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Sample records for alu repeats increase

  1. Alu repeats as markers for forensic DNA analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batzer, M.A.; Alegria-Hartman, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Kass, D.H. [Louisiana State Univ., New Orleans, LA (United States)] [and others

    1994-01-01

    The Human-Specific (HS) subfamily of Alu sequences is comprised of a group of 500 nearly identical members which are almost exclusively restricted to the human genome. Individual subfamily members share an average of 98.9% nucleotide identity with the HS subfamily consensus sequence, and have an average age of 2.8 million years. We have developed a Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) based assay using primers complementary to the 5 inch and 3 inch unique flanking DNA sequences from each HS Alu that allow the locus to be assayed for the presence or absence of the Alu repeat. The dimorphic HS Alu sequences probably inserted in the human genome after the radiation of modem humans (within the last 200,000-one million years) and represent a unique source of information for human population genetics and forensic DNA analyses. These sites can be developed into Dimorphic Alu Sequence Tagged Sites (DASTS) for the Human Genome Project. HS Alu family member insertions differ from other types of polymorphism (e.g. Variable Number of Tandem Repeat [VNTR] or Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism [RFLP]) in that polymorphisms due to Alu insertions arise as a result of a unique event which has occurred only one time in the human population and spread through the population from that point. Therefore, individuals that share HS Alu repeats inherited these elements from a common ancestor. Most VNTR and RFLP polymorphisms may arise multiple times in parallel within a population.

  2. Alu repeats as markers for human population genetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batzer, M.A.; Alegria-Hartman, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Bazan, H. [Louisiana State Univ., New Orleans, LA (United States). Medical Center] [and others

    1993-09-01

    The Human-Specific (HS) subfamily of Alu sequences is comprised of a group of 500 nearly identical members which are almost exclusively restricted to the human genome. Individual subfamily members share an average of 97.9% nucleotide identity with each other and an average of 98.9% nucleotide identity with the HS subfamily consensus sequence. HS Alu family members are thought to be derived from a single source ``master`` gene, and have an average age of 2.8 million years. We have developed a Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) based assay using primers complementary to the 5 in. and 3 in. unique flanking DNA sequences from each HS Alu that allows the locus to be assayed for the presence or absence of an Alu repeat. Individual HS Alu sequences were found to be either monomorphic or dimorphic for the presence or absence of each repeat. The monomorphic HS Alu family members inserted in the human genome after the human/great ape divergence (which is thought to have occurred 4--6 million years ago), but before the radiation of modem man. The dimorphic HS Alu sequences inserted in the human genome after the radiation of modem man (within the last 200,000-one million years) and represent a unique source of information for human population genetics and forensic DNA analyses. These sites can be developed into Dimorphic Alu Sequence Tagged Sites (DASTS) for the Human Genome Project as well. HS Alu family member insertion dimorphism differs from other types of polymorphism (e.g. Variable Number of Tandem Repeat [VNTR] or Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism [RFLP]) because individuals share HS Alu family member insertions based upon identity by descent from a common ancestor as a result of a single event which occurred one time within the human population. The VNTR and RFLP polymorphisms may arise multiple times within a population and are identical by state only.

  3. The association of Alu repeats with the generation of potential AU-rich elements (ARE at 3' untranslated regions.

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    Bhak Jonghwa

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A significant portion (about 8% in the human genome of mammalian mRNA sequences contains AU (Adenine and Uracil rich elements or AREs at their 3' untranslated regions (UTR. These mRNA sequences are usually stable. However, an increasing number of observations have been made of unstable species, possibly depending on certain elements such as Alu repeats. ARE motifs are repeats of the tetramer AUUU and a monomer A at the end of the repeats ((AUUUnA. The importance of AREs in biology is that they make certain mRNA unstable. Proto-oncogene, such as c-fos, c-myc, and c-jun in humans, are associated with AREs. Although it has been known that the increased number of ARE motifs caused the decrease of the half-life of mRNA containing ARE repeats, the exact mechanism is as of yet unknown. We analyzed the occurrences of AREs and Alu and propose a possible mechanism for how human mRNA could acquire and keep AREs at its 3' UTR originating from Alu repeats. Results Interspersed in the human genome, Alu repeats occupy 5% of the 3' UTR of mRNA sequences. Alu has poly-adenine (poly-A regions at its end, which lead to poly-thymine (poly-T regions at the end of its complementary Alu. It has been found that AREs are present at the poly-T regions. From the 3' UTR of the NCBI's reference mRNA sequence database, we found nearly 40% (38.5% of ARE (Class I were associated with Alu sequences (Table 1 within one mismatch allowance in ARE sequences. Other ARE classes had statistically significant associations as well. This is far from a random occurrence given their limited quantity. At each ARE class, random distribution was simulated 1,000 times, and it was shown that there is a special relationship between ARE patterns and the Alu repeats. Table 1 Defined ARE classes. (Symbol marks are used in this study instead of full sequences. Symbol ARE sequence Class I (AUUU5A AUUUAUUUAUUUAUUUAUUUA Class II (AUUU4A AUUUAUUUAUUUAUUUA Class III U(AUUU3AU

  4. Impact of Alu repeats on the evolution of human p53 binding sites

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    Sirotin Michael V

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The p53 tumor suppressor protein is involved in a complicated regulatory network, mediating expression of ~1000 human genes. Recent studies have shown that many p53 in vivo binding sites (BSs reside in transposable repeats. The relationship between these BSs and functional p53 response elements (REs remains unknown, however. We sought to understand whether the p53 REs also reside in transposable elements and particularly in the most-abundant Alu repeats. Results We have analyzed ~160 functional p53 REs identified so far and found that 24 of them occur in repeats. More than half of these repeat-associated REs reside in Alu elements. In addition, using a position weight matrix approach, we found ~400,000 potential p53 BSs in Alu elements genome-wide. Importantly, these putative BSs are located in the same regions of Alu repeats as the functional p53 REs - namely, in the vicinity of Boxes A/A' and B of the internal RNA polymerase III promoter. Earlier nucleosome-mapping experiments showed that the Boxes A/A' and B have a different chromatin environment, which is critical for the binding of p53 to DNA. Here, we compare the Alu-residing p53 sites with the corresponding Alu consensus sequences and conclude that the p53 sites likely evolved through two different mechanisms - the sites overlapping with the Boxes A/A' were generated by CG → TG mutations; the other sites apparently pre-existed in the progenitors of several Alu subfamilies, such as AluJo and AluSq. The binding affinity of p53 to the Alu-residing sites generally correlates with the age of Alu subfamilies, so that the strongest sites are embedded in the 'relatively young' Alu repeats. Conclusions The primate-specific Alu repeats play an important role in shaping the p53 regulatory network in the context of chromatin. One of the selective factors responsible for the frequent occurrence of Alu repeats in introns may be related to the p53-mediated regulation of Alu

  5. Nuclear Receptor HNF4α Binding Sequences are Widespread in Alu Repeats

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    Bolotin Eugene

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alu repeats, which account for ~10% of the human genome, were originally considered to be junk DNA. Recent studies, however, suggest that they may contain transcription factor binding sites and hence possibly play a role in regulating gene expression. Results Here, we show that binding sites for a highly conserved member of the nuclear receptor superfamily of ligand-dependent transcription factors, hepatocyte nuclear factor 4alpha (HNF4α, NR2A1, are highly prevalent in Alu repeats. We employ high throughput protein binding microarrays (PBMs to show that HNF4α binds > 66 unique sequences in Alu repeats that are present in ~1.2 million locations in the human genome. We use chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP to demonstrate that HNF4α binds Alu elements in the promoters of target genes (ABCC3, APOA4, APOM, ATPIF1, CANX, FEMT1A, GSTM4, IL32, IP6K2, PRLR, PRODH2, SOCS2, TTR and luciferase assays to show that at least some of those Alu elements can modulate HNF4α-mediated transactivation in vivo (APOM, PRODH2, TTR, APOA4. HNF4α-Alu elements are enriched in promoters of genes involved in RNA processing and a sizeable fraction are in regions of accessible chromatin. Comparative genomics analysis suggests that there may have been a gain in HNF4α binding sites in Alu elements during evolution and that non Alu repeats, such as Tiggers, also contain HNF4α sites. Conclusions Our findings suggest that HNF4α, in addition to regulating gene expression via high affinity binding sites, may also modulate transcription via low affinity sites in Alu repeats.

  6. Effective Alu repeat based RT-Qpcr normalization in cancer cell perturbation experiments.

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    Ali Rihani

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Measuring messenger RNA (mRNA levels using the reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR is common practice in many laboratories. A specific set of mRNAs as internal control reference genes is considered as the preferred strategy to normalize RT-qPCR data. Proper selection of reference genes is a critical issue, especially in cancer cells that are subjected to different in vitro manipulations. These manipulations may result in dramatic alterations in gene expression levels, even of assumed reference genes. In this study, we evaluated the expression levels of 11 commonly used reference genes as internal controls for normalization of 19 experiments that include neuroblastoma, T-ALL, melanoma, breast cancer, non small cell lung cancer (NSCL, acute myeloid leukemia (AML, prostate cancer, colorectal cancer, and cervical cancer cell lines subjected to various perturbations. RESULTS: The geNorm algorithm in the software package qbase+ was used to rank the candidate reference genes according to their expression stability. We observed that the stability of most of the candidate reference genes varies greatly in perturbation experiments. Expressed Alu repeats show relatively stable expression regardless of experimental condition. These Alu repeats are ranked among the best reference assays in all perturbation experiments and display acceptable average expression stability values (M<0.5. CONCLUSIONS: We propose the use of Alu repeats as a reference assay when performing cancer cell perturbation experiments.

  7. Genome-wide tracking of unmethylated DNA Alu repeats in normal and cancer cells

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    Rodriguez, Jairo; Vives, Laura; Jordà, Mireia;

    2008-01-01

    the highest prevalence of the SmaI site (AluY: 42%; AluS: 18%, AluJ: 5%) but the lower rates of unmethylation (AluY: 1.65%; AluS: 3.1%, AluJ: 12%). Data are consistent with a stronger silencing pressure on the youngest repetitive elements, which are closer to genes. Further insights into the functional...

  8. The coding region of the human c-mos pseudogene contains Alu repeat insertions.

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    Zabarovsky, E R; Chumakov, I M; Prassolov, V S; Kisselev, L L

    1984-10-01

    We have determined the nucleotide sequence of an 841-bp fragment derived from a segment of the human genome previously cloned by Chumakov et al. [Gene 17 (1982) 19-26] and Zabarovsky et al. [Gene 23 (1983) 379-384] and containing regions homologous to the viral mos gene probe. This sequence displays homology with part of the coding region of the human and murine c-mos genes, contains several termination codons, and is interrupted by two Alu-family elements flanked by short direct repeats. Probably, the progenitor of the human c-mos gene was duplicated approximately at the time of mammalian divergence, was converted to a pseudogene, and acquired insertions of two Alu elements.

  9. Widespread Alu repeat-driven expansion of consensus DR2 retinoic acid response elements during primate evolution

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    Wang Tian-Tian

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nuclear receptors are hormone-regulated transcription factors whose signaling controls numerous aspects of development and physiology. Many receptors recognize DNA hormone response elements formed by direct repeats of RGKTCA motifs separated by 1 to 5 bp (DR1-DR5. Although many known such response elements are conserved in the mouse and human genomes, it is unclear to which extent transcriptional regulation by nuclear receptors has evolved specifically in primates. Results We have mapped the positions of all consensus DR-type hormone response elements in the human genome, and found that DR2 motifs, recognized by retinoic acid receptors (RARs, are heavily overrepresented (108,582 elements. 90% of these are present in Alu repeats, which also contain lesser numbers of other consensus DRs, including 50% of consensus DR4 motifs. Few DR2s are in potentially mobile AluY elements and the vast majority are also present in chimp and macaque. 95.5% of Alu-DR2s are distributed throughout subclasses of AluS repeats, and arose largely through deamination of a methylated CpG dinucleotide in a non-consensus motif present in AluS sequences. We find that Alu-DR2 motifs are located adjacent to numerous known retinoic acid target genes, and show by chromatin immunoprecipitation assays in squamous carcinoma cells that several of these elements recruit RARs in vivo. These findings are supported by ChIP-on-chip data from retinoic acid-treated HL60 cells revealing RAR binding to several Alu-DR2 motifs. Conclusion These data provide strong support for the notion that Alu-mediated expansion of DR elements contributed to the evolution of gene regulation by RARs and other nuclear receptors in primates and humans.

  10. Consistent levels of A-to-I RNA editing across individuals in coding sequences and non-conserved Alu repeats

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    Osenberg Sivan

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adenosine to inosine (A-to-I RNA-editing is an essential post-transcriptional mechanism that occurs in numerous sites in the human transcriptome, mainly within Alu repeats. It has been shown to have consistent levels of editing across individuals in a few targets in the human brain and altered in several human pathologies. However, the variability across human individuals of editing levels in other tissues has not been studied so far. Results Here, we analyzed 32 skin samples, looking at A-to-I editing level in three genes within coding sequences and in the Alu repeats of six different genes. We observed highly consistent editing levels across different individuals as well as across tissues, not only in coding targets but, surprisingly, also in the non evolutionary conserved Alu repeats. Conclusions Our findings suggest that A-to-I RNA-editing of Alu elements is a tightly regulated process and, as such, might have been recruited in the course of primate evolution for post-transcriptional regulatory mechanisms.

  11. Alu Sx repeat-induced homozygous deletion of the StAR gene causes lipoid congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

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    Eiden-Plach, Antje; Nguyen, Huy-Hoang; Schneider, Ursula; Hartmann, Michaela F; Bernhardt, Rita; Hannemann, Frank; Wudy, Stefan A

    2012-05-01

    Lipoid congenital adrenal hyperplasia (Lipoid CAH) is the most severe form of the autosomal recessive disorder CAH. A general loss of the steroid biosynthetic activity caused by defects in the StAR gene manifests as life-threatening primary adrenal insufficiency. We report a case of Lipoid CAH caused by a so far not described homozygous deletion of the complete StAR gene and provide diagnostic results based on a GC-MS steroid metabolomics and molecular genetic analysis. The patient presented with postnatal hypoglycemia, vomiting, adynamia, increasing pigmentation and hyponatremia. The constellation of urinary steroid metabolites suggested Lipoid CAH and ruled out all other forms of CAH or defects of aldosterone biosynthesis. After treatment with sodium supplementation, hydrocortisone and fludrocortisone the child fully recovered. Molecular genetic analysis demonstrated a homozygous 12.1 kb deletion in the StAR gene locus. The breakpoints of the deletion are embedded into two typical genomic repetitive Alu Sx elements upstream and downstream of the gene leading to the loss of all exons and regulatory elements. We established deletion-specific and intact allele-specific PCR methods and determined the StAR gene status of all available family members over three generations. This analysis revealed that one of the siblings, who died a few weeks after birth, carried the same genetic defect. Since several Alu repeats at the StAR gene locus increase the probability of deletions, patients with typical symptoms of lipoid CAH lacking evidence for the presence of both StAR alleles should be analyzed carefully for this kind of disorder.

  12. Structural organization of glycophorin A and B genes: Glycophorin B gene evolved by homologous recombination at Alu repeat sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glycophorins A (GPA) and B (GPB) are two major sialoglycoproteins of the human erythrocyte membrane. Here the authors present a comparison of the genomic structures of GPA and GPB developed by analyzing DNA clones isolated from a K562 genomic library. Nucleotide sequences of exon-intron junctions and 5' and 3' flanking sequences revealed that the GPA and GPB genes consist of 7 and 5 exons, respectively, and both genes have >95% identical sequence from the 5' flanking region to the region ∼ 1 kilobase downstream from the exon encoding the transmembrane regions. In this homologous part of the genes, GPB lacks one exon due to a point mutation at the 5' splicing site of the third intron, which inactivates the 5' cleavage event of splicing and leads to ligation of the second to the fourth exon. Following these very homologous sequences, the genomic sequences for GPA and GPB diverge significantly and no homology can be detected in their 3' end sequences. The analysis of the Alu sequences and their flanking direct repeat sequences suggest that an ancestral genomic structure has been maintained in the GPA gene, whereas the GPB gene has arisen from the acquisition of 3' sequences different from those of the GPA gene by homologous recombination at the Alu repeats during or after gene duplication

  13. CTG repeats distribution and Alu insertion polymorphism at myotonic dystrophy (DM) gene in Amhara and Oromo populations of Ethiopia.

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    Gennarelli, M; Pavoni, M; Cruciani, F; De Stefano, G; Dallapiccola, B; Novelli, G

    1999-01-01

    Myotonic dystrophy (DM) is a dominantly inherited neuromuscular disease, highly variable and multisystemic, which is caused by the expansion of a CTG repeat located in the 3' untranslated region of the DMPK gene. Normal alleles show a copy number of 5-37 repeats on normal chromosomes, amplified to 50-3000 copies on DM chromosomes. The trinucleotide repeat shows a trimodal allele distribution in the majority of the examined population. The first class includes alleles carrying (CTG)5, the second class, alleles in the range 7-18 repeats, and the third class, alleles (CTG) > or =19. The frequency of this third class is directly related to the prevalence of DM in different populations, suggesting that normal large-sized alleles predispose toward DM. We studied CTG repeat allele distribution and Alu insertion and/or deletion polymorphism at the myotonic dystrophy locus in two major Ethiopian populations, the Amhara and Oromo. CTG allele distribution and haplotype analysis on a total of 224 normal chromosomes showed significant differences between the two ethnic groups. These differences have a bearing on the out-of-Africa hypothesis for the origin of the DM mutation. In addition, (CTG) > or =19 were exclusively detected in the Amhara population, confirming the predisposing role of these alleles compared with the DM expansion-mutation.

  14. Large-scale analysis of structural, sequence and thermodynamic characteristics of A-to-I RNA editing sites in human Alu repeats

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    Eisenberg Eli

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alu repeats in the human transcriptome undergo massive adenosine to inosine RNA editing. This process is selective, as editing efficiency varies greatly among different adenosines. Several studies have identified weak sequence motifs characterizing the editing sites, but these alone do not account for the large diversity observed. Results Here we build a dataset of 29,971 editing sites and use it to characterize editing preferences. We focus on structural aspects, studying the double-stranded RNA structure of the Alu repeats, and show the editing frequency of a given site to depend strongly on the micro-structure it resides in. Surprisingly, we find that interior loops, and especially the nucleotides at their edges, are more likely to be edited than helices. In addition, the sequence motifs characterizing editing sites vary with the micro-structure. Finally, we show that thermodynamic stability of the site is important for its editing. Conclusions Analysis of a large dataset of editing events reveals more information on sequence and structural motifs characterizing the A-to-I editing process

  15. Alu element-containing RNAs maintain nucleolar structure and function.

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    Caudron-Herger, Maïwen; Pankert, Teresa; Seiler, Jeanette; Németh, Attila; Voit, Renate; Grummt, Ingrid; Rippe, Karsten

    2015-11-12

    Non-coding RNAs play a key role in organizing the nucleus into functional subcompartments. By combining fluorescence microscopy and RNA deep-sequencing-based analysis, we found that RNA polymerase II transcripts originating from intronic Alu elements (aluRNAs) were enriched in the nucleolus. Antisense-oligo-mediated depletion of aluRNAs or drug-induced inhibition of RNA polymerase II activity disrupted nucleolar structure and impaired RNA polymerase I-dependent transcription of rRNA genes. In contrast, overexpression of a prototypic aluRNA sequence increased both nucleolus size and levels of pre-rRNA, suggesting a functional link between aluRNA, nucleolus integrity and pre-rRNA synthesis. Furthermore, we show that aluRNAs interact with nucleolin and target ectopic genomic loci to the nucleolus. Our study suggests an aluRNA-based mechanism that links RNA polymerase I and II activities and modulates nucleolar structure and rRNA production.

  16. Origin and diversification of minisatellites derived from human Alu sequences.

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    Jurka, Jerzy; Gentles, Andrew J

    2006-01-01

    We analyze minisatellites derived from Alu fragments corresponding approximately to the first 44 bases of human Alu consensus sequences from different subfamilies. The origin of Alu-derived minisatellites appears to have been mediated by short flanking repeats, as first proposed by Haber and Louis [Haber, J.E., Louis, E.J., 1998. Minisatellite origins in yeast and humans. Genomics 48, 132-135.]. We also present evidence for base substitutions and deletions introduced to minisatellites by gene conversion with partially similar but unrelated flanking regions. Segments flanked by short direct repeats are relatively common in different regions of Alu and other repetitive sequences. Our analysis shows that they can be effectively used in comparative studies of the overall sequence context which may contribute to instability of DNA segments flanked by short direct repeats.

  17. Genetic and epigenetic variations contributed by Alu retrotransposition

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    de Andrade Alexandre

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background De novo retrotransposition of Alu elements has been recognized as a major driver for insertion polymorphisms in human populations. In this study, we exploited Alu-anchored bisulfite PCR libraries to identify evolutionarily recent Alu element insertions, and to investigate their genetic and epigenetic variation. Results A total of 327 putatively recent Alu insertions were identified, altogether represented by 1,762 sequence reads. Nearly all such de novo retrotransposition events (316/327 were novel. Forty-seven out of forty-nine randomly selected events, corresponding to nineteen genomic loci, were sequence-verified. Alu element insertions remained hemizygous in one or more individuals in sixteen of the nineteen genomic loci. The Alu elements were found to be enriched for young Alu families with characteristic sequence features, such as the presence of a longer poly(A tail. In addition, we documented the occurrence of a duplication of the AT-rich target site in their immediate flanking sequences, a hallmark of retrotransposition. Furthermore, we found the sequence motif (TT/AAAA that is recognized by the ORF2P protein encoded by LINE-1 in their 5'-flanking regions, consistent with the fact that Alu retrotransposition is facilitated by LINE-1 elements. While most of these Alu elements were heavily methylated, we identified an Alu localized 1.5 kb downstream of TOMM5 that exhibited a completely unmethylated left arm. Interestingly, we observed differential methylation of its immediate 5' and 3' flanking CpG dinucleotides, in concordance with the unmethylated and methylated statuses of its internal 5' and 3' sequences, respectively. Importantly, TOMM5's CpG island and the 3 Alu repeats and 1 MIR element localized upstream of this newly inserted Alu were also found to be unmethylated. Methylation analyses of two additional genomic loci revealed no methylation differences in CpG dinucleotides flanking the Alu insertion sites in

  18. Studies of the Haplotypes of CTG Triplet Repeat and Alu±1kb in DMPK Gene of Myotonic Dystrophy%强直性肌营养不良症DMPK基因CTG重复序列与Alu±1kb单倍型研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖翠英; 武辉; 潘阿根; 张思仲

    2000-01-01

    强直性肌营养不良(myotonic dystrophy,DM)是由于DMPK基因3′非翻译区CTG重复序列异常扩展所致的、主要累及神经肌肉系统的常染色体显性遗传病.在该基因的第8内含子中还存在一个Alu重复序列的1kb插入/缺失多态性,即Alu±1kb多态性.为了帮助阐明汉族人群中DM突变的起源,并为解释DM在不同群体中发病率的差异提供更多依据,本文从300例已知CTG拷贝数的正常汉族群体中随机挑选60例,首先通过PCR扩增确定其Alu±1kb多态性,然后对Alu±1kb和CTG双杂合的标本,采用长PCR方法先行扩增含Alu±1kb和CTG重复序列的DNA片段,再分别对含Alu(+)和Alu(-)的DNA片段中的CTG拷贝数进行常规PCR分析,以确定二位点的单倍型.结果表明60例正常人中二位点间呈连锁不平衡.其单倍型为:(CTG)5均与Alu(+)连锁;多数(CTG)11~14与Alu(-)连锁;在两个(CTG)≥19的等位基因中一个与Alu(+)连锁,另一个与Alu(-)连锁.各民族相关资料的比较提示,汉族人群中(CTG)11~14与非洲黑人的起源可能不同;(CTG)19~30/Alu-1kb在汉族人群中的频率远比欧洲人群的高;(CTG)19~30/Alu-1kb与(CTG)19~30/Alu+1kb在汉族人群中是以一定比例共存的;(CTG)19~30在不同民族间的起源不尽相同;如果从(CTG)5到(CTG)19~30的假设成立的话,则很可能是一个较为复杂的过程.

  19. A knowledgebase of the human Alu repetitive elements.

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    Mallona, Izaskun; Jordà, Mireia; Peinado, Miguel A

    2016-04-01

    Alu elements are the most abundant retrotransposons in the human genome with more than one million copies. Alu repeats have been reported to participate in multiple processes related with genome regulation and compartmentalization. Moreover, they have been involved in the facilitation of pathological mutations in many diseases, including cancer. The contribution of Alus and other repeats in genomic regulation is often overlooked because their study poses technical and analytical challenges hardly attainable with conventional strategies. Here we propose the integration of ontology-based semantic methods to query a knowledgebase for the human Alus. The knowledgebase for the human Alus leverages Sequence (SO) and Gene Ontologies (GO) and is devoted to address functional and genetic information in the genomic context of the Alus. For each Alu element, the closest gene and transcript are stored, as well their functional annotation according to GO, the state of the chromatin and the transcription factors binding sites inside the Alu. The model uses Web Ontology Language (OWL) and Semantic Web Rule Language (SWRL). As a case of use and to illustrate the utility of the tool, we have evaluated the epigenetic states of Alu repeats associated with gene promoters according to their transcriptional activity. The ontology is easily extendable, offering a scaffold for the inclusion of new experimental data. The RDF/XML formalization is freely available at http://aluontology.sourceforge.net/. PMID:26827622

  20. A knowledgebase of the human Alu repetitive elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallona, Izaskun; Jordà, Mireia; Peinado, Miguel A

    2016-04-01

    Alu elements are the most abundant retrotransposons in the human genome with more than one million copies. Alu repeats have been reported to participate in multiple processes related with genome regulation and compartmentalization. Moreover, they have been involved in the facilitation of pathological mutations in many diseases, including cancer. The contribution of Alus and other repeats in genomic regulation is often overlooked because their study poses technical and analytical challenges hardly attainable with conventional strategies. Here we propose the integration of ontology-based semantic methods to query a knowledgebase for the human Alus. The knowledgebase for the human Alus leverages Sequence (SO) and Gene Ontologies (GO) and is devoted to address functional and genetic information in the genomic context of the Alus. For each Alu element, the closest gene and transcript are stored, as well their functional annotation according to GO, the state of the chromatin and the transcription factors binding sites inside the Alu. The model uses Web Ontology Language (OWL) and Semantic Web Rule Language (SWRL). As a case of use and to illustrate the utility of the tool, we have evaluated the epigenetic states of Alu repeats associated with gene promoters according to their transcriptional activity. The ontology is easily extendable, offering a scaffold for the inclusion of new experimental data. The RDF/XML formalization is freely available at http://aluontology.sourceforge.net/.

  1. Alu element-containing RNAs maintain nucleolar structure and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caudron-Herger, Maïwen; Pankert, Teresa; Seiler, Jeanette; Németh, Attila; Voit, Renate; Grummt, Ingrid; Rippe, Karsten

    2015-11-12

    Non-coding RNAs play a key role in organizing the nucleus into functional subcompartments. By combining fluorescence microscopy and RNA deep-sequencing-based analysis, we found that RNA polymerase II transcripts originating from intronic Alu elements (aluRNAs) were enriched in the nucleolus. Antisense-oligo-mediated depletion of aluRNAs or drug-induced inhibition of RNA polymerase II activity disrupted nucleolar structure and impaired RNA polymerase I-dependent transcription of rRNA genes. In contrast, overexpression of a prototypic aluRNA sequence increased both nucleolus size and levels of pre-rRNA, suggesting a functional link between aluRNA, nucleolus integrity and pre-rRNA synthesis. Furthermore, we show that aluRNAs interact with nucleolin and target ectopic genomic loci to the nucleolus. Our study suggests an aluRNA-based mechanism that links RNA polymerase I and II activities and modulates nucleolar structure and rRNA production. PMID:26464461

  2. LINE-1 ORF1 protein enhances Alu SINE retrotransposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Nicholas; Wagstaff, Bradley J; Deininger, Prescott L; Roy-Engel, Astrid M

    2008-08-01

    Retroelements have contributed over one third of the human genome mass. The currently active LINE-1 (L1) codes for two proteins (ORF1p and ORF2p), both strictly required for retrotransposition. In contrast, the non-coding parasitic SINE (Alu) only appears to need the L1 ORF2p for its own amplification. This requirement was previously determined using a tissue culture assay system in human cells (HeLa). Because HeLa are likely to express functional L1 proteins, it is possible that low levels of endogenous ORF1p are necessary for the observed tagged Alu mobilization. By individually expressing ORF1 and ORF2 proteins from both human (L1RP and LRE3) and rodent (L1A102 and L1spa) L1 sources, we demonstrate that increasing amounts of ORF1 expressing vector enhances tagged Alu mobilization in HeLa cells. In addition, using chicken fibroblast cells as an alternate cell culture source, we confirmed that ORF1p is not strictly required for Alu mobilization in our assay. Supporting our observations in HeLa cells, we find that tagged Alu retrotransposition is improved by supplementation of ORF1p in the cultured chicken cells. We postulate that L1 ORF1p plays either a direct or indirect role in enhancing the interaction between the Alu RNA and the required factors needed for its retrotransposition.

  3. Research on Tissue-type Plasminogen Acivator Gene Alu-repeat Polymorphiam in a Shangdong Chinese Population%组织型纤维酶原激活因子Alu重复序列基因多态性检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏然; 叶文静; 徐涛; 韩继举; 任道凌; 陈彬; 夏作理

    2003-01-01

    研究山东地区汉族人组织型纤维酶原激活因子(TPA)-Alu重复序列基因多态性特点.提取外周血DNA,采用聚合酶链反应扩增t-PA基因h(8th)内含子的Alu重复序列,记录Alu插入/缺失(I/D)结果.166例山东人中TPA-Alu-I/I纯合子基因型50个;TPA-Alu-D/D型46个;TPA-Alu-I/D杂合型70个.Alu序列的插入纯合(I/I)频率为30.12%,缺失纯合(D/D)频率为27.71%:(I/D)杂合型频率为42.17;经x2检验男女之间无显著性差异(P>0.05).受试者等位基因的频率符合Hardy-Wein-berg原则,结果有代表性.

  4. Can nursing students' confidence levels increase with repeated simulation activities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Cynthia L; Connelly, Linda K

    2016-01-01

    In 2014, nursing faculty conducted a study with undergraduate nursing students on their satisfaction, confidence, and educational practice levels, as it related to simulation activities throughout the curriculum. The study was a voluntary survey conducted on junior and senior year nursing students. It consisted of 30 items based on the Student Satisfaction and Self-Confidence in Learning and the Educational Practices Questionnaire (Jeffries, 2012). Mean averages were obtained for each of the 30 items from both groups and were compared using T scores for unpaired means. The results showed that 8 of the items had a 95% confidence level and when combined the items were significant for p confidence and active learning. Based on these findings, it can be assumed that repeated simulation experiences can lead to an increase in student confidence and active learning.

  5. Aberrant methylation and associated transcriptional mobilization of Alu elements contributes to genomic instability in hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Arnab; Srivastava, Tapasya; Sharma, Manish K; Mehndiratta, Mohit; Das, Prerna; Sinha, Subrata; Chattopadhyay, Parthaprasad

    2010-11-01

    Hypoxia is an integral part of tumorigenesis and contributes extensively to the neoplastic phenotype including drug resistance and genomic instability. It has also been reported that hypoxia results in global demethylation. Because a majority of the cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) islands are found within the repeat elements of DNA, and are usually methylated under normoxic conditions, we suggested that retrotransposable Alu or short interspersed nuclear elements (SINEs) which show altered methylation and associated changes of gene expression during hypoxia, could be associated with genomic instability. U87MG glioblastoma cells were cultured in 0.1% O₂ for 6 weeks and compared with cells cultured in 21% O₂ for the same duration. Real-time PCR analysis showed a significant increase in SINE and reverse transcriptase coding long interspersed nuclear element (LINE) transcripts during hypoxia. Sequencing of bisulphite treated DNA as well as the Combined Bisulfite Restriction Analysis (COBRA) assay showed that the SINE loci studied underwent significant hypomethylation though there was patchy hypermethylation at a few sites. The inter-alu PCR profile of DNA from cells cultured under 6-week hypoxia, its 4-week revert back to normoxia and 6-week normoxia showed several changes in the band pattern indicating increased alu mediated genomic alteration. Our results show that aberrant methylation leading to increased transcription of SINE and reverse transcriptase associated LINE elements could lead to increased genomic instability in hypoxia. This might be a cause of genetic heterogeneity in tumours especially in variegated hypoxic environment and lead to a development of foci of more aggressive tumour cells.

  6. Alu-directed transcriptional regulation of some novel miRNAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Xi W

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite many studies on the biogenesis, molecular structure and biological functions of microRNAs, little is known about the transcriptional regulatory mechanisms controlling the spatiotemporal expression pattern of human miRNA gene loci. Several lines of experimental results have indicated that both polymerase II (Pol-II and polymerase III (Pol-III may be involved in transcribing miRNAs. Here, we assessed the genomic evidence for Alu-directed transcriptional regulation of some novel miRNA genes in humans. Our data demonstrate that the expression of these Alu-related miRNAs may be modulated by Pol-III. Results We present a comprehensive exploration of the Alu-directed transcriptional regulation of some new miRNAs. Using a new computational approach, a variety of Alu-related sequences from multiple sources were pooled and filtered to obtain a subset containing Alu elements and characterized miRNA genes for which there is clear evidence of full-length transcription (embedded in EST. We systematically demonstrated that 73 miRNAs including five known ones may be transcribed by Pol-III through Alu or MIR. Among the new miRNAs, 33 were determined by high-throughput Solexa sequencing. Real-time TaqMan PCR and Northern blotting verified that three newly identified miRNAs could be induced to co-express with their upstream Alu transcripts by heat shock or cycloheximide. Conclusion Through genomic analysis, Solexa sequencing and experimental validation, we have identified candidate sequences for Alu-related miRNAs, and have found that the transcription of these miRNAs could be governed by Pol-III. Thus, this study may elucidate the mechanisms by which the expression of a class of small RNAs may be regulated by their upstream repeat elements.

  7. Alu-mediated diverse and complex pathogenic copy-number variants within human chromosome 17 at p13.3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Shen; Yuan, Bo; Campbell, Ian M; Beck, Christine R; Carvalho, Claudia M B; Nagamani, Sandesh C S; Erez, Ayelet; Patel, Ankita; Bacino, Carlos A; Shaw, Chad A; Stankiewicz, Paweł; Cheung, Sau Wai; Bi, Weimin; Lupski, James R

    2015-07-15

    Alu repetitive elements are known to be major contributors to genome instability by generating Alu-mediated copy-number variants (CNVs). Most of the reported Alu-mediated CNVs are simple deletions and duplications, and the mechanism underlying Alu-Alu-mediated rearrangement has been attributed to non-allelic homologous recombination (NAHR). Chromosome 17 at the p13.3 genomic region lacks extensive low-copy repeat architecture; however, it is highly enriched for Alu repetitive elements, with a fraction of 30% of total sequence annotated in the human reference genome, compared with the 10% genome-wide and 18% on chromosome 17. We conducted mechanistic studies of the 17p13.3 CNVs by performing high-density oligonucleotide array comparative genomic hybridization, specifically interrogating the 17p13.3 region with ∼150 bp per probe density; CNV breakpoint junctions were mapped to nucleotide resolution by polymerase chain reaction and Sanger sequencing. Studied rearrangements include 5 interstitial deletions, 14 tandem duplications, 7 terminal deletions and 13 complex genomic rearrangements (CGRs). Within the 17p13.3 region, Alu-Alu-mediated rearrangements were identified in 80% of the interstitial deletions, 46% of the tandem duplications and 50% of the CGRs, indicating that this mechanism was a major contributor for formation of breakpoint junctions. Our studies suggest that Alu repetitive elements facilitate formation of non-recurrent CNVs, CGRs and other structural aberrations of chromosome 17 at p13.3. The common observation of Alu-mediated rearrangement in CGRs and breakpoint junction sequences analysis further demonstrates that this type of mechanism is unlikely attributed to NAHR, but rather may be due to a recombination-coupled DNA replicative repair process.

  8. Alu Elements as Novel Regulators of Gene Expression in Type 1 Diabetes Susceptibility Genes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaur, Simranjeet; Pociot, Flemming

    2015-01-01

    Despite numerous studies implicating Alu repeat elements in various diseases, there is sparse information available with respect to the potential functional and biological roles of the repeat elements in Type 1 diabetes (T1D). Therefore, we performed a genome-wide sequence analysis of T1D candidate...... genes to identify embedded Alu elements within these genes. We observed significant enrichment of Alu elements within the T1D genes (p-value Alus revealed significant enrichment for immune......-mediated processes (p-value Alus (IRAlus) within their 3' untranslated regions (UTRs) that are known to regulate the expression of host mRNAs by generating double stranded RNA duplexes. Our in silico analysis predicted the formation of duplex structures...

  9. A young Alu subfamily amplified independently in human and African great apes lineages.

    OpenAIRE

    Zietkiewicz, E; Richer, C.; Makalowski, W; Jurka, J; Labuda, D

    1994-01-01

    A variety of Alu subfamilies amplified in primate genomes at different evolutionary time periods. Alu Sb2 belongs to a group of young subfamilies with a characteristic two-nucleotide deletion at positions 65/66. It consists of repeats having a 7-nucleotide duplication of a sequence segment involving positions 246 through 252. The presence of Sb2 inserts was examined in five genomic loci in 120 human DNA samples as well as in DNAs of higher primates. The lack of the insertional polymorphism se...

  10. Germline Chromothripsis Driven by L1-Mediated Retrotransposition and Alu/Alu Homologous Recombination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nazaryan-Petersen, Lusine; Bertelsen, Birgitte; Bak, Mads;

    2016-01-01

    L1-endonuclease potential target sites in other breakpoints. In addition, we found four Alu elements flanking the 110-kb deletion and associated with an inversion. We suggest that chromatin looping mediated by homologous Alu elements may have brought distal DNA regions into close proximity...

  11. The Basques according to polymorphic Alu insertions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Pancorbo, M M; López-Martínez, M; Martínez-Bouzas, C; Castro, A; Fernández-Fernández, I; de Mayolo, G A; de Mayolo, A A; de Mayolo, P A; Rowold, D J; Herrera, R J

    2001-08-01

    Polymorphic Alu insertions provide a set of DNA markers of interest in human population genetics. Approximately 1000-2000 of these insertions have not reached fixation within the human genome. Each one of these polymorphic loci most probably resulted from a unique insertional event, and therefore all individuals possessing the insertion are related by descent not just state. In addition, the direction of mutational change is toward the gain of the Alu element at a particular locus. Therefore, the improved knowledge of both the ancestral state and the direction of mutational change greatly facilitates the analysis of population relationships. As a result, Alu insertion polymorphisms represent a significant tool for population genetic studies. In this study, polymorphic Alu insertions have been employed to ascertain phylogenetic relationships among Basque groups and worldwide populations. The Basques are considered to be a geographic isolate with a unique language and customs. They may be direct descendants of Cro-Magnon enclaves from the upper Paleolithic (38,000 to 10,000 years). The Basques are distributed among narrow valleys in northeastern Spain with little migration between them until recently. This characteristic may have had an effect on allelic frequency distributions. With the aim of studying this possible effect, we have analyzed six autosomal polymorphic Alu loci from four different sites within the Spanish Basque region in order to ascertain any genetic heterogeneity among the Basques. The results are consistent with a lack of homogeneity among these four autochthonous Basque groups. PMID:11511929

  12. Maternal phthalate exposure during pregnancy is associated with DNA methylation of LINE-1 and Alu repetitive elements in Mexican-American children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huen, Karen; Calafat, Antonia M; Bradman, Asa; Yousefi, Paul; Eskenazi, Brenda; Holland, Nina

    2016-07-01

    Phthalates are frequently used in personal care products and plasticizers and phthalate exposure is ubiquitous in the US population. Exposure to phthalates during critical periods in utero has been associated with a variety of adverse health outcomes but the biological mechanisms linking these exposures with disease are not well characterized. In this study, we examined the relationship of in utero phthalate exposure with repetitive element DNA methylation, an epigenetic marker of genome instability, in children from the longitudinal birth cohort CHAMACOS. Methylation of Alu and long interspersed nucleotide elements (LINE-1) was determined using pyrosequencing of bisulfite-treated DNA isolated from whole blood samples collected from newborns and 9 year old children (n=355). Concentrations of eleven phthalate metabolites were measured in urine collected from pregnant mothers at 13 and 26 weeks gestation. We found a consistent inverse association between prenatal concentrations of monoethyl phthalate, the most frequently detected urinary metabolite, with cord blood methylation of Alu repeats (β(95%CI): -0.14 (-0.28,0.00) and -0.16 (-0.31, -0.02)) for early and late pregnancy, respectively, and a similar but weaker association with LINE-1 methylation. Additionally, increases in urinary concentrations of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate metabolites during late pregnancy were associated with lower levels of methylation of Alu repeats in 9 year old blood (significant p-values ranged from 0.003 to 0.03). Our findings suggest that prenatal exposure to some phthalates may influence differences in repetitive element methylation, highlighting epigenetics as a plausible biological mechanism through which phthalates may affect health. PMID:27019040

  13. Increasing Reading Fluency in Elementary Students with Low Vision through Repeated Readings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, A. J.; Layton, C. A.

    1998-01-01

    Evaluation of the use of repeated readings to increase the reading fluency of four elementary students with low vision found the intervention was effective in improving all four students' reading fluency without adversely affecting error rates or comprehension. Students' improved reading rates also generalized to classroom reading. (DB)

  14. Repeated exposure to noise increases tolerance in a coral reef fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedelec, Sophie L; Mills, Suzanne C; Lecchini, David; Nedelec, Brendan; Simpson, Stephen D; Radford, Andrew N

    2016-09-01

    Some anthropogenic noise is now considered pollution, with evidence building that noise from human activities such as transportation, construction and exploration can impact behaviour and physiology in a broad range of taxa. However, relatively little research has considered the effects of repeated or chronic noise; extended exposures may result in habituation or sensitisation, and thus changes in response. We conducted a field-based experiment at Moorea Island to investigate how repeated exposure to playback of motorboat noise affected a coral reef fish (Dascyllus trimaculatus). We found that juvenile D. trimaculatus increased hiding behaviour during motorboat noise after two days of repeated exposure, but no longer did so after one and two weeks of exposure. We also found that naïve individuals responded to playback of motorboat noise with elevated ventilation rates, but that this response was diminished after one and two weeks of repeated exposure. We found no strong evidence that baseline blood cortisol levels, growth or body condition were affected by three weeks of repeated motorboat-noise playback. Our study reveals the importance of considering how tolerance levels may change over time, rather than simply extrapolating from results of short-term studies, if we are to make decisions about regulation and mitigation. PMID:27325546

  15. Circular RNAs are abundant, conserved, and associated with ALU repeats

    OpenAIRE

    Jeck, William R.; Sorrentino, Jessica A.; Wang, Kai; Slevin, Michael K.; Christin E Burd; Liu, Jinze; Marzluff, William F.; Sharpless, Norman E.

    2013-01-01

    Using a novel approach to identify exonic circular RNAs (ecircRNAs), the authors show widespread production of circular RNAs from a significant fraction of expressed genes in murine and human cells. They demonstrate that several of these noncoding transcripts are stable and abundant and can be targeted by siRNA. Bioinformatic analysis of the entire ecircRNA complement revealed gene features associated with RNA circularization.

  16. Behavioral Analysis of Different ALU Architectures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.V.V.S.R.Krishna

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Digital design is an amazing and very broad field. The applications of digital design are present in our daily life, including Computers, calculators, video cameras etc. In fact, there will be always need for high speed and low power digital products which makes digital design a future growing business. Low power and high speed is challenging work in processor design. Implementing power optimization on all components of the processor is a choice. One of the most basicoperational units in theprocessor is an (Arithmetic logic unit ALU. ALU is a critical component of a microprocessor and is the core component of central processing unit. Furthermore, it is the heart of the instruction execution portion of every computer. It has the capability of performing a number of Arithmetic and logical operations such as addition, subtraction, complement, bit shifts and magnitude comparisons. Hence the speed, circuit delay, layout density, and power consumption trade-off is important for the portable digital system designers. This paper proposed to design and compare different parameters like low power, number of transistors and high speed of ALU’s .It compares the conventional CMOS ALU with Pseudo NMOS logic and MOS Logics. These different circuit parameters are compared with TANNER 13.1 using IBM SCN CMOS 65nm technology at room temperature. Results of comparison are shows that the Pseudo NMOS logic requires a lower number of transistors and performs well in terms of delay other than remaining architectures.

  17. Adipose tissue lipolysis is increased during a repeated bout of aerobic exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stich, V; de Glisezinski, I; Berlan, M;

    2000-01-01

    levels were lower during the second exercise bout. The results suggest that adipose tissue lipolysis during aerobic exercise of moderate intensity is enhanced when an exercise bout is preceded by exercise of the same intensity and duration performed 1 h before. This response pattern is associated......The goal of the study was to examine whether lipid mobilization from adipose tissue undergoes changes during repeated bouts of prolonged aerobic exercise. Microdialysis of the subcutaneous adipose tissue was used for the assessment of lipolysis; glycerol concentration was measured in the dialysate...... leaving the adipose tissue. Seven male subjects performed two repeated bouts of 60-min exercise at 50% of their maximal aerobic power, separated by a 60-min recovery period. The exercise-induced increases in extracellular glycerol concentrations in adipose tissue and in plasma glycerol concentrations were...

  18. Repeating firing fields of CA1 neurons shift forward in response to increasing angular velocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowen, Stephen L; Nitz, Douglas A

    2014-01-01

    Self-motion information influences spatially-specific firing patterns exhibited by hippocampal neurons. Moreover, these firing patterns can repeat across similar subsegments of an environment, provided that there is similarity of path shape and head orientations across subsegments. The influence of self-motion variables on repeating fields remains to be determined. To investigate the role of path shape and angular rotation on hippocampal activity, we recorded the activity of CA1 neurons from rats trained to run on spiral-shaped tracks. During inbound traversals of circular-spiral tracks, angular velocity increases continuously. Under this condition, most neurons (74%) exhibited repeating fields across at least three adjacent loops. Of these neurons, 86% exhibited forward shifts in the angles of field centers relative to centers on preceding loops. Shifts were absent on squared-spiral tracks, minimal and less reliable on concentric-circle tracks, and absent on outward-bound runs on circular-spiral tracks. However, outward-bound runs on the circular-spiral track in the dark were associated with backward shifts. Together, the most parsimonious interpretation of the results is that continuous increases or decreases in angular velocity are particularly effective at shifting the center of mass of repeating fields, although it is also possible that a nonlinear integration of step counts contributes to the shift. Furthermore, the unexpected absence of field shifts during outward journeys in light (but not darkness) suggests visual cues around the goal location anchored the map of space to an allocentric reference frame. PMID:24381284

  19. Repeat Guests’ Perception about New Facilities and Increased Price at Padma Hotel Bandung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Ashari Nasution

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2009 after one and a half year closed for reconstruction, Malya Hotel Bandung renewed,reopened, rebranded with new name Padma Hotel Bandung. The changes are not only aboutthe name but also the logo, the concept, the grade, and the facilities inside and outside room.This results in higher price to customers. At the opening, Padma Hotel Bandung has focusedtheir marketing promotion on Malya repeat guest . The management concerns about theguests’ perception about the additional price because they will be the main visitors to thehotel. Survey was conducted and the findings reveal that the guests’ perception about theoverall inside and outside room is really good. They agreed that Padma Hotel Bandung hasprovided better facilities compared to Malya Hotel. Some facilities have been identified toinfluence customers’ perception about the overall perception about new facilities. Related tothe increased price, the answer quite varies. The repeat guests stated their doubt about thefairness of the price. Even though, they wanted to come back due to emotional benefitscustomers can get from the new Padma Hotel.Key words: repeat customer, rebranding, customer perception, repurchase intention, servicemarketing

  20. Human nucleosomes: special role of CG dinucleotides and Alu-nucleosomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trifonov Edward N

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The periodical occurrence of dinucleotides with a period of 10.4 bases now is undeniably a hallmark of nucleosome positioning. Whereas many eukaryotic genomes contain visible and even strong signals for periodic distribution of dinucleotides, the human genome is rather featureless in this respect. The exact sequence features in the human genome that govern the nucleosome positioning remain largely unknown. Results When analyzing the human genome sequence with the positional autocorrelation method, we found that only the dinucleotide CG shows the 10.4 base periodicity, which is indicative of the presence of nucleosomes. There is a high occurrence of CG dinucleotides that are either 31 (10.4 × 3 or 62 (10.4 × 6 base pairs apart from one another - a sequence bias known to be characteristic of Alu-sequences. In a similar analysis with repetitive sequences removed, peaks of repeating CG motifs can be seen at positions 10, 21 and 31, the nearest integers of multiples of 10.4. Conclusions Although the CG dinucleotides are dominant, other elements of the standard nucleosome positioning pattern are present in the human genome as well. The positional autocorrelation analysis of the human genome demonstrates that the CG dinucleotide is, indeed, one visible element of the human nucleosome positioning pattern, which appears both in Alu sequences and in sequences without repeats. The dominant role that CG dinucleotides play in organizing human chromatin is to indicate the involvement of human nucleosomes in tuning the regulation of gene expression and chromatin structure, which is very likely due to cytosine-methylation/-demethylation in CG dinucleotides contained in the human nucleosomes. This is further confirmed by the positions of CG-periodical nucleosomes on Alu sequences. Alu repeats appear as monomers, dimers and trimers, harboring two to six nucleosomes in a run. Considering the exceptional role CG dinucleotides play in the

  1. In situ hybridization of bat chromosomes with human (TTAGGGn probe, after previous digestion with Alu I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina de Cassia Faria

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to verify the ability of the enzyme Alu I to cleave and/or remove satellite DNA sequences from heterochromatic regions in chromosomes of bats, by identifying the occurrence of modifications in the pattern of fluorescence in situ hybridization with telomeric DNA. The localization and fluorescence intensity of the telomeric DNA sites of the Alu-digested and undigested chromosomes of species Eumops glaucinus, Carollia perspicillata, and Platyrrhinus lineatus were analyzed. Telomeric sequences were detected at the termini of chromosomes of all three species, although, in C. perspicillata, the signals were very faint or absent in most chromosomes. This finding was interpreted as being due to a reduced number of copies of the telomeric repeat, resulting from extensive telomeric association and/or rearrangements undergone by the chromosomes of Carollia. Fluorescent signals were also observed in centromeric and pericentromeric regions in several two-arm chromosomes of E. glaucinus and C. perspicillata. In E. glaucinus and P. lineatus, some interstitial and terminal telomeric sites were observed to be in association with regions of constitutive heterochromatin and ribosomal DNA (NORs. After digestion, these telomeric sites showed a significant decrease in signal intensity, indicating that enzyme Alu I cleaves and/or removes part of the satellite DNA present in these regions. These results suggest that the telomeric sequence is a component of the heterochromatin, and that the C-band- positive regions of bat chromosomes have a different DNA composition.

  2. Repeated bonding of fixed retainer increases the risk of enamel fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinvipas, Netrporn; Hasegawa, Yuh; Terada, Kazuto

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influences of repeated bonding, using 2 different orthodontic adhesive systems, on the shear bond strength (SBS) and the enamel surface morphology. Sixty premolars were divided into 2 groups (n = 30), and either Transbond XT (T group) or Fuji Ortho LC (F group) adhesives were used. SBS was measured 24 h after bonding, using a universal testing machine. Then, the enamel surfaces were investigated and the mode of failure was described using adhesive remnant index (ARI) scores. After each debonding, 10 teeth from each group were examined by scanning electron microscopy to determine the penetration of adhesives, the length of resin tags, and the state of the enamel surface. The other teeth were subjected to two more bonding/debonding procedures. In T group, the second debonding sequences had significantly higher bond strengths than the other sequences. The length of resin tags was greatest in the second debonding sequence, although there was no significant difference. In F group, the SBS increased with further rebonding and the failure mode tended towards cohesive failure. In both groups, the ARI scores increased with rebonding. Enamel loss could have occurred with both adhesives, although the surfaces appeared unchanged to the naked eye. From this study, we suggest that enamel damage caused by repeated bonding is of concern. To prevent bond failure, we should pay attention to the adhesion method used for bondable retainers.

  3. Exposing Students to Repeat Photography: Increasing Cultural Understanding on a Short-Term Study Abroad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemmons, Kelly K.; Brannstrom, Christian; Hurd, Danielle

    2014-01-01

    Traditionally, repeat photography has been used to analyze land cover change. This paper describes how repeat photography may be used as a tool to enhance the short-term study abroad experience by facilitating cultural interaction and understanding. We present evidence from two cases and suggest a five-step repeat photography method for educators…

  4. Alu-Alu Recombination Underlying the First Large Genomic Deletion in GlcNAc-Phosphotransferase Alpha/Beta (GNPTAB) Gene in a MLII Alpha/Beta Patient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coutinho, F; da Silva Santos, L; Lacerda, L;

    2012-01-01

    to the identification of a 21 bp repetitive motif in introns 18 and 19. Further analysis revealed that both the 5' and 3' breakpoints were located within highly homologous Alu elements (Alu-Sz in intron 18 and Alu-Sq2, in intron 19), suggesting that this deletion has probably resulted from Alu-Alu unequal homologous......), and a third in which exon 19 was substituted by a pseudoexon inclusion consisting of a 62 bp fragment from intron 18 (p.Arg1145Serfs*16). Interestingly, this 62 bp fragment corresponds to the Alu-Sz element integrated in intron 18.This represents the first description of a large deletion identified...

  5. Alu Sb2 subfamily is present in all higher primates but was most succesfully amplified in humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richer, C.; Zietkiewicz, E.; Labuda, D. [Universite de Montreal, Que (Canada)

    1994-09-01

    Alu repeats can be classified into subfamilies which amplified in primate genomes at different evolutionary time periods. A young Alu subfamily, Sb2, with a characteristic 7-nucleotide duplication at position 256, has been described in seven human loci. An Sb2 insertion found near the HD gene was unique to two HD families, indicating that Sb2 was still retropositionally active. Here, we have shown that the Sb2 insertion in the CHOL locus was similarly rare, being absent in 120 individuals of Caucasian, Oriental and Black origin. In contrast, Sb2 inserts in five other loci were found fixed (non-polymorphic), based on measurements in the same population sample, but absent from orthologous positions in higher apes. This suggest that Sb2 repeats spread relatively early in the human lineage following divergence from other primates and that these elements may be human-specific. By quantitative PCR, we investigated the presence of Sb2 sequences in different primate DNA, using one PCR primer anchored at the 5{prime} Alu-end and the other complementary to the duplicated Sb2-specific segment. With an Sb2-containing plasmid as a standard, we estimated the number of Sb2 repeats at 1500-1800 copies per human haploid equivalent; corresponding numbers in chimpanzee and gorilla were almost two orders of magnitude lower, while the signal observed in orangutan and gibbon DNAs was consistent with the presence of a single copy. The analysis of 22 human, 11 chimpanzee and 10 gorilla sequences indicates that the Alu Sb2 dispersed independently in these three primate lineages; gorilla consensus differs from the human Sb2 sequence by one position, while all chimpanzee repeats have their linker expanded by up to eight A-residues. Should they be thus considered as separate subfamilies? It is possible that sequence modifications with respect to the human consensus are responsible for poor retroposition of Sb2 in apes.

  6. Increased impulsivity in rats as a result of repeated cycles of alcohol intoxication and abstinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irimia, Cristina; Wiskerke, Joost; Natividad, Luis A; Polis, Ilham Y; de Vries, Taco J; Pattij, Tommy; Parsons, Loren H

    2015-03-01

    Impulsivity is a risk factor for alcoholism, and long-term alcohol exposure may further impair impulse control in a manner that propels problematic alcohol use. The present study employed the rat 5-choice serial reaction time task (5-CSRTT) to measure behavioral inhibition and attentional capacity during abstinence from repeated 5-day cycles of alcohol liquid diet consumption. Task performance was not disrupted following the first cycle of alcohol exposure; however, evidence of impaired behavioral inhibition emerged following the third cycle of alcohol exposure. In comparison with controls, alcoholic rats exhibited deficits in inhibitory control during cognitively challenging 5-CSRTT tests employing variable intertrial interval (varITI). This behavioral disruption was not present during early abstinence (3 days) but was evident by 7 days of abstinence and persisted for at least 34 days. Interestingly, renewed alcohol consumption ameliorated these disruptions in impulse control, although deficient behavioral inhibition re-emerged during subsequent abstinence. Indices of increased impulsivity were no longer present in tests conducted after 49 days of abstinence. Alcohol-related impairments in impulse control were not evident in sessions employing highly familiar task parameters regardless of the abstinence period, and control experiments confirmed that performance deficits during the challenge sessions were unlikely to result from alcohol-related disruption in the adaptation to repeated varITI testing. Together, the current findings demonstrate that chronic intermittent alcohol consumption results in decreased behavioral inhibition in rats that is temporally similar to clinical observations of disrupted impulsive control in abstinent alcoholics performing tasks of behavioral inhibition.

  7. Ouabain-induced increases in resting tone of human hyperplastic prostate following repeated noradrenaline and electrical field stimulation.

    OpenAIRE

    Guh, J. H.; Ko, F. N.; Chueh, S. C.; Lai, M.K.; Teng, C. M.

    1996-01-01

    1. The effect of ouabain on contractions to repeated noradrenaline stimulation and electrical field stimulation of human hyperplastic prostate was examined. Ouabain (1 microM) did not induce contractile response per se but progressively increased the resting tone (i.e., the tone between one noradrenaline stimulation, or electrical field stimulation, and the following) of human hyperplastic prostate. 2. The increased tone by ouabain following repeated noradrenaline stimulations or electrical f...

  8. The use of dimorphic Alu insertions in human DNA fingerprinting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novick, G.E.; Gonzalez, T.; Garrison, J.; Novick, C.C.; Herrera, R.J. [Florida International Univ., Miami, FL (United States). Dept. of Biological Sciences; Batzer, M.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Deininger, P.L. [Louisiana State Univ., New Orleans, LA (United States). Medical Center

    1992-12-04

    We have characterized certain Human Specific Alu Insertions as either dimorphic (TPA25, PV92, APO), sightly dimorphic (C2N4 and C4N4) or monomorphic (C3N1, C4N6, C4N2, C4N5, C4N8), based on studies of Caucasian, Asian, American Black and African Black populations. Our approach is based upon: (1) PCR amplification using primers directed to the sequences that flank the site of insertion of the different Alu elements studied; (2) gel electrophoresis and scoring according to the presence or absence of an Alu insertion in one or both homologous chromosomes; (3) allelic frequencies calculated and compared according to Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Our DNA fingerprinting procedure using PCR amplification of dimorphic Human Specific Alu insertions, is stable enough to be used not only as a tool for genetic mapping but also to characterize populations, study migrational patterns and track the inheritance of human genetic disorders.

  9. Increased leucine-rich repeats and immunoglobulin- like domains 1 expression enhances chemosensitivity in glioma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Baohui Liu; Shenqi Zhang; Dong Ruan; Xiaonan Zhu; Zhentao Guo; Huimin Dong; Mingmin Yan; Qianxue Chen; Daofeng Tian; Liquan Wu; Junmin Wang; Qiang Cai; Heng Shen; Baowei Ji; Long Wang

    2011-01-01

    Leucine-rich repeats and immunoglobulin-like domains 1 (LRIG1) is an anti-oncogene.LRIG1 is correlated with Bcl-2 in ependymomas.Decreased Bcl-2 and manganese superoxide dismutase expression can improve the chemosensitivity of glioma.In the present study, a tissue microarray of human brain astrocytomas was constructed.To investigate the relationship of LRIG1 with Bcl-2 and manganese superoxide dismutase, LRIG1, Bcl-2 and manganese superoxide dismutase expression in our tissue microarray was determined using immunohistochemistry.In addition, we constructed the LRIG1-U251 cell line, and its responses to doxorubicin and temozolomide were detected using the MTT assay.Results showed that LRIG1 expression was significantly negatively correlated with Bcl-2 and manganese superoxide dismutase expression in glioma.Also, proliferation of LRIG1-U251 cells exposed to doxorubicin or temozolomide was significantly inhibited, i.e.in the LRIG1-U251 cell line, the chemosensitivity to doxorubicin and temozolomide was increased.This indicates that increased LRIG1 expression produces a chemosensitivity in glioma.

  10. Selective stimulation of translational expression by Alu RNA

    OpenAIRE

    Rubin, Carol M.; Kimura, Richard H.; Schmid, Carl W.

    2002-01-01

    Human Alu and adenovirus VA1 RNAs each stimulate the translational expression of reporter genes in co-transient transfection assays without affecting either the rate of global protein synthesis or the abundance of the reporter mRNA. This selective, post-transcriptional stimulation of expression, which is observed in human and mouse cell lines and for three reporters, acts through a PKR- independent mechanism. The activity of Alu and VA1 RNAs in this assay is transient, causing a reduction in ...

  11. Exposure to repeated immobilization stress inhibits cocaine-induced increase in dopamine extracellular levels in the rat ventral tegmental area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotomayor-Zárate, Ramón; Abarca, Jorge; Araya, Katherine A; Renard, Georgina M; Andrés, María E; Gysling, Katia

    2015-11-01

    A higher vulnerability to drug abuse has been observed in human studies of individuals exposed to chronic or persistent stress, as well as in animal models of drug abuse. Here, we explored the effect of repeated immobilization stress on cocaine-induced increase in dopamine extracellular levels in VTA and its regulation by corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and GABA systems. Cocaine (10mg/Kg i.p.) induced an increase of VTA DA extracellular levels in control rats. However, this effect was not observed in repeated stress rats. Considering the evidence relating stress with CRF, we decided to perfuse CRF and CP-154526 (selective antagonist of CRF1 receptor) in the VTA of control and repeated stress rats, respectively. We observed that perfusion of 20μM CRF inhibited the increase of VTA DA extracellular levels induced by cocaine in control rats. Interestingly, we observed that in the presence of 10μM CP-154526, cocaine induced a significant increase of VTA DA extracellular levels in repeated stress rats. Regarding the role of VTA GABA neurotransmission, cocaine administration induced a significant increase in VTA GABA extracellular levels only in repeated stress rats. Consistently, cocaine was able to increase VTA DA extracellular levels in repeated stress rats when 100μM bicuculline, an antagonist of GABAA receptor, was perfused intra VTA. Thus, both CRF and GABA systems are involved in the lack of response to cocaine in the VTA of repeated stress rats. It is tempting to suggest that the loss of response in VTA dopaminergic neurons to cocaine, after repeated stress, is due to an interaction between CRF and GABA systems. PMID:26318765

  12. Development and irradiation testing of Al-U3Si2 at Chalk River Laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mini-elements containing Al-64 wt% U3Si2 (3.15 gU/cm3), with three discrete U3Si2 particle-size distributions, have been irradiated up to 93 at% burnup in the NRU reactor. The uranium silicide (U-7.0Si) was used in the as-cast condition, and contained up to 4 wt% free uranium in the U3Si2 matrix. Post-irradiation examinations (PIE) of the high-burnup elements have been recently completed. PIE included underwater and hot-cell examinations, immersion density measurements, neutron radiography, optical and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with wavelength dispersion X-ray (WDX) analysis, and computerized image analysis of the fission-gas bubble-size distributions. The results show that the Al-U3Si2 swelled less than Al-U3Si fuel previously irradiated under similar conditions in NRU, and no significant swelling dependence on particle-size distribution was observed. Al-U3Si2 core volume increases ranged from 4.2 to 4.7 vol%, compared to 5.8 to 6.8 vol% for Al-U3Si fuel with identical uranium loadings. SEM examinations revealed that the U3Si2 (U-7.0Si) particles contained regions with relatively ordered, very dense populations of sub-micron fission-gas bubbles. In contrast, the gas bubbles are randomly distributed within U3Si (U-3.96Si) particles, vary widely in size, and small bubbles coalesce to form larger bubbles. The capability of U3Si2 to retain fission gas in small bubbles accounts for the lower swelling. (author)

  13. Widespread establishment and regulatory impact of Alu exons in human genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Shihao; Lin, Lan; Cai, James J; Jiang, Peng; Kenkel, Elizabeth J; Stroik, Mallory R; Sato, Seiko; Davidson, Beverly L; Xing, Yi

    2011-02-15

    The Alu element has been a major source of new exons during primate evolution. Thousands of human genes contain spliced exons derived from Alu elements. However, identifying Alu exons that have acquired genuine biological functions remains a major challenge. We investigated the creation and establishment of Alu exons in human genes, using transcriptome profiles of human tissues generated by high-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) combined with extensive RT-PCR analysis. More than 25% of Alu exons analyzed by RNA-Seq have estimated transcript inclusion levels of at least 50% in the human cerebellum, indicating widespread establishment of Alu exons in human genes. Genes encoding zinc finger transcription factors have significantly higher levels of Alu exonization. Importantly, Alu exons with high splicing activities are strongly enriched in the 5'-UTR, and two-thirds (10/15) of 5'-UTR Alu exons tested by luciferase reporter assays significantly alter mRNA translational efficiency. Mutational analysis reveals the specific molecular mechanisms by which newly created 5'-UTR Alu exons modulate translational efficiency, such as the creation or elongation of upstream ORFs that repress the translation of the primary ORFs. This study presents genomic evidence that a major functional consequence of Alu exonization is the lineage-specific evolution of translational regulation. Moreover, the preferential creation and establishment of Alu exons in zinc finger genes suggest that Alu exonization may have globally affected the evolution of primate and human transcriptomes by regulating the protein production of master transcriptional regulators in specific lineages.

  14. Repeated exposure to conditioned fear stress increases anxiety and delays sleep recovery following exposure to an acute traumatic stressor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin N Greenwood

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Repeated stressor exposure can sensitize physiological responses to novel stressors and facilitate the development of stress-related psychiatric disorders including anxiety. Disruptions in diurnal rhythms of sleep-wake behavior accompany stress-related psychiatric disorders and could contribute to their development. Complex stressors that include fear-eliciting stimuli can be a component of repeated stress experienced by humans, but whether exposure to repeated fear can prime the development of anxiety and sleep disturbances is unknown. In the current study, adult male F344 rats were exposed to either control conditions or repeated contextual fear conditioning for 22 days followed by exposure to either no, mild (10, or severe (100 acute uncontrollable tail shock stress. Exposure to acute stress produced anxiety-like behavior as measured by a reduction in juvenile social exploration and exaggerated shock-elicited freezing in a novel context. Prior exposure to repeated fear enhanced anxiety-like behavior as measured by shock-elicited freezing, but did not alter social exploratory behavior. The potentiation of anxiety produced by prior repeated fear was temporary; exaggerated fear was present 1 day but not 4 days following acute stress. Interestingly, exposure to acute stress reduced REM and NREM sleep during the hours immediately following acute stress. This initial reduction in sleep was followed by robust REM rebound and diurnal rhythm flattening of sleep / wake behavior. Prior repeated fear extended the acute stress-induced REM and NREM sleep loss, impaired REM rebound, and prolonged the flattening of the diurnal rhythm of NREM sleep following acute stressor exposure. These data suggest that impaired recovery of sleep / wake behavior following acute stress could contribute to the mechanisms by which a history of prior repeated stress increases vulnerability to subsequent novel stressors and stress-related disorders.

  15. A genomewide screen for suppressors of Alu-mediated rearrangements reveals a role for PIF1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen M Chisholm

    Full Text Available Alu-mediated rearrangement of tumor suppressor genes occurs frequently during carcinogenesis. In breast cancer, this mechanism contributes to loss of the wild-type BRCA1 allele in inherited disease and to loss of heterozygosity in sporadic cancer. To identify genes required for suppression of Alu-mediated recombination we performed a genomewide screen of a collection of 4672 yeast gene deletion mutants using a direct repeat recombination assay. The primary screen and subsequent analysis identified 12 candidate genes including TSA, ELG1, and RRM3, which are known to play a significant role in maintaining genomic stability. Genetic analysis of the corresponding human homologs was performed in sporadic breast tumors and in inherited BRCA1-associated carcinomas. Sequencing of these genes in high risk breast cancer families revealed a potential role for the helicase PIF1 in cancer predisposition. PIF1 variant L319P was identified in three breast cancer families; importantly, this variant, which is predicted to be functionally damaging, was not identified in a large series of controls nor has it been reported in either dbSNP or the 1000 Genomes Project. In Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Pfh1 is required to maintain both mitochondrial and nuclear genomic integrity. Functional studies in yeast of human PIF1 L319P revealed that this variant cannot complement the essential functions of Pfh1 in either the nucleus or mitochondria. Our results provide a global view of nonessential genes involved in suppressing Alu-mediated recombination and implicate variation in PIF1 in breast cancer predisposition.

  16. The mobile genetic element Alu in the human genome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novick, G.E. [Florida International Univ., Miami, FL (United States); Batzer, M.A.; Deininger, P.L. [Louisiana State Univ. Medical Center, New Orleans, LA (United States)] [and others

    1996-01-01

    Genetic material has been traditionally envisioned as relatively static with the exception of occasional, often deleterious mutations. The sequence DNA-to-RNA-to-protein represented for many years the central dogma relating gene structure and function. Recently, the field of molecular genetics has provided revolutionary information on the dynamic role of repetitive elements in the function of the genetic material and the evolution of humans and other organisms. Alu sequences represent the largest family of short interspersed repetitive elements (SINEs) in humans, being present in an excess of 500,000 copies per haploid genome. Alu elements, as well as the other repetitive elements, were once considered to be useless. Today, the biology of Alu transposable elements is being widely examined in order to determine the molecular basis of a growing number of identified diseases and to provide new directions in genome mapping and biomedical research. 66 refs., 5 figs.

  17. Gated Clock Implementation of Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Neelam R. Prakash

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Low power design has emerged as one of the challenging area in today’s ASIC (Application specific integrated circuit design. With continuous decrease in transistor size, power density is increasing and there is an urgent need for reduction in total power consumption. Clock gating is one most effective technique for low power synchronous circuit design. Clock gating technique in low power design is used to reduce the dynamic power consumption. Clock signal in a synchronous circuit is used for synchronization only and hence does not carry any important information. Since clock is applied to each block of a synchronous circuit, and clock switches for every cycle, clock power is the major part of dynamic power consumption in synchronous circuits. Clock gating is a well known technique to reduce clock power. In clock gating clock to an idle block is disabled. Thus significant amount of power consumption is reduced by employing clock gating. In this paper an ALU design is proposed employing Gated clock for its operation. Design simulation has been performed on Xilinx ISE design suite, and power calculation is done by Xilinx Xpower analyzer. Results show that approximately 17% of total clock power consumption is reduced by gated clock implementation.

  18. Alu sequences in undifferentiated human embryonic stem cells display high levels of A-to-I RNA editing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivan Osenberg

    Full Text Available Adenosine to Inosine (A-to-I RNA editing is a site-specific modification of RNA transcripts, catalyzed by members of the ADAR (Adenosine Deaminase Acting on RNA protein family. RNA editing occurs in human RNA in thousands of different sites. Some of the sites are located in protein-coding regions but the majority is found in non-coding regions, such as 3'UTRs, 5'UTRs and introns - mainly in Alu elements. While editing is found in all tissues, the highest levels of editing are found in the brain. It was shown that editing levels within protein-coding regions are increased during embryogenesis and after birth and that RNA editing is crucial for organism viability as well as for normal development. In this study we characterized the A-to-I RNA editing phenomenon during neuronal and spontaneous differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs. We identified high editing levels of Alu repetitive elements in hESCs and demonstrated a global decrease in editing levels of non-coding Alu sites when hESCs are differentiating, particularly into the neural lineage. Using RNA interference, we showed that the elevated editing levels of Alu elements in undifferentiated hESCs are highly dependent on ADAR1. DNA microarray analysis showed that ADAR1 knockdown has a global effect on gene expression in hESCs and leads to a significant increase in RNA expression levels of genes involved in differentiation and development processes, including neurogenesis. Taken together, we speculate that A-to-I editing of Alu sequences plays a role in the regulation of hESC early differentiation decisions.

  19. Alu Sequences in Undifferentiated Human Embryonic Stem Cells Display High Levels of A-to-I RNA Editing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osenberg, Sivan; Paz Yaacov, Nurit; Safran, Michal; Moshkovitz, Sharon; Shtrichman, Ronit; Sherf, Ofra; Jacob-Hirsch, Jasmine; Keshet, Gilmor; Amariglio, Ninette; Itskovitz-Eldor, Joseph; Rechavi, Gideon

    2010-01-01

    Adenosine to Inosine (A-to-I) RNA editing is a site-specific modification of RNA transcripts, catalyzed by members of the ADAR (Adenosine Deaminase Acting on RNA) protein family. RNA editing occurs in human RNA in thousands of different sites. Some of the sites are located in protein-coding regions but the majority is found in non-coding regions, such as 3′UTRs, 5′UTRs and introns - mainly in Alu elements. While editing is found in all tissues, the highest levels of editing are found in the brain. It was shown that editing levels within protein-coding regions are increased during embryogenesis and after birth and that RNA editing is crucial for organism viability as well as for normal development. In this study we characterized the A-to-I RNA editing phenomenon during neuronal and spontaneous differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). We identified high editing levels of Alu repetitive elements in hESCs and demonstrated a global decrease in editing levels of non-coding Alu sites when hESCs are differentiating, particularly into the neural lineage. Using RNA interference, we showed that the elevated editing levels of Alu elements in undifferentiated hESCs are highly dependent on ADAR1. DNA microarray analysis showed that ADAR1 knockdown has a global effect on gene expression in hESCs and leads to a significant increase in RNA expression levels of genes involved in differentiation and development processes, including neurogenesis. Taken together, we speculate that A-to-I editing of Alu sequences plays a role in the regulation of hESC early differentiation decisions. PMID:20574523

  20. Snorre time-lapse feasibility study: increased repeatability through close co-operation between processing reservoir geophysicists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhelst, F.J.P.C.M.G.; Smith, P.; Eidsvig, S.; Magnus, I.; Berg, J.I.; Helgesen, J.

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses how an increased repeatability was obtained through a close co-operation between processing and reservoir geophysicists during the Snorre time-lapse feasibility study. Since the SG9701 dataset was not specifically designed for time-lapse purposes, the main aim of the "Full 4D" r

  1. Transcripts from a novel human KRAB zinc finger gene contain spliced Alu and endogenous retroviral segments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baban, S.; Freeman, J.D.; Mager, D.L. [Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada)

    1996-05-01

    During the course of an investigation into the potential effects of endogenous retroviruses on adjacent gene expression, we isolated two cDNA clones containing a small sequence segment belonging to the human endogenous retrovirus family, HERV-H. Characterization of the clones revealed that they represent transcripts from a novel KRAB zinc finger gene termed ZNF177. The two cDNA clones differ at their 5{prime} termini and in the presence of a 559-bp internal exon. The clone containing this internal exon has six imperfect zinc finger motifs followed by seven perfect copies of the C{sub 2}H{sub 2} type but has a frame shift between the KRAB domain and the downstream zinc finger region. The smaller clone lacks the six imperfect motifs and has an intact ORF. The 5{prime} putative untranslated regions of both cDNAs contain an 86-bp HERV-H env segment and a segment of an Alu repeat, both in the antisense orientation, that have been incorporated by splicing. RT-PCR experiments show evidence of alternative splicing but the majority of transcripts appear to contain the Alu and env segments. Genomic PCR and hybridization experiments suggest that a partial HERV-H element is integrated within the ZNF177 locus, which Southern analysis has shown to be a single-copy gene. Northern and RT-PCR analyses suggest that ZNF177 is transcribed at a low level in a variety of cell types. 41 refs., 8 figs.

  2. A novel PCR technique using Alu-specific primers to identify unknown flanking sequences from the human genome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minami, M.; Poussin, K.; Brechot, C.; Paterlini, P. [INSERM, Paris (France)

    1995-09-20

    The rapid and reproducible identification of new cellular DNA sequences is difficult to achieve with the currently available procedures. Here we describe a novel approach based on the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using a primer specific to the known sequence and another directed to a human Alu repeat. To avoid undesirable amplifications between Alu sequences, primers are constructed with dUTPs and destroyed by uracil DNA glycosylase treatment after 10 initial cycles of amplification. Only desirable fragments are then further amplified with specific primers to the known region and to a tag sequence introduced in the Alu-specific primer. Using this protocol, we have successfully indentified cellular sequences flanking integrated hepatitis B virus DNA from the human genome of three hepatoma tissues. The method enables a direct specific amplification without any ligation or nonspecific annealing steps as required by previous PCR-based protocols. This rapid and straightforward approach will be a powerful tool for the study of viral integration sites, but is also widely applicable to other studies of the human genome. 39 refs., 4 figs.

  3. Increases in fruit intakes in older low consumers of fruit following two community-based repeated exposure interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleton, K M

    2013-03-14

    The present study investigated the value of two repeated exposure interventions for increasing intakes of fruit in older people. A total of ninety-five participants (aged 65 years and over) were randomised to receive either one (E1), five (E5) or five plus (E5+) exposures to fruit over a 5-week period. Fruit exposures occurred in community-based church and social groups, through fruit-tasting sessions involving familiar fruits and novel fruit products and dishes (E1, E5, E5+), and through fruit provision (E5+). Daily intakes of fruit and vegetables were assessed before and after all interventions. Liking for all fruits was also measured during repeated exposure (E5, E5+). In low consumers of fruit (one portion/d or less), fruit intakes increased significantly in the repeated exposure groups (E5, E5+) (t(30) = 5·79, Polder low consumers of fruit, although no benefits of additional fruit provision were found. Repeated exposure was also easy to implement, of low cost and enjoyable.

  4. Effect of repeated insertions of curved sequences in DNA plasmids: a light-scattering study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beretta, Stefano; Chirico, Giuseppe; Baldini, Giancarlo; Kapp, U.; Badaracco, G.

    1993-06-01

    The effect of the insertion of different amounts (from 0 to 6) of the curved sequence AluI in pUC18m plasmid (2686 base pairs, bp) is studied by dynamic light scattering. This sequence is a highly repeated 113 base pairs long sequence from Artemia Franciscana shrimp. A 30% compaction of the plasmids containing 2 and 6 adjacent AluI sequences compared to pUC8 plasmid (2717 bp) is observed. Furthermore the behavior of the translational diffusion coefficient Dt versus the number of adjacent AluI insertion is not monotonic.

  5. Repeated oral administration of capsaicin increases anxiety-like behaviours with prolonged stress-response in rats

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Y-J Choi; J Y Kim; S B Yoo; J-H Lee; J W Jahng

    2013-09-01

    This study was conducted to examine the psycho-emotional effects of repeated oral exposure to capsaicin, the principal active component of chili peppers. Each rat received 1 mL of 0.02% capsaicin into its oral cavity daily, and was subjected to behavioural tests following 10 daily administrations of capsaicin. Stereotypy counts and rostral grooming were significantly increased, and caudal grooming decreased, in capsaicin-treated rats during the ambulatory activity test. In elevated plus maze test, not only the time spent in open arms but also the percent arm entry into open arms was reduced in capsaicin-treated rats compared with control rats. In forced swim test, although swimming duration was decreased, struggling increased in the capsaicin group, immobility duration did not differ between the groups. Repeated oral capsaicin did not affect the basal levels of plasma corticosterone; however, the stress-induced elevation of plasma corticosterone was prolonged in capsaicin treated rats. Oral capsaicin exposure significantly increased c-Fos expression not only in the nucleus tractus of solitarius but also in the paraventricular nucleus. Results suggest that repeated oral exposure to capsaicin increases anxiety-like behaviours in rats, and dysfunction of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis may play a role in its pathophysiology.

  6. Identification of human-specific AluS elements through comparative genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae; Kim, Yun-Ji; Mun, Seyoung; Kim, Heui-Soo; Han, Kyudong

    2015-01-25

    Mobile elements are responsible for ~45% of the human genome. Among them is the Alu element, accounting for 10% of the human genome (>1.1million copies). Several studies of Alu elements have reported that they are frequently involved in human genetic diseases and genomic rearrangements. In this study, we investigated the AluS subfamily, which is a relatively old Alu subfamily and has the highest copy number in primate genomes. Previously, a set of 263 human-specific AluS insertions was identified in the human genome. To validate these, we compared each of the human-specific AluS loci with its pre-insertion site in other primate genomes, including chimpanzee, gorilla, and orangutan. We obtained 24 putative human-specific AluS candidates via the in silico analysis and manual inspection, and then tried to verify them using PCR amplification and DNA sequencing. Through the PCR product sequencing, we were able to detect two instances of near-parallel Alu insertions in nearby sites that led to computational false negatives. Finally, we computationally and experimentally verified 23 human-specific AluS elements. We reported three alternative Alu insertion events, which are accompanied by filler DNA and/or Alu retrotransposition mediated-deletion. Bisulfite sequencing was carried out to examine DNA methylation levels of human-specific AluS elements. The results showed that fixed AluS elements are hypermethylated compared with polymorphic elements, indicating a possible relation between DNA methylation and Alu fixation in the human genome. PMID:25447892

  7. Increased Mesohippocampal Dopaminergic Activity and Improved Depression-Like Behaviors in Maternally Separated Rats Following Repeated Fasting/Refeeding Cycles

    OpenAIRE

    Jeong Won Jahng; Sang Bae Yoo; Jin Young Kim; Bom-Taeck Kim; Jong-Ho Lee

    2012-01-01

    We have previously reported that rats that experienced 3 h of daily maternal separation during the first 2 weeks of birth (MS) showed binge-like eating behaviors with increased activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis when they were subjected to fasting/refeeding cycles repeatedly. In this study, we have examined the psychoemotional behaviors of MS rats on the fasting/refeeding cycles, together with their brain dopamine levels. Fasting/refeeding cycles normalized the ambulatory act...

  8. Methylation status of individual CpG sites within Alu elements in the human genome and Alu hypomethylation in gastric carcinomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alu methylation is correlated with the overall level of DNA methylation and recombination activity of the genome. However, the maintenance and methylation status of each CpG site within Alu elements (Alu) and its methylation status have not well characterized. This information is useful for understanding natural status of Alu in the genome and helpful for developing an optimal assay to quantify Alu hypomethylation. Bisulfite clone sequencing was carried out in 14 human gastric samples initially. A Cac8I COBRA-DHPLC assay was developed to detect methylated-Alu proportion in cell lines and 48 paired gastric carcinomas and 55 gastritis samples. DHPLC data were statistically interpreted using SPSS version 16.0. From the results of 427 Alu bisulfite clone sequences, we found that only 27.2% of CpG sites within Alu elements were preserved (4.6 of 17 analyzed CpGs, A ~ Q) and that 86.6% of remaining-CpGs were methylated. Deamination was the main reason for low preservation of methylation targets. A high correlation coefficient of methylation was observed between Alu clones and CpG site J (0.963), A (0.950), H (0.946), D (0.945). Comethylation of the sites H and J were used as an indicator of the proportion of methylated-Alu in a Cac8I COBRA-DHPLC assay. Validation studies showed that hypermethylation or hypomethylation of Alu elements in human cell lines could be detected sensitively by the assay after treatment with 5-aza-dC and M.SssI, respectively. The proportion of methylated-Alu copies in gastric carcinomas (3.01%) was significantly lower than that in the corresponding normal samples (3.19%) and gastritis biopsies (3.23%). Most Alu CpG sites are deaminated in the genome. 27% of Alu CpG sites represented in our amplification products. 87% of the remaining CpG sites are methylated. Alu hypomethylation in primary gastric carcinomas could be detected with the Cac8I COBRA-DHPLC assay quantitatively

  9. Splice-mediated insertion of an Alu sequence inactivates ornithine δ-aminotransferase: A role for Alu elements in human mutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In studies of mutations causing deficiency of ornithine δ-aminotransferase the authors found an allele whose mature mRNA has a 142-nucleotide insertion at the junction of sequences from exons 3 and 4. The insert derives from an Alu element in ornithine δ-aminotransferase intron 3 oriented in the direction opposite to transcription (an antisense Alu). A guanine → cytosine transversion creates a donor splice site in this Alu, activating a cryptic acceptor splice site at its 5' end and causing splice-mediated insertion of an Alu fragment into the mature ornithine-δ-aminotransferase mRNA. The authors note that the complement of the Alu consensus sequence has at least two cryptic acceptor sites and several potential donor sequences and predict that similar mutations will be found in other genes

  10. Repeated static contractions increase mitochondrial vulnerability toward oxidative stress in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sahlin, Kent; Nielsen, Jens Steen; Mogensen, Martin;

    2006-01-01

    +) kinetics in human muscle. Ten male subjects performed five bouts of static knee extension with 10-min rest in between. Each bout of RSC (target torque 66% of maximal voluntary contraction torque) was maintained to fatigue. Muscle biopsies were taken preexercise and 0.3 and 24 h postexercise from vastus...... contractility, including reduced maximal torque, low-frequency fatigue, and faster torque relaxation. It is concluded that RSC increases mitochondrial vulnerability toward ROS, reduces SR Ca(2+) uptake rate, and causes low-frequency fatigue. Although conclusive evidence is lacking, we suggest that these changes...

  11. Marketingový mix firmy ALU KOLA CB

    OpenAIRE

    Urban, Karel

    2011-01-01

    This bachelor thesis is focused on a marketing mix practical application in my own company ALU KOLA CB. My company sells alloy wheels and tyres for personal cars. In a literary review are introduced and explained terms marketing, marketing mix and its parts - product, price, place and promotion. In a practical part of this thesis are these terms applied on my company. The end of this part contains results and improvement suggestions.

  12. Design, Analysis, Implementation and Synthesis of 16 bit Reversible ALU by using Xilinx 12.2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Anusha

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In the modern world, Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU is one of the most crucial components of any system and is used in many appliances like calculators, cell phones, and computers and so on. An arithmetic logic unit is a multi-functional circuit that conditionally performs one of several possible functions on two operands A and B depending on control inputs. This paper proposes the design of programmable reversible logic gate structures, targeted for the ALU implementation and their use in the realization of an efficient reversible ALU. Reversible or information-lossless circuits have applications in digital signal processing, communication, computer graphics and cryptography. This ALU consists of thirteen operations, 5 arithmetic, 4 logical operations and 4 shifting operations. All the modules are being designed using the basic reversible gates. Using reversible logic gates instead of traditional logic AND/OR gates, a reversible ALU whose function is the same as traditional ALU is constructed. Comparing with the number of input bits and the discarded bits of the traditional ALU, the reversible ALU significantly reduce the use and loss of information bits. The proposed reversible 16-bit ALU reduces the information bits use and loss by reusing the logic information bits logically and realizes the goal of lowering power consumption of logic circuits. Programmable reversible logic gates are realized in Verilog by using XILINX 12.2. Key words:

  13. Iron Toxicity in the Retina Requires Alu RNA and the NLRP3 Inflammasome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley D. Gelfand

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Excess iron induces tissue damage and is implicated in age-related macular degeneration (AMD. Iron toxicity is widely attributed to hydroxyl radical formation through Fenton’s reaction. We report that excess iron, but not other Fenton catalytic metals, induces activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome, a pathway also implicated in AMD. Additionally, iron-induced degeneration of the retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE is suppressed in mice lacking inflammasome components caspase-1/11 or Nlrp3 or by inhibition of caspase-1. Iron overload increases abundance of RNAs transcribed from short interspersed nuclear elements (SINEs: Alu RNAs and the rodent equivalent B1 and B2 RNAs, which are inflammasome agonists. Targeting Alu or B2 RNA prevents iron-induced inflammasome activation and RPE degeneration. Iron-induced SINE RNA accumulation is due to suppression of DICER1 via sequestration of the co-factor poly(C-binding protein 2 (PCBP2. These findings reveal an unexpected mechanism of iron toxicity, with implications for AMD and neurodegenerative diseases associated with excess iron.

  14. Analysis of the action of the restriction endonuclease AluI using three different comet assay protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and purpose: the comet assay offers the opportunity to measure the amount of DNA damage and the effectiveness of DNA repair in single cells. In a first part, experiments are presented comparing three different protocols of the comet assay technique with respect to the analysis of the induction of DNA damage after X-irradiation in isolated human lymphocytes and CHO cells. In a second part, the restriction enzyme AluI, an agent producing DNA double-strand breaks exclusively, was introduced into CHO cells by electroporation and the effects were analyzed using the different comet assay protocols. The experiments were carried out in order to test the assertion that comet assay techniques can measure different types of DNA damages at different pH conditions of lysis and electrophoresis. Material and methods: three different comet assay protocols were used for the analysis of DNA damage in lymphocytes and CHO cells. Results: the results clearly indicate that among the three protocols the modified comet assay technique used by the authors showed the highest sensitivity in the radiotherapy-relevant dose range between 0 and 2 Gy. All three protocols were capable of detecting an effect by AluI. This effect, however, was clearly different from radiation effects. Whereas after radiation exposure all cell nuclei show a dose-dependent increase in DNA content in the comet tail, most of the cell nuclei were unaffected by an AluI uptake. Nevertheless, there was an effect by AluI that could be detected in all three assay versions: between 5% and 15% of the nuclei showed clearly abnormal comet morphologies. Conclusion: neither the strictly alkaline nor the strictly neutral comet assay is applicable in the radiation dose range of about 2 Gy. The restriction enzyme results show that other factors than just DNA strand breaks contribute to DNA migration into the tail of the comets. (orig.)

  15. Repeated sauna therapy attenuates ventricular remodeling after myocardial infarction in rats by increasing coronary vascularity of noninfarcted myocardium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobajima, Mitsuo; Nozawa, Takashi; Shida, Takuya; Ohori, Takashi; Suzuki, Takayuki; Matsuki, Akira; Inoue, Hiroshi

    2011-08-01

    Repeated sauna therapy (ST) increases endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity and improves cardiac function in heart failure as well as peripheral blood flow in ischemic limbs. The present study investigates whether ST can increase coronary vascularity and thus attenuate cardiac remodeling after myocardial infarction (MI). We induced MI by ligating the left coronary artery of Wistar rats. The rats were placed in a far-infrared dry sauna at 41°C for 15 min and then at 34°C for 20 min once daily for 4 wk. Cardiac hemodynamic, histopathological, and gene analyses were performed. Despite the similar sizes of MI between the ST and non-ST groups (51.4 ± 0.3 vs. 51.1 ± 0.2%), ST reduced left ventricular (LV) end-diastolic (9.7 ± 0.4 vs. 10.7 ± 0.5 mm, P myocardial atrial natriuretic peptide mRNA levels. Vascular density was reduced in the noninfarcted myocardium of non-ST rats, and the density of cells positive for CD31 and for α-smooth muscle actin was decreased. These decreases were attenuated in ST rats compared with non-ST rats and associated with increases in myocardial eNOS and vascular endothelial growth factor mRNA levels. In conclusion, ST attenuates cardiac remodeling after MI, at least in part, through improving coronary vascularity in the noninfarcted myocardium. Repeated ST might serve as a novel noninvasive therapy for patients with MI.

  16. A comparison of 100 human genes using an alu element-based instability model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George W Cook

    Full Text Available The human retrotransposon with the highest copy number is the Alu element. The human genome contains over one million Alu elements that collectively account for over ten percent of our DNA. Full-length Alu elements are randomly distributed throughout the genome in both forward and reverse orientations. However, full-length widely spaced Alu pairs having two Alus in the same (direct orientation are statistically more prevalent than Alu pairs having two Alus in the opposite (inverted orientation. The cause of this phenomenon is unknown. It has been hypothesized that this imbalance is the consequence of anomalous inverted Alu pair interactions. One proposed mechanism suggests that inverted Alu pairs can ectopically interact, exposing both ends of each Alu element making up the pair to a potential double-strand break, or "hit". This hypothesized "two-hit" (two double-strand breaks potential per Alu element was used to develop a model for comparing the relative instabilities of human genes. The model incorporates both 1 the two-hit double-strand break potential of Alu elements and 2 the probability of exon-damaging deletions extending from these double-strand breaks. This model was used to compare the relative instabilities of 50 deletion-prone cancer genes and 50 randomly selected genes from the human genome. The output of the Alu element-based genomic instability model developed here is shown to coincide with the observed instability of deletion-prone cancer genes. The 50 cancer genes are collectively estimated to be 58% more unstable than the randomly chosen genes using this model. Seven of the deletion-prone cancer genes, ATM, BRCA1, FANCA, FANCD2, MSH2, NCOR1 and PBRM1, were among the most unstable 10% of the 100 genes analyzed. This algorithm may lay the foundation for comparing genetic risks posed by structural variations that are unique to specific individuals, families and people groups.

  17. Increased Mesohippocampal Dopaminergic Activity and Improved Depression-Like Behaviors in Maternally Separated Rats Following Repeated Fasting/Refeeding Cycles

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    Jeong Won Jahng

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We have previously reported that rats that experienced 3 h of daily maternal separation during the first 2 weeks of birth (MS showed binge-like eating behaviors with increased activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis when they were subjected to fasting/refeeding cycles repeatedly. In this study, we have examined the psychoemotional behaviors of MS rats on the fasting/refeeding cycles, together with their brain dopamine levels. Fasting/refeeding cycles normalized the ambulatory activity of MS rats, which was decreased by MS experience. Depression-like behaviors, but not anxiety, by MS experience were improved after fasting/refeeding cycles. Fasting/refeeding cycles did not significantly affect the behavioral scores of nonhandled (NH control rats. Fasting/refeeding cycles increased dopamine levels not only in the hippocampus but also in the midbrain dopaminergic neurons in MS rats, but not in NH controls. Results demonstrate that fasting/refeeding cycles increase the mesohippocampal dopaminergic activity and improve depression-like behaviors in rats that experienced MS. Together with our previous paper, it is suggested that increased dopamine neurotransmission in the hippocampus may be implicated in the underlying mechanisms by which the fasting/refeeding cycles induce binge-like eating and improve depression-like behaviors in MS rats.

  18. Analysis of the features and source gene composition of the AluYg6 subfamily of human retrotransposons

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    Brookfield John FY

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alu elements are a family of SINE retrotransposons in primates. They are classified into subfamilies according to specific diagnostic mutations from the general Alu consensus. It is now believed that there may be several retrotranspositionally-competent source genes within an Alu subfamily. To investigate the evolution of young Alu elements it is critical to have access to complete subfamilies, which, following the release of the final human genome assembly, can now be obtained using in silico methods. Results 380 elements belonging to the young AluYg6 subfamily were identified in the human genome, a number significantly exceeding prior expectations. An AluYg6 element was also identified in the chimpanzee genome, indicating that the subfamily is older than previously estimated, and appears to have undergone a period of dormancy before its expansion. The relative contributions of back mutation and gene conversion to variation at the six diagnostic positions are examined, and cases of complete forward gene conversion events are reported. Two small subfamilies derived from AluYg6 have been identified, named AluYg6a2 and AluYg5b3, which contain 40 and 27 members, respectively. These small subfamilies are used to illustrate the ambiguity regarding Alu subfamily definition, and to assess the contribution of secondary source genes to the AluYg6 subfamily. Conclusion The number of elements in the AluYg6 subfamily greatly exceeds prior expectations, indicating that the current knowledge of young Alu subfamilies is incomplete, and that prior analyses that have been carried out using these data may have generated inaccurate results. A definition of primary and secondary source genes has been provided, and it has been shown that several source genes have contributed to the proliferation of the AluYg6 subfamily. Access to the sequence data for the complete AluYg6 subfamily will be invaluable in future computational analyses investigating

  19. Repeated Exposure to Conditioned Fear Stress Increases Anxiety and Delays Sleep Recovery Following Exposure to an Acute Traumatic Stressor

    OpenAIRE

    Greenwood, Benjamin N.; Thompson, Robert S.; Opp, Mark R.; Fleshner, Monika

    2014-01-01

    Repeated stressor exposure can sensitize physiological responses to novel stressors and facilitate the development of stress-related psychiatric disorders including anxiety. Disruptions in diurnal rhythms of sleep–wake behavior accompany stress-related psychiatric disorders and could contribute to their development. Complex stressors that include fear-eliciting stimuli can be a component of repeated stress experienced by human beings, but whether exposure to repeated fear can prime the develo...

  20. Orangutan Alu quiescence reveals possible source element: support for ancient backseat drivers

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    Walker Jerilyn A

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sequence analysis of the orangutan genome revealed that recent proliferative activity of Alu elements has been uncharacteristically quiescent in the Pongo (orangutan lineage, compared with all previously studied primate genomes. With relatively few young polymorphic insertions, the genomic landscape of the orangutan seemed like the ideal place to search for a driver, or source element, of Alu retrotransposition. Results Here we report the identification of a nearly pristine insertion possessing all the known putative hallmarks of a retrotranspositionally competent Alu element. It is located in an intronic sequence of the DGKB gene on chromosome 7 and is highly conserved in Hominidae (the great apes, but absent from Hylobatidae (gibbon and siamang. We provide evidence for the evolution of a lineage-specific subfamily of this shared Alu insertion in orangutans and possibly the lineage leading to humans. In the orangutan genome, this insertion contains three orangutan-specific diagnostic mutations which are characteristic of the youngest polymorphic Alu subfamily, AluYe5b5_Pongo. In the Homininae lineage (human, chimpanzee and gorilla, this insertion has acquired three different mutations which are also found in a single human-specific Alu insertion. Conclusions This seemingly stealth-like amplification, ongoing at a very low rate over millions of years of evolution, suggests that this shared insertion may represent an ancient backseat driver of Alu element expansion.

  1. Alu Insertions and Genetic Diversity: A Preliminary Investigation by an Undergraduate Bioinformatics Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elwess, Nancy L.; Duprey, Stephen L.; Harney, Lindesay A.; Langman, Jessie E.; Marino, Tara C.; Martinez, Carolina; McKeon, Lauren L.; Moss, Chantel I. E.; Myrie, Sasha S.; Taylor, Luke Ryan

    2008-01-01

    "Alu"-insertion polymorphisms were used by an undergraduate Bioinformatics class to study how these insertion sites could be the basis for an investigation in human population genetics. Based on the students' investigation, both allele and genotype "Alu" frequencies were determined for African-American and Japanese populations as well as a…

  2. Alu-alu recombination results in a duplication of seven exons in the lysyl hydroxylase gene in a patient with the type VI variant of Ethlers-Danlos syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pousi, B.; Hautala, T.; Heikkinen, J.; Pajunen, L.; Kivirikko, K.I.; Myllylae, R. [Univ. of Oulu (Finland)

    1994-11-01

    The type VI variant of the Ethlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) is a recessively inherited connective-tissue disorder. The characteristic features of the variant are muscular hyptonia, kyphoscoliosis, ocular manifestations, joint hypermobility, skin fragility and hyperextensibility, and other signs of connective-tissue involvement. The biochemical defect in most but not all patients is a deficiency in lysyl hydroxylase activity. Lysyl hydroxylase is an enzyme that catalyzes the formation of hydroxylysine in collagens and other proteins with collagen-like amino acid sequences. We have recently reported an apparently homozygous large-duplication rearrangement in the gene for lysyl hydroxylase, leading to the type VI variant of EDS in two siblings. We now report an identical, apparently homozygous large duplication in an unrelated 49-year-old female originally analyzed by Sussman et al. Our simple-sequence-repeat-polymorphism analysis does not support uniparental isodisomy inheritance for either of the two duplications. Furthermore, we indicate in this study that the duplication in the lysyl hydroxylase gene is caused by an Alu-Alu recombination in both families. Cloning of the junction fragment of the duplication has allowed synthesis of appropriate primers for rapid screening for this rearrangement in other families with the type VI variant of EDS. 38 refs., 6 figs.

  3. Gradual increase in secondary ionization coefficient γ and charge accumulation on a dielectric electrode during DBD with repeated breakdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, S.; Itoh, H.

    2015-10-01

    We have investigated the effect of the surface roughness of a dielectric electrode for dielectric barrier discharge (DBD). We prepared three alumina plates made from the same material with different surface roughnesses for use as electrodes. During the repeated breakdown from the first breakdown to the stationary state, we observed gradual increases in the secondary ionization coefficient and the charge accumulated on the alumina electrodes under the application of a sinusoidal voltage in argon up to a pressure of 105 Torr. A strong correlation was also observed between them, similarly to in a previous paper on CaO film electrodes. The results suggest that increasing the surface roughness of an alumina electrode results in a larger secondary ionization coefficient and greater charge accumulation on the electrode. Moreover, it is concluded that the charges that accumulate on the alumina can be liberated from the surface as initial electrons when it acts as a cathode, depending on the polarity of the alternating gap voltage. These electrons induce the formation of an atmospheric-pressure Townsend discharge. Finally, we discuss the effect of the secondary ionization coefficient in DBD.

  4. Insertion and/or deletion of many repeated DNA sequences in human and higher ape evolution.

    OpenAIRE

    Hwu, H R; Roberts, J W; Davidson, E. H.; Britten, R. J.

    1986-01-01

    The total numbers of copies of two repeat families, L1 (Kpn I) and Alu, have been measured in the DNA of four higher apes by an accurate titration method. The number of members of the Alu family repeats in the four genomes are as follows: human, 910,000; chimpanzee, 330,000; gorilla, 410,000; orangutan, 580,000. For the Kpn I family (3'-ward higher frequency region) the number of copies in these genomes are as follows: human, 107,000; chimpanzee, 51,000; gorilla, 64,000; orangutan, 84,000. Th...

  5. The emergence of new DNA repeats and the divergence of primates.

    OpenAIRE

    Minghetti, P P; Dugaiczyk, A

    1993-01-01

    We have identified four genetic novelties that are fixed in specific primate lineages and hence can serve as phylogenetic time markers. One Alu DNA repeat is present in the human lineage but is absent from the great apes. Another Alu DNA repeat is present in the gorilla lineage but is absent from the human, chimpanzee, and orangutan. A progenitor Xba1 element is present in the human, chimpanzee, gorilla, and orangutan, but only in the human lineage did it give rise to a transposed progeny, Xb...

  6. Repeated Cycles of Chronic Intermittent Ethanol Exposure Increases Basal Glutamate in the Nucleus Accumbens of Mice without affecting glutamate transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William C. Griffin

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Repeated cycles of chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE exposure increase voluntary consumption of ethanol in mice. Previous work has shown that extracellular glutamate in the nucleus accumbens (NAc is significantly elevated in ethanol dependent mice and that pharmacologically manipulating glutamate concentrations in the NAc will alter ethanol drinking, indicating that glutamate homeostasis plays a crucial role in ethanol drinking in this model. The present studies were designed to measure extracellular glutamate at a time point in which mice would ordinarily be allowed voluntary access to ethanol in the CIE model and, additionally, to measure glutamate transport capacity in the NAc at the same time point. Extracellular glutamate was measured using quantitative microdialysis procedures. Glutamate transport capacity was measured under Na+ dependent and Na+ independent conditions to determine whether the function of excitatory amino acid transporters (EAATs; also known as system XAG or of system Xc- (Glial cysteine-glutamate exchanger was influenced by CIE exposure. The results of the quantitative microdialysis experiment confirm increased extracellular glutamate (~2 –fold in the NAc of CIE exposed mice (i.e. ethanol-dependent compared to non-dependent mice in the NAc, consistent with earlier work. However, the increase in extracellular glutamate was not due to altered transporter function in the NAc of ethanol-dependent mice, because neither Na+ dependent nor Na+ independent glutamate transport was significantly altered by CIE exposure. These findings point to the possibility that hyperexcitability of cortical-striatal pathways underlies the increases in extracellular glutamate found in the nucleus accumbens of ethanol-dependent mice.

  7. Design Approach for Fault Recoverable ALU with Improved Fault Tolerance

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    Ankit K V

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A new design for fault tolerant and fault recoverable ALU System has been proposed in this paper. Reliability is one of the most critical factors that have to be considered during the designing phase of any IC. In critical applications like Medical equipment & Military applications this reliability factor plays a very critical role in determining the acceptance of product. Insertion of special modules in the main design for reliability enhancement will give considerable amount of area & power penalty. So, a novel approach to this problem is to find ways for reusing the already available components in digital system in efficient way to implement recoverable methodologies. Triple Modular Redundancy (TMR has traditionally used for protecting digital logic from the SEUs (single event upset by triplicating the critical components of the system to give fault tolerance to system. ScTMR- Scan chain-based error recovery TMR technique provides recovery for all internal faults. ScTMR uses a roll-forward approach and employs the scan chain implemented in the circuits for testability purposes to recover the system to fault-free state. The proposed design will incorporate a ScTMR controller over TMR system of ALU and will make the system fault tolerant and fault recoverable. Hence, proposed design will be more efficient & reliable to use in critical applications, than any other design present till today.

  8. Association between Alu insertion polymorphisms and HLA class T alleles in Chinese Lisu and Nu ethnic populations%中国傈僳族和怒族群体人类白细胞抗原Ⅰ类基因区Alu插入多态性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董兆梅; 姚宇峰; 史磊; 陶玉芬; 林克勤; 黄小琴; 杨昭庆; 褚嘉祐; 史荔

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the frequencies of HLA-Alu repeat polymorphisms (AluMICB,AluTF,AluHJ,AluHG and AluHF) in Chinese Lisu and Nu ethnic populations.Methods The frequencies of HLA-Alu repeat polymorphisms in above populations were determined with polymerase chain reaction (PCR).The associations between HLA-Alu repeat polymorphisms and HLA-A,HLA-B and HLA-C alleles were also analyzed.Phylogenetic trees were constructed with genetic distance calculated from the frequencies of HLA-Alu repeat polymorphisms.Results Frequencies of AluTF * 2 and AluHF * 2 were different between the two populations (P<0.05),while those of other three insertions were similar.The strength of association between HLA-Alus and HLA alleles were different (P<0.05) in the two populations.Although AluMICB * 2 were associated with HLA-B* 56:01 in both populations,the association was stronger in Lisu population (74.0%) but moderate in Nu population (30.7%).HLA-Alus were associated with particular HLA subtypes,e.g.,AluHG * 2 with certain HLA-A * 02 subtypes.By phylogenetic analysis,Lisu and Nu were clustered together with southern Chinese and Thai populations.Conclusion The distribution of HLA-Alus and the strength of associations between HLA-Alus and HLA class I alleles have varied between the two populations.Study of this association may facilitate identification of origins,evolution,progenitor haplotypes and recombination within the HLA class I region.%目的 研究中国两个隔离群体(傈僳族和怒族)人类白细胞抗原(human leukocyte antigen,HLA)Ⅰ类基因区域内5个HLA-Alu插入多态性(AluMICB、AluTF、AluHJ、AluHG和AluHF)的分布特征.方法 应用聚合酶链反应技术对中国两个隔离群体傈僳族(107人)和怒族(104人)进行HLA-Alu多态性分型.结合HLA基因分型数据,分析这两个群体中HLA-Alu插入与HLA-A、HLA-B和HLA-C基因的关系.根据HLA-Alu频率计算各群体间遗传距离,构建系统进化树.结果 AluTF和AluHF插入

  9. Effects of Alu elements on global nucleosome positioning in the human genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamashita Riu

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding the genome sequence-specific positioning of nucleosomes is essential to understand various cellular processes, such as transcriptional regulation and replication. As a typical example, the 10-bp periodicity of AA/TT and GC dinucleotides has been reported in several species, but it is still unclear whether this feature can be observed in the whole genomes of all eukaryotes. Results With Fourier analysis, we found that this is not the case: 84-bp and 167-bp periodicities are prevalent in primates. The 167-bp periodicity is intriguing because it is almost equal to the sum of the lengths of a nucleosomal unit and its linker region. After masking Alu elements, these periodicities were greatly diminished. Next, using two independent large-scale sets of nucleosome mapping data, we analyzed the distribution of nucleosomes in the vicinity of Alu elements and showed that (1 there are one or two fixed slot(s for nucleosome positioning within the Alu element and (2 the positioning of neighboring nucleosomes seems to be in phase, more or less, with the presence of Alu elements. Furthermore, (3 these effects of Alu elements on nucleosome positioning are consistent with inactivation of promoter activity in Alu elements. Conclusions Our discoveries suggest that the principle governing nucleosome positioning differs greatly across species and that the Alu family is an important factor in primate genomes.

  10. Alu and LINE-1 hypomethylation is associated with HER2 enriched subtype of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, So Yeon; Seo, An Na; Jung, Hae Yoen; Gwak, Jae Moon; Jung, Namhee; Cho, Nam-Yun; Kang, Gyeong Hoon

    2014-01-01

    The changes in DNA methylation status in cancer cells are characterized by hypermethylation of promoter CpG islands and diffuse genomic hypomethylation. Alu and long interspersed nucleotide element-1 (LINE-1) are non-coding genomic repetitive sequences and methylation of these elements can be used as a surrogate marker for genome-wide methylation status. This study was designed to evaluate the changes of Alu and LINE-1 hypomethylation during breast cancer progression from normal to pre-invasive lesions and invasive breast cancer (IBC), and their relationship with characteristics of IBC. We analyzed the methylation status of Alu and LINE-1 in 145 cases of breast samples including normal breast tissue, atypical ductal hyperplasia/flat epithelial atypia (ADH/FEA), ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and IBC, and another set of 129 cases of IBC by pyrosequencing. Alu methylation showed no significant changes during multistep progression of breast cancer, although it tended to decrease during the transition from DCIS to IBC. In contrast, LINE-1 methylation significantly decreased from normal to ADH/FEA, while it was similar in ADH/FEA, DCIS and IBC. In IBC, Alu hypomethylation correlated with negative estrogen receptor (ER) status, and LINE-1 hypomethylation was associated with negative ER status, ERBB2 (HER2) amplification and p53 overexpression. Alu and LINE-1 methylation status was significantly different between breast cancer subtypes, and the HER2 enriched subtype had lowest methylation levels. In survival analyses, low Alu methylation status tended to be associated with poor disease-free survival of the patients. Our findings suggest that LINE-1 hypomethylation is an early event and Alu hypomethylation is probably a late event during breast cancer progression, and prominent hypomethylation of Alu and LINE-1 in HER2 enriched subtype may be related to chromosomal instability of this specific subtype.

  11. Rat prostatic steroid binding protein: characterisation of the Alu element upstream of the C3 genes.

    OpenAIRE

    Hurst, H C; Parker, M G

    1984-01-01

    We have characterised an Alu-like repetitive element found about 400 bp upstream of the gene encoding the C3 component of rat prostatic steroid binding protein and suggest, from comparisons with other published sequences, that it is an example of a third class of rodent Alu-equivalent sequences. Members of this class are 80-90 bp long, share greater than 90% sequence homology, and contain sequences resembling the RNA polymerase III bipartite promoter. The Alu type III element within the C3 ge...

  12. Design of an Efficient ALU Using Low-Power Dual Mode Logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Vinay Kumar

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The dual mode logic is an efficient model, which is starts working in between the static and dynamic mode of operations. Since both of the static and dynamic modes having some disadvantages like speed and power dissipations. In this paper we are going to implement a faster and efficient ALU using the DML mode of logic. A performance valuation of designed DML ALU is done with respect to the ordinary normal ALU. And we are implementing this on CADENCE Platform in 180 nm technology. And for a variation of length and width ratio’s (W/L how the design will work is going to be done. Key words -

  13. Comparative Analysis of ALU Implementation with RCA and Sklansky Adders In ASIC Design Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Rehman Buzdar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available An Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU is the heart of every central processing unit (CPU which performs basic operations like addition, subtraction, multiplication, division and bitwise logic operations on binary numbers. This paper deals with implementation of a basic ALU unit using two different types of adder circuits, a ripple carry adder and a sklansky type adder. The ALU is designed using application specific integrated circuit (ASIC platform where VHDL hardware description language and standard cells are used. The target process technology is 130nm CMOS from the foundry ST Microelectronics. The Cadence EDA tools are used for the ASIC implementation. A comparative analysis is provided for the two ALU circuits designed in terms of area, power and timing requirements.

  14. Effective Alu Repeat Based RT-Qpcr Normalization in Cancer Cell Perturbation Experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Rihani; Tom Van Maerken; Filip Pattyn; Gert Van Peer; Anneleen Beckers; Sara De Brouwer; Candy Kumps; Evelien Mets; Joni Van der Meulen; Pieter Rondou; Carina Leonelli; Pieter Mestdagh; Frank Speleman; Jo Vandesompele

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Measuring messenger RNA (mRNA) levels using the reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) is common practice in many laboratories. A specific set of mRNAs as internal control reference genes is considered as the preferred strategy to normalize RT-qPCR data. Proper selection of reference genes is a critical issue, especially in cancer cells that are subjected to different in vitro manipulations. These manipulations may result in dramatic alterations in ...

  15. HEXIM1蛋白与Alu SINE RNA相互作用的研究%Study of the interaction between HEXIM1 protein and Alu SINE RNA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田平平; 吴传芳; 欧阳劲; 秦岭

    2014-01-01

    为了探讨Alu SINE RNA和HEXIM1蛋白之间是否存在相互作用.本实验构建了带有FLAG标签的HEXIM1真核表达载体,转染人胚肾293(HEK293)细胞,做anti FLAG 的RNA免疫共沉淀(RIP)后运用免疫印记和逆转录PCR (reverse transcription PCR,RT PCR)等方法检测.证明了Alu SINE RNA和HEXIM1蛋白之间存在相互作用,表明AluSINE RNA和HEXIM1蛋白共同影响基因转录调控,以及细胞在应对外界刺激时能及时在基因水平做出有效反应的可能.

  16. Higher Alu methylation levels in catch-up growth in twenty-year-old offsprings.

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    Kittipan Rerkasem

    Full Text Available Alu elements and long interspersed element-1 (LINE-1 or L1 are two major human intersperse repetitive sequences. Lower Alu methylation, but not LINE-1, has been observed in blood cells of people in old age, and in menopausal women having lower bone mass and osteoporosis. Nevertheless, Alu methylation levels also vary among young individuals. Here, we explored phenotypes at birth that are associated with Alu methylation levels in young people. In 2010, 249 twenty-years-old volunteers whose mothers had participated in a study association between birth weight (BW and nutrition during pregnancy in 1990, were invited to take part in our present study. In this study, the LINE-1 and Alu methylation levels and patterns were measured in peripheral mononuclear cells and correlated with various nutritional parameters during intrauterine and postnatal period of offspring. This included the amount of maternal intake during pregnancy, the mother's weight gain during pregnancy, birth weight, birth length, and the rate of weight gain in the first year of life. Catch-up growth (CUG was defined when weight during the first year was >0.67 of the standard score, according to WHO data. No association with LINE-1 methylation was identified. The mean level of Alu methylation in the CUG group was significantly higher than those non-CUG (39.61% and 33.66 % respectively, P < 0.0001. The positive correlation between the history of CUG in the first year and higher Alu methylation indicates the role of Alu methylation, not only in aging cells, but also in the human growth process. Moreover, here is the first study that demonstrated the association between a phenotype during the newborn period and intersperse repetitive sequences methylation during young adulthood.

  17. Social Stories: Mechanisms of Effectiveness in Increasing Game Play Skills in Children Diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder Using a Pretest Posttest Repeated Measures Randomized Control Group Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quirmbach, Linda M.; Lincoln, Alan J.; Feinberg-Gizzo, Monica J.; Ingersoll, Brooke R.; Andrews, Siri M.

    2009-01-01

    An increasing body of literature has indicated that social stories are an effective way to teach individuals diagnosed with autism appropriate social behavior. This study compared two formats of a social story targeting the improvement of social skills during game play using a pretest posttest repeated measures randomized control group design. A…

  18. General strategies to increase the repeatability in non-target screening by liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bader, Tobias; Schulz, Wolfgang; Kümmerer, Klaus; Winzenbacher, Rudi

    2016-09-01

    This article focuses on the data evaluation of non-target high-resolution LC-MS profiles of water samples. Taking into account multiple technical replicates, the difficulties in peak recognition and the related problems of false positive and false negative findings are systematically demonstrated. On the basis of a combinatorial approach, different models involving sophisticated workflows are evaluated, particularly with regard to the repeatability. In addition, the improvement resulting from data processing was systematically taken into consideration where the recovery of spiked standards emphasized that real peaks of interest were barely or not removed by the derived filter criteria. The comprehensive evaluation included different matrix types spiked with up to 263 analytical standards which were analyzed repeatedly leading to a total number of more than 250 injections that were incorporated in the assessment of different models of data processing. It was found that the analysis of multiple replicates is the key factor as, on the one hand, it provides the option of integrating valuable filters in order to minimize the false positive rate and, on the other hand, allows correcting partially false negative findings occurring during the peak recognition. The developed processing strategies including replicates clearly point to an enhanced data quality since both the repeatability as well as the peak recognition could be considerably improved. As proof of concept, four different matrix types, including a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent, were spiked with 130 isotopically labeled standards at different concentration levels. Despite the stringent filter criteria, at 100 ng L(-1) recovery rates of up to 93% were reached in the positive ionization mode. The proposed model, comprising three technical replicates, filters less than 5% and 2% of the standards recognized at 100 and 500 ng L(-1), respectively and thus indicates the general applicability of the

  19. General strategies to increase the repeatability in non-target screening by liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bader, Tobias; Schulz, Wolfgang; Kümmerer, Klaus; Winzenbacher, Rudi

    2016-09-01

    This article focuses on the data evaluation of non-target high-resolution LC-MS profiles of water samples. Taking into account multiple technical replicates, the difficulties in peak recognition and the related problems of false positive and false negative findings are systematically demonstrated. On the basis of a combinatorial approach, different models involving sophisticated workflows are evaluated, particularly with regard to the repeatability. In addition, the improvement resulting from data processing was systematically taken into consideration where the recovery of spiked standards emphasized that real peaks of interest were barely or not removed by the derived filter criteria. The comprehensive evaluation included different matrix types spiked with up to 263 analytical standards which were analyzed repeatedly leading to a total number of more than 250 injections that were incorporated in the assessment of different models of data processing. It was found that the analysis of multiple replicates is the key factor as, on the one hand, it provides the option of integrating valuable filters in order to minimize the false positive rate and, on the other hand, allows correcting partially false negative findings occurring during the peak recognition. The developed processing strategies including replicates clearly point to an enhanced data quality since both the repeatability as well as the peak recognition could be considerably improved. As proof of concept, four different matrix types, including a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent, were spiked with 130 isotopically labeled standards at different concentration levels. Despite the stringent filter criteria, at 100 ng L(-1) recovery rates of up to 93% were reached in the positive ionization mode. The proposed model, comprising three technical replicates, filters less than 5% and 2% of the standards recognized at 100 and 500 ng L(-1), respectively and thus indicates the general applicability of the

  20. Alu elements in ANRIL non-coding RNA at chromosome 9p21 modulate atherogenic cell functions through trans-regulation of gene networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesca M Holdt

    Full Text Available The chromosome 9p21 (Chr9p21 locus of coronary artery disease has been identified in the first surge of genome-wide association and is the strongest genetic factor of atherosclerosis known today. Chr9p21 encodes the long non-coding RNA (ncRNA antisense non-coding RNA in the INK4 locus (ANRIL. ANRIL expression is associated with the Chr9p21 genotype and correlated with atherosclerosis severity. Here, we report on the molecular mechanisms through which ANRIL regulates target-genes in trans, leading to increased cell proliferation, increased cell adhesion and decreased apoptosis, which are all essential mechanisms of atherogenesis. Importantly, trans-regulation was dependent on Alu motifs, which marked the promoters of ANRIL target genes and were mirrored in ANRIL RNA transcripts. ANRIL bound Polycomb group proteins that were highly enriched in the proximity of Alu motifs across the genome and were recruited to promoters of target genes upon ANRIL over-expression. The functional relevance of Alu motifs in ANRIL was confirmed by deletion and mutagenesis, reversing trans-regulation and atherogenic cell functions. ANRIL-regulated networks were confirmed in 2280 individuals with and without coronary artery disease and functionally validated in primary cells from patients carrying the Chr9p21 risk allele. Our study provides a molecular mechanism for pro-atherogenic effects of ANRIL at Chr9p21 and suggests a novel role for Alu elements in epigenetic gene regulation by long ncRNAs.

  1. Influences of increased daily repeated upstream releases and varying meteorological conditions on temperature distributions in a river-reservoir system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, G.; Fang, X.

    2016-08-01

    Temperature distribution in a river-reservoir system was simulated using a calibrated three-dimensional Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code model under various hypothetical weather conditions and daily repeated large releases (DRLRs) from the upstream boundary. Both DRLRs and weather conditions affect and control the formation and spread of density currents and then affect the bottom-layer temperatures. The DRLRs with longer durations (e.g., 6 or 8 hours) can relatively quickly push cooler release water to the Gorgas upstream monitoring station (GOUS) and the river intake. With the air temperature drops in the first 6 days, simulated bottom temperatures at GOUS for 6- and 8-hr DRLRs are lower than one under 4-hr DRLR, but relatively larger bottom-layer temperature drops only primarily occur during the air-temperature drop and rise period. The release with larger flow rate can also maintain the cooler water temperature downstream. Releasing the same amounts of water, with different release durations and flow rates, has a very similar effect on the downstream water temperatures.

  2. Transfer of genetic therapy across human populations: molecular targets for increasing patient coverage in repeat expansion diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela, Miguel A; Curtis, Helen J; Douglas, Andrew G L; Hammond, Suzan M; O'Loughlin, Aisling J; Sobrido, Maria J; Scholefield, Janine; Wood, Matthew J A

    2016-02-01

    Allele-specific gene therapy aims to silence expression of mutant alleles through targeting of disease-linked single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). However, SNP linkage to disease varies between populations, making such molecular therapies applicable only to a subset of patients. Moreover, not all SNPs have the molecular features necessary for potent gene silencing. Here we provide knowledge to allow the maximisation of patient coverage by building a comprehensive understanding of SNPs ranked according to their predicted suitability toward allele-specific silencing in 14 repeat expansion diseases: amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal dementia, dentatorubral-pallidoluysian atrophy, myotonic dystrophy 1, myotonic dystrophy 2, Huntington's disease and several spinocerebellar ataxias. Our systematic analysis of DNA sequence variation shows that most annotated SNPs are not suitable for potent allele-specific silencing across populations because of suboptimal sequence features and low variability (>97% in HD). We suggest maximising patient coverage by selecting SNPs with high heterozygosity across populations, and preferentially targeting SNPs that lead to purine:purine mismatches in wild-type alleles to obtain potent allele-specific silencing. We therefore provide fundamental knowledge on strategies for optimising patient coverage of therapeutics for microsatellite expansion disorders by linking analysis of population genetic variation to the selection of molecular targets.

  3. Alu retrotransposons promote differentiation of human carcinoma cells through the aryl hydrocarbon receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Hernández, Antonio; González-Rico, Francisco J.; Román, Angel C.; Rico-Leo, Eva; Alvarez-Barrientos, Alberto; Sánchez, Laura; Macia, Ángela; Heras, Sara R.; García-Pérez, José L.; Merino, Jaime M.; Fernández-Salguero, Pedro M.

    2016-01-01

    Cell differentiation is a central process in development and in cancer growth and dissemination. OCT4 (POU5F1) and NANOG are essential for cell stemness and pluripotency; yet, the mechanisms that regulate their expression remain largely unknown. Repetitive elements account for almost half of the Human Genome; still, their role in gene regulation is poorly understood. Here, we show that the dioxin receptor (AHR) leads to differentiation of human carcinoma cells through the transcriptional upregulation of Alu retrotransposons, whose RNA transcripts can repress pluripotency genes. Despite the genome-wide presence of Alu elements, we provide evidences that those located at the NANOG and OCT4 promoters bind AHR, are transcribed by RNA polymerase-III and repress NANOG and OCT4 in differentiated cells. OCT4 and NANOG repression likely involves processing of Alu-derived transcripts through the miRNA machinery involving the Microprocessor and RISC. Consistently, stable AHR knockdown led to basal undifferentiation, impaired Alus transcription and blockade of OCT4 and NANOG repression. We suggest that transcripts produced from AHR-regulated Alu retrotransposons may control the expression of stemness genes OCT4 and NANOG during differentiation of carcinoma cells. The control of discrete Alu elements by specific transcription factors may have a dynamic role in genome regulation under physiological and diseased conditions. PMID:26883630

  4. A SINE in the genome of the cephalochordate amphioxus is an Alu element

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Transposable elements of about 300 bp, termed “short interspersed nucleotide elements or SINEs are common in eukaryotes. However, Alu elements, SINEs containing restriction sites for the AluI enzyme, have been known only from primates. Here I report the first SINE found in the genome of the cephalochordate, amphioxus. It is an Alu element of 375 bp that does not share substantial identity with any genomic sequences in vertebrates. It was identified because it was located in the FoxD regulatory region in a cosmid derived from one individual, but absent from the two FoxD alleles of BACs from a second individual. However, searches of sequences of BACs and genomic traces from this second individual gave an estimate of 50-100 copies in the amphioxus genome. The finding of an Alu element in amphioxus raises the question of whether Alu elements in amphioxus and primates arose by convergent evolution or by inheritance from a common ancestor. Genome-wide analyses of transposable elements in amphioxus and other chordates such as tunicates, agnathans and cartilaginous fishes could well provide the answer.

  5. Alu retrotransposons promote differentiation of human carcinoma cells through the aryl hydrocarbon receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Hernández, Antonio; González-Rico, Francisco J; Román, Angel C; Rico-Leo, Eva; Alvarez-Barrientos, Alberto; Sánchez, Laura; Macia, Ángela; Heras, Sara R; García-Pérez, José L; Merino, Jaime M; Fernández-Salguero, Pedro M

    2016-06-01

    Cell differentiation is a central process in development and in cancer growth and dissemination. OCT4 (POU5F1) and NANOG are essential for cell stemness and pluripotency; yet, the mechanisms that regulate their expression remain largely unknown. Repetitive elements account for almost half of the Human Genome; still, their role in gene regulation is poorly understood. Here, we show that the dioxin receptor (AHR) leads to differentiation of human carcinoma cells through the transcriptional upregulation of Alu retrotransposons, whose RNA transcripts can repress pluripotency genes. Despite the genome-wide presence of Alu elements, we provide evidences that those located at the NANOG and OCT4 promoters bind AHR, are transcribed by RNA polymerase-III and repress NANOG and OCT4 in differentiated cells. OCT4 and NANOG repression likely involves processing of Alu-derived transcripts through the miRNA machinery involving the Microprocessor and RISC. Consistently, stable AHR knockdown led to basal undifferentiation, impaired Alus transcription and blockade of OCT4 and NANOG repression. We suggest that transcripts produced from AHR-regulated Alu retrotransposons may control the expression of stemness genes OCT4 and NANOG during differentiation of carcinoma cells. The control of discrete Alu elements by specific transcription factors may have a dynamic role in genome regulation under physiological and diseased conditions. PMID:26883630

  6. Increased Sushi repeat-containing protein X-linked 2 is associated with progression of colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, K L; Wu, J; Zhou, Y; Fan, J H

    2015-04-01

    Sushi repeat-containing protein X-linked 2 (SRPX2) is a novel chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan overexpressed in gastrointestinal cancer. Its role in tumor biology remains unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of SRPX2 in colorectal cancer and its potential association with cancer progression. The expression of SRPX2 and its clinicopathological significance was evaluated using immunohistochemistry in a tissue microarray including 88 colon cancer and pairing normal tissues. The impact of SRPX2 on behavior of colorectal cancer cells and possible mechanism was explored using gene transfection and silencing. Strong staining of SRPX2 was noted in 71 (80.7 %) of 88 colon cancer specimen and 30 (34.1 %) of 88 adjacent normal tissues (P < 0.001). The expression of SRPX2 was significantly correlated with histological differentiation grade (P = 0.003), infiltration depth (P = 0.003), and clinical stage (P = 0.006). The expression of SRPX2 was significantly higher in HCT116 than in HT29 and SW480 cells. Suppression of endogenous SRPX2 expression by small interfering ribonucleic acid (siRNA) in HCT116 cells resulted in significant reduction in the ability of cell proliferation, adhesion, migration, and invasion. Up-regulation of endogenous SRPX2 in SW480 cells significantly promoted the migration and invasion of SW480 cells. In addition, inhibition of SRPX2 by siRNA led to notable down-regulation of β-catenin, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, and MMP-9. These findings indicate that overexpressed SRPX2 exerts an oncogenic role in colorectal cancer. SRPX2 may promote the invasion of colorectal cancer through MMP-2 and MMP-9 modulated by Wnt/β-catenin pathway. PMID:25737434

  7. R region sequences in the long terminal repeat of a murine retrovirus specifically increase expression of unspliced RNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trubetskoy, A M; Okenquist, S A; Lenz, J

    1999-04-01

    A stem-loop structure at the 5' end of the R region of the long terminal repeat (LTR) of the murine leukemia virus SL3 and other type C mammalian retroviruses is important for maximum levels of expression of a reporter gene under the control of the viral LTR. This element, termed the R region stem-loop (RSL), has a small effect on transcriptional initiation and no effect on RNA polymerase processivity. Its major effect is on posttranscriptional processing of LTR-driven transcripts. Here we tested whether the RSL affected the production of RNAs from a full-length SL3 genome. Mutation of the RSL in the 5' LTR of SL3 reduced the cytoplasmic levels of full-length viral transcripts but not those of spliced, env mRNA transcripts. Thus, the RSL specifically affected the cytoplasmic levels of the unspliced viral RNA. To test further whether the effect was specific for unspliced transcripts, a system was devised in which the expression of a reporter gene under the control of the viral LTR was tested in the presence or absence of an intron. Mutation of the RSL resulted in only about a twofold decline in the level of reporter gene expression when the transcripts contained an intron. However, when the intron was removed, mutation of the RSL reduced expression of the reporter gene about 10- to 60-fold in various cell lines. The secondary structure of the RSL was essential for its activity on the intronless transcript. Thus, the RSL appears to be important for the cytoplasmic accumulation of unspliced viral RNA and unspliced RNA from chimeric transcription units under the control of the viral LTR.

  8. Chromosomal aberrations induced by the restriction endonucleases Alu I and Bam HI: comparison with X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dose-effect relationships for the frequencies of polycentric chromosomes induced by the restriction endonucleases Alu I and Bam HI and by X-rays in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells were analyzed and compared. 1 Gy of X-rays produce the same frequency of polycentric chromosomes as 2 units Alu I and 7.9 units Bam HI. (author)

  9. SSTL Based Low Power Thermal Efficient WLAN Specific 32bit ALU Design on 28nm FPGA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalia, Kartik; Pandey, Bishwajeet; Das, Teerath;

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we have designed a Thermal energy efficient 32Bit ALU for network processor, the main objective of this design is to provide better thermal efficiency with respect to existing designs. For that purpose we have used six different members of SSTL I/Os standards on 28nm technology along...... with consideration of airflow toward hit sink and different frequency on which ALU operate in network processor or any WLAN devices. We have done total power analysis of WLAN operating on different frequencies. We have considered a set of frequencies, which are based on IEEE 802.11 standards. First we did...... at minimum and maximum temperature as compared to all other considered I/O standards. This design has application where 32bit ALU design is considered for designing an electronic device such as WLAN. The design can be implemented on different nano chips for better efficiency depending upon the design...

  10. Adverse Health Effects Associated with Increased Activity at Kīlauea Volcano: A Repeated Population-Based Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Longo, Bernadette M.

    2013-01-01

    Eruptive activity at the Kīlauea volcano (Hawai`i, USA) has increased since 2008 resulting in volcanic air pollution (vog) at levels exceeding the national air quality standard for sulfur dioxide. Previous investigations during lower vog levels found adverse cardiorespiratory effects in the residents. The purpose of this 2012 survey was to reassess and compare the impact of the increased volcanic activity on population health. Prevalence of cardiorespiratory signs, symptoms, and diseases was ...

  11. APOBEC3G oligomerization is associated with the inhibition of both Alu and LINE-1 retrotransposition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takayoshi Koyama

    Full Text Available Alu and LINE-1 (L1, which constitute ~11% and ~17% of the human genome, respectively, are transposable non-LTR retroelements. They transpose not only in germ cells but also in somatic cells, occasionally causing cancer. We have previously demonstrated that antiretroviral restriction factors, human APOBEC3 (hA3 proteins (A-H, differentially inhibit L1 retrotransposition. In this present study, we found that hA3 members also restrict Alu retrotransposition at differential levels that correlate with those observed previously for L1 inhibition. Through deletion analyses based on the best-characterized hA3 member human APOBEC3G (hA3G, its N-terminal 30 amino acids were required for its inhibitory activity against Alu retrotransposition. The inhibitory effect of hA3G on Alu retrotransposition was associated with its oligomerization that was affected by the deletion of its N-terminal 30 amino acids. Through structural modeling, the amino acids 24 to 28 of hA3G were predicted to be located at the interface of the dimer. The mutation of these residues resulted in abrogated hA3G oligomerization, and consistently abolished the inhibitory activity of hA3G against Alu retrotransposition. Importantly, the anti-L1 activity of hA3G was also associated with hA3G oligomerization. These results suggest that the inhibitory activities of hA3G against Alu and L1 retrotransposition might involve a common mechanism.

  12. Increased resting-state perfusion after repeated encoding is related to later retrieval of declarative associative memories.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg Groen

    Full Text Available Electrophysiological studies in animals have shown coordinated reactivation of neuronal ensembles during a restricted time period of behavioral inactivity that immediately followed active encoding. In the present study we directly investigated off-line processing of associative memory formation in the human brain. Subjects' regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF as a surrogate marker of neural activity during rest was measured by MR-based perfusion imaging in a sample of 14 healthy male subjects prior to (Pre2 and after (Post extensive learning of 24 face-name associations within a selective reminding task (SR. Results demonstrated significant Post-Pre2 rCBF increases in hippocampal and temporal lobe regions, while in a control comparison of two perfusion scans with no learning task in-between (Pre2-Pre1 no differences in rCBF emerged. Post perfusion scanning was followed by a surprise cued associative recall task from which two types of correctly retrieved names were obtained: older names already correctly retrieved at least once during one of the SR blocks, and recent names acquired during the last SR block immediately prior to the Post scan. In the anterior hippocampus individual perfusion increases were correlated with both correct retrievals of older and recent names. By contrast, older but not recently learned names showed a significant correlation with perfusion increases in the left lateral temporal cortex known to be associated with long-term memory. Recent, but not older names were correlated with dopaminergic midbrain structures reported to contribute to the persistence of memory traces for novel information. Although the direct investigation of off-line memory processing did not permit concomitant experimental control, neither intentional rehearsal, nor substantial variations in subjects' states of alertness appear to contribute to present results. We suggest that the observed rCBF increases might reflect processes that possibly

  13. The specificity of stimulus-specific adaptation in human auditory cortex increases with repeated exposure to the adapting stimulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briley, Paul M; Krumbholz, Katrin

    2013-12-01

    The neural response to a sensory stimulus tends to be more strongly reduced when the stimulus is preceded by the same, rather than a different, stimulus. This stimulus-specific adaptation (SSA) is ubiquitous across the senses. In hearing, SSA has been suggested to play a role in change detection as indexed by the mismatch negativity. This study sought to test whether SSA, measured in human auditory cortex, is caused by neural fatigue (reduction in neural responsiveness) or by sharpening of neural tuning to the adapting stimulus. For that, we measured event-related cortical potentials to pairs of pure tones with varying frequency separation and stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA). This enabled us to examine the relationship between the degree of specificity of adaptation as a function of frequency separation and the rate of decay of adaptation with increasing SOA. Using simulations of tonotopic neuron populations, we demonstrate that the fatigue model predicts independence of adaptation specificity and decay rate, whereas the sharpening model predicts interdependence. The data showed independence and thus supported the fatigue model. In a second experiment, we measured adaptation specificity after multiple presentations of the adapting stimulus. The multiple adapters produced more adaptation overall, but the effect was more specific to the adapting frequency. Within the context of the fatigue model, the observed increase in adaptation specificity could be explained by assuming a 2.5-fold increase in neural frequency selectivity. We discuss possible bottom-up and top-down mechanisms of this effect.

  14. Lithium chloride administration prevents spatial learning and memory impairment in repeated cerebral ischemia-reperfusion mice by depressing apoptosis and increasing BDNF expression in hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Mingyue; Jin, Wei; Zhao, Haifeng; Xiao, Yining; Jia, Yanqiu; Yin, Yu; Jiang, Xin; Xu, Jing; Meng, Nan; Lv, Peiyuan

    2015-09-15

    Lithium has been reported to have neuroprotective effects, but the preventive and treated role on cognition impairment and the underlying mechanisms have not been determined. In the present study, C57Bl/6 mice were subjected to repeated bilateral common carotid artery occlusion to induce the learning and memory deficits. 2 mmol/kg or 5 mmol/kg of lithium chloride (LiCl) was injected intraperitoneally per day before (for 7 days) or post (for 28 days) the operation. This repeated cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (IR) induced dynamic overexpression of ratio of Bcl-2/Bax and BDNF in hippocampus of mice. LiCl pretreatment and treatment significantly decreased the escape latency and increased the percentage of time that the mice spent in the target quadrant in Morris water maze. 2 mmol/kg LiCl evidently reversed the morphologic changes, up-regulated the survival neuron count and increased the BDNF gene and protein expression. 5 mmol/kg pre-LiCl significantly increased IR-stimulated reduce of Bcl-2/Bax and p-CREB/CREB. These results described suggest that pre-Li and Li treatment may induce a pronounced prevention on cognitive impairment. These effects may relay on the inhibition of apoptosis and increasing BDNF and p-CREB expression.

  15. Repeat survey of current practice regarding corticosteroid prophylaxis for patients at increased risk of adverse reaction to intravascular contrast agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radhakrishnan, S. [Department of Radiology, Wishaw General Hospital, Lanarkshire Acute Hospitals NHS Trust, 50, Netherton Street, Wishaw, Lanarkshire ML2 0DP (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: sureshradhakrish@hotmail.com; Manoharan, S. [Department of Radiology, Wishaw General Hospital, Lanarkshire Acute Hospitals NHS Trust, 50, Netherton Street, Wishaw, Lanarkshire ML2 0DP (United Kingdom); Fleet, M. [Department of Radiology, Wishaw General Hospital, Lanarkshire Acute Hospitals NHS Trust, 50, Netherton Street, Wishaw, Lanarkshire ML2 0DP (United Kingdom)

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To compare the findings of a survey undertaken by us in 2002 regarding steroid premedication given in radiology departments to reduce the risk of adverse reactions in patients at increased risk of intravascular contrast media reactions with a similar survey published in 1994 by R. Seymour et al. The high risk patients considered in our survey were patients with history of asthma, drug allergies, hay fever and eczema. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 225 questionnaires were sent to the consultant in charge for audit for radiology departments from the list given by the Royal College of Radiologists. 175 of the 225 questionnaires were returned (response rate 77.8%) and of these 172 were analysed with respect to the type, dose and duration of steroids. RESULTS: Compared to the survey in 1994, it was found that the number of departments who use steroid cover for all category of risk factors had increased compared to previous survey (73.8% in 2002 versus 55.3% in 1994 (p=0.001). There is now almost universal use of non-ionic contrast 98.8% versus 82.4% in 1994 (p=0.001). There is no agreed policy among radiology departments for the need or the dose or duration of steroid cover. CONCLUSION: Despite the more widespread use of non-ionic contrast media, the use of steroid premedication has increased which is contrary to what is expected as the incidence of adverse reaction to non ionic media is less than ionic contrast media.

  16. Repeated Miscarriage

    Science.gov (United States)

    f AQ FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS FAQ100 PREGNANCY Repeated Miscarriages • What is recurrent pregnancy loss? • What is the likelihood of having repeated miscarriages? • What is the most common cause of miscarriage? • ...

  17. Repeat Sequences and Base Correlations in Human Y Chromosome Palindromes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Neng-zhi Jin; Zi-xian Liu; Yan-jiao Qi; Wen-yuan Qiu

    2009-01-01

    On the basis of information theory and statistical methods, we use mutual information, n-tuple entropy and conditional entropy, combined with biological characteristics, to analyze the long range correlation and short range correlation in human Y chromosome palindromes. The magnitude distribution of the long range correlation which can be reflected by the mutual information is P5>P5a>P5b (P5a and P5b are the sequences that replace solely Alu repeats and all interspersed repeats with random uncorrelated sequences in human Y chromosome palindrome 5, respectively); and the magnitude distribution of the short range correlation which can be reflected by the n-tuple entropy and the conditional entropy is P5>P5a>P5b>random uncorrelated sequence. In other words, when the Alu repeats and all interspersed repeats replace with random uncorrelated sequence, the long range and short range correlation decrease gradually. However, the random uncorrelated sequence has no correlation. This research indicates that more repeat sequences result in stronger correlation between bases in human Y chromosome. The analyses may be helpful to understand the special structures of human Y chromosome palindromes profoundly.

  18. Repeated exposure to corticosterone increases depression-like behavior in two different versions of the forced swim test without altering nonspecific locomotor activity or muscle strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Wendie; Fournier, Neil M; Kalynchuk, Lisa E

    2009-08-01

    We have recently shown that repeated high dose injections of corticosterone (CORT) reliably increase depression-like behavior on a modified one-day version of the forced swim test. The main purpose of this experiment was to compare the effect of these CORT injections on our one-day version of the forced swim test and the more traditional two-day version of the test. A second purpose was to determine whether altered behavior in the forced swim test could be due to nonspecific changes in locomotor activity or muscle strength. Separate groups of rats received a high dose CORT injection (40 mg/kg) or a vehicle injection once per day for 21 consecutive days. Then, half the rats from each group were exposed to the traditional two-day forced swim test and the other half were exposed to our one-day forced swim test. After the forced swim testing, all the rats were tested in an open field and in a wire suspension grip strength test. The CORT injections significantly increased the time spent immobile and decreased the time spent swimming in both versions of the forced swim test. However, they had no significant effect on activity in the open field or grip strength in the wire suspension test. These results show that repeated CORT injections increase depression-like behavior regardless of the specific parameters of forced swim testing, and that these effects are independent of changes in locomotor activity or muscle strength.

  19. Repeated maternal dexamethasone treatments in late gestation increases 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 expression in the hippocampus of the newborn rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Shunlun; Hao, Rusong; Sun, Kang

    This study was designed to investigate the effect of repeated maternal injections of dexamethasone in late gestation on the expression of newborn hippocampal 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11beta-HSD1), the enzyme amplifying glucocorticoids' action by converting biologically inactive 11-ketone metabolites into active glucocorticoids. Daily dexamethasone treatments (0.10 mg/kg body weight) in the last week of gestation were carried out in the pregnant rat. The expression of 11beta-HSD1 in the newborn hippocampal tissue was analyzed with Western blot and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The effect of corticosterone on the expression of 11beta-HSD1 was studied in cultured hippocampal neurons derived from newborn offspring received prenatal dexamethasone treatments. Both body and brain weights of the offspring were reduced significantly by repeated dexamethasone treatments in the last week of gestation. Western blot and real-time PCR analysis showed that both 11beta-HSD1 protein and mRNA expressions were increased significantly in the hippocampus of the newborn offspring on the first and seventh days after birth. Corticosterone could induce 11beta-HSD1 expression in cultured hippocampal neurons prepared from newborns received prenatal dexamethasone treatments, which was blocked by glucocorticoid receptor antagonist RU38486. The above findings suggest that repeated prenatal dexamethasone treatments at the end of gestation increase 11beta-HSD1 expression in the hippocampal tissue of the offspring, which may trigger a positive feedback pathway for the generation of biologically active glucocorticoids in the hippocampal tissue of the newborns.

  20. Mapping a mathematical expression onto a Montium ALU using GNU Bison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosien, M.A.J.; Smit, G.J.M.

    2004-01-01

    The Montium processing tile [1], [4] contains a number of complex ALUs which can perform many different operations in many different ways. In the Chameleon tool flow [2], it is necessary to automatically determine whether a certain mathematical expression can be mapped onto an ALU and to automatical

  1. Pharmacokinetics of repeated sodium salicylate administration to laying hens: evidence for time dependent increase in drug elimination from plasma and eggs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Błażej Poźniak

    Full Text Available Salicylates were the first non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs to be used in any species and are still widely used in humans and livestock. However, the data on their pharmacokinetics in animals is limited, especially after repeated administration. Evidence exist that in chickens (Gallus gallus salicylate (SA may induce its own elimination. The aim of this study was to investigate salicylate pharmacokinetics and egg residues during repeated administration of sodium salicylate (SS to laying hens. Pharmacokinetics of SA was assessed during 14 d oral administration of SS at daily doses of 50 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg body weight to laying hens. On the 1st, 7th and 14th d a 24 h-long pharmacokinetic study was carried out, whereas eggs were collected daily. Salicylate concentrations in plasma and eggs were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection and pharmacokinetic variables were calculated using a non-compartmental model. Mean residence time (MRT, minimal plasma concentration (Cmin, C16h and elimination half-life (T1/2el of SA showed gradual decrease in layers administered with a lower dose. Total body clearance (ClB increased. Layers administered with the higher dose showed a decrease only in the T1/2el. In the low dose group, SA was found only in the egg white and was low throughout the experiment. Egg whites from the higher dose group showed initially high SA levels which significantly decreased during the experiment. Yolk SA levels were lower and showed longer periods of accumulation and elimination. Repeated administration of SS induces SA elimination, although this effect may differ depending on the dose and production type of a chicken. Decreased plasma drug concentration may have clinical implications during prolonged SS treatment.

  2. Repeated administration of alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) agonists, but not positive allosteric modulators, increases alpha7 nAChR levels in the brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ditte Z; Mikkelsen, Jens D; Hansen, Henrik H;

    2010-01-01

    -induced phosphorylation of Erk2 in the prefrontal cortex occurs following acute, but not repeated administration. Our results demonstrate that repeated agonist administration increases the number of alpha7 nAChRs in the brain, and leads to coupling versus uncoupling of specific intracellular signaling....... Here we investigate the effects of repeated agonism on alpha7 nAChR receptor levels and responsiveness in vivo in rats. Using [(125)I]-alpha-bungarotoxin (BTX) autoradiography we show that acute or repeated administration with the selective alpha7 nAChR agonist A-582941 increases the number of alpha7 n......-120596 and NS1738 do not increase [(125)I]-BTX binding. Furthermore, A-582941-induced increase in Arc and c-fos mRNA expression in the prefrontal cortex is enhanced and unaltered, respectively, after repeated administration, demonstrating that the alpha7 nAChRs remain responsive. Contrarily, A-582941...

  3. 恒河猴基因组SINEs和Alu元件的数量和分布%The Numbers and Distribution of SINEs and Alu Elements in Rhesus Macaque Genome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏珊; 范振鑫

    2014-01-01

    哺乳动物的基因组中富含各种类型的重复序列,其中的微卫星作为分子标记在相关研究中得到了广泛的应用.而重复序列中的SINEs元件,在各类群物种的分子系统发育、遗传多样性等方面的研究也得到了使用.其中,灵长类物种特有的SINEs元件、Alu元件,也在灵长类物种的进化研究中得到了成功的使用.本研究对于重要的医学模式动物恒河猴的基因组中SINEs和Alu元件进行了搜索,并进一步统计分析其分布规律、长度等信息.在恒河猴基因组的20条常染色体上共发现了Alu元件1 093 185个,在性染色体X上发现了45 215个.长度为200 bp至300 bp区间的Alu元件分布最多;Alu元件中75%的分化值至少都为10,而只有6.2%左右的元件分化值能达到至少20,这一结果表明绝大部分的Alu元件都比较年轻.本研究的统计结果为后续应用SINEs和Alu元件作为分子标记的研究提供了重要的信息.%There are many different types of repeat elements in mammal genomes,and microsatellite has been widely used as molecular marker in researches.Additionally,another type of repeat element,SINEs,has also been used as molecular markers in molecular phylogeny and genetic diversity.Alu element,which was the primate-specific SINEs element,has been widely used in the evolutionary study of primate species.In this study,SINEs and Alu elements were screened in the genome of rhesus macaque Macaca mulatta,which was an important model animal in biomedical study.In total,there were 1 093 185 Alu elements in the 20 autosomes,and 45 215 Alu elements in the chromosome X.Most of the Alu elements were ranged in length from 200 bp to 300 bp,and 75% of which had a minimal divergence value of 10,whereas only 6.2% could reach 20,indicating that most of the Alu elements were relatively young.These results may provide important information for the future studies on the application of SINEs and Alu elements as molecular

  4. Studying factors responsible for increasing ductility of the ferritic steel 08Kh18T1 in the course of repeated hot rolling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two possible reasons for embrittlement of ferritic steel 08Kh18T1 after high temperature (T ≥ 1100 deg C) rolling are considered: an α-phase grain growth and precipitation of titanium carbonitride fine crystal spreading along subboundaries under conditions of dynamic polygonization. Repeat rolling at more low temperatures ranging from 800 to 1000 deg C results in formation of other substructure that is of lath subgrain type. In the case of high deformation degree the accumulation of distortions over a large face of subcrystals results in stratification in a plane perpendicular to a fracture surface, and in so doing it changes the stressed state on main crack propagation so that the thickness (radius) of plastic zone increases and the temperature of ductile-brittle transition decreases

  5. Development of two highly sensitive forensic sex determination assays based on human DYZ1 and Alu repetitive DNA elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazi, Amanda; Gobeski, Brianne; Foran, David

    2014-11-01

    Sex determination is a critical component of forensic identification, the standard genetic method for which is detection of the single copy amelogenin gene that has differing homologues on the X and Y chromosomes. However, this assay may not be sensitive enough when DNA samples are minute or highly compromised, thus other strategies for sex determination are needed. In the current research, two ultrasensitive sexing assays, based on real-time PCR and pyrosequencing, were developed targeting the highly repetitive elements DYZ1 on the Y chromosome and Alu on the autosomes. The DYZ1/Alu strategy was compared to amelogenin for overall sensitivity based on high molecular weight and degraded DNA, followed by assaying the sex of 34 touch DNA samples and DNA from 30 hair shafts. The real-time DYZ1/Alu assay proved to be approximately 1500 times more sensitive than its amelogenin counterpart based on high molecular weight DNA, and even more sensitive when sexing degraded DNA. The pyrosequencing DYZ1/Alu assay correctly sexed 26 of the touch DNAs, compared to six using amelogenin. Hair shaft DNAs showed equally improved sexing results using the DYZ1/Alu assays. Overall, both DYZ1/Alu assays were far more sensitive and accurate than was the amelogenin assay, and thus show great utility for sexing poor quality and low quantity DNA evidence. PMID:25168471

  6. Genetic variation among world populations: inferences from 100 Alu insertion polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, W Scott; Rogers, Alan R; Ostler, Christopher T; Wooding, Steve; Bamshad, Michael J; Brassington, Anna-Marie E; Carroll, Marion L; Nguyen, Son V; Walker, Jerilyn A; Prasad, B V Ravi; Reddy, P Govinda; Das, Pradipta K; Batzer, Mark A; Jorde, Lynn B

    2003-07-01

    We examine the distribution and structure of human genetic diversity for 710 individuals representing 31 populations from Africa, East Asia, Europe, and India using 100 Alu insertion polymorphisms from all 22 autosomes. Alu diversity is highest in Africans (0.349) and lowest in Europeans (0.297). Alu insertion frequency is lowest in Africans (0.463) and higher in Indians (0.544), E. Asians (0.557), and Europeans (0.559). Large genetic distances are observed among African populations and between African and non-African populations. The root of a neighbor-joining network is located closest to the African populations. These findings are consistent with an African origin of modern humans and with a bottleneck effect in the human populations that left Africa to colonize the rest of the world. Genetic distances among all pairs of populations show a significant product-moment correlation with geographic distances (r = 0.69, P distance estimates. These analyses also demonstrate that markers with higher F(ST) values have greater resolving power and produce more consistent genetic distance estimates.

  7. Branched DNA-based Alu quantitative assay for cell-free plasma DNA levels in patients with sepsis or systemic inflammatory response syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Yan-Qiang; Liang, Dong-Yu; Lou, Xiao-Li; Zhang, Mei; Zhang, Zhen-huan; Zhang, Lu-rong

    2016-02-01

    Cell-free circulating DNA (cf-DNA) can be detected by various of laboratory techniques. We described a branched DNA-based Alu assay for measuring cf-DNA in septic patients. Compared to healthy controls and systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) patients, serum cf-DNA levels were significantly higher in septic patients (1426.54 ± 863.79 vs 692.02 ± 703.06 and 69.66 ± 24.66 ng/mL). The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve of cf-DNA for normal vs sepsis and SIRS vs sepsis were 0.955 (0.884-1.025), and 0.856 (0.749-0.929), respectively. There was a positive correlation between cf-DNA and interleukin 6 or procalcitonin or Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II. The cf-DNA concentration was higher in intensive care unit nonsurviving patients compared to surviving patients (2183.33 ± 615.26 vs 972.46 ± 648.36 ng/mL; P DNA-based Alu assays are feasible and useful to quantify serum cf-DNA levels. Increased cf-DNA levels in septic patients might complement C-reactive protein and procalcitonin in a multiple marker format. Cell-free circulating DNA might be a new marker in discrimination of sepsis and SIRS.

  8. Repeated 6-Hz Corneal Stimulation Progressively Increases FosB/ΔFosB Levels in the Lateral Amygdala and Induces Seizure Generalization to the Hippocampus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmela Giordano

    Full Text Available Exposure to repetitive seizures is known to promote convulsions which depend on specific patterns of network activity. We aimed at evaluating the changes in seizure phenotype and neuronal network activation caused by a modified 6-Hz corneal stimulation model of psychomotor seizures. Mice received up to 4 sessions of 6-Hz corneal stimulation with fixed current amplitude of 32 mA and inter-stimulation interval of 72 h. Video-electroencephalography showed that evoked seizures were characterized by a motor component and a non-motor component. Seizures always appeared in frontal cortex, but only at the fourth stimulation they involved the hippocampus, suggesting the establishment of an epileptogenic process. Duration of seizure non-motor component progressively decreased after the second session, whereas convulsive seizures remained unchanged. In addition, a more severe seizure phenotype, consisting of tonic-clonic generalized convulsions, was predominant after the second session. Immunohistochemistry and double immunofluorescence experiments revealed a significant increase in neuronal activity occurring in the lateral amygdala after the fourth session, most likely due to activity of principal cells. These findings indicate a predominant role of amygdala in promoting progressively more severe convulsions as well as the late recruitment of the hippocampus in the seizure spread. We propose that the repeated 6-Hz corneal stimulation model may be used to investigate some mechanisms of epileptogenesis and to test putative antiepileptogenic drugs.

  9. Alu-miRNA interactions modulate transcript isoform diversity in stress response and reveal signatures of positive selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Rajesh; Bhattacharya, Aniket; Bhardwaj, Vivek; Jha, Vineet; Mandal, Amit K; Mukerji, Mitali

    2016-01-01

    Primate-specific Alus harbor different regulatory features, including miRNA targets. In this study, we provide evidence for miRNA-mediated modulation of transcript isoform levels during heat-shock response through exaptation of Alu-miRNA sites in mature mRNA. We performed genome-wide expression profiling coupled with functional validation of miRNA target sites within exonized Alus, and analyzed conservation of these targets across primates. We observed that two miRNAs (miR-15a-3p and miR-302d-3p) elevated in stress response, target RAD1, GTSE1, NR2C1, FKBP9 and UBE2I exclusively within Alu. These genes map onto the p53 regulatory network. Ectopic overexpression of miR-15a-3p downregulates GTSE1 and RAD1 at the protein level and enhances cell survival. This Alu-mediated fine-tuning seems to be unique to humans as evident from the absence of orthologous sites in other primate lineages. We further analyzed signatures of selection on Alu-miRNA targets in the genome, using 1000 Genomes Phase-I data. We found that 198 out of 3177 Alu-exonized genes exhibit signatures of selection within Alu-miRNA sites, with 60 of them containing SNPs supported by multiple evidences (global-FST > 0.3, pair-wise-FST > 0.5, Fay-Wu's H  2.0, high ΔDAF) and implicated in p53 network. We propose that by affecting multiple genes, Alu-miRNA interactions have the potential to facilitate population-level adaptations in response to environmental challenges. PMID:27586304

  10. Deletion of intragenic tandem repeats in unit C of FLO1 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae increases the conformational stability of flocculin under acidic and alkaline conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ee Li

    Full Text Available Flocculation is an attractive property for Saccaromyces cerevisiae, which plays important roles in fermentation industry and environmental remediation. The process of flocculation is mediated by a family of cell surface flocculins. As one member of flocculins, Flo1 is characterized by four families of repeats (designated as repeat units A, B, C and D in the central domain. It is generally accepted that variation of repeat unit A in length in Flo1 influences the degree of flocculation or specificity for sugar recognization. However, no reports were observed for other repeat units. Here, we compared the flocculation ability and its sensitivity to environmental factors between yeast strain YSF1 carrying the intact FLO1 gene and yeast strains carrying the derived forms of FLO1 with partial or complete deletion of repeats in unit C. No obvious differences in flocculation ability and specificity of carbohydrate recognition were observed among these yeast strains, which indicates the truncated flocculins can stride across the cell wall and cluster the N-terminal domain on the surface of yeast cells as the intact Flo1 thereby improving intercellular binding. However, yeast strains with the truncated flocculins required more mannose to inhibit completely the flocculation, displayed broad tolerance of flocculation to pH fluctuation, and the fewer the repeats in unit C, the stronger adaptability of flocculation to pH change, which was not relevant to the position of deletion. This suggests that more stable active conformation is obtained for flocculin by deletion the repeat unit C in the central domain of Flo1, which was validated further by the higher hydrophobicity on the surface of cells of YSF1c with complete deletion of unit C under neutral and alkaline conditions and the stabilization of GFP conformation by fusion with flocculin with complete deletion of unit C in the central domain.

  11. Alu-Repeat-Induced Deletions Within the NCF2 Gene Causing p67-phox-Deficient Chronic Granulomatous Disease (CGD)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Gentsch; A. Kaczmarczyk; K. van Leeuwen; M. de Boer; M. Kaus-Drobek; M.C. Dagher; P. Kaiser; P.D. Arkwright; M. Gahr; A. Rösen-Wolff; M. Bochtler; E. Secord; P. Britto-Williams; G.M. Saifi; A. Maddalena; G. Dbaibo; J. Bustamante; J.L. Casanova; D. Roos; J. Roesler

    2010-01-01

    Mutations that impair express. ion or function of the components, of the phagocyte NADPH oxidase complex cause. chronic granulomatous disease (CGD), which is associated with life-threatening infections and dysregulated granulomatous inflammation. In five CGD patients from four consanguineous familie

  12. Repeated consumption of a large volume of liquid and semi-solid foods increases ad libitum intake, but does not change expected satiety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogenkamp, P.S.; Mars, M.; Stafleu, A.; Graaf, C. de

    2012-01-01

    Food intake and a food’s expected satiating effect initially rely on sensory attributes. People will learn about the food’s satiating capacity by exposure. We investigated whether repeated consumption changed the expected satiety effects and intake of iso-energetic liquid and semi-solid foods. In a

  13. POMEN IN MERJENJE ORGANIZACIJSKE KULTURE. PRIMER PODJETJA ALPOS ALU D.O.O.

    OpenAIRE

    Senica, Damjana

    2013-01-01

    Diplomsko delo obravnava organizacijsko kulturo (OK), ki je splet vrednot, prepričanj, stališč in spoznanj o tem, kako organizacija deluje ali naj bi delovala. Ob teoretični obravnavi OK je bila v nalogi opravljena tudi analiza OK v podjetju Alpos Alu d.o.o., ki je zaradi splošne gospodarske krize v zapletenem položaju, zato je še posebej zanimivo za obravnavo. Z metodo OCAI avtorjev Camerona in Quinna sem prišla do ugotovitve, da v podjetju prevladuje kultura trga, zaposleni pa si žel...

  14. Novel Reversible TSG Gate and Its Application for Designing Components of Primitive Reversible/Quantum ALU

    OpenAIRE

    Thapliyal, Himanshu; Srinivas, M. B

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, reversible logic has emerged as a promising computing paradigm having application in low power CMOS, quantum computing, nanotechnology, and optical computing. The classical set of gates such as AND, OR, and EXOR are not reversible. This paper utilizes a new 4 * 4 reversible gate called TSG gate to build the components of a primitive reversible/quantum ALU. The most significant aspect of the TSG gate is that it can work singly as a reversible full adder, that is reversible ful...

  15. International distribution and age estimation of the Portuguese BRCA2 c.156_157insAlu founder mutation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peixoto, Ana; Santos, Catarina; Pinheiro, Manuela;

    2011-01-01

    The c.156_157insAlu BRCA2 mutation has so far only been reported in hereditary breast/ovarian cancer (HBOC) families of Portuguese origin. Since this mutation is not detectable using the commonly used screening methodologies and must be specifically sought, we screened for this rearrangement...... in a total of 5,443 suspected HBOC families from several countries. Whereas the c.156_157insAlu BRCA2 mutation was detected in 11 of 149 suspected HBOC families from Portugal, representing 37.9% of all deleterious mutations, in other countries it was detected only in one proband living in France and in four...

  16. The potential role of Alu Y in the development of resistance to SN38 (Irinotecan) or oxaliplatin in colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, Xue; Stenvang, Jan; Rasmussen, Mads Heilskov;

    2015-01-01

    or oxaliplatin resistant colorectal cancer cell line models. Moreover, we extended the RRBS analysis to tumor tissue from 14 patients with colorectal cancer who either did or did not benefit from capecitabine + oxaliplatin treatment. For the clinical samples, we applied a concept of 'DNA methylation entropy......' to estimate the diversity of DNA methylation states of the identified resistance phenotype-associated methylation loci observed in the cell line models. We identified different loci being characteristic for the different resistant cell lines. Interestingly, 53% of the identified loci were Alu sequences...... by mobility of Alu elements and stresses the importance of personalized strategies, using a systematic and dynamic view, for effective cancer therapy....

  17. Identification of homogeneously staining regions by G-banding and chromosome microdissection, and FISH marker selection using human Alu sequence primers in a scleractinian coral Coelastrea aspera Verrill, 1866 (Cnidaria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taguchi, Takahiro; Kubota, Satoshi; Mezaki, Takuma; Tagami, Erika; Sekida, Satoko; Nakachi, Shu; Okuda, Kazuo; Tominaga, Akira

    2016-01-01

    Karyotype analysis was performed on the scleractinian coral Coelastrea aspera Verrill, 1866, commonly found along temperate coasts in Japan (30-35°N) and in coastal waters in the Indian and Pacific oceans. G-banding of Coelastrea aspera was successfully performed, although the banding pattern was not as clear as that in mammals. The karyogram clearly revealed that this coral had a homogeneously staining region (hsr) in chromosome 11. This hsr consisted of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) related genes, which was demonstrated by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with probes generated using 28S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) primers and those generated through chromosome microdissection. In addition, we conducted silver-stained nucleolus organizer region (Ag-NOR) analysis and found Ag depositions in the interphase nuclei but not on rRNA gene loci and hsr(s) in the mitotic stage. The hsr of this coral was observed in approximately 50% of the metaphase spreads analyzed. This may explain the diversity of coral rDNA based on the molecular study of sequence analysis. Furthermore, it was discovered that human telomere and Alu repeated sequences were present in this Coelastrea aspera. Probes derived from human Alu sequences are expected to play an important role in the classification of corals. Overall, our data can be of great value in discriminating among scleractinian coral species and understanding their genetics, including chromosomal evolution. PMID:27186338

  18. Increased burst firing in substantia nigra pars reticulata neurons and enhanced response to selective D2 agonist in hemiparkinsonian rats after repeated administration of apomorphine.

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, J. I.; Nam, D H; J.S. Kim; Hong, S.C.; Shin, H. J.; K. Park; Eoh, W.; Kim, J. H.; Lee, W.Y.

    2001-01-01

    Intermittent administrations of dopaminergic agents in hemiparkinsonian rat enhances the behavioral response to subsequent administration of the drugs. This phenomenon is known as "priming" and thought as comparable to drug-induced dyskinesia in patients with Parkinson's disease. We investigated the behavioral and electrophysiological changes in 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-lesioned hemiparkinsonian rats after repeated administrations of apomorphine. Administration of apomorphine (0.32 mg/kg, i...

  19. Increased spread and replication efficiency of Listeria monocytogenes in organotypic brain-slices is related to multilocus variable number of tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) complex.

    OpenAIRE

    Guldimann, Claudia; Bärtschi, Michelle; Frey, Joachim; Zurbriggen, Andreas; Seuberlich, Torsten; Oevermann, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Background Listeria (L.) monocytogenes causes fatal infections in many species including ruminants and humans. In ruminants, rhombencephalitis is the most prevalent form of listeriosis. Using multilocus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) we recently showed that L. monocytogenes isolates from ruminant rhombencephalitis cases are distributed over three genetic complexes (designated A, B and C). However, the majority of rhombencephalitis strains and virtually all those isolated from c...

  20. A spontaneously arising mutation in connexin32 with repeated passage of FRTL-5 cells coincides with increased growth rate and reduced thyroxine release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, L. M.; Murray, D. K.; Tran, D. T.; Nelson, G. A.; Shah, M. M.; Luben, R. A.

    2001-01-01

    regions of the Cx32 molecule contain the sequences and epitopes to which probes and antibodies are directed, and as such alterations of these regions with repeated passage explains reports by others that FRTL-5 cells do not express Cx32, and implies that cultures used for these assessments were passed more than 15 times. To determine if genetic or epigenetic abnormalities existed in FRTL-5 cells we performed chromosome spreads from various passage cultures. FRTL-5 cells have been reported to be diploid and more recently non-diploid; however, we found them to be fully tetraploid. This tetraploidy appears to be unstable in that later passes are tetraploid plus two or three extra chromosomes. There were no obvious translocations, breaks or large-scale interstitial deletions of any chromosomes in the FRTL-5 cultures tested. As FRTL-5 cells were repeatedly passed their morphology changed. Monolayer areas spread from beneath the follicles, and the follicles became flattened in appearance. These physical changes were coincident with dramatically increased growth rates. Early cultures (passed 3-12 times) divided on average every 49+/-1 h, whereas later passes (passes 20-25) divided every 28+/-3 h. To correlate these changes with a measure of thyroid function we assayed T(4) output. Early passage follicular cultures incubated for 6 h with sodium iodide, released on average 5.27+/- 0.33 ng/ml of T(4)/100 follicles. Later passes, or early passes treated with heptanol to down-regulate Cx32, released an average of 3.84+/-0.50 ng/ml of T(4)/100 follicles. There was a 27% difference in T(4) release between early follicular cultures, that were coupled by Cx32, and late or down-regulated early follicular cultures, that were uncoupled (P<0.0001). Collectively, the physical changes documented in this study were coincident with the loss of functional Cx32. This implies a relationship between the loss of intercellular communication and changes in morphogenic appearance, growth rate and

  1. A spontaneously arising mutation in connexin32 with repeated passage of FRTL-5 cells coincides with increased growth rate and reduced thyroxine release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, L. M.; Murray, D. K.; Tran, D. T.; Nelson, G. A.; Shah, M. M.; Luben, R. A.

    2001-01-01

    regions of the Cx32 molecule contain the sequences and epitopes to which probes and antibodies are directed, and as such alterations of these regions with repeated passage explains reports by others that FRTL-5 cells do not express Cx32, and implies that cultures used for these assessments were passed more than 15 times. To determine if genetic or epigenetic abnormalities existed in FRTL-5 cells we performed chromosome spreads from various passage cultures. FRTL-5 cells have been reported to be diploid and more recently non-diploid; however, we found them to be fully tetraploid. This tetraploidy appears to be unstable in that later passes are tetraploid plus two or three extra chromosomes. There were no obvious translocations, breaks or large-scale interstitial deletions of any chromosomes in the FRTL-5 cultures tested. As FRTL-5 cells were repeatedly passed their morphology changed. Monolayer areas spread from beneath the follicles, and the follicles became flattened in appearance. These physical changes were coincident with dramatically increased growth rates. Early cultures (passed 3-12 times) divided on average every 49+/-1 h, whereas later passes (passes 20-25) divided every 28+/-3 h. To correlate these changes with a measure of thyroid function we assayed T(4) output. Early passage follicular cultures incubated for 6 h with sodium iodide, released on average 5.27+/- 0.33 ng/ml of T(4)/100 follicles. Later passes, or early passes treated with heptanol to down-regulate Cx32, released an average of 3.84+/-0.50 ng/ml of T(4)/100 follicles. There was a 27% difference in T(4) release between early follicular cultures, that were coupled by Cx32, and late or down-regulated early follicular cultures, that were uncoupled (Pstudy were coincident with the loss of functional Cx32. This implies a relationship between the loss of intercellular communication and changes in morphogenic appearance, growth rate and reduced thyroid function and supports the previously postulated, tumor

  2. Identifikasi Keragaman Genetik Gen Reseptor Hormon Pertumbuhan (GHR|Alu I pada Sapi Bali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulkharnaim

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Growth hormone receptor (GHR is one factor affecting animal growth. GHR is required by growth hormone (GH to carry out its effects on target tissues. The objective of the study was to estimate genetic diversity of the GHR|AluI gene in bali, limousin, simmental and pesisir cattle. Genotyping was performed on 248 animals, including 162 bali, 21 limousin, 17 simmental and 48 pesisir. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP had been found in exon 10, coding for the cytoplasmic domain of GHR, which was located at position 81 bp (A/G induced amino acid substitutions Ser/Gly. Genotype frequencies of bali cattle AA (0.988, GG (0.006 and AG (0.006 were evidenced for the GHR AluI monomorphism, but mostly different from limousin GG (0.667, AA (0.238 and AG (0.095, simmental AG (0.529, GG (0.471 and AA (0.000, pesisir AA (0.604, GG (0.375 and AG (0.021 were the evidence of polymorphism. Homozigosity (monomorphism in bali cattle might be affected by adaptability in extreme environmental conditions such as poor nutrition and improper management practices. It also could be affected by natural selection and phenotype plasticity phenomena.

  3. An Alu element-associated hypermethylation variant of the POMC gene is associated with childhood obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Kuehnen

    Full Text Available The individual risk for common diseases not only depends on genetic but also on epigenetic polymorphisms. To assess the role of epigenetic variations in the individual risk for obesity, we have determined the methylation status of two CpG islands at the POMC locus in obese and normal-weight children. We found a hypermethylation variant targeting individual CpGs at the intron 2-exon 3 boundary of the POMC gene by bisulphite sequencing that was significantly associated with obesity. POMC exon 3 hypermethylation interferes with binding of the transcription enhancer P300 and reduces expression of the POMC transcript. Since intron 2 contains Alu elements that are known to influence methylation in their genomic vicinity, the exon 3 methylation variant seems to result from an Alu element-triggered default state of methylation boundary definition. Exon 3 hypermethylation in the POMC locus represents the first identified DNA methylation variant that is associated with the individual risk for obesity.

  4. Reprogramming triggers endogenous L1 and Alu retrotransposition in human induced pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klawitter, Sabine; Fuchs, Nina V; Upton, Kyle R; Muñoz-Lopez, Martin; Shukla, Ruchi; Wang, Jichang; Garcia-Cañadas, Marta; Lopez-Ruiz, Cesar; Gerhardt, Daniel J; Sebe, Attila; Grabundzija, Ivana; Merkert, Sylvia; Gerdes, Patricia; Pulgarin, J Andres; Bock, Anja; Held, Ulrike; Witthuhn, Anett; Haase, Alexandra; Sarkadi, Balázs; Löwer, Johannes; Wolvetang, Ernst J; Martin, Ulrich; Ivics, Zoltán; Izsvák, Zsuzsanna; Garcia-Perez, Jose L; Faulkner, Geoffrey J; Schumann, Gerald G

    2016-01-08

    Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) are capable of unlimited proliferation and can differentiate in vitro to generate derivatives of the three primary germ layers. Genetic and epigenetic abnormalities have been reported by Wissing and colleagues to occur during hiPSC derivation, including mobilization of engineered LINE-1 (L1) retrotransposons. However, incidence and functional impact of endogenous retrotransposition in hiPSCs are yet to be established. Here we apply retrotransposon capture sequencing to eight hiPSC lines and three human embryonic stem cell (hESC) lines, revealing endogenous L1, Alu and SINE-VNTR-Alu (SVA) mobilization during reprogramming and pluripotent stem cell cultivation. Surprisingly, 4/7 de novo L1 insertions are full length and 6/11 retrotransposition events occurred in protein-coding genes expressed in pluripotent stem cells. We further demonstrate that an intronic L1 insertion in the CADPS2 gene is acquired during hiPSC cultivation and disrupts CADPS2 expression. These experiments elucidate endogenous retrotransposition, and its potential consequences, in hiPSCs and hESCs.

  5. Partial protoporphyrinogen oxidase (PPOX gene deletions, due to different Alu-mediated mechanisms, identified by MLPA analysis in patients with variegate porphyria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbaro Michela

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Variegate porphyria (VP is an autosomal dominantly inherited hepatic porphyria. The genetic defect in the PPOX gene leads to a partial defect of protoporphyrinogen oxidase, the penultimate enzyme of heme biosynthesis. Affected individuals can develop cutaneous symptoms in sun-exposed areas of the skin and/or neuropsychiatric acute attacks. The identification of the genetic defect in VP families is of crucial importance to detect the carrier status which allows counseling to prevent potentially life threatening neurovisceral attacks, usually triggered by factors such as certain drugs, alcohol or fasting. In a total of 31 Swedish VP families sequence analysis had identified a genetic defect in 26. In the remaining five families an extended genetic investigation was necessary. After the development of a synthetic probe set, MLPA analysis to screen for single exon deletions/duplications was performed. We describe here, for the first time, two partial deletions within the PPOX gene detected by MLPA analysis. One deletion affects exon 5 and 6 (c.339-197_616+320del1099 and has been identified in four families, most probably after a founder effect. The other extends from exon 5 to exon 9 (c.339-350_987+229del2609 and was found in one family. We show that both deletions are mediated by Alu repeats. Our findings emphasize the usefulness of MLPA analysis as a complement to PPOX gene sequencing analysis for comprehensive genetic diagnostics in patients with VP.

  6. Increased WD-repeat containing protein 1 in interstitial fluid from ovarian carcinomas shown by comparative proteomic analysis of malignant and healthy gynecological tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslene-Hox, Hanne; Oveland, Eystein; Woie, Kathrine; Salvesen, Helga B; Wiig, Helge; Tenstad, Olav

    2013-11-01

    We aimed to identify differentially expressed proteins in interstitial fluid from ovarian cancer employing multiple fractioning and high resolution mass spectrometry-based proteomic analysis, and asked whether specific proteins that may serve as biomarker candidates or therapeutic targets could be identified. High throughput proteomics was conducted on immunodepleted and fractioned interstitial fluid from pooled samples of ovarian carcinomas, using endometrial carcinomas and healthy ovarian tissue as controls. Differential analysis revealed the up-regulation of extracellular proteasomes in tumor interstitial fluid compared to the healthy control. Moreover, a number of differentially expressed proteins in interstitial fluid from ovarian carcinomas compared with control tissues were identified. Detection of proteasome 20S related proteins in TIF compared to IF from healthy tissue indicates that the 20S proteasome can have a role in the tumor microenvironment. Six selected proteins, CEACAM5, FREM2, MUC5AC, TFF3, PYCARD and WDR1, were independently validated in individual tumor lysates from ovarian carcinomas by multiple reaction monitoring initiated detection and sequence analysis, Western blot and/or selected reaction monitoring. Quantification of specific proteins revealed substantial heterogeneity between individual samples. Nevertheless, WD repeat-containing protein 1 was confirmed as being significantly overexpressed in interstitial fluid from ovarian carcinomas compared to healthy ovarian tissue by Orbitrap analysis of individual native interstitial fluid from ovarian and endometrial carcinomas and healthy ovarian tissue. We suggest that this protein should be explored as a therapeutic target in ovarian carcinomas. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: An Updated Secretome.

  7. Restraint stress and repeated CRF receptor activation in the amygdala both increase amyloid β precursor protein (APP) and amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide but have divergent effects on BDNF and pre-synaptic proteins in the prefrontal cortex of rats

    OpenAIRE

    Ray, Balmiki; Gaskins, Denise L.; Sajdyk, Tammy J.; Spence, John P.; Fitz, Stephanie D.; Shekhar, Anantha; Lahiri, Debomoy K.

    2011-01-01

    Both environmental stress and anxiety may represent important risk factors for Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis. Previous studies demonstrate that restraint stress is associated with increased amyloid beta (Aβ) and decreased brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels in the brain. Aβ deposition, synaptic loss, and neurodegeneration define major hallmarks of AD, and BDNF is responsible for the maintenance of neurons. In contrast to restraint stress, repeated injections of sub-anxioge...

  8. Automatization and familiarity in repeated checking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dek, Eliane C P; van den Hout, Marcel A.; Giele, Catharina L.; Engelhard, Iris M.

    2014-01-01

    Repeated checking paradoxically increases memory uncertainty. This study investigated the underlying mechanism of this effect. We hypothesized that as a result of repeated checking, familiarity with stimuli increases, and automatization of the checking procedure occurs, which should result in decrea

  9. Saturation of repeated quantum measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haapasalo, Erkka; Heinosaari, Teiko; Kuramochi, Yui

    2016-08-01

    We study sequential measurement scenarios where the system is repeatedly subjected to the same measurement process. We first provide examples of such repeated measurements where further repetitions of the measurement do not increase our knowledge on the system after some finite number of measurement steps. We also prove, however, that repeating the Lüders measurement of an unsharp two-outcome observable never saturates in this sense, and we characterize the observable measured in the limit of infinitely many repetitions. Our result implies that a repeated measurement can be used to correct the inherent noise of an unsharp observable.

  10. Design and Implementation of Submicron Level 10T Full Adder in ALU Using Cell Based and SOC Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.Swathi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available As technology scales into the nanometer regime leakage current, active power, delay and area are becoming important metric for the analysis and design of complex circuits. The main concern in mobile and battery based systems are leakage current and power dissipation. A transistor resizing approach for 10 transistor single bit full adder cells is used to determine optimal sleep transistor size which reduces power dissipation and leakage current. A submicron level 10-transistor single bit full adder cell is considered to achieve low leakage current, reduced power dissipation and high speed. In this paper initially 10T full adder cell is designed with submicron technique and later this is employed to design an ALU adder unit. The modified ALU is simulated and synthesized successfully on cadence 180nm technology.

  11. International distribution and age estimation of the Portuguese BRCA2 c.156_157insAlu founder mutation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peixoto, Ana; Santos, Catarina; Pinheiro, Manuela;

    2011-01-01

    The c.156_157insAlu BRCA2 mutation has so far only been reported in hereditary breast/ovarian cancer (HBOC) families of Portuguese origin. Since this mutation is not detectable using the commonly used screening methodologies and must be specifically sought, we screened for this rearrangement...... in a total of 5,443 suspected HBOC families from several countries. Whereas the c.156_157insAlu BRCA2 mutation was detected in 11 of 149 suspected HBOC families from Portugal, representing 37.9% of all deleterious mutations, in other countries it was detected only in one proband living in France and in four...... regarding the production of the BRCA2 full length RNA and the transcript lacking exon 3 in c.156_157insAlu BRCA2 mutation carriers and in controls. The cumulative incidence of breast cancer in carriers did not differ from that of other BRCA2 and BRCA1 pathogenic mutations. We recommend that all suspected...

  12. Inhibition of LINE-1 and Alu retrotransposition by exosomes encapsidating APOBEC3G and APOBEC3F.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatua, Atanu K; Taylor, Harry E; Hildreth, James E K; Popik, Waldemar

    2010-04-25

    Human cytidine deaminases, including APOBEC3G (A3G) and A3F, are part of a cellular defense system against retroviruses and retroelements including non-LTR retrotransposons LINE-1 (L1) and Alu. Expression of cellular A3 proteins is sufficient for inhibition of L1 and Alu retrotransposition, but the effect of A3 proteins transferred in exosomes on retroelement mobilization is unknown. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that exosomes secreted by CD4(+)H9 T cells and mature monocyte-derived dendritic cells encapsidate A3G and A3F and inhibit L1 and Alu retrotransposition. A3G is the major contributor to the inhibitory activity of exosomes, however, the contribution of A3F in H9 exosomes cannot be excluded. Additionally, we show that exosomes encapsidate mRNAs coding for A3 proteins. A3G mRNA, and less so A3F, was enriched in exosomes secreted by H9 cells. Exosomal A3G mRNA was functional in vitro. Whether exosomes inhibit retrotransposons in vivo requires further investigation.

  13. Women, but not men, report increasingly more pain during repeated (un)predictable painful electrocutaneous stimulation: Evidence for mediation by fear of pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meulders, Ann; Vansteenwegen, Debora; Vlaeyen, Johan W S

    2012-05-01

    An abundance of animal research suggests that fear inhibits pain whereas anxiety increases it. Human studies on this topic are more scarce, and the existing evidence seems rather inconsistent. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the divergent effects of both negative emotional states-that is, pain-related fear and anxiety on pain sensitivity and unpleasantness. Possible sex-related differences were also under investigation, as well as the potential mediational role of fear of movement-related pain on the differences in pain intensity and unpleasantness between both sexes. We employed a voluntary joystick movement paradigm using movements as conditioned stimuli (CSs) and a painful electrocutaneous stimulus as the unconditioned stimulus. Healthy participants received predictable shocks in one condition and unpredictable shocks in another condition. The former procedure is known to induce fear of movement-related pain to the CS+ movement (movement consistently followed by pain), whereas the latter procedure induces (contextual) pain-related anxiety. Results showed that fear of movement-related pain indeed resulted in decreased pain intensity/unpleasantness ratings, while pain-related anxiety led to increased pain intensity/unpleasantness reports. Further, the anticipated sex difference was modulated by time. That is, women gradually reported more pain/unpleasantness, whereas men do not show such a sensitization effect. Moreover, this sex-specific sensitization is partially mediated by (conditioned) fear of movement-related pain. Women also report increasingly more fear of pain over conditioning blocks, while men do not. These results might be interesting in the light of the overrepresentation of women in a number of clinical pain conditions as well as anxiety disorders.

  14. A repeated measures experiment of school playing environment to increase physical activity and enhance self-esteem in UK school children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carly Wood

    Full Text Available School playtime provides daily opportunities for children to be active outdoors, but only makes small contributions to physical activity (PA requirements. Natural environments facilitate unstructured PA and children report a preference for play in nature. Thus, play on the school field might encourage children to be more active during playtime. The primary aim of this study was to examine the impact of the school playing environment on children's PA. Descriptive data and fitness were assessed in 25 children aged 8-9 years from a single primary school. Over two consecutive weeks participants were allocated to either play on the school field or playground during playtime. The order of play in the two areas was randomised and counterbalanced. Moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA was assessed during playtime on the last two days of each week using accelerometers. There was a significant interaction of environment and sex on MVPA during morning play (F(1,22 = 6.27; P0.05; np2 = 0.060 or all of playtime combined (P>0.05; np2 = 0.140. During morning play boys were significantly more active than girls on the playground (t(23 = 1.32; P0.05; n2 = 0.071. For lunch (F(1,22 = 24,11; P<0.001; np2 = 0.523 and all of playtime combined (F(1,22 = 33.67; P<0.001; np2 = 0.616 there was a significant effect of environment. There was also a significant main effect of sex during lunch (F(1,22 = 11.56; P<0.01; np2 = 0.344 and all of playtime combined (F(1,22 = 12.37; P<0.01; np2 = 0.371. MVPA was higher on the field and boys were more active than girls. Play on the field leads to increases in MVPA, particularly in girls. The promising trend for the effect of the natural environment on MVPA indicates that interventions aimed at increasing MVPA should use the natural environment and that schools should encourage greater use of their natural areas to increase PA.

  15. Increasing Belief in the Effectiveness of HIV Treatment as Prevention: Results of Repeated, National Surveys of Australian Gay and Bisexual Men, 2013-15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Martin; Lea, Toby; Schmidt, Heather-Marie; Murphy, Dean; Rosengarten, Marsha; Crawford, David; Ellard, Jeanne; Kolstee, Johann; de Wit, John

    2016-07-01

    We surveyed Australian gay and bisexual men, assessing belief in HIV treatment as prevention (TasP) and support for early treatment. We identified the characteristics of participants who believed in TasP and supported early treatment using multivariate logistic regression. In 2013, 1316 men participated; 1251 participated in 2015. Belief in TasP increased from 2.6 % in 2013 to 13.1 % in 2015 (p education, having recent condomless anal intercourse with casual male partners, and ever having taken post-exposure prophylaxis. Support for early HIV treatment was associated with being younger, living in New South Wales and being in paid employment. We recommend continued monitoring of the growing gap in belief about TasP between HIV-positive men and HIV-negative/untested men. PMID:26803613

  16. 不同ALU实现方法的功耗研究%The Research on Power Dissipation of Different ALU Implementation Schemes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙军凯; 蒋安平

    2011-01-01

    Low power is a challenging work in micro - processor design. Implementing power optimization on all components of the processor is a choice. One of the most basic components in micro -processor is the Arithmetic and Logic Unit (ALU). The architecture of ALU has several implications on power consumption, delay and area. There are three common ALU architectures: complex architecture, adder independent architecture and chain architecture. To find out which ALU architecture provides the best power efficiency, an 8 - bit ALU of the three different architectures is designed. Compared with other architectures,the power savings of complex architecture are 19. 38% and 33. 87% .%低功耗是微处理器设计中一项具有挑战性的工作.对每一个组成单元进行功耗优化是进行低功耗微处理器设计必不可少的一种方法.算术逻辑单元(Arithmetic and Logic Unit,ALU)是微处理器中最基本的组成单元之一.ALU的结构与功耗、延迟和面积有着复杂的联系.常用的ALU结构有三种:复合结构、加法器独立结构和链武结构.基于这三种结构,实现了一个8比特ALU,通过对这个8 - bit ALU进行功耗分析来研究ALU的结构对功耗的影响.研究结果表明:复合结构ALU具有最小的功耗,与其它两种结构的ALU相比,能分别节省19.38%和33.87%的功耗.

  17. 血管紧张素转化酶基因Alu I/D的多态性与心房颤动的关联研究%Association of Angiotensin-convertion enzyme (ACE) gene Alu I/D with Atrial Fibrillation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张复贵; 闵新文; 曾秋棠; 毛晓波; 易桂文; 吉庆伟

    2011-01-01

    ); there were still risk for the crowd carrying ID gene suffering from Af, But there were no statistics differences (OR= 1.95, 95%CI= 0.95- 3.99, P= 0. 069); After exclusion of confounding factors, there were significantly associations between left atrial diameter and the risk of suffering from Af (OR= 8.92, 95%CI =3.72- 21.40, P= 0. 000). Conclusion: Among the Han population in Hubei Province, ACE Alu I/D gene polymorphisms is obviously associated with Af, which may be a risk factor for Af, The increase of left atrial diameter is significantly correlates with the incidence of Af.

  18. Questioning the "melting pot": analysis of Alu inserts in three population samples from Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, Pedro C; Mut, Patricia; Ackermann, Elizabeth; Figueiro, Gonzalo; Sans, Monica

    2014-01-01

    The way that immigrants integrate into recipient societies has been discussed for decades, mainly from the perspective of the social sciences. Uruguay, as other American countries, received diffferent waves of European immigrants, although the details of the process of assimilation, when it did occur, are unclear. In this study we used genetic markers to understand the process experienced by the Basques, one of the major migration waves that populated Uruguay, and their relation to other immigrants, as well as to Native American and African descendants. For this purpose, we analyzed the allele frequencies of 10 ALU loci (A25, ACE, APOA1, B65, D1, F13B, PV92, TPA25, HS2.43, and HS4.65) in three samples from Uruguay (two of Basque descendants, one of non-Basque descendants) from two locations: Montevideo and Trinidad. No departure from Hardy-Weinberg expectations was observed, with the exceptions of the APOA1 and D1 loci in the non-Basque descendants' samples. Our data show that the major genetic contribution in the three samples comes from Europe (78-88%), with minor African (10-15%) and Native American (0-10%) contributions. Genetic distances reveal that Basque descendants from Trinidad cluster with Europeans, whereas both Montevideo samples cluster together and are separate from other populations, showing two diffferent types of integration, related to the general characteristics of each regional population.

  19. Questioning the "melting pot": analysis of Alu inserts in three population samples from Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, Pedro C; Mut, Patricia; Ackermann, Elizabeth; Figueiro, Gonzalo; Sans, Monica

    2014-01-01

    The way that immigrants integrate into recipient societies has been discussed for decades, mainly from the perspective of the social sciences. Uruguay, as other American countries, received diffferent waves of European immigrants, although the details of the process of assimilation, when it did occur, are unclear. In this study we used genetic markers to understand the process experienced by the Basques, one of the major migration waves that populated Uruguay, and their relation to other immigrants, as well as to Native American and African descendants. For this purpose, we analyzed the allele frequencies of 10 ALU loci (A25, ACE, APOA1, B65, D1, F13B, PV92, TPA25, HS2.43, and HS4.65) in three samples from Uruguay (two of Basque descendants, one of non-Basque descendants) from two locations: Montevideo and Trinidad. No departure from Hardy-Weinberg expectations was observed, with the exceptions of the APOA1 and D1 loci in the non-Basque descendants' samples. Our data show that the major genetic contribution in the three samples comes from Europe (78-88%), with minor African (10-15%) and Native American (0-10%) contributions. Genetic distances reveal that Basque descendants from Trinidad cluster with Europeans, whereas both Montevideo samples cluster together and are separate from other populations, showing two diffferent types of integration, related to the general characteristics of each regional population. PMID:25397699

  20. Repeat-until-success quantum repeaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruschi, David Edward; Barlow, Thomas M.; Razavi, Mohsen; Beige, Almut

    2014-09-01

    We propose a repeat-until-success protocol to improve the performance of probabilistic quantum repeaters. Conventionally, these rely on passive static linear-optics elements and photodetectors to perform Bell-state measurements (BSMs) with a maximum success rate of 50%. This is a strong impediment for entanglement swapping between distant quantum memories. Every time a BSM fails, entanglement needs to be redistributed between the corresponding memories in the repeater link. The key ingredients of our scheme are repeatable BSMs. Under ideal conditions, these turn probabilistic quantum repeaters into deterministic ones. Under realistic conditions, our protocol too might fail. However, using additional threshold detectors now allows us to improve the entanglement generation rate by almost orders of magnitude, at a nominal distance of 1000 km, compared to schemes that rely on conventional BSMs. This improvement is sufficient to make the performance of our scheme comparable to the expected performance of some deterministic quantum repeaters.

  1. A New Implementation of a 16-Bit Self-Timed ALU for Asynchronous Microprocessors%适用于异步微处理器的1 6位自定时ALU

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    管超; 葛元庆; 吴瑞; 周润德

    2001-01-01

    针对嵌入式微处理器设计中提出的高性能,低功耗的要求,提出了一种面向异步微处理器的由动态电压级联逻辑电路(DCVS)构成的16位自定时ALU.在综合考虑面积、速度、功耗及指令的统计分布情况下,该ALU具有优异的性能.

  2. Replication of cloned DNA containing the Alu family sequence during cell extract-promoting simian virus 40 DNA synthesis.

    OpenAIRE

    Ariga, H

    1984-01-01

    The replicating activity of several cloned DNAs containing putative origin sequences was examined in a cell-free extract that absolutely depends on simian virus 40 (SV40) T antigen promoting initiation of SV40 DNA replication in vitro. Of the three DNAs containing the human Alu family sequence (BLUR8), the origin of (Saccharomyces cerevisiae plasmid 2 micron DNA (pJD29), and the yeast autonomous replicating sequence (YRp7), only BLUR8 was active as a template. Replication in a reaction mixtur...

  3. Itella logistiikan yrityskaupan yhteydessä ilmenneet päällekkäisyydet ja ongelmat Oulusta ajettavissa alue- ja runkokuljetuksissa

    OpenAIRE

    Niemelä, Hannes

    2014-01-01

    Työn aiheena on Itella Logistics Oyj:n ja VR Transtpointin yhdistymisestä aiheutuneiden ongelmien ja päällekkäisyyksien selvittäminen Oulusta ajettaviin alue- ja runkovuoroihin. Työn tavoitteena oli selvittää syntyneet ongelmat ja niihin jo tehdyt ratkaisut sekä miettiä mahdollisia ratkaisuehdotuksia selvittämättömiin ongelmiin. Työssä esitellään myös yksityiskohtaisesti Itella Logistiikan Oulusta ajettavat alue- ja runkovuorot. Työ suoritettiin teoreettisen tutkimuksen ja pääasiassa työss...

  4. Increasing productivity of phosphatidyserine by repeated batch reaction%反复分批式反应提高磷脂酰丝氨酸的生产能力

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    封娟娟; 朱南南; 邓杨敏; 韩晓玲; 张小里; 赵彬侠

    2016-01-01

    磷脂酶D(PLD)催化大豆磷脂合成磷脂酰丝氨酸(PS)反应是在油-水两相体系中进行的,大豆磷脂(PC)溶于有机相中,L-丝氨酸溶于水相中,但反应过程中产生副产物——胆碱,抑制酶的催化反应速率,需及时移除胆碱。本文主要采用反复分批式反应来解决这一问题。并考察了增大底物 PC 的浓度,PS 的收率大大降低。低底物PC浓度下,添加不同浓度胆碱,转酯速率及PS收率都降低;高底物PC浓度下,采用反复分批式反应去除胆碱,转酯反应速率提高38%,PS收率达67%。研究表明反复分批式操作是一种生产磷脂的新型工艺,其中PS的生产能力明显提高,而且重复10次反应后,固定化酶活力仍保持58%,纳米SiO2固定化磷脂酶D较好地适用于反复分批式反应。%The synthetic reaction of phosphatidyserine from soybean lecithin catalyzed by immobilized phospholipase D was carried out in oil-water two phase system,with PC and L-serine rich in oil and water phase,respectively. However,the by-product choline restrains the enzyme-catalyzed reaction rate and should be removed in time. In order to solve this problem,we adopted the repeated batch reaction. Increasing the substrate (PC) concentration decreased the yield of PS greatly. When various concentrations of choline chloride were added into the reaction mixture at low PC concentrations,there was a significant decrease in transphosphatidylation rate and the yield of PS. The using of repeated batch reaction was examined at high PC concentration to remove choline,the transphosphatidylation rate increased by 38%,and PS yield was 67%. The paper reported that the repeated batch operation is a novel technology for the synthesis of phosphlipid and increased the productivity of PS significantly. And the immobilized enzyme activity remained 58% after ten batches and nano-SiO2-immobilized-PLD was suitable for repeated batch reaction.

  5. 稳定高效表达正反义Alu-Sx细胞系的建立%Establishment of HEK293 cell line expressing sense and antisense Alu-Sx stably and efficiently

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭亮; 吴刚; 蒋继志; 靳风烁; 丁瑞

    2006-01-01

    目的建立稳定高效表达正反义Alu-Sx的细胞系.方法根据Alu亚家族Sx序列合成两对两端带有限制性酶切位点的引物,提取HEK293细胞的总DNA后PCR扩增,产物连接到真核表达载体pcDNA3.1/myc-His A中构建成重组体.经酶切及测序鉴定后,阳离子脂质体转染法转染HEK293细胞后G418筛选稳定表达的细胞克隆,Northern杂交检测并挑选出表达最强的亚克隆.结果成功构建Alu亚家族Sx的正反义真核表达载体并获得高效稳定表达的HEK293细胞亚克隆.结论高效稳定表达正反义Alu Sx的HEK293细胞亚克隆可用于下一步研究.

  6. Contribution of Large Genomic Rearrangements in Italian Lynch Syndrome Patients: Characterization of a Novel Alu-Mediated Deletion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Duraturo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Lynch syndrome is associated with germ-line mutations in the DNA mismatch repair (MMR genes, mainly MLH1 and MSH2. Most of the mutations reported in these genes to date are point mutations, small deletions, and insertions. Large genomic rearrangements in the MMR genes predisposing to Lynch syndrome also occur, but the frequency varies depending on the population studied on average from 5 to 20%. The aim of this study was to examine the contribution of large rearrangements in the MLH1 and MSH2 genes in a well-characterised series of 63 unrelated Southern Italian Lynch syndrome patients who were negative for pathogenic point mutations in the MLH1, MSH2, and MSH6 genes. We identified a large novel deletion in the MSH2 gene, including exon 6 in one of the patients analysed (1.6% frequency. This deletion was confirmed and localised by long-range PCR. The breakpoints of this rearrangement were characterised by sequencing. Further analysis of the breakpoints revealed that this rearrangement was a product of Alu-mediated recombination. Our findings identified a novel Alu-mediated rearrangement within MSH2 gene and showed that large deletions or duplications in MLH1 and MSH2 genes are low-frequency mutational events in Southern Italian patients with an inherited predisposition to colon cancer.

  7. Research of the origin of a particular Tunisian group using a physical marker and Alu insertion polymorphisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wifak El Moncer

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to show how, in some particular circumstances, a physical marker can be used along with molecular markers in the research of an ancient people movement. A set of five Alu insertions was analysed in 42 subjects from a particular Tunisian group (El Hamma that has, unlike most of the Tunisian population, a very dark skin, similar to that of sub-Saharans, and in 114 Tunisian subjects (Gabes sample from the same governorate, but outside the group. Our results showed that the El Hamma group is genetically midway between sub-Saharan populations and North Africans, whereas the Gabes sample is clustered among North Africans. In addition, The A25 Alu insertion, considered characteristic to sub-Saharan Africans, was present in the El Hamma group at a relatively high frequency. This frequency was similar to that found in sub-Saharans from Nigeria, but significantly different from those found in the Gabes sample and in other North African populations. Our molecular results, consistent with the skin color status, suggest a sub-Saharan origin of this particular Tunisian group.

  8. Rat dams exposed repeatedly to a daily brief separation from the pups exhibit increased maternal behavior, decreased anxiety and altered levels of receptors for estrogens (ERα, ERβ), oxytocin and serotonin (5-HT1A) in their brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamatakis, Antonios; Kalpachidou, Theodora; Raftogianni, Androniki; Zografou, Efstratia; Tzanou, Athanasia; Pondiki, Stavroula; Stylianopoulou, Fotini

    2015-02-01

    In the present study we investigated the neurobiological mechanisms underlying expression of maternal behavior. Increased maternal behavior was experimentally induced by a brief 15-min separation between the mother and the pups during postnatal days 1 to 22. On postnatal days (PND) 12 and 22, we determined in experimental and control dams levels of anxiety in the elevated plus maze (EPM) as well as the levels of receptors for estrogens (ERα, ERβ), oxytocin (OTR) and serotonin (5-HT1AR) in areas of the limbic system (prefrontal cortex-PFC, hippocampus, lateral septum-SL, medial preoptic area-MPOA, shell of nucleus accumbens-nAc-Sh, central-CeA and basolateral-BLA amygdala), involved in the regulation of maternal behavior. Experimental dams, which showed increased maternal behavior towards their offspring, displayed reduced anxiety in the EPM on both PND12 and PND22. These behavioral differences could be attributed to neurochemical alterations in their brain: On both PND12 and PND22, experimental mothers had higher levels of ERα and OTRs in the PFC, hippocampus, CeA, SL, MPOA and nAc-Sh. The experimental manipulation-induced increase in ERβ levels was less widespread, being localized in PFC, the hippocampal CA2 area, MPOA and nAc-Sh. In addition, 5-HT1ARs were reduced in the PFC, hippocampus, CeA, MPOA and nAc-Sh of the experimental mothers. Our results show that the experience of the daily repeated brief separation from the pups results in increased brain ERs and OTRs, as well as decreased 5-HT1ARs in the dam's brain; these neurochemical changes could underlie the observed increase in maternal behavior and the reduction of anxiety.

  9. Exposição repetida à cafeína aumenta a atividade locomotora induzida pelo femproporex em ratos adolescentes e adultos Repeated administration of caffeine increases femproporex-induced locomotor activity in adolescent and adult rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Helena Paro

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A cafeína e o femproporex são substâncias psicoestimulantes. O femproporex é muito utilizado no Brasil como anorexígeno enquanto a cafeína é amplamente consumida como constituinte regular da dieta. A administração repetida de psicoestimulantes induz sensibilização comportamental que se caracteriza pelo aumento progressivo dos seus efeitos locomotores. Pode ocorrer ainda sensibilização cruzada entre essas substâncias. Investigamos se a administração repetida de cafeína aumenta a locomoção induzida pelo femproporex em ratos adolescentes e adultos. Quarenta e oito ratos adolescentes (dia pós-natal 27 e 32 adultos (dia pós-natal 60 foram distribuídos em dois grupos que receberam injeção intra-peritoneal de 10,0 mg/kg de cafeína (CAF (adolescentes N = 24; adultos N = 16 ou salina (SAL (adolescentes N = 24; adultos N = 16 diariamente durante 10 dias. Três dias após a última injeção, cada grupo CAF ou SAL foi subdividido em dois subgrupos que receberam injeção i.p. de salina (SAL (1 mL/kg ou femproporex (FEM (2,0 mg/kg. Após as injeções, a atividade locomotora foi avaliada automaticamente em intervalos de 5 minutos durante 1 hora. Nossos resultados demonstraram que em ratos adolescentes e adultos o pré-tratamento com CAF aumenta a atividade locomotora induzida pela administração aguda de FEM, sugerindo que a cafeína causa sensibilização aos efeitos locomotores desse derivado anfetamínico.Caffeine and femproporex are psychostimulants drugs widely consumed in Brazil. Behavioral sensitization is defined as an augmentation in the behavioral effect of a psychostimulant upon re-administration. Repeated administration of a psychostimulant produces behavioral sensitization to that drug and cross-sensitization to other drugs. We investigated whether repeated administration of caffeine increases femproporex-induced locomotor activity in adolescent and adult rats. Forty-eight adolescent (postnatal day 27 and 32 adult

  10. Repeated intermittent alcohol exposure during the third trimester-equivalent increases expression of the GABA(A) receptor δ subunit in cerebellar granule neurons and delays motor development in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Marvin R; Vollmer, Cyndel C; Zamudio-Bulcock, Paula A; Vollmer, William; Blomquist, Samantha L; Morton, Russell A; Everett, Julie C; Zurek, Agnieszka A; Yu, Jieying; Orser, Beverley A; Valenzuela, C Fernando

    2014-04-01

    Exposure to ethanol (EtOH) during fetal development can lead to long-lasting alterations, including deficits in fine motor skills and motor learning. Studies suggest that these are, in part, a consequence of cerebellar damage. Cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs) are the gateway of information into the cerebellar cortex. Functionally, CGNs are heavily regulated by phasic and tonic GABAergic inhibition from Golgi cell interneurons; however, the effect of EtOH exposure on the development of GABAergic transmission in immature CGNs has not been investigated. To model EtOH exposure during the 3rd trimester-equivalent of human pregnancy, neonatal pups were exposed intermittently to high levels of vaporized EtOH from postnatal day (P) 2 to P12. This exposure gradually increased pup serum EtOH concentrations (SECs) to ∼60 mM (∼0.28 g/dl) during the 4 h of exposure. EtOH levels gradually decreased to baseline 8 h after the end of exposure. Surprisingly, basal tonic and phasic GABAergic currents in CGNs were not significantly affected by postnatal alcohol exposure (PAE). However, PAE increased δ subunit expression at P28 as detected by immunohistochemical and western blot analyses. Also, electrophysiological studies with an agonist that is highly selective for δ-containing GABA(A) receptors, 4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisoxazolo[4,5-c]pyridine-3-ol (THIP), showed an increase in THIP-induced tonic current. Behavioral studies of PAE rats did not reveal any deficits in motor coordination, except for a delay in the acquisition of the mid-air righting reflex that was apparent at P15 to P18. These findings demonstrate that repeated intermittent exposure to high levels of EtOH during the equivalent of the last trimester of human pregnancy has significant but relatively subtle effects on motor coordination and GABAergic transmission in CGNs in rats.

  11. The Role of the Y-Chromosome in the Establishment of Murine Hybrid Dysgenesis and in the Analysis of the Nucleotide Sequence Organization, Genetic Transmission and Evolution of Repeated Sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nallaseth, Ferez Soli

    The Y-chromosome presents a unique cytogenetic framework for the evolution of nucleotide sequences. Alignment of nine Y-chromosomal fragments in their increasing Y-specific/non Y-specific (male/female) sequence divergence ratios was directly and inversely related to their interspersion on these two respective genomic fractions. Sequence analysis confirmed a direct relationship between divergence ratios and the Alu, LINE-1, Satellite and their derivative oligonucleotide contents. Thus their relocation on the Y-chromosome is followed by sequence divergence rather than the well documented concerted evolution of these non-coding progenitor repeated sequences. Five of the nine Y-chromosomal fragments are non-pseudoautosomal and transcribed into heterogeneous PolyA^+ RNA and thus can be retrotransposed. Evolutionary and computer analysis identified homologous oligonucleotide tracts in several human loci suggesting common and random mechanistic origins. Dysgenic genomes represent the accelerated evolution driving sequence divergence (McClintock, 1984). Sex reversal and sterility characterizing dysgenesis occurs in C57BL/6JY ^{rm Pos} but not in 129/SvY^{rm Pos} derivative strains. High frequency, random, multi-locus deletion products of the feral Y^{ rm Pos}-chromosome are generated in the germlines of F1(C57BL/6J X 129/SvY^{ rm Pos})(male) and C57BL/6JY ^{rm Pos}(male) but not in 129/SvY^{rm Pos}(male). Equal, 10^{-1}, 10^ {-2}, and 0 copies (relative to males) of Y^{rm Pos}-specific deletion products respectively characterize C57BL/6JY ^{rm Pos} (HC), (LC), (T) and (F) females. The testes determining loci of inactive Y^{rm Pos}-chromosomes in C57BL/6JY^{rm Pos} HC females are the preferentially deleted/rearranged Y ^{rm Pos}-sequences. Disruption of regulation of plasma testosterone and hepatic MUP-A mRNA levels, TRD of a 4.7 Kbp EcoR1 fragment suggest disruption of autosomal/X-chromosomal sequences. These data and the highly repeated progenitor (Alu, GATA, LINE-1

  12. The potential role of Alu Y in the development of resistance to SN38 (Irinotecan) or oxaliplatin in colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, Xue; Stenvang, Jan; Rasmussen, Mads Heilskov;

    2015-01-01

    Background: Irinotecan (SN38) and oxaliplatin are chemotherapeutic agents used in the treatment of colorectal cancer. However, the frequent development of resistance to these drugs represents a considerable challenge in the clinic. Alus as retrotransposons comprise 11% of the human genome. Genomic...... toxicity induced by carcinogens or drugs can reactivate Alus by altering DNA methylation. Whether or not reactivation of Alus occurs in SN38 and oxaliplatin resistance remains unknown. Results: We applied reduced representation bisulfite sequencing (RRBS) to investigate the DNA methylome in SN38......' to estimate the diversity of DNA methylation states of the identified resistance phenotype-associated methylation loci observed in the cell line models. We identified different loci being characteristic for the different resistant cell lines. Interestingly, 53% of the identified loci were Alu sequences...

  13. Design of an ALU Compatible with MCS-96%兼容MCS-96指令集的ALU设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁圃; 王道富; 毛志刚

    2008-01-01

    设计了一款能够完全兼容MCS-96系列单片机指令集的ALU.在设计中使用了经过逻辑简化的运算单元和改进的T型进位链,有效缩短了关键路径的延迟.采用硬件资源共享的策略进行运算单元和移位单元的结构组织设计,在不增加指令执行周期的前提下,最大限度地减小了电路面积.

  14. Design and Analysis of a High Speed, Power Efficient 8 Bit ALU Based on SOI / SON MOSFET Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhramita Basak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows an overall performance comparative analysis in terms of Average Power Consumption, Average Delay and Power-Delay Product for an 8 bit Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU using bulk MOS, Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI and Silicon-on-Nothing (SON technology. The entire design is done in 32nm technology for all the three cases (Bulk, SOI & SON and then compared. The comparisons have been carried out with the help of the simulation runs on Synopsys HSpice tool, and that clearly indicates, for lower Supply Voltages (Vdd, SOI / SON technology provides a significant reduction in Average Power Consumption, Average Delay and Power-Delay Product compared to that of Bulk MOS technology.

  15. Characteristics of Alu Repeats and Their Relationships with Malignant Tumors%Alu重复序列的特性及其与恶性肿瘤的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王俊锋; 周总光; 陈尧

    2005-01-01

    目的探讨Alu重复序列的结构特性及其与恶性肿瘤的关系.方法复习近年来有关Alu重复序列在分子生物学及肿瘤学方面的研究结果.结果 Alu序列之间的同源重组可导致基因缺失、重复,染色体移位导致基因重排,从而使某些癌基因活化,导致一系列的恶性改变.结论 Alu序列是一种多功能的调控序列,在一些肿瘤的发生、发展中起重要作用.

  16. Reconfigurable multiport EPON repeater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, Masayuki; Inohara, Ryo; Agata, Akira; Horiuchi, Yukio

    2009-11-01

    An extended reach EPON repeater is one of the solutions to effectively expand FTTH service areas. In this paper, we propose a reconfigurable multi-port EPON repeater for effective accommodation of multiple ODNs with a single OLT line card. The proposed repeater, which has multi-ports in both OLT and ODN sides, consists of TRs, BTRs with the CDR function and a reconfigurable electrical matrix switch, can accommodate multiple ODNs to a single OLT line card by controlling the connection of the matrix switch. Although conventional EPON repeaters require full OLT line cards to accommodate subscribers from the initial installation stage, the proposed repeater can dramatically reduce the number of required line cards especially when the number of subscribers is less than a half of the maximum registerable users per OLT. Numerical calculation results show that the extended reach EPON system with the proposed EPON repeater can save 17.5% of the initial installation cost compared with a conventional repeater, and can be less expensive than conventional systems up to the maximum subscribers especially when the percentage of ODNs in lightly-populated areas is higher.

  17. Revisiting the TALE repeat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Dong; Yan, Chuangye; Wu, Jianping; Pan, Xiaojing; Yan, Nieng

    2014-04-01

    Transcription activator-like (TAL) effectors specifically bind to double stranded (ds) DNA through a central domain of tandem repeats. Each TAL effector (TALE) repeat comprises 33-35 amino acids and recognizes one specific DNA base through a highly variable residue at a fixed position in the repeat. Structural studies have revealed the molecular basis of DNA recognition by TALE repeats. Examination of the overall structure reveals that the basic building block of TALE protein, namely a helical hairpin, is one-helix shifted from the previously defined TALE motif. Here we wish to suggest a structure-based re-demarcation of the TALE repeat which starts with the residues that bind to the DNA backbone phosphate and concludes with the base-recognition hyper-variable residue. This new numbering system is consistent with the α-solenoid superfamily to which TALE belongs, and reflects the structural integrity of TAL effectors. In addition, it confers integral number of TALE repeats that matches the number of bound DNA bases. We then present fifteen crystal structures of engineered dHax3 variants in complex with target DNA molecules, which elucidate the structural basis for the recognition of bases adenine (A) and guanine (G) by reported or uncharacterized TALE codes. Finally, we analyzed the sequence-structure correlation of the amino acid residues within a TALE repeat. The structural analyses reported here may advance the mechanistic understanding of TALE proteins and facilitate the design of TALEN with improved affinity and specificity.

  18. Recursive quantum repeater networks

    CERN Document Server

    Van Meter, Rodney; Horsman, Clare

    2011-01-01

    Internet-scale quantum repeater networks will be heterogeneous in physical technology, repeater functionality, and management. The classical control necessary to use the network will therefore face similar issues as Internet data transmission. Many scalability and management problems that arose during the development of the Internet might have been solved in a more uniform fashion, improving flexibility and reducing redundant engineering effort. Quantum repeater network development is currently at the stage where we risk similar duplication when separate systems are combined. We propose a unifying framework that can be used with all existing repeater designs. We introduce the notion of a Quantum Recursive Network Architecture, developed from the emerging classical concept of 'recursive networks', extending recursive mechanisms from a focus on data forwarding to a more general distributed computing request framework. Recursion abstracts independent transit networks as single relay nodes, unifies software layer...

  19. Benthic habitat map of U.S. Coral Reef Task Force Faga‘alu Bay priority study area, Tutuila, American Samoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran, Susan A.; Gibbs, Ann E.; D'Antonio, Nicole L.; Storlazzi, Curt D.

    2016-01-01

    The coral reef in Faga‘alu Bay, Tutuila, American Samoa, has suffered numerous natural and anthropogenic stresses. Areas once dominated by live coral are now mostly rubble surfaces covered with turf or macroalgae. In an effort to improve the health and resilience of the coral reef system, the U.S. Coral Reef Task Force selected Faga‘alu Bay as a priority study area. To support these efforts, the U.S. Geological Survey mapped nearly 1 km2 of seafloor to depths of about 60 m. Unconsolidated sediment (predominantly sand) constitutes slightly greater than 50 percent of the seafloor in the mapped area; reef and other hardbottom potentially available for coral recruitment constitute nearly 50 percent of the mapped area. Of this potentially available hardbottom, only slightly greater than 37 percent is covered with at least 10 percent coral, which is fairly evenly distributed between the reef flat, fore reef, and offshore bank/shelf. 

  20. Design of an efficient ALU based on reused logic structure%基于功能复用的高性能ALU设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张嘉琛; 蒋剑飞; 毛志刚

    2010-01-01

    算术逻辑单元(ALU)是处理器中不可或缺的重要部分,可以进行两输入逻辑和加减法运算.设计了一款通用数字信号处理器中使用的高性能ALU.提出了一种高效的逻辑与算术运算复用的电路结构,提高复用度的同时,减少了ALU的面积.并提出一种融合进位选择和超前进位加法器结构的优化进位链设计,该进位链可以提高加法器的速度,并同时支持数字信号处理器的双16位运算.

  1. Benthic habitat map of U.S. Coral Reef Task Force Faga‘alu Bay priority study area, Tutuila, American Samoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran, Susan A.; Gibbs, Ann E.; D'Antonio, Nicole L.; Storlazzi, Curt D.

    2016-05-18

    The coral reef in Faga‘alu Bay, Tutuila, American Samoa, has suffered numerous natural and anthropogenic stresses. Areas once dominated by live coral are now mostly rubble surfaces covered with turf or macroalgae. In an effort to improve the health and resilience of the coral reef system, the U.S. Coral Reef Task Force selected Faga‘alu Bay as a priority study area. To support these efforts, the U.S. Geological Survey mapped nearly 1 km2 of seafloor to depths of about 60 m. Unconsolidated sediment (predominantly sand) constitutes slightly greater than 50 percent of the seafloor in the mapped area; reef and other hardbottom potentially available for coral recruitment constitute nearly 50 percent of the mapped area. Of this potentially available hardbottom, only slightly greater than 37 percent is covered with at least 10 percent coral, which is fairly evenly distributed between the reef flat, fore reef, and offshore bank/shelf. 

  2. Tandem repeats and G-rich sequences are enriched at human CNV breakpoints.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Promita Bose

    Full Text Available Chromosome breakage in germline and somatic genomes gives rise to copy number variation (CNV responsible for genomic disorders and tumorigenesis. DNA sequence is known to play an important role in breakage at chromosome fragile sites; however, the sequences susceptible to double-strand breaks (DSBs underlying CNV formation are largely unknown. Here we analyze 140 germline CNV breakpoints from 116 individuals to identify DNA sequences enriched at breakpoint loci compared to 2800 simulated control regions. We find that, overall, CNV breakpoints are enriched in tandem repeats and sequences predicted to form G-quadruplexes. G-rich repeats are overrepresented at terminal deletion breakpoints, which may be important for the addition of a new telomere. Interstitial deletions and duplication breakpoints are enriched in Alu repeats that in some cases mediate non-allelic homologous recombination (NAHR between the two sides of the rearrangement. CNV breakpoints are enriched in certain classes of repeats that may play a role in DNA secondary structure, DSB susceptibility and/or DNA replication errors.

  3. Detection of Human Hepatocarcinoma Cell Line PLC/PRF/5 Genome Hepatitis b Virus DNA Integration with Alu-PCR%Alu-PCR检测人肝癌细胞株PLC/PRF/5基因组中乙型肝炎病毒DNA的整合

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱爽; 张会英

    2015-01-01

    目的 应用Alu-PCR方法检测人肝癌细胞株PLC/PRF/5 基因组中乙型肝炎病毒( HBV) DNA的整合. 方法 提取经培养扩增的人肝癌细胞株PLC/PRF/5基因组DNA,根据Alu-PCR方法经过3轮PCR反应扩增潜在的HBV DNA和人基因组DNA整合片段. 琼脂糖凝胶电泳观察PCR扩增产物片段,切取并纯化整合阳性的电泳条带,对纯化产物进行核酸测序,得到整合片段的核苷酸序列. 结果 经琼脂糖凝胶电泳检测,用Alu-PCR方法能够从PLC/PRF/5 细胞株中扩增得到4 条HBV DNA整合序列,经测序后与比对其中3条整合序列能够定位于人染色体03p21.31、05p15.33、12q13.12~q14.1. 结论 Alu-PCR可以准确测定肝细胞中HBV DNA的整合,为研究HBV DNA在肝细胞中的整合研究提供了一个简单、经济的方法.%Objective In this research with the method of Alu -PCR we investigate the integration of hepatitis B virus ( HBV) DNA in human hepatocarcinoma cell line (PLC/PRF/5) genome DNA.Methods We at first extracted the genome DNA from PLC/PRF/5 cells, and then the potential integration fragments of HBV DNA and human genome DNA were amplified with according to the Alu -PCR after three rounds PCR .The Alu-PCR amplification products were observated with agarose gel electrophoresis , then integration positive electrophoresis bandings were chipped and purified for nucleic acid sequencing .At last he bioinformatics information was acquired by blast online.Results Through agarose gel electrophoresis after Alu -PCR amplification, we got four potential integration bindings , among which we got three integration sequences of HBV DNA in human genome DNA .These integration sequences could be individually located in the human chromosome of 03p21.31, 05p15.33, 12q13 and 12-q14.1.Conclusion With Alu-PCR we can accurately measure the integration of HBV DNA in human genome DNA , and Alu-PCR can be a a convenience and economic method in the study of HBV DNA ′s integration in human genome

  4. Calcitonin Receptor AluI (rs1801197) and Taq1 Calcitonin Genes Polymorphism in 45-and Over 45-year-old Women and their Association with Bone Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghan, Morteza; Pourahmad-Jaktaji, Razieh; Farzaneh, Zarghampoor

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Calcitonin receptor gene has also a polymorphism which is associated with bone mass density. This study evaluates the association between calcitonin receptor AluI (rs1801197) and Taq1 calcitonin genes polymorphism with bone density rate. Methods: In this descriptive-analytical study in 2013 in southwestern Iran, 200 blood samples, per the Cochran sample size formula, were taken from women aged 45 and older. DNA was extracted from the samples using the phenol– chloroform method and the genomic fragments in question were proliferated using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. Results: The genotypic distribution of polymorphism AluI for TT, TC, and CC genotypes in control group was 31.4%, 38.6%, and 30% and in patients 25.4%, 55.4%, and 19.2%, respectively. There was no significant difference in polymorphism AluI between patients and control group and no significant association was found between this gene and bone density rate (P > 0.05). All patients and the individuals in the control group exhibited tt genotype for TaqI calcitonin gene and no significant association was found between these participants and osteoporosis. Conclusion: There was no association between two polymorphisms and osteoporosis, and between polymorphism of these two genes and osteoporosis development rate in the participants. PMID:27708484

  5. DETECTION OF STRAND BREAKS OF DNA IN HUMAN EARLY CHORIONIC VILLUS CELLS INDUCED BY DIAGNOSTIC ULTRASOUND USING 32p-LABELED ALU HYBRIDIZATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Caifeng; Li Xu; Zhang Yunjing

    2006-01-01

    Objective To explore if strand breaks of DNA in human early chorionic villus cells in uterus were induced by diagnostic ultrasound and to evaluate the method used for detection of single-stranded breaks and doublestranded breaks in human DNA. Methods 60 normal pregnant women aged 20-30, who underwent artificial abortion during 6-8 weeks of gestation, were randomly divided into 2 experimental groups: All 30 cases were exposed to diagnostic ultrasound in uterus for 10 minutes, and 24 hours later chorionic villi were extracted; the other 30 cases were taken as the control group. Single-stranded DNA and double-stranded DNA in villus cells in all cases were isolated by the alkaline unwinding combined with hydroxylapatite chromatography, and were quantitatively detected using32 P-labeled Alu probe for dot-blotting hybridization. Results There was no significant difference in quantity and percentage in single-stranded DNA and double-stranded DNA between 2 groups (P>0.05). 32 P-Alu probe could only hybridize with human DNA, and could detect DNA isolated from as few as 2.5 × 103 chorionic villus cells and 0.45 ng DNA in human leukocytes. Conclusion The results suggested that there were no DNA strand damages in human chorionic villus cells when the uterus was exposed to diagnostic ultrasound for 10 minutes. The method, 32P-Alu probe for dot-blotting hybridization, was even more specific, sensitive and accurate than conventional approaches.

  6. The Pentapeptide Repeat Proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vetting,M.; Hegde, S.; Fajardo, J.; Fiser, A.; Roderick, S.; Takiff, H.; Blanchard, J.

    2006-01-01

    The Pentapeptide Repeat Protein (PRP) family has over 500 members in the prokaryotic and eukaryotic kingdoms. These proteins are composed of, or contain domains composed of, tandemly repeated amino acid sequences with a consensus sequence of [S, T,A, V][D, N][L, F]-[S, T,R][G]. The biochemical function of the vast majority of PRP family members is unknown. The three-dimensional structure of the first member of the PRP family was determined for the fluoroquinolone resistance protein (MfpA) from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The structure revealed that the pentapeptide repeats encode the folding of a novel right-handed quadrilateral {beta}-helix. MfpA binds to DNA gyrase and inhibits its activity. The rod-shaped, dimeric protein exhibits remarkable size, shape and electrostatic similarity to DNA.

  7. Sill emplacement and corresponding ground deformation processes at the Alu-Dalafilla volcanic centre in the Danakil Depression, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magee, Craig; Bastow, Ian; Hetherington, Rachel; van Wyk de Vries, Ben; Jackson, Christopher

    2016-04-01

    A consensus has emerged from a variety of disciplines over the past 15 years that Quaternary magmatism in Ethiopia is almost entirely dominated by dike intrusion. Focused dike intrusion within 60 km long, 20 km wide, rift zones is considered to mark the present day locus of extension in Ethiopia, and represent the proto-ridge axis location of an incipient ocean spreading centre. However, it has been suggested on the strength of Moho depths and Quaternary eruptive volumes in northernmost Ethiopia, that the final transition from continental rifting to incipient oceanic spreading may instead be characterised by an abrupt, rheologically driven, late-phase of crustal thinning. Development of a sedimentary basin and mantle decompression melting occurring in the Danakil Depression, driven by this late-phase crustal thinning, should result in a markedly different style of magmatism in the upper crust: i.e. field observations, high-resolution seismic reflection studies, and experimental modelling suggest that interconnected networks of sill intrusions dominate in sedimentary basins. Here, we present the first evidence from the Danakil Depression that links surficial structures, observed at the Alu-Dalafilla volcanic centre, to the ongoing emplacement of an underlying sill. In particular, we use satellite imagery to examine a dome-shaped fold, associated fracture patterns, and surrounding lava flows, which we suggest likely formed in response to roof uplift above and extrusion from a saucer-shaped sill; i.e. a sub-horizontal inner sill encircled by an inward-dipping, transgressive inclined rim. InSAR observations by Pagli et al. (2012) of ground uplift and deflation occurring during the eruption of basaltic lava at Alu-Dalafilla in 2008 capture what we believe to be the first real-time evidence for intrusion-induced forced folding dynamics above a saucer-shaped sill. InSAR data further suggest that intrusion occurred at a depth of ~1 km, likely placing the sill within an

  8. Honesty through repeated interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Patricia; Zollman, Kevin J S

    2016-04-21

    In the study of signaling, it is well known that the cost of deception is an essential element for stable honest signaling in nature. In this paper, we show how costs for deception can arise endogenously from repeated interactions between individuals. Utilizing the Sir Philip Sidney game as an illustrative case, we show that repeated interactions can sustain honesty with no observable signal costs, even when deception cannot be directly observed. We provide a number of potential experimental tests for this theory which distinguish it from the available alternatives. PMID:26869213

  9. All-optical repeater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silberberg, Y

    1986-06-01

    An all-optical device containing saturable gain, saturable loss, and unsaturable loss is shown to transform weak, distorted optical pulses into uniform standard-shape pulses. The proposed device performs thresholding, amplification, and pulse shaping as required from an optical repeater. It is shown that such a device could be realized by existing semiconductor technology.

  10. Bidirectional Manchester repeater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, J.

    1980-01-01

    Bidirectional Manchester repeater is inserted at periodic intervals along single bidirectional twisted pair transmission line to detect, amplify, and transmit bidirectional Manchester 11 code signals. Requiring only 18 TTL 7400 series IC's, some line receivers and drivers, and handful of passive components, circuit is simple and relatively inexpensive to build.

  11. Modulation of LINE-1 and Alu/SVA Retrotransposition by Aicardi-Goutières Syndrome-Related SAMHD1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Zhao

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Long interspersed elements 1 (LINE-1 occupy at least 17% of the human genome and are its only active autonomous retrotransposons. However, the host factors that regulate LINE-1 retrotransposition are not fully understood. Here, we demonstrate that the Aicardi-Goutières syndrome gene product SAMHD1, recently revealed to be an inhibitor of HIV/simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV infectivity and neutralized by the viral Vpx protein, is also a potent regulator of LINE-1 and LINE-1-mediated Alu/SVA retrotransposition. We also found that mutant SAMHD1s of Aicardi-Goutières syndrome patients are defective in LINE-1 inhibition. Several domains of SAMHD1 are critical for LINE-1 regulation. SAMHD1 inhibits LINE-1 retrotransposition in dividing cells. An enzymatic active site mutant SAMHD1 maintained substantial anti-LINE-1 activity. SAMHD1 inhibits ORF2p-mediated LINE-1 reverse transcription in isolated LINE-1 ribonucleoproteins by reducing ORF2p level. Thus, SAMHD1 may be a cellular regulator of LINE-1 activity that is conserved in mammals.

  12. VLSI System Implementation of 200 MHz, 8-bit, 90nm CMOS Arithmetic and Logic Unit (ALU Processor Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fazal NOORBASHA

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this present study includes the Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI system implementation of 200MHz, 8-bit, 90nm Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS Arithmetic and Logic Unit (ALU processor control with logic gate design style and 0.12µm six metal 90nm CMOS fabrication technology. The system blocks and the behaviour are defined and the logical design is implemented in gate level in the design phase. Then, the logic circuits are simulated and the subunits are converted in to 90nm CMOS layout. Finally, in order to construct the VLSI system these units are placed in the floor plan and simulated with analog and digital, logic and switch level simulators. The results of the simulations indicates that the VLSI system can control different instructions which can divided into sub groups: transfer instructions, arithmetic and logic instructions, rotate and shift instructions, branch instructions, input/output instructions, control instructions. The data bus of the system is 16-bit. It runs at 200MHz, and operating power is 1.2V. In this paper, the parametric analysis of the system, the design steps and obtained results are explained.

  13. Duct Leakage Repeatability Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Iain [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sherman, Max [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Duct leakage often needs to be measured to demonstrate compliance with requirements or to determine energy or Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) impacts. Testing is often done using standards such as ASTM E1554 (ASTM 2013) or California Title 24 (California Energy Commission 2013 & 2013b), but there are several choices of methods available within the accepted standards. Determining which method to use or not use requires an evaluation of those methods in the context of the particular needs. Three factors that are important considerations are the cost of the measurement, the accuracy of the measurement and the repeatability of the measurement. The purpose of this report is to evaluate the repeatability of the three most significant measurement techniques using data from the literature and recently obtained field data. We will also briefly discuss the first two factors. The main question to be answered by this study is to determine if differences in the repeatability of these tests methods is sufficient to indicate that any of these methods is so poor that it should be excluded from consideration as an allowed procedure in codes and standards.

  14. Coordinated hybrid automatic repeat request

    KAUST Repository

    Makki, Behrooz

    2014-11-01

    We develop a coordinated hybrid automatic repeat request (HARQ) approach. With the proposed scheme, if a user message is correctly decoded in the first HARQ rounds, its spectrum is allocated to other users, to improve the network outage probability and the users\\' fairness. The results, which are obtained for single- and multiple-antenna setups, demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed approach in different conditions. For instance, with a maximum of M retransmissions and single transmit/receive antennas, the diversity gain of a user increases from M to (J+1)(M-1)+1 where J is the number of users helping that user.

  15. A Complete and Accurate Ab Initio Repeat Finding Algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Shuaibin; Chen, Xinwu; Wang, Peng; Zhang, Xiaoli; Dai, Xianhua

    2016-03-01

    It has become clear that repetitive sequences have played multiple roles in eukaryotic genome evolution including increasing genetic diversity through mutation, changes in gene expression and facilitating generation of novel genes. However, identification of repetitive elements can be difficult in the ab initio manner. Currently, some classical ab initio tools of finding repeats have already presented and compared. The completeness and accuracy of detecting repeats of them are little pool. To this end, we proposed a new ab initio repeat finding tool, named HashRepeatFinder, which is based on hash index and word counting. Furthermore, we assessed the performances of HashRepeatFinder with other two famous tools, such as RepeatScout and Repeatfinder, in human genome data hg19. The results indicated the following three conclusions: (1) The completeness of HashRepeatFinder is the best one among these three compared tools in almost all chromosomes, especially in chr9 (8 times of RepeatScout, 10 times of Repeatfinder); (2) in terms of detecting large repeats, HashRepeatFinder also performed best in all chromosomes, especially in chr3 (24 times of RepeatScout and 250 times of Repeatfinder) and chr19 (12 times of RepeatScout and 60 times of Repeatfinder); (3) in terms of accuracy, HashRepeatFinder can merge the abundant repeats with high accuracy. PMID:26272474

  16. Erroneous Memories Arising from Repeated Attempts to Remember

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henkel, Linda A.

    2004-01-01

    The impact of repeated and prolonged attempts at remembering on false memory rates was assessed in three experiments. Participants saw and imagined pictures and then made repeated recall attempts before taking a source memory test. Although the number of items recalled increased with repeated tests, the net gains were associated with more source…

  17. Divergence of satellite DNA and interspersion of dispersed repeats in the genome of the wild beet Beta procumbens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dechyeva, Daryna; Gindullis, Frank; Schmidt, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    Several repetitive sequences of the genome of Beta procumbens Chr. Sm., a wild beet species of the section Procumbentes of the genus Beta have been isolated. According to their genomic organization, the repeats were assigned to satellite DNA and families of dispersed DNA sequences. The tandem repeats are 229-246 bp long and belong to an AluI restriction satellite designated pAp11. Monomers of this satellite DNA form subfamilies which can be distinguished by the divergence or methylation of an internal restriction site. The satellite is amplified in the section Procumbentes, but is also found in species of the section Beta including cultivated beet (Beta vulgaris). The existence of the pAp11 satellite in distantly related species suggests that the AluI sequence family is an ancient component of Beta genomes and the ancestor of the diverged satellite subfamily pEV4 in B. vulgaris. Comparative fluorescent in-situ hybridization revealed remarkable differences in the chromosomal position between B. procumbens and B. vulgaris, indicating that the pAp11 and pEV4 satellites were most likely involved in the expansion or rearrangement of the intercalary B. vulgaris heterochromatin. Furthermore, we describe the molecular structure, and genomic and chromosomal organization of two repetitive DNA families which were designated pAp4 and pAp22 and are 1354 and 582 bp long, respectively. The families consist of sequence elements which are widely dispersed along B. procumbens chromosomes with local clustering and exclusion from distal euchromatic regions. FISH on meiotic chromosomes showed that both dispersed repeats are colocalized in some chromosomal regions. The interspersion of repeats of the pAp4 and pAp22 family was studied by PCR and enabled the determination of repeat flanking sequences. Sequence analysis revealed that pAp22 is either derived from or part of a long terminal repeat (LTR) of an Athila-like retrotransposon. Southern analysis and FISH with pAp4 and pAp22 showed

  18. Polymorphic Alu insertions and their associations with HLA Ⅰ alleles in Yugu and Zhuang ethnic populations%中国壮族和裕固族群体HLAⅠ类区域Alu插入多态性及其与HLA-A位点的相关性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史磊; 杨昭庆; 褚嘉祐; 姚宇峰; 史荔; 陶玉芬; 于亮; 黄小琴; 林克勤; 易文; 孙浩

    2011-01-01

    Many studies have show that the structurally polymorphic Alu insertion within HLA class I region are useful tools for investigating the origin, evolmion and recombination of HLA class Ⅰ progenitor haplotypes and gene diversity in different ethnic populations.In the present study, we determined the frequencies of HLA-Alus (i.e., AluMICB, AluTF,AluHJ, AluHG, and AluHF) in Zhuang and Yugu ethnic populations at first.Then combined with HLA genotyping data.we studied associations between HLA-Alus and HLA-A alleles in Zhuang, Yugu Bulang, Dai, and Hani ethnic populations.Our results showed that (l) the frequencies of five HLA-Alus were 1.5%~ 35.8% and 9.2%~34.8% in Zhuang and Yugu, respectively: and (2) the results of association between HLA-A alleles and HLA-Alu showed strong association between AluHG insalion and HLA-A *02 subtypes in all populations, association between AluHJ insertion and HLA-A *2402 in all populations, and association between AluHJ inseflion and HLA-A V/O/, -A *2407 in Bulang.The present study suggested that the distribution of HLA-Alus as well as the associations between HLA-Alus and HLA class I alleles are variable in different ethnic populations.HLA Alus alone or together with the HLA classⅠ alieles are informative genetic markers for the identification of HLA class I allele and variation of haplotype lineages in different populations.%近年来研究发现:位于HLAⅠ类基因区域的Alu插入是研究不同群体HLAⅠ类基因区域祖先单倍型和HLAⅠ类基因多样性产生、进化和重组的理想工具.文章对中国壮族和裕固族群体HLAⅠ类基因区域5个Alu插入多态性(AluMICB、AluTF、AluHJ、AluHG和AluHF)进行研究,结合HLA基因分型数据,分析壮族、裕固族、哈尼族、布朗族和傣族5个民族群体中Alu插入与HLA-A等位基因的关系.研究结果显示:(1)壮族和裕固族人群中5个Alu插入频率范围分别为1.5%~35.8%和9.2~34.8%,AluMICB、AluTF和Alu,HF插入

  19. Correlation between GH gene polymorphism of the 5th exon Alu Ⅰ site and early growth traits in Xinjiang Brown Cattle%新疆褐牛GH基因第5外显子Alu Ⅰ位点多态性与早期生长性状的相关性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛志刚; 史洪才; 刘明军; 周振勇; 张扬

    2012-01-01

    [目的]探讨生长激素(CH)基因对新疆褐牛早期生长性能的影响,为新疆褐牛选育提高奠定分子遗传基础.[方法]以116头份新疆褐牛血样为研究对象,利用PCR-RFLP技术检测CH基因第5外显子上Alu Ⅰ突变位点(CH/Alu Ⅰ位点)的多态性,并分析不同基因型与新疆褐牛早期生长性状的相关性.[结果]GH/Alu Ⅰ位点在新疆褐牛群体中表现为VV、LV和LL3种基因型,其基因频率分别为0.138、0.397和0.465;新疆褐牛GH/Alu Ⅰ位点的杂合度为0.4408,多态信息含量为0.3437;不同基因型与早期生长发育性状的关系为:1~4月龄的LV和LL基因型个体体重、体长均较VV基因型个体的优,且差异显著(P<0.05),而出生体重、5~6月龄体重、体长差异不显著(P>0.05).[结论]GH/Alu Ⅰ位点的L等位基因对新疆褐牛早期生长发育性状有正向选择作用,可作为新疆褐牛辅助选择的遗传标记.%[Objective]Effects of GH gene on early growth traits of Xinjiang Brown Cattle were investigatool in order to provide molecular genetic information for breeding Xinjiang Brown Cattle. [ Method ]Blood samples of total 116 Xinjiang Brown Cattle were collected to detect polymorphism of Alu I mutational site on 5th exon of CH using PCR-RFLP method. Correlation between genotype polymorphism and early growth traits was also assayed. [ Result ]GH/Alu I site was expressed in Xinjiang Brown Cattle as VV, LV, LL genetype with gene frequencies 0.138, 0.397 and 0.465, respectively. Helernzygosity and polymorphic information of GH/Alu I were 0.4408 and 0.3437, respectively. Relations between various genotypes and early growth traits were as follows: for I -4 months old cattle, body weight and length of LV and LL genotypes were superior to VV genotype, and the difference was significant (P<0.05). However, no significant differences were observed in VV, LV, LL genotypes for birth weight and body weight and length of 5-6 months old cattle. [Conclusion

  20. Microlunatus cavernae sp. nov., a novel actinobacterium isolated from Alu ancient cave, Yunnan, South-West China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Juan; Chen, Wei; Huo-Zhang, Bing; Nimaichand, Salam; Zhou, En-Min; Lu, Xin-Hua; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Li, Wen-Jun

    2013-07-01

    A Gram-positive, coccoid, non-endospore-forming actinobacterium, designated YIM C01117(T), was isolated from a soil sample collected from Alu ancient cave, Yunnan province, south-west China. Based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain YIM C01117(T) was shown to belong to the genus Microlunatus, with highest sequence similarity of 97.4 % to Microlunatus soli DSM 21800(T). The whole genomic DNA relatedness as shown by the DNA-DNA hybridization study between YIM C01117(T) and M. soli DSM 21800(T) had a low value (47 ± 2 %). Strain YIM C01117(T) was determined to contain LL-diaminopimelic acid with Gly, Glu and Ala amino acids (A3γ' type) in the cell wall. Whole-cell hydrolysates were found to contain glucose, galactose, mannose and ribose. The major polar lipids were determined to be phosphatidylglycerol and diphosphatidylglycerol. The predominant menaquinone system present is MK-9(H4), while the major fatty acids were identified to be anteiso-C15:0 (24.1 %), iso-C16:0 (22.3 %) and iso-C15:0 (11.4 %). The G+C content of the genomic DNA was determined to be 65.9 mol%. The chemotaxonomic and genotypic data support the affiliation of the strain YIM C01117(T) to the genus Microlunatus. The results of physiological and biochemical tests allow strain YIM C01117(T) to be differentiated phenotypically from recognized Microlunatus species. Strain YIM C01117(T) is therefore considered to represent a novel species of the genus Microlunatus, for which the name Microlunatus cavernae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is YIM C01117(T) (= DSM 26248(T) = JCM 18536(T)).

  1. A novel web-based TinT application and the chronology of the Primate Alu retroposon activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makałowski Wojciech

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background DNA sequences afford access to the evolutionary pathways of life. Particularly mobile elements that constantly co-evolve in genomes encrypt recent and ancient information of their host's history. In mammals there is an extraordinarily abundant activity of mobile elements that occurs in a dynamic succession of active families, subfamilies, types, and subtypes of retroposed elements. The high frequency of retroposons in mammals implies that, by chance, such elements also insert into each other. While inactive elements are no longer able to retropose, active elements retropose by chance into other active and inactive elements. Thousands of such directional, element-in-element insertions are found in present-day genomes. To help analyze these events, we developed a computational algorithm (Transpositions in Transpositions, or TinT that examines the different frequencies of nested transpositions and reconstructs the chronological order of retroposon activities. Results By examining the different frequencies of such nested transpositions, the TinT application reconstructs the chronological order of retroposon activities. We use such activity patterns as a comparative tool to (1 delineate the historical rise and fall of retroposons and their relations to each other, (2 understand the retroposon-induced complexity of recent genomes, and (3 find selective informative homoplasy-free markers of phylogeny. The efficiency of the new application is demonstrated by applying it to dimeric Alu Short INterspersed Elements (SINE to derive a complete chronology of such elements in primates. Conclusion The user-friendly, web-based TinT interface presented here affords an easy, automated screening for nested transpositions from genome assemblies or trace data, assembles them in a frequency-matrix, and schematically displays their chronological activity history.

  2. Wilson's disease caused by alternative splicing and Alu exonization due to a homozygous 3039-bp deletion spanning from intron 1 to exon 2 of the ATP7B gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mameli, Eva; Lepori, Maria Barbara; Chiappe, Francesca; Ranucci, Giusy; Di Dato, Fabiola; Iorio, Raffaele; Loudianos, Georgios

    2015-09-15

    We describe a case of Wilson's disease (WD) diagnosed at 5 years after routine biochemical test showed increased aminotransferases. Mutation analysis of the ATP7B gene revealed a 3039-bp deletion in the homozygous state spanning from the terminal part of intron 1 to nt position 368 of exon 2. This deletion results in the activation of 3 cryptic splice sites: an AG acceptor splice site in nt positions 578-579 producing a different breakpoint and removing the first 577 nts of exon 2, an acceptor and a donor splice site in nt positions 20363-4 and 20456-7, respectively, in intron 1, resulting in the activation of a 94-bp cryptic Alu exon being incorporated into the mature transcript. The resulting alternative transcript contains a TAG stop codon in the first amino acid position of the cryptic exon, likely producing a truncated, non-functional protein. This study shows that intron exonization can also occur in humans through naturally occurring gross deletions. The results suggest that the combination of DNA and RNA analyses can be used for molecular characterization of gross ATP7B deletions, thus improving genetic counseling and diagnosis of WD. Moreover these studies help to better establish new molecular mechanisms producing Wilson's disease.

  3. Role of DNA Polymerases in Repeat-Mediated Genome Instability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kartik A. Shah

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Expansions of simple DNA repeats cause numerous hereditary diseases in humans. We analyzed the role of DNA polymerases in the instability of Friedreich’s ataxia (GAAn repeats in a yeast experimental system. The elementary step of expansion corresponded to ∼160 bp in the wild-type strain, matching the size of Okazaki fragments in yeast. This step increased when DNA polymerase α was mutated, suggesting a link between the scale of expansions and Okazaki fragment size. Expandable repeats strongly elevated the rate of mutations at substantial distances around them, a phenomenon we call repeat-induced mutagenesis (RIM. Notably, defects in the replicative DNA polymerases δ and ∊ strongly increased rates for both repeat expansions and RIM. The increases in repeat-mediated instability observed in DNA polymerase δ mutants depended on translesion DNA polymerases. We conclude that repeat expansions and RIM are two sides of the same replicative mechanism.

  4. Duct Leakage Repeatability Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Iain [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sherman, Max [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this report is to evaluate the repeatability of the three most significant measurement techniques for duct leakage using data from the literature and recently obtained field data. We will also briefly discuss the first two factors. The main question to be answered by this study is to determine if differences in the repeatability of these tests methods is sufficient to indicate that any of these methods is so poor that it should be excluded from consideration as an allowed procedure in codes and standards. The three duct leak measurement methods assessed in this report are the two duct pressurization methods that are commonly used by many practitioners and the DeltaQ technique. These are methods B, C and A, respectively of the ASTM E1554 standard. Although it would be useful to evaluate other duct leak test methods, this study focused on those test methods that are commonly used and are required in various test standards, such as BPI (2010), RESNET (2014), ASHRAE 62.2 (2013), California Title 24 (CEC 2012), DOE Weatherization and many other energy efficiency programs.

  5. Repeat Customer Success in Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bess, Melissa M.; Traub, Sarah M.

    2013-01-01

    Four multi-session research-based programs were offered by two Extension specialist in one rural Missouri county. Eleven participants who came to multiple Extension programs could be called "repeat customers." Based on the total number of participants for all four programs, 25% could be deemed as repeat customers. Repeat customers had…

  6. Feedback inhibition of L1 and alu retrotransposition through altered double strand break repair kinetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wallace Nicholas A

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cells adapt to various chronic toxic exposures in a multitude of ways to minimize further damage and maximize their growth potential. Expression of L1 elements in the human genome can be greatly deleterious to cells, generating numerous double strand breaks (DSBs. Cells have been reported to respond to chronic DSBs by altering the repair of these breaks, including increasing the rate of homology independent DSB repair. Retrotransposition is strongly affected by proteins involved in DSB repair. Therefore, L1 expression has the potential to be a source of chronic DSBs and thus bring about the changes in cellular environment that could ultimately restrict its own retrotransposition. Results We demonstrate that constitutive L1 expression leads to quicker DSB repair and decreases in the retrotransposition potential of L1 and other retrotransposons dependent on L1 expression for their mobility. This cellular adaptation results in reduced sensitivity to L1 induced toxicity. These effects can be induced by constitutive expression of the functional L1 ORF2 alone, but not by the constitutive expression of an L1 open reading frame 2 with mutations to its endonuclease and reverse transcriptase domains. This adaptation correlates with the relative activity of the L1 introduced into the cells. Conclusions The increased number of DSBs resulting from constitutive expression of L1 results in a more rapid rate of repair. The cellular response to this L1 expression also results in attenuation of retrotransposition and reduced sensitivity of the cells to negative consequences of L1 ORF2 expression. The influence does not appear to be through RNA interference. We believe that the increased rate of DSB repair is the most likely cause of the attenuation of retrotransposition. These alterations act as a fail safe mechanism that allows cells to escape the toxicity associated with the unchecked L1 expression. This gives cells that overexpress L1, such

  7. Growth and carcass traits associated with GH1/Alu I and POU1F1/Hinf I gene polymorphisms in Zebu and crossbred beef cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério A. Curi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the present study were to estimate the allele and genotype frequencies of the GH1/Alu I and POU1F1/Hinf I polymorphisms in beef cattle belonging to different genetic groups and to determine the effects of these polymorphisms on growth and carcass traits in cattle submitted to feedlot management, an intensive production model. Genotyping was performed on 384 animals, including 79 Nellore, 30 Canchim (5/8 Charolais + 3/8 Zebu, 30 Simmental x Nellore crossbred and 245 Angus x Nellore crossbred cattle. Body weight, weight gain, dressing percentage, Longissimus dorsi area and backfat thickness were fitted using the General Linear Model (GLM procedure of the SAS program and the least square means of the genotypes were compared using the F test. The results showed significant associations between the LL genotype of the GH1/Alu I polymorphism and higher weight gain and body weight at slaughter (p < 0.05. The POU1F1/Hinf I polymorphism did not have any effect on the growth and carcass traits analyzed.

  8. The Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Insertion/Deletion polymorphism is not associated with an increased risk of death or bronchopulmonary dysplasia in ventilated very low birth weight infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baier R John

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ACE gene contains a polymorphism consisting of either the presence (insertion, I or absence (deletion, D of a 287 bp alu repeat in intron 16. The D allele is associated with increased ACE activity in both tissue and plasma. The DD genotype is associated with risk of developing ARDS and mortality. The frequency of the D allele is higher in patients with pulmonary fibrosis, sarcoidosis and berylliosis. The role of this polymorphism has not been studied in the development of BPD in the premature newborn. Methods ACE I/D genotype was determined in 245 (194 African-American, 47 Caucasian and 4 Hispanic mechanically ventilated infants weighing less than 1250 grams at birth and compared to outcome (death and/or development of BPD. Results The incidence of the D allele in the study population was 0.58. Eighty-eight (35.9% infants were homozygous DD, 107 (43.7% were heterozygous ID and 50 (20.4% were homozygous II. There were no significant differences between genotype groups with respect to ethnic origin, birth weight, gestation, or gender. There was no effect of the ACE I/D polymorphism on mortality or development of BPD (O2 on 28 days or 36 weeks PCA. Secondary outcomes (intraventricular hemorrhage and periventricular leukomalacia similarly were not influenced by the ACE ID polymorphism. Conclusions The ACE I/D polymorphism does not significantly influence the development of BPD in ventilated infants less than 1250 grams.

  9. Quality control during repeated fryings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuesta, C.

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available Most of the debate ¡s about how the slow or frequent turnover of fresh fat affects the deterioration, of fat used in frying. Then, the modification of different oils used in repeated fryings of potatoes without or with turnover of fresh oil, under similar frying conditions, was evaluated by two criteria: by measuring the total polar component isolated by column chromatography and by the evaluation of the specific compounds related to thermoxidative and hydrolytic alteration by High Performance Size Exclusion Chromatography (HPSEC. The results indicate that with frequent turnover of fresh oil, the critical level of 25% of polar material is rarely reached, and there are fewer problems with fat deterioration because the frying tended to increase the level of polar material and thermoxidative compounds (polymers and dimers of triglycerides and oxidized triglycerides in the fryer oil during the first fryings, followed by minor changes and a tendency to reach a near-steady state in successive fryings. However, in repeated frying of potatoes using a null turnover the alteration rate was higher being linear the relationship found between polar material or the different thermoxidative compounds and the number of fryings. On the other hand chemical reactions produced during deep-fat frying can be minimized by using proper oils. In addition the increased level of consumers awareness toward fat composition and its impact on human health could had an impact on the selection of fats for snacks and for industry. In this way monoenic fats are the most adequate from a nutritional point of view and for its oxidative stability during frying.

  10. DWI Repeaters and Non-Repeaters: A Comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeber, Stan

    1981-01-01

    Discussed how driving-while-intoxicated (DWI) repeaters differed signigicantly from nonrepeaters on 4 of 23 variables tested. Repeaters were more likely to have zero or two dependent children, attend church frequently, drink occasionally and have one or more arrests for public intoxication. (Author)

  11. To Repeat or Not to Repeat a Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Michael J.; Biktimirov, Ernest N.

    2013-01-01

    The difficult transition from high school to university means that many students need to repeat (retake) 1 or more of their university courses. The authors examine the performance of students repeating first-year core courses in an undergraduate business program. They used data from university records for 116 students who took a total of 232…

  12. 78 FR 65594 - Vehicular Repeaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    ... Proceedings, 63 FR 24121 (May 1, 1998). Electronic Filers: Comments may be filed electronically using the... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 90 Vehicular Repeaters AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Proposed... the Commission's rules to allow the licensing and operation of vehicular repeater systems and...

  13. Nifty Nines and Repeating Decimals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Scott A.

    2016-01-01

    The traditional technique for converting repeating decimals to common fractions can be found in nearly every algebra textbook that has been published, as well as in many precalculus texts. However, students generally encounter repeating decimal numerals earlier than high school when they study rational numbers in prealgebra classes. Therefore, how…

  14. All-photonic quantum repeaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azuma, Koji; Tamaki, Kiyoshi; Lo, Hoi-Kwong

    2015-01-01

    Quantum communication holds promise for unconditionally secure transmission of secret messages and faithful transfer of unknown quantum states. Photons appear to be the medium of choice for quantum communication. Owing to photon losses, robust quantum communication over long lossy channels requires quantum repeaters. It is widely believed that a necessary and highly demanding requirement for quantum repeaters is the existence of matter quantum memories. Here we show that such a requirement is, in fact, unnecessary by introducing the concept of all-photonic quantum repeaters based on flying qubits. In particular, we present a protocol based on photonic cluster-state machine guns and a loss-tolerant measurement equipped with local high-speed active feedforwards. We show that, with such all-photonic quantum repeaters, the communication efficiency scales polynomially with the channel distance. Our result paves a new route towards quantum repeaters with efficient single-photon sources rather than matter quantum memories. PMID:25873153

  15. Design and implementation of ALU and shifter in X-DSP%X-DSP ALU与移位部件的设计与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭元喜; 邹佳骏

    2010-01-01

    针对DSP CPU的算术运算逻辑单元(ALU)与移位部件在性能、功耗与面积上面临的挑战,研究了X型DSP的CPU体系结构,在对X型DSP ALU部件和移位器部件相关指令进行归类分析的基础上,设计实现了ALU部件和移位器部件.采用Design Compiler综合工具,基于SMIC公司0.13μm CMOS工艺库对ALU移位部件进行了逻辑综合,电路功耗共为4.2821mW,电路面积为71042.9804μm2,工作频率达到250MHz.

  16. 32位同时多线程微处理器的ALU设计%Design of ALU of 32-bit simultaneous multithreading processor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘权胜; 杨洪斌; 吴悦

    2008-01-01

    针对传统ALU存在较大硬件资源浪费的缺点,提出了一种指令执行并行度宽,资源利用率高的同时多线程ALU.同时多线程ALU由7个并行的部件组成.每个部件高效的执行两个线程的指令.这种由7个部分组成的分布式ALU提高了指令并行执行的宽度,大大降低了水平浪费和垂直浪费.对微处理器ALU进行功能验证与仿真,并用综合工具完成逻辑综合.

  17. Repeat Gamma Knife Radiosurgery for Trigeminal Neuralgia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Repeat gamma knife stereotactic radiosurgery (GKRS) for recurrent or persistent trigeminal neuralgia induces an additional response but at the expense of an increased incidence of facial numbness. The present series summarized the results of a repeat treatment series at Wake Forest University Baptist Medical Center, including a multivariate analysis of the data to identify the prognostic factors for treatment success and toxicity. Methods and Materials: Between January 1999 and December 2007, 37 patients underwent a second GKRS application because of treatment failure after a first GKRS treatment. The mean initial dose in the series was 87.3 Gy (range, 80–90). The mean retreatment dose was 84.4 Gy (range, 60–90). The dosimetric variables recorded included the dorsal root entry zone dose, pons surface dose, and dose to the distal nerve. Results: Of the 37 patients, 81% achieved a >50% pain relief response to repeat GKRS, and 57% experienced some form of trigeminal dysfunction after repeat GKRS. Two patients (5%) experienced clinically significant toxicity: one with bothersome numbness and one with corneal dryness requiring tarsorraphy. A dorsal root entry zone dose at repeat treatment of >26.6 Gy predicted for treatment success (61% vs. 32%, p = .0716). A cumulative dorsal root entry zone dose of >84.3 Gy (72% vs. 44%, p = .091) and a cumulative pons surface dose of >108.5 Gy (78% vs. 44%, p = .018) predicted for post-GKRS numbness. The presence of any post-GKRS numbness predicted for a >50% decrease in pain intensity (100% vs. 60%, p = .0015). Conclusion: Repeat GKRS is a viable treatment option for recurrent trigeminal neuralgia, although the patient assumes a greater risk of nerve dysfunction to achieve maximal pain relief.

  18. Repeat Gamma Knife Radiosurgery for Trigeminal Neuralgia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aubuchon, Adam C., E-mail: acaubuchon@gmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); Chan, Michael D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); Lovato, James F. [Department of Public Health Sciences, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); Balamucki, Christopher J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Ellis, Thomas L.; Tatter, Stephen B. [Department of Neurosurgery, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); McMullen, Kevin P.; Munley, Michael T.; Deguzman, Allan F.; Ekstrand, Kenneth E.; Bourland, J. Daniel; Shaw, Edward G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States)

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: Repeat gamma knife stereotactic radiosurgery (GKRS) for recurrent or persistent trigeminal neuralgia induces an additional response but at the expense of an increased incidence of facial numbness. The present series summarized the results of a repeat treatment series at Wake Forest University Baptist Medical Center, including a multivariate analysis of the data to identify the prognostic factors for treatment success and toxicity. Methods and Materials: Between January 1999 and December 2007, 37 patients underwent a second GKRS application because of treatment failure after a first GKRS treatment. The mean initial dose in the series was 87.3 Gy (range, 80-90). The mean retreatment dose was 84.4 Gy (range, 60-90). The dosimetric variables recorded included the dorsal root entry zone dose, pons surface dose, and dose to the distal nerve. Results: Of the 37 patients, 81% achieved a >50% pain relief response to repeat GKRS, and 57% experienced some form of trigeminal dysfunction after repeat GKRS. Two patients (5%) experienced clinically significant toxicity: one with bothersome numbness and one with corneal dryness requiring tarsorraphy. A dorsal root entry zone dose at repeat treatment of >26.6 Gy predicted for treatment success (61% vs. 32%, p = .0716). A cumulative dorsal root entry zone dose of >84.3 Gy (72% vs. 44%, p = .091) and a cumulative pons surface dose of >108.5 Gy (78% vs. 44%, p = .018) predicted for post-GKRS numbness. The presence of any post-GKRS numbness predicted for a >50% decrease in pain intensity (100% vs. 60%, p = .0015). Conclusion: Repeat GKRS is a viable treatment option for recurrent trigeminal neuralgia, although the patient assumes a greater risk of nerve dysfunction to achieve maximal pain relief.

  19. Survey of simple sequence repeats in woodland strawberry (Fragaria vesca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, L; Huang, J F; Feng, G Q; Wang, X W; Wang, Y; Chen, B Y; Qiao, Y S

    2013-07-30

    The use of simple sequence repeats (SSRs), or microsatellites, as genetic markers has become popular due to their abundance and variation in length among individuals. In this study, we investigated linkage groups (LGs) in the woodland strawberry (Fragaria vesca) and demonstrated variation in the abundances, densities, and relative densities of mononucleotide, dinucleotide, and trinucleotide repeats. Mononucleotide, dinucleotide, and trinucleotide repeats were more common than longer repeats in all LGs examined. Perfect SSRs were the predominant SSR type found and their abundance was extremely stable among LGs and chloroplasts. Abundances of mononucleotide, dinucleotide, and trinucleotide repeats were positively correlated with LG size, whereas those of tetranucleotide and hexanucleotide SSRs were not. Generally, in each LG, the abundance, relative abundance, relative density, and the proportion of each unique SSR all declined rapidly as the repeated unit increased. Furthermore, the lengths and frequencies of SSRs varied among different LGs.

  20. An Expanded CAG Repeat in Huntingtin Causes +1 Frameshifting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffert, Paul; Adamla, Frauke; Schieweck, Rico; Atkins, John F; Ignatova, Zoya

    2016-08-26

    Maintenance of triplet decoding is crucial for the expression of functional protein because deviations either into the -1 or +1 reading frames are often non-functional. We report here that expression of huntingtin (Htt) exon 1 with expanded CAG repeats, implicated in Huntington pathology, undergoes a sporadic +1 frameshift to generate from the CAG repeat a trans-frame AGC repeat-encoded product. This +1 recoding is exclusively detected in pathological Htt variants, i.e. those with expanded repeats with more than 35 consecutive CAG codons. An atypical +1 shift site, UUC C at the 5' end of CAG repeats, which has some resemblance to the influenza A virus shift site, triggers the +1 frameshifting and is enhanced by the increased propensity of the expanded CAG repeats to form a stem-loop structure. The +1 trans-frame-encoded product can directly influence the aggregation of the parental Htt exon 1. PMID:27382061

  1. Repeated extraction of DNA from FTA cards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stangegaard, Michael; Ferrero, Laura; Børsting, Claus;

    2011-01-01

    Extraction of DNA using magnetic bead based techniques on automated DNA extraction instruments provides a fast, reliable and reproducible method for DNA extraction from various matrices. However, the yield of extracted DNA from FTA-cards is typically low. Here, we demonstrate that it is possible...... to repeatedly extract DNA from the processed FTA-disk. The method increases the yield from the nanogram range to the microgram range....

  2. Aging and Repeated Thought Suppression Success

    OpenAIRE

    Ann E Lambert; Smyth, Frederick L.; Jessica R Beadel; Teachman, Bethany A.

    2013-01-01

    Intrusive thoughts and attempts to suppress them are common, but while suppression may be effective in the short-term, it can increase thought recurrence in the long-term. Because intentional suppression involves controlled processing, and many aspects of controlled processing decline with age, age differences in thought suppression outcomes may emerge, especially over repeated thought suppression attempts as cognitive resources are expended. Using multilevel modeling, we examined age differe...

  3. Repeated extraction of DNA from FTA cards

    OpenAIRE

    Stangegaard, Michael; Ferrero, Laura; Børsting, Claus; Frank-Hansen, Rune; Hansen, Anders Johannes; Morling, Niels

    2011-01-01

    Extraction of DNA using magnetic bead based techniques on automated DNA extraction instruments provides a fast, reliable and reproducible method for DNA extraction from various matrices. However, the yield of extracted DNA from FTA-cards is typically low. Here, we demonstrate that it is possible to repeatedly extract DNA from the processed FTA-disk. The method increases the yield from the nanogram range to the microgram range.

  4. Repeated Optional Gambles and Risk Aversion

    OpenAIRE

    Christian Gollier

    1996-01-01

    We analyze in this paper the effect of age on the optimal dynamic strategy toward repeated independent gambles. When deciding to accept or to reject a lottery that is offered today, the gambler knows how many lotteries can yet be played in the future. We first characterize the optimal dynamic strategy when future lotteries are identically distributed. We show that the existence of future lotteries always increases the willingness to gamble today. When the sequence of lotteries is independent ...

  5. Intragenic tandem repeat variation between Legionella pneumophila strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarraud Sophie

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacterial genomes harbour a large number of tandem repeats, yet the possible phenotypic effects of those found within the coding region of genes are only beginning to be examined. Evidence exists from other organisms that these repeats can be involved in the evolution of new genes, gene regulation, adaptation, resistance to environmental stresses, and avoidance of the immune system. Results In this study, we have investigated the presence and variability in copy number of intragenic tandemly repeated sequences in the genome of Legionella pneumophila, the etiological agent of a severe pneumonia known as Legionnaires' disease. Within the genome of the Philadelphia strain, we have identified 26 intragenic tandem repeat sequences using conservative selection criteria. Of these, seven were "polymorphic" in terms of repeat copy number between a large number of L. pneumophila serogroup 1 strains. These strains were collected from a wide variety of environments and patients in several geographical regions. Within this panel of strains, all but one of these seven genes exhibited statistically different patterns in repeat copy number between samples from different origins (environmental, clinical, and hot springs. Conclusion These results support the hypothesis that intragenic tandem repeats could play a role in virulence and adaptation to different environments. While tandem repeats are an increasingly popular focus of molecular typing studies in prokaryotes, including in L. pneumophila, this study is the first examining the difference in tandem repeat distribution as a function of clinical or environmental origin.

  6. 血清游离DNA甲基化检测对胶质瘤的意义%Detection of serum Alu element hypomethylation for the diagnosis and prognosis of glioma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚铭杰; 陈建; 戚菁; 施金龙; 夏亮; 施炜

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investige the roles of measuring hypomethylation of serum Alu elements (Alu) in glima.Methods Tumor tissues and matched serum specimens from 65 glioma patients and serum samples from 30 healthy controls were examined for Alu hypomethylation by bisulfite sequencing.Results The median serum Alu methylation level was 47.30% in patients [interquartile range (IQR),(35.40 ± 54.25) %] and 57.90% in the controls [IQR,(55.25 ± 61.45) %].The median Alu methylation level in tumor samples was 40.30% [IQR,(36.80 ± 54.20) %],which showed the correlation of Alu hypomethylation between tumor and serum samples (r =0.882) in the study group.The methylation level was higher in the low-grade glioma group than in the high-grade group in tumor and serum samples.A correlation between high methylation level and longer survival time was detected in tumor and serum samples.Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis revealed that the area-under-the-curve (AUC) for diagnosis was 0.861 (95% confidence interval:0.789 ± 0.933),suggesting that Alu hypomethylation in serum may be of diagnostic value.Conclusion Our results indicate that the detection of Alu hypomethylation in serum may be clinically useful for the diagnosis and prognosis of glioma.%目的 探讨血清游离DNA甲基化水平检测对胶质瘤的意义.方法 采用亚硫酸氢盐测序(BSP)法检测65例胶质瘤患者血清、组织和30例正常血清Alu甲基化水平并进行分析.结果 患者血清中Alu平均甲基化水平为47.30%[(35.40±54.25)%],正常血清是57.90%[(55.25±61.45)%,P<0.01];肿瘤组织Alu平均甲基化水平为40.30%[(36.80±54.20)%],与血清中一致(r=0.882);另外,高级别组的甲基化水平都低于低级别组(P<0.01);Alu甲基化水平越高预示更高的生存率(P<0.01);受试者工作特征(ROC)曲线下面积(AUC)为0.861(0.789 ~ 0.933,P<0.01).结论 血清游离DNA中Alu低甲基化的检测有助于胶质瘤的诊断及预后判断.

  7. A Parallel Error Detection Structure Design of SPARC V8 Architecture Compatible ALU%一种SPARC V8结构ALU的并行错误检测结构设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张洵颖

    2011-01-01

    针对嵌入式处理器在线错误检测的需求,文中基于编码预测的并行错误检测策略,选择Berger编码作为编码预测错误检测编码,设计了SPARC V8结构的加/减、逻辑和移位运算的B0编码预测结构.该结构可以直接集成为带有并行错误检测结构的SPARC V8结构ALU,相比于电路复制这样的结构实现了硬件资源的节省.与对偶复执这样两倍的执行时间并且附带结果比较的策略相比,具有明显的性能优势.%According to the on-line error detection requirement of embedded processors, this paper presents a parallel error detection structure of SPARC V8 architecture compatible ALU, which takes the B0 encoding of Berger code prediction as the parallel on-line error detection strategy. This structure can be integrated into the SPARC V8 architecture compatible ALU directly, and forms a parallel error detection ALU. Comparing with the two-rail logic method, this structure gets the hardware cost decrease. Comparing with pseudoduplication method, in which the same circuit successively processes data twice but along different data path, this structure has an obviously performance advantage.

  8. Limitations on quantum key repeaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bäuml, Stefan; Christandl, Matthias; Horodecki, Karol; Winter, Andreas

    2015-04-23

    A major application of quantum communication is the distribution of entangled particles for use in quantum key distribution. Owing to noise in the communication line, quantum key distribution is, in practice, limited to a distance of a few hundred kilometres, and can only be extended to longer distances by use of a quantum repeater, a device that performs entanglement distillation and quantum teleportation. The existence of noisy entangled states that are undistillable but nevertheless useful for quantum key distribution raises the question of the feasibility of a quantum key repeater, which would work beyond the limits of entanglement distillation, hence possibly tolerating higher noise levels than existing protocols. Here we exhibit fundamental limits on such a device in the form of bounds on the rate at which it may extract secure key. As a consequence, we give examples of states suitable for quantum key distribution but unsuitable for the most general quantum key repeater protocol.

  9. Repeated vitrification/warming of human sperm gives better results than repeated slow programmable freezing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Teraporn Vutyavanich; Worashorn Lattiwongsakorn; Waraporn Piromlertamorn; Sudarat Samchimchom

    2012-01-01

    In this study,we compared the effects of repeated freezing/thawing of human sperm by our in-house method of rapid freezing with slow programmable freezing.Sperm samples from 11 normozoospermic subjects were processed through density gradients and divided into three aliquots:non-frozen,rapid freezing and slow programmable freezing.Sperm in the rapid freezing group had better motility and viability than those in the slow freezing group (P<O.01) after the first,second and third cycles of freezing/thawing,but there was no difference in morphology.In the second experiment,rapid freezing was repeated three times in 20 subjects.The samples from each thawing cycle were evaluated for DNA fragmentation using the alkaline comet assay.DNA fragmentation began to increase considerably after the second cycle of freezing/thawing,but to a level that was not clinically important.In the third experiment,rapid freezing was done repeatedly in 10 subjects,until no motile sperm were observed after thawing.The median number of repeated freezing/thawing that yielded no motile sperm was seven (range:5-8,mean:6.8).In conclusion,we demonstrated that repeated freezing/thawing of processed semen using our rapid freezing method gave better results than standard slow programmable freezing.This method can help maximize the usage of precious cryopreserved sperm samples in assisted reproduction technology.

  10. Gene conversion homogenizes the CMT1A paralogous repeats

    OpenAIRE

    Hurles Matthew E

    2001-01-01

    Abstract Background Non-allelic homologous recombination between paralogous repeats is increasingly being recognized as a major mechanism causing both pathogenic microdeletions and duplications, and structural polymorphism in the human genome. It has recently been shown empirically that gene conversion can homogenize such repeats, resulting in longer stretches of absolute identity that may increase the rate of non-allelic homologous recombination. Results Here, a statistical test to detect ge...

  11. Sequencing Games with Repeated Players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Estevez Fernandez, M.A.; Borm, P.E.M.; Calleja, P.; Hamers, H.J.M.

    2004-01-01

    Two classes of one machine sequencing situations are considered in which each job corresponds to exactly one player but a player may have more than one job to be processed, so called RP(repeated player) sequencing situations.In max-RP sequencing situations it is assumed that each player's cost funct

  12. A Semiparametric Bayesian Model for Repeatedly Repeated Binary Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Quintana, Fernando A.; Müller, Peter; Rosner, Gary L.; Mary V Relling

    2008-01-01

    We discuss the analysis of data from single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays comparing tumor and normal tissues. The data consist of sequences of indicators for loss of heterozygosity (LOH) and involve three nested levels of repetition: chromosomes for a given patient, regions within chromosomes, and SNPs nested within regions. We propose to analyze these data using a semiparametric model for multi-level repeated binary data. At the top level of the hierarchy we assume a sampling model fo...

  13. RNA聚合酶Ⅱ转录的ALU序列对HEK293细胞凋亡的影响%Effect of RNA PolⅡ Driven ALU Transcripts on Apoptosis of HEK293 Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李璇; 唐开福; 高建; 杨梅; 胡文艳; 田绿; 彭湃澜; 王峰; 高昌益; 任红

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨RNA聚合酶Ⅱ转录的ALU序列对人胚肾293(HEK293)细胞凋亡的影响以及干扰素(IFN)在此机制中的作用.方法 取对数生长期的HEK293细胞,分为6组,ALU-293组(瞬时转染重组质粒pcDNA3.1-ALU)、peDNA3.1-293组[瞬时转染空质粒peDNA3.1(-),作为阴性对照],Poly Ⅰ:C-293组[瞬时转染dsRNA的多聚肌苷胞苷酸(Poly Ⅰ:C),作为阳性对照]、IFNβ-293组(加入1.65×104U IFNβ,作为阳性对照)、空白对照组(未经处理的HEK293细胞)和HBs-293组(瞬时转染重组质粒pcDNA3.1-HBs),转染后48 h,采用MTT法检测细胞的增殖活性;Cellular DNA Fragmentation ELISA和DNA Ladder 法检测细胞的凋亡情况;Real-time PCR检测细胞中IFNβ基因mRNA的水平.结果 瞬时转染重组质粒pcDNA3.1-ALU能够抑制HEK293细胞增殖,并促使其凋亡,且细胞中IFNβ mRNA的水平显著上调.结论 RNA聚合酶Ⅱ转录的ALU序列能够通过激活干扰素系统来诱导细胞凋亡.%Objective To investigate the effect of RNA Pol Ⅱ driven ALU transcripts on the apoptosis of human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cells as well as the role of IFN in this mechanism.Methods The HEK293 cells at logarithmic growth phase were divided into six groups.The cells in ALU-293, pcDNA3.1-293, Poly Ⅰ: C-293 and HBs-293 groups were transiently transfected with recombinant plasmid pcDNA3.1-ALU, empty vector pcDNA3.1 (-) (negative control ), Poly Ⅰ: C ( positive control ), recombinant plasmid pcDNA3.1-HBs respectively, while those in IFNβ-293 group was added with 1.65 × 104 U IFNβ (positive control ).However, the cells in blank control group were untreated.The cells in various groups 48 h after transfection were determined for proliferative activity by MTT method, for apoptosis by Cellular DNA Fragmentation ELISA and DNA ladder, and for IFNβ mRNA level by real-time PCR.Results Transient transfection with recombinant plasmid pcDNA3.1-ALU inhibited the proliferation and promoted the apoptosis of HEK293

  14. 精子发生中Alu序列的返座作用%Retrotransposons Role of Alu Sequences in Human Spermatogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王黎熔; 李建民; 单玉喜

    2001-01-01

    目的: 克隆人类精原细胞和初级精母细胞特异表达的基因. 方法: 应用改良的mRNA表达图谱分析技术,对正常男性、唯支持细胞综合征和生精阻滞在初级精母细胞病人的睾丸进行mRNA表达图谱分析的差异显示,选择唯支持细胞综合征缺失的表达基因并克隆测序. 结果: 正常男性、唯支持细胞综合征和生精阻滞在初级精母细胞症病人的睾丸组织表达图谱存在显著的表达差异,目前已获得唯支持细胞综合征缺失的片段88个.在已分析的6个片段中,1个与人类的Alu序列家族(Alu family)98%同源. 结论: Alu序列在生精细胞中通过返座作用形成新Alu序列,使其不断扩散.

  15. Establishment of Sequence-Tagged Sites on 15q11-q13 by Alu-Vector PCR Cloning of Yac-Generated Fragments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. S. Kim

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Angelman syndrome (AS is caused by the loss of function of undefined gene(s on human chromosome 15. The majority of subjects have deletions involving maternally-derived chromosome 15q II-q 13, and the shortest region of deletion overlap (SRO has been localized to the region between D15S10 and D15S113. In this study, yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs, 6G-D4, 9H-D2 and 37D-F9, mapping within the AS SRO, were isolated from the ICI Y AC library. Alu-vector PCR products were amplified from the YACs and from YACs A229A2 and A33FI 0 which had been obtained from the St. Louis Y AC library. The PCR products were cloned and sequenced, and three new sequence-tagged sites were generated within the AS SRO, facilitating the characterization of gene(s involved in the Angelman syndrome.

  16. Directionality switchable gain stabilized linear repeater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ota, Takayuki; Ohmachi, Tadashi; Aida, Kazuo

    2004-10-01

    We propose a new approach to realize a bidirectional linear repeater suitable for future optical internet networks and fault location in repeater chain with OTDR. The proposed approach is the linear repeater of simple configuration whose directionality is rearranged dynamically by electrical control signal. The repeater is composed of a magneto-optical switch, a circulator, a dynamically gain stabilized unidirectional EDFA, and control circuits. The repeater directionality is rearranged as fast as 0.1ms by an electrical control pulse. It is experimentally confirmed that OTDR with the directionality switchable repeater is feasible for repeater chain. The detailed design and performance of the repeater are also discussed, including the multi-pass interference (MPI) which may arise in the proposed repeater, the effect of the MPI on SNR degradation of the repeater chain and the feed-forward EDFA gain control circuit.

  17. A Repeating Fast Radio Burst

    CERN Document Server

    Spitler, L G; Hessels, J W T; Bogdanov, S; Brazier, A; Camilo, F; Chatterjee, S; Cordes, J M; Crawford, F; Deneva, J; Ferdman, R D; Freire, P C C; Kaspi, V M; Lazarus, P; Lynch, R; Madsen, E C; McLaughlin, M A; Patel, C; Ransom, S M; Seymour, A; Stairs, I H; Stappers, B W; van Leeuwen, J; Zhu, W W

    2016-01-01

    Fast Radio Bursts are millisecond-duration astronomical radio pulses of unknown physical origin that appear to come from extragalactic distances. Previous follow-up observations have failed to find additional bursts at the same dispersion measures (i.e. integrated column density of free electrons between source and telescope) and sky position as the original detections. The apparent non-repeating nature of the fast radio bursts has led several authors to hypothesise that they originate in cataclysmic astrophysical events. Here we report the detection of ten additional bursts from the direction of FRB121102, using the 305-m Arecibo telescope. These new bursts have dispersion measures and sky positions consistent with the original burst. This unambiguously identifies FRB121102 as repeating and demonstrates that its source survives the energetic events that cause the bursts. Additionally, the bursts from FRB121102 show a wide range of spectral shapes that appear to be predominantly intrinsic to the source and wh...

  18. Repeatability of Harris Corner Detector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Lili

    2003-01-01

    Interest point detectors are commonly employed to reduce the amount of data to be processed. The ideal interest point detector would robustly select those features which are most appropriate or salient for the application and data at hand. This paper shows that interest points are geometrically stable under different transformations.This property makes interest points very successful in the context of image matching. To measure this property quantatively, we introduce a evaluation criterion: repeatability rate.

  19. A repeating fast radio burst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitler, L. G.; Scholz, P.; Hessels, J. W. T.; Bogdanov, S.; Brazier, A.; Camilo, F.; Chatterjee, S.; Cordes, J. M.; Crawford, F.; Deneva, J.; Ferdman, R. D.; Freire, P. C. C.; Kaspi, V. M.; Lazarus, P.; Lynch, R.; Madsen, E. C.; McLaughlin, M. A.; Patel, C.; Ransom, S. M.; Seymour, A.; Stairs, I. H.; Stappers, B. W.; van Leeuwen, J.; Zhu, W. W.

    2016-03-01

    Fast radio bursts are millisecond-duration astronomical radio pulses of unknown physical origin that appear to come from extragalactic distances. Previous follow-up observations have failed to find additional bursts at the same dispersion measure (that is, the integrated column density of free electrons between source and telescope) and sky position as the original detections. The apparent non-repeating nature of these bursts has led to the suggestion that they originate in cataclysmic events. Here we report observations of ten additional bursts from the direction of the fast radio burst FRB 121102. These bursts have dispersion measures and sky positions consistent with the original burst. This unambiguously identifies FRB 121102 as repeating and demonstrates that its source survives the energetic events that cause the bursts. Additionally, the bursts from FRB 121102 show a wide range of spectral shapes that appear to be predominantly intrinsic to the source and which vary on timescales of minutes or less. Although there may be multiple physical origins for the population of fast radio bursts, these repeat bursts with high dispersion measure and variable spectra specifically seen from the direction of FRB 121102 support an origin in a young, highly magnetized, extragalactic neutron star.

  20. Methylation at global LINE-1 repeats in human blood are affected by gender but not by age or natural hormone cycles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman El-Maarri

    Full Text Available Previously, we reported on inter-individual and gender specific variations of LINE-1 methylation in healthy individuals. In this study, we investigated whether this variability could be influenced by age or sex hormones in humans. To this end, we studied LINE-1 methylation in vivo in blood-derived DNA from individuals aged 18 to 64 years and from young healthy females at various hormone levels during the menstrual cycle. Our results show that no significant association with age was observed. However, the previously reported increase of LINE-1 methylation in males was reconfirmed. In females, although no correlation between LINE-1 or Alu methylation and hormone levels was observed, a significant stable individual specific level of methylation was noted. In vitro results largely confirmed these findings, as neither estrogen nor dihydrotestosterone affected LINE-1 or Alu methylation in Hek293T, HUVEC, or MDA-kb2 cell lines. In contrast, a decrease in methylation was observed in estrogen-treated T47-Kbluc cell lines strongly expressing estrogen receptor. The very low expression of estrogen receptor in blood cells could explain the observed insensitivity of methylation at LINE-1 to natural hormonal variations in females. In conclusion, neither natural cycle of hormones nor age has a detectable effect on the LINE-1 methylation in peripheral blood cells, while gender remains an important factor.

  1. Improving repeatability by improving quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronen, Shuki; Ackers, Mark; Schlumberger, Geco-Prakla; Brink, Mundy

    1998-12-31

    Time lapse (4-D) seismic is a promising tool for reservoir characterization and monitoring. The method is apparently simple: to acquire data repeatedly over the same reservoir, process and interpret the data sets, then changes between the data sets indicate changes in the reservoir. A problem with time lapse seismic data is that reservoirs are a relatively small part of the earth and important reservoir changes may cause very small differences to the time lapse data. The challenge is to acquire and process economical time lapse data such that reservoir changes can be detected above the noise of varying acquisition and environment. 7 refs., 9 figs.

  2. Crowding by a repeating pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Sarah; Pelli, Denis G

    2015-01-01

    Theinability to recognize a peripheral target among flankers is called crowding. For a foveal target, crowding can be distinguished from overlap masking by its sparing of detection, linear scaling with eccentricity, and invariance with target size.Crowding depends on the proximity and similarity of the flankers to the target. Flankers that are far from or dissimilar to the target do not crowd it. On a gray page, text whose neighboring letters have different colors, alternately black and white, has enough dissimilarity that it might escape crowding. Since reading speed is normally limited by crowding, escape from crowding should allow faster reading. Yet reading speed is unchanged (Chung & Mansfield, 2009). Why? A recent vernier study found that using alternating-color flankers produces strong crowding (Manassi, Sayim, & Herzog, 2012). Might that effect occur with letters and reading? Critical spacing is the minimum center-to-center target-flanker spacing needed to correctly identify the target. We measure it for a target letter surrounded by several equidistant flanker letters of the same polarity, opposite polarity, or mixed polarity: alternately white and black. We find strong crowding in the alternating condition, even though each flanker letter is beyond its own critical spacing (as measured in a separate condition). Thus a periodic repeating pattern can produce crowding even when the individual elements do not. Further, in all conditions we find that, once a periodic pattern repeats (two cycles), further repetition does not affect critical spacing of the innermost flanker.

  3. CDC Vital Signs: Preventing Repeat Teen Births

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... MB] Read the MMWR Science Clips Preventing Repeat Teen Births Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On ... live birth before age 20. Problem Too many teens, ages 15–19, have repeat births. Nearly 1 ...

  4. Essays in the theory of repeated games

    OpenAIRE

    Osório-Costa, António Miguel

    2010-01-01

    This thesis comprises three essays in economic theory. The first two are in the theory of repeated games. The third is also a theoretical contribution, which mixes con- cepts both from repeated games and the theory of incentives. The first chapter is a novel contribution to frequent monitoring in repeated games. The second one, studies for the first time, infinitely repeated games where the repetitions of the stage game are random. The last chapter, studies the provision of incentives in a pr...

  5. Lambda Exonuclease Digestion of CGG Trinucleotide Repeats

    OpenAIRE

    Conroy, R. S.; Koretsky, A P; Moreland, J.

    2009-01-01

    Fragile X syndrome and other triplet repeat diseases are characterized by an elongation of a repeating DNA triplet. The ensemble-averaged lambda exonuclease digestion rate of different substrates, including one with an elongated FMR1 gene containing 120 CGG repeats, was measured using absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy. Using magnetic tweezers sequence-dependent digestion rates and pausing was measured for individual lambda exonucleases. Within the triplet repeats a lower average and na...

  6. ProtRepeatsDB: a database of amino acid repeats in genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chauhan Virander S

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genome wide and cross species comparisons of amino acid repeats is an intriguing problem in biology mainly due to the highly polymorphic nature and diverse functions of amino acid repeats. Innate protein repeats constitute vital functional and structural regions in proteins. Repeats are of great consequence in evolution of proteins, as evident from analysis of repeats in different organisms. In the post genomic era, availability of protein sequences encoded in different genomes provides a unique opportunity to perform large scale comparative studies of amino acid repeats. ProtRepeatsDB http://bioinfo.icgeb.res.in/repeats/ is a relational database of perfect and mismatch repeats, access to which is designed as a resource and collection of tools for detection and cross species comparisons of different types of amino acid repeats. Description ProtRepeatsDB (v1.2 consists of perfect as well as mismatch amino acid repeats in the protein sequences of 141 organisms, the genomes of which are now available. The web interface of ProtRepeatsDB consists of different tools to perform repeat s; based on protein IDs, organism name, repeat sequences, and keywords as in FASTA headers, size, frequency, gene ontology (GO annotation IDs and regular expressions (REGEXP describing repeats. These tools also allow formulation of a variety of simple, complex and logical queries to facilitate mining and large-scale cross-species comparisons of amino acid repeats. In addition to this, the database also contains sequence analysis tools to determine repeats in user input sequences. Conclusion ProtRepeatsDB is a multi-organism database of different types of amino acid repeats present in proteins. It integrates useful tools to perform genome wide queries for rapid screening and identification of amino acid repeats and facilitates comparative and evolutionary studies of the repeats. The database is useful for identification of species or organism specific

  7. 47 CFR 97.205 - Repeater station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Repeater station. 97.205 Section 97.205... SERVICE Special Operations § 97.205 Repeater station. (a) Any amateur station licensed to a holder of a Technician, General, Advanced or Amateur Extra Class operator license may be a repeater. A holder of...

  8. 47 CFR 22.1015 - Repeater operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Repeater operation. 22.1015 Section 22.1015... Offshore Radiotelephone Service § 22.1015 Repeater operation. Offshore central stations may be used as repeater stations provided that the licensee is able to maintain control of the station, and in...

  9. Topological characteristics of helical repeat proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groves, M R; Barford, D

    1999-01-01

    The recent elucidation of protein structures based upon repeating amino acid motifs, including the armadillo motif, the HEAT motif and tetratricopeptide repeats, reveals that they belong to the class of helical repeat proteins. These proteins share the common property of being assembled from tandem

  10. Application of SLIC Am79R70 in SPC ALU%用户线接口芯片Am79R70在交换机ALU中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚军; 汪小燕

    2003-01-01

    Am79R70是Legerity公司生产的模拟用户线接口电路(SLIC)芯片,它能提供连续可调的电流馈电,可在其控制端C1、C2和C3输入不同的逻辑电平以控制芯片的工作方式.文章介绍了Am79R70的性能特点及其在用户接口单元(ALU)中的应用.

  11. Chromosome-specific DNA Repeat Probes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumgartner, Adolf; Weier, Jingly Fung; Weier, Heinz-Ulrich G.

    2006-03-16

    In research as well as in clinical applications, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) has gained increasing popularity as a highly sensitive technique to study cytogenetic changes. Today, hundreds of commercially available DNA probes serve the basic needs of the biomedical research community. Widespread applications, however, are often limited by the lack of appropriately labeled, specific nucleic acid probes. We describe two approaches for an expeditious preparation of chromosome-specific DNAs and the subsequent probe labeling with reporter molecules of choice. The described techniques allow the preparation of highly specific DNA repeat probes suitable for enumeration of chromosomes in interphase cell nuclei or tissue sections. In addition, there is no need for chromosome enrichment by flow cytometry and sorting or molecular cloning. Our PCR-based method uses either bacterial artificial chromosomes or human genomic DNA as templates with {alpha}-satellite-specific primers. Here we demonstrate the production of fluorochrome-labeled DNA repeat probes specific for human chromosomes 17 and 18 in just a few days without the need for highly specialized equipment and without the limitation to only a few fluorochrome labels.

  12. General benchmarks for quantum repeaters

    CERN Document Server

    Pirandola, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Using a technique based on quantum teleportation, we simplify the most general adaptive protocols for key distribution, entanglement distillation and quantum communication over a wide class of quantum channels in arbitrary dimension. Thanks to this method, we bound the ultimate rates for secret key generation and quantum communication through single-mode Gaussian channels and several discrete-variable channels. In particular, we derive exact formulas for the two-way assisted capacities of the bosonic quantum-limited amplifier and the dephasing channel in arbitrary dimension, as well as the secret key capacity of the qubit erasure channel. Our results establish the limits of quantum communication with arbitrary systems and set the most general and precise benchmarks for testing quantum repeaters in both discrete- and continuous-variable settings.

  13. Repeated swim stress alters brain benzodiazepine receptors measured in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weizman, R.; Weizman, A.; Kook, K.A.; Vocci, F.; Deutsch, S.I.; Paul, S.M.

    1989-06-01

    The effects of repeated swim stress on brain benzodiazepine receptors were examined in the mouse using both an in vivo and in vitro binding method. Specific in vivo binding of (/sup 3/H)Ro15-1788 to benzodiazepine receptors was decreased in the hippocampus, cerebral cortex, hypothalamus, midbrain and striatum after repeated swim stress (7 consecutive days of daily swim stress) when compared to nonstressed mice. In vivo benzodiazepine receptor binding was unaltered after repeated swim stress in the cerebellum and pons medulla. The stress-induced reduction in in vivo benzodiazepine receptor binding did not appear to be due to altered cerebral blood flow or to an alteration in benzodiazepine metabolism or biodistribution because there was no difference in (14C)iodoantipyrine distribution or whole brain concentrations of clonazepam after repeated swim stress. Saturation binding experiments revealed a change in both apparent maximal binding capacity and affinity after repeated swim stress. Moreover, a reduction in clonazepam's anticonvulsant potency was also observed after repeated swim stress (an increase in the ED50 dose for protection against pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures), although there was no difference in pentylenetetrazol-induced seizure threshold between the two groups. In contrast to the results obtained in vivo, no change in benzodiazepine receptor binding kinetics was observed using the in vitro binding method. These data suggest that environmental stress can alter the binding parameters of the benzodiazepine receptor and that the in vivo and in vitro binding methods can yield substantially different results.

  14. Repeated swim stress alters brain benzodiazepine receptors measured in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of repeated swim stress on brain benzodiazepine receptors were examined in the mouse using both an in vivo and in vitro binding method. Specific in vivo binding of [3H]Ro15-1788 to benzodiazepine receptors was decreased in the hippocampus, cerebral cortex, hypothalamus, midbrain and striatum after repeated swim stress (7 consecutive days of daily swim stress) when compared to nonstressed mice. In vivo benzodiazepine receptor binding was unaltered after repeated swim stress in the cerebellum and pons medulla. The stress-induced reduction in in vivo benzodiazepine receptor binding did not appear to be due to altered cerebral blood flow or to an alteration in benzodiazepine metabolism or biodistribution because there was no difference in [14C]iodoantipyrine distribution or whole brain concentrations of clonazepam after repeated swim stress. Saturation binding experiments revealed a change in both apparent maximal binding capacity and affinity after repeated swim stress. Moreover, a reduction in clonazepam's anticonvulsant potency was also observed after repeated swim stress [an increase in the ED50 dose for protection against pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures], although there was no difference in pentylenetetrazol-induced seizure threshold between the two groups. In contrast to the results obtained in vivo, no change in benzodiazepine receptor binding kinetics was observed using the in vitro binding method. These data suggest that environmental stress can alter the binding parameters of the benzodiazepine receptor and that the in vivo and in vitro binding methods can yield substantially different results

  15. ProRepeat: an integrated repository for studying amino acid tandem repeats in proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luo, H.; Lin, K.; David, A.; Nijveen, H.; Leunissen, J.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    ProRepeat (http://prorepeat.bioinformatics.nl/) is an integrated curated repository and analysis platform for in-depth research on the biological characteristics of amino acid tandem repeats. ProRepeat collects repeats from all proteins included in the UniProt knowledgebase, together with 85 complet

  16. Isolation of Human Genomic Single Copy from the YAC Insert End Using Alu-vectorette PCR%用Alu Vectorette PCR方法从酵母人工染色体末端分离人基因组单拷贝片段

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩顺生; 余龙; 邓余; 赵寿元

    1995-01-01

    分离和克隆YAC插入片段的末端顺序是构建YAC重叠群的重要手段之一,我们采用Alu载体(Alu-vectorette)PCR方法成功地从含人淀粉样蛋白前体(APP)基因的法国人类多态研究中心(CEPH,Centre d'Etude du Polymorphisme Human)YAC克隆599G11的未端分离到一个0.58kb的单拷贝片段.测序后经核苷酸顺序检索分析,证明这是一个新的STS顺序.用这个片段作探针,在英国肿瘤研究基金会(ICRF)的YAC库中筛选到一个新的YAC克隆,证明这是莸得contig的有效而快捷的方法.

  17. Specific tandem repeats are sufficient for paramutation-induced trans-generational silencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane L Belele

    Full Text Available Paramutation is a well-studied epigenetic phenomenon in which trans communication between two different alleles leads to meiotically heritable transcriptional silencing of one of the alleles. Paramutation at the b1 locus involves RNA-mediated transcriptional silencing and requires specific tandem repeats that generate siRNAs. This study addressed three important questions: 1 are the tandem repeats sufficient for paramutation, 2 do they need to be in an allelic position to mediate paramutation, and 3 is there an association between the ability to mediate paramutation and repeat DNA methylation levels? Paramutation was achieved using multiple transgenes containing the b1 tandem repeats, including events with tandem repeats of only one half of the repeat unit (413 bp, demonstrating that these sequences are sufficient for paramutation and an allelic position is not required for the repeats to communicate. Furthermore, the transgenic tandem repeats increased the expression of a reporter gene in maize, demonstrating the repeats contain transcriptional regulatory sequences. Transgene-mediated paramutation required the mediator of paramutation1 gene, which is necessary for endogenous paramutation, suggesting endogenous and transgene-mediated paramutation both require an RNA-mediated transcriptional silencing pathway. While all tested repeat transgenes produced small interfering RNAs (siRNAs, not all transgenes induced paramutation suggesting that, as with endogenous alleles, siRNA production is not sufficient for paramutation. The repeat transgene-induced silencing was less efficiently transmitted than silencing induced by the repeats of endogenous b1 alleles, which is always 100% efficient. The variability in the strength of the repeat transgene-induced silencing enabled testing whether the extent of DNA methylation within the repeats correlated with differences in efficiency of paramutation. Transgene-induced paramutation does not require extensive

  18. Aging and repeated thought suppression success.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann E Lambert

    Full Text Available Intrusive thoughts and attempts to suppress them are common, but while suppression may be effective in the short-term, it can increase thought recurrence in the long-term. Because intentional suppression involves controlled processing, and many aspects of controlled processing decline with age, age differences in thought suppression outcomes may emerge, especially over repeated thought suppression attempts as cognitive resources are expended. Using multilevel modeling, we examined age differences in reactions to thought suppression attempts across four thought suppression sequences in 40 older and 42 younger adults. As expected, age differences were more prevalent during suppression than during free monitoring periods, with younger adults indicating longer, more frequent thought recurrences and greater suppression difficulty. Further, younger adults' thought suppression outcomes changed over time, while trajectories for older adults' were relatively stable. Results are discussed in terms of older adults' reduced thought recurrence, which was potentially afforded by age-related changes in reactive control and distractibility.

  19. Aging and repeated thought suppression success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Ann E; Smyth, Frederick L; Beadel, Jessica R; Teachman, Bethany A

    2013-01-01

    Intrusive thoughts and attempts to suppress them are common, but while suppression may be effective in the short-term, it can increase thought recurrence in the long-term. Because intentional suppression involves controlled processing, and many aspects of controlled processing decline with age, age differences in thought suppression outcomes may emerge, especially over repeated thought suppression attempts as cognitive resources are expended. Using multilevel modeling, we examined age differences in reactions to thought suppression attempts across four thought suppression sequences in 40 older and 42 younger adults. As expected, age differences were more prevalent during suppression than during free monitoring periods, with younger adults indicating longer, more frequent thought recurrences and greater suppression difficulty. Further, younger adults' thought suppression outcomes changed over time, while trajectories for older adults' were relatively stable. Results are discussed in terms of older adults' reduced thought recurrence, which was potentially afforded by age-related changes in reactive control and distractibility. PMID:23776442

  20. Structure and expression of the human Lysyl hydroxylase gene (PLOD): Introns 9 and 16 contain Alu sequences at the sites of recombination in Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type VI patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heikkinen, J.; Hautala, T.; Kivirikko, K.I. [Univ. of Oulu (Finland)] [and others

    1994-12-01

    Lysyl hydroxylase (EC 1.14.11.4) catalyzes the formation of hydroxylysine in collagens by the hydroxylation of lysine residues in peptide linkages. This enzyme activity is known to be reduced in patients with the type VI variant of the Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, and the first mutations in the lysyl hydroxylase gene (PLOD) have recently been identified. We have now isolated genomic clones for human lysyl hydroxylase and determined the complete structure of the gene, which contains 19 exons and a 5{prime} flanking region with characteristics shared by housekeeping genes. The constitutive expression of the gene in different tissues further suggests that lysyl hydroxylase has an essential function. We have sequenced the introns of the gene in the region where many mutations and rearrangements analyzed to date are concentrated. Intron 9 and intron 16 show extensive homology resulting from the many Alu sequences found in these introns. Intron 9 contains five and intron 16 eight Alu sequences. The high homology and many short identical or complementary sequences in these introns generate many potential recombination sites with the gene. The delineation of the structure of the lysyl hydroxylase gene contributes significantly to our understanding of the rearrangements in the genome of Ehlers-Danlos type VI patients. 21 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Repeated Sprints: An Independent Not Dependent Variable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jonathan M; Macpherson, Tom W; Spears, Iain R; Weston, Matthew

    2016-07-01

    The ability to repeatedly perform sprints has traditionally been viewed as a key performance measure in team sports, and the relationship between repeated-sprint ability (RSA) and performance has been explored extensively. However, when reviewing the repeated-sprint profile of team-sports match play it appears that the occurrence of repeated-sprint bouts is sparse, indicating that RSA is not as important to performance as commonly believed. Repeated sprints are, however, a potent and time-efficient training strategy, effective in developing acceleration, speed, explosive leg power, aerobic power, and high-intensity-running performance--all of which are crucial to team-sport performance. As such, we propose that repeated-sprint exercise in team sports should be viewed as an independent variable (eg, a means of developing fitness) as opposed to a dependent variable (eg, a means of assessing fitness/performance). PMID:27197118

  2. Strengthening concept learning by repeated testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiklund-Hörnqvist, Carola; Jonsson, Bert; Nyberg, Lars

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether repeated testing with feedback benefits learning compared to rereading of introductory psychology key-concepts in an educational context. The testing effect was examined immediately after practice, after 18 days, and at a five-week delay in a sample of undergraduate students (n = 83). The results revealed that repeated testing with feedback significantly enhanced learning compared to rereading at all delays, demonstrating that repeated retrieval enhances retention compared to repeated encoding in the short- and the long-term. In addition, the effect of repeated testing was beneficial for students irrespectively of working memory capacity. It is argued that teaching methods involving repeated retrieval are important to consider by the educational system.

  3. Structural Insights into the Stability and Flexibility of Unusual Erythroid Spectrin Repeats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kusunoki, H.; Macdonald, R.I.; Mondragon, A. (NWU)

    2010-03-08

    Erythroid spectrin, a major component of the cytoskeletal network of the red cell which contributes to both the stability and the elasticity of the red cell membrane, is composed of two subunits, {alpha} and {beta}, each formed by 16-20 tandem repeats. The properties of the repeats and their relative arrangement are thought to be key determinants of spectrin flexibility. Here we report a 2.4 {angstrom} resolution crystal structure of human erythroid {beta}-spectrin repeats 8 and 9. This two-repeat fragment is unusual as it exhibits low stability of folding and one of its repeats lacks two tryptophans highly conserved among spectrin repeats. Two key factors responsible for the lower stability and, possibly, its flexibility, are revealed by the structure. A third novel feature of the structure is the relative orientation of the two repeats, which increases the range of possible conformations and provides new insights into atomic models of spectrin flexibility.

  4. Short Tandem Repeat DNA Internet Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 130 Short Tandem Repeat DNA Internet Database (Web, free access)   Short Tandem Repeat DNA Internet Database is intended to benefit research and application of short tandem repeat DNA markers for human identity testing. Facts and sequence information on each STR system, population data, commonly used multiplex STR systems, PCR primers and conditions, and a review of various technologies for analysis of STR alleles have been included.

  5. Implementation of bipartite or remote unitary gates with repeater nodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Li; Nemoto, Kae

    2016-08-01

    We propose some protocols to implement various classes of bipartite unitary operations on two remote parties with the help of repeater nodes in-between. We also present a protocol to implement a single-qubit unitary with parameters determined by a remote party with the help of up to three repeater nodes. It is assumed that the neighboring nodes are connected by noisy photonic channels, and the local gates can be performed quite accurately, while the decoherence of memories is significant. A unitary is often a part of a larger computation or communication task in a quantum network, and to reduce the amount of decoherence in other systems of the network, we focus on the goal of saving the total time for implementing a unitary including the time for entanglement preparation. We review some previously studied protocols that implement bipartite unitaries using local operations and classical communication and prior shared entanglement, and apply them to the situation with repeater nodes without prior entanglement. We find that the protocols using piecewise entanglement between neighboring nodes often require less total time compared to preparing entanglement between the two end nodes first and then performing the previously known protocols. For a generic bipartite unitary, as the number of repeater nodes increases, the total time could approach the time cost for direct signal transfer from one end node to the other. We also prove some lower bounds of the total time when there are a small number of repeater nodes. The application to position-based cryptography is discussed.

  6. Physiological Consequences of Repeated Exposures to Conditioned Fear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert S. Thompson

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Activation of the stress response evokes a cascade of physiological reactions that may be detrimental when repeated or chronic, and when triggered after exposure to psychological/emotional stressors. Investigation of the physiological mechanisms responsible for the health damaging effects requires animal paradigms that repeatedly evoke a response to psychological/emotional stressors. To this end, adult male Sprague Dawley rats were repeatedly exposed (2X per day for 20 days to a context that they were conditioned to fear (conditioned fear test, CFT. Repeated exposure to CFT produced body weight loss, adrenal hypertrophy, thymic involution, and basal corticosterone elevation. In vivo biotelemetry measures revealed that CFT evokes sympathetic nervous system driven increases in heart rate (HR, mean arterial pressure (MAP, and core body temperature. Extinction of behavioral (freezing and physiological responses to CFT was prevented using minimal reinstatement footshock. MAP responses to the CFT did not diminish across 20 days of exposure. In contrast, HR and cardiac contractility responses declined by day 15, suggesting a shift toward vascular-dominated MAP (a pre-clinical marker of CV dysfunction. Flattened diurnal rhythms, common to stress-related mood/anxiety disorders, were found for most physiological measures. Thus, repeated CFT produces adaptations indicative of the health damaging effects of psychological/emotional stress.

  7. A COMPARISON OF PAIRS FIGURE SKATERS IN REPEATED JUMPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William A. Sands

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Trends in pairs figure skating have shown that increasingly difficult jumps have become an essential aspect of high-level performance, especially in the latter part of a competitive program. We compared a repeated jump power index in a 60 s repeated jump test to determine the relationship of repeated jump test to competitive rank and to measure 2D hip, knee, and ankle angles and angular velocities at 0, 20, 40, and 60 s. Eighteen National Team Pairs Figure Skaters performed a 60 s repeated jump test on a large switch-mat with timing of flight and ground durations and digital video recording. Each 60-s period was divided into 6, 10-s intervals, with power indexes (W/kg calculated for each 10-s interval. Power index by 10-s interval repeated measures ANOVAs (RMANOVA showed that males exceeded females at all intervals, and the highest power index interval was during 10 to 20 s for both sexes. RMANOVAs of angles and angular velocities showed main effects for time only. Power index and jumping techniques among figure skaters showed rapid and steady declines over the test duration. Power index can predict approximately 50% of competitive rank variance, and sex differences in jumping technique were rare

  8. Methylation Level of Alu Elements is Closely Associated with Metastasis Ability of Breast Cancer Cell Lines MCF7 and MDA-MB-435S%Alu序列甲基化水平与两种乳腺癌细胞系转移能力高度相关

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕京澴; 徐酩; 谭建新; 王宗丹; 韩晓; 孙玉洁

    2009-01-01

    目的 探讨Alu序列甲基化与乳腺癌转移潜能的关系.方法 用亚硫酸氢盐修饰联合限制性内切酶分析法(combined bisulfite restriction analysis,COBRA)、亚硫酸氢盐修饰结合直接测序法(bisulfite sequencing,BSP)检测两株转移能力不同的乳腺癌细胞系MCF7和MDA-MB-435S中Alu甲基化状态,每个样品挑取10个克隆测序.结果 MCF7和MDA-MB-435S中Alu甲基化水平均明显低于报道的正常人体细胞Alu甲基化水平,但MCF7中Alu的甲基化水平明显高于MDA-MB-435S.同时,Alu甲基化位点在基因组中分布不均匀.结论 乳腺癌的转移潜能可能与Alu序列的去甲基化以及去甲基化位点的分布相关,值得进一步探讨.%Objective To determine the relationship between methylation level of Alu elements and breast cancer metastasis.Method COBRA and BSP were employed to detect the methylation level of Alu elements in two breast cancer cell lines (MCF7 and MDA-MB-435S) with significant different metastasis potential. For BSP analysis, ten clones of each sample were analyzed.Result The methylation level of Alu in MDA-MB-435S cells was lower than that in MCF7 cells, although the Alu methylation levels in both MCF7 and MDA-MB-435S cells were lower than those in normal tissue cells reported previously. Moreover, the methylated Alu sequences were non-uniform distributed in the genome.Conclusion Demethylation of Alu elements may be involved in breast cancer metastasis. The correlation between methylation status of Alu and breast cancer metastasis deserves further investigation.

  9. Evolution Analysis of Simple Sequence Repeats in Plant Genome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Qin

    Full Text Available Simple sequence repeats (SSRs are widespread units on genome sequences, and play many important roles in plants. In order to reveal the evolution of plant genomes, we investigated the evolutionary regularities of SSRs during the evolution of plant species and the plant kingdom by analysis of twelve sequenced plant genome sequences. First, in the twelve studied plant genomes, the main SSRs were those which contain repeats of 1-3 nucleotides combination. Second, in mononucleotide SSRs, the A/T percentage gradually increased along with the evolution of plants (except for P. patens. With the increase of SSRs repeat number the percentage of A/T in C. reinhardtii had no significant change, while the percentage of A/T in terrestrial plants species gradually declined. Third, in dinucleotide SSRs, the percentage of AT/TA increased along with the evolution of plant kingdom and the repeat number increased in terrestrial plants species. This trend was more obvious in dicotyledon than monocotyledon. The percentage of CG/GC showed the opposite pattern to the AT/TA. Forth, in trinucleotide SSRs, the percentages of combinations including two or three A/T were in a rising trend along with the evolution of plant kingdom; meanwhile with the increase of SSRs repeat number in plants species, different species chose different combinations as dominant SSRs. SSRs in C. reinhardtii, P. patens, Z. mays and A. thaliana showed their specific patterns related to evolutionary position or specific changes of genome sequences. The results showed that, SSRs not only had the general pattern in the evolution of plant kingdom, but also were associated with the evolution of the specific genome sequence. The study of the evolutionary regularities of SSRs provided new insights for the analysis of the plant genome evolution.

  10. Repeatability & Workability Evaluation of SIGMOD 2009

    KAUST Repository

    Manegold, Stefan

    2010-12-15

    SIGMOD 2008 was the first database conference that offered to test submitters\\' programs against their data to verify the repeatability of the experiments published [1]. Given the positive feedback concerning the SIGMOD 2008 repeatability initiative, SIGMOD 2009 modified and expanded the initiative with a workability assessment.

  11. UK 2009-2010 repeat station report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J.G. Shanahan

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The British Geological Survey is responsible for conducting the UK geomagnetic repeat station programme. Measurements made at the UK repeat station sites are used in conjunction with the three UK magnetic observatories: Hartland, Eskdalemuir and Lerwick, to produce a regional model of the local field each year. The UK network of repeat stations comprises 41 stations which are occupied at approximately 3-4 year intervals. Practices for conducting repeat station measurements continue to evolve as advances are made in survey instrumentation and as the usage of the data continues to change. Here, a summary of the 2009 and 2010 UK repeat station surveys is presented, highlighting the measurement process and techniques, density of network, reduction process and recent results.

  12. Are Two Interviews Better Than One? Eyewitness Memory across Repeated Cognitive Interviews

    OpenAIRE

    Odinot, Geralda; Memon, Amina; La Rooy, David; Millen, Ailsa

    2013-01-01

    Eyewitnesses to a filmed event were interviewed twice using a Cognitive Interview to examine the effects of variations in delay between the repeated interviews (immediately & 2 days; immediately & 7 days; 7 & 9 days) and the identity of the interviewers (same or different across the two repeated interviews). Hypermnesia (an increase in total amount of information recalled in the repeated interview) occurred without any decrease in the overall accuracy. Reminiscence (the recall of new informat...

  13. Repeat prescribing: a role for community pharmacists in controlling and monitoring repeat prescriptions.

    OpenAIRE

    Bond, C.; Matheson, C.; Williams, S; Williams, P.; Donnan, P

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Traditional systems of managing repeat prescribing have been criticised for their lack of clinical and administrative controls. AIM: To compare a community pharmacist-managed repeat prescribing system with established methods of managing repeat prescribing. METHOD: A randomised controlled intervention study (19 general medical practices, 3074 patients, 62 community pharmacists). Patients on repeat medication were given sufficient three-monthly scripts, endorsed for monthly dispens...

  14. 基于图聚集算法的寄存器传输级ALU工艺映射算法%Graph Clustering Algorithm for RT Level ALU Technology Mapping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周海峰; 林争辉; 曹炜

    2002-01-01

    Register-transfer level mapping (RTLM) algorithm for technology mapping at RT level is presented,which supports current design methodologies using high-level design and design reuse.The mapping rules implement a source ALU using target ALU.The source ALUs and the target ALUs are all represented by the general ALUs and the mapping rules are applied in the algorithm.The mapping rules are described in a table fashion.The graph-clustering algorithm is a branch and bound algorithm based on the graph formulation of the mapping algorithm.The mapping algorithm suits well mapping of regularly structured data-path.Comparisons are made between the experimental results generated by 1-greedy algorithm and graphclustering algorithm,showing the feasibility of presented algorithm.%给出了寄存器传输级工艺映射(RTLM)算法,该方法支持使用高层次综合和设计再利用的现代VLSI设计方法学,允许复杂的RT级组件,尤其是算术逻辑单元(ALU)在设计中重用.首先提出了ALU的工艺映射问题,给出了源组件和目标组件以及标准组件的定义,在此基础上通过表格的方式给出映射规则的描述.映射算法套用一定的映射规则用目标ALU组件来实现源ALU组件.采用一种基于分支估界法的图聚集算法,用该算法不仅可以产生面积最优的,而且还可以产生延时最优的设计.针对不同库的实验结果证明该算法对于规则结构的数据通路特别有效.

  15. Repeat urine cultures in children with urinary tract infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risky Vitria Prasetyo

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Urinary tract infections (UTIs are the second leading cause of infection in children, following respiratory tract infections. Repeat urine cultures after antibiotic treatment are routinely obtained in clinical practice to verify proof of bacteriologic cure. The American Academy of Pediatrics does not recommended repeat cultures, due to increased cost and discomfort to patients. Objective To determine the frequency of positive repeat urine cultures after 3 days of antibiotics in children with UTIs. Methods We conducted a retrospective study on children with UTIs who visited the Division of Pediatric Nephrology, Department of Child Health at Dr. Soetomo Hospital, Surabaya from January 2006 to December 2011. Results of repeat urine cultures were obtained after 3 days of antibiotic treatment. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the data. Results Of the 779 pediatric UTI cases, repeat urine cultures were performed in 264 (33.9% cases. Of the 264 patients who comprised our study, there were similar numbers of girls and boys (50.4% vs. 49.6%, respectively. The mean age of patients was 43.9 (SD 1.59 months and 35.5% of subjects were aged under 1 year. In the initial urine cultures of our subjects, Escherichia coli was the most common organism found, with 92 cases (34.8%, compared to 58 cases (21.9% of Klebsiella pneumoniae and 29 cases (10.9% of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Rrepeat urine cultures showed no bacterial growth in 168 cases (63.6%. Conclusion Mostly negative repeat urine cultures will probably obviate the need of this test in daily routine practice. [Paediatr Indones. 2012;52:170-4].

  16. Finding and Characterizing Repeats in Plant Genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolas, Jacques; Peterlongo, Pierre; Tempel, Sébastien

    2016-01-01

    Plant genomes contain a particularly high proportion of repeated structures of various types. This chapter proposes a guided tour of available software that can help biologists to look for these repeats and check some hypothetical models intended to characterize their structures. Since transposable elements are a major source of repeats in plants, many methods have been used or developed for this large class of sequences. They are representative of the range of tools available for other classes of repeats and we have provided a whole section on this topic as well as a selection of the main existing software. In order to better understand how they work and how repeats may be efficiently found in genomes, it is necessary to look at the technical issues involved in the large-scale search of these structures. Indeed, it may be hard to keep up with the profusion of proposals in this dynamic field and the rest of the chapter is devoted to the foundations of the search for repeats and more complex patterns. The second section introduces the key concepts that are useful for understanding the current state of the art in playing with words, applied to genomic sequences. This can be seen as the first stage of a very general approach called linguistic analysis that is interested in the analysis of natural or artificial texts. Words, the lexical level, correspond to simple repeated entities in texts or strings. In fact, biologists need to represent more complex entities where a repeat family is built on more abstract structures, including direct or inverted small repeats, motifs, composition constraints as well as ordering and distance constraints between these elementary blocks. In terms of linguistics, this corresponds to the syntactic level of a language. The last section introduces concepts and practical tools that can be used to reach this syntactic level in biological sequence analysis. PMID:26519414

  17. The crystal structures of dystrophin and utrophin spectrin repeats: implications for domain boundaries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muralidharan Muthu

    Full Text Available Dystrophin and utrophin link the F-actin cytoskeleton to the cell membrane via an associated glycoprotein complex. This functionality results from their domain organization having an N-terminal actin-binding domain followed by multiple spectrin-repeat domains and then C-terminal protein-binding motifs. Therapeutic strategies to replace defective dystrophin with utrophin in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy require full-characterization of both these proteins to assess their degree of structural and functional equivalence. Here the high resolution structures of the first spectrin repeats (N-terminal repeat 1 from both dystrophin and utrophin have been determined by x-ray crystallography. The repeat structures both display a three-helix bundle fold very similar to one another and to homologous domains from spectrin, α-actinin and plectin. The utrophin and dystrophin repeat structures reveal the relationship between the structural domain and the canonical spectrin repeat domain sequence motif, showing the compact structural domain of spectrin repeat one to be extended at the C-terminus relative to its previously defined sequence repeat. These structures explain previous in vitro biochemical studies in which extending dystrophin spectrin repeat domain length leads to increased protein stability. Furthermore we show that the first dystrophin and utrophin spectrin repeats have no affinity for F-actin in the absence of other domains.

  18. Schemes of Repeater Optimizing Distribution based on the MLC Application and CBLRD Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Qiuye

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The widely use of repeaters raises concern about their coordination among the public. Since repeaters may suffer interaction and limitation bearing capacity, designing a reasonable repeaters coordination method is of great significance. This study address the problem if repeater coordination in a circular flat area with minimal number of repeaters with seamless coverage theory, system simulation method. With 1,000 users, this study model the coverage, getting the minimal number of repeaters of different coverage radius based on extensive used regular hexagon coverage theory. A numerical example was given in this case. When the number of users increases to 10,000, this study simulate to get the signal density across the area according to the consideration of repeaters and the different distribution of users, which are divided into uniform distribution, linear distribution, normal distribution and lognormal distribution. Then, Multi-Layer Coverage (MLC and Coverage by Link Rate Density (CBLRD are created as the distribution scheme on the area where repeat service demand is large. Moreover, for solution on the distribution of the repeaters with barriers, distribution schemes are given considering the transmission of VHF spectrums and the distribution of users around the barrier. Additionally, Spring Comfortable Degree (SCD is used for evaluation of the results and the developing tends are given to improve the model. Due to the reasonable assumption, the solution of repeater distribution is of pivotal reference value based on the reasonable results.

  19. Multiplexed Memory-Insensitive Quantum Repeaters

    CERN Document Server

    Collins, O A; Kennedy, T A B; Kuzmich, A

    2006-01-01

    Long-distance quantum communication via distant pairs of entangled quantum bits (qubits) is the first step towards technologies such as perfectly secure message transmission and distributed quantum computing. To date, the most promising proposals require quantum repeaters to mitigate the exponential decrease in communication rate due to optical fiber losses. However, quantum repeaters are exquisitely sensitive to the lifetimes of the memory elements they use. We propose a new approach based on a real-time hardware reconfiguration of multiplexed quantum nodes. This scheme should enable the construction of multiplexed quantum repeater networks that are largely insensitive to the coherence times of the quantum memory elements.

  20. The child accident repeater: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, J G

    1980-04-01

    The child accident repeater is defined as one who has at least three accidents that come to medical attention within a year. The accident situation has features in common with those of the child who has a single accident through simple "bad luck", but other factors predispose him to repeated injury. In the child who has a susceptible personality, a tendency for accident repetition may be due to a breakdown in adjustment to a stressful environment. Prevention of repeat accidents should involve the usual measures considered appropriate for all children as well as an attempt to provide treatment of significant maladjustment and modification of a stressful environment.

  1. Rule Based Register-Transfer Level ALU Mapping Algorithm%基于规则的寄存器传输级ALU工艺映射算法的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周海峰; 林争辉

    2002-01-01

    提出寄存器传输级工艺映射(RTLM)算法,该算法支持使用高层次综合和设计再利用的现代VLSI设计方法学,允许复杂的RT级组件,尤其是算术逻辑单元(ALU)在设计中重用.该映射算法使用目标ALU组件来实现源ALU组件,映射规则通过表格的方式给出.此算法对于规则结构的数据通路特别有效.应用k阶贪婪算法的实验结果表明,RTLM在高层次综合中对数据通路组件再利用是一种有效的方法.

  2. 粪便Alu序列的检测在胰腺癌诊断中的价值%Value of detection of fecal Alu repetitive sequences in the diagnosis of pancreatic cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任艳; 高军; 王小玮; 刘建强; 顾俊骏; 金晶; 龚燕芳; 李兆申

    2011-01-01

    目的 检测胰腺癌患者粪便Alu序列表达量,探讨其对胰腺癌的诊断价值.方法 收集41例胰腺癌、27例慢性胰腺炎及23例健康者的粪便样本,采用酚-氯仿方法抽提粪便中基因组DNA,应用实时定量PCR方法检测Alu重复序列的表达量.结果 胰腺癌、慢性胰腺炎、正常健康者粪便Alu重复序列表达量分别为(5.17±0.99)、(3.79 ±0.94)、(0.28±0.35) ng/g,三组间差异有统计学意义(P值均<0.05).通过接受者操作特征(ROC)曲线分析,胰腺癌的曲线下面积为74.8%,95%可信度为0.661~0.835,诊断胰腺癌的敏感性为75.6%,特异性为67.1%.结论 胰腺癌患者粪便Alu序列表达量显著增加,对胰腺癌的诊断可能有一定价值.%Objective To detect the Alu expression in the stool of patients with pancreatic cancer and investigate its value in the diagnosis of pancreatic cancer.Methods Stool samples were obtained from patients with pancreatic cancer (PC) ( n =41 ),chronic pancreatitis (CP) ( n =27 ) and healthy subjects ( n =23 ),the DNA was extracted from the stool and the expression of Alu repetitive sequences was subjected to quantitative analysis by the real-time PCR.Results The expressions of Alu repetitive sequences in PC,CP,and healthy subjects were (5.17 ± 0.99 ),( 3.79 ± 0.94),(0.28 ± 0.35 ) rig/g,and the difference among the three groups was statistically significant (P <0.05).The AUC of PC was 74.8% with the 95% CI 0.661 ~0.835,and the sensitivity,specificity was 75.6% and 67.1%,respectively.Conclusions Alu repetitive sequences are highly expressed in the stool of patients with pancreatic cancer,and it is of value in the diagnosis of pancreatic cancer.

  3. Context dependency of trait repeatability and its relevance for management and conservation of fish populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killen, S S; Adriaenssens, B; Marras, S; Claireaux, G; Cooke, S J

    2016-01-01

    Repeatability of behavioural and physiological traits is increasingly a focus for animal researchers, for which fish have become important models. Almost all of this work has been done in the context of evolutionary ecology, with few explicit attempts to apply repeatability and context dependency of trait variation toward understanding conservation-related issues. Here, we review work examining the degree to which repeatability of traits (such as boldness, swimming performance, metabolic rate and stress responsiveness) is context dependent. We review methods for quantifying repeatability (distinguishing between within-context and across-context repeatability) and confounding factors that may be especially problematic when attempting to measure repeatability in wild fish. Environmental factors such temperature, food availability, oxygen availability, hypercapnia, flow regime and pollutants all appear to alter trait repeatability in fishes. This suggests that anthropogenic environmental change could alter evolutionary trajectories by changing which individuals achieve the greatest fitness in a given set of conditions. Gaining a greater understanding of these effects will be crucial for our ability to forecast the effects of gradual environmental change, such as climate change and ocean acidification, the study of which is currently limited by our ability to examine trait changes over relatively short time scales. Also discussed are situations in which recent advances in technologies associated with electronic tags (biotelemetry and biologging) and respirometry will help to facilitate increased quantification of repeatability for physiological and integrative traits, which so far lag behind measures of repeatability of behavioural traits. PMID:27382470

  4. The Moral Maturity of Repeater Delinquents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petronio, Richard J.

    1980-01-01

    Differences in moral development (as conceived by Kohlberg) were examined in a sample of delinquent teenagers. The repeater group was not found, as had been hypothesized, to be lower on moral maturity than those who engaged in less delinquency. (GC)

  5. Star repeaters for fiber optic links.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, D H; Gravel, R L

    1977-02-01

    A star repeater combines the functions of a passive star coupler and a signal regenerating amplifier. By more effectively utilizing the light power radiated by a light emitting diode, the star repeater can, when used with small diameter channels, couple as much power to all receivers of a multiterminal link as would be coupled to the single receiver of a simple point-to-point link.

  6. Optimization of sequence alignment for simple sequence repeat regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogbonnaya Francis C

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microsatellites, or simple sequence repeats (SSRs, are tandemly repeated DNA sequences, including tandem copies of specific sequences no longer than six bases, that are distributed in the genome. SSR has been used as a molecular marker because it is easy to detect and is used in a range of applications, including genetic diversity, genome mapping, and marker assisted selection. It is also very mutable because of slipping in the DNA polymerase during DNA replication. This unique mutation increases the insertion/deletion (INDELs mutation frequency to a high ratio - more than other types of molecular markers such as single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs. SNPs are more frequent than INDELs. Therefore, all designed algorithms for sequence alignment fit the vast majority of the genomic sequence without considering microsatellite regions, as unique sequences that require special consideration. The old algorithm is limited in its application because there are many overlaps between different repeat units which result in false evolutionary relationships. Findings To overcome the limitation of the aligning algorithm when dealing with SSR loci, a new algorithm was developed using PERL script with a Tk graphical interface. This program is based on aligning sequences after determining the repeated units first, and the last SSR nucleotides positions. This results in a shifting process according to the inserted repeated unit type. When studying the phylogenic relations before and after applying the new algorithm, many differences in the trees were obtained by increasing the SSR length and complexity. However, less distance between different linage had been observed after applying the new algorithm. Conclusions The new algorithm produces better estimates for aligning SSR loci because it reflects more reliable evolutionary relations between different linages. It reduces overlapping during SSR alignment, which results in a more realistic

  7. Quantum Key Distribution over Probabilistic Quantum Repeaters

    CERN Document Server

    Amirloo, Jeyran; Majedi, A Hamed

    2010-01-01

    A feasible route towards implementing long-distance quantum key distribution (QKD) systems relies on probabilistic schemes for entanglement distribution and swapping as proposed in the work of Duan, Lukin, Cirac, and Zoller (DLCZ) [Nature 414, 413 (2001)]. Here, we calculate the conditional throughput and fidelity of entanglement for DLCZ quantum repeaters, by accounting for the DLCZ self-purification property, in the presence of multiple excitations in the ensemble memories as well as loss and other sources of inefficiency in the channel and measurement modules. We then use our results to find the generation rate of secure key bits for QKD systems that rely on DLCZ quantum repeaters. We compare the key generation rate per logical memory employed in the two cases of with and without a repeater node. We find the cross-over distance beyond which the repeater system outperforms the non-repeater one. That provides us with the optimum inter-node distancing in quantum repeater systems. We also find the optimal exci...

  8. Structures of designed armadillo-repeat proteins show propagation of inter-repeat interface effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichen, Christian; Madhurantakam, Chaithanya; Hansen, Simon; Grütter, Markus G; Plückthun, Andreas; Mittl, Peer R E

    2016-01-01

    The armadillo repeat serves as a scaffold for the development of modular peptide-recognition modules. In order to develop such a system, three crystal structures of designed armadillo-repeat proteins with third-generation N-caps (YIII-type), four or five internal repeats (M-type) and second-generation C-caps (AII-type) were determined at 1.8 Å (His-YIIIM4AII), 2.0 Å (His-YIIIM5AII) and 1.95 Å (YIIIM5AII) resolution and compared with those of variants with third-generation C-caps. All constructs are full consensus designs in which the internal repeats have exactly the same sequence, and hence identical conformations of the internal repeats are expected. The N-cap and internal repeats M1 to M3 are indeed extremely similar, but the comparison reveals structural differences in internal repeats M4 and M5 and the C-cap. These differences are caused by long-range effects of the C-cap, contacting molecules in the crystal, and the intrinsic design of the repeat. Unfortunately, the rigid-body movement of the C-terminal part impairs the regular arrangement of internal repeats that forms the putative peptide-binding site. The second-generation C-cap improves the packing of buried residues and thereby the stability of the protein. These considerations are useful for future improvements of an armadillo-repeat-based peptide-recognition system. PMID:26894544

  9. Decomposition of Straw in Soil after Stepwise Repeated Additions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lasse Holst

    1979-01-01

    of laboratory incubation, following the first repeated application, by determination of the total amount of labelled C in the soils and labelled C in the soil amino acids. The overall pattern of decomposition was similar whether the soil was amended with one or with several successive applications. Four years...... after the first repeated addition of labelled straw the soils were subjected to a number of “stress” treatments: addition of unlabelled glucose, air-drying, oven-drying, grinding and fumigation with vapour of chloroform, respectively. The CO2 that developed during the first 10 days after the treatments...... accounted for 2.6% of the labelled C in the soil amended with one repeated addition, and 1.0% in the soil amended with 4 repeated additions. The increase in the evolution of labelled CO2-C caused by the stress treatments ranged from 0.3 to 1.7% of the labelled C in the soil: air-drying had the least effect...

  10. The development of ingroup favoritism in repeated social dilemmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Rachael Dorrough

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In two comprehensive and fully incentivized studies, we investigate the development of ingroup favoritism as one of two aspects of parochial altruism in repeated social dilemmas. Specifically, we test whether ingroup favoritism is a fixed phenomenon that can be observed from the very beginning and remains stable over time, or whether it develops (increases vs. decreases during repeated contact. Ingroup favoritism is assessed through cooperation behavior in a repeated continuous prisoner’s dilemma where participants sequentially interact with ten members of the ingroup (own city and university and subsequently with ten members of the outgroup (other city and university, or vice versa. In none of the experiments do we observe initial differences in cooperation behavior for interaction partners from the ingroup, as compared to outgroup, and we only observe small differences in expectations regarding the interaction partners’ cooperation behavior. After repeated interaction, however, including a change of groups, clear ingroup favoritism can be observed. Instead of being due to gradual and potentially biased updating of expectations, we found that these emerging differences were mainly driven by the change of interaction partners’ group membership that occurred after round 10. This indicates that in social dilemma settings ingroup favoritism is to some degree dynamic in that it is enhanced and sometimes only observable if group membership is activated by thinking about both the interaction with the ingroup and the outgroup.

  11. 降钙素受体基因 AluⅠ多态性与绝经后妇女骨密度的关系%Association between the Alu Ⅰ polymorphism in the calcitonin receptor gene and bone mineral density in postmenopausal women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛继荣; 谢丽华; 陈可; 曾雪爱; 赖玉链; 薛莲

    2010-01-01

    目的 观察降钙素受体基因Alu Ⅰ多态性与绝经后妇女骨密度及骨转换生化标志物的关系.方法 ①2007-01/2008-12从福州常住汉族人中随机检测绝经后妇女623例,均知情同意.②记录年龄、绝经年限、体质量指数和绝经后骨折情况.③双能X线骨密度仪检测正位第2~4腰椎、左侧股骨颈、大转子和Ward's三角区骨密度.④PCR-RFLP技术检测降钙素受体基因Alu Ⅰ多态性.⑤用酶联免疫吸附法检测骨转换生化标志物(血清骨钙素、血清骨碱性磷酸酶、尿吡啶啉和尿脱氧吡啶啉).结果 591例合格受试者进入结果分析,年龄48~84岁,平均62.19±6.32岁.①降钙素受体基因Alu Ⅰ多态性各基因型间骨密度比较差异不显著(P>0.05).②降钙素受体基因Alu Ⅰ多态性各基因型间血清骨钙素、血清骨碱性磷酸酶和尿脱氧吡啶啉比较差异不显著(P>0.05),TT型尿吡啶啉明显低于CC型、TC型,组间比较差异显著(P0.05).④降钙素受体基因Alu Ⅰ多态性各基因型间绝经后骨折比较差异不显著(P>0.05).结论 降钙素受体基因Alu Ⅰ多态性与绝经后骨质疏松症元明显关联,不能作为福州地区绝经后妇女骨质疏松的遗传标记.

  12. Factors Associated with Repeat Blood Donation at the Northern Zone Blood Transfusion Centre in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilhellmuss I. Mauka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective. The aim of this study was to determine factors associated with repeat blood donation. Methods. This was a cross-sectional study carried out among blood donors aged 18–65 years in northern Tanzania. The questionnaire was administered among 454 participants through the phone. Results. Of the 454 participants, the proportion of repeat donation was 63.9%. In the backward logistic regression analysis, the significant predictors were living in Arusha which had lower odds of repeat donation compared to those living in Kilimanjaro. Knowledge of time interval between donations increased odds of repeating donations. High intention increased odds of repeat donation compared to low intention. Altruistic score had minor effect on increasing odds of repeating donation. Conclusion. Repeat blood donation is affected by proximity of donating site, awareness of the blood donation interval, intention to donate, and experience on previous donation. We recommend continuous education concerning blood donors and donation among health workers and society as a whole; this will create awareness on motivational factors for repeat donations.

  13. Repeated Raking of Pine Plantations Alters Soil Arthropod Communities

    OpenAIRE

    Holly K. Ober; Lucas W. DeGroote

    2014-01-01

    Terrestrial arthropods in forests are engaged in vital ecosystem functions that ultimately help maintain soil productivity. Repeated disturbance can cause abrupt and irreversible changes in arthropod community composition and thereby alter trophic interactions among soil fauna. An increasingly popular means of generating income from pine plantations in the Southeastern U.S. is annual raking to collect pine litter. We raked litter once per year for three consecutive years in the pine plantatio...

  14. On the Credibility of Punishment in Repeated Social Dilemma Games

    OpenAIRE

    Ralph-C Bayer

    2014-01-01

    Various experimental studies have shown that the availability of a punishment option can increase the prevalence of cooperative behaviour in repeated social dilemmas. A punishment option should only matter if it is a credible threat. We investigate if the degree of credibility depends on standard strategic equilibrium considerations (i.e. SPNE or NE logic) or stems from a non-strategic motivation such as reciprocity. We find that for punishment to be credible non-strategic motivations are suf...

  15. Modelling the effects of repeated wheel loads on soil profiles

    OpenAIRE

    Gräsle W.; Horn R.; Baumgartl T.; Richards B.C.

    1997-01-01

    Compaction of soil caused by increasing mechanical loads and repeated wheeling may result in reduced soil productivity. The physical response of soils to such loading is analysed with a non-linear finite element program using incremental tangential moduli with incremental loading and unloading from known initial conditions. During each load increment an iterative procedure is used to determine more accurately the stresses and the stress dependent moduli. This program is designed to model the ...

  16. Effects of repeated Valsalva maneuver straining on cardiac and vasoconstrictive baroreflex responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Convertino, Victor A.; Ratliff, Duane A.; Doerr, Donald F.; Ludwig, David A.; Muniz, Gary W.; Benedetti, Erik; Chavarria, Jose; Koreen, Susan; Nguyen, Claude; Wang, Jeff

    2003-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: We hypothesized that repeated respiratory straining maneuvers (repeated SM) designed to elevate arterial BPs (arterial baroreceptor loading) would acutely increase baroreflex responses. METHODS: We tested this hypothesis by measuring cardiac baroreflex responses to carotid baroreceptor stimulation (neck pressures), and changes in heart rate and diastolic BP after reductions in BP induced by a 15-s Valsalva maneuver in 10 female and 10 male subjects at 1, 3, 6, and 24 h after performing repeated SM. Baroreflex responses were also measured in each subject at 1, 3, 6, and 24 h at the same time on a separate day without repeated SM (control) in a randomized, counter-balanced cross-over experimental design. RESULTS: There was no statistical difference in carotid-cardiac and peripheral vascular baroreflex responses measured across time following repeated SM compared with the control condition. Integrated cardiac baroreflex response (deltaHR/ deltaSBP) measured during performance of a Valsalva maneuver was increased by approximately 50% to 1.1 +/- 0.2 bpm x mm Hg(-1) at 1 h and 1.0 +/- 0.1 bpm x mm Hg(-1) at 3 h following repeated SM compared with the control condition (0.7 +/- 0.1 bpm x mm Hg(-1) at both 1 and 3 h, respectively). However, integrated cardiac baroreflex response after repeated SM returned to control levels at 6 and 24 h after training. These responses did not differ between men and women. CONCLUSIONS: Our results are consistent with the notion that arterial baroreceptor loading induced by repeated SM increased aortic, but not carotid, cardiac baroreflex responses for as long as 3 h after repeated SM. We conclude that repeated SM increases cardiac baroreflex responsiveness which may provide patients, astronauts, and high-performance aircraft pilots with protection from development of orthostatic hypotension.

  17. Quantum key distribution over probabilistic quantum repeaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirloo, Jeyran; Razavi, Mohsen; Majedi, A. Hamed

    2010-09-01

    A feasible route toward implementing long-distance quantum key distribution (QKD) systems relies on probabilistic schemes for entanglement distribution and swapping as proposed in the work of Duan, Lukin, Cirac, and Zoller (DLCZ) [Nature (London)NATUAS0028-083610.1038/35106500 414, 413 (2001)]. Here, we calculate the conditional throughput and fidelity of entanglement for DLCZ quantum repeaters by accounting for the DLCZ self-purification property in the presence of multiple excitations in the ensemble memories as well as loss and other sources of inefficiency in the channel and measurement modules. We then use our results to find the generation rate of secure key bits for QKD systems that rely on DLCZ quantum repeaters. We compare the key generation rate per logical memory employed in the two cases with and without a repeater node. We find the crossover distance beyond which the repeater system outperforms the nonrepeater one. That provides us with the optimum internode distancing in quantum repeater systems. We also find the optimal excitation probability at which the QKD rate peaks. Such an optimum probability, in most regimes of interest, is insensitive to the total distance.

  18. Unusual structures are present in DNA fragments containing super-long Huntingtin CAG repeats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Duzdevich

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In the R6/2 mouse model of Huntington's disease (HD, expansion of the CAG trinucleotide repeat length beyond about 300 repeats induces a novel phenotype associated with a reduction in transcription of the transgene. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We analysed the structure of polymerase chain reaction (PCR-generated DNA containing up to 585 CAG repeats using atomic force microscopy (AFM. As the number of CAG repeats increased, an increasing proportion of the DNA molecules exhibited unusual structural features, including convolutions and multiple protrusions. At least some of these features are hairpin loops, as judged by cross-sectional analysis and sensitivity to cleavage by mung bean nuclease. Single-molecule force measurements showed that the convoluted DNA was very resistant to untangling. In vitro replication by PCR was markedly reduced, and TseI restriction enzyme digestion was also hindered by the abnormal DNA structures. However, significantly, the DNA gained sensitivity to cleavage by the Type III restriction-modification enzyme, EcoP15I. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: "Super-long" CAG repeats are found in a number of neurological diseases and may also appear through CAG repeat instability. We suggest that unusual DNA structures associated with super-long CAG repeats decrease transcriptional efficiency in vitro. We also raise the possibility that if these structures occur in vivo, they may play a role in the aetiology of CAG repeat diseases such as HD.

  19. Repeat surgery after failed midurethral slings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Margrethe Foss; Lose, Gunnar; Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler;

    2016-01-01

    MUS from 1998 through 2007. The outcome was repeat surgery with any subsequent procedure code for urinary incontinence within a 5-year period of the first procedure. RESULTS: A total of 5,820 women (mean age 55.4 years, ± 12.1) were registered with a synthetic MUS, and 354 (6 %) underwent reoperation...... they had undergone their primary synthetic MUS. CONCLUSION: In this nationwide cohort study of synthetic MUS a repeat synthetic MUS was the first choice and urethral injection therapy a frequent second choice. The majority of reoperations (82 %) took place in the same department as the primary operation....

  20. Repeating pneumatic pellet injector in JAERI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A repeating pneumatic pellet injector has been developed and constructed at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. This injector can provide repetitive pellet injection to fuel tokamak plasmas for an extended period of time, aiming at the improvement of plasma performance. The pellets with nearly identical speed and mass can be repeatedly injected with a repetition rate of 2-3.3 Hz and a speed of up to 1.7 km/s by controlling the temperature of the cryogenic system, the piston speed and the pressure of the propellant gas. (author)

  1. CAG repeat expansions in bipolar and unipolar disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oruc, L.; Verheyen, G.R.; Raeymaekers, P.; Van Broeckhoven, C. [Univ. of Antwerp (Belgium)] [and others

    1997-03-01

    Family, twin, and adoption studies consistently have indicated that the familial aggregation of bipolar (BP) disorder and unipolar recurrent major depression (UPR) is accounted for largely by genetic factors. However, the mode of inheritance is complex. One of the possible explanations could be that a gene with variable penetrance and variable expression is involved. Recently there have been reports on a new class of genetic diseases caused by an abnormal trinucleotide-repeat expansion (TRE). In a number of genetic disorders, these dynamic mutations were proved to be the biological basis for the clinically observed phenomenon of anticipation. DNA consisting of repeated triplets of nucleotides becomes unstable and increases in size over generations within families, giving rise to an increased severity and/or an earlier onset of the disorder. It has been recognized for a long time that anticipation occurs in multiplex families transmitting mental illness. More recent studies also suggest that both BP disorder and UPR show features that are compatible with anticipation. Although the findings of anticipation in BP disorders and in UPR must be interpreted with caution because of the possible presence of numerous ascertainment biases, they support the hypothesis that pathological TREs are implicated in the transmission of these disorders. TRE combined with variable penetrance of expression could explain the complex transmission pattern observed in BP disorder. In view of this, the recent reports of an association between CAG-repeat length and BP disorder in a Belgian, Swedish, and British population are promising. 14 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  2. A low-magnetic-field soft gamma repeater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rea, N; Esposito, P; Turolla, R; Israel, G L; Zane, S; Stella, L; Mereghetti, S; Tiengo, A; Götz, D; Göğüş, E; Kouveliotou, C

    2010-11-12

    Soft gamma repeaters (SGRs) and anomalous x-ray pulsars form a rapidly increasing group of x-ray sources exhibiting sporadic emission of short bursts. They are believed to be magnetars, that is, neutron stars powered by extreme magnetic fields, B ~ 10(14) to 10(15) gauss. We report on a soft gamma repeater with low magnetic field, SGR 0418+5729, recently detected after it emitted bursts similar to those of magnetars. X-ray observations show that its dipolar magnetic field cannot be greater than 7.5 × 10(12) gauss, well in the range of ordinary radio pulsars, implying that a high surface dipolar magnetic field is not necessarily required for magnetar-like activity. The magnetar population may thus include objects with a wider range of B-field strengths, ages, and evolutionary stages than observed so far.

  3. Copy number of tandem direct repeats within the inverted repeats of Marek's disease virus DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanamori, A; Nakajima, K; Ikuta, K; Ueda, S; Kato, S; Hirai, K

    1986-12-01

    We previously reported that DNA of the oncogenic strain BC-1 of Marek's disease virus serotype 1 (MDV1) contains three units of tandem direct repeats with 132 base pair (bp) repeats within the inverted repeats of the long regions of the MDV1 genome, whereas the attenuated, nononcogenic viral DNA contains multiple units of tandem direct repeats (Maotani et al., 1986). In the present study, the difference in the copy numbers of 132 bp repeats of oncogenic and nononcogenic MDV1 DNAs in other strains of MDV1 was investigated by Southern blot hybridization. The main copy numbers in different oncogenic MDV1 strains differed: those of BC-1, JM and highly oncogenic Md5 were 3, 5 to 12 and 2, respectively. The viral DNA population with two units of repeats was small, but detectable, in cells infected with either the oncogenic BC-1 or JM strain. The MDV1 DNA in various MD cell lines contained either two units or both two and three units of repeats. The significance of the copy number of repeats in oncogenicity of MDV1 is discussed.

  4. Evolution of ribosomal DNA-derived satellite repeat in tomato genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hur Cheol-Goo

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tandemly repeated DNA, also called as satellite DNA, is a common feature of eukaryotic genomes. Satellite repeats can expand and contract dramatically, which may cause genome size variation among genetically-related species. However, the origin and expansion mechanism are not clear yet and needed to be elucidated. Results FISH analysis revealed that the satellite repeat showing homology with intergenic spacer (IGS of rDNA present in the tomato genome. By comparing the sequences representing distinct stages in the divergence of rDNA repeat with those of canonical rDNA arrays, the molecular mechanism of the evolution of satellite repeat is described. Comprehensive sequence analysis and phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that a long terminal repeat retrotransposon was interrupted into each copy of the 18S rDNA and polymerized by recombination rather than transposition via an RNA intermediate. The repeat was expanded through doubling the number of IGS into the 25S rRNA gene, and also greatly increasing the copy number of type I subrepeat in the IGS of 25-18S rDNA by segmental duplication. Homogenization to a single type of subrepeat in the satellite repeat was achieved as the result of amplifying copy number of the type I subrepeat but eliminating neighboring sequences including the type II subrepeat and rRNA coding sequence from the array. FISH analysis revealed that the satellite repeats are commonly present in closely-related Solanum species, but vary in their distribution and abundance among species. Conclusion These results represent that the dynamic satellite repeats were originated from intergenic spacer of rDNA unit in the tomato genome. This result could serve as an example towards understanding the initiation and the expansion of the satellite repeats in complex eukaryotic genome.

  5. Replication Stalling and Heteroduplex Formation within CAG/CTG Trinucleotide Repeats by Mismatch Repair

    KAUST Repository

    Viterbo, David

    2016-03-16

    Trinucleotide repeat expansions are responsible for at least two dozen neurological disorders. Mechanisms leading to these large expansions of repeated DNA are still poorly understood. It was proposed that transient stalling of the replication fork by the repeat tract might trigger slippage of the newly-synthesized strand over its template, leading to expansions or contractions of the triplet repeat. However, such mechanism was never formally proven. Here we show that replication fork pausing and CAG/CTG trinucleotide repeat instability are not linked, stable and unstable repeats exhibiting the same propensity to stall replication forks when integrated in a yeast natural chromosome. We found that replication fork stalling was dependent on the integrity of the mismatch-repair system, especially the Msh2p-Msh6p complex, suggesting that direct interaction of MMR proteins with secondary structures formed by trinucleotide repeats in vivo, triggers replication fork pauses. We also show by chromatin immunoprecipitation that Msh2p is enriched at trinucleotide repeat tracts, in both stable and unstable orientations, this enrichment being dependent on MSH3 and MSH6. Finally, we show that overexpressing MSH2 favors the formation of heteroduplex regions, leading to an increase in contractions and expansions of CAG/CTG repeat tracts during replication, these heteroduplexes being dependent on both MSH3 and MSH6. These heteroduplex regions were not detected when a mutant msh2-E768A gene in which the ATPase domain was mutated was overexpressed. Our results unravel two new roles for mismatch-repair proteins: stabilization of heteroduplex regions and transient blocking of replication forks passing through such repeats. Both roles may involve direct interactions between MMR proteins and secondary structures formed by trinucleotide repeat tracts, although indirect interactions may not be formally excluded.

  6. Adaptation and complexity in repeated games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maenner, Eliot Alexander

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents a learning model for two-player infinitely repeated games. In an inference step players construct minimally complex inferences of strategies based on observed play, and in an adaptation step players choose minimally complex best responses to an inference. When players randomly ...

  7. Why Do Students Repeat Admissions Tests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Martha S.

    Attitudes and beliefs about the admissions process, especially the role of standardized testing in admissions, were examined for students who took a standardized admissions test more than once. Their attitudes were compared with those of students who did not repeat the test. About 200 preveterinary students who had taken the Veterinary Aptitude…

  8. The Effect of Repeaters on Equating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, HeeKyoung; Kolen, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    Test equating might be affected by including in the equating analyses examinees who have taken the test previously. This study evaluated the effect of including such repeaters on Medical College Admission Test (MCAT) equating using a population invariance approach. Three-parameter logistic (3-PL) item response theory (IRT) true score and…

  9. Multivariate linear models and repeated measurements revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Methods for generalized analysis of variance based on multivariate normal theory have been known for many years. In a repeated measurements context, it is most often of interest to consider transformed responses, typically within-subject contrasts or averages. Efficiency considerations leads...

  10. Triggering of repeating earthquakes in central California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chunquan; Gomberg, Joan; Ben-Naim, Eli; Johnson, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Dynamic stresses carried by transient seismic waves have been found capable of triggering earthquakes instantly in various tectonic settings. Delayed triggering may be even more common, but the mechanisms are not well understood. Catalogs of repeating earthquakes, earthquakes that recur repeatedly at the same location, provide ideal data sets to test the effects of transient dynamic perturbations on the timing of earthquake occurrence. Here we employ a catalog of 165 families containing ~2500 total repeating earthquakes to test whether dynamic perturbations from local, regional, and teleseismic earthquakes change recurrence intervals. The distance to the earthquake generating the perturbing waves is a proxy for the relative potential contributions of static and dynamic deformations, because static deformations decay more rapidly with distance. Clear changes followed the nearby 2004 Mw6 Parkfield earthquake, so we study only repeaters prior to its origin time. We apply a Monte Carlo approach to compare the observed number of shortened recurrence intervals following dynamic perturbations with the distribution of this number estimated for randomized perturbation times. We examine the comparison for a series of dynamic stress peak amplitude and distance thresholds. The results suggest a weak correlation between dynamic perturbations in excess of ~20 kPa and shortened recurrence intervals, for both nearby and remote perturbations.

  11. A Repeater in the Language Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, B. T.

    1969-01-01

    Discusses the feasilility of the use of repeater devices in the language laboratory in order to enable the student to "recapitulate effortlessly and and indefinitely any utterance of any length which is causing him difficulty or is of special interest. (FWB)

  12. The Differential Effects of Repeating Kindergarten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkam, David T.; LoGerfo, Laura; Ready, Doug; Lee, Valerie E.

    2007-01-01

    We use the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study to investigate national patterns addressing (a) who repeats kindergarten, and (b) the subsequent cognitive effects of this event. Using OLS regression techniques, we investigate 1st-time kindergartners who are promoted, 1st-time kindergartners who are retained, and children who are already repeating…

  13. Childhood experiences and repeated suicidal behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krarup, Gertrud; Nielsen, Bent; Rask, P;

    1991-01-01

    that the psychological climate of the home may be more important than the rupture of early home life. It is noteworthy that the group of repeaters, as against the first-evers, could be characterized by personality disorders and abuse, especially of alcohol: disorders known to be precipitated by a discordant childhood...

  14. Preventing Repeat Teen Births PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-04-02

    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the April 2013 CDC Vital Signs report, which discusses repeat teen births and ways teens, parents and guardians, health care providers, and communities can help prevent them.  Created: 4/2/2013 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 4/2/2013.

  15. Structural basis for triplet repeat disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baldi, Pierre; Brunak, Søren; Chauvin, Yves;

    1999-01-01

    that approximately 150 bp is a general threshold length far repeat instability Since this is about the length of DNA wrapped up in a single nucleosome care particle, we speculate that chromatin structure may play an important role in the expansion mechanism. We furthermore suggest that expansion afa dodecamer repent...

  16. Costly renegotiation in repeated Bertand games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Ola; Wengström, Erik Roland

    2010-01-01

    This paper extends the concept of weak renegotiation-proof equilibrium (WRP) to allow for costly renegotiation and shows that even small renegotiation costs can have dramatic effects on the set of equilibria. More specifically, the paper analyzes the infinitely repeated Bertrand game. It is shown...

  17. Testing Multiple Outcomes in Repeated Measures Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lix, Lisa M.; Sajobi, Tolulope

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates procedures for controlling the familywise error rate (FWR) when testing hypotheses about multiple, correlated outcome variables in repeated measures (RM) designs. A content analysis of RM research articles published in 4 psychology journals revealed that 3 quarters of studies tested hypotheses about 2 or more outcome…

  18. Repeater For A Digital-Communication Bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Guzman, Esteban; Olson, Stephen; Heaps, Tim

    1993-01-01

    Digital repeater circuit designed to extend range of communication on MIL-STD-1553 bus beyond original maximum allowable length of 300 ft. Circuit provides two-way communication, one way at time, and conforms to specifications of MIL-STD-1553. Crosstalk and instability eliminated.

  19. On balanced minimal repeated measurements designs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakeel Ahmad Mir

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Repeated Measurements designs are concerned with scientific experiments in which each experimental unit is assigned more than once to a treatment either different or identical. This class of designs has the property that the unbiased estimators for elementary contrasts among direct and residual effects are obtainable. Afsarinejad (1983 provided a method of constructing balanced Minimal Repeated Measurements designs p < t , when t is an odd or prime power, one or more than one treatment may occur more than once in some sequences and  designs so constructed no longer remain uniform in periods. In this paper an attempt has been made to provide a new method to overcome this drawback. Specifically, two cases have been considered                RM[t,n=t(t-t/(p-1,p], λ2=1 for balanced minimal repeated measurements designs and  RM[t,n=2t(t-t/(p-1,p], λ2=2 for balanced  repeated measurements designs. In addition , a method has been provided for constructing              extra-balanced minimal designs for special case RM[t,n=t2/(p-1,p], λ2=1.

  20. EVOLUTION AND RECOMBINATION OF BOVINE DNA REPEATS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    JOBSE, C; BUNTJER, JB; HAAGSMA, N; BREUKELMAN, HJ; BEINTEMA, JJ; LENSTRA, JA

    1995-01-01

    The history of the abundant repeat elements in the bovine genome has been studied by comparative hybridization and PCR. The Bov-A and Bov-B SINE elements both emerged just after the divergence of the Camelidae and the true ruminants. A 31-bp subrepeat motif in satellites of the Bovidae species cattl

  1. Independent movement, dimerization and stability of tandem repeats of chicken brain alpha-spectrin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kusunoki, H.; Minasov, G.; Macdonald, R.I.; Mondragon, A. (NWU)

    2010-03-08

    Previous X-ray crystal structures have shown that linkers of five amino acid residues connecting pairs of chicken brain {alpha}-spectrin and human erythroid {beta}-spectrin repeats can undergo bending without losing their {alpha}-helical structure. To test whether bending at one linker can influence bending at an adjacent linker, the structures of two and three repeat fragments of chicken brain {alpha}-spectrin have been determined by X-ray crystallography. The structure of the three-repeat fragment clearly shows that bending at one linker can occur independently of bending at an adjacent linker. This observation increases the possible trajectories of modeled chains of spectrin repeats. Furthermore, the three-repeat molecule crystallized as an antiparallel dimer with a significantly smaller buried interfacial area than that of {alpha}-actinin, a spectrin-related molecule, but large enough and of a type indicating biological specificity. Comparison of the structures of the spectrin and {alpha}-actinin dimers supports weak association of the former, which could not be detected by analytical ultracentrifugation, versus strong association of the latter, which has been observed by others. To correlate features of the structure with solution properties and to test a previous model of stable spectrin and dystrophin repeats, the number of inter-helical interactions in each repeat of several spectrin structures were counted and compared to their thermal stabilities. Inter-helical interactions, but not all interactions, increased in parallel with measured thermal stabilities of each repeat and in agreement with the thermal stabilities of two and three repeats and also partial repeats of spectrin.

  2. Accuracy of velocities from repeated GPS measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akarsu, V.; Sanli, D. U.; Arslan, E.

    2015-04-01

    Today repeated GPS measurements are still in use, because we cannot always employ GPS permanent stations due to a variety of limitations. One area of study that uses velocities/deformation rates from repeated GPS measurements is the monitoring of crustal motion. This paper discusses the quality of the velocities derived using repeated GPS measurements for the aim of monitoring crustal motion. From a global network of International GNSS Service (IGS) stations, we processed GPS measurements repeated monthly and annually spanning nearly 15 years and estimated GPS velocities for GPS baseline components latitude, longitude and ellipsoidal height. We used web-based GIPSY for the processing. Assuming true deformation rates can only be determined from the solutions of 24 h observation sessions, we evaluated the accuracy of the deformation rates from 8 and 12 h sessions. We used statistical hypothesis testing to assess the velocities derived from short observation sessions. In addition, as an alternative control method we checked the accuracy of GPS solutions from short observation sessions against those of 24 h sessions referring to statistical criteria that measure the accuracy of regression models. Results indicate that the velocities of the vertical component are completely affected when repeated GPS measurements are used. The results also reveal that only about 30% of the 8 h solutions and about 40% of 12 h solutions for the horizontal coordinates are acceptable for velocity estimation. The situation is much worse for the vertical component in which none of the solutions from campaign measurements are acceptable for obtaining reliable deformation rates.

  3. CGG repeat-associated translation mediates neurodegeneration in fragile X tremor ataxia syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Peter K; Oh, Seok Yoon; Krans, Amy; He, Fang; Sellier, Chantal; Frazer, Michelle; Renoux, Abigail J; Chen, Kai-chun; Scaglione, K Matthew; Basrur, Venkatesha; Elenitoba-Johnson, Kojo; Vonsattel, Jean P; Louis, Elan D; Sutton, Michael A; Taylor, J Paul; Mills, Ryan E; Charlet-Berguerand, Nicholas; Paulson, Henry L

    2013-05-01

    Fragile X-associated tremor ataxia syndrome (FXTAS) results from a CGG repeat expansion in the 5' UTR of FMR1. This repeat is thought to elicit toxicity as RNA, yet disease brains contain ubiquitin-positive neuronal inclusions, a pathologic hallmark of protein-mediated neurodegeneration. We explain this paradox by demonstrating that CGG repeats trigger repeat-associated non-AUG-initiated (RAN) translation of a cryptic polyglycine-containing protein, FMRpolyG. FMRpolyG accumulates in ubiquitin-positive inclusions in Drosophila, cell culture, mouse disease models, and FXTAS patient brains. CGG RAN translation occurs in at least two of three possible reading frames at repeat sizes ranging from normal (25) to pathogenic (90), but inclusion formation only occurs with expanded repeats. In Drosophila, CGG repeat toxicity is suppressed by eliminating RAN translation and enhanced by increased polyglycine protein production. These studies expand the growing list of nucleotide repeat disorders in which RAN translation occurs and provide evidence that RAN translation contributes to neurodegeneration. PMID:23602499

  4. A review of repeat prostate biopsies and the influence of technique on cancer detection: our experience.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Quinlan, M R

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Follow-up of patients with an initial negative prostate biopsy, but surrounding whom a suspicion of prostate cancer persists, is difficult. In addition, debate exists as to the optimal technique for repeat prostate biopsy. AIMS: To assess the cancer detection rate on repeat prostate biopsy. METHODS: We reviewed patients who underwent prostate biopsy in our department in 2005 who had >or=1 previous biopsy within the preceding 5 years. Cancer detection rate on repeat biopsy and the influence of the number of biopsy cores were recorded. RESULTS: Cancer detection rate on repeat biopsy was 15.4%, with approximately 60% detected on the first repeat biopsy, but approximately 10% not confirmed until the fourth repeat biopsy. Gleason score was similar regardless of the time of diagnosis (6.1-6.5). Mean interval between first biopsy and cancer diagnosis (range 18-55 months) depended on the number of repeat procedures. There was an association between the number of biopsy cores and cancer detection. CONCLUSIONS: This study supports the practice of increasing the number of cores taken on initial and first repeat biopsy to maximise prostate cancer detection and reduce the overall number of biopsies needed.

  5. Impact of copy number of distinct SV40PolyA segments on expression of a GFP reporter gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The presence of Alu repeats downregulates the expression of the green fluorescent protein(GFP) gene.We found that SV40PolyA(PolyA,240 bp),in either orientation,eliminated the inhibition of GFP gene expression induced by Alu repeats when it was placed between the GFP gene and the Alu repeats.In this study,4 different segments(each 60 bp) were amplified from antisense PolyA(PolyAas) by PCR,and inserted upstream of Alu14 in pAlu14 plasmid(14 Alu repeats inserted downstream of the GFP gene in vector pEGFP-C1 in a head-tail tandem manner).Segments 1F1R(the first 60 bp segment at the 5’ end of PolyAas) and 4F4R(the fourth 60 bp segment from the 5’ end of PolyAas) did not activate GFP gene expression,whereas 2F2R and 3F3R(the middle two segments) did(as detected by Northern blot analysis and fluorescent microscopy).Different copy numbers of 2F2R and 3F3R segments,in a head and tail tandem manner,were inserted downstream of the GFP gene in pAlu14.p2F2R*4-Alu28,p3F3R*4-Alu18 and p3F3R*4-Alu28 were used as length controls to verify that the decrease in the expression of GFP was not due to the increased length of the inserted segment in the expression vectors.We found that 2 and 4 copies of 2F2R or 3F3R activated the GFP gene more strongly than one copy of them.However,more than 8 copies of 2F2R or 3F3R reduced the activation of the GFP gene.We concluded that SV40PolyAas contained at least two gene-activating elements(2F2R and 3F3R) and 2-4 copies of 2F2R or 3F3R were optimal for the expression of the GFP gene.

  6. The evidence for increased L1 activity in the site of human adult brain neurogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey A Kurnosov

    Full Text Available Retroelement activity is a common source of polymorphisms in human genome. The mechanism whereby retroelements contribute to the intraindividual genetic heterogeneity by inserting into the DNA of somatic cells is gaining increasing attention. Brain tissues are suspected to accumulate genetic heterogeneity as a result of the retroelements somatic activity. This study aims to expand our understanding of the role retroelements play in generating somatic mosaicism of neural tissues. Whole-genome Alu and L1 profiling of genomic DNA extracted from the cerebellum, frontal cortex, subventricular zone, dentate gyrus, and the myocardium revealed hundreds of somatic insertions in each of the analyzed tissues. Interestingly, the highest concentration of such insertions was detected in the dentate gyrus-the hotspot of adult neurogenesis. Insertions of retroelements and their activity could produce genetically diverse neuronal subsets, which can be involved in hippocampal-dependent learning and memory.

  7. PRODUCTIVITY, REPEATABILITY OF PRODUCTIVE AND REPRODUCTIVE TRAITS OF LOCAL PIGEON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Darwati

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to know productivity and repeatability of local pigeon. Data werecollected from 124 birds that reared under intensive management. The results showed that artificial pairwas 100% and polygamy was 16% (n=62 pair of pigeon. The ration of local pigeon consisting of 50%corn+50% of commercial feed for starter broiler chicken can be applied in field. The average of eggproduction was 1.8 eggs/pair/period, egg weight was 17.7 g, fertility was 96.6%, hatching rate was 77%,embryo mortality rate was 23%, interval period from laying to hatching and suckling was 51 days, 31.4days with hatching, and 17.6 days without hatching and suckling. The day old pigeon weight ranged10.9-16.2 g. Repeatability value of productive traits was high, in which egg weight was 0.64 and day oldpigeon weight was 0.737. Repeatability of reproductive traits was low, that was fertility and hatchabilitywas 0.12 and 0.048, respectively. The squab weight increased from week 0 to 4, then decreased in theweek 5. The growth rate was highest at the week 1, then decreased from the week 2 to 5 with thenegative growth rate occur at the 5th week. The squab growth rate followed a quadratic pattern. It wasconcluded that slaughter squab selection could be done at 4th week old.

  8. 47 CFR 80.1179 - On-board repeater limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false On-board repeater limitations. 80.1179 Section... On-board repeater limitations. When an on-board repeater is used, the following limitations must be met: (a) The on-board repeater antenna must be located no higher than 3 meters (10 feet) above...

  9. Repeatability in the assessment of multi-segment foot kinematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deschamps, Kevin; Staes, Filip; Bruyninckx, Herman; Busschots, Ellen; Jaspers, Ellen; Atre, Ameya; Desloovere, Kaat

    2012-02-01

    A recently published systematic review on 3D multi-segment foot models has illustrated the lack of repeatability studies providing evidence for appropriate clinical decision making. The aim of the current study was to assess the repeatability of the recently published model developed by Leardini et al. [10]. Foot kinematics of six healthy adults were analyzed through a repeated-measures design including two therapists with different levels of experience and four test sessions. For the majority of the parameters moderate or good repeatability was observed for the within-day and between-day sessions. A trend towards consistently higher within- and between-day variability was observed for the junior compared to the senior clinician. The mean inter-session variability of the relative 3D rotations ranged between 0.9-4.2° and 1.6-5.0° for respectively the senior and junior clinician whereas for the absolute angles this variability increased to respectively 2.0-6.2° and 2.6-7.8°. Mean inter-therapist standard deviations ranged between 2.2° and 6.5° for the relative 3D rotations and between 2.8° and 7.6° for the absolute 3D rotations. The ratio of inter-therapist to inter-trial errors ranged between 1.8 and 5.5 for the relative 3D rotations and between 2.4 and 9.7 for the absolute 3D rotations. Absolute angle representation of the planar angles was found to be more difficult. Observations from the current study indicate that an adequate normative database can be installed in gait laboratories, however, it should be stressed that experience of therapists is important and gait laboratories should therefore be encouraged to put effort in training their clinicians.

  10. Cardiovascular adjustments and pain during repeated cold pressor test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stancák, A; Yamamotová, A; Kulls, I P; Sekyra, I V

    1996-04-01

    The cold pressor test is used in the clinical testing of the autonomic nervous system. However, little is known about changes in the autonomic control of the cardiovascular system during repeated challenge with cold. Heart rate (HR), respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), T-wave amplitude of ECG (TWA), blood pressure, body temperature and perceived pain were recorded in 18 male subjects during three CPTs which consisted of four minutes immersion of the left hand into cold water at 1 degree C. Breathing during CPT was either spontaneous or paced at 0.23 Hz or 0.1 Hz. Pain intensity and HR decreased and TWA increased during the cold immersion and in the resting period preceding cold in the second and third trials. Systolic and pulse blood pressure increased in resting periods in the third trial. RSA increased in the second and third cold challenge during paced breathing at 0.1 Hz only. A decrease in body temperature (0.48 degree C) at the end of the experiment correlated marginally with HR changes. Our study shows that sustained cardiovascular changes are induced by the first challenge with cold, and persist or increase with repeated cold pressor tests.

  11. Preservice science teachers' experiences with repeated, guided inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slack, Amy B.

    The purpose of this study was to examine preservice science teachers' experiences with repeated scientific inquiry (SI) activities. The National Science Education Standards (National Research Council, 1996) stress students should understand and possess the abilities to do SI. For students to meet these standards, science teachers must understand and be able to perform SI; however, previous research demonstrated that many teachers have naive understandings in this area. Teacher preparation programs provide an opportunity to facilitate the development of inquiry understandings and abilities. In this study, preservice science teachers had experiences with two inquiry activities that were repeated three times each. The research questions for this study were (a) How do preservice science teachers' describe their experiences with repeated, guided inquiry activities? (b) What are preservice science teachers' understandings and abilities of SI? This study was conducted at a large, urban university in the southeastern United States. The 5 participants had bachelor's degrees in science and were enrolled in a graduate science education methods course. The researcher was one of the course instructors but did not lead the activities. Case study methodology was used. Data was collected from a demographic survey, an open-ended questionnaire with follow-up interviews, the researcher's observations, participants' lab notes, personal interviews, and participants' journals. Data were coded and analyzed through chronological data matrices to identify patterns in participants' experiences. The five domains identified in this study were understandings of SI, abilities to conduct SI, personal feelings about the experience, science content knowledge, and classroom implications. Through analysis of themes identified within each domain, the four conclusions made about these preservice teachers' experiences with SI were that the experience increased their abilities to conduct inquiry

  12. Nonparametric additive regression for repeatedly measured data

    KAUST Repository

    Carroll, R. J.

    2009-05-20

    We develop an easily computed smooth backfitting algorithm for additive model fitting in repeated measures problems. Our methodology easily copes with various settings, such as when some covariates are the same over repeated response measurements. We allow for a working covariance matrix for the regression errors, showing that our method is most efficient when the correct covariance matrix is used. The component functions achieve the known asymptotic variance lower bound for the scalar argument case. Smooth backfitting also leads directly to design-independent biases in the local linear case. Simulations show our estimator has smaller variance than the usual kernel estimator. This is also illustrated by an example from nutritional epidemiology. © 2009 Biometrika Trust.

  13. High-bandwidth hybrid quantum repeater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munro, W J; Van Meter, R; Louis, Sebastien G R; Nemoto, Kae

    2008-07-25

    We present a physical- and link-level design for the creation of entangled pairs to be used in quantum repeater applications where one can control the noise level of the initially distributed pairs. The system can tune dynamically, trading initial fidelity for success probability, from high fidelity pairs (F=0.98 or above) to moderate fidelity pairs. The same physical resources that create the long-distance entanglement are used to implement the local gates required for entanglement purification and swapping, creating a homogeneous repeater architecture. Optimizing the noise properties of the initially distributed pairs significantly improves the rate of generating long-distance Bell pairs. Finally, we discuss the performance trade-off between spatial and temporal resources.

  14. Repeated interactions in open quantum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analyzing the dynamics of open quantum systems has a long history in mathematics and physics. Depending on the system at hand, basic physical phenomena that one would like to explain are, for example, convergence to equilibrium, the dynamics of quantum coherences (decoherence) and quantum correlations (entanglement), or the emergence of heat and particle fluxes in non-equilibrium situations. From the mathematical physics perspective, one of the main challenges is to derive the irreversible dynamics of the open system, starting from a unitary dynamics of the system and its environment. The repeated interactions systems considered in these notes are models of non-equilibrium quantum statistical mechanics. They are relevant in quantum optics, and more generally, serve as a relatively well treatable approximation of a more difficult quantum dynamics. In particular, the repeated interaction models allow to determine the large time (stationary) asymptotics of quantum systems out of equilibrium

  15. Repeated interactions in open quantum systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruneau, Laurent, E-mail: laurent.bruneau@u-cergy.fr [Laboratoire AGM, Université de Cergy-Pontoise, Site Saint-Martin, BP 222, 95302 Cergy-Pontoise (France); Joye, Alain, E-mail: Alain.Joye@ujf-grenoble.fr [Institut Fourier, UMR 5582, CNRS-Université Grenoble I, BP 74, 38402 Saint-Martin d’Hères (France); Merkli, Marco, E-mail: merkli@mun.ca [Department of Mathematics and Statistics Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John' s, NL Canada A1C 5S7 (Canada)

    2014-07-15

    Analyzing the dynamics of open quantum systems has a long history in mathematics and physics. Depending on the system at hand, basic physical phenomena that one would like to explain are, for example, convergence to equilibrium, the dynamics of quantum coherences (decoherence) and quantum correlations (entanglement), or the emergence of heat and particle fluxes in non-equilibrium situations. From the mathematical physics perspective, one of the main challenges is to derive the irreversible dynamics of the open system, starting from a unitary dynamics of the system and its environment. The repeated interactions systems considered in these notes are models of non-equilibrium quantum statistical mechanics. They are relevant in quantum optics, and more generally, serve as a relatively well treatable approximation of a more difficult quantum dynamics. In particular, the repeated interaction models allow to determine the large time (stationary) asymptotics of quantum systems out of equilibrium.

  16. Learning With Repeated-Game Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos A. Ioannou

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We use the self-tuning Experience Weighted Attraction model with repeated-game strategies as a computer testbed to examine the relative frequency, speed of convergence and progression of a set of repeated-game strategies in four symmetric 2x2 games: Prisoner's Dilemma, Battle of the Sexes, Stag-Hunt, and Chicken. In the Prisoner's Dilemma game, we fi□nd that the strategy with the most occurrences is the Grim-Trigger. In the Battle of the Sexes game, a cooperative pair that alternates between the two pure-strategy Nash equilibria emerges as the one with the most occurrences. In the Stag-Hunt and Chicken games, the Win-Stay, Lose-Shift and Grim-Trigger strategies are the ones with the most occurrences. Overall, the pairs that converged quickly ended up at the cooperative outcomes, whereas the ones that were extremely slow to reach convergence ended up at non-cooperative outcomes.

  17. Repeatability of Response to Asthma Medications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ann; Tantisira, Kelan; Li, Lingling; Schuemann, Brooke; Weiss, Scott

    2010-01-01

    Background Pharmacogenetic studies of drug response in asthma assume that patients respond consistently to a treatment but that treatment response varies across patients, however, no formal studies have demonstrated this. Objective To determine the repeatability of commonly used outcomes for treatment response to asthma medications: bronchodilator response, forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), and provocative concentration of methacholine producing a 20% decline in FEV1 (PC20). Methods The Childhood Asthma Management Program (CAMP) was a multi-center clinical trial of children randomized to receiving budesonide, nedocromil, or placebo. We determined the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) for each outcome over repeated visits over four years in CAMP using mixed effects regression models. We adjusted for the covariates: age, race/ethnicity, height, family income, parental education, and symptom score. We incorporated each outcome for each child as repeated outcome measurements and stratified by treatment group. Results The ICC for bronchodilator response was 0.31 in the budesonide group, 0.35 in the nedocromil group, and 0.40 in the placebo group, after adjusting for covariates. The ICC for FEV1 was 0.71 in the budesonide group, 0.60 in the nedocromil group, and 0.69 in the placebo group, after adjusting for covariates. The ICC for PC20 was 0.67 in the budesonide and placebo groups and 0.73 in the nedocromil group, after adjusting for covariates. Conclusion The within treatment group repeatability of FEV1 and PC20 are high; thus these phenotypes are heritable. FEV1 and PC20 may be better phenotypes than bronchodilator response for studies of treatment response in asthma. PMID:19064281

  18. Repeatability and Workability Evaluation of SIGMOD 2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonnet, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    SIGMOD has offered, since 2008, to verify the experiments published in the papers accepted at the conference. This year, we have been in charge of reproducing the experiments provided by the authors (repeatability), and exploring changes to experiment parameters (workability). In this paper, we a...... find that most experiments are distributed as Linux packages accompanied by instructions on how to setup and run the experiments. We are still far from the vision of executable papers...

  19. Repeat Gamma Knife surgery for vestibular schwannomas

    OpenAIRE

    Sarah Lonneville; Carine Delbrouck; Cécile Renier; Daniel Devriendt; Nicolas Massager

    2015-01-01

    Background: Gamma Knife (GK) surgery is a recognized treatment option for the management of small to medium-sized vestibular schwannoma (VS) associated with high-tumor control and low morbidity. When a radiosurgical treatment fails to stop tumor growth, repeat GK surgery can be proposed in selected cases. Methods : A series of 27 GK retreatments was performed in 25 patients with VS; 2 patients underwent three procedures. The median time interval between GK treatments was 45 months. The me...

  20. Capacities of repeater-assisted quantum communications

    OpenAIRE

    Pirandola, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    We establish the ultimate rates for transmitting quantum information, distilling entanglement, and distributing secret keys in repeater-assisted quantum communications, under the most fundamental decoherence models for both discrete and continuous variable systems, including lossy channels, quantum-limited amplifiers, dephasing and erasure channels. These capacities are derived considering the most general adaptive protocols for quantum and private communication between the two end-points of ...

  1. Quantum Key Distribution over Probabilistic Quantum Repeaters

    OpenAIRE

    Amirloo, Jeyran; Razavi, Mohsen; Majedi, A. Hamed

    2010-01-01

    A feasible route towards implementing long-distance quantum key distribution (QKD) systems relies on probabilistic schemes for entanglement distribution and swapping as proposed in the work of Duan, Lukin, Cirac, and Zoller (DLCZ) [Nature 414, 413 (2001)]. Here, we calculate the conditional throughput and fidelity of entanglement for DLCZ quantum repeaters, by accounting for the DLCZ self-purification property, in the presence of multiple excitations in the ensemble memories as well as loss a...

  2. Isolation of chromosome-specific DNA sequences from an Alu polymerase chain reaction library to define the breakpoint in a patient with a constitutional translocation t(1;13) (q22;q12) and ganglioneuroblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalski, A J; Cotter, F E; Cowell, J K

    1992-08-01

    We describe the cytogenetic and molecular characterization of a t(1;13)(q22;q12) constitutional rearrangement occurring in a patient with a relatively benign form of neuroblastoma, called ganglioneuroblastoma. Somatic cell hybrids were generated between mouse 3T3 cells and a lymphoblastoid cell line from this patient, D.G. One isolated subclone, DGF27C11, contained the derivative chromosome, 1pter-q22::13q12-qter, but no other material from either chromosome 1 or 13. Using available DNA probes the 13 breakpoint was assigned proximal to all reported markers. In order to generate flanking markers to define this translocation further, an Alu polymerase chain reaction library was constructed from a somatic cell hybrid containing only the proximal, 13pter-13q14, region of chromosome 13. Seven unique sequences have been isolated from the library, three of which lie below and four of which lie above the 13q12 breakpoint. More precise mapping of the distal markers was achieved using a panel of somatic cell hybrids with overlapping deletions of chromosome 13. The paucity of probes in the 1q22 region has made a precise assignment of this breakpoint difficult, however it has been shown to lie distal to c-SKI and proximal to APOA2. This refined characterization of the breakpoint is a prerequisite for its cloning, which may yield genes important in the pathogenesis of ganglioneuroblastoma.

  3. Multiplexing schemes for quantum repeater networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparicio, Luciano; Van Meter, Rodney

    2011-08-01

    When built, quantum repeaters will allow the distribution of entangled quantum states across large distances, playing a vital part in many proposed quantum technologies. Enabling multiple users to connect through the same network will be key to their real-world deployment. Previous work on repeater technologies has focussed only on simple entanglment production, without considering the issues of resource scarcity and competition that necessarily arise in a network setting. In this paper we simulated a thirteen-node network with up to five flows sharing different parts of the network, measuring the total throughput and fairness for each case. Our results suggest that the Internet-like approach of statistical multiplexing use of a congested link gives the highest aggregate throughput. Time division multiplexing and buffer space multiplexing were slightly less effective, but all three schemes allow the sum of multiple flows to substantially exceed that of any one flow, improving over circuit switching by taking advantage of resources that are forced to remain idle in circuit switching. All three schemes proved to have excellent fairness. The high performance, fairness and simplicity of implementation support a recommendation of statistical multiplexing for shared quantum repeater networks.

  4. Chromosome breakage in Prader-Willi and Angelman syndrome deletions may involve recombination between a repeat at the proximal and distal breakpoints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amos-Landgraf J.; Nicholls, R.D. [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States); Gottlieb, W. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Prader-Willi (PWS) and Angelman (AS) syndromes most commonly arise from large deletions of 15q11-q13. Deletions in PWS are paternal in origin, while those in AS are maternal in origin, clearly demonstrating genomic imprinting in these clinically distinct neurobehavioural disorders. In at least 90% of PWS and AS deletion patients, the same 4 Mb region within 15q11-q13 is deleted with breakpoints clustering in single YAC clones at the proximal and distal ends. To study the mechanism of chromosome breakage in PWS and AS, we have previously isolated 25 independent clones from these three YACs using Alu-vector PCR. Four clones were selected that appear to detect a low copy repeat that is located in the proximal and distal breakpoint regions of chromosome 15q11-q13. Three clones detect the same 4 HindIII bands in genomic DNA, all from 15q11-q13, with differing intensities for the probes located at the proximal or distal breakpoints region, respectively. This suggests that these probes detect related members of a low-copy repeat at either location. Moreover, the 254RL2 probe detects a novel HindIII band in two unrelated PWS deletion patients, suggesting that this may represent a breakpoint fragment, with recombination occurring within a similar interval in both patients. A fourth clone, 318RL3 detects 5 bands in HindIII-digested genomic DNA, all from 15q11-q13. This YAC endclone itself is not deleted in PWS and AS deletion patients, as seen by an invariant strong band. Two other strong bands are variably intact or deleted in different PWS or AS deletion patients, suggesting a relationship of this sequence to the breakpoints. Moreover, PCR using 318RL3 primers from the distal 93C9 YAC led to the isolation of a related clone with 96% identity, demonstrating the existence of a low-copy repeat with members close to the proximal and distal breakpoints. Taken together, our data suggest a complex, low-copy repeat with members at both the proximal and distal boundaries.

  5. Repeated apomorphine administration alters dopamine D1 and D2 receptor densities in pigeon basal telencephalon

    OpenAIRE

    Acerbo, Martin J.; Výboh, Pavel; Košťál, Ľubor; Kubíková, Ľubica; Delius, Juan

    2005-01-01

    When pigeons are repeatedly administered a dose of apomorphine they show an increasing behavioral response, much as rodents do. In birds this expresses itself in an augmented pecking response. This sensitization is assumed to be largely due to a conditioning process. Here we present evidence that sensitization is accompanied by an alteration of the D1 to D2 dopamine receptor densities. An experimental group of pigeons was repeatedly injected with apomorphine, and a control group with saline. ...

  6. Sensitization of locomotion following repeated ventral tegmental injections of cytisine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Museo, E; Wise, R A

    1994-06-01

    Systemic injections of nicotine increase locomotion, and repeating these injections brings about a sensitization of the locomotor response. Ventral tegmental injections of the nicotinic agonist cytisine also increase locomotion. In the present study cytisine was administered repeatedly into the ventral tegmentum to determine whether sensitization of its locomotor-activating effects would develop. Four groups of animals were tested; each group received a total of six injections at a rate of one injection every 48 h. Two of these groups received injections of cytisine (10 nmol/side): one group received injections into the ventral tegmentum, and, to insure the anatomical specificity of the locomotor effect, a second group received injections dorsal to the ventral tegmentum. The remaining two groups received vehicle injections: one group received injections into the ventral tegmentum, and the other received injections into more dorsal sites. The group of animals that received injections of cytisine into the ventral tegmentum locomoted more than any other group. In addition, only with this group was a progressive increase in the locomotor response evident across test days. These findings raise the possibility that a neural substrate in the ventral tegmentum mediates the locomotor-activating and sensitizing effects associated with the systemic administration of nicotine.

  7. (TG/CAn repeats in human gene families: abundance and selective patterns of distribution according to function and gene length

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramachandran Srinivasan

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Creation of human gene families was facilitated significantly by gene duplication and diversification. The (TG/CAn repeats exhibit length variability, display genome-wide distribution, and are abundant in the human genome. Accumulation of evidences for their multiple functional roles including regulation of transcription and stimulation of recombination and splicing elect them as functional elements. Here, we report analysis of the distribution of (TG/CAn repeats in human gene families. Results The 1,317 human gene families were classified into six functional classes. Distribution of (TG/CAn repeats were analyzed both from a global perspective and from a stratified perspective based on their biological properties. The number of genes with repeats decreased with increasing repeat length and several genes (53% had repeats of multiple types in various combinations. Repeats were positively associated with the class of Signaling and communication whereas, they were negatively associated with the classes of Immune and related functions and of Information. The proportion of genes with (TG/CAn repeats in each class was proportional to the corresponding average gene length. The repeat distribution pattern in large gene families generally mirrored the global distribution pattern but differed particularly for Collagen gene family, which was rich in repeats. The position and flanking sequences of the repeats of Collagen genes showed high conservation in the Chimpanzee genome. However the majority of these repeats displayed length polymorphism. Conclusion Positive association of repeats with genes of Signaling and communication points to their role in modulation of transcription. Negative association of repeats in genes of Information relates to the smaller gene length, higher expression and fundamental role in cellular physiology. In genes of Immune and related functions negative association of repeats perhaps relates to the smaller gene

  8. The rise in carboxyhemoglobin from repeated pulmonary diffusing capacity tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavorsky, Gerald S

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of this study determined the rise in carboxyhemoglobin percentage (COHb) from repeated pulmonary diffusing capacity tests using 5 or 10s single breath-hold maneuvers. Five male and four female non-smokers [baseline COHb=1.2 (SD 0.5%)] performed repeated pulmonary diffusing capacity testing on two separate days. The days were randomized to either repeated 10s (0.28% CO), or 5s (0.28% CO, 55ppm NO) breath-hold maneuvers. Twenty-two 5s breath-hold maneuvers, each separated by 4min rest, raised COHb to 11.1 (1.4)% and minimally raised the methemoglobin percentage (METHb) by 0.3 (0.2)% to a value of 0.8 (0.2)%. After the 22nd test, pulmonary diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO) was reduced by about 4mL/min/mmHg, equating to a 0.44% increase in COHb per 5s breath-hold maneuver and a concomitant 0.35mL/min/mmHg decrease in DLCO. Pulmonary diffusing capacity for nitric oxide (DLNO) was not altered after 22 tests. On another day, the 10s single breath-hold maneuver increased COHb by 0.64% per test, and reduced DLCO by 0.44mL/min/mmHg per test. In conclusion, 5s breath-hold maneuvers do not appreciably raise METHb or DLNO, and DLCO is only significantly reduced when COHb is at least 6%.

  9. PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES AND MOOD STATES AFTER DAILY REPEATED PROLONGED EXERCISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilkka Väänänen

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to describe the physiological responses to daily repeated acute but non-competitive prolonged exercise during a 4-day march and a 2-day cross-country ski event to the cardiorespiratory, autonomic nervous, musculoskeletal and endocrine systems. Mood states were also evaluated after these repeated exercises. The data of these short-term follow-up (reversal field trials was collected from healthy, 23 to 48 year old Finnish male soldiers in 1993 (n=6 and 1994 (n=15 during the "International Four-Day Long-Distance March" in Nijmegen, The Netherlands, and from ten healthy, 22 to 48 year old Finnish male participants in 1995 during a 2-day Finlandia Ski Race in Lahti, Finland. Acute cardiovascular responses were estimated by measuring the heart rate during exercise. The responses of the autonomic nervous system were estimated by measuring the heart rates during the orthostatic test. The musculoskeletal responses were estimated by measuring the perceived pains, flexibility, functional strength, use of elastic energy and oedemic changes of the lower extremities. Hormonal responses were estimated from the urinary excretion of catecholamines, and the concentrations of serum cortisol, testosterone, luteinizing (LH and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH. Mood states were assessed with the Profile of Mood States (POMS questionnaire. Daily walking time was 7-10 hours while the skiing time was 3 hours. Average heart rate during walking was 59% and skiing 87% of maximum heart rate. Morning heart rate in the supine position increased progressively through the marching period but not through the skiing experiment. After the first day, perceived pain increased significantly and remained at a similarly increased level until the end of the exercise period. Leg measurements showed no signs of oedema, decreases in flexibility, or functional strength. Catecholamine excretion rates during marches indicated cumulatively increased

  10. A tandem repeat gene in a picornavirus.

    OpenAIRE

    Forss, S; Schaller, H

    1982-01-01

    Three closely related genes for the small genome-linked protein (VPg) of picornaviruses have been identified by sequence analysis as a tandem repeat in the genome of Foot and Mouth Disease Virus (FMDV), strain O1K. This unusual structure was also found in the genome of strain C1O, belonging to a different FMDV serotype. Predicted biochemical properties of the three VPg gene products are in excellent agreement with the data from protein analysis of a heterogeneous VPg population from a third F...

  11. Source coding model for repeated snapshot imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Junhui; Yang, Dongyue; wu, Guohua; Yin, Longfei; Guo, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Imaging based on successive repeated snapshot measurement is modeled as a source coding process in information theory. The necessary number of measurement to maintain a certain level of error rate is depicted as the rate-distortion function of the source coding. Quantitative formula of the error rate versus measurement number relation is derived, based on the information capacity of imaging system. Second order fluctuation correlation imaging (SFCI) experiment with pseudo-thermal light verifies this formula, which paves the way for introducing information theory into the study of ghost imaging (GI), both conventional and computational.

  12. Mechanical processes with repeated attenuated impacts

    CERN Document Server

    Nagaev, R F

    1999-01-01

    This book is devoted to considering in the general case - using typical concrete examples - the motion of machines and mechanisms of impact and vibro-impact action accompanied by a peculiar phenomenon called "impact collapse". This phenomenon is that after the initial collision, a sequence of repeated gradually quickening collisions of decreasing-to-zero intensity occurs, with the final establishment of protracted contact between the interacting bodies. The initiation conditions of the impact collapse are determined and calculation techniques for the quantitative characteristics of the corresp

  13. Platelet peripheral benzodiazepine receptors in repeated stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dar, D.E.; Bidder, M.; Gavish, M. (Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa (Israel)); Weizman, A.; Karp, L.; Tyano, S. (Tel Aviv Univ. (Israel)); Grinshpoon, A.; Bleich, A.

    1991-01-01

    ({sup 3}H)PK 11195 binding to platelet membranes and plasma stress hormones were studied in soldiers at the beginning of a parachute training course, following 6 days of preparatory exercises, and after the fourth actual parachute jump. A slight reduction (15%; NS) in the number of peripheral benzodiazepine receptors (PBR) was detected at the end of the exercise period, prior to the first jump. Reduced density of PBR was observed immediately after the repeated actual jumps. Equilibrium dissociation constants were not affected by the stressful situation. Plasma cortisol and prolactin levels remained unaltered during the entire study period.

  14. Cell response of Chlamydomonas actinochloris culture to repeated microwave irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OLESIA O. GRYGORIEVA

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Grygorieva OO, Berezovsjka MA, Dacenko OI. 2015. Cell response of Chlamydomonas actinochloris culture to repeated microwave irradiation. Nusantara Bioscience 7: 38-42. Two cultures of Chlamydomonas actinochloris Deason et Bold in the lag-phase were exposed to the microwave irradiation. One of them (culture 1 was not treated beforehand, whereas the other (culture 2 was irradiated by microwaves 2 years earlier. The measurement of cell quantity as well as measurement of change of intensities and spectra of cultures photoluminescence (PL in the range of chlorophyll a emission was regularly conducted during the cell cultures development. Cell concentration of culture 1 exposed to the microwave irradiation for the first time has quickly restored while cell concentration of culture 2 which was irradiated repeatedly has fallen significantly. The following increasing of cell concentration of culture 2 is negligible. Cell concentration reaches the steady-state level that is about a half of the cell concentration of control culture. Initially the PL efficiency of cells of both cultures decreases noticeable as a result of irradiation. Then there is the monotonic increase to the values which are significantly higher than the corresponding values in the control cultures. The ratio of the intensities at the maxima of the main emission bands of chlorophyll for control samples of both cultures remained approximately at the same level. At the same time effect of irradiation on the cell PL spectrum appears as a temporary reduction of this magnitude.

  15. Analysis of the repeatability of time-lapse 3d vsp multicomponent surveys, delhi field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Mariana Fernandes de

    Delhi Field is a producing oil field located in northeastern Louisiana. In order to monitor the CO2 sweep efficiency, time-lapse 3D seismic data have been acquired in this area. Time-lapse studies are increasingly used to evaluate changes in the seismic response induced by the production of hydrocarbons or the injection of water, CO2 or steam into a reservoir. A 4D seismic signal is generated by a combination of production and injection effects within the reservoir as well as non-repeatability effects. In order to get reliable results from time-lapse seismic methods, it is important to distinguish the production and injection effects from the non-repeatability effects in the 4D seismic signal. Repeatability of 4D land seismic data is affected by several factors. The most significant of them are: source and receiver geometry inaccuracies, differences in seismic sources signatures, variations in the immediate near surface and ambient non-repeatable noise. In this project, two 3D multicomponent VSP surveys acquired in Delhi Field were used to quantify the relative contribution of each factor that can affect the repeatability in land seismic data. The factors analyzed in this study were: source and receiver geometry inaccura- cies, variations in the immediate near surface and ambient non-repeatable noise. This study showed that all these factors had a significant impact on the repeatability of the successive multicomponent VSP surveys in Delhi Field. This project also shows the advantages and disadvantages in the use of different repeata- bility metrics, normalized-root-mean-square (NRMS) difference and signal-to-distortion ratio (SDR) attribute, to evaluate the level of seismic repeatability between successive time-lapse seismic surveys. It is observed that NRMS difference is greatly influenced by time-shifts and that SDR attribute combined with the time-shift may give more distinct and representative repeatability information than the NRMS difference.

  16. Price increase

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Please take note that after five years of stable prices at Restaurant No 1 a price increase will come into force on 1st January 2006. This increase has been agreed after discussions between the CSR (Comité de Surveillance des Restaurants) and the catering company Novae and will reflect the inflation rate of the last few years. In addition, a new children's menu will be introduced, as well as 'Max Havelaar' fair-trade coffee at a price of 1.70 CHF.

  17. Price increase

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    Please take note that after five years of stable prices at Restaurant No 1 a price increase will come into force on 1st January 2006. This increase has been agreed after discussions between the CSR (Comité de Surveillance des Restaurants) and the catering company Novae and will reflect the inflation rate of the last few years. In addition, a new children's menu will be introduced as well as 'Max Havelaar' fair-trade coffee at a price of 1.70 CHF.

  18. Psychological and cumulative cardiovascular effects of repeated angry rumination and visuospatial suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, Andrew B; Jones, Kenneth V; Douglas Gregg, M Elizabeth

    2009-11-01

    Brooding rumination is associated with depressed mood, increased negative affect, prolonged anger and inhibited cardiovascular (CV) recovery. Distraction from rumination on a stressful interpersonal encounter is associated with faster CV recovery and decreased negative affect. Studies have suggested that a concurrent visuospatial (VS) task inhibits the maintenance of imagery associated with the perseveration of intrusive negative memories. 120 healthy participants were recruited for the study. As an analogue of repeated angry rumination, the authors explored the effects of repeated visual recall of a provocative confederate and the subsequent impact of two visuospatial (VS) distraction tasks on negative affect, blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR). Repeated recall of the provocation generated repeatedly elevated HR with a cumulative trend that may have CV disease risk implications for chronic ruminators. VS distraction did not aid recovery compared with the Control task. PMID:19732797

  19. Automated Planning in Repeated Adversarial Games

    CERN Document Server

    de Cote, Enrique Munoz; Sykulski, Adam M; Jennings, Nicholas R

    2012-01-01

    Game theory's prescriptive power typically relies on full rationality and/or self-play interactions. In contrast, this work sets aside these fundamental premises and focuses instead on heterogeneous autonomous interactions between two or more agents. Specifically, we introduce a new and concise representation for repeated adversarial (constant-sum) games that highlight the necessary features that enable an automated planing agent to reason about how to score above the game's Nash equilibrium, when facing heterogeneous adversaries. To this end, we present TeamUP, a model-based RL algorithm designed for learning and planning such an abstraction. In essence, it is somewhat similar to R-max with a cleverly engineered reward shaping that treats exploration as an adversarial optimization problem. In practice, it attempts to find an ally with which to tacitly collude (in more than two-player games) and then collaborates on a joint plan of actions that can consistently score a high utility in adversarial repeated gam...

  20. Repeated proton beam therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To retrospectively evaluate the safety and effectiveness of repeated proton beam therapy for newly developed or recurrent hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Methods and Materials: From June 1989 through July 2000, 225 patients with HCC underwent their first course of proton beam therapy at University of Tsukuba. Of them, 27 with 68 lesions who had undergone two or more courses were retrospectively reviewed in this study. Median interval between the first and second course was 24.5 months (range 3.3-79.8 months). Median total dose of 72 Gy in 16 fractions and 66 Gy in 16 fractions were given for the first course and the rest of the courses, respectively. Results: The 5-year survival rate and median survival period from the beginning of the first course for the 27 patients were 55.6% and 62.2 months, respectively. Five-year local control rate for the 68 lesions was 87.8%. Of the patients, 1 with Child-Pugh class B and another with class C before the last course suffered from acute hepatic failure. Conclusions: Repeated proton beam therapy for HCC is safe when the patient has a target in the peripheral region of the liver and liver function is Child-Pugh class A

  1. Extending Teach and Repeat to Pivoting Wheelchairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Del Castillo

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper extends the teach-and-repeat paradigm that has been successful for the control of holonomic robots to nonholonomic wheelchairs which may undergo pivoting action over the course of their taught movement. Due to the nonholonomic nature of the vehicle kinematics, estimation is required -- in the example given herein, based upon video detection of wall-mounted cues -- both in the teaching and the tracking events. In order to accommodate motion that approaches pivoting action as well as motion that approaches straight-line action, the estimation equations of the Extended Kalman Filter and the control equations are formulated using two different definitions of a nontemporal independent variable. The paper motivates the need for pivoting action in real-life settings by reporting extensively on the abilities and limitations of estimation-based teach-and-repeat action where pivoting and near-pivoting action is disallowed. Following formulation of the equations in the near-pivot mode, the paper reports upon experiments where taught trajectories which entail a seamless mix of near-straight and near-pivot action are tracked.

  2. Discrepancies in reporting the CAG repeat lengths for Huntington's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quarrell, Oliver W; Handley, Olivia; O'Donovan, Kirsty;

    2011-01-01

    Huntington's disease results from a CAG repeat expansion within the Huntingtin gene; this is measured routinely in diagnostic laboratories. The European Huntington's Disease Network REGISTRY project centrally measures CAG repeat lengths on fresh samples; these were compared with the original...

  3. IMHEX fuel cell repeat component manufacturing continuous improvement accomplishments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jakaitis, L.A.; Petraglia, V.J.; Bryson, E.S. [M-C Power Corp., Burr Ridge, IL (United States)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    M-C Power is taking a power generation technology that has been proven in the laboratory and is making it a commercially competitive product. There are many areas in which this technology required scale up and refinement to reach the market entry goals for the IMHEX{reg_sign} molten carbonate fuel cell power plant. One of the primary areas that needed to be addressed was the manufacturing of the fuel cell stack. Up to this point, the fuel cell stack and associated components were virtually hand made for each system to be tested. M-C Power has now continuously manufactured the repeat components for three 250 kW stacks. M-C Power`s manufacturing strategy integrated both evolutionary and revolutionary improvements into its comprehensive commercialization effort. M-C Power`s objectives were to analyze and continuously improve stack component manufacturing and assembly techniques consistent with established specifications and commercial scale production requirements. Evolutionary improvements are those which naturally occur as the production rates are increased and experience is gained. Examples of evolutionary (learning curve) improvements included reducing scrap rates and decreasing raw material costs by buying in large quantities. Revolutionary improvements result in significant design and process changes to meet cost and performance requirements of the market entry system. Revolutionary changes often involve identifying new methods and developing designs to accommodate the new process. Based upon our accomplishments, M-C Power was able to reduce the cost of continuously manufactured fuel cell repeat components from the first to third 250 kW stack by 63%. This paper documents the continuous improvement accomplishments realized by M-C Power during IMHEX{reg_sign} fuel cell repeat component manufacturing.

  4. Repeated Nrf2 stimulation using sulforaphane protects fibroblasts from ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathew, Sherin T.; Bergström, Petra; Hammarsten, Ola, E-mail: ola.hammarsten@clinchem.gu.se

    2014-05-01

    Most of the cytotoxicity induced by ionizing radiation is mediated by radical-induced DNA double-strand breaks. Cellular protection from free radicals can be stimulated several fold by sulforaphane-mediated activation of the transcription factor Nrf2 that regulates more than 50 genes involved in the detoxification of reactive substances and radicals. Here, we report that repeated sulforaphane treatment increases radioresistance in primary human skin fibroblasts. Cells were either treated with sulforaphane for four hours once or with four-hour treatments repeatedly for three consecutive days prior to radiation exposure. Fibroblasts exposed to repeated-sulforaphane treatment showed a more pronounced dose-dependent induction of Nrf2-regulated mRNA and reduced amount of radiation-induced free radicals compared with cells treated once with sulforaphane. In addition, radiation- induced DNA double-strand breaks measured by gamma-H2AX foci were attenuated following repeated sulforaphane treatment. As a result, cellular protection from ionizing radiation measured by the 5-ethynyl-2′-deoxyuridine (EdU) assay was increased, specifically in cells exposed to repeated sulforaphane treatment. Sulforaphane treatment was unable to protect Nrf2 knockout mouse embryonic fibroblasts, indicating that the sulforaphane-induced radioprotection was Nrf2-dependent. Moreover, radioprotection by repeated sulforaphane treatment was dose-dependent with an optimal effect at 10 uM, whereas both lower and higher concentrations resulted in lower levels of radioprotection. Our data indicate that the Nrf2 system can be trained to provide further protection from radical damage. - Highlights: • Repeated treatment with sulforaphane protects fibroblasts from ionizing radiation • Repeated sulforaphane treatment attenuates radiation induced ROS and DNA damage • Sulforaphane mediated protection is Nrf2 dependent.

  5. COPASAAR – A database for proteomic analysis of single amino acid repeats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalby Andrew R

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Single amino acid repeats make up a significant proportion in all of the proteomes that have currently been determined. They have been shown to be functionally and medically significant, and are associated with cancers and neuro-degenerative diseases such as Huntington's Chorea, where a poly-glutamine repeat is responsible for causing the disease. The COPASAAR database is a new tool to facilitate the rapid analysis of single amino acid repeats at a proteome level. The database aims to simplify the comparison of repeat distributions between proteomes in order to provide a better understanding of their function and evolution. Results A comparative analysis of all proteomes in the database (currently 244 shows that single amino acid repeats account for about 12–14% of the proteome of any given species. They are more common in eukaryotes (14% than in either archaea or bacteria (both 13%. Individual analyses of proteomes show that long single amino acid repeats (6+ residues are much more common in the Eukaryotes and that longer repeats are usually made up of hydrophilic amino acids such as glutamine, glutamic acid, asparagine, aspartic acid and serine. Conclusion COPASAAR is a useful tool for comparative proteomics that provides rapid access to amino acid repeat data that can be readily data-mined. The COPASAAR database can be queried at the kingdom, proteome or individual protein level. As the amount of available proteome data increases this will be increasingly important in order to automate proteome comparison. The insights gained from these studies will give a better insight into the evolution of protein sequence and function.

  6. Variable Glutamine-Rich Repeats Modulate Transcription Factor Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Gemayel, Rita; Chavali, Sreenivas; Pougach, Ksenia; Legendre, Matthieu; Zhu, Bo; Boeynaems, Steven; van der Zande, Elisa; Gevaert, Kris; Rousseau, Frederic; Schymkowitz, Joost; Babu, M Madan; Verstrepen, Kevin J.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Excessive expansions of glutamine (Q)-rich repeats in various human proteins are known to result in severe neurodegenerative disorders such as Huntington’s disease and several ataxias. However, the physiological role of these repeats and the consequences of more moderate repeat variation remain unknown. Here, we demonstrate that Q-rich domains are highly enriched in eukaryotic transcription factors where they act as functional modulators. Incremental changes in the number of repeats i...

  7. Quantum repeaters free of polarization disturbance and phase noise

    OpenAIRE

    Yin, Zhen-Qiang; Zhao, Yi-bo; Yong YANG; Han, Zheng-Fu; Guo, Guang-Can

    2009-01-01

    Original quantum repeater protocols based on single-photon interference suffer from phase noise of the channel, which makes the long-distance quantum communication infeasible. Fortunately, two-photon interference type quantum repeaters can be immune to phase noise of the channel. However, this type quantum repeaters may still suffer from polarization disturbance of the channel. Here we propose a quantum repeaters protocol which is free of polarization disturbance of the channel based on the i...

  8. Assessment of radiographic film repeats rate and its related causes within hospitals in Sari during 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Fallah Mohamadi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available (Received 8 April, 2009 ; Accepted 27 May, 2009AbstractBackground and purpose: Radiographic film repeat rate assessment is performed to appropriate profiting of existence resources in therapeutic wards. Multiple exposures of x-ray generators due to repeated radiographic examination can lead to amortization of the radiographic facilities and decrease their longevity and also increases the cost of facilities repair. On the other hand, its therapeutic services are necessary to be carried out for patients as soon as possible. Recognition of radiographic film repeat rate and its related causes will help to eliminate the problems and are cost effective.Materials and methods: In this descriptive study, samples were garnered with data collection and non random model during three months in eight radiographic rooms and four darkrooms belonging to four governmental hospitals, namely Imam Khomeini, Booali Sina, Fatemh Zahra and Zare in Sari. All rejected radiographic films were seen by resident experts in each center and information was entered into designed forms. Radiographic repeat rates were calculated through data available from all recipients and the number of used films. In this article, related causes responsible for repeated radiographic examination including errors in selection of exposure factors (over exposure and under exposure, positioning, centering, film size, equipment, processing or darkroom, movement and others were assessed.Results: In four hospitals, 36,758 films were received during investigation and the number of repeated films was 2,155 (5.9 % were estimated as radiographic repeat rate. The maximum repeat rate belonged to Booali sina Hospital (7.2 % and the minimum one was Zare Hospital (0.7 %. The most important causes were due to over exposure selection (1.4 % and the least one was due to improper selection of film size (0.08 %. The percentage of other factors include, under exposure selection (1.12%, centering (0.92%, others (0

  9. [Blood loss in dialysis in repeatedly used capillary dialysators].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, U; Senf, L; Kleinert, P; Thieler, H; Marx, M

    1980-11-01

    The blood losses increase to the twofold to threefold by capillary dialysators C-DAK 4 and C-DAK 5 are about 6.8 ml and 26 ml, respectively, in the first use. In repeated use of the C-DAK 4 the blood losses by the C-DAK 5, however, are so high that it is not to be advised to use them manifold under our conditions of dialysis. By an increase of the reperfusion quantity from 150 to 250 ml of electrolyte solution for one C-DAK 4 blood losses may considerably be reduced. In a parallel switching of two C-DAK 4 each exemplar should be perfused individually.

  10. 47 CFR 90.247 - Mobile repeater stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mobile repeater stations. 90.247 Section 90.247... MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Non-Voice and Other Specialized Operations § 90.247 Mobile repeater stations. A... repeater to extend the communications range of hand-carried units subject to the following: (a)...

  11. Variation of the neurofilament medium KSP repeat sub-domain across mammalian species: implications for altering axonal structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, D M; Carpenter, C; Yager, C; Golik, B; Barry, K J; Shen, H; Mikse, O; Eggert, L S; Schulz, D J; Garcia, M L

    2010-01-01

    The evolution of larger mammals resulted in a corresponding increase in peripheral nerve length. To ensure optimal nervous system functionality and survival, nerve conduction velocities were likely to have increased to maintain the rate of signal propagation. Increases of conduction velocities may have required alterations in one of the two predominant properties that affect the speed of neuronal transmission: myelination or axonal diameter. A plausible mechanism to explain faster conduction velocities was a concomitant increase in axonal diameter with evolving axonal length. The carboxy terminal tail domain of the neurofilament medium subunit is a determinant of axonal diameter in large caliber myelinated axons. Sequence analysis of mammalian orthologs indicates that the neurofilament medium carboxy terminal tail contains a variable lysine-serine-proline (KSP) repeat sub-domain flanked by two highly conserved sub-domains. The number of KSP repeats within this region of neurofilament medium varies among species. Interestingly, the number of repeats does not change within a species, suggesting that selective pressure conserved the number of repeats within a species. Mapping KSP repeat numbers onto consensus phylogenetic trees reveals independent KSP expansion events across several mammalian clades. Linear regression analyses identified three subsets of mammals, one of which shows a positive correlation in the number of repeats with head-body length. For this subset of mammals, we hypothesize that variations in the number of KSP repeats within neurofilament medium carboxy terminal tail may have contributed to an increase in axonal caliber, increasing nerve conduction velocity as larger mammals evolved. PMID:20008369

  12. RNA聚合酶Ⅱ转录的ALU对PKR磷酸化的调节作用%Regulatory Effect of ALU Transcribed by RNA Polymerase Ⅱ on PKR Phosphorylation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨梅; 沈薇; 吴进峰; 曾贵利; 王峰; 任红; 唐开福

    2010-01-01

    目的 研究ALU自身的RNA聚合酶Ⅲ启动子对RNA聚合酶Ⅱ转录的影响,探讨RNA聚合酶Ⅱ转录的ALU对PKR磷酸化的调节作用.方法 将ALU全基因序列插入pcDNA3.1(-)载体的CMV启动子(一个RNA聚合酶Ⅱ启动子)的下游,构建重组质粒pcDNA3.1-ALU;转染HEK 293细胞,提取细胞总RNA,RT-PCR筛选稳定表达ALU的细胞;用干扰素处理稳定表达ALU序列的细胞,Western blot法检测PKR的磷酸化水平.结果 ALU全基因序列插入pcDNA3.1载体的CMV启动子直接下游,能够被RNA聚合酶Ⅱ有效转录;在稳定表达ALU的HEK 293细胞中,加干扰素与未加干扰素组PKR的磷酸化水平均明显高于相应的HEK 293细胞对照组.结论 ALU自身的RNA聚合酶Ⅲ启动子对RNA聚合酶Ⅱ转录无明显影响,但与RNA聚合酶Ⅲ启动下转录的ALU不同,RNA聚合酶Ⅱ转录的ALU失去了对干扰素的拮抗作用,反而可以通过形成双链RNA的方式激活PKR的活性.

  13. Identification of antisense long noncoding RNAs that function as SINEUPs in human cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schein, Aleks; Zucchelli, Silvia; Kauppinen, Sakari;

    2016-01-01

    , increasing PPP1R12A protein translation in human cells. The SINEUP activity depends on the aforementioned sense-antisense interaction and a free right Alu monomer repeat element at the 3' end of R12A-AS1. In addition, we identify another human antisense lncRNA with SINEUP activity. Our results demonstrate...

  14. Who Repeats Algebra, and How Does Initial Performance Relate to Improvement When the Course Is Repeated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Anthony; Jaquet, Karina; Finkelstein, Neal

    2016-01-01

    The information provided in this report shows how students perform when they repeat algebra I and how the level of improvement varies depending on initial course performance and the academic measure (course grades or CST scores). This information can help inform decisions and policies regarding whether and under what circumstances students should…

  15. Repeat Testing Effects on Credentialing Exams: Are Repeaters Misinformed or Uninformed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinberg, Richard A.; Raymond, Mark R.; Haist, Steven A.

    2015-01-01

    To mitigate security concerns and unfair score gains, credentialing programs routinely administer new test material to examinees retesting after an initial failing attempt. Counterintuitively, a small but growing body of recent research suggests that repeating the identical form does not create an unfair advantage. This study builds upon and…

  16. Cybersickness Following Repeated Exposure to DOME and HMD Virtual Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Laura C.; Harm, Deborah L.; Kennedy, Robert S.; Reschke, Millard F.; Loftin, R. Bowen

    2011-01-01

    Virtual environments (VE) offer unique training opportunities, including training astronauts to preadapt them to the novel sensory conditions of microgravity. However, one unresolved issue with VE use is the occurrence of cybersickness during and following exposure to VE systems. Most individuals adapt and become less ill with repeated interaction with VEs. The goal of this investigation was to compare motion sickness symptoms (MSS) produced by dome and head-mounted (HMD) displays and to examine the effects of repeated exposures on MSS. Sixty-one subjects participated in the study. Three experimental sessions were performed each separated by one day. The subjects performed a navigation and pick and place task in either a dome or HMD VE. MSS were measured using a Simulator Sickness Questionnaire before, immediately after, and at 1, 2, 4 and 6 hours following exposure to the VEs. MSS data were normalized by calculating the natural log of each score and an analysis of variance was performed. We observed significant main effects for day and time and a significant day by time interaction for total sickness and for each of the subscales, nausea, oculomotor and disorientation. However, there was no significant main effect for device. In conclusion, subjects reported a large increase in MSS immediately following exposure to both the HMD and dome, followed by a rapid recovery across time. Sickness severity also decreased over days, which suggests that subjects become dual-adapted over time making VE training a viable pre-flight countermeasure for space motion sickness.

  17. Repeated Raking of Pine Plantations Alters Soil Arthropod Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holly K. Ober

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Terrestrial arthropods in forests are engaged in vital ecosystem functions that ultimately help maintain soil productivity. Repeated disturbance can cause abrupt and irreversible changes in arthropod community composition and thereby alter trophic interactions among soil fauna. An increasingly popular means of generating income from pine plantations in the Southeastern U.S. is annual raking to collect pine litter. We raked litter once per year for three consecutive years in the pine plantations of three different species (loblolly, Pinus taeda; longleaf, P. palustris; and slash, P. elliottii. We sampled arthropods quarterly for three years in raked and un-raked pine stands to assess temporal shifts in abundance among dominant orders of arthropods. Effects varied greatly among orders of arthropods, among timber types, and among years. Distinct trends over time were apparent among orders that occupied both high trophic positions (predators and low trophic positions (fungivores, detritivores. Multivariate analyses demonstrated that raking caused stronger shifts in arthropod community composition in longleaf and loblolly than slash pine stands. Results highlight the role of pine litter in shaping terrestrial arthropod communities, and imply that repeated removal of pine straw during consecutive years is likely to have unintended consequences on arthropod communities that exacerbate over time.

  18. Design principles for efficient, repeated jumpgliding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combined jumping and gliding locomotion, or ‘jumpgliding’, can be an efficient way for small robots or animals to travel over cluttered terrain. This paper presents functional requirements and models for a simple jumpglider which formalize the benefits and limitations of using aerodynamic surfaces to augment jumping ability. Analysis of the model gives insight into design choices and control strategies for higher performance and to accommodate special conditions such as a slippery launching surface. The model informs the design of a robotic platform that can perform repeated jumps using a carbon fiber spring and a pivoting wing. Experiments with two different versions of the platform agree with predictions from the model and demonstrate a significantly greater range, and lower cost-of-transport, than a comparable ballistic jumper. (papers)

  19. Trochlear Nerve Schwannoma With Repeated Intratumoral Hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Pengfei; Bao, Yuhai; Zhang, Wenchuan

    2016-09-01

    Trochlear nerve schwannoma is extremely rare, with only 35 pathologically confirmed patients being reported in the literature. Here, the authors report a patient of trochlear nerve schwannoma in the prepontine cistern manifesting as facial pain and double vision and presenting the image characteristics of repeated intratumoral hemorrhage, which has never been reported in the literature. Total tumor along with a portion of the trochlear nerve was removed by using a retrosigmoid approach. Facial pain disappeared after operation, and the diplopia remained. Follow-up studies have shown no tumor recurrence for 2 years and the simultaneous alleviation of diplopia. Information regarding the clinical presentation, radiological features and surgical outcomes of trochlear nerve schwannoma are discussed and reviewed in the paper. PMID:27607129

  20. Statistical Properties of repeating FRB 121102

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, F Y

    2016-01-01

    Fast radio bursts (FRBs) are millisecond-duration radio signals possibly occurring at cosmological distances. However the physical model of FRBs is mystery, many models have been proposed. Here we study the frequency distributions of peak flux, fluence, duration and waiting time for repeating FRB 121102. The cumulative distributions of peak flux, fluence and duration show power-law forms. The waiting time distribution also shows power-law distribution, and is consistent with a non-stationary Poisson process. We also use the statistical results to test the proposed models for FRBs. Comparing with the model predications, we find that the theoretical models proposed by Dai et al. (2016) and Katz (2016) are favored. These distributions are consistent with the predications from avalanche models of driven systems.

  1. Hybrid quantum repeater using bright coherent light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Loock, P; Ladd, T D; Sanaka, K; Yamaguchi, F; Nemoto, Kae; Munro, W J; Yamamoto, Y

    2006-06-23

    We describe a quantum repeater protocol for long-distance quantum communication. In this scheme, entanglement is created between qubits at intermediate stations of the channel by using a weak dispersive light-matter interaction and distributing the outgoing bright coherent-light pulses among the stations. Noisy entangled pairs of electronic spin are then prepared with high success probability via homodyne detection and postselection. The local gates for entanglement purification and swapping are deterministic and measurement-free, based upon the same coherent-light resources and weak interactions as for the initial entanglement distribution. Finally, the entanglement is stored in a nuclear-spin-based quantum memory. With our system, qubit-communication rates approaching 100 Hz over 1280 km with fidelities near 99% are possible for reasonable local gate errors.

  2. Simple sequence repeats in mycobacterial genomes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vattipally B Sreenu; Pankaj Kumar; Javaregowda Nagaraju; Hampapathalu A Nagarajaram

    2007-01-01

    Simple sequence repeats (SSRs) or microsatellites are the repetitive nucleotide sequences of motifs of length 1–6 bp. They are scattered throughout the genomes of all the known organisms ranging from viruses to eukaryotes. Microsatellites undergo mutations in the form of insertions and deletions (INDELS) of their repeat units with some bias towards insertions that lead to microsatellite tract expansion. Although prokaryotic genomes derive some plasticity due to microsatellite mutations they have in-built mechanisms to arrest undue expansions of microsatellites and one such mechanism is constituted by post-replicative DNA repair enzymes MutL, MutH and MutS. The mycobacterial genomes lack these enzymes and as a null hypothesis one could expect these genomes to harbour many long tracts. It is therefore interesting to analyse the mycobacterial genomes for distribution and abundance of microsatellites tracts and to look for potentially polymorphic microsatellites. Available mycobacterial genomes, Mycobacterium avium, M. leprae, M. bovis and the two strains of M. tuberculosis (CDC1551 and H37Rv) were analysed for frequencies and abundance of SSRs. Our analysis revealed that the SSRs are distributed throughout the mycobacterial genomes at an average of 220–230 SSR tracts per kb. All the mycobacterial genomes contain few regions that are conspicuously denser or poorer in microsatellites compared to their expected genome averages. The genomes distinctly show scarcity of long microsatellites despite the absence of a post-replicative DNA repair system. Such severe scarcity of long microsatellites could arise as a result of strong selection pressures operating against long and unstable sequences although influence of GC-content and role of point mutations in arresting microsatellite expansions can not be ruled out. Nonetheless, the long tracts occasionally found in coding as well as non-coding regions may account for limited genome plasticity in these genomes.

  3. The autolytic activity of the recombinant amidase of Staphylococcus saprophyticus is inhibited by its own recombinant GW repeats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hell, Wolfgang; Reichl, Sylvia; Anders, Agnes; Gatermann, Sören

    2003-10-10

    The Aas (autolysin/adhesin of Staphylococcus saprophyticus) is a multifunctional surface protein containing two enzymatic domains an N-acetyl-muramyl-L-alanine amidase, an endo-beta-N-acetyl-D-glucosaminidase, and two different regions of repetitive sequences, an N-terminal and a C-terminal repetitive domain. The C-terminal repetitive domain is built up by the repeats R1, R2 and R3, which interconnect the putative active centers of the amidase and glucosaminidase. To investigate the influence of the C-terminal repeats and the N-terminal repeats on the amidase activity, the repetitive domains and fragments of them were cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. The influence of the different fragments on the activity of the recombinant amidase of the Aas, consisting of the active center of the enzyme and repeat R1, was investigated in a turbidimetric microassay. The different fragments derived from the C-terminal repeats inhibited the amidase activity, while the N-terminal repeats did not influence the activity of the enzyme. The inhibiting activity increased with the number of GW repeats the recombinant fragment contained. Thus we conclude, that the C-terminal GW repeats and not the N-terminal repeats are necessary for the cell wall targeting and the autolytic function of the amidase.

  4. Methylation of C9orf72 expansion reduces RNA foci formation and dipeptide-repeat proteins expression in cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Peter O

    2016-01-26

    A hexanucleotide repeat expansion in the C9orf72 gene is the most common genetic cause of both frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), together referred to as c9FTD/ALS. It has been suggested that a loss of C9orf72 protein expression, the formation of toxic RNA foci and dipeptide-repeat proteins contribute to C9orf72-related diseases. Interestingly, it has been shown that trimethylation of histones and methylation of CpG islands near the repeat expansion may play a role in the pathogenesis c9FTD/ALS. Recently, methylation of expanded repeat itself has been reported. To further elucidate the mechanisms underlying these diseases, the influence of epigenetic modification in the repeat expansion on its pathogenic effect was assessed. Here, a reduced formation of toxic RNA foci and dipeptide-repeat proteins upon methylation of the GGGGCC repeat in a cellular model of c9FTD/ALS is shown. Additionally, a novel methylcytosine-capture DNA hybridization immunoassay for semi-quantitative detection of the repeat methylation levels is presented, potentially usable for methylation analysis in patients carrying C9orf72 repeat expansion carriers as a diagnostic tool. Presented results suggest that increased level of pathogenic GGGGCC expansion methylation may be sufficient to alleviate the molecular pathology of the C9orf72-related diseases.

  5. Germ-line CAG repeat instability causes extreme CAG repeat expansion with infantile-onset spinocerebellar ataxia type 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther-Jensen, Tua; Ek, Jakob; Duno, Morten;

    2013-01-01

    on an infantile SCA2 patient who, due to germ-line CAG repeat instability in her father, inherited an extremely expanded CAG repeat in the SCA2 locus. Surprisingly, the expanded allele of the father was an interrupted CAG repeat sequence. Furthermore, analyses of single spermatozoa showed a high frequency...

  6. Repeated Predictable Stress Causes Resilience against Colitis-Induced Behavioral Changes in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed M Hassan

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory bowel disease is associated with an increased risk of mental disorders and can be exacerbated by stress. In this study which was performed with male 10-week old C57Bl/6N mice, we used dextran sulfate sodium (DSS-induced colitis to evaluate behavioral changes caused by intestinal inflammation, to assess the interaction between repeated psychological stress (water avoidance stress, WAS and colitis in modifying behavior, and to analyze neurochemical correlates of this interaction. A 7-day treatment with DSS (2 % in drinking water decreased locomotion and enhanced anxiety-like behavior in the open field test and reduced social interaction. Repeated exposure to WAS for 7 days had little influence on behavior but prevented the DSS-induced behavioral disturbances in the open field and social interaction tests. In contrast, repeated WAS did not modify colon length, colonic myeloperoxidase content and circulating proinflammatory cytokines, parameters used to assess colitis severity. DSS-induced colitis was associated with an increase in circulating neuropeptide Y (NPY, a rise in the hypothalamic expression of cyclooxygenase-2 mRNA and a decrease in the hippocampal expression of NPY mRNA, brain-derived neurotrophic factor mRNA and mineralocorticoid receptor mRNA. Repeated WAS significantly decreased the relative expression of corticotropin-releasing factor mRNA in the hippocampus. The effect of repeated WAS to blunt the DSS-evoked behavioral disturbances was associated with a rise of circulating corticosterone and an increase in the expression of hypothalamic NPY mRNA. These results show that experimental colitis leads to a particular range of behavioral alterations which can be prevented by repeated WAS, a model of predictable chronic stress, while the severity of colitis remains unabated. We conclude that the mechanisms underlying the resilience effect of repeated WAS involves hypothalamic NPY and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis.

  7. Novel Y-chromosome Short Tandem Repeat Variants Detected Through the Use of Massively Parallel Sequencing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    David H Warshauer; Jennifer D Churchill; Nicole Novroski; Jonathan L King; Bruce Budowle

    2015-01-01

    Massively parallel sequencing (MPS) technology is capable of determining the sizes of short tandem repeat (STR) alleles as well as their individual nucleotide sequences. Thus, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the repeat regions of STRs and variations in the pattern of repeat units in a given repeat motif can be used to differentiate alleles of the same length. In this study, MPS was used to sequence 28 forensically-relevant Y-chromosome STRs in a set of 41 DNA samples from the 3 major U.S. population groups (African Americans, Caucasians, and Hispanics). The resulting sequence data, which were analyzed with STRait Razor v2.0, revealed 37 unique allele sequence variants that have not been previously reported. Of these, 19 sequences were variations of documented sequences resulting from the presence of intra-repeat SNPs or alternative repeat unit patterns. Despite a limited sampling, two of the most frequently-observed variants were found only in African American samples. The remaining 18 variants represented allele sequences for which there were no published data with which to compare. These findings illustrate the great potential of MPS with regard to increasing the resolving power of STR typing and emphasize the need for sample population characterization of STR alleles.

  8. Repeatability of phasic muscle activity: performance of surface and intramuscular wire electrodes in gait analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadaba, M P; Wootten, M E; Gainey, J; Cochran, G V

    1985-01-01

    Repeatability is an important consideration for gait analysis data that are being used as an adjunct to clinical decision making. An index of repeatability may be based on a statistical criterion (variance ratio) that reflects similarity of wave forms over a number of identical cycles. The purpose of this study was to use the variance ratio to assess the repeatability of phasic muscle activity recorded with surface and bipolar intramuscular wire electrodes during gait on 10 normal subjects. Variance ratios were calculated using rectified and smoothed electromyographic data recorded simultaneously from the two types of electrodes. Three measures of repeatability (reproducibility, reliability, and constancy--defined as the cycle-to-cycle, run-to-run, and day-to-day repeatability of phasic muscle activity) were used to compare the performance of the two electrode techniques. Results show that the reproducibility and reliability were better for surface electrodes than for intramuscular wire electrodes, and constancy was good for surface electrodes and poor for intramuscular wire electrodes. Repeatability improved with increasing smoothing window lengths but was better for surface electrodes than wire electrodes, irrespective of the smoothing window. This study indicates that surface electrode data represent a more consistent measure of activity of superficial muscles, if comparisons are to be made between gait data from different test days.

  9. Novel Y-chromosome Short Tandem Repeat Variants Detected Through the Use of Massively Parallel Sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David H. Warshauer

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Massively parallel sequencing (MPS technology is capable of determining the sizes of short tandem repeat (STR alleles as well as their individual nucleotide sequences. Thus, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs within the repeat regions of STRs and variations in the pattern of repeat units in a given repeat motif can be used to differentiate alleles of the same length. In this study, MPS was used to sequence 28 forensically-relevant Y-chromosome STRs in a set of 41 DNA samples from the 3 major U.S. population groups (African Americans, Caucasians, and Hispanics. The resulting sequence data, which were analyzed with STRait Razor v2.0, revealed 37 unique allele sequence variants that have not been previously reported. Of these, 19 sequences were variations of documented sequences resulting from the presence of intra-repeat SNPs or alternative repeat unit patterns. Despite a limited sampling, two of the most frequently-observed variants were found only in African American samples. The remaining 18 variants represented allele sequences for which there were no published data with which to compare. These findings illustrate the great potential of MPS with regard to increasing the resolving power of STR typing and emphasize the need for sample population characterization of STR alleles.

  10. A novel GAA-repeat-expansion-based mouse model of Friedreich’s ataxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Anjomani Virmouni

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Friedreich’s ataxia (FRDA is an autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder caused by a GAA repeat expansion mutation within intron 1 of the FXN gene, resulting in reduced levels of frataxin protein. We have previously reported the generation of human FXN yeast artificial chromosome (YAC transgenic FRDA mouse models containing 90–190 GAA repeats, but the presence of multiple GAA repeats within these mice is considered suboptimal. We now describe the cellular, molecular and behavioural characterisation of a newly developed YAC transgenic FRDA mouse model, designated YG8sR, which we have shown by DNA sequencing to contain a single pure GAA repeat expansion. The founder YG8sR mouse contained 120 GAA repeats but, due to intergenerational expansion, we have now established a colony of YG8sR mice that contain ~200 GAA repeats. We show that YG8sR mice have a single copy of the FXN transgene, which is integrated at a single site as confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH analysis of metaphase and interphase chromosomes. We have identified significant behavioural deficits, together with a degree of glucose intolerance and insulin hypersensitivity, in YG8sR FRDA mice compared with control Y47R and wild-type (WT mice. We have also detected increased somatic GAA repeat instability in the brain and cerebellum of YG8sR mice, together with significantly reduced expression of FXN, FAST-1 and frataxin, and reduced aconitase activity, compared with Y47R mice. Furthermore, we have confirmed the presence of pathological vacuoles within neurons of the dorsal root ganglia (DRG of YG8sR mice. These novel GAA-repeat-expansion-based YAC transgenic FRDA mice, which exhibit progressive FRDA-like pathology, represent an excellent model for the investigation of FRDA disease mechanisms and therapy.

  11. Association between a Tetranucleotide Repeat Polymorphism of SPAG16 Gene and Cataract in Male Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shipra Mehra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Studies involving genotyping of STR markers at 2q34 have repeatedly found the region to host the disease haplotype for pediatric cataract. Present study investigated the association of D2S2944 marker, in sperm associated antigen 16 (SPAG16 gene and rs2289917 polymorphism, in γ-crystallin B gene, with childhood cataract. Methods. 97 pediatric cataract cases and 110 children with no ocular defects were examined for tetranucleotide repeat marker/SNP using PCR-SSLP/RFLP techniques. Polymorphisms were assessed for association using contingency tables and linkage disequilibrium among alleles of the markers was estimated. Energy-optimization program predicted the secondary structure models of repeats of D2S2944. Results. Seven alleles of D2S2944, with 9–15 “GATA” repeats, were observed. Frequency of the longer allele of D2S2944, ≥(GATA13 repeats, was 0.73 in cases and 0.56 in controls (P=0.0123. Male children bearing ≥(GATA13 repeats showed >3-fold higher risk for cataract (CI95% = 1.43–7.00, P=0.0043, Pc=0.0086 as compared to female children (OR=1.19, CI95% = 0.49–2.92, P=0.70. Cases with haplotype—≥(GATA13 of D2S2944 and “C” allele rs2289917—have a higher risk for pediatric cataract (OR=2.952, CI95% = 1.595~5.463, P=0.000453. >(GATA13 repeats formed energetically more favorable stem-loop structure. Conclusion. Intragenic microsatellite repeat expansion in SPAG16 gene increases predisposition to pediatric cataract by probably interfering posttranscriptional events and affecting the expression of adjacent lens transparency gene/s in a gender bias manner.

  12. Effects of repeated applications of fungicide carbendazim on its persistence and microbial community in soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Yunlong; CHU Xiaoqiang; PANG Guohui; XIANG Yueqin; FANG Hua

    2009-01-01

    Carbendazim, a systemic benzimidazole fungicide, is applied repeatedly to control of plant diseases including soilborne diseases, over a growing season. Studies were carried out under laboratory conditions to assess the effects of repeated carbendazim applications on its persistence and microbial community in soil. The results indicate that dissipation of carbendazim in soil was accelerated with its application frequency. The degradation rate constant of carbendazim was increased significantly from 0.074 d-1 to 0.79 d-1. The corresponding half-life was shorten markedly from 9.3 d to 0.9 d after four repeated applications. No significant inhibitory effect of carbendazim on soil microbial utilization of the carbon sources was observed after first treatment, but a slight increase in average well color development (AWCD) was shown after second, third, and fourth applications. It suggested that soil microorganisms become adapted to carbendazim after repeated application. Simpson and Shannon indexes of soil microbial community from carbendazim treated soil were also similar to those from the control soil, indicating that the richness and dominant character of soil microorganisms remain unchangeable after repeated application. However, after first, second, and third addition of carbendazim, McIntosh indexes on day 21 were significantly increased as compared with the control, suggesting that balance of soil microorganisms was altered due to the enrichment of the specific carbendazim-adapting strains in soil.

  13. Genus-specific protein binding to the large clusters of DNA repeats (short regularly spaced repeats) present in Sulfolobus genomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peng, Xu; Brügger, Kim; Shen, Biao;

    2003-01-01

    Short regularly spaced repeats (SRSRs) occur in multiple large clusters in archaeal chromosomes and as smaller clusters in some archaeal conjugative plasmids and bacterial chromosomes. The sequence, size, and spacing of the repeats are generally constant within a cluster but vary between clusters....... For the crenarchaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus P2, the repeats in the genome fall mainly into two closely related sequence families that are arranged in seven clusters containing a total of 441 repeats which constitute ca. 1% of the genome. The Sulfolobus conjugative plasmid pNOB8 contains a small cluster of six repeats...... that are identical in sequence to one of the repeat variants in the S. solfataricus chromosome. Repeats from the pNOB8 cluster were amplified and tested for protein binding with cell extracts from S. solfataricus. A 17.5-kDa SRSR-binding protein was purified from the cell extracts and sequenced. The protein is N...

  14. Reactivity to nicotine cues over repeated cue reactivity sessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaRowe, Steven D; Saladin, Michael E; Carpenter, Matthew J; Upadhyaya, Himanshu P

    2007-12-01

    The present study investigated whether reactivity to nicotine-related cues would attenuate across four experimental sessions held 1 week apart. Participants were nineteen non-treatment seeking, nicotine-dependent males. Cue reactivity sessions were performed in an outpatient research center using in vivo cues consisting of standardized smoking-related paraphernalia (e.g., cigarettes) and neutral comparison paraphernalia (e.g., pencils). Craving ratings were collected before and after both cue presentations while physiological measures (heart rate, skin conductance) were collected before and during the cue presentations. Although craving levels decreased across sessions, smoking-related cues consistently evoked significantly greater increases in craving relative to neutral cues over all four experimental sessions. Skin conductance was higher in response to smoking cues, though this effect was not as robust as that observed for craving. Results suggest that, under the described experimental parameters, craving can be reliably elicited over repeated cue reactivity sessions.

  15. Braking System Modeling and Brake Temperature Response to Repeated Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaini Dalimus

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Braking safety is crucial while driving the passenger or commercial vehicles. Large amount of kinetic energy is absorbed by four brakes fitted in the vehicle. If the braking system fails to work, road accident could happen and may result in death. This research aims to model braking system together with vehicle in Matlab/Simulink software and measure actual brake temperature. First, brake characteristic and vehicle dynamic model were generated to estimate friction force and dissipated heat. Next, Arduino based prototype brake temperature monitoring was developed and tested on the road. From the experiment, it was found that brake temperature tends to increase steadily in long repeated deceleration and acceleration cycle.

  16. ANALYSIS OF 312 CASES OF REPEAT CORONARY ARTERY BYPASS GRAFTING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈长志; 陆佩中

    2003-01-01

    Objective To evaluate repeat coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) in 312 patients.Methods The data of 312 patients (average age 65±9 years) who had CABG operation in Hartford hospital were collected and analyzed. The mean duration follow up after the first CABG was 11.8±4.5 years. A total of 1069 bypass grafts were performed. Among them, 386 were arterial grafts such as internal mammary artery, radial artery and gastroepiploic artery; 682 were venous grafts and 1 Gore-Tex graft. Results The operative mortality was 4. 5%. Fifteen patients (4. 8%) had peri-operative myocardial infarction and 46 patients (15%) had low cardiac output syndrome. Intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) was used in 131 patients before, during and after operation. One hundred and nineteen patients weaned off IABP and recovered. ConclusionAlthough the difficulties and risk factors were increased, the results of redo CABG were still good.

  17. Heat shock protein translocation and expression response is attenuated in response to repeated eccentric exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vissing, K.; Bayer, M.L.; Overgaard, K.;

    2009-01-01

    This study hypothesized that heat shock protein (HSP) translocation and upregulation is more probable to occur after eccentric exercise than after concentric exercise or repeated eccentric exercise. Fourteen young, healthy, untrained male subjects completed two bench-stepping exercise bouts with 8...... cytoskeletal protein fractions. The first bout of exercise reduced muscle strength and increased muscle soreness predominantly in the eccentric leg (P < 0.05). These responses were attenuated after the repeated eccentric exercise bout (P < 0.05), suggesting a repeated bout adaptation. Increases in inducible...... eccentric exercise bout. Our results show that HSP translocation and expression responses are induced by muscle damaging exercise, and suggest that such HSP responses are closely related to the extent of muscle damage Udgivelsesdato: 2009/7...

  18. Evaluation of Radiographic Repeat Rate Data and Film Reject Analysis of Radiology Departments in Several Hospitals of Hamadan University of Medical Sciences

    OpenAIRE

    Simak Sabzevari; Karim Ghazikhanlou Sani

    2011-01-01

    Background/Objective: Rejected and repeated"nradiographies are one of the most frequent difficulties"nin radiography. The dose received by patients,"nequipment fault, costs and patients wait time increases"nby increasing film rejection and repeat rate. Moreover,"nthis leads to decreasing the care level because of the"ndelay in film report. This study aims to evaluate the"nfilm rejection and repeat rate in university-affiliated"nhospitals of Hamadan City...

  19. Modelling repeatedly flaring delta-sunspots

    CERN Document Server

    Chatterjee, Piyali; Carlsson, Mats

    2016-01-01

    Active regions (AR) appearing on the surface of the Sun are classified into $\\alpha$, $\\beta$, $\\gamma$, and $\\delta$ by the rules of the Mount Wilson Observatory, California on the basis of their topological complexity. Amongst these, the $\\delta$-sunspots are known to be super-active and produce the most X-ray flares. Here, we present results from a simulation of the Sun by mimicking the upper layers and the corona, but starting at a more primitive stage than any earlier treatment. We find that this initial state consisting of only a thin sub-photospheric magnetic sheet breaks into multiple flux-tubes which evolve into a colliding-merging system of spots of opposite polarity upon surface emergence, similar to those often seen on the Sun. The simulation goes on to produce many exotic $\\delta$-sunspot associated phenomena: repeated flaring in the range of typical solar flare energy release and ejective helical flux ropes with embedded cool-dense plasma filaments resembling solar coronal mass ejections.

  20. Kinetics of D-lactic acid production by Sporolactobacillus sp. strain CASD using repeated batch fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bo; Wang, Limin; Li, Fengsong; Hua, Dongliang; Ma, Cuiqing; Ma, Yanhe; Xu, Ping

    2010-08-01

    D-lactic acid was produced by Sporolactobacillus sp. strain CASD in repeated batch fermentation with one- and two-reactor systems. The strain showed relatively high energy consumption in its growth-related metabolism in comparison with other lactic acid producers. When the fermentation was repeated with 10% (v/v) of previous culture to start a new batch, D-lactic acid production shifted from being cell-maintenance-dependent to cell-growth-dependent. In comparison with the one-reactor system, D-lactic acid production increased approximately 9% in the fourth batch of the two-reactor system. Strain CASD is an efficient D-lactic acid producer with increased growth rate at the early stage of repeated cycles, which explains the strain's physiological adaptation to repeated batch culture and improved performance in the two-reactor fermentation system. From a kinetic point of view, two-reactor fermentation system was shown to be an alternative for conventional one-reactor repeated batch operation. PMID:20374976

  1. MODELING THE EFFECTS OF UPDATING THE INFLUENZA VACCINE ON THE EFFICACY OF REPEATED VACCINATION.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. SMITH; A. LAPEDES; ET AL

    2000-11-01

    The accumulated wisdom is to update the vaccine strain to the expected epidemic strain only when there is at least a 4-fold difference [measured by the hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay] between the current vaccine strain and the expected epidemic strain. In this study we investigate the effect, on repeat vaccines, of updating the vaccine when there is a less than 4-fold difference. Methods: Using a computer model of the immune response to repeated vaccination, we simulated updating the vaccine on a 2-fold difference and compared this to not updating the vaccine, in each case predicting the vaccine efficacy in first-time and repeat vaccines for a variety of possible epidemic strains. Results: Updating the vaccine strain on a 2-fold difference resulted in increased vaccine efficacy in repeat vaccines compared to leaving the vaccine unchanged. Conclusions: These results suggest that updating the vaccine strain on a 2-fold difference between the existing vaccine strain and the expected epidemic strain will increase vaccine efficacy in repeat vaccines compared to leaving the vaccine unchanged.

  2. ALTERED HIPPOCAMPAL NEUROGENESIS AND AMYGDALAR NEURONAL ACTIVITY IN ADULT MICE WITH REPEATED EXPERIENCE OF AGGRESSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitriy eSmagin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The repeated experience of winning in a social conflict setting elevates levels of aggression and may lead to violent behavioral patterns. Here we use a paradigm of repeated aggression and fighting deprivation to examine changes in behavior, neurogenesis, and neuronal activity in mice with positive fighting experience. We show that for males, repeated positive fighting experience induces persistent demonstration of aggression and stereotypic behaviors in daily agonistic interactions, enhances aggressive motivation, and elevates levels of anxiety. When winning males are deprived of opportunities to engage in further fights, they demonstrate increased levels of aggressiveness. Positive fighting experience results in increased levels of progenitor cell proliferation and production of young neurons in the hippocampus. This increase is not diminished after a fighting deprivation period. Furthermore, repeated winning experience decreases the number of activated (c-fos positive cells in the basolateral amygdala and increases the number of activated cells in the hippocampus; a subsequent no-fight period restores the number of c-fos-positive cells. Our results indicate that extended positive fighting experience in a social conflict heightens aggression, increases proliferation of neuronal progenitors and production of young neurons in the hippocampus, and decreases neuronal activity in the amygdala; these changes can be modified by depriving the winners of the opportunity for further fights.

  3. Differences between youth with a single suicide attempt and repeaters regarding their and their parents history of psychiatric illness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Ida Skytte; Christiansen, Erik; Juul Larsen, Kim;

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine predictors of repeated suicide attempts in young people, focusing on psychiatric illness. A longitudinal population-based register study of all adolescents born in Denmark between 1984 and 2006 was conducted. Greater numbers of hospitalizations...... is a strong predictor of repeated suicide attempts in young people, and those with co-morbid diagnoses are at increased risk of repeated suicide attempts. Treatment of psychiatric illness in the parents after their child's first suicide attempt is a potential protective factor......., psychiatric diagnoses, and psychopharmacological medications prescribed to youth before and after the index attempt were risk factors for repeated suicide attempts. Parental diagnoses and drug prescriptions following a child's first suicide attempt moderated the risk of repeated attempts. Psychiatric illness...

  4. Quasimonomorphic Mononucleotide Repeats for High-Level Microsatellite Instability Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Buhard

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Microsatellite instability (MSI analysis is becoming more and more important to detect sporadic primary tumors of the MSI phenotype as well as in helping to determine Hereditary Non-Polyposis Colorectal Cancer (HNPCC cases. After some years of conflicting data due to the absence of consensus markers for the MSI phenotype, a meeting held in Bethesda to clarify the situation proposed a set of 5 microsatellites (2 mononucleotide repeats and 3 dinucleotide repeats to determine MSI tumors. A second Bethesda consensus meeting was held at the end of 2002. It was discussed here that the 1998 microsatellite panel could underestimate high-level MSI tumors and overestimate low-level MSI tumors. Amongst the suggested changes was the exclusive use of mononucleotide repeats in place of dinucleotide repeats. We have already proposed a pentaplex MSI screening test comprising 5 quasimonomorphic mononucleotide repeats. This article compares the advantages of mono or dinucleotide repeats in determining microsatellite instability.

  5. A statistical approach designed for finding mathematically defined repeats in shotgun data and determining the length distribution of clone-inserts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhong, Lan; Zhang, Kunlin; Huang, Xiangang;

    2003-01-01

    that repeats of different copy number have different probabilities of appearance in shotgun data, so based on this principle, we constructed a statistical model and inferred criteria for mathematically defined repeats (MDRs) at different shotgun coverages. According to these criteria, we developed software......The large amount of repeats, especially high copy repeats, in the genomes of higher animals and plants makes whole genome assembly (WGA) quite difficult. In order to solve this problem, we tried to identify repeats and mask them prior to assembly even at the stage of genome survey. It is known...... MDRmasker to identify and mask MDRs in shotgun data. With repeats masked prior to assembly, the speed of assembly was increased with lower error probability. In addition, clone-insert size affect the accuracy of repeat assembly and scaffold construction, we also designed length distribution of clone...

  6. Toward a theory of repeat purchase drivers for consumer services

    OpenAIRE

    Paul, M; Hennig-Thurau, T.; Gremler, D.D.; Gwinner, K. P.; Wiertz, C.

    2009-01-01

    The marketing discipline’s knowledge about the drivers of service customers’ repeat purchase behavior is highly fragmented. This research attempts to overcome that fragmented state of knowledge by making major advances toward a theory of repeat purchase drivers for consumer services. Drawing on means–end theory, the authors develop a hierarchical classification scheme that organizes repeat purchase drivers into an integrative and comprehensive framework. They then identify drivers on the basi...

  7. Assembly of Repeat Content Using Next Generation Sequencing Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    labutti, Kurt; Kuo, Alan; Grigoriev, Igor; Copeland, Alex

    2014-03-17

    Repetitive organisms pose a challenge for short read assembly, and typically only unique regions and repeat regions shorter than the read length, can be accurately assembled. Recently, we have been investigating the use of Pacific Biosciences reads for de novo fungal assembly. We will present an assessment of the quality and degree of repeat reconstruction possible in a fungal genome using long read technology. We will also compare differences in assembly of repeat content using short read and long read technology.

  8. Triplet repeat length bias and variation in the human transcriptome

    OpenAIRE

    Molla, Michael; Delcher, Arthur; Sunyaev, Shamil; Cantor, Charles; Kasif, Simon

    2009-01-01

    Length variation in short tandem repeats (STRs) is an important family of DNA polymorphisms with numerous applications in genetics, medicine, forensics, and evolutionary analysis. Several major diseases have been associated with length variation of trinucleotide (triplet) repeats including Huntington's disease, hereditary ataxias and spinobulbar muscular atrophy. Using the reference human genome, we have catalogued all triplet repeats in genic regions. This data revealed a bias in noncoding D...

  9. Repeatability of nest morphology in African weaver birds

    OpenAIRE

    Walsh, Patrick T.; Hansell, Mike; Borello, Wendy D.; Healy, Susan D.

    2009-01-01

    It is generally assumed that birds build nests according to a genetic 'template', little influenced by learning or memory. One way to confirm the role of genetics in nest building is to assess the repeatability of nest morphology with repeated nest attempts. Solitary weaver birds, which build multiple nests in a single breeding season, are a useful group with which to do this. Here we show that repeatability of nest morphology was low, but significant, in male Southern Masked weaver birds and...

  10. Physiological Consequences of Repeated Exposures to Conditioned Fear

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, Robert S.; Strong, Paul V; Monika Fleshner

    2012-01-01

    Activation of the stress response evokes a cascade of physiological reactions that may be detrimental when repeated or chronic, and when triggered after exposure to psychological/emotional stressors. Investigation of the physiological mechanisms responsible for the health damaging effects requires animal paradigms that repeatedly evoke a response to psychological/emotional stressors. To this end, adult male Sprague Dawley rats were repeatedly exposed (2X per day for 20 days) to a context that...

  11. Repeat prescribing: scale, problems and quality management in ambulatory care patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Smet, Peter A G M; Dautzenberg, Maaike

    2004-01-01

    The reported scale of repeat prescriptions ranges from 29% to 75% of all items prescribed, depending on the definition of repeat prescribing and other variables. It is likely that a substantial part of repeat prescribing by general practitioners (GPs) occurs without direct doctor-patient contact. While this reduces the workload for the GP and is convenient for the patient, it does not provide the adequate control that is needed to ensure that every repeat prescription is still appropriate, effective and well tolerated, and that it is still being viewed upon and taken by the patient as intended. Infrequent therapy reviews may lead to failure to prevent, identify and solve drug-related problems and drug wastage, and may, thereby, have a negative impact on the effectiveness, safety or cost of the medications prescribed. Studies evaluating the repeat prescribing process have shown that GPs and medical practices vary widely in their degree of administrative and clinical control of repeat prescriptions. Contrary to the opinion that GPs cannot change prescribing behaviour when the prescription is initiated by a medical specialist, GPs have their own responsibility for controlling the repeats of such prescriptions. Intervention studies suggest that a medication review by a pharmacist can help to reduce drug-related problems with repeat prescriptions, and the effectiveness of the intervention may be increased by combining the medication review with a consultation of the patient's medical records and a patient interview. In several studies, such an intervention was relatively inexpensive and, therefore, feasible. However, these conclusions should be viewed with appropriate caution because a number of caveats pertain. There is still no evidence that these types of intervention improve health-related quality of life or reduce healthcare cost, and so far only a few trials have produced any evidence of clinical improvement. As implicit and explicit screening criteria have their

  12. Coexistence of 3G repeaters with LTE base stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Woon-Young; Lee, Sang-Min; Hwang, Gyung-Ho; Kim, Jae-Hoon

    2013-01-01

    Repeaters have been an attractive solution for mobile operators to upgrade their wireless networks at low cost and to extend network coverage effectively. Since the first LTE commercial deployment in 2009, many mobile operators have launched LTE networks by upgrading their 3G and legacy networks. Because all 3G frequency bands are shared with the frequency bands for LTE deployment and 3G mobile operators have an enormous number of repeaters, reusing 3G repeaters in LTE networks is definitely a practical and cost-efficient solution. However, 3G repeaters usually do not support spatial multiplexing with multiple antennas, and thus it is difficult to reuse them directly in LTE networks. In order to support spatial multiplexing of LTE, the role of 3G repeaters should be replaced with small LTE base stations or MIMO-capable repeaters. In this paper, a repeater network is proposed to reuse 3G repeaters in LTE deployment while still supporting multilayer transmission of LTE. Interestingly, the proposed network has a higher cluster throughput than an LTE network with MIMO-capable repeaters.

  13. Importance of Sample Size for the Estimation of Repeater F Waves in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Fang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS, repeater F waves are increased. Accurate assessment of repeater F waves requires an adequate sample size. Methods: We studied the F waves of left ulnar nerves in ALS patients. Based on the presence or absence of pyramidal signs in the left upper limb, the ALS patients were divided into two groups: One group with pyramidal signs designated as P group and the other without pyramidal signs designated as NP group. The Index repeating neurons (RN and Index repeater F waves (Freps were compared among the P, NP and control groups following 20 and 100 stimuli respectively. For each group, the Index RN and Index Freps obtained from 20 and 100 stimuli were compared. Results: In the P group, the Index RN (P = 0.004 and Index Freps (P = 0.001 obtained from 100 stimuli were significantly higher than from 20 stimuli. For F waves obtained from 20 stimuli, no significant differences were identified between the P and NP groups for Index RN (P = 0.052 and Index Freps (P = 0.079; The Index RN (P < 0.001 and Index Freps (P < 0.001 of the P group were significantly higher than the control group; The Index RN (P = 0.002 of the NP group was significantly higher than the control group. For F waves obtained from 100 stimuli, the Index RN (P < 0.001 and Index Freps (P < 0.001 of the P group were significantly higher than the NP group; The Index RN (P < 0.001 and Index Freps (P < 0.001 of the P and NP groups were significantly higher than the control group. Conclusions: Increased repeater F waves reflect increased excitability of motor neuron pool and indicate upper motor neuron dysfunction in ALS. For an accurate evaluation of repeater F waves in ALS patients especially those with moderate to severe muscle atrophy, 100 stimuli would be required.

  14. Positive association of the androgen receptor CAG repeat length polymorphism with the risk of prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz-Y-Miño, César; Robles, Paulo; Salazar, Carolina; Leone, Paola E; García-Cárdenas, Jennyfer M; Naranjo, Manuel; López-Cortés, Andrés

    2016-08-01

    Prostate cancer (PC) is the most frequently diagnosed cancer in Ecuador (15.6%). The androgen receptor gene codes for a protein that has an androgen‑binding domain, DNA‑binding domain and N‑terminal domain, which contains two polymorphic trinucleotide repeats (CAG and GGC). The aim of the present study was to determine whether variations in the number of repetitions of CAG and GGC are associated with the pathological features and the risk of developing PC. The polymorphic CAG and GGC repeat lengths in 108 mestizo patients with PC, 148 healthy mestizo individuals, and 78 healthy indigenous individuals were examined via a retrospective case‑control study. Genotypes were determined by genomic sequencing. The results demonstrated that patients with ≤21 CAG repeats have an increased risk of developing PC [odds ratio (OR)=2.99, 95% confidence interval (CI) =1.79‑5.01; P<0.001]. The presence of ≤21 CAG repeats was also associated with a tumor stage ≥T2c (OR=4.75; 95% CI=1.77‑12.72; P<0.005) and a Gleason score ≥7 (OR=2.9; 95% CI=1.1‑7.66; P=0.03). In addition, the combination of ≤21 CAG and ≥17 GGC repeats was associated with the risk of developing PC (OR=2.42; 95% CI=1.38‑4.25; P=0.002) and with tumor stage ≥T2c (OR=2.77; 95% CI=1.13‑6.79; P=0.02). In conclusion, the histopathological characteristics and PC risk in Ecuadorian indigenous and mestizo populations differs in association with the CAG repeats, and the combination of CAG and GGC repeats. PMID:27357524

  15. [Nerve conduction velocity of repeater F-waves is identical to that of M-waves].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, O; Matsumoto, S; Gondo, G; Arita, T; Iwasawa, H

    2001-12-01

    F-wave normally varies in latency and waveform from one response to the next. But the number of identical responses in a series of F-waves may be increased with neurogenic atrophy consistent with a decreased number of motoneurons capable of responding to antidromic stimulation. They are called "repeater F-waves". We herein demonstrate some repeater F-waves observed in three patients with moderate or slight diabetic polyneuropathy. In their motor nerve conduction studies on the peroneal nerve the maximum conduction velocity was 33 m/sec in patient 1, 36 m/sec in patient 2 and 48 m/sec in patient 3. A total of 6 delayed indirect potentials were repeatedly evoked after nerve trunk stimulation. They fulfilled the characteristics of F-wave. Their conduction velocities in the leg segment were 27, 26, 23 m/sec in patient 1, 34, 33 m/sec in patient 2 and 46 m/sec in patient 3. Repeater F-waves are occasionally observed in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, cervical spondylosis or entrapment neuropathies, in which the number of motoneuron is decreased. In diabetic polyneuropathy some repeater F-waves were also observed in patients not only with moderate to severe neuropathy but also with normal nerve conduction. F-waves are generated by an antidromic backfiring of motor neurons, and they occur preferentially in large motor neurons. Larger motor neurons inhibit smaller axons through the activation of Renshaw cells. In our 3 patients conduction velocities of the repeated F-waves were all identical to the main component of M-wave. These observations reconfirmed the hypothesis that relatively large motor neurons generating F-waves are preferentially activated also in repeater F-waves.

  16. Anterior prostate biopsy at initial and repeat evaluation: is it useful to detect significant prostate cancer?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Pepe

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose: Detection rate for anterior prostate cancer (PCa in men who underwent initial and repeat biopsy has been prospectively evaluated. Materials and Methods: From January 2013 to March 2014, 400 patients all of Caucasian origin (median age 63.5 years underwent initial (285 cases and repeat (115 cases prostate biopsy; all the men had negative digital rectal examination and the indications to biopsy were: PSA values > 10 ng/mL, PSA between 4.1-10 or 2.6-4 ng/mL with free/total PSA≤25% and ≤20%, respectively. A median of 22 (initial biopsy and 31 cores (repeat biopsy were transperineally performed including 4 cores of the anterior zone (AZ and 4 cores of the AZ plus 2 cores of the transition zone (TZ, respectively. Results: Median PSA was 7.9 ng/mL; overall, a PCa was found in 180 (45% patients: in 135 (47.4% and 45 (36% of the men who underwent initial and repeat biopsy, respectively. An exclusive PCa of the anterior zone was found in the 8.9 (initial biopsy vs 13.3% (repeat biopsy of the men: a single microfocus of cancer was found in the 61.2% of the cases; moreover, in 7 out 18 AZ PCa the biopsy histology was predictive of significant cancer in 2 (28.5% and 5 (71.5% men who underwent initial and repeat biopsy, respectively. Conclusions: However AZ biopsies increased detection rate for PCa (10% of the cases, the majority of AZ PCa with histological findings predictive of clinically significant cancer were found at repeat biopsy (about 70% of the cases.

  17. Effects of Repeated Reading and Listening Passage Preview on Oral Reading Fluency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Kristine D.; Leader-Janssen, Elizabeth M.; Conley, Perry

    2013-01-01

    This case study examined the effectiveness of three fluency interventions (i.e., repeated reading, audio listening passage preview and teacher modeled listening passage preview) with a fifth grade student struggling with fluency skills. When compared to baseline, each intervention increased oral reading fluency by the end of the 7 weeks of…

  18. Planned Repeat Cesarean Section at Term and Adverse Childhood Health Outcomes: A Record-Linkage Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mairead Black

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Global cesarean section (CS rates range from 1% to 52%, with a previous CS being the commonest indication. Labour following a previous CS carries risk of scar rupture, with potential for offspring hypoxic brain injury, leading to high rates of repeat elective CS. However, the effect of delivery by CS on long-term outcomes in children is unclear. Increasing evidence suggests that in avoiding exposure to maternal bowel flora during labour or vaginal birth, offspring delivered by CS may be adversely affected in terms of energy uptake from the gut and immune development, increasing obesity and asthma risks, respectively. This study aimed to address the evidence gap on long-term childhood outcomes following repeat CS by comparing adverse childhood health outcomes after (1 planned repeat CS and (2 unscheduled repeat CS with those that follow vaginal birth after CS (VBAC.A data-linkage cohort study was performed. All second-born, term, singleton offspring delivered between 1 January 1993 and 31 December 2007 in Scotland, UK, to women with a history of CS (n = 40,145 were followed up until 31 January 2015. Outcomes assessed included obesity at age 5 y, hospitalisation with asthma, learning disability, cerebral palsy, and death. Cox regression and binary logistic regression were used as appropriate to compare outcomes following planned repeat CS (n = 17,919 and unscheduled repeat CS (n = 8,847 with those following VBAC (n = 13,379. Risk of hospitalisation with asthma was greater following both unscheduled repeat CS (3.7% versus 3.3%, adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 1.18, 95% CI 1.05-1.33 and planned repeat CS (3.6% versus 3.3%, adjusted HR 1.24, 95% CI 1.09-1.42 compared with VBAC. Learning disability and death were more common following unscheduled repeat CS compared with VBAC (3.7% versus 2.3%, adjusted odds ratio 1.64, 95% CI 1.17-2.29, and 0.5% versus 0.4%, adjusted HR 1.50, 95% CI 1.00-2.25, respectively. Risk of obesity at age 5 y and risk of cerebral

  19. Repeatedly stressed rats have enhanced vulnerability to amygdala kindling epileptogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Nigel C; Lee, Han Ee; Yang, Meng; Rees, Sandra M; Morris, Margaret J; O'Brien, Terence J; Salzberg, Michael R

    2013-02-01

    Psychiatric disorders associated with elevated stress levels, such as depression, are present in many epilepsy patients, including those with mesial Temporal Lobe Epilepsy (mTLE). Evidence suggests that these psychiatric disorders can predate the onset of epilepsy, suggesting a causal/contributory role. Prolonged exposure to elevated corticosterone, used as a model of chronic stress/depression, accelerates limbic epileptogenesis in the amygdala kindling model. The current study examined whether exposure to repeated stress could similarly accelerate experimental epileptogenesis. Female adult non-epileptic Wistar rats were implanted with a bipolar electrode into the left amygdala, and were randomly assigned into stressed (n=18) or non-stressed (n=19) groups. Rats underwent conventional amygdala kindling (two electrical stimulations per day) until 5 Class V seizures had been experienced ('the fully kindled state'). Stressed rats were exposed to 30min restraint immediately prior to each kindling stimulation, whereas non-stressed rats received control handling. Restraint stress increased circulating corticosterone levels (pre-stress: 122±17ng/ml; post-stress: 632±33ng/ml), with no habituation observed over the experiment. Stressed rats reached the 'fully kindled state' in significantly fewer stimulations than non-stressed rats (21±1 vs 33±3 stimulations; p=0.022; ANOVA), indicative of a vulnerability to epileptogenesis. Further, seizure durations were significantly longer in stressed rats (p<0.001; ANOVA). These data demonstrate that exposure to repeated experimental stress accelerates the development of limbic epileptogenesis, an effect which may be related to elevated corticosterone levels. This may have implications for understanding the effects of chronic stress and depression in disease onset and progression of mTLE in humans.

  20. Swi1Timeless Prevents Repeat Instability at Fission Yeast Telomeres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadaleta, Mariana C; Das, Mukund M; Tanizawa, Hideki; Chang, Ya-Ting; Noma, Ken-ichi; Nakamura, Toru M; Noguchi, Eishi

    2016-03-01

    Genomic instability associated with DNA replication stress is linked to cancer and genetic pathologies in humans. If not properly regulated, replication stress, such as fork stalling and collapse, can be induced at natural replication impediments present throughout the genome. The fork protection complex (FPC) is thought to play a critical role in stabilizing stalled replication forks at several known replication barriers including eukaryotic rDNA genes and the fission yeast mating-type locus. However, little is known about the role of the FPC at other natural impediments including telomeres. Telomeres are considered to be difficult to replicate due to the presence of repetitive GT-rich sequences and telomere-binding proteins. However, the regulatory mechanism that ensures telomere replication is not fully understood. Here, we report the role of the fission yeast Swi1(Timeless), a subunit of the FPC, in telomere replication. Loss of Swi1 causes telomere shortening in a telomerase-independent manner. Our epistasis analyses suggest that heterochromatin and telomere-binding proteins are not major impediments for telomere replication in the absence of Swi1. Instead, repetitive DNA sequences impair telomere integrity in swi1Δ mutant cells, leading to the loss of repeat DNA. In the absence of Swi1, telomere shortening is accompanied with an increased recruitment of Rad52 recombinase and more frequent amplification of telomere/subtelomeres, reminiscent of tumor cells that utilize the alternative lengthening of telomeres pathway (ALT) to maintain telomeres. These results suggest that Swi1 ensures telomere replication by suppressing recombination and repeat instability at telomeres. Our studies may also be relevant in understanding the potential role of Swi1(Timeless) in regulation of telomere stability in cancer cells. PMID:26990647

  1. Swi1Timeless Prevents Repeat Instability at Fission Yeast Telomeres.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana C Gadaleta

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Genomic instability associated with DNA replication stress is linked to cancer and genetic pathologies in humans. If not properly regulated, replication stress, such as fork stalling and collapse, can be induced at natural replication impediments present throughout the genome. The fork protection complex (FPC is thought to play a critical role in stabilizing stalled replication forks at several known replication barriers including eukaryotic rDNA genes and the fission yeast mating-type locus. However, little is known about the role of the FPC at other natural impediments including telomeres. Telomeres are considered to be difficult to replicate due to the presence of repetitive GT-rich sequences and telomere-binding proteins. However, the regulatory mechanism that ensures telomere replication is not fully understood. Here, we report the role of the fission yeast Swi1(Timeless, a subunit of the FPC, in telomere replication. Loss of Swi1 causes telomere shortening in a telomerase-independent manner. Our epistasis analyses suggest that heterochromatin and telomere-binding proteins are not major impediments for telomere replication in the absence of Swi1. Instead, repetitive DNA sequences impair telomere integrity in swi1Δ mutant cells, leading to the loss of repeat DNA. In the absence of Swi1, telomere shortening is accompanied with an increased recruitment of Rad52 recombinase and more frequent amplification of telomere/subtelomeres, reminiscent of tumor cells that utilize the alternative lengthening of telomeres pathway (ALT to maintain telomeres. These results suggest that Swi1 ensures telomere replication by suppressing recombination and repeat instability at telomeres. Our studies may also be relevant in understanding the potential role of Swi1(Timeless in regulation of telomere stability in cancer cells.

  2. Effects of repeated consumption on sensory-enhanced satiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeomans, Martin R; McCrickerd, Keri; Brunstrom, Jeffrey M; Chambers, Lucy

    2014-03-28

    Previous research has suggested that sensory characteristics of a drink modify the acute satiating effects of its nutrients, with enhanced satiety being evident when a high-energy drink was thicker and tasted creamier. The present study tested whether this modulation of satiety by sensory context was altered by repeated consumption. Participants (n 48) consumed one of four drinks mid-morning on seven non-consecutive days, with satiety responses being measured pre-exposure (day 1), post-exposure (day 6) and at a 1-month follow-up. The drinks combined two levels of energy (lower energy (LE), 326 kJ and higher energy, 1163 kJ) with two levels of satiety-predictive sensory characteristics (low sensory (LS) or enhanced sensory). Test lunch intake 90 min after drink consumption depended on both the energy content and sensory characteristics of the drink before exposure, but on the energy content alone after exposure and at the follow-up. The largest change was an increase in test meal intake over time in the LE/LS condition. The effects on intake were reflected in appetite ratings, with rated hunger and expected filling affected by sensory characteristics and energy content pre-exposure, but were largely determined by energy content post-exposure and at the follow-up. In contrast, a measure of expected satiety reflected sensory characteristics regardless of energy content on all the three test days. Overall, these data suggest that some aspects of the sensory modulation of satiety are changed by repeated consumption, with covert energy becoming more effective in suppressing appetite over time, but also suggest that these behavioural changes are not readily translated into expectations of satiety.

  3. Swi1Timeless Prevents Repeat Instability at Fission Yeast Telomeres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadaleta, Mariana C.; Das, Mukund M.; Tanizawa, Hideki; Chang, Ya-Ting; Noma, Ken-ichi; Nakamura, Toru M.; Noguchi, Eishi

    2016-01-01

    Genomic instability associated with DNA replication stress is linked to cancer and genetic pathologies in humans. If not properly regulated, replication stress, such as fork stalling and collapse, can be induced at natural replication impediments present throughout the genome. The fork protection complex (FPC) is thought to play a critical role in stabilizing stalled replication forks at several known replication barriers including eukaryotic rDNA genes and the fission yeast mating-type locus. However, little is known about the role of the FPC at other natural impediments including telomeres. Telomeres are considered to be difficult to replicate due to the presence of repetitive GT-rich sequences and telomere-binding proteins. However, the regulatory mechanism that ensures telomere replication is not fully understood. Here, we report the role of the fission yeast Swi1Timeless, a subunit of the FPC, in telomere replication. Loss of Swi1 causes telomere shortening in a telomerase-independent manner. Our epistasis analyses suggest that heterochromatin and telomere-binding proteins are not major impediments for telomere replication in the absence of Swi1. Instead, repetitive DNA sequences impair telomere integrity in swi1Δ mutant cells, leading to the loss of repeat DNA. In the absence of Swi1, telomere shortening is accompanied with an increased recruitment of Rad52 recombinase and more frequent amplification of telomere/subtelomeres, reminiscent of tumor cells that utilize the alternative lengthening of telomeres pathway (ALT) to maintain telomeres. These results suggest that Swi1 ensures telomere replication by suppressing recombination and repeat instability at telomeres. Our studies may also be relevant in understanding the potential role of Swi1Timeless in regulation of telomere stability in cancer cells. PMID:26990647

  4. Preferential Nucleosome Assembly at DNA Triplet Repeats from the Myotonic Dystrophy Gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuh-Hwa; Amirhaeri, Sorour; Kang, Seongman; Wells, Robert D.; Griffith, Jack D.

    1994-07-01

    The expansion of CTG repeats in DNA occurs in or near genes involved in several human diseases, including myotonic dystrophy and Huntington's disease. Nucleosomes, the basic structural element of chromosomes, consist of 146 base pairs of DNA coiled about an octamer of histone proteins and mediate general transcriptional repression. Electron microscopy was used to examine in vitro the nucleosome assembly of DNA containing repeating CTG triplets. The efficiency of nucleosome formation increased with expanded triplet blocks, suggesting that such blocks may repress transcription through the creation of stable nucleosomes.

  5. An examination of the origin and evolution of additional tandem repeats in the mitochondrial DNA control region of Japanese sika deer (Cervus Nippon).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ba, Hengxing; Wu, Lang; Liu, Zongyue; Li, Chunyi

    2016-01-01

    Tandem repeat units are only detected in the left domain of the mitochondrial DNA control region in sika deer. Previous studies showed that Japanese sika deer have more tandem repeat units than its cousins from the Asian continent and Taiwan, which often have only three repeat units. To determine the origin and evolution of these additional repeat units in Japanese sika deer, we obtained the sequence of repeat units from an expanded dataset of the control region from all sika deer lineages. The functional constraint is inferred to act on the first repeat unit because this repeat has the least sequence divergence in comparison to the other units. Based on slipped-strand mispairing mechanisms, the illegitimate elongation model could account for the addition or deletion of these additional repeat units in the Japanese sika deer population. We also report that these additional repeat units could be occurring in the internal positions of tandem repeat regions, possibly via coupling with a homogenization mechanism within and among these lineages. Moreover, the increased number of repeat units in the Japanese sika deer population could reflect a balance between mutation and selection, as well as genetic drift.

  6. Global Repeat Map Method for Higher Order Repeat Alpha Satellites in Human and Chimpanzee Genomes (Build 37.2 Assembly)

    OpenAIRE

    Glunčić, Matko; Rosandić, Marija; Jelovina, Denis; Dekanić, Krešimir; Vlahović, Ines; Paar, Vladimir

    2012-01-01

    Alpha satellites are tandemly repeated sequences found in all human centromeres. In addition to the functional and structural role within centromere they are also a suitable model for evolutionary stud-ies, because of being subject to concerted evolution. The Global Repeat Map (GRM) algorithm is a convenient computational tool to determine consensus repeat units and their exact size within a given genomic sequence, both of monomeric and higher-order (HOR) type. Using GRM, we identify in Build...

  7. Per operative findings in repeat cesarean section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parul Sinha

    2016-04-01

    Conclusions: Chances of developing adhesions increases with each cesarean section, which leads to increase in morbidity of women. Thus cases of previous cesarean section should be educated about routine antenatal care. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(4.000: 1093-1096

  8. Repeatability of cardiac-MRI-measured right ventricular size and function in congenital heart disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, Rowan; Salem, Yishay [Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Division of Pediatric Cardiology, New York, NY (United States); Shah, Amee; Lai, Wyman W. [Morgan Stanley Children' s Hospital of New York Presbyterian, New York, NY (United States); Nielsen, James C. [Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Division of Pediatric Cardiology, New York, NY (United States); Mount Sinai Children' s Heart Center, Box 1201, New York, NY (United States)

    2011-08-15

    The measurement error for right ventricular (RV) size and function assessed by cardiac MRI (CMRI) in congenital heart disease has not been fully characterized. As CMRI parameters are being increasingly utilized to make clinical decisions, defining error in the clinical setting is critical. This investigation examines the repeatability of CMRI for RV size and function. Forty consecutive people with congenital heart disease involving the RV were retrospectively identified. Contouring of RV volumes was performed by two expert CMRI clinicians. The coefficient of variability and repeatability coefficients were calculated. Repeatability coefficients were multiplied by the mean value for each group studied to define a threshold beyond which measurement error was unlikely to be responsible. The variability for indexed RV end-diastolic volume = 3.2% and 3.3% for intra- and interobserver comparisons, respectively. The repeatability coefficients were 13.2% and 14.9% for intra- and interobserver comparisons, which yielded threshold values of 15.1 ml/m{sup 2} and 20.2 ml/m{sup 2}, respectively. For RV ejection fraction (EF), the repeatability coefficients for intra- and interobserver comparisons were 5.0% and 6.0%, which resulted in threshold values of 2.6 EF% and 3.0 EF%. The threshold values generated can be used during serial assessment of RV size and function. (orig.)

  9. Changes in Variable Number of Tandem Repeats in 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' through Insect Transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katoh, Hiroshi; Inoue, Hiromitsu; Iwanami, Toru

    2015-01-01

    Citrus greening (huanglongbing) is the most destructive citrus disease worldwide. The disease is associated with three species of 'Candidatus Liberibacter' among which 'Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus' has the widest distribution. 'Ca. L. asiaticus' is commonly transmitted by a phloem-feeding insect vector, the Asian citrus psyllid Diaphorina citri. A previous study showed that isolates of 'Ca. L. asiaticus' were clearly differentiated by variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) profiles at four loci in the genome. In this study, the VNTR analysis was further validated by assessing the stability of these repeats after multiplication of the pathogen upon host-to-host transmission using a 'Ca. L. asiaticus' strain from Japan. The results showed that some tandem repeats showed detectable changes after insect transmission. To our knowledge, this is the first report to demonstrate that the repeat numbers VNTR 002 and 077 of 'Ca. L. asiaticus' change through psyllid transmission. VNTRs in the recipient plant were apparently unrelated to the growing phase of the vector. In contrast, changes in the number of tandem repeats increased with longer acquisition and inoculation access periods, whereas changes were not observed through psyllid transmission after relatively short acquisition and inoculation access periods, up to 20 and 19 days, respectively. PMID:26402645

  10. Improving HSDPA Indoor Coverage and Throughput by Repeater and Dedicated Indoor System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The target of the paper is to provide guidelines for indoor planning and optimization using an outdoor-to-indoor repeater or a dedicated indoor system. The paper provides practical information for enhancing the performance of high-speed downlink packet access (HSDPA in an indoor environment. The capabilities of an outdoor-to-indoor analog WCDMA repeater are set against a dedicated indoor system and, furthermore, compared to indoor coverage of a nearby macrocellular base station. An extensive measurement campaign with varying system configurations was arranged in different indoor environments. The results show that compared to dedicated indoor systems, similar HSDPA performance can be provided by extending macrocellular coverage inside buildings using an outdoor-to-indoor repeater. According to the measurements, the pilot coverage planning threshold of about −80 dBm ensures a 2500 kbps throughput for shared HSDPA connections. Improving the coverage above −80 dBm seems to provide only small advantage in HSDPA throughput. Of course, the pilot planning thresholds may change if different channel power allocations are used. In addition, network performance can be further improved by increasing the antenna density in the serving distributed antenna system. Finally, good performance of repeater implementation needs careful repeater gain setting and donor antenna siting.

  11. Presence of repeater F-waves in the early stage of Guillain-Barré syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geijo-Barrientos, Emilio; González, Ofelia; Pastore-Olmedo, Carlos

    2012-03-01

    The absence or a prolonged latency of late responses, like F-waves, is a common neurophysiological finding with diagnostic utility in the early Guillain-Barré syndrome. However, the presence and the number of repeater F-waves have not been studied in this disease. In four patients, we report the transient presence of repeater F-waves in nerves of the lower limbs shortly after the onset of the disease. In each patient, the initial (diagnostic) nerve conduction study showed a high incidence of repeater F-waves in the tibial or in the peroneal nerves of one side, with normal distal motor latencies; in the other nerves explored the F-waves were fully abolished and the motor potentials were abnormal. In a second study, done 2-6 weeks later, we observed the abolition of the F-waves or a significant increase of its minimal latency in those nerves in which we had detected the repeaters. The presence of a high number of repeater F-waves with normal latencies in some nerves may be a transient and initial electrophysiological sign useful in the early diagnosis of this disease.

  12. Improving HSDPA Indoor Coverage and Throughput by Repeater and Dedicated Indoor System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isotalo Tero

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The target of the paper is to provide guidelines for indoor planning and optimization using an outdoor-to-indoor repeater or a dedicated indoor system. The paper provides practical information for enhancing the performance of high-speed downlink packet access (HSDPA in an indoor environment. The capabilities of an outdoor-to-indoor analog WCDMA repeater are set against a dedicated indoor system and, furthermore, compared to indoor coverage of a nearby macrocellular base station. An extensive measurement campaign with varying system configurations was arranged in different indoor environments. The results show that compared to dedicated indoor systems, similar HSDPA performance can be provided by extending macrocellular coverage inside buildings using an outdoor-to-indoor repeater. According to the measurements, the pilot coverage planning threshold of about −80 dBm ensures a 2500 kbps throughput for shared HSDPA connections. Improving the coverage above −80 dBm seems to provide only small advantage in HSDPA throughput. Of course, the pilot planning thresholds may change if different channel power allocations are used. In addition, network performance can be further improved by increasing the antenna density in the serving distributed antenna system. Finally, good performance of repeater implementation needs careful repeater gain setting and donor antenna siting.

  13. Changes in Variable Number of Tandem Repeats in ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ through Insect Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Citrus greening (huanglongbing) is the most destructive citrus disease worldwide. The disease is associated with three species of ‘Candidatus Liberibacter’ among which ‘Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus’ has the widest distribution. ‘Ca. L. asiaticus’ is commonly transmitted by a phloem-feeding insect vector, the Asian citrus psyllid Diaphorina citri. A previous study showed that isolates of ‘Ca. L. asiaticus’ were clearly differentiated by variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) profiles at four loci in the genome. In this study, the VNTR analysis was further validated by assessing the stability of these repeats after multiplication of the pathogen upon host-to-host transmission using a ‘Ca. L. asiaticus’ strain from Japan. The results showed that some tandem repeats showed detectable changes after insect transmission. To our knowledge, this is the first report to demonstrate that the repeat numbers VNTR 002 and 077 of ‘Ca. L. asiaticus’ change through psyllid transmission. VNTRs in the recipient plant were apparently unrelated to the growing phase of the vector. In contrast, changes in the number of tandem repeats increased with longer acquisition and inoculation access periods, whereas changes were not observed through psyllid transmission after relatively short acquisition and inoculation access periods, up to 20 and 19 days, respectively. PMID:26402645

  14. Changes in Variable Number of Tandem Repeats in 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' through Insect Transmission.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Katoh

    Full Text Available Citrus greening (huanglongbing is the most destructive citrus disease worldwide. The disease is associated with three species of 'Candidatus Liberibacter' among which 'Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus' has the widest distribution. 'Ca. L. asiaticus' is commonly transmitted by a phloem-feeding insect vector, the Asian citrus psyllid Diaphorina citri. A previous study showed that isolates of 'Ca. L. asiaticus' were clearly differentiated by variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR profiles at four loci in the genome. In this study, the VNTR analysis was further validated by assessing the stability of these repeats after multiplication of the pathogen upon host-to-host transmission using a 'Ca. L. asiaticus' strain from Japan. The results showed that some tandem repeats showed detectable changes after insect transmission. To our knowledge, this is the first report to demonstrate that the repeat numbers VNTR 002 and 077 of 'Ca. L. asiaticus' change through psyllid transmission. VNTRs in the recipient plant were apparently unrelated to the growing phase of the vector. In contrast, changes in the number of tandem repeats increased with longer acquisition and inoculation access periods, whereas changes were not observed through psyllid transmission after relatively short acquisition and inoculation access periods, up to 20 and 19 days, respectively.

  15. Modulation of CRISPR locus transcription by the repeat-binding protein Cbp1 in Sulfolobus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deng, Ling; Kenchappa, Chandra Shekar; Peng, Xu;

    2012-01-01

    CRISPR loci are essential components of the adaptive immune system of archaea and bacteria. They consist of long arrays of repeats separated by DNA spacers encoding guide RNAs (crRNA), which target foreign genetic elements. Cbp1 (CRISPR DNA repeat binding protein) binds specifically to the multiple...... direct repeats of CRISPR loci of members of the acidothermophilic, crenarchaeal order Sulfolobales. cbp1 gene deletion from Sulfolobus islandicus REY15A produced a strong reduction in pre-crRNA yields from CRISPR loci but did not inhibit the foreign DNA targeting capacity of the CRISPR/Cas system....... Conversely, overexpression of Cbp1 in S. islandicus generated an increase in pre-crRNA yields while the level of reverse strand transcripts from CRISPR loci remained unchanged. It is proposed that Cbp1 modulates production of longer pre-crRNA transcripts from CRISPR loci. A possible mechanism...

  16. Repeated-dose liver micronucleus assay: an investigation with 2-nitropropane, a hepatocarcinogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Satoru; Araki, Tetsuro; Nakajima, Mikio; Kusuoka, Osamu; Uchida, Keisuke; Sato, Norihiro; Tanabe, Yoko; Takahashi, Kaori; Wako, Yumi; Kawasako, Kazufumi; Tsurui, Kazuyuki

    2015-03-01

    The utility of the repeated-dose liver micronucleus (RDLMN) assay in the detection of a genotoxic hepatocarcinogen was evaluated. In this paper, a rat hepatocarcinogen, 2-nitropropane (2-NP), was administered orally to young adult rats for 14 and 28 days without a partial hepatectomy or a mitogen, and the micronucleus induction in liver was examined using a simple method to isolate hepatocytes. In addition, a bone marrow micronucleus assay was conducted concomitantly. The frequency of micronucleated hepatocytes induced by 2-NP increased significantly in both the 14- and 28-day repeated-dose studies, while the bone marrow micronucleus assays were negative in each study. These results indicate that the RDLMN assay is useful for detecting a genotoxic hepatocarcinogen that is negative in bone marrow micronucleus assays and is a suitable in vivo genotoxicity test method for integration into a repeated-dose general toxicity study. PMID:25892624

  17. Repeated mild traumatic brain injury causes chronic neuroinflammation, changes in hippocampal synaptic plasticity, and associated cognitive deficits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aungst, Stephanie L; Kabadi, Shruti V; Thompson, Scott M; Stoica, Bogdan A; Faden, Alan I

    2014-01-01

    Repeated mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) can cause sustained cognitive and psychiatric changes, as well as neurodegeneration, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. We examined histologic, neurophysiological, and cognitive changes after single or repeated (three injuries) mTBI using the rat lateral fluid percussion (LFP) model. Repeated mTBI caused substantial neuronal cell loss and significantly increased numbers of activated microglia in both ipsilateral and contralateral hippocampus on post-injury day (PID) 28. Long-term potentiation (LTP) could not be induced on PID 28 after repeated mTBI in ex vivo hippocampal slices from either hemisphere. N-Methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor-mediated responses were significantly attenuated after repeated mTBI, with no significant changes in α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor-mediated responses. Long-term potentiation was elicited in slices after single mTBI, with potentiation significantly increased in ipsilateral versus contralateral hippocampus. After repeated mTBI, rats displayed cognitive impairments in the Morris water maze (MWM) and novel object recognition (NOR) tests. Thus, repeated mTBI causes deficits in the hippocampal function and changes in excitatory synaptic neurotransmission, which are associated with chronic neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration. PMID:24756076

  18. Repeated social defeat stress enhances glutamatergic synaptic plasticity in the VTA and cocaine place conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelly, Claire E; Pomrenze, Matthew B; Cook, Jason B; Morikawa, Hitoshi

    2016-01-01

    Enduring memories of sensory cues associated with drug intake drive addiction. It is well known that stressful experiences increase addiction vulnerability. However, it is not clear how repeated stress promotes learning of cue-drug associations, as repeated stress generally impairs learning and memory processes unrelated to stressful experiences. Here, we show that repeated social defeat stress in rats causes persistent enhancement of long-term potentiation (LTP) of NMDA receptor-mediated glutamatergic transmission in the ventral tegmental area (VTA). Protein kinase A-dependent increase in the potency of inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate-induced Ca(2+) signaling underlies LTP facilitation. Notably, defeated rats display enhanced learning of contextual cues paired with cocaine experience assessed using a conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm. Enhancement of LTP in the VTA and cocaine CPP in behaving rats both require glucocorticoid receptor activation during defeat episodes. These findings suggest that enhanced glutamatergic plasticity in the VTA may contribute, at least partially, to increased addiction vulnerability following repeated stressful experiences. PMID:27374604

  19. Vocabulary Learning through Assisted and Unassisted Repeated Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Stuart; Chang, Anna C-S.

    2012-01-01

    Previous research investigating the effects of unassisted and assisted repeated reading has primarily focused on how each approach may contribute to improvement in reading comprehension and fluency. Incidental learning of the form and meaning of unknown or partially known words encountered through assisted and unassisted repeated reading has yet…

  20. Large Polyglutamine Repeats Cause Muscle Degeneration in SCA17 Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanshan Huang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In polyglutamine (polyQ diseases, large polyQ repeats cause juvenile cases with different symptoms than those of adult-onset patients, who carry smaller expanded polyQ repeats. The mechanisms behind the differential pathology mediated by different polyQ repeat lengths remain unknown. By studying knockin mouse models of spinal cerebellar ataxia-17 (SCA17, we found that a large polyQ (105 glutamines in the TATA-box-binding protein (TBP preferentially causes muscle degeneration and reduces the expression of muscle-specific genes. Direct expression of TBP with different polyQ repeats in mouse muscle revealed that muscle degeneration is mediated only by the large polyQ repeats. Different polyQ repeats differentially alter TBP’s interaction with neuronal and muscle-specific transcription factors. As a result, the large polyQ repeat decreases the association of MyoD with TBP and DNA promoters. Our findings suggest that specific alterations in protein interactions by large polyQ repeats may account for the unique pathology in juvenile polyQ diseases.

  1. Hybrid quantum repeater protocol with fast local processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borregaard, Johannes; Brask, Jonatan Bohr; Sørensen, Anders Søndberg

    2012-01-01

    We propose a hybrid quantum repeater protocol combining the advantages of continuous and discrete variables. The repeater is based on the previous work of Brask et al. [ Phys. Rev. Lett. 105 160501 (2010)] but we present two ways of improving this protocol. In the previous protocol entangled single...

  2. Impact of Inclusion or Exclusion of Repeaters on Test Equating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puhan, Gautam

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the effect of including or excluding repeaters on the equating process and results. New forms of two tests were equated to their respective old forms using either all examinees or only the first timer examinees in the new form sample. Results showed that for both tests used in this study, including or excluding repeaters in the…

  3. Secret key rates for an encoded quantum repeater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratzik, Sylvia; Kampermann, Hermann; Bruß, Dagmar

    2014-03-01

    We investigate secret key rates for the quantum repeater using encoding [L. Jiang et al., Phys. Rev. A 79, 032325 (2009), 10.1103/PhysRevA.79.032325] and compare them to the standard repeater scheme by Briegel, Dür, Cirac, and Zoller. The former scheme has the advantage of a minimal consumption of classical communication. We analyze the trade-off in the secret key rate between the communication time and the required resources. For this purpose we introduce an error model for the repeater using encoding which allows for input Bell states with a fidelity smaller than one, in contrast to the model given by L. Jiang et al. [Phys. Rev. A 79, 032325 (2009), 10.1103/PhysRevA.79.032325]. We show that one can correct additional errors in the encoded connection procedure of this repeater and develop a suitable decoding algorithm. Furthermore, we derive the rate of producing entangled pairs for the quantum repeater using encoding and give the minimal parameter values (gate quality and initial fidelity) for establishing a nonzero secret key. We find that the generic quantum repeater is optimal regarding the secret key rate per memory per second and show that the encoded quantum repeater using the simple three-qubit repetition code can even have an advantage with respect to the resources compared to other recent quantum repeater schemes with encoding.

  4. Development of Repeated Sprint Ability in Talented Youth Basketball Players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    te Wierike, Sanne C. M.; de Jong, Mark C.; Tromp, Eveline J. Y.; Vuijk, Pieter J.; Lemmink, Koen A. P. M.; Malina, Robert M.; Elferink-Gemser, Marije T.; Visscher, Chris

    2014-01-01

    te Wierike, SCM, de Jong, MC, Tromp, EJY, Vuijk, PJ, Lemmink, KAPM, Malina, RM, Elferink-Gemser, MT, and Visscher, C. Development of repeated sprint ability in talented youth basketball players. J Strength Cond Res 28(4): 928-934, 2014-Factors affecting repeated sprint ability (RSA) were evaluated i

  5. Repeatable mechanochemical activation of dynamic covalent bonds in thermoplastic elastomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imato, Keiichi; Kanehara, Takeshi; Nojima, Shiki; Ohishi, Tomoyuki; Higaki, Yuji; Takahara, Atsushi; Otsuka, Hideyuki

    2016-08-18

    Repeated mechanical scission and recombination of dynamic covalent bonds incorporated in segmented polyurethane elastomers are demonstrated by utilizing a diarylbibenzofuranone-based mechanophore and by the design of the segmented polymer structures. The repeated mechanochemical reactions can accompany clear colouration and simultaneous fading. PMID:27424868

  6. Turkish population data on the short tandem repeat locus TPOX

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vural, B; Poda, M; Atlioglu, E;

    1998-01-01

    Allele and genotype frequencies were determined for the STR (short tandem repeat) locus TPOX in a random Turkish population sample of 200 individuals.......Allele and genotype frequencies were determined for the STR (short tandem repeat) locus TPOX in a random Turkish population sample of 200 individuals....

  7. Short-sequence DNA repeats in prokaryotic genomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.F. van Belkum (Alex); S. Scherer; L. van Alphen (Loek); H.A. Verbrugh (Henri)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractShort-sequence DNA repeat (SSR) loci can be identified in all eukaryotic and many prokaryotic genomes. These loci harbor short or long stretches of repeated nucleotide sequence motifs. DNA sequence motifs in a single locus can be identical and/or heterogeneo

  8. Effects of 3-repeat tau on taxol mobility through microtubules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyunjoo; Fygenson, Deborah; Kim, Mahn Won

    2005-03-01

    Both the anti-cancer drug taxol and the microtubule-associated protein tau suppress dynamics of microtubules (MT). We have observed taxol mobility with full-length 3-repeat tau, one of six tau isoforms, using fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) on MTs and compare with earlier results on recombinant full-length adult 4-repeat tau. Taxol mobility becomes highly sensitive to taxol concentration in the presence of 3-repeat tau (up to 1:1 molar ratio) as it does in the presence of 4-repeat tau, but is 2 to 3 times faster at low taxol concentrations. Fitting to a mean-field binding reaction model [J.L. Ross et.al, PNAS 101:12910-5 (2004)] suggests that the presence of 3-repeat tau enhances taxol movement through pores in the MT walls.

  9. Photosynthesis of Digitaria ciliaris during repeated soil drought and rewatering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YaYong Luo; XueYong Zhao; JingHui Zhang; YuLin Li; XiaoAn Zuo; DianChao Sun

    2015-01-01

    The ability of psammophyte photosynthesis to withstand and recover from severe droughts is crucial for vegetation sta-bility in semi-arid sandy lands. The responses of gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence of an annual grass, Digitaria ciliaris, were measured through three soil drought and rewatering cycles. Results showed that the net photosynthesis rate (Pn) decreased by 92%, 95%, and 63%at end of the three drought periods, respectively, water use efficiency (WUE) de-creased by 67%, 54%, and 48%, while the constant intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci) increased by 1.08, 0.88, and 0.45 times. During those three cycles, the trapping probability with no dark adaptation (Fv′/Fm′) decreased by 55%, 51%, and 9%, the electron transport per cross section (ET0′/CS0′) decreased by 63%, 42%, and 18%, and the dissipation per cross section (DI0′/CS0′) increased by 97%, 96%, and 21%. These results indicated that D. ciliaris was subjected to photoinhi-bition and some non-stomatal limitation of photosynthesis under drought. However, after four days of rewatering, its photosynthetic characteristics were restored to control values. This capability to recover from drought may contribute to making the plant's use of water as efficient as possible. Furthermore, the photosynthesis decreased more slowly in the subsequent drought cycles than in the first cycle, allowing D. ciliaris to enhance its future drought tolerance after drought hardening. Thus, it acclimatizes itself to repeated soil drought.

  10. Consistency of Repeated Naming in Aphasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth E. Galletta

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background People with mild aphasia and healthy elderly often exhibit similar impairments on language tests of word retrieval. However, variable practice effects in object naming by three individuals with aphasia compared to young and elderly adults have been reported (Wingfield et al. 2006. Wingfield et al. (2006 found that naming of the same pictures of objects over five trials demonstrated decreasing response latencies over repeated trials for both older and younger adults, but not for individuals with aphasia. In fact, among their three participants with aphasia, response latencies in the consecutive trials differed considerably. The authors suggested that different underlying processes may be involved in word retrieval for people with aphasia compared to adults without brain injuries. In our study we aimed to further consider the effect of practice on both object and action naming in individuals with mild aphasia. Method One woman with anomic aphasia (age 38 years; WAB Aphasia Quotient = 88 and one healthy woman (age 25 years participated. Both were native English speakers and reported 18 years of formal education. Participants were tested individually, with a set of 27 object pictures and a set of 27 action pictures presented one at a time on a computer screen. The participants were instructed to name each picture as quickly as possible as soon as each picture appeared on the screen. There were 10 trials of each set of pictures, with different random orders for each trial. The order of presentation of the object and action picture sets alternated across participants. Naming responses were recorded to computer sound files for later measurements of response latencies. A brief tone was presented simultaneous with the picture onset, allowing later measurement of response latencies from the onset of picture presentation to the onset of the participant’s correct response. Results Our findings resembled those reported in Wingfield et al. (2006

  11. Strategy When Faced with Failure: Persistence and Degree Attainment of Course Repeaters versus Non-Repeaters. AIR 2002 Forum Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenton, Kathleen S.

    Graduation and persistence rates were compared for 184 students, 92 of whom had repeated multiple courses or at least 1 course 3 times. A control group of 92 nonrepeating students was drawn from the remaining 303 students of the entire 1996 cohort. There was no difference between the graduation rate of repeaters and nonrepeaters. The persistence…

  12. Steel or aluminium; Stahl oder Alu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riedel, Anja

    2012-11-01

    This is a market survey of mounting racks for PV units. It contains 20 more products than the 2011 survey, of which twelve are newcomers to the market. Some manufacturers were able to cut the cost in accordance with the degression. The market survey shows that 120 - 130 Euros per kWh can be viewed as realistic.

  13. Rivitalotyömaan alue- ja turvallisuussuunnitelma

    OpenAIRE

    Hassinen, Markku

    2011-01-01

    Tiivistelmä Tämän opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena oli tehdä turvallisuussuunnitelma ja aluesuunnitelma. Tehdyt suunnitelmat kohdistettiin rakennusliike Soimu Oy:n rivitalotyömaalle. Lisäksi työllä pyritään tuomaan esille turvallisemman rakennustyön kulttuuria yritykseen. Samalla luodaan yritykselle turvallisuusasiakirjoista pohja, jota voi mahdollisesti käyttää myös tulevissa kohteissa. Turvallisuussuunnitteluun ei usein jää riittävästi aikaa ja tämän työn toivotaan helpottavan turvallis...

  14. Automatization and familiarity in repeated checking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dek, E.C.P.; van den Hout, M.A.; Giele, C.L.; Engelhard, I.M.

    2015-01-01

    Repetitive, compulsive-like checking of an object leads to reductions in memory confidence, vividness, and detail. Experimental research suggests that this is caused by increased familiarity with perceptual characteristics of the stimulus and automatization of the checking procedure (Dek, van den Ho

  15. Metabolic rate variation over adult lifetime in the butterfly Vanessa cardui (Nymphalidae: Nymphalinae): aging, feeding, and repeatability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, William A; Wood, C A L; Ebersole, John; Stevenson, R D

    2010-01-01

    Questions about the adaptive importance of metabolic rate can be approached only when measurements of differences between individuals are repeatable. We made daily measurements of CO(2) production, body mass, and food uptake over the adult life span of unmated Vanessa cardui kept under constant environmental conditions in both fed and unfed treatments. Mass and CO(2) production generally declined with age in both treatments, though with much day-to-day variability in the fed treatment. For the full samples, metabolic rate was repeatable for the unfed treatment (repeatability r = 0.60) but not for the fed treatment (r = 0.03). Differences between fed and unfed individuals of the same age range were repeatable for the unfed treatment (r = 0.39) but not for the fed treatment (r = -0.20). Removing age effects on CO(2) production yielded still higher repeatability in the unfed treatment (r = 0.83), though not in fed butterflies of the same age range (r = -0.02). However, repeatability of CO(2) production of fed butterflies increased sharply with age, rising to 0.82 for butterflies age 8-10 d. Although food uptake mass was repeatable (r = 0.52), feeding history explained little variation in CO(2) production. We conclude that for V. cardui and possibly for other insects of similar feeding habit, variation in metabolic rate between individuals is best represented by measurements of unfed individuals of the same age or of older fed individuals.

  16. Repeated allergen exposure reduce early phase airway response and leukotriene release despite upregulation of 5-lipoxygenase pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui Zhi-Hua

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Allergen induced early phase airway response and airway plasma exudation are predominantly mediated by inflammatory mast cell mediators including histamine, cysteinyl leukotrienes (cysLTs and thromboxane A2 (TXA2. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether repeated allergen exposure affects early phase airway response to allergen challenge. Methods A trimellitic anhydride (TMA sensitized guinea pig model was used to investigate the effects of low dose repeated allergen exposure on cholinergic airway responsiveness, early phase airway response and plasma exudation, as well as local airway production of mast cell derived cysteinyl leukotrienes and thromboxane B2 (TXB2 after allergen challenge. Results Repeated low dose allergen exposure increased cholinergic airway responsiveness. In contrast, early phase airway response and plasma exudation in response to a high-dose allergen challenge were strongly attenuated after repeated low dose allergen exposure. Inhibition of the airway response was unspecific to exposed allergen and independent of histamine receptor blocking. Furthermore, a significant reduction of cysteinyl leukotrienes and TXB2 was found in the airways of animals repeatedly exposed to a low dose allergen. However, in vitro stimulation of airway tissue from animals repeatedly exposed to a low dose allergen with arachidonic acid and calcium ionophore (A23187 induced production of cysteinyl leukotrienes and TXB2, suggesting enhanced activity of 5-lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenase pathways. Conclusions The inhibition of the early phase airway response, cysteinyl leukotriene and TXB2 production after repeated allergen exposure may result from unresponsive effector cells.

  17. Performance Degradation of the Repeated Recycled Aggregate Concrete with 70% Replacement of Three-generation Recycled Coarse Aggregate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Pinghua; ZHANG Xinxin; WU Junyong; WANG Xinjie

    2016-01-01

    The feasibility of using different generations recycled coarse aggregate (RCA) on structural concrete was fully evaluated by studying the performance of the recycled coarse aggregates and their corresponding concretes, the different generations of RCA were recycled by following the repeated mode of ‘concrete-waste concrete-coarse aggregate-concrete’. Moreover, the focus was on ‘three generations’ of repeated RCAs, the RCA was produced by crushing and regenerating the artiifcial accelerated degraded concrete, the process was designed to follow the nature degradation of the concrete with a coupling action of accelerated carbonation and bending load. The properties ofx-generation (x=1, 2 or 3) of repeated RCA were systematically investigated and the compressive and splitting tensile strengths of relating structural concretes(with 70% replacement ofx-generation of RCA) were studied accordingly. The results show a competent compressive and splitting tensile strength of 30 MPa at 28th day of structural concretes with all generations of repeated RAC. And the gradual degraded performance of the repeated RCAs was observed with an increased numbers of repetition (1﹥2﹥3 generations), the overall performances of all repeated RCAs fulifll the ClassⅢaccording to Chinese Standards GB25177-2010. Our gained insight demonstrates a feasibility of using at least 3 generations of repeated RCA for the production of normal structural concrete.

  18. Repeating and not so Repeating Large Earthquakes in the Mexican Subduction Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjorleifsdottir, V.; Singh, S.; Iglesias, A.; Perez-Campos, X.

    2013-12-01

    The rupture area and recurrence interval of large earthquakes in the mexican subduction zone are relatively small and almost the entire length of the zone has experienced a large (Mw≥7.0) earthquake in the last 100 years (Singh et al., 1981). Several segments have experienced multiple large earthquakes in this time period. However, as the rupture areas of events prior to 1973 are only approximately known, the recurrence periods are uncertain. Large earthquakes occurred in the Ometepec, Guerrero, segment in 1937, 1950, 1982 and 2012 (Singh et al., 1981). In 1982, two earthquakes (Ms 6.9 and Ms 7.0) occurred about 4 hours apart, one apparently downdip from the other (Astiz & Kanamori, 1984; Beroza et al. 1984). The 2012 earthquake on the other hand had a magnitude of Mw 7.5 (globalcmt.org), breaking approximately the same area as the 1982 doublet, but with a total scalar moment about three times larger than the 1982 doublet combined. It therefore seems that 'repeat earthquakes' in the Ometepec segment are not necessarily very similar one to another. The Central Oaxaca segment broke in large earthquakes in 1928 (Mw7.7) and 1978 (Mw7.7) . Seismograms for the two events, recorded at the Wiechert seismograph in Uppsala, show remarkable similarity, suggesting that in this area, large earthquakes can repeat. The extent to which the near-trench part of the fault plane participates in the ruptures is not well understood. In the Ometepec segment, the updip portion of the plate interface broke during the 25 Feb 1996 earthquake (Mw7.1), which was a slow earthquake and produced anomalously low PGAs (Iglesias et al., 2003). Historical records indicate that a great tsunamigenic earthquake, M~8.6, occurred in the Oaxaca region in 1787, breaking the Central Oaxaca segment together with several adjacent segments (Suarez & Albini 2009). Whether the updip portion of the fault broke in this event remains speculative, although plausible based on the large tsunami. Evidence from the

  19. Repeating earthquakes recorded by Liaoning Regional Seismograph Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yu-tong; WU Zhong-liang; JIANG Chang-sheng; LI Guang-ping

    2008-01-01

    In the list of 'repeating pairs' or 'doublets' of earthquakes in China identified by Schaff and Richards using tele-seismic waveform cross-correlation, there were 23 repeating pairs located in Liaoning Province. In this study the waveforms of these events were cross-correlated using records from Liaoning Regional Seismograph Network (LRSN), and the 'repeating events' in the sense of regional waveform cross-correlation were obtained. The result was compared with that of Schaff and Richards and was used for the assessment of the seismic phase picking and event location practice of LRSN. The result shows that 'repeating events' in the sense of teleseismic waveform cross-correlation and those in the sense of regional waveform cross-correlation have significant difference, al-though with some overlap. However, the overall assessment of the location accuracy and the phase pick errors of LRSN by using these two sets of 'repeating events', respectively, provides similar results, while 'repeating events' in the sense of regional waveform cross-correlation seem to be better performing in such an assessment. With the assumption that the separation between the 'repeaters' be less than 1 km, the uncertainty in routine earthquake location of LRSN is estimated to be below 5 km, with the average of 2 km. In the observational bulletins of LRSN the time error in phase picking is estimated to be within±Is for 94% Pg readings and for 88% Sg readings.

  20. Exploring the repeat protein universe through computational protein design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunette, T J; Parmeggiani, Fabio; Huang, Po-Ssu; Bhabha, Gira; Ekiert, Damian C; Tsutakawa, Susan E; Hura, Greg L; Tainer, John A; Baker, David

    2015-12-24

    A central question in protein evolution is the extent to which naturally occurring proteins sample the space of folded structures accessible to the polypeptide chain. Repeat proteins composed of multiple tandem copies of a modular structure unit are widespread in nature and have critical roles in molecular recognition, signalling, and other essential biological processes. Naturally occurring repeat proteins have been re-engineered for molecular recognition and modular scaffolding applications. Here we use computational protein design to investigate the space of folded structures that can be generated by tandem repeating a simple helix-loop-helix-loop structural motif. Eighty-three designs with sequences unrelated to known repeat proteins were experimentally characterized. Of these, 53 are monomeric and stable at 95 °C, and 43 have solution X-ray scattering spectra consistent with the design models. Crystal structures of 15 designs spanning a broad range of curvatures are in close agreement with the design models with root mean square deviations ranging from 0.7 to 2.5 Å. Our results show that existing repeat proteins occupy only a small fraction of the possible repeat protein sequence and structure space and that it is possible to design novel repeat proteins with precisely specified geometries, opening up a wide array of new possibilities for biomolecular engineering.

  1. A De Novo Genome Assembly Algorithm for Repeats and Nonrepeats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuaibin Lian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Next generation sequencing platforms can generate shorter reads, deeper coverage, and higher throughput than those of the Sanger sequencing. These short reads may be assembled de novo before some specific genome analyses. Up to now, the performances of assembling repeats of these current assemblers are very poor. Results. To improve this problem, we proposed a new genome assembly algorithm, named SWA, which has four properties: (1 assembling repeats and nonrepeats; (2 adopting a new overlapping extension strategy to extend each seed; (3 adopting sliding window to filter out the sequencing bias; and (4 proposing a compensational mechanism for low coverage datasets. SWA was evaluated and validated in both simulations and real sequencing datasets. The accuracy of assembling repeats and estimating the copy numbers is up to 99% and 100%, respectively. Finally, the extensive comparisons with other eight leading assemblers show that SWA outperformed others in terms of completeness and correctness of assembling repeats and nonrepeats. Conclusions. This paper proposed a new de novo genome assembly method for resolving complex repeats. SWA not only can detect where repeats or nonrepeats are but also can assemble them completely from NGS data, especially for assembling repeats. This is the advantage over other assemblers.

  2. Clinical Characteristics of Patients Who Test Positive for Clostridium difficile by Repeat PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stotler, Brie; Jackman, Dana; Whittier, Susan; Della-Latta, Phyllis

    2014-01-01

    The high sensitivity of PCR assays for diagnosing Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) has greatly reduced the need for repeat testing after a negative result. Nevertheless, a small subset of patients do test positive within 7 days of a negative test. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical characteristics of these patients to determine when repeat testing may be appropriate. The results of all Xpert C. difficile PCR (Cepheid, Sunnyvale CA) tests performed in the clinical microbiology laboratory at New York-Presbyterian Hospital, Columbia University Medical Center (NYPH/CUMC) from 1 May 2011 through 6 September 2013, were reviewed. A retrospective case-control study was performed, comparing patients who tested positive within 7 days of a negative test result to a random selection of 50 controls who tested negative within 7 days of a negative test result. During the study period, a total of 14,875 tests were performed, of which 1,066 were repeat tests (7.2%). Eleven of these repeat tests results were positive (1.0%). The only risk factor independently associated with repeat testing positive was history of a prior CDI (odds ratio [OR], 19.6 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 4.0 to 19.5], P < 0.001). We found that patients who test positive for C. difficile by PCR within 7 days of a negative test are more likely to have a history of CDI than are patients who test negative with repeat PCR. This finding may be due to the high rate of disease relapse or the increased likelihood of empirical therapy leading to false-negative results in these patients. PMID:25122866

  3. Clinical characteristics of patients who test positive for Clostridium difficile by repeat PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Daniel A; Stotler, Brie; Jackman, Dana; Whittier, Susan; Della-Latta, Phyllis

    2014-11-01

    The high sensitivity of PCR assays for diagnosing Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) has greatly reduced the need for repeat testing after a negative result. Nevertheless, a small subset of patients do test positive within 7 days of a negative test. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical characteristics of these patients to determine when repeat testing may be appropriate. The results of all Xpert C. difficile PCR (Cepheid, Sunnyvale CA) tests performed in the clinical microbiology laboratory at New York-Presbyterian Hospital, Columbia University Medical Center (NYPH/CUMC) from 1 May 2011 through 6 September 2013, were reviewed. A retrospective case-control study was performed, comparing patients who tested positive within 7 days of a negative test result to a random selection of 50 controls who tested negative within 7 days of a negative test result. During the study period, a total of 14,875 tests were performed, of which 1,066 were repeat tests (7.2%). Eleven of these repeat tests results were positive (1.0%). The only risk factor independently associated with repeat testing positive was history of a prior CDI (odds ratio [OR], 19.6 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 4.0 to 19.5], P PCR within 7 days of a negative test are more likely to have a history of CDI than are patients who test negative with repeat PCR. This finding may be due to the high rate of disease relapse or the increased likelihood of empirical therapy leading to false-negative results in these patients.

  4. Tandem-repeat protein domains across the tree of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin K. Jernigan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tandem-repeat protein domains, composed of repeated units of conserved stretches of 20–40 amino acids, are required for a wide array of biological functions. Despite their diverse and fundamental functions, there has been no comprehensive assessment of their taxonomic distribution, incidence, and associations with organismal lifestyle and phylogeny. In this study, we assess for the first time the abundance of armadillo (ARM and tetratricopeptide (TPR repeat domains across all three domains in the tree of life and compare the results to our previous analysis on ankyrin (ANK repeat domains in this journal. All eukaryotes and a majority of the bacterial and archaeal genomes analyzed have a minimum of one TPR and ARM repeat. In eukaryotes, the fraction of ARM-containing proteins is approximately double that of TPR and ANK-containing proteins, whereas bacteria and archaea are enriched in TPR-containing proteins relative to ARM- and ANK-containing proteins. We show in bacteria that phylogenetic history, rather than lifestyle or pathogenicity, is a predictor of TPR repeat domain abundance, while neither phylogenetic history nor lifestyle predicts ARM repeat domain abundance. Surprisingly, pathogenic bacteria were not enriched in TPR-containing proteins, which have been associated within virulence factors in certain species. Taken together, this comparative analysis provides a newly appreciated view of the prevalence and diversity of multiple types of tandem-repeat protein domains across the tree of life. A central finding of this analysis is that tandem repeat domain-containing proteins are prevalent not just in eukaryotes, but also in bacterial and archaeal species.

  5. Parallel genotypic adaptation: when evolution repeats itself

    OpenAIRE

    Wood, Troy E.; Burke, John M.; Rieseberg, Loren H.

    2005-01-01

    Until recently, parallel genotypic adaptation was considered unlikely because phenotypic differences were thought to be controlled by many genes. There is increasing evidence, however, that phenotypic variation sometimes has a simple genetic basis and that parallel adaptation at the genotypic level may be more frequent than previously believed. Here, we review evidence for parallel genotypic adaptation derived from a survey of the experimental evolution, phylogenetic, and quantitative genetic...

  6. Enhanced resistance to UV-B radiation in Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 (Cyanophyceae) by repeated exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Hongjie; Li, Dunhai

    2014-07-01

    In natural habitats, organisms especially phytoplankton are not always continuously subjected to ultraviolet-B radiation (UVBR). By simulation of the natural situation, the N2-fixing cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 was subjected to UV-B exposure and recovery cycles. A series of morphological and physiological changes were observed in Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 under repeated UVBR when compared with controls. Such as the breakage of filaments, intervals between heterocysts, heterocyst frequency, total carbohydrate, and carotenoids were increased, while the nitrogenase activity and photosynthetic activity were inhibited by repeated UVBR; however, these activities could recover when UV-B stress was removed. Unexpectedly, the over-compensatory growth was observed at the end of the second round of exposure and recovery cycle. Our results showed that discontinuous UVBR could increase the growth rate and the tolerance as well as repair capacity of Anabaena sp. PCC 7120. These results indicate that moderate UVBR may increase the growth of cyanobacteria in natural habitats.

  7. Analysis of repeated outcome measures from longitudinal studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuanjia WANG; Naihua DUAN

    2011-01-01

    @@ In many clinical studies repeated measurements of an outcome are collected over time.For example,in an 8-week study of treatment for obsessive compulsive disorder,the severity of the disorder may be measured weekly using the Yale-Brown-Obsessive-Compulsive-Disorder-Scale (YBOCS).For each study participant who completes the study,there will be nine repeated measures of YBOCS (a baseline assessment plus eight assessments during the course of treatment).Such a study in which participants are followed and measured repeatedly over time is called a longitudinal study and the resulting data are called longitudinal data.

  8. Frequency Bandwidth of Half-Wave Impedance Repeater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Dvorsky

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article brings in the second part general information about half-wave impedance repeater. The third part describes the basic functional principles of the half-wave impedance repeater using Smith chart. The main attention is focused in part four on the derivation of repeater frequency bandwidth depending on characteristics and load impedance of unknown feeder line. Derived dependences are based on the elementary features of the feeder lines with specific length. The described functionality is proved in part 4.3 by measurement of transformed impedance using vector several unbalanced feeder lines and network analyzer VNWA3+.

  9. Secure quantum network coding for controlled repeater networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Tao; Li, Jiao; Liu, Jian-wei

    2016-07-01

    To realize efficient quantum communication based on quantum repeater, we propose a secure quantum network coding scheme for controlled repeater networks, which adds a controller as a trusted party and is able to control the process of EPR-pair distribution. As the key operations of quantum repeater, local operations and quantum communication are designed to adopt quantum one-time pad to enhance the function of identity authentication instead of local operations and classical communication. Scheme analysis shows that the proposed scheme can defend against active attacks for quantum communication and realize long-distance quantum communication with minimal resource consumption.

  10. Rate of Decomposition of Organic Matter in Soil as Influenced by Repeated Air Drying-Rewetting and Repeated Additions of Organic Material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lasse Holst

    1974-01-01

    Repeated air drying and rewetting of three soils followed by incubation at 20°C resulted in an increase in the rate of decomposition of a fraction of 14C labeled organic matter in the soils. The labeled organic matter originated from labeled glucose, cellulose and straw, respectively, metabolized...... in the soils during previous incubation periods ranging from 1.5 to 8 years. Air drying and rewetting every 30th day over an incubation period of 260–500 days caused an increase in the evolution of labeled CO2 ranging from 16 to 121 per cent as compared to controls kept moist continuously. The effect...

  11. Crack Propagation in a Toughened Epoxy Adhesive under Repeated Impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian A. Ashcroft

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Adhesives are being increasingly used in structural applications, especially in aerospace, automotive and naval structures, making their structural integrity an important issue. In-service loading histories of such structures usually contain low-energy impacts, repetition of which can significantly affect their performance. This paper deals with the behaviour of the toughened epoxy adhesive FM73 under repeated impacts, known as impact fatigue. Izod impact fatigue tests were performed on FM73 specimens in order to study the evolution of damage and to characterise this via measurable parameters, such as the maximum force and the contact time. A finite element model was developed to simulate the impact tests and this was used to calculate the dynamic strain energy release rate, which was compared with that determined using a simple analytical method. A relationship between the maximum dynamic strain energy release rate and impact fatigue crack growth rate was established that was used as the basis of an impact fatigue crack growth law.

  12. Building icelandic igneous crust by repeated melt injections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfield, Tim; White, Robert S.

    2015-11-01

    Observations of microseismicity provide a powerful tool for mapping the movement of melt in the crust. Here we record remarkable sequences of earthquakes 20 km below the surface in the normally ductile crust in the vicinity of Askja Volcano, in northeast Iceland. The earthquakes occur in swarms consisting of identical waveforms repeating as frequently as every 8 s for up to 3 h. We use template waveforms from each swarm to detect and locate earthquakes with an automated cross-correlation technique. Events are located in the lower crust and are inferred to be the result of melt being injected into the crust. During melt intrusion high strain rates are produced in conjunction with high pore fluid pressures from the melt or exsolved carbon dioxide. These cause brittle failure on high-angle fault planes located at the tips of sills. Moment tensor solutions show that most of the earthquakes are opening cracks accompanied by volumetric increases. This is consistent with the failure causing the earthquakes by melt injection opening new tensile cracks. Analysis of the magnitude distribution of earthquakes within a swarm reveals a complicated relationship between the imposed strain rates and the fluids that cause brittle failure. The magnitude of the earthquakes is controlled by the distance fluids can migrate along a fault, whereas the frequency of the events is controlled by the strain rate. Faults at the tips of sills act to focus melt transport between sills and so must be an important method of transporting melt through the lower crust.

  13. Animating streamlines with repeated asymmetric patterns for steady flow visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Chih-Kuo; Liu, Zhanping; Lee, Tong-Yee

    2012-01-01

    Animation provides intuitive cueing for revealing essential spatial-temporal features of data in scientific visualization. This paper explores the design of Repeated Asymmetric Patterns (RAPs) in animating evenly-spaced color-mapped streamlines for dense accurate visualization of complex steady flows. We present a smooth cyclic variable-speed RAP animation model that performs velocity (magnitude) integral luminance transition on streamlines. This model is extended with inter-streamline synchronization in luminance varying along the tangential direction to emulate orthogonal advancing waves from a geometry-based flow representation, and then with evenly-spaced hue differing in the orthogonal direction to construct tangential flow streaks. To weave these two mutually dual sets of patterns, we propose an energy-decreasing strategy that adopts an iterative yet efficient procedure for determining the luminance phase and hue of each streamline in HSL color space. We also employ adaptive luminance interleaving in the direction perpendicular to the flow to increase the contrast between streamlines.

  14. How Soft Gamma Repeaters Might Make Fast Radio Bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, J. I.

    2016-08-01

    There are several phenomenological similarities between soft gamma repeaters (SGRs) and fast radio bursts (FRBs), including duty factors, timescales, and repetition. The sudden release of magnetic energy in a neutron star magnetosphere, as in popular models of SGRs, can meet the energy requirements of FRBs, but requires both the presence of magnetospheric plasma, in order for dissipation to occur in a transparent region, and a mechanism for releasing much of that energy quickly. FRB sources and SGRs are distinguished by long-lived (up to thousands of years) current-carrying coronal arches remaining from the formation of the young neutron star, and their decay ends the phase of SGR/AXP/FRB activity even though “magnetar” fields may persist. Runaway increases in resistance when the current density exceeds a threshold, releases magnetostatic energy in a sudden burst, and produces high brightness GHz emission of FRB by a coherent process. SGRs are produced when released energy thermalizes as an equlibrium pair plasma. The failures of some alternative FRB models and the non-detection of SGR 1806-20 at radio frequencies are discussed in the appendices.

  15. A standardized protocol for repeated social defeat stress in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Sam A; Covington, Herbert E; Berton, Olivier; Russo, Scott J

    2011-08-01

    A major impediment to novel drug development has been the paucity of animal models that accurately reflect symptoms of affective disorders. In animal models, prolonged social stress has proven to be useful in understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying affective-like disorders. When considering experimental approaches for studying depression, social defeat stress, in particular, has been shown to have excellent etiological, predictive, discriminative and face validity. Described here is a protocol whereby C57BL/6J mice that are repeatedly subjected to bouts of social defeat by a larger and aggressive CD-1 mouse results in the development of a clear depressive-like syndrome, characterized by enduring deficits in social interactions. Specifically, the protocol consists of three important stages, beginning with the selection of aggressive CD-1 mice, followed by agonistic social confrontations between the CD-1 and C57BL/6J mice, and concluding with the confirmation of social avoidance in subordinate C57BL/6J mice. The automated detection of social avoidance allows a marked increase in throughput, reproducibility and quantitative analysis. This protocol is highly adaptable, but in its most common form it requires 3-4 weeks for completion. PMID:21799487

  16. [Ionic nature of repeated responses of myocardial fibers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakson, M E; Kukushin, N I; Tsintsadze, M A

    1976-01-01

    Changing ionic composition of the environment and applying exposures which modify the conductivity of electrogenic membrane, the role of entering and leaving currents is studied in the generation of two zones of repeated responses (RR) of cat papillary muscle fibres. The first RR zone activated at a weak depolarization of the membrane (no higher than 30 mV) seems to be concerned with the functioning of the fast Na system. It was not blocked with inderal (2 divided by 5 mg/l), anor with Mn2+ ions (3mM). The second RR zone appearing at a stronger membrane depolarization (higher than 30 mv) is essentially dependent on the activity of the slow Na-Ca-system. It is activated with adrenaline (0.2 mg/l), ions of Sr2+ (5mM), Ba2+ (0.1 mM), Ca2+ (5 divided by 10 mM); blocked with Mn2+ (3 mM), Co2+ (5mM) ions, verapamile (2 divided by 4 mg/l), inderal (2 divided by 4 mg/l). The second RR zone was essentially affected with potassium ions: the 3-fold increase of Ko+ suppressed the RR of the second zone, a 3-fold decrease of Ko+ strengthened them. PMID:1009156

  17. Tandem repeat regions within the Burkholderia pseudomallei genome and their application for high resolution genotyping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harvey Steven P

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The facultative, intracellular bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei is the causative agent of melioidosis, a serious infectious disease of humans and animals. We identified and categorized tandem repeat arrays and their distribution throughout the genome of B. pseudomallei strain K96243 in order to develop a genetic typing method for B. pseudomallei. We then screened 104 of the potentially polymorphic loci across a diverse panel of 31 isolates including B. pseudomallei, B. mallei and B. thailandensis in order to identify loci with varying degrees of polymorphism. A subset of these tandem repeat arrays were subsequently developed into a multiple-locus VNTR analysis to examine 66 B. pseudomallei and 21 B. mallei isolates from around the world, as well as 95 lineages from a serial transfer experiment encompassing ~18,000 generations. Results B. pseudomallei contains a preponderance of tandem repeat loci throughout its genome, many of which are duplicated elsewhere in the genome. The majority of these loci are composed of repeat motif lengths of 6 to 9 bp with 4 to 10 repeat units and are predominately located in intergenic regions of the genome. Across geographically diverse B. pseudomallei and B.mallei isolates, the 32 VNTR loci displayed between 7 and 28 alleles, with Nei's diversity values ranging from 0.47 and 0.94. Mutation rates for these loci are comparable (>10-5 per locus per generation to that of the most diverse tandemly repeated regions found in other less diverse bacteria. Conclusion The frequency, location and duplicate nature of tandemly repeated regions within the B. pseudomallei genome indicate that these tandem repeat regions may play a role in generating and maintaining adaptive genomic variation. Multiple-locus VNTR analysis revealed extensive diversity within the global isolate set containing B. pseudomallei and B. mallei, and it detected genotypic differences within clonal lineages of both species that were

  18. The effects of repeated low-dose sarin exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This project assessed the effects of repeated low-dose exposure of guinea pigs to the organophosphorus nerve agent sarin. Animals were injected once a day, 5 days per week (Monday-Friday), for 2 weeks with fractions (0.3x, 0.4x, 0.5x, or 0.6x) of the established LD5 dose of sarin (42 μg/kg, s.c.). The animals were assessed for changes in body weight, red blood cell (RBC) acetylcholinesterase (AChE) levels, neurobehavioral reactions to a functional observational battery (FOB), cortical electroencephalographic (EEG) power spectrum, and intrinsic acetylcholine (ACh) neurotransmitter (NT) regulation over the 2 weeks of sarin exposure and for up to 12 days postinjection. No guinea pig receiving 0.3, 0.4 or 0.5 x LD5 of sarin showed signs of cortical EEG seizures despite decreases in RBC AChE levels to as low as 10% of baseline, while seizures were evident in animals receiving 0.6 x LD5 of sarin as early as the second day; subsequent injections led to incapacitation and death. Animals receiving 0.5 x LD5 sarin showed obvious signs of cholinergic toxicity; overall, 2 of 13 animals receiving 0.5 x LD5 sarin died before all 10 injections were given, and there was a significant increase in the angle of gait in the animals that lived. By the 10th day of injection, the animals receiving saline were significantly easier to remove from their cages and handle and significantly less responsive to an approaching pencil and touch on the rump in comparison with the first day of testing. In contrast, the animals receiving 0.4 x LD5 sarin failed to show any significant reductions in their responses to an approaching pencil and a touch on the rump as compared with the first day. The 0.5 x LD5 sarin animals also failed to show any significant changes to the approach and touch responses and did not adjust to handling or removal from the cage from the first day of injections to the last day of handling. Thus, the guinea pigs receiving the 0.4 and 0.5 x LD5 doses of sarin failed to

  19. Analysis of Simple Sequence Repeats in Genomes of Rhizobia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Ya-mei; HAN Yi-qiang; TANG Hui; SUN Dong-mei; WANG Yan-jie; WANG Wei-dong

    2008-01-01

    Simple sequence repeats (SSRs) or microsatellites, as genetic markers, are ubiquitous in genomes of various organisms. The analysis of SSR in rhizobia genome provides useful information for a variety of applications in population genetics of rhizobia. We analyzed the occurrences, relative abundance, and relative density of SSRs, the most common in Bradyrhizobium japonicum, Mesorhizobium loti, and Sinorhizobium meliloti genomes se-quenced in the microorganisms tandem repeats database, and SSRs in the three species genomes were compared with each other. The result showed that there were 1 410, 859, and 638 SSRs in B. japonicum, M. loti, and 5. meliloti genomes, respectively. In the genomes of B. japonicum, M. loti, and 5. meliloti, tetranucleotide, pentanucleotide, and hexanucleotide repeats were more abundant and indicated higher mutation rates in these species. The least abundance was mononucleotide repeat. The SSRs type and distribution were similar among these species.

  20. Quantitation of Leishmania lipophosphoglycan repeat units by capillary electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, Tamara L; Turco, Salvatore J

    2006-04-01

    The glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored lipophosphoglycan (LPG) of Leishmania is the dominant cell surface glycoconjugate of these pathogenic parasites. LPG is structurally characterized by a series of phosphoglycan repeat units. Determining the number of repeat units per LPG molecule has proven difficult using current technologies, such as mass spectrometry. As an alternative method to quantitate the number of repeat units in LPG, a procedure based on capillary electrophoretic analysis of the proportion of mannose to 2,5-anhydromannose (derived from the nonacetylated glucosamine of the GPI anchor of LPG) was developed. The CE-based technique is sensitive and relatively rapid compared to GC-MS-based protocols. Its application was demonstrated in quantitating the number of LPG repeat units from several species of Leishmania as well as from two life-cycle stages of these organisms. PMID:16310310

  1. Correct use of repeated measures analysis of variance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eunsik; Cho, Meehye; Ki, Chang-Seok

    2009-02-01

    In biomedical research, researchers frequently use statistical procedures such as the t-test, standard analysis of variance (ANOVA), or the repeated measures ANOVA to compare means between the groups of interest. There are frequently some misuses in applying these procedures since the conditions of the experiments or statistical assumptions necessary to apply these procedures are not fully taken into consideration. In this paper, we demonstrate the correct use of repeated measures ANOVA to prevent or minimize ethical or scientific problems due to its misuse. We also describe the appropriate use of multiple comparison tests for follow-up analysis in repeated measures ANOVA. Finally, we demonstrate the use of repeated measures ANOVA by using real data and the statistical software package SPSS (SPSS Inc., USA).

  2. Repeated morphine treatment influences operant and spatial learning differentially

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mei-Na WANG; Zhi-Fang DONG; Jun CAO; Lin XU

    2006-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether repeated morphine exposure or prolonged withdrawal could influence operant and spatial learning differentially. Methods Animals were chronically treated with morphine or subjected to morphine withdrawal. Then, they were subjected to two kinds of learning: operant conditioning and spatial learning.Results The acquisition of both simple appetitive and cued operant learning was impaired after repeated morphine treatment. Withdrawal for 5 weeks alleviated the impairments. Single morphine exposure disrupted the retrieval of operant memory but had no effect on rats after 5-week withdrawal. Contrarily, neither chronic morphine exposure nor 5-week withdrawal influenced spatial learning task of the Morris water maze. Nevertheless, the retrieval of spatial memory was impaired by repeated morphine exposure but not by 5-week withdrawal. Conclusion These observations suggest that repeated morphine exposure can influence different types of learning at different aspects, implicating that the formation of opiate addiction may usurp memory mechanisms differentially.

  3. Discriminant analysis for repeated measures data: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Lix

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Discriminant analysis (DA encompasses procedures for classifying observations into groups (i.e., predictive discriminative analysis and describing the relative importance of variables for distinguishing amongst groups (i.e., descriptive discriminative analysis. In recent years, a number of developments have occurred in DA procedures for the analysis of data from repeated measures designs. Specifically, DA procedures have been developed for repeated measures data characterized by missing observations and/or unbalanced measurement occasions, as well as high-dimensional data in which measurements are collected repeatedly on two or more variables. This paper reviews the literature on DA procedures for univariate and multivariate repeated measures data, focusing on covariance pattern and linear mixed-effects models. A numeric example illustrates their implementation using SAS software.

  4. Impact of depressive symptoms, self-esteem and neuroticism on trajectories of overgeneral autobiographical memory over repeated trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashdan, Todd B; Roberts, John E; Carlos, Erica L

    2006-04-01

    The present study examined trajectories of change in the frequency of overgeneral autobiographical memory (OGM) over the course of repeated trials, and tested whether particular dimensions of depressive symptomatology (somatic and cognitive-affective distress), self-esteem, and neuroticism account for individual differences in these trajectories. Given that depression is associated with impairments in effortful processing, we predicted that over repeated trials depression would be associated with increasingly OGM. Generalised Linear Mixed Models with Penalised Quasi-Likelihood demonstrated significant linear and quadratic trends in OGM over repeated trials, and somatic distress and self-esteem moderated these slopes. The form of these interactions suggested that somatic distress and low self-esteem primarily contribute to OGM during the second half of the trial sequence. The present findings demonstrate the value of a novel analytical approach to OGM that estimates individual trajectories of change over repeated trials.

  5. The Dynamics of Repeat Migration: A Markov Chain Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Zimmermann, Klaus F.; Amelie F. Constant

    2003-01-01

    While the literature has established that there is substantial and highly selective return migration, the growing importance of repeat migration has been largely ignored. Using Markov chain analysis, this paper provides a modeling framework for repeated moves of migrants between the host and home countries. The Markov transition matrix between the states in two consecutive periods is parameterized and estimated using a logit specification and a large panel data with 14 waves. The analysis for...

  6. Allele-selective inhibition of trinucleotide repeat genes

    OpenAIRE

    Matsui, Masayuki; Corey, David R.

    2012-01-01

    Expanded trinucleotide repeats cause Huntington’s disease (HD) and many other neurodegenerative disorders. There are no cures for these devastating illnesses and treatments are urgently needed. Each trinucleotide repeat disorder is the result of the mutation of just one gene, and agents that block expression of the mutant gene offer a promising option for treatment. Therapies that block expression of both mutant and wild-type alleles can have adverse effects, challenging researchers to develo...

  7. Are major repeater patients addicted to suicidal behavior?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasco-Fontecilla, Hilario; Artieda-Urrutia, Paula; Berenguer-Elias, Nuria; Garcia-Vega, Juan Manuel; Fernandez-Rodriguez, Monica; Rodriguez-Lomas, Cesar; Gonzalez-Villalobos, Isabel; Iruela-Cuadrado, Luis; de Leon, José

    2014-01-01

    The literature provides support for the hypothesis that some major repeaters (individuals with >=5 lifetime suicide attempts) are addicted to suicidal behavior (SB). This study explores whether major repeaters are addicted to SB or not using 7 criteria: tolerance (Criterion 1), withdrawal (Criterion 2), loss of control (Criterion 3), problems in quitting/cutting down (Criterion 4), much time spent using (Criterion 5), substantial reduction in activities (Criterion 6), and adverse physiological/physical consequences (Criterion 7). Total dependence on SB was indicated by the presence of 3 or more of the 7 criteria in the last 12 months. This cross-sectional study at Puerta de Hierro University Hospital (Madrid, Spain) recruited 118 suicide attempters including 8 major repeaters (7%, 8/118), who were all females. The association between each SB addiction criterion, physiological dependence and total dependence with major repeater status was tested for significance and for effect size with odds ratios (ORs) and their 95% confidence intervals. As hypothesized, major repeaters met significantly higher frequency of criteria for total dependence on SB, OR=62.9 (6.4-615). A backward stepwise logistic regression model was used to provide an OR between major repeater status and total dependence status corrected by confounding variables. Age, panic disorder without agoraphobia, borderline personality disorder, history of psychiatric inpatient admission, and total dependence on SB were introduced as independent variables with major repeater status as the dependent variable. The model selected total dependence and age as the remaining significant variables in the last step. Accordingly, major repeaters appear to be addicted to SB. PMID:25580865

  8. Failure Characteristic of Laser Cladding Samples on Repeated Impact

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Shi-hong; ZHENG Qi-guang; FU Ge-yan; ZHANG Jin-ping

    2004-01-01

    Using self-made impact fatigue test instruments and related analytic devices,the mechanical components with laser cladding layer have been attempted.It is found that,on repeated impact force,several failure modes of the components include the surface cracks,surface plastic deformation,corrosive pitting and coat collapse,etc.The paper reported the test method and initial analysis conclusions about the unique failure characteristics of the mechanical components on repeated impact load.

  9. Fully integrated, fully automated generation of short tandem repeat profiles

    OpenAIRE

    Tan, Eugene; Rosemary S. Turingan; Hogan, Catherine; Vasantgadkar, Sameer; Palombo, Luke; Schumm, James W.; Richard F Selden

    2013-01-01

    Background The generation of short tandem repeat profiles, also referred to as ‘DNA typing,’ is not currently performed outside the laboratory because the process requires highly skilled technical operators and a controlled laboratory environment and infrastructure with several specialized instruments. The goal of this work was to develop a fully integrated system for the automated generation of short tandem repeat profiles from buccal swab samples, to improve forensic laboratory process flow...

  10. Memory-based quantum repeater in quantum information communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Xiang-Sheng

    2004-01-01

    This paper studies the quantum repeater in quantum information communication. We propose to introduce the photon buffer mechanism for storing photons, which uses fibre delay loops as photon memories and a programmable 1 × N switcher for distributing photon delay time. Meanwhile, we also consider entanglement purification and entanglement swapping restoration at an entanglement purification or entanglement swapping failure and introduce a protection link mechanism that allows the photonic quantum repeater of a broken connection to initiate a connection restoration process.

  11. Are major repeater patients addicted to suicidal behavior?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasco-Fontecilla, Hilario; Artieda-Urrutia, Paula; Berenguer-Elias, Nuria; Garcia-Vega, Juan Manuel; Fernandez-Rodriguez, Monica; Rodriguez-Lomas, Cesar; Gonzalez-Villalobos, Isabel; Iruela-Cuadrado, Luis; de Leon, José

    2014-01-01

    The literature provides support for the hypothesis that some major repeaters (individuals with >=5 lifetime suicide attempts) are addicted to suicidal behavior (SB). This study explores whether major repeaters are addicted to SB or not using 7 criteria: tolerance (Criterion 1), withdrawal (Criterion 2), loss of control (Criterion 3), problems in quitting/cutting down (Criterion 4), much time spent using (Criterion 5), substantial reduction in activities (Criterion 6), and adverse physiological/physical consequences (Criterion 7). Total dependence on SB was indicated by the presence of 3 or more of the 7 criteria in the last 12 months. This cross-sectional study at Puerta de Hierro University Hospital (Madrid, Spain) recruited 118 suicide attempters including 8 major repeaters (7%, 8/118), who were all females. The association between each SB addiction criterion, physiological dependence and total dependence with major repeater status was tested for significance and for effect size with odds ratios (ORs) and their 95% confidence intervals. As hypothesized, major repeaters met significantly higher frequency of criteria for total dependence on SB, OR=62.9 (6.4-615). A backward stepwise logistic regression model was used to provide an OR between major repeater status and total dependence status corrected by confounding variables. Age, panic disorder without agoraphobia, borderline personality disorder, history of psychiatric inpatient admission, and total dependence on SB were introduced as independent variables with major repeater status as the dependent variable. The model selected total dependence and age as the remaining significant variables in the last step. Accordingly, major repeaters appear to be addicted to SB.

  12. A note on renegotiation in repeated Bertrand duopolies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Ola; Wengström, Erik Roland

    2007-01-01

    Weak Renegotiation-Proofness (WRP) singles out marginal cost pricing as a unique pure-strategy equilibrium of the infinitely repeated Bertrand duopoly. We show that, with a discrete strategy space, WRP does not eliminate any relevant subgame perfect equilibrium outcome......Weak Renegotiation-Proofness (WRP) singles out marginal cost pricing as a unique pure-strategy equilibrium of the infinitely repeated Bertrand duopoly. We show that, with a discrete strategy space, WRP does not eliminate any relevant subgame perfect equilibrium outcome...

  13. DSR-Based Selective Repeat ARQ Protocol in MANET

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张全新; 宋瀚涛

    2003-01-01

    The efficient route algorithms involved in mobile ad hoc network(MANET) are studied. An arrangement of a combination of the traditional dynamic source routing(DSR) protocol is put forward and the selective repeat ARQ protocol is put forward by analyzing and studying them in detail and providing the scheme. In networks, especially in wireless networks, the nodes are capable to process data much faster than transmission, the DSR-based selective repeat ARQ protocol has real meanings in MANET.

  14. Survey of extrachromosomal circular DNA derived from plant satellite repeats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macas Jiří

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Satellite repeats represent one of the most dynamic components of higher plant genomes, undergoing rapid evolutionary changes of their nucleotide sequences and abundance in a genome. However, the exact molecular mechanisms driving these changes and their eventual regulation are mostly unknown. It has been proposed that amplification and homogenization of satellite DNA could be facilitated by extrachromosomal circular DNA (eccDNA molecules originated by recombination-based excision from satellite repeat arrays. While the models including eccDNA are attractive for their potential to explain rapid turnover of satellite DNA, the existence of satellite repeat-derived eccDNA has not yet been systematically studied in a wider range of plant genomes. Results We performed a survey of eccDNA corresponding to nine different families and three subfamilies of satellite repeats in ten species from various genera of higher plants (Arabidopsis, Oryza, Pisum, Secale, Triticum and Vicia. The repeats selected for this study differed in their monomer length, abundance, and chromosomal localization in individual species. Using two-dimensional agarose gel electrophoresis followed by Southern blotting, eccDNA molecules corresponding to all examined satellites were detected. EccDNA occurred in the form of nicked circles ranging from hundreds to over eight thousand nucleotides in size. Within this range the circular molecules occurred preferentially in discrete size intervals corresponding to multiples of monomer or higher-order repeat lengths. Conclusion This work demonstrated that satellite repeat-derived eccDNA is common in plant genomes and thus it can be seriously considered as a potential intermediate in processes driving satellite repeat evolution. The observed size distribution of circular molecules suggests that they are most likely generated by molecular mechanisms based on homologous recombination requiring long stretches of sequence

  15. Repeatability and reproducibility of decisions by latent fingerprint examiners.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradford T Ulery

    Full Text Available The interpretation of forensic fingerprint evidence relies on the expertise of latent print examiners. We tested latent print examiners on the extent to which they reached consistent decisions. This study assessed intra-examiner repeatability by retesting 72 examiners on comparisons of latent and exemplar fingerprints, after an interval of approximately seven months; each examiner was reassigned 25 image pairs for comparison, out of total pool of 744 image pairs. We compare these repeatability results with reproducibility (inter-examiner results derived from our previous study. Examiners repeated 89.1% of their individualization decisions, and 90.1% of their exclusion decisions; most of the changed decisions resulted in inconclusive decisions. Repeatability of comparison decisions (individualization, exclusion, inconclusive was 90.0% for mated pairs, and 85.9% for nonmated pairs. Repeatability and reproducibility were notably lower for comparisons assessed by the examiners as "difficult" than for "easy" or "moderate" comparisons, indicating that examiners' assessments of difficulty may be useful for quality assurance. No false positive errors were repeated (n = 4; 30% of false negative errors were repeated. One percent of latent value decisions were completely reversed (no value even for exclusion vs. of value for individualization. Most of the inter- and intra-examiner variability concerned whether the examiners considered the information available to be sufficient to reach a conclusion; this variability was concentrated on specific image pairs such that repeatability and reproducibility were very high on some comparisons and very low on others. Much of the variability appears to be due to making categorical decisions in borderline cases.

  16. Matching Probabilities: The Behavioral Law and Economics of Repeated Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Ehud Guttel; Alon Harel

    2004-01-01

    Individuals may repeatedly face a choice of whether to obey a legal rule. Conventional legal scholarship has long assumed that whether such a choice is made repeatedly or is a one-time event has little or no effect on individuals’ decisions. Following models of rational-choice theory, traditional legal analysis predicts that, in either case, individuals would behave in a way that maximizes their payoffs. A large body of experimental literature, however, suggests that individuals facing a recu...

  17. Repeated adaptive divergence of microhabitat specialization in avian feather lice

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson Kevin P; Shreve Scott M; Smith Vincent S

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Repeated adaptive radiations are evident when phenotypic divergence occurs within lineages, but this divergence into different forms is convergent when compared across lineages. Classic examples of such repeated adaptive divergence occur in island (for example, Caribbean Anolis lizards) and lake systems (for example, African cichlids). Host-parasite systems in many respects are analogous to island systems, where host species represent isolated islands for parasites whose l...

  18. Selection of body sway parameters according to their sensitivity and repeatability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nejc Sarabon

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available For the precise evaluation of body balance, static type of tests performed on a force plate are the most commonly used ones. In these tests, body sway characteristics are analyzed based on the model of inverted pendulum and looking at the center of pressure (COP movement in time. Human body engages different strategies to compensate for balance perturbations. For this reason, there is a need to identify parameters which are sensitive to specific balance changes and which enable us to identify balance sub-components. The aim of our study was to investigate intra-visit repeatability and sensibility of the 40 different body sway parameters. Twenty-nine subjects participated in the study. They performed three different balancing tasks of different levels of difficulty, three repetitions each. The hip-width parallel stance and the single leg stance, both with open eyes, were used as ways to compare different balance intensities due to biomechanical changes. Additionally, deprivation of vision was used in the third balance task to study sensitivity to sensory system changes. As shown by intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC, repeatability of cumulative parameters such as COP, maximal amplitude and frequency showed excellent repeatability (ICC>0,85. Other parameters describing sub-dynamics through single repetition proved to have unsatisfying repeatability. Parameters most sensitive to increased intensity of balancing tasks were common COP, COP in medio-lateral and in antero-posterior direction, and maximal amplitues in the same directions. Frequency of oscilations has proved to be sensitive only to deprivation of vision. As shown in our study, cumulative parameters describing the path which the center of pressure makes proved to be the most repeatable and sensitive to detect different increases of balancing tasks enabling future use in balance studies and in clinical practice.

  19. Effects of Repeated Fires in the Forest Ecosystems of the Zabaikalye Region, Southern Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukavskaya, E.; Buryak, L. V.; Conard, S. G.; Petkov, A.; Barrett, K.; Kalenskaya, O. P.; Ivanova, G.

    2014-12-01

    Fire is the main ecological disturbance controlling forest development in the boreal forests of Siberia and contributing substantially to the global carbon cycle. The warmer and dryer climate observed recently in the boreal forests is considered to be responsible for extreme fire weather, resulting in higher fire frequency, larger areas burned, and an increase of fire severity. Because of the increase of fire activity, boreal forests in some regions may not be able to reach maturity before they re-burn, which means less carbon will be stored in the ecosystem and more will remain in the atmosphere. Moreover, if one fire occurs within a few years of another, some stands will not re-grow at all, and even more carbon will accumulate in the atmosphere. Zabaikalye region located in the south of Siberia is characterized by the highest fire activity in Russia. With a use of the satellite-based fire product we found that there are about 7.0 million hectares in the region burned repeatedly during the last decade. We have investigated a number of sites in-situ in light-coniferous (Scots pine and larch) forests and evaluated the impacts of repeated fires on fuel loads, carbon emissions, and tree regeneration. Substantial decrease of carbon stocks, change of the vegetation structure and composition, and soil erosion were observed in many areas disturbed by repeated fires. At drier sites located in the southern regions repeated fires prohibited successful regeneration and resulted in forest conversion to grassland. Detection and monitoring of changes in the areas of Siberia where repeated fires have caused a major shift in ecosystem structure and function is required for the development of sustainable forest management strategies to mitigate climate change. The research was supported by NASA LCLUC Program.

  20. Quantum key distribution with two-segment quantum repeaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kampermann, Hermann; Abruzzo, Silvestre; Bruss, Dagmar [Theoretische Physik III, Heinrich-Heine-Universitaet Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    Quantum repeaters represent one possible way to achieve long-distance quantum key distribution. One way of improving the repeater rate and decreasing the memory coherence time is the usage of multiplexing. Motivated by the experimental fact that long-range connections are practically demanding, we extend the analysis of the quantum repeater multiplexing protocol to the case of short-range connections. We derive formulas for the repeater rate and we show that short-range connections lead to most of the benefits of a full-range multiplexing protocol. A less demanding QKD-protocol without quantum memories was recently introduced by Lo et al. We generalize this measurement-device-independent quantum key Distribution protocol to the scenario where the repeater Station contains also heralded quantum memories. We assume either single-photon sources or weak coherent pulse sources plus decay states. We show that it is possible to significantly outperform the original proposal, even in presence of decoherence of the quantum memory. We give formulas in terms of device imperfections i.e., the quantum bit error rate and the repeater rate.