytic cell line THP-1 resulted in reduced cell proliferation. Inhibition occurred at concentrations of adjuvant several times lower than would be found at the injection site using a vaccine formulation containing an aluminium adjuvant. Based on evaluation of the mitochondrial membrane potential, THP-1 cells showed no mitochondrial rupture after co-culture with the aluminium adjuvant, instead an increase in mitochondrial activity was seen. The THP-1 cells are phagocytosing cells and after co-culture with the aluminium adjuvant the phagosomal pathway was obstructed. Primary or early phagosomes mature into phagolysosomes with an internal pH of 4.5 - 5 and carry a wide variety of hydrolysing enzymes. Co-culture with the aluminium adjuvant yielded a reduced level of acidic vesicles and cathepsin L activity, a proteolytic enzyme of the phagolysosomes, was almost completely inhibited. THP-1 cells are an appropriate in vitro model in order to investigate the mechanism behind the induction of a phagocytosing antigen presenting cell into an inflammatory cell by aluminium adjuvants. Much information will be gained by investigating the phagosomal pathway and what occurs inside the phagosomes and to elucidate the ultimate fate of phagocytosed aluminium particles.

  15. Dietary exposure to aluminium of urban residents from cities in South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Qi; Wang, Jing; Li, Min; Liang, Xuxia; Dai, Guangwei; Hu, Zhikun; Wen, Jian; Huang, Qiong; Zhang, Yonghui

    2013-01-01

    A dietary survey was conducted over three consecutive days by using 24-hour dietary recall in the Pearl River Delta of South China to investigate the dietary consumption status. A total of 1702 food samples, 22 food groups, were collected, and aluminium concentrations of foods were determined by using ICP-MS. Weekly dietary exposure to aluminium of the average urban residents of South China was estimated to be 1.5 mg kg⁻¹ body weight, which amounted to 76% of the provisional tolerable weekly intake. Wheat-made products (53.5%) contributed most to the dietary exposure, followed by vegetables (12.2%). The high-level consumers' weekly exposure to aluminium was 11.1 mg kg⁻¹ body weight, which amounted to 407% of the provisional tolerable weekly intake. The results indicated that the general urban residents in South China might be safe from aluminium exposure, but the high-level consumers might be at some risk of aluminium exposure. The foods contributing to aluminium exposure were processed food with aluminium-containing food additives. It is necessary to take effective measures to control the overuse of aluminium-containing food additives.

  16. Insight into the cellular fate and toxicity of aluminium adjuvants used in clinically approved human vaccinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mold, Matthew; Shardlow, Emma; Exley, Christopher

    2016-08-01

    Aluminium adjuvants remain the most widely used and effective adjuvants in vaccination and immunotherapy. Herein, the particle size distribution (PSD) of aluminium oxyhydroxide and aluminium hydroxyphosphate adjuvants was elucidated in attempt to correlate these properties with the biological responses observed post vaccination. Heightened solubility and potentially the generation of Al3+ in the lysosomal environment were positively correlated with an increase in cell mortality in vitro, potentially generating a greater inflammatory response at the site of simulated injection. The cellular uptake of aluminium based adjuvants (ABAs) used in clinically approved vaccinations are compared to a commonly used experimental ABA, in an in vitro THP-1 cell model. Using lumogallion as a direct-fluorescent molecular probe for aluminium, complemented with transmission electron microscopy provides further insight into the morphology of internalised particulates, driven by the physicochemical variations of the ABAs investigated. We demonstrate that not all aluminium adjuvants are equal neither in terms of their physical properties nor their biological reactivity and potential toxicities both at the injection site and beyond. High loading of aluminium oxyhydroxide in the cytoplasm of THP-1 cells without immediate cytotoxicity might predispose this form of aluminium adjuvant to its subsequent transport throughout the body including access to the brain.

  17. All-Solid-State Iodide Selective Electrode for Iodimetry of Iodized Salts and Vitamin C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TIRUWORK MEQUANINT

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A laboratory-made all-solid state iodide selective electrode, with Ag2S-AgI coated on a graphite rod recovered from dry cell battery, was prepared according to previous procedures. The electrode’s linear response to iodide was in the concentration range of 10-6 M to 10-1 M with a slope of 56.85 mV/decade and a detection limit of 6×10-7M. Iodate recovery test for laboratory formulated iodate-iodized salt was found to be 98.6 % with a standard deviation of 1.14%. The titratability of the iodized salt solution was at least 10-200 ppm potassium iodate (6-120 ppm iodine, exhibiting distinct endpoints in the range wider than the ones set in regulatory standards and reflecting that QC monitoring in production and stability decline of iodine content upon storage can be performed with the electrode method. On the basis this potentiometric titration, the application of the laboratory-made iodide electrode (vs. a saturated calomel reference electrode was extended to the determination of iodine in commercial iodized salts. In all the iodine assays, the iodate-iodized salt was initially treated with acid and an excess of iodide before titration against Na2S2O3 solution. The iodine content in table salts iodized with iodide was determined by direct potentiometry. The electrode was further used for vitamin C (ascorbic acid determinations in pharmaceutical tablets and orange juice by back titrating excess I3- against standard Na2S2O3 in acidic media. The overall outcome is that the iodide ISE can be used as sharp endpoint indicator for these titrimetric reactions in place of the well known official, but visually monitored, starch- triodide end-point reaction detection.

  18. Iodide uptake in human anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cells after transfer of the human thyroid peroxidase gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haberkom, U. [Clinical Cooperation Unit Nuclear Medicine, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany); Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Univ. of Heidelberg (Germany); Altmann, A.; Jiang, S.; Morr, I.; Mahmut, M. [Clinical Cooperation Unit Nuclear Medicine, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany); Eisenhut, M. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Univ. of Heidelberg (Germany)

    2001-05-01

    Human thyroperoxidase (hTPO) is critical for the accumulation of iodide in thyroid tissues. Poorly differentiated and anaplastic thyroid tumours which lack thyroid-specific gene expression fail to accumulate iodide and, therefore, do not respond to iodine-131 therapy. We consequently investigated whether transfer of the hTPO gene is sufficient to restore the iodide-trapping capacity in undifferentiated thyroid and non-thyroid tumour cells. The human anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cell lines C643 and SW1736, the rat Morris hepatoma cell line MH3924A and the rat papillary thyroid carcinoma cell line L2 were used as in vitro model systems. Employing a bicistronic retroviral vector based on the myeloproliferative sarcoma virus for the transfer of the hTPO and the neomycin resistance gene, the C643 cells and SW1736 cells were transfected while the L2 cells and MH3924A cells were infected with retroviral particles. Seven recombinant C643 and seven SW1736 cell lines as well as four recombinant L2 and four MH3924A cell lines were established by neomycin selection. They were studied for hTPO expression using an antibody-based luminescence kit, followed by determination of the enzyme activity in the guaiacol assay and of the iodide uptake capacity in the presence of Na{sup 125}I. Genetically modified cell lines expressed up to 1,800 times more hTPO as compared to wild type tumour cells. The level of hTPO expression varied significantly between individual neomycin-resistant cell lines, suggesting that the recombinant retroviral DNA was integrated at different sites of the cellular genome. The accumulation of iodide, however, was not significantly enhanced in individual recombinant cell lines, irrespective of low or high hTPO expression. Moreover, there was no correlation between hTPO expression and enzyme activity in individual cell lines. The transduction of the hTPO gene per se is not sufficient to restore iodide trapping in non-iodide-concentrating tumour cells. Future

  19. Development of W/O Microemulsion for Transdermal Delivery of Iodide Ions

    OpenAIRE

    Lou, Hao; Qiu, Ni; Crill, Catherine; Helms, Richard; Almoazen, Hassan

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a water-in-oil (w/o) microemulsion which can be utilized as a transdermal delivery for iodide ions. Several w/o microemulsion formulations were prepared utilizing Span 20, ethanol, Capryol 90®, and water. The selected formulations had 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, and a maximum of 23% w/w water content. Potassium iodide (KI) was incorporated in all formulations at 5% w/v. Physicochemical characterizations were conducted to evaluate the structure and stability. ...

  20. All-Solid-State Iodide Selective Electrode for Iodimetry of Iodized Salts and Vitamin C

    OpenAIRE

    TIRUWORK MEQUANINT; GHIRMA MOGES; MERID TESSMA; SOLOMON MEHRETU

    2012-01-01

    A laboratory-made all-solid state iodide selective electrode, with Ag2S-AgI coated on a graphite rod recovered from dry cell battery, was prepared according to previous procedures. The electrode’s linear response to iodide was in the concentration range of 10-6 M to 10-1 M with a slope of 56.85 mV/decade and a detection limit of 6×10-7M. Iodate recovery test for laboratory formulated iodate-iodized salt was found to be 98.6 % with a standard deviation of 1.14%. The titratability of the iodize...

  1. Tris(1,2-dimethoxyethane-κ2O,O′iodidocalcium iodide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siou-Wei Ou

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In the title complex, [CaI(C4H10O23]I, the CaII atom is seven-coordinated by six O atoms from three 1,2-dimethoxyethane (DME ligands and one iodide anion in a distorted pentagonal–bipyramidal geometry. The I atom and one of the O atoms from a DME ligand lie in the axial positions while the other O atoms lie in the basal plane. The other iodide anion is outside the complex cation.

  2. Glycosylation of Sodium/Iodide Symporter (NIS) Regulates Its Membrane Translocation and Radioiodine Uptake

    OpenAIRE

    Taemoon Chung; Hyewon Youn; Chan Joo Yeom; Keon Wook Kang; June-Key Chung

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Human sodium/iodide symporter (hNIS) protein is a membrane glycoprotein that transports iodide ions into thyroid cells. The function of this membrane protein is closely regulated by post-translational glycosylation. In this study, we measured glycosylation-mediated changes in subcellular location of hNIS and its function of iodine uptake. Methods HeLa cells were stably transfected with hNIS/tdTomato fusion gene in order to monitor the expression of hNIS. Cellular localization of hNIS ...

  3. Production and some properties of Si3N4 reinforced aluminium alloy composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pardeep Sharma

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The present research work focuses on the production of aluminium (AA6082-T6 matrix composites reinforced with various weight percentage of silicon nitride particles by conventional stir casting route. The percentage of reinforcement is varied from 0 wt.% to 12 wt.% in a stage of 3%. The microstructures and mechanical properties of the fabricated aluminium matrix composites are investigated. The scanning electron microstructure images reveal the presence of Si3N4 particles in the aluminium matrix. The distribution of Si3N4 particles has also been recognized with X-ray diffraction technique. The mechanical properties such as ultimate tensile strength and hardness have improved at the cost of reduction in ductility with increase in weight percentage of silicon nitride particulates in the aluminium metal matrix. The density and porosity of the composites also show an increasing trend with increase in volume fraction of Si3N4 particles in the aluminium matrix.

  4. Simultaneous determination of aluminium and beryllium by first-derivative synchronous solid-phase spectrofluorimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capitán, F; Manzano, E; Navalón, A; Luis Vilchez, J; Capitán-Vallvey, L F

    1992-01-01

    A method for the simultaneous determination of aluminium and beryllium in mixtures by first-deravative synchronous solid-phase spectrofluorimetry has been developed. Aluminium and beryllium reacted with morin to give fluorescent complexes, which were fixed on a dextran-type resin. The fluoresnce of the resin, packed in a 1-mm silica cell, was measured directly with a solid-surface attachment. The constant wavelength difference chosen to optimize the determination was Deltalambda = lambda(em) = 75 nm. Aluminium was measured at lambda(em)lambda = 445/520 nm and beryllium at lambda(em)lambda(em) = 430/505 nm. The range of application is between 0.5 and 5.0 ng/ml for both aluminium and beryllium. The accuracy and precision of the method are reported. The method has been successfully applied to the determination of aluminium and beryllium in synthetic mixtures and natural waters.

  5. Experimental Study on the Shock Absorption Performance of Combined Aluminium Honeycombs under Impact Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Cao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Shock absorption characteristics of combined aluminium honeycomb structures were studied experimentally. In the experiments, a testing platform was design to compare the shock absorption level of different honeycomb specimens quantitatively. The shock response curves of six test points mounted on the platform were recorded with acceleration sensors when the buffer was impacted by a bullet driven by high pressure gas. The maximum acceleration values in time domain and in specifically spectral domain were obtained based on spectral analysis. Comparing the data of combined aluminium honeycomb buffer and single aluminium honeycomb buffer, conclusion can be obtained that shock absorbing characteristic of combined aluminium honeycomb buffer is better. Furthermore, compression properties of three kinds of buffers were tested under quasi-static state. The energy absorption parameters were calculated. The results show suitable combined aluminium honeycomb buffer can smooth the stress and lower the energy applied to the testing platform.

  6. Low-temperature Electrodeposition of Aluminium from Lewis Acidic 1-Allyl-3-methylimidazolium Chloroaluminate Ionic Liquids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑勇; 张锁江; 吕兴梅; 王倩; 左勇; 刘恋

    2012-01-01

    Lewis acidic 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium chloroaluminate ionic liquids were used as promising electrolytes in the low-temperature electrodeposition of aluminium. Systematic studies on deposition process have been performed by cYClic voltammetry and chronoamperometry. The surface morphology and X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns of deposits prepared at different experimental conditions were also investigated. It was shown that the nucleation density and growth rate of crystallites had a great effect on the structure of aluminium deposited. The crys- tallographic orientation of deposits was mainly influenced by temperature and current density. Smooth, dense and well adherent aluminium coatings were obtained on copper substrates at 10-25 mA.cm^-2 and 313.2-353.2 K. More- over, the current efficiency of deposition and purity of aluminium have been significantly improved, demonstrating that the ionic liquids tested have a prospectful potential in electroplating and electrorefining of aluminium.

  7. Slowdown of the Aluminium Capacity Expansions in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正> According to a senior advisor to the ChinaNonferrous Metals Techno-Economic ResearchInstitute,the Chinese Government’s efforts onthe control over the rapid development of thealuminium industry have showed their effectswith some aluminium smelters closing down in2004 and more will follow suit in 2005.According to the advisor,although China’saluminium production scale is still rather large,the central government’s efforts made on themuch heated development of the aluminiumindustry have effectively prevented it from fur-ther growing.He believes that the primary

  8. Persistent Skin Reactions and Aluminium Hypersensitivity Induced by Childhood Vaccines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salik, Elaha; Løvik, Ida; Andersen, Klaus E

    2016-01-01

    period 2003 to 2013 we identified 47 children with persistent skin reactions caused by childhood vaccinations. Most patients had a typical presentation of persisting pruritic subcutaneous nodules. Five children had a complex diagnostic process involving paediatricians, orthopaedics and plastic surgeons......There is increasing awareness of reactions to vaccination that include persistent skin reactions. We present here a retrospective investigation of long-lasting skin reactions and aluminium hypersensitivity in children, based on medical records and questionnaires sent to the parents. In the 10-year...... treated with potent topical corticosteroids and disappeared slowly. Although we advised families to continue vaccination of their children, one-third of parents omitted or postponed further vaccinations....

  9. Design considerations for HFQ® hot stamped aluminium structural panels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foster Alistair

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available HFQ is a deep drawing process for alloyed aluminium sheet that can be used to produce complex-stamped forms while maintaining the high-strength of 6xxx and 7xxx alloys. By adopting a strategy to design for HFQ at the platform level, designers can reduce part count (thereby reducing cost and weight, reduce gauge (thereby reducing weight, and improve part packaging. Two simple design examples are given to assist designers in evolving traditionally formed panel designs to HFQ formed solutions. Example features are used to illustrate the effect of geometry, thickness and strength on the final structural component.

  10. Spectrum Simulation of Li-Like Aluminium Plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Feng; JIANG Gang; ZHU Zheng-He

    2006-01-01

    X-ray emission spectra for L-shell of Li-like aluminium ions are simulated by using the flexible atomic code based on the collisional radiative model. Atomic processes including radiative recombination, dielectronic recombination, collisional ionization and resonance excitation from the neighbouring ion (Al9+ and Al11+) charge states of the target ion (Al10+) are considered in the model. In addition, the contributions of different atomic processes to the x-ray spectrum are analysed. The results show that dielectronic recombination, radiative recombination, collisional ionization and resonance excitation, other than direct collisional excitation, are very important processes.

  11. The Adsorption of NOx on Magnesium Aluminium Hydrotalcite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhe Ming NI; Wei Hua YU; Shao Fen ZHAO; Zhong Hua GE

    2004-01-01

    Magnesium aluminium hydrotalcite (Mg-Al-HT) with molar ratio of Mg-to-Al of 3 to 1 was prepared and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and infrared spectra (IR).The performances of Mg-Al-HT for the adsorption and desorption of NOx were studied.The results indicated that the adsorption capacity of the hydrotalcite for NOx was 1398.2 mg/g, and it was higher than the acticarbon's.The adsorption capacities depended on adsorption time and temperature.Mg-Al-HT could be regenerated by thermal decomposition, and the adsorption efficiency had not changed markedly after three cycles.

  12. Physical model of aluminium refining process in URC-7000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Saternus

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents short characteristics of the most frequently used reactors for the continuous refining of aluminium and its alloys. Refining depends on the flow rate of refining gas. It influences the shape and size of gas bubbles. So the physical model was created to determine the level of gas bubble dispersion in liquids. Schemes of gas dispersion in liquid metal were presented taking into consideration that the gas flow rate is changing from 2 to 30 dm3/min. The range selection of the flow rate of refining gas value for five patterns of the dispersion (no dispersion, minimum, intimate, uniform and overdispersion was also done.

  13. Optically Designed Anodised Aluminium Surfaces: Microstructural and Electrochemical Aspects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudla, Visweswara Chakravarthy

    under high frequency anodising, highly reflecting, bright and glossy white anodised aluminium surfaces were generated for the first time. Further, these white anodised surfaces were conventionally dyed to generate new appearances based on pastel colours. The work presented in this thesis is mainly......-13). The outcome of the work is presented in the last chapter (Chapter 15). The results from white anodising of the Al surfaces, which is the primary goal of this thesis and also the generation of a new set of pastel coloured anodised surfaces is presented. The optical characterization of these white anodised...

  14. The effect of atmospheric corona treatment on AA1050 aluminium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jariyaboon, Manthana; Møller, Per; Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.

    2010-01-01

    The effect of atmospheric corona discharge on AM 050 aluminium surface was investigated using electrochemical polarization, SEM-EDX, FIB-SEM. and XPS. The corona treatment was performed with varying time (1, 5, and 15 min) in atmospheric air. A 200 nm oxide layer was generated on AA1050 after...... the 15 min air corona treatment. A significant reduction in anodic and cathodic reactivities was observed starting from 1 min exposure, which further decreased with prolonged exposure (15 min) and after delayed testing (after 30 days). The reduction in surface reactivity is due to the formation...

  15. Large aluminium wire spark chambers with magnetostrictive read-out

    CERN Document Server

    Bradamante, Franco; Daum, C; Dechelette, Paul; Fidecaro, Giuseppe; Fidecaro, Maria; Giorgi, M; Penzo, Aldo L; Piemontese, L; Renevey, Max; Schiavon, Paolo; Vascotto, Alessandro

    1974-01-01

    A set of 1 cm gap wire spark chambers with a sensitive surface of 300 * 100 cm/sup 2/ was constructed for an experiment at the CERN proton synchrotron. The Coulomb scattering was limited by using aluminium wires and by adopting a crossed-wire configuration, which allowed us to minimize the number of chambers for a given number of pairs of coordinates. The wire planes were pulsed by feeding the high voltage from strip-lines along the whole boundary of the chambers. (7 refs).

  16. Foaming of aluminium-silicon alloy using concentrated solar energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cambronero, L.E.G.; Ruiz-Roman, J.M. [Grupo de Materiales Hibridos, ETSIM-UPM, Madrid, Rios Rosas 21, 28003 Madrid (Spain); Canadas, I.; Martinez, D. [Plataforma Solar de Almeria, CIEMAT, P.O. Box 22, 04200 Tabernas (Almeria) (Spain)

    2010-06-15

    Solar energy is used for the work reported here as a nonconventional heating system to produce aluminium foam from Al-Si alloy precursors produced by powder metallurgy. A commercial precursor in cylindrical bars enclosed in a stainless-steel mould was heated under concentrated solar radiation in a solar furnace with varied heating conditions (heating rate, time, and temperature). Concentrated solar energy close to 300 W/cm{sup 2} on the mould is high enough to achieve complete foaming after heating for only 200 s. Under these conditions, the density and pore distribution in the foam change depending on the solar heating parameters and mould design. (author)

  17. Skin telangiectasia in workers of an aluminium processing plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balić, J; Kansky, A

    1988-01-01

    Telangiectases were detected in 57 (46.7%) of 122 workers employed at the electrolysis department of the aluminium plant Lozovac/Sibenik, Yugoslavia. Of 116 workers employed in the smeltery of the same plant, telangiectases were observed in 19 persons (16.4%) and in a group of 121 public transportation workers from Sibenik 15 men (12.4%) displayed enlarged blood vessels. Statistical evaluation revealed the difference in number between workers showing telangiectases engaged in electrolysis and the other two samples to be significant. It may be assumed that telangiectases were caused by hydrogen fluoride and other fluorides. Further clinical parameters, as well as working conditions, are reviewed.

  18. Release Behaviour of Shock Loaded LY12 Aluminium Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Min; DAI Lan-Hong; SHEN Le-Tian

    2005-01-01

    @@ By making use of a light gas gun, a specially designed target is impacted by the LY12 flyer, and the pressure is taken in the range of 0.6-3 GPa. Based on the stress profiles measured in the buffer materials by manganese gauges, the Hugoniot curve and release curves of LY12 aluminium alloy are obtained. Meanwhile, the release curves from different initial shocked states are described in both the pressure-particle velocity plane and the pressure-specific volume plane.

  19. Role of acidic chemistries in steam treatment of aluminium alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Din, Rameez Ud; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl; Ambat, Rajan

    2015-01-01

    The effect of acidic chemistry on the accelerated growth of oxide on aluminium alloys Peraluman 706TM and AA6060 under exposure to high temperature steam was investigated. Studied chemistries were based on citrates and phosphates. Results showed that the presence of citrate and phosphate anions...... initiate doxide growth at the intermetallic particles while growth and corrosion performance of oxide was found tobe a function of anions type and their concentration. Further, steam treatment with phosphates exhibited better performance under acetic acid salt spray and filiform corrosion test whereas...

  20. Characterisation of austempered spheroidal graphite aluminium cast iron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boutorabi, S.M.A. [Iran Univ. of Science and Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Metallurgy and Materials

    1997-06-01

    The micro constituents of austempered spheroidal graphite aluminium cast iron were investigated. The heat tinting, special etching and microhardness measurement techniques were used. The results showed that the colour of each micro constituents and the hardness values in austempered ductile iron depend on the carbon content of each phase. The above techniques were supported by using an special etching which showed similar differences in each phase. It was shown that the heat tinting and special etching are reliable tools to characterise the complex matrix of ADI. The microhardness data supported interestingly the colour changes in above technique. (orig.)

  1. The fracture of boron fibre-reinforced 6061 aluminium alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, M. A.; Welch, D.; Jollay, J.

    1979-01-01

    The fracture of 6061 aluminium alloy reinforced with unidirectional and cross-plied 0/90 deg, 0/90/+ or - 45 deg boron fibres has been investigated. The results have been described in terms of a critical stress intensity, K(Q). Critical stress intensity factors were obtained by substituting the failure stress and the initial crack length into the appropriate expression for K(Q). Values were obtained that depended on the dimensions of the specimens. It was therefore concluded that, for the size of specimen tested, the values of K(Q) did not reflect any basic materials property.

  2. Wear characteristics of a rheocast leaded aluminium metal - metal composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garg, R. (Roorkee Univ. (India). Dept. of Metallurgical Engineering); Mohan, S. (Banaras Hindu Univ., Varanasi (India). Dept. of Metallurgical Engineering); Agarwala, V. (Roorkee Univ. (India). Dept. of Metallurgical Engineering); Agarwala, R.C. (Roorkee Univ. (India). Dept. of Metallurgical Engineering)

    1993-10-01

    In Al-Pb alloys, boundary lubrication is provided by lead but the matrix with pure aluminium does not provide adequate strength at high loads and high sliding velocities. So in the present investigation an Al-Cu-Si alloy has been taken as the base material and lead has been incorporated by the rheocasting technique. Wear characteristics of the alloy have been investigated at different loads, sliding velocities and sliding distances. Bulk wear has been observed to increase almost linearly with applied load and sliding velocity, but with sliding distance the bulk wear shows a short period of running-in followed by a long steady-state wear. (orig.)

  3. Outstanding inhibitive effect of colchicine on aluminium alloy 6061 corrosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mudigere Krishnegowda Pavithra

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The corrosion protection ability of colchicine (CC on Aluminium alloy 6061 (AA6061 in 3.5% NaCl medium was examined by potentiodynamic polarization, electrochemical impedance, and chronoamperometric techniques. About 99 % of protection efficiency was achieved by 2 mM concentration of CC in 3.5% NaCl solution.The adsorption of CC on AA6061 surface obeys Langmuir isotherm by following both physisorption and chemisorption mechanism. Variation in the surface morphology of inhibited and uninhibited metal samples was examined by scanning electron microscopy. 

  4. Studying Equilibrium in the Chemical Reaction between Ferric and Iodide Ions in Solution Using a Simple and Inexpensive Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaychuk, Pavel Anatolyevich; Kuvaeva, Alyona Olegovna

    2016-01-01

    A laboratory experiment on the study of the chemical equilibrium based on the reaction between ferric and iodide ions in solution with the formation of ferrous ions, free iodine, and triiodide ions is developed. The total concentration of iodide and triiodide ions in the reaction mixture during the reaction is determined by the argentometric…

  5. Efficiency enhancement in dye sensitized solar cells using gel polymer electrolytes based on a tetrahexylammonium iodide and MgI2 binary iodide system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandara, T M W J; Dissanayake, M A K L; Jayasundara, W J M J S R; Albinsson, I; Mellander, B-E

    2012-06-28

    Quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells have drawn the attention of scientists and technologists as a potential candidate to supplement future energy needs. The conduction of iodide ions in quasi-solid-state polymer electrolytes and the performance of dye sensitized solar cells containing such electrolytes can be enhanced by incorporating iodides having appropriate cations. Gel-type electrolytes, based on PAN host polymers and mixture of salts tetrahexylammonium iodide (Hex4N(+)I(-)) and MgI2, were prepared by incorporating ethylene carbonate and propylene carbonate as plasticizers. The salt composition in the binary mixture was varied in order to optimize the performance of solar cells. The electrolyte containing 120% Hex4N(+)I(-) with respect to weight of PAN and without MgI2 showed the highest conductivity out of the compositions studied, 2.5 × 10(-3) S cm(-1) at 25 °C, and a glass transition at -102.4 °C. However, the electrolyte containing 100% Hex4N(+)I(-) and 20% MgI2 showed the best solar cell performance highlighting the influence of the cation on the performance of the cell. The predominantly ionic behaviour of the electrolytes was established from the dc polarization data and all the electrolytes exhibit iodide ion transport. Seven different solar cells were fabricated employing different electrolyte compositions. The best cell using the electrolyte with 100% Hex4N(+)I(-) and 20% MgI2 with respect to PAN weight showed 3.5% energy conversion efficiency and 8.6 mA cm(-2) short circuit current density.

  6. A 3D printed superconducting aluminium microwave cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creedon, Daniel L.; Goryachev, Maxim; Kostylev, Nikita; Sercombe, Timothy B.; Tobar, Michael E.

    2016-07-01

    3D printing of plastics, ceramics, and metals has existed for several decades and has revolutionized many areas of manufacturing and science. Printing of metals, in particular, has found a number of applications in fields as diverse as customized medical implants, jet engine bearings, and rapid prototyping in the automotive industry. Although many techniques are used for 3D printing metals, they commonly rely on computer controlled melting or sintering of a metal alloy powder using a laser or electron beam. The mechanical properties of parts produced in such a way have been well studied, but little attention has been paid to their electrical properties. Here we show that a microwave cavity (resonant frequencies 9.9 and 11.2 GHz) 3D printed using an Al-12Si alloy exhibits superconductivity when cooled below the critical temperature of aluminium (1.2 K), with a performance comparable with the common 6061 alloy of aluminium. Superconducting cavities find application in numerous areas of physics, from particle accelerators to cavity quantum electrodynamics experiments. The result is achieved even with a very large concentration of non-superconducting silicon in the alloy of 12.18%, compared with Al-6061, which has between 0.4% and 0.8%. Our results may pave the way for the possibility of 3D printing superconducting cavity configurations that are otherwise impossible to machine.

  7. A 3D Printed Superconducting Aluminium Microwave Cavity

    CERN Document Server

    Creedon, Daniel L; Kostylev, Nikita; Sercombe, Tim; Tobar, Michael E

    2016-01-01

    3D printing of plastics, ceramics, and metals has existed for several decades and has revolutionized many areas of manufacturing and science. Printing of metals in particular has found a number of novel applications in fields as diverse as customized medical implants, jet engine bearings, and rapid prototyping in the automotive industry. Whilst many techniques can be used for 3D printing metals, they commonly rely on computer controlled melting or sintering of a metal alloy powder using a laser or electron beam. The mechanical properties of parts produced in such a way have been well studied, but little attention has been paid to their electrical properties. Here we show that a resonant microwave cavity 3D printed using an Al-12Si alloy exhibits superconductivity when cooled below the critical temperature of aluminium (1.2 K), with a performance comparable to the common 6061 alloy of aluminium. Superconducting cavities find application in numerous areas of physics, from particle accelerators to cavity quantum...

  8. Experimental study of aluminium honeycomb behaviour under dynamic multiaxial loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markiewicz E.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar system (SHPB with large-diameter and Nylon bars introducing a shear-compression loading device is used in order to investigate the dynamic behaviour of aluminium honeycomb under multiaxial loadings conditions. All shear-compression configurations including the loading angle variation from 0∘ to 60∘ are performed with an impact velocity of about 15m/s. The adapted SHPB system with the device are validated numerically and a phenomenon of separation between the input bar and the input beveled bar is observed. Numerical results suggest that this phenomenon provides a cutting of the reflected wave. An electro optical extensometer is employed in experiments. A good agreement between the numerical elastic waves and the experimental ones is obtained. Experimental results show a significant effect of the loading angle on the apparent stress-strain curves. The initial peak value and the plateau stress decrease with the increase of the loading angle. The combined shear-compression device with an enhancement at the alignment set-up provides efficient results for samples dynamically loaded. This device will be used to investigate the influence of the in-plane orientation angle on the deformation mechanisms and multiaxial behaviour of aluminium honeycomb under dynamic and quasi-static loading conditions.

  9. Aluminium-oxide wires for superconducting high kinetic inductance circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotzinger, H.; Skacel, S. T.; Pfirrmann, M.; Voss, J. N.; Münzberg, J.; Probst, S.; Bushev, P.; Weides, M. P.; Ustinov, A. V.; Mooij, J. E.

    2017-02-01

    We investigate thin films of conducting aluminium-oxide, also known as granular aluminium, as a material for superconducting high quality, high kinetic inductance circuits. The films are deposited by an optimised reactive DC magnetron sputter process and characterised using microwave measurement techniques at milli-Kelvin temperatures. We show that, by precise control of the reactive sputter conditions, a high room temperature sheet resistance and therefore high kinetic inductance at low temperatures can be obtained. For a coplanar waveguide resonator with 1.5 kΩ sheet resistance and a kinetic inductance fraction close to unity, we measure a quality factor in the order of 700 000 at 20 mK. Furthermore, we observe a sheet resistance reduction by gentle heat treatment in air. This behaviour is exploited to study the kinetic inductance change using the microwave response of a coplanar wave guide resonator. We find the correlation between the kinetic inductance and the sheet resistance to be in good agreement with theoretical expectations.

  10. Controlling interferometric properties of nanoporous anodic aluminium oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumeria, Tushar; Losic, Dusan

    2012-01-26

    A study of reflective interference spectroscopy [RIfS] properties of nanoporous anodic aluminium oxide [AAO] with the aim to develop a reliable substrate for label-free optical biosensing is presented. The influence of structural parameters of AAO including pore diameters, inter-pore distance, pore length, and surface modification by deposition of Au, Ag, Cr, Pt, Ni, and TiO2 on the RIfS signal (Fabry-Perot fringe) was explored. AAO with controlled pore dimensions was prepared by electrochemical anodization of aluminium using 0.3 M oxalic acid at different voltages (30 to 70 V) and anodization times (10 to 60 min). Results show the strong influence of pore structures and surface modifications on the interference signal and indicate the importance of optimisation of AAO pore structures for RIfS sensing. The pore length/pore diameter aspect ratio of AAO was identified as a suitable parameter to tune interferometric properties of AAO. Finally, the application of AAO with optimised pore structures for sensing of a surface binding reaction of alkanethiols (mercaptoundecanoic acid) on gold surface is demonstrated.

  11. Geopolymerisation of fly ashes with waste aluminium anodising etching solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogundiran, M B; Nugteren, H W; Witkamp, G J

    2016-10-01

    Combined management of coal combustion fly ash and waste aluminium anodising etching solutions using geopolymerisation presents economic and environmental benefits. The possibility of using waste aluminium anodising etching solution (AES) as activator to produce fly ash geopolymers in place of the commonly used silicate solutions was explored in this study. Geopolymerisation capacities of five European fly ashes with AES and the leaching of elements from their corresponding geopolymers were studied. Conventional commercial potassium silicate activator-based geopolymers were used as a reference. The geopolymers produced were subjected to physical, mechanical and leaching tests. The leaching of elements was tested on 28 days cured and crushed geopolymers using NEN 12457-4, NEN 7375, SPLP and TCLP leaching tests. After 28 days ambient curing, the geopolymers based on the etching solution activator showed compressive strength values between 51 and 84 MPa, whereas the commercial potassium silicate based geopolymers gave compressive strength values between 89 and 115 MPa. Based on the regulatory limits currently associated with the used leaching tests, all except one of the produced geopolymers (with above threshold leaching of As and Se) passed the recommended limits. The AES-geopolymer geopolymers demonstrated excellent compressive strength, although less than geopolymers made from commercial activator. Additionally, they demonstrated low element leaching potentials and therefore can be suitable for use in construction works.

  12. Cancellous bone homograft storage with aluminium-polyethylene bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meana, A; Martinez, R; Cañal, P; Arriaga, M J; Román, F San; Llames, S; Orós, C; Moreno, A; Fernandez, C

    2006-01-01

    In order to transport and cryopreserve human tissues, it is essential to have an easy-to-use recipient where tissues can be kept in sterile conditions. Here we show the results obtained by using Macopharma's tissue freezing bags, an aluminium-polyethylene multilayer bag, in our tissue bank of the Centro Comunitario de Sangre y Tejidos de Asturias. Five hundred and twenty-seven cancellous bone homografts were obtained from hospitals located 120 km around our Bank. The homografts were submitted to bacteriological controls and sent to our bank in these bags. They were stored at -70 degrees C and sent in dry ice to about 50 hospitals, where the tissue was bacteriologically controlled and grafted. Furthermore, the behaviour of these bags at -140 degrees C (vapour nitrogen) or -196 degrees C (liquid nitrogen) was tested. Our results indicate that Macopharma aluminium-polyethylene bags are suitable for the transporting and cryopreserving of cancellous bone homografts. These bags could also be used for keeping tissues in nitrogen containers.

  13. Aluminium surface treatment with ceramic phases using diode laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labisz, K.; Tański, T.; Brytan, Z.; Pakieła, W.; Wiśniowski, M.

    2016-07-01

    Ceramic particles powder feeding into surface layer of engineering metal alloy is a well-known and widely used technique. New approach into the topic is to obtain finely distributed nano-sized particles involved in the aluminium matrix using the traditional laser technology. In this paper are presented results of microstructure investigation of cast aluminium-silicon-copper alloys surface layer after heat treatment and alloying with ceramic carbides of WC and ZrO2 using high-power diode laser. The surface layer was specially prepared for the reason of reducing the reflectivity, which is the main problem in the up-to-date metal matrix composites production. With scanning electron microscopy, it was possible to determine the deformation process and distribution of WC and ZrO2 ceramic powder phase. Structure of the surface after laser treatment changes, revealing three zones—remelting zone, heat-affected zone and transition zone placed over the Al substrate. The structural changes of ceramic powder, its distribution and morphology as well as microstructure of the matrix material influence on functional properties, especially wear resistance and hardness of the achieved layer, were investigated.

  14. Downscaled anodic oxidation process for aluminium in oxalic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieber, M.; Morgenstern, R.; Kuhn, D.; Hackert-Oschätzchen, M.; Schubert, A.; Lampke, T.

    2017-03-01

    The increasing multi-functionality of parts and assemblies in several fields of engineering demands, amongst others, highly functionalised surfaces. For the different applications, on the one hand, there is a need to scale up surface modification processes originating in the nano- and micro-scale. On the other hand, conventional macro-scale surface refinement methods offer a huge potential for application in the said nano- and micro-scale. The anodic oxidation process, which is established especially for aluminium and its alloys, allows the formation of oxide ceramic layers on the surface. The build-up of an oxide ceramic coating comes along with altered chemical, tribological and electrical surface properties. As a basis for further investigations regarding the use of the anodic oxidation process for micro-scale-manufacturing, the scale effects of oxalic acid anodising on commercially pure aluminium as well as on the AlZn5.5MgCu alloy are addressed in the present work. The focus is on the amount of oxide formed during a potentiostatic process in relation to the exchanged amount of charge. Further, the hardness of the coating as an integral measure to assess the porous oxide structure is approached by nano-indentation technique.

  15. Experimental study of friction in aluminium bolted joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croccolo, D.; de Agostinis, M.; Vincenzi, N.

    2010-06-01

    This study aims at developing an experimental tool useful to define accurately the friction coefficients in bolted joints and, therefore, at relating precisely the tightening torque to the bolt preloading force in some special components used in front motorbike suspensions. The components under investigation are some clamped joints made of aluminium alloy. The preloading force is achieved by applying a torque wrench to the bolt head. Some specific specimens have been appropriately designed and realized in order to study the tribological aspects of the tightening phase. Experimental tests have been performed by applying the Design of Experiment (DOE) method in order to obtain a mathematical model for the friction coefficients. Three replicas of a full factorial DOE at two levels for each variable have been carried out. The levels include cast versus forged aluminium alloy, anodized versus spray-painted surface, lubricated versus unlubricated screw, and first tightening (fresh unspoiled surfaces) versus sixth tightening (spoiled surfaces). The study considers M8x1.25 8.8 galvanized screws.

  16. Iodide-induced thyrotoxicosis in a thyroidectomized patient with metastatic thyroid carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshinari, M.; Tokuyama, T.; Okamura, K.; Sato, K.; Kusuda, K.; Fujishima, M.

    1988-04-15

    An unusual case of iodide-induced thyrotoxicosis is documented in this article. The patient was a 64-year-old euthyroid man with acromegaly. He also had multiple follicular and papillary thyroid carcinomas with a metastatic lesion in the lumbar vertebrae. After a total thyroidectomy, he became slightly hypothyroid, and the lumbar lesion began to incorporate /sup 131/I by scintigraphy. When an iodine-containing contrast medium happened to be injected, a transient increase of serum thyroid hormone level was observed. After complete thyroid ablation with 83 mCi of /sup 131/I, the oral administration of 100 mg of potassium iodide for 7 days induced a prominent increase of serum thyroid hormone level. These findings indicated that the metastatic thyroid carcinoma could produce excess thyroid hormone insofar as a sufficient amount of iodide was given. Although this is the first report of such a case, iodide-induced thyrotoxicosis may not be rare in patients with thyroid carcinomas because the Wolff-Chaikoff effect is thought to be lost, and the organic iodinating activity and lysosomal protease activity are well-preserved.

  17. Leaching of iodide (I(-)) and iodate (IO3(-)) anions from synthetic layered double hydroxide materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theiss, Frederick L; Ayoko, Godwin A; Frost, Ray L

    2016-09-15

    Several studies have previously demonstrated that layered double hydroxides (LDHs) show considerable potential for the adsorption of radioiodine from aqueous solution; however, few studies have demonstrated that these materials are able to store radioactive (131)I for an acceptable period. The leaching of iodide (I(-)) and iodate (IO3(-)) form Mg/Al LDHs has been carried out. Contact time appeared to be a more significant variable for the leaching of iodate (IO3(-)) compared to that of iodide (I(-)). Experimental results are fitted to the pseudo second order model, suggesting that diffusion is likely to be the rate-limiting step. The presence of carbonate in the leaching solution appeared to significantly increase the leaching of iodide (I(-)) as did the presence of chloride to a lesser extent. The maximum amount of iodate (IO3(-)) leached using ultrapure water as the leaching solution was 21% of the iodate (IO3(-)) originally present. The corresponding result for iodide (I(-)) was even lower at 3%.

  18. Photodissociation of sodium iodide and resonant ionization of sodium atom produced

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUO Bing-hai; Z.T.Salim; A.H.Bakery

    2004-01-01

    Resonant ionization spectroscopy (RIS) and resonant ionization mass spectroscopy (RIMS) are employed to detect the photodissociation product of sodium iodide molecules in a molecular beam in an intense laser field in the absence of the buffer gases. Time of flight mass spectra is recorded. In particular, the appearances of multiphoton ionization are discussed.

  19. Preparation and Luminescence Thermochromism of Tetranuclear Copper(I)-Pyridine-Iodide Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmeggiani, Fabio; Sacchetti, Alessandro

    2012-01-01

    A simple and straightforward synthesis of a tetranuclear copper(I)-pyridine-iodide cluster is described as a laboratory experiment for advanced inorganic chemistry undergraduate students. The product is used to demonstrate the fascinating and visually impressive phenomenon of luminescence thermochromism: exposed to long-wave UV light, the…

  20. The sodium iodide symporter (NIS) and potential regulators in normal, benign and malignant human breast tissue.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ryan, James

    2011-01-01

    The presence, relevance and regulation of the Sodium Iodide Symporter (NIS) in human mammary tissue remains poorly understood. This study aimed to quantify relative expression of NIS and putative regulators in human breast tissue, with relationships observed further investigated in vitro.

  1. Research data supporting "Photon recycling in lead-iodide perovskite solar cells"

    OpenAIRE

    Pazos-Outón, Luis M.; Szumilo, Monika; Lamboll, Robin; Richter, Johannes M.; Crespo-Quesada, Micaela; Abdi - Jalebi, Mojtaba; Beeson, Harry J.; Vrucinic, Milan; Alsari, Mejd; Snaith, Henry J.; Ehrler, Bruno; Friend, Richard H.; Deschler, Felix

    2016-01-01

    Data for the figures presented in the manuscript. These research data support “Photon recycling in lead-iodide perovskite solar cells” published in “Science” (http://dx.doi.org./10.1126/science.aaf1168) This work was supported by the EPSRC [grant number EP/M005143/1] and Winton Programme for the Physics of Sustainability.

  2. Real-Time Observation of Organic Cation Reorientation in Methylammonium Lead Iodide Perovskites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakulin, Artem A.; Selig, Oleg; Bakker, Huib J.; Rezus, Yves L. A.; Mueller, Christian; Glaser, Tobias; Lovrincic, Robert; Sun, Zhenhua; Chen, Zhuoying; Walsh, Aron; Frost, Jarvist M.; Jansen, Thomas L. C.

    2015-01-01

    The introduction of a mobile and polarized organic moiety as a cation in 3D lead-iodide perovskites brings fascinating optoelectronic properties to these materials. The extent and the time scales of the orientational mobility of the organic cation and the molecular mechanism behind its motion remain

  3. Multiple subcutaneous mycetomas caused by Pseudallescheria boydii: response to therapy with oral potassium iodide solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Fida A; Hashmi, Shahrukh; Sarwari, Arif R

    2010-02-01

    We describe the case of a sixteen-year-old male who presented with multiple subcutaneous mycetomas proven on culture to be secondary to Pseudallescheria boydi., The lesions responded completely to oral potassium iodide solution. To our knowledge this has never been reported in humans.

  4. Regioselective iodination of aromatic compounds with potassium iodide in the presence of benzyltriphenylphosphonium perchlorate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jalal Albadi; Masoumeh Abedini; Nasir Iravani

    2012-01-01

    A simple and efficient method for the selective iodination of various aromatic compounds by using potassium iodide in the presence of benzyltriphenylphosphonium perchlorate,is reported.This method provides several advantages such as good selectivity between ortho and para positions of aromatic compounds and high yields of the products.

  5. The Reaction between Iron(II) Iodide and Potassium Dichromate(VI) in Acidified Aqueous Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    This "Science note" teaching lesson explores the possible reaction between the ions in a reaction mixture consisting of iron(II) iodide and potassium dichromate(VI) in acidified aqueous solution. The electrode potentials will be used to deduce any spontaneous reactions under standard thermodynamic conditions (298 K, 1 bar (approximately…

  6. Relaxation of the Silver/Silver Iodide Electrode in Aqueous Solution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peverelli, K.J.

    1979-01-01

    The aim of this study is to detect and characterize relaxation processes on silver/silver iodide electrodes in aqueous electrolyte solution. The information obtained is to be used for an estimation of the consequences of similar processes on colloidal AgI particles during encounter.In chapter 1 a ge

  7. Activation of lactoperoxidase by heme-linked protonation and heme-independent iodide binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyama, Akira; Tominaga, Aya; Inoue, Tatsuo; Takeuchi, Hideo

    2010-01-01

    Lactoperoxidase (LPO), a mammalian secretory heme peroxidase, catalyzes the oxidation of thiocyanate by hydrogen peroxide to produce hypothiocyanate, an antibacterial agent. Although LPO is known to be activated at acidic pH and in the presence of iodide, the structural basis of the activation is not well understood. We have examined the effects of pH and iodide concentration on the catalytic activity and the structure of LPO. Electrochemical and colorimetric assays have shown that the catalytic activity is maximized at pH 4.5. The heme Soret absorption band exhibits a small red-shift at pH 5.0 upon acidification, which is ascribable to a structural transition from a neutral to an acidic form. Resonance Raman spectra suggest that the heme porphyrin core is slightly contracted and the Fe-His bond is strengthened in the acidic form compared to the neutral form. The structural change of LPO upon activation at acidic pH is similar to that observed for myeloperoxidase, another mammalian heme peroxidase, upon activation at neutral pH. Binding of iodide enhances the catalytic activity of LPO without affecting either the optimum pH of activity or the heme structure, implying that the iodide binding occurs at a protein site away from the heme-linked protonation site.

  8. Distribution of bromine in mixed iodide-bromide organolead perovskites and its impact on photovoltaic performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Yang; Wang, Feng; Fang, Hong-Hua; Loi, Maria Antonietta; Xie, Fang-Yan; Zhao, Ni; Wong, Ching-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Mixed iodide-bromide (I-Br) organolead perovskites are of great interest for both single junction and tandem solar cells since the optical bandgap of the materials can be tuned by varying the bromine to iodine ratio. Yet, it remains unclear how bromine incorporation modifies the properties of the pe

  9. Photoexcitation dynamics in solution-processed formamidinium lead iodide perovskite thin films for solar cell applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fang, Hong-Hua; Wang, Feng; Adjokatse, Sampson; Zhao, Ni; Even, Jacky; Loi, Maria Antonietta

    2016-01-01

    Formamidinium lead iodide (FAPbI(3)) is a newly developed hybrid perovskite that potentially can be used in high-efficiency solution-processed solar cells. Here, the temperature-dependent dynamic optical properties of three types of FAPbI(3) perovskite films (fabricated using three different precurs

  10. Experimental study on iodine chemistry (EXSI) - Containment experiments with methyl iodide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holm, J.; Ekberg, C. (Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden)); Kaerkelae, T.; Auvinen, A. (VTT, Espoo (Finland)); Glaenneskog, H. (Vattenfall Power Consultant, Goeteborg (Sweden))

    2011-05-15

    An experimental study on radiolytic decomposition of methyl iodide was conducted in co-operation between VTT and Chalmers University of Technology as a part of the NKS-R programs. In year 2008 the NROI project, a Nordic collaboration studying iodine chemistry in the containment, was started. During year 2008 (NROI-1) the radiolytic oxidation of elemental iodine was investigated and during 2009 (NROI-2), the radiolytic oxidation of organic iodine was studied. This project (NROI-3) is a continuation of the investigation of the oxidation of organic iodine. The project has been divided into two parts. 1. The aims of the first part were to investigate the effect of ozone and UV-radiation, in dry and humid conditions, on methyl iodide. 2. The second project was about gamma radiation (approx20 kGy/h) and methyl iodide in dry and humid conditions. 1. Experimental results showed that the methyl iodide concentration in the facility was reduced with increasing temperature and increasing UV-radiation intensity. Similar behaviour occurred when ozone was present in the system. Formed organic gas species during the decomposition of methyl iodide was mainly formaldehyde and methanol. The particle formation was instant and extensive when methyl iodide was exposed to ozone and/or radiation at all temperatures. The size of the formed primary particles was about 10 nm and the size of secondary particles was between 50-200 nm. From the SEM-EDX analyses of the particles, the conclusion was drawn that these were some kind of iodine oxides (I{sub xO{sub y}). However, the correct speciation of the formed particles was difficult to obtain because the particles melted and fused together under the electron beam. 2. The results from this sub-project are more inconsistent and hard to interpret. The particle formation was significant lesser than corresponding experiments when ozone/UV-radiation was used instead of gamma radiation. The transport of gaseous methyl iodide through the facility was

  11. Continuous flow analysis method for determination of soluble iron and aluminium in ice cores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spolaor, A; Vallelonga, P; Gabrieli, J; Roman, M; Barbante, C

    2013-01-01

    Iron and aluminium are the two most abundant metals on the Earth's crust, but they display quite different biogeochemical properties. While iron is essential to many biological processes, aluminium has not been found to have any biological function at all. In environmental studies, iron has been studied in detail for its limiting role in the bioproductivity of high nutrient, low carbon oceanic zones, while aluminium is routinely used as a reference of crustal contributions to atmospheric deposition archives including peat bogs, lacustrine and marine sediments and ice sheets and glaciers. We report here the development of a flow injection analysis technique, which has been optimised for the simultaneous determination of soluble iron and aluminium in polar ice cores. Iron was determined by its catalytic role in the reduction of N,N-dimethyl-p-phenylenediamene (DPD) to a semiquinonic form (DPDQ) and subsequent absorption spectroscopy at 514 nm. Aluminium was determined by spectroscopic analysis of an aluminium-lumogallion complex that exhibits fluorescence at 560 nm. These techniques have been applied to a section of Greenland ice dated to 1729-1733 AD and indicate that volcanism is a source of highly soluble aluminium and iron.

  12. Derivation of a water quality guideline for aluminium in marine waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golding, Lisa A; Angel, Brad M; Batley, Graeme E; Apte, Simon C; Krassoi, Rick; Doyle, Chris J

    2015-01-01

    Metal risk assessment of industrialized harbors and coastal marine waters requires the application of robust water quality guidelines to determine the likelihood of biological impacts. Currently there is no such guideline available for aluminium in marine waters. A water quality guideline of 24 µg total Al/L has been developed for aluminium in marine waters based on chronic 10% inhibition or effect concentrations (IC10 or EC10) and no-observed-effect concentrations (NOECs) from 11 species (2 literature values and 9 species tested including temperate and tropical species) representing 6 taxonomic groups. The 3 most sensitive species tested were a diatom Ceratoneis closterium (formerly Nitzschia closterium; IC10 = 18 µg Al/L, 72-h growth rate inhibition) aluminium forms of aluminate (Al(OH4 (-) ) and aluminium hydroxide (Al(OH)3 (0) ) although both dissolved, and particulate aluminium contributed to toxicity in the diatom Minutocellus polymorphus and green alga Dunaliella tertiolecta. In contrast, aluminium toxicity to the green flagellate alga Tetraselmis sp. was the result of particulate aluminium only. Four species, a brown macroalga (Hormosira banksii), sea urchin embryo (Heliocidaris tuberculata), and 2 juvenile fish species (Lates calcarifer and Acanthochromis polyacanthus), were not adversely affected at the highest test concentration used.

  13. Factors affecting the aluminium content of human femoral head and neck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zioła-Frankowska, Anetta; Dąbrowski, Mikołaj; Kubaszewski, Łukasz; Rogala, Piotr; Frankowski, Marcin

    2015-11-01

    Tissues for the study were obtained intraoperatively during hip replacement procedures from 96 patients. In all the cases, the indication for this treatment was primary or secondary degenerative changes in the hip joint. The subject of the study was the head and neck of the femur, resected in situ. Aluminium concentrations measured in femoral head and neck samples from patients aged between 25 and 91 were varied. Statistical methods were applied to determine the variations in relation to the parameters from the background survey. Significant differences in the aluminium content of femoral head samples were observed between patients under and over 60 years of age. Based on the results, it was confirmed that the aluminium accumulates in bones over a lifetime. The study showed that the content of aluminium in the head and neck of the femur depends on the factors such as: type of medicines taken, contact with chemicals at work, differences in body anatomy and sex. The study on the levels of aluminium in bones and the factors affecting its concentration is a valuable source of information for further research on the role of aluminium in bone diseases. Based on the investigations, it was found that the GF-AAS technique is the best analytical tool for routine analysis of aluminium in complex matrix samples. The use of femoral heads in the investigations was approved by the Bioethics Committee of the University of Medical Sciences in Poznań (Poland).

  14. Aluminium adjuvants and adverse events in sub-cutaneous allergy immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exley, Christopher

    2014-01-20

    Sub-cutaneous immunotherapy is an effective treatment for allergy. It works by helping to modify or re-balance an individual's immune response to allergens and its efficacy is greatly improved by the use of adjuvants, most commonly, aluminium hydroxide. Aluminium salts have been used in allergy therapy for many decades and are assumed to be safe with few established side-effects. This assumption belies their potency as adjuvants and their potential for biological reactivity both at injection sites and elsewhere in the body. There are very few data purporting to the safety of aluminium adjuvants in allergy immunotherapy and particularly so in relation to longer term health effects. There are, if only few, published reports of adverse events following allergy immunotherapy and aluminium adjuvants are the prime suspects in the majority of such incidents. Aluminium adjuvants are clearly capable of initiating unwanted side effects in recipients of immunotherapy and while there is as yet no evidence that such are commonplace it is complacent to consider aluminium salts as harmless constituents of allergy therapies. Future research should establish the safety of the use of aluminium adjuvants in sub-cutaneous allergy immunotherapy.

  15. Conversion of Iodide to Hypoiodous Acid and Molecular Iodine at the Air-Water Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillar, E. A.; Guzman, M. I.

    2013-12-01

    Sea spray aerosols continuously transfer a significant amount of halides to the marine boundary layer, where they play a major role in the depletion of tropospheric ozone. The reactivity of iodide is of special interest in sea spray aerosols, where this species is enriched relative to chloride and bromide in surface seawater. This work presents laboratory experiments that provide mechanistic information to understand the reactivity of halides in atmospheric aerosols. Pneumatically assisted electrospray is used to aerosolize solutions of sodium iodide (0.01-100 μM), which are rapidly (~3 μs) oxidized by ozone at 25 °C. Reaction products include HIO, IO2-, IO3-, I2, HI2O-, and I3-, all identified by mass spectrometry. The distribution of products varies along two different reaction pathways, one favoring the production of I2 and HIO for typical tropospheric ozone levels (~50 ppbv), and another one directed to the production of IO3- at higher oxidizer concentrations. The formation of products increases exponentially with rising concentrations of initial sodium iodide, [NaI]0. The process is determined to be pH independent for the pH range 6-8 representative of surface waters. The substitution of aqueous solutions by organic solvents, such as methanol or acetonitrile, causes a decrease in the surface tension and lifetime of the droplets, leading to larger I2 production. The presence of surface active organic compounds, which alter the structure of the interfacial region, promote the pathway of I2 formation over IO3-. In conclusion, this presentation will show how the oxidation of iodide in aqueous microdroplets can release reactive gas-phase species, such as I2 and HIO, capable to affect tropospheric ozone globally. Normalized intensity of products observed during the ozonolysis of iodide solutions at 130 ppbv ozone. Cone voltage = 70 V, needle voltage = 2.5 kV.

  16. [The application of eosin and propidium iodide in evaluation of vitality of human spermatozoa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploskonos, М В

    2014-11-01

    The article analyzes comparative assessment of vitality of spermatozoa by condition of permeability of membranes for eosin and propidium iodide and comparison of results acquired using technique of light and fluorescent microscopy. The comparison of data of light microscopy with eosin staining with data of fluorescent microscopy with propidium iodide staining demonstrated that percentage of content of spermatozoa separated from ejaculates of 28 fertile males and stained with eosin was reliably higher (34.8 ± 3.2) than percentage of content of spermatozoa with stained with propidium iodide (2.1 ± 4.0). After incubation of spermatozoa under room temperature during 24 hours percentage of unviable cells with stained eosin also was higher than in case of propidium iodide staining correspondingly (44.5 ± 3.3% and 34.7 ± 3.6%). The analysis of vitality of spermatozoa under damaging effect of oxidative stress on cell membrane developed by 4 hours incubation with 200 mkM of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) demonstrated that under staining of spermatozoa with propidium iodide significantly higher percentage of damaged cells is detected. In such cases, eosin staining is less suitable for detection of vitality of spermatozoa (73.6 ± 5.8% against 51.7 ± 6.4%). The carried out experiment demonstrates that in case of detected effects on spermatozoa (for example, effect of oxidative stress) the light microscopy insufficiently adequate reflects degree of damage of membranes of spermatozoa. The fluorescent microscopy detects a higher percentage of spermatozoa with damaged membrane.

  17. Aluminium exposure from parenteral nutrition in preterm infants and later health outcomes during childhood and adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fewtrell, Mary S; Edmonds, Caroline J; Isaacs, Elizabeth; Bishop, Nick J; Lucas, Alan

    2011-08-01

    Aluminium is the most common metallic element, but has no known biological role. It accumulates in the body when protective gastrointestinal mechanisms are bypassed, renal function is impaired, or exposure is high - all of which apply frequently to preterm infants. Recognised clinical manifestations of aluminium toxicity include dementia, anaemia and bone disease. Parenteral nutrition (PN) solutions are liable to contamination with aluminium, particularly from acidic solutions in glass vials, notably calcium gluconate. When fed parenterally, infants retain >75% of the aluminium, with high serum, urine and tissue levels. Later health effects of neonatal intravenous aluminium exposure were investigated in a randomised trial comparing standard PN solutions with solutions specially sourced for low aluminium content. Preterm infants exposed for >10 d to standard solutions had impaired neurologic development at 18 months. At 13-15 years, subjects randomised to standard PN had lower lumbar spine bone mass; and, in non-randomised analyses, those with neonatal aluminium intake above the median had lower hip bone mass. Given the sizeable number of infants undergoing intensive care and still exposed to aluminium via PN, these findings have contemporary relevance. Until recently, little progress had been made on reducing aluminium exposure, and meeting Food and Drug Administration recommendations (<5 μg/kg per d) has been impossible in patients <50 kg using available products. Recent advice from the UK Medicines and Healthcare regulatory Authority that calcium gluconate in small volume glass containers should not be used for repeated treatment in children <18 years, including preparation of PN, is an important step towards addressing this problem.

  18. Chemical mimicking of bio-assisted aluminium extraction by Aspergillus niger's exometabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boriová, Katarína; Urík, Martin; Bujdoš, Marek; Pifková, Ivana; Matúš, Peter

    2016-11-01

    Presence of microorganisms in soils strongly affects mobility of metals. This fact is often excluded when mobile metal fraction in soil is studied using extraction procedures. Thus, the first objective of this paper was to evaluate strain Aspergillus niger's exometabolites contribution on aluminium mobilization. Fungal exudates collected in various time intervals during cultivation were analyzed and used for two-step bio-assisted extraction of alumina and gibbsite. Oxalic, citric and gluconic acids were identified in collected culture media with concentrations up to 68.4, 2.0 and 16.5 mmol L(-1), respectively. These exometabolites proved to be the most efficient agents in mobile aluminium fraction extraction with aluminium extraction efficiency reaching almost 2.2%. However, fungal cultivation is time demanding process. Therefore, the second objective was to simplify acquisition of equally efficient extracting agent by chemically mimicking composition of main organic acid components of fungal exudates. This was successfully achieved with organic acids mixture prepared according to medium composition collected on the 12th day of Aspergillus niger cultivation. This mixture extracted similar amounts of aluminium from alumina compared to culture medium. The aluminium extraction efficiency from gibbsite by organic acids mixture was lesser than 0.09% which is most likely because of more rigid mineral structure of gibbsite compared to alumina. The prepared organic acid mixture was then successfully applied for aluminium extraction from soil samples and compared to standard single step extraction techniques. This showed there is at least 2.9 times higher content of mobile aluminium fraction in soils than it was previously considered, if contribution of microbial metabolites is considered in extraction procedures. Thus, our contribution highlights the significance of fungal metabolites in aluminium extraction from environmental samples, but it also simplifies the

  19. 碘化物对金精矿碘化浸出过程的影响%Effects of different iodides on gold concentrates leaching process in iodine­iodide solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李绍英; 王海霞; 孙春宝; 赵留成; 阎志强

    2013-01-01

    Using the iodine­iodide leaching system, the effects of different iodides (ammonium iodide,potassium iodide, hydrogen iodide)on gold concentrates leaching process were discussed from the influence factors, such as initial iodine content, iodine and iodide ratio and solution pH value. The results show that, when ammonium iodide or potassium iodide is used as complex agent,under the conditions of initial iodine content of 1%, iodine and iodide molar ratio of 1:8, pH value of 7, liquid­solid ratio of 4:1, stirring speed of 600 r/min, leaching time of 4 h and temperature of 25℃, the gold leaching rates are around 90%;whereas the gold leaching effect is poorer when hydrogen iodide(aqueous solution is hydroiodic acid) is used as complex agent, and the gold leaching rate is only 75%. Considering the difference of leaching effect and availability of industry and so on,potassium iodide is the suitable complex reagent of gold concentrate leaching in iodine­iodide solution.%  采用碘−碘化物浸出体系,从碘初始含量、碘与碘化物摩尔比和浸出液pH值3个影响因素入手,考察不同碘化物(碘化铵、碘化钾和碘化氢)对金精矿碘化浸出过程的影响。结果表明:在碘初始含量为1%,碘与碘化物摩尔比为1:8,浸出液pH值为7,液固比为4:1,搅拌速度为600 r/min,浸出时间为4 h,温度为25℃的条件下,用碘化铵或碘化钾作为碘化浸金的络合剂,金的浸出率均能达到90%左右,而用碘化氢(其水溶液为氢碘酸)作络合剂时,金的浸出率仅有75%。考虑到不同碘化物浸金效果差异及工业应用的可行性等因素,确定碘化钾为适宜的金精矿碘化浸出络合剂。

  20. Cobalt and Nickel Nanopillars on Aluminium Substrates by Direct Current Electrodeposition Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos A

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A fast and cost-effective technique is applied for fabricating cobalt and nickel nanopillars on aluminium substrates. By applying an electrochemical process, the aluminium oxide barrier layer is removed from the pore bottom tips of nanoporous anodic alumina templates. So, cobalt and nickel nanopillars are fabricated into these templates by DC electrodeposition. The resulting nanostructure remains on the aluminium substrate. In this way, this method could be used to fabricate a wide range of nanostructures which could be integrated in new nanodevices.

  1. Car-Parrinello Simulation of the Aluminium Oxidation: Questioning the Role of 'Hot Adatoms'

    CERN Document Server

    Schulte, Marius

    2012-01-01

    We present Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics simulations of the initial reaction steps leading to an inert oxide layer on aluminium. The mechanism of the reaction of the aluminium surface with single oxygen molecules is analysed. After adsorption at the surface the oxygen molecules dissociate at a femtosecond timescale and the atoms are chemisorbed at the surface at a distance of several angstrom which falsifies earlier STM results. When the aluminium surface is exposed to higher oxygen pressure, a surface layer essentially consisting of threefold coordinated oxygen atoms starts to form.

  2. Laser-Doping through Anodic Aluminium Oxide Layers for Silicon Solar Cells

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    This paper demonstrates that silicon can be locally doped with aluminium to form localised p+ surface regions by laser-doping through anodic aluminium oxide (AAO) layers formed on the silicon surface. The resulting p+ regions can extend more than 10 μm into the silicon and the electrically active p-type dopant concentration exceeds 1020 cm−3 for the first 6-7 μm of the formed p+ region. Anodic aluminium oxide layers can be doped with other impurities, such as boron and phosphorus, by anodisin...

  3. Advanced rechargeable aluminium ion battery with a high-quality natural graphite cathode

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Di-Yan; Wei, Chuan-yu; Lin, Meng-Chang; Pan, Chun-Jern; Chou, Hung-Lung; Chen, Hsin-An; Gong, Ming; Wu, Yingpeng; Yuan, Chunze; Angell, Michael; Hsieh, Yu-Ju; Chen, Yu-Hsun; Wen, Cheng-Yen; Chen, Chun-Wei; Hwang, Bing-Joe

    2017-01-01

    Recently, interest in aluminium ion batteries with aluminium anodes, graphite cathodes and ionic liquid electrolytes has increased; however, much remains to be done to increase the cathode capacity and to understand details of the anion–graphite intercalation mechanism. Here, an aluminium ion battery cell made using pristine natural graphite flakes achieves a specific capacity of ∼110 mAh g−1 with Coulombic efficiency ∼98%, at a current density of 99 mA g−1 (0.9 C) with clear discharge voltag...

  4. The aluminium content of breast tissue taken from women with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    House, Emily; Polwart, Anthony; Darbre, Philippa; Barr, Lester; Metaxas, George; Exley, Christopher

    2013-10-01

    The aetiology of breast cancer is multifactorial. While there are known genetic predispositions to the disease it is probable that environmental factors are also involved. Recent research has demonstrated a regionally specific distribution of aluminium in breast tissue mastectomies while other work has suggested mechanisms whereby breast tissue aluminium might contribute towards the aetiology of breast cancer. We have looked to develop microwave digestion combined with a new form of graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry as a precise, accurate and reproducible method for the measurement of aluminium in breast tissue biopsies. We have used this method to test the thesis that there is a regional distribution of aluminium across the breast in women with breast cancer. Microwave digestion of whole breast tissue samples resulted in clear homogenous digests perfectly suitable for the determination of aluminium by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. The instrument detection limit for the method was 0.48 μg/L. Method blanks were used to estimate background levels of contamination of 14.80 μg/L. The mean concentration of aluminium across all tissues was 0.39 μg Al/g tissue dry wt. There were no statistically significant regionally specific differences in the content of aluminium. We have developed a robust method for the precise and accurate measurement of aluminium in human breast tissue. There are very few such data currently available in the scientific literature and they will add substantially to our understanding of any putative role of aluminium in breast cancer. While we did not observe any statistically significant differences in aluminium content across the breast it has to be emphasised that herein we measured whole breast tissue and not defatted tissue where such a distribution was previously noted. We are very confident that the method developed herein could now be used to provide accurate and reproducible data on the aluminium content

  5. Effective Production of Sorbitol and Mannitol from Sugars Catalyzed by Ni Nanoparticles Supported on Aluminium Hydroxide

    OpenAIRE

    Rodiansono Rodiansono; Shimazu Shogo

    2013-01-01

    Effective production of hexitols (sorbitol and mannitol) was achieved from sugars by means of nickel nanoparticles supported on aluminium hydroxide (NiNPs/AlOH) catalyst. NiNPs/AlOH catalyst was prepared by a simple and benign environmentally procedure using less amount of sodium hydroxide. ICP-AES and XRD analyses confirmed that the NiNPs/AlOH catalysts comprised a large amount of remained aluminium hydroxide (i.e. bayerite and gibbsite). The presence of aluminium hydroxide caused a high dis...

  6. The Major Events of China’s Aluminium Industry in 2005

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    <正>The year 2005 is seen as a turning point for China’s aluminium industry with the whole industry making losses leading to the closures, reorganization and acquisitions of the smelters. The macro-adjustment policies of the government on the aluminium industry and the industry’s operating difficulties led to the overall change of the industry, which is reflected by the strengthened position of China’s aluminium industry in the world and China’s influence on the world market is growing with the united

  7. A feasibility study of the in vivo measurement of aluminium in peripheral bone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, S.; Chettle, D.R. (Birmingham Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Physics and Space Research)

    1992-12-01

    In this note the authors discuss the feasibility of constructing a neutron source, using the [sup 3]H([sup 1]H,n)[sup 3] He reaction and the 3MV Dynamitron accelerator in the University of Birmingham, which is suitable for the measurement of aluminium in vivo. The immediate purpose was for the measurement of aluminium in bone, particularly in renal dialysis patients, but another possible application is mentioned in regard to a possible link between raised body stores of aluminium and Alzheimers Disease. (UK).

  8. Emeraldine base as corrosion protective layer on aluminium alloy AA5182, effect of the surface microstructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cecchetto, L; Ambat, Rajan; Davenport, A.J.

    2007-01-01

    AA5182 aluminium alloy cold rolled samples were coated by thin Wlms of emeraldine base (EB) obtained from a 5% solution in N-methylpyrrolidinone. Accelerated corrosion tests prove this coating very eVective for corrosion protection of aluminium alloys in neutral environment. This study underlines......: • a weak redox activity of the polymer which passivate the metal, • a proton involving self-healing process taking place at the polymer–metal interface, which contributes to delay local acidiWcation in Wrst steps of corrosion on EB coated aluminium surfaces....

  9. Kinetic constraints in acute aluminium toxicity in the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exley, C; Wicks, A J; Hubert, R B; Birchall, J D

    1996-03-07

    We have designed a laboratory bioassay to expose fish to kinetically determined differences in aluminium hydroxide solution chemistry. We have used this system to demonstrate the hitherto unexpected result of an acute aluminium toxicity in the fish at a pH of 6.5. Supporting experiments have demonstrated that the mechanism of toxicity at this pH was probably an asphyxiation brought about by aluminium-induced changes in the rheological and diffusional properties of the mucus lining of the gill epithelium.

  10. The Electricity Price Fluctuationson China’s Aluminium Industry—PartⅠ

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正> The aluminium industry is one of the majorelectricity consuming industries in China.Based on the calculation of 15,000 kwh for oneton of aluminium,China’s total power con-sumption for the production of 5.54 milliontons aluminium in 2003 consumed 83.1 billionkwh electricity,accounting for 4 per cent ofChina’s total electricity consumption in 2003,and it is one of the largest power consumingindusties in China.Since China is a large country with differentpower supply conditions across its vast landareas,the electricity generating cost also variesacross the countrty,leading to apparent differ

  11. Behaviour of painted aluminium in Ibero-American atmospheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morcillo, M.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Aluminium generally presents good corrosion resistance to the atmosphere. However, unprotected aluminium and aluminium alloys weather outdoors to an ugly grey colour, which deepens to black in industrial atmospheres, and undergo superficial pitting in marine atmospheres, etc. Finishing technologies are applied for their protection and decoration in a wide range of applications. These technologies basically consist of two protection processes: anodizing and painting; the latter going from conventional solvent base paints to modem water-borne, high solids and powder coatings. This paper considers the weathering performance of three paint systems: alkyd, polyurethane and polyester, after more than three years of exposure in a wide spectra of Ibero-American atmospheric conditions. The information reported includes resistance to undercutting corrosion at the scribe, filiform corrosion, fungal attack and change in the physical-chemical properties of the paint surface (loss of gloss, colour changes, chalking, etc..

    El aluminio, en general, presenta una buena resistencia a la corrosión en la atmósfera. Sin embargo, el aluminio sin ninguna protección y las aleaciones de aluminio expuestas a la intemperie envejecen mostrando un color gris, negro en el caso de atmósferas industriales, sufren la formación de picaduras en atmósferas marinas, etc. Para su protección, o a efectos decorativos, se le aplican diferentes procesos de acabado en un amplio rango de aplicaciones. Estos procesos de acabado, básicamente consisten en dos métodos de protección: anodizado y pintado; este último abarca desde pinturas convencionales de base disolvente hasta modernos sistemas base agua, de alto contenido en sólidos o pinturas en polvo. Este trabajo considera el comportamiento de tres sistemas de pinturas: alquídico, poliuretano y poliéster, tras más de tres años de exposición en un amplio espectro de condiciones atmosféricas de Iberoamérica. La

  12. Radioactive iodide (131 I-) excretion profiles in response to potassium iodide (KI) and ammonium perchlorate (NH4ClO4) prophylaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Curtis; Dallas, Cham; Rollor, Edward; White, Catherine; Blount, Benjamin; Valentin-Blasini, Liza; Fisher, Jeffrey

    2012-08-01

    Radioactive iodide ((131)I-) protection studies have focused primarily on the thyroid gland and disturbances in the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis. The objective of the current study was to establish (131)I- urinary excretion profiles for saline, and the thyroid protectants, potassium iodide (KI) and ammonium perchlorate over a 75 hour time-course. Rats were administered (131)I- and 3 hours later dosed with either saline, 30 mg/kg of NH(4)ClO(4) or 30 mg/kg of KI. Urinalysis of the first 36 hours of the time-course revealed that NH(4)ClO(4) treated animals excreted significantly more (131)I- compared with KI and saline treatments. A second study followed the same protocol, but thyroxine (T(4)) was administered daily over a 3 day period. During the first 6-12 hour after (131)I- dosing, rats administered NH(4)ClO(4) excreted significantly more (131)I- than the other treatment groups. T(4) treatment resulted in increased retention of radioiodide in the thyroid gland 75 hour after (131)I- administration. We speculate that the T(4) treatment related reduction in serum TSH caused a decrease synthesis and secretion of thyroid hormones resulting in greater residual radioiodide in the thyroid gland. Our findings suggest that ammonium perchlorate treatment accelerates the elimination rate of radioiodide within the first 24 to 36 hours and thus may be more effective at reducing harmful exposure to (131)I- compared to KI treatment for repeated dosing situations. Repeated dosing studies are needed to compare the effectiveness of these treatments to reduce the radioactive iodide burden of the thyroid gland.

  13. Hot Deformation Of 6xxx Series Aluminium Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrówka-Nowotnik G.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The hot deformation behavior of the 6xxx aluminum alloys was investigated by compression tests in the temperature range 100°C-375°C and strain rate range 10−4s−1 and 4×10−4s−1 using dilatometer DIL 805 BÄHR Thermoanalyse equipped with accessory attachment deformation allows the process to execute thermoplastic in vacuum and inert gas atmosphere. Associated microstructural changes of characteristic states of examined alloys were studied by using the transmission electron microscope (TEM. The results show that the stress level decreases with increasing deformation temperature and deformation rate. And was also found that the activation energy Q strongly depends on both, the temperature and rate of deformation. The results of TEM observation showing that the dynamic flow softening is mainly as the result of dynamic recovery and recrystallization of 6xxx aluminium alloys.

  14. Hole quality and burr reduction in drilling aluminium sheets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilny, Lukas; De Chiffre, Leonardo; Piska, Miroslav;

    2011-01-01

    Optimization of the metal drilling process requires creation of minimum amount of burrs and uniform appearance of the drilled holes. In this paper, an experimental investigation was performed on 2 mm sheets of wrought aluminium alloy Al99.7Mg0.5Cu-H24, using 1.6 and 2 mm diameter drills. Cutting...... data, clamping conditions, and drill geometry were varied in order to optimize the process and reach the desired quality. The results revealed possible reduction of burr occurrence on both the entry and exit side of the sheet, requiring no additional deburring. The demand on the uniform appearance...... of drilled holes was fulfilled as well as high productivity achieved. Such optimized process results in a noticeable production cost reduction....

  15. Hole quality and burr reduction in drilling aluminium sheets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilny, Lukas; De Chiffre, Leonardo; Piska, Miroslav;

    2012-01-01

    Optimization of the metal drilling process requires creation of minimum amount of burrs and uniform appearance of the drilled holes. In this paper, an experimental investigation was performed on 2 mm sheets of wrought aluminium alloy Al99.7Mg0.5Cu-H24, using 1.6 and 2 mm diameter drills. Cutting...... data, clamping conditions, and drill geometry were varied in order to optimize the process and reach the desired quality. The results revealed possible reduction of burr occurrence on both the entry and exit side of the sheet, requiring no additional deburring. The demand on the uniform appearance...... of drilled holes was fulfilled as well as high productivity achieved. Such optimized process results in a noticeable production cost reduction....

  16. Synthesis and characterization of yttrium aluminium garnet (YAG powders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Zarzecka-Napierala

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper synthesis and characterization of YAG powders, prepared by a process based on complexing properties of citric acid, was reported. Influence of citric acid estrification induced by 2-propanol or ethylene glycol on the system homogeneity was investigated. These reagents were introduced to aqueous solution of yttrium and aluminium nitrates. A variety of powders from Al2O3-Y2O3 system with different phase composition were obtained by altering the citrate to nitrate ratio. Evolution of the powders phase composition vs. temperature was investigated using DTA/TG, XRD, and FT-IR methods. The most interesting results were observed in case of the citric acid–propanol–relative nitrates system. The mole ratio of these reagents equal to 1:2.5:2.5 (nitrates (Al,Y:citric acid:2-propanol allowed to synthesize pure YAG phase powders at temperature as low as 950°C.

  17. FSW Numerical Simulation of Aluminium Plates by SYSWELD - Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jančo Roland

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Friction Stir Welding (FSW is one of the most effective solid state joining processes and has numerous potential applications in many industries. The simulation process can provide the evolution of physicals quantities such as temperature, metallurgical phase proportions, stress and strain which can be easily measured during welding. The numerical modelling requires the modelling of the complex interaction between thermal, metallurgical and mechanical phenomena. The aim of this paper is to describe the thermal-fluid simulation of FSW using the finite element method. In the theoretical part of paper heating is provided by the material flow and contact condition between the tool and the welded material. Thermal-mechanical results from the numerical simulation using SYSWELD are also presented for aluminium alloy.

  18. FSW Numerical Simulation of Aluminium Plates by Sysweld - Part I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jančo Roland

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Friction Stir Welding (FSW is one of the most effective solid state joining processes and it has numerous potential applications in many industries. The simulation process can provide the evolution of physical quantities such as temperature, metallurgical phase proportions, stress and strain which can be easily measured during welding. The numerical modelling requires the modelling of a complex interaction between thermal, metallurgical and mechanical phenomena. The aim of this paper is to describe the thermal-fluid simulation of FSW using the finite element method. In the theoretical part of the paper heating is provided by the material flow and contact condition between the tool and the welded material. The thermal-fluid results from the numerical simulation for aluminium alloy using SYSWELD are also presented in this paper.

  19. Cold compression residual stress reduction in aluminium alloy 7010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanner, D.A. [Limerick Univ. (Ireland). Materials Research Centre; Robinson, J.S. [Dept. of Materials Science and Technology, Univ. of Limerick (Ireland); Cudd, R.L. [HDA Forgings Ltd., Redditch, Worchestershire (United Kingdom)

    2000-07-01

    7010 is one of the high strength aluminium alloys used mainly as plate and forgings in the aerospace industry. Its high strength is achieved through a quenching operation where the material is rapidly cooled from the solution heat treatment temperature (475 C) to room temperature. As with all rapid quenching operations, residual stresses develop, leaving the material unsuitable for further machining operations and for service. Regular shaped forgings are generally cold compressed after quenching to relieve residual stresses. The effect of friction, increasing/decreasing the amount of cold compression and applying cold compression in 'bites' on residual stress magnitudes is unknown. This paper aims to study the effect that these variables have on final residual stress patterns through use of a finite element model. (orig.)

  20. Three-dimensional micro- and nanometre composite aluminium patterns

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Xiao-Wei; Zhang Zeng-Xing; Xiang Yan-Juan; Zhou Wei-Ya; Wang Gang; Jiang Peng; Gao Yan; Wang Jian-Xiong; Song Li; Liu Dong-Fang; Liu Li-Feng; Dou Xin-Yuan; Luo Shu-Dong

    2005-01-01

    Three-dimensional micro- and nanometre composite aluminium patterns are constructed on Al substrate by using photolithography, reactive ion etching and anodization. A layer of patterned SiO2 mask is introduced as resist on the surface of Al foil, and during anodization the tilted nanopores and remaining Al microstructure are formed underneath the SiO2 mask. The existence of SiO2 mask leads to the deflection of electric field and effect on the transportation of ions, which results in the formation of laterally tilted nanopores, while the nanopores go down directly when being far from the boundaries of SiO2. The vertical and lateral anodization processes proceeding simultaneously construct the Al microstructure under the patterned SiO2 mask.