WorldWideScience

Sample records for aluminium alloy shapes

  1. Numerical modelling of complex shaped particle break-up with application to rolling of aluminium alloys

    OpenAIRE

    Moulin, Nicolas

    2008-01-01

    The aluminium alloy AA5182, largely employed in the form of plates used for the body panels in automotive industry, contains intermetallic particles Mg2Si and AlxFe. In as cast state, these particles (of a size > 50 µm) present complex shapes. During hot rolling, the particles are broken and redistributed in the sheet metal. However, the size and the spatial distribution of the intermetallic particles mainly control the formability of sheets after cold transformation.This work identifies morp...

  2. Laser welding of aluminium alloys

    OpenAIRE

    Forsman, Tomas

    2000-01-01

    This thesis treats laser welding of aluminium alloys from a practical perspective with elements of mathematical analysis. The theoretical work has in all cases been verified experimentally. The aluminium alloys studied are from the 5xxx and 6xxx groups which are common for example in the automotive industry. Aluminium has many unique physical properties. The properties which more than others have been shown to influence the welding process is its high reflection, high thermal conductivity, lo...

  3. Friction surfacing of aluminium alloys

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Diogo Jorge O. A.

    2012-01-01

    Friction surfacing is a solid state joining process that has attracted much interest in the past decades. This technology allows joining dissimilar metallic materials while avoiding the brittle intermetallic formations, involving temperatures bellow melting point and producing like forged metal structures. Much research using different steels has been made but the same does not happen with aluminium alloys, specially using different aluminium alloys. Friction surface coatings using cons...

  4. Shot peening of aluminium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shot peening is a process of cold-hammering where a metallic surface is pelted with spherical grains. Each grain bumping into the surface acts as a hammer head and creates a small crater. The overlapping of these craters produces a residual compression layer just underneath the surface. It is well known that cracks cannot spread in a compression zone. In most cases of fatigue rupture and stress corrosion cracks propagate from the surface towards the inside so shot peening allows a longer lifetime of castings. Moreover most materials present a better resistance due to the cold-hammering effect of shot peening. Metallic surfaces can be treated in workshops or directly on site. Typical pieces that undergo shot peening on site are storing tanks, gas and steam turbines, tubes of steam generators and piping in oil or nuclear or chemical industries. This article describes shot peening from a theoretical and general point of view and presents the application to aluminium-lithium alloys. In the case of aluminium alloys shot peening can be used to shape the piece (peen-forming). (A.C.)

  5. Mechanism of Nickel-Aluminium Alloy Electroplating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The effect of operating conditions on the aluminium content of Ni-Al alloy deposit and the catalytic function of NaF on electrodeposition in the nonaqueous solution containing aluminium are investigated.The results indicate that the plated aluminuim content will be increased with the rise of current density in a given range.When the current density is 2.5A/dm2,nickle-aluminium alloy containing 13.1 wt% aluminium will be deposited.The plated aluminium content will be increased by 2wt% as 0.1mol/L NaF is added to the bath.

  6. Effect of hydrogen on aluminium and aluminium alloys: A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambat, Rajan; Dwarakadasa, E.S.

    1996-01-01

    Susceptibility of aluminium and its alloys towards hydrogen embrittlement has been well established. Still a lot of confusion exists on the question of transport of hydrogen and its possible role in stress corrosion cracking. This paper reviews some of the fundamental properties of hydrogen...... in aluminium and its alloys and its effect on mechanical properties. The importance of hydrogen embrittlement over anodic dissolution to explain the stress corrosion cracking mechanism of these alloys is also examined in considerable detail. The various experimental findings concerning the link between...

  7. TEM microstructure investigations of aluminium alloys used for laser alloying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Labisz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In this paper there are presented results of Transmission Electron Microscope investigation concerning the structure of the AlSi7Cu4 cast aluminium alloy using for alloying and remelting with the high power diode laser (HPDL. There are also presented the results of the thermo-derivative analysis performed using the UMSA (Universal Metallurgical Simulator and Analyser device, allowing to determine the specific points of the solidifying alloy, what is helpful for phase determination occurred in this alloy. In this work especially the changes of the precipitation type, size and shape were determined.Design/methodology/approach: The investigations were performed using electron microscopy for the microstructure and phases determination. By mind of the transmission electron microscopy, especially selected area diffraction method appliance it was possible to determine the phases occurred in the alloy in the as cast state. The morphology and size of the Mg2Si was also possible to determine as well the lattice parameters for this phase.Findings: : The reason of this work was also to present the laser treatment technology, which will be used for further alloying and remelting with ceramic powders – especially carbides and oxides. Particularly the overview will be directed on the laser power to achieve good layer hardness for protection of this hot work tool steel from losing their work stability and to make the tool surface more resistant to action in external conditions. The structure of the surface laser tray changes in a way, that there are very high roughness of the surface zone and the flatness or geometry changes in an important manner, crucial for further investigation.Research limitations/implications: The aluminium samples were examined metallographically using transmission electron microscope with different image techniques.Practical implications: Developing of new technology with appliance of Al alloys, High Power Diode Laser and

  8. Electrical Conductivity of Aluminium Alloy Foams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    凤仪; 郑海务; 朱震刚; 祖方遒

    2002-01-01

    Closed-cell aluminium alloy foams were produced using the powder metallurgical technique. The effect of porosityand cell diameter on the electrical conductivity of foams was investigated and the results were compared with anumber of models. It was found that the percolation theory can be successfully applied to describe the dependenceof the electrical conductivity of aluminium alloy foams on the relative density. The cell diameter has a negligibleeffect on the electrical conductivity of foams.

  9. New aluminium alloys with high lithium content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schemme, K.; Velten, B.

    1989-06-01

    Since the early 80's there have been made great efforts to replace the high strength aluminium alloys for the aircraft and space industry by a new generation of aluminium-lithium alloys. The attractivity of this kind of alloys could be increased by a further reduction of their density, caused by an increasing lithium content (/ge/ 5 wt.% Li). Therefore binary high-lithium containing alloys with low density are produced and metallografically investigated. A survey of their strength and wear behavior is given by using tensile tests and pin abrasing tests. (orig.).

  10. Steam Initiated Surface Modification of Aluminium Alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Din, Rameez Ud

    , crystalline nano-particles, role of steam-based treatment on adhesion of industrially applied powder coating, and investigations of a failed painted aluminium window profile due to defects in the extruded profile. Chapters 13 and 14 describe the overall discussion, conclusions and future work based......The extensive demand of aluminium alloys in various industries such as in transportationis mainly due to the high strength to weight ratio, which could be translated into fuel economy and efficiency. Corrosion protection of aluminium alloys is an important aspect for all applications which includes...... the use of aluminium alloys in the painted form requiring a conversion coating to improve the adhesion. Chromate based conversion coating processes are extremely good for these purposes, however the carcinogenic and toxic nature of hexavalent chromium led to the search for more benign and eco...

  11. Steam generated conversion coating on aluminium alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Din, Rameez Ud; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl; Ambat, Rajan

    and growth of oxide film on different intermetallic particles and corrosion behaviour of such alloys.Surface morphology was observed by using FEG-SEM, EDX and FIB-SEM. Metal oxide surface characterization and compositional depth profiling were investigated by using XPS and GD-OES respectively......Aluminium and its alloys are widely used in aerospace industry owing to their high strength to weight ratio. The surface of aluminium under normal conditions has a thin oxide film (2.5-10 nm) responsible for its inherent corrosion resistance. This oxide film can further be converted or transformed......) depending on the preparation parameters/conditions. Moreover, with the knowledge of factors controlling film growth, composition and morphology, such oxide layers carry huge potential for practical applications. Pure aluminium (AA1090, 99.94 wt. %) and other aluminium alloy surfaces were exposed to high...

  12. Microstructure Development during Solidification of Aluminium Alloys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruvalcaba Jimenez, D.G.

    2009-01-01

    This Thesis demonstrates studies on microstructure development during the solidification of aluminium alloys. New insights of structure development are presented here. Experimental techniques such as quenching and in-situ High-brilliance X-ray microscopy were utilized to study the microstructure evo

  13. Friction Welding of Aluminium and Aluminium Alloys with Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Ambroziak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents our actual knowledge and experience in joining dissimilar materials with the use of friction welding method. The joints of aluminium and aluminium alloys with the different types of steel were studied. The structural effects occurring during the welding process were described. The mechanical properties using, for example, (i microhardness measurements, (ii tensile tests, (iii bending tests, and (iv shearing tests were determined. In order to obtain high-quality joints the influence of different configurations of the process such as (i changing the geometry of bonding surface, (ii using the interlayer, or (iii heat treatment was analyzed. Finally, the issues related to the selection of optimal parameters of friction welding process were also investigated.

  14. A Reaction Coating on Aluminium Alloys by Laser Processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, X.B.; Hosson, J.Th.M. De

    1993-01-01

    An aluminium oxide layer of 100 µm in thickness has been successfully coated on aluminium alloy 6061 and pure aluminium using a powder mixture of silicon oxide and aluminium by laser processing. A strong Al/Al2O3 interface was formed. The exothermic chemical reaction between SiO2 and Al may promote

  15. Softening Behaviour of Selected Commercially Pure Aluminium Model Alloys

    OpenAIRE

    Sande, Gunnar

    2012-01-01

    A characterization of the softening behaviour of four different commercially pure aluminium alloys has been carried out. The work is related to the MOREAL project (Modelling towards value-added recycling friendly aluminium alloys), where the main goal is to quantify the effect of the elements in recyclable aluminium alloys on microstructure and mechanical properties during thermo-mechanical processing. Typical elements are iron (Fe), silicon (Si) and manganese (Mn), and the alloys studied in ...

  16. Mechanical behaviour of aluminium-lithium alloys

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    N Eswara Prasad; A A Gokhale; P Rama Rao

    2003-02-01

    Aluminium-lithium alloys hold promise of providing a breakthrough response to the crying need for lightweight alloys for use as structurals in aerospace applications. Considerable worldwide research has gone into developing a range of these alloys over the last three decades. As a result, substantial understanding has been developed of the microstructure-based micromechanisms of strengthening, of fatigue and fracture as well as of anisotropy in mechanical properties. However, these alloys have not yet greatly displaced the conventionally used denser Al alloys on account of their poorer ductility, fracture toughness and low cycle fatigue resistance. This review aims to summarise the work pertaining to study of structure and mechanical properties with a view to indicate the directions that have been and can be pursued to overcome property limitations.

  17. FSW characterization of 6082 aluminium alloys sheets

    OpenAIRE

    K. Mroczka; A. Pietras

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the investigations was to elaborate a set of FSW parameters for connecting 6082 aluminium alloy sheets allowing to produce welds of highest strength.Design/methodology/approach: The FSW was tried at different speeds and at additional cooling. The welds microstructure was studied using optical and scanning electron microscopes. The mechanical properties of produced connections are discussed regarding their tensile test and microhardness measurements.Findings: The FSW we...

  18. Friction factor of CP aluminium and aluminium–zinc alloys

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    N Vidhya Sagar; K S Anand; A C Mithun; K Srinivasan

    2006-12-01

    Friction factor has been determined for CP aluminium and aluminium–zinc alloys using ring compression test at different temperatures from 303 K to 773 K. It is found that CP aluminium exhibits sticking whereas Al–Zn alloys do not exhibit sticking at elevated temperatures. Hot working of Al–Zn alloy is easier than that of CP aluminium at 773 K. As zinc content increases up to 10 wt% the friction factor decreases up to 0.02.

  19. Study of fatigue behaviour of 7475 aluminium alloy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B B Verma; J D Atkinson; M Kumar

    2001-04-01

    Fatigue properties of a thermomechanically treated 7475 aluminium alloy have been studied in the present investigation. The alloy exhibited superior fatigue life compared to conventional structural aluminium alloys and comparable stage II crack growth rate. It was also noticed that the fatigue crack initiated from a surface grain and the crack extension was dominated by ductile striations. Analysis also revealed that this alloy possessed fracture toughness and tensile properties superior to that noticed with other structural aluminium alloys. Therefore the use of this alloy can safely reduce the overall weight of the aircraft.

  20. Combined Corrosion and Wear of Aluminium Alloy 7075-T6

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Y.; Mol, J.M.C.; Janssen, G.C.A.M.

    2016-01-01

    The aluminium alloy 7075-T6 is widely used in engineering. In some applications, like slurry transport, corrosion and abrasion occur simultaneously, resulting in early material failure. In the present work, we investigated the combined effect of corrosion and wear on the aluminium alloy 7075-T6. We

  1. Behaviour and design of aluminium alloy structural elements

    OpenAIRE

    Su, Meini; 蘇玫妮

    2014-01-01

    Aluminium alloys are nonlinear metallic materials with continuous stress-strain curves that are not well represented by the simplified elastic, perfectly plastic material model used in most existing design specifications. The aims of this study are to develop a more efficient design method for aluminium alloy structures by rationally exploiting strain hardening. The key components of this study include laboratory testing, numerical modelling and development of design guidance for aluminium al...

  2. An improved billet on billet extrusion process of continuous aluminium alloy shapes for cryogenic applications in the Compact Muon Solenoid experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Tavares, S S

    2003-01-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) is one of the experiments being designed in the framework of the Large Hadron Collider accelerator at CERN. CMS will contain the largest and the most powerful superconducting solenoid magnet ever built in terms of stored energy. It will work at 4.2 K, will have a magnetic length of 12.5 m, with a free bore of 6m and will be manufactured as a layered and modular structure of NbTi cables embedded in a high purity (99.998%) Al- stabiliser. Each layer consists of a wound continuous length of 2.55 km. In order to withstand the high electromagnetic forces, two external aluminium alloy reinforcing sections are foreseen. These reinforcements, of 24 mm multiplied by 18 mm cross-section, will be continuously electron beam (EB) welded to the pure Al-stabiliser. The alloy EN AW-6082 has been selected for the reinforcements due to its excellent extrudability, high strength in the precipitation hardened state, high toughness and strength at cryogenic temperatures and ready EB weldability. Ea...

  3. Crystallographic orientation-spray formed hypereutectic aluminium-silicon alloys

    OpenAIRE

    Hamilta de Oliveira Santos; Marilene Morelli Serna; Nelson Batista de Lima; Isolda Costa; Jesualdo Luiz Rossi

    2005-01-01

    Aluminium-silicon alloys have been wide accepted in the automotive, electric and aerospace industries. Preferred orientation is a very common condition for metals and alloys. Particularly, aluminium induces texture during the forming process. The preparation of an aggregate with completely random crystal orientation is a difficult task. The present work was undertaken to analyse the texture by X-ray diffraction techniques, of three spray formed hypereutectic Al-Si alloys. Samples were taken f...

  4. Local electrochemical behaviour of 7xxx aluminium alloys

    OpenAIRE

    F. Andreatta

    2004-01-01

    Aluminium alloys of the 7xxx series (Al-Zn-Mg-Cu) are susceptible to localized types of corrosion like pitting, intergranular corrosion and exfoliation corrosion. This represents a limitation for the application of these alloys in the aerospace components because localized corrosion might have a negative effect on safety and costs. This PhD thesis investigates the relation between electrochemical behaviour and microstructure of a number of 7xxx aluminium alloys: AA7075, AA7349 and an experime...

  5. Shape Memory Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deexith Reddy

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Shape memory alloys (SMAs are metals that "remember" their original shapes. SMAs are useful for such things as actuators which are materials that "change shape, stiffness, position, natural frequency, and other mechanical characteristics in response to temperature or electromagnetic fields" The potential uses for SMAs especially as actuators have broadened the spectrum of many scientific fields. The study of the history and development of SMAs can provide an insight into a material involved in cutting-edge technology. The diverse applications for these metals have made them increasingly important and visible to the world. This paper presents the working of shape memory alloys , the phenomenon of super-elasticity and applications of these alloys.

  6. Effect of filtration on reoxidation proceses in aluminium alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Bolibruchova

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is focused on reoxidation processes during filtration of aluminium alloys. Many of our experimental works pointed out, that using filtration media placed in gating system causes reoxidation of poured aluminium alloy. Main aim of our latest work was to validate our arguments, that filter in gating system can be considered as obstacle for continuous pouring, with help of computer simulations. This article is only a small part of our researches focused on reoxidation processes during filtration of aluminium alloys.

  7. Corrosion of Metal-Matrix Composites with Aluminium Alloy Substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Bobic

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The corrosion behaviour of MMCs with aluminium alloy matrix was presented. The corrosion characteristics of boron-, graphite-, silicon carbide-, alumina- and mica- reinforced aluminium MMCs were reviewed. The reinforcing phase influence on MMCs corrosion rate as well as on various corrosion forms (galvanic, pitting, stress corrosion cracking, corrosion fatique, tribocorrosion was discussed. Some corrosion protection methods of aluminium based MMCs were described

  8. Tribological characteristics of coatings on aluminium and its alloys

    OpenAIRE

    Abdul-Mahdi, Fadhil S

    1987-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and awarded by Brunel University. Hard anodising on aluminium and its alloys has been widely practised for many years in order to improve the resistance of the otherwise poor wear characteristics of aluminium. In recent years there has been an increasing interest in other treatments and coatings, on both aluminium and other base metals. The aim of this investigation is to explain the tribological performance and wear mechanis...

  9. Adhesive Bonding of Aluminium Alloy A5754 by Epoxy Resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Michalec

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Joining thin sheets of aluminium and its alloys is a promising area in the field of joining materials. Nowadays, joining methods that do not melt the material itself are increasingly being utilised. This paper deals with adhesive bonding of aluminium alloy A5754 by two-component epoxy resins. Theresults show that joints bonded by Hysol 9466 have appropriate mechanical properties, but that joints bonded by Hysol 9492 have better thermal stability.

  10. A study on the recycling of aluminium alloy 7075 scrap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oezer, Goekhan [Yildiz Technical Univ., Yildiz (TR). Balkan Centre of Advanced Casting Technologies (BACAT); Marsoglu, Muezeyyen [Yildiz Technical Univ., Yildiz (Turkey). Dept. for Metal and Materials Science Engineering; Burgucu, Sarp

    2012-07-01

    Aluminium and its alloys have recently become an important metal whose area and amount of usage increase more and more, due to their mechanical properties, recycling ability, and penetrability. If it is considered that the bauxite, which is the raw material of aluminium is rare on earth, and also the area and amount of aluminium usage increases over time, the importance of aluminium recycling goes up. aluminium recycling has become crucial by means of both, the potential of the scrap's dependant increase on usage and the primary aluminium production, as it is providing energy and cost savings. 7xxx grades of scrap are collected with other scrap of aluminium alloys in one turn and recycled all together. As the regain of these alloys is not done by isolation of the various grades, the finally recycled ingots result in lower grades. High value aluminium scrap is regrettably not recovered, as it was anticipated. This study is dealing with 7075 aluminium alloys originated from discharged blow molding tools and the rest piece cuttings of blocks and plates. The material has been subjected to an induction furnace, and has been remelted into small ingots and hardened according to 7075 aluminium alloy parameters (hardening aluminium tooling). [German] Aluminium und seine Legierungen sind in den letzten Jahren aufgrund ihrer mechanischen Eigenschaften, ihrer Recyclingfaehigkeit und ihrer Durchlaessigkeit immer bedeutendere metallische Werkstoffe geworden. Unter Beruecksichtigung, dass Bauxit als Rohmaterial selten auf der Erde vorkommt und der Verbrauch mit der Zeit steigt, waechst die Bedeutung des Recyclings von Aluminium. Aluminiumrecycling, zumal es Energieund Kosteneinsparungen ermoeglicht, ist sowohl fuer die schrottabhaengigen Verwendungspotentiale und die PrimaerAluminiumproduktion gleichermassen bedeutend geworden. Die 7xxxx Schrottlegierungen werden in einem Arbeitsgang mit dem Schrott aus anderen Aluminiumlegierungen gesammelt und recycled. Da die

  11. Radiation-induced creep of copper, aluminium and their alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of creep studies on copper, aluminium and their alloys with and without neutron irradiation are presented. The experiments are carried out at the WWR-K reactor at the neutron fluence of 1.4.1016 n/m2.s (2.5.1016 n/m2.s, E>0.1 MeV). Polycrystalline copper (99.99 and 99.95%), aluminium (99.99%) and the alloys of copper with 4 at% of titanium, of aluminium with 4.2% of copper are studied within the temperature interval 0.31-0.51 Tm. (orig.)

  12. First wall design of aluminium alloy R-tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A design study of a low-activation D-T tokamak Reacting Plasma Project In Nagoya has been finished. The study emphasizes the vacuum vessel and the bumper limiter. Our choice of materials (aluminium vacuum vessel, copper conductors, aluminium TF coil case and lead shield) results in a radiation level of about 1 x 10-3 times that of a TFTR type design, and 1 x 10-4 times that of JET type design, at 2 weeks after one D-T shot. Thick graphite tiles will be fixed directly on the aluminium vacuum vessel using aluminium spring washers and bolts. With this simplified structure of the bumper limiter, the inner surface temperature of the thick aluminium vacuum vessel will be less than 1200C which is required to reduce the overaging effect of the aluminium alloy. (orig.)

  13. Oligocrystalline shape memory alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueland, Stian M.; Chen, Ying; Schuh, Christopher A. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2012-05-23

    Copper-based shape memory alloys (SMAs) exhibit excellent shape memory properties in single crystalline form. However, when they are polycrystalline, their shape memory properties are severely compromised by brittle fracture arising from transformation strain incompatibility at grain boundaries and triple junctions. Oligocrystalline shape memory alloys (oSMAs) are microstructurally designed SMA structures in which the total surface area exceeds the total grain boundary area, and triple junctions can even be completely absent. Here it is shown how an oligocrystalline structure provides a means of achieving single crystal-like SMA properties without being limited by constraints of single crystal processing. Additionally, the formation of oSMAs typically involves the reduction of the size scale of specimens, and sample size effects begin to emerge. Recent findings on a size effect on the martensitic transformation in oSMAs are compared and a new regime of heat transfer associated with the transformation heat evolution in these alloys is discussed. New results on unassisted two-way shape memory and the effect of loading rate in oSMAs are also reported. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  14. High Pressure Die Casting of Aluminium and Magnesium Alloys : Grain Structure and Segregation Characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Laukli, Hans Ivar

    2004-01-01

    Cold chamber high pressure die casting, (HPDC), is an important commercial process for the production of complex near net shape aluminium and magnesium alloy castings. The work presented in the thesis was aimed at investigating the microstructure formation in this type of casting. The solidification characteristics related to the process and the alloys control the formation of grains and defects. This again has a significant impact on the mechanical properties of the castings.The investigatio...

  15. Application of pressure infiltration to the manufacturing of aluminium matrix composite materials with different reinforcement shape

    OpenAIRE

    L.A. Dobrzański; M. Kremzer; Nagel, A.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this work is to investigate the influence of reinforcing phase’s shape on structure and properties of composite materials with aluminium alloy matrix.Design/methodology/approach: The material for studies was produced by a method of pressure infiltration of the porous ceramic framework. In order to investigate the influence of reinforcing phase’s shape the comparison was made between the properties of the composite material based on preforms obtained by Al2O3 Alcoa CL...

  16. Local electrochemical behaviour of 7xxx aluminium alloys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andreatta, F.

    2004-01-01

    Aluminium alloys of the 7xxx series (Al-Zn-Mg-Cu) are susceptible to localized types of corrosion like pitting, intergranular corrosion and exfoliation corrosion. This represents a limitation for the application of these alloys in the aerospace components because localized corrosion might have a neg

  17. Shape memory alloy thaw sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahinpoor, Mohsen; Martinez, David R.

    1998-01-01

    A sensor permanently indicates that it has been exposed to temperatures exceeding a critical temperature for a predetermined time period. An element of the sensor made from shape memory alloy changes shape when exposed, even temporarily, to temperatures above the Austenitic temperature of the shape memory alloy. The shape change of the SMA element causes the sensor to change between two readily distinguishable states.

  18. Metal-Ceramic Interfaces in Laser Coated Aluminium Alloys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, X.B.; Hosson, J.Th.M. De

    1994-01-01

    A novel process was developed to firmly coat an aluminium alloy, Al6061, with α-Al2O3 by means of laser processing. In this approach a mixture of SiO2 and Al powder was used to inject in the laser melted surface of aluminium. A reaction product α-Al2O3 layer of a thickness of 100 µm was created whic

  19. Constitutive modelling of aluminium alloy sheet at warm forming temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurukuri, S.; Worswick, M. J.; Winkler, S.

    2016-08-01

    The formability of aluminium alloy sheet can be greatly improved by warm forming. However predicting constitutive behaviour under warm forming conditions is a challenge for aluminium alloys due to strong, coupled temperature- and rate-sensitivity. In this work, uniaxial tensile characterization of 0.5 mm thick fully annealed aluminium alloy brazing sheet, widely used in the fabrication of automotive heat exchanger components, is performed at various temperatures (25 to 250 °C) and strain rates (0.002 and 0.02 s-1). In order to capture the observed rate- and temperature-dependent work hardening behaviour, a phenomenological extended-Nadai model and the physically based (i) Bergstrom and (ii) Nes models are considered and compared. It is demonstrated that the Nes model is able to accurately describe the flow stress of AA3003 sheet at different temperatures, strain rates and instantaneous strain rate jumps.

  20. Residual stress in 7449 aluminium alloy forgings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The through thickness residual stress distributions within three 120 mm thick rectilinear forgings, made from the high strength aluminium alloy 7449 have been measured using both neutron diffraction and deep hole drilling. Neutron diffraction measurements were made on two instruments, one using a pulsed spallation neutron source, the other a steady state reactor source. Heat treatment of the forgings included a rapid quench into cold water and it was the residual stresses arising from this step that were initially measured. Neutron diffraction measurements indicated large magnitude (>250 MPa) tensile residual stresses in the centre of an as quenched forging, balanced by surface regions stressed in compression (<-200 MPa). Sufficient measurements were made to permit the description of the residual stress distribution using area maps. Two forgings were stress relieved by cold compression immediately after quenching. The degree of plastic strain was either 2.5% or 4%, and was applied by a single application of force in the short transverse direction. Cold compressed forgings were found to have far lower residual stress when compared to the as quenched condition. The amount of cold compression was found to cause an insignificant difference in the final residual stress distribution. The neutron diffraction results are compared to measurements made by deep hole drilling and a new incremental variation of the technique. The deep hole was drilled through the centre of the forgings in the short transverse direction. Multiple neutron diffraction measurements were also made on the extracted cores from the deep hole measurements to assess the variation of the unstrained lattice parameter through the thickness of the forgings.

  1. Superplastic blow forming of 2219 aluminium alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaibyshev, R.; Kazakulov, I.; Gromov, D. [Inst. for Metals Superplasticity Problems, Ufa (Russian Federation); Lesuer, D.R.; Nieh, T.G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., Livermore, CA (United States)

    2004-07-01

    Superplasticity in 2219 aluminum alloy was achieved through thermomechanical processing. Tension tests showed that the alloy exhibits superplastic behavior in the temperature range of 450-540 C and strain rates ranging from 2.2 x 10{sup -5} to 1.1 x 10{sup -1} s{sup -1}. A maximum elongation-to-failure of 670% was recorded at 500 C and at the initial strain rate of 2.2 x 10{sup -4} s{sup -1}. High cavitation level and intensive grain growth were observed. Sheet of the 2219 aluminum alloy was blow formed into conical shape using two different methods: simple negative and backpressure forming. A strain of 2.1 was obtained at 500 C under the backpressure blow forming condition. It was found that elongation to failure under blow forming with backpressure is about 1.5 times higher than that under a simple female forming. Microstructural evolution of blow formed parts was also examined. (orig.)

  2. Development of Al-TiC Alloys Using Powder Metallurgy as Grain Refiners for Aluminium and Its Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel-Nasser .M. Omran

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Al-Ti-C master alloys have been widely investigated for many years as grain refiner for aluminium and its alloys. In this work, the Al-Ti-C master alloys are synthesized using powder metallurgy technique through the mixing of aluminium and TiC powders with different TiC contents 3.75 (3, 5(4, 6.25(5 and 7.5(6 Wt% TiC(Wt% Ti. The mixing powders with different contents of TiC were pressed in cylinder shape. The pressed specimens were sintered from 450 oC in a tube furnace under argon atmosphere for 2 hrs. The produced alloys before and after sintering are examined using SEM, EDX and XRD. The results indicate that, the Al-TiC alloy containing fine TiC particles dispersed in all matrix was successfully prepared. The prepared Al-TiC alloys with different contents of TiC were evaluated using the KBI test mold as grain refiner for pure aluminum and its alloys. The results indicate that the prepared Al-TiC master alloy is high grain refining efficiency for pure aluminum and its alloys.

  3. China Rescinds the Export Tax on Aluminium Alloys Made by Scrap

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    <正>According to an official from the Tax Regulations Office under China’s State Council, from July 1st 2005, China will rescind the 5 per cent export tax on the aluminium alloys produced by using aluminium alloys scrap. An official from the State Council’s office said that through investigation they found that most aluminium alloys produced from aluminium scrap are not that energy consuming compared to primary aluminium. Starting from January 1st 2005, China decided to collect 5 per cent export tax on aluminium so as to control the industry development connected with high energy cost.

  4. Crystallographic orientation-spray formed hypereutectic aluminium-silicon alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamilta de Oliveira Santos

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Aluminium-silicon alloys have been wide accepted in the automotive, electric and aerospace industries. Preferred orientation is a very common condition for metals and alloys. Particularly, aluminium induces texture during the forming process. The preparation of an aggregate with completely random crystal orientation is a difficult task. The present work was undertaken to analyse the texture by X-ray diffraction techniques, of three spray formed hypereutectic Al-Si alloys. Samples were taken from a billet of an experimental alloy (alloy 1 and were subsequently hot-rolled and cold-rolled (height reduction, 72% and 70%, respectively. The other used samples, alloys 2 and 3, were taken from cylinders liners. The results from the Laue camera showed texture just in the axial direction of alloy 3. The pole figures also indicated the presence of a typical low intensity deformation texture, especially for alloy 3. The spray formed microstructure, which is very fine, hinders the Al-Si texture formation during mechanical work.

  5. RAPID NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTING OF HEAT-TREATMENT QUALITY OF 2014 ALUMINIUM ALLOY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Since there is a single-valued reverse "C" shape relation between the displayed values of low frequency WJF-38 type micro-computer-based automatic metal material separator and the hardness of 2014 aluminium alloy after solid solution treatments at different temperatures and natural aging, moreover, the parts without sufficient solid solution, the over-burnt parts and the hardening crack parts respectively appear at the top and bottom of the reverse "C" shape relationship curve, the hardness of the 2014 aluminium alloy can be quantitatively determined by the WJF-38 instrument. Its Brinell hardness, Rockwell hardness and Vickers hardness values can be directly displayed. The parts without sufficient solid solution, the over-burnt parts and the hardening cracked parts can also be accurately separated by using the WJF-38 instrument. Furthermore,there is also a reverse "C" shape relation between the hardness of 2014 aluminium alloy after artificial aging treatment and the displayed value of the WJF-38 instrument. The precision of the hardness tested by the WJF-38 instrument is about HRB ± 1.3, and the separating speed can reach 1500 parts per hour.

  6. Effects and mechanisms of grain refinement in aluminium alloys

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K T Kashyap; T Chandrashekar

    2001-08-01

    Grain refinement plays a crucial role in improving characteristics and properties of cast and wrought aluminium alloys. Generally Al–Ti and Al–Ti–B master alloys are added to the aluminium alloys to grain refine the solidified product. The mechanism of grain refinement is of considerable controversy in the scientific literature. The nucleant effects i.e. which particle and its characteristics nucleate -Al, has been the subject of intensive research. Lately the solute effect i.e. the effect of dissolved titanium on grain refinement, has come into forefront of grain refinement research. The present paper attempts to review the literature on the nucleant effects and solute effects on grain refinement and addresses the importance of dissolved titanium in promoting nucleation of -Al on nucleant particles.

  7. Research of Properties of Sprayed Coatings on the Aluminium Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimonda Lukauskaitė

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In article the cathodic cleaning processes of aluminum alloyAW 5754 and cleaned substrate surface coating by plasmawith Ni-Cr-Fe-Si powder were researched. Aluminium substrateroughness after cathodic treatment at different cathodic treatmentparameters was established during the experiments. During theinvestigation a comparison of the calculated medium power1.6 to 9 kW plasma torch voltage-current characteristics withthe experimental results was made. The optimized parametersof aluminium cathode substrate cleaning process were selected;porosity and morphology of plasma sprayed nickel-based coatingwere determined.

  8. Implants for surgery -- Metallic materials -- Part 3: Wrought titanium 6-aluminium 4-vanadium alloy

    CERN Document Server

    International Organization for Standardization. Geneva

    1996-01-01

    Specifies the characteristics of, and corresponding test methods for, the wrought titanium alloy known as titanium 6-aluminium 4-vanadium alloy (Ti 6-Al 4-V alloy) for use in the manufacture of surgical implants.

  9. Positron annihilation observations of shot peened aluminium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samples of two aluminium alloys, 7075 and 2024, were used to examine the damage caused by surface shot peening. The 7075 alloy was in the T6 condition, which significs solution heat treatment and artificial aging to maximum hardness. The 2024 alloy was in the T3 condition, which signifies solution heat treatment followed by cold work. 2024 - T3 is quite sensitive to positron measurements of damage when compared with 7075 - T6 alloy. The main reason for the intensitivity of the 7075 - T6 to positron measurements is very likely the presence of a fully developed state of precipitation hardening as denoted by the T6 coding. The cold work used in the T3 condition did not bring the 2024 - T3 alloy above the upper limit of detectability for positron trapping prior to peening

  10. Gas accumulation at grain boundaries during 800 MeV proton irradiation of aluminium and aluminium-alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samples of pure aluminium (99.9999%) and commercial Al-2.7%Mg (AlMg3) and Al-1.1%Mg-0.5%Si (Al6061) alloys were irradiated with 800 MeV protons at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) at a temperature between 40-1000C to a maximum dose of 0.2 dpa. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed a complete absence of voids or bubbles in the grain interiors of the aluminium and the aluminium-alloys. Bubbles were clearly visible by TEM at grain boundaries in pure Al and the AlMg3 alloy; but bubbles were not visible in the Al6061 alloy. The bubble density in the AlMg3 alloy was considerably higher than in pure Al. The amount of gas accumulation at grain boundaries was found to depend on gas generation rate, alloying and cold-work microstructure. (orig.)

  11. State diagram of copper-aluminium alloys after neutron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is ascertained that under reactor irradiation of copper-aluminium alloys (18.0-31.2 at% of Al) radiation-induced phase transformations occur, alpha-phase is decomposed into two ones with alpha'-phase precipitation, in gamma2-phase separate regions of its high-temperature disordered modification (gamma1-phase) are formed. Thermal stability of precipitations is investigated, regions of their existence are defined on the state diagram

  12. LASER CLADDING ON ALUMINIUM BASE ALLOYS

    OpenAIRE

    Pilloz, M.; Pelletier, J; Vannes, A.; Bignonnet, A.

    1991-01-01

    laser cladding is often performed on iron or titanium base alloys. In the present work, this method is employed on aluminum alloys ; nickel or silicon are added by powder injection. Addition of silicon leads to sound surface layers, but with moderated properties, while the presence of nickel induces the formation of hard intermetallic compounds and then to an attractive hardening phenomena ; however a recovery treatment has to be carried out, in order to eliminate porosity in the near surface...

  13. Radiation effects in the aluminium alloys irradiated with neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Materials of fuel elements for water cooled nuclear reactors are exposed to simultaneous action of an ionizing radiation, temperature and yields of water radiolysis. In particular, irradiation by fast neutrons (En> 0.1 MeV) in research reactors influences mainly the mechanical properties of aluminium alloys, increasing their strength and reducing the plasticity. Radiation can essentially affect the stability of the heat-generating assembly material, changing its structure state. The structure change may also be the result of post-radiation ageing. This paper presents the results of studying the influence of reactor neutrons (research reactor of INP AS RU) on microstructure, electrical characteristics and length changes of SAV-1 and AMG-2 aluminium alloys used in nuclear industry. These alloys are low-alloyed solid solutions and intermetallic phases of CuAl2, Mg2Si, CuMgAl2, CuMg4Al6, Al2Mg2 in an equilibrium state. Samples were cut with orientation in 111 crystallographic axis in the shape of disks with the diameter d= 15 mm and thickness h= 3 mm for the metallographic analysis, and rods with the length of 40 mm and width d = 5 mm for measuring specific electrical resistance and linear dimension changes prior and after irradiations. For precise measurements the sample surfaces were mechanically handled and polished in a chemical solution, and then washed out in the distilled water and ethanol. Further samples, were put into the aluminum container and irradiated in a vertical channel of the reactor to fluencies 1018, 1019, 1020 n/cm2. The relative elongation (extension) δ was calculated as the measured length ratio of the non-irradiated and irradiated sample: δ=L0/L1x100%. Determination of element composition and the metallographic analysis of studied samples were done at the X-ray microanalyzer 'Jeol' JSM 5910 IV. Specific resistance (ρ) values were measures with four probe technique by compensation method at the direct voltage. The sample lengths

  14. Carbon treated commercial aluminium alloys as anodes for aluminium-air batteries in sodium chloride electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pino, M.; Herranz, D.; Chacón, J.; Fatás, E.; Ocón, P.

    2016-09-01

    An easy treatment based in carbon layer deposition into aluminium alloys is presented to enhance the performance of Al-air primary batteries with neutral pH electrolyte. The jellification of aluminate in the anode surface is described and avoided by the carbon covering. Treated commercial Al alloys namely Al1085 and Al7475 are tested as anodes achieving specific capacities above 1.2 Ah g-1vs 0.5 Ah g-1 without carbon covering. The influence of the binder proportion in the treatment as well as different carbonaceous materials, Carbon Black, Graphene and Pyrolytic Graphite are evaluated as candidates for the covering. Current densities of 1-10 mA cm-2 are measured and the influence of the alloy explored. A final battery design of 4 cells in series is presented for discharges with a voltage plateau of 2 V and 1 Wh g-1 energy density.

  15. Recycling of Glass Fibre Reinforced Aluminium Laminates and Silicon Removal from Aerospace Al Alloy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, G.

    2012-01-01

    Aerospace aluminium alloys (7xxx and 2xxx series Al alloy) is one of the important Al alloys in our life. The recycling of aerospace Al alloy plays a significant role in sustainable development of Al industry. The fibre reinforced metal laminates GLARE including 67 wt.% 2024 Al alloy was used as upp

  16. Aluminium. II - A review of deformation properties of high purity aluminium and dilute aluminium alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, R. P.

    1972-01-01

    The elastic and plastic deformation behavior of high-purity aluminum and of dilute aluminum alloys is reviewed. Reliable property data, including elastic moduli, elastic coefficients, tensile, creep, fatigue, hardness, and impact are presented. Single crystal tensile results are discussed. Rather comprehensive reference lists, containing publications of the past 20 years, are included for each of the above categories. Defect structures and mechanisms responsible for mechanical behavior are presented. Strengthening techniques (alloys, cold work, irradiation, quenching, composites) and recovery are briefly reviewed.

  17. Influence of Process Parameters on the Quality of Aluminium Alloy EN AW 7075 Using Selective Laser Melting (SLM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, N.; Imran, M.; Wischeropp, T. M.; Emmelmann, C.; Siddique, S.; Walther, F.

    Selective laser melting (SLM) is an additive manufacturing process, forming the desired geometry by selective layer fusion of powder material. Unlike conventional manufacturing processes, highly complex parts can be manufactured with high accuracy and little post processing. Currently, different steel, aluminium, titanium and nickel-based alloys have been successfully processed; however, high strength aluminium alloy EN AW 7075 has not been processed with satisfying quality. The main focus of the investigation is to develop the SLM process for the wide used aluminium alloy EN AW 7075. Before process development, the gas-atomized powder material was characterized in terms of statistical distribution: size and shape. A wide range of process parameters were selected to optimize the process in terms of optimum volume density. The investigations resulted in a relative density of over 99%. However, all laser-melted parts exhibit hot cracks which typically appear in aluminium alloy EN AW 7075 during the welding process. Furthermore the influence of processing parameters on the chemical composition of the selected alloy was determined.

  18. Subgrain Growth, Recovery Kinetics and Nucleation of Recrystallization of Cold Deformed Aluminium Alloys

    OpenAIRE

    Bunkholt, Sindre

    2013-01-01

    Phenomena related to annealing of aluminium alloys are among the least understood in aluminium metallurgy but very important for industrial thermo-mechanical processing i.e. deformation and annealing. Physical models are used to predict recovery and recrystallization behaviour, and associated material properties, industrially. However, alloy development, e.g. to incorporate more recycled aluminium, has shown that current softening models are not satisfactory. Thus, improvements do require a b...

  19. A hybrid aluminium alloy and its zoo of interacting nano-precipitates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenner, Sigurd, E-mail: sigurd.wenner@ntnu.no [Department of Physics, NTNU, Høgskoleringen 5, NO-7491 Trondheim (Norway); Marioara, Calin Daniel; Andersen, Sigmund Jarle [Materials and Chemistry, SINTEF, Høgskoleringen 5, NO-7491 Trondheim (Norway); Ervik, Martin; Holmestad, Randi [Department of Physics, NTNU, Høgskoleringen 5, NO-7491 Trondheim (Norway)

    2015-08-15

    An alloy with aluminium as its base element is heat treated to form a multitude of precipitate phases known from different classes of industrial alloys: Al–Cu(–Mg), Al–Mg–Si–Cu, and Al–Zn–Mg. Nanometer-sized needle-shaped particles define the starting point of the phase nucleation, after which there is a split in the precipitation sequence into six phases of highly diverse compositions and morphologies. There are several unique effects of phases from different alloy systems being present in the same host lattice, of which we concentrate on two: the replacement of Ag by Zn on the Ω interface and the formation of combined plates of the θ′ and C phases. Using atomically resolved scanning transmission electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, we investigate the formation mechanisms, crystal structures and compositions of the precipitates. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • An aluminium alloy composition in-between the 2/6/7xxx systems was investigated. • Six different phases from the three systems coexist in an over-aged state. • All phases with 〈001〉{sub Al} coherencies can nucleate on 6xxx needle precipitates. • Modified theta′ and omega interfaces are observed.

  20. Mould Filling Ability Characterisation of Cast Aluminium Alloys Using Design of Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samavedam Santhi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mould filling ability characteristic has been influencing the liquid metal flow, heat transfer, and solidification there by affecting the quality of aerospace castings. Mould filling is a critical parameter in the production of sound and quality castings, especially in the case of complex-shaped castings where section thickness is varying considerably. The mould filling ability of aluminium alloys LM6 and LM25 has been studied in the present investigation. Experimentation has been carried out using orthogonal array experimental layout. The process parameters studied in the present investigation are alloy composition, sand fineness, mould coating, and pouring temperature. The mould filling ability of selected aluminium alloy has been studied using pin test piece with cylindrical cores. The results from experimentation are analyzed to find the influence of the process parameters on mould filling ability. Based on the above, LM6 alloy has been found to have better mould filling ability characteristics and the analysis of variance has also revealed the same optimum factor combination.

  1. Slip lines in scandium and lithium containing aluminium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intensive slip lines in cold rolled sheets of scandium or lithium containing aluminium base alloys are under study. Slip lines are shown to be the places of concentrated shear strain which arise due to the occurrence of secondary δ'(Al3Li) and Al3Sc particles completely coherent to the matrix. The formation of slip lines has a detrimental effect on cold rolled sheet mechanical properties after heat hardening. To avoid the appearance of slip lines it is necessary to roll sheets with low reductions in area and to choose appropriate conditions of intermediate heat treatments. 5 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  2. Release Behaviour of Shock Loaded LY12 Aluminium Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Min; DAI Lan-Hong; SHEN Le-Tian

    2005-01-01

    @@ By making use of a light gas gun, a specially designed target is impacted by the LY12 flyer, and the pressure is taken in the range of 0.6-3 GPa. Based on the stress profiles measured in the buffer materials by manganese gauges, the Hugoniot curve and release curves of LY12 aluminium alloy are obtained. Meanwhile, the release curves from different initial shocked states are described in both the pressure-particle velocity plane and the pressure-specific volume plane.

  3. Determination of phosphorus in hypereutectic aluminium-silicon alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukai, K

    1972-04-01

    A reproducible method is described for determination of small amounts of phosphorus (from 0.0005% to 0.02%) in hypereutectic aluminium-silicon complex alloys. The method permits the separate determination of phosphorus in acid-soluble and acid-insoluble fractions. Phosphomolybdate is extracted with n-butanol-chloroform solvent mixture and back-extracted with a btannous chloride reducing solution. The phosphorus content of a sample cut into small pieces decreases during storage; loss of phosphorus is negligible on acid dissolution under oxidizing conditions. PMID:18961077

  4. About resonance frequencies of aluminium alloy bending vibrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using ultrasonic method resonance frequencies of bending vibrations and elastic moduli of aluminium alloy SAV-1 samples are investigated. On the base of spectra of bending vibrations in low-frequency range data on values of a number of elastic properties are obtained as well as dispersion characteristics of main moduli for number of frequencies before and after ionizing irradiation (60Co, 5x103-1.6x107 Gy) of samples. Considerable stability of sample elastic moduli during common storage conditions and nonlinear dose dependence of these parameters within wide range of absorbed doses are pointed out. Possible causes of revealed effects of radiation modification of elastic properties of SAV-1 alloy are analyzed

  5. Fractographic analysis of fatigue damage in 7000 aluminium alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvijović, Z; Vratnica, M; Gerić, K

    2008-12-01

    In this paper, an attempt is made to correlate the fatigue damage in 7000 aluminium alloys with different impurity contents to the microstructural features and to explain their interdependence through fractographic observations. The Paris constants of these alloys in the form of hot-forged plates subjected to the overaged T73 temper are evaluated and differences in the fatigue crack growth rate described by striation spacing measurements. Scanning electron microscopy analysis of fatigue fracture surfaces revealed that the type and morphological parameters of coarse intermetallic particles play a critical role in fatigue crack growth behaviour. The elemental distribution determined by means of energy-dispersive spectroscopy analysis showed that the fractured particles accelerating the crack advances are larger particles of Fe-rich phases. The fatigue crack growth rate increases considerably with increasing amounts of these particles. The smaller eta, S and Mg(2)Si particles contribute beneficially to fatigue life.

  6. Laser surface alloying of aluminium-transition metal alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almeida, A.

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available Laser surface alloying has been used as a tool to produce hard and corrosion resistant Al-transition metal (TM alloys. Cr and Mo are particularly interesting alloying elements to produce stable highstrength alloys because they present low diffusion coefficients and solid solubility in Al. To produce Al-TM surface alloys a two-step laser process was developed: firstly, the material is alloyed using low scanning speed and secondly, the microstructure is modified by a refinement step. This process was used in the production of Al-Cr, Al-Mo and Al-Nb surface alloys by alloying Cr, Mo or Nb powder into an Al and 7175 Al alloy substrate using a CO2 laser. This paper presents a review of the work that has been developed at Instituto Superior Tecnico on laser alloying of Al-TM alloys, over the last years.

    En el presente trabajo se estudia la aleación superficial mediante láser de aluminio con metales de transición. El cromo y el molibdeno son particularmente interesantes porque producen aleaciones de alta resistencia y por el bajo coeficiente de difusión y solución sólida en aluminio. Para producir estas aleaciones se ha seguido un procedimiento desarrollado en dos partes. En primer lugar, el material se alea usando una baja velocidad de procesado y en segundo lugar la estructura se modifica mediante un refinamiento posterior. Este procedimiento se ha empleado en la producción de aleaciones Al-Cr, Al-Mo y Al-Nb mediante aleación con láser de CO2 de polvos de Cr, Mo o Nb en aluminio y la aleación 7175. Este trabajo es una revisión del desarrollado en el Instituto Superior Técnico de Lisboa en los últimos años.

  7. A study of the anodic behaviour of aluminium alloys in alkaline electrolytes

    OpenAIRE

    Walters, B N

    1988-01-01

    Recent studies an the discharge performance of aluminium alloys in alkaline media have led to improved alloys with significantly lower corrosion rates and more anodic potentials. Performance, of various alkaline electrolytes have also been examined and considerable progress has been made in this area. A review of the available literature reveals a list of several elements which are suitable for alloying with aluminium as regards reducing corrosion and overpotential. Previous work at the Chemi...

  8. Corrosion Behaviour of Friction Stir Welded AA5xxx Aluminium Alloys

    OpenAIRE

    Abuaisha, Ramadan R

    2013-01-01

    Friction stir welding (FSW) is a well recognised method for joining aluminium alloys and other engineering materials at a temperature below their melting point. However, the microstructure of the alloys may be modified during the welding process due to frictional heat and severe plastic deformation.In this study, the microstructures of friction stir welded AA5754-H111 and AA5083-O aluminium alloys have been investigated using optical microscopy, transmission and scanning electron microscopy e...

  9. Ultrasonic Welding of Aluminium to Titanium: Microstructure, Properties, and Alloying Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Chaoqun

    2015-01-01

    Use of welded titanium alloy to aluminium alloy structures in the aerospace industry has a number of potential benefits for both cost and weight saving by enabling titanium to be used only in the most critical parts, with the cheaper and lighter aluminum alloy making up the rest of the structure. However, due to the formation of brittle intermetallic compounds (IMC) at interface and the enormous gap in melting point, the welding of titanium to aluminium remains a major challenge. Solid state ...

  10. Low temperature oxidation of niobium alloy with silicon-aluminium coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using the gravimetry methods heat resistance of niobium-titanium-aluminium alloy in the air and at 700 deg C in the initial state and when it is protected by silicide-aluminium coatings (with variable content of aluminium) is investigated. Using X-ray diffraction and micro X-ray diffraction analyses, mechanisms of the alloy oxidation and the coating protective effect are studied. The role of aluminium in the formation of coatings is analyzed and according to bend tests the plasticity of the coatings is evaluated

  11. Finite element modelling of deformation behaviour in incremental sheet forming of aluminium alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Tsung-Han

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the finite element method (FEM is used to study the incremental sheet forming process of pyramidal shape. The material used is aluminium alloy 5052. The tool, a hemispherical ball-head with a diameter (d = 4 mm made of HSS tool steel, is used to press down on the sheet metal causing locally plastic deformation. The comparison between spiral tool path, spiral-step tool path and z-level tool path is carried out. Moreover, the final thickness distribution is investigated. The results indicate that the minimal thickness can be found on the corner of wall angle in SPIF process. Under the same step over, spiral-step tool path can obtain the deepest depth for pyramidal shape. The maximum formability for successful forming of the pyramidal shape with depth 60 mm is wall angles 65∘.

  12. Performance of commercial aluminium alloys as anodes in gelled electrolyte aluminium-air batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pino, M.; Chacón, J.; Fatás, E.; Ocón, P.

    2015-12-01

    The evaluation of commercial aluminium alloys, namely, Al2024, Al7475 and Al1085, for Al-air batteries is performed. Pure Al cladded Al2024 and Al7475 are also evaluated. Current rates from 0.8 mA cm-2 to 8.6 mA cm-2 are measured in a gel Al-air cell composed of the commercial alloy sample, a commercial air-cathode and an easily synthesizable gelled alkaline electrolyte. The influence of the alloying elements and the addition to the electrolyte of ZnO and ZnCl2, as corrosion inhibitors is studied and analysed via EDX/SEM. Specific capacities of up to 426 mAh/g are obtained with notably flat potential discharges of 1.3-1.4 V. The competition between self-corrosion and oxidation reactions is also discussed, as well as the influence of the current applied on that process. Al7475 is determined to have the best behaviour as anode in Al-air primary batteries, and cladding process is found to be an extra protection against corrosion at low current discharges. Conversely, Al1085 provided worse results because of an unfavourable metallic composition.

  13. The influence of alloy composition on residual stresses in heat treated aluminium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The as quenched properties of eight different heat treatable aluminium alloys are related to residual stress magnitudes with the objective being to establish if there is a relationship between the residual stress and the as quenched alloy hardness and strength. Near surface residual stresses were assessed with X-ray diffraction using both the established sin2ψ method and the more recent cos α technique. Through thickness residual stresses were also characterised using neutron diffraction. The alloys were chosen to encompass a wide range of strengths. The low to medium strength alloys were 6060 and 6082, medium to high strength 2618A, 2014A, 7075, 7010 and two variants of 7449, while the very high strength alloy was the powder metallurgy alloy N707. To assess the as quenched strength, dynamic hardness and tensile properties were determined from samples tested immediately after quenching to minimise the influence of precipitation hardening by natural aging. In addition, hot hardness measurements were made in situ on samples cooled to simulate quench paths. Within the experimental constraints of the investigation, the distribution of residual stress through the thickness was found to follow the same pattern for all the alloys investigated, varying from tensile in the interior to surface compression. The influence of alloy strength was manifested as a change in the observed residual stress magnitudes, and surface residual stresses were found to vary linearly with as quenched hardness and strength. - Highlights: • As quenched aluminium alloys contain high magnitude residual stresses. • Surface is compressive balance by a tensile core. • As quenched surface residual stress is linear function of alloy strength. • In situ hot hardness demonstrates rapid change in intrinsic hardness during rapid cooling

  14. The influence of alloy composition on residual stresses in heat treated aluminium alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, J.S., E-mail: jeremy.robinson@ul.ie [Department of Mechanical, Aeronautical and Biomedical Engineering, University of Limerick (Ireland); Redington, W. [Materials and Surface Science Institute, University of Limerick (Ireland)

    2015-07-15

    The as quenched properties of eight different heat treatable aluminium alloys are related to residual stress magnitudes with the objective being to establish if there is a relationship between the residual stress and the as quenched alloy hardness and strength. Near surface residual stresses were assessed with X-ray diffraction using both the established sin{sup 2}ψ method and the more recent cos α technique. Through thickness residual stresses were also characterised using neutron diffraction. The alloys were chosen to encompass a wide range of strengths. The low to medium strength alloys were 6060 and 6082, medium to high strength 2618A, 2014A, 7075, 7010 and two variants of 7449, while the very high strength alloy was the powder metallurgy alloy N707. To assess the as quenched strength, dynamic hardness and tensile properties were determined from samples tested immediately after quenching to minimise the influence of precipitation hardening by natural aging. In addition, hot hardness measurements were made in situ on samples cooled to simulate quench paths. Within the experimental constraints of the investigation, the distribution of residual stress through the thickness was found to follow the same pattern for all the alloys investigated, varying from tensile in the interior to surface compression. The influence of alloy strength was manifested as a change in the observed residual stress magnitudes, and surface residual stresses were found to vary linearly with as quenched hardness and strength. - Highlights: • As quenched aluminium alloys contain high magnitude residual stresses. • Surface is compressive balance by a tensile core. • As quenched surface residual stress is linear function of alloy strength. • In situ hot hardness demonstrates rapid change in intrinsic hardness during rapid cooling.

  15. Selected properties of the aluminium alloy base composites reinforced with intermetallic particles

    OpenAIRE

    M. Adamiak

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The main aim of this work is to investigate two types of intermetallics TiAl and Ti3Al as reinforcement and their influence on selected properties and microstructure of aluminium matrix composites.Design/methodology/approach: Aluminium matrix composites were produced employing the atomised aluminium alloy AA6061 as metal matrix, when as reinforcement TiAl and Ti3Al intermetallics particles were used. The powders were cold pressed and then hot extruded. To evaluate the effect of mecha...

  16. Electrodeposition of aluminium film on P90 Li-Al alloy as protective coating against corrosion

    OpenAIRE

    U. Bardi; Caporali, S; M. Craig; A. Giorgetti; Perissi, I; Nicholls, J. R.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we report on the electrodeposition of thin aluminium layers on P90 lithium–aluminium alloy at room temperature from a chloroaluminate ionic liquid (1-butyl-3-methyl imidazolium heptachloroaluminate [BMIm]Al2Cl7). We found that the treatment of the P90 sample's surface is a key point to obtain good quality coatings. On freshly mechanically polished surfaces, thin (about 24 µm), homogeneous and dense aluminium layers were obtained at 10 µm h− 1 deposition rate. F...

  17. Electrolytic deposition of aluminium-magnesium-alloys from electrolytes containing organo-aluminium complexes; Elektrolytische Abscheidung von Aluminium-Magnesium-Legierungen aus aluminiumorganischen Komplexelektrolyten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehmkuhl, H.; Mehler, K.; Bongard, H.; Tesche, B. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kohlenforschung, Muelheim an der Ruhr (Germany); Reinhold, B. [Audi AG, Ingolstadt (Germany). Technische Entwicklung

    2000-10-01

    The galvanic deposition of pure aluminium from fluoride-containing electrolytes has been developed further and for the first time aluminium and magnesium have been deposited from a toluene-solution of a halide-free organo-aluminium complex electrolyte. The rate of incorporation of magnesium can be controlled over a wide range by either adjusting the composition of the aluminium-magnesium anode or by using separate aluminium or magnesium anodic circuits. The current efficiency for both anode and cathode approaches 100%. The resulting coating is optically attractive and, depending upon the magnesium-content or the cathodic current density, can be formed as a dull or polished surface. Investigations using an electron microscope show that the surface, in contrast to that of pure aluminium, consists of spherical particles. The aluminium-magnesium coating provides excellent protection against the corrosion of magnesium components. Electrochemical investigations using, for example 25% by weight magnesium incorporation, indicate a pronounced passivity interval compared to the alloy AZ91hp. In contrast to galvanic zinc-plated and silicate-sealed examples, cyclic corrosion tests on screws simulating 10 years of exposure, show no corrosion. (orig.)

  18. Alloy development and associated dimensional changes of aluminium alloys during liquid phase sintering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, J.M.; Castro, F. [Centro de Estudios e Investigaciones Tecnicas de Guipuzcoa (CEIT) and TECNUN, San Sebastian (Spain)

    2003-07-01

    The sintering behaviour and microstructural evolution of two aluminium alloys, of the 2XXX and 7XXX series, has been studied under, both, laboratory and industrial conditions. Quenching experiments from selected temperatures during the heating cycles, coupled with microstructural characterisation by Electron Microscopy, were used to investigate the gradual approach towards equilibrium of the alloys, from the as-pressed powder mixtures to the consolidated state after sintering. Differential Scanning Calorimetry was used to identify the reactions leading to the formation of liquid phases during sintering while the associated dimensional changes were determined by Dilatometry. The sinterability of these alloys and the development of necks between the solid aluminium particles is based upon the initial formation of transient liquid phases that favour the incorporation of alloying additions, followed by the development of permanent liquid phases, mainly containing Zn/Mg/Al and Cu/Al for the 7XXX and 2XXX series, respectively, leading to the densification of the alloys. A series of geometrically complex components with adequate dimensional tolerance and properties were industrially produced for an automotive application using the 2XXX series P/M Al alloy. (orig.)

  19. Domestic Output of Aluminium Alloy Hub Surpassing 70 million in 2007

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>According to a report from the hub branch of China Association of Automobile Manufactur- ers,China has produced a total of more than 70 million aluminium alloy hubs in 2007,a year- on-year growth over 25%,while consuming over 700,000 tons of primary aluminium the whole year.

  20. The role of magnesium in the electrochemical behaviour of 5XXX aluminium-magnesium alloys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flores Ramirez, J.R.

    2006-01-01

    An investigation concerning the effects of magnesium on the intergranular corrosion susceptibility of AA5XXX aluminium alloys was carried out. In the present work, magnesium is found to be highly mobile in the bulk metal as well as in the aluminium oxide. This mobility is also found to be dependent

  1. Microstructure and interfaces of a reaction coating on aluminium alloys by laser processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, X.B.; Hosson, J.Th.M. De

    1993-01-01

    This paper reports an approach to coat a ceramic layer on aluminium alloys by means of chemical reaction. The reaction product of Al2O3 layer of 100 µm in thickness has been formed using a powder mixture of silicon oxide and aluminium by laser processing. It turns out that the large amount of heat f

  2. Influences of post weld heat treatment on tensile properties of friction stir welded AA2519-T87 aluminium alloy joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabari, S. Sree; Balasubramanian, V.; Malarvizhi, S.; Reddy, G. Madusudhan

    2015-12-01

    AA 2519-T87 is an aluminium alloy that principally contains Cu as an alloying element and is a new grade of Al-Cu alloy system. This material is a potential candidate for light combat military vehicles. Fusion welding of this alloy leads to hot cracking, porosity and alloy segregation in the weld metal region. Friction stir welding (FSW) is a solid state joining process which can overcome the above mentioned problems. However, the FSW of age hardenable aluminium alloys results in poor tensile properties in the as-welded condition (AW). Hence, post weld heat treatment (PWHT) is used to enhance deteriorated tensile properties of FSW joints. In this work, the effect of PWHT, namely artificial ageing (AA) and solution treatment (ST) followed by ageing (STA) on the microstructure, tensile properties and microhardness were systematically investigated. The microstructural features of the weld joints were characterised using an optical microscope (OM), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The tensile strength and microhardness of the joints were correlated with the grain size, precipitate size, shape and its distribution. From the investigation, it was found that STA treatment is beneficial in enhancing the tensile strength of the FSW joints of AA2519-T87 alloy and this is mainly due to the presence of fine and densely distributed precipitates in the stir zone.

  3. GAS-CREATION OF SEPARATING COVERINGS FOR MOULDS FOR DIE CASTING OF ALUMINIUM ALLOYS

    OpenAIRE

    A. M. Mihaltsov; A. A. Pivovarchik; A. A. Subota

    2016-01-01

    The methods of experiments on determination of gascreating ability of different separating coverings for the moulds of aluminium alloys die casting are given and described in the article, and the results of investigation are given as well.

  4. Development and optimization of an AA2014 powder metallurgy aluminium alloy, characterization and corrosion behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Redondo Ruiz, Enrique

    2014-01-01

    The light density of aluminium has make it one of the main materials used in the aeronautic and automotive industries. Both industries are constantly trying to reduce weight to save costs in combustibles. When heat treated, aluminium alloys obtain values of specific strength that allows them to compete with ferrous alloys. Powder metallurgy is an alternative to conventional manufacturing techniques, such as casting or forging. It can produce small pieces at high rate with a high complexity...

  5. Recovery of actinides from actinide-aluminium alloys by chlorination: Part II

    OpenAIRE

    Soucek, Pavel; Cassayre, Laurent; Eloirdi, Rachel; Malmbeck, Rikard; Meier, Roland; Nourry, Christophe; Claux, Benoit; Glatz, Jean-Paul

    2014-01-01

    International audience; A chlorination route is being investigated for recovery of actinides from actinide-aluminium alloys, which originate from pyrochemical recovery of actinides from spent metallic nuclear fuel by electrochemical methods in molten LiCl-KCl. In the present work, the most important steps of this route were experimentally tested using U-Pu-Al alloy prepared by electrodeposition of U and Pu on solid aluminium plate electrodes. The investigated processes were vacuum distillatio...

  6. Recovery of actinides from actinide-aluminium alloys by chlorination: Part I

    OpenAIRE

    Cassayre, Laurent; Soucek, Pavel; Mendes, Eric; Malmbeck, Rikard; Nourry, Christophe; Eloirdi, Rachel; Glatz, Jean-Paul

    2011-01-01

    Pyrochemical processes in molten LiCl–KCl are being developed in ITU for recovery of actinides from spent nuclear fuel. The fuel is anodically dissolved to the molten salt electrolyte and actinides are electrochemically reduced on solid aluminium cathodes forming solid actinide–aluminium alloys. A chlorination route is being investigated for recovery of actinides from the alloys. This route consists in three steps: Vacuum distillation for removal of the salt adhered on the electrode, chlorina...

  7. Sol-gel derived nanocomposite materials for corrosion protection of aluminium alloys

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, Helmut K.; Müller, Peter; Dittfurth, Carola; Albayrak, Sener; Puhl, Anne

    2000-01-01

    Thermally curable nanocomposite coating materials have been developed to seal and protect copper-containing aluminium alloys against corrosion. The coating material was prepared via the sol-gel-process starting from epoxy functionalised silanes, nanoscaled silica and organic diole crosslinker. This coating matrix was additionally supplied with a varying content of cerium oxide (1-20 wt.%). The corrosion protective efficiency of these coatings was investigated on aluminium alloys Al 6013-T6 an...

  8. The adsorption of an epoxy acrylate resin on aluminium alloy conversion coatings

    OpenAIRE

    Grilli, R; Abel, ML; Baker, MA; Dunn, B.; Watts, JF

    2011-01-01

    A thermodynamic study of the adsorption of an epoxy acrylate resin used for UV-cured coatings on two different anticorrosion pretreatments on aluminium alloys relevant to aerospace industry has been undertaken. Aluminium alloy Al2219 specimens, treated with an inorganic chromate based conversion coating (Alodine 1200S) and an organic titanium based conversion coating (Nabutan STI/310), were immersed in solutions of different concentrations of the resin and adsorption isotherms were determined...

  9. Surface mechanical behaviour of composite Ni-P-fly ash/zincate coated aluminium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ni-P-fly ash coatings were produced on zincate coated 5083 wrought aluminium alloy substrates with the aid of an electroless deposition technique. Structural and chemical characterization of the produced coatings was performed with the aid of X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electron dispersive X-ray analysis (EDS) techniques. The Ni-P-fly ash coating was found to consist of an amorphous Ni-P matrix with dispersed fly ash particles. The wear resistance of the Ni-P-fly ash coating on zincate treated aluminium alloy was observed to be higher than that of the bare aluminium alloy, when sliding against a stainless steel counterface. In addition, the adhesion between the Ni-P-fly ash/zincate coating and the aluminium alloy substrate was also studied with a scratch testing apparatus. The adhesion strength of Ni-P-fly ash/zincate coating on the aluminium alloy substrate was observed to be higher in comparison to the Ni-P/zincate coating on the same aluminium alloy.

  10. Microscopic observation of pattern attack by aggressive ions on finished surface of aluminium alloy sacrificial anode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the results of a microscopic observation on submerged finished surface of aluminium alloy sacrificial anode. Experimental tests were carried out on polished surface aluminium anode exposed to seawater containing aggressive ions in order to observe of pattern corrosion attack on corroding surface of anode. Results have shown, at least under the present testing condition, that surface of sacrificial anode were attack by an aggressive ion such as chloride along grain boundaries. In addition, results of microanalysis showed that the corrosion products on surface of aluminium alloy have Al, Zn and O element for all sample and within the pit was consists of Al, Zn, O and Cl element. (author)

  11. Emeraldine base as corrosion protective layer on aluminium alloy AA5182, effect of the surface microstructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cecchetto, L; Ambat, Rajan; Davenport, A.J.;

    2007-01-01

    AA5182 aluminium alloy cold rolled samples were coated by thin Wlms of emeraldine base (EB) obtained from a 5% solution in N-methylpyrrolidinone. Accelerated corrosion tests prove this coating very eVective for corrosion protection of aluminium alloys in neutral environment. This study underlines......: • a weak redox activity of the polymer which passivate the metal, • a proton involving self-healing process taking place at the polymer–metal interface, which contributes to delay local acidiWcation in Wrst steps of corrosion on EB coated aluminium surfaces....

  12. Application of pressure infiltration to the manufacturing of aluminium matrix composite materials with different reinforcement shape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A. Dobrzański

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this work is to investigate the influence of reinforcing phase’s shape on structure and properties of composite materials with aluminium alloy matrix.Design/methodology/approach: The material for studies was produced by a method of pressure infiltration of the porous ceramic framework. In order to investigate the influence of reinforcing phase’s shape the comparison was made between the properties of the composite material based on preforms obtained by Al2O3 Alcoa CL 2500 powder sintered with addition of pore forming agent in form of carbon fibres Sigrafil C 10 M250 UNS from Carbon Group company and composite materials based on much more expensive commercial fibrous preforms. The matrix consisted of cast aluminium alloy EN AC – AlSi12. The observations of the structure were made on the light microscope and in the scanning electron microscope. The strength properties were established on the basis of static tensile tests.Findings: The composite materials, obtained on the basis of ceramic preforms consisted of Al2O3 particles, are showing better strength properties in comparison to materials obtained by the fibrous preform infiltration.Practical implications: The composite materials made by the developed method can find application as the elements of devices where beside the benefits from utilizable properties the small weight is required (mainly in aircraft and motorization industries.Originality/value: The obtained results show the possibility of manufacturing the composite materials by the method of porous sintered framework pressure infiltration based on the ceramic particles, characterized with the better properties than similar composites reinforced with fibres.

  13. Applications of shape memory alloys in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asai, M.; Suzuki, Y. [Furukawa Electric Co., Ltd., Yokohama, Kanagawa (Japan). R and D Labs.

    2000-07-01

    In Japan, a first application of shape memory TiNi alloy was a moving flap in an air-conditioner which was developed as sensing function of shape memory alloy at Matsushista Electric Industrial Co. Then, shape memory utilized in a coffee maker, an electric rice-cooker, a thermal mixing valve and etc. were commercialized in Japan. And brassiere wires, a guide wire for medical treatment, an antenna for portable telephone and others were commercialized utilizing superelasticity. At the same time with these commercial products, there was not only progress in fabrication technology to effect accurate transformation temperature, but also the discovery of small hysteresis alloy such as R-phase or TiNiCu alloy and low transformation temperature alloy such as TiNiFe, TiNiV and TiNiCo alloys. Therefore the shape memory alloy market has expanded widely to electric appliances, automobile, residence, medical care and otherfield today. (orig.)

  14. Determination of ultratrace amounts of uranium and thorium in aluminium and aluminium alloys by electrothermal vaporization/ICP-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method has been developed for determining the 0.01 ng g-1 level of uranium and thorium in aluminium and aluminium alloys by electrothermal vaporization (ETV)/ICP-MS. This method was found to be significantly interfered with any matrices or other elements contained. An ion-exchange technique was therefore applied to separate uranium and thorium from aluminium and other elements. It was known that uranium are adsorbed on an anion-exchange resin and thorium are adsorbed on cation-exchange resin. However, aluminium and copper were eluted with 6 M hydrochloric acid. Dissolve the sample with hydrochloric acid containing copper which was added for analysis of pure aluminium, and oxidize with hydrogen peroxide. Concentration of hydrochloric acid in the solution was adjusted to 6 M, and then passed the solution through the mixed ion-exchange resin column. After the uranium and thorium were eluted with 1 M hydrofluoric acid-0.1 M hydrochloric acid, the solution was evaporated to dryness. It was then dissolved with 1 M hydrochloric acid. Uranium and thorium were analyzed by ETV/ICP-MS using tungsten and molybdenum boats, respectively, since the tungsten boat contained high-level thorium and the molybdenum boat contained uranium. The determination limit of uranium and thorium were 0.003 and 0.005 ng g-1, respectively. (author)

  15. Plastic anisotropy of ultrafine grained aluminium alloys produced by accumulative roll bonding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beausir, B., E-mail: benoit.beausir@univ-metz.fr [Institut fuer Strukturphysik, Technische Universitaet Dresden, D-01062 Dresden (Germany); Scharnweber, J. [Institut fuer Strukturphysik, Technische Universitaet Dresden, D-01062 Dresden (Germany); Jaschinski, J. [Institut fuer Leichtbau und Kunststofftechnik, Technische Universitaet Dresden, D-01062 Dresden (Germany); Brokmeier, H.-G. [GKSS Forschungszentrum, Max-Planck-Strasse, D-21494 Geesthacht (Germany); Oertel, C.-G.; Skrotzki, W. [Institut fuer Strukturphysik, Technische Universitaet Dresden, D-01062 Dresden (Germany)

    2010-05-25

    The plastic anisotropy of ultrafine grained aluminium alloys AA1050 and AA6016 produced by accumulative roll bonding (ARB) has been investigated by tensile deformation via the Lankford parameter. The average normal and planar anisotropies slightly increase (from 0.6 to 0.9) and decrease (from 0.6 to -0.7) as a function of ARB cycles, respectively. The global textures measured by neutron diffraction are used to simulate the Lankford and anisotropy parameters of the plates after 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 ARB cycles with the help of the viscoplastic polycrystal self-consistent model. Simulation results are compared with those from experiment and discussed with regard to texture, strain rate sensitivity, grain shape and slip system activity.

  16. A lightweight shape-memory magnesium alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Yukiko; Ando, Daisuke; Sutou, Yuji; Koike, Junichi

    2016-07-01

    Shape-memory alloys (SMAs), which display shape recovery upon heating, as well as superelasticity, offer many technological advantages in various applications. Those distinctive behaviors have been observed in many polycrystalline alloy systems such as nickel titantium (TiNi)–, copper-, iron-, nickel-, cobalt-, and Ti-based alloys but not in lightweight alloys such as magnesium (Mg) and aluminum alloys. Here we present a Mg SMA showing superelasticity of 4.4% at –150°C and shape recovery upon heating. The shape-memory properties are caused by reversible martensitic transformation. This Mg alloy includes lightweight scandium, and its density is about 2 grams per cubic centimeter, which is one-third less than that of practical TiNi SMAs. This finding raises the potential for development and application of lightweight SMAs across a number of industries.

  17. A lightweight shape-memory magnesium alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Yukiko; Ando, Daisuke; Sutou, Yuji; Koike, Junichi

    2016-07-22

    Shape-memory alloys (SMAs), which display shape recovery upon heating, as well as superelasticity, offer many technological advantages in various applications. Those distinctive behaviors have been observed in many polycrystalline alloy systems such as nickel titantium (TiNi)-, copper-, iron-, nickel-, cobalt-, and Ti-based alloys but not in lightweight alloys such as magnesium (Mg) and aluminum alloys. Here we present a Mg SMA showing superelasticity of 4.4% at -150°C and shape recovery upon heating. The shape-memory properties are caused by reversible martensitic transformation. This Mg alloy includes lightweight scandium, and its density is about 2 grams per cubic centimeter, which is one-third less than that of practical TiNi SMAs. This finding raises the potential for development and application of lightweight SMAs across a number of industries. PMID:27463668

  18. Shape memory alloy based motor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S V Sharma; M M Nayak; N S Dinesh

    2008-10-01

    Design and characterization of a new shape memory alloy wire based Poly Phase Motor has been reported in this paper. The motor can be used either in stepping mode or in servo mode of operation. Each phase of the motor consists of an SMA wire with a spring in series. The principle of operation of the poly phase motor is presented. The motor resembles a stepper motor in its functioning though the actuation principles are different and hence has been characterized similar to a stepper motor. The motor can be actuated in either direction with different phase sequencing methods, which are presented in this work. The motor is modelled and simulated and the results of simulations and experiments are presented. The experimental model of the motor is of dimension 150 mm square, 20 mm thick and uses SMA wire of 0·4 mm diameter and 125 mm of length in each phase.

  19. Gas accumulation at grain boundaries during 800 MeV proton irradiation of aluminium and aluminium-alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Bachu Narain; Horsewell, Andy; Sommer, W. F.;

    1986-01-01

    Samples of pure aluminium (99.9999%) and commercial Al-2.7%Mg(AlMg3) and Al-1.1%Mg-0.5%Si(Al6061) alloys were irradiated with 800 MeV protons at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) at a temperature between 40-100°C to a maximum dose of 0.2 dpa. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) sho...... higher than in the pure Al. The amount of gas accumulation at grain boundaries was found to depend on gas generation rate, alloying and cold-work microstructure...

  20. Cavitation erosion resistance of microarc oxidation coating on aluminium alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Feng [School of Mechanical Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing, 211189 (China); Jiang, Shuyun, E-mail: jiangshy@seu.edu.cn [School of Mechanical Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing, 211189 (China); Liang, Jun [State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou, 730000 (China)

    2013-09-01

    Two ceramic coatings are prepared on 2124 aluminum alloy by microarc oxidation (MAO) technology. To explore the cavitation erosion resistance of the MAO coating, cavitation tests were performed by using a rotating-disk test rig. The mass losses, surface morphologies, chemical compositions and the phase constituents of the samples after cavitation tests were examined by using digital balance, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD), respectively. The results indicate that the MAO coatings can extend the incubation period of aluminum alloy, and thus enhance the cavitation erosion resistance as compared to the untreated aluminum alloy samples. After duration of 63 h cavitation test, a lot of erosion pits and the particles in various shapes can be observed on the surfaces of the aluminum alloy samples, while only a few erosion pits are observed on the MAO coatings. Moreover, the mean depths of erosion on the MAO coatings are lower in the first 30 h and are independent on erosion time. The results show that the cavitation erosion of MAO coating is governed by water mechanical impaction, resulting from the effects of brittle fracture of the MAO coating.

  1. Interaction of lead-borate glass with aluminium and iron-nickel alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Interaction of aluminium (AMG-6) and iron-nickel (47ND) alloys with lead-borate glass of PbO-73, BeO3-12, ZnO-10, Al2O3-3, SiO2-2 (mas. %) composition is investigated. It is determined that components of both soldered alloys interact actively with lead-borate glass melt that allows to obtain strong cohesion of glass with AMG-6 and 47ND metal alloys

  2. New developments on optimizing properties of high-Zn aluminium cast alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajewski, W. K.; Buras, J.; Krajewski, P. K.; Greer, A. L.; Schumacher, P.; Haberl, K.

    2016-07-01

    Foundry alloys with Al-based matrices have a wide range of uses in today's global economy and there is a high demand for castings of Al alloys, including Al-Zn alloys. In this paper, investigations on the grain refinement of high-Zn aluminium cast alloys are presented. Aluminium alloys with relatively high zinc content have a tendency to be coarse-grained, especially in the case of castings with low cooling rates such as are found in sand moulds. The coarse-grained structure degrades the plasticity, specifically the elongation. Therefore, for aluminium alloys of high (10-30 wt.%) zinc content, inoculation is attractive, aiming to break up the primary dendrites of the a-phase solid solution of zinc in aluminium. Such dendrites are the principal microstructural component in these alloys. On the other hand, a finer grain structure usually reduces the damping (e.g. as measured by attenuation of ultrasound) in these alloys. In the present investigations, a binary sand-cast Al-20 wt.% Zn alloy was inoculated with different additions of AlTi3C0.15 (TiCAl) and ZnTi-based master alloys. The sand-cast samples were subjected to mechanical-property measurements (tensile strength and elongation), image analysis to determine grain size, and measurements of the attenuation of 1 MHz ultrasound. It is found that both of the master alloys used cause significant refinement of the a-AlZn primary dendrites and change their morphology from linear-branched to semi-globular, increase the elongation by about 40%, and decrease the attenuation coefficient by about 25% in comparison with the initial alloy without inoculation.

  3. Tribological Behaviour of W-DLC against an Aluminium Alloy Subjected to Lubricated Sliding

    OpenAIRE

    S. Bhowmick; A. Banerji; A.T. Alpas

    2015-01-01

    Diamond like carbon (DLC) coatings mitigate aluminium adhesion and reduce friction under the ambient conditions but their tribological behaviour under lubricated sliding need to be further investigated. In this study, tribological tests were performed to evaluate the friction and wear characteristics of W-DLC and H-DLC coatings sliding against an aluminium alloy (319 Al) under unlubricated (40 % RH) and lubricated sliding conditions. For unlubricated sliding, coefficient of friction (COF) val...

  4. Additive manufacture of an aluminium alloy: processing, microstructure, and mechanical properties

    OpenAIRE

    Aboulkhair, Nesma T.

    2016-01-01

    Additive manufacturing of aluminium alloys using selective laser melting (SLM) is of research interest nowadays because of its potential benefits in industry sectors such as aerospace and automotive. However, in order to demonstrate the credibility of aluminium SLM for industrial needs, a comprehensive understanding of the interrelation between the process parameters, produced microstructure, and mechanical behaviour is still needed. This thesis aims at contributing to developing this compreh...

  5. Characterization of steam generated anti-corrosive oxide films on Aluminium alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Din, Rameez Ud; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl; Ambat, Rajan

    2014-01-01

    Aluminium and its alloys are widely used in structural and transportation industry owing to their high strength to weight ratio. The surface of aluminium under normal conditions has a thin oxide film (2.5-10 nm) responsible for its inherent corrosion resistance. This oxide film can further...... of hexavalent chromium is strictly regulated due to its toxic nature and suspected carcinogenicity. So, it is highly imperative to develop other alternatives for chrome conversion coatings. Treatment of aluminium with natural water at elevated temperatures results in the formation of different forms...

  6. HIGH PURITY ALUMINIUM-LITHIUM MASTER ALLOY BY MOLTEN SALT ELECTROLYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Watanabe, Y; Toyoshima, M; Itoh, K

    1987-01-01

    The aim of this work is to develop the economical production process of the Al-Li master alloy free from metallic sodium, calcium and potassium. This master alloy can be used for aluminium-lithium alloys for structual materials of aircrafts, automobiles and robots. Moreover the Al-Li master alloy with lithium content of 18-20wt. % is applicable to the blanket of fusion reactors and the active mass of batteries. This Al-Li master alloy can be produced by means of LiCl-KCl molten salt electroly...

  7. Recycling of Glass Fibre Reinforced Aluminium Laminates and Silicon Removal from Aerospace Al Alloy

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, G

    2012-01-01

    Aerospace aluminium alloys (7xxx and 2xxx series Al alloy) is one of the important Al alloys in our life. The recycling of aerospace Al alloy plays a significant role in sustainable development of Al industry. The fibre reinforced metal laminates GLARE including 67 wt.% 2024 Al alloy was used as upper fuselage in Airbus A380, but the solution for GLARE recycling is not available. Thermal recycling which uses high temperature to decompose the resin and separate the reinforcement fibres and fil...

  8. Investigation of the properties of aluminium alloys used in the construction of nuclear research reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hajewska, E. [Institute of Atomic Energy, Otwock-Swierk (Poland)

    1993-11-01

    In the paper there are described the results of the studies of the properties of aluminium alloys using in the construction of research reactors, especially of the Polish alloy PAR-1 which belongs to the group of Al-Mg-Si alloys. The influence of the heat treatment on structure of the alloy as well as on the mechanical and corrosion properties was studying. In the paper the results of some properties of PAR-1 alloy after irradiation were done. (author). 27 refs, 43 figs, 9 tabs.

  9. Process parameters optimization for friction stir welding of RDE-40 aluminium alloy using Taguchi technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A.K.LAKSHMINARAYANAN; V.BALASUBRAMANIAN

    2008-01-01

    Taguchi approach was applied to determine the most influential control factors which will yield better tensile strength of the joints of friction stir welded RDE-40 aluminium alloy. In order to evaluate the effect of process parameters such as tool rotational speed, traverse speed and axial force on tensile strength of friction stir welded RDE-40 aluminium alloy, Taguchi parametric design and optimization approach was used. Through the Taguchi parametric design approach, the optimum levels of process parameters were determined. The results indicate that the rotational speed, welding speed and axial force are the significant parameters in deciding the tensile strength of the joint. The predicted optimal value of tensile strength of friction stir welded RDE-40 aluminium alloy is 303 MPa. The results were confirmed by further experiments.

  10. Image analysis of atmospheric corrosion of field exposure high strength aluminium alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Lei; Song, Shizhe; Zhang, Xiaoyun; Zhang, Zheng; Lu, Feng

    2008-08-01

    The corrosion morphology image acquisition system which can be used in the field was established. In Beijing atmospheric corrosion exposure station, the image acquisition system was used to capture the early stage corrosion morphology of five types of high strength aluminium alloy specimens. After the denoise treatment, wavelet-based image analysis method was applied to decompose the improved images and energies of sub-images were extracted as character information. Based on the variation of image energy values, the corrosion degree of aluminium alloy specimens was qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed. The conclusion was basically identical with the result based on the corrosion weight loss. This method is supposed to be effective to analysis and quantify the corrosion damage from image of field exposure aluminium alloy specimens.

  11. The effect of heat treatment on the corrosion behaviour of 319 aluminium alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panagopoulos, C.N.; Georgiou, E.P.; Giannakopoulos, K.I. [Laboratory of Physical Metallurgy, National Technical University of Athens, Zografos, Athens (Greece)

    2009-06-15

    The effect of various heat treatments on the corrosion behaviour of 319 T1 cast aluminium alloy was investigated. From this alloy, specimens were heat treated in T5, T6 and two steps solution heat treatment T6 conditions and afterwards were subjected to electrochemical corrosion in a 0.1 M NaCl solution (pH = 12). From the above treatments, T5 heat treatment did not improve the corrosion resistance of the as-received alloy in contrast to T6 heat treatment which improved the corrosion resistance of the same alloy. However, two steps solutionizing T6 treatment showed the best corrosion resistance of the aluminium alloy. (Abstract Copyright [2009], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  12. The Optimization of Salt Additions during Processing of Aluminium-Magnesium Alloys

    OpenAIRE

    Solberg, Egil

    2013-01-01

    Sodium is well known to be a cause for edge cracking during rolling of aluminium-magnesium alloys (AA5xxx). Due to this, requirements for the sodium contents in Al-Mg alloys are often less than 1,0 ppm. The electrolytic produced aluminium have a sodium content in the range of 30 to 200 ppm, where the highest levels are present in the most modern pot lines.To reduce sodium and other impurities like oxides and carbides several techniques are available for casthouses today. Furnace fluxing and d...

  13. Adherence of electrodeposited Zn-Ni coatings on EN AW2024 T3 aluminium alloy

    OpenAIRE

    Alexis, Joël; Adrian, Denise; Masri, Talal; Petit, Jacques-Alain

    2004-01-01

    The use of hexavalent chromium in surface treatments will be reduced in the future, as it is suspected to be carcinogenic. Electrodeposition of Zn-Ni, which is currently used on steel, represents a non-chromate alternative surface treatment for the corrosion protection of aluminium alloys. Zn-Ni coatings were electrodeposited onto an EN AW2024 T3 aluminium alloy sheet in a laboratory flow cell. To obtain several percentages of Ni in the coatings, solutions with different Ni2+ concentrations w...

  14. A jumping shape memory alloy under heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shuiyuan; Omori, Toshihiro; Wang, Cuiping; Liu, Yong; Nagasako, Makoto; Ruan, Jingjing; Kainuma, Ryosuke; Ishida, Kiyohito; Liu, Xingjun

    2016-02-01

    Shape memory alloys are typical temperature-sensitive metallic functional materials due to superelasticity and shape recovery characteristics. The conventional shape memory effect involves the formation and deformation of thermally induced martensite and its reverse transformation. The shape recovery process usually takes place over a temperature range, showing relatively low temperature-sensitivity. Here we report novel Cu-Al-Fe-Mn shape memory alloys. Their stress-strain and shape recovery behaviors are clearly different from the conventional shape memory alloys. In this study, although the Cu-12.2Al-4.3Fe-6.6Mn and Cu-12.9Al-3.8Fe-5.6Mn alloys possess predominantly L21 parent before deformation, the 2H martensite stress-induced from L21 parent could be retained after unloading. Furthermore, their shape recovery response is extremely temperature-sensitive, in which a giant residual strain of about 9% recovers instantly and completely during heating. At the same time, the phenomenon of the jumping of the sample occurs. It is originated from the instantaneous completion of the reverse transformation of the stabilized 2H martensite. This novel Cu-Al-Fe-Mn shape memory alloys have great potentials as new temperature-sensitive functional materials.

  15. A jumping shape memory alloy under heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shuiyuan; Omori, Toshihiro; Wang, Cuiping; Liu, Yong; Nagasako, Makoto; Ruan, Jingjing; Kainuma, Ryosuke; Ishida, Kiyohito; Liu, Xingjun

    2016-02-16

    Shape memory alloys are typical temperature-sensitive metallic functional materials due to superelasticity and shape recovery characteristics. The conventional shape memory effect involves the formation and deformation of thermally induced martensite and its reverse transformation. The shape recovery process usually takes place over a temperature range, showing relatively low temperature-sensitivity. Here we report novel Cu-Al-Fe-Mn shape memory alloys. Their stress-strain and shape recovery behaviors are clearly different from the conventional shape memory alloys. In this study, although the Cu-12.2Al-4.3Fe-6.6Mn and Cu-12.9Al-3.8Fe-5.6Mn alloys possess predominantly L2(1) parent before deformation, the 2H martensite stress-induced from L2(1) parent could be retained after unloading. Furthermore, their shape recovery response is extremely temperature-sensitive, in which a giant residual strain of about 9% recovers instantly and completely during heating. At the same time, the phenomenon of the jumping of the sample occurs. It is originated from the instantaneous completion of the reverse transformation of the stabilized 2H martensite. This novel Cu-Al-Fe-Mn shape memory alloys have great potentials as new temperature-sensitive functional materials.

  16. Spectroscopic study of plasma during electrolytic oxidation of magnesium-aluminium alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovović, J.

    2014-12-01

    Plasma during Electrolytic Oxidation (PEO) of magnesium-aluminium alloys is studied in this work by means of Optical Emission Spectroscopy (OES). Spectral line shapes of the Hβ, Al II 704.21 nm and Mg II 448.11 nm line are analyzed to measure plasma electron number density Ne. From the Hβ line profile, two PEO processes characterized by relatively low electron number densities Ne ≈ 1015 cm-3 and Ne ≈ 2 × 1016 cm-3 were discovered while the shape and shift of Al II and Mg II lines revealed the third process characterized by large electron density Ne = (1-2) × 1017 cm-3. Low Ne processes, related with breakdown in gas bubbles and on oxide surface, are not influenced by anode material or electrolyte composition. The ejection of evaporated anode material through oxide layer is designated here as third PEO process. Using the Boltzmann plot technique, electron temperature of 4000 K and 33000 K is determined from relative intensities of Mg I and O II lines, respectively. Several difficulties in the analysis of spectral line shapes are met during this study and the ways to overcome some of the obstacles are demonstrated.

  17. Predicting the thermal conductivity of aluminium alloys in the cryogenic to room temperature range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodcraft, Adam L.

    2005-06-01

    Aluminium alloys are being used increasingly in cryogenic systems. However, cryogenic thermal conductivity measurements have been made on only a few of the many types in general use. This paper describes a method of predicting the thermal conductivity of any aluminium alloy between the superconducting transition temperature (approximately 1 K) and room temperature, based on a measurement of the thermal conductivity or electrical resistivity at a single temperature. Where predictions are based on low temperature measurements (approximately 4 K and below), the accuracy is generally better than 10%. Useful predictions can also be made from room temperature measurements for most alloys, but with reduced accuracy. This method permits aluminium alloys to be used in situations where the thermal conductivity is important without having to make (or find) direct measurements over the entire temperature range of interest. There is therefore greater scope to choose alloys based on mechanical properties and availability, rather than on whether cryogenic thermal conductivity measurements have been made. Recommended thermal conductivity values are presented for aluminium 6082 (based on a new measurement), and for 1000 series, and types 2014, 2024, 2219, 3003, 5052, 5083, 5086, 5154, 6061, 6063, 6082, 7039 and 7075 (based on low temperature measurements in the literature).

  18. MICROSTRUCTURAL AND MECHANICAL STUDY OF ALUMINIUM ALLOYS SUBMITTED TO DISTINCT SOAKING TIMES DURING SOLUTION HEAT TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valmir Martins Monteiro

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This work studies the microstructural characteristics and mechanical properties for different aluminium alloys (1100, 3104 and 8011 hot rolled sheets that were subjected to a solution heat treatment with distinct soaking times, in order to promote microstructural and mechanical changes on these alloys with solute fractions slightly above the maximum solubility limit. Scanning Electronic Microscopy (SEM / Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy X-Ray (EDS, X-Ray Diffraction (XRD and Hardness Tests were employed to observe the microstructural / compositional and mechanical evaluation. For the 1100 and 8011 alloys the more suitable soaking time occur between 1 and 2 hours, and for the 3104 alloy occurs between 2 and 3 hours.

  19. Structure and selected properties of high-aluminium Zn alloy with silicon addition

    OpenAIRE

    A. Zyska; Z. Konopka; M. Łągiewka; M. Nadolski

    2011-01-01

    The results of examinations concerning the abrasive wear resistance, hardness, and thermal expansion of high-aluminium zinc alloys are presented. The examinations were carried out for five synthetic ZnAl28 alloys with variable silicon content ranging from 0.5% to 3.5%, and – for the purpose of comparison – for the standardised ZnAl28Cu4 alloy. It was found that silicon efficiently increases the tribological properties and decreases the coefficient of thermal expansion of zinc alloys. The most...

  20. Crystallographic attributes of a shape-memory alloy

    OpenAIRE

    Bhattacharya, Kaushik

    1999-01-01

    Shape-memory Alloys are attractive for many potential applications. In an attempt to provide ideas and guidelines for the development of new shape-memory alloys, this paper reports on a series of investigations that examine the reasons in the crystallography that make (i) shape-memory alloys special amongst martensites and (ii) Nickel-Titanium special among shape-memory alloys.

  1. Recovery of actinides from actinide–aluminium alloys by chlorination: Part II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souček, P., E-mail: pavel.soucek@ec.europa.eu [European Commission, JRC, Institute for Transuranium Elements, Postfach 2340, 76125 Karlsruhe (Germany); Cassayre, L. [Laboratoire de Génie Chimique (LGC), Département Procédés Electrochimiques, CNRS-UMR 5503, Université de Toulouse III – Paul Sabatier, 31062 Toulouse Cedex 9 (France); Eloirdi, R.; Malmbeck, R.; Meier, R.; Nourry, C.; Claux, B.; Glatz, J.-P. [European Commission, JRC, Institute for Transuranium Elements, Postfach 2340, 76125 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2014-04-01

    A chlorination route is being investigated for recovery of actinides from actinide–aluminium alloys, which originate from pyrochemical recovery of actinides from spent metallic nuclear fuel by electrochemical methods in molten LiCl–KCl. In the present work, the most important steps of this route were experimentally tested using U–Pu–Al alloy prepared by electrodeposition of U and Pu on solid aluminium plate electrodes. The investigated processes were vacuum distillation for removal of the salt adhered on the electrode, chlorination of the alloy by chlorine gas and sublimation of the AlCl{sub 3} formed. The processes parameters were set on the base of a previous thermochemical study and an experimental work using pure UAl{sub 3} alloy. The present experimental results indicated high efficiency of salt distillation and chlorination steps, while the sublimation step should be further optimised.

  2. Recovery of actinides from actinide-aluminium alloys by chlorination: Part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souček, P.; Cassayre, L.; Eloirdi, R.; Malmbeck, R.; Meier, R.; Nourry, C.; Claux, B.; Glatz, J.-P.

    2014-04-01

    A chlorination route is being investigated for recovery of actinides from actinide-aluminium alloys, which originate from pyrochemical recovery of actinides from spent metallic nuclear fuel by electrochemical methods in molten LiCl-KCl. In the present work, the most important steps of this route were experimentally tested using U-Pu-Al alloy prepared by electrodeposition of U and Pu on solid aluminium plate electrodes. The investigated processes were vacuum distillation for removal of the salt adhered on the electrode, chlorination of the alloy by chlorine gas and sublimation of the AlCl3 formed. The processes parameters were set on the base of a previous thermochemical study and an experimental work using pure UAl3 alloy. The present experimental results indicated high efficiency of salt distillation and chlorination steps, while the sublimation step should be further optimised.

  3. Evaluation of the mechanical properties of microarc oxidation coatings and 2024 aluminium alloy substrate

    CERN Document Server

    Xue Wen Bin; Deng Zhi Wei; Chen Ru Yi; Li Yong Liang; Zhang Ton Ghe

    2002-01-01

    A determination of the phase constituents of ceramic coatings produced on Al-Cu-Mg alloy by microarc discharge in alkaline solution was performed using x-ray diffraction. The profiles of the hardness, H, and elastic modulus, E, across the ceramic coating were determined by means of nanoindentation. In addition, a study of the influence of microarc oxidation coatings on the tensile properties of the aluminium alloy was also carried out. The results show that the H-and E-profiles are similar, and both of them exhibit a maximum value at the same depth of coating. The distribution of the alpha-Al sub 2 O sub 3 phase content determines the H- and E-profiles of the coatings. The tensile properties of 2024 aluminium alloy show less change after the alloy has undergone microarc discharge surface treatment.

  4. Steam assisted oxide growth on aluminium alloys using oxidative chemistries: Part II corrosion performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Din, Rameez Ud; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl; Ambat, Rajan

    2015-11-01

    Surface treatment of aluminium alloys using steam with oxidative chemistries, namely KMnO4 and HNO3 resulted in accelerated growth of oxide on aluminium alloys. Detailed investigation of the corrosion performance of the treated surfaces was carried out using potentiodynamic polarisation and standard industrial test methods such as acetic acid salt spray (AASS) and filiform corrosion on commercial AA6060 alloy. Barrier properties of the film including adhesion were evaluated using tape test under wet and dry conditions. Electrochemical results showed reduced cathodic and anodic activity, while the protection provided by steam treatment with HNO3 was a function of the concentration of NO3- ions. The coating generated by inclusion of KMnO4 showed highest resistance to filiform corrosion. Overall, the performance of the steam treated surfaces under filiform corrosion and AASS test was a result of the local coverage of the alloy microstructure resulting from steam containing with KMnO4 and HNO3.

  5. Interface and microstructure characteristics of SiCp/2024 aluminium alloy composite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗守靖; 姜巨福; 王迎; 藤东东; 祖丽君

    2003-01-01

    Electron microscope examination of the microstructure, interface and fracture surface of SiC particulatereinforced 2024 aluminium alloy composites produced by powder mixing and semi-solid extrusion process was pres-ented. The microstructure of SiCp/2024 composites fabricated by the present method is characterized by uniformlydistributed SiC particulates in well-densified matrix. Conventional transmission electron microscopy(TEM) revealsthe interface between the SiC particulates and the aluminium matrix. It is shown that this interface provides verystrong bonding which is further evidenced by the fractographic results, and that there is no apparent chemical reac-tion. Examination of the fracture surface indicates that the bonding strength between the SiC particulates and the a-luminium alloy matrix is stronger than that of the matrix. The dimples and tearing edges on the fracture surface ofcomposites are obviously observed.

  6. Arc welding of high strength aluminium alloys for armour systems applications

    OpenAIRE

    Pickin, Craig Graeme

    2011-01-01

    The ternary Al-Cu-Mg system 2xxx series aluminium alloys were examined as construction materials for armour system applications based upon comparable ballistic properties to the currently employed Al-7xxx series alloys. Utilising MIG welding solidification cracking was evident when welding constrained Al-2024 candidate base material using Al-2319 filler, the only available consumable wire for this series. A previously developed thermodynamic model suggested that an incompatible...

  7. Corrosion Control of Friction Stir Welded AA2024-T351 Aluminium Alloys

    OpenAIRE

    Younes, Yousif Younes Abo

    2010-01-01

    Friction stir welding (FSW) is a modern solid state welding technique developed at thewelding institute (TWI) in 1991. The joining is achieved by heat generation, materialsoftening and plastic deformation following the travelling of non-consumable pin throughthe gap between the two workpieces to be joined.In present study, joining of AA 2024-T3 aluminium alloy, is achieved by FSW. Theinfluence of the FSW on the alloy microstructure and corrosion behaviour is determined.The effect of laser sur...

  8. Use of acoustic energy in the processing of molten aluminium alloys

    OpenAIRE

    Puga, Hélder; Barbosa, J; Costa, Sónia; Ribeiro, Carlos Silva

    2013-01-01

    During the last years aluminium alloys have been gaining increased acceptance as structural materials in the automotive and aeronautical industries, mainly due to their light weight, good formability and corrosion resistance. However, improvement of mechanical properties is a constant in research activities, either by the development of new alloys or by microstructure manipulation. This presentation focuses a novel effective dynamic methodology to perform microstructural refinement / modi...

  9. Steam assisted oxide growth on aluminium alloys using oxidative chemistries: Part I Microstructural investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Din, Rameez Ud; Piotrowska, Kamila; Gudla, Visweswara Chakravarthy;

    2015-01-01

    The surface treatment of aluminium alloys under steam containing KMnO4 and HNO3resulted in the formation of an oxide layer having a thickness of up to 825 nm. The use of KMnO4 and HNO3 in the steam resulted in incorporation of the respective chemical species into the oxide layer. Steam treatment...

  10. Aluminium Alloy AA6060 surface treatment with high temperature steam containing chemical additives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Din, Rameez Ud; Tabrizian, Naja; Jellesen, Morten S.;

    2015-01-01

    The steam treatment process was employed to produce a conversion coating on aluminium alloy AA6060. The changes in microstructure and its effect on corrosion resistance properties were investigated. Various concentrations of KMnO4 containing Ce(NO3)3 was injected into the steam and its effect...

  11. Effect of Pulsed Current TIG Welding Parameters on Pitting Corrosion Behaviour of AA6061 Aluminium Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    T. Senthil Kumar; V. Balasubramanian; M. Y. Sanavullah; S. Babu

    2007-01-01

    Medium strength aluminium alloy (Al-Mg-Si alloy) has gathered wide acceptance in the fabrication of light weight structures requiring a high strength-to weight ratio, such as transportable bridge girders, military vehicles, road tankers and railway transport systems. The preferred welding process for aluminium alloy is frequently TIG (tungsten inert gas) welding due to its comparatively easier applicability and better economy.In the case of single pass TIG welding of thinner section of this alloy, the pulsed current has been found beneficial due to its advantages over the conventional continuous current process. The use of pulsed current parameters has been found to improve the mechanical properties of the welds compared to those of continuous current welds of this alloy due to grain refinement occurring in the fusion zone. A mathematical model has been developed to predict pitting corrosion potential of pulsed current TIG welded AA6061 aluminium alloy.Factorial experimental design has been used to optimize the experimental conditions. Analysis of variance technique has been used to find out the significant pulsed current parameters. Regression analysis has been used to develop the model. Using the developed model pitting corrosion potential values have been estimated for different combinations of pulsed current parameters and the results are analyzed in detail.

  12. Aging of maraging steel welds during aluminium alloy die casting

    OpenAIRE

    Klobčar, Damjan; Pleterski, Matej; Taljat, Boštjan; Kosec, Ladislav; Tušek, Janez

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate precipitation annealing of 18% Ni maraging steel repair welds during aluminium die casting and to predict the prolonged in-service tool life. The emphasis of this study is the influence ofpost-weld precipitation annealing heat treatment and aluminium die casting thermal cycling on metallurgical and mechanical properties. A series of specimens of 1.2344 tool steel is prepared to which 1.6356 maraging steel is GTA weld cladded. Analysis of weld microstructur...

  13. The effect of nickel on alloy microstructure and electrochemical behaviour of AA1050 aluminium alloy in acid and alkaline solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study investigates the influence of nickel and magnesium additions to AA1050 aluminium alloy on the alloy electrochemical behaviour in sodium hydroxide and hydrochloric solutions under conditions relevant to industries that use alkaline etching as a standard surface treatment procedure and to the lithographic and electronic industries where surface convolution is assisted by pitting in hydrochloric acid. Scanning and transmission electron microscopes were used to characterize the intermetallic particles, and scanning Kelvin probe microscopy was utilised in monitoring the surface potential. Nickel is shown to be incorporated into second phase particles, which mostly consisted of Al3Fe and α-(AlFeSi) phases, resulting in enhanced cathodic activity on the aluminium surface. Consequently, the dissolution rates of the superpure aluminium, alloys without nickel addition and alloy with nickel addition are increased respectively in sodium hydroxide, and increased pitting is respectively promoted in hydrochloric acid. In contrast, the addition of magnesium to the alloy had negligible influence on the etching and pitting behaviour.

  14. Property enhancement by grain refinement of zinc-aluminium foundry alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajewski, W. K.; Greer, A. L.; Piwowarski, G.; Krajewski, P. K.

    2016-03-01

    Development of cast alloys with good mechanical properties and involving less energy consumption during their melting is one of the key demands of today's industry. Zinc foundry alloys of high and medium Al content, i.e. Zn-(15-30) wt.% Al and Zn-(8-12) wt.% Al, can satisfy these requirements. The present paper summarizes the work [1-9] on improving properties of sand-cast ZnAl10 (Zn-10 wt.% Al) and ZnAl25 (Zn-25 wt. % Al) alloys by melt inoculation. Special attention was devoted to improving ductility, whilst preserving high damping properties at the same time. The composition and structural modification of medium- and high-aluminium zinc alloys influence their strength, tribological properties and structural stability. In a series of studies, Zn - (10-12) wt. % Al and Zn - (25-26) wt.% Al - (1-2.5) wt.% Cu alloys have been doped with different levels of added Ti. The melted alloys were inoculated with ZnTi-based refiners and it was observed that the dendritic structure is significantly finer already after addition of 50 - 100 ppm Ti to the melted alloys. The alloy's structure and mechanical properties have been studied using: SEM (scanning electron microscopy), LM (light microscopy), dilatometry, pin-on-disc wear, and tensile strength measurements. Grain refinement leads to significant improvement of ductility in the binary high-aluminium Zn-(25-27) Al alloys while in the medium-aluminium alloys the effect is rather weak. In the ternary alloys Zn-26Al-Cu, replacing a part of Cu with Ti allows dimensional changes to be reduced while preserving good tribological properties. Furthermore, the high initial damping properties were nearly entirely preserved after inoculation. The results obtained allow us to characterize grain refinement of the examined high-aluminium zinc alloys as a promising process leading to the improvement of their properties. At the same time, using low melting ZnTi-based master alloys makes it possible to avoid the excessive melt overheating

  15. 铝合金芯高导电率铝绞线标准解读%A Reading of High Conductivity Aluminium Conductor Aluminium Alloy Reinforced Standard

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万建成; 董玉明; 刘龙

    2014-01-01

    To implement the engineering philosophy of security, reliability, reasonable economy, advanced technology and environmental friendliness, company standard of State Grid, 《High Conductivity Aluminium Conductor Aluminium Alloy Reinforced》, has been finished. A detailed reading about the technical approaches, basic principle and announcements of high conductivity aluminium conductor aluminium alloy reinforced standard is given by combining corresponding research results. The implementation of the standard provides important basis to guide the engineering application of high conductivity aluminium conductor aluminium alloy reinforced and will promote the upgrading of conductors for overhead transmission lines.%贯彻安全可靠、经济合理、技术先进、环境友好的技术原则,完成国家电网公司企业标准《铝合金芯高导电率铝绞线》的制定工作。结合铝合金芯高导电率铝绞线相应研究成果,解读主要条款的编制思路、基本原理以及注意事项。该标准的实施为指导铝合金芯高导电率铝绞线工程应用提供重要依据,并将促进架空输电线路用导线的更新换代。

  16. Modelling of friction for high temperature extrusion of aluminium alloys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, L.

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, finite-element (FE) simulations have been extensively used in scientific research and industrial practice to analyse the extrusion process. A basic issue of FE simulations is the accuracy of the results, which is mainly determined by the viscoplastic material behaviour of aluminium

  17. Cavitation-aided grain refinement in aluminium alloys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atamanenko, T.V.

    2010-01-01

    This thesis deals with grain refinement under the influence of ultrasonic-driven cavitation in aluminium casting processes. Three major goals of this research were: (1) to identify the mechanism of the cavitation-aided grain refinement at different stages of solidification; (2) to reveal the conditi

  18. The influence of alloying elements in aluminium on the grain refinement with ALTI5B1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naglič I.

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with the influence of alloying elements in aluminium on the grain refinement with various additions of AlTi5B1. Grain-refinement tests were made at a cooling rate of 15 °C/s. The results revealed that in both aluminium and an Al-Fe alloy the grain size decreases with increasing additions of the AlTi5B1 grain refiner. We found that for the same boron content the grain size was smaller in the case of the Al-Fe alloy. The difference in the grain sizes for the same content of boron was approximately 15 μm; this is considerably smaller than the difference between the grain sizes in samples with the same difference of growth-restricting factor made at slower cooling rates.

  19. Abrasive wear response of aluminium alloy-sillimanite particle reinforced composite under low stress condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, M. [Regional Research Laboratory (CSIR), Hoshangabad Road, Near Habibganj Naka, Bhopal 462 026 (India)]. E-mail: mulayam_singh@hotmail.com; Mondal, D.P. [Regional Research Laboratory (CSIR), Hoshangabad Road, Near Habibganj Naka, Bhopal 462 026 (India); Das, S. [Regional Research Laboratory (CSIR), Hoshangabad Road, Near Habibganj Naka, Bhopal 462 026 (India)

    2006-03-15

    The abrasive wear behaviour of aluminium alloy-sillimanite particle reinforced composite under low stress condition has been reported and the results have been compared with the corresponding matrix alloy which was produced and cast under similar conditions. The study showed that wear resistance (inverse of wear rate) of the composite was higher than the matrix alloy. The wear rate decreased with sliding distance and increased with applied load irrespective of materials. The worn surfaces and subsurfaces of the tested samples were examined in the scanning electron microscope in order to understand the material removal mechanism during low stress abrasive wear process.

  20. Semi-Solid Processing by Electric Current During Sand Casting of Aluminium Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prodhan, Anjan

    2016-02-01

    This study reports the effect of DC and 50Hz AC treatment (ECT) on aluminium or aluminium alloys during solidification in sand moulds i.e., at their semisolid state. Castings, with different geometry, were made in open or closed sand moulds. It is observed that ECT (a) reduces dissolved gas, (b) reduces internal shrinkage and (c) metal mould reactions in castings. It is also observed that the AC treatment is more effective compared to DC treatment. ECT changes the movement of solidification front. The optical microstructures of ECT samples are quite similar to the samples treated in other semisolid processing methods.

  1. Microstructure and interfaces of a reaction coating on aluminium alloys by laser processing

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, X.B.; De Hosson, J. Th. M.

    1993-01-01

    This paper reports an approach to coat a ceramic layer on aluminium alloys by means of chemical reaction. The reaction product of Al2O3 layer of 100 µm in thickness has been formed using a powder mixture of silicon oxide and aluminium by laser processing. It turns out that the large amount of heat from the exothermic reaction has a predominate effects on the formation of the oxide layer. Further, the negative free energy of the reaction may promote the metal/oxide wetting. The micro-hardness ...

  2. Effect of alloying with zinc on SFE of aluminium by study of lattice imperfections in cold worked Al–Zn alloys

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G Karmakar; R Sen; S K Chattopadhyay; A K Meikap; S K Chatterjee

    2002-08-01

    A detailed X-ray Fourier line shape analysis has been performed on three compositions of Al–Zn alloys viz. Al–3 55 wt% Zn, Al–14 7 wt% Zn and Al–19 3 wt% Zn in fcc phase. It has been found that deformation stacking faults, both intrinsic ' and extrinsic '' are absent in the cold worked state and twin fault is found to be slightly present in the deformed lattice of the two initial compositions of the alloys. Similar to the effect of solute germanium and copper, respectively in Al–Ge and Al–Cu systems, hexagonal zinc also fails to impart faulting in fcc Al–Zn system. This corroborates the fact that aluminium has high stacking fault energy.

  3. Application of artificial neural networks for modelling correlations in age hardenable aluminium alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Musharavati

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This paper discusses some of the preliminary results of an ongoing research on the applications of artificial neural networks (ANNs in modelling, predicting and simulating correlations between mechanical properties of age hardenable aluminium alloys as a function of alloy composition.Design/methodology/approach: Appropriate combinations of inputs and outputs were selected for neural network modelling. Multilayer feedforward networks were created and trained using datasets from public literature. Influences of alloying elements, alloy composition and processing parameters on mechanical properties of aluminium alloys were predicted and simulated using ANNs models.Two sample t-tests were used to analyze the prediction accuracy of the trained ANNs.Findings: Good performances of the neural network models were achieved. The models were able to predict mechanical properties within acceptable margins of error and were able to provide relevant simulated data for correlating alloy composition and processing parameters with mechanical properties. Therefore, ANNs models are convenient and powerful tools that can provide useful information which can be used to identify desired properties in new aluminium alloys for practical applications in new and/or improved aluminium products.Research limitations/implications: Few public data bases are available for modelling properties. Minor contradictions on the experimental values of properties and alloy compositions were also observed. Future work will include further development of simulated data into property charts.Practical implications: Correlations between mechanical properties and alloy compositions can help in identifying a suitable alloy for a new or improved aluminum product application. In addition, availability of simulated structure-process-property data or charts assists in reducing the time and costs of trial and error experimental approaches by providing near-optimal values that can be used

  4. INVESTIGATION OF POWDER-GAS EMISSIONS, FONNED AT MELTING AND REFINING OF ALUMINIUM ALLOYS IN REVERBERATING FURNACES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. Zadrutskij

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available As a result of carried out analysis of processes of aluminium alloys casting and refining in reverberating  furnaces it is determined that searching source of harmful emissions are the refining processes.

  5. Laser beam welding of high strength aluminium-lithium alloys; Laserstrahlschweissen von hochfesten Aluminium-Lithium Legierungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enz, Josephin

    2012-07-01

    The present development in aircraft industry determined by the demand for a higher cost-effectiveness. Laser beam welding is one of the most promising joining technologies for the application in the aircraft industry through the considerable reduction of the production costs. Furthermore the weight of an aircraft structure can be reduced by the use of light and high strength aluminium alloys. This paper deals with the development of a process for the laser beam welding of a skin-stringer-joint where the Al-Li-alloy AA2196 is used as stringer material and the Al-Li-alloy AA2198 is used as skin and stringer material. By the use of design of experiments the optimal welding process parameters for different material combinations were determined which will be used for the welding of a 5-stringer panel. Therefore the weld seams of the joints were tested for irregularities and microstructural characteristics. In addition several mechanical tests were performed, which define the quality of the welded joint. Furthermore the influence of the oxide layer and the welding preparation on the welding performance was investigated. (orig.) [German] Die derzeitigen Entwicklungen im Flugzeugbau werden durch die allgemeine Forderung nach einer Steigerung der Wirtschaftlichkeit bestimmt. Das Laserstrahlschweissen ist dabei eines der vielversprechendsten Fuegeverfahren fuer die Anwendung im Flugzeugbau durch das die Herstellungskosten deutlich reduziert werden koennen. Zudem kann durch die Verwendung von leichten und hochfesten Aluminium-Legierungen das Gewicht einer Flugzeugstruktur zusaetzlich reduziert werden. Die vorliegende Arbeit befasst sich mit der Entwicklung eines Prozesses zum Laserstrahlschweissen einer Skin-Stringer-Verbindung aus den Aluminium-Lithium-Legierungen AA2196 (als Stringer-Werkstoff) und AA2198 (als Skin- und Stringer-Werkstoff). Unter Verwendung der statistischen Versuchsplanung wurden die optimalen Einstellungen der Schweissprozessparameter fuer die

  6. Aluminium EN AC-AlSi12 alloy matrix composite materials reinforced by Al2O3 porous preforms

    OpenAIRE

    Nagel, A.; M. Kremzer; L.A. Dobrzański,

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this work is to elaborate the method of manufacturing of composite materials based on porous ceramic preforms infiltrated by eutectic aluminium alloy.Design/methodology/approach: The material for investigations was fabricated by pressure infiltration method of ceramic porous preforms. The eutectic aluminium alloy EN AC – AlSi12 was use as a matrix while as reinforcement were used ceramic preforms fabricated by sintering of Al2O3 Alcoa CL 2500 powder with addition of po...

  7. Application of spectral analysis of the electrochemical noise to the investigation of aluminium alloy pitting corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this research is to decode (at least partially) the nature of the information contained in the electrochemical noise associated with the pitting corrosion phenomenon in aluminium alloys. After a general presentation of aluminium and its alloys and a report of a bibliographical study on the electrochemical noise, the author gives an overview of a theoretical approach of stochastic phenomena, and of an experimental approach. Then, the experimental investigation of the electrochemical noise in the case of pitting corrosion leads to a noise control law, to a study of the structure of pitting growth, and to the elaboration of a procedure of assessment of spectral characteristics of this noise. The author reports a systematic study of the electrochemical noise with respect to the parameters of the control law. Results allow a quantitative characterization of pitting corrosion resistance of the studied alloys, notably by using the kinetic aspect of pitting growth and the structure of pitting corrosion. The author discusses the physicochemical nature of random fluctuations which build up the noise. He proposes a more precise explanation of phenomena related to initiation and propagation of pitting corrosion on aluminium alloys in marine environment

  8. Electrodeposition of iron and iron-aluminium alloys in an ionic liquid and their magnetic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giridhar, P; Weidenfeller, B; El Abedin, S Zein; Endres, F

    2014-05-28

    In this work we show that nanocrystalline iron and iron-aluminium alloys can be electrodeposited from the ionic liquid 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium trifluoromethylsulfonate, [Py1,4]TfO, at 100 °C. The study comprises CV, SEM, XRD, and magnetic measurements. Two different sources of iron(ii) species, Fe(TfO)2 and FeCl2, were used for the electrodeposition of iron in [Py1,4]TfO. Cyclic voltammetry was employed to evaluate the electrochemical behavior of FeCl2, Fe(TfO)2, and (FeCl2 + AlCl3) in the employed ionic liquid. Thick iron deposits were obtained from FeCl2/[Py1,4]TfO at 100 °C. Electrodeposition of iron-aluminium alloys was successful in the same ionic liquid at 100 °C. The morphology and crystallinity of the obtained deposits were investigated using SEM and XRD, respectively. XRD measurements reveal the formation of iron-aluminium alloys. First magnetic measurements of some deposits gave relatively high coercive forces and power losses in comparison to commercial iron-silicon samples due to the small grain size in the nanometer regime. The present study shows the feasibility of preparing magnetic alloys from ionic liquids. PMID:24715034

  9. Modelling research of hydrogen desorption from liquid aluminium and its alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Saternus

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The refining process is essential for the removing undesirable hydrogen and harmful impurities from liquid aluminium and its alloys. Physical modelling allows to observe the level of refining gas dispersion in the liquid aluminium. Test stand for physical modelling of the barbotage process of aluminum for the bath reactor (URO-200 and continuous reactor (URC-7000 were built. Measurements of the oxygen removal from water were carried out as analogy of the hydrogen desorption process from liquid aluminium. In the research the distilled water saturated with the compressed oxygen was used. The level of water saturation with oxygen and then oxygen desorption from water was reached by means of the dissolved oxygen meter Elmetron CO-401.

  10. Steam assisted oxide growth on aluminium alloys using oxidative chemistries: Part I Microstructural investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Din, Rameez Ud; Piotrowska, Kamila; Gudla, Visweswara Chakravarthy; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl; Ambat, Rajan

    2015-11-01

    The surface treatment of aluminium alloys under steam containing KMnO4 and HNO3 resulted in the formation of an oxide layer having a thickness of up to 825 nm. The use of KMnO4 and HNO3 in the steam resulted in incorporation of the respective chemical species into the oxide layer. Steam treatment with solution containing HNO3 caused dissolution of Cu and Si from the intermetallic particles in the aluminium substrate. The growth rate of oxide layer was observed to be a function of MnO4- and NO3- ions present in the aqueous solution. The NO3- ions exhibit higher affinity towards the intermetallic particles resulting in poor coverage by the steam generated oxide layer compared to the coating formed using MnO4- ions. Further, increase in the concentration of NO3- ions in the solution retards precipitation of the steam generated aluminium hydroxide layer.

  11. A NEW MODEL OF SHAPE MEMORY ALLOYS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱祎国; 吕和祥; 杨大智

    2002-01-01

    A new constitutive model of shape memory alloys ( SMAs ) based on Tanaka' s martensite fraction exponential expression is produced. This new model can present recoverable shape memory strain during different phase transformation, and reflect the action of martensite reorientation. Also it can overcome the defect of Tanaka's Model when the SMAs' microstructure is fully martensite . The model is very simple and suitable for using,and the correct behavior of the model is proved by test.

  12. Appearance of anodised aluminium: Effect of alloy composition and prior surface finish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aggerbeck, Martin; Canulescu, Stela; Dirscherl, Kai;

    2014-01-01

    that the roughness of the as-etched surface increases with the degree of alloying due to second phase particles making the reflection more diffused, and that the as-etched surface morphology is similar to the oxide–substrate interface after anodising. Proper polishing is achieved on hard alloys and the glossy......Effect of alloy composition and prior surface finish on the optical appearance of the anodised layer on aluminium alloys was investigated. Four commercial alloys namely AA1050, Peraluman 706, AA5754, and AA6082 were used for the investigation. Microstructure and surface morphology of the substrate...... prior to anodising were analysed using scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. The optical appearance of the anodised surface with and without sealing was investigated using a photography setup, photospectrometry and bidirectional reflectance distribution function. It was found...

  13. Shape Control of Solar Collectors Using Shape Memory Alloy Actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobitz, D. W.; Grossman, J. W.; Allen, J. J.; Rice, T. M.; Liang, C.; Davidson, F. M.

    1996-01-01

    Solar collectors that are focused on a central receiver are designed with a mechanism for defocusing the collector or disabling it by turning it out of the path of the sun's rays. This is required to avoid damaging the receiver during periods of inoperability. In either of these two cases a fail-safe operation is very desirable where during power outages the collector passively goes to its defocused or deactivated state. This paper is principally concerned with focusing and defocusing the collector in a fail-safe manner using shape memory alloy actuators. Shape memory alloys are well suited to this application in that once calibrated the actuators can be operated in an on/off mode using a minimal amount of electric power. Also, in contrast to other smart materials that were investigated for this application, shape memory alloys are capable of providing enough stroke at the appropriate force levels to focus the collector. Design and analysis details presented, along with comparisons to test data taken from an actual prototype, demonstrate that the collector can be repeatedly focused and defocused within accuracies required by typical solar energy systems. In this paper the design, analysis and testing of a solar collector which is deformed into its desired shape by shape memory alloy actuators is presented. Computations indicate collector shapes much closer to spherical and with smaller focal lengths can be achieved by moving the actuators inward to a radius of approximately 6 inches. This would require actuators with considerably more stroke and some alternate SMA actuators are currently under consideration. Whatever SMA actuator is finally chosen for this application, repeatability and fatigue tests will be required to investigate the long term performance of the actuator.

  14. Corrosion of alloys of the niobium--titanium--aluminium system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mechanical properties and corrosion resistance of niobium--titanium--aluminum alloys in 20 percent HCl and 40--75 percent H2SO4 at 40 and 1000C are considered. Current density vs potential and corrosion rate vs potential potentiostatic curves plotted in 75 percent H2SO4 at 1400C for the alloys with different titanium contents at a constant content of aluminum and also for alloys with a constant titanium content at different contents of aluminum are given. It was shown that the corrosion resistance of the alloys in 75 percent H2SO4 at 1400C is an exponential function of the atomic content of the alloying components (Ti, Al) in them; aluminum vitiates the corrosion resistance very strongly

  15. Performance of AA5052 alloy anode in alkaline ethylene glycol electrolyte with dicarboxylic acids additives for aluminium-air batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, DaPeng; Zhang, DaQuan; Lee, KangYong; Gao, LiXin

    2015-11-01

    Dicarboxylic acid compounds, i.e. succinic acid (SUA), adipic acid (ADA) and sebacic acid (SEA), are used as electrolyte additives in the alkaline ethylene glycol solution for AA5052 aluminium-air batteries. It shows that the addition of dicarboxylic acids lowers the hydrogen gas evolution rate of commercial AA5052 aluminium alloy anode. AA5052 aluminium alloy has wide potential window for electrochemical activity and better discharge performance in alkaline ethylene glycol solution containing dicarboxylic acid additives. ADA has the best inhibition effect for the self-corrosion of AA5052 anode among the three dicarboxylic acid additives. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) reveals that dicarboxylic acids and aluminium ions can form coordination complexes. Quantum chemical calculations shows that ADA has a smaller energy gap (ΔE, the energy difference between the lowest unoccupied orbital and the highest occupied orbital), indicating that ADA has the strongest interaction with aluminium ions.

  16. Effect of Process Parameters of Friction Stir Welded Joint for Similar Aluminium Alloys H30

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanita S. Thete

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the effect of process parameters of friction stir welded joint for similar aluminium alloys H30 was studied. Taper cylindrical with three flutes all made of High speed steel was used for the friction stir welding (FSW aluminium alloy H30 and the tensile test of the welded joint were tested by universal testing method. The optimization done using detailed mathematical model is simulated by Minitab17. In this investigation, an effective approach based on Taguchi method, has been developed to determine the optimum conditions leading to higher tensile strength. Experiments were conducted on varying rotational speed, transverse speed, and axial force using L9 orthogonal array of Taguchi method. The present study aims at optimizing process parameters to achieve high tensile strength.

  17. Braze Welding TIG of Titanium and Aluminium Alloy Type Al – Mg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winiowski A.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the course and the results of technological tests related to TIG-based arc braze welding of titanium and AW-5754 (AlMg3 aluminium alloy. The tests involved the use of an aluminium filler metal (Al99.5 and two filler metals based on Al-Si alloys (AlSi5 and AlSi12. Braze welded joints underwent tensile tests, metallographic examinations using a light microscope as well as structural examinations involving the use of a scanning electron microscope and an X-ray energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS. The highest strength and quality of welds was obtained when the Al99.5 filler metal was used in a braze welding process. The tests enabled the development of the most convenient braze welding conditions and parameters.

  18. A crystallographic texture perspective formability investigation of aluminium 5052 alloy sheets at various annealing temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narayanasamy, R. [Department of Production Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Tiruchirappalli - 620015, Tamilnadu (India); Ravindran, R. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, VLB Janakiammal College of Engineering and Technology, Coimbatore - 641042, Tamilnadu (India)], E-mail: mceravindran@yahoo.co.in; Manonmani, K. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Government College of Technology, Coimbatore - 641013, Tamilnadu (India)], E-mail: manokmani@yahoo.co.in; Satheesh, J. [Department of Production Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Tiruchirappalli - 620015, Tamilnadu (India)

    2009-05-15

    Formability, an important mechanical property of the sheet metal is strongly reliant on the crystallographic texture. Consequently deep drawability is also influenced. This paper deals with the perspective of crystallographic texture and its relevance with the formability of AA 5052 aluminium alloy sheet of 2 mm thickness annealed at four different temperatures namely 200 deg. C, 250 deg. C, 300 deg. C and 350 deg. C. Forming limit diagrams determined and plotted experimentally, their crystallographic textures obtained and their ODF plots prepared by X-ray diffraction were analyzed. The Forming limit diagrams (FLDs) of AA 5052 sheets annealed under different temperatures were examined with respect to the crystallographic texture point of view. The FLDs and crystallographic textures were then correlated with normal anisotropy of the sheet metal. It was found that the formability of aluminium alloy AA 5052 annealed at 350 deg. C possessed good formability, optimal texture and high normal anisotropy value.

  19. DEFORMATION BEHAVIOR OF AA6063 ALUMINIUM ALLOY AFTER REMOVING FRICTION EFFECT UNDER HOT WORKING CONDITIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The hot deformation behavior of AA6063 aluminium alloy has been investigated by means of compression tests at temperatures between 400 and 520℃, and strain ratesranging from 2.5 to 10 s-1. Owing to the barreling, the theoretical model on the basis of Hill's general method is used to calculate the flow stress of a cylindrical spec-imen under uniaxial simple compression so as to consider the friction effect at the die-specimen interface. A method of evaluating the friction coefficient by combining compression tests with the finite element method is presented. The real flow behavior of AA6063 aluminium alloy can be described with sinh-Arrhenius equation. The hot deformation activation energy Q derived from the corrected stress and strain data is 232.350 k.J/mol.

  20. Composite Ni-Co-fly ash coatings on 5083 aluminium alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panagopoulos, C.N., E-mail: chpanag@metal.ntua.gr [Laboratory of Physical Metallurgy, National Technical University of Athens, Zografos, 15780 Athens (Greece); Georgiou, E.P.; Tsopani, A.; Piperi, L. [Laboratory of Physical Metallurgy, National Technical University of Athens, Zografos, 15780 Athens (Greece)

    2011-03-15

    Ni-Co-fly ash coatings were deposited on zincate treated 5083 wrought aluminium alloy substrates with the aid of the electrodeposition technique. Structural and chemical characterization of the produced composite coatings was performed with the aid of X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electron dispersive X-ray analysis (EDS) techniques. The Ni-Co-fly ash coatings were found to consist of a crystalline Ni-Co solid solution with dispersed fly ash particles. In addition, chemical analysis of the Ni-Co matrix showed that it consisted of 80 wt.% Ni and 20 wt.% Co. The co-deposition of fly ash particles leads to a significant increase of the microhardness of the coating. The corrosion behaviour of the Ni-Co-fly ash/zincate coated aluminium alloy, in a 0.3 M NaCl solution (pH = 3.5), was studied by means of potentiodynamic corrosion experiments.

  1. RESEARCH OF FATIGUE AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES AlMg1SiCu ALUMINIUM ALLOYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mária Mihaliková

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper is concerned with an analysis of utility and fatigue properties of industrially produced aluminium alloy, specifically EN AW 6061 (AlMg1SiCu, reinforced with the particles of SiC. The following properties were subject to evaluation: microstructure and sub-structure, mechanical characteristics. All of these mechanical properties in pre- and post- equal channel angular pressed (ECAP state have been studied. The hardness was evaluated by Vickers hardness test at the load of HV10. The significant part the thesis was devoted to the fatigue properties at cyclic load in torsion. The presented results demonstrate well that the combination of fractography and microscopy can give a significant contribution to the knowledge of initiation and propagation crack in the aluminium alloy.

  2. Accelerated growth of oxide film on aluminium alloys under steam: Part I: Effects of alloy chemistry and steam vapour pressure on microstructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Din, Rameez Ud; Gudla, Visweswara C.; Jellesen, Morten S.;

    2015-01-01

    at the top. The kinetics of formation of film understeamwas rapid; approx. 350nm thick layers were generated within 5 s of steam treatment, however increase in thickness of the oxide retarded further growth. The enrichment or depletion of different alloying elements at the surface of aluminium as a result...... of alkaline etching pre-treatment influenced the thickness and growth of theoxide. Moreover the steam treatment resulted in the partial oxidation of second phase intermetallic particles present in the aluminium alloy microstructure....

  3. Friction Stir Processing of Aluminium-Silicon Alloys

    OpenAIRE

    Chun Yip Chan

    2011-01-01

    Friction Stir Processing (FSP) has the potential for locally enhancing the properties of Al-Si alloy castings, for demanding applications within the automotive industry. In this thesis, the effect of FSP has been examined on three different cast Al-Si alloys:i) A Hypoeutectic Al-8.9wt%Si Alloyii) A Hypereutectic Al-12.1wt%Si Alloyiii) A Hypereutectic Al-12.1wt%Si-2.4wt%Ni AlloyThe influence of different processing parameters has been investigated at a fundamental level. Image analysis of part...

  4. Tensile behaviour of aluminium 7017 alloy at various temperatures and strain rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravindranadh Bobbili

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study is to carry out high strain rate tensile tests on 7017 aluminium alloy under different strain rates ranging from 0.01, 500, 1000 and 1500 s−1 and at temperatures of 25, 100, 200 and 300 °C. Quasi-Static tensile stress–strain curves were generated using INSTRON 8500 machine. Johnson-Cook (J-C constitutive model was developed for 7017 aluminium alloy based on high strain rate tensile data generated from split Hopkinson tension bar (SHTB at various temperatures. This study evidently showed an improvement in dynamic strength as the strain rate increases. The predictions of J-C model are observed to be in consistence with the experimental data for all strain rates and temperatures. The fracture surfaces of specimens tested were studied under SEM. The change in fracture mode has been observed at different strain rates. The shear mode of fracture is dominant at lower strain rates (0.01 and 500 s−1; whereas cup- and cone-like surface representing dimple structure is found at the higher strain rates (1000 and 1500 s−1. The numbers of dimples at high strain rates are more than the quasi-static and intermediate strain rates. It is also observed that the flow stress decreases with increase in temperature. The 7017 aluminium alloy demonstrates thermal softening at higher temperatures. So when the temperature is more than 200 °C at these strain rates, thermal softening is predominant mode of deformation mechanism. It is found that when the temperature increases to 200 °C, the number of dimples rises and the dimple size of 7017 aluminium alloy is larger than at lower temperatures.

  5. The magnitude of heat treatment induced residual stresses and the thermal stress relief of aluminium alloys

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, J S; Tanner, D.A

    2002-01-01

    To produce useful strengthening, precipitation hardenable aluminium alloys rely on rapid quenching from the solution heat treatment temperature to suppress the formation of coarse equilibrium second phases. An unavoidable consequence of the rapid quenching of thick sections is the severe thermal gradients that quickly develop in the material. The attendant inhomogeneous plastic flow can then result in the establishment of residual stresses. Established procedures exist to minim...

  6. Assessment of air pollutants produced by industrial activity from an aluminium alloys foundry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Cirtina

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The industrial activity in non-ferrous alloys foundries leads to the elimination of the pollutants in the atmosphere that may have adverse effects on the environment and human health. This paper presents an evaluation of the pollutantemissions resulting from an aluminium foundry starting from data on concentrations and pollutant massflow rates estimated for each phase of the technological process and on measured ambient levels for the area of influence of the objective to study.

  7. Heat input effect of friction stir welding on aluminium alloy AA 6061-T6 welded joint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedmak Aleksandar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the heat input and maximum temperature developed during friction stir welding with different parameters. Aluminium alloy (AA 6061-T6 has been used for experimental and numerical analysis. Experimental analysis is based on temperature measurements by using infrared camera, whereas numerical analysis was based on empirical expressions and finite element method. Different types of defects have been observed in respect to different levels of heat input.

  8. Shear Strength Measurements in LY-12 Aluminium Alloy During Shock Loading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴兰宏; 阎敏; 沈乐天

    2004-01-01

    Lateralstress of LY-12 aluminium alloy under plate impact shock loading was measured. Based on the measured data, the Hugoniot relation and shear strength were obtained. The result has demonstrated that the shear strength of the tested material increases remarkably with the increasing longitudinal stress. This means that the assumption of constant shear strength usually adopted in shock stress calculation is not suitable for the present material.

  9. Micro-scale abrasion behaviour of electroless Ni-P-SiC coating on aluminium alloy

    OpenAIRE

    Franco, M.; Sha, Wei; Malinov, Savko

    2014-01-01

    Electroless nickel (EN) and electroless nickel composite (ENC) coatings were deposited on aluminium alloy substrate, LM24. The micro abrasion test was conducted to study the wear behaviour of the coatings with the effect of SiC concentration. Microhardness of the coatings was tested also. The wear scars were analysed using optical microscope and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The wear resistance was found to be improved in composite coating that has higher microhardness as compared to pa...

  10. High-temperature mechanical properties of aluminium alloys reinforced with boron carbide particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onoro, J. [Dept. Ingenieria y Ciencia de los Materiales, ETSI Industriales, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, c/Jose Gutierrez Abascal 2, 28006 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: javier.onoro@upm.es; Salvador, M.D. [Dept. Ingenieria Mecanica y de Materiales, ETSI Industriales, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n, 46071 Valencia (Spain); Cambronero, L.E.G. [Dept. Ingenieria de Materiales, ETSI Minas, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, c/Rios Rosas 21, 28003 Madrid (Spain)

    2009-01-15

    The mechanical properties of particulate-reinforced metal-matrix composites based on aluminium alloys (6061 and 7015) at high temperatures were studied. Boron carbide particles were used as reinforcement. All composites were produced by hot extrusion. The tensile properties and fracture analysis of these materials were investigated at room temperature and at high temperature to determine their ultimate strength and strain to failure. The fracture surface was analysed by scanning electron microscopy.

  11. Advances in aluminium alloy products for structural applications in transportation

    OpenAIRE

    Staley, J.; Lege, D.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the needs of the aviation and automotive markets for structural materials and presents examples of developments of aluminum alloy products to fill these needs. Designers of aircraft desire materials which will allow them to design lightweight, cost-effective structures which have the performance characteristics of durability and damage tolerance. Their needs are being met by new and emerging materials varying from Al-Li alloys for thick structure, high-strength plate and ...

  12. Inhibitive Behaviour of Corrosion of Aluminium Alloy in NaCl by Mangrove Tannin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anticorrosion potential of mangrove tannins on aluminium alloys AA6061 in NaCl solution has been studied using potentiodynamic polarisation method and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The study was carried out in different pH of corrosive medium in the absence and presence of various concentrations of tannin. The corrosion inhibition behaviour of the mangrove tannin on AA6061 aluminium alloy corrosion was found to be dependant on the pH of NaCl solution. Our results showed that the inhibition efficiency increased with increasing tannins concentration in chloride solution at pH 6. Treatment of aluminium alloy 6061 with all concentrations of mangrove tannins reduced the current density, thus decreased the corrosion rate. Tannins behaved as mixed inhibitors at pH 6 and reduction in current density predominantly affected in cathodic reaction. Meanwhile, at pH 12, addition of tannins shifted the corrosion potential to more cathodic potentials and a passivating effect was observed in anodic potentials. SEM studies have shown that the addition of tannins in chloride solution at pH 12 reduced the surface degradation and the formation of pits. (author)

  13. Modeling on dynamic recrystallization of aluminium alloy 7050 during hot compression based on cellular automaton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jun-chao; XIE Zhi-yuan; LI Song-pu; ZANG Yan-yan

    2016-01-01

    The dynamic recrystallization (DRX) process of hot compressed aluminium alloy 7050 was predicted using cellular automaton (CA) combined with topology deformation. The hot deformatation characteristics of aluminium alloy 7050 were investigated by hot uniaxial compression tests in order to obtain the material parameters used in the CA model. The influences of process parameters (strain, strain rate and temperature) on the fraction of DRX and the average recrystallization grain (R-grain) size were investigated and discussed. It is found that larger stain, higher temperature and lower strain rate (less than 0.1 s–1) are beneficial to the increasing fraction of DRX. And the deformation temperature affects the mean R-grain size much more greatly than other parameters. It is also noted that there is a critical strain for the occurrence of DRX which is related to strain rate and temperature. In addition, it is shown that the CA model with topology deformation is able to simulate the microstructural evolution and the flow behavior of aluminium alloy 7050 material under various deformation conditions.

  14. Microstructures and Properties of Aluminium-Magnesium Alloys with Additions of Manganese, Zirconium and Scandium

    OpenAIRE

    Johansen, Arve

    2000-01-01

    The present work reports on the effect of Mn-, Zr- and Sc-additions upon hot deformation properties, recrystallization properties and mechanical properties for different temper conditions of Al-Mg alloys.It can be stated that the addition of Mn, Zr and Sc improves the recrystallization properties and the mechanical properties of Al-Mg alloys. It should be emphasised that the precipitation of the metastable cubic Al3Zr and the stable cubic Al3(Sc,Zr) is favourable in an aluminium-magnesium mat...

  15. Experimental and simulation studies on laser conduction welding of AA5083 aluminium alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobar, M. J.; Lamas, M. I.; Yáñez, A.; Sánchez-Amaya, J. M.; Boukha, Z.; Botana, F. J.

    In this paper, a three-dimensional numerical model was developed to study laser welding in an aluminium alloy (AA5083). The CFD model was used to solve the governing equations of conservation of mass, momentum and energy, so as to obtain the morphology, velocity field and temperature field of the melted zone in steady state. The predicted dimensions of the weld pool agreed well with experimental results obtained on laser conduction welding with a (CW) high power diode laser. The study allowed to determine the effect of different surface treatment (sandblasting, black painting) on the laser absorptivity of the alloy and analyze the heat transfer mechanism within the weld pool.

  16. Protection of 2024-T3 aluminium alloy by corrosion resistant phytic acid conversion coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Hongwei; Han, En-Hou; Liu, Fuchun; Kallip, Silvar

    2013-09-01

    The corrosion protection properties of environmentally friendly phytic acid conversion coatings were studied on 2024-T3 aluminium alloy. The films were prepared under acidic conditions with various pH values and characterised by SEM, EDS, ATR-FTIR and electrochemical techniques. The results indicate that the conversion coatings obtained by immersing the alloy in phytic acid solutions at pH from 3 to 5.5 provide excellent corrosion resistance. ATR-FTIR confirms that the film is formed by deposition of reaction products between Al3+ and phosphate groups in phytic acid molecules. The conformation models of the deposition film are proposed.

  17. Effect of Laser Feeding on Heat Treated Aluminium Alloy Surface Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Labisz K.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper are presented the investigation results concerning microstructure as well as mechanical properties of the surface layer of cast aluminium-silicon-copper alloy after heat treatment alloyed and/ or remelted with SiC ceramic powder using High Power Diode Laser (HPDL. For investigation of the achieved structure following methods were used: light and scanning electron microscopy with EDS microanalysis as well as mechanical properties using Rockwell hardness tester were measured. By mind of scanning electron microscopy, using secondary electron detection was it possible to determine the distribution of ceramic SiC powder phase occurred in the alloy after laser treatment. After the laser surface treatment carried out on the previously heat treated aluminium alloys, in the structure are observed changes concerning the distribution and morphology of the alloy phases as well as the added ceramic powder, these features influence the hardness of the obtained layers. In the structure, there were discovered three zones: the remelting zone (RZ the heat influence zone (HAZ and transition zone, with different structure and properties. In this paper also the laser treatment conditions: the laser power and ceramic powder feed rate were investigated. The surface laser structure changes in a manner, that there zones are revealed in the form of. This carried out investigations make it possible to develop, interesting technology, which could be very attractive for different branches of industry.

  18. Influence of constitutional liquation on corrosion behaviour of aluminium alloy 2017A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this work was to investigate microstructural aspects of constitutional liquation in the aluminium alloy 2017A and to determine its effect on corrosion behaviour of this alloy. Non-equilibrium melting of the alloy in the naturally aged condition was provoked by rapid heating above the eutectic temperature and immediate cooling in air. Corrosion testing was performed by exposure to a marine onshore atmosphere. The microstructure examinations were carried out using light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray energy dispersion and X-ray diffraction analysis. It was found that, due to rapid heating rate, coarse θ (Al2Cu) particles were melted by constitutional liquation and this way introduced strong susceptibility of 2017A alloy to intergranular corrosion.

  19. Ageing and work-hardening behaviour of a commercial AA7108 aluminium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the 7xxx aluminium alloying system several mechanisms influence the hardening behaviour of the alloys, e.g. particle size and distribution, dislocation density and alloying elements in solid solution. This work is an experimental study of ageing and work-hardening considering a commercial AA7108 alloy in the as-cast and homogenized condition. Tensile specimens have been exposed to a solution heat treatment and a two-step age-hardening treatment with varying time at the final temperature. The tensile data for the different tempers have been evaluated in elucidation of already existing models based on a one-parameter framework. The precipitate size and distribution have been further investigated in the transmission electron microscope for a selection of tempers, and the influence of these parameters on the work-hardening behaviour has been discussed.

  20. Increasing of founding properties of secondary aluminium alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.V. Lyutova

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To study the influence of metallurgical factors of production on casting properties of secondary aluminum alloy АК9М2. Methodology. For the experimental melts shaving amount in a charge, iron content and the quantity of modifier additive were chosen as independent variables. The components of modifier were being changed in the intervals of 25…40 % Na2CO3, 12…20 % SiC, 3…8 % Ti, the other – S. The microstructure of alloys was investigated under a light microscope, using the method of quantitative metallography. Influence analysis of certain parameters of alloys was conducted by mathematical statistics methods. The influence of shaving additions, iron and modifier amount on liquidity and porosity of the resulting alloys was studied. Findings. The paper shows that the increase of shaving content in the charge from 1 to 19 % and iron content in alloy from 0.66 to 2.34 % resulted in the decline of alloy liquidity on 30…35 %. Simultaneously the linear shrinkage reduction for 18…20 % and the porosity increase from 0.5 to 2.5 points were observed. The presented changes of alloy casting properties are conditioned by the amount of intermetallic phases of unfavorable form and its capacity for aeration. Increase of modifier additive from 0.02 to 0.15 % resulted in the liquidity increase on 10…15 %, the increase of linear shrinkage on 30…35 % and porosity decline from 2.5 to 0.5 points. At the same time a change of form of intermetallic phases and increase of their evenness were observed. Originality. The increase of iron concentration in silumin composition is accompanied by the decline of its liquidity. Thus, the rate of decline of alloy liquidity is proportional to the amount of dissolved iron. The character of iron influence is caused by formation of high temperature intermetallic compounds of the type Al3Fe, Al5SiFe, which promote the metal viscidity. Practical value. Practical use of the obtained scientific results would

  1. Phase-oriented surface segregation in an aluminium casting alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There have been many reports of the surface segregation of minor elements, especially Mg, into surface layers and oxide films on the surface of Al alloys. LM6 casting alloy (Al-12%Si) represents a challenging system to examine such segregation as the alloy features a particularly inhomogeneous phase structure. The very low but mobile Mg content (approximately 0.001 wt.%), and the surface segregation of modifiers such as Na, mean the surface composition responds in a complex manner to thermal treatment conditions. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) has been used to determine the distribution of these elements within the oxide film. Further investigation by dynamic secondary ion mass spectrometry (DSIMS) confirmed a strong alignment of segregated Na and Mg into distinct phases of the structure.

  2. Determination of anisotropy in impact toughness of aluminium alloy 2024 T3 plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, M. H.; Hashmi, F.; Junaid, A.

    The research was aimed to quantify the existence of anisotropy in fracture toughness of aluminium alloy 2024 T3 plate (used in aircraft structural members). It was further needed to establish the direction in which the fracture toughness of aluminium alloy 2024 T3 plate is maximum and minimum. This could help ascertain the structural integrity of aircraft structural components; also while designing new components, the knowledge of variation in toughness with respect to direction helps in economizing dead weight of the aircraft. In this research, pursued at the College of Aeronautical Engineering, the anisotropy in toughness of aluminium alloy 2024 T3 plate was analysed using the Charpy V-notch impact toughness test. The effect of specimen orientation on the impact toughness values of the alloy was investigated and compared with known results to verify the reliability of the work and to ascertain the extent of anisotropy in fracture toughness of the said alloy. Charpy impact tests were carried out on ASTM E 23 standard specimens machined at a reference laboratory at room temperature (23° C +/- 2° C). Four different specimen orientations analysed for the purpose of this study were L-S, L-T, T-S and T-L directions. Subsequently, the results obtained at the research centre were then analysed and correlated with morphology of microstructure of the material to establish the reliability of the experimental results. Moreover, an analysis was also done to cater for the possible errors that could affect the fracture toughness values obtained from experimental results. It was concluded that the T-S orientation of the plate had maximum toughness, whereas, minimum toughness was observed in L-T direction.

  3. The Effect of Laser Surface Treatment on Structure and Mechanical Properties Aluminium Alloy ENAC-AlMg9

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pakieła W.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the influence of a high power diode laser surface treatment on the structure and properties of aluminium alloy has been determined. The aim of this study was to improve the mechanical and tribological properties of the surface layer of the aluminium alloy by simultaneously melting and feeding tungsten carbide particles into the molten pool. During the process was used high-power diode laser HPDL. In order to remelt the aluminium alloy surface the HPDL laser of 1.8, 2.0 and 2.2 kW laser beam power has been used. The linear laser scan rate of the beam was set 0.5 cm/s. In order to protect the liquid metal during laser treatment was used argon. As a base material was used aluminium alloy ENAC-AlMg9. To improve the surface mechanical and wear properties of the applied aluminium alloy was used biphasic tungsten carbide WC/W2C. The size of alloying powder was in the range 110-210 µm. The ceramic powder was introduced in the remelting zone by a gravity feeder at a constant rate of 8 g/m.

  4. Corrosion behaviour of aluminium-magnesium alloys in molten sodium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The corrosion behaviour of the Al-1% Mg, A1-3% Mg, A1-5% Mg and A1-3% Mg-0.15%Zr alloys in moltensodium was investigated. The morphology of the corrosion products and the alloying element distribution of the specimenswere analyzed by using OM, SEM and EDS. The results showed that the effects of the magnesium content and the im-mersion temperature on the corrosion of the specimens are related to β phase (Mg5Al8).

  5. Influence of microstructure on work-hardening and ductile fracture of aluminium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Microstructural effects on work-hardening and fracture of aluminium are studied. • Four alloys with three different processing steps are tested in uniaxial tension. • An experimental–numerical approach is used to determine the work-hardening. • The microstructure has a strong effect on both work-hardening and ductility. • A linear decrease in failure strain with yield stress for the materials is found. - Abstract: The effect of microstructure on the work-hardening and ductile fracture of aluminium alloys was studied using an experimental–numerical approach. Four aluminium alloys with different strength and particle content were tested in uniaxial tension after the following subsequent processing steps: (1) casting and homogenisation, (2) extrusion, and (3) cold rolling followed by heat treatment. The latter processing step was carried out to obtain a recrystallized grain structure with random crystallographic texture. The alloys were two AlFe alloys with different Fe content, one AlMn alloy and one AlMgSi alloy. The grain structure, particle distribution and crystallographic texture were determined for all combinations of alloy and processing route using optical and scanning electron microscopy. Tensile tests were carried out on axisymmetric samples to obtain the true stress–strain curves to failure and the true failure strain of the materials, using a laser-based measuring system. Based on numerical simulations of the tensile tests, the equivalent stress–strain curves were determined to failure, assuming J2 flow theory. The results showed that the microstructure had a marked effect on both work-hardening and ductility, whilst the ductile fracture mechanism remained unchanged. The plastic anisotropy, induced by the extrusion process and not entirely removed by the cold rolling and heat treatment, led to a wide range of fracture modes of the axisymmetric samples. The failure strain was markedly lower for the cast and homogenised

  6. Experimental investigation of hardness of FSW and TIG joints of Aluminium alloys of AA7075 and AA6061

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chetan Patil

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports hardness testing conducted on welded butt joints by FSW and TIG welding process on similar and dissimilar aluminium alloys. FSW joints were produced for similar alloys of AA7075T651 and dissimilar alloys of AA7075T651- AA6061T6. The Friction stir welds of AA7075 & AA6061 aluminium alloy were produced at different tool rotational speeds of 650,700, 800, 900, 1000 and transverse speed of 30, 35, 40 mm/min. TIG welding was conducted along the rolling direction of similar and dissimilar aluminium plates. The Brinell hardness testing techniques were employed to conduct the tests; these tests were conducted on the welds to ascertain the joint integrity before characterization to have an idea of the quality of the welds

  7. Quasistatic isothermal evolution of shape memory alloys

    OpenAIRE

    Frigeri, Sergio; Krejčí, Pavel; Stefanelli, Ulisse

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on a three-dimensional phenomenological model for the isothermal evolution of a polycrystalline shape memory alloy. The model, originally proposed by Auricchio, Taylor, and Lubliner in 1997, is thermodynamically consistent and reproduces the crucial martensitic reorientation effect as well as the tension-compression asymmetric behavior of the material. We prove the existence of a weak solution of the corresponding quasistatic evolution problem by passing to the limit within...

  8. The Favourable Choice of the Shape of Billet's Contact Surface to Quality of Extruded Aluminium Profiles

    OpenAIRE

    G. Skorulski; J. Piwnik; Baranowski, P.

    2010-01-01

    The theoretical and experimental method of optimization the aluminium billet’s contact surface during extrusion have been presented inthis paper. The theoretical assumption, based on welding criteria, have been confirmed by experimental researches. The technique ofmeasurement has been shown as well. Experiments are made using plasticine as a substiute material. Some kind of different variants have been investigated. The theory and experiments have been provided to optimize the modeling shape ...

  9. Study on optimal surface property of WC-Co cutting tool for aluminium alloy cutting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizar, Mohd; Arimatsu, Naoya; Kawamitsu, Hiroshi; Takai, Kazuteru; Fukumoto, Masahiro

    2016-02-01

    The light weight property as well as high corrosion resistance of aluminium alloy has increased their demand especially in automobile industries. Aluminium alloy as a matter of fact has a low melting point and high ductility that severely adhere to the cutting tool surface and cause deterioration of chip evacuation. This problem often resulting in tools breakage. In this paper, in order to impart functions of anti-adhesion, we propose a technique by controlling the grinding marks micro texture on the tool surface by using the blast polishing treatment without any coating technologies. The results show that the tool which underwent polishing treatment reduces the cutting force as well as the aluminium adherence during the initial cutting process, and become worst as the process cutting continues. These results indicate that grinding mark texture improves the anti-adhesion by reducing the contact area during cutting and provide storage for the lubricant. In addition, too much polishing on the tool surface may remove these textures and resultantly worsen the tool performance.

  10. Analysis of wear properties of aluminium based journal bearing alloys with and without lubrication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathavan, J. Joy; Patnaik, Amar

    2016-09-01

    Apart from classical bearing materials, Aluminium alloys are used as bearing materials these days because of their superior quality. In this analysis, new Aluminium based bearing materials, with filler metals Si, Ni, and Cr are prepared by metal mould casting in burnout furnace machine, and tribological properties of these alloys with and without lubrication were tested. The experiments for wear with lubrication are conducted on multiple specimen tester and experiments without lubrication is conducted on Pin on disk tribometer. The disc material used was SAE 1050 steel. Wear tests were conducted at a sliding speed of 0.785 m/s and at a normal load of 20 N. Coefficient of friction values, temperature changes and wear of the specimens were plotted on graph according to the above mentioned working conditions. Hardness and weight losses of the specimens were calculated. The obtained results demonstrate how the friction and wear properties of these samples have changed with the % addition of Silicon, Chromium and Nickel to the base metal aluminium.

  11. Surface formation in direct chill (DC) casting of 6082 aluminium alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayat, N.; Carlberg, T.

    2016-03-01

    Surface defects in aluminium billet production are a real problem for the subsequent extrusion procedure. Extrusion productivity can be influenced by the surface properties, which is defined as surface appearance, surface segregation zone depth and large Mg2Si and β-particles (Al5FeSi). In this research the surface formation during DC casting of 6082 aluminium billets produced by the air slip technology is studied. The surface microstructures of 6082 aluminium alloys with smooth and wavy surface appearances were investigated, including segregation zone depths and phase formation. The results were discussed based on the exudation of liquid metal through the mushy zone. The specific appearance of the wavy surface of 6082 alloys was correlated to how the oxide skin adheres to the underlying mushy zone and coupled to the dendritic coherency and surface tension of the skin. The occurrence of different phases at the very surface and in the layer just below was explained by variations in solidification directions and subsequent segregation patterns.

  12. Gating System Design for Casting thin Aluminium Alloy (Al-Si Plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor ANJO

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The main problems caused by improper gating are entrained aluminium oxide films, cuts and washes, low casting yield and entrapped gas. This study describes the design of a gating system to produce thin Aluminium cast alloy plates of different sizes and thicknesses of 4mm, 6mm, 8mm, and 10mm using the non-pressurized gating with ratio of 1:4:4 and green sand moulding technique. The gating design was based on the laws of fluid mechanics and empirical rules of gating for non ferrous metals. The equipments used for this experiment includes; a coal fired crucible furnace and an X-Ray machine. Materials used include; silica sand, clay, wood, glue and Aluminium alloy scraps. The experimental procedure involved: the gating design calculations, construction of wooden pattern and gating; using the wooden pattern and gating to produce the mould cavities and gating; melting, melt treatment and pouring of melt in the sand mould to produce the casting. The plate castings after removal from mould were visually examined for surface defects and after fettling and cleaning X-Ray radiography was used to find the internal soundness of the castings. From the results obtained in the experiment, it was found that there were no internal defects and quality castings were produced.

  13. Growth restriction effects during solidification of aluminium alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Zhong-wei; HE Zhi; JIE Wan-qi

    2009-01-01

    The effects of solute elements during solidification on the grain size are very important and can be quantified by the growth-restriction parameter Q, and Q possesses the better correlation with the grain size. Based on the constitutional undercooling generated by the growth of an adjacent grain during the initial solidification, the growth-restriction parameter Q is deduced and a comprehensive physical basis of Q is obtained by using an initial solute distributing equation. For the alloys with more potent nucleants, Q is a suitable predictor of the grain size. For less potent nucleants, the relative grain size(RGS) is a more accurate prediction of the grain size. This prediction coincides with the experimental behaviors for Al-Ti and Al-Cu alloys with lower solute content.

  14. Precipitation in an AA6111 aluminium alloy and cosmetic corrosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Y. [Corrosion and Protection Centre, School of Materials, University of Manchester, Manchester M60 1QD (United Kingdom); Zhou, X. [Corrosion and Protection Centre, School of Materials, University of Manchester, Manchester M60 1QD (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: xiaorong.zhou@manchester.ac.uk; Thompson, G.E. [Corrosion and Protection Centre, School of Materials, University of Manchester, Manchester M60 1QD (United Kingdom); Hashimoto, T. [Corrosion and Protection Centre, School of Materials, University of Manchester, Manchester M60 1QD (United Kingdom); Scamans, G.M. [Innoval Technology, Beaumont Close, Banbury, Oxon OX16 1TQ (United Kingdom); Afseth, A. [Novelis Technology and Management, 8212 Neuhausen (Switzerland)

    2007-01-15

    The near-surface deformed layer on AA6111 automotive closure sheet alloy, generated by mechanical grinding during rectification, has an ultrafine grain microstructure, of 50-150 nm diameter, and a sharp transition with the underlying bulk alloy microstructure. Grinding and heat treatment to simulate rectification and paint baking processes result in the nucleation and growth of {approx}20 nm diameter precipitates at grain boundaries within the near-surface deformed layer. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy has shown Q phase precipitates in the deformed layer, giving dramatically increased corrosion susceptibility compared with the bulk microstructure, and this is responsible for the rapid-onset filiform corrosion. Transmission electron microscopy of the corrosion attack showed directly that the mode of corrosion was intergranular and that the Q phase precipitates were preserved after the passage of the corrosion front.

  15. Dilatometer study of rapidly solidified aluminium-silicon based alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varga, B [University TRANSILVANIA, B-dul Eroilor nr. 29, 500036, Brasov (Romania); Fazakas, E; Hargitai, H [Inst. for Materials Science and Technology, Bay Z. Foundation, Fehervari ut, 130., H-1116 Budapest (Hungary); Varga, L K, E-mail: varga@szfki.h

    2009-01-01

    Aluminum-Silicon alloys are sought in a large number of automotive and aerospace applications due to their low coefficient of thermal expansion and high wear resistance. The present study focused on structural transformations as a function of the temperature of rapidly solidified hypereutectic Al{sub 100-x}Si{sub x} (x = 12, 22 and 40) alloys. Different structures out of equilibrium have been obtained after casting in sand, graphite and copper moulds and by melt spinning. The retained Si content in supersaturated alpha Al and the precipitation of Si is discussed in the light of the dilatometer studies [1, 2, 3] complemented by metallographic microscopy, XRD and DSC [4] measurements. A Kissinger analysis was used to determine the activation energy for the precipitation of supersaturated Si content.

  16. Precipitation in an AA6111 aluminium alloy and cosmetic corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The near-surface deformed layer on AA6111 automotive closure sheet alloy, generated by mechanical grinding during rectification, has an ultrafine grain microstructure, of 50-150 nm diameter, and a sharp transition with the underlying bulk alloy microstructure. Grinding and heat treatment to simulate rectification and paint baking processes result in the nucleation and growth of ∼20 nm diameter precipitates at grain boundaries within the near-surface deformed layer. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy has shown Q phase precipitates in the deformed layer, giving dramatically increased corrosion susceptibility compared with the bulk microstructure, and this is responsible for the rapid-onset filiform corrosion. Transmission electron microscopy of the corrosion attack showed directly that the mode of corrosion was intergranular and that the Q phase precipitates were preserved after the passage of the corrosion front

  17. Manufacturing of Titanium and Aluminium Light alloys by powder metallurgy

    OpenAIRE

    Gordo Odériz, Elena; Ruiz Navas, Elisa María

    2008-01-01

    The Group of Powder Technology (GTP) of the University Carlos III has a wide experience in the development and processing of new materials by Powder Metallurgy (PM). The mechanical alloying (MA) process, or high energy milling, allows the attainment of powders with compositions impossible to produce by other techniques, with improved properties for structural applications, where mechanical properties are the main requirement, and for applications where other specific properties are needed....

  18. Recrystallization and texture of aluminium-magnesium-silicon-(copper) alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, A.W.F.; Humphreys, F.J. [Manchester Materials Science Centre, Univ. of Manchester, UMIST, Manchester (United Kingdom); Court, S.A. [Alcan International Ltd., Banbury, Oxon (United Kingdom)

    2001-07-01

    The effect of thermomechanical processing on the recrystallization behaviour and texture development of Al-Mg-Si-Cu alloys after cold deformation and annealing has been examined, and the processing route shown to have a marked influence on the strength and spatial alignment of the Cube and Goss components. The spatial distribution of texture has been measured by electron back scattered diffraction (EBSD) and correlated with the surface ridging or ''roping'' behaviour of the material. (orig.)

  19. TOUGHNESS AND HEAT TREATMENT. RELATIONSHIP IN A 2091 ALUMINIUM ALLOY

    OpenAIRE

    Hautefeuille, L.; Rahouadj, R.; Barbaux, Y.; Clavel, M.

    1987-01-01

    The 2091 alloy was tested to determine toughness levels with respect to heat treatment. A drastic decrease in fracture toughness was observed as a function of heat treatment. The occurence of such a toughness drop was clearly related to fracture modes : . Transgranular and intergranular precipitation and deformation modes were studied. The loss of grain boundary strength could be explained by the precipitation of the quasi crystalline phase T2

  20. Fabrication of self-healing super-hydrophobic surfaces on aluminium alloy substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a method to fabricate a super-hydrophobic surface with a self-healing ability on an aluminium alloy substrate. The coatings are obtained by combining a two-step process (first, the substrate is immersed in a solution of HCl, HF and H2O, and then in boiling water) and succeeding surface fluorination with a solution of poly(vinylidene-fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) and a fluoroalkyl silane. The morphological features and chemical composition were studied by scanning electron micrometry and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The prepared super-hydrophobic aluminium surfaces showed hierarchical structures forming pores, petals and particles with a contact angle of 161° and a sliding angle of 3°

  1. Investigation of photocatalytic activity of titanium dioxide coating deposited on aluminium alloy substrate by plasma technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daviðsdóttir, Svava; Soyama, Juliano; Dirscherl, Kai;

    2011-01-01

    . Literature consists of large number of publications on titanium dioxide coating for self-cleaning applications, with glass as the main substrate. Only little work is available on TiO2 coating of metallic alloys used for engineering applications. Engineering materials, such as light-weight aluminium and steel...... have wide spread technological applications, where a combination of self-cleaning properties has a huge business potential. The results presented in this paper demonstrate superior photocatalytic properties of TiO2 coated aluminium compared to nano-scale TiO2 coating on glass substrate. The thickness...... of the crystals. Furthermore, it manifested that the surface area of the coating increased linearly with crystal size. The optical measurements demonstrated that the ability of the coating to absorb light was depended on the thickness of the coating. As the coating became thicker, the absorption increased up...

  2. Fabrication of self-healing super-hydrophobic surfaces on aluminium alloy substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Wang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available We present a method to fabricate a super-hydrophobic surface with a self-healing ability on an aluminium alloy substrate. The coatings are obtained by combining a two-step process (first, the substrate is immersed in a solution of HCl, HF and H2O, and then in boiling water and succeeding surface fluorination with a solution of poly(vinylidene-fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene and a fluoroalkyl silane. The morphological features and chemical composition were studied by scanning electron micrometry and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The prepared super-hydrophobic aluminium surfaces showed hierarchical structures forming pores, petals and particles with a contact angle of 161° and a sliding angle of 3°.

  3. Fabrication of self-healing super-hydrophobic surfaces on aluminium alloy substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yang; Wei Liu, Xiao; Zhang, Hai Feng, E-mail: wy3121685@163.com; Zhou, Zhi Ping [Department of Microelectronics, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, Heilongjiang, 150001 (China)

    2015-04-15

    We present a method to fabricate a super-hydrophobic surface with a self-healing ability on an aluminium alloy substrate. The coatings are obtained by combining a two-step process (first, the substrate is immersed in a solution of HCl, HF and H{sub 2}O, and then in boiling water) and succeeding surface fluorination with a solution of poly(vinylidene-fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) and a fluoroalkyl silane. The morphological features and chemical composition were studied by scanning electron micrometry and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The prepared super-hydrophobic aluminium surfaces showed hierarchical structures forming pores, petals and particles with a contact angle of 161° and a sliding angle of 3°.

  4. Impact of Intermetallic Precipitates on the Tribological and/or Corrosion Performance of Cast Aluminium Alloys: a Short Review

    OpenAIRE

    Culliton, David; Betts, Tony; Kennedy, David

    2013-01-01

    The role of various intermetallic precipitates (IMP), or secondary phase particles, in governing the wear and corrosion performance characteristics of cast aluminium alloys is outlined in this brief review. Such alloys are especially important in transport applications where their low weight, low cost and recyclability make them very attractive. However alloy wear and/or corrosion behaviour often limit their industrial application and more work needs to done to extend their use into other are...

  5. Electrochemical characteristics of a carbon fibre composite and the associated galvanic effects with aluminium alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Z., E-mail: zuojia.liu@gmail.com; Curioni, M.; Jamshidi, P.; Walker, A.; Prengnell, P.; Thompson, G.E.; Skeldon, P.

    2014-09-30

    Highlights: • Exposed carbon fibres on two defined regions (“front” and “side”) are a focus of the investigation in NaCl electrolyte. • The exposed carbon fibres on the side and front regions are responsible for a high cathodic current density. • The NaCl + CuSO{sub 4} electrolyte was used to investigate the cathodic polarization behaviour of the exposed carbon fibres. • Galvanic coupling behaviour between the composite and aluminium alloys (AA7075-T6 and AA1050) was measured in NaCl electrolyte. • The higher galvanic current density measured on AA1050 alloy introduced a higher dissolution rate than the AA7075-T6 alloy. - Abstract: The electrochemical behaviour of a carbon fibre reinforced epoxy matrix composite in 3.5% NaCl and 3.5% NaCl + 0.5 M CuSO{sub 4} electrolytes was examined by potentiodynamic polarisation, potentiostatic polarisation and scanning electron microscopy. Exposed carbon fibres on two defined regions (“front” and “side”) are a focus of the investigation. The large size of the exposed carbon fibres on the side region is responsible for a higher cathodic current density than the front region in the NaCl electrolyte. The deposition of copper on the front surface of composite confirmed that the significantly higher cathodic current resulted from the exposure of the fibres to the NaCl electrolyte. Galvanic coupling between the composite and individual aluminium alloys (AA7075-T6 and AA1050) was used to measure galvanic potentials and galvanic current densities. The highly alloyed AA7075-T6 alloy and its high population density of cathodic sites compared to the AA1050 acted to reduce the galvanic effect when coupled to the composite front or side regions.

  6. Mechanocaloric effects in shape memory alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mañosa, Lluís; Planes, Antoni

    2016-08-13

    Shape memory alloys (SMA) are a class of ferroic materials which undergo a structural (martensitic) transition where the associated ferroic property is a lattice distortion (strain). The sensitiveness of the transition to the conjugated external field (stress), together with the latent heat of the transition, gives rise to giant mechanocaloric effects. In non-magnetic SMA, the lattice distortion is mostly described by a pure shear and the martensitic transition in this family of alloys is strongly affected by uniaxial stress, whereas it is basically insensitive to hydrostatic pressure. As a result, non-magnetic alloys exhibit giant elastocaloric effects but negligible barocaloric effects. By contrast, in a number of magnetic SMA, the lattice distortion at the martensitic transition involves a volume change in addition to the shear strain. Those alloys are affected by both uniaxial stress and hydrostatic pressure and they exhibit giant elastocaloric and barocaloric effects. The paper aims at providing a critical survey of available experimental data on elastocaloric and barocaloric effects in magnetic and non-magnetic SMA.This article is part of the themed issue 'Taking the temperature of phase transitions in cool materials'. PMID:27402931

  7. Shape memory alloys – characterization techniques

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jayagopal Uchil

    2002-05-01

    Shape memory alloys are the generic class of alloys that show both thermal and mechanical memory. The basic physics involved in the shape memory effect is the reversible thermoelastic martensitic transformation. In general, there exists two phases in shape memory alloys, viz., a hightemperature phase or austenitic phase (A) and a low-temperature phase or martensitic phase (M). In addition, an intermediate R phase exists in some special cases. The M ↔ A transformation is associated with a recoverable strain of about 6.5–8% and the R ↔ A transformation is associated with a recoverable strain of about 1%. The former transformation has been widely used in the applications like antenna deployment of satellite, aerospace couplings, orthodontic arch wires, medical guide wires for diagnostic and therapeutic catheters and other industrial applications. Our group has been giving emphasis to the characterization techniques for R phase, using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), electrical resistivity probe (ER) and thermomechanical analyzer (TMA). R phase is found to have attractive features like stability against thermal cycling, a small thermal hysteresis and a negligible strain recovery fatigue. DSC has been used successfully to characterize the recoverable strain parameters, apart from the determination of transformation temperatures. ER is used, for the systematic study of the dependence of various phases on heat-treatment temperatures. TMA has been effectively employed for the study of the mixed phases. A space-rotating platform is designed and fabricated, using an actuator of shape memory spring, for obtaining controlled rotations. The efficiency and the reliability of this actuator has been tested, over a million thermal cycles.

  8. Enhancement of wear and ballistic resistance of armour grade AA7075 aluminium alloy using friction stir processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Sudhakar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Industrial applications of aluminium and its alloys are restricted because of their poor tribological properties. Thermal spraying, laser surfacing, electron beam welding are the most widely used techniques to alter the surface morphology of base metal. Preliminary studies reveal that the coating and layering of aluminium alloys with ceramic particles enhance the ballistic resistance. Furthermore, among aluminium alloys, 7075 aluminium alloy exhibits high strength which can be compared to that of steels and has profound applications in the designing of lightweight fortification structures and integrated protection systems. Having limitations such as poor bond integrity, formation of detrimental phases and interfacial reaction between reinforcement and substrate using fusion route to deposit hard particles paves the way to adopt friction stir processing for fabricating surface composites using different sizes of boron carbide particles as reinforcement on armour grade 7075 aluminium alloy as matrix in the present investigation. Wear and ballistic tests were carried out to assess the performance of friction stir processed AA7075 alloy. Significant improvement in wear resistance of friction stir processed surface composites is attributed to the change in wear mechanism from abrasion to adhesion. It has also been observed that the surface metal matrix composites have shown better ballistic resistance compared to the substrate AA7075 alloy. Addition of solid lubricant MoS2 has reduced the depth of penetration of the projectile to half that of base metal AA7075 alloy. For the first time, the friction stir processing technique was successfully used to improve the wear and ballistic resistances of armour grade high strength AA7075 alloy.

  9. Enhancement of wear and ballistic resistance of armour grade AA7075 aluminium alloy using friction stir processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    I. SUDHAKAR; V. MADHU; G. MADHUSUDHAN REDDY; K. SRINIVASA RAO

    2015-01-01

    Industrial applications of aluminium and its alloys are restricted because of their poor tribological properties. Thermal spraying, laser surfacing, electron beam welding are the most widely used techniques to alter the surface morphology of base metal. Preliminary studies reveal that the coating and layering of aluminium alloys with ceramic particles enhance the ballistic resistance. Furthermore, among aluminium alloys, 7075 aluminium alloy exhibits high strength which can be compared to that of steels and has profound applications in the designing of lightweight fortification structures and integrated protection systems. Having limitations such as poor bond integrity, formation of detrimental phases and interfacial reaction between reinforcement and substrate using fusion route to deposit hard particles paves the way to adopt friction stir processing for fabricating surface composites using different sizes of boron carbide particles as reinforcement on armour grade 7075 aluminium alloy as matrix in the present investigation. Wear and ballistic tests were carried out to assess the performance of friction stir processed AA7075 alloy. Significant improvement in wear resistance of friction stir processed surface composites is attributed to the change in wear mechanism from abrasion to adhesion. It has also been observed that the surface metal matrix composites have shown better ballistic resistance compared to the substrate AA7075 alloy. Addition of solid lubricant MoS2 has reduced the depth of penetration of the projectile to half that of base metal AA7075 alloy. For the first time, the friction stir processing technique was successfully used to improve the wear and ballistic resistances of armour grade high strength AA7075 alloy.

  10. The flash-butt welding of aluminium alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchuk-Iatsenko, S. I.; Cherednichok, V. T.; Semenov, L. A.

    Flash-butt welding (FBW) of high-strength aerospace Al alloys is conducted without gaseous-medium shielding and has undergone substantial development in the direction of automated operations. FBW yields virtually no pores, discontinuities, or cracks, and is therefore ideal for gas-impermeable joints. The dimensional accuracies achievable by FBW are a function of weld are inner stresses that are a full order of magnitude smaller than those of arc-welding methods. NDI methods can be incorporated into an automated FBW apparatus for direct inspection of welds.

  11. Numerical analysis of dimension precision of U-shaped aluminium profile rotary stretch bending

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Zhong-qi; LIN Zhong-qin

    2007-01-01

    In order to enhance the dimension precision of bent part, advanced bending technologies is requested recently. Rotary stretch bending(RSB) is a suitable technology to realize high precision of bent part. The effect of processing parameters, namely the side pressure and the stretching force, on the dimension precision of aluminium profile RSB part was studied by finite element method. The numerical simulation of the U-shaped aluminium profile RSB was carried out, and the validity of the simulation was checked. Parametric analysis shows that the section distortion of the U-shaped profile LY12M bent part decreases with the increasing of the side pressure, whereas the springback of curvature increases, and that both of the section distortion and the springback of curvature decrease with the increasing of the stretching force, moreover, the uniformity of curvature of the bent part is clearly enhanced with the increasing of the stretching force. The results above prove that RSB technology can better improve the dimension precision of aluminium profile bent part.

  12. Corrosion Characteristics and Kinetics of Zircaloys and Aluminium Alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corrosion rate characterization of cladding materials has been done by dynamic method. The materials are zircaloy-2,zircaloy-4,AIMg2,and AIMgSi.The zircaloy alloys are characterized in the electrolytes of boric ion,iodide ion,lithium ion and cesium ion with a pH variation.The aluminum alloys are characterized in the cooling water of RSG-GAS reactor in different temperatures and Ph values .The results, show that corrosion product of iodine on zircaloy is not passivated, meanwhile the corrosion product of cesium undergoes passivation. However, the deposited substance in the surface of the specimens as indicated using WDX-SEM shows the same deposition rate.it is concluded therefore that iodine is diffused into the materials without getting resistance from the deposited substances on the surface. The effect of pH to corrosion rate of iodine on the zircaloy fluctuates meanwhile the cesium has the minimum corrosion rate at pH 7.5 At the concentration of 0.1 gram/1,cesium ion is more reactive than iodine but at higher concentration the reactivity becomes competitive . Furthermore , the interaction between zircaloy and boric ion at concentration of 300 ppm and lithium ion at 10 ppm shows an outstanding corrosion rate, i.e. 0.1 mpy. if both substances are mixed then the corrosion rate decreases drastically in the order of 10-2 mpy.The reason of such a decrease may be due to the formation of complexes of boron lithium on the electrode surface. The arrhenius activation energies for such reaction have been found to be 37629.322 joule/mole 0K for Al Mg2 and 41609.822 joule /mole 0K for AIMgSi ,respectively. This underlies the argument that AI Mg2 is more reactive than AI Mg Si besides , AI Mg2 is more reactive under acid condition meanwhile AI Mg Si more reactive under basic condition. Both alloys over come the minimum corrosion rate at the pH in between 4.7 to 7.5 and the level of the corrosion rate in the pH interval was outstanding

  13. Prediction of flow stress of 7017 aluminium alloy under high strain rate compression at elevated temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravindranadh Bobbili

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available An artificial neural network (ANN constitutive model and Johnson–Cook (J–C model were developed for 7017 aluminium alloy based on high strain rate data generated from split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB experiments at various temperatures. A neural network configuration consists of both training and validation, which is effectively employed to predict flow stress. Temperature, strain rate and strain are considered as inputs, whereas flow stress is taken as output of the neural network. A comparative study on Johnson–Cook (J–C model and neural network model was performed. It was observed that the developed neural network model could predict flow stress under various strain rates and temperatures. The experimental stress–strain data obtained from high strain rate compression tests using SHPB over a range of temperatures (25°–300 °C, strains (0.05–0.3 and strain rates (1500–4500 s−1 were employed to formulate J–C model to predict the flow stress behaviour of 7017 aluminium alloy under high strain rate loading. The J–C model and the back-propagation ANN model were developed to predict the flow stress of 7017 aluminium alloy under high strain rates, and their predictability was evaluated in terms of correlation coefficient (R and average absolute relative error (AARE. R and AARE for the J-C model are found to be 0.8461 and 10.624%, respectively, while R and AARE for the ANN model are 0.9995 and 2.58%, respectively. The predictions of ANN model are observed to be in consistent with the experimental data for all strain rates and temperatures.

  14. Prediction of flow stress of 7017 aluminium alloy under high strain rate compression at elevated temperatures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ravindranadh BOBBILI; B. RAMAKRISHNA; V. MADHU; A.K. GOGIA

    2015-01-01

    An artificial neural network (ANN) constitutive model and JohnsoneCook (JeC) model were developed for 7017 aluminium alloy based on high strain rate data generated from split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) experiments at various temperatures. A neural network configuration consists of both training and validation, which is effectively employed to predict flow stress. Temperature, strain rate and strain are considered as inputs, whereas flow stress is taken as output of the neural network. A comparative study on JohnsoneCook (JeC) model and neural network model was performed. It was observed that the developed neural network model could predict flow stress under various strain rates and tem-peratures. The experimental stressestrain data obtained from high strain rate compression tests using SHPB over a range of temperatures (25?e300 ?C), strains (0.05e0.3) and strain rates (1500e4500 s?1) were employed to formulate JeC model to predict the flow stress behaviour of 7017 aluminium alloy under high strain rate loading. The JeC model and the back-propagation ANN model were developed to predict the flow stress of 7017 aluminium alloy under high strain rates, and their predictability was evaluated in terms of correlation coefficient (R) and average absolute relative error (AARE). R and AARE for the J-C model are found to be 0.8461 and 10.624%, respectively, while R and AARE for the ANN model are 0.9995 and 2.58%, respectively. The predictions of ANN model are observed to be in consistent with the experimental data for all strain rates and temperatures.

  15. Aluminium EN AW-2124 alloy matrix composites reinforced with Ti(C,N), BN and Al2O3 particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Investigation results of the aluminium alloy EN AW-2124 matrix composite materials with particles of the powders Ti(C,N), BN and Al2O3 (15 wt.%) are presented in the paper. In order to obtain uniform distribution of reinforcement particles in aluminium alloy matrix powders of composite components have been milled in the rotary ball-bearing pulverizer. The composites have been pressed in laboratory vertical press at room temperature under the pressure of 500 kN. Obtained die samplings have been heated to the temperature 520-550 oC and extruded. Bars of diameter 8 mm have been received as a final product. Metallographic examination of the composites materials' structure shows non-uniform distribution of reinforced powders in the aluminium alloy matrix banding of reinforcements particles corresponds to the extrusion direction. Particles of reinforcement distribution in aluminium alloy matrix is irregular, some agglomerations of powder of aluminium oxide and porosity of different size have been noticed. Investigations of hardness and ultimate compressive strength show that the particles of reinforcement improve mechanical properties of composite materials. Investigations of compressive strength, carried out at room temperature, enable to compare mechanical properties of matrix and composite. (author)

  16. Microstructure and properties of FSW joints of 2017A/6013 aluminium alloys sheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Mroczka

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of the studies was to analyse the structure and mechanical properties of FSW joints. Experiment were perform in order to study possibilities to join different aluminium alloys 2017A and 6013. The alloys differ one from the other with respect to chemical composition and mechanical properties especially, therefore the ability to perform the correct joints may be useful for special constructions.Design/methodology/approach: The joints were produced applying different parameters and temperatures. The microstructure was studied using optical, scanning electron and transmission electron microscopes. The mechanical properties are discussed with regard to microhardness profiles on the cross-sections of the joints.Findings: No cracks were found in the joints. Weld nuggets were formed in the 2017A alloy which was located on the advancing side during welding. Mixing process of the materials within the joints was observed as a formation of separate regions of the materials being joined. The hardness profiles showed sudden changes of hardness what correlates with structure observations. In the vicinity of the weld nugget higher dislocation density was observed. Lowering the temperature of sheets and welding with intensive cooling caused a decrease in size of the weld nugget.Research limitations/implications: In the further studies, tensile and bending tests are planned. Moreover, an attempt of explaining the influence of precipitates at the regions boundaries on the fracture process.Practical implications: Good quality of the joints can be stated on the basis of structure analysis. The chosen parameters of welding can be considered as proper ones.Originality/value: Comparison of the welding of the alloys2017A and 6013 are not common. The results of studies and conclusions presented in the paper are consecutive data complementing knowledge on FSW of the aluminium alloys. The applied welding parameters ensure good quality of joints with

  17. Powder metallurgy route in production of aluminium alloy matrix particulate composites

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Rashed, A.; Holecek, S.; PrazÁk, M.; Procio, M.

    1993-01-01

    Meta1 matrix composites based on an aluminium alloys were produced by powder metallurgy route, involved unidirectionally hot pressing under 500 MPa for 15 minutes at temperature about 0.95 Ts [Solidus Temperature]. Metal matrix contains different weight percents of SiC, αAl2O3, WC and Si3N4 with different particle size. Wear and mechanical tests have been carried out on composites, and it was found that about 90% of wear reduction occured in composite with 30% SiC compared with pressed matrix.

  18. Deformation and Texture Evolution of a 3004 Aluminium Alloy During Ironing

    OpenAIRE

    Heymès, F.; Embury, J. D.; Sowerby, R.; Kocks, U. F.

    1995-01-01

    The production of drawn and ironed (D&I) beverage cans represents an important example of process optimisation. The aluminium alloy 3004 H19 is widely used for the can body, since it has a good combination of formability and strength and results in very little earing after deep drawing. These desirable properties are achieved by exercising careful control of the rolling schedule of the can stock sheet. During the ironing stage the wall thickness is reduced by a factor of about three, and thes...

  19. Parametric study of friction stir spot welding of aluminium alloy 5754

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Klobčar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a parametric analysis of friction stir spot welding (FSSW of aluminium alloy 5754 in a lap joint. Experimental plan was done according to the response surface methodology (RSM, where tool rotation speed varied between 988 and 3511 rpm, plunge rate between 24,4 and 150 mm/min and dwell time between 1 and 3,5s. The plunge depth was held constant at 0,4 mm. The welds were tensile-shear tested and the microstructure was analysed. Mathematical models describing the relationship between welding parameters and spot strength, axial force and rotational moment were developed and the optimal FSSW parameters were found.

  20. Parametric study of friction stir spot welding of aluminium alloy 5754

    OpenAIRE

    D. Klobčar; J. Tušek; Skumavc, A.; Smolej, A.

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents a parametric analysis of friction stir spot welding (FSSW) of aluminium alloy 5754 in a lap joint. Experimental plan was done according to the response surface methodology (RSM), where tool rotation speed varied between 988 and 3511 rpm, plunge rate between 24,4 and 150 mm/min and dwell time between 1 and 3,5s. The plunge depth was held constant at 0,4 mm. The welds were tensile-shear tested and the microstructure was analysed. Mathematical models describing the relationshi...

  1. MODELLING STUDIES ON THE USE OF ALUMINIUM ALLOYS IN LIGHTWEIGHT LOAD-CARRYING CRANE STRUCTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damian GĄSKA

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of numerical analysis whose aim was to compare the basic dynamic and strength parameters of lightweight load-carrying crane structures made of aluminium alloys and steel. The analysis covered the typical construction of workshop cranes with a span of 3 to 5 meters, girders in the form of an I-beam and maximum load capacities amounting to 5 tons. The values of stresses, deflections and natural frequencies were compared and then matched with the masses of the various structures. In the simulation a girder model was used and computed by the finite element method.

  2. Prediction of Earing in Deep Drawing of Roll-cast Aluminium Alloy Sheets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R; Mahmudi; M; Aghaie-Khafri

    2002-01-01

    Commercial aluminium alloy sheets are presently sem ic ontinuously, direct chill casting billets that are hot and cold rolled to the fi nal gauge. Interest has been shown in continuous methods which eliminate the ho t rolling step through rapid solidification of the molten metal to the final sla b. Accordingly, sheets are produced by homogenization, cold rolling, intermedia te and final annealing of these roll-cast slabs. The problem of earing is of gr eat concern as it causes frequent interruption of pro...

  3. Anti-corrosive Conversion Coating on Aluminium Alloys Using High Temperature Steam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Din, Rameez Ud; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl; Ambat, Rajan

    extensively. Despite the intense research no equivalent substitute for (CrCCs) has been found. For these reasons, alternative conversion coatings are sought for substituting existing ones. Aluminium alloys AA 1090, Peraluman 706, and AA 6060 were subjected to high pressure steam treatment and various......-SEM, XRD, and FTIR. Potentiodynamic polarization measurements and acid salt spray testing were used to study the corrosion behavior of the produced coatings. In average, thickness of the oxide layer formed was increased to ~1-1.5 µm with steam treatment and various chemistries, and the coverage...

  4. ANN & ANFIS Models for Prediction of Abrasive Wear of 3105 Aluminium Alloy with Polyurethane Coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Alimam

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The quest for safety and reliability has increased significantly after Industrial revolution, so is the case for coating industries. In this paper 3105 Aluminium alloy sheet is coated with organic polyurethane coating. After the implementation of coating, various processes are undergone to check its reliability under elevated conditions. ANN & ANFIS model were developed and trained with an objective to find abrasive wear during the process. ANN & ANFIS model were compared with the experimental results. It is observed that the abrasive wear of a coated specimen can be predicted accurately and precisely using ANN and ANFIS models.

  5. Research of aluminium alloy aerospace structure aperture measurement based on 3D digital speckle correlation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Lu; Wang, Hongbo; Zhou, Jiangfan; Yang, Rong; Zhang, Hui

    2014-11-01

    In this paper, the aperture change of the aluminium alloy aerospace structure under real load is researched. Static experiments are carried on which is simulated the load environment of flight course. Compared with the traditional methods, through experiments results, it's proved that 3D digital speckle correlation method has good adaptability and precision on testing aperture change, and it can satisfy measurement on non-contact,real-time 3D deformation or stress concentration. The test results of new method is compared with the traditional method.

  6. Density Functional Theory Studies of Precipitate Interfaces in Aluminium Alloys, with Focus on Theta'-Al2Cu

    OpenAIRE

    Østli, Philip

    2016-01-01

    The atomic structure of bulk crystal of aluminium and the precipitate phase $\\theta^\\prime$ connected to age-hardening of Al-Cu alloys have been studied using Density Functional Theory (DFT). The lattice constant of $\\theta^\\prime$ at \\SI{0}{\\kelvin} having a coherent interface with the aluminium is found, for thicknesses up to six unit cells. Five different interface-configurations have been studied in four alloys: Al-Cu, Al-Cu-Ag, Al-Cu-Li and Al-Cu-Mg-Si. The interface stucture of these is...

  7. Design of shape memory alloy (SMA) actuators

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, Ashwin; Reddy, J N

    2015-01-01

    This short monograph presents an analysis and design methodology for shape memory alloy (SMA) components such as wires, beams, and springs for different applications. The solid-solid, diffusionless phase transformations in thermally responsive SMA allows them to demonstrate unique characteristics like superelasticity and shape memory effects. The combined sensing and actuating capabilities of such materials allows them to provide a system level response by combining multiple functions in a single material system. In SMA, the combined mechanical and thermal loading effects influence the functionality of such materials. The aim of this book is to make the analysis of these materials accessible to designers by developing a "strength of materials" approach to the analysis and design of such SMA components inspired from their various applications with a review of various factors influencing the design process for such materials.

  8. Biomedical Applications of Shape Memory Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenza Petrini

    2011-01-01

    behaviors, due to the peculiar crystallographic structure of the alloys, assure the recovery of the original shape even after large deformations and the maintenance of a constant applied force in correspondence of significant displacements. These properties, joined with good corrosion and bending resistance, biological and magnetic resonance compatibility, explain the large diffusion, in the last 20 years, of SMA in the production of biomedical devices, in particular for mini-invasive techniques. In this paper a detailed review of the main applications of NiTi alloys in dental, orthopedics, vascular, neurological, and surgical fields is presented. In particular for each device the main characteristics and the advantages of using SMA are discussed. Moreover, the paper underlines the opportunities and the room for new ideas able to enlarge the range of SMA applications. However, it is fundamental to remember that the complexity of the material and application requires a strict collaboration between clinicians, engineers, physicists and chemists for defining accurately the problem, finding the best solution in terms of device design and accordingly optimizing the NiTi alloy properties.

  9. Internal friction peak and damping mechanism in high damping aluminium alloy laminate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A new aluminium alloy laminate characterized by high damping, corrosion resistance and weldablity was developed. The laminate designed for required aforesaid functions was actually a composite material, which was made of two anti-corrosive layers (Al), two damping layers (ZnAl alloy) and one reinforcing layer (AlMg alloy) by hot rolling. The damping characteristics were studied and it was found that there was an internal friction peak at about 50  ℃ on internal fraction vs temperature curve for the laminate. For this reason, the activation energy of the peak was calculated. The origin and damping mechanism for this peak was researched by means of SEM, TEM, X-ray and DSC. It is considered that the peak is caused by the interaction between dislocations and point defects in damping layers (AlZn alloy). i.e. by the movement of dislocations dragging point defects under the action of thermal-activation. The laminate is remained at room temperature for a long time, it will weaken or even disappear with the restoration of the crystal microstructure and the reduction of the dislocation density in the ZnAl alloy layers. The mechanism of the peak is in conformity with that of the dislocation-induced damping.

  10. Shape Memory Alloy-Based Periodic Cellular Structures Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR Phase I effort will develop and demonstrate an innovative shape memory alloy (SMA) periodic cellular structural technology. Periodic cellular structures...

  11. Modeling of microstructural evolution and flow stress of aluminium alloy during thermomechanical process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Jian(沈健); G.Gottstein

    2004-01-01

    The evolution of microstructural variables, including the densities of mobile dislocation, immobile dislocation at the cell interiors, immobile dislocation in the cell walls, as well as total dislocation density, of an Al-Mg-Si aluminium alloy during thermomechanical processing were simulated based on a three-internal-variables-model (3IVM) involving dislocation climb and interaction. Optimization was carried out to fit the calculated stress-strain curves to the experimental data of the Al-Mg-Si alloy with minimum mean deviation. Precipitations were taken into consideration of modeling. The stress-strain curves predicted by the kinetic equations of state in the 3IVM have a good agreement with the experimental data.

  12. Effects of different tempers on precipitation hardening of 6000 series aluminium alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Hong; ZHAO Gang; LIU Chun-ming; ZUO Liang

    2007-01-01

    By means of Vickers hardness, mechanical property and formability tests, the effects of different tempers on precipitation hardening of 6000 series aluminium alloys for automotive body sheets were investigated. The results indicate that the short-time pre-aging at 170 ℃ makes for subsequent artificial aging precipitation hardening. With the increase of pre-aging time, the artificial aging hardenability increases. The aging hardening rate reaches the maximum when pre-aging time is up to 10 min, and then it decreases. The short-time pre-aging at 170 ℃ benefits sheets to obtain lower strength under delivery condition and consequently to improve stamping formability of automotive body sheets. The effects of different tempers on precipitation hardening are much more obvious than those of the alloying elements. It is a good treatment schedule to perform pre-aging for 5 min at 170 ℃ right after solution treatment.

  13. Effect of heat treatment on the inhibition of the acidic corrosion aluminium alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khamis, E. (Alexandria Univ. (Egypt). Dept. of Chemistry); El-Gamal, M. (Alexandria Univ. (Egypt). Dept. of Material Science); El-Toukhy, A. (Alexandria Univ. (Egypt). Dept. of Material Science); Atea, M. (Alexandria Univ. (Egypt). Dept. of Material Science)

    1994-12-01

    The effect of heat treatment on the inhibition of acid corrosion of duralumin has been studied using gasometry, mass loss measurements and potentiodynamic technique. All the data reveal that the duralumin generally developed good corrosion resistance after heat treatment and the corrosion rate ranked as follows: Non treated > Naturally aged > quenched. This improvement in the corrosion resistance was attributed to the structural homogeneity of the heat-treated alloys. The presence of some selected aryl and alkyl triazoline derivatives at the threshold concentration of 5 x 10[sup -3] M indicate that these compounds retard the corrosion rate of duralumin and the extent of inhibition depends on the molecular structure of the inhibitors. Polarization curves show that the triazoline compounds act as mixed-type inhibitors affecting both the cathodic and anodic processes. Moreover, there is no noticeable difference in the degree by which the triazoline derivatives inhibit the corrosion of pure aluminium and heat treated duralumin alloy. (orig.)

  14. Comparison of corrosion behaviour of friction stir processed and laser melted AA 2219 aluminium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → Poor corrosion resistance of AA 2219 can be improved by surface treatments. → FSP and LM leads to dissolution of second phase particles. → No literature available on comparison of corrosion behaviour after FSP and LM. → The study implies FSP is as good as LM in improving the corrosion resistance of AA 2219. -- Abstract: Dissolution of second phase particles (CuAl2) present in AA 2219 aluminium improves the corrosion resistance of the alloy. Two surface treatment techniques, viz., solid state friction stir processing and fusion based laser melting lead to the reduction in CuAl2 content and the effect of these processes on the corrosion behaviour of the alloy is compared in this study. Potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy tests were carried out to compare corrosion behaviour. The corrosion resistance achieved by friction stir processing is comparable to that obtained by the laser melting technique.

  15. Corrosion protection of Mg/Al alloys by thermal sprayed aluminium coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The protective features of thermal sprayed Al-coatings applied on AZ31, AZ80 and AZ91D magnesium/aluminium alloys were evaluated in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution by electrochemical and gravimetric measurements. The changes in the morphology and corrosion behaviour of the Al-coatings induced by a cold-pressing post-treatment were also examined. The specimens were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis and low-angle X-ray diffraction. The as-sprayed Al-coatings revealed a high degree of porosity and poor corrosion protection, which resulted in galvanic acceleration of the corrosion of the magnesium substrates. The application of a cold-pressing post-treatment produced more compact Al-coatings with better bonding at the substrate/coating interface and higher corrosion resistance regardless of the nature of the magnesium alloy.

  16. Effect of the temperature and the chlorine pressure, over the aluminium chlorides obtained by direct chlorination of the 6061 alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aluminium chloride is synthesized by direct chlorination of aluminium, in agreement with the following reaction: Al(s) + 3/2 Cl2 AlCl3 (s,g).The present work focuses on the preparation of aluminium chlorides by two methods: (a) Chlorination of 6061 aluminium alloy with gaseous chlorine in sealed containers, filled with different pressures of gas, from 0.8 to 74 Kpa and in the range of temperature between 2000 and 5000C.(b) Chlorination of the same alloy in chlorine flow between 1500 and 4000C.In the sealed systems, the hexahydrated aluminium trichloride predominated over the anhydrous form. For pressures lower than 14 Kpa and temperatures under 2500C, the chloride didn't appear.The residues were rich in aluminium, chlorine and magnesium.In the other systems, the anhydrous chloride was found in the areas of the reactor of temperatures above 1000C, for all the thermal treatments. The waste was composed by CrCl3 and AlCl3.6H2O.The influence of the chlorine pressures and the heating temperature over the characteristics of the product, was studied.The characterization techniques were x-ray diffraction and energy dispersive spectroscopy, and the evolution of the structure was followed by scanning electron microscopy

  17. Shape memory alloys: New materials for future engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornbogen, E.

    1988-01-01

    Shape memory is a new material property. An alloy which experiences relative severe plastic deformation resumes its original shape again after heating by 10 to 100 C. Besides simple shape memory, in similar alloys there is the second effect where the change in shape is caused exclusively by little temperature change. In pseudo-elasticity, the alloy exhibits a rubber-like behavior, i.e., large, reversible deformation at little change in tension. Beta Cu and beta NiTi alloys have been used in practice. The probability is that soon alloys based on Fe will become available. Recently increasing applications for this alloy were found in various areas of technology, even medical technology. A review with 24 references is given, including properties, production, applications and fundamental principles of the shape memory effect.

  18. Optimisation of the rivet joints of the CFRP composite material and aluminium alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Czulak

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The project included analysis of strain, cracking, and failure of riveted joints of plate elements madefrom the carbon-fibre-reinforced plastics (CFRP and from the 6061 aluminium alloy.Design/methodology/approach: The modelled static tensile strength test carried out for the plates from CFRPand from the 6061 aluminium alloy joined with the steel rivet. Computer simulation was carried out with IDEASsoftware package employing the FEM.Findings: Simulations using the mesh with a bigger number of FEM elements do not yield better accuracy ofcalculations and do not improve convergence with the results of laboratory experiments. Only the calculationtime gets longer. Computer simulation has also show that the type of contacts employed between elementsaffects the results significantly.Research limitations/implications: For the composite materials, joints between materials and computersimulation examinations are planed.Practical implications: Results obtained for the mesh with 4 and 5 FEM elements are the closest to the resultsof laboratory experiments, which is confirmed by the strain plot. Simulations using the mesh with a biggernumber of FEM elements do not yield better accuracy of calculations and do not improve convergence with theresults of laboratory experiments. Only the calculation time gets longer. Computer simulation has show that thetype of contacts employed between elements affects the results significantly.Originality/value: The paper presents influence of fibre mesh closeness on convergence of the results with laboratorytests. Simulation results were collected and compared with the laboratory static tensile strength tests results.

  19. Prediction of grain size for large-sized aluminium alloy 7050 forging during hot forming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YI You-ping; FU Xin; CUI Jin-dong; CHEN Hua

    2008-01-01

    A numerical approach for process optimization and microstructure evolution of lager-sized forging of aluminium alloy 7050 Was proposed, which combined a commercial FEM code Deform 3D with empirical models. To obtain the parameters of empirical constitutive equation and dynamic recrystallization models for aluminium alloy 7050. the isothermal compression tests of 7050 samples were performed on Gleeble-1500 thermo-simulation machine in the temperature range of 250-450 ℃ and strain rate of 0.01-10 S-1, and the metallograph analysis of the samples were carried out on a Leica DMIRM image analyzer. The simulation results show that the dynamic recrystallization in the central area of the billet occurs more easily than that on the edge. Repetitious upsetting and stretching processes make the billet deform adequately. Among several forging processes e. g. upsetting, stretching, rounding and flatting. the stretching process is the most effective way to increase the effective strain and refine the microstructure of the billet. As the forging steps increase, the effective strain rises significantly and the average grain size reduces sharply. Recrystallized volume fractions in most parts of the final forging piece reach 100% and the average grain size reduces to 10 μm from initial value of 90 um.

  20. Investigating the Acid Failure of Aluminium Alloy in 2 M Hydrochloric Acid Using Vernonia amygdalina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olugbenga A. Omotosho

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The acid failure of aluminium alloy in 2 M hydrochloric acid solution in the presence of Vernonia amygdalina extract was investigated using gasometric technique. Aluminium alloy coupons of dimension 4 cm by 1 cm were immersed in test solutions of free acid and also those containing extract volumes of 2, 3, 4 and 5 cm3 at ambient temperature for 30 minutes. The volumes of hydrogen gas evolved as a result of the rate of reaction were recorded and analyzed. Analysis revealed that maximum inhibitor efficiency which corresponds to the lowest corrosion rate was obtained at optimum inhibitor volumes of 5 cm3, with reduction in the corrosion rate observed to follow in order of increasing extract volumes. Adsorption study revealed that Temkin isotherm best described the metal surface interaction with the extract phytochemicals, with 12 minutes becoming the best exposure time for the phytochemicals to adsorb to the metal surface at all volumes. Statistical modelling of the corrosion rate yielded an important relationship suitable for estimating corrosion rate values once volumes of the extract is known. Microstructural studies, showed an indirect relationship between crack growth rates and extract volumes, while consistency of the irregular intermetallic phases increases with increasing extract volumes.

  1. Deep surface rolling for fatigue life enhancement of laser clad aircraft aluminium alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhuang, W., E-mail: wyman.zhuang@dsto.defence.gov.au [Aerospace Division, Defence Science and Technology Organisation, 506 Lorimer Street, Fishermans Bend, Victoria 3207 (Australia); Liu, Q.; Djugum, R.; Sharp, P.K. [Aerospace Division, Defence Science and Technology Organisation, 506 Lorimer Street, Fishermans Bend, Victoria 3207 (Australia); Paradowska, A. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW 2232 (Australia)

    2014-11-30

    Highlights: • Deep surface rolling as a post-repair enhancement technology was applied to the laser cladded 7075-T651 aluminium alloy specimens that simulated corrosion damage blend-out repair. • The residual stresses induced by the deep surface rolling process were measured. • The deep surface rolling process can introduce deep and high magnitude compressive residual stresses beyond the laser clad and substrate interface. • Spectrum fatigue test showed the fatigue life was significantly increased by deep surface rolling. - Abstract: Deep surface rolling can introduce deep compressive residual stresses into the surface of aircraft metallic structure to extend its fatigue life. To develop cost-effective aircraft structural repair technologies such as laser cladding, deep surface rolling was considered as an advanced post-repair surface enhancement technology. In this study, aluminium alloy 7075-T651 specimens with a blend-out region were first repaired using laser cladding technology. The surface of the laser cladding region was then treated by deep surface rolling. Fatigue testing was subsequently conducted for the laser clad, deep surface rolled and post-heat treated laser clad specimens. It was found that deep surface rolling can significantly improve the fatigue life in comparison with the laser clad baseline repair. In addition, three dimensional residual stresses were measured using neutron diffraction techniques. The results demonstrate that beneficial compressive residual stresses induced by deep surface rolling can reach considerable depths (more than 1.0 mm) below the laser clad surface.

  2. Switchable Shape Memory Alloys (SMA) Thermal Materials Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Shape memory alloys applies to a group of materials that demonstrate the ability to return to some previously defined shape when subjected to the appropriate...

  3. Positron annihilation spectroscopy as a tool to develop self healing in aluminium alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hautakangas, S.; Schut, H. [Faculty of Applied Physics, section NPM2, Delft University of Technology, Mekelweg 15, 2629 JB, Delft (Netherlands); Zwaag, S. van der; Rivera Diaz del Castillo, P.E.J. [Faculty of Aerospace Engineering, Section Fundamentals of Advanced Materials, Delft University of Technology, Kluyverweg 1, 2629 HS Delft (Netherlands); Dijk, N.H. van [Faculty of Applied Physics, Section FAME, Delft University of Technology, Mekelweg 15, 2629 JB, Delft (Netherlands)

    2007-07-01

    Positron lifetime and Doppler broadening spectroscopy have been applied to probe the free volume generation (vacancies, dislocations and nano-cracks) during plastic deformation of a commercial aluminium AA2024 (T3) alloy. Aim of the total program is to study how solute atoms can be driven to the areas where initial cracking may occur in order to prevent the failure of the specimen. The phenomenon of closing the nano-crack is called Self Healing, and can provide extra strength and ductility to the alloy under some loading conditions. Plastic deformation of over-aged aluminum alloy at room temperature increases the average positron lifetime from initial value of 190 ps to 203 ps. The low momentum parameter S increases in agreement with the increase of open volume defects. The elastic deformation of the sample does not have a recordable effect on the positron annihilation data. It is also shown that the induced damage does not recover after loading the sample, i.e. the AA2024 in the T3 state is non self healing material, as expected, providing important first state result in the research of self healing Al alloys. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  4. Shape Memory Alloys (Part II: Classification, Production and Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Ivanic

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Shape memory alloys (SMAs have been extensively investigated because of their unique shape memory behaviour, i.e. their ability to recover their original shape they had before deformation. Shape memory effect is related to the thermoelastic martensitic transformation. Austenite to martensite phase transformation can be obtained by mechanical (loading and thermal methods (heating and cooling. Depending on thermomechanical conditions, SMAs demonstrate several thermomechanical phenomena, such as pseudoelasticity, superelasticity, shape memory effect (one-way and two-way and rubber-like behaviour. Numerous alloys show shape memory effect (NiTi-based alloys, Cu-based alloys, Fe-based alloys etc.. Nitinol (NiTi is the most popular and the most commonly used SMA due to its superior thermomechanical and thermoelectrical properties. NiTi alloys have greater shape memory strain and excellent corrosion resistance compared to Cu – based alloys. However, they are very costly. On the other hand, copper-based alloys (CuZn and CuAl based alloys are much less expensive, easier to manufacture and have a wider range of potential transformation temperatures. The characteristic transformation temperatures of martensitic transformation of CuAlNi alloys can lie between −200 and 200 °C, and these temperatures depend on Al and Ni content. Among the Cu – based SMAs, the most frequently applied are CuZnAl and CuAlNi alloys. Although CuZnAl alloys with better mechanical properties are the most popular among the Cu-based SMAs, they lack sufficient thermal stability, while CuAlNi shape memory alloys, in spite of their better thermal stability, have found only limited applications due to insufficient formability owing to the brittle γ2 precipitates. The most important disadvantage of polycrystalline CuAlNi alloys is a small reversible deformation (one-way shape memory effect: up to 4 %; two-way shape memory effect: only approximately 1.5 % due to intergranular

  5. High-Temperature Shape Memory Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biffi, C. A.; Tuissi, A.

    2014-10-01

    In this paper, an experimental study of laser micro-processing on a Cu-Zr-based shape memory alloy (SMA), which is suitable for high-temperature (HT) applications, is discussed. A first evaluation of the interaction between a laser beam and Zr50Cu28Ni7Co15 HT SMA is highlighted. Single laser pulses at various levels of power and pulse duration were applied to evaluate their effect on the sample surfaces. Blind and through microholes were produced with sizes on the order of a few hundreds of microns; the results were characterized from the morphological viewpoint using a scanning electron microscope. The high beam quality allows the holes to be created with good circularity and little melted material around the hole periphery. An analysis of the chemical composition was performed using energy dispersive spectroscopy, revealing that compositional changes were limited, while important oxidation occurred on the hole surfaces. Additionally, laser micro-cutting tests were also proposed to evaluate the cut edge morphology and dimensions. The main result of this paper concerned the good behavior of the material upon interaction with the laser beam, which suggests that microfeatures can be successfully produced in this alloy.

  6. Transformation Volume Effects on Shape Memory Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Kosogor

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available It is generally accepted that the martensitic transformations (MTs in the shape memory alloys (SMAs are mainly characterized by the shear deformation of the crystal lattice that arises in the course of MT, while a comparatively small volume change during MT is considered as the secondary effect, which can be disregarded when the basic characteristics of MTs and functional properties of SMAs are analyzed. This point of view is a subject to change nowadays due to the new experimental and theoretical findings. The present article elucidates (i the newly observed physical phenomena in different SMAs in their relation to the volume effect of MT; (ii the theoretical analysis of the aforementioned volume-related phenomena.

  7. Evaluation of AA5052 alloy anode in alkaline electrolyte with organic rare-earth complex additives for aluminium-air batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dapeng; Li, Heshun; Liu, Jie; Zhang, Daquan; Gao, Lixin; Tong, Lin

    2015-10-01

    Behaviours of the AA5052 aluminium alloy anode of the alkaline aluminium-air battery are studied by the hydrogen evolution test, the electrochemical measurements and the surface analysis method. The combination of amino-acid and rare earth as electrolyte additives effectively retards the self-corrosion of AA5052 aluminium alloy in 4 M NaOH solution. It shows that the combination of L-cysteine and cerium nitrate has a synergistic effect owing to the formation of a complex film on AA5052 alloy surface. The organic rare-earth complex can decrease the anodic polarisation, suppress the hydrogen evolution and increase the anodic utilization rate.

  8. Wear Behaviour of Zinc-Aluminium Alloys and the Bearings Produced from these Alloys

    OpenAIRE

    SAVAŞKAN, Temel; PÜRÇEK, Gençağa

    2000-01-01

    In this study, two ternary zinc-aluminum-copper and two quaternary zinc-aluminum-copper-silicon alloys were produced by permanent mould casting. The wear behaviour of these alloys were investigated with a pin-on-disc machine The wear behaviour of the journal bearings produced from these alloys was investigated with a bearing test rig. The wear resistance of zinc-aluminum based alloys was found to be higher than that of CuSn12 bronze. ın addition, the bearings produced from the zinc-...

  9. Corrosion mechanisms of the AlFeNi aluminium alloy by water up to 250 deg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text of publication follows: The AlFeNi aluminium alloy (1%Fe, 1%Ni, 1%Mg) will be used as nuclear fuel cladding in the Jules Horowitz research reactor. A better understanding of the corrosion mechanisms of this alloy in water is necessary to predict correctly the corrosion rate and the oxide thickness on the fuel plates. Corrosion tests in water at an average pH of 6.9 were hence performed on this alloy in static conditions at 70, 165 and 250 C, and in dynamic conditions at 70 C. The hydroxide film obtained on the samples corroded in autoclaves or at the slow flow rates is composed of two main layers: a dense and amorphous inner layer which grows by anionic diffusion and a porous crystalline outer layer which develops by cationic diffusion followed by a dissolution-precipitation process. The ratio of the amorphous oxide thickness to the corroded metal thickness decreases with corrosion time, thus indicating an increasing density of the amorphous oxide. Consequently, the diffusion through the inner oxide layer decreases drastically with corrosion time. The inner oxide thickness evolution is well described by a cationic diffusion model, with an apparent cationic diffusion coefficient decreasing exponentially with time. A comparison of the corrosion scales obtained in water and in vapour at 250 C showed that in the vapour, the outer precipitation oxide layer does not develop, and the inner oxide thickness is much lower. These results suggest that the anionic diffusion which controls the corrosion rate at the metal interface is coupled with the cationic diffusion and dissolution rate. The hydraulic conditions play therefore a dominant role in the corrosion rate. During dynamic experiments in once-through reactors at 70 C, the cationic release in the leaching water was measured at different times. Two leaching flow rates were used: 100 and 200 ml/h. After the first 3 hours, the aluminium and magnesium release follow a parabolic evolution, characteristic of a

  10. Selected properties of the aluminium alloy base composites reinforced with intermetallic particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Adamiak

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The main aim of this work is to investigate two types of intermetallics TiAl and Ti3Al as reinforcement and their influence on selected properties and microstructure of aluminium matrix composites.Design/methodology/approach: Aluminium matrix composites were produced employing the atomised aluminium alloy AA6061 as metal matrix, when as reinforcement TiAl and Ti3Al intermetallics particles were used. The powders were cold pressed and then hot extruded. To evaluate the effect of mechanical milling two types of ball mills were used: a low energy (horizontal ball mill and a high energy one (eccentric ball mill. Reinforcement contents for both processes 5, 10, 15 % by weight. To determine hardness Vickers tests were performed. Microstructure observations were made by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy SEM.Findings: Based on the examinations carried out one can state that the mechanical milling can produce composites powders with homogenous distribution of reinforcement particles. The mechanically milled and extruded composites show finer and better distribution of reinforcement particles what leads to better mechanical properties of obtained products.Research limitations/implications: In order to evaluate with more detail the possibility of applying these composite materials at practical application, further investigations should be concentrated on the interface reaction of the matrix and reinforcing particles during elevated temperature exposition and their influence on mechanical properties.Practical implications: The composites materials produced by this way have shown significant improvement of the mechanical properties in comparision with matrix materials. Good properties of the composites make them suitable for various technical and industrial applications.Originality/value: It should be stressed that the materials as intermetallic compounds with outstanding mechanical properties and good thermal stability were

  11. Development of microactuators from shape memory alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shape memory alloys (SMAs) have the fascinating property of shape recovery, which is associated with the generation of high energy densities. Nowadays, they are already used in several very successful applications. Within the last 10 years, SMA devices have entered also the field of microsystems technology. The present report gives an overview on the current state-of-the-art. For the examples of SMA microvalves and SMA linear actuators, the microactuator development is described from the idea to the prototype in comprehensive breadth. The breadth of research and development activities on SMA microactuators presently ranges from pure scientific topics of materials research to technological problems, e.g. of micromachining, integration and contacting. Further key aspects of development are three-dimensional models for the handling of complex SMA actuator geometries and coupled simulation routines in order to take multifunctional properties into account. For actuator design, mechanical and thermal optimization criteria are introduced, whose systematic implementation allows an optimum use of the shape memory effect. Some of the presented prototypes are already competitive components. One example are normally-open SMA microvalves driven by SMA foil actuators of 20 μm thickness, which are counted among the smallest microvalves and which still are able to control pressures and flows comparable to other valve concepts. Due to their modular design they can be combined with other microfluidic components in a flexible way for realization of fluidic microsystems. Another example are SMA microgrippers, a further development of SMA linear actuators, which presently outperform other microgrippers of comparable size with respect to gripping force and stroke. (orig.)

  12. Development and UHV qualification of aluminium alloy vacuum chambers for transport line-2 of CTF-3, CERN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CLIC Test Facility (CTF-3) at CERN is a project to demonstrate the concept of high frequency RF generation for the particle acceleration using a drive electron beam. 63 numbers of Aluminium alloy A6061T6 vacuum chambers for transport line-2 (TL-2) of CTF-3 were developed in RRCAT under joint collaboration between RRCAT and CERN. These chambers have Race Track (RT) and Cylindrical (CY) cross section. RT and CY, both type straight chambers as well as bent chambers (for the dipole magnets) were required for the TL-2. There were 22 numbers RT straight chamber, 31 numbers CY straight chamber, 5 numbers RT Bent chamber, 3 numbers CY bent chambers and 2 numbers CY Bent spare chambers. UHV Section was responsible for the qualification of demountable joints made of A6061T6 and also responsible for exhaustive UHV testing of these chambers. During the development, 5 numbers of different type of prototype chambers were fabricated and rigorously tested for leak tightness, qualification of demountable joints and desired ultimate vacuum using number of baking cycles. Helium mass spectrometer leak detector was utilised for leak detection at various stages for insuring the leak tightness better than1x10-10 mbar-l/s. For ultimate vacuum testing three setups were developed for the three types of different vacuum chambers. Each test setup consisted of Sputter Ion Pump, Turbo Molecular Pump, BA Gauge and Residual Gas Analyser. All these UHV setups were qualified for their ultimate vacuum in 10-10 mbar range. The arrangements were made such that, 4 to 8 straight chambers could be assembled and tested together in single cycle on each setup. Similar chambers were assembled with special Diamond shaped Aluminium seals with optimised sealing torque and leak tightness of -11 mbar-l/s was ensured. The aluminium chambers were baked at 150℃ where as the SS setups were baked at 250℃ for 24 hours and ultimate vacuum in the range of 10-10 mbar was achieved in all the sixteen test cycles

  13. Characterization of semi-solid processing of aluminium alloy 7075 with Sc and Zr additions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogal, Ł., E-mail: l.rogal@imim.pl [Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science of the Polish Academy of Sciences, 25 Reymonta St., 30-059 Krakow (Poland); Dutkiewicz, J. [Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science of the Polish Academy of Sciences, 25 Reymonta St., 30-059 Krakow (Poland); Atkinson, H.V. [The University of Leicester, Department of Engineering University Road, Leicester, LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Lityńska-Dobrzyńska, L.; Czeppe, T. [Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science of the Polish Academy of Sciences, 25 Reymonta St., 30-059 Krakow (Poland); Modigell, M. [RWTH Aachen—Department of Mechanical Process Engineering, 55 Templergraben St., Aachen (Germany)

    2013-09-15

    For thixoforming (semi-solid processing) it is necessary to have a fine globular microstructure in a semi-solid range. Here this has been obtained for 7075 aluminium alloy by addition of modifying agents: 0.5 weight % of scandium and zirconium. The thixoforming process was carried out at 632 °C which gave about 23 volume % of liquid phase. The microstructure of the thixo-formed part (a rotor) consisted of globular grains surrounded by precipitates of secondary phase. The average hardness of thixo-formed parts was 105 HV{sub 5} and the tensile strength 300 MPa. T6 heat treatments were performed with solutionisation at 450 °C for 30 min and 10 h. In both cases the ageing time was set as 18 h at 120 °C. The heat treatments led to an increase in average tensile strength up to 495 MPa. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) analysis enabled the identification of precipitates of the metastable dispersoids of L1{sub 2}–Al{sub 3} (Zr, Sc) and η′ (MgZn{sub 2}) phases in the alloy after the thixoforming and T6 treatment. The measurements of rheological properties of 7075Al alloy with Sc and Zr additions in the semi-solid range indicated an increase of particle size and spheroidization leading to an observable decrease of viscosity during isothermal shearing. A shear rate jump experiment showed that with increasing shear rate the viscosity rapidly falls.

  14. Radiographic and ultrasonic testings of welded joints of 6063 aluminium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study on evaluation of weld defects in aluminium butt joints was made in a comparative way through the radiographic and ultrasonic testing. This work was conducted with pipes 5 IPS (6,35 mm thickness) of 6063 aluminium alloy, circumferential TIG welded, due to the difficulty on performing non-destructive testing with this schedule. It was concluded thta ultrasonic testing has adequate sensitivity when setting gain adjustment is made with aid of a reference curve constructed by using a Reference Block (among others studied) with 1,5 mm dia. Hole as reference reflector, and a 5 MHz angle beam search-unit. In this case the ultrasonic testing is more accurate than radiographic testing to detect planar defects like lack of fusion and lack of penetration. Defect sizing by ultrasonic methods employed were 6 and 20 dB drop methods. In spite of your observed limitations concerning the establishment of the real size of defects, the procedure applied was precise for locate and define the weld defects that where found in this study. (author)

  15. Tribological Behaviour of W-DLC against an Aluminium Alloy Subjected to Lubricated Sliding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bhowmick

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Diamond like carbon (DLC coatings mitigate aluminium adhesion and reduce friction under the ambient conditions but their tribological behaviour under lubricated sliding need to be further investigated. In this study, tribological tests were performed to evaluate the friction and wear characteristics of W-DLC and H-DLC coatings sliding against an aluminium alloy (319 Al under unlubricated (40 % RH and lubricated sliding conditions. For unlubricated sliding, coefficient of friction (COF values of H-DLC and W-DLC were 0.15 and 0.20. A lower COF value of 0.11 was observed when W-DLC was tested using lubricant oil incorporating sulphur while the H-DLC’s COF remained almost unchanged. The mechanisms responsible for the low friction of W-DLC observed during lubricated sliding were revealed by studying the compositions of the coating surfaces and the transfer layers formed on 319 Al. Micro-Raman spectroscopy indicated that the transfer layers formed during lubricated sliding of W-DLC incorporated tungsten disulphide (WS2.

  16. Mechanical alloying for fabrication of aluminium matrix composite powders with Ti-Al intermetallics reinforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Adamiak

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this work is to report the effect of the high energy milling processes, on fabrication ofaluminium matrix composite powders, reinforced with a homogeneous dispersion of the intermetallic Ti3Alreinforcing particles.Design/methodology/approach: MA process are considered as a method for producing composite metalpowders with a controlled fine microstructure. It occurs by the repeated fracturing and re-welding of powdersparticles mixture in a highly energetic ball mill.Findings: Mechanical alloying, applied for composite powder fabrication, improves the distribution of theTi3Al intermetallic reinforcing particles throughout the aluminium matrix, simultaneously reducing their size.Observed microstructural changes influence on the mechanical properties of powder particles.Research limitations/implications: Contributes to the knowledge on composite powders production via MA.Practical implications: Gives the answer to evolution of the powder production stages, during mechanicalalloying and theirs final properties.Originality/value: Broadening of the production routes for homogeneous particles reinforced aluminium matrixcomposites.

  17. Understanding the Shape-Memory Alloys Used in Orthodontics

    OpenAIRE

    Mendes, Alvaro M.; Elias, Carlos N.; Peres, Rafael V.; Fernandes, Daniel J.

    2011-01-01

    Nickel-titanium (NiTi) shape-memory alloys (SMAs) have been used in the manufacture of orthodontic wires due to their shape memory properties, super-elasticity, high ductility, and resistance to corrosion. SMAs have greater strength and lower modulus of elasticity when compared with stainless steel alloys. The pseudoelastic behavior of NiTi wires means that on unloading they return to their original shape by delivering light continuous forces over a wider range of deformation which is claimed...

  18. Microstructure strengthening mechanisms in an Al–Mg–Si–Sc–Zr equal channel angular pressed aluminium alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabibbo, Marcello, E-mail: m.cabibbo@univpm.it [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Meccanica e Scienze Matematiche (DIISM), Università Politecnica delle Marche, 60131 Ancona (Italy)

    2013-09-15

    Microstructure dislocation strengthening mechanisms in severely deformed aluminium strongly depend on the different boundary evolutions. Thereafter, models of proof stress determination should take into account the different nature of the boundaries that form during severe plastic deformation. In the last few decades, Hall–Petch modified relationship and other proof stress modelling were extensively discussed. This paper deals with further insights into the Hansen's and other authors approach to the modelling of aluminium poof stress after equal channel angular pressing. The present model is based on a detailed transmission electron microscopy microstructure characterization of the different strengthening contributions in an age-hardened Al–Mg–Si–Sc–Zr alloy.

  19. Evaluation of the mechanical properties and corrosion behaviour of coconut shell ash reinforced aluminium (6063) alloy composites

    OpenAIRE

    Oluyemi O. DARAMOLA; Adeolu A.ADEDIRAN; Ayodele T. FADUMIYE

    2015-01-01

    Aluminium 6063/Coconut shell ash (CSAp) composites having 3-12 weight percent (wt%) coconut shell ash were fabricated by double stir-casting method. The microstructure, ultimate tensile strength, hardness values, density and corrosion behaviour in 0.3M H2SO4 and 3.5wt% NaCl solution of the composites were evaluated. The density of the composites exhibit a linear and proportional decreased as the percentage of coconut shell ash increases in the aluminium alloy. It implies tha...

  20. Strain rate effects on mechanical properties in tension of aluminium alloys used in armour applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadoni, E.; Dotta, M.; Forni, D.; Bianchi, S.; Kaufmann, H.

    2012-08-01

    The mechanical properties in tension of two aluminium alloys (AA5059-H131 and AA7039-T651) used in armour applications were determined from tests carried out over a wide range of strain-rates on round specimens. The experimental research was developed in the DynaMat laboratory of the University of Applied Sciences of Southern Switzerland. The target strain rates were set at the following four levels: 10-3, 30, 300 and 1000s-1. The quasi-static tests were performed with a universal electromechanical machine, whereas a hydro-pneumatic machine and a Split Hopkinson Tensile Bar apparatus were used for medium and high strain-rates respectively. The required parameters by the Johnson-Cook constitutive law were also determined.

  1. Strain rate effects on mechanical properties in tension of aluminium alloys used in armour applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianchi S.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The mechanical properties in tension of two aluminium alloys (AA5059-H131 and AA7039-T651 used in armour applications were determined from tests carried out over a wide range of strain-rates on round specimens. The experimental research was developed in the DynaMat laboratory of the University of Applied Sciences of Southern Switzerland. The target strain rates were set at the following four levels: 10−3, 30, 300 and 1000s−1. The quasi-static tests were performed with a universal electromechanical machine, whereas a hydro-pneumatic machine and a Split Hopkinson Tensile Bar apparatus were used for medium and high strain-rates respectively. The required parameters by the Johnson-Cook constitutive law were also determined.

  2. Recrystallization of Cold Worked Al-Al2 O3 Alloys and Commercial Purity Aluminium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recrystallization and grain growth of commercial purity aluminium and A1-A12 O3 alloys containing 0.6 and 1.0 wt.% A12 O3 have been studied after cold-rolling to a reduction of 90%. Heat treatment have been carried out in the temperature range 473 to 893 K and the annealing behavior of deformed specimens has been followed by microhardness testing, optical microscopy and X-ray diffraction studies. It has been observed that the presence of A12 O3 particles affects both the kinetics of recrystallization and the recrystallized grain size. It has also been found that the recrystallization temperature significantly can affect the grain size after recrystallization. These observations are analyzed and discussed on the basis of previous studies of the annealing behavior of deformed dispersion strengthened materials. 10 figs

  3. Anodic-spark layers on aluminium and titanium alloys in electrolytes with sodium tungstophosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Influence of pH value of Na2H[PW12O40] aqueous 0.0083 M solution on the composition and morphology of anodic coatings on aluminium and titanium alloys formed galvanostatically under sparkling and breakdown voltage was studied using data of electron microscopy, elementary and X-ray phase analyses. It was ascertained that in low-acid, neutral and low-alkaline electrolytes multilayer coatings are formed, which contain in their outer layer oxides of elements making up the ligand sphere of heteropolyanions. In solutions featuring higher acidity and alkalinity the content of heteropolyanion components in the coatings decreases. By and large, the coating composition reflects the dependence of heteropolyanions composition in aqueous solution on pH value

  4. Multi response optimization of wire-EDM process parameters of ballistic grade aluminium alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravindranadh Bobbili

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the current investigation, a multi response optimization technique based on Taguchi method coupled with Grey relational analysis is planned for wire-EDM operations on ballistic grade aluminium alloy for armour applications. Experiments have been performed with four machining variables: pulse-on time, pulse-off time, peak current and spark voltage. Experimentation has been planned as per Taguchi technique. Three performance characteristics namely material removal rate (MRR, surface roughness (SR and gap current (GC have been chosen for this study. Results showed that pulse-on time, peak current and spark voltage were significant variables to Grey relational grade. Variation of performance measures with process variables was modelled by using response surface method. The confirmation tests have also been performed to validate the results obtained by Grey relational analysis and found that great improvement with 6% error is achieved.

  5. QUANTIFICATION OF SHEAR DAMAGE EVOLUTION IN ALUMINIUM ALLOY 2024T3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tang Chak-yin; Fan Jianping; Tsui Chi-pong; Lee Tai-chiu; Chan Luen-chow; Rao Bin

    2007-01-01

    Shear damage may occur in the process of metal machining such as blanking and cutting, where localized shear deformation is developed. Experimental findings indicate that microscopic shear damage evolution in aluminium alloy 2024T3 (Al 2024T3) is a multi-stage mechanism, including particle cracking, micro-shear banding, matrix microcracking and coalescence of microcracks. This study is an attempt to use a set of equations to describe the multi-stage shear damage evolution in Al 2024T3. The shear damage variables in terms of multi-couple parameters of a power-law hardening material have been defined. An evolution curve of shearing damage has been calculated from experimental data. The values of the shear damage variable at different stages of damage have also been calculated. By making use of the findings, the relation between the microscopic shear damage evolution and the macroscopic shear response of the material has been discussed.

  6. Superficial modification of aluminium-base alloys (anodising and non-anodising) by silica coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transparent and colourless silica coatings were deposited on anadosing and non-anodising substrates of aluminium-base alloys (series 6063). Coatings were prepared by sol-gel (dipping method) from a silica alkoxide and a mixture of both silica alkolide and silica alkylalkoxide. Preparations were optimised from viscosity, density, surface tension, and contact angle measurements. Densification was carried out at 60 and 120 degree centigree. Reflectance attenuation of coated samples was analysed by UV-VIS-NIR spectroscopy. The results indicated that -10% of attenuation is reached. Durability and resistance against degradation tests of the metal/coating system were undertaken by immersion into aqueous solutions. Electrochemical impedance measurements and potential corrosion of the metallic substrate for variable times were performed. (Author) 7 refs

  7. Microstructure of friction stir welded joints of 2017A aluminium alloy sheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mroczka, K; Dutkiewicz, J; Pietras, A

    2010-03-01

    The present study examines a friction stir welded 2017A aluminium alloy. Transmission electron microscope investigations of the weld nugget revealed the average grain size of 5 microm, moderate density of dislocations as well as the presence of nanometric precipitates located mostly in grains interiors. Scanning electron microscope observations of fractures showed the presence of ductile fracture in the region of the weld nugget with brittle precipitates in the lower part. The microhardness analysis performed on the cross-section of the joints showed fairly small changes; however, after the artificial ageing process an increase in hardness was observed. The change of the joint hardness subject to the ageing process indicates partial supersaturation in the material during friction stir welding and higher precipitation hardening of the joint.

  8. Optimization of process parameters in CNC turning of aluminium alloy using hybrid RSM cum TLBO approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudrapati, R.; Sahoo, P.; Bandyopadhyay, A.

    2016-09-01

    The main aim of the present work is to analyse the significance of turning parameters on surface roughness in computer numerically controlled (CNC) turning operation while machining of aluminium alloy material. Spindle speed, feed rate and depth of cut have been considered as machining parameters. Experimental runs have been conducted as per Box-Behnken design method. After experimentation, surface roughness is measured by using stylus profile meter. Factor effects have been studied through analysis of variance. Mathematical modelling has been done by response surface methodology, to made relationships between the input parameters and output response. Finally, process optimization has been made by teaching learning based optimization (TLBO) algorithm. Predicted turning condition has been validated through confirmatory experiment.

  9. Flow and failure of an aluminium alloy from low to high temperature and strain rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancho, Rafael; Cendón, David; Gálvez, Francisco

    2015-09-01

    The mechanical behaviour of an aluminium alloy is presented in this paper. The study has been carried out to analyse the flow and failure of the aluminium alloy 7075-T73. An experimental study has been planned performing tests of un-notched and notched tensile specimens at low strain rates using a servo-hydraulic machine. High strain rate tests have been carried out using the same geometry in a Hopkinson Split Tensile Bar. The dynamic experiments at low temperature were performed using a cryogenic chamber, and the high temperature ones with a furnace, both incorporated to the Hopkinson bar. Testing temperatures ranged from - 50 ∘C to 100 ∘C and the strain rates from 10-4 s-1 to 600 s-1. The material behaviour was modelled using the Modified Johnson-Cook model and simulated using LS-DYNA. The results show that the Voce type of strain hardening is the most accurate for this material, while the traditional Johnson-Cook is not enough accurate to reproduce the necking of un-notched specimens. The failure criterion was obtained by means of the numerical simulations using the analysis of the stress triaxiality versus the strain to failure. The diameters at the failure time were measured using the images taken with an image camera, and the strain to failure was computed for un-notched and notched specimens. The numerical simulations show that the analysis of the evolution of the stress triaxiality is crucial to achieve accurate results. A material model using the Modified Johnson-Cook for flow and failure is proposed.

  10. Extrusion Die Design and Process Simulation of High Strength Aluminium Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheu, Jinn-Jong; Chen, Yan-Hong; Su, Guan-Cheng

    2011-01-01

    Aluminium alloy 7075 is an excellent metal with the features of high strength and light weight. The solid extruded parts of AL 7075 are commonly used in the structure members of airplanes and bicycles. The seamless tubes of AL 7075 are also used, while tubes with welding line (seamed) are mainly made by the other types of aluminium alloy. This research is focused on the extrusion die design and process simulation of the rectangular seamed AL 7075 tubes. A new die design concept is proposed to increase the welding pressure in the chamber to solve the problem of poor welding ability of AL 7075. The key points of welding ability improvement are the higher welding pressure, the crucial billet temperature, and the extrusion speed. The designed extrusion die should have some features to control the material flow and achieve the higher welding pressure. In this paper, not only use the traditional die bearing and the welding chamber, but also add a conical guiding chamber (specified with chamber height and width) to improve the material flow control. Finite element method is used to simulate the extrusion process and evaluate the effect of die design parameters for a seamed rectangular 7075 tube extrusion. The die stress should be considered carefully because of increasing the welding pressure also increases the die stress. Taguchi method is used to obtain the optimum combination of die design parameters to get higher welding pressure and keep the die stress at a reasonable low level. The method proposed in this paper is able to increase the welding pressure with the cost of reasonable die stress.

  11. Flow and failure of an aluminium alloy from low to high temperature and strain rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sancho Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The mechanical behaviour of an aluminium alloy is presented in this paper. The study has been carried out to analyse the flow and failure of the aluminium alloy 7075-T73. An experimental study has been planned performing tests of un-notched and notched tensile specimens at low strain rates using a servo-hydraulic machine. High strain rate tests have been carried out using the same geometry in a Hopkinson Split Tensile Bar. The dynamic experiments at low temperature were performed using a cryogenic chamber, and the high temperature ones with a furnace, both incorporated to the Hopkinson bar. Testing temperatures ranged from − 50 ∘C to 100 ∘C and the strain rates from 10−4 s−1 to 600 s−1. The material behaviour was modelled using the Modified Johnson-Cook model and simulated using LS-DYNA. The results show that the Voce type of strain hardening is the most accurate for this material, while the traditional Johnson-Cook is not enough accurate to reproduce the necking of un-notched specimens. The failure criterion was obtained by means of the numerical simulations using the analysis of the stress triaxiality versus the strain to failure. The diameters at the failure time were measured using the images taken with an image camera, and the strain to failure was computed for un-notched and notched specimens. The numerical simulations show that the analysis of the evolution of the stress triaxiality is crucial to achieve accurate results. A material model using the Modified Johnson-Cook for flow and failure is proposed.

  12. Rheological Analysis of Semi-Solid A380.0 Aluminium Alloy / Analiza Właściwości Reologicznych Stopu Aluminium A380.0 W Stanie Stało-Ciekłym

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solek K.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the rheological properties is crucial for the numerical modeling of technological processes. The main objective of this study was to conduct an analysis of the rheological properties of A380.0 (AlSi9Cu3(Fe aluminium alloy in the semi-solid state. The results could be used for identification of temperature range of the alloy, where thixoforming processes could be executed. Another purpose of the experimental work could be development of the mathematical models of the alloy apparent viscosity. The significant achievement of this particular study is an application of a viscometer which was specially designed for material tests executed at high temperatures, such as the measurement of liquid or semi-liquid aluminium viscosity. This paper presents the results of a rheological analysis of aluminium alloy.

  13. An overview of constitutive models for shape memory alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The remarkable properties of shape memory alloys have facilitated their applications in many areas of technology. The purpose of this paper is to present an overview of thermomechanical behavior of these alloys, discussing the main constitutive models for their mathematical description. Metallurgical features and engineering applications are addressed as an introduction. Afterwards, five phenomenological theories are presented. In general, these models capture the general thermomechanical behavior of shape memory alloys, characterized by pseudoelasticity, shape memory effect, phase transformation phenomenon due to temperature variation, and internal subloops due to incomplete phase transformations.

  14. The Favourable Choice of the Shape of Billet's Contact Surface to Quality of Extruded Aluminium Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Skorulski

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The theoretical and experimental method of optimization the aluminium billet’s contact surface during extrusion have been presented inthis paper. The theoretical assumption, based on welding criteria, have been confirmed by experimental researches. The technique ofmeasurement has been shown as well. Experiments are made using plasticine as a substiute material. Some kind of different variants have been investigated. The theory and experiments have been provided to optimize the modeling shape and may help in design and technology.The theory has been tested experimentally using a plasticine as a substitute material and a plexiglass die such that the velocity fields at the surfaces could be observed and measured during plastic flow, allowing the empirical coefficients in the mathematical formulation to be estimated. On the basis of the theory and experiments an optimal billet’s contact surface was proposed.

  15. Strain intermittency in shape-memory alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balandraud, Xavier; Barrera, Noemi; Biscari, Paolo; Grédiac, Michel; Zanzotto, Giovanni

    2015-05-01

    We study experimentally the intermittent progress of the mechanically induced martensitic transformation in a Cu-Al-Be single crystal through a full-field measurement technique: the grid method. We utilize an in-house, specially designed gravity-based device, wherein a system controlled by water pumps applies a perfectly monotonic uniaxial load through very small force increments. The sample exhibits hysteretic superelastic behavior during the forward and reverse cubic-monoclinic transformation, produced by the evolution of the strain field of the phase microstructures. The in-plane linear strain components are measured on the sample surface during the loading cycle, and we characterize the strain intermittency in a number of ways, showing the emergence of power-law behavior for the strain avalanching over almost six decades of magnitude. We also describe the nonstationarity and the asymmetry observed in the forward versus reverse transformation. The present experimental approach, which allows for the monitoring of the reversible martensitic transformation both locally and globally in the crystal, proves useful and enhances our capabilities in the analysis and possible control of transition-related phenomena in shape-memory alloys.

  16. The use of Spark Plasma Sintering to fabricate a two-phase material from blended aluminium alloy scrap and gas atomized powder

    OpenAIRE

    Paraskevas, Dimos; Vanmeensel, Kim; Vleugels, Jef; Dewulf, Wim; Duflou, Joost

    2015-01-01

    Recently innovative solid state / 'meltless' recycling techniques have been developed and proposed for the consolidation of aluminium alloy scrap, aiming both at energy and material savings by eliminating the melting step. In this context, a powder metallurgy route is examined as a solid state recycling technique for the fabrication of a two-phase material via Spark Plasma Sintering. By mixing aluminium atomized powder and machining chips of the same alloy, a two-phase material was produced, ...

  17. Accelerated growth of oxide film on aluminium alloys under steam: Part II: Effects of alloy chemistry and steam vapour pressure on corrosion and adhesion performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Din, Rameez Ud; Bordo, Kirill; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl;

    2015-01-01

    The steam treatment of aluminium alloys with varying vapour pressure of steamresulted in the growth of aluminium oxyhydroxide films of thickness range between 450 - 825nm. The surface composition, corrosion resistance, and adhesion of the produced films was characterised by XPS, potentiodynamic...... polarization, acetic acid salt spray, filiform corrosion test, and tape test. The oxide films formed by steam treatment showed good corrosion resistance in NaCl solution by significantly reducing anodic and cathodic activities. The pitting potential of the surface treated with steam was a function...

  18. A microstructure-based yield stress and work-hardening model for textured 6xxx aluminium alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadyko, M.; Myhr, O. R.; Dumoulin, S.; Hopperstad, O. S.

    2016-04-01

    The plastic properties of an aluminium alloy are defined by its microstructure. The most important factors are the presence of alloying elements in the form of solid solution and precipitates of various sizes, and the crystallographic texture. A nanoscale model that predicts the work-hardening curves of 6xxx aluminium alloys was proposed by Myhr et al. The model predicts the solid solution concentration and the particle size distributions of different types of metastable precipitates from the chemical composition and thermal history of the alloy. The yield stress and the work hardening of the alloy are then determined from dislocation mechanics. The model was largely used for non-textured materials in previous studies. In this work, a crystal plasticity-based approach is proposed for the work hardening part of the nanoscale model, which allows including the influence of the crystallographic texture. The model is evaluated by comparison with experimental data from uniaxial tensile tests on two textured 6xxx alloys in five temper conditions.

  19. Oxidation of an aluminium-magnesium alloy in liquid state. Methodology of determination of mechanisms from not necessarily repeatable experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research thesis reports the study of the oxidation of an aluminium-5 pc magnesium alloy in its liquid state in an oxygen environment, using thermogravimetric analysis and that of magnesium in its solid state. In a first part, the author reports a thermodynamic and bibliographical study on magnesium transformation in its solid state (Mg/O2 and Mg/H2O systems, transformation with dry and humid synthetic air, oxidation inhibitors) and on Al-Mg alloy transformation in presence of oxygen (thermodynamic properties of aluminium-rich Al-Mg alloys, Al-Mg/O2/N2 and Al-Mg/O2/N2/H2O systems). The next parts address the selection of reaction systems for the different cases (oxidation of solid magnesium in oxygen, oxidation of the Al-Mg alloy in oxygen), the modelling of the formation of magnesia from solid magnesium and from the Al-Mg alloy, and the modelling of the liquid Al-Mg A5182 alloy oxidation in oxygen

  20. Constitutive modelling of creep-ageing behaviour of peak-aged aluminium alloy 7050

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yo-Lun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The creep-ageing behaviour of a peak-aged aluminium alloy 7050 was investigated under different stress levels at 174 ∘C for up to 8 h. Interrupted creep tests and tensile tests were performed to investigate the influences of creep-ageing time and applied stress on yield strength. The mechanical testing results indicate that the material exhibits an over-ageing behaviour which increases with the applied stress level during creep-ageing. As creep-ageing time approaches 8 h, the material's yield strength under different stress levels gradually converge, which suggests that the difference in mechanical properties under different stress conditions can be minimised. This feature can be advantageous in creep-age forming to the formed components such that uniformed mechanical properties across part area can be achieved. A set of constitutive equations was calibrated using the mechanical test results and the alloy-specific material constants were obtained. A good agreement is observed between the experimental and calibrated results.

  1. Material modelling and its application to creep-age forming of aluminium alloy 7B04

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lam Aaron C.L.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Creep-ageing behaviour of aluminium alloy 7B04-T651 at 115 °C under a range of tensile stress levels has been experimentally investigated and numerically modelled for creep-age forming (CAF applications. Creep strain, yield strength evolution and precipitate growth of creep-aged specimens were investigated. The alloy was modelled using a set of unified constitutive equations, which captures its creep deformation and takes into account yield strength contributions from three creep-age hardening mechanisms. Applications of the present work are demonstrated by implementing the determined material model into a commercial finite element analysis solver to analyse CAF operations carried out in a novel flexible CAF tool. Stress relaxation, yield strength, precipitate size and springback were predicted for the creep-age formed plates. The predicted springback were further quantified and compared with experimental measurements and a good agreement of 2.5% deviation was achieved. This material model now enables further investigations of 7B04 under various CAF scenarios to be conducted inexpensively via computational modelling.

  2. Surface nanocrystallization of 7A04 aluminium alloy induced by circulation rolling plastic deformation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE Hui-qiong; FAN Xin-min

    2006-01-01

    The surface nanocrystalline microstructures of 7A04 aluminium alloy was obtained by means of circulation rolling plastic deformation(CRPD),the grain refinement behavior and the hardness variation were examined. X-ray diffraction(XRD) and transmission electron microscopy(TEM) were applied to characterize the microstructure of the surface layer. The experimental evidences show that,after the CRPD treatment,the mean grain size in the surface layer is about 50 nm. The microhardness of the nanostructured surface layers is enhanced significantly after CRPD compared with that of the matrix,which can be attributed primarily to the grain refinement. The microhardness at the top surface can reach about HV0.05335,while the value of the matrix is HV0.05160 or so. The surface hardening effect is obtained obviously. Besides,the thermal stability of nanocrystalline layer was investigated. The results of the XRD analysis and the microhardness measurement show that the nanocrystalline layer has better thermal-stability than the matrix. And the DSC measurement shows that the synthesis of nanostructured surface layer has influence on the phase transformation of 7A04 aluminum alloy.

  3. Oxide growth on aluminium alloys in the presence of ammonium fluoborate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliver, J.; Paterson, P.; Flavell, T. [Royal Melbourne Inst. of Tech., VIC (Australia); Biddle, G. [Alcoa Rolled Products (Australia)

    1996-12-31

    The aim of this study as to determine the mechanisms involved in using ammonium fluoborate as a reducing atmosphere when preheating a high magnesium content aluminium alloy. Rutherford Backscattering (RBS) has been the major technique used in the analysis of samples, it revealed significant reduction in both the diffusion of magnesium to the surface and the calculated oxide thickness in the presence of NH{sub 4}BF{sub 4}. At temperatures above 500 deg C in air, SEM images revealed depressions and voids due to incipient melting at various stages, around the grain boundaries. Grain boundaries effectively acted as pipes aiding the diffusion of magnesium to the surface. These results have been verified through compositional analysis with both RBS and auger electron spectroscopy (AES). Results from NH{sub 4}BF{sub 4} atmosphere preheat conditions showed significant improvements. It was verified experimentally that above 500 deg C , AA5182 alloys undergo incipient melting at the grain boundaries with magnesium diffusing through to the surface. 5 refs., 1 fig.

  4. Shape Memory Alloy-Based Periodic Cellular Structures Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR Phase II effort will continue to develop and demonstrate an innovative shape memory alloy (SMA) periodic cellular structural technology. Periodic cellular...

  5. Nonhysteretic superelasticity of shape memory alloys at the nanoscale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhen; Ding, Xiangdong; Sun, Jun; Suzuki, Tetsuro; Lookman, Turab; Otsuka, Kazuhiro; Ren, Xiaobing

    2013-10-01

    We perform molecular dynamics simulations to show that shape memory alloy nanoparticles below the critical size not only demonstrate superelasticity but also exhibit features such as absence of hysteresis, continuous nonlinear elastic distortion, and high blocking force. Atomic level investigations show that this nonhysteretic superelasticity results from a continuous transformation from the parent phase to martensite under external stress. This aspect of shape memory alloys is attributed to a surface effect; i.e., the surface locally retards the formation of martensite and then induces a critical-end-point-like behavior when the system is below the critical size. Our work potentially broadens the application of shape memory alloys to the nanoscale. It also suggests a method to achieve nonhysteretic superelasticity in conventional bulk shape memory alloys.

  6. Modeling and Simulating Material Behavior during Hot Blank - Cold Die (HB-CD) Stamping of Aluminium Alloy Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Nan; Abu-Farha, Fadi

    2016-08-01

    Hot blank - cold die (HB-CD) stamping, non-isothermal hot stamping, of aluminium alloy sheets offers great opportunities for high production rates at low cost, while overcoming limited material formability issues. Yet developing an accurate model that can describe the complex material behavior over the wide ranging conditions of HB-CD stamping (temperatures ranging between 25 and 350 °C) is challenging. Moreover, validation of the developed models under transient conditions is problematic. This work presents he results of a comprehensive characterization, material modeling, FE simulation and experimental validation effort to capture the behavior of an aluminium alloy sheet during HB-CD stamping. In particular, we highlight the integration between temperature measurements (thermography) and strain measurements (digital image correlation) for the accurate validation of model predictions of non-isothermal material deformation.

  7. Modified Layer-Removal Method for Measurement of Residual Stress in Pre-stretched Aluminium Alloy Plate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liangbao Liu; Jianfei Sun; Wuyi Chen; Pengfei Sun

    2015-01-01

    Residual stress is one of the factors affecting the machining deformation of monolithic structure parts in the aviation industry. Thus, the studies on machining deformation rules induced by residual stresses largely depend on correctly and efficiently measuring the residual stresses of workpieces. A modified layer⁃removal method is proposed to measure residual stress by analysing the characteristics of a traditional layer⁃removal method. The coefficients of strain release are then deduced according to the simulation results using the finite element method ( FEM) . Moreover, the residual stress in a 7075T651 aluminium alloy plate is measured using the proposed method, and the results are then analyzed and compared with the data obtained by the traditional methods. The analysis indicates that the modified layer⁃removal method is effective and practical for measuring the residual stress distribution in pre⁃stretched aluminium alloy plates.

  8. Comparison of RSM with ANN in predicting tensile strength of friction stir welded AA7039 aluminium alloy joints

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A. K. LAKSHMINARAYANAN; V. BALASUBRAMANIAN

    2009-01-01

    Friction stir welding(FSW) is an innovative solid state joining technique and has been employed in aerospace, rail, automotive and marine industries for joining aluminium, magnesium, zinc and copper alloys. The FSW process parameters such as tool rotational speed, welding speed, axial force, play a major role in deciding the weld quality. Two methods, response surface methodology and artificial neural network were used to predict the tensile strength of friction stir welded AA7039 aluminium alloy. The experiments were conducted based on three factors, three-level, and central composite face centered design with full replications technique, and mathematical model was developed. Sensitivity analysis was carried out to identify critical parameters. The results obtained through response surface methodology were compared with those through artificial neural networks.

  9. Influence of welding speed on corrosion behaviour of friction stir welded AA5086 aluminium alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kamran Amini; Farhad Gharavi

    2016-01-01

    The plates of AA5086 aluminium alloy were joined together by friction stir welding at a fixed rotation speed of 1000 r/min various welding speeds ranging from 63 to 100 mm/min. Corrosion behavior of the parent alloy (PA), the heat affected zone (HAZ), and the weld nugget zone (WNZ) of the joints were studied in 3.5% (mass fraction) aerated aqueous NaCl solution by potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The corrosion susceptibility of the weldments increases when the welding speed increases to 63 and 100 mm/min. However, the value of corrosion rate in the weldments is lower than that in the PA. Additionally, the corrosion current density increases with increasing the welding speed in the HAZ and the WNZ. On the contrary, the corrosion potential in the WNZ appears more positive than in the HAZ with decreasing the welding speed. The WNZ exhibits higher resistance compared to the HAZ and the PA as the welding speed decreases. The results obtained from the EIS measurements suggest that the weld regions have higher corrosion resistance than the parent alloy. With increasing the welding speed, the distribution and extent of the corroded areas in the WNZ region are lower than those of the HAZ region. In the HAZ region, in addition to the pits in the corroded area, some cracks can be seen around the corroded areas, which confirms that intergranular corrosion is formed in this area. The alkaline localized corrosion and the pitting corrosion are the main corrosion mechanisms in the corroded areas within the weld regions. Crystallographic pits are observed within the weld regions.

  10. Low Speed Laser Welding of Aluminium Alloys Using Single-Mode Fiber Lasers

    OpenAIRE

    Tu, Jay; Paleocrassas, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    In this chapter, topics related to extending fiber laser welding of aluminium in the low speed range were discussed. General topics, such as the properties of aluminium and welding defects, review of high speed laser welding of aluminium, and fiber laser characteristics and optical setups for safety, were first reviewed. Recent research results on the modelling and validation of laser welding of aluminium, experimental characterization of low speed welding processes, and the instability pheno...

  11. Hot deformation behaviour and flow stress prediction of 7075 aluminium alloy powder compacts during compression at elevated temperatures

    OpenAIRE

    Jabbari Taleghani, M. A.; Salehi, M.; Ruiz Navas, Elisa María; Torralba, José Manuel

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, the hot deformation behaviour of 7075 aluminium alloy powder compacts was studied by performing hot compression tests on a Gleeble 3800 machine. The main objectives were to evaluate the effect of the relative green density on the hot deformation behaviour and to model and predict the hot deformation flow stress of powder compacts using constitutive equations. For this purpose, powder compacts with relative green densities ranging from 83 to 95%, which were prepared by un...

  12. Experimental and numerical investigation on under-water friction stir welding of armour grade AA2519-T87 aluminium alloy

    OpenAIRE

    S. Sree Sabari; S. Malarvizhi; V. Balasubramanian; G. Madusudhan Reddy

    2016-01-01

    Friction stir welding (FSW) is a promising welding process that can join age hardenable aluminium alloys with high joint efficiency. However, the thermal cycles experienced by the material to be joined during FSW resulted in the deterioration of mechanical properties due to the coarsening and dissolution of strengthening precipitates in the thermo-mechanical affected zone (TMAZ) and heat affected zone (HAZ). Under water friction stir welding (UWFSW) is a variant of FSW process which can maint...

  13. Insight of the interface of electroless Ni-P/SiC composite coating on aluminium alloy, LM24

    OpenAIRE

    Franco, M.; Sha, W.; Tan, V.; Malinov, S.

    2015-01-01

    Electroless nickel composite coatings with silicon carbide, SiC, as reinforcing particles deposited with Ni–P onto aluminium alloy, LM24, having zincating as under layer were subjected to heat treatment using air furnace. The changes at the interface were investigated using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) to probe the chemistry changes upon heat treatment. Microhardness tester with various loads using both Knoop and Vickers indenters was used to study the ...

  14. Probabilistic thermal-mechanical fatigue criterion for lost foam casting aluminium alloys based on 2D/3D porosities distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szmytka F.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A thermal-mechanical fatigue criterion is proposed to assess the lifetime of aluminium alloys produced by a lost foam casting process. It is based on the observed size distribution of pores sizes which are considered as critical zones for cracks initiation and gives reliable results when both pores sizes are identified from X-ray tomography and mean stresses are taken into account. Lifetime probabilities are finally successfully compared with experimental results.

  15. Plastic behaviour and microstructure characterization high manganese aluminium alloyed steel for the automotive industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Kuc

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Automotive industry constantly demands high-strength steels which are characterized by the energy absorption possibilities during a collision. Such materials may, in the future, replace the currently used conventional steels. The groups of steels which meet these criteria are the austenitic steels and austenitic-ferritic steels with high manganese content (15-30% and high aluminium content (1-9%. Design/methodology/approach: Susceptibility of steel to cracking at high temperatures was tested on Gleeble 3800 simulator: zero resistance temperature was determined (TZW, zero plasticity temperature was determined (TZP, plasticity reversal temperature was determined (TNP. Research was completed by determination of steel plasticity and stress applying in next stage the deformation of samples in temperature from 850 to 1175°C. This temperature range corresponding with the field of parameters of plastic processing. For samples after tension the ultimate tensile strength was determined (Rm together with contraction (Z. Character of fractures of stretched samples was tested with the use of scanning microscope Hitachi S-4200.Findings: The tests show that the tested steel is characterised by relatively lower temperatures in comparison with low-alloyed steels. Tested steel has high plasticity in temperature wear to temperature of plastic processing 1150-800°C.Practical implications: The obtained steel is characterised by beneficial properties which outbalance the austenitic steels type TWIP and may be applied in vehicle construction on elements connected with safety.Originality/value: Conducted simulation will be helpful by elaboration of technology of continuous casting and the choice of the right parameters for plastic processing of high-manganese steel with aluminium.

  16. Temperature and thermal stress fields during the pulse train of long-pulse laser irradiating aluminium alloy plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Jin, Guangyong; Gu, Xiu-ying

    2014-12-01

    Based on Von Mises yield criterion and elasto-plastic constitutive equations, an axisymmetric finite element model of a Gaussian laser beam irradiating a metal substrate was established. In the model of finite element, the finite difference hybrid algorithm is used to solve the problem of transient temperature field and stress field. Taking nonlinear thermal and mechanical properties into account, transient distributions of temperature field and stress fields generated by the pulse train of long-pulse laser in a piece of aluminium alloy plate were computed by the model. Moreover,distributions as well as histories of temperature and stress fields were obtained. Finite element analysis software COMSOL is used to simulate the Temperature and thermal stress fields during the pulse train of long-pulse laser irradiating 7A04 aluminium alloy plate. By the analysis of the results, it is found that Mises equivalent stress on the target surface distribute within the scope of the center of a certain radius. However, the stress is becoming smaller where far away from the center. Futhermore, the Mises equivalent stress almost does not effect on stress damage while the Mises equivalent stress is far less than the yield strength of aluminum alloy targets. Because of the good thermal conductivity of 7A04 aluminum alloy, thermal diffusion is extremely quick after laser irradiate. As a result, for the multi-pulsed laser, 7A04 aluminum alloy will not produce obvious temperature accumulation when the laser frequency is less than or equal to 10 Hz. The result of this paper provides theoretical foundation not only for research of theories of 7A04 aluminium alloy and its numerical simulation under laser radiation but also for long-pulse laser technology and widening its application scope.

  17. Optimizing pulsed current gas tungsten arc welding parameters of AA6061 aluminium alloy using Hooke and Jeeves algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S. BABU; T. SENTHIL KUMAR; V. BALASUBRAMANIAN

    2008-01-01

    Though the preferred welding process to weld aluminium alloy is frequently constant current gas tungsten arc welding (CCGTAW), it resulted in grain coarsening at the fusion zone and heat affected zone(HAZ). Hence, pulsed current gas tungsten arc welding(PCGTAW) was performed, to yield finer fusion zone grains, which leads to higher strength of AA6061 (Al-Mg-Si) aluminium alloy joints. In order to determine the most influential control factors which will yield minimum fusion zone grain size and maximum tensile strength of the joints, the traditional Hooke and Jeeves pattern search method was used. The experiments were carried out based on central composite design with 31 runs and an algorithm was developed to optimize the fusion zone grain size and the tensile strength of pulsed current gas tungsten arc welded AA6061 aluminium aUoy joints. The results indicate that the peak current (Ip) and base current (IB) are the most significant parameters, to decide the fusion zone grain size and the tensile strength of the AA6061 aluminum alloy joints.

  18. Work-hardening rates during the steady-state creep of aluminium and alloys determined from stress-change tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Work-hardening rates of aluminium and selected aluminium alloys during steady-state creep at 300 0C are determined from the instantaneous strains on sudden stress changes (increments and decrement). Alloys examined included Al-0.4% Li, Al-0.3% Li (in three different irradiation conditions), =Al-2.73At% Mg and Al-4.20At% Mg. Work hardening rates, h, varied from about 0.1 to about 1 times =Young's modulus, E. h/E decreases with increasing creep stress, σ. At a given value of σ, h/E is the lowest for polycrystalline aluminium and highest for the irradiated Al-0.3% Li alloys. Although the values for h/E are comparable to previously determined values for the creep of f.c.c., b.c.c. and h.c.p. metals, they are higher than strain-hardening rates determined from tensile tests. These differences are rationalized in terms of the dependence of work (strain) hardening on the strain rate. (author)

  19. Study of the Fatigue Life and Weight Optimization of an Automobile Aluminium Alloy Part under Random Road Excitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Saoudi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Weight optimization of aluminium alloy automobile parts reduces their weight while maintaining their natural frequency away from the frequency range of the power spectral density (PSD that describes the roadway profile. We present our algorithm developed to optimize the weight of an aluminium alloy sample relative to its fatigue life. This new method reduces calculation time; It takes into account the multipoint excitation signal shifted in time, giving a tangle of the constraint signals of the material mesh elements; It also reduces programming costs. We model an aluminium alloy lower vehicle suspension arm under real conditions. The natural frequencies of the part are inversely proportional to the mass and proportional to flexural stiffness, and assumed to be invariable during the process of optimization. The objective function developed in this study is linked directly to the notion of fatigue. The method identifies elements that have less than 10% of the fatigue life of the part's critical element. We achieved a weight loss of 5 to 11% by removing the identified elements following the first iteration.

  20. The effect of palm kernel shell ash on the mechanical properties of as-cast aluminium alloy matrix composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isiaka Oluwole OLADELE

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The present work describes the effect of palm kernel shell ash (PKSA as reinforcement on the mechanical properties of As-cast aluminium alloy. Recycled aluminium alloy from cylinder of an automotive engine block was degreased by using premium motor spirit (PMS also known as petrol, washed thoroughly with soap and water and sun dried for 5 days. The palm kernel shell was screened of dirt and other unwanted foreign materials before being roasted in furnace. The ash was further pulverized by laboratory ball mill machine followed by sieving to obtain particle sizes of 106 µm and divided into two parts. One portion was treated with NaOH solution while the other part was left as untreated before they are used to reinforced molten aluminium alloy in predetermined proportions. The newly developed composites were characterized with respect to their mechanical properties in response to the tests that were carried out on them. The results indicate that palm kernel shell ash can be used as potential reinforcing material for automobile applications.

  1. Evaluation of the mechanical properties and corrosion behaviour of coconut shell ash reinforced aluminium (6063 alloy composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluyemi O. DARAMOLA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aluminium 6063/Coconut shell ash (CSAp composites having 3-12 weight percent (wt% coconut shell ash were fabricated by double stir-casting method. The microstructure, ultimate tensile strength, hardness values, density and corrosion behaviour in 0.3M H2SO4 and 3.5wt% NaCl solution of the composites were evaluated. The density of the composites exhibit a linear and proportional decreased as the percentage of coconut shell ash increases in the aluminium alloy. It implies that composites with lower weight component can be produced by adding CSAp. The microstructural analysis showed uniform distribution of coconut shell ash particles in the aluminium alloy matrix. Significant improvement in hardness and ultimate tensile strength values was noticeable as the wt% of the coconut shell ash increased in the alloy, although this occur at the expense of ductility of the composites as the modulus of elasticity of the composites decreases as the percentage of CSAp increases. Hence, this work has established that incorporation of coconut shell particles in aluminum matrix can lead to the production of low cost aluminum composites with improved hardness and tensile strength values.

  2. MICROSTRUCTURAL CHARACTERISATION AND CORROSION BEHAVIOUR OF TOP SURFACE OF TIG WELDED 2219−T87 ALUMINIUM ALLOY

    OpenAIRE

    Venkatasubramanian, G.; A. Sheik Mideen; Jha, Abhay K.

    2013-01-01

    The microstructural characterisation and corrosion behaviour of top surface of tungsten inert gas (TIG) welded 2219−T87 aluminium alloy (AA2219–T87) in 0.6 M NaCl solution was studied by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), potentiodynamic polarisation, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The optical microscopy and SEM analyses revealed that the welding of base metal (BM) with ER2319 filler alloy caused the formation of micro pores and micro cracks on the surf...

  3. Properties and Application of Iron-based Shape Memory Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Jian-chen; Jiang Qing; Dai Jun

    2005-01-01

    The properties of FeMnSiCrNi shape memory alloy were investigated. The results show that the best shape memory effect of Fel4Mn6Si9Cr5Ni alloy is 85%. The transformation amount of the ε→γ transformation is not complete after heating the alloy to 1000 K, As and Af points drop with increased transformation enthalpy ( △Hγ→ε) by thermal cycling and increased prestrain. The alloy shows also good creep and stress relaxation resistance. In addition, the alloy having a tensile force of 20 kN and a sealing pressure of 6 MPa can satisfy requirements for possible industrial application on pipe joints.

  4. Twice reverse shape memory effect in CuZnAl shape memory alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李周; 汪明朴; 徐根应; 郭明星

    2004-01-01

    The variations of the shape memory effects in the Cu-13Zn-15Al(mole fraction, %) alloy upon successive heating (the rate of heating is 5 ℃/min) have been studied by means of p-T curve , shape memory effect measurement, optical metallographical observation and X-ray diffraction. The first abnormal reverse shape memory effect occurs when the tested alloy is heated to the temperature below 320 ℃; when it is heated to the temperature between 320 ℃ and 450 ℃, the forward shape memory effect occurs; in the two stages, the shape of the sample remains the same as that in the furnace when it is taken out from the furnace and air-cooled; when the tested alloy is heated to the temperature above 450 ℃, the shape of the sample remains unchanged during heating, but the second reverse shape memory effect occurs after it is air-quenched.

  5. Analysis of the solidification and microstructure of two aluminium alloys reinforced with TiB{sub 2} particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egizabal, Pedro; Garcia de Cortazar, Maider [Fundacion Inasmet E-20009 Donostia-San Sebastian (Spain); Torregaray, Amaia [University of Basque Country UPV/EHU E-48012, Bilbo-Bilbao (Spain); Veillere, Amelie; Silvain, Jean-Francois [CNRS, Universite de Bordeaux, ICMCB 87 Avenue du Docteur Albert Schweitzer, 33608 Pessac (France); Douin, Joel [CEMES-CNRS 29 Rue Jeanne Marvig, BP 94347, 31055 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France)

    2011-09-15

    Two aluminium alloys with 6 wt% TiB{sub 2} particles are studied for applications where increased wear resistance and mechanical strength at high temperature are required. The incorporation of hard ceramic particles has a strong influence on the microstructure and properties of the alloys. TiB{sub 2} particles play an important role in the nucleation of the different phases of the alloys during solidification, and in the reduction of grain size and porosity. The solidification patterns of Al-Si{sub 7}Mg{sub 0.3} + TiB{sub 2} (6 wt%) and Al-Cu{sub 5}MgTi+TiB{sub 2} (6 wt%) materials are compared to their corresponding non-reinforced alloys, and the microstructures are analyzed. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  6. Studies on partially melted zone in aluminium-copper alloy welds-effect of techniques and prior thermal temper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, K. Srinivasa [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India)]. E-mail: arunaraok@yahoo.com; Reddy, G. Madhusudan [Defense Metallurgical Research Laboratory, Hyderabad 500258 (India); Rao, K. Prasad [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India)

    2005-08-25

    Partially melted zone (PMZ) of aluminium alloy welds is an important region and requires careful attention. This is mainly because PMZ in these materials is weak link in the weldments and is significantly affected by welding parameters. Microstructure changes in PMZ are related not only to welding heat input and techniques, but also depend on the initial thermal history of alloy (for example, whether it is in T6 or T87 condition etc.). Interestingly, not many detailed studies were available in this respect. In the present work, effect of prior thermal temper and welding techniques mainly continuous and pulsed current gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) on the PMZ behaviour of AA2219 alloy was studied. Susceptibility to liquation was found to be high in T6 temper of AA2219 alloy than in T87. Pulsed current technique was found to improve the resistance to the susceptibility to liquation in PMZ.

  7. Alloying and Casting Furnace for Shape Memory Alloys Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The concept in the proposed project is to create a melting, alloying and casting furnace for the processing titanium based SMA using cold crucible techniques. The...

  8. Determination of crystalline texture in aluminium - uranium alloys by neutron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Textures of hot-rolled aluminum-uranium alloys and of aluminum were determined by neutron diffraction. Sheets of alloys containing 8.0, 21.5 and 23.7 wt pct U, as well as pure aluminum, were obtained in a stepped rolling process, 15% reduction each step, 75% total reduction. During the rolling the temperature was 6000C. Alloys with low uranium contents are two phase systems in which an intermetallic compound UAl4, orthorhombic, is dispersed in a pure aluminum matrix. The addition of a few percent of Si in such alloys leads to the formation of UAl3, simple cubic, instead of UAl4. The Al -- 23.7 wt pct U alloy was prepared with 2,2 wt pct of Si. The results indicate that the texture of the matrix is more dependent on the uranium concentration than on the texture of the intermetallic phases. An improvement in the technique applied to texture measurements by using a sample fully bathed in the neutron beam is also presented. The method takes advantage of the low neutron absorption of the studied materials as well as of the neglibible variation in the multiple scattering which occurs in a conveniently shaped sample having a weakly developed texture. (Author)

  9. Effects of surface treatment of aluminium alloy 1050 on the adhesion and anticorrosion properties of the epoxy coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharifi Golru, S., E-mail: samanesharifi@aut.ac.ir [Department of Polymer Engineering and Color Technology, Amirkabir University of Technology, P.O. Box 15875-4413 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Attar, M.M., E-mail: attar@aut.ac.ir [Department of Polymer Engineering and Color Technology, Amirkabir University of Technology, P.O. Box 15875-4413 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ramezanzadeh, B. [Department of Surface Coating and Corrosion, Institute for Color Science and Technology, No. 59,Vafamanesh St, Hosainabad Sq, Lavizan, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-08-01

    Highlights: • Aluminium alloy 1050 was treated by zirconium-based (Zr) conversion coating. • The surface morphology and surface free energy of the samples were obtained. • The adhesion properties of the epoxy coating was studied on the treated samples. • The corrosion resistance of the epoxy coating was enhanced on treated samples. - Abstract: The objective of this work is to investigate the effects of zirconium-based (Zr) conversion coating on the adhesion properties and corrosion resistance of an epoxy/polyamide coating applied on the aluminium alloy 1050 (AA1050). Field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectrum (EDS), atomic force microscope (AFM) and contact angle measuring device were employed in order to characterize the surface characteristics of the Zr treated AA1050 samples. The epoxy/polyamide coating was applied on the untreated and Zr treated samples. The epoxy coating adhesion to the aluminium substrate was evaluated by pull-off test before and after 30 days immersion in 3.5% w/w NaCl solution. In addition, the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and salt spray tests were employed to characterize the corrosion protection properties of the epoxy coating applied on the AA1050 samples. Results revealed that the surface treatment of AA1050 by zirconium conversion coating resulted in the increase of surface free energy and surface roughness. The dry and recovery (adhesion strength after 30 days immersion in the 3.5 wt% NaCl solution) adhesion strengths of the coatings applied on the Zr treated aluminium samples were greater than untreated sample. In addition, the adhesion loss of the coating applied on the Zr treated aluminium substrate was lower than other samples. Also, the results obtained from EIS and salt spray test clearly revealed that the Zr conversion coating could enhance the corrosion protective performance of the epoxy coating significantly.

  10. EVALUATION OF PARAMETERS OF FRICTION STIR WELDING FOR ALUMINIUM AA6351 ALLOY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AHMED KHALID HUSSAIN

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Friction Stir Welding (FSW is a solid state welding process in which the relative motion between the tool and the work piece produces heat which makes the material of two edges being joined by plastic atomicdiffusion. This method relies on the direct conversion of mechanical energy to thermal energy to form the weld without the application of heat from conventional source. The rotational speed of the tools, the axial pressure and welding speed and the (weld time are the principal variables that are controlled in order to provide the necessary combination of heat and pressure to form the weld. These parameters are adjusted so that the interface is heated into the plastic temperature range (plastic state where welding can take place. During the last stage of welding process, atomic diffusion occurs while the interfaces are in contact, allowing metallurgical bond to form between the two materials. The functional behaviour of the weldments is substantially determined by the nature of the weld strength characterized by the tensile strength, metallurgical behavior, surface roughness, weld hardness and micro hardness. In this project an attempt is made to determine and evaluate the influence of the process parameters of FSW on the weldments. The Vickers hardness, tensile strength and radiography are considered for investigation by varying tool speed, tool feed and maintaining onstant depth of penetration of weld. Experiments were conducted on AA6351 Aluminium alloy in a CNC Vertical Machining Centre. Theoutput factors are measured in UTM, Vickers hardness tester and Radiography equipment. Results show strong relation and robust comparison between the weldment strength and process parameters. Hence FSW process variable data base is to be developed for wide variety of metals and alloys for selection of optimum process parameters for efficient weld.

  11. Near Net Shape Fabrication Technology for Shape Memory Alloy Components Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This STTR Phase I effort proposes to develop an innovative, affordable processing route for larger-sized shape memory alloy (SMA) components. Despite significant...

  12. Modelling of liquid metal flow and oxide film defects in filling of aluminium alloy castings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, X.; Jolly, M.; Yang, X.; Campbell, J.

    2012-07-01

    The liquid metal flow behaviours in different runner system designs have important effects on the mechanical strength of aluminium alloy castings. In this paper, a new model has been developed which is a two-dimensional program using a finite difference technique and the Marker and Cell (MAC) method to simulate the flow of liquid metal during filling a mould. In the program the Eulerian method has been used for the liquid metal flow, while the Oxide Film Entrainment Tracking Algorithm (OFET) method (a Lagrangian method) has been used to simulate the movement of the oxide film on the liquid metal surface or in the liquid metal flow. Several examples have been simulated and tested and the relevant results were obtained. These results were compared with measured bending strengths. It was found that the completed program was capable of simulating effectively the filling processes of different runner systems. The simulation results are consistent with the experiment. In addition, the program is capable of providing clearer images for predicting the distribution of the oxide film defects generated during filling a mould.

  13. Material modelling for creep-age forming of aluminium alloy 7B04

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lam Aaron C.L.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study on the creep-ageing behaviour of a peak-aged aluminium alloy 7B04 under different tensile loads at 115oC and subsequently modelling it for creep-age forming (CAF applications. Mechanical properties and microstructural evolutions of creep-aged specimens were investigated. The material was modelled using a set of unified constitutive equations, which not only captures the material's creep deformation but also takes into account yield strength contributions from solid solution hardening, age hardening and dislocation hardening during creep-ageing. A possible application of the present work is demonstrated by implementing the determined material model into a commercial finite element analysis solver via a user-defined subroutine for springback prediction of creep-age formed plates. A good agreement is observed between the simulated springback values and experimental results. This material model now enables further investigations of 7B04 under various CAF scenarios to be conducted inexpensively via computational modelling.

  14. Ductile damage in aluminium alloy thin sheets: Correlation between micro-tomography observations and mechanical modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thuillier, S., E-mail: sandrine.thuillier@univ-ubs.fr [LIMATB, Universite de Bretagne-Sud-rue de Saint Maude BP 92116 56321 Lorient Cedex (France); Maire, E. [MATEIS CNRS UMR 5510, INSA Lyon-7 avenue Jean Capelle 69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Brunet, M. [LaMCoS CNRS UMR 5259, INSA Lyon-7 avenue Jean Capelle 69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France)

    2012-12-15

    This work deals with the characterization of ductile damage in an aluminium alloy AA6016-T4 by X-ray micro-tomography, as a function of anisotropy and triaxiality. Interrupted tensile tests on notched samples with three different geometries were performed and the void volume fraction was measured for different strain values, up to rupture. It was shown that void volume fraction evolution with the strain is rather similar at 0 Degree-Sign and 90 Degree-Sign to RD but at 45 Degree-Sign to RD it shows a more rapid evolution. Moreover, for the same strain level, a higher void volume fraction was recorded for a higher triaxiality ratio. Whatever the orientation and the stress triaxiality ratio, void volume fraction values range from 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4} up to 0.04. A numerical model based on Gurson-Tvergaard-Needleman constitutive equations was used to simulate the different tests. Hardening of the material was identified from macroscopic tensile test nucleation material parameters were identified by a direct method from void volume fraction evolution. It can be seen that the influence of triaxiality on void volume fraction is underestimated, though void growth is nicely predicted for the highest triaxiality ratio, for strains below 0.5. The load level was correctly predicted, except for high strain, where coalescence seems necessary to be taken into account.

  15. Anisotropic work-hardening behaviour ofstructural steels and aluminium alloys at large strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouvier, S.; Teodosiu, C.; Haddadi, H.; Tabacaru, V.

    2003-03-01

    Sheet metal forming processes may often involve intense forming sequences, leading to large strains and severe strain-path changes. Optimizing such technologies requires a good understanding and description of the anisotropic plastic behaviour of the deformed material, in connection with the evolution of its texture and microstructure. In this paper, we present the predictions provided by a model involving isotropic and kinematioc hardening and by a physically-based microstructural model, which introduces additional internal variables taking into accounthe directional strength of dislocation structures and their polarity. These models have been identified by using sequences of uniaxial traction and simple shear experiments, carried out on various steels (DC06, DP600, HSLA340) and aluminium alloys (AA5182-O, AA6016-T4). The microstructural model proved able predict the complex hardening behaviour displayed, especially by the ferritic steels, namely the transient work-hardening stagnation during reversed deformation in Bauschinger tests, the temporary work-softening during orthogonal tests, and the grain fragmentation at large monotonie strains.

  16. Thermal Analysis on Butt Welded Aluminium Alloy AA7075 Plate Using FEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pal Pandi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Thermo-mechanical finite element analysis has been performed to assess the residual stress in the butt weld joints of aluminium Alloy AA7075 plates by utilizing the commercial software package ABAQUS. This paper presents an efficient FE technique using equivalent load to precisely predict welding deformations and residual stresses in butt joints. The radial heat flux distribution is considered on the top surface of the weldment. Convective and radiative heat losses are taken into account through boundary conditions for the outward heat flux. Linear FE transient thermal analysis is performed using surface heat source model with Gaussian distribution to compute highest temperature in AA7075 plates. The objective of this project is to simulate the welding process by using the finite element method. After the model is built and verified, the main objective of this project is to study the effects of varying the welding process parameters on the thermo-mechanical responses. In addition to that, the aim of this research is also to find a relationship between welding parameters and the responses of single pass butt welding are evaluated through the finite element analysis. The study of this paper covers the effects of varying heat input, welding speed on the thermo-mechanical responses of the weldment after cooling down to room temperature.

  17. Inhibition of localized attack on the aluminium alloy AA 6351 in glycol/water solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monticelli, C.; Brunoro, G.; Zucchi, F.; Fagioli, F.

    1989-06-01

    The objective of this work was to examine the feasibility of enhancing pitting resistance of AA 6351 (nominal composition: 1% Si, 0.6% Mg, 0.3% Mn, balance Al) by adding suitable inhibitors to the solutions. The compounds used were two inorganic salts: sodium molybdate and sodium tungstate and two derivatives of pyrimidine: 2-aminopyrimidine (2AP) and 2-hydroxypyrimidine (2HP). The inhibiting efficiencies of these substances were tested by both short-time electrochemical tests (galvanic coupling tests and polarization curves) and long-time immersions under experimental conditions causing the localized attack. Molybdate, tungstate and, to some extent, also 2AP efficiently inhibit AA 6351 localized corrosion in degraded solutions at 80/sup 0/C and in pure boiling solutions, for long exposure periods. The short-time electrochemical tests suggest that molybdate and tungstate are able to retard the electrochemical processes occurring on both the aluminium alloy and the small copper cathodic area produced by copper deposition. On the other hand, the 2AP efficiency is attributed to some complexing capability of this pyrimidine derivative towards dissolved copper ions, that are stabilized in solution. 2HP does not prevent AA 6351 localized attack. (orig./MM).

  18. Natural aging behaviour of friction stir welded 6005A-T6 aluminium alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Peng; Sun, Daqian; Li, Hongmei, E-mail: lihongmei@jlu.edu.cn

    2013-08-01

    By local thermal cycles and hardness measurements, supported by transmission electron microscopy, the post-weld natural aging behaviour of friction stir welded 6005A-T6 aluminium alloy was investigated. The results show that the softening in the nugget zone and thermo-mechanically affected zone immediately after welding is mainly caused by the high peak temperatures and rapid cooling rates, resulting in the original β″ precipitates dissolving and restraining re-precipitation. On the one hand, the hardness recovery in both microstructural zones during post-weld natural aging is attributed to the formation of clusters or GP zones depending on the natural aging time. On the other hand, the softening in the heat-affected zone after welding is due to the transformation of the β′′ to β′ precipitates and the precipitation of Q′. Natural aging has little effect on the microstructure and hardness of the heat-affected zone. The mechanism of natural aging behaviour was discussed.

  19. Soudage homogène MIG de l'alliage d'aluminium 6061 MIG homogeneous welding of 6061 aluminium alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoit Alexandre

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Le soudage homogène (métal d'apport identique au métal de base de l'alliage d'aluminium 6061 avec un procédé dit semi-automatique (MIG n'a jamais été reporté jusqu'à maintenant dans la littérature. Nous montrons ici que l'utilisation d'un dérivé du procédé de soudage MIG, le MIG CMT (Cold Metal Transfer permet d'obtenir des cordons de soudures sains (sans fissuration à chaud. De plus des traitements thermiques ont permis de retrouver partiellement ou de restaurer totalement les propriétés de la soudure. Nos résultats sont comparés à des essais de soudage MIG CMT avec le métal d'apport préconisé pour le soudage de l'alliage 6061. The homogeneous welding (same filler metal as base metal of the 6061 aluminium alloy with MIG process has never been reported in the open access literature. This work shows that the CMT (Cold Metal Transfer MIG, a derivative of MIG, allows producing welds without hot-cracking. Moreover, further heat treatments partially increased or fully restore the mechanical properties of the weld. These results are compared with 6061 heterogeneous welds usually met in the industry.

  20. Miniature High Force, Long Stroke Linear Shape Memory Alloy Actuators Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Shape Memory Alloys (SMAs) are metal alloys (Nickel-Titanium, for example) that change shape when heated. When drawn and processed in wire form, the shape change is...

  1. Experimental investigations of visco-plastic properties of the aluminium and tungsten alloys used in KE projectiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruszka, L.; Magier, M.

    2012-08-01

    The main aim of studies on dynamic behaviour of construction materials at high strain rates is to determine the variation of mechanical properties (strength, plasticity) in function of the strain rate and temperature. On the basis of results of dynamic tests on the properties of constructional materials the constitutive models are formulated to create numerical codes applied to solve constructional problems with computer simulation methods. In the case of military applications connected with the phenomena of gunshot and terminal ballistics it's particularly important to develop a model of strength and armour penetration with KE projectile founded on reliable results of dynamic experiments and constituting the base for further analyses and optimization of projectile designs in order to achieve required penetration depth. Static and dynamic results of strength investigations of the EN AW-7012 aluminium alloy (sabot) and tungsten alloy (penetrator) are discussed in this paper. Static testing was carried out with the INSTRON testing machine. Dynamic tests have been conducted using the split Hopkinson pressure bars technique at strain rates up to 1,2 ṡ 104s-1 (for aluminium alloy) and 6 ṡ 103s-1 (for tungsten alloy).

  2. Experimental investigations of visco-plastic properties of the aluminium and tungsten alloys used in KE projectiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magier M.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of studies on dynamic behaviour of construction materials at high strain rates is to determine the variation of mechanical properties (strength, plasticity in function of the strain rate and temperature. On the basis of results of dynamic tests on the properties of constructional materials the constitutive models are formulated to create numerical codes applied to solve constructional problems with computer simulation methods. In the case of military applications connected with the phenomena of gunshot and terminal ballistics it’s particularly important to develop a model of strength and armour penetration with KE projectile founded on reliable results of dynamic experiments and constituting the base for further analyses and optimization of projectile designs in order to achieve required penetration depth. Static and dynamic results of strength investigations of the EN AW-7012 aluminium alloy (sabot and tungsten alloy (penetrator are discussed in this paper. Static testing was carried out with the INSTRON testing machine. Dynamic tests have been conducted using the split Hopkinson pressure bars technique at strain rates up to 1,2 ⋅ 104s−1 (for aluminium alloy and 6 ⋅ 103s−1 (for tungsten alloy.

  3. Effect of Mg on microstructures and properties of Al-Mg-Si-Cu aluminium alloys for automotive body sheets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Hong; SONG Wen-ju; ZHAO Gang; LIU Chun-ming; ZUO Liang

    2005-01-01

    The effects of variation of Mg content on microstructures,the tensile properties and the formability of Al-Mg-Si-Cu alloys for automotive body sheets were investigated by means of scan electron microscopy,optical metallographic analysis,tensile and Ericsson tests.The results show that for Al-Mg-Si-Cu aluminium alloys with excessive Si,with an increment of Mg content,the strength enhances,the specific elongation and Erisson values of alloys decrease,and the number of Mg2 Si constituent increases and that of Al(MnFe)Si type constituents reduces.Al-MgSi-Cu aluminium alloys with excessive Si for automotive body sheets can present obviously the paint bake hardenability during the paint bake cycle (I.e.artificial aging at 170 ℃ for 30 min immediately after the solution treatment and quenching).Suitable Mg content should be controlled in the range of 0.8% and 1.2 % (mass fraction).

  4. Application of Kaplan-Meier analysis in reliability evaluation of products cast from aluminium alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Szymszal

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The article evaluates the reliability of AlSi17CuNiMg alloys using Kaplan-Meier-based technique, very popular as a survival estimation tool in medical science. The main object of survival analysis is a group (or groups of units for which the time of occurrence of an event (failure taking place after some time of waiting is estimated. For example, in medicine, the failure can be patient’s death. In this study, the failure was the specimen fracture during a periodical fatigue test, while the survival time was either the test duration to specimen failure (complete observations, or the test end time (censored observations. The parameters of theoretical survival function were estimated with procedures based on the method of least squares, while typical survival time distribution followed either an exponential or two-parameter Weibull distribution. The goodness of fit of a model survival function was estimated with an incremental chi-square test, based on the values of the log likelihood ratio. The effect of alloy processing history on the run of a survival function was examined. The factors shaping the alloy processing history included: mould type (sand or metal mould, alloy modification process, and heat treatment type (solution heat treatment and ageing.

  5. Hydrogen analysis and effect of filtration on final quality of castings from aluminium alloy AlSi7Mg0,3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Brůna

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The usage of aluminium and its alloys have increased in many applications and industries over the decades. The automotive industry is the largest market for aluminium castings and cast products. Aluminium is widely used in other applications such as aerospace, marine engines and structures. Parts of small appliances, hand tools and other machinery also use thousands of different aluminium castings. The applications grow as industry seeks new ways to save weight and improve performance and recycling of metals has become an essential part of a sustainable industrial society. The process of recycling has therefore grown to be of great importance, also another aspect has become of critical importance: the achievement of quality and reliability of the products and so is very important to underst and the mechanisms of the formation of defects in aluminium melts, and also to have a reliable and simple means of detection.

  6. The industrial applications of shape memory alloys in North America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Literature in the recent past on shape memory effect alloys dwelt principally on the physical metallurgy, crystallography and kinetics of the shape memory phenomenon. By contrast, we now have books and conference proceedings devoted to the engineering aspects of SMAs, their technology and application. The dominant role SMAs now play in the field of medical and orthodontic devices is well documented and will be reviewed by others in this conference. In this paper we will discuss the commercial applications for shape memory alloy devices in the North American market; applications which are in many cases also produced in European countries and Japan. The early success of shape memory alloy couplings for joining tubing and pipe in the late 1960's was not followed by other large volume applications until the advent of shape memory eyeglass frames, brassiere underwires and cellular phone antennas. Many other applications have now evolved into mature markets and these will be reviewed. In addition to the many commercial applications cited, there are a number of other fields in which shape memory alloys are destined to play a major role; these include smart materials and adaptive structures, MEMS devices, infrastructure systems and electrical power generation and distribution. These applications are being developed with private and government funding and will also be briefly discussed. (orig.)

  7. New Worm Robot Structure Using the Shape-Memory Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolreza Esmaeli

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents new designing for robot that moves like worm and the structure of this robot is made by the Shape-Memory Alloy (SMA. The smart alloys and the alloys in special kinds of artificial muscles apply motor action to the heat or coldness in the construction of artificial muscles. This robot is controlled by the operator and computer. Imaging, position of detection, smart guidance and environmental factors’ estimation such as height and impact are other abilities for this robot.

  8. Modification of aluminium alloys with rare metals – the basis for advanced materials in construction and transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skachkov Vladimir Mikchaylovich

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The method of process powder injection into aluminum melt shows much promise. Scandium is injected by the high-temperature exchange reaction between the salt melt and aluminum. The best salt compositions were selected. The results of the process are considered to depend on the initial salts. A series of fusions was performed under production conditions at the Kamensk-Uralskii metallurgical plant. It was shown that the injection method for production of aluminoscandium master alloys is technologically feasible. To protect intellectual property of authors, employees of the Institute of Solid State Chemistry, Ural branch of RAS (Russia a patent «Method of alloying of aluminium or alloys on its basis» RU № 2534182 of 27.11.2014 was registered.

  9. First Principles Modelling of Shape Memory Alloys Molecular Dynamics Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Kastner, Oliver

    2012-01-01

    Materials sciences relate the macroscopic properties of materials to their microscopic structure and postulate the need for holistic multiscale research. The investigation of shape memory alloys is a prime example in this regard. This particular class of materials exhibits strong coupling of temperature, strain and stress, determined by solid state phase transformations of their metallic lattices. The present book presents a collection of simulation studies of this behaviour. Employing conceptually simple but comprehensive models, the fundamental material properties of shape memory alloys are qualitatively explained from first principles. Using contemporary methods of molecular dynamics simulation experiments, it is shown how microscale dynamics may produce characteristic macroscopic material properties. The work is rooted in the materials sciences of shape memory alloys and  covers  thermodynamical, micro-mechanical  and crystallographical aspects. It addresses scientists in these research fields and thei...

  10. Thermomechanical Methodology for Stabilizing Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padula, Santo A., II (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Methods and apparatuses for stabilizing the strain-temperature response for a shape memory alloy are provided. To perform stabilization of a second sample of the shape memory alloy, a first sample of the shape memory alloy is selected for isobaric treatment and the second sample is selected for isothermal treatment. When applying the isobaric treatment to the first sample, a constant stress is applied to the first sample. Temperature is also cycled from a minimum temperature to a maximum temperature until a strain on the first sample stabilizes. Once the strain on the first sample stabilizes, the isothermal treatment is performed on the second sample. During isothermal treatment, different levels of stress on the second sample are applied until a strain on the second sample matches the stabilized strain on the first sample.

  11. Effect of tool profile and fatigue loading on the local hardness around scratches in clad and unclad aluminium alloy 2024

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanoindentation has been used to study the hardness changes produced by scratching of aluminium alloy AA2024, with and without a clad layer of pure aluminium. The hardness was mapped around scratches made with diamond tools of different profiles. One tool produced significant plastic damage with associated hardening at the scratch root, whilst the other produced a 'cleaner' cut with no hardening. The different behaviours are attributed to whether the tool makes the scratch by a 'cutting' or a 'ploughing' mechanism. The degree of plastic damage around the scratches has been correlated with peak broadening data obtained using synchrotron X-ray diffraction. There was no change observed in the local hardness around the scratch with fatigue loading.

  12. The effect of cutting process on surface microstructure and hardness of pure and Al 6061 aluminium alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Akkurt

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study pure aluminium and Al 6061 aluminium alloy material had been cut with saw, milling, submerged plasma, plasma, laser, wire electric discharge machining, oxyfuel and Abrasive water jet. Microstructures and hardness variations of cut surfaces which obtained with different processes have been investigated. Results of the study show that the hardness and surface quality of the cut surface is affected from the kind of cutting process. Microstructure of cut surfaces is affected from the kind of cutting process. Microstructural changes during cutting of the materials are observed with all of the cutting process other than Abrasive water jet. Abrasive water jet method can be effectively used in industrial applications where no microstructural changes and hardness reduction is essential.

  13. Effect of friction time on the properties of friction welded YSZ‐alumina composite and 6061 aluminium alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uday M. Basheer

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the effect of friction time on the microstructure and mechanical properties of alumina 0, 25, 50 wt% yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ composite and 6061 aluminium alloy joints formed by friction welding. The alumina-YSZ composites were prepared through slip casting in plaster of Paris molds (POP and subsequently sintered at 1600°C, while the aluminium rods were machined down using a lathe machine to the dimension required. The welding process was carried out under different rotational speeds and friction times, while friction force (0.5 ton-force was kept constant. Scanning electron microscopy was used to characterize the interface of the joints structure. The experimental results showed that the friction time has a significant effect on joint structure and mechanical properties.

  14. Prospect of Ti-Ni shape memory alloy applied in reactor structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shape memory effect mechanism, physical property, composition, manufacturing process and application in mechanical structure of Ti-Ni shape memory alloy are introduced. Applications of Ti-Ni shape memory alloy in reactor structure are prospected and some necessary technical conditions of shape memory alloy applied in the reactor structure are put forward initially

  15. Analysis of the tool plunge in friction stir welding - comparison of aluminium alloys 2024 T3 and 2024 T351

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veljić Darko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Temperature, plastic strain and heat generation during the plunge stage of the friction stir welding (FSW of high-strength aluminium alloys 2024 T3 and 2024 T351 are considered in this work. The plunging of the tool into the material is done at different rotating speeds. A three-dimensional finite element (FE model for thermomechanical simulation is developed. It is based on arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian formulation, and Johnson-Cook material law is used for modelling of material behaviour. From comparison of the numerical results for alloys 2024 T3 and 2024 T351, it can be seen that the former has more intensive heat generation from the plastic deformation, due to its higher strength. Friction heat generation is only slightly different for the two alloys. Therefore, temperatures in the working plate are higher in the alloy 2024 T3 for the same parameters of the plunge stage. Equivalent plastic strain is higher for 2024 T351 alloy, and the highest values are determined under the tool shoulder and around the tool pin. For the alloy 2024 T3, equivalent plastic strain is the highest in the influence zone of the tool pin. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 34016 i br. TR 35006

  16. Microstructural evolution of aluminium/Al–Ni–Sm glass forming alloy laminates obtained by Controlled Accumulative Roll Bonding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anghelus, Adrian, E-mail: anghelus.adrian@yahoo.com; Avettand-Fènoël, Marie-Noëlle, E-mail: marie-noelle.avettand-fenoel@univ-lille1.fr; Cordier, Catherine, E-mail: catherine.cordier@univ-lille1.fr; Taillard, Roland, E-mail: roland.taillard@univ-lille1.fr

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • Elaboration of a UFG material by controlled ARB of Al/glass forming alloy multilayers. • Effect of the crystalline or amorphous nature of the reinforcement on the formability. • Investigation of the thermo-mechanical stability of the metallic glass. - Abstract: The current work deals with the early steps of the unprecedented elaboration of aluminium/Al based glass forming alloy laminates by only accumulative rolling at room temperature. The Al{sub 1−(x+y)}Ni{sub x}Sm{sub y} metallic glass forming alloy was introduced either in its original amorphous state or after total crystallization. This change of atomic structure, and therefore of both thermal and thermo-mechanical stability and mechanical behaviour, is shown to govern at once the processing parameters, the uniformity of the laminates microstructure and the bond strength at the matrix-reinforcement interfaces. The potential of the process so as to synthesize composite materials with a stable ultrafine structure is finally outlined.

  17. Effects of Hard Surface Grinding and Activation on Electroless-Nickel Plating on Cast Aluminium Alloy Substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olawale Olarewaju Ajibola

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This work examined effects of hard surface polishing grits and activation on electroless-nickel (EN plating on cast aluminium alloy substrates in sodium hypophosphite baths. As-received aluminium alloy sample sourced from automobile hydraulic brake master cylinder piston was melted in electric furnace and sand cast into rod. The cast samples were polished using different grits (60 μm–1200 μm before plating. The effects on adhesion, appearance, and quantity of EN deposits on substrates were studied. Observation shows that the quantity of EN deposit is partly dependent on the alloy type and roughness of the surface of the substrates, whereas the adhesion and brightness are not solely controlled by the degree of surface polishing. The best yield in terms of adhesion and appearance was obtained from the activation in zincate and palladium chloride solutions. Higher plating rates (g/mm2/min of 3.01E-05, 2.41E-05, and 2.90E-05 were obtained from chromate, zincate, and chloride than 8.49E-06, 8.86E-06, and 1.69E-05 as obtained from HCl etched, NaOH, and H2O activated surfaces, respectively.

  18. Production and some properties of Si3N4 reinforced aluminium alloy composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pardeep Sharma

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The present research work focuses on the production of aluminium (AA6082-T6 matrix composites reinforced with various weight percentage of silicon nitride particles by conventional stir casting route. The percentage of reinforcement is varied from 0 wt.% to 12 wt.% in a stage of 3%. The microstructures and mechanical properties of the fabricated aluminium matrix composites are investigated. The scanning electron microstructure images reveal the presence of Si3N4 particles in the aluminium matrix. The distribution of Si3N4 particles has also been recognized with X-ray diffraction technique. The mechanical properties such as ultimate tensile strength and hardness have improved at the cost of reduction in ductility with increase in weight percentage of silicon nitride particulates in the aluminium metal matrix. The density and porosity of the composites also show an increasing trend with increase in volume fraction of Si3N4 particles in the aluminium matrix.

  19. The study of intergranular corrosion in aircraft aluminium alloys using X-ray tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knight, S.P., E-mail: steven.knight@rmit.edu.a [School of Aerospace, Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, RMIT University, Melbourne (Australia); Defence Materials and Technology Centre, Melbourne (Australia); Salagaras, M. [Defence Science and Technology Organisation, Melbourne (Australia); Trueman, A.R. [Defence Science and Technology Organisation, Melbourne (Australia); Defence Materials and Technology Centre, Melbourne (Australia)

    2011-02-15

    Research highlights: {yields} IGC is stochastic, where initiation is statistical and growth kinetics was somewhat predictable. {yields} Dissolved oxygen concentration was more important than the concentration of salt in the droplet. {yields} A limiting depth occurred for AA2024, whereas no limiting depth occurs for AA7050 after 168 h exposure. {yields} A limiting depth may be controlled by the transport of dissolved oxygen down the corrosion fissure. {yields} A limiting IGC depth is dependent on the overpotential of the SDZ (adjacent to the grain boundary). - Abstract: Atmospheric corrosion is one of the leading causes of structural damage to aircraft. Of particular importance is pitting and intergranular corrosion, which can develop into fatigue cracks, stress corrosion cracks, or exfoliation. Therefore it is of interest to the Australian Defence Force (ADF) to understand how corrosion ensues in susceptible aircraft aluminium alloys, such as AA2024-T351 and 7050-T7451. However, there are many difficulties in measuring the extent of intergranular corrosion, since it is predominantly hidden below the surface. Traditionally, cross-sectioning has been used to view and measure the depth of attack. In the present work, 2 mm diameter pin specimens were contaminated with a droplet of 3.5% NaCl and exposed to constant humidity that resulted in intergranular corrosion. X-ray computed tomography was then used to non-destructively assess the depth and volume of corrosion both as a function of time in 97% relative humidity, and as a function of relative humidity after 168 h exposure. Both corrosion depth and volume increased with time, but there was evidence for a limiting depth in AA2024. Depth and volume also increased with relative humidity of the environment, for which the time-of-wetness and oxygen concentration of the droplets were considered the important factors in driving the corrosion process.

  20. Studies of the subsurface zone created in aluminium and its alloys by means of positron annihilation and complementary methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are presented the results of the studies of the subsurface zone created in aluminium and its alloys during sliding or other surface modification treatments. The application of the positron annihilation techniques due to their high sensitivity to crystal lattice defects enabled to determine defects profiles in the subsurface zone. The positron annihilation studies were correlated with other conventional measurements applied in tribology, i.e. microhardness measurements, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and in a special case stress distribution calculated theoretically. It was shown that the positron annihilation spectroscopy is a useful tool for profiling of the subsurface zone created during sliding even for light metals their alloys and composites. The total range of the subsurface zone detected by the positron annihilation extends from 50 μm to 450 μm depending on the material studied and surface modification treatment. Additionally, the type of the main defects can be determined. The studies of the pure aluminium samples after dry sliding enabled to find the defect concentration of vacancy type in the depth less then 1 μm and to correlate its value with the size of crystallites. It supports the conclusion on recovery processes taking place in this layer. There was made the attempt to apply the Doppler broadening coincidence spectroscopy to the studies of aluminium alloy and composite. In view of the interdisciplinary character the present thesis enclose also the review of the basic issues of tribology, measurement methods applied to the subsurface zone studies and positron annihilation experimental techniques. (author)

  1. Understanding the shape-memory alloys used in orthodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Daniel J; Peres, Rafael V; Mendes, Alvaro M; Elias, Carlos N

    2011-01-01

    Nickel-titanium (NiTi) shape-memory alloys (SMAs) have been used in the manufacture of orthodontic wires due to their shape memory properties, super-elasticity, high ductility, and resistance to corrosion. SMAs have greater strength and lower modulus of elasticity when compared with stainless steel alloys. The pseudoelastic behavior of NiTi wires means that on unloading they return to their original shape by delivering light continuous forces over a wider range of deformation which is claimed to allow dental displacements. The aim of this paper is to discuss the physical, metallurgical, and mechanical properties of NiTi used in Orthodontics in order to analyze the shape memory properties, super-elasticity, and thermomechanical characteristics of SMA. PMID:21991455

  2. Inconvenient magnetocaloric effect in ferromagnetic shape memory alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khovaylo, Vladimir, E-mail: khovaylo@misis.ru [National University of Science and Technology “MISiS”, Moscow 119049 (Russian Federation)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: ► Critical analysis of the available experimental results on isothermal magnetic entropy change in ferromagnetic shape memory alloys Ni–Mn–X (X = Ga, In, Sn, Sb) is given. ► Based on available in literature experimental data on total entropy change at martensitic transformation it is shown that the isothermal magnetic entropy change in Ni–Mn–X (X = Ga, In, Sn, Sb) should not greatly exceed 30 J/kg K. -- Abstract: Critical analysis available in the literature experimental results on magnetocaloric effect in ferromagnetic shape memory alloys Ni–Mn–X (X = Ga, In, Sn, Sb) is given. Based on a model developed by Pecharsky et al. [22], it is shown that the isothermal magnetic field-induced entropy change in the Ni–Mn–X alloys should not greatly exceed 30 J/kg K. Considering thermodynamics of temperature- and magnetic field-induced martensitic transformations, it is demonstrated that a contribution of the structural subsystem to the magnetocaloric effect in the Ni–Mn–X alloys studied so far is irreversible in magnetic fields below 5 T. This makes ferromagnetic shape memory alloys an inconvenient system for the practical application in modern magnetic refrigeration technology.

  3. Electromagnetic Gauge Study of Laser-Induced Shock Waves in Aluminium Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyre, P.; Fabbro, R.

    1995-12-01

    The laser-shock behaviour of three industrial aluminum alloys has been analyzed with an Electromagnetic Gauge Method (EMV) for measuring the velocity of the back free surface of thin foils submitted to plane laser irradiation. Surface pressure, shock decay in depth and Hugoniot Elastic Limits (HEL) of the materials were investigated with increasing thicknesses of foils to be shocked. First, surface peak pressures values as a function of laser power density gave a good agreement with conventional piezoelectric quartz measurements. Therefore, comparison of experimental results with computer simulations, using a 1D hydrodynamic Lagrangian finite difference code, were also in good accordance. Lastly, HEL values were compared with static and dynamic compressive tests in order to estimate the effects of a very large range of strain rates (10^{-3} s^{-1} to 10^6 s^{-1}) on the mechanical properties of the alloys. Cet article fait la synthèse d'une étude récente sur la caractérisation du comportement sous choc-laser de trois alliages d'aluminium largement utilisés dans l'industrie à travers la méthode dite de la jauge électromagnétique. Cette méthode permet de mesurer les vitesses matérielles induites en face arrière de plaques d'épaisseurs variables par un impact laser. La mise en vitesse de plaques nous a permis, premièrement, de vérifier la validité des pressions d'impact superficielles obtenues en les comparant avec des résultats antérieurs obtenus par des mesures sur capteurs quartz. Sur des plaques d'épaisseurs croissantes, nous avons caractérisé l'atténuation des ondes de choc en profondeur dans les alliages étudiés et mesuré les limites d'élasticité sous choc (pressions d'Hugoniot) des alliages. Les résultats ont été comparés avec succès à des simulations numériques grâce à un code de calcul monodimensionnel Lagrangien. Enfin, les valeurs des pressions d'Hugoniot mesurées ont permis de tracer l'évolution des contraintes d

  4. Laser welding of Ti-Ni type shape memory alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study was undertaken to apply the laser welding to the joining of a shape memory alloy. Butt welding of a Ti-Ni type shape memory alloy was performed using 10 kW CO2 laser. The laser welded specimens showed successfully the shape memory effect and super elasticity. These properties were approximately identical with those of the base metal. The change in super elasticity of the welded specimen during tension cycling was investigated. Significant changes in stress-strain curves and residual strain were not observed in the laser welded specimen after the 50-time cyclic test. The weld metal exhibited the celler dendrite. It was revealed by electron diffraction analysis that the phase of the weld metal was the TiNi phase of B2 structure which is the same as the parent phase of base metal and oxide inclusions crystallized at the dendrite boundary. However, oxygen contamination in the weld metal by laser welding did not occur because there was almost no difference in oxygen content between the base metal and the weld metal. The transformation temperatures of the weld metal were almost the same as those of the base metal. From these results, laser welding is applicable to the joining of the Ti-Ni type shape memory alloy. As the application of laser welding to new shape memory devices, the multiplex shape memory device of welded Ti-50.5 at % Ni and Ti-51.0 at % Ni was produced. The device showed two-stage shape memory effects due to the difference in transformation temperature between the two shape memory alloys. (author)

  5. Effect of Processing Parameters on the Protective Quality of Electroless Nickel-Phosphorus on Cast Aluminium Alloy

    OpenAIRE

    Olawale Olarewaju Ajibola; Daniel Toyin Oloruntoba; Adewuyi, Benjamin O.

    2015-01-01

    The effects of temperature, pH, and time variations on the protective amount and quality of electroless nickel (EN) deposition on cast aluminium alloy (CAA) substrates were studied. The temperature, pH, and plating time were varied while the surface condition of the substrate was kept constant in acid or alkaline bath. Within solution pH of 5.0–5.5 range, the best quality is obtained in acid solution pH of 5.2. At lower pH (5.0–5.1), good adhesion characterised the EN deposition. Within the r...

  6. Nanocomposite TiC/a-C:H film prepared on titanium aluminium alloy substrates by PSII assistant MW-ECRCVD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Guo-Jia; Liu Xi-Liang; Zhang Hua-Fang; Wu Hong-Chen; Peng Li-Ping

    2007-01-01

    Thin films of titanium carbide and amorphous hydrogenated carbon have been synthesized on titanium aluminium alloy substrates by PSII assisted MW-ECRCVD with a mirror field. The microstructure, chemical composition and nanometre grains (namely, the so-called nanocomposite structure). The size of TiC grains of nanocomposite TiC/DLC film is about 5 nm. The nanocomposite structure has obvious improvement in the mechanical properties of DLC film.the coherent strength is also obviously enhanced at the critical load of about 35N.

  7. Phenomenological modeling of ferromagnetic shape memory alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiefer, Bjorn; Lagoudas, Dimitris C.

    2004-07-01

    A thermodynamically consistent phenomenological model is presented which captures the ferromagnetic shape memory effect, i. e. the large macroscopically observable shape change of magnetic shape memory materials under the application of external magnetic fields. In its most general form the model includes the influence of the microstructure for both the volume fraction of different martensitic variants and magnetic domains on the described macroscopic constitutive behavior. A phase diagram based approach is taken to postulate functions governing the onset and termination of the reorientation process. A numerical example is given for an experiment on a NiMnGa single crystal specimen reported in the literature, for which the model is reduced to a two-dimensional case of an assumed magnetic domain structure.

  8. ESTIMATION OF LOCAL HYSTERETIC PROPERTIES FOR SHAPE MEMORY ALLOYS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The applicability of shape memory alloys (SMAs) in structural dynamics, particularly as hysteretic damping elements, is limited by the difficulties in modelling their deformation characteristics. At typical engineering design levels of loading SMAs exhibit pseudo-elastic properties. A combined experimental and simulation approach suitable for the characterisation of novel smart devices based on the pseudo-elastic effect is described.

  9. Effect of post weld heat treatment on tensile properties and microstructure characteristics of friction stir welded armour grade AA7075-T651 aluminium alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    P. SIVARAJ; D. KANAGARAJAN; V. BALASUBRAMANIAN

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports the effects of post weld heat treatments, namely artificial ageing and solution treatment followed by artificial ageing, on microstructure and mechanical properties of 12 mm thick friction stir welded joints of precipitation hardenable high strength armour grade AA7075-T651 aluminium alloy. The tensile properties, such as yield strength, tensile strength, elongation and notch tensile strength, are evaluated and correlated with the microhardness and microstructural features. The scanning electron microscope is used to characterie the fracture surfaces. The solution treatment followed by ageing heat treatment cycle is found to be marginally beneficial in improving the tensile properties of friction stir welds of AA7075-T651 aluminium alloy.

  10. Fatigue Resistance of Liquid-assisted Self-repairing Aluminum Alloys Reinforced with Shape Memory Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, M. Clara; Manuel, Michele; Wallace, Terryl

    2013-01-01

    A self-repairing aluminum-based composite system has been developed using a liquid-assisted healing theory in conjunction with the shape memory effect of wire reinforcements. The metal-metal composite was thermodynamically designed to have a matrix with a relatively even dispersion of a low-melting eutectic phase, allowing for repair of cracks at a predetermined temperature. Additionally, shape memory alloy (SMA) wire reinforcements were used within the composite to provide crack closure. Investigators focused the research on fatigue cracks propagating through the matrix in order to show a proof-of-concept Shape Memory Alloy Self-Healing (SMASH) technology for aeronautical applications.

  11. Shaped aluminium foam sandwiches and steel foams enable new light weight concepts; Aluminiumschaumsandwiche und Stahlschaeume ermoeglichen neue Leichtbaukonzepte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunze, H.D.; Baumeister, J.; Weber, M. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Angewandte Materialforschung (IFAM), Bremen (Germany)

    1999-07-01

    3-dimensional shaped sandwich panels with a very high stiffness can be produced in an elegant way by combining metal face sheets with an aluminium foam core. For this, a mixture of aluminium powder and a foaming agent is compressed to a semi-finished product of nearly vanishing porosity by extrusion, powder rolling or hot isostatic pressing. The resulting foamable semi-finished aluminium material is roll clad with sheets of conventional steel or aluminium. As a result a precursor material is obtained consisting of two face sheets which are metallurgically bonded to the foamable core layer. This sandwich precursor material can be shaped into a 3-dimensional part by conventional techniques, e.g. by stamping or deep drawing. In a final step the foamable precursor material is heated up to the melting point of the core layer, thus initiating its expansion into the desired 3-dimensional shaped sandwich structure. The porosity of the foamed core layer is in the range from 80-90% so that the integral density of the sandwich structure can be as low as 0,7 g/cm{sup 3}. The sandwich materials combine the low weight and high bending stiffness with the advantages of the face sheets, i.e. the high strength and weldability. The manufacturing process will be described in detail and the material properties will be shown. Current and future possible applications will be outlined as well as concrete parts produced up to date. Possible manufacturing processes for making steel foams will be described. The resulting pore structures and densities of steel foams will be discussed and related to the respective manufacturing process. The potential applications of steel foams include structural and functional applications. (orig.) [German] 3-dimensional geformte Sandwichbleche mit sehr hoher Steifigkeit koennen auf elegante Weise durch Kombination von konventionellen Deckblechmaterialien mit einem Aluminiumschaumkern hergestellt werden. Hierzu wird eine Mischung aus Aluminiumpulver und einem

  12. Wear Properties of Thixoformed and High Pressure Die Cast Aluminium Alloys for Connecting Rod Applications in Compressors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birol, Yücel; Birol, Feriha

    2007-04-01

    Hypereutectic aluminium casting alloys are attractive candidates for connecting rod applications in compressors. The wear properties of these alloys are largely controlled by their microstructural features which in turn are affected by the processing route. Several hypo- and hypereutectic Al-Si alloys were produced by high pressure die casting and thixoforming in the present work. The former route produced a very fine microstructure while relatively coarser, globular α-Al matrix dominated in thixoformed grades. A modified Falex Block on Ring equipment was employed to investigate the wear properties of these alloys. Wear tests were carried out under service conditions in the lubricated state at 75°C. The superior wear properties of hypereutectic alloys produced by high pressure die casting with respect to the thixoformed variety is accounted for by the very fine microstructure with a fine dispersion of primary Si particles in the former. Of the two production routes employed, thixoforming had a favorable effect on wear properties at equal Si levels.

  13. Miniature High Force, Long Stroke Linear Shape Memory Alloy Actuators Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Shape Memory Alloys (SMAs) are metal alloys (of Nickel-Titanium, for example) that can change their shape when heated. When drawn and processed in wire form, the...

  14. Spectroscopic study of plasma during electrolytic oxidation of magnesium- and aluminium-alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovović, J.; Stojadinović, S.; Šišović, N. M.; Konjević, N.

    2012-10-01

    We present the results of an optical emission spectroscopy study of Plasma during Electrolytic Oxidation (PEO) of magnesium- and aluminum-alloy. Plasma electron number density Ne diagnostics is performed either from the Hβ line shape or from the width or shift of non-hydrogenic ion lines of aluminum and magnesium. The line profile analysis of the Hβ suggests presence of two PEO processes characterized by relatively low electron number densities Ne≈1.2×1015 cm-3 and Ne≈2.3×1016 cm-3. Apart from these two low Ne processes, there is the third one related to the ejection of evaporated anode material through micro-discharge channels. This process is characterized by larger electron density Ne=(1.2-1.6)1017 cm-3, which is detected from the shape and shift of aluminum and magnesium singly charged ion lines. Two low Ne values detected from the Hβ and large Ne measured from the widths and shift of ion lines suggest presence of three types of discharges during PEO with aluminum- and magnesium-alloy anode. On the basis of present and earlier results one can conclude that low Ne processes do not depend upon anode material or electrolyte composition.The electron temperature of 4000 K and 33,000 K are determined from relative intensities of Mg I and O II lines, respectively. The attention is drawn to the possibility of Ne application for Te evaluation using Saha equation what is of importance for PEO metal plasma characterization. During the course of this study, difficulties in the analysis of spectral line shapes are encountered and the ways to overcome some of the obstacles are demonstrated.

  15. Inhibitive effect of Ce(III) and La(III) cations for AA2219 aluminium alloy corrosion in sodium chloride medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venkatasubramanian, G., E-mail: venkatguru_1966@yahoo.co.in [Department of Chemistry, Sathyabama University, Jeppiaar Nagar, Chennai 600119 (India); Sheik Mideen, A. [Department of Chemistry, Sathyabama University, Jeppiaar Nagar, Chennai 600119 (India); Jha, Abhay K. [Materials Processing Division, Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre, Indian Space Research Organisation, Thiruvananthapuram 695022 (India); Kulandainathan, M. Anbu [Electro Organic Chemistry Division, Central Electrochemical Research Institute, Karaikudi 630006 (India)

    2014-11-14

    In this paper, the rare earth chlorides were used to mitigate the dealloying of Al{sub 2}Cu intermetallic particles in aluminium alloy 2219-T87 plate exposed to 0.6 M NaCl solution. The negative shift of cathodic branches of potentiodynamic polarisation curves revealed the cathodic inhibition towards intermetallic dealloying. The low and high frequency time constants obtained from electrochemical impedance spectra revealed an increase in the corrosion resistance due to precipitation of rare earth oxides/hydroxides on the porous surface of native oxide film of aluminium alloy. Scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray analysis and atomic force microscopy revealed that intermetallic inclusions are the sites for the formation of cerium and lanthanum deposits which suppress copper redeposition and minimise galvanic interactions between the matrix and Al{sub 2}Cu particles. - Graphical abstract: Scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy reveal the intermetallic inclusions, the sites for the formation of cerium and lanthanum oxide/hydroxide precipitates which prevent intermetallic de-alloying, suppress copper redeposition and minimise galvanic interactions in aluminium alloy 2219-T87 plate. - Highlights: • Ce{sup 3+} and La{sup 3+} act as cathodic inhibitors for AA2219-T87 aluminium alloy in 0.6 M NaCl. • Al{sub 2}Cu intermetallic particles are the sites for the formation of Ce and La precipitates. • The decrease in surface potential by rare earth chlorides confirms their inhibition.

  16. Inhibitive effect of Ce(III) and La(III) cations for AA2219 aluminium alloy corrosion in sodium chloride medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, the rare earth chlorides were used to mitigate the dealloying of Al2Cu intermetallic particles in aluminium alloy 2219-T87 plate exposed to 0.6 M NaCl solution. The negative shift of cathodic branches of potentiodynamic polarisation curves revealed the cathodic inhibition towards intermetallic dealloying. The low and high frequency time constants obtained from electrochemical impedance spectra revealed an increase in the corrosion resistance due to precipitation of rare earth oxides/hydroxides on the porous surface of native oxide film of aluminium alloy. Scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray analysis and atomic force microscopy revealed that intermetallic inclusions are the sites for the formation of cerium and lanthanum deposits which suppress copper redeposition and minimise galvanic interactions between the matrix and Al2Cu particles. - Graphical abstract: Scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy reveal the intermetallic inclusions, the sites for the formation of cerium and lanthanum oxide/hydroxide precipitates which prevent intermetallic de-alloying, suppress copper redeposition and minimise galvanic interactions in aluminium alloy 2219-T87 plate. - Highlights: • Ce3+ and La3+ act as cathodic inhibitors for AA2219-T87 aluminium alloy in 0.6 M NaCl. • Al2Cu intermetallic particles are the sites for the formation of Ce and La precipitates. • The decrease in surface potential by rare earth chlorides confirms their inhibition

  17. Shape memory alloys: metallurgy, biocompatibility, and biomechanics for neurosurgical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoh, Daniel J; Hoh, Brian L; Amar, Arun P; Wang, Michael Y

    2009-05-01

    SHAPE MEMORY ALLOYS possess distinct dynamic properties with particular applications in neurosurgery. Because of their unique physical characteristics, these materials are finding increasing application where resiliency, conformation, and actuation are needed. Nitinol, the most frequently manufactured shape memory alloy, responds to thermal and mechanical stimuli with remarkable mechanical properties such as shape memory effect, super-elasticity, and high damping capacity. Nitinol has found particular use in the biomedical community because of its excellent fatigue resistance and biocompatibility, with special interest in neurosurgical applications. The properties of nitinol and its diffusionless phase transformations contribute to these unique mechanical capabilities. The features of nitinol, particularly its shape memory effect, super-elasticity, damping capacity, as well as its biocompatibility and biomechanics are discussed herein. Current and future applications of nitinol and other shape memory alloys in endovascular, spinal, and minimally invasive neurosurgery are introduced. An understanding of the metallurgic properties of nitinol provides a foundation for further exploration of its use in neurosurgical implant design.

  18. Experimental and numerical investigation on under-water friction stir welding of armour grade AA2519-T87 aluminium alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sree Sabari

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Friction stir welding (FSW is a promising welding process that can join age hardenable aluminium alloys with high joint efficiency. However, the thermal cycles experienced by the material to be joined during FSW resulted in the deterioration of mechanical properties due to the coarsening and dissolution of strengthening precipitates in the thermo-mechanical affected zone (TMAZ and heat affected zone (HAZ. Under water friction stir welding (UWFSW is a variant of FSW process which can maintain low heat input as well as constant heat input along the weld line. The heat conduction and dissipation during UWFSW controls the width of TMAZ and HAZ and also improves the joint properties. In this investigation, an attempt has been made to evaluate the mechanical properties and microstructural characteristics of AA2519-T87 aluminium alloy joints made by FSW and UWFSW processes. Finite element analysis has been used to estimate the temperature distribution and width of TMAZ region in both the joints and the results have been compared with experimental results and subsequently correlated with mechanical properties.

  19. Ferromagnetic shape memory alloys for positioning with nanometric resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feuchtwanger, Jorge; Asua, Estibalitz; García-Arribas, Alfredo; Etxebarria, Victor; Barandiaran, Jose M.

    2009-08-01

    Ferromagnetic shape memory alloys are promising active elements for actuators. Our work centered on achieving and maintaining an intermediate fixed deformation so that they can be used as precision positioning actuators. For this purpose, a custom actuator was built using a single crystal of NiMnGa. The results show that these alloys can be controlled within less than 5 nm for both precision and accuracy, a result comparable to piezoelectric ceramics. Interestingly, the defect structure plays a fundamental role in achieving such performance. The stochastically distributed defects determine a progressive diminution of the magnetic field strength required to achieve the control.

  20. Investigation of interfacial shear stresses, shape fixity, and actuation strain in composites incorporating shape memory polymers and shape memory alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jungkyu ePark

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Shape memory composites (SMCs based on shape memory alloys (SMAs and shape memory polymers (SMPs allow many design possibilities due to their controllable temperature-dependent mechanical properties. The complementary characteristics of SMAs and SMPs can be utilized in systems with shape recovery created by the SMA and shape fixity provided by the SMP. In this research, three SMC operating regimes are identified and the behavior of SMC structures is analyzed by focusing on composite shape fixity and interfacial stresses. Analytical models show that SMPs can be used to adequately fix the shape of SMA actuators and springs. COMSOL finite element simulations are in agreement with analytical expressions for shape fixity and interfacial stresses. Analytical models are developed for an end-coupled linear SMP-SMA two-way actuator and the predicted strain is shown to be in good agreement with experimental test results.

  1. Obtaining aluminium based alloys with thixotropic behavior by cold deformation and partial fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work studies the rheological behavior and microstructural evolution of the alloy AA6063 in semisolid state. The material's viscosity is defined under different processing conditions, using a parallel plate compression rheometer with digital capture of position and time. The procedure involved tests of short cylinders extracted from billets with a dendritic microstructure and 50% cold shaped material. These pieces were tested at different solid fractions under a constant charge of 2 kg, determining the equation that rules the material's rheological behavior in a semisolid state according to two parameters of the Ostwald-de-Waele power law. The results show that the morphology of the primary phase in the microstructure is highly relevant to its rheological behavior, and that a globular microstructure has the typical behavior of a fluid when in a semisolid state, but not a cast, dendritic microstructure. Metallographic analysis also verified the mechanisms operating during the microstructural evolution during isothermal maintenance (CW)

  2. Effect of Coupon Orientation on Corrosion Behaviour of Aluminium Alloy Coupons in the Spent Fuel Storage Section of the IEA-R1 Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surveillance programmes to monitor the corrosion of aluminium clad spent research reactor fuels have used test racks containing horizontal metallic coupons. Spent MTR-type fuel elements are usually stored vertically, with their fuel plates, also vertical. Hence, the influence of coupon orientation on the corrosion behaviour of aluminium alloy coupons exposed to the spent fuel storage section of the IEA-R1 research reactor in Sao Paulo, Brazil, has been studied. Circular coupons of aluminium alloys AA 1050 and AA 6061, oriented both vertically and horizontally, were exposed to the storage section water for a year. Individual and coupled coupons were exposed to simulate general, crevice and galvanic corrosion. The storage section water parameters were periodically measured. Pitting was the main form of corrosion and coupon orientation had a marked effect on the extent of pitting. Vertically oriented coupons pitted less than horizontally oriented coupons. (author)

  3. Low Temperature Shape Memory Alloys for Adaptive, Autonomous Systems Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falker, John; Zeitlin, Nancy; Williams, Martha; Benafan, Othmane; Fesmire, James

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this joint activity between Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Glenn Research Center (GRC) is to develop and evaluate the applicability of 2-way SMAs in proof-of-concept, low-temperature adaptive autonomous systems. As part of this low technology readiness (TRL) activity, we will develop and train low-temperature novel, 2-way shape memory alloys (SMAs) with actuation temperatures ranging from 0 C to 150 C. These experimental alloys will also be preliminary tested to evaluate their performance parameters and transformation (actuation) temperatures in low- temperature or cryogenic adaptive proof-of-concept systems. The challenge will be in the development, design, and training of the alloys for 2-way actuation at those temperatures.

  4. Characterization Results of a Novel Shape Memory Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado, M.; Nava, N.; Herranz, S.; Ramiro, C.; San Juan, J. M.; Patti, S.; Lautier, J.-M.

    2012-07-01

    A novel Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) has been developed as an alternative to currently available alloys. This material, called SMARQ, shows a higher working range of temperatures with respect to the SMA materials used until now, mainly NiTi based alloys. SMARQ is a fully European material technology and production processes, which allows the manufacture of high quality products, with tuneable transformation temperatures up to 200oC. A full Characterization test campaign has been completed in order to obtain the material properties and check its suitability to be used as active material in space actuators. Details of the tests and results of the characterization test campaign, focused in the material unique properties for their use in actuators, will be presented in this work. Some application examples of space mechanisms and actuators, currently under development, will be summarized as part of this work, demonstrating the technology suitability for the development of space actuators.

  5. Electrochemical Behavior and Microstructure of Recyclable Aluminium-magmesium Alloy Hot-dip Coating Deposited on Low Carbon Steel Substrates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Panomkorn KWAKHONG; Apichart ARTNASEAW; Chaiyaput KRUEHONG

    2015-01-01

    With the abundance and good corrosion resistance of aluminium, hot-dip technique was used to prepare the recycled Al with 8.2 mass% Mg alloy coating on low carbon steel substrates. Electrochemical behavior of this coating was investigated by an-odic polarization and open circuit potential measurement. Its microstructure and composition were observed by scanning electron microscope and energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry, respectively. The long lasting corrosion performance of coated steels was in-vestigated under the salt fog spray test. From anodic polarization curves and open circuit potential, recycled Al with 8.2 mass% Mg coating performed adequate sacriifcial ability. At 0.40 V, current density of recycled Al with 8.2 mass% Mg alloy coating was about 200 000 times higher than that of pure recycled Al coating, and was about 0.5 times lower than that of Zn coating. The microstruc-ture of recycled Al with 8.2 mass% Mg alloy coating on the steel substrate consisted of Al3Mg2, Al-Fe intermetallic compound and Al matrix. The results from salt fog spray test showed that recycled Al with 8.2 mass% Mg alloy coated steel had similar corrosion resistance ability to Zn coated steel.

  6. The influence of reinforcement shape on wear behaviour of aluminium matrix composite materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A. Dobrzański

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available urpose: The purpose of this paper is to present the research results of modern metal matrix composite materials. The matrix material was EN AC - AlSi12 alloy while the reinforcement ceramic performs. In order to investigate the influence of reinforcing phase’s shape on tribological properties the comparison was made between the composite material based on preforms obtained by Al2O3 Alcoa CL 2500 powder sintered with addition of pore forming agent in form of carbon fibres Sigrafil C 10 M250 UNS from Carbon Group company and composite materials based on much more expensive commercial fibrous preforms.Design/methodology/approach: The composite was produced by the use of porous material pressure infiltration method. Obtained composite materials were examined with light and scanning electron microscopy. Hardness test was carried out with Rockwell method in A scale. Additionally, the wear resistance was measured by the use of device designed in the Institute of Engineering Materials and Biomaterials. The device realize dry friction wear mechanism of reciprocating movement conditions.Findings: The obtained results show the possibility of manufacturing the new composite materials by the method of porous sintered framework pressure infiltration based on the ceramic particles, with desired microstructure and properties, being a cheaper alternative for materials with base of ceramic fibers.Practical implications: Tested composite materials can be apply among the others in automotive and aircraft industries.Originality/value: Worked out technology of composite materials manufacturing can be used in the production of near net shape and locally reinforced elements

  7. An integrated study on the effect of pre-and post-extrusion heat treatments and surface treatment on the filiform corrosion properties of an aluminium extrusion alloy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, J.M.C.; Langkruis, J. van de; Wit, J.H.W. de; Zwaag, S. van der

    2005-01-01

    The effect of pre- and post-extrusion heat treatments on the filiform corrosion behaviour of a well-known aluminium extrusion alloy AA6063 is studied by a combination of accelerated filiform corrosion exposure tests and potentiodynamic polarisation measurements for four different surface treatments.

  8. Spectrophotometric determination of titanium with ascorbic acid in aluminium alloys and other materials. Determinacion espectrofotometrica de titanio con acido ascorbico en aleaciones de base aluminio y otros materiales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosch Serrat, F. (Departamento de Quimica Analitica. Facultad de Qauimica. Valencia (Spain))

    1994-01-01

    A spectrophotometric determination of titanium with ascorbic acid in aluminium alloys and bauxite is described. The proposed procedures permit to determine levels of titanium down to 5.10 ''3% with a good accuracy and precision. (Author) 13 refs.

  9. A macro-mechanical constitutive model of shape memory alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Bo; LIU YanJu; LENG JinSong; ZOU GuangPing

    2009-01-01

    It is of practical interest to establish a precise constitutive model which includes the equations de-scribing the phase transformation behaviors and thermo-mechanical processes of shape memory alloy (SMA).The microscopic mechanism of super elasticity and shape memory effect of SMA is explained based on the concept of shape memory factor defined by the author of this paper.The conventional super elasticity and shape memory effect of SMA are further unified as shape memory effect.Shape memory factor is redefined in order to make clear its physical meaning.A new shape memory evolution equation is developed to predict the phase transformation behaviors of SMA based on the differential relationship between martensitic volume fraction and phase transformation free energy and the results of DSC test.It overcomes the limitations that the previous shape memory evolution equations or phase transformation equations fail to express the influences of the phase transformation peak temperatures on the phase transformation behaviors and the transformation from twinned martensite to detwinned martensite occurring in SMA.A new macro-mechanical constitutive equation is established to predict the thermo-mechanical processes realizing the shape memory effect of SMA from the expression of Gibbs free energy.It is expanded from one-dimension to three-dimension with assuming SMA as iso-tropic material.All material constants in the new constitutive equation can be determined from mac-roscopic experiments,which makes it more easily used in practical applications.

  10. A macro-mechanical constitutive model of shape memory alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    It is of practical interest to establish a precise constitutive model which includes the equations describing the phase transformation behaviors and thermo-mechanical processes of shape memory alloy (SMA). The microscopic mechanism of super elasticity and shape memory effect of SMA is explained based on the concept of shape memory factor defined by the author of this paper. The conventional super elasticity and shape memory effect of SMA are further unified as shape memory effect. Shape memory factor is redefined in order to make clear its physical meaning. A new shape memory evolution equation is developed to predict the phase transformation behaviors of SMA based on the differential relationship between martensitic volume fraction and phase transformation free energy and the results of DSC test. It overcomes the limitations that the previous shape memory evolution equations or phase transformation equations fail to express the influences of the phase transformation peak temperatures on the phase transformation behaviors and the transformation from twinned martensite to detwinned martensite occurring in SMA. A new macro-mechanical constitutive equation is established to predict the thermo-mechanical processes realizing the shape memory effect of SMA from the expression of Gibbs free energy. It is expanded from one-dimension to three-dimension with assuming SMA as isotropic material. All material constants in the new constitutive equation can be determined from macroscopic experiments, which makes it more easily used in practical applications.

  11. Intermetallic phase particles in cast AlSi5Cu1Mg and AlCu4Ni2Mg2 aluminium alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Mrówka-Nowotnik

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In the technical Al alloys even small quantity of impurities - Fe and Mn - causes the formation of new phase components. Intermetallic particles form either on solidification or whilst the alloy is at a relatively high temperature in the solid state, e.g. during homogenization, solution treatment or recrystallization. The exact composition of the alloy and casting condition will directly influence the selection and volume fraction of intermetallic phases. The main objective of this study was to analyze the morphology and composition of complex microstructure of intermetallic phases in cast AlSi5Cu1Mg and AlCu4Ni2Mg2 aluminium alloys.Design/methodology/approach: In this study, several methods were used such as: optical light microscopy (LM, scanning (SEM electron microscopy in combination with X-ray analysis (EDS using polished sample, and X-ray diffraction (XRD to identify intermetallics in cast AlSi5Cu1Mg and AlCu4Ni2Mg2 aluminum alloys.Findings: The results show that the microstructure of cast AlSi5Cu1Mg and AlCu4Ni2Mg2 aluminum alloys in T6 condition consisted a wide range of intermetallic phases. By using various instruments (LM, SEM, XRD and techniques (imagine, EDS following intermetallic phases were identified: β-Al5FeSi, α-Al15(FeMn3Si - in AlSi5Cu1Mg alloy and Al7Cu4Ni, Al12Cu23Ni, Al2CuMg, AlCuFeNi - in AlCu4Ni2Mg2 alloy.Research limitations/implications: In order to complete and confirm obtained results it is recommended to perform further analysis of the investigated aluminium alloys. Therefore it is planned to include in a next studies, microstructure analysis of the alloys by using transmission electron microscopy technique (TEM.Practical implications: Since the morphology, crystallography and chemical composition affect the intermetallic properties, what involves changes of alloy properties, from a practical point of view it is important to understand their formation conditions in order to control final constituents of

  12. Orthodontic applications of a superelastic shape-memory alloy model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During orthodontic treatment, dental appliances (braces) made of shape memory alloys have the potential to provide nearly uniform low level stresses to dentitions during tooth movement over a large range of tooth displacement. In this paper we model superelastic behaviour of dental appliances using the finite element method and constitutive equations developed by F. Auricchio et al. Results of the mathematical model for 3-point bending and several promising 'closing loop' designs are compared with laboratory results for the same configurations. (orig.)

  13. Dynamic Simulation for Hysteresis in Shape Memory Alloy under Tension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ping; ZHAO Jian-Bo; TANG Shao-Qiang

    2008-01-01

    We demonstrate that the Suliciu model is capable to model the hysteresis phenomenon observed experimentally in NiTi shape memory alloy micro-tubes.This model allows a class of stationary phase interfaces.By a series of fully dynamic numerical simulations that mimic quasi-static loading and unloading,the nominal stress-strain curve exhibits a big hysteresis loop,which quantitatively agrees with the experimental results.

  14. Obtaining shape memory alloy thin layer using PLD technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cimpoeşu N.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Copper-based shape memory alloy (SMA was obtained through a classic melting method. The material was analyzed in heat treated and deformed states using scanning electrons microscopy (SEM, dilatometry (DIL, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, dynamic mechanical analyzer (DMA and energy dispersive X-ray analyze (EDAX to establish the material microstructure, memory properties like martensitic transformation domain and rate or damping capacity. The material exhibits a good shape memory effect and high internal friction and it is proposed as target in a pulsed laser deposition (PLD process for obtaining thin films. The deposition process is described in this paper through presented experimental results on the layer.

  15. Experimental analyses of dynamical systems involving shape memory alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Søren; Savi, Marcelo A.; Santos, Ilmar F.

    2015-01-01

    The use of shape memory alloys (SMAs) in dynamical systems has an increasing importance in engineering especially due to their capacity to provide vibration reductions. In this regard, experimental tests are essential in order to show all potentialities of this kind of systems. In this work, SMA...... springs are incorporated in a dynamical system that consists of a one degree of freedom oscillator connected to a linear spring and a mass, which is also connected to the SMA spring. Two types of springs are investigated defming two distinct systems: a pseudoelastic and a shape memory system...

  16. Structure and corrosion resistance of aluminium AlMg2.5; AlMg5Mn and AlZn5Mg1 alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Szewczenko

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of the work was the evaluation of corrosion resistance and structure of aluminium AlMg2.5; AlMg5Mn and AlZn5Mg1 alloys.Design/methodology/approach: The corrosion resistance tests of investigated alloys were carried out by means of potentiodynamic method registering anodic polarization curves in 3.5% NaCl solution at room temperature. Registering anodic polarization curves was conducted at the potential rate equal to 1mV/s. As the reference electrode was used saturated calomel electrode (SCE and the auxiliary electrode was platinum electrode. Mechanical properties were evaluated on the basis of Vickers hardness test. The test was realized with the use of Hauser hardness tester. The observations of the surface morphology after corrosive tests were carried out using Digital Scanning Electron Microscope DSM 940 OPTON.Findings: The investigations of corrosion resistance of examined aluminium alloys shows that the highest corrosion resistance in 3.5% NaCl solution was observed for AlZn5Mg1 aluminium alloy.Practical implications: The obtained results can be used for searching the appropriate way of improving the corrosion resistance of analysed alloys because better corrosion resistance, lightweight of aluminium and its alloys makes them as most attractive for the steel replacement in shipbuilding.Originality/value: The corrosion behaviour in chloride solution of AlMg2.5; AlMg5Mn and AlZn5Mg1 alloys was investigated.

  17. Role of alloying additions on the properties of Cu–Al–Mn shape memory alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dasgupta, Rupa, E-mail: rupadasgupta@ampri.res.in; Jain, Ashish Kumar; Kumar, Pravir; Hussain, Shahadat; Pandey, Abhishek

    2015-01-25

    Highlights: • Cu based SMAs with high transition temperature could be made using LM route. • The properties depend on alloying composition. • Property characterisation establishes feasibility of making SMAs. - Abstract: The effect of alloying seven different elements [Zn, Si, Fe, Ni, Mg, Cr and Ti] on the microstructure, hardness, phase precipitation and transformation temperature in a Cu–12.5Al–5Mn alloy with a view to possible improvements as a result of these additions is the focus of the reported study. The base alloy has been chosen keeping in mind its ability to exhibit shape memory properties and improved ductility over other Cu-based SMAs. The objective was to ascertain changes or improvements attained due to the individual tertiary additions. The samples were prepared through liquid metallurgy route using pure copper, aluminum, manganese and the respective quaternary alloying elements in right quantities to weigh 1000 g of the alloy in total and were melted together. Samples from the cast alloys were subject to homogenisation treatment at 200 °C for 2 h in a muffle furnace and furnace cooled. Samples from the homogenised alloys were heated and held for 2 h at 920 °C followed by ice quenching to obtain the desired martensitic structure for shape memory behaviour. The alloys in the cast, homogenised and quenched conditions were metallographically polished to observe the martensitic phase formation mainly in quenched samples which is a pre requisite for exhibiting shape memory properties in these alloys. X-ray Diffraction studies were carried out on the cast and quenched samples using Cu Kα target; and the phases identified indicate martensitic phase precipitation; however in some cases the precipitation is incomplete. Differential Scanning Calorimetric [DSC] studies were carried out on quenched samples from room temperature to 600 °C maintaining a constant rate of 10 °C/min. Results indicate clear transformation peaks in all the samples which

  18. Laser surface alloying fabricated porous coating on NiTi shape memory alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Song; ZHANG Chun-hua; MAN Hau-chung; LIU Chang-sheng

    2007-01-01

    Laser surface alloying technique was applied to fabricate a metallic porous coating on a solid NiTi shape memory alloy. By laser surface alloying a 40%TiH2-60%NiTi powder mixture on the surface of NiTi alloy using optimized laser process parameters, a porous but crack-free NiTi layer can be fabricated on the NiTi substrate. The porous coating is metallurgically bonded to the substrate NiTi alloy. The pores are uniformly distributed and are interconnected with each other in the coating. An average pore size of less than 10 μm is achieved. The Ni content of the porous layer is much less than that of the original NiTi surface. The existence of the porous coating on the NiTi alloy causes a 37% reduction of the tensile strength and 55% reduction of the strain as compared with the NiTi alloy. Possible biomedical or other applications for this porous surface with good mechanical strength provided by the substrate are prospective.

  19. Experimental Simulation of Hot Rolling of Aluminium Alloy Al-5Mg

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xigang FAN; Daming JIANG

    2003-01-01

    Multipass hot-rolling process of a newly developed aluminum alloy was simulated by nonisothermal axisymmetric compression test. High temperature compression behavior and the microstructures of the alloy after deformation were investigated. The flow stress

  20. EVALUATION & COMPARISION OF MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF ALUMINIUM ALLOY 5052 REINFORCED WITH SILICONCARBIDE, GRAPHITE AND FLY ASH HYBRID METAL MATRIX COMPOSITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANKUSH SACHDEVA

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The engineering fraternity has always been looking forward to develop an outstanding and wonder-materials which would fit the ever-changing demands of the world. In order to fullfill the demands various newdiscoveries have been made by scientists, engineers and resrearchers. In todays competitive world many, materials have been tried for various unexplored conditions , but the never ending demand of the world encourages the researchers to develop the new material. Now the researchers are preparing the material by the combination of different materials called hybrid composite material.. Metal Matrix Composites (MMCs have emerged as a class of materials suitable for structural, aerospace, automotive, electronic, thermal and wearapplications owing to their advantages over the conventional materials. The present study was taken up to explore the possibility of using different reinforcements (silicon carbide, fly ash and graphite to enhance the properties of aluminium alloy (Al5052 composites. Different samples were prepared from the aluminium withvarying reinforcement composition. The mechanical properties studied after the experiment were strength, hardness and elongation.Further, these composites were characterized with the help of, mechanical testing and scanning electron microscopy.

  1. Effects of mechanical heterogeneity on the tensile and fatigue behaviours in a laser-arc hybrid welded aluminium alloy joint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Full field strain evolution was characterized using DIC method in fatigue test. • The differences of fatigue failure mechanism between HAZ and FZ were discussed. • Porosity in FZ significantly influenced high cycle fatigue behaviours of the weld. - Abstract: The effects of mechanical heterogeneity on the tensile and high cycle fatigue (104–107 cycles) properties were investigated for laser-arc hybrid welded aluminium alloy joints. Tensile–tensile cyclic loading with a stress ratio of 0.1 was applied in a direction perpendicular to the weld direction for up to 107 cycles. The local mechanical properties in the tensile test and the accumulated plastic strain in the fatigue test throughout the weld’s different regions were characterized using a digital image correlation technique. The tensile results indicated heterogeneous tensile properties throughout the different regions of the aluminium welded joint, and the heat affected zone was the weakest region in which the strain localized. In the fatigue test, the accumulated plastic strain evolutions in different subzones of the weld were analyzed, and slip bands could be clearly observed in the heat affected zone. A transition of fatigue failure locations from the heat affected zone caused by accumulated plastic strain to the fusion zone induced by fatigue crack at pores could be observed under different cyclic stress levels. The welding porosity in the fusion zone significantly influences the high cycle fatigue behaviour

  2. Influence of dispersoids on microstructure evolution and work hardening of aluminium alloys during tension and cold rolling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qinglong; Holmedal, Bjørn; Li, Yanjun

    2013-08-01

    The influence of dispersoids on work hardening of aluminium during tension and cold rolling has been studied by comparing Al-Mn alloys containing similar amounts of solutes but various dispersoid densities. The microstructure evolution with deformation strain was examined in transmission and scanning electron microscopy. It is found that a high density of fine dispersoids strengthens the materials significantly, but their strengthening effect diminishes as the strain increases. From a series of Bauschinger tests, it is found that the internal stress, due to particles, increases rapidly at the initial stage of deformation, but saturates at strains larger than 5%. It is concluded that the internal stress makes a small contribution to the work hardening and contributes to less than 10% of the total flow stress during monotonic loading at strains larger than 5%. The work-hardening behaviour has been correlated to the corresponding microstructure, and the strengthening mechanisms are discussed.

  3. Predicting the Surface Quality of Face Milled Aluminium Alloy Using a Multiple Regression Model and Numerical Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simunovic, K.; Simunovic, G.; Saric, T.

    2013-10-01

    The surface roughness is a very significant indicator of surface quality. It represents an essential exploitation requirement and influences technological time and costs, i.e. productivity. For that reason, the main objective of this paper is to analyse the influence of face milling cutting parameters (number of revolution, feed rate and depth of cut) on the surface roughness of aluminium alloy. Hence, a statistical (regression) model has been developed to predict the surface roughness by using the methodology of experimental design. Central composite design is chosen for fitting response surface. Also, numerical optimization considering two goals simultaneously (minimum propagation of error and minimum roughness) was performed throughout the experimental region. In this way, the settings of cutting parameters causing the minimum variability in response were determined for the estimated variations of the significant regression factors.

  4. Characterization of AA7050 aluminium alloy processed by ECAP; Caracterizacao da liga de aluminio AA7050 processada por ECAP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardoso, K.R.; Guido, V. [Universidade do Vale do Paraiba (UNIVAP), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento; Travessa, D.N. [Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica (EMBRAER), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Jorge Junior, A.M. [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (DEMa/UFSCar), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Materiais

    2010-07-01

    The commercial AA7050 aluminium alloy in the solution heat treated condition (W) was processed by ECAP through route A. Two pressing temperatures (room and 150 deg C and velocities (5 and 30mm/min) were used, as well as different number of passes. The effect of such variables on the microstructure evolution was evaluated using optical and transmission electron microscopy with EDX microanalysis, and xray diffraction. It was found that the microstructure has been refined by ECAP, as a result of subgrains formed within deformation bands. ECAP at 150 deg C resulted in intense precipitation of plate like {eta} phase, which evolves to equiaxial morphology as the number of passes increases. (author)

  5. Aging effects of diamond reinforced aluminium alloys submitted to deep space real conditions. Structural, chemical and electrical degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korneli, Grigorov; Bouzekova-Penkova, Anna; Datcheva, Maria; Avdeev, George; Grushin, Valerii; Klimov, Stanislav

    2016-07-01

    An aluminium alloy (Al-Cu-Zn-Mg) reinforced with ultra-dispersed diamond powder and tungsten (W), has been prepared in form of 7 cm bars and 4 mm diameter. One part of them stayed 2 years on satellite exposed to outer space, where the Sun activity and the background radiation were monitored. After satellite return both batches has been studied. Structural test, mainly micro-hardness together with detailed X-rays analyses was performed. The satellite makes a tour around the Earth each two hours, the temperature difference being circa 300oC. The micro-hardness being measured with Agilent G200 nano-indentor shows a significant drop of 25%. The XRD patterns are consistent with the previous results, states defects incorporation, and crystalline cells deterioration.

  6. Fatigue cracking of aluminium alloy AlZn6Mg0.8Zr subjected to thermomechanical treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kowalski

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of experimental test of the fatigue of aluminium alloy type AlZn6Mg0,8Zr exposed to various low temperature thermomechanical treatment. Basquin’s characteristics of fatigue have been determined in mechanical test on smooth specimens at a simple state of loading in conditions of alternating bending. The tests were carried out on a fatigue test stand constructed by the authors – MZGS 100. The development of fatigue cracking has been described based on metallographic and fractographic investigations of the fractured samples making use of a scanning electron microscope (SEM. The results of qualitative microfractography of the tested samples in the low-cycle temporal range of fatigue strength revealed fractures of the transcrystalline quasi-cleavage type. It has also been found that local effects of intercrystalline brittle cracking of this type do occur.

  7. Effect of Process Parameters on Tensile Strength of Friction Stir Welded Cast LM6 Aluminium Alloy Joints

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M. Jayaraman; R.Sivasubramanian; V. Balasubramanian

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports the effect of friction stir welding (FSW) process parameters on tensile strength of cast LM6 aluminium alloy. Joints were made by using different combinations of tool rotation speed, welding speed and axial force each at four levels. The quality of weld zone was investigated using macrostructure and microstructure analysis. Tensile strength of the joints were evaluated and correlated with the weld zone hardness and microstructure. The joint fabricated using a rotational speed of 900 r/min, a welding speed of 75 mm/min and an axial force of 3 kN showed superior tensile strength compared with other joints. The tensile strength and microhardness of the welded joints for the optimum conditions were 166 MPa and 64.8 Hv respectively.

  8. Microstructural observation of elastic domains in ferromagnetic shape memory alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craciunescu, Corneliu M.; Mitelea, Ion; Sgavardea, Gheorghe

    2012-08-01

    The microstructure of ferromagnetic shape memory alloys belonging to the Co-Ni-Ga and Ni-Mn-Ga system is analyzed in the martensitic state and during the martensitic phase transition, in order to explore the influence of the composition on the occurrence of the shape memory properties. The compositional range of the Co-Ni-Ga alloys investigated is associated with a two-phase microstructure, where the matrix shows the martensitic structure and a transformation into austenite on heating. The microstructure in the Co-Ni-Ga system shows a phase transition between the B2 austenite and L10 martensite, but the γ (disordered fcc A1) and the ordered γ' (fcc L12) can also be present - depending on the composition, and state, and influence the phase transition in as-cast, quenched and aged alloys. The exploration of the microstructural aspects reveals typical elastic domains that form in the martensitic phase, but also precipitates that can influence the overall martensitic transformation, thus hindering the total output. Compared to the NiMnGa system, the CoNiGa shows significantly less brittleness when deformed in the martensitic state.

  9. Deformation and Failure Mechanisms of Shape Memory Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daly, Samantha Hayes [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2015-04-15

    The goal of this research was to understand the fundamental mechanics that drive the deformation and failure of shape memory alloys (SMAs). SMAs are difficult materials to characterize because of the complex phase transformations that give rise to their unique properties, including shape memory and superelasticity. These phase transformations occur across multiple length scales (one example being the martensite-austenite twinning that underlies macroscopic strain localization) and result in a large hysteresis. In order to optimize the use of this hysteretic behavior in energy storage and damping applications, we must first have a quantitative understanding of this transformation behavior. Prior results on shape memory alloys have been largely qualitative (i.e., mapping phase transformations through cracked oxide coatings or surface morphology). The PI developed and utilized new approaches to provide a quantitative, full-field characterization of phase transformation, conducting a comprehensive suite of experiments across multiple length scales and tying these results to theoretical and computational analysis. The research funded by this award utilized new combinations of scanning electron microscopy, diffraction, digital image correlation, and custom testing equipment and procedures to study phase transformation processes at a wide range of length scales, with a focus at small length scales with spatial resolution on the order of 1 nanometer. These experiments probe the basic connections between length scales during phase transformation. In addition to the insights gained on the fundamental mechanisms driving transformations in shape memory alloys, the unique experimental methodologies developed under this award are applicable to a wide range of solid-to-solid phase transformations and other strain localization mechanisms.

  10. Determination of Optimal Parameters for Diffusion Bonding of Semi-Solid Casting Aluminium Alloy by Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaewploy Somsak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Liquid state welding techniques available are prone to gas porosity problems. To avoid this solid state bonding is usually an alternative of preference. Among solid state bonding techniques, diffusion bonding is often employed in aluminium alloy automotive parts welding in order to enhance their mechanical properties. However, there has been no standard procedure nor has there been any definitive criterion for judicious welding parameters setting. It is thus a matter of importance to find the set of optimal parameters for effective diffusion bonding. This work proposes the use of response surface methodology in determining such a set of optimal parameters. Response surface methodology is more efficient in dealing with complex process compared with other techniques available. There are two variations of response surface methodology. The one adopted in this work is the central composite design approach. This is because when the initial upper and lower bounds of the desired parameters are exceeded the central composite design approach is still capable of yielding the optimal values of the parameters that appear to be out of the initially preset range. Results from the experiments show that the pressing pressure and the holding time affect the tensile strength of jointing. The data obtained from the experiment fits well to a quadratic equation with high coefficient of determination (R2 = 94.21%. It is found that the optimal parameters in the process of jointing semi-solid casting aluminium alloy by using diffusion bonding are the pressing pressure of 2.06 MPa and 214 minutes of the holding time in order to achieve the highest tensile strength of 142.65 MPa

  11. Fabrication of magnetic shape memory alloy/polymer composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham-Su, R.; Healey, J. P.; Underhill, R. S.; Farrell, S. P.; Cheng, L. M.; Hyatt, C. V.; Rogge, R.; Gharghouri, M. A.

    2005-05-01

    NiMnGa-based magnetic shape memory (MSM) alloys have attained magnetic-field-induced strains up to approximately 10%, making them very attractive for a variety of applications. However, for applications that require the use of an alternating magnetic field, eddy current losses can be significant. Also, NiMnGa-based MSM alloys' fracture toughness is relatively low. Using these materials in the form of particles embedded in a polymer matrix composite could mitigate these limitations. Since the MSM effect is anisotropic, the crystallographic texture of the particles in the composites is of great interest. In this work, a procedure for fabricating NiMnGa-based MSMA/elastomer composites is described. Processing routes for optimizing the crystallographic texture in the composites are considered.

  12. Emission Moessbauer spectroscopy of NiTi shape memory alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The emission Moessbauer study on NiTi SMA (Shape Memory Alloy) is first reported. The 51.6 at% Ni-Ti alloy was provided by Shanghai Institute of steel and Iron Research. The emitter (also samples in this experiment) was produced by the nuclear reaction 58Ni(p,2p) 57Co in which a small amount of 58Ni was transformed to 57Co. The emitter Moessbauer spectra were measured after the sample was water quenched from 700 degree C for 30 min and aged at 500 degree C for 60 min and isochronal annealed in different temperature. Meantime the TEM observation and resistivity measure were also performed for the same material in the same heat treatment conditions. This work indicates that emission Moessbauer spectroscopy can be used to study the micro-mechanism of NiTi SMA

  13. Shape Memory Alloy Actuator Design: CASMART Collaborative Best Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benafan, Othmane; Brown, Jeff; Calkins, F. Tad; Kumar, Parikshith; Stebner, Aaron; Turner, Travis; Vaidyanathan, Raj; Webster, John; Young, Marcus L.

    2011-01-01

    Upon examination of shape memory alloy (SMA) actuation designs, there are many considerations and methodologies that are common to them all. A goal of CASMART's design working group is to compile the collective experiences of CASMART's member organizations into a single medium that engineers can then use to make the best decisions regarding SMA system design. In this paper, a review of recent work toward this goal is presented, spanning a wide range of design aspects including evaluation, properties, testing, modeling, alloy selection, fabrication, actuator processing, design optimization, controls, and system integration. We have documented each aspect, based on our collective experiences, so that the design engineer may access the tools and information needed to successfully design and develop SMA systems. Through comparison of several case studies, it is shown that there is not an obvious single, linear route a designer can adopt to navigate the path of concept to product. SMA engineering aspects will have different priorities and emphasis for different applications.

  14. Recovery in aluminium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gundlach, Carsten

    2006-01-01

    In the present thesis the development of a unique experimental method for volume characterisation of individual embedded crystallites down to a radius of 150 nm is presented. This method is applied to in-situ studies of recovery in aluminium. The method is an extension of 3DXRD microscopy, an X...... are represented as strings. To identify the strings a combination of a 5D connected component type algorithm and multi-peak fitting was found to be superior. The first use of the method was a study of recovery of a deformed aluminium alloy (AA1050). The aluminium alloy was deformed by cold rolling to a thickness...

  15. Design of linear shaped thermoelectric generator and self-integration using shape memory alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hee Seok [Center for Intelligent Materials and Systems, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Washington, Box 352600, Seattle, WA 98195-2600 (United States); Itoh, Takashi [EcoTopia Science Institute, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Iida, Tsutomu [Department of Materials Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Science, 2641 Yamazaki, Noda-Shi, Chiba 278-8510 (Japan); Taya, Minoru, E-mail: tayam@u.washington.edu [Center for Intelligent Materials and Systems, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Washington, Box 352600, Seattle, WA 98195-2600 (United States); Kikuchi, Keiko [Department of Materials Processing, Tohoku University, Sendai, 980-8579 (Japan)

    2014-04-01

    Highlights: • The linear-shaped thermoelectric (TE) module based on higher specific figure-of-merit is proposed by using Cu–AlN electrode. • The specific power density [W/kg] of the linear shaped TE generator is higher than that of the π-shaped TE generator. • New integration method using Fe based shape memory alloy and shrink-fit mechanism is developed for secure fastening. - Abstract: A segmented linear-shaped thermoelectric generator was designed with n-type Mg{sub 2}Si and p-type higher manganese silicide as higher temperature segments and n-type and p-type Bi–Te based compounds as low temperature legs. A new design of a dovetail-shaped AlN–Cu composite as an electrode enabled linear-shaped thermoelectric generator to be securely bonded to the combustion chamber walls by using shrink-fit-joining method. As-assembled linear thermoelectric generator is lighter in generating more power output as compared with conventional π-shaped thermoelectric generator. The linear thermoelectric module generates the output power of 0.513 W under 500 °C temperature difference and the specific power density was measured at 89.3 W/kg, the output power was improved by 7% and the specific power density more than 2 times, as compared with those of the π-shaped thermoelectric module based on the same set of thermoelectric materials and temperature differential.

  16. Phase transformation behaviors and shape memory effects of TiNiFeAl shape memory alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Xiao; Fushun Liu; Huibin Xu

    2007-01-01

    Measurements of electrical resistivity, X-ray diffraction, and tensile test at room temperature and -196℃ were performed to investigate the effects of Al addition substituting Ni on the phase transformation behaviors, the mechanical properties, and the shape memory effects of Ti50Ni47Fe2Al1 and Ti50Ni46.5Fe2.5Al1 alloys. It is found that 1at% Al addition dramatically decreases the martensitic start transformation temperature and expands the transformation temperature range of R-phase for TiNiFeAl alloys. The results of tensile test indicate that 1at% Al improves the yield strength of Ti50Ni47Fe2Al1 and Ti50Ni46.5Fe2.5Al1 alloys by 40% and 64%, but decreases the plasticity to 11% and 12% from 26% and 27% respectively. Moreover, excellent shape memory effect of 6.6% and 7.5% were found in Ti50Ni47Fe2Al1 and Ti50Ni46.5Fe2.sAl1 alloys, which results from the stress-induced martensite transformation from the R-phase.

  17. Modification of the EN AC-42000 aluminium alloy with use of multicomponent electrolysis of sodium salt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Pezda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper discusses results of research concerning the process of continuous modification of the EN AC-42000 (AlSi7Mg alloy with sodium, based on electrolysis of sodium salts, occurring directly in a melting pot with the liquid alloy. Sodium ions formed as a result of dissociation of the sodium salt and the electrolysis are “transferred” through walls of the retort made from solid electrolyte. Upon contact with the liquid alloy, as a cathode, sodium ions are transformed into atomic state, modifying the alloy. As a measure of the extent of the alloy modification impact strength, elongation A5 and analysis of the microstructure have been obtained, which confirmed the achievement of modification of the alloy under analysis.

  18. 铝合金方管开孔柱轴压性能研究%RESEARCH ON BEHAVIOR OF ALUMINIUM ALLOY SHS COLUMNS WITH HOLES UNDER AXIAL COMPRESSION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯然; 马义红; 张长锐

    2016-01-01

    采用试验研究和有限元数值分析方法,对6061-T6系列的铝合金方管开孔柱的轴心受压性能进行研究,建立了同时考虑材料非线性和几何非线性的有限元数值模型,对短柱和中长柱的屈曲模式进行模拟,并通过数值模拟结果提出了开孔柱极限承载力的计算方法。利用该有限元模型针对孔洞的存在、大小、数目、位置对铝合金开孔柱的承载力和屈曲模式的影响进行了全面的分析,并通过对比铝合金未开孔轴心受压构件的计算方法与冷弯薄壁型钢开孔轴心受压构件的计算方法,结合数值模拟结果,提出了铝合金开孔轴心受压构件的计算公式。%The experimental study and FE numerical analysis were conducted on 6061-T6 aluminium alloy square hollow section ( SHS) columns with hole under axial compression. Both material and geometrical nonlinearities were considered in the finite element analysis. The accurate finite element models were developed for the buckling analysis of aluminium alloy stub and intermediate columns. Based on the numerical results, the design rules were proposed for the load carrying capacity of aluminium alloy SHS columns with holes. The effects of the existence, size, amount and location of the holes on the load carrying capacity and buckling modes of aluminium alloy SHS columns were evaluated. The design formulas were derived for the aluminium alloy axially compressed members with holes based on the design rules of aluminium alloy structural members and cold-formed steel thin-walled perforated members.

  19. Plastic behaviour and microstructure characterization high manganese aluminium alloyed steel for the automotive industry

    OpenAIRE

    D. Kuc; J. Cebulski

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Automotive industry constantly demands high-strength steels which are characterized by the energy absorption possibilities during a collision. Such materials may, in the future, replace the currently used conventional steels. The groups of steels which meet these criteria are the austenitic steels and austenitic-ferritic steels with high manganese content (15-30%) and high aluminium content (1-9%). Design/methodology/approach: Susceptibility of steel to cracking at high temperatures ...

  20. Novel tribological systems using shape memory alloys and thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yijun

    Shape memory alloys and thin films are shown to have robust indentation-induced shape memory and superelastic effects. Loading conditions that are similar to indentations are very common in tribological systems. Therefore novel tribological systems that have better wear resistance and stronger coating to substrate adhesion can be engineered using indentation-induced shape memory and superelastic effects. By incorporating superelastic NiTi thin films as interlayers between chromium nitride (CrN) and diamond-like carbon (DLC) hard coatings and aluminum substrates, it is shown that the superelasticity can improve tribological performance and increase interfacial adhesion. The NiTi interlayers were sputter deposited onto 6061 T6 aluminum and M2 steel substrates. CrN and DLC coatings were deposited by unbalanced magnetron sputter deposition. Temperature scanning X-ray diffraction and nanoindentation were used to characterize NiTi interlayers. Temperature scanning wear and scratch tests showed that superelastic NiTi interlayers improved tribological performance on aluminum substrates significantly. The two-way shape memory effect under contact loading conditions is demonstrated for the first time, which could be used to make novel tribological systems. Spherical indents in NiTi shape memory alloys and thin films had reversible depth changes that were driven by temperature cycling, after thermomechanical cycling, or one-cycle slip-plasticity deformation training. Reversible surface topography was realized after the indents were planarized. Micro- and nano- scale circular surface protrusions arose from planarized spherical indents in bulk and thin film NiTi alloy; line surface protrusions appeared from planarized scratch tracks. Functional surfaces with reversible surface topography can potentially result in novel tribological systems with reversible friction coefficient. A three dimensional constitutive model was developed to describe shape memory effects with slip

  1. A study of the influence of precipitate-free zones on the strain localization and failure of the aluminium alloy AA7075-T651

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourmeau, M.; Marioara, C. D.; Børvik, T.; Benallal, A.; Hopperstad, O. S.

    2015-10-01

    Age-hardened aluminium alloys have various degrees of precipitate-free zones (PFZs) along grain boundaries (GBs). The PFZs are weak zones and their existence promotes combined transgranular and intergranular fracture, thus reducing the ductility of the alloy. In this study, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is used to display the geometrical properties and the chemical composition of the PFZs in the AA7075-T651 aluminium alloy. PFZs are found along grain and sub-GBs and their widths are about 40 and 20 nm, respectively. The PFZs are depleted of alloying elements compared with the nominal composition due to GB precipitation, but still they contain a certain amount of such elements in solid solution which will contribute to increase the yield strength and the work hardening compared to pure aluminium. Based on the results from the TEM study, a micromechanical finite element model of an idealized microstructure including grains and soft zones along the GBs is established. The Gurson model was used to represent the behaviour of the material in the grains and in the soft zones, using different initial void volume fractions to account for GB precipitation. Several loading conditions were applied to the micromechanical model in order to evaluate the localization of strains inside the soft zones and thus to get a better understanding of the role of the PFZs in ductile fracture of age-hardened aluminium alloys. It was found that the global failure strain varies non-monotonically with the global stress triaxiality due to the heterogeneity of the idealized microstructure.

  2. Damping capacity in shape memory alloy honeycomb structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, M.-A.; Smith, C. W.; Scarpa, F.; Miller, W.; Hassan, M. R.

    2010-04-01

    SMA honeycombs have been recently developed by several Authors [1, 2] as innovative cellular structures with selfhealing capability following mechanical indentation, unusual deformation (negative Poisson's ratio [3]), and possible enhanced damping capacity due to the natural vibration dissipation characteristics of SMAs under pseudoelastic and superelastic regime. In this work we describe the nonlinear damping effects of novel shape memory alloy honeycomb assemblies subjected to combine mechanical sinusoidal and thermal loading. The SMA honeycomb structures made with Ni48Ti46Cu6 are designed with single and two-phase polymeric components (epoxy), to enhance the damping characteristics of the base SMA for broadband frequency vibration.

  3. Application of Shape Memory Alloys in Facial Nerve Paralysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Vloeberghs

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The Facial Nerve can be damaged at a peripheral level by a stroke or, for example by trauma or infection within the faceor the ear. In these cases the facial muscles are paralysed with little or no chance of spontaneous recovery. This research focuses on the potential utilisation of a Shape Memory Alloy(SMA to replace the function of the Facial Nerve, which willallow in conjunction with passive reconstructive methods, a patient to regain limited but active movement of the mouthcorner. Paralysis of the mouth corner is a very disabling bothfunctionally and cosmetically, speech and swallowing are hampered and the patient loses saliva, with presents a social problem.

  4. Shape memory alloy heat engines and energy harvesting systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Alan L; Johnson, Nancy L; Keefe, Andrew C; Alexander, Paul W; Sarosi, Peter Maxwell; Herrera, Guillermo A; Yates, James Ryan

    2013-12-17

    A heat engine includes a first rotatable pulley and a second rotatable pulled spaced from the first rotatable pulley. A shape memory alloy (SMA) element is disposed about respective portions of the pulleys at an SMA pulley ratio. The SMA element includes first spring coil and a first fiber core within the first spring coil. A timing cable is disposed about disposed about respective portions of the pulleys at a timing pulley ratio, which is different than the SMA pulley ratio. The SMA element converts a thermal energy gradient between the hot region and the cold region into mechanical energy.

  5. Thermo-Mechanical Methodology for Stabilizing Shape Memory Alloy Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padula, Santo

    2013-01-01

    This innovation is capable of significantly reducing the amount of time required to stabilize the strain-temperature response of a shape memory alloy (SMA). Unlike traditional stabilization processes that take days to weeks to achieve stabilized response, this innovation accomplishes stabilization in a matter of minutes, thus making it highly useful for the successful and practical implementation of SMA-based technologies in real-world applications. The innovation can also be applied to complex geometry components, not just simple geometries like wires or rods.

  6. Orthodontic applications of a superelastic shape-memory alloy model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glendenning, R.W.; Enlow, R.L. [Otago Univ., Dunedin (New Zealand). Dept. of Math. and Stat.; Hood, J.A.A. [Dept. of Oral Sciences and Orthodontics, Univ. of Otago, Dunedin (New Zealand)

    2000-07-01

    During orthodontic treatment, dental appliances (braces) made of shape memory alloys have the potential to provide nearly uniform low level stresses to dentitions during tooth movement over a large range of tooth displacement. In this paper we model superelastic behaviour of dental appliances using the finite element method and constitutive equations developed by F. Auricchio et al. Results of the mathematical model for 3-point bending and several promising 'closing loop' designs are compared with laboratory results for the same configurations. (orig.)

  7. Porous shape memory alloy scaffolds for biomedical applications: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen, C E; Xiong, J Y; Li, Y C; Hodgson, P D [Institute for Technology Research and Innovation, Deakin University, Waurn Ponds, VIC 3217 (Australia)

    2010-05-01

    The interest in using porous shape memory alloy (SMA) scaffolds as implant materials has been growing in recent years due to the combination of their unique mechanical and functional properties, i.e. shape memory effect and superelasticity, low elastic modulus combined with new bone tissue ingrowth ability and vascularization. These attractive properties are of great benefit to the healing process for implant applications. This paper reviews current state-of-the art on the processing, porous characteristics and mechanical properties of porous SMAs for biomedical applications, with special focus on the most widely used SMA nickel-titanium (NiTi), including (i) microstructural features, mechanical and functional properties of NiTi SMAs; (ii) main processing methods for the fabrication of porous NiTi SMAs and their mechanical properties and (iii) new-generation Ni-free, biocompatible porous SMA scaffolds.

  8. Application of shape memory alloys in bolted flanged connections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Shape Memory Effect (SME) and super elasticity of the Shape Memory Alloys (SMA) can make up the clamping force decreasing caused by the creep and relaxation behavior in Bolted Flanged Connections (BFC), and improve the reliability of the BFC. Advances in the research of SMA in BFC home and abroad is summarized in this paper. The application prospects of Ti-Ni-Pd, Ti-Ni-Hf, Fe-Mn-Si, Cu-Al-Ni and Ni-Al-Mn in the BFC are also discussed. It is considered that the compressive characteristics of the parent phase of SMA should be studied further for the application of SMA to BFC besides the design of sealing structure. When more basic research data is accumulated, BFC with high sealing performance for the critical engineering applications can be developed based on the comprehensive consideration of the stability and reliability of the clamping force. (authors)

  9. Design, Analysis and Optimization of Three Aluminium Piston Alloys Using FEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Raj Singh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the stress distribution and thermal stresses of three different aluminum alloys piston by using finite element method (FEM. The parameters used for the simulation are operating gas pressure, temperature and material properties of piston. The specifications used for the study of these pistons belong to four stroke single cylinder engine of Bajaj Kawasaki motorcycle. This paper illustrates the procedure for analytical design of three aluminum alloy pistons using specifications of four stroke single cylinder engine of Bajaj Kawasaki motorcycle. The results predict the maximum stress and critical region on the different aluminum alloy pistons using FEA. It is important to locate the critical area of concentrated stress for appropriate modifications. Static and thermal stress analysis is performed by using ANSYS 12.1. The best aluminum alloy material is selected based on stress analysis results. The analysis results are used to optimize piston geometry of best aluminum alloy.

  10. MICROSTRUCTURAL CHARACTERISATION AND CORROSION BEHAVIOUR OF TOP SURFACE OF TIG WELDED 2219−T87 ALUMINIUM ALLOY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Venkatasubramanian

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The microstructural characterisation and corrosion behaviour of top surface of tungsten inert gas (TIG welded 2219−T87 aluminium alloy (AA2219–T87 in 0.6 M NaCl solution was studied by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, potentiodynamic polarisation, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS. The optical microscopy and SEM analyses revealed that the welding of base metal (BM with ER2319 filler alloy caused the formation of micro pores and micro cracks on the surface of weld zone (WZ while the welding heat caused the dissolution and segregation of CuAl2 intermetallic particles along the grain boundaries in the heat affected zone (HAZ. The anodic and cathodic branches of polarisation curves showed that the HAZ has lower corrosion resistance than WZ and BM. The decrease of charge transfer resistance of HAZ when comparedto WZ and BM obtained by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS further confirmed its higher corrosion rate in 0.6 M NaCl solution.

  11. Shape memory alloys applied to improve rotor-bearing system dynamics - an experimental investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Enemark, Søren; Santos, Ilmar; Marcelo A. Savi

    2015-01-01

    tor-bearing systems have critical speeds and to pass through them is an ongoing challenge in the field of mechanical engineering. The incorporation of shape memory alloys in rotating systems has an increasing importance to improve system performance and to avoid potential damaging situations when passing through critical speeds. In this work, the feasibility of applying shape memory alloys to a rotating system is experimentally investigated. Shape memory alloys can change their stiffness with...

  12. A Shape Memory Alloy Application for Compact Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Ameduri

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Shape memory alloys materials, SMA, offer several advantages that designers can rely on such as the possibility of transmitting large forces and deformations, compactness, and the intrinsic capability to absorb loads. Their use as monolithic actuators, moreover, can lead to potential simplifications of the system, through a reduction of number of parts and the removal of many free play gaps among mechanics. For these reasons, technological aerospace research is focusing on this kind of technology more and more, even though fatigue life, performance degradation, and other issues are still open. In the work at hand, landing gear for unmanned aerial vehicles, UAV, is presented, integrated with shape memory alloys springs as actuation devices. A conceptual prototype has been realized to verify the system ability in satisfying specs, in terms of deployment and retraction capability. Starting from the proposed device working principle and the main design parameters identification, the design phase is faced, setting those parameters to meet weight, deployment angle, energy consumption, and available room requirements. Then, system modeling and performance prediction is performed and finally a correlation between numerical and experimental results is presented.

  13. Functional Characterization of a Novel Shape Memory Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado, M.; Cabás, R.; San Juan, J.; López-Ferreño, I.

    2014-07-01

    A novel shape memory alloy (SMA) has been developed as an alternative to currently available alloys. This alloy, commercially known by its proprietary brand SMARQ, shows a higher working range of temperatures with respect to the SMA materials used until now in actuators, limited to environment temperatures below 90 °C. SMARQ is a high temperature SMA (HTSMA) based on a fully European material technology and production processes, which allows the manufacture of high quality products, with tuneable transformation temperatures up to 200 °C. Both, material and production processes have been evaluated for its use in space applications. A full characterization test campaign has been completed in order to obtain the material properties and check its suitability to be used as active material in space actuators. In order to perform the functional characterization of the material, it has been considered as the key element of a basic SMA actuator, consisting in the SMA wire and the mechanical and electrical interfaces. The functional tests presented in this work have been focused on the actuator behavior when heated by means of an electrical current. Alloy composition has been adjusted in order to match a transition temperature (As) of +145 °C, which satisfies the application requirements of operating temperatures in the range of -70 and +125 °C. Details of the tests and results of the characterization test campaign, focused in the material unique properties for their use in actuators, will be presented in this work. Some application examples in the field of space mechanisms and actuators, currently under development, will be summarized as part of this work, demonstrating the technology suitability as active material for space actuators.

  14. Investigating of the Effect of Rectangular and Trapezium Cross Section of Gating System by CFD Simulation in Cooling of Aluminium Alloy in a Permanent Mould Casting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Chowdhury

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a systemic study of the effect of different cross section of gate in permanent mould casting of aluminium alloy. To ensure best quality of the product the mould cavity must be filled with clean metal in a controlled manner to ensure smooth, uniform and complete filling. A gating system controls smooth, uniform and complete filling of the cavity by the molten metal. In this paper, CFD models illustrating the effect of rectangular and trapezium cross sections of gating on cooling of Aluminium alloy in a permanent mould casting were investigated. Same hydraulic diameter was assigned for each of the cross section of gating systems. Bottom gating system is used for its low gas entrapment and less surface defect characteristics. By analyzing it has been observed that in rectangular cross section the cooling is more rapid than trapezium cross sections considered in the investigation.

  15. Impact of M2-Hss Tool Pin Profile in Fsw Welded Joints On Mechanical Properties Of Aa7075-T6 Aluminium Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venugopal S

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Friction stir, “welding is a solid state joining process and is widely being considered for aluminium alloys. The main advantage of FSW is the material that is being welded undergoes only localized changes. The welding parameter and tool pin profile play a major role in deciding the weld quality. In this work an effort has been made to analyze microstructure of aluminium AA 7075-T6 alloy. Three different tool profiles (Taper Threaded, cylindrical and square have been used to construct the joints in particular rotational speed. Tensile, Impact, micro hardness of mechanical properties of the joints have been evaluated and the formation of FSP zone has been analyzed microscopically. From the investigation it is found that the threaded cylindrical profile produces highly (defined Strength in welds.

  16. Effect of post weld heat treatment on tensile properties and microstructure characteristics of friction stir welded armour grade AA7075-T651 aluminium alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Sivaraj

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the effects of post weld heat treatments, namely artificial ageing and solution treatment followed by artificial ageing, on microstructure and mechanical properties of 12 mm thick friction stir welded joints of precipitation hardenable high strength armour grade AA7075-T651 aluminium alloy. The tensile properties, such as yield strength, tensile strength, elongation and notch tensile strength, are evaluated and correlated with the microhardness and microstructural features. The scanning electron microscope is used to characterie the fracture surfaces. The solution treatment followed by ageing heat treatment cycle is found to be marginally beneficial in improving the tensile properties of friction stir welds of AA7075-T651 aluminium alloy.

  17. Al-Ti-C中间合金的制备及其在4032铝合金中的应用%Synthesis of Al-Ti-C master alloy and its application in 4032 aluminium alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张静; 赵婧婧; 杜勇

    2014-01-01

    采用元素直接合成法,以工业纯铝、钛屑及石墨颗粒为原料制备Al-Ti-C中间合金,研究和评价了Al-Ti-C中间合金的显微组织及其对4032铝合金铸态组织和活塞模锻件组织的影响。结果表明,制备的Al-Ti-C中间合金由Al基体、长条状Al3 Ti相和细小粒状TiC相,以及少量的游离 C组成。将其应用于4032铝合金中,起到了明显的铸态晶粒细化效果。用该合金制备的活塞模锻件,显微组织和性能优良。%Al-Ti-C master alloy were synthesized by commercial-purity Al billet , Ti powder and graphite particles .The microstructure of the Al-Ti-C master alloy was studied .The grain refinement effects of the master alloy on the as-cast microstructure of 4032 aluminium alloy and the microstructure of mould forging piston fabricated by 4032 aluminium alloy were evaluated .The results show that Al-Ti-C master alloy is composed of Al matrix, long lath Al3Ti phase, fine TiC particles, and small amount of free carbon.With the addition of the master alloy, the as-cast microstructure of 4032 aluminium alloy is observed to be dramatically refined .The modified alloy was used to fabricate mould forging piston.It is found the piston manifests excellent microstructure and properties .

  18. New short T6 heat treatments for aluminium silicon alloys obtained by semisolid forming

    OpenAIRE

    Menargues Muñoz, Sergi; Martín Fuentes, Enrique; Baile Puig, Maria Teresa; Picas Barrachina, Josep Anton

    2014-01-01

    In this work the heat treatment response of SSM processed A356 and A357 casting alloys was analysed. The development of a new T6 heat treatment, with solution times less than 30 mm has been allowed. In this new short heat treatment, the alloy showed better mechanical properties compared to the same alloy which heat treated in standard conditions (solution time between 6 h and 8 h). This new heat treatment, carried out at the solution temperature of 540 degrees C, enabled the complete magnesiu...

  19. Influence of Various Process Parameters on the Density of Sintered Aluminium Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateusz Laska

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of density measurements carried out on Alumix sintered parts. ECKA Alumix aluminium powders were used because of their wide application in the powder metallurgy industry. The compacts were produced using a wide range of compaction pressures for three different chemical compositions. The compacts were then sintered under a pure dry nitrogen atmosphere at three different temperatures. The heating and cooling rates were the same throughout the entire test. The results showed that the green density increases with compaction pressure, but that sintered density is independent of green density (compaction pressure for each sintering temperature.

  20. Structural and mechanical properties of laboratory rolled steels high-alloyed with manganese and aluminium

    OpenAIRE

    Kuc, Darius; Hadasik, Eugeniusz; Niewielski, Grzegorz; Schindler, Ivo; Mazancová, Eva; Rusz, Stanislav; Kawulok, Petr

    2012-01-01

    The paper deals with rolling conditions, microstructure, as well as basic mechanical properties of four different high manganese steels after laboratory melting, casting, and hot and cold rolling. The stacking fault energy of heats was in the interval of 85–114 mJ m−2 thanks to the high aluminium contents. The heats with the lowest sum of (C+Mn) supported the highest ferrite volume fraction (up to 45%), while the highest sum of (C+Mn) led to 10% ferrite formation. With lower Al/(C+Mn) ratio a...

  1. Fatigue behavior of GMAW welded Aluminium alloy AA7020; Comportamiento a fatiga de uniones soldadas GMAW de la aleacion de aluminio AA 7020

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloem, C. A.; Salvador, M. D.; Amigo, V.; Vicente, A.

    2007-07-01

    The aim of this investigation is to evaluate the influence on the fatigue behavior by the finishing of the bulge in a welded aluminium-zinc-magnesium alloy AA7020. It was determined that total or partial elimination of the bulge has very little influence on its behavior, giving a very similar result on both cases, where one is better than the other by only 3%. (Author) 20 refs.

  2. Computer simulations of martensitic transformations in iron-nickel and nickel-aluminium alloys

    CERN Document Server

    Meyer, R J

    1998-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the martensitic transformations in iron-nickel and nickel-aluminum alloys. Molecular-dynamics simulations have been done, employing potentials based on the so-called embedded-atom method (EAM). These potentials were obtained by a fit of parameterized functions to experimental data of the elements iron, nickel, and aluminum as well as the intermetallic compound NiAl. Many aspects of the austenitic transformation in iron-nickel alloys and both, the martensitic and austenitic transformations, in nickel-aluminum alloys were reproduced well by the simulations. The results allow to draw conclusions on the reasons of differences and similarities in the behavior of both alloy systems.

  3. Effect of chemical component on shape memory effect of Fe-Mn-Si-Ni-C-RE shape memory alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Naichao Si; Zhihong Jia; Longbiao Qi

    2004-01-01

    Effect of chemical component on shape memory effect (SME) of Fe-Mn-Si-Ni-C-RE shape memory alloys was studied by bent measurement, thermal cycle training, SEM etc. Results of study indicate that the alloys with high Mn content (25%) appeare better SME, especially in lower strain. SME improves evidently when Si is higher content, especially it′s range from 3% up to 4%.But brittleness of Fe-Mn-Si-Ni-C-RE alloy increases by increasing the Si content. SME of the alloy is weakening gradually as carbon content increases under small strain (3%). But in the condition of large strain (above 6%), SME of the alloy whose carbon content ranges from 0.1% to 0.12% shows small decreasing range, especially of alloy with the addition of compound RE.

  4. Ballistic behavior of boron carbide reinforced AA7075 aluminium alloy using friction stir processing–An experimental study and analytical approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    I. SUDHAKAR; G. MADHUSUDHAN REDDY; K. SRINIVASA RAO

    2016-01-01

    High strength-to-weight ratio of non-ferrous alloys, such as aluminium, magnesium and titanium alloys, are considered to be possible replacement of widely accepted steels in transportation and automobile sectors. Among these alloys, magnesium is self explosive and titanium is costlier, and aluminium is most likely to replace steels. Application of aluminium or its alloys is also thought of as an appropriate replacement in defence field, especially to enhance the easiness in mobility of combat vehicles while maintaining the same standard as that of conventional armour grade steels. Hence most of the investigations have been confined to aluminium or its alloys as base material and open an era of developing the newer composite materials to address the major limitation, i.e. tribological properties. The surface composites can be fabricated by incorporating the ceramic carbides like silicon carbide, carbides of transition metals and oxides of aluminium using surface modification techniques, such as high energy laser melt treatment, high energy electron beam irradiation and thermal spray process which are based on fusion route. These techniques yield the fusion related problems, such as interfacial reaction, pin holes, shrinkage cavities or voids and other casting related defects, and pave the way to need of an efficient technique which must be based on solid state. Recently developed friction stir processing technique was used in the present investigation for surface modification of AA7075 aluminum alloy, which is an alternative to steels. In the present investigation, 160μm sized boron carbide powder was procured and was reduced to 60μm and 30μm using high energy ball mill. Subsequently these powders were used to fabricate the surface composites using friction stir processing. Ballistic performance testing as per the military standard (JIS.0108.01) was carried out. In the present work, an analytical method of predicting the ballistic behavior of surface composites

  5. Effect of Composition and Thermomechanical Processingon The Intergranular Corrosion of AA6000 Aluminium Alloys

    OpenAIRE

    Larsen, Magnus Hurlen

    2010-01-01

    In order to achieve the desired strength, AlMgSi (6000-series) alloys are often alloyed with either small (fraction of a wt%) Cu or excess (in relation to that required to form Mg2Si) amounts of Si. Both approaches can introduce the desired strength after artificial ageing. However, these methods have also been reported to introduce susceptibility to intergranular corrosion (IGC), depending on the applied thermomechanical treatment procedure. There is disagreement in the literature whether ad...

  6. Light-weight steels based on iron-aluminium - influence of micro alloying elements (B, Ti, Nb) on microstructures, textures and mechanical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruex, U.; Frommeyer, G. [Dept. of Materials Technology, Max-Planck-Inst. fuer Eisenforschung GmbH, Duesseldorf (Germany); Jimenez, J. [Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalurgicas (C.S.I.C.), Madrid (Spain)

    2002-12-01

    The influence of the micro alloying elements B, Ti and Nb on the recrystallization texture and mechanical properties of iron aluminium light-weight steels, particularly with reference to their improved deep drawing properties was investigated. Depending on the combination of the alloying elements the microstructures of the investigated micro alloyed Fe-6Al steels are influenced by grain refinement. Likewise, variable combinations of micro alloying elements differently affect the texture. Generally, the mechanical properties are improved. However, small amounts of B, Ti and Nb cause superior deep drawing and stretch forming properties of these iron aluminium light-weight steels. The microstructures of various micro alloyed cold rolled Fe-6Al steel sheets were evaluated by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) inclusively EDAX and X-ray diffraction. Texture measurements were performed using a goniometer with a closed Eulerian cradle and analysed by ODF calculations. Tensile tests were carried out at room temperature and 200 C, respectively. The deep drawing behaviour was determined by performing cupping tests and digitalised strain analysis. (orig.)

  7. Recent developments of the aluminium-lithium system alloys for aircraft uses; Recentes desenvolvimentos das ligas do sistema aluminio-litio para fins aeronauticos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncalves, Marcelo; Plaut, Ronald Lesley

    1992-12-31

    A brief review is made of the latest developments in the production of Aluminium-Lithium alloys. The necessity for new materials in the field of aeronautics has speeded up research on metallic and non-metallic materials. Lately, a good part of the research in the field of metallic components has been directed at Al-Li alloys. More recently, with the development of quaternary alloys Al-Li-X-X, the old problem of low toughness was overcome. The finality of this study is to cover the developments of the mentioned alloys, including the fundamentals of physical metallurgy of the complex system recently developed Al-Li-Cu-Mg. (author) 27 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. Accelerated artificial ageing regimes of commercial aluminium alloys. II. Al-Cu, Al-Zn-Mg-(Cu), Al-Mg-Si-(Cu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ber, L.B. [All-Union Inst. of Light Alloys, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2000-03-15

    For pt.I see ibid., vol.280, p.83-90, 2000. For Al-Cu, Al-Zn-Mg-(Cu), Al-Mg-Si-(Cu) commercial aluminium alloys effects of temperature and exposure on the phase composition and morphology of hardener precipitates, strength and plasticity were carried out. These results are submitted as TTT (time-temperature-transformation) and TTP (time-temperature-properties) diagrams for ageing. For acceleration of ageing the two-stage ageing regimes with high-temperature stages are used, the characteristics hardener precipitates remaining close to optimum. The examples of the accelerated ageing regimes in industrial conditions for sheets from 1201 alloy (type of 2219), sheets from V95 alloy (type of 7075), forgings from AK6 alloy (system Al-Mg-Si-Cu) are presented. The comparison of the mechanical properties, damage tolerance, corrosion resistance of the semi-products processed by standard and accelerated regimes is given. (orig.)

  9. A bakable aluminium vacuum chamber with an aluminium flange and metal seal for ultrahigh vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A bakable (2000C) aluminium alloy vacuum chamber (6063-T6) with an aluminium alloy (2219-T87) flange and metal seal (Helicoflex-HN: aluminium O-ring) has been constructed. Such components may be used in the construction of the vacuum chamber in proton synchrotrons and electron storage rings. (author)

  10. A bottom-up approach for optimization of friction stir processing parameters; a study on aluminium 2024-T3 alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • An experimental bottom-up approach has been developed for optimizing the process parameters for friction stir processing. • Optimum parameter processed samples were tested and characterized in detail. • Ultimate tensile strength of 1.3 times the base metal strength was obtained. • Residual stresses on the processed surface were only 10% of the yield strength of base metal. • Microstructure observations revealed fine equi-axed grains with precipitate particles at the grain boundaries. - Abstract: Friction stir processing (FSP) is emerging as one of the most competent severe plastic deformation (SPD) method for producing bulk ultra-fine grained materials with improved properties. Optimizing the process parameters for a defect free process is one of the challenging aspects of FSP to mark its commercial use. For the commercial aluminium alloy 2024-T3 plate of 6 mm thickness, a bottom-up approach has been attempted to optimize major independent parameters of the process such as plunge depth, tool rotation speed and traverse speed. Tensile properties of the optimum friction stir processed sample were correlated with the microstructural characterization done using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Electron Back-Scattered Diffraction (EBSD). Optimum parameters from the bottom-up approach have led to a defect free FSP having a maximum strength of 93% the base material strength. Micro tensile testing of the samples taken from the center of processed zone has shown an increased strength of 1.3 times the base material. Measured maximum longitudinal residual stress on the processed surface was only 30 MPa which was attributed to the solid state nature of FSP. Microstructural observation reveals significant grain refinement with less variation in the grain size across the thickness and a large amount of grain boundary precipitation compared to the base metal. The proposed experimental bottom-up approach can be applied as an effective method for

  11. Smart structures for deformable mirrors actuated by shape memory alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riva, M.; Bettini, P.; Di Landro, L.; Sala, G.; Zerbi, F. M.

    2010-07-01

    Deformable mirrors actuated by smart structures are promising devices for next generation astronomical instrumentation. Thermal activated Shape Memory Alloys are materials able to recover their original shape, after an external deformation, if heated above a characteristic temperature. If the recovery of the shape is completely or partially prevented by the presence of constraints, the material can generate recovery stress. Thanks to this feature, these materials can be positively exploited in Smart Structures if properly embedded into host materials. This paper will show the technological processes developed for an efficient use of SMA-based actuators embedded in smart structures tailored to astronomical instrumentation. In particular the analysis of the interface with the host material. Some possible modeling approaches to the actuators behavior will be addressed taking into account trade-offs between detailed analysis and overall performance prediction as a function of the computational time. We developed a combined Finite Element and Raytracing analysis devoted to a parametric performance predictions of a SMA based substrate applicable to deformable mirrors. We took in detail into account the possibility to change the focal length of the mirror keeping a satisfactory image quality. Finally a possible approach with some preliminary results for an efficient control system for the strongly non-linear SMA actuators will be presented.

  12. Modiolus-Hugging Intracochlear Electrode Array with Shape Memory Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyou Sik Min

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the cochlear implant system, the distance between spiral ganglia and the electrodes within the volume of the scala tympani cavity significantly affects the efficiency of the electrical stimulation in terms of the threshold current level and spatial selectivity. Because the spiral ganglia are situated inside the modiolus, the central axis of the cochlea, it is desirable that the electrode array hugs the modiolus to minimize the distance between the electrodes and the ganglia. In the present study, we propose a shape-memory-alloy-(SMA- embedded intracochlear electrode which gives a straight electrode a curved modiolus-hugging shape using the restoration force of the SMA as triggered by resistive heating after insertion into the cochlea. An eight-channel ball-type electrode array is fabricated with an embedded titanium-nickel SMA backbone wire. It is demonstrated that the electrode array changes its shape in a transparent plastic human cochlear model. To verify the safe insertion of the electrode array into the human cochlea, the contact pressures during insertion at the electrode tip and the contact pressures over the electrode length after insertion were calculated using a 3D finite element analysis. The results indicate that the SMA-embedded electrode is functionally and mechanically feasible for clinical applications.

  13. NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF INDUCTION SKULL MELTING PROCESS FOR TITANIUM-ALUMINIUM BASE ALLOY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Z.Y. Chen; L.J. Xu; F.T. Kong; Q. Shu; Y.Y. Chen

    2004-01-01

    The mathematics model for temperature field of water-cooling copper crucible induction skull melting process was established. The program for simulating temperature field of melting process was developed with finite element method. The temperature field of the melting process for Ti-47Al-2Cr-2Nb alloy was calculated. During melting period, the temperature is raised gradually along radius augmentation direction. The elements of the charge near the crucible wall are molten first. The center elements of the charge are molten last. The melting time of the center element is just that of all the charge melting. The melting time of Ti-47Al-2Cr-2Nb alloy is 15min. In which, the charge was heated by low power 80kW for 9min and by high power 300kW for 6min. When melting Ti-47Al-2Cr-2Nb alloy,the loading power is nearly direct proportion to melt temperature. Increasing loading power may raise melt temperature. The best melting power of Ti-47Al-2Cr-2Nb alloy is 305-310kW. This is identical with the melting test and has guidance sense to the melting process of actual titanium alloy.

  14. Irradiation-induced creep and microstructural development in precipitation-hardened nickel-aluminium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irradiation-induced creep in solid-solution Ni-8.5 at% AL and precipitation-hardened Ni-13.1 at% Al alloys was studied by bombarding miniaturized specimens with 6.2 MeV protons at 3000C under different tensile stresses. After irradiation transmission electron microscopic (TEM) investigations were made to observe the precipitate structure under irradiation for different experimental parameters. Moreover, the irradiation-induced changes in precipitate structure and changes of Al-concentrations in the matrix in Ni-13.1 at% Al alloys were studied by electrical resistivity measurements during irradiation. For comparison, the electrical resistivity of unirradiated specimens was also measured after thermal aging for different times. For correlation, TEM analysis was performed on irradiated and unirradiated aged specimens. Tensile tests on annealed and aged Ni-Al alloys were also done at various temperatures. (orig./RK)

  15. Fracture performance of high strength steels, aluminium and magnesium alloys during plastic deformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Haiyan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of uniaxial tension tests were performed for 5052 and 6061 aluminum alloys, AZ31B magnesium alloy, TRIP600 and DP600 steels, to obtain a better understanding of their fracture performance. Scanning electron microscope (SEM observation of the microstructure evolution was conducted. The dimple structure, orientation relationship between the fracture surface and tensile direction, necking behavior were analyzed. The fracture mechanism and fracture mode of each material was discussed in detail. The results show that TRIP600 steel is subject to a typical inter-granular ductile fracture combined by shear fracture. DP600 steel belongs to mainly ductility mixed with normal fracture. Both 5052 and 6061 aluminum alloys are subject to a mixed ductility fracture and brittle fracture. AA5052 and AA6061 belong to a typical shear fracture and a normal fracture, respectively. Magnesium AZ31B is typical of a brittle fracture combined with normal fracture.

  16. Structure and properties of sintered titanium alloyed with aluminium, molybdenum and oxygen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anokhin, V.M.; Petrunko, A.N. [State Research and Design Titanium Institute, Zaporozhye (Ukraine); Ivasishin, O.M. [Institute for Metal Physics, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 36 Vernadsky St, 142 Kiev (Ukraine)

    1998-03-15

    Titanium alloys of Ti-Al-Mo-O system were manufactured by blended elemental powder method using Ti, Al, Mo and TiO{sub 2} powders as starting materials. It was found that cold compaction pressure of 800 MPa followed by sintering at 1150-1200 C, for 4 h provided sufficient densification of titanium materials. Complete dissolution of alloying elements in the titanium matrix resulted in a good combination of mechanical properties. Examples of alloys chosen for possible application were Ti-(1.5-2.0)%Mo-0.7%TiO{sub 2} and Ti-2%Al-2%Mo. The latter has already been tried for manufacturing parts in automotive industry. (orig.) 3 refs.

  17. Study of Pitting Corrosion Behavior of FSW weldments of AA6101- T6 Aluminium Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.V. Kamble

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Friction Stir Welding (FSW is a promising solid state joining process widely used generally for Al alloys, especially in aerospace, marine and automobile applications. In present work, the microstructure and corrosion behavior of friction stir welded AA6101 T6 Al alloy is studied. The friction stir welding was carried using vertical milling machine with different tool rotational speeds and welding speeds. The microstructure at weld nugget or stir zone (SN, thermo-mechanically affected zone (TMAZ, heat affected zone (HAZ and base metal were observed using optical microscopy. The corrosion tests of base alloy and welded joints were carried out in 3.5% NaCl solution at temperature of 30º C. Corrosion rate and emf were determined using cyclic polarization measurement.

  18. Investigations on temperature distribution in welding of Aluminium alloys to steel using FEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. S. Ashraff Ali

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This research study focuses on the objective to establish an analytical model for determining the thermal distribution during friction stir welding (FSW, based on different assumptions of the contact condition between the rotating tool surface and the weld piece. The material flow and heat generation are characterized by the contact conditions at the interface, and are described as sliding, sticking or partial sliding/sticking. The analytical expression for the heat generation is a modification of previous analytical models known from the literature and accounts for both conical surfaces and different contact conditions. Aluminium metal matrix composites and steel 304 (dissimilar material joining is being used for this study. Three dimensional Finite Element Models have been developed to visualize the temperature distribution across the butt ends of the plates. The results are validated with the experimental results reported in the literature. The result reveals that there exists a good coherence between experimental and simulated results.

  19. Developing prospects of NiAlMn high temperature shape memory alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reason and information on high temperature shape memory alloy research are introduced briefly Also, referring to some experimental reports on NiAlMn high temperature shape memory alloy, it is pointed out that ductility and memory property of this alloy can be improved by adapting proper composition and procedure to control its microstructure. Meanwhile, the engineering details must be considered when NiAlMn high temperature shape memory alloy being developed so as to resolve the problems of its practical use

  20. Effect of nitrocarburizing on shape of titanium alloy parts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, E.A.

    1993-09-27

    Components are being developed for plutonium casting in support of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. A vendor used a proprietary process to grow a nitrocarburized surface layer on a titanium alloy shot sleeve to be used in a prototype die casting machine. The shot sleeve was significantly out-of-round upon return from the vendor and could not be used. Purpose of this study was to determine whether the shape change could have been caused by this surface treatment. Visual observation of disk and ring samples exposed first to surface treatment alone temperature and then the actual nitrocarburizing environment revealed no gross warping in either case. Dimension measurements of each sample before and after both the thermal treatment and the nitrocarburizing revealed no significant changes. Visual examination of the shot sleeve revealed a surface flaw likely made during handling after machining at SRS and before the part was nitrocarburized. The out-of-roundness of the shot sleeve could be related to the damage observed on the surface, but the possibility of warping during the nitrocarburizing cannot be excluded. Nitrocarburization should remain a candidate method to protect titanium alloys from molten metals.

  1. Performance of a base isolator with shape memory alloy bars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fabio Casciati; Lucia Faravelli; Karim Hamdaoui

    2007-01-01

    A new and innovative base isolation device is introduced in this paper based on extensive research carried out by the authors and their co-workers.A prototype of the device was built and experimentally tested on the shaking table.The new base isolation device consists of two disks,one vertical cylinder with an upper enlargement sustained by three horizontal cantilevers,and at least three inclined shape memory alloy(SMA) bars.The role of the SMA bars is to limit the relative motion between the base and the superstructure,to dissipate energy by their super-elastic constitutive law and to guarantee the re-centring of the device.To verify the expected performance,a prototype was built and tested under sinusoidal waves of displacement of increasing frequency with different amplitudes.It is shown that the main feature of the proposed base isolation device is that for cyclic loading,the super-elastic behavior of the alloy results in wide load-displacement loops,where a large amount of energy is dissipated.

  2. Flexible Robotic Spine Actuated by Shape Memory Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiquan Wang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A flexible robotic spine actuated by shape memory alloy (SMA can achieve both bending motion and impact absorption, which will allow robots to realize a variety of postures. In this paper, the robotic spine is designed and simplified into a multi-segment dynamic model based on several verified assumptions. The SMA wire is modelled using the Seelecke-Muller-Acenbach theory. An iterative algorithm is developed to address the external forces distributed along the spine and compute the spine’s bending angle. Based on the dynamic model, we improve the simulation structure and search algorithm to achieve good efficiency and stable solutions. Experiments are conducted to verify the simulation and the results fit the simulation prediction well, with error of less than five degrees. Design optimization with our simulation tool based on several parameters is also discussed in this paper.

  3. Shape memory alloy microvalves for a fluidic control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megnin, Christof; Kohl, Manfred

    2014-02-01

    This paper presents the design, fabrication, and performance of shape memory alloy (SMA) microvalves with a novel plug-in interface that enable arbitrary combinations and interchange of individual valve components in order to realize customized fluidic control systems. Actuation of the valves relies on a micromachined SMA foil, which is prestrained in order to adjust for a given flow, and pressure requirement. A demonstrator system is presented consisting of up to nine microvalves, flow channels and control electronics arranged in different functional layers that are stacked onto each other. The microvalves are designed for flow rates of 12.5 ml min-1 (water) in open state at a pressure difference of 200 kPa. Flow regulation is tested in closed-loop control mode using a flow sensor with a short time constant. The accuracy of flow control is in the order of 1.5%. The response times are below 24 ms.

  4. Thermal and damping behaviour of magnetic shape memory alloy composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glock, Susanne; Michaud, Véronique

    2015-06-01

    Single crystals of ferromagnetic shape memory alloys (MSMA) exhibit magnetic field and stress induced strains via energy dissipating twinning. Embedding single crystalline MSMA particles into a polymer matrix could thus produce composites with enhanced energy dissipation, suitable for damping applications. Composites of ferromagnetic, martensitic or austenitic Ni-Mn-Ga powders embedded in a standard epoxy matrix were produced by casting. The martensitic powder composites showed a crystal structure dependent damping behaviour that was more dissipative than that of austenitic powder or Cu-Ni reference powder composites and than that of the pure matrix. The loss ratio also increased with increasing strain amplitude and decreasing frequency, respectively. Furthermore, Ni-Mn-Ga powder composites exhibited an increased damping behaviour at the martensite/austenite transformation temperature of the Ni-Mn-Ga particles in addition to that at the glass transition temperature of the epoxy matrix, creating possible synergetic effects.

  5. Using Shape Memory Alloys: A Dynamic Data Driven Approach

    KAUST Repository

    Douglas, Craig C.

    2013-06-01

    Shape Memory Alloys (SMAs) are capable of changing their crystallographic structure due to changes of either stress or temperature. SMAs are used in a number of aerospace devices and are required in some devices in exotic environments. We are developing dynamic data driven application system (DDDAS) tools to monitor and change SMAs in real time for delivering payloads by aerospace vehicles. We must be able to turn on and off the sensors and heating units, change the stress on the SMA, monitor on-line data streams, change scales based on incoming data, and control what type of data is generated. The application must have the capability to be run and steered remotely as an unmanned feedback control loop.

  6. PM-Composites with Nickel-Titanium Shape Memory Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theisen, W.; Schuermann, A. [Ruhr-University Bochum, Chair of Materials Technology, D-44780 Bochum (Germany)

    2004-05-01

    Starting from NiTi-powders, composites of nickel-titanium shape memory alloys (NiTi-SMA) and different stainless steels (1.4301, 1.4404, 1.4571) as well as of different NiTi-SMAs were produced by using the process of hot isostatic pressing (HIP). Metallographic investigations focussed on the interface between NiTi-SMA and stainless steel with special emphasis placed on the characterization of the typical structure of the diffusion zones in both components. (Abstract Copyright [2004], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.) [German] Ausgehend von NiTi-Pulver wurden Schichtverbundwerkstoffe aus Nickel-Titan Formgedaechtnislegierungen (NiTi-FGL) und verschiedenen nichtrostenden Staehlen (1.4301, 1.4404, 1.4571) sowie aus verschiedenen NiTi-FGL durch heissisostatisches Pressen (HIP) hergestellt und metallographisch untersucht. Dabei lag das Augenmerk auf der Ausbildung der Grenzflaeche und der speziellen Struktur der Diffusionszonen in beiden Verbundkomponenten. (Abstract Copyright [2004], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  7. Electromagnetic heating of a shape memory alloy translator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giroux, E.-A.; Maglione, M.; Gueldry, A.; Mantoux, J.-L.

    1996-03-01

    The active part of a linear translator is a shape memory alloy (SMA) made of nickel and titanium (NiTi) wire which is to be thermally cycled. We have achieved heating using electromagnetic radiation with a magnetic sheath and low-frequency waves at 8 kHz and without magnetic sheath and radio frequency waves at 28 MHz. The heating is equivalent for these two arrangements. In vitro experiments have been confirmed by computer simulations of the radiation distribution within the implant. We thus show that electromagnetic radiation could specifically heat a NiTi wire inside a stainless steel tube without heating the tube. An application could be a femoral prosthesis for the lengthening of the bone.

  8. Dynamical Jumps in a Shape Memory Alloy Oscillator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. S. Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The dynamical response of systems with shape memory alloy (SMA elements presents a rich behavior due to their intrinsic nonlinear characteristic. SMA’s nonlinear response is associated with both adaptive dissipation related to hysteretic behavior and huge changes in properties caused by phase transformations. These characteristics are attracting much technological interest in several scientific and engineering fields, varying from medical to aerospace applications. An important characteristic associated with dynamical response of SMA system is the jump phenomenon. Dynamical jumps result in abrupt changes in system behavior and its analysis is essential for a proper design of SMA systems. This paper discusses the nonlinear dynamics of a one degree of freedom SMA oscillator presenting pseudoelastic behavior and dynamical jumps. Numerical simulations show different aspects of this kind of behavior, illustrating its importance for a proper understanding of nonlinear dynamics of SMA systems.

  9. Shape memory alloy heat engines and energy harvesting systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Browne, Alan L; Johnson, Nancy L; Shaw, John Andrew; Churchill, Christopher Burton; Keefe, Andrew C; McKnight, Geoffrey P; Alexander, Paul W; Herrera, Guillermo A; Yates, James Ryan; Brown, Jeffrey W

    2014-09-30

    A heat engine includes a first rotatable pulley and a second rotatable pulley spaced from the first rotatable pulley. A shape memory alloy (SMA) element is disposed about respective portions of the pulleys at an SMA pulley ratio. The SMA element includes a first wire, a second wire, and a matrix joining the first wire and the second wire. The first wire and the second wire are in contact with the pulleys, but the matrix is not in contact with the pulleys. A timing cable is disposed about respective portions of the pulleys at a timing pulley ratio, which is different than the SMA pulley ratio. The SMA element converts a thermal energy gradient between the hot region and the cold region into mechanical energy.

  10. Application Of Shape Memory Alloy In Harvesto-Absorber System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kęcik Krzysztof

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a conception of the harvester-absorber system consisting of two parts. The first is the pendulum attached to the main system (oscillator, which is suspended on the linear damper and the nonlinear spring made of shape memory alloy. The spring is modelled as a polynomial function based on Landau–Ginzburg theory of phase transitions (similar as ferroelectric and ferromagnets. The obtained results show, that SMA element can increase harvesting energy level, while the absorber effect can be impaired (but not loss. Additionally, introducing SMA element causes changes in dynamics, introduces a new unstable solutions and bifurcations. The analysis was done by classical integration and continuation solution methods.

  11. Shape memory alloy actuated adaptive exhaust nozzle for jet engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Gangbing (Inventor); Ma, Ning (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    The proposed adaptive exhaust nozzle features an innovative use of the shape memory alloy (SMA) actuators for actively control of the opening area of the exhaust nozzle for jet engines. The SMA actuators remotely control the opening area of the exhaust nozzle through a set of mechanism. An important advantage of using SMA actuators is the reduction of weight of the actuator system for variable area exhaust nozzle. Another advantage is that the SMA actuator can be activated using the heat from the exhaust and eliminate the need of other energy source. A prototype has been designed and fabricated. The functionality of the proposed SMA actuated adaptive exhaust nozzle is verified in the open-loop tests.

  12. Galvanostatic response of AA2024 aluminium alloy in 3.5% NaCl solution

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    U DONATUS; G E THOMPSON

    2016-10-01

    Galvanostatic responses of AA2024T3 alloy in de-aerated and naturally aerated 3.5% NaCl solution have been investigated. In the de-aerated condition, two distinct stages of polarization were revealed. From the first stage, the relationships between the pitting incubation time, pitting potential and applied current density for AA2024T3 alloy in the de-aerated condition were established. The curves in the aerated condition showed no particular incubation time-applied current density relationship.

  13. Mechanisms of the porosity formation during the fiber laser lap welding of aluminium alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Wang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available When joining the aluminum alloys, one of the biggest challenges is the formation of porosity, which deteriorates mechanical properties of welds. In this study, the lap welding was conducted on an aluminum alloy 5754 metal sheets with a thickness of 2 mm. The effects of various laser welding parameters on the weld quality were investigated. The porosity content was measured by X-ray inspections. The key is to control the solidification duration of molten pool. When the solidification duration of molten pool is large enough, more bubbles can escape from the molten pool and less remain as porosity.

  14. Effect of selected microadditives on the mechanical properties of aluminium alloys

    OpenAIRE

    Rzadkosz S.; Staszczak L.

    2007-01-01

    The effect of iron impurities on microstructure and mechanical properties of cast Al-Cu and Al-Zn-Mg alloys was discussed. The role of iron in the process of solutioning and ageing of these alloys was described. Basing on the results of investigations, a comparative analysis was made to disclose the effect of low content (microadditives) of the elements, like Mn, Ti, Zr, B, Cr, Ni, Zn, Sn, Cd, In, Mg, Sb, and Ag on the primary structure of castings, mainly on the morphology of iron-bonding in...

  15. Uncertainty analysis of a one-dimensional constitutive model for shape memory alloy thermomechanical description

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliveira, Sergio A.; Savi, Marcelo A.; Santos, Ilmar F.

    2014-01-01

    The use of shape memory alloys (SMAs) in engineering applications has increased the interest of the accuracy analysis of their thermomechanical description. This work presents an uncertainty analysis related to experimental tensile tests conducted with shape memory alloy wires. Experimental data ...

  16. Simulation of grain size effects in nanocrystalline shape memory alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahluwalia, Rajeev; Quek, Siu Sin; Wu, David T.

    2015-06-01

    Recently, it has been demonstrated that martensitic transformation in nanocrystalline shape memory alloys can be suppressed for small grain sizes. Motivated by these results, we study the grain size dependence of martensitic transformations and stress-strain response of nanocrystalline shape memory alloys within the framework of the Ginzburg-Landau (GL) theory. A GL model for a square to rectangle transformation in polycrystals is extended to account for grain boundary effects. We propose that an inhibition of the transformation in grain boundary regions can occur, if the grain boundary energy of the martensite is higher than that of the austenite phase. We show that this inhibition of transformation in grain boundary regions has a strong influence on domain patterns inside grains. Although the transformation is inhibited only at the grain boundaries, it leads to a suppression of the transformation even inside the grains as grain size is decreased. In fact, below a critical grain size, the transformation can be completely suppressed. We explain these results in terms of the extra strain gradient cost associated with grain boundaries, when the transformation is inhibited at grain boundaries. On the other hand, no significant size effects are observed when transformation is not inhibited at grain boundaries. We also study the grain size dependence of the stress strain curve. It is found that when the transformation is inhibited at grain boundaries, a significant reduction in the hysteresis associated with stress-strain curves during the loading-unloading cycles is observed. The hysteresis for this situation reduces even further as the grain size is reduced, which is consistent with recent experiments. The simulations also demonstrate that the mechanical behavior is influenced by inter-granular interactions and the local microstructural neighbourhood of a grain has a stronger influence than the orientation of the grain itself.

  17. Two-way shape memory effect and its stability in Ti-Ni-Hf high temperature shape memory alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Xiang-long; WU Ye; CAI Wei; ZHAO Lian-cheng

    2005-01-01

    The two-way shape memory effect (TWSME) in a Ti36 Ni49 Hf15 high temperature shape memory alloy (SMA) was systematically studied by bending tests. In the TiNiHf alloy, the martensite deformation is an effective method to get two-way shape memory effect even with a small deformation strain. The results indicate that the internal stress field formed by the bending deformation is in the direction of the preferentially oriented martensite variants formed during the bending deformation. Upon cooling the preferentially oriented martensite variants form under such an oriented stress field, which should be responsible for the generation of the two-way shape memory effect.Proper training process benefits the formation of the oriented stress field, resulting in the improvement of the twoway shape memory effect. A maximum TWSME of 0.88 % is obtained in the present alloy.

  18. Shape memory and superelastic behavior of Ti-7.5Nb-4Mo-1Sn alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: → A Ti-based shape memory alloy, Ti-7.5Nb-4Mo-1Sn, was designed. → The martensitic transformation start temperature of the alloy, Ms, is 261 K. → The alloy exhibits good shape memory and superelastic behaviors. → The alloy also shows a good superelastic stability at room temperature. → The Ti-5Mo-7.5Nb-1Sn alloy has a potential application as a biomedical material. -- Abstract: In the present work, a Ti-based shape memory alloy with the composition of Ti-7.5Nb-4Mo-1Sn was designed based on the d-electron orbit theory. The shape memory and superelastic behavior of the alloy were investigated. It is found that the martensitic transformation temperature of the alloy is near 261 K. The tensile and the thermal cycling testing results show that the alloy exhibits the stable shape memory effect and superelasticity at room temperature. The maximum recovered strain of the alloy is 4.83%.

  19. Behaviour and modelling of aluminium alloy AA6060 subjected to a wide range of strain rates and temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilamosa Vincent

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The thermo-mechanical behaviour in tension of an as-cast and homogenized AA6060 alloy was investigated at a wide range of strains (the entire deformation process up to fracture, strain rates (0.01–750 s−1 and temperatures (20–350 ∘C. The tests at strain rates up to 1 s−1 were performed in a universal testing machine, while a split-Hopkinson tension bar (SHTB system was used for strain rates from 350 to 750 s−1. The samples were heated with an induction-based heating system. A typical feature of aluminium alloys at high temperatures is that necking occurs at a rather early stage of the deformation process. In order to determine the true stress-strain curve also after the onset of necking, all tests were instrumented with a digital camera. The experimental tests reveal that the AA6060 material has negligible strain-rate sensitivity (SRS for temperatures lower than 200 ∘C, while both yielding and work hardening exhibit a strong positive SRS at higher temperatures. The coupled strain-rate and temperature sensitivity is challenging to capture with most existing constitutive models. The paper presents an outline of a new semi-physical model that expresses the flow stress in terms of plastic strain, plastic strain rate and temperature. The parameters of the model were determined from the tests, and the stress-strain curves from the tests were compared with the predictions of the model. Good agreement was obtained over the entire strain rate and temperature range.

  20. Stereometry specification of anodised and PVD coated surface of aluminium alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Konieczny

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of the work is to present the influence of casting method and anodic treatment parameters on properties, thickness and structure of an anodic layer with (PVD physical vapour deposition method achieved TiN layer formed on aluminum casting alloys.Design/methodology/approach: Investigations were carried out on the laser profile measurement gauge MicroProf from company FRT, abrasive wear test was made with using ABR-8251 equipment delivered by TCD Teknologi ApS and microstructure investigations were made with using a light microscope equipped with an electronic camera configured with a computer on two casting aluminum alloys which both were founding by pressure die casting and gravity casting.Findings: The researches included analyze of the influence of geometry, roughness and abrasive wear resistant of anodic layer obtained on aluminum casts. The studied PVD coating deposited by cathodic arc evaporation method demonstrates high hardness, adhesion and wear resistance.Research limitations/implications: Contributes to research on anodic and PVD layer for aluminum casting alloys.Practical implications: Conducted investigations lay out the areas of later researches, especially in the direction of the possible, next optimization anodization process of aluminum casting alloys, e.g. in the range of raising resistance on corrosion.Originality/value: The range of possible applications increases staidly for example for materials used on working building constructions, elements in electronics and construction parts in air and motorization industry in the aggressive environment.

  1. Structure and tensile/wear properties of microarc oxidation ceramic coatings on aluminium alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏同波; 阎逢元; 刘维民; 田军

    2004-01-01

    Thick and hard ceramic coatings were prepared on the Al-Cu-Mg alloy by microarc oxidation in alkali-silicate electrolytic solution. The thickness and microhardness of the oxide coatings were measured. The influence of current density on the growth rate of the coating was examined. The microstructure and phase composition of the coatings were investigated by means of scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. Moreover, the tensile strength of the Al alloy before and after microarc oxidation treatment were tested,and the fractography and morphology of the oxide coatings were observed using scanning electron microscope. It is found that the current density considerably influences the growth rate of the microarc oxidation coatings. The oxide coating is mainly composed of α-Al2 O3 and γ-Al2 O3, while high content of Si is observed in the superficial layer of the coating. The cross-section microhardness of 120 μm thick coating reaches the maximum at distance of 35 μm from the substrate/coating interface. The tensile strength and elongation of the coated Al alloy significantly decrease with increasing coating thickness. The microarc oxidation coatings greatly improve the wear resistance of Al alloy,but have high friction coefficient which changes in the range of 0.7 - 0.8. Under grease lubricating, friction coefficient is only 0.15 and wear loss is less than 1/10 of the loss under dry friction.

  2. Effect of temperature and frequency of dynamic loading in the viscoelastic properties of aluminium alloy 7075-T6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojas, Jose I.; Aguiar, Albert; Crespo, Daniel [Escola d' Enginyeria de Telecomunicacio i Aeroespacial de Castelldefels (EPSC), Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya (UPC Barcelona Tech), Castelldefels, Barcelona (Spain)

    2011-11-15

    The viscoelastic response of a material offers an alternative method for analyzing its microstructure, phase transformations and fatigue behaviour. In this work, the viscoelastic properties of commercial aluminium alloy (AA) 7075-T6 are studied with a Dynamic-Mechanical Analyzer (DMA), and results are combined with Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) data. In accordance with this analysis, we propose an analytical model for the storage modulus E' as a function of temperature, frequency of the dynamic loading and the concentration of Guinier-Preston Zones (GPZ). The latter parameter is obtained as a function of temperature after integration and fitting of the model. It is shown that the proposed model fits the experimental data for the storage modulus reasonably well in the prescribed region, and that this fact supports the hypothesis that the change in the storage modulus slope at about 130-160 C is due to GPZ decomposition. (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  3. Effect of Processing Parameters on the Protective Quality of Electroless Nickel-Phosphorus on Cast Aluminium Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olawale Olarewaju Ajibola

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of temperature, pH, and time variations on the protective amount and quality of electroless nickel (EN deposition on cast aluminium alloy (CAA substrates were studied. The temperature, pH, and plating time were varied while the surface condition of the substrate was kept constant in acid or alkaline bath. Within solution pH of 5.0–5.5 range, the best quality is obtained in acid solution pH of 5.2. At lower pH (5.0–5.1, good adhesion characterised the EN deposition. Within the range of plating solution pH of 7.0 to 11.5, the highest quantity and quality of EN deposition are obtained on CAA substrate in solution pH of 10.5. It is characterised with few pores and discontinuous metallic EN film. The quantity of EN deposition is time dependent, whereas the adhesion and brightness are not time controlled. The best fit models were developed from the trends of result data obtained from the experiments. The surface morphologies and the chemical composition of the coating were studied using the Jeol JSM-7600F field emission scanning electron microscope.

  4. Experimental investigation on the effects of cooling system on surface quality in high speed milling of an aluminium alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirita, B.; Tampu, N. C.; Brabie, G.; Radu, M. C.

    2016-08-01

    Surface quality is often an important feature of industrial products, not only from the impact it has on the aesthetic aspect but also for the functional role of the parts. High quality surface increases corrosion resistance, assures a longer life cycle for the product and lowers the wear. For a machined part, surface quality is influenced by a series of factors such as the material of the part, the process type, tool geometry, cutting parameters or the cooling system. The choice of the cooling system is especially important, taking into account that the proper conditions will not only assure a superior surface quality, but will also lower the costs and reduce the environmental impact and health risks. The present study aims to investigate the performance of the cooling system and the effect of the cutting parameters on the characteristics of the surfaces resulted from high speed face milling of some parts made of Al 7050-T7451 aluminium alloy. Dry cutting conditions and minimum quantity lubrication (MQL) where used. The results were analysed using analysis of variance (ANOVA).

  5. Study of Simulated Temperature of Butt Joint during Friction Stir Welding Of Aluminium Alloy by Using Hyperworks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Anees Siddiqui

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Friction stir welding (FSW is one of the latest welding technology that utilizes a special tool for generation of frictional heat in the work piece by its rotation due to which joining occurs without melting of metal. For this reason friction stir welding lies under the category of solid state joining. A part from experimental work, there is large space to work on simulation of FSW by using simulation tools. In the present paper, simulation of friction stir welding of aluminium alloy AA-6061 is done by using HyperWeld module of Altair HyperWorks. The virtual experiment of friction stir welding is conducted for variable tool rotational speeds with constant travelling speed and study of simulation results of variation in temperature distribution along the weld line of butt joint is done. The results of simulation shows that the temperature is symmetrically distributed along the weld line. It is observed that the maximum temperature along the weld line increases with the increase in rotational speed. It is also observed that the temperature at advancing side is greater that retreating side.

  6. Impact resistance and hardness modelling of Aluminium alloy welds using square-headed friction-stir welding tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudhakar, U.; Srinivas, J., Dr.

    2016-02-01

    This paper proposes modelling and optimization issues relating to friction-stir welding process of aluminium alloys. A specially prepared SS tool of square headed pin profile with cylindrical shoulder is used with a vertical milling machine. Effects of process variables including tool rotation and tool velocity on the weld performance are studied in terms of impact strength and hardness. Three different rotational motions and three welding speeds (feeds) of tool are considered at constant axial load (depth of cut) condition and altogether nine experiments are conducted on a vertical milling machine with specially prepared fixture. Each weld sample is then tested for its impact strength (IS) and hardness independently. A model is developed to correlate the relations between the hardness/impact strength with tool rotation and weld speed using neural networks. The optimized process conditions are predicted to improvise the impact strength and hardness of the weld. Further, the morphology of the weld is studied using SEM to know the material flow characteristics.

  7. Fractal analysis of surface micro-topography for a rolled anisotropic thick sheet of aluminium alloy AA2024-T351

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirva, E.; Tudor, A.; Gavrus, A.

    2016-08-01

    Fractal geometry has gained attention in recent years and represents a problem of high interest for the characterization of surface topography. In this study it was analyzed the surface micro-topography for a rolled thick sheet anisotropic metallic material of type 2000 series aluminium alloy (AA2024-T351). In order to analyze and to characterize the corresponding anisotropic surfaces, profile of particular samples were recorded with a specialized apparatus Mitutoyo SJ-301 (Japan). The random nature of the roughness height is described through statistical analysis. The irregularity of the surface profile has been measured using a lot of conventional surface roughness parameters such as: arithmetic average, mean square root, maximum height of the profile, etc. Fractal analysis provides a useful way to characterize the observed spatial complexity of surface micro-topography. For this study it was used the structural function method to calculate two specific fractal parameters: D (fractal dimension) and L (topothesy). The fractal dimension of all samples it's been be calculated by plotting curves on log-log axes.

  8. The analysis of initiation and growth of cracks in diffusion aluminium coatings on ZS6U alloy in conditions of thermal fatigue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper deals with the analysis of thermal fatigue of nickel based ZS6U super alloy with 'Si-Ai' and 'Cr-Al' aluminium diffusion coatings. The processes of initiation and growth of cracks in diffusion coating in the conditions of cyclic changing temperature (500 oC - 950 oC) and simultaneous Fo constant axial force loading have been analysed. The results of numerical calculations of stress distribution in the specimen with aluminium coatings have been presented. They enabled to elaborate the models of mechanical behaviour of coatings, which in turn helped to explain different character of cracks in the assumed experimental conditions. Thermal fatigue tests performed at lower static component of Fo loading spectrum proved that aluminium coatings obtained in course of 'Si-Al' process show the highest lifetime respectively of their thickness. Moreover, the lifetime of 'Si-Al' aluminium coatings decreases together with the increase of static component of load fatigue spectrum unlike in case of 'Cr-Al' coatings. (author)

  9. INFLUENCE OF PROCESSING ON SHAPE MEMORY EFFECT OF Fe-Mn-Si-Ni-C-RE SHAPE MEMORY ALLOY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    N.C. Si; Z.H. Jia; L.B. Qi

    2003-01-01

    Effect of carbon, compound RE, quenching temperature, pre-strain and recovery temperature on shape memory effect (SME) of Fe-Mn-Si-Ni-C-RE shape memory alloy was studied by bent measurement, thermal cycle training, SEM etc. It was shown that the grains of alloys addition with .compound RE became finer and SME increased evidently. SME of the alloy was weakening gradually as carbon content increased under small strain (3%o). But in the condition of large strain (more than 6%), SME of the alloy whose carbon content range from 0.1% to 0.12% showed small decreasing range, especially of alloy with the addition of compound RE. Results were also indicated that SME was improved by increasing quenching temperature (>1000℃). The amount of thermal induced martensite increased and the relative shape recovery ratio could be increased to more than 40% after 3-4 times thermal training. The relative shape recovery ratio decreased evidently depending on rising of pre-strain. Furthermore, because speed of martensite transition was extremely great under higher tempering temperature (more than 450℃), ε→γtransition completed in 1os meanwhile the relative shape recovery ratio of the alloy increased rapidly.

  10. Shape memory effect and superelasticity of titanium nickelide alloys implanted with high ion doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The state of the art in ion implantation of superelastic NiTi shape memory alloys is analyzed. Various technological applications of the shape memory effect are outlined. The principles and techiques of ion implantation are described. Specific features of its application for modification of surface layers in surface engineering are considered. Key properties of shape memory alloys and problems in utilization of ion implantation to improve the surface properties of shape memory alloys, such as corrosion resistance, friction coefficient, wear resistance, etc. are discussed. The bibliography includes 162 references

  11. Applications of Shape Memory Alloys for Neurology and Neuromuscular Rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Pittaccio

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Shape memory alloys (SMAs are a very promising class of metallic materials that display interesting nonlinear properties, such as pseudoelasticity (PE, shape memory effect (SME and damping capacity, due to high mechanical hysteresis and internal friction. Our group has applied SMA in the field of neuromuscular rehabilitation, designing some new devices based on the mentioned SMA properties: in particular, a new type of orthosis for spastic limb repositioning, which allows residual voluntary movement of the impaired limb and has no predetermined final target position, but follows and supports muscular elongation in a dynamic and compliant way. Considering patients in the sub-acute phase after a neurological lesion, and possibly bedridden, the paper presents a mobiliser for the ankle joint, which is designed exploiting the SME to provide passive exercise to the paretic lower limb. Two different SMA-based applications in the field of neuroscience are then presented, a guide and a limb mobiliser specially designed to be compatible with diagnostic instrumentations that impose rigid constraints in terms of electromagnetic compatibility and noise distortion. Finally, the paper discusses possible uses of these materials in the treatment of movement disorders, such as dystonia or hyperkinesia, where their dynamic characteristics can be advantageous.

  12. Martensitic phase transformation in shape-memory alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isothermal studies are described of the shape-recovery phenomenon, stress-strain behavior, electrical resistivity and thermo-electric power associated with the martensite-parent phase reaction in the Ni-Ti shape-memory alloys. The energy-balance equation that links the reaction kinetics with the strain energy change during the cooling-deforming and heating cycle is analyzed. The strain range in which the Clausius-Clapeyron equation satisfactorily describes this reaction is determined. A large change in the Young's modulus of the specimen is found to be associated with the M → P reaction. A hysteresis loop in the resistivity-temperature plot is found and related to the anomaly in the athermal resistivity changes during cyclic M → P → M transformation. An explanation for the resistivity anomaly is offered. The M structure is found to be electrically negative relative to the P structure. A thermal emf of greater than or equal to 0.12 mV is found at the M-P interface

  13. Bioinspired Soft Actuation System Using Shape Memory Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Cianchetti

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Soft robotics requires technologies that are capable of generating forces even though the bodies are composed of very light, flexible and soft elements. A soft actuation mechanism was developed in this work, taking inspiration from the arm of the Octopus vulgaris, specifically from the muscular hydrostat which represents its constitutive muscular structure. On the basis of the authors’ previous works on shape memory alloy (SMA springs used as soft actuators, a specific arrangement of such SMA springs is presented, which is combined with a flexible braided sleeve featuring a conical shape and a motor-driven cable. This robot arm is able to perform tasks in water such as grasping, multi-bending gestures, shortening and elongation along its longitudinal axis. The whole structure of the arm is described in detail and experimental results on workspace, bending and grasping capabilities and generated forces are presented. Moreover, this paper demonstrates that it is possible to realize a self-contained octopus-like robotic arm with no rigid parts, highly adaptable and suitable to be mounted on underwater vehicles. Its softness allows interaction with all types of objects with very low risks of damage and limited safety issues, while at the same time producing relatively high forces when necessary.

  14. The Effect of Dynamic Compression on the Evolution of Microstructure in Aluminium and its Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leszczyńska-Madet B.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available W pracy przedstawiono wyniki badań mikrostruktury i wybranych właściwości polikrystalicznego aluminium i jego stopów: AlMg5, AlCu4Zr0.5, AlZn6Mg2.5CuZr ściskanych dynamicznie za pomocą młota spadowego. Próbki odkształcano w zakresie odkształceń rzeczywistych = 0-0.62 z prędkością odkształcenia z zakresu 1.77-6.06x102 s-1. Na tak odkształconych materiałach przeprowadzono pomiar mikrotwardości oraz badania mikrostruktury przy zastosowaniu transmisyjnego mikrosko- pu elektronowego (TEM i mikroskopu świetlnego (LM, dodatkowo przeprowadzono pomiar dezorientacji w mikroobszarach metodą linii Kikuchiego przy zastosowaniu oprogramowania KILIN. Cechą charakterystyczną mikrostruktury badanych materiałów były licznie obserwowane pasma i pasma ścinania. Wyniki uzyskane przy zastosowaniu transmisyjnego mikroskopu elektronowego dowiodły występowania licznych mikropasm i mikro- pasm ścinania, które w zależności od materiału przebiegały na tle różnych układów dyslokacyjnych. Obserwowane mikropasma wykazywały dużą dezorientację względem osnowy. Stwierdzono wzajemnie przecinanie się mikropasm. W zakresie wyższych wartości odkształcenia, mikropasma wypełniały niemal całą objętość próbek. Zaobserwowano zależność zmniejszania się średniej szerokości i mikropasm wraz ze wzrostem wielkości odkształcenia i prędkości odkształcenia. Praca miała na celu określenie wpływu prędkości odkształcenia (1.77x10' - 6.06xl02s_1 na możliwość rozdrobnienia mikrostruktury polikrystalicznego aluminium A199.5 i jego stopów (AlMg5, AlCu4Zr0.5, AlZn6Mg2.5CuZr odkształcanych w procesie dynamicznego ściskania za pomocą młota spadowego.

  15. Continuous sodium modification of nearly-eutectic aluminium alloys. Part II. Experimental studiem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Białobrzeski A.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the possible means of continuous sodium modification of nearly-eutectic alloys may be continuous electrolysis of sodium compounds (salts, taking place directly in metal bath (in the crucible. For this process it is necessary to use a solid electrolyte conducting sodium ions. Under the effect of the applied direct current voltage, sodium salt placed in a retort made from the solid electrolyte undergoes dissociation, and next - electrolysis. The retort is immersed in liquid metal. The anode is sodium salt, at that temperature occurring in liquid state, connected to the direct current source through, e.g. a graphite electrode, while cathode is the liquid metal. Sodium ions formed during the sodium salt dissociation and electrolysis are transported through the wall of the solid electrolyte (the material of the retort and in contact with liquid alloy acting as a cathode, they are passing into atomic state, modifying the metal bath.

  16. Study of corrosion of aluminium alloys of nuclear purity in ordinary water, пart one

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pešić Milan P.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Effects of corrosion of aluminum alloys of nuclear purity in ordinary water of the spent fuel storage pool of the RA research reactor at VINČA Institute of Nuclear Sciences has been examined in the frame work of the International Atomic Energy Agency Coordinated Research Project "Corrosion of Research Reactor Aluminum-Clad Spent Fuel in Water" since 2002. The study presented in this paper comprises activities on determination and monitoring of chemical parameters and radio activity of water and sludge in the RA spent fuel storage pool and results of the initial study of corrosion effects obtained by visual examinations of surfaces of various coupons made of aluminum alloys of nuclear purity of the test racks exposed to the pool water for a period from six months to six years.

  17. Researches and studies regarding brazed aluminium alloys microstructure used in aeronautic industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Dimitrescu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Brazing is applied to the merge of the pieces which are most required, tensile strength of the solder can reach high values. By brazing there can be assembled pieces of most metals and ferrous and nonferrous alloys, with high melting temperature. This paper presents an analysis of the microstructure of materials from a brazed merge of aluminum alloy L103 which is often used to produce pieces of aeronautical industry. Brazing material was performed using several technologies, and after examination of the microstructure of materials from the merge area it was established as optimal technology the technology which consist of pickling in Aloclene 100 solution with the deposition of filler material on both sides of the base material and the use of spectral acetylene and neutral flame.

  18. Corrosion behaviour of ion implanted aluminium alloy in 0.1 M NaCl electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, J.W.; Evans, P.J. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia); Sood, D.K. [Royal Melbourne Inst. of Tech., VIC (Australia)

    1993-12-31

    Aluminum and its alloys are widely used in industry because of their light weight, high strength and good corrosion resistance which is due to the formation of a protective oxide layer. However, under saline conditions such as those encountered in marine environments, this group of metals are vulnerable to localised degradation in the form of pitting corrosion. This type of corrosion involves the adsorption of an anion, such as chlorine, at the oxide solution interface. Ion implantation of metal ions has been shown to improve the corrosion resistance of a variety of materials. This effect occurs : when the implanted species reduces anion adsorption thereby decreasing the corrosion rate. In this paper we report on the pitting behavior of Ti implanted 2011 Al alloy in dilute sodium chloride solution. The Ti implanted surfaces exhibited an increased pitting potential and a reduced oxygen uptake. 5 refs., 3 figs.

  19. Effect of cold deformation on structure and properties of aluminium alloy 1441 sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of tensile deformation on the 1441 alloy (Al-Cu-Mg-Li-Zr) in four states: quenched; quenched, straightened and naturally aged; annealed; quenched, straightened and artificially aged one, has been studied. It has been ascertained that deformation after quenching results in a considerable growth of yield strength. Artificial aging makes an insignificant contribution to stregthening of deformed sheet. 2 refs.; 4 figs

  20. Investigation on mechanical behaviour of ECAPed 2A12 aluminium alloy

    OpenAIRE

    Wang Cun-xian; Zhang Chao; Wang Lei; Tang Zhong-bin; Suo Tao

    2015-01-01

    In the present work, the uniaxial compressive behavior of aluminum alloy processed by equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) for 1–8 passes are investigated experimentally under both quasi-static and dynamic loading conditions via an electronic universal testing machine with a maximum load capacity of 10KN and the split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB). The strain hardening rate as well as strain rate sensitivity the ECAPed with different passes have been determined and compared with annealed coa...

  1. Ultrasonic location for core end of Al-Li alloy and aluminium composite tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The locating method of the core end of Al-Li alloy is studied by ultrasonic wave time-frequency analysis. Adopting the high frequency and narrow pulse emission the composite metal tube can be located by means of the states of longitudinal wave and transverse wave. The dissection of the sample proves that the core end thickness is 0.1 mm and the location precision is 2 mm

  2. Study of corrosion of aluminium alloys of nuclear purity in ordinary water, пart one

    OpenAIRE

    Pešić Milan P.; Maksin Tatjana N.; Jordanov Gabrijela; Dobrijević Rajko; Iđaković Zoja E.

    2004-01-01

    Effects of corrosion of aluminum alloys of nuclear purity in ordinary water of the spent fuel storage pool of the RA research reactor at VINČA Institute of Nuclear Sciences has been examined in the frame work of the International Atomic Energy Agency Coordinated Research Project "Corrosion of Research Reactor Aluminum-Clad Spent Fuel in Water" since 2002. The study presented in this paper comprises activities on determination and monitoring of chemical parameters and radio activity of water a...

  3. Composite materials based on porous ceramic preform infiltrated by aluminium alloy

    OpenAIRE

    Nagel, A.; A. J. Nowak; M. Kremzer; L.A. Dobrzański

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The goal of this project is the optimization of manufacturing technology of the ceramic preforms basedon Al2O3 powder manufactured by the pressure infiltration method with liquid metal alloy.Design/methodology/approach: Ceramic preforms were manufactured by the method of sintering of ceramicpowder. The preform material consists of powder Condea Al2O3 CL 2500, however, as the forming factor ofthe structure of canals and pores inside the ceramic agglomerated framework the carbon fibers...

  4. Continuous sodium modification of nearly-eutectic aluminium alloys. Part I. Theoretical backgrounds of the process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Białobrzeski A.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the possible techniques of continuous sodium modification of nearly-eutectic alloys is continuous electrolysis of sodium compounds (salts, taking place directly in metal bath (in crucible. For this process it is necessary to use a solid electrolyte conducting sodium ions. The main properties and methods to obtain solid electrolyte of „beta alumina” were highlighted, along with the possibilities of its application in foundry metallurgical processes.

  5. Investigation on mechanical behaviour of ECAPed 2A12 aluminium alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cun-xian; Zhang, Chao; Wang, Lei; Tang, Zhong-bin; Suo, Tao

    2015-09-01

    In the present work, the uniaxial compressive behavior of aluminum alloy processed by equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) for 1-8 passes are investigated experimentally under both quasi-static and dynamic loading conditions via an electronic universal testing machine with a maximum load capacity of 10KN and the split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB). The strain hardening rate as well as strain rate sensitivity the ECAPed with different passes have been determined and compared with annealed coarse grained counterpart. The experimental results show a continuously increase of both flow stress and strain rate sensitivity for the aluminum alloy subjected to ECAP process as the pressing pass number increasing. It is proposed that the reduction in grain size plays an important role in the enhancement of flow stress and strain rate sensitivity. However, the strain hardening rate of the ECAPed materials decreases remarkably. Meanwhile, compressive experiments at elevated temperatures indicate the temperature sensitivity of the material increases as the grain size is refined into fine grain regime. Based on thermal activation theory, it is proposed that the enhanced temperature and strain rate sensitivity of ECAPed aluminum alloy can be related to the reduction in activation volume due to grain refinement.

  6. Investigation on mechanical behaviour of ECAPed 2A12 aluminium alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Cun-xian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, the uniaxial compressive behavior of aluminum alloy processed by equal channel angular pressing (ECAP for 1–8 passes are investigated experimentally under both quasi-static and dynamic loading conditions via an electronic universal testing machine with a maximum load capacity of 10KN and the split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB. The strain hardening rate as well as strain rate sensitivity the ECAPed with different passes have been determined and compared with annealed coarse grained counterpart. The experimental results show a continuously increase of both flow stress and strain rate sensitivity for the aluminum alloy subjected to ECAP process as the pressing pass number increasing. It is proposed that the reduction in grain size plays an important role in the enhancement of flow stress and strain rate sensitivity. However, the strain hardening rate of the ECAPed materials decreases remarkably. Meanwhile, compressive experiments at elevated temperatures indicate the temperature sensitivity of the material increases as the grain size is refined into fine grain regime. Based on thermal activation theory, it is proposed that the enhanced temperature and strain rate sensitivity of ECAPed aluminum alloy can be related to the reduction in activation volume due to grain refinement.

  7. Some effects of solidification kinetics on microstructure formation in aluminium-base alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, H. [Department of Engineering Materials, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom)

    2005-12-15

    The development of rapid solidification technologies and their effects has provided a stimulus to seek a deeper understanding of the mechanisms by which kinetics determine solidification microstructure formation, including its scale, morphology and phase constitution. Successful application of model predictions to real situations involves coupling of heat and fluid flow considerations to the thermodynamics and kinetics of competing solidification reactions. A key element in this competition is the formation temperature of the contending constituents and their morphologies which is beyond the present scope of experimental determination at the extremes of most rapid solidification processes. The present contribution focuses on recent work on measurements of formation temperature of constituents in Al-based alloys during Bridgman solidification for comparison with model predictions. Together with associated microstructural observations, the results indicate control by heterogeneous nucleation in the case of polygonal primary silicon in hypereutectic Al-Si alloys, while competitive growth is controlling for aluminide dendrites in Al-Fe, Al-Ni and Al-Ce or Al-La alloys, for which measured tip undercoolings accord well with values calculated from dendrite growth models. Also, values of equilibrium eutectic temperature obtained by extrapolation to zero growth velocity of growth temperatures in such systems agree well with reliable values obtained by other methods and values of kinetic constants for dendrites and eutectics derived from measured velocities for extinction of the dendritic constituent are shown to be in good accord with direct measurements.

  8. Long-order recover in radiation-disordered copper-aluminium and copper-titanium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work is considered the results of study of an influence neutron irradiation and a conditions of after irradiating annealing on the structure of intermetallics Cu9Al4, Ti3Al and (TiNb)3Al. The samples's irradiation was conducted in the WWR-K reactor's wet channel by neutrons with the energy E>0.1 MV and under the temperature T≤ 80 deg C and the fluence interval 1·10-21-1,9·10-24 n/m-2. It determined, that in consequence of irradiation in the regulated field alloy's matrix the local micro-fields with disordered lattice is formed. This is witness about heterogeneous character of the disorder processes. The study of changes of preliminary irradiated alloys under after radiation heating was conducted in the high temperature vacuum x-ray chamber. The intermetallic Ti3Al by the non-irradiated condition does not disordered even in the two-phase field (α2+β) under temperature 950 deg C. The regulation of radiation-disordered samples is beginning under 350-450 deg C on dependence from preliminary fluence of irradiation. The long-order recover in radiation disordered Cu9AL4 alloy under heating is conducted in the two stages. In the fist stage the phase with regulated placement of the atoms in the one of sublattices of main intermetallic structure is formed, in the second one the regulation of the atoms in the lattice knots of whole combination

  9. Emission of nanoparticles during friction stir welding (FSW) of aluminium alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, J F; Miranda, R M; Santos, T J; Carvalho, P A

    2014-01-01

    Friction stir welding (FSW) is now well established as a welding process capable of joining some different types of metallic materials, as it was (1) found to be a reliable and economical way of producing high quality welds, and (2) considered a "clean" welding process that does not involve fusion of metal, as is the case with other traditional welding processes. The aim of this study was to determine whether the emission of particles during FSW in the nanorange of the most commonly used aluminum (Al) alloys, AA 5083 and AA 6082, originated from the Al alloy itself due to friction of the welding tool against the item that was being welded. Another goal was to measure Al alloys in the alveolar deposited surface area during FSW. Nanoparticles dimensions were predominantly in the 40- and 70-nm range. This study demonstrated that microparticles were also emitted during FSW but due to tool wear. However, the biological relevance and toxic manifestations of these microparticles remain to be determined.

  10. Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Forging Process to Reproduce a 3D Aluminium Foam Complex Shape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metallic foams represent one of the most exciting materials introduced in the manufacturing scenario in the last years. In the study here addressed, the experimental and numerical investigations on the forging process of a simple foam billet shaped into complex sculptured parts were carried out. In particular, the deformation behavior of metallic foams and the development of density gradients were investigated through a series of experimental forging tests in order to produce a selected portion of a hip prosthesis. The human bone replacement was chosen as case study due to its industrial demand and for its particular 3D complex shape. A finite element code (Deform 3D) was utilized for modeling the foam behavior during the forging process and an accurate material rheology description was used based on a porous material model which includes the measured local density. Once the effectiveness of the utilized Finite Element model was verified through the comparison with the experimental evidences, a numerical study of the influence of the foam density was investigated. The obtained numerical results shown as the initial billet density plays an important role on the prediction of the final shape, the optimization of the flash as well as the estimation of the punch load

  11. The neutron structural analysis in studies of diffusionless phase transitions in shape memory alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The characteristics of alloys with the shape memory effect are presented. The physical nature of the process of a change in the shape is examined. The structure of the high-manganese alloys of Mn-Cu system with the shape memory is described. The role of neutron analysis in studies of structural transformations in Mn-Cu alloys is shown. On the basis of the results of measuring the temperature dependences of internal friction in the magnetic fields of different magnetizing force, the presence of the magnetic contribution to the pretransition anomalies in Mn-Cu alloys is assumed. The prospects of applying the neutron analysis in studies of alloys with the memory of form generally and, in particular, in the Mn-Cu alloys are shown

  12. Computational prediction of the refinement of oxide agglomerates in a physical conditioning process for molten aluminium alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, M.; Jagarlapudi, S. C.; Patel, J. B.; Stone, I. C.; Fan, Z.; Browne, D. J.

    2015-06-01

    Physically conditioning molten scrap aluminium alloys using high shear processing (HSP) was recently found to be a promising technology for purification of contaminated alloys. HSP refines the solid oxide agglomerates in molten alloys, so that they can act as sites for the nucleation of Fe-rich intermetallic phases which can subsequently be removed by the downstream de-drossing process. In this paper, a computational modelling for predicting the evolution of size of oxide clusters during HSP is presented. We used CFD to predict the macroscopic flow features of the melt, and the resultant field predictions of temperature and melt shear rate were transferred to a population balance model (PBM) as its key inputs. The PBM is a macroscopic model that formulates the microscopic agglomeration and breakage of a population of a dispersed phase. Although it has been widely used to study conventional deoxidation of liquid metal, this is the first time that PBM has been used to simulate the melt conditioning process within a rotor/stator HSP device. We employed a method which discretizes the continuous profile of size of the dispersed phase into a collection of discrete bins of size, to solve the governing population balance equation for the size of agglomerates. A finite volume method was used to solve the continuity equation, the energy equation and the momentum equation. The overall computation was implemented mainly using the FLUENT module of ANSYS. The simulations showed that there is a relatively high melt shear rate between the stator and sweeping tips of the rotor blades. This high shear rate leads directly to significant fragmentation of the initially large oxide aggregates. Because the process of agglomeration is significantly slower than the breakage processes at the beginning of HSP, the mean size of oxide clusters decreases very rapidly. As the process of agglomeration gradually balances the process of breakage, the mean size of oxide clusters converges to a

  13. Modelling of plastic flow localization and damage development in friction stir welded 6005A aluminium alloy using physics based strain hardening law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kim Lau; Pardoen, Thomas; Tvergaard, Viggo;

    2010-01-01

    Plastic flow localisation and ductile failure during tensile testing of friction stir welded aluminium spec- imens are investigated with a specific focus on modelling the local, finite strain, hardening response. In the experimental part, friction stir welds in a 6005A-T6 aluminium alloy were...... prepared and analysed using digital image correlation (DIC) during tensile testing as well as scanning electron microscopy (SEM) on polished samples and on fracture surfaces. The locations of the various regions of the weld were determined based on hardness measurements, while the flow behaviour...... of these zones was extracted from micro-tensile specimens cut parallel to the welding direction. The measured material properties and weld topology were introduced into a 3D finite element model, fully coupled with the damage model. A Voce law hardening model involving a constant stage IV is used within...

  14. The effects of alloying elements Al and In on Ni-Mn-Ga shape memory alloys, from first principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jie; Li, Yan; Shang, Jia-Xiang; Xu, Hui-Bin

    2009-01-28

    The electronic structures and formation energies of the Ni(9)Mn(4)Ga(3-x)Al(x) and Ni(9)Mn(4)Ga(3-x)In(x) alloys have been investigated using the first-principles pseudopotential plane-wave method based on density functional theory. The results show that both the austenite and martensite phases of Ni(9)Mn(4)Ga(3) alloy are stabilized by Al alloying, while they become unstable with In alloying. According to the partial density of states and structural energy analysis, different effects of Al and In alloying on the phase stability are mainly attributed to their chemical effects. The formation energy difference between the austenite and martensite phases decreases with Al or In alloying, correlating with the experimentally reported changes in martensitic transformation temperature. The shape factor plays an important role in the decrease of the formation energy difference.

  15. Phases stability of shape memory alloys Cu based under irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of irradiation on the relative phase stability of phases related by a martensitic transformation in copper based shape memory alloys were studied in this work.Different kind of particles and energies were employed in the irradiation experiments.The first kind of irradiation was performed with 2,6 MeV electrons, the second one with 170 keV and 300 keV Cu ions and the third one with swift heavy ions (Kr, Xe, Au) with energies between 200 and 600 MeV.Stabilization of the 18 R martensite in Cu-Zn-Al-Ni induced by electron irradiation was studied.The results were compared to those of the stabilization induced by quenching and ageing in the same alloy, and the ones obtained by irradiation in 18 R-Cu-Zn-Al alloys.The effects of Cu irradiation over b phase were analyzed with several electron microscopy techniques including: scanning electron microscopy (S E M), high resolution electron microscopy (H R E M), micro diffraction and X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (E D S). Structural changes in Cu-Zn-Al b phase into a closed packed structure were induced by Cu ion implantation.The closed packed structures depend on the irradiation fluence.Based on these results, the interface between these structures (closed packed and b) and the stability of disordered phases were analyzed. It was also compared the evolution of long range order in the Cu-Zn-Al and in the Cu-Zn-Al-Ni b phase as a function of fluence.The evolution of the g phase was also compared. Both results were discussed in terms of the mobility of irradiation induced point defects.Finally, the effects induced by swift heavy ions in b phase and 18 R martensite were studied. The results of the irradiation in b phase were qualitatively similar to those produced by irradiation with lower energies. On the contrary, nano metric defects were found in the irradiated 18 R martensite.These defects were characterized by H R E M.The characteristic contrast of the defects was associated to a local change in the

  16. Magnetoelastic coupling in nickel manganese gallium ferromagnetic shape memory alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Peng

    NiMnGa alloys have attracted extensive attention because their ferromagnetic characteristic provides an additional degree of freedom to control both the shape memory effect and the multi-stage phase transformations in this Heusler system. Technically, along with the large magnetic-field-induced strains, NiMnGa alloys exhibit giant magnetocaloric effect due to their magnetic entropy changes associated with the coupled magnetostructural transitions. Fundamentally, a sequence of phase transformations, manifesting itself by a rich variety of physical anomalies on cooling to the martensitic transformation (MT) temperature TM, has been established. However, in comparison to the intensive studies of structural transformations, the magnetic properties of NiMnGa premartensite were hardly touched. The purpose of this research is to (i) investigate the temperature dependence of the magnetic driving force of martensitic NiMnGa, which is a critical factor to determine the actuation temperature window of this material; and (ii) understand the magnetoelastic coupling enhanced precursor effects, especially the unique magnetic behavior of NiMnGa premartensite. The singular point detection technique has been applied to determine the magnetic anisotropy constant K1 of a martensitic Ni49.0 Mn23.5Ga27.5 (wt%) crystal. As expected, K 1 increases with decreasing temperatures below TM of 276 K, following a magnetization power law K1(T)/K1(0)=(M s(T)/Ms(0))3. However, the force required to initiate twin boundary motion increases exponentially with decreasing temperature. The combination of both temperature dependences leads to a very restricted temperature window for magnetic actuation using this alloy. The premartensitic transformation has been established by means of neutron powder diffraction and measurements of elastic constants of C44 and C'. The premartensitic phase has been verified by the stiffening of C 44 prior to the MT. The slope change of C' at TC positively confirms that the

  17. Study on Cold Metal Transfer(CMT)Welding of Aluminium Alloy Sheet with Space Curve Weld%薄板铝合金空间曲线焊缝CMT焊接试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田志杰; 熊林玉; 李延民; 周庆; 杜岩峰; 李鸣钺

    2015-01-01

    针对薄板铝合金三维曲线焊缝较大的残余应力和焊接变形,进行了冷金属过渡(CMT)无垫板自动焊试验研究,分析了电流、焊接速度、弧长修正、保护气流量对焊接过程的影响,进行了接头拉伸性能试验及焊缝微观组织研究,并焊接了变形小的产品。结果表明,利用合理的焊接参数,可实现厚度1.5 mm的5 A06铝合金的无垫板CMT焊接,焊缝成形稳定均匀,焊接接头抗拉强度值达到347 MPa,接头断裂位置在热影响区。无垫板CMT焊接技术可用于薄板铝合金空间曲线焊缝的焊接。%For the higher residual stress and distortion of aluminium alloy sheet with three-dimensional curve weld,no-liner plate auto-welding was studied.The effect of current,speed,arc voltage,gas flux were investigated.The tensile performance and microstructure of joint were determined.The product with little weld distortion was manufactured.The results show that 1 .5 mm thick 5 A06 aluminium alloy three-dimen-sional curve weld can be achieved by reasonable no-liner plate CMT parameters.The weld shape is stable and uniform,tensile strength reached 347 MPa,fracture occurred in HAZ.No-liner plate CMT welding technology can be used in space curve welding for the aluminium alloy sheet.

  18. Thermomechanical response of shape memory alloy hybrid composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Travis L.

    2000-10-01

    This study examines the use of embedded shape memory alloy (SMA) actuators for adaptive control of the themomechanical response of composite structures. Control of static and dynamic responses are demonstrated including thermal buckling, thermal post-buckling, vibration, sonic fatigue, and acoustic transmission. A thermomechanical model is presented for analyzing such shape memory alloy hybrid composite (SMAHC) structures exposed to thermal and mechanical loads. Also presented are (1) fabrication procedures for SMAHC specimens, (2) characterization of the constituent materials for model quantification, (3) development of the test apparatus for conducting static and dynamic experiments on specimens with and without SMA, (4) discussion of the experimental results, and (5) validation of the analytical and numerical tools developed in the study. The constitutive model developed to describe the mechanics of a SMAHC lamina captures the material nonlinearity with temperature of the SMA and matrix material if necessary. It is in a form that is amenable to commercial finite element (FE) code implementation. The model is valid for constrained, restrained, or free recovery configurations with appropriate measurements of fundamental engineering properties. This constitutive model is used along with classical lamination theory and the FE method to formulate the equations of motion for panel-type structures subjected to steady-state thermal and dynamic mechanical loads. Mechanical loads that are considered include acoustic pressure, inertial (base acceleration), and concentrated forces. Four solution types are developed from the governing equations including thermal buckling, thermal post-buckling, dynamic response, and acoustic transmission/radiation. These solution procedures are compared with closed-form and/or other known solutions to benchmark the numerical tools developed in this study. Practical solutions for overcoming fabrication issues and obtaining repeatable

  19. Surface aspects in fatigue of shape memory alloys (SMA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hornbogen, E.; Eggeler, G. [Institut fuer Werkstoffe, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, Universitaetsstrasse 150, D-44801 Bochum (Germany)

    2004-05-01

    The present paper briefly reviews the role of surfaces in fatigue of shape memory alloys (SMAs). When polished and defect free austenitic surfaces are cooled to lower temperatures, the martensitic transformation creates a pattern of surface upheavals; and an inverse pattern forms when polished and defect free martensite is heated. In full transformation cycles (heating followed by cooling or cooling followed by heating) high quality surfaces can only be re-established if no fatigue occurs. After multiple cycling intrusions and extrusions can be detected which represent fatigue damage accumulation. Cracks can grow from extrusions and intrusions. We also show that fatigue cracking can start from surface defects which are for example introduced by wire drawing. We then briefly discuss surface treatments which are intended to improve fatigue resistance of shape memory alloys. These may consist in the modification of the SMA microstructure in the surface region (by deformation or diffusion treatments). They can also involve coating procedures where other elements are deposited on the SMA surface. However, SMA performance and the intensity of exploitable SM effects are usually reduced by surface treatments. (Abstract Copyright [2004], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.) [German] Es wird ein Ueberblick ueber die Rolle von Oberflaechen bei der Ermuedung von Formgedaechtnislegierungen (FGL) gegeben. Wenn eine polierte und fehlerfreie Austenitoberflaeche gekuehlt wird, erzeugt die Martensitbildung ein rauhes Oberflaechenrelief. Und umgekehrt fuehrt auch das Aufheizen einer polierten martensitischen Oberflaeche zu Oberflaechenrauhigkeiten. Vollstaendige Umwandlungszyklen (Kuehlen/Heizen von Austenit bzw. Heizen/Kuehlen von Martensit) koennen urspruenglich glatte Oberflaechen nur dann wieder herstellen, wenn Ermuedung vermieden werden kann. Nach vielfachem Zyklieren koennen in den FG Oberflaechen Extrusionen und Intrusionen nachgewiesen werden; diese stellen eine mikrostrukturelle

  20. Microstructure and composition of rare earth-transition metal-aluminium-magnesium alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lia Maria Carlotti Zarpelon

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The determination of the microstructure and chemical composition of La0.7-xPr xMg0.3Al 0.3Mn0.4Co0.5 Ni3.8 (0 < x < 0.7 metal hydride alloys has been carried out using scanning electron microscopy (SEM, energy dispersive X ray analysis (EDX and X ray diffraction analysis (XRD. The substitution of La with Pr changed the grain structure from equiaxial to columnar. The relative atomic ratio of rare earth to (Al, Mn, Co, Ni in the matrix phase was 1:5 (LaNi5-type structure. Magnesium was detected only in two other phases present. A grey phase revealed 11 at.% Mg and the concentration ratios of other elements indicated the composition to be close to PrMgNi4. A dark phase was very heterogeneous in composition, attributed to the as-cast state of these alloys. The phases identified by XRD analysis in the La0.7Mg0.3Al0.3Mn0.4Co 0.5Ni3.8 alloy were: La(Ni,Co5, LaAl(Ni,Co4, La2(Ni,Co7 and AlMn(Ni,Co2. Praseodymium favors the formation of a phase with a PuNi3-type structure. Cobalt substituted Ni in the structures and yielded phases of the type: Pr(Ni,Co5 and Pr(Ni,Co3.