Nuclear Power Plan Operation Safety needs serious handling on temperature measurement and control. In this report has been done manufacturing Temperature Control System for Chromel-Alumel Thermocouple, accordance to material, equipment and human resource ability in the laboratory. Basic component for the Temperature Control System is LM-741 type of Operation Amplifier, which is functionalized as summer for voltage comparator. Function test for this Control System shown its ability for damping on temperature reference. The Temperature Control System will be implemented on PCB Processing Machine. (author)
Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) was used to determine why sheathed chromel versus alumel thermocouples decalibrate when exposed to temperatures above 11000C. Two thermocouples, one sheathed in inconel-600 and the other in type 304 stainless steel, were studied. Quantified SIMS data showed that these thermocouples decalibrated because significant alterations in the elemental composition of the chromel and alumel thermoelements occurred. (Auth.)
1. Before the prototype Advanced Gas Cooled Reactor at Windscale (WAGR) was finally shut down at the close of its life in June 1981 a programme of concluding experiments, related to certain safety aspects of the Commercial Advanced Gas Cooled Reactors (CAGR), was completed. As part of that programme, some experiments were performed to examine the behaviour of AGR type stainless steel clad fuel pins under postulated operational fault conditions when the peak temperature of the fuel pin cladding approached near to its melting point (1370 deg. C approximately). With this objective, four WAGR fuel stringers were subjected in turn to either a coolant flow or reactor power induced transient lasting a few minutes and sufficient to raise the peak cladding temperature to approximately 1300 deg. C. These experiments were performed in one of the loop systems installed in WAGR which enabled fuel to be irradiated in the reactor core but within a separate pressure tube containment equipped with its own gas cooling system. Thus the in-loop fuel could be operated under temperature conditions different from the rest of the reactor core. 2. This paper is concerned with the thermocouple installation fitted to the experimental stringers to measure the high coolant gas and fuel pin cladding temperatures encountered during the experiments, the method of collecting and checking the data and the performance of the thermocouples during the experiments
A 5 x 25 = 125 detector array has been designed for a calorimeter. Each element is consisted of a graphite block and a chromel-alumel. A new '0'-point set up was designed by using the critical temperature of the liquid nitrogen as the '0'-point of the temperature. A FY-1 data acquisition system was used for the detector array. The energy distribution of the electron beam has been measured on large-area diode with the system
Mesquita, Amir Zacarias; Pinto, Antônio Juscelino; Cândido, Marco Antônio
O elemento combustível instrumentado (CI) é em todos os aspectos igual aos elementos combustíveis normais dos reatores de pesquisa TRIGA, exceto pela presença em seu centro de três termopares do tipo K (cromel-alumel). Em 2004 o CI foi colocado na posição de maior fluxo de nêutrons do núcleo do reator TRIGA IPR-R1, permanecendo neste local até junho de 2007. Durante este tempo seus termopares monitoraram a temperatura e a potência do núcleo em todas as operações, possibilitando ta...
Some current nuclear fuel experiments at CRNL require the use of thermocouples to measure temperatures of up to 22000C under reactor operating conditions. A literature search has shown that transient electrical effects and transmutation of the thermocouple alloys can cause temperature measurement errors of up to +-1% and +-30%, respectively. However, the error due to transient electrical effects can be corrected by making temperature measurements immediately following reactor shutdown. Furthermore it has been shown that transmutation effects can be corrected for by calibrating the high temperature tungsten-rhenium thermocouples against a chromel-alumel thermocouple in a cooler part of the experiment. The use of these techniques is expected to reduce temperature measurement errors to +-2% in the best case. (auth)
Mauser, Kelly W; Kim, Seyoon; Fleischman, Dagny; Atwater, Harry A
Photodetectors are typically based on photocurrent generation from electron-hole pairs in semiconductor structures and on bolometry for wavelengths that are below bandgap absorption. In both cases, resonant plasmonic and nanophotonic structures have been successfully used to enhance performance. In this work, we demonstrate subwavelength thermoelectric nanostructures designed for resonant spectrally selective absorption, which creates large enough localized temperature gradients to generate easily measureable thermoelectric voltages. We show that such structures are tunable and are capable of highly wavelength specific detection, with an input power responsivity of up to 119 V/W (referenced to incident illumination), and response times of nearly 3 kHz, by combining resonant absorption and thermoelectric junctions within a single structure, yielding a bandgap-independent photodetection mechanism. We report results for both resonant nanophotonic bismuth telluride-antimony telluride structures and chromel-alumel...
Electrical resistivity measurements have been done in (Y, Ba, Cu, O) - and (Y, A1, Ba, Cu, O) - based superconducting ceramics. The sintered specimens were prepared by applying gold electrodes and winding on the non-metalized part with a copper strip to be immersed in liquid nitrogen for cooling. The resistivity measurements have been done by the four-probe method. A copper-constantan or chromel-alumel thermocouple inserted between the specimen and the copper cold finger has been used for the determination of the critical temperature Tc. Details of the experimental set-up and resistivity versus temperature plots in the LNT-RT range for the superconducting ceramics are the major contributions of this communication. (author)
Electrical resistivity measurements have been done in (Y,Ba,Cu,O)- and (Y,Al,Ba,Cu,O)-based superconducting ceramics. The sintered specimens were prepared by applying gold electrodes and winding on the non-metalized part with a copper strip to be immersed in liquid nitrogen for cooling. The resistivity measurements have been done by the four-probe method. A copper constantan or chromel-alumel thermocouple inserted between the specimen and the copper cold finger has been used for the determination of the critical temperature Tc. Details of the experimental set-up and resistivity versus temperature plots in the LNT-RT range for the superconducting ceramics are the major contributions of this communication. (author)
Bernard, R.; Glises, R.; Chamagne, D.; Cuchet, D.; Kauffmann, J. M.
The aim of this work concerns the development and the validation of a thermal steady state model applied to a permanent magnet direct current motor with commutator. The rated power of the machine is 120 W. Design has been realized thanks to the thermal modulus of the computation software with the finite element method Flux3D. It is shown in this work how it is possible to use only the heat equation to simulate the thermal behaviour of the motor. It implies calculating of new fluid conductivities (considering also all thermal modes) by comparison of calculated and experimental temperatures. To realize these 3D modelizations, it is necessary to know and to locate all the losses of the motor which are considered as thermal sources. The experimental temperatures are given by 40 chromel-alumel thermocouples of 100 μm diameter located in the rotor and the stator of the machine. Numerical computations use Dirichlet boundary layer conditions given by an IR camera. Ce travail concerne le développement et la validation d'un modèle de simulation du comportement thermique tridimensionnel en régime permanent d'un moteur électrique de 120 watt à courant continu, à aimants permanents et à collecteur. Le logiciel est développé à partir du code de calculs par éléments finis Flux3D. L'équation de la chaleur modélise l'ensemble des transferts thermiques du moteur. Cela nécessite de recaler certains paramètres fluides par comparaison des températures simulées et expérimentales. Une séparation détaillée des différentes pertes est nécessaire pour obtenir une bonne précision finale. Un banc d'essais thermiques permet d'obtenir à l'aide de 40 thermocouples (chromel-alumel de 100 μm de diamètre) les températures au stator et au rotor. Une caméra thermographique infrarouge donne les conditions aux limites de Dirichlet nécessaires à la modélisation.
Marina, Olga A.; Pederson, Larry R.; Coyle, Christopher A.; Edwards, Danny J.; Chou, Yeong-Shyung; Cramer, Carolyn N.
Oxidation-resistant alloys find use as interconnect materials, heat exchangers, and gas supply tubing in solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) systems, especially when operated at temperatures below ∼800 °C. If fueled with synthesis gas derived from coal or biomass, such metallic components could be exposed to impurities contained in those fuel sources. In this study, coupons of ferritic stainless steels Crofer 22 APU and SS 441, austenitic nickel-chromium superalloy Inconel 600, and an alumina-forming high nickel alloy alumel were exposed to synthesis gas containing ≤2 ppm phosphorus, arsenic and antimony, and reaction products were tested. Crofer 22 APU coupons coated with a (Mn,Co) 3O 4 protective layer were also evaluated. Phosphorus was found to be the most reactive. On Crofer 22 APU, the (Mn,Cr) 3O 4 passivation layer reacted to form an Mn-P-O product, predicted to be manganese phosphate from thermochemical calculations, and Cr 2O 3. On SS 441, reaction of phosphorus with (Mn,Cr) 3O 4 led to the formation of manganese phosphate as well as an Fe-P product, predicted from thermochemical calculations to be Fe 3P. Minimal interactions with antimony or arsenic in synthesis gas were limited to Fe-Sb and Fe-As solid solution formation. Though not intended for use on the anode side, a (Mn,Co) 3O 4 spinel coating on Crofer 22 APU reacted with phosphorus in synthesis gas to produce products consistent with Mn 3(PO 4) 2 and Co 2P. A thin Cr 2O 3 passivation layer on Inconel 600 did not prevent the formation of nickel phosphides and arsenides and of iron phosphides and arsenides, though no reaction with Cr 2O 3 was apparent. On alumel, an Al 2O 3 passivation layer rich in Ni did not prevent the formation of nickel phosphides, arsenides, and antimonides, though no reaction with Al 2O 3 occurred. This work shows that unprotected metallic components of an SOFC stack and system can provide a sink for P, As and Sb impurities that may be present in fuel gases, and thus complicate
The SONACO test rig contained a sodium-cooled, electrically heated 37-pin bundle. On this rig, a series of forced, mixed and natural convection experiments have been performed with the aim of contributing to the understanding of thermal-hydraulic phenomena and providing data for code validation for a subassembly at decay heat power level with low flow or stagnant coolant. The test section and especially the heater pins were equipped with an extensive number of chromel-alumel thermocouples. In addition, special permanent-magnet probes were used for measuring local velocities. In this paper we give a survey of results from axial cooling experiments, where heat was removed by natural convection to a cooling coil situated in the coolant channel (plenum) above the bundle. The experimental conditions led to turbulent convection with a slowly varying, large scale flow pattern. It is shown that a power tilt in the bundle reduces these fluctuations but does not eliminate them. For the uniformly heated bundle, aglebraic expressions for the average turbulent heat flux as well as for temperature and velocity fluctuations are derived from a second-moments model and compared with experimental data. Furthermore, heat transfer in the plenum and the consequences of the SONACO experiments for the coolability of reactor fuel elements under loss-of-flow conditions are discussed. ((orig.))
Ranaweera, Manoj; Kim, Jung-Sik
Understanding the cell temperature distribution of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stacks during normal operation has multifaceted advantages in performance and degradation studies. Present efforts on measuring temperature from operating SOFCs measure only the gas channel temperature and do not reveal the cell level temperature distribution, which is more important for understanding a cell's performance and its temperature-related degradation. The authors propose a cell-integrated, multi-junction thermocouple array for in-situ cell surface temperature monitoring of an operational SOFC. The proposed thermocouple array requires far fewer numbers of thermoelements than that required by sets of thermocouples for the same number of temperature sensing points. Hence, the proposed array causes lower disturbance to cell performance than thermocouples. The thermoelement array was sputter deposited on the cathode of a commercial SOFC using alumel (Ni:Al:Mn:Si - 95:2:2:1 by wt.) and chromel (Ni:Cr - 90:10 by wt.). The thermocouple array was tested in a furnace over the entire operating temperature range of a typical SOFC. The individual sensing points of the array were shown to measure temperature independently from each other with equivalent accuracy to a thermocouple. Thus, the concept of multi-junction thermocouples is experimentally validated and its stability on a porous SOFC cathode is confirmed.
The emf produced by 5-μm-thick foil thermocouples when subjected to shock loading was studied over a stress range from 0.5 to 10 GPa. Thermocouples of either copper and constantan or chromel and alumel were embedded in the host materials, polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), Epon 828 epoxy, single-crystal Al2O3, or vitreous SiO2. The observed emf history rises to a plateau in a period that varied from less than 100 ns for Al2O3 to about 500 ns for PMMA. Temperatures inferred from the constant-voltage portion of the records using standard thermocouple tables (corrected for pressure) compare favorably with calculated temperatures for PMMA and epoxy below 2.0 and 4.5 GPa, respectively. Above these threshold stresses, the observed temperatures increase rapidly with compression, which may indicate an exothermic reaction. Inferred temperatures for the two types of thermocouples are in good agreement. The shape of the response history, and agreement with predicted temperatures for PMMA and epoxy, indicate that the thermocouple and host material come to thermal equilibrium during the transient portion of the response. In the elastic materials Al2O3 and SiO2, the observed temperatures are better correlated with temperatures predicted for shock compression of the thermocouple materials than those predicted for the host materials, indicating that thermal equilibration is not achieved in the available test time
Failure conditions due to dangerous increasing in power or flow rate drop are the most hazardous in terms of the rise of thermal stresses. Initial rise in temperature may run to 100 C and more. Sodium temperature at the subassembly inlet is varied according to definite time constant which is equal to fuel pin time constant (about 2 sec), that is below the time constant for massive part of subassembly head (4-10 sec). Thus, variations in sodium temperature are, for subassembly head, almost momentary and bring about maximal thermal stresses. Experiments on transient temperature behavior in subassembly head under thermal impact conditions have been performed on the model. Magnitude of temperature has been measured in two cross sections by chromel-alumel thermocouples bond in the middle of the wall, at its outer surface and in the coolant flow for distance of 3 mm from the wall. To measure temperature difference between middle of the wall and its surface fast differential thermocouples chromel-sodium-potassium have been used
Stella Crosara Lopes
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the metal-ceramic bond strength (MCBS of 6 metal-ceramic pairs (2 Ni-Cr alloys and 1 Pd-Ag alloy with 2 dental ceramics and correlate the MCBS values with the differences between the coefficients of linear thermal expansion (CTEs of the metals and ceramics. Verabond (VB Ni-Cr-Be alloy, Verabond II (VB2, Ni-Cr alloy, Pors-on 4 (P, Pd-Ag alloy, and IPS (I and Duceram (D ceramics were used for the MCBS test and dilatometric test. Forty-eight ceramic rings were built around metallic rods (3.0 mm in diameter and 70.0 mm in length made from the evaluated alloys. The rods were subsequently embedded in gypsum cast in order to perform a tensile load test, which enabled calculating the CMBS. Five specimens (2.0 mm in diameter and 12.0 mm in length of each material were made for the dilatometric test. The chromel-alumel thermocouple required for the test was welded into the metal test specimens and inserted into the ceramics. ANOVA and Tukey's test revealed significant differences (p=0.01 for the MCBS test results (MPa, with PI showing higher MCBS (67.72 than the other pairs, which did not present any significant differences. The CTE (10-6 oC-1 differences were: VBI (0.54, VBD (1.33, VB2I (-0.14, VB2D (0.63, PI (1.84 and PD (2.62. Pearson's correlation test (r=0.17 was performed to evaluate of correlation between MCBS and CTE differences. Within the limitations of this study and based on the obtained results, there was no correlation between MCBS and CTE differences for the evaluated metal-ceramic pairs.
Elio José Santini
Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi analisar o comportamento da temperatura nas faces e no miolo de chapas de partículas aglomeradas, coladas com 8% de adesivo (base peso seco das partículas tanino-formaldeído. As chapas foram produzidas com três repetições por tratamento, com massa específica nominal de 0,7 g/cm³ e pressão específica de prensagem de 27 kgf/cm². Os tratamentos basearam-se na utilização de flocos de pinus (Pinus elliottii e partículas de eucalipto (Eucalytus sp, sendo que os flocos de pinus apresentavam três diferentes comprimentos nominais (40, 75 e 110 mm e duas espessuras (0,5 e 1,0 mm. Também foram analisados duas temperaturas de prensagem (140 e 180°C e dois teores de umidade nominal do colchão (17 e 21%. A temperatura no interior dos painéis durante a prensagem foi obtida por meio de fios para termopares tipo K (cromo-alumel. Os gráficos da temperatura em função do tempo de prensagem mostraram uma rápida elevação da temperatura nos primeiros 100 segundos de prensagem, mantendo-se num plateau possivelmente após atingir a temperatura de ebulição da água. A temperatura voltou a aumentar, de forma mais gradual, após a perda de grande parte da umidade do colchão. Observa-se que colchões formados por flocos de maior espessura apresentaram elevação mais rápida de temperatura no miolo. O principal fator que influenciou na velocidade de elevação da temperatura no miolo dos painéis aglomerados foi o teor de umidade do colchão, sendo que quanto maior o teor de umidade, mais rápida foi a elevação da temperatura.