WorldWideScience

Sample records for altruism

  1. Can altruism be unified?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Grant

    2016-04-01

    There is clearly a plurality of forms of altruism. Classically, biological altruism is distinguished from psychological altruism. Recent discussions of altruism have attempted to distinguish even more forms of altruism. I will focus on three altruism concepts, biological altruism, psychological altruism, and helping altruism. The questions I am concerned with here are, first, how should we understand these concepts? and second, what relationship do these concepts bear to one another? In particular, is there an essence to altruism that unifies these concepts? I suggest that while there is no essence to altruism, this does not mean that the array of altruism concepts is completely disunified. Instead, I propose we place all the concepts into a common framework-an altruism space-that could lead to new questions about how this space can be filled. PMID:26589486

  2. Dependency, Empathy, and Altruism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Shirley Matile

    This study examined the relationship of dependency, empathy, and altruism. It was hypothesized that: (1) dependency would be related in a curvilinear manner to empathy, with children who are moderate in dependency scoring highest in empathy; (2) dependency would be positively related to visible altruism when such prosocial behavior results in…

  3. Genes underlying altruism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Graham J; Hurd, Peter L; Crespi, Bernard J

    2013-01-01

    William D. Hamilton postulated the existence of 'genes underlying altruism', under the rubric of inclusive fitness theory, a half-century ago. Such genes are now poised for discovery. In this article, we develop a set of intuitive criteria for the recognition and analysis of genes for altruism and describe the first candidate genes affecting altruism from social insects and humans. We also provide evidence from a human population for genetically based trade-offs, underlain by oxytocin-system polymorphisms, between alleles for altruism and alleles for non-social cognition. Such trade-offs between self-oriented and altruistic behaviour may influence the evolution of phenotypic diversity across all social animals. PMID:24132092

  4. Altruism and Career Concerns

    OpenAIRE

    Shchetinin, Oleg

    2009-01-01

    The paper studies the impact of altruism on Agent’s motivation in the career concerns model. The paper shows the new channel of interaction between intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. The common point in the literature is that intrinsic motivation can be crowded out by the extrinsic incentives. My paper shows that crowding effect can go in the opposite direction: extrinsic incentives can be lessened for the intrinsically motivated agent. The analysis shows that altruism can decrease effort, t...

  5. Genes underlying altruism

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, Graham J.; Hurd, Peter L.; Crespi, Bernard J.

    2013-01-01

    William D. Hamilton postulated the existence of ‘genes underlying altruism’, under the rubric of inclusive fitness theory, a half-century ago. Such genes are now poised for discovery. In this article, we develop a set of intuitive criteria for the recognition and analysis of genes for altruism and describe the first candidate genes affecting altruism from social insects and humans. We also provide evidence from a human population for genetically based trade-offs, underlain by oxytocin-system ...

  6. Perspective-Taking and Altruism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Bill; Moore, Bert

    1982-01-01

    Concludes that there are reliable relationships between altruism and perceptual, social, and moral perspective taking. Results concerning the relationship between empathy and altruism are nonsignificant overall, but it is suggested that a reliable association between empathy and altruism develops over time and is found in adults. (Author/RH)

  7. Kantian Altruism in Economics and Ibn Khaldun

    OpenAIRE

    Sarıbaş, Hakan

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the concept of Kantian Altruism in the writings of Ibn Khaldun is examined. Government efficiency improves when Kantian Altruism becomes the characteristic of public decision makers. It is also argued that Kantian Altruism coincides with the altruism in the writings of Ibn Khaldun.

  8. Dual-processing altruism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SunaPiritaKinnunen

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Altruism refers to an other-benefiting behaviour that is costly but bears no direct profit to oneself. At least three different forms can be distinguished: Help giving, altruistic punishment, and moral courage. We investigated the differential impact of two thinking modes, intuitive (System 1 and rational (System 2, on these three altruistic behaviours. Situational (state-related thinking style was manipulated via experimental instructions, and generally preferred thinking style (trait-related was assessed via questionnaires. We found that of the subjectively preferred thinking styles (trait, faith in intuition (System 1 promoted sharing and altruistic punishment, whereas need for cognition (System 2 promoted volunteering in a situation that required moral courage. By contrast, we did not find a significant effect of situational thinking style (state on any of the altruistic behaviours, although manipulation checks were positive. Results elucidate the affective-motivational underpinnings of different types of altruistic behaviours.

  9. Altruism and International Labour Migration

    OpenAIRE

    Damien Gaumont; Alice Mesnard

    1999-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of altruism on the pattern of labour migration in a two-country overlapping generations model. We show that differences in degrees of altruism across countries lead to bilateral migration flows. Starting from the autarkic steady-state equilibrium, restrictions on labour migration are relaxed. In temporary post-migration equilibrium factor prices are equal across countries. We then characterize the unique stable steady-state equilibrium: both countries are po...

  10. An Analysis of Food Aid and Altruism

    OpenAIRE

    MoonJoong Tcha; Fiona Lio

    2002-01-01

    This study constructs an altruism model of food aid. A theoretical model is constructed and shows that how each country's donation to the recipient countries is determined, based on relevant variables in association with each donor country's altruism. Analyses of data using donations through the World Food Program indicate that an empirical analysis of food donation, which does not incorporate altruism, may provide misinformation regarding the effect of relevant variables, especially the leve...

  11. Altruism, Conformism, and Incentives in the Workplace

    OpenAIRE

    Tichem, Jan

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Performance pay can motivate employees, but money is not the only motivation in the workplace. Altruism, which means that someone enjoys the well-being of someone else, can also provide a powerful motivation. The first part of this thesis studies theoretically how altruism between an employee and his superior affects the optimal use of monetary incentives. Among others, the analysis reveals how altruism influences the credibility of monetary incentive schemes, and...

  12. Competition, Altruism, and Provider Payment

    OpenAIRE

    Karen Eggleston

    2004-01-01

    Health care policymakers in many countries seek to use incentives and competition to spur efficiency. One important challenge is to mitigate the sacrifice of social solidarity that such reforms entail, because strong incentives promote risk selection. This paper argues conceptually and presents simulations revealing how competition, altruism, and payment incentives affect efficiency and equity of treatment. The focus is how to prevent or minimize incentives for quality distortions designed to...

  13. Estate Taxation with Altruism Heterogeneity

    OpenAIRE

    Emmanuel Farhi; Iván Werning

    2013-01-01

    We develop a theory of optimal estate taxation in a model where bequest inequality is driven by differences in parental altruism. We show that a wide range of results are possible, from positive taxes to subsidies. The results depend on redistributive objectives implicit in the cardinal specification of utility and social welfare functions. We propose a normalization that is helpful in classifying these different possibilities. We isolate cases where the optimal policy bans negative bequests ...

  14. Empathic concern drives costly altruism

    OpenAIRE

    FeldmanHall, Oriel; Dalgleish, Tim; Evans, Davy; Mobbs, Dean

    2015-01-01

    Why do we self-sacrifice to help others in distress? Two competing theories have emerged, one suggesting that prosocial behavior is primarily motivated by feelings of empathic other-oriented concern, the other that we help mainly because we are egoistically focused on reducing our own discomfort. Here we explore the relationship between costly altruism and these two sub-processes of empathy, specifically drawing on the caregiving model to test the theory that trait empathic concern (e.g. gene...

  15. Empathic concern drives costly altruism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    FeldmanHall, Oriel; Dalgleish, Tim; Evans, Davy; Mobbs, Dean

    2015-01-15

    Why do we self-sacrifice to help others in distress? Two competing theories have emerged, one suggesting that prosocial behavior is primarily motivated by feelings of empathic other-oriented concern, the other that we help mainly because we are egoistically focused on reducing our own discomfort. Here we explore the relationship between costly altruism and these two sub-processes of empathy, specifically drawing on the caregiving model to test the theory that trait empathic concern (e.g. general tendency to have sympathy for another) and trait personal distress (e.g. predisposition to experiencing aversive arousal states) may differentially drive altruistic behavior. We find that trait empathic concern--and not trait personal distress--motivates costly altruism, and this relationship is supported by activity in the ventral tegmental area, caudate and subgenual anterior cingulate, key regions for promoting social attachment and caregiving. Together, this data helps identify the behavioral and neural mechanisms motivating costly altruism, while demonstrating that individual differences in empathic concern-related brain responses can predict real prosocial choice. PMID:25462694

  16. Psychological and Biological Perspectives on Altruism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Martin L.

    1978-01-01

    Explores the case for viewing altruism as an inherent part of human nature. Postulates an altruistic disposition or motive to act which is under the control of perceptual and cognitive processes. Presents psychological evidence complementing this view. Discusses social implications of a biological basis for human altruism. (RH)

  17. Communicating Concepts about Altruism in Interstellar Messages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakoch, Douglas A.

    2002-01-01

    This project identifies key principles of altruism that can be translated into interstellar messages for communication with extraterrestrial intelligence. The message contents will focus specifically on the evolution of altruism, drawing on recent insights in evolutionary biology, with particular emphasis on sociobiological accounts of kin selection and reciprocal altruism. This focus on altruism for message contents has several advantages. First, the subject can be translated into interstellar messages both via an existing formal interstellar language and via pictorial messages. For example, aspects of reciprocal altruism can be described through mathematical modeling, such as game theoretic approaches, which in turn can be described readily in the interstellar language Lincos. Second, concentrating on altruism as a message content may facilitate communications with extraterrestrial intelligence. Some scientists have argued that humans may be expected to communicate something about their moral status and development in an exchange with extraterrestrials. One of the most salient ways that terrestrial and extraterrestrial civilizations might be expected to evaluate one another is in terms of ethical motivations. Indeed, current search strategies assume some measure of altruism on the part of transmitting civilizations; with no guarantee of a response, the other civilization would be providing information to us with no direct payoff. Thus, concepts about altruism provide an appropriate content for interstellar messages, because the concepts themselves might be understood by extraterrestrial civilizations.

  18. Selective altruism in collective games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zappalà, Dario A.; Pluchino, Alessandro; Rapisarda, Andrea

    2014-09-01

    We study the emergence of altruistic behaviour in collective games. In particular, we take into account Toral's version of collective Parrondo's paradoxical games, in which the redistribution of capital between agents, who can play different strategies, creates a positive trend of increasing capital. In this framework, we insert two categories of players, altruistic and selfish ones, and see how they interact and how their capital evolves. More in detail, we analyse the positive effects of altruistic behaviour, but we also point out how selfish players take advantage of that situation. The general result is that altruistic behaviour is discouraged, because selfish players get richer while altruistic ones get poorer. We also consider a smarter way of being altruistic, based on reputation, called "selective altruism", which prevents selfish players from taking advantage of altruistic ones. In this new situation it is altruism, and not selfishness, to be encouraged and stabilized. Finally, we introduce a mechanism of imitation between players and study how it influences the composition of the population of both altruistic and selfish players as a function of time for different initial conditions and network topologies adopted.

  19. Altruism and Relational Incentives in the Workplace

    OpenAIRE

    Robert A.J. Dur; Tichem, Jan

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies how altruism between managers and employees affects relational incentive contracts. To this end we develop a simple dynamic principal-agent model where both players may have feelings of altruism or spite toward each other. The con- tract may contain two types of incentives for the agent to work hard: a bonus and a threat of dismissal. We find that altruism undermines the credibility of a threat of dis- missal but strengthens the credibility of a bonus. Among others, these t...

  20. CSMA Local Area Networking under Dynamic Altruism

    CERN Document Server

    Antoniadis, Panayotis; Griffin, Christopher; Jin, Youngmi; Kesidis, George

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we consider medium access control of local area networks (LANs) under limited-information conditions as befits a distributed system. Rather than assuming "by rule" conformance to a protocol designed to regulate packet-flow rates (e.g., CSMA windowing), we begin with a non-cooperative game framework and build a dynamic altruism term into the net utility. The effects of altruism are analyzed at Nash equilibrium for both the ALOHA and CSMA frameworks in the quasistationary (fictitious play) regime. We consider either power or throughput based costs of networking, and the cases of identical or heterogeneous (independent) users/players. In a numerical study we consider diverse players, and we see that the effects of altruism for similar players can be beneficial in the presence of significant congestion, but excessive altruism may lead to underuse of the channel when demand is low.

  1. CSMA Local Area Networking under Dynamic Altruism

    OpenAIRE

    Antoniadis, Panayotis; Fdida, Serge; Griffin, Christopher; Jin, Youngmi; Kesidis, George

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we consider medium access control of local area networks (LANs) under limited-information conditions as befits a distributed system. Rather than assuming "by rule" conformance to a protocol designed to regulate packet-flow rates (e.g., CSMA windowing), we begin with a non-cooperative game framework and build a dynamic altruism term into the net utility. The effects of altruism are analyzed at Nash equilibrium for both the ALOHA and CSMA frameworks in the quasistationary (fictit...

  2. Spontaneous Altruism by Chimpanzees and Young Children

    OpenAIRE

    Warneken, F.; Hare, B. (Prof. Dr. ); Melis, A; Hanus, D.; Tomasello, M

    2007-01-01

    People often act on behalf of others. They do so without immediate personal gain, at cost to themselves, and even toward unfamiliar individuals. Many researchers have claimed that such altruism emanates from a species-unique psychology not found in humans' closest living evolutionary relatives, such as the chimpanzee. In favor of this view, the few experimental studies on altruism in chimpanzees have produced mostly negative results. In contrast, we report experimental evidence that chimpanze...

  3. ALTRUISM, ITS NATURE, ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snezana JOKSIMOVIC

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available The present article argues about the concept of altruism and the related concepts, as well as the motivation of the altruistic and the other forms of archisocial behavior. The situational as well as individual components of altruism have also been analyzed. The effect of the age and sex, certain features of character and values accepted as the representatives of individual components has been considered too. In conformity with the interaction understanding according to which one’s behavior is the result of the mutual action (interaction between a person and a situation, the author points out that to understand an altruistic behavior in takes having the entire survey over the circumstances saucing the demonstration of altruism and the properties of the personalities that exert the altruistic behavior.In the part of the article dealing whit the development and the simulation of altruism the author makes an analysis of the role of the family, persons of the same age and the school. Beside the adequate action of certain agents of socialization, the author is particularly in favor of the organized and well-devised participation of the young in the humanity work as one the most efficient ways to stimulate altruism.

  4. From reciprocity to unconditional altruism through signalling benefits.

    OpenAIRE

    Lotem, Arnon; Fishman, Michael A; Stone, Lewi

    2003-01-01

    Cooperation among genetically unrelated individuals is commonly explained by the potential for future reciprocity or by the risk of being punished by group members. However, unconditional altruism is more difficult to explain. We demonstrate that unconditional altruism can evolve as a costly signal of individual quality (i.e. a handicap) as a consequence of reciprocal altruism. This is because the emergent correlation between altruism and individual quality in reciprocity games can facilitate...

  5. Egalitarianism and altruism in health: some evidence of their relationship

    OpenAIRE

    Abasolo, I.; Tsuchiya, A

    2014-01-01

    Background Egalitarianism and altruism are two ways in which people may have attitudes that go beyond the narrowly defined selfish preferences. The theoretical constructs of egalitarianism and altruism are different from each other, yet there may be connections between the two. This paper explores the empirical relationship between egalitarianism and altruism, in the context of health. Methods We define altruism as individual behaviour that aims to benefit another individual in need; and egal...

  6. Mixed Feelings: Theories and Evidence of Warm Glow and Altruism

    OpenAIRE

    Konow, James

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents theoretical and empirical analyses of experiments that test competing theories of altruism, including pure altruism (a preference for the well-being of others), warm glow (a good feeling from giving) and impure altruism (a combination of pure altruism and warm glow). These theories produce different predictions regarding crowding out, i.e., the reduction in private donations due to public spending. Variations on dictator experiments involving both students and charities ex...

  7. An Emergent Theory of Altruism and Self-Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Stephen V.; Black, Linda L.

    2011-01-01

    Beliefs about altruism and self-interest of 25 participants were examined through a grounded theory methodology. Altruism was defined as the promotion of needs of others and self-interest as the promotion of needs of self. Data sources included interviews, focus group, journal analysis, artifacts, and a measure of altruism. The relationship…

  8. Altruism, Conformism, and Incentives in the Workplace

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Tichem (Jan)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Performance pay can motivate employees, but money is not the only motivation in the workplace. Altruism, which means that someone enjoys the well-being of someone else, can also provide a powerful motivation. The first part of this thesis studies theoretically how altru

  9. Authenticity, Autonomy and Altruism: Keys for Transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarken, Rodney

    2011-01-01

    The value of authentic knowing, autonomous behavior and altruistic motivation is presented. Authenticity, autonomy and altruism are primary human capacities and keys for individual and collective transformation. Realizing the full development of these three basic potentialities can serve as goals and standards for well-being. Authenticity,…

  10. Partner choice creates competitive altruism in humans

    OpenAIRE

    Barclay, Pat; Willer, Robb

    2006-01-01

    Reciprocal altruism has been the backbone of research on the evolution of altruistic behaviour towards non-kin, but recent research has begun to apply costly signalling theory to this problem. In addition to signalling resources or abilities, public generosity could function as a costly signal of cooperative intent, benefiting altruists in terms of (i) better access to cooperative relationships and (ii) greater cooperation within those relationships. When future interaction partners can choos...

  11. Adam Smith and Three Theories of Altruism

    OpenAIRE

    Khalil, Elias L.

    2001-01-01

    Smith advanced a particular view of altruism that should prove to be relevant to the modem literature on the subject. It provided the back-bone of his critique of three different theories. These three theories have been reincarnated in three modem approaches : Robert Axelrod's "egoistic", Gary Becker's "egocentric", and George Herbert Mead and Robert Frank's "altercentric" views. Axelrod's approach repeats the failing, which Smith found in Mandeville's. Becker's theory echoes the shorteoming,...

  12. Theory of Mind, Material Altruism and Family Context in Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin, Burhanettin; Jones, Ithel

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between theory of mind, material altruism, and family context was examined. Forty-one preschool children (16 females and 25 males) enrolled in a private school participated in the study. Results of this study showed no relationship between theory of mind and altruism. There were no significant correlations between theory of mind…

  13. A Qualitative Exploration of Counseling Students' Perception of Altruism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swank, Jacqueline M.; Ohrt, Jonathan H.; Robinson, E. H. Mike

    2013-01-01

    Empathy is essential to the therapeutic relationship (Rogers, 1957). Altruism appears to be related to empathy, but there has been limited research investigating its development in counselors. This qualitative study explored the development of altruism as perceived by 19 counseling students. The authors discuss the findings and implications for…

  14. Reciprocal altruism in rats: Why does it occur?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zentall, Thomas R

    2016-03-01

    The finding of reciprocal altruism in rats does not explain how such behavior came to be. Attributing it to a genetic predisposition or basic learning processes may not be what the authors had in mind, but the alternative, cultural learning, seems even less plausible for rats and perhaps is not even the primary basis for reciprocal altruism in humans. PMID:26486934

  15. To cooperate or to defect? Altruism and reputation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kułakowski, Krzysztof; Gawroński, Przemysław

    2009-09-01

    The basic difficulty in cooperation theory is to justify the cooperation. Here we propose a new approach, where players are driven by their altruism to cooperate or not. The probability of cooperation depends also on the co-player’s reputation. We find that players with positive altruism cooperate and meet cooperation. In this approach, payoffs are not relevant.

  16. Altruism in Animal Play and Human Ritual

    OpenAIRE

    Chick, Garry

    2008-01-01

    Altruism is generally defined as the selfless concern for the wellbeing of others or, in the case of nonhuman animals, as behavior that appears to be detrimental to the survival of a given individual but which may contribute to the survival of the others. Calls by social prey species that warn others of the approach of predators, for example, are often regarded as altruistic in that they may help the majority of animals survive while simultaneously drawing the attention of the predator to the...

  17. The evolution of altruism in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurzban, Robert; Burton-Chellew, Maxwell N; West, Stuart A

    2015-01-01

    Humans are an intensely social species, frequently performing costly behaviors that benefit others. Efforts to solve the evolutionary puzzle of altruism have a lengthy history, and recent years have seen many important advances across a range of disciplines. Here we bring together this interdisciplinary body of research and review the main theories that have been proposed to explain human prosociality, with an emphasis on kinship, reciprocity, indirect reciprocity, punishment, and morality. We highlight recent methodological advances that are stimulating research and point to some areas that either remain controversial or merit more attention. PMID:25061670

  18. Psychological characteristics of remedial teachers of different altruism levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Shulzhenko

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors of this paper studied psychological characteristics of remedial teachers with different altruism levels. Altruism is a motive to render assistance to anyone not consciously related to one’s own selfish interests. Subjectively it manifests itself in sympathy, being oriented towards helping others. Altruism is opposed to selfishness, which is incompatible with disinterested concern for the welfare of others and willingness to sacrifice personal interests for them. The main driving force behind altruistic behaviour is a drive to improve the situation of others rather than expecting some reward. In psychology, altruism is considered as a system of personality value priorities in which interests of another person or social community are a central motive and a moral evaluation criterion.

  19. Associations among altruism, burnout dimensions, and organizational citizenship behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Emmerik, IJ. Hetty van; Jawahar, I.M.; Stone, Thomas H.

    2005-01-01

    Most studies of burnout have focused on lack of resources, prevalence of burnout, and negative outcomes. In contrast, this study examined the relationships among altruism, burnout and a positive outcome, namely, the engagement in organizational citizenship behaviour. Web questionnaires were distributed to employees in three professional organizations. The results from the 178 respondents indicated that altruism is related to organizational citizenship behaviour. Of the three dimensions of bur...

  20. Natural selection of altruism in inelastic viscous homogeneous populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grafen, Alan; Archetti, Marco

    2008-06-21

    Biological explanations are given of three main uninterpreted theoretical results on the selection of altruism in inelastic viscous homogeneous populations, namely that non-overlapping generations hinder the evolution of altruism, fecundity effects are more conducive to altruism than survival effects, and one demographic regime (so-called death-birth) permits altruism whereas another (so-called birth-death) does not. The central idea is 'circles of compensation', which measure how far the effects of density dependence extend from a focal individual. Relatednesses can then be calculated that compensate for density dependence. There is very generally a 'balancing circle of compensation', at which the viscosity of the population slows up selection of altruism, but does not affect its direction, and this holds for altruism towards any individual, not just immediate neighbours. These explanations are possible because of recent advances in the theory of inclusive fitness on graphs. The assumption of node bitransitivity in that recent theory is relaxed to node transitivity and symmetry of the dispersal matrix, and new formulae show how to calculate relatedness from dispersal and vice versa. PMID:18371985

  1. Altruism in social networks: evidence for a 'kinship premium'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Oliver; Roberts, Sam G B; Dunbar, Robin I M

    2013-05-01

    Why and under what conditions are individuals altruistic to family and friends in their social networks? Evolutionary psychology suggests that such behaviour is primarily the product of adaptations for kin- and reciprocal altruism, dependent on the degree of genetic relatedness and exchange of benefits, respectively. For this reason, individuals are expected to be more altruistic to family members than to friends: whereas family members can be the recipients of kin and reciprocal altruism, friends can be the recipients of reciprocal altruism only. However, there is a question about how the effect of kinship is implemented at the proximate psychological level. One possibility is that kinship contributes to some general measure of relationship quality (such as 'emotional closeness'), which in turn explains altruism. Another possibility is that the effect of kinship is independent of relationship quality. The present study tests between these two possibilities. Participants (N= 111) completed a self-report questionnaire about their willingness to be altruistic, and their emotional closeness, to 12 family members and friends at different positions in their extended social networks. As expected, altruism was greater for family than friends, and greater for more central layers of the network. Crucially, the results showed that kinship made a significant unique contribution to altruism, even when controlling for the effects of emotional closeness. Thus, participants were more altruistic towards kin than would be expected if altruism was dependent on emotional closeness alone - a phenomenon we label a 'kinship premium'. These results have implications for the ongoing debate about the extent to which kin relations and friendships are distinct kinds of social relationships, and how to measure the 'strength of ties' in social networks. PMID:23560672

  2. The origins of altruism in offspring care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Stephanie D

    2013-11-01

    The current review aims to unify existing views of altruism through an examination of the biological bases of a fundamental form of giving: altruistic responding. Altruistic responding is most salient during heroic acts of helping but is also observed any time one perceives another's distress or need, which in turn motivates one to help at a current cost to the self. Such aid is simple, observable across species, and rooted in the instincts and circuits that evolved to maximize inclusive fitness through the care of helpless offspring. By design, the system already biases aid to both kin and nonkin under conditions that are largely adaptive. These inherent benefits are also buttressed in primates and humans by known, later-arriving benefits to helping in group-living animals. Evidence for the proposed homology between altruistic responding and offspring retrieval is presented through 10 key shared factors. Conceptually, both require (a) participation by nonmothers, (b) motor competence and expertise, (c) an adaptive opponency between avoidance and approach, and a facilitating role of (d) neonatal vulnerability, (e) salient distress, and (f) rewarding close contact. Physiologically, they also share neurohormonal support from (g) oxytocin, (h) the domain-general mesolimbocortical system, (i) the cingulate cortex, and (j) the orbitofrontal cortex. The framework intermixes ultimate and proximate levels of analysis and unifies existing views by assuming that even complex human behaviors reflect ancient mammalian neural systems that evolved to solve key problems in adaptive ways, with far-reaching consequences for even our most venerated human traits. PMID:23458432

  3. Why there might not be an evolutionary explanation for psychological altruism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stich, Stephen

    2016-04-01

    The existence of psychological altruism is hotly debated in the psychological and philosophical literature. In this paper I argue that even if psychological altruism does exist in some (or all) human groups, there may be no purely evolutionary explanation for existence of psychological altruism. PMID:26612657

  4. The Survival and Welfare Implications of Altruism when Preferences are Endogenous

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Anders

    This paper is a contribution to the economic literature studying altruism. In a simple evolutionary model of endogenous preferences we show that individuals with altruistic preferences can survive. We also analyze the material welfare implications of altruism. Policies that promote altruism in the...... population can be detrimental to material welfare....

  5. Extraterrestrial altruism evolution and ethics in the cosmos

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    Extraterrestrial Altruism examines a basic assumption of the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI): that extraterrestrials will be transmitting messages to us for our benefit. This question of whether extraterrestrials will be altruistic has become increasingly important in recent years as SETI scientists have begun contemplating transmissions from Earth to make contact. Should we expect altruism to evolve throughout the cosmos, or is this only wishful thinking? Would this make biological sense? Is it dangerous to send messages to other worlds, as Stephen Hawking has suggested? Would extraterrestrial societies be based on different ethical principles? Extraterrestrial Altruism explores these and related questions about the motivations of civilizations beyond Earth, providing new insights that are critical for SETI. Chapters are authored by leading scholars from diverse disciplines—anthropology, astronomy, biology, chemistry, computer science, cosmology, engineering, history of science, law, philos...

  6. How altruism works: An evolutionary model of supply networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Zehui; Zhang, Zi-Ke; Lü, Linyuan; Zhou, Tao; Xi, Ning

    2012-02-01

    Recently, supply networks have attracted increasing attention from the scientific community. However, it lacks serious consideration of social preference in Supply Chain Management. In this paper, we develop an evolutionary decision-making model to characterize the effects of suppliers' altruism in supply networks, and find that the performances of both suppliers and supply chains are improved by introducing the role of altruism. Furthermore, an interesting and reasonable phenomenon is discovered that the suppliers' and whole network's profits do not change monotonously with suppliers' altruistic preference, η, but reach the best at η=0.6 and η=0.4, respectively. This work may shed some light on the in-depth understanding of the effects of altruism for both research and commercial applications.

  7. Media and children's aggression, fear, and altruism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Barbara J

    2008-01-01

    Noting that the social and emotional experiences of American children today often heavily involve electronic media, Barbara Wilson takes a close look at how exposure to screen media affects children's well-being and development. She concludes that media influence on children depends more on the type of content that children find attractive than on the sheer amount of time they spend in front of the screen. Wilson begins by reviewing evidence on the link between media and children's emotions. She points out that children can learn about the nature and causes of different emotions from watching the emotional experiences of media characters and that they often experience empathy with those characters. Although research on the long-term effects of media exposure on children's emotional skill development is limited, a good deal of evidence shows that media exposure can contribute to children's fears and anxieties. Both fictional and news programming can cause lasting emotional upset, though the themes that upset children differ according to a child's age. Wilson also explores how media exposure affects children's social development. Strong evidence shows that violent television programming contributes to children's aggressive behavior. And a growing body of work indicates that playing violent video games can have the same harmful effect. Yet if children spend time with educational programs and situation comedies targeted to youth, media exposure can have more prosocial effects by increasing children's altruism, cooperation, and even tolerance for others. Wilson also shows that children's susceptibility to media influence can vary according to their gender, their age, how realistic they perceive the media to be, and how much they identify with characters and people on the screen. She concludes with guidelines to help parents enhance the positive effects of the media while minimizing the risks associated with certain types of content. PMID:21338007

  8. Communicative genes in the evolution of empathy and altruism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Ross

    2011-11-01

    This paper discusses spontaneous communication and its implications for understanding empathy and altruism. The question of the possibility of "true" altruism-giving up one's genetic potential in favor of the genetic potential of another-is a fundamental issue common to the biological, behavioral, and social sciences. Darwin regarded "social instincts and sympathies" to be critical to the social order, but the possibility of biologically-based prosocial motives and emotions was questioned when selection was interpreted as operating at the level of the gene. In the selfish gene hypothesis, Dawkins argued that the unit of evolutionary selection must be an active, germ-line replicator: a unit whose activities determine whether copies of it are made across evolutionary timescales. He argued that the only active replicator existing across evolutionary timescales is the gene, so that the "selfish gene" is a replicator motivated only to make copies of itself. The communicative gene hypothesis notes that genes function by communicating, and the phenotype communication involves not only the individual sending and receiving abilities of the individual genes involved, but also the relationship between them relative to other genes. Therefore the selection of communication as phenotype involves the selection of individual genes and also their relationship. Relationships become replicators, and are selected across evolutionary timescales including social relationships (e.g., sex, nurturance, dominance-submission). An interesting implication of this view: apparent altruism has been interpreted by selfish gene theorists as due to kin selection and reciprocity, in which the survival of kin and comrade indirectly favor the genetic potential of the altruist. From the viewpoint of the communicative gene hypothesis, rather than underlying altruism, kin selection and reciprocity are ways of restricting altruism to kin and comrade: they are mechanisms not of altruism but of xenophobia

  9. Some implications of beliefs in altruism, free will, and nonreductionism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergner, Raymond Michael; Ramon, Abby

    2013-01-01

    In this research, we explored correlates of individuals' beliefs in altruism, free will, and nonreductionism, as opposed to contrasting beliefs in psychological egoism, determinism, and biological reductionism. Beliefs in altruism, free will, and nonreductionism were associated with heightened a) senses of meaning in life, b) levels of life satisfaction, c) beliefs in morality as a legitimate and important dimension of life, and d) standards of personal moral conduct; they were not associated with levels of social isolation. Implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:24003585

  10. Pro-Social Behaviours: Between Altruism and Self-interest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula-Elena Diacon

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A widely discussed attribute in the economic literature is the prevalence of self-interest. In this article we seek to analyze the concept of altruism from the economic perspective and from the general perspective of human action. We endeavour to clarify the relative confusion around it and to analyze its relation with charity and volunteering. Then, we go further and analyse what is causing such actions. Based on this, we attempt to find out whether the pro-social actions can be considered an effect of self-interest, or, conversely, of altruism.

  11. Emergence of parochial altruism in well-mixed populations of multiple groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shiping; Wu, Te; Nie, Suli; Wang, Long

    2015-10-01

    Understanding the evolution of parochial altruism is of great importance. We here institute an analytical model to study the emergence of parochial altruism in group-structured populations. Individuals' strategy is contingent on interacting partners' group property. Only when sharing common tag(s), they play the prisoner's dilemma game; otherwise they play the punishment game. The conditions for the emergence of parochial altruism are specified for weak selection. Emergence of parochial altruism is promoted by assortment as well as by intergroup punishment. Furthermore, the affiliation plays a negative (positive) role in the emergence of parochial altruism for low (high) mutation.

  12. Altruism and reward: motivational compatibility in deceased organ donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voo, Teck Chuan

    2015-03-01

    Acts of helping others are often based on mixed motivations. Based on this claim, it has been argued that the use of a financial reward to incentivize organ donation is compatible with promoting altruism in organ donation. In its report Human Bodies: Donation for Medicine and Research, the Nuffield Council on Bioethics uses this argument to justify its suggestion to pilot a funeral payment scheme to incentivize people to register for deceased organ donation in the UK. In this article, I cast a sceptical eye on the above Nuffield report's argument that its proposed funeral payment scheme would prompt deceased organ donations that remain altruistic (as defined by and valued the report). Specifically, I illustrate how this scheme may prompt various forms of mixed motivations which would not satisfy the report's definition of altruism. Insofar as the scheme produces an expectation of the reward, it stands diametrical to promoting an 'altruistic perspective'. My minimal goal in this article is to argue that altruism is not motivationally compatible with reward as an incentive for donation. My broader goal is to argue that if a financial reward is used to incentivize organ donation, then we should recognize that the donation system is no longer aiming to promote altruism. Rewarded donation would not be altruistic but it may be ethical given a persistent organ shortage situation. PMID:24547770

  13. Central role of altruism in the recruitment of gamete donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennings, Guido

    2015-03-01

    This paper explores problems associated with using altruism as the central value in gamete donation, and in doing so draws on empirical data that sheds light on why gamete donors choose to donate. Donation of bodily material is, arguably, supposed to be motivated by altruism, and this is the view taken by many European governments. Other values are often ignored or rejected as morally inappropriate. This paper analyses some conceptual and practical problems with the use of altruism as the motivation to determine moral acceptability-drawing on empirical data that suggests gamete donors are not motivated purely by altruism, and that motivations are in fact quite complex. Two problems are first analysed: (1) how do we distinguish altruistic from non-altruistic donations and (2) how do we distinguish between removing barriers and providing incentives. A final question, triggered by the Nuffield Council on Bioethics' report, is whether the meaning of the payment should be decided on the basis of an a priori definition or on the basis of the donors' subjective experience. It is concluded that there are different legitimate core values in donation, which should be balanced. In order to value the good generated by donation, donors with mixed motives should be accepted, as long as helping others is an important motive and also features in their motivation. PMID:25743052

  14. Determinants of Altruism: Observations for A Theory of Altruistic Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenhan, David

    Some observations on the nature of altruistic behavior and the consequences of these observations for a theoretical and experimental psychology of altruism are discussed. Altruistic behaviors are very pervasive since they satisfy a wide array of egotistical motivations in addition to having an autonomy of their own. Because of their ability to…

  15. Parenting with Style: Altruism and Paternalism in Intergenerational Preference Transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Matthias Doepke; Fabrizio Zilibotti

    2014-01-01

    We develop a theory of intergenerational preference transmission that rationalizes the choice between parenting styles. Parents maximize an objective function that combines Beckerian altruism and paternalism towards children. They can affect their children's choices via two channels: either by influencing children's preferences or by imposing direct restrictions on their choice sets. Different parenting styles (authoritarian, authoritative, permissive) emerge as equilibrium outcomes, and are ...

  16. Parenting with style: Altruism and paternalism in intergenerational preference transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Doepke, Matthias; Zilibotti, Fabrizio

    2012-01-01

    We construct a theory of intergenerational preference transmission that rationalizes the choice between alternative parenting styles (related to Baumrind 1967). Parents maximize an objective function that combines Beckerian and paternalistic altruism towards children. They can affect their children's choices via two channels: either by influencing their preferences or by imposing direct restrictions on their choice sets. Different parenting styles (authoritarian, authoritative, and permissive...

  17. Parenting with Style: Altruism and Paternalism in Intergenerational Preference Transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Doepke, Matthias; Zilibotti, Fabrizio

    2012-01-01

    We construct a theory of intergenerational preference transmission that rationalizes the choice between alternative parenting styles (related to Baumrind 1967). Parents maximize an objective function that combines Beckerian and paternalistic altruism towards children. They can affect their children's choices via two channels: either by influencing their preferences or by imposing direct restrictions on their choice sets. Different parenting styles (authoritarian, authoritative, and permissive...

  18. How altruism can pay in a collective game

    CERN Document Server

    Zappalà, Dario A; Rapisarda, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    We consider a collective version of Parrondo's paradox, a game in which the redistribution of capital between agents, who can play different strategies, creates a positive trend of increasing capital. In this framework, we insert two categories of players, altruistic and egoistic ones, and see how they interact and how their initial capital changes, considering also different network topologies. In particular, we analyse the positive effects of the altruists' behaviour, but we also point out how the egoists take advantage of them. The general result is that the altruistic behaviour is discouraged, because egoists get richer while altruists get poorer. We consider also a smarter version of being altruistic, based on reputation, called selective altruism, which prevents egoistic players from taking advantage of altruistic ones. In this new situation it is altruism, and not egoism, to be encouraged. Finally, we introduce a mechanism of imitation between players and study how it influences the composition of the ...

  19. Egalitarianism and Altruism in Health: To What Extent Are They Related?

    OpenAIRE

    Ignacio Abásolo; Aki Tsuchiya

    2013-01-01

    The theoretical constructs of egalitarianism and altruism are different from each other, yet there may be associations between the two at the empirical level. This paper explores the empirical relationship between egalitarianism and altruism, in the context of health. A representative sample of the Spanish population was interviewed in 2004 (n=801). We specify a model that explains the propensity of an individual to be egalitarian in terms of altruism and other background characteristics. In ...

  20. The Power of Asking: How Communication Affects Selfishness, Empathy, and Altruism

    OpenAIRE

    James Andreoni; Justin M. Rao

    2010-01-01

    To understand the "pure" incentives of altruism, economic laboratory research on humans almost always forbids communication between subjects. In reality, however, altruism usually requires interaction between givers and receivers, which clearly must influence choices. Charities, for example, speak of the "power of asking." Indeed, evolutionary theories of altruism are built on human sociality. We experimentally examine communication in which one subject allocates $10 between herself and a rec...

  1. Eye spots do not increase altruism in children

    OpenAIRE

    Vogt, Sonja; Efferson, Charles; Berger, Joël; Fehr, Ernst

    2015-01-01

    The evolutionary legacy hypothesis proposes that an evolved reciprocity-based psychology affects human behavior in anonymous one-shot interactions when reciprocity is not explicitly possible. Empirical support rests on experiments showing that altruism among adults increases in the presence of stylized eye spots or faces. Such stimuli do not affect material payoffs, but they are assumed to activate a person’s reciprocity-based psychology. We identify two versions of the evolutionary legacy hy...

  2. ALTRUISM AND OWNERSHIP: JUSTIFYING PAYMENT FOR ORGAN DONATION

    OpenAIRE

    Voo, Teck Chuan

    2014-01-01

    Organ donation is traditionally based on the notion of making a gift based on altruism. An important aspect of ‘altruistic gifting’ is commitment to a solidaristic approach to meeting transplant needs. In line with this, people are encouraged to donate their organs at death to a common pool for collective provision, or donate a live organ to another freely. Given a chronic organ shortage, proposals have been made to change this system to increase donation. Proposals include introducing some o...

  3. Justice among strangers. On altruism, inequality aversion and fairness

    OpenAIRE

    Luciano Andreozzi; Matteo Ploner; Ivan Soraperra

    2013-01-01

    We present an axiomatic model of choice involving two agents, motivated by the experimental evidence on non-selfish preferences. We distinguish two classes of social preferences, depending on whether they are or not separable. Altruism and spite (Andreoni & Miller, 2002; Cox et al., 2007) are separable, while the various forms of inequality aversion are not (Fehr & Schmidt, 1999; Bolton & Ockenfels, 2000; Charness & Rabin, 2002). Separable and non-separable preferences give very close predict...

  4. Prosocial Behaviors and Altruism among Citizens of Isfahan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armita Nooien

    2013-07-01

    Desirable social behaviors\t0/04\t1\t0/027\t0/126\t0/61 The results of testing hypotheses 6 and 7 show that there is no significance difference between the two groups of veterans and released prisoners. Altruism can be effective in increasing levels of moral reasoning and prosocial behavior, but it was not an effective factor in classification of veterans of the holy defense in this research.

  5. Altruism in Forest Chimpanzees: The Case of Adoption

    OpenAIRE

    Boesch, C.; Bolé, C.; Eckhardt, N.; Boesch, H

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, extended altruism towards unrelated group members has been proposed to be a unique characteristic of human societies. Support for this proposal seemingly came from experimental studies on captive chimpanzees that showed that individuals were limited in the ways they shared or cooperated with others. This dichotomy between humans and chimpanzees was proposed to indicate an important difference between the two species, and one study concluded that “chimpanzees are indifferent t...

  6. Social interaction, co-worker altruism, and incentives

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Social interaction with colleagues is an important job attribute for many workers. To attract and retain workers, managers therefore need to think about how to create and preserve high-quality co-worker relationships. This paper develops a principal-multi-agent model where agents do not only engage in productive activities, but also in social interaction with their colleagues, which in turn creates co-worker altruism. We study how financial incentives for productive activities can improve or ...

  7. Psykososiale faktorer altruisme og arbeidsengasjement. En krysskulturell studie

    OpenAIRE

    Kvamme, Synøve; Nilsen, May Linn; Bolann, Benedicte Yoo Mee Ra

    2007-01-01

    This is a cross-cultural study of organisations founded in positive psychology. The samples of 289 subjects are from South Africa (91) and Norway (198). The study is a tentative mapping of psychosocial factors related to work engagement where altruism was tested as a moderating factor. There were no significant differences on the general level of work engagement for the two countries, but relating to the three subscales there were two significant differences. Work absorption wa...

  8. Parenting with style: Altruism and paternalism in intergenerational preference transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Matthias Doepke; Fabrizio Zilibotti

    2012-01-01

    We construct a theory of intergenerational preference transmission that rationalizes the choice between alternative parenting styles (related to Baumrind 1967). Parents maximize an objective function that combines Beckerian and paternalistic altruism towards children. They can affect their children’s choices via two channels: either by influencing their preferences or by imposing direct restrictions on their choice sets. Different parenting styles (authoritarian, authoritative, and permissive...

  9. Parenting with style: altruism and paternalism in intergenerational preference transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Doepke, Matthias; Zilibotti, Fabrizio

    2014-01-01

    We develop a theory of intergenerational transmission of preferences that rationalizes the choice between alternative parenting styles (as set out in Baumrind 1967). Parents maximize an objective function that combines Beckerian altruism and paternalism towards children. They can affect their children's choices via two channels: either by influencing children's preferences or by imposing direct restrictions on their choice sets. Different parenting styles (authoritarian, authoritative, and pe...

  10. Parenting with Style: Altruism and Paternalism in Intergenerational Preference Transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Doepke, Matthias; Zilibotti, Fabrizio

    2014-01-01

    We develop a theory of intergenerational transmission of preferences that rationalizes the choice between alternative parenting styles (as set out in Baumrind 1967). Parents maximize an objective function that combines Beckerian altruism and paternalism towards children. They can affect their children's choices via two channels: either by influencing children's preferences or by imposing direct restrictions on their choice sets. Different parenting styles (authoritarian, authoritative, and pe...

  11. Parenting with Style: Altruism and Paternalism in Intergenerational Preference Transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Fabrizio Zilibotti; Matthias Doepke

    2014-01-01

    We construct a theory of intergenerational preference transmission that rationalizes the choice between alternative parenting styles (related to Baumrind 1967). Parents maximize an objective function that combines Beckerian and paternalistic altruism towards children. They can affect their children’s choices via two channels: either by influencing their preferences or by imposing direct restrictions on their choice sets. Different parenting styles (authoritarian, authoritative, and permissi...

  12. Parenting with style: altruism and paternalism in intergenerational preference transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Matthias Doepke; Fabrizio Zilibotti

    2014-01-01

    We develop a theory of intergenerational transmission of preferences that rationalizes the choice between alternative parenting styles (as set out in Baumrind 1967). Parents maximize an objective function that combines Beckerian altruism and paternalism towards children. They can affect their children’s choices via two channels: either by influencing children’s preferences or by imposing direct restrictions on their choice sets. Different parenting styles (authoritarian, authoritative, and pe...

  13. A Contrarian Perspective on Altruism: The Dangers of First Contact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brin, David

    The key word in the title of this chapter - Altruism - generally conveys certain assumptions. The first of these is that altruism - a selfless imperative to assist others without expectation of reward - is likely to be a valued attribute among advanced technological civilizations. Moreover, in the SETI context, it implies that humanity should strive to display this attribute in communicating with extraterrestrial life forms that may be 1E8 to1E9 years ahead of us in development. Finally, one topic much under discussion within the SETI community - how to craft and send a deliberate message from Earth into space - is based on the supposition that we can dismiss any substantial likelihood that transmitting will expose humanity and our world to danger. Are all of these assumptions warranted? Or do they reflect the personal inclinations and wishes of a narrow group, arising from a particular culture and era? Given the potentially overwhelming implications of contact, we may be wise to reflect upon the full range of possible outcomes, not only those we yearn for. I, for one, would feel more confident in the inevitability of alien altruism if that beneficent trait appeared more often in nature.

  14. Altruism in forest chimpanzees: the case of adoption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boesch, Christophe; Bolé, Camille; Eckhardt, Nadin; Boesch, Hedwige

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, extended altruism towards unrelated group members has been proposed to be a unique characteristic of human societies. Support for this proposal seemingly came from experimental studies on captive chimpanzees that showed that individuals were limited in the ways they shared or cooperated with others. This dichotomy between humans and chimpanzees was proposed to indicate an important difference between the two species, and one study concluded that "chimpanzees are indifferent to the welfare of unrelated group members". In strong contrast with these captive studies, consistent observations of potentially altruistic behaviors in different populations of wild chimpanzees have been reported in such different domains as food sharing, regular use of coalitions, cooperative hunting and border patrolling. This begs the question of what socio-ecological factors favor the evolution of altruism. Here we report 18 cases of adoption, a highly costly behavior, of orphaned youngsters by group members in Taï forest chimpanzees. Half of the adoptions were done by males and remarkably only one of these proved to be the father. Such adoptions by adults can last for years and thus imply extensive care towards the orphans. These observations reveal that, under the appropriate socio-ecologic conditions, chimpanzees do care for the welfare of other unrelated group members and that altruism is more extensive in wild populations than was suggested by captive studies. PMID:20111704

  15. Altruism and Helping: The Evolution of a Field--The 2008 Cooley-Mead Presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piliavin, Jane Allyn

    2009-01-01

    I present a selective history of the evolution of the study of altruism and helping behavior, using a series of questions and answers. Some of the topics covered include the motives for helping, the origins of helping and altruism in evolution and child development, the relationship of organizations to helping, and the psychological and health…

  16. The neuropeptide oxytocin regulates parochial altruism in intergroup conflict among humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.K.W. de Dreu; L.L. Greer; M.J.J. Handgraaf; S. Shalvi; G.A. van Kleef; M. Baas; F.S. ten Velden; E. van Dijk; S.W.W. Feith

    2010-01-01

    Humans regulate intergroup conflict through parochial altruism; they self-sacrifice to contribute to in-group welfare and to aggress against competing out-groups. Parochial altruism has distinct survival functions, and the brain may have evolved to sustain and promote in-group cohesion and effective

  17. Testing for Altruism and Social Pressure in Charitable Giving

    OpenAIRE

    Stefano DellaVigna; List, John A.; Ulrike Malmendier

    2009-01-01

    Every year, 90 percent of Americans give money to charities. Is such generosity necessarily welfare enhancing for the giver? We present a theoretical framework that distinguishes two types of motivation: individuals like to give, e.g., due to altruism or warm glow, and individuals would rather not give but dislike saying no, e.g., due to social pressure. We design a door-to-door fund-raising drive in which some households are informed about the exact time of solicitation with a flyer on their...

  18. Reluctant altruism and peer pressure in charitable giving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane Reyniers

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Subjects donate individually (control group or in pairs (treatment group. Those in pairs reveal their donation decision to each other. Average donations in the treatment group are significantly higher than in the control group. Paired subjects have the opportunity to revise their donation decision after discussion. Pair members shift toward each others' initial decisions. Subjects are happier with their decision when their donations are larger, but those in pairs are less happy, controlling for amount donated. These findings suggest reluctant altruism due to peer pressure in charitable giving.

  19. Chill-inducing music enhances altruism in humans

    OpenAIRE

    Fukui, Hajime; Toyoshima, Kumiko

    2014-01-01

    Music is a universal feature of human cultures, and it has both fascinated and troubled many researchers. In this paper we show through the dictator game (DG) that an individual’s listening to preferred “chill-inducing” music may promote altruistic behavior that extends beyond the bounds of kin selection or reciprocal altruism. Participants were 22 undergraduate and postgraduate students who were divided into two groups, the in-group and the out-group, and they acted as dictators. The dictato...

  20. Why Do Babies Cry: Once Again About Egoism and Altruism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levit L.Z.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with a ratio between egoistic and altruistic components in a person’s motivation and activity. The author provides new interpretations for the widely known examples of altruistic behavior. The results of experimental investigations discovering positive correlations, which exist between egoism and altruism in a person’s daily activity, are quoted. The author touches upon the problem of egoism as a new possible subject of psychology. The incorporation of egoism concept into the structure of modern humanitarian science opens new perspectives for theorizing and experimental investigations

  1. Remittances as investment in the absence of altruism

    OpenAIRE

    González-König, Gabriel

    2005-01-01

    In the absence of altruism, there is no obvious reason why a migrant should remit part of his income to his family for investment at the home location. If the family invests such income (in housing for example), why would they give it back to the migrant when he returns? This paper is based on the idea that certain people at a migrant's home location may punish those families who do not return those investments in order to prevent their own possibilities of receiving future remittances and in...

  2. Connection between Classroom Abuse and Manifest Aggressiveness, Anxiety and Altruism

    OpenAIRE

    Bilić, Vesna

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to find out if the students exposed to abuse differ in their level of anxiety, aggressiveness, and altruism from other students, and to test if the pattern of these differences differs depending on whether the abuse they suffer is emotional or physical. The research was carried out on a sample of 127 senior elementary school students. The data was gathered at the end of the 2003/04 school year, and obtained through the respondents’ self-statements in ...

  3. The evolution of utility functions and psychological altruism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clavien, Christine; Chapuisat, Michel

    2016-04-01

    Numerous studies show that humans tend to be more cooperative than expected given the assumption that they are rational maximizers of personal gain. As a result, theoreticians have proposed elaborated formal representations of human decision-making, in which utility functions including "altruistic" or "moral" preferences replace the purely self-oriented "Homo economicus" function. Here we review mathematical approaches that provide insights into the mathematical stability of alternative utility functions. Candidate utility functions may be evaluated with help of game theory, classical modeling of social evolution that focuses on behavioral strategies, and modeling of social evolution that focuses directly on utility functions. We present the advantages of the latter form of investigation and discuss one surprisingly precise result: "Homo economicus" as well as "altruistic" utility functions are less stable than a function containing a preference for the common welfare that is only expressed in social contexts composed of individuals with similar preferences. We discuss the contribution of mathematical models to our understanding of human other-oriented behavior, with a focus on the classical debate over psychological altruism. We conclude that human can be psychologically altruistic, but that psychological altruism evolved because it was generally expressed towards individuals that contributed to the actor's fitness, such as own children, romantic partners and long term reciprocators. PMID:26598465

  4. Altruism via kin-selection strategies that rely on arbitrary tags with which they coevolve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelrod, Robert; Hammond, Ross A; Grafen, Alan

    2004-08-01

    Hamilton's rule explains when natural selection will favor altruism between conspecifics, given their degree of relatedness. In practice, indicators of relatedness (such as scent) coevolve with strategies based on these indicators, a fact not included in previous theories of kin recognition. Using a combination of simulation modeling and mathematical extension of Hamilton's rule, we demonstrate how altruism can emerge and be sustained in a coevolutionary setting where relatedness depends on an individual's social environment and varies from one locus to another. The results support a very general expectation of widespread, and not necessarily weak, conditional altruism in nature. PMID:15446434

  5. Selective pressures for accurate altruism targeting: evidence from digital evolution for difficult-to-test aspects of inclusive fitness theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clune, Jeff; Goldsby, Heather J; Ofria, Charles; Pennock, Robert T

    2011-03-01

    Inclusive fitness theory predicts that natural selection will favour altruist genes that are more accurate in targeting altruism only to copies of themselves. In this paper, we provide evidence from digital evolution in support of this prediction by competing multiple altruist-targeting mechanisms that vary in their accuracy in determining whether a potential target for altruism carries a copy of the altruist gene. We compete altruism-targeting mechanisms based on (i) kinship (kin targeting), (ii) genetic similarity at a level greater than that expected of kin (similarity targeting), and (iii) perfect knowledge of the presence of an altruist gene (green beard targeting). Natural selection always favoured the most accurate targeting mechanism available. Our investigations also revealed that evolution did not increase the altruism level when all green beard altruists used the same phenotypic marker. The green beard altruism levels stably increased only when mutations that changed the altruism level also changed the marker (e.g. beard colour), such that beard colour reliably indicated the altruism level. For kin- and similarity-targeting mechanisms, we found that evolution was able to stably adjust altruism levels. Our results confirm that natural selection favours altruist genes that are increasingly accurate in targeting altruism to only their copies. Our work also emphasizes that the concept of targeting accuracy must include both the presence of an altruist gene and the level of altruism it produces. PMID:20843843

  6. RATIONAL-IRRATIONAL ELECTORAL PREFERENCES, ALTRUISM AND EXPRESSIVE BEHAVIOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai Ungureanu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Caplan (2000, 2001, 2006 proposed the rational-irrationality model arguing that irrationality is a good as any other, whose consumption is maximized in relation to its costs and benefits. Applying this model to the problem of electoral behavior Caplan implies that voters ‘afford’ many irrational beliefs, because the lack of individual decisiveness renders vote as a consequenceless act. This paper contributes to the development of knowledge by analyzing the compatibility of rational irrationality with active electoral behavior. Two important arguments are being proposed: First, Wittman’s (2008 intuition that rational irrationality is incompatible with voting could be supported only about a particular type of altruism, which Caplan actually seems to reject. Second, rational irrationality seems to be compatible with expressive motivations, reinforcing the conclusion that rational-irrational individuals are active voters in mass elections.

  7. Altruism and skepticism in public attitudes toward food nanotechnologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To better explore and understand the public's perceptions of and attitudes toward emerging technologies and food products, we conducted a US-based focus group study centered on nanotechnology, nano-food, and nano-food labeling. Seven focus groups were conducted in seven locations in two different US metropolitan areas from September 2010 to January 2011. In addition to revealing context-specific data on already established risk and public perception factors, our goal was to inductively identify other nano-food perception factors of significance for consideration when analyzing why and how perceptions and attitudes are formed to nanotechnology in food. Two such factors that emerged—altruism and skepticism—are particularly interesting in that they may be situated between different theoretical frameworks that have been used for explaining perception and attitude. We argue that they may represent a convergence point among theories that each help explain different aspects of both how food nanotechnologies are perceived and why those perceptions are formed. In this paper, we first review theoretical frameworks for evaluating risk perception and attitudes toward emerging technologies, then review previous work on public perception of nanotechnology and nano-food, describe our qualitative content analysis results for public perception toward nano-food—focusing especially on altruism and skepticism, and discuss implications of these findings in terms of how public attitudes toward nano-food could be formed and understood. Finally, we propose that paying attention to these two factors may guide more responsible development of nano-food in the future

  8. Altruism and skepticism in public attitudes toward food nanotechnologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, J. [University of Minnesota, Department of Educational Psychology, College of Education and Human Development (United States); Fatehi, L. [Humphrey School of Public Affairs, University of Minnesota (United States); Kuzma, J., E-mail: jkuzma@ncsu.edu [North Carolina State University, School of Public and International Affairs and Genetic Engineering and Society Center (United States)

    2015-03-15

    To better explore and understand the public's perceptions of and attitudes toward emerging technologies and food products, we conducted a US-based focus group study centered on nanotechnology, nano-food, and nano-food labeling. Seven focus groups were conducted in seven locations in two different US metropolitan areas from September 2010 to January 2011. In addition to revealing context-specific data on already established risk and public perception factors, our goal was to inductively identify other nano-food perception factors of significance for consideration when analyzing why and how perceptions and attitudes are formed to nanotechnology in food. Two such factors that emerged—altruism and skepticism—are particularly interesting in that they may be situated between different theoretical frameworks that have been used for explaining perception and attitude. We argue that they may represent a convergence point among theories that each help explain different aspects of both how food nanotechnologies are perceived and why those perceptions are formed. In this paper, we first review theoretical frameworks for evaluating risk perception and attitudes toward emerging technologies, then review previous work on public perception of nanotechnology and nano-food, describe our qualitative content analysis results for public perception toward nano-food—focusing especially on altruism and skepticism, and discuss implications of these findings in terms of how public attitudes toward nano-food could be formed and understood. Finally, we propose that paying attention to these two factors may guide more responsible development of nano-food in the future.

  9. Connection between classroom abuse and manifest aggressiveness, anxiety and altruism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilić, Vesna

    2006-12-01

    The objective of this paper is to find out if the students exposed to abuse differ in their level of anxiety, aggressiveness, and altruism from other students, and to test if the pattern of these differences differs depending on whether the abuse they suffer is emotional or physical. The research was carried out on a sample of 127 senior elementary school students. The data was gathered at the end of the 2003/04 school year, and obtained through the respondents' self-statements in questionnaires about childhood abuse and by the scales of manifest aggressiveness, anxiety and altruism. The frequency analysis has shown that various forms of emotional abuse are more common in schools than physical abuse, and that they are reaching disturbing proportions. For example, more than half of the participants in the study reported facing intimidation and threats in school, and over a third of them have been yelled at. Although less commonplace, physical abuse in school can by no means be ignored. Those students who suffer from frequent physical abuse are more dissatisfied with school (r=0.174, pbullied students can be differentiated from their non-abused schoolmates as they are manifestly more anxious and aggressive, regardless of whether they suffer physical or emotional abuse. Instances of different forms of emotional and physical classroom abuse have increased alarmingly. Such traumatic experiences affect children's health and functioning in school, as well as in their private lives. The interdisciplinary studies of this phenomenon and the education of all those who work with young people emerge as the top priority in the prevention of this kind of abuse. PMID:17243540

  10. The distribution of wealth in the presence of altruism for simple economic models

    CERN Document Server

    Rodriguez-Achach, M

    2005-01-01

    We study the effect of altruism in two simple asset exchange models: the yard sale model (winner gets a random fraction of the poorer player's wealth) and the theft and fraud model (winner gets a random fraction of the loser's wealth). We also introduce in these models the concept of bargaining efficiency, which makes the poorer trader more aggressive in getting a favorable deal thus augmenting his winning probabilities. The altruistic behavior is controlled by varying the number of traders that behave altruistically and by the degree of altruism that they show. The resulting wealth distribution is characterized using the Gini index. We compare the resulting values of the Gini index at different levels of altruism in both models. It is found that altruistic behavior does lead to a more equitable wealth distribution but only for unreasonable high values of altruism that are difficult to expect in a real economic system.

  11. The distribution of wealth in the presence of altruism in simple economic models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Achach, M.; Huerta-Quintanilla, R.

    2006-02-01

    We study the effect of altruism in two simple asset exchange models: the yard sale model (winner gets a random fraction of the poorer player's wealth) and the theft and fraud model (winner gets a random fraction of the loser's wealth). We also introduce in these models the concept of bargaining efficiency, which makes the poorer trader more aggressive in getting a favorable deal thus augmenting his winning probabilities. The altruistic behavior is controlled by varying the number of traders who behave altruistically and by the degree of altruism that they show. The resulting wealth distribution is characterized using the Gini index. We compare the resulting values of the Gini index at different levels of altruism in both models. It is found that altruistic behavior does lead to a more equitable wealth distribution but only for unreasonable high values of altruism that are difficult to expect in a real economic system.

  12. Altruism or solidarity? The motives for organ donation and two proposals

    OpenAIRE

    Saunders, Ben

    2012-01-01

    Proposals for increasing organ donation are often rejected as incompatible with altruistic motivation on the part of donors. This paper questions, on conceptual grounds, whether most organ donors really are altruistic. If we distinguish between altruism and solidarity – a more restricted form of other-concern, limited to members of a particular group – then most organ donors exhibit solidarity, rather than altruism. If organ donation really must be altruistic, then we have reasons to worry ab...

  13. Evidence of an Alternative Currency for Altruism in Laboratory-Based Experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Farrelly; Emma Moan; Kristi White; Sarah Young

    2015-01-01

    Research shows that altruistic behaviours arise in varying social situations in line with different theories of causes of such behaviours. However most research uses financial costs only, which makes our understanding of altruism currently limited. This study presents findings of three experiments that use a novel and simple laboratory-based task that measures altruism based on the amount of time participants are willing to spend as a cost to help others. This task assessed two specific theor...

  14. Altruism, gift giving and reciprocity in organ donation: a review of cultural perspectives and challenges of the concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, C; Randhawa, G

    2014-10-01

    Living and deceased organ donation are couched in altruism and gift discourse and this article reviews explores cultural views towards these concepts. Altruism and egoism theories and gift and reciprocity theories are outlined from a social exchange theory perspective to highlight the key differences between altruism and the gift and the wider implications of reciprocation. The notion of altruism as a selfless act without expectation or want for repayment juxtaposed with the Maussian gift where there are the obligations to give, receive and reciprocate. Lay perspectives of altruism and the gift in organ donation are outlined and illustrate that there are differences in motivations to donate in different programmes of living donation and for families who decide to donate their relative's organs. These motivations reflect cultural views of altruism and the gift and perceptions of the body and death. PMID:24973193

  15. Selective pressures for accurate altruism targeting: evidence from digital evolution for difficult-to-test aspects of inclusive fitness theory

    OpenAIRE

    Clune, Jeff; Goldsby, Heather J.; Ofria, Charles; Pennock, Robert T

    2010-01-01

    Inclusive fitness theory predicts that natural selection will favour altruist genes that are more accurate in targeting altruism only to copies of themselves. In this paper, we provide evidence from digital evolution in support of this prediction by competing multiple altruist-targeting mechanisms that vary in their accuracy in determining whether a potential target for altruism carries a copy of the altruist gene. We compete altruism-targeting mechanisms based on (i) kinship (kin targeting),...

  16. Chill-inducing music enhances altruism in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajime eFukui

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Music is a universal feature of human cultures, and it has both fascinated and troubled many researchers. In this paper we show through the Dictator Game that an individual’s listening to preferred chill-inducing music may promote altruistic behavior that extends beyond the bounds of kin selection or reciprocal altruism. Participants were 22 undergraduate and postgraduate students who were divided into two groups, the In-group (IG and the Out-group (OG, and they acted as dictators. The dictators listened to their own preferred chill-inducing music, to music they disliked, or to silence, and then played the Dictator Game. In this hypothetical experiment, the dictators were given real money (which they did not keep and were asked to distribute it to the recipients, who were presented as stylized images of men and women displayed on a computer screen. The dictators played the Dictator Game both before and after listening to the music. Both male and female dictators gave more money after listening to their preferred music and less after listening to the music they disliked, whereas silence had no effect on the allocated amounts. The group to which the recipient belonged did not influence these trends. The results suggest that listening to preferred chill-inducing music promotes altruistic behavior.

  17. Chill-inducing music enhances altruism in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukui, Hajime; Toyoshima, Kumiko

    2014-01-01

    Music is a universal feature of human cultures, and it has both fascinated and troubled many researchers. In this paper we show through the dictator game (DG) that an individual's listening to preferred "chill-inducing" music may promote altruistic behavior that extends beyond the bounds of kin selection or reciprocal altruism. Participants were 22 undergraduate and postgraduate students who were divided into two groups, the in-group and the out-group, and they acted as dictators. The dictators listened to their own preferred "chill-inducing" music, to music they disliked, or to silence, and then played the DG. In this hypothetical experiment, the dictators were given real money (which they did not keep) and were asked to distribute it to the recipients, who were presented as stylized images of men and women displayed on a computer screen. The dictators played the DG both before and after listening to the music. Both male and female dictators gave more money after listening to their preferred music and less after listening to the music they disliked, whereas silence had no effect on the allocated amounts. The group to which the recipient belonged did not influence these trends. The results suggest that listening to preferred "chill-inducing" music promotes altruistic behavior. PMID:25389411

  18. Balancing Egoism and Altruism on MIMO Interference Channel

    CERN Document Server

    Ho, Zuleita Ka Ming

    2009-01-01

    This paper considers the so-called multiple-input-multiple-output interference channel (MIMO-IC) which has relevance in applications such as multi-cell coordination in cellular networks as well as spectrum sharing in cognitive radio networks among others. We address the design of precoding (i.e. beamforming) vectors at each sender with the aim of striking a compromise between beamforming gain at the intended receiver (Egoism) and the mitigation of interference created towards other receivers (Altruism). Combining egoistic and altruistic beamforming has been shown previously to be instrumental to optimizing the rates in a multiple-input-single-output interference channel MISO-IC (i.e. where receivers have no interference canceling capability) [5], [7]. Here we explore these game-theoretic concepts in the more general context of MIMO channels and using the framework of Bayesian games [17], allowing us to derive (semi-)distributed precoding techniques. We draw parallels with existing work on the MIMO-IC, includi...

  19. The relative roles of kinship and reciprocity in explaining primate altruism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schino, Gabriele; Aureli, Filippo

    2010-01-01

    Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain the evolution of altruistic behaviours. Their relative roles in explaining actual cases of animal altruism are, however, unclear. In particular, while kin selection is widely believed to have a pervasive influence on animal behaviour, reciprocity is generally thought to be rare. Despite this general agreement, there has been no direct test comparing the relative roles of kinship and reciprocity in explaining animal altruism. In this paper, we report on the results of such a test based on a meta-analysis of allogrooming in primates, grooming being probably the most common altruistic behaviour among mammals. In direct contrast to the prevailing view, reciprocity played a much larger role than kinship in explaining primate allogrooming. These results point to a more significant role of reciprocity in the evolution of animal altruism than is generally acknowledged. PMID:19840082

  20. Reason, emotion, compassion: can altruism survive professionalisation in the humanitarian sector?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonnier, Gilles

    2015-04-01

    The humanitarian sector has grown enormously over the past two decades. Some fear that professionalisation comes at the expense of altruistic volunteering. This may be a valid concern if altruism is the product of organisational culture and individual experiences rather than an innate trait. This paper examines advances in evolutionary biology and neurology that provide evidence in support of both the nature and nurture arguments, echoing earlier insights from social sciences. It then questions to what extent humanitarian principles build on altruistic impulses or instead seek to constrain them, and reviews recruitment profiles of selected humanitarian organisations and applicants' letters accordingly. This initial investigation warrants further research to identify how altruism as a personal trait and an organisational principle has influenced diverse humanitarian actors and traditions. This paper outlines how training curricula and organisational reward systems can build on-rather than stifle-natural altruism to nurture critical, reflexive practitioners. PMID:25439560

  1. Evidence of an Alternative Currency for Altruism in Laboratory-Based Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Farrelly

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Research shows that altruistic behaviours arise in varying social situations in line with different theories of causes of such behaviours. However most research uses financial costs only, which makes our understanding of altruism currently limited. This study presents findings of three experiments that use a novel and simple laboratory-based task that measures altruism based on the amount of time participants are willing to spend as a cost to help others. This task assessed two specific theories; altruistic punishment (Experiments 1 & 2 and empathy-altruism (Experiment 3. All experiments showed that the task was successful, as participants were more likely to altruistically punish violators of social contracts than other scenarios (Experiments 1 and 2, and also incur more costs to behave altruistically towards others when feeling empathic than different emotional states (Experiment 3. These results provide clear support for the use and value of this novel task in future research.

  2. Mechanism of altruism approach to blood donor recruitment and retention: a review and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, E

    2015-08-01

    Why do people donate blood? Altruism is the common answer. However, altruism is a complex construct and to answer this question requires a systematic analysis of the insights from the biology, economics and psychology of altruism. I term this the mechanism of altruism (MOA) approach and apply it here for understanding blood donor motivation. The answer also has enormous implications for the type of interventions we choose to adopt as a society. A MOA approach so far shows that blood donors are a mixture of (i) warm-glow givers (donation is emotionally rewarding) and (ii) reluctant altruists (cooperate rather than defect when free-riding is high). Donors also show 'saintly sinning' with the extra 'moral currency' form blood donation allowing them to be less generous in other contexts. The MOA approach suggests why financial incentives, in terms of gifts/lottery tickets, are effective and suggests a number of novel interventions for donor recruitment: 'voluntary reciprocal altruism' and 'charitable incentivisation'. The MOA approach also highlights the need for an intervention developed specifically for recipients to allow them to show their gratitude to donors and for society to celebrate blood donation. It is suggests a 'Monument to Blood Donors' will achieve this. The approach suggests a number of novel research questions into (i) donor self-selection effects, (ii) conditional cooperation and (iii) construct overlap with Theory of Planned Behaviour (e.g. affective attitudes and warm-glow). The MOA offers a powerful way to understand blood donor motivations around altruism and develop theoretically driven interventions. PMID:26311129

  3. How the competitive altruism leads to bistable homogeneous states of cooperation or defection

    CERN Document Server

    Jarynowski, A; Kulakowski, K

    2011-01-01

    Our recent minimal model of cooperation (P. Gawronski et al, Physica A 388 (2009) 3581) is modified as to allow for time-dependent altruism. This evolution is based on reputation of other agents, which in turn depends on history. We show that this modification leads to two absorbing states of the whole system, where the cooperation flourishes in one state and is absent in another one. The effect is compared with the results obtained with the model of indirect reciprocity, where the altruism of agents is constant.

  4. Altruism and the Flourishing Teacher: Exploring a Christian Theology of Love

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthias, Laurie R.

    2016-01-01

    This article responds to Chris Higgins' (2010) claim that perpetuating the myth of altruism is a factor that leads to teacher burnout, thus making "flourishing teacher" an oxymoron. It does so by exploring various views of the Christian concepts of agape, kenosis, and desire, debunking some persistent definitions that linger in Christian…

  5. Music increase altruism through regulating the secretion of steroid hormones and peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukui, Hajime; Toyoshima, Kumiko

    2014-12-01

    Music is well known for its effect on human behavior especially of their bonding and empathy towards others. Music provokes one's emotion and activates mirror neurons and reward system. It also regulates social hormones such as steroid hormones or peptides, and increases empathy, pro-sociality and altruism. As a result, it improves one's reproductive success. PMID:25459139

  6. Social heuristics and social roles: Intuition favors altruism for women but not for men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rand, David G; Brescoll, Victoria L; Everett, Jim A C; Capraro, Valerio; Barcelo, Hélène

    2016-04-01

    Are humans intuitively altruistic, or does altruism require self-control? A theory of social heuristics, whereby intuitive responses favor typically successful behaviors, suggests that the answer may depend on who you are. In particular, evidence suggests that women are expected to behave altruistically, and are punished for failing to be altruistic, to a much greater extent than men. Thus, women (but not men) may internalize altruism as their intuitive response. Indeed, a meta-analysis of 13 new experiments and 9 experiments from other groups found that promoting intuition relative to deliberation increased giving in a Dictator Game among women, but not among men (Study 1, N = 4,366). Furthermore, this effect was shown to be moderated by explicit sex role identification (Study 2, N = 1,831): the more women described themselves using traditionally masculine attributes (e.g., dominance, independence) relative to traditionally feminine attributes (e.g., warmth, tenderness), the more deliberation reduced their altruism. Our findings shed light on the connection between gender and altruism, and highlight the importance of social heuristics in human prosociality. PMID:26913619

  7. Idealism, Altruism, Career Orientation, and Emotional Exhaustion among Social Work Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngai, Steven Sek-yum; Cheung, Chau-kiu

    2009-01-01

    The present study examines the genesis of emotional exhaustion among undergraduate social work students in Hong Kong. Of particular concern are the relationships among key factors, including the student's idealism, altruism and career orientation, and emotional exhaustion. To investigate this, the study employed survey data collected from 165…

  8. Coresidence duration and cues of maternal investment regulate sibling altruism across cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sznycer, Daniel; De Smet, Delphine; Billingsley, Joseph; Lieberman, Debra

    2016-08-01

    Genetic relatedness is a fundamental determinant of social behavior across species. Over the last few decades, researchers have been investigating the proximate psychological mechanisms that enable humans to assess their genetic relatedness to others. Much of this work has focused on identifying cues that predicted relatedness in ancestral environments and examining how they regulate kin-directed behaviors. Despite progress, many basic questions remain unanswered. Here we address three of these questions. First, we examine the replicability of the effect of two association-based cues to relatedness-maternal perinatal association (MPA) and coresidence duration-on sibling-directed altruism. MPA, the observation of a newborn being cared for by one's mother, strongly signals relatedness, but is only available to the older sibling in a sib-pair. Younger siblings, to whom the MPA cue is not available, appear to fall back on the duration of their coresidence with an older sibling. Second, we determine whether the effects of MPA and coresidence duration on sibling-directed altruism obtain across cultures. Last, we explore whether paternal perinatal association (PPA) informs sibship. Data from six studies conducted in California, Hawaii, Dominica, Belgium, and Argentina support past findings regarding the role of MPA and coresidence duration as cues to siblingship. By contrast, PPA had no effect on altruism. We report on levels of altruism toward full, half, and step siblings, and discuss the role alternate cues might play in discriminating among these types of siblings. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27267325

  9. Selfishness and altruism can coexist when help is subject to diminishing returns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibly, R M; Curnow, R N

    2011-08-01

    Altruism and selfishness are 30-50% heritable in man in both Western and non-Western populations. This genetically based variation in altruism and selfishness requires explanation. In non-human animals, altruism is generally directed towards relatives, and satisfies the condition known as Hamilton's rule. This nepotistic altruism evolves under natural selection only if the ratio of the benefit of receiving help to the cost of giving it exceeds a value that depends on the relatedness of the individuals involved. Standard analyses assume that the benefit provided by each individual is the same but it is plausible in some cases that as more individuals contribute, help is subject to diminishing returns. We analyse this situation using a single-locus two-allele model of selection in a diploid population with the altruistic allele dominant to the selfish allele. The analysis requires calculation of the relationship between the fitnesses of the genotypes and the frequencies of the genes. The fitnesses vary not only with the genotype of the individual but also with the distribution of phenotypes amongst the sibs of the individual and this depends on the genotypes of his parents. These calculations are not possible by direct fitness or ESS methods but are possible using population genetics. Our analysis shows that diminishing returns change the operation of natural selection and the outcome can now be a stable equilibrium between altruistic and selfish alleles rather than the elimination of one allele or the other. We thus provide a plausible genetic model of kin selection that leads to the stable coexistence in the same population of both altruistic and selfish individuals. This may explain reported genetic variation in altruism in man. PMID:21343946

  10. Altruism the Essense of the Iranian Nurses' Job Satisfaction: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrabadi, Alireza Nikbakht; Forooshani, Zahra Sadat Dibaji; Rafiee, Forough

    2016-01-01

    Skillful and efficient human resource is one of the most important tools for reaching the organizational targets and it is almost impossible to reach the predetermined goals and success without having skillful human resources. Therefore, having a study on the personnel's job satisfaction is recommended for all of the organizations. Since the health organizations are among the most important organizations of any country, paying attention to the nurses' job satisfaction as the main providers of the health care services gets very important. In fact, their attempts guarantee the efficient human resources' health in the society. Understanding the Iranian nurses' experiences of their job satisfaction. The present paper studies the implicit and explicit aspects of the clinical nurses' job satisfaction. The needed information is collected via interviews, and then the participants' contextual data is analyzed by the qualitative content analysis. The research results introduce the altruism as the foundation for the nurses' job satisfaction. Altruism is composed of three categories of the patient advocacy, spiritual job satisfaction, and professional commitment. Altruism has made the nurses deliver the required health cares to the patients with all their love, while their profession has many difficulties. Job satisfaction resulted from altruism is experienced as a pleasant feeling along with enjoyment resulted from addressing the needs of a patient who looks forward to the nurse's advocacy. According to this kind of job satisfaction, the nurse's professional commitment is to advocate for the patient. Also, the research results show that spirituality is the inseparable component of altruism and it has a vital role in the nurses' job satisfaction. The spirituality helps the nurses to deliver targeted acts and interventions. PMID:27045394

  11. Gender differences in altruism: Expectations, actual behaviour and accuracy of beliefs

    CERN Document Server

    Brañas-Garza, Pablo; Rascón-Ramírez, Ericka

    2016-01-01

    Previous research shows that women are more altruist than men in dictator game experiments. Yet, little is known whether women are expected to be more altruist than men. Here we elicit third-parties' beliefs about dictators' donations conditional on knowing the gender of the dictator. Our data provide evidence of three main findings: (i) women are expected to be more altruist than men; (ii) both men and women have correct beliefs about the level of altruism among men; and (iii) both men and women overestimate the level of altruism among women. In doing so, our results uncover a perception gap according to which, although women are more altruist than men, they are expected to be even more altruist than they actually are.

  12. Testosterone is associated with cooperation during intergroup competition by enhancing parochial altruism

    OpenAIRE

    Luise eReimers; Esther Kristina Diekhof

    2015-01-01

    The steroid hormone testosterone is widely associated with negative behavioral effects, such as aggression or dominance. However, recent studies applying economic exchange tasks revealed conflicting results. While some point to a prosocial effect of testosterone by increasing altruistic behavior, others report that testosterone promotes antisocial tendencies. Taking into account additional factors such as parochial altruism (i.e., ingroup favoritism and outgroup hostility) might help to expla...

  13. The Development of Egalitarianism, Altruism, Spite and Parochialism in Childhood and Adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Fehr, Ernst; Rützler, Daniela; Sutter, Matthias

    2011-01-01

    We study how the distribution of other-regarding preferences develops with age. Based on a set of allocation choices, we can classify each of 717 subjects, aged 8 to 17 years, as either egalitarian, altruistic, or spiteful. Varying the allocation recipient as either an in-group or an out-group member, we can also study how parochialism develops with age. We find a strong decrease in spitefulness with increasing age. Egalitarianism becomes less frequent, and altruism much more prominent, with ...

  14. Social inclusion and altruism: empirical evidence from juvenile rehabilitation in Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Martina Menon; Federico Perali; Marcella Veronesi

    2015-01-01

    Social inclusion is a multidimensional phenomenon that involves social, political, and economic aspects of individuals' life. While social inclusion is a priority of the European Agenda 2020, little is known about individuals' preferences for social inclusion and its relationship with altruism. We exploit the marked cultural and socio-economic differences between North and South of Italy to investigate the relationship between people's preferences for the social inclusion of juvenile offender...

  15. Who cooperates in repeated games: The role of altruism, inequity aversion, and demographics

    OpenAIRE

    Dreber-Almenberg, Anna; Fudenberg, Drew; Rand, David G.

    2014-01-01

    We explore the extent to which altruism, as measured by giving in a dictator game (DG), accounts for play in a noisy version of the repeated prisoner's dilemma. We find that DG giving is correlated with cooperation in the repeated game when no cooperative equilibria exist, but not when cooperation is an equilibrium. Furthermore, none of the commonly observed strategies are better explained by inequity aversion or efficiency concerns than money maximization. Various survey questions provide ad...

  16. Investigating the genetic basis of altruism: the role of the COMT Val158Met polymorphism

    OpenAIRE

    Reuter, Martin; Frenzel, Clemens; Walter, Nora T.; Markett, Sebastian; Montag, Christian

    2010-01-01

    Findings from twin studies yield heritability estimates of 0.50 for prosocial behaviours like empathy, cooperativeness and altruism. First molecular genetic studies underline the influence of polymorphisms located on genes coding for the receptors of the neuropeptides, oxytocin and vasopressin. However, the proportion of variance explained by these gene loci is rather low indicating that additional genetic variants must be involved. Pharmacological studies show that the dopaminergic system in...

  17. Sex-ratio conflicts, kin selection, and the evolution of altruism

    OpenAIRE

    Alonso, Wladimir J.; Schuck-Paim, Cynthia

    2002-01-01

    Kin-selection theory has thrived in the explanation of a wide variety of biological phenomena, chiefly the evolution of biological altruism as that found in sterile castes of eusocial insects. Much of the way in which it has been tested is based on the existence of conflicts over sex-ratio production within eusocial colonies. However, despite neatly showing eusocial colonies as arenas where selection at the gene level triggers the appearance of sophisticated disputes, these studies have only ...

  18. The Negative Association between Religiousness and Children's Altruism across the World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decety, Jean; Cowell, Jason M; Lee, Kang; Mahasneh, Randa; Malcolm-Smith, Susan; Selcuk, Bilge; Zhou, Xinyue

    2015-11-16

    Prosocial behaviors are ubiquitous across societies. They emerge early in ontogeny and are shaped by interactions between genes and culture. Over the course of middle childhood, sharing approaches equality in distribution. Since 5.8 billion humans, representing 84% of the worldwide population, identify as religious, religion is arguably one prevalent facet of culture that influences the development and expression of prosociality. While it is generally accepted that religion contours people's moral judgments and prosocial behavior, the relation between religiosity and morality is a contentious one. Here, we assessed altruism and third-party evaluation of scenarios depicting interpersonal harm in 1,170 children aged between 5 and 12 years in six countries (Canada, China, Jordan, Turkey, USA, and South Africa), the religiousness of their household, and parent-reported child empathy and sensitivity to justice. Across all countries, parents in religious households reported that their children expressed more empathy and sensitivity for justice in everyday life than non-religious parents. However, religiousness was inversely predictive of children's altruism and positively correlated with their punitive tendencies. Together these results reveal the similarity across countries in how religion negatively influences children's altruism, challenging the view that religiosity facilitates prosocial behavior. PMID:26549259

  19. Socially Enforced Nepotism: How Norms and Reputation Can Amplify Kin Altruism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Doug

    2016-01-01

    Kin selection, which can lead organisms to behave altruistically to their genetic relatives, works differently when-as is often the case in human societies-altruism can be boosted by social pressure. Here I present a model of social norms enforced by indirect reciprocity. In the model there are many alternative stable allocations of rewards ("distributional norms"); a stable norm is stable in the sense that each player is best off following the norm if other players do the same. Stable norms vary widely in how equally they reward players with unequal abilities. In a population of mixed groups (some group members follow one norm, some follow another, and some compromise) with modest within-group coefficients of relatedness, selection within groups favors those who compromise, and selection between groups favors generous generalized reciprocity rather than balanced reciprocity. Thus evolved social norms can amplify kin altruism, giving rise to a uniquely human mode of kin-based sociality distinct from spontaneous altruism among close kin, or cooperation among non-kin. PMID:27305045

  20. Socially Enforced Nepotism: How Norms and Reputation Can Amplify Kin Altruism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doug Jones

    Full Text Available Kin selection, which can lead organisms to behave altruistically to their genetic relatives, works differently when-as is often the case in human societies-altruism can be boosted by social pressure. Here I present a model of social norms enforced by indirect reciprocity. In the model there are many alternative stable allocations of rewards ("distributional norms"; a stable norm is stable in the sense that each player is best off following the norm if other players do the same. Stable norms vary widely in how equally they reward players with unequal abilities. In a population of mixed groups (some group members follow one norm, some follow another, and some compromise with modest within-group coefficients of relatedness, selection within groups favors those who compromise, and selection between groups favors generous generalized reciprocity rather than balanced reciprocity. Thus evolved social norms can amplify kin altruism, giving rise to a uniquely human mode of kin-based sociality distinct from spontaneous altruism among close kin, or cooperation among non-kin.

  1. A neural signature of fairness in altruism: a game of theta?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Johannes; Ulrich, Natalie; Hewig, Johannes

    2015-04-01

    In the dictator game, a proposer can share a certain amount of money between himself or herself and a receiver, who has no opportunity of influencing the offer. Rational choice theory predicts that dictators keep all money for themselves. But people often are offering money to receivers, despite their opportunity to maximize their own profit and therefore showing altruistic behavior. In this study, we investigated the influence of the altruism of the dictator, the anonymity of the decision and the income of the receiver on the offer made by a dictator. Additionally, we were interested in the influence of midfrontal theta activity prior to the offer, indicating the upcoming decision. The height of the offer made by the dictator was dependent on all variables investigated: Altruism of the dictator led to higher offers and income of the receiver led to higher offer the poorer the receivers are. The anonymity of the decision had two effects, depending on the altruism of the dictator, with higher offers for highly altruistic dictators, when they were not observed, and lower offers for less altruistic dictators in this condition. Finally, midfrontal theta activity predicts upcoming fair offers, maybe indicating altruistic motivation or empathy on physiological basis. PMID:25350461

  2. Testosterone is associated with cooperation during intergroup competition by enhancing parochial altruism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luise eReimers

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The steroid hormone testosterone is widely associated with negative behavioral effects, such as aggression or dominance. However, recent studies applying economic exchange tasks revealed conflicting results. While some point to a prosocial effect of testosterone by increasing altruistic behavior, others report that testosterone promotes antisocial tendencies. Taking into account additional factors such as parochial altruism (i.e., ingroup favoritism and outgroup hostility might help to explain this contradiction. First evidence for a link between testosterone and parochial altruism comes from recently reported data of male soccer fans playing the ultimatum game. In this study high levels of endogenous testosterone predicted increased altruistic punishment during outgroup interactions and at the same time heightened ingroup generosity. Here, we report findings of another experimental task, the prisoner’s dilemma, applied in the same context to examine the role of testosterone on parochial tendencies in terms of cooperation. In this task, fifty male soccer fans were asked to decide whether or not they wanted to cooperate with partners marked as either fans of the subject’s own favorite team (ingroup or fans of other teams (outgroups. Our results show that high testosterone levels were associated with increased ingroup cooperation during intergroup competition. In addition, subjects displaying a high degree of parochialism during intergroup competition had significantly higher levels of testosterone than subjects who did not differentiate much between the different groups. In sum, the present data demonstrate that the behavioral effects of testosterone are not limited to aggressive and selfish tendencies but may imply prosocial aspects depending on the context. By this means, our results support the previously reported findings on testosterone-dependent intergroup bias and indicate that this social hormone might be an important factor driving

  3. Reputational concerns, not altruism, motivate restraint when gambling with other people's money.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arfer, Kodi B; Bixter, Michael T; Luhmann, Christian C

    2015-01-01

    People may behave prosocially not only because they value the welfare of others, but also to protect their own reputation. We examined the separate roles of altruism and reputational concerns in moral-hazard gambling tasks, which allowed subjects to gamble with a partner's money. In Study 1, subjects who were told that their partner would see their choices were more prosocial. In Study 2, subjects were more prosocial to a single partner when their choices were transparent than when their choices were attributed to a third party. We conclude that reputational concerns are a key restraint on selfish exploitation under moral hazard. PMID:26157402

  4. Private provision of a public good: cooperation and altruism of internet forum users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Ros-Galvez

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We ran an experiment with users of Internet forums. In a dictator game, we find that the level of altruism is positively related to the activity in the forum. In a public good game, there is no relation between cooperation in the game and contribution to the content of the forum. Subjects are not more altruistic with partners from the same forum but do cooperate more with them. These results suggest that the public good provided in Internet forums is mainly provided by a group of unconditional altruistic users, and that the sense of belonging supports the cooperation in that provision.

  5. Reputational concerns, not altruism, motivate restraint when gambling with other people's money

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kodi B. Arfer

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available People may behave prosocially not only because they value the welfare of others, but also to protect their own reputation. We examined the separate roles of altruism and reputational concerns in moral-hazard gambling tasks, which allowed subjects to gamble with a partner's money. In Study 1, subjects who were told that their partner would see their choices were more prosocial. In Study 2, subjects were more prosocial to a single partner when their choices were transparent than when their choices were attributed to a third party. We conclude that reputational concerns are a key restraint on selfish exploitation under moral hazard.

  6. Crucial Dimensions of Human Altruism. Affective vs. Conceptual Factors Leading to Helping or Reinforcing Others

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szuster, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article is to identify factors leading to favorable attitudes toward other people from different social categories. The parts of article reflect diverse levels of altruism regulation from primary affective responses to the environment, through social norms, to abstract moral concepts related to good and evil. The latter allow understanding of the perspective of other people (including those belonging to out-groups), acceptance of their values and engagement not only in helping behavior but also in supporting the development of others. PMID:27148127

  7. Emergence of altruism behavior in army ant-based social evolutionary system

    OpenAIRE

    Ichimura, Takumi; Uemoto, Takuya; Hara, Akira; Kenneth J. Mackin

    2014-01-01

    Army ants perform the altruism behavior that an ant sacrifices its own well-being for the benefit of another ants. They build bridges using their own bodies along the path from a food to the nest. We developed the army ant inspired social evolutionary system by using Swarm library. The system has 2 kinds of ant agents, ‘Major ant’ and ‘Minor ant’. They communicate with each other via pheromones. Army ant can recognize them as the signals from the other ants. The pheromones evaporate with the ...

  8. Altruism can proliferate through population viscosity despite high random gene flow.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto H Schonmann

    Full Text Available The ways in which natural selection can allow the proliferation of cooperative behavior have long been seen as a central problem in evolutionary biology. Most of the literature has focused on interactions between pairs of individuals and on linear public goods games. This emphasis has led to the conclusion that even modest levels of migration would pose a serious problem to the spread of altruism through population viscosity in group structured populations. Here we challenge this conclusion, by analyzing evolution in a framework which allows for complex group interactions and random migration among groups. We conclude that contingent forms of strong altruism that benefits equally all group members, regardless of kinship and without greenbeard effects, can spread when rare under realistic group sizes and levels of migration, due to the assortment of genes resulting only from population viscosity. Our analysis combines group-centric and gene-centric perspectives, allows for arbitrary strength of selection, and leads to extensions of Hamilton's rule for the spread of altruistic alleles, applicable under broad conditions.

  9. Cooperative Networks: Altruism, Group Solidarity, Reciprocity, and Sanctioning in Ugandan Producer Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldassarri, Delia

    2015-09-01

    Repeated interaction and social networks are commonly considered viable solutions to collective action problems. This article identifies and systematically measures four general mechanisms--that is, generalized altruism, group solidarity, reciprocity, and the threat of sanctioning--and tests which of them brings about cooperation in the context of Ugandan producer organizations. Using an innovative methodological framework that combines "lab-in-the-field" experiments with survey interviews and complete social networks data, the article goes beyond the assessment of a relationship between social networks and collective outcomes to study the mechanisms that favor cooperative behavior. The article first establishes a positive relationship between position in the network structure and propensity to cooperate in the producer organization and then uses farmers' behavior in dictator and public goods games to test different mechanisms that may account for such a relationship. Results show that cooperation is induced by patterns of reciprocity that emerge through repeated interaction rather than other-regarding preferences like altruism or group solidarity. PMID:26594712

  10. Overlapping generations or infinitely-lived agents. Intergenerational altruism and the economics of global warming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephan, G.; Mueller-Fuerstenberger, G.; Previdoli, P. [Department of Applied Microeconomics, University of Bern, Bern (Switzerland)

    1997-07-01

    Do we need an overlapping generations model for the economics of global warming? To answer this question, an infinitely-lived agent (ILA) approach and an overlapping generations (OLG) model are contrasted. ILA and OLG can be viewed as polar representations of intergenerational altruism. With ILA an immortal agent acts through his investments/savings decisions as trustee on the behalf of the future generations. With OLG, agents need not behave altruistic. They simply save during working years and dissave completely during retirement. Nevertheless, ILA and OLG must not differ in their implication for greenhouse policy. Greenhouse gas abatement is a straightforward alternative to physical capital formation and, even without altruism, each age cohort has an incentive to provide current abatement in order to reduce future damages attributable to climate change. Indeed, under reasonable assumptions and parameter values, our simulations reveal such an invariance result. Provided carbon taxes are the only policy tool and tax revenues are recycled through socially mandated rules, projections of economic growth, climate change and energy consumption are only insignificantly affected by the choice of approach. 4 figs., 2 tabs., 14 refs.

  11. Femininity and Kin-Directed Altruism in Androphilic Men: A Test of an Evolutionary Developmental Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanderLaan, Doug P; Petterson, Lanna J; Vasey, Paul L

    2016-04-01

    Androphilia refers to sexual attraction and arousal toward males whereas gynephilia refers to sexual attraction and arousal toward females. This study tested the adaptive feminine phenotype model of the evolution of male androphilia via kin selection, which posits that the development of an evolved disposition toward elevated kin-directed altruism among androphilic males is contingent on the behavioral expression of femininity. Gynephilic men, androphilic women, and androphilic men (N = 387) completed measures of childhood and adulthood gender expression and concern for kin's well-being. Adulthood femininity correlated positively with uncle/aunt-like tendencies among androphilic men and women. Although androphilic women reported greater willingness to invest in nieces and nephews than gynephilic and androphilic men, mediation analyses indicated that adult femininity completely mediated these group differences. In addition, changes in the expression of femininity between childhood and adulthood were associated with parallel changes in concern for the well-being of kin among androphilic men. Thus, these findings suggest that femininity is key to the expression of kin-directed altruism among androphilic males and may have been important in the evolution of male androphilia. PMID:26597647

  12. Overlapping generations or infinitely-lived agents. Intergenerational altruism and the economics of global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Do we need an overlapping generations model for the economics of global warming? To answer this question, an infinitely-lived agent (ILA) approach and an overlapping generations (OLG) model are contrasted. ILA and OLG can be viewed as polar representations of intergenerational altruism. With ILA an immortal agent acts through his investments/savings decisions as trustee on the behalf of the future generations. With OLG, agents need not behave altruistic. They simply save during working years and dissave completely during retirement. Nevertheless, ILA and OLG must not differ in their implication for greenhouse policy. Greenhouse gas abatement is a straightforward alternative to physical capital formation and, even without altruism, each age cohort has an incentive to provide current abatement in order to reduce future damages attributable to climate change. Indeed, under reasonable assumptions and parameter values, our simulations reveal such an invariance result. Provided carbon taxes are the only policy tool and tax revenues are recycled through socially mandated rules, projections of economic growth, climate change and energy consumption are only insignificantly affected by the choice of approach. 4 figs., 2 tabs., 14 refs

  13. Recent Developments in the Psychology of Individuation and Deindividuation: Toward the Integration of Aggression, Altruism, and Morally Relevant Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paloutzian, Raymond F.

    After the development and distinctions of the concept of deindividuation are given, a single dimension of morally relevant behavior is outlined with aggression and altruism viewed as the two extremes. This dimension is divided accoring to degree of external reinforcement control. The result is a 2x2 scheme for classifying morally relevant behavior…

  14. A Comparative Investigation of TPB and Altruism Frameworks for an Empirically Based Communication Approach to Enhance Paper Recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaisamrej, Rungrat; Zimmerman, Rick S.

    2014-01-01

    This research compared the ability of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) and the altruism framework (AM) to predict paper-recycling behavior. It was comprised of formative research and a major survey. Data collected from 628 undergraduate students in Thailand were analyzed using structural equation modeling. Results showed that TPB was superior…

  15. The Effect of Similarity/Dissimilarity of Race and Personal Interests on Empathy and Altruism in Second Graders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panofsky, Anne D.

    The experiment reported in this dissertation investigated the effect of similarity/dissimilarity of race and personal interests on empathy and altruism in second graders. It was hypothesized that white children would empathize more with other white children than with black children. It was also hypothesized that white children would empathize more…

  16. What's in it for me? Self-regard precludes altruism and spite in chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Keith; Hare, Brian; Call, Josep; Tomasello, Michael

    2006-04-22

    Sensitivity to fairness may influence whether individuals choose to engage in acts that are mutually beneficial, selfish, altruistic, or spiteful. In a series of three experiments, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) could pull a rope to access out-of-reach food while concomitantly pulling another piece of food further away. In the first study, they could make a choice that solely benefited themselves (selfishness), or both themselves and another chimpanzee (mutualism). In the next two experiments, they could choose between providing food solely for another chimpanzee (altruism), or for neither while preventing the other chimpanzee from receiving a benefit (spite). The main result across all studies was that chimpanzees made their choices based solely on personal gain, with no regard for the outcomes of a conspecific. These results raise questions about the origins of human cooperative behaviour. PMID:16627288

  17. Evolution of altruism in spatial prisoner's dilemma: Intra- and inter-cellular interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoi, Hiroki; Uehara, Takashi; Sakata, Tomoyuki; Naito, Hiromi; Morita, Satoru; Tainaka, Kei-ichi

    2014-12-01

    Iterated prisoner's dilemma game is carried out on lattice with “colony” structure. Each cell is regarded as a colony which contains plural players with an identical strategy. Both intra- and inter-cellular interactions are assumed. In the former a player plays with all other players in the same colony, while in the latter he plays with one player each from adjacent colonies. Spatial patterns among four typical strategies exhibit various dynamics and winners. Both theory and simulation reveal that All Cooperation (AC) wins, when the members of colony or the intensity of noise increases. This result explains the evolution of altruism in animal societies, even though errors easily occur in animal communications.

  18. Altruism and Re-Orientation as Core for the Development of Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simeon Omale

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Jan Knippers Black in his book, Development in Theory and Practice: Paradigm and Paradoxes had identified theories ranging from Liberal international School; modernization school; cultural weakness; Interdependence School as reasons for the unparalleled development of the world. While often these are used along the like of cultural imperialism and the un-even trade opportunities as reasons for Africa’s developmental quagmire, it is the opinion of this paper that Africa’s underdevelopment are largely products of our actions and non-actions. It is in this light that we seek to argue for the development of the spirit of Altruism and a reorientation of the national consciousness via investment in the Early Child Education adopting participatory learning and communication approach as necessary panacea for Africa’s development. By instilling in the young minds the expediency of a more altruistic modus vivendi, the culture of egoistic corruption could be overturned.

  19. Altruism and economic behavior: II--private charity and public policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennett, D A

    1980-10-01

    The relative advantages of private charitable organizations as against government agencies in achieving efficient redistribution of income and supply of services are examined. Central to this discussion is the elasticity of private giving to tax concessions and the proportion of donor dollars being absorbed in overhead. Recent estimates of these magnitudes are summarized. Of parallel concern is to what extent can reliance on altruism by sellers of goods and services serve as a substitute for government regulations to enforce standards, prices or product disclosures. Finally, the ways in which government can use and encourage private charitable impulse to maximize social welfare are examined; of particular interest here is the literature surrounding Richard Titmuss' work on blood donorship which raises the issue of whether or not extension of markets reduces, rather than extends, individual choice. The growing technological complexities of society, it is concluded, render the altruistic virtues of trust and consideration increasingly valuable-if increasingly rare. PMID:10248809

  20. Assessing the extent of altruism in the valuation of community drinking water quality improvements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Adamowicz, Wiktor; Dupont, Diane P.; Krupnick, Alan

    2013-10-01

    Improvements in publically provided goods and services, like community drinking water treatment, have values to people arising from their self-interest, but may as well have value from their altruistic concerns. The extent to which the value is altruistic versus self-interested is an important empirical issue for policy analysis because the benefits to improving drinking water quality may be larger than previously thought. We conducted an internet survey across Canada to identify both self-interested willingness-to-pay and altruistic willingness-to-pay obtained through hypothetical responses to a series of stated choice tasks and actual self-protection data against health risks from tap water. We use the information on self-protection to identify altruistic WTP. We find significant differences between self-interested and altruistic WTP: the latter can be three times greater than the former. Whether benefits of water protection are actually larger, however, depends on whether the altruism is paternalistic or nonpaternalistic.

  1. Balancing Egoism and Altruism on the Interference Channel: The MIMO case

    CERN Document Server

    Ho, Zuleita K M

    2010-01-01

    This paper considers the so-called MIMO interference channel. This situation has relevance in applications such as multi-cell coordination in cellular networks as well as spectrum sharing in cognitive radio networks among others. We address the design of precoding (i.e. beamforming) vectors at each sender with the aim of striking a compromise between beamforming gain at the intended receiver (Egoism) and the mitigation of interference created towards other receivers (Altruism). Combining egoistic and altruistic beamforming has been shown previously to be instrumental to optimizing the rates in a MISO interference channel (i.e. where receivers have no interference canceling capability) . Here we explore these game-theoretic concepts in the more general context of MIMO channels and using the framework of Bayesian games, allowing us to derive (semi-)distributed precoding techniques. We draw parallels with existing work on the MIMO interference channel, including rate-optimizing and interference-alignement precod...

  2. Societal Norms Rather Than Sexual Orientation Influence Kin Altruism and Avuncularity in Tribal Urak-Lawoi, Italian, and Spanish Adult Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camperio Ciani, Andrea; Battaglia, Umberto; Liotta, Marina

    2016-02-01

    Homosexual males could balance their low fitness by increasing benefits to relatives either through kin-directed altruism or by avuncularity (altruistic behavior toward the children of siblings). Evidence in support of kin selection and avuncularity includes the fact that homosexuals seem to be more empathic and altruistic than heterosexuals. Other studies have not confirmed behaviors that increase kin altruism in homosexuals. We explored altruistic behavior and avuncularity in a sample of 278 subjects, either homosexual or heterosexual, from three populations: Italian, Spanish, and Urak-Lawoi, a Southeast Asian tribal population. Among the Urak-Lawoi, the kathoeys, androphilic men who dress and behave as women, were compared with heterosexuals. All populations were rated for societal norms on the expression of affiliative behavior. No greater kin altruism or avuncularity among the kathoeys or in homosexuals in either Mediterranean population was found. Greater avuncularity and kin-directed altruism, independent of sexual orientation, were found among the Urak-Lawoi, and these traits were the least prevalent among the Italians, corresponding to different societal norms. The increase in kin altruism and avuncularity was associated in all males with societal differences and norms on general altruism toward nonkin children, suggesting it is not an adaptive design to maintain homosexuality in humans. PMID:26132515

  3. Altruism, Rivalry and Crowding-Out in the Nonprofit Firm's Supply of Charity Services: The Case of Hospitals

    OpenAIRE

    Frank, Richard G.; David S. Salkever

    1988-01-01

    This paper extends previous research on Individuals' supply of charitable donations to the behavior of nonprofit firms. Specifically, we study provision of charity care by private, nonprofit hospitals. We demonstrate that In the absence of large positive income effects on charity care supply, convex preferences for the nonprofit hospital imply crowding out by other private or government hospitals. Extending our model to include patient heterogeneity and impure altruism (rivalry) provides a po...

  4. Public goods and the evolution of altruism: the case of law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Paul H

    2007-09-01

    Though Hamilton's rule is commonly interpreted as relating to two individuals, an alternative interpretation is that it can apply to an altruistic act with respect to a large group of related persons, such as an ethnic group. Then provision of a public good to such a group can be explained by Hamilton's rule. An important class of public goods is the provision of a "legal system" for the group. Provision of this good can have positive feedback effects: as there is more enforcement, it pays to define more complex and valuable rights, and in turn such rights lead to larger and more effective societies. As societies become larger, the ability to enforce rights increases because the number of enforcers increases. However, as in many other human activities, there may be two conflicting systems for provision of this good. There is the evolutionarily old system that would involve face to face transactions, often with kin. There is also a newer, rule-governed legal system for impersonal exchanges. These may be in conflict. The older rules may sometimes frustrate the more efficient newer system. Moreover, those persons who benefit from kin-based transaction networks may resist the creation of a formal legal system. I also note that altruism within the group may lead to xenophobia outside the group and thus to ethnic conflict. Finally, I discuss some evidence consistent with this analysis. PMID:18837583

  5. Pro-community altruism and social status in a Shuar village.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Michael E

    2003-06-01

    Reciprocity theory (RT) and costly signaling theory (CST) provide different explanations for the high status of pro-community altruists: RT proposes that altruists are positively and negatively sanctioned by others, whereas CST proposes that altruists are attractive to others. Only RT, however, is beset by first- and higher-order free rider problems, which must be solved in order for RT to explain status allocations. In this paper, several solutions to RT's free rider problems are proposed, and data about status allocations to Ecuadorian Shuar pro-community altruists are analyzed in light of RT and CST. These data confirm that perceived pro-community altruists are indeed high status and suggest that (1) community residents skillfully monitor the altruism of coresidents, (2) residents who engage in opportunities to broadcast desirable qualities are high status only to the extent that they are considered altruistic, and (3) individuals who sanction coresidents based on coresidents' contributions to the community are themselves relatively high status. To a greater extent than CST, RT straightforwardly predicts all of these results. PMID:26190058

  6. 利他驱动的应用层组播%Altruism Driven Application-Layer Multicast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王淼; 彭鸽; 张玉军; 李国杰

    2011-01-01

    节点自私问题是目前应用层组播技术面临的挑战之一.自私节点可能有意或者无意地停止转发某些数据包,导致流媒体质量下降.为了解决应用层组播中节点自私性问题,提出了一种利他驱动的应用层组播,简称ADALM机制.ADALM根据一个节点对其他节点的转发贡献,计算出该节点的利他值;基于利他值构造组播树,使得利他值较大的节点位于树的较高层.和本领域其他研究相比,ADALM在利他值计算和组播树构造方面均有创新:首先,利他值基于父亲节点和孩子节点的反馈,使得系统可以有效地检测出自私节点;节点无需发送额外的探测包去测量其邻居节点的服务质量;在组播树的构造和维护过程中,仅需要调整O(1g N)个节点;最后,利他值计算和组播树构造采用分布式方法来实现.仿真结果表明,即使存在一定比例的自私节点,ADALM也能构造一棵高性能的组播树,并且具有较低的控制负荷.%Selfishness issue is one of big challenges of current application-layer multicast techniques.The selfish participants might stop forwarding data accidentally or deliberately, which will affect the overall streaming quality. To address the selfishness issue in the application-layer multicast, an altruism driven application-layer multicast (ADALM) is presented. ADALM defines an altruism value for each node associative to its contributions to the system. The multicast tree is constructed to place the nodes with greater altruism value at the higher layer of the tree. As compared with other studies in this area, ADALM exhibits innovative advantages in both altruism value computation and multicast tree construction. Firstly, the node's altruism value is generated from the feedback from its parent and children, which enables the system to detect the selfish nodes effectively. Peers don't need the extra probe messages to measure the QoS of their neighbors. During the process of tree

  7. The Empirical Ties between Religious Motivation and Altruism in Foster Parents: Implications for Faith-Based Initiatives in Foster Care and Adoption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Howell-Moroney

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Amidst a crisis shortage of foster homes in the child welfare system, a number of innovative faith-based collaborations aimed at recruiting foster parents have recently emerged. It has been suggested that these collaborations offer a unique opportunity to recruit committed and altruistic parents as caregivers, providing much needed capacity to an overloaded child welfare system. This paper uses data from the National Survey of Current and Former Foster Parents to examine the associations between religious motivations for fostering, altruism and various measures of foster home utilization and longevity. The empirical results demonstrate that religiously motivated foster parents are more likely to have altruistic reasons for fostering, and scored higher than the non-religiously motivated group on an index of altruism. A separate empirical analysis shows that the interaction of high levels of altruism and religious motivation is associated with higher foster home utilization. No association was found between religious altruism and the parent’s expressed intent to continue providing foster care. The implications of these findings for current faith-based collaboration in the child welfare arena are discussed.

  8. Economic Behavior under the Influence of Alcohol: An Experiment on Time Preferences, Risk-Taking, and Altruism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corazzini, Luca; Filippin, Antonio; Vanin, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    We report results from an incentivized laboratory experiment undertaken with the purpose of providing controlled evidence on the causal effects of alcohol consumption on risk-taking, time preferences and altruism. Our design disentangles the pharmacological effects of alcohol intoxication from those mediated by expectations, as we compare the behavior of three groups of subjects: those who participated in an experiment with no reference to alcohol, those who were exposed to the possibility of consuming alcohol but were given a placebo and those who effectively consumed alcohol. All subjects participated in a series of economic tasks administered in the same sequence across treatments. After controlling for both the willingness to pay for an object and the potential misperception of probabilities as elicited in the experiment, we detect no effect of alcohol in depleting subjects’ risk tolerance. However, we find that alcohol intoxication increases impatience and makes subjects less altruistic. PMID:25853520

  9. Evolutionary game theory and the tower of Babel of cooperation: Altruism, free-riding, parasitism and the structure of the interactions in a world with finite resources

    OpenAIRE

    Requejo-Martínez, Rubén J.

    2013-01-01

    The study of the evolution of cooperative behaviours --which provide benefits to others-- and altruism --which provides benefits to others at a cost to oneself-- has been on the core of the evolutionary game theoretical framework since its foundation. The fast development of the theory during the last years has improved our knowledge of the issue, but carried attached a diversification of concepts which affected communication between scientists. Furthermore, the main root of conflict in the s...

  10. Interpreting the Altruism Ideology of Confucius and Mencius from the Viewpoint of Evolutionary Psychology%进化心理学视角下孔子、孟子的利他思想

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭庆科; 刘辉

    2015-01-01

    从进化心理学中的利他理论为研究切入点,我们可以发现,孔子和孟子的利他思想以亲缘利他为主,同时强调亲缘和群体内成员间利他的互惠性,并通过道德训教和舆论压力强化利他行为。孔子和孟子虽然也提倡纯粹利他,但纯粹利他不容易被纳入伦理纲常之中。孔孟式亲缘利他和互惠利他思想有深刻的进化心理学机制,符合生物学和心理学规律,所以成为中国古代的主导性伦理。其局限是对亲缘利他过分推崇,且人际间的互惠关系不具备平等性,因而不符合进化上稳定的利他策略。%Kin altruism ,reciprocal altruism and pure altruism were all advocated by Confucians in Pre‐Qin Period .But kin altruism had been put in the core of moral system .In the Five Constant Virtues of Confucianism ,only fidelity related to reciprocal altruism ,and there is no position for pure altruism .In kin altruism reciprocity also was stipulated . Due to the hierarchical structures in interpersonal relationships ,reciprocal benefits between people were rarely fair .So in Confucianism there is more altruism in kin than in no‐kin .This altruism rules proposed by the Confucians almost properly fit the psychological mechanism founded by the evolutionary biologists and psychologists . No human can refuse family love , so Confucianism popularized in ancient China and eventually became the main ideology . Confucianism excessively emphasized the values of familylove ;this hampered the actualization of equal right and universal love in the w hole nation .Confucian altruism is not Evolutionary Stable Strategy (ESS) in the long‐run .In present China ,kinship love should be emphasized as has ever been ,but everyone should be entitled the equal right to be benefited .

  11. Altruism in the wild: when affiliative motives to help positive people overtake empathic motives to help the distressed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, David J; Preston, Stephanie D; Stansfield, R Brent

    2014-06-01

    Psychological theories of human altruism suggest that helping results from an evolved tendency in caregiving mammals to respond to distress or need with empathy and sympathy. However, theories from biology, economics, and social psychology demonstrate that social animals also evolved to affiliate with and help desirable social partners. These models make different predictions about the affect of those we should prefer to help. Empathic models predict a preference to help sad, distressed targets in need, while social affiliative models predict a preference for happy, positive, successful targets. We compared these predictions in 3 field studies that measured the tendency to help sad, happy, and neutral confederates in a real-world, daily context: holding the door for a stranger in public. People consistently held the door more for happy over sad or neutral targets. To allow empathic motivations to compete more strongly against social affiliative ones, a 4th study examined a more consequential form of aid for hypothetical hospital patients in clear need. These conditions enhanced the preference to help a sad over a happy patient, because sadness made the patient appear sicker and in greater need. However, people still preferred the happy patient when the aid required a direct social interaction, attesting to the strength of social affiliation motives, even for sick patients. Theories of prosocial behavior should place greater emphasis on the role of social affiliation in motivating aid, particularly in everyday interpersonal contexts. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:24364686

  12. BMI is not related to altruism, fairness, trust or reciprocity: Experimental evidence from the field and the lab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brañas-Garza, Pablo; Espín, Antonio M; Lenkei, Balint

    2016-03-15

    Over the past few decades obesity has become one of the largest public policy concerns among the adult population in the developed world. Obesity and overweight are hypothesized to affect individuals' sociability through a number of channels, including discrimination and low self-esteem. However, whether these effects translate into differential behavioural patterns in social interactions remains unknown. In two large-scale economic experiments, we explore the relationship between Body Mass Index (BMI) and social behaviour, using three paradigmatic economic games: the dictator, ultimatum, and trust games. Our first experiment employs a representative sample of a Spanish city's population (N=753), while the second employs a sample of university students from the same city (N=618). Measures of altruism, fairness/equality, trust and reciprocity are obtained from participants' experimental decisions. Using a variety of regression specifications and control variables, our results suggest that BMI does not exert an effect on any of these social preferences. Some implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:26780149

  13. Blood Products and the Commodification Debate: The Blurry Concept of Altruism and the 'Implicit Price' of Readily Available Body Parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufner, Annette

    2015-12-01

    There is a widespread consensus that a commodification of body parts is to be prevented. Numerous policy papers by international organizations extend this view to the blood supply and recommend a system of uncompensated volunteers in this area--often, however, without making the arguments for this view explicit. This situation seems to indicate that a relevant source of justified worry or unease about the blood supply system has to do with the issue of commodification. As a result, the current health minister of Ontario is proposing a ban on compensation even for blood plasma--despite the fact that Canada can only generate 30 % of the plasma needed for fractionation into important plasma protein products and has to purchase the rest abroad. In the following, I am going to suggest a number of alternative perspectives on the debate in order to facilitate a less dogmatic and more differentiated debate about the matter. Especially in light of the often over-simplified notions of altruism and commodification, I conclude that the debate has not conclusively established that it would be morally objectionable to provide blood plasma donors with monetary compensation or with other forms of explicit social recognition as an incentive. This is especially true of donations for fractionation into medicinal products by profit-oriented pharmaceutical companies. PMID:25471706

  14. 利他主义、代理成本与家族企业成长%Altruism,Agency Costs and Family Business Growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈建林

    2011-01-01

    家族管理模式的代理成本是高还是低?这是国外家族企业代理问题研究领域争论的焦点。本文分析了利他主义对家族企业代理成本的动态影响作用,本文认为:在家族企业发展的初期,利他主义有利于降低家族管理的代理成本;在家族企业发展的后期,利他主义会增加家族管理的代理成本。在此基础上,本文对学术界关于家族企业代理成本的争论进行整合,并从代理成本的维度提出了家族企业管理模式相机选择的原则。%Are the agency costs of family management high or low? This is a focus of foreign researches about family business agency issue.The paper analyzes the dynamic impact from altruism to agency costs of family business.The paper argues that: altruism will help reduce the agency costs of family management in the early stages of family business,and altruism will increase the family management agency costs in the late stages of family business.On this basis,the paper integrates the debate about agency costs of the family business,and puts forward the principle of discretion options of family business management model on the dimensions of agency costs.

  15. In Intergroup Conflict, Self-sacrifice is Stronger among Pro-social Individuals and Parochial Altruism Emerges specially among Cognitively Taxed Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carsten K.W. De Dreu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Parochial altruism is decomposed in a tendency to benefit the in-group along with a tendency to ignore, derogate, and harm rivaling out-groups. Building off recent work suggesting that decisions to cooperate can be relatively fast and intuitive, we examine parochial altruism in intergroup conflict when cognitive deliberation is rendered difficult or not. Predictions were tested in an experiment using an incentivized Intergroup Prisoner’s Dilemma—Maximizing Differences Game (IPD-MD with ninety-five subjects classified as either pro-social or pro-self being randomly allocated to high vs. low impulse-control conditions. Results showed, first of all, that decisions to contribute and self-sacrifice were made faster than decisions not to contribute, and that longer decision time associated with less positive expectations of in-group members. Second, we observed that lowering impulse control with a difficult rather than easy Stroop Task increased the amount contributed to a pool that benefited in-group members while harming out-group members; thus reducing deliberation increased parochial altruism. Finally, results replicated earlier work showing that especially pro-social (versus pro-self individuals contributed more to the in-group and did not lower their contributions to the between-group pool that benefitted their in-group and, simultaneously, hurt the out-group. This pattern emerged independent of their impulse control. Thus, (in-group bounded cooperation is more prominent among individuals with strong rather than weak other-regarding preferences. Moreover, the intuitive tendency to cooperate may have evolved in the context of intergroup conflict and therefore is sharp-edged—in-group bounded and including willingness to aggress out-groups.

  16. In intergroup conflict, self-sacrifice is stronger among pro-social individuals, and parochial altruism emerges especially among cognitively taxed individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreu, Carsten K W De; Dussel, D Berno; Velden, Femke S Ten

    2015-01-01

    Parochial altruism is decomposed in a tendency to benefit the in-group along with a tendency to ignore, derogate, and harm rivaling out-groups. Building off recent work suggesting that decisions to cooperate can be relatively fast and intuitive, we examine parochial altruism in intergroup conflict when cognitive deliberation is rendered difficult or not. Predictions were tested in an experiment using an incentivized Intergroup Prisoner's Dilemma-Maximizing Differences Game with 95 subjects classified as either pro-social or pro-self being randomly allocated to high vs. low impulse-control conditions. Results showed, first of all, that self-sacrificial decisions to contribute were made faster than decisions not to contribute, and that faster decision time associated with more positive expectations of in-group members. Second, we observed that lowering impulse control with a difficult rather than easy Stroop Task increased the amount contributed to a pool that benefited in-group members while harming out-group members; thus reducing deliberation increased parochial altruism. Finally, results replicated earlier work showing that especially pro-social (vs. pro-self) individuals contributed more to the in-group and did not lower their contributions to the between-group pool that benefitted their in-group and, simultaneously, hurt the out-group. This pattern emerged independent of their impulse control. Thus, (in-group bounded) cooperation is more prominent among individuals with strong rather than weak other-regarding preferences. Moreover, the intuitive tendency to cooperate may have evolved in the context of intergroup conflict and therefore is sharp-edged-in-group bounded and including willingness to aggress out-groups. PMID:25999888

  17. Altruism in Congestion Games

    CERN Document Server

    Hoefer, Martin

    2008-01-01

    This paper studies the effects of introducing altruistic agents into atomic congestion games. Altruistic behavior is modeled by a trade-off between selfish and social objectives. In particular, we assume agents optimize a linear combination of personal delay of a strategy and the resulting increase in social cost. Our model can be embedded in the framework of congestion games with player-specific latency functions. Stable states are the Nash equilibria of these games, and we examine their existence and the convergence of sequential best-response dynamics. Previous work shows that for symmetric singleton games with convex delays Nash equilibria are guaranteed to exist. For concave delay functions we observe that there are games without Nash equilibria and provide a polynomial time algorithm to decide existence for symmetric singleton games with arbitrary delay functions. Our algorithm can be extended to compute best and worst Nash equilibria if they exist. For more general congestion games existence becomes NP...

  18. Empathy, Sympathy, and Altruism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleda, Paul R.

    In contrast to previous reviews that have dealt extensively with either situational determinants of intervention in emergencies or norms governing prosocial actions, the present paper focuses primarily on the role of empathy and sympathy in mediating helpful acts. To provide a meaningful context in which to integrate research in this area, two…

  19. Apoptotic wing degeneration and formation of an altruism-regulating glandular appendage (gemma) in the ponerine ant Diacamma sp. from Japan (Hymenoptera, Formicidae, Ponerinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotoh, A; Sameshima, S; Tsuji, K; Matsumoto, T; Miura, T

    2005-02-01

    We here show an example of morphological novelties, which have evolved from insect wings into the specific structures controlling social behaviour in an ant species. Most ant colonies consist of winged queen(s) and wingless workers. In the queenless ponerine ant Diacamma sp. from Japan, however, all female workers have a pair of small thoracic appendages, called "gemmae", which are homologous to the forewings and acts as an organ regulating altruism expression. Most workers, whose gemmae are clipped off by other colony members, become nonreproductive helpers, while only a single individual with complete gemmae becomes functionally reproductive. We examined histologically the development of gemmae, and compared it with that of functional wings in males. Female larvae had well-developed wing discs for both fore- and hindwings. At pupation, however, the wing discs started to evaginate and later degenerate. The hindwing discs completely degenerated, while the degeneration of forewing discs was incomplete, leading to the formation of gemmae. The degeneration process involved apoptotic cell death as confirmed by TUNEL assay. In addition, glandular cells differentiated from the epithelial cells of the forewing buds after completion of pupation. The mechanism of developmental transition from wing to gemma can be regarded as an evolutionary gain of new function, which can be seen in insect appendages and vertebrate limbs. PMID:15647944

  20. Self-love and other-love: Research on the relationships among narcissism, empathy and implicit altruism%自爱与他爱:自恋、共情与内隐利他的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何宁; 朱云莉

    2016-01-01

    Narcissism (narcissistic personality disorder or narcissistic personality trait) has long been characterized in the clinical and nonclinical literature by a lack of empathy. Although a large body of empirical studies link empathy to altruism as the trigger for prosocial behaviors, few studies have directly explored the relationships among narcissism, empathy and altruism. Here, we present two experiments that examined the relationships among these three dimensions and provide insights into the narcissists' state empathy and its association with their altruistic tendencies. The total sample comprised 173 undergraduates divided into two groups, narcissists and non-narcissists, based on their responses to the Narcissistic Personality Inventory. Adopting split-half methods, participants scoring above the average were identified as narcissists and those below as non-narcissists. In study 1, the Interpersonal Reactivity Index–C and the Implicit Association Test were applied to compare the two groups on measures of empathy and implicit altruism. Narcissists were hypothesized to demonstrate lower levels of empathy and weaker tendencies of implicit altruism compared to non-narcissists. In study 2, a video was employed to investigate state empathy and its connection to implicit altruism. A 2 (narcissism: narcissists vs. non-narcissists) × 2 (experimental treatment: priming vs. control) design was applied, with participants randomly assigned into the two experimental conditions. The second hypothesis was that the priming of empathy would increase the empathy and implicit altruism of narcissists, whereas non-narcissists would be unaffected. In Study 1, narcissists demonstrated lower levels of emotional (but not cognitive) empathy, and of implicit altruism, compared to their non-narcissistic counterparts. In Study 2, a significantly higher level of state empathy and implicit altruism among narcissists emerged after priming compared to the control group, suggesting that

  1. 自爱与他爱:自恋、共情与内隐利他的关系%Self-love and other-love: Research on the relationships among narcissism, empathy and implicit altruism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何宁; 朱云莉

    2016-01-01

    Narcissism (narcissistic personality disorder or narcissistic personality trait) has long been characterized in the clinical and nonclinical literature by a lack of empathy. Although a large body of empirical studies link empathy to altruism as the trigger for prosocial behaviors, few studies have directly explored the relationships among narcissism, empathy and altruism. Here, we present two experiments that examined the relationships among these three dimensions and provide insights into the narcissists' state empathy and its association with their altruistic tendencies. The total sample comprised 173 undergraduates divided into two groups, narcissists and non-narcissists, based on their responses to the Narcissistic Personality Inventory. Adopting split-half methods, participants scoring above the average were identified as narcissists and those below as non-narcissists. In study 1, the Interpersonal Reactivity Index–C and the Implicit Association Test were applied to compare the two groups on measures of empathy and implicit altruism. Narcissists were hypothesized to demonstrate lower levels of empathy and weaker tendencies of implicit altruism compared to non-narcissists. In study 2, a video was employed to investigate state empathy and its connection to implicit altruism. A 2 (narcissism: narcissists vs. non-narcissists) × 2 (experimental treatment: priming vs. control) design was applied, with participants randomly assigned into the two experimental conditions. The second hypothesis was that the priming of empathy would increase the empathy and implicit altruism of narcissists, whereas non-narcissists would be unaffected. In Study 1, narcissists demonstrated lower levels of emotional (but not cognitive) empathy, and of implicit altruism, compared to their non-narcissistic counterparts. In Study 2, a significantly higher level of state empathy and implicit altruism among narcissists emerged after priming compared to the control group, suggesting that

  2. The status and analysis of nursing students' empathy and altruism%实习护生同理心与利他观念现状及二者相关性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵蕾; 李媛; 王倩倩

    2013-01-01

    目的:调查医院实习护生的同理心与利他观念现状,分析二者间的相关性,为提高实习护生的同理心及利他观念水平提供理论基础.方法:采用中文版Jefferson同理心量表和大学生利他行为问卷,对某三级甲等医院的265名实习护生进行问卷调查.结果:①实习护生同理心总得分在52 ~ 108分之间,平均(90.05±13.63)分,本科生同理心总得分最高,中专生最低;实习护生是否独生子女、是否是学生干部组间得分差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).②实习护生利他观念总得分为在98 ~ 159分之间,平均(129.72±10.04)分;是否是学生干部组间得分差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).③同理心总得分及各维度(观点采择、情感护理、换位思考)得分分别与利他观念总得分呈正相关(P<0.001).结论:实习护生的同理心、利他观念在不同学历和不同生活背景情况下存在一定差异,学校及医院应注重对于同理心得分水平较低护生的培养,以促进护生整体利他观念水平的提高.%Objective: To study the status of nursing students' empathy and altruism, and analyze the relationship between them. Methods: The Chinese version of the Jefferson scale of empathy and the altruistic behavior of college students scale were distributed to 265 nursing students from a level-three, first-class hospital in Taian. Results: The total score of empathy was 52~108, and the average score was 90.05±13.63; the total score of the undergraduate students was highest; the total score of technical secondary school students was lowest; there were significant differences (P<0.05) between whether only-child, student leaders or not. The total score of altruism was 98~159, and the average score was 129.72±10.04; it showed differences (P<0.05) between the student leaders or not. Empathy and its dimensions showed a positive correlation with altruism (P<0.001). Conclusion: There were differences in nursing students

  3. Altruism: Human, Cultural, or What?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Ronald

    1972-01-01

    Isolates and tries to explain a phenomenon called the altruistic paradox, which refers to the fact that mankind individually and collectively can be both cruel and kind at one and the same time. (Author/JM)

  4. Altruism, spite and choosy females

    OpenAIRE

    Lehmann, Laurent; Perrin, Nicolas

    2004-01-01

    Natural selection favours the genes which are able to introduce replicates of themselves in the next generation with higher certainty than do rival genes (Hamilton 1963). The fitness of an individual, it’s ability to produce future parents, depends on it’s own behaviour as well as on the behaviour of other individuals in the population. For instance, the intensity of competition an individual experience depends on the exploitation of resources by neighbours. The fitness is thus frequency depe...

  5. Altruism, spite and choosy females

    OpenAIRE

    Lehmann L.

    2003-01-01

    Natural selection favours the genes which are able to introduce replicates of themselves in the next generation with higher certainty than do rival genes (Hamilton 1963). The fitness of an individual, it?s ability to produce future parents, depends on it?s own behaviour as well as on the behaviour of other individuals in the population. For instance, the intensity of competition an individual experience depends on the exploitation of resources by neighbours. The fitness is thus frequency depe...

  6. Development of Empathy and Altruism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Martin L.

    A developmental model for an empathy-based prosocial motive is presented. The framework of the model is presented in terms of three components of empathy. The first component, empathic affective arousal, is discussed and six involuntary psychological mechanisms which underlie it are described briefly. These mechanisms, in the order in which they…

  7. Altruism during predation in an assassin bug

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejean, Alain; Revel, Messika; Azémar, Frédéric; Roux, Olivier

    2013-10-01

    Zelus annulosus is an assassin bug species mostly noted on Hirtella physophora, a myrmecophyte specifically associated with the ant Allomerus decemarticulatus known to build traps on host tree twigs to ambush insect preys. The Z. annulosus females lay egg clutches protected by a sticky substance. To avoid being trapped, the first three instars of nymphs remain grouped in a clutch beneath the leaves on which they hatched, yet from time to time, they climb onto the upper side to group ambush preys. Long-distance prey detection permits these bugs to capture flying or jumping insects that alight on their leaves. Like some other Zelus species, the sticky substance of the sundew setae on their forelegs aids in prey capture. Group ambushing permits early instars to capture insects that they then share or not depending on prey size and the hunger of the successful nymphs. Fourth and fifth instars, with greater needs, rather ambush solitarily on different host tree leaves, but attract siblings to share large preys. Communal feeding permits faster prey consumption, enabling small nymphs to return sooner to the shelter of their leaves. By improving the regularity of feeding for each nymph, it likely regulates nymphal development, synchronizing molting and subsequently limiting cannibalism.

  8. Media and Children's Aggression, Fear, and Altruism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Barbara J.

    2008-01-01

    Noting that the social and emotional experiences of American children today often heavily involve electronic media, Barbara Wilson takes a close look at how exposure to screen media affects children's well-being and development. She concludes that media influence on children depends more on the type of content that children find attractive than on…

  9. Altruism, Empathy, and Sex Offender Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Tony; Durrant, Russil

    2013-01-01

    Treatment programs for serious offenders such as sex offenders typically include an empathy training component as part of a comprehensive intervention package. The reasons for doing so are partly based on research evidence indicating that social disconnection and relationship ruptures related to empathy failures often trigger offending, and also…

  10. Rewarding Altruism? A Natural Field Experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Nicola Lacetera; Mario Macis; Robert Slonim

    2011-01-01

    We present evidence from a natural field experiment involving nearly 100,000 individuals on the effects of offering economic incentives for blood donations. Subjects who were offered economic rewards to donate blood were more likely to donate, and more so the higher the value of the rewards. They were also more likely to attract others to donate, spatially alter the location of their donations towards the drives offering rewards, and modify their temporal donation schedule leading to a short-...

  11. Altruism: A natural strategy for enhancing survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozenfeld, Alejandro F.; Luis Gruver, José; Albano, Ezequiel V.; Havlin, Shlomo

    2006-09-01

    We study the influence of altruistic behavior in a prey-predator model permitting the preys to commit suicide by confronting the predators instead of escaping. Surprising, altruistic behavior at microscopic (local) scale, leads to the emergence of new complex macroscopic (global) phenomena characterized by dramatic changes in the dynamic topology of the prey-predator spatiotemporal distribution, yielding spiral patterns. We show that such dynamics enhances the prey's survivability.

  12. Habit Formation, Dynastic Altruism, and Population Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Schäfer, Andreas; Valente, Simone

    2007-01-01

    We study the general equilibrium properties of two growth models with overlapping generations, habit formation and endogenous fertility. In the neoclassical model, habits modify the economy's growth rate and generate transitional dynamics in fertility; station- ary income per capita is associated with either increasing or decreasing population and output, depending on the strength of habits. In the AK specification, growing population and increasing consumption per capita require that the hab...

  13. Altruism, status, and the origin of relevance

    OpenAIRE

    Dessalles, Jean-Louis

    1998-01-01

    We deal here with the problem of the origin of language from the point of view of pragmatics. Our aim is to show that any scenario of language origin should explain the relevance phenomenon. Why do people feel obliged to be relevant in casual conversation ? Analysing the structure of relevance leads to unexpected conclusions : relevant information is valuable, therefore language seems to be altruistic. As a consequence, from a Darwinian perspective, speakers should be rare and continually pro...

  14. Indiscriminate altruism: unduly nice parents and siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, L

    1997-03-01

    Many animals can identify their relatives and bias altruistic behaviour in their favour. However, recent studies have also uncovered cases where nepotism might be expected but is weak or absent within social groups. For instance, in some bird and mammal species, males apparently feed offsping that have been sired by other males at the same rate as their own offspring. Similarly, social insect workers fail to favour more closely related individuals within their colony. Why is this so? PMID:21237992

  15. Sympathy and Altruism in Response to Disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Gordon W.; Mentzel, Robert K.

    1990-01-01

    Reports results of a 1984-85 study involving 261 Canadian undergraduates and their degree of sympathy for victims in each of 20 world disasters. Finds culpability singularly influential in determining degree of sympathy. Determines females showed greater empathy and recommended more financial aid than did men. (DB)

  16. Theoretical Basis and the Latest Extension of Homo Economicus Hypothesis with Altruism-Egoism Consistency%利他一利己一致性经济人假说的理论基础与最新拓展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈惠雄

    2012-01-01

    经济人假说是经济学分析人类行为的起点。迄今为止,关于经济人假说的理论分歧仍然存在着一些尚未解决的深层次的理论分歧点。主要包括:(1)经济人的利己性究竞是“物质利己”还是“意识利己”;(2)经济人的利己内涵究竞应局限于“工具价值”,还是应拓展到“终极价值”;(3)利己、利他、利己一利他、利他一利已经济人假说究竞能否融通,并构建其符合真在世界人类行为模式的经济人理论假说体系;(4)学术界对经济人之“经济”一词可能长期误读。这些问题的认识与解决程度,决定着经济人假说的相关核心论题的长期纷纭能否达成某些确定的一致性结果。工具价值构建经济人假说具有理论局限,基于人性的利他一利己内在统一性(人性一般)与趋乐避苦统一性(目的一般),两者完整地解释了由人性统一性与统一人性的统一目的构成的人类行为一般性。这不仅为诸多经济人假说的融通提供了一个一般性理论基础,而且为科学认知人类行为、实现经济社会科学发展提供了一个人类行为解释的新框架。%The theory divergence of homo economicus hypothesis suggestion that there still some underlying theoretical points remain unresolved. It Mainly including: Whether the essence of homo economicus egoism should be limited to "instrumental value" or be expanded to "ultimate value"; Whether there is consistency between altruism and egoism and thus to construct homo economicus hypothesis theory system of human behavior patterns in a real world; Academic world may misunderstand the word "Economicus" over a long period of time. The paper will construct a general behavior pattern of homo economieus with multiple preference structure in a real world, clarify underlying theoretical points related, and provide a new theoretical path through which several kinds of homo

  17. The Impact from Management Pattern to Agency Costs in Listed Family Business - The Controversy and Integration of Agency Theory and Altruism Theory%上市家族企业管理模式对代理成本的影响——代理理论和利他主义理论的争论和整合

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈建林

    2012-01-01

    本文采用我国339家上市家族企业2006年的数据.分析了家族管理模式对上市家族企业代理成本的影响。本文得出以下结论:(1)两权舍一有利于降低企业的代理成本。其中,创业家族管理者对降低企业代理成本有显著的效果。第二代家族管理者降低代理成本的效果不显著。(2)家族权威、差序式治理对代理成本没有显著的治理效果。本文的研究结论有助于整合代理理论和利他主义理论的争论。%The paper uses 339 listed family businesses'data in 2006 and analyzes the impact from family management pattern to family business agency costs. The paper draws the following conclusions. (1) The unity of two rights helps reduce the agency costs of the enterprise. The effect of family entrepreneur in family business to reduce enterprise's agency cost is significant, and the effect of the second generation of family manager to reduce the agency cost is not significant. (2) Family authority and diversity-orderly governance have not significant effect on agency costs. The conclusions of this study help integrate the controversy of agency theory and altruism theory.

  18. Altruism and sacrifice : mafia free gift giving in south Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Pipyrou, Stavroula

    2014-01-01

    As a social phenomenon that torments modern states, mafia receives considerable political and legal attention. The term mafia itself is often directly related to criminality and violence. Thus far violence has been employed as an analytical construct that could explain compliance with the mafia ethos. Nevertheless this schema fails to take into consideration possible discourses that make mafia tolerable. Drawing on fieldwork conducted in Reggio Calabria, South Italy, this paper explores disti...

  19. ALTRUISM, EGOISM AND GROUP COHESION IN A LOCAL INTERACTION MODEL

    OpenAIRE

    José A. García Martínez

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we have introduced and parameterized the concept of ?group cohesion? in a model of local interaction with a population divided into groups. This allows us to control the level of ?isolation? of these groups: We thus analyze if the degree of group cohesion is relevant to achieve an efficient behaviour and which level would be the best one for this purpose. We are interested in situations where there is a trade off between efficiency and individual incentives. This trade off is st...

  20. Showing that you care: the evolution of health altruism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Robin

    2008-01-01

    Human behavior regarding medicine seems strange; assumptions and models that seem workable in other areas seem less so in medicine. Perhaps, we need to rethink the basics. Toward this end, I have collected many puzzling stylized facts about behavior regarding medicine, and have sought a small number of simple assumptions which might together account for as many puzzles as possible. The puzzles I consider include a willingness to provide more medical than other assistance to associates, a desire to be seen as so providing, support for nation, firm, or family provided medical care, placebo benefits of medicine, a small average health value of additional medical spending relative to other health influences, more interest in public that private signals of medical quality, medical spending as an individual necessity but national luxury, a strong stress-mediated health status correlation, and support for regulating health behaviors of the low status. These phenomena seem widespread across time and cultures. I can explain these puzzles moderately well by assuming that humans evolved deep medical habits long ago in an environment where people gained higher status by having more allies, honestly cared about those who remained allies, were unsure who would remain allies, wanted to seem reliable allies, inferred such reliability in part based on who helped who with health crises, tended to suffer more crises requiring non-health investments when having fewer allies, and invested more in cementing allies in good times in order to rely more on them in hard times. These ancient habits would induce modern humans to treat medical care as a way to show that you care. Medical care provided by our allies would reassure us of their concern, and allies would want you and other allies to see that they had pay enough to distinguish themselves from posers who didn't care as much as they. Private information about medical quality is mostly irrelevant to this signaling process. If people with fewer allies are less likely to remain our allies, and if we care about them mainly assuming they remain our allies, then we want them to invest more in health than they would choose for themselves. This tempts us to regulate their health behaviors. This analysis suggests that the future will continue to see robust desires for health behavior regulation and for communal medical care and spending increases as a fraction of income, all regardless of the health effects of these choices. PMID:17923332

  1. Institutional incentives for altruism: gifting blood in China

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Chengpu; Holroyd, Eleanor; Cheng, Yu; Fai Lau, Joseph Tak

    2013-01-01

    Background In mainland China, the motivation behind voluntary blood donation is a relatively new and understudied behavior. In recent times provincial governments in China have implemented various institutional incentive measures. However, little is known regarding the effectiveness of such measures. This qualitative study investigated the nature and outcomes of some identified institutionalized mechanisms, in particular how these were created and distributed in the form of incentives for vol...

  2. Altruism in multiplayer snowdrift games with threshold and punishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chunyan; Liu, Zhongxin; Sun, Qinglin; Chen, Zengqiang

    2015-09-01

    The puzzle of cooperation attracts broader concerns of the scientific community nowadays. Here we adopt an extra mechanism of punishment in the framework of a threshold multiple-player snowdrift game employed as the scenario for the cooperation problem. Two scenarios are considered: defectors will suffer punishment regardless of the game results, and defectors will incur punishment only when the game fails. We show by analysis that given this assumption, punishing free riders can significantly influence the evolution outcomes, and the results are driven by the specific components of the punishing rule. Particularly, punishing defectors always, not only when the game fails, can be more effective for maintaining public cooperation in multi-player systems. Intriguingly larger thresholds of the game provide a more favorable scenario for the coexistence of the cooperators and defectors under a broad value range of parameters. Further, cooperators are best supported by the large punishment on defectors, and then dominate and stabilize in the population, under the premise that defectors always incur punishment regardless of whether the game ends successfully or not.

  3. Altruism and the Child-Cycle of Alumni Giving

    OpenAIRE

    Jonathan Meer; Rosen, Harvey S.

    2007-01-01

    This paper uses a unique data set to assess whether donors' contributions to a nonprofit institution are affected by the perception that the institution might confer a reciprocal benefit. We study alumni contributions to an anonymous research university. Inter alia, the data include information on the ages of the alumni's children, whether they applied for admission to the university, and if so, whether they were accepted. The premise of our analysis is simple: If alumni believe that donation...

  4. Prosocial Behaviors and Altruism among Citizens of Isfahan

    OpenAIRE

    Armita Nooien; Mohammad Bagher Kajbaf; Mehrnoosh Foroudastan

    2013-01-01

    Introduction People live in groups and by cooperating with each other they obtain various benefits. Because life condition is dangerous and unpredictable, cooperation and partnership for survival is very valuable (Haynde, 2001). Indeed, the material and spiritual life of each society is dependent on the existence of people who have internalized moral values and try to serve others by prosocial behaviors. Stable people who are less affected by situations and conditions, may behave more acc...

  5. Reluctant altruism and peer pressure in charitable giving

    OpenAIRE

    Diane Reyniers; Richa Bhalla

    2013-01-01

    Subjects donate individually (control group) or in pairs (treatment group). Those in pairs reveal their donation decision to each other. Average donations in the treatment group are significantly higher than in the control group. Paired subjects have the opportunity to revise their donation decision after discussion. Pair members shift toward each others' initial decisions. Subjects are happier with their decision when their donations are larger, but those in pairs are less happy, controlling...

  6. From Altruism to Non-Cooperation in Routing Games

    CERN Document Server

    Azad, Amar Prakash; El-Azouzi, R

    2008-01-01

    The paper studies the routing in the network shared by several users. Each user seeks to optimize either its own performance or some combination between its own performance and that of other users, by controlling the routing of its given flow demand. We parameterize the degree of cooperation which allows to cover the fully non-cooperative behavior, the fully cooperative behavior, and even more, the fully altruistic behavior, all these as special cases of the parameter's choice. A large part of the work consists in exploring the impact of the degree of cooperation on the equilibrium. Our first finding is to identify multiple Nash equilibria with cooperative behavior that do not occur in the non-cooperative case under the same conditions (cost, demand and topology). We then identify Braess like paradox (in which adding capacity or adding a link to a network results in worse performance to all users) and study the impact of the degree of cooperation on it. We identify another type of paradox in cooperation scena...

  7. Emergence of human cooperation and altruism by evolutionary feedback selection

    CERN Document Server

    Darcet, D

    2006-01-01

    Strong reciprocity is a fundamental human characteristic associated with our extraordinary sociality and cooperation. Laboratory experiments on social dilemma games and many field studies have quantified well-defined levels of cooperation and propensity to punish/reward. The level of cooperation is observed to be strongly dependent on the availability of punishments and/or rewards. Here, we suggest that the propensity for altruistic punishment and reward is an emergent property that has co-evolved with cooperation by providing an efficient feedback mechanism through both biological and cultural interactions. By favoring high survival probability and large individual gains, the propensity for altruistic punishment and rewards reconciles self- and group interests. We show that a simple cost/benefit analysis at the level of a single agent, who anticipates the action of her fellows, determines an optimal level of altruistic punishment, which explains quantitatively experimental results on the third-party punishme...

  8. Emergence of scaling and assortative mixing through altruism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ping; Zhang, Jie; Small, Michael

    2011-06-01

    Many social networks, apart from displaying scale-free characteristics observed in some instances, possess another remarkable feature that distinguishes them from those that appear in biological and technological context-assortativity. However, little or no attention has been payed to the mechanism of assortativity in modeling these networks. Inspired by individuals' altruistic behavior in sociology, we develop a model with a different growth mechanism called “altruistic attachment”, which can reproduce not only the power law degree distribution but degree correlations. We study in detail the statistical properties of our network model, which we also demonstrate striking differences with the BA model, and can portray real social networks more precisely.

  9. Stochastic group selection model for the evolution of altruism

    CERN Document Server

    Silva, A T C; Silva, Ana T. C.

    1999-01-01

    We study numerically and analytically a stochastic group selection model in which a population of asexually reproducing individuals, each of which can be either altruist or non-altruist, is subdivided into $M$ reproductively isolated groups (demes) of size $N$. The cost associated with being altruistic is modelled by assigning the fitness $1- \\tau$, with $\\tau \\in [0,1]$, to the altruists and the fitness 1 to the non-altruists. In the case that the altruistic disadvantage $\\tau$ is not too large, we show that the finite $M$ fluctuations are small and practically do not alter the deterministic results obtained for $M \\to \\infty$. However, for large $\\tau$ these fluctuations greatly increase the instability of the altruistic demes to mutations. These results may be relevant to the dynamics of parasite-host systems and, in particular, to explain the importance of mutation in the evolution of parasite virulence.

  10. Stochastic group selection model for the evolution of altruism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Ana T. C.; Fontanari, J. F.

    We study numerically and analytically a stochastic group selection model in which a population of asexually reproducing individuals, each of which can be either altruist or non-altruist, is subdivided into M reproductively isolated groups (demes) of size N. The cost associated with being altruistic is modelled by assigning the fitness 1- τ, with τ∈[0,1], to the altruists and the fitness 1 to the non-altruists. In the case that the altruistic disadvantage τ is not too large, we show that the finite M fluctuations are small and practically do not alter the deterministic results obtained for M→∞. However, for large τ these fluctuations greatly increase the instability of the altruistic demes to mutations. These results may be relevant to the dynamics of parasite-host systems and, in particular, to explain the importance of mutation in the evolution of parasite virulence.

  11. An inclusive fitness analysis of altruism on a cyclical network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grafen, A

    2007-11-01

    A recent model studies the evolution of cooperation on a network, and concludes with a result connecting the benefits and costs of interactions and the number of neighbours. Here, an inclusive fitness analysis is conducted of the only case solved analytically, of a cycle, and the identical result is obtained. This brings the result within a biologically familiar framework. It is notable that the benefits and costs in the inclusive fitness framework need to be derived, and are not the benefits and costs that are the parameters in the original model. The relatedness is a quadratic function of position in a cycle of size N: an individual is related by 1 to itself, by (N - 5)/(N + 1) to an immediate neighbour, and by very close to -1/2 to the most distant individuals. The inclusive fitness analysis explains hitherto puzzling features of the results. PMID:17956390

  12. Altruism and the Assessment of Empathy in the Preschool Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg-Berg, Nancy; Lennon, Randy

    1980-01-01

    Assessed the relation between four- and five-year-olds' prosocial behavior and empathy with a modified version of the Feshbach empathy measure. Prosocial behaviors were assessed naturalistically over 10 weeks. (Author/SS)

  13. Considering others in need. On altruism, empathy and perspective taking

    OpenAIRE

    Niezink, Lidewij Welmoed

    2008-01-01

    In the social psychological literature, empathy is seen as an emotional response which evokes the altruistic motivation to help others. One cognitive tool to increase the experience of empathy is perspective taking. The current dissertation investigates how different perspectives on the suffering of others, in combination with individual differences and situational variations, lead to empathy and the willingness to help those others. It also explores how empathy has been measured within psych...

  14. A Longitudinal Investigation of Role Taking, Altruism, and Empathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannotti, Ronald J.

    This paper describes a one-year longitudinal follow up study of the long term effects of role taking training procedures (in which children assumed a number of perspectives) on children's social and cognitive behaviors. Longitudinal and cross-sectional age effects were also analyzed. In an earlier study the effect of two types of role-taking…

  15. Saucers of Mud: Why Sympathy and Altruism Require Empathy

    OpenAIRE

    Slote, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Empathy and helping motives are more closely connected than philosophers and psychologists have realized. Empathy doesn’t just cause sympathetic concern for others, but is conceptually tied to it. When we empathize with someone’s distress at their pain, we ourselves are distressed by that pain and that in itself necessarily constitutes a motive to rid them of that pain. But helping motives like compassion or concern for others can be shown to be conceptually impossible in the absence of empat...

  16. Considering others in Need: On altruism, empathy and perspective taking

    OpenAIRE

    Niezink, Lidewij Welmoed

    2008-01-01

    In the social psychological literature, empathy is seen as an emotional response which evokes the altruistic motivation to help others. One cognitive tool to increase the experience of empathy is perspective taking. The current dissertation investigates how different perspectives on the suffering of others, in combination with individual differences and situational variations, lead to empathy and the willingness to help those others. It also explores how empathy has been measured within psych...

  17. Altruism and relatedness at colony foundation in social insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strassmann, J E

    1989-12-01

    Cooperative nest initiation in social insects is most easily explained when cooperating females are relatives, as is common in polistine wasps. However, recent research has revealed that unrelated ant queens also initiate colonies together. Reproductive dominance hierarchies are absent among unrelated foundresses, which contrasts with the rigid dominance hierarchies found among related foundresses. New field studies of joint nest founding among non-relatives show that cooperation is favored where colonies are clumped and brood raiding is common, so that attaining a large worker force quickly is critical to colony survival. These studies enrich our understanding of the role of relatedness in social groups. PMID:21227381

  18. “90后”实习护生对护理中利他行为的态度及影响因素的质性研究%Attitude of 90 practical nursing stu dents to altruism and its influencing factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李君; 王兰; 曹立云; 贾冰

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To probe into the attitude of 90 practical nursing students to altruism and its influencing factors.Methods:The seven 90's practical nursing students were interviewed by using face to face and semi structured depth interview and the phenomenological research method in qualitative research.The data was ana-lyzed by the software of NVivo10.Results:About 90's practical nurses students'attitude to altruistic behavior in nursing.Five major structured concepts were extracted:the altruistic behavior was a pleasure;more altruistic be-haviors will be done;when implementing the altruistic behavior,the heart was full of contradictions and strug-gles;understanding and tolerance of the nurses who didn't help others;altruistic behaviors in nursing had both sides,advantages and disadvantages.Four major structured concepts were extracted about influencing factors of attitude:empathy and cognitive concept;the state at that time;sensitivity to the consciousness of nursing serv-ice;nursing work atmosphere formed in the department for many years.Conclusion:Nursing educators and nursing administrators should establish the leading incentive mechanism,set a good example for nursing students and further improve the clinical practice environment of nursing students,so as to strengthen the culti-vation of empathy of nursing students.%[目的]探讨90后实习护生对护理中利他行为的态度及影响因素。[方法]采用质性研究中的现象学研究方法,面对面、半结构深度访谈了7位90后实习护生。采用 NVivo10分析资料。[结果]关于90后实习护生对护理中利他行为的态度,萃取出5个主要的结构概念:观察到利他行为是一件令人开心的事情;以后也会做更多的利他行为;在实施利他行为时,内心充满矛盾和纠结;理解和宽容不帮助其他人的护士;护理中的利他行为既有利又有弊。对态度的影响因素萃取出4个主要的结构概念:同理心和认知观念

  19. Life Course, Altruism, Rational Choice, and Aspirations in Social Work Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paat, Yok-Fong

    2016-01-01

    Utilising semi-structured interviews, this study investigated various educational determinants contributing to college major selection and career choice of 40 undergraduates who had been admitted to a social work programme in southwestern United States. Major key principles of the life course approach were incorporated in this study to elucidate…

  20. Rescuers of Jews during the Nazi Holocaust: A Study in Altruism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliner, Samuel P.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the Altruistic Personality Project, a study which is exploring the nature of people who risked their lives to save Jews during the Holocaust. In determining which factors motivated the rescuers, researchers have identified three main areas: values and attitudes, personality traits, and situational factors. Advocates cultivation of…

  1. Materialism, Reciprocity and Altruism in the Prisoner's Dilemma - An Evolutionary Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Poulsen, Anders; Poulsen, Odile

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we study the evolution of preferences when players are engaged in simultaneous and sequential move Prisoner's Dilemma games. Our results provide some simple insights into the experimentally observed behavior.

  2. Incentives when altruism is impure: the case of blood and living organ donations

    OpenAIRE

    Errea, María; Cabasés Hita, Juan Manuel

    2013-01-01

    The decision to donate blood and living organs is considered voluntary and altruistic. However, the shortage of donors has opened an interesting debate in recent years, considering offering economic incentives to donors. This paper analyzes theoretically and empirically, the effects of incentives over individuals when facing the decision of becoming donors. Results show that crowding-in of blood donors would be more likely by offering 'Information concerning blood donations' or 'Blood Tests'....

  3. What's in it for me? Self-regard precludes altruism and spite in chimpanzees

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Keith; Hare, Brian; Call, Josep; Tomasello, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Sensitivity to fairness may influence whether individuals choose to engage in acts that are mutually beneficial, selfish, altruistic, or spiteful. In a series of three experiments, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) could pull a rope to access out-of-reach food while concomitantly pulling another piece of food further away. In the first study, they could make a choice that solely benefited themselves (selfishness), or both themselves and another chimpanzee (mutualism). In the next two experiments,...

  4. The smell of altruism: Incidental pleasant odors and chemosignal as prosocial decisions moderators

    OpenAIRE

    Perrotta, Valentina

    2012-01-01

    The study of the interactions between olfaction and the decision making processes has mainly focused on the investigation of what is considered the most useful odor to disperse in the air to drive the consumers' choices to prefer a product rather than another one. Despite the fact that some studies showed the existence of associations between odors and prosocial behavior, much less data are available on the links between olfaction and donation in favor of public goods. Thus, the main purpose ...

  5. The social responsibility in spanish energy companies. Can altruism be lucrative?

    OpenAIRE

    Palencia-Lefler, Manuel; Arciniega, Mittzy; Codina, Mireia

    2009-01-01

    Based on a study of the social responsibility in the most representative Spanish Energy Companies, its introduces a reflection of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) as a strategy that emphasizes its role and potential contribution to the marketing discipline. Using an inductive method, this research has taken as sample the three representative Spanish Energy Companies (Endesa, Iberdrola and Gas Natural) and has focused its investigation in the management of their CSR actions, considering t...

  6. Winners and Losers in a World with Global Warming: Noncooperation, Altruism, and Social Welfare

    OpenAIRE

    Caplan, Arthur J.; Christopher J. Ellis; Silva, Emilson C.D.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, global warming is an asymmetric transboundary externality which benefits some countries or regions and harms others. We use a simple two-country model to analyze the effects of global warming on resource allocations, the global-warming stock, and national and global welfare.

  7. Altruism in the "Market" for Giving and Receiving: A Case of Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Jang H.; Harrison, William B.

    1989-01-01

    Examines donations to colleges as an outcome of simultaneously solving supply and demand functions. Donors demand attention and prestige supplied by college fund raisers. Using data from 13 colleges, this econometric study shows that the demand side has a unitary elasticity concerning per person donations, while the supply side seems inelastic.…

  8. Egoism, altruism, and social justice: theory and experiments on cooperation in social dilemmas

    OpenAIRE

    de Vries, Sjerp

    1991-01-01

    Cooperative or altruistic behavior in the absence of egoistic incentives is an issue that has puzzled many social scientists. In this book an attempt is made to gain more insight into such behavior for a specific type of situation: the social dilemma. ...

  9. Egoism, altruism, and social justice : theory and experiments on cooperation in social dilemmas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, Sjerp de

    1991-01-01

    Cooperative or altruistic behavior in the absence of egoistic incentives is an issue that has puzzled many social scientists. In this book an attempt is made to gain more insight into such behavior for a specific type of situation: the social dilemma. ...

  10. Selfishness and Altruism in the Distribution of Travel Time and Income

    OpenAIRE

    Nebiyou Tilahun; David Levinson

    2006-01-01

    Most economic models assume that individuals act out their preferences based on their own self interest. However there have also been other paradigms in the economics literature that have tried to capture alternative manifestations of human behavior that include fairness. This study examines people's preferences when it comes to their travel time and their income and what type of trade offs they are willing to make to live in a society where the distributions of travel time and income are fai...

  11. Materialism, Reciprocity and Altruism in the Prisoner's Dilemma - An Evolutionary Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Anders; Poulsen, Odile

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we study the evolution of preferences when players are engaged in simultaneous and sequential move Prisoner's Dilemma games. Our results provide some simple insights into the experimentally observed behavior....

  12. Generosity versus altruism: philanthropy and charity in the US and UK

    OpenAIRE

    Wright, Karen

    2002-01-01

    International differences in giving levels are becoming increasingly well documented by a variety of sources. Less well explicated in both research and practice are the social understandings of the role and meaning of charitable giving in different countries and cultures. This paper contributes a comparative analysis of giving ethos and behaviour in two countries, the United States and the United Kingdom, in particular the relationship of giving to civic life. It identifies differences in giv...

  13. Between Altruism and the Market: an Economist’s View of the Fight Against Poverty

    OpenAIRE

    Jean-Claude Berthélemy

    2012-01-01

    It is no easy task to conclude this special issue of FACTS Reports, given the sheer breadth and diversity of the analyses it contains. One would need in-depth knowledge of a whole range of fields – anthropology, sociology, history, law, management, economics – to adequately identify all of the lessons that can be drawn from these papers. Let me, then, stay with my own field of competence, and offer a conclusion from the standpoint of an economist.The fight against poverty is, admittedly, an a...

  14. Organ transplantation: is the best approach a legalized market or altruism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemmons, Allison

    2009-01-01

    More than 100,000 individuals are on the waiting list to receive a lifesaving transplant, but many of them will not receive the organ they need. Legislation has been passed to support organ donation--the current organ procurement system in the United States is governed by the Uniform Anatomical Gift Act of 1968 and the National Organ Transplant Act of 1984--but a shortage of donated organs remains. Potential solutions include a legalized organ market, expanded legislation, therapeutic cloning, and xenotransplantation. If no change occurs, the black market in organ procurement will continue to expand. A comprehensive approach consisting of both short-term (increased education and national paired-kidney exchange) and long-term solutions (expanded legislation to fund and promote therapeutic cloning) is presented in this essay. PMID:19681356

  15. Externality and Strategic Interaction in the Location Choice of Siblings under Altruism toward Parents

    OpenAIRE

    Meliyanni Johar; Shiko Maruyama

    2012-01-01

    When siblings wish for the well-being of their elderly parents, the cost of caregiving and long-term commitment creates a free-rider problem among siblings. We estimate a sequential game to investigate externality and strategic interaction among adult siblings regarding their location choice relative to their elderly parents. Using the US Health and Retirement Survey, we find a positive externality and strategic interaction. The first-mover advantage of eldest children and the prisoner's dile...

  16. The evolution of altruism in spatial threshold public goods games via an insurance mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianlei; Zhang, Chunyan

    2015-05-01

    The persistence of cooperation in public goods situations has become an important puzzle for researchers. This paper considers the threshold public goods games where the option of insurance is provided for players from the standpoint of diversification of risk, envisaging the possibility of multiple strategies in such scenarios. In this setting, the provision point is defined in terms of the minimum number of contributors in one threshold public goods game, below which the game fails. In the presence of risk and insurance, more contributions are motivated if (1) only cooperators can opt to be insured and thus their contribution loss in the aborted games can be (partly or full) covered by the insurance; (2) insured cooperators obtain larger compensation, at lower values of the threshold point (the required minimum number of contributors). Moreover, results suggest the dominance of insured defectors who get a better promotion by more profitable benefits from insurance. We provide results of extensive computer simulations in the realm of spatial games (random regular networks and scale-free networks here), and support this study with analytical results for well-mixed populations. Our study is expected to establish a causal link between the widespread altruistic behaviors and the existing insurance system.

  17. Altruism, egoism, or neither: A cognitive-efficiency-based evolutionary biological perspective on helping behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Armin W

    2016-04-01

    I argue for differences in the cognitive efficiency of different psychologies underlying helping behavior, and present an account of the adaptive pressures that result from these differences. Specifically, I argue that organisms often face pressure to move away from only being egoistically motivated to help: non-egoistic organisms are often able to determine how to help other organisms more quickly and with less recourse to costly cognitive resources like concentration and attention. Furthermore, I also argue that, while these pressures away from pure egoism can lead to the evolution of altruists, they can also lead to the evolution of reciprocation-focused behaviorist helpers or even of reflex-driven helpers (who are neither altruists nor egoists). In this way, I seek to broaden the set of considerations typically taken into account when assessing the evolution of the psychology of helping behavior-which tend to be restricted to matters of reliability-and also try to make clearer the role of evolutionary biological considerations in the discussion of this apparently straightforwardly psychological phenomenon. PMID:26778352

  18. Altruism During Ebola: Risk Perception, Issue Salience, Cultural Cognition, and Information Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Z Janet

    2016-06-01

    A nationally representative sample of 1,046 U.S. adults was randomly assigned to two experimental conditions that triggered different degrees of risk perception related to the Ebola outbreak. In the high-risk condition, issue salience and deliberate processing increased individuals' altruistic behavioral intention. In contrast, cultural cognition worldview and negative emotions such as sadness and anger were significantly related to altruistic behavioral intention regardless of the experimental conditions. These findings suggest that affective responses diverge from cognitive processes in influencing risk-related decisions. Practically, as the United States continues to send experts to the affected countries in West Africa, results from this study suggest meaningful pathways to improve risk communication intended to encourage more altruistic and pro-social behaviors. PMID:26660724

  19. Viral altruism? A natural field experiment of social contagion in on-line networks

    OpenAIRE

    Nicola Lacetera; Mario Macis; Angelo Mele

    2012-01-01

    We present preliminary results from a small-scale natural field experiment aimed at exploring online social contagion, with an application to charitable giving. We worked in partnership with Heifer International, a non-profit organization aimed at fighting poverty in developing countries, and HelpAttack!, the developer of a Facebook application that facilitates donations to charities while broadcasting such activities to the donors’ Facebook contacts. We ran a series of marketing campaigns, a...

  20. Trust and altruism--organ distribution scandals: do they provide good reasons to refuse posthumous donation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufner, Annette; Harris, John

    2015-06-01

    A recent organ distribution scandal in Germany raises questions of general importance on which many thousands of lives may well depend. The scandal in Germany has produced reactions that are likely to occur whenever and wherever distribution irregularities occur and become public knowledge. After it had become known that physicians in three German hospitals were in the habit of manipulating records in order to fast-track their patients' cases, the country experienced a decrease of available organs by a staggering 40% in October 2012. Even though this loss of trust by donors and their families is understandable, and potentially a legitimate form of protest against wrongful distribution, the withdrawal of agreement to serve as a posthumous donor in response to irregularities also inevitably results in avoidable poor outcomes for highly vulnerable individuals. In this paper, we provide a moral analysis of such dilemmas and make recommendations as to the way forward. PMID:25889262

  1. Understanding amygdala responsiveness to fearful expressions through the lens of psychopathy and altruism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Abigail A

    2016-06-01

    Because the face is the central focus of human social interactions, emotional facial expressions provide a unique window into the emotional lives of others. They play a particularly important role in fostering empathy, which entails understanding and responding to others' emotions, especially distress-related emotions such as fear. This Review considers how fearful facial as well as vocal and postural expressions are interpreted, with an emphasis on the role of the amygdala. The amygdala may be best known for its role in the acquisition and expression of conditioned fear, but it also supports the perception and recognition of others' fear. Various explanations have been supplied for the amygdala's role in interpreting and responding to fearful expressions. They include theories that amygdala responses to fearful expressions 1) reflect heightened vigilance in response to uncertain danger, 2) promote heightened attention to the eye region of faces, 3) represent a response to an unconditioned aversive stimulus, or 4) reflect the generation of an empathic fear response. Among these, only empathic fear explains why amygdala lesions would impair fear recognition across modalities. Supporting the possibility of a link between fundamental empathic processes and amygdala responses to fear is evidence that impaired fear recognition in psychopathic individuals results from amygdala dysfunction, whereas enhanced fear recognition in altruistic individuals results from enhanced amygdala function. Empathic concern and caring behaviors may be fostered by sensitivity to signs of acute distress in others, which relies on intact functioning of the amygdala. PMID:26366635

  2. Avoiding The Ask: A Field Experiment on Altruism, Empathy, and Charitable Giving

    OpenAIRE

    James Andreoni; Rao, Justin M.; Hannah Trachtman

    2011-01-01

    What triggers giving? We explore this in a randomized natural field experiment during the Salvation Army's annual campaign. Solicitors were at one or both of two main entrances to a supermarket, making the solicitation either easy or difficult to avoid. Additionally, solicitors were either silent, or asked "please give" to passersby. We observed over 17,000 passings over four days, and found dramatic avoidance of the solicitors, but only during a direct ask. Furthermore, asking increased dona...

  3. Parental altruism and child labor: examining the historical evidence from the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Bhaskar, V.; Bishnupriya Gupta

    2012-01-01

    Parsons and Goldin (in Econ Inq 637–659, 1989) use the US Commissioner of Labor Survey of (1890) to argue that many American parents sacrificed the future earnings of their children by sending them to work rather than to school. We analyze the same data and argue that parental choices were dictated by constraints rather than the desire to exploit child labor opportunities. We also find significant income effects on child labor supply, indicating that affluence played an important part in the ...

  4. An Analysis of Teachers' General Tendency to Procrastinate, Perception of Professional Efficiency/Self Efficiency and Altruism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilmac, Bulent

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Teaching as a profession requires the possession of certain characteristics. Teachers accept their students as individuals and cherish them. Teachers' reasons behind their choice to become a teacher are believed to be professional affection, spiritual satisfaction and a perception of teaching as the ideal profession. Furthermore the…

  5. Altruism, personal benefit, and anxieties: a phenomenological study of healthy volunteers' experiences in a placebo‐controlled trial of duloxetine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwakye, Isaac N.; Garner, Matthew; Baldwin, David S.; Bamford, Susan; Pinkney, Verity

    2016-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to develop an in‐depth understanding of healthy volunteers' experiences of mental health trials. Methods A qualitative study was nested within a healthy volunteer placebo‐controlled trial of duloxetine, a psychotropic drug used for treating patients with major depression and generalized anxiety disorder. Eight participants were interviewed, and data were analyzed using interpretative phenomenological analysis. Results Interviewees described volunteering for the trial because they were interested in research, wanted the monetary incentive, wanted to help researchers, and wanted to be part of something. On entering the trial, participants considered the possible risks and described feeling anxious, excited, and determined; they had some clear expectations and some loosely held hopes about what would happen. During the trial, participants were curious about whether they were taking duloxetine or placebo, self‐monitored their bodies' reactions, and guessed which treatment they received. On being un‐blinded to treatment allocation after completing the trial, some participants' guesses were confirmed, but others were surprised, and a few were disappointed. Conclusions Small changes to advertising/consent materials to reflect volunteers' motivations could improve recruitment rates to similar trials; “active” placebos might be particularly useful for maintaining blinding in healthy volunteer trials; and sensitive procedures are needed for un‐blinding participants to treatment allocation. © 2016 The Authors. Human Psychopharmacology: Clinical and Experimental published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27378326

  6. The Role of Community Trust and Altruism in Knowledge Sharing: An Investigation of a Virtual Community of Teacher Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsiu-Ling; Fan, Hsueh-Liang; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2014-01-01

    The knowledge sharing process within a virtual community of teacher professionals is viewed as a social exchange process in that the knowledge sharing intention and behavior of individuals are influenced by the exchange relationship among members. However, relatively little research has focused on this approach to exploring the factors that…

  7. Dopamine D4 Receptor Gene and Religious Affiliation Correlate with Dictator Game Altruism in Males and not Females: Evidence for Gender-sensitive Gene x Culture Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yushi eJiang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available On a large sample of 2288 Han Chinese undergraduates, we investigated how religion and DRD4 are related to human altruistic giving behavior as measured with the Andreoni-Miller Dictator Game. This game enables us to clearly specify (non-selfishness, efficiency, and fairness motives for sharing. Participants were further classified into religious categories (Christian, Buddhist-Tao, and No Religion based on self-reports, and genotyped for the dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4 gene exon III VNTR. Our analysis revealed a significant interaction between religion and DRD4 correlated with giving behavior solely among males: Whereas no significant association between religion and sharing decisions was observed in the majority 4R/4R genotype group, a significant difference in giving behavior between Christian and non-Christian males was seen in the non-4R/4R group, with Christian men being overall more altruistic (less selfish and fairer than non-Christian men. These results support the vantage sensitivity hypothesis regarding DRD4 that the non-4R/4R ‘susceptibility’ genotype is more responsive to a positive environment provided by some religions.

  8. SOME ASPECTS AND RELATIONS BETWEEN ALTRUISM, SOCIALIZATION AND INTEGRATION IN THE PROCESS OF HUMANISATION OF THE LIFE CONDITIONS OF DISABLED PERSONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonche TRAJKOVSKI

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Human beings were not born on their own will, and through their lives they live facing a lot of challenges, many problems, suffer­ings, but they are always guided by their ideals, ambitions and joys (of their own and of others. On the unpredictable life path people are always guided by others, their close family and friends, good and naive people, professional and not very experi­enced, good-hearted, ambitious and sincere ones.In that context of enigmatic and uncertain living conditions, especially in the period of chaotic social conditions in transitional countries, the problems of disabled persons are the most marginalized questions.

  9. The Empirical Ties between Religious Motivation and Altruism in Foster Parents: Implications for Faith-Based Initiatives in Foster Care and Adoption

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Howell-Moroney

    2014-01-01

    Amidst a crisis shortage of foster homes in the child welfare system, a number of innovative faith-based collaborations aimed at recruiting foster parents have recently emerged. It has been suggested that these collaborations offer a unique opportunity to recruit committed and altruistic parents as caregivers, providing much needed capacity to an overloaded child welfare system. This paper uses data from the National Survey of Current and Former Foster Parents to examine the associations betw...

  10. Dopamine D4 receptor gene and religious affiliation correlate with dictator game altruism in males and not females: evidence for gender-sensitive gene × culture interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Yushi; Bachner-Melman, Rachel; Chew, Soo Hong; Ebstein, Richard P.

    2015-01-01

    On a large sample of 2288 Han Chinese undergraduates, we investigated how religion and DRD4 are related to human altruistic giving behavior as measured with the Andreoni-Miller Dictator Game. This game enables us to clearly specify (non-)selfishness, efficiency, and fairness motives for sharing. Participants were further classified into religious categories (Christian, Buddhist-Tao, and No Religion) based on self-reports, and genotyped for the dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) gene exon III VNTR. O...

  11. Egoism, altruism and reciprocal altruism: the latest development in Darwin' evolution theory——In commemoration of the 150~(th) anniversary of darwin's the origin of species%"利己、利他与互利":达尔文进化论的新发展——纪念《物种起源》发表150周年

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘鹤玲

    2009-01-01

    达尔文自然选择学说揭示了生物有机体的竞争进化,却无法解释个体间的利他与合作行为.20世纪下半叶,随着生物学家对动物利他与合作行为的研究,逐渐揭示了生物有机体利己与利他、竞争进化与合作进化的关系,进一步补充和完善了自然选择学说,推动了达尔文进化论的新发展.

  12. Psychoanalysis and Education for the Facilitation of Positive Human Qualities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekstein, Rudolph

    1972-01-01

    This paper discusses psychoanalytic contributions concerning both the development and the facilitation of qualities such as empathy, love for neighbor social-mindedness, identification, sympathy, and altruism; and neurotic manifestations of altruism and of other positive qualities. (Author/JM)

  13. 尸体器官捐献:寻求利己与利他的合宜%Human Body Organ Donation: Seeking for Proper Combination of Egoism and Altruism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张珊

    2014-01-01

    我国尸体器官捐献数量远远落后于器官移植发达国家,无法满足患者需求,在器官捐献的伦理引导上过于偏重“利他”是造成这种困境的重要原因.人类的天性是“利已”与“利他”的矛盾混合体,在尸体器官捐献的伦理判断中不应将“利已”与“利他”作为两种对立的道德观,而是应该在道德宣传和制度设计上寻求“利已”与“利他”的合宜,在精神上感召,同时在利益上适当驱动,才能赋予公众更强的动力,推动我国的尸体器官捐献走出困境.

  14. Attitudes of the selfless

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zettler, Ingo; Hilbig, B.E.

    2010-01-01

    Previous research on political orientations, which can be understood as one's left- versus right-wing attitude, has shown that some personality factors yield explanatory power. In the current work, we consider the role of altruism - a personality construct which does not exclusively map onto one of...... the broad personality dimensions typically studied. Altruism was predicted to relate to left-wing attitudes due to an overlap regarding concerns for social equality, and a discrepancy between well-known attributes of right-wingers and altruistic individuals, respectively. Moreover, altruism was...... positive association between altruism and left-wing attitudes, and altruism was found to account for substantial variance in political orientation after controlling for the HEXACO factors of personality. We conclude that altruism is an important construct which deserves attention whenever political...

  15. Rational Choice und Altruismus, Hilfsbereitschaft am Beispiel der Teilnahme an wissenschaftlichen Interviews

    OpenAIRE

    Huth, Radoslaw Miroslaw

    2008-01-01

    This present works deal with a special form of altruism, namely assistance in the form of preparedness to participate in a scientific interview. Altruism involves both the ways of acting of individuals whose objective is the well-being of the other. In order to be able to deal at all with the phenomenon of altruism, first of all an attempt was made in the theoretical part of the work to define the term of altruism more exactly an to differantiate it from other forms of behaviour, such as coop...

  16. Emotions in the Lives of Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, Wray

    Several related studies of empathy and altruism in children were conducted to answer such questions as: (1) What are the very early signs of empathy and altruism in children? (2) What kinds of transformations in these behaviors take place during development? and (3) How do rearing experiences influence these behaviors? Data related to these…

  17. The impact of online brand community type on consumer's community engagement behaviors: consumer-created vs. marketer-created online brand community in online social-networking web sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Doohwang; Kim, Hyuk Soo; Kim, Jung Kyu

    2011-01-01

    The current study proposed and tested a theoretical model of consumers' online brand community engagement behaviors, with particular attention given to online brand community type (consumer vs. marketer-created). By integrating attribution and social identity theories, this study investigated the causal linkages between intrinsic motives of altruism, social identification motivations, and online brand community engagement behaviors. The results showed that consumers' online brand community engagement intentions were indirectly influenced by the different types of communities through different levels of consumers' attributions to intrinsic motives of altruism. This study also found that, in the attribution processes, consumers' intrinsic motives of altruism motivated them to identify themselves socially with the online communities they join. Finally, this study demonstrated that the intrinsic motives of altruism and social identification motivations provided strong social incentives to motivate consumers to engage in subsequent online brand community behaviors. PMID:21329444

  18. Choosy Cannibals Preferentially Consume Siblings with Relatively Low Fitness Prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugas, Matthew B; McCormack, Larkin; Gadau, Alice; Martin, Ryan A

    2016-07-01

    When an individual can selfishly cannibalize a relative or altruistically set it free, the benefits of altruism will be positively associated with the relative's fitness prospects (the benefits it receives from altruism). We tested the prediction that altruism should be preferentially directed toward high-quality relatives using larvae of the New Mexican spadefoot toad (Spea multiplicata), a species in which tadpoles plastically express omnivore and carnivore ecomorphs. In a no-choice design, we presented carnivores with sibling or nonsibling omnivores varying in developmental stage, which is positively associated with survival in this toad's ephemeral larval environment. There was a significant interaction between relatedness and developmental stage on the probability of cannibalism: carnivores were overall more likely to cannibalize less developed omnivores, but this effect was exaggerated when the potential victim was a sibling. This evidence that altruists favor relatives with high fitness prospects highlights the numerous factors shaping altruism's payoffs. PMID:27322127

  19. Redistribution and the efficiency-justice trade-off

    OpenAIRE

    Petersen, Hans-Georg

    2004-01-01

    Contents: Justice of Needs and Redistribution -The Basics of the Utility Theory -Social Welfare Functions and Redistribution -Utility Possibility Curves on Egoism, Altruism and Envy -Types of Social Welfare Functions The Trade-off Problem Concluding Remarks

  20. Resource allocation to kin, friends, and strangers by 3- to 6-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hui Jing; Chang, Lei

    2016-10-01

    Kin altruism has been widely observed across species, including humans. However, few studies have discussed the development of kin altruism or its relationship with theory of mind. In this study, 3- to 6-year-old children allocated resources between themselves and kin, a friend, or a stranger in three allocation tasks where the allocation either incurred a cost, incurred no cost, or conferred a disadvantage. The results showed that, compared with 3- and 4-year-olds, 5- and 6-year-olds acted more altruistically toward kin and that kin altruism was uncorrelated with theory of mind. These findings suggest that, within the context of resource allocation, kin altruism emerges toward the end of early childhood and probably differs from other prosocial behavior that relies solely on the understanding of others' perspectives. PMID:27336694

  1. Darwin’s Writers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hříbek, Tomáš

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 5, 11-12 (2009), s. 19-52. ISSN 1214-7915 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z90090514 Keywords : Darwinism * British fiction * genetic determinism * sexual selection * altruism Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  2. Chimpanzees Help Each Other upon Request

    OpenAIRE

    Yamamoto, Shinya; Humle, Tatyana; Tanaka, Masayuki

    2009-01-01

    Background: The evolution of altruism has been explained mainly from ultimate perspectives. However, it remains to be investigated from a proximate point of view how and in which situations such social propensity is achieved. We investigated chimpanzees' targeted helping in a tool transfer paradigm, and discuss the similarities and differences in altruism between humans and chimpanzees. Previously it has been suggested that chimpanzees help human experimenters by retrieving an object which th...

  3. The Notion of the Gift in the Donation of Body Tissues

    OpenAIRE

    Rhonda Shaw

    2008-01-01

    Recent social science commentary on the donation of body tissues and organs typically invokes Richard Titmuss's work on altruism and the gift relationship as a way of framing donative processes. Much of this discussion, however, has neglected to consider how altruism and body gifting is structured and promoted by organisations and institutions that make such processes possible. In this article I suggest that the accounts people give of their body gifting practices do not always fit orthodox n...

  4. Philosophy of organ donation: Review of ethical facets

    OpenAIRE

    Dalal, Aparna R

    2015-01-01

    Transplantation ethics is a philosophy that incorporates systematizing, defending and advocating concepts of right and wrong conduct related to organ donation. As the demand for organs increases, it is essential to ensure that new and innovative laws, policies and strategies of increasing organ supply are bioethical and are founded on the principles of altruism and utilitarianism. In the field of organ transplantation, role of altruism and medical ethics values are significant to the welfare ...

  5. Deconstructing Giving: Donor Types and How They Give

    OpenAIRE

    Lata Gangadharan; Philip J. Grossman; Kristy Jones

    2014-01-01

    We examine the extent to which individual donors are warm glow or altruistic givers and whether this distinction motivates giving decisions, particularly paternalism. Results from our experiment suggest that motivations for giving are heterogeneous, ranging from pure altruism to impure altruism to pure warm glow. Of 115 donors, in our setting 30 are purely altruistic givers, 36 are impure givers and up to 17 could be considered pure warm-glow givers. We find that donors are predominantly pate...

  6. Altruistic Behavior Under Incomplete Information

    OpenAIRE

    Bolle, Friedel; Kritikos, Alexander S.

    2004-01-01

    Models to the issue of altruism which rely on externalities of well-being are rarely used explicitly. In this paper we compare such utility-based approaches with the standard approach on altruism which is based on externalities of income. Testable differences of both types of models are derived in the case of incomplete information. More specifically, applied to the Dictator Game and the Impunity Game both played under incomplete information, the utility-based based approach predicts dictator...

  7. The Moral Development of the Child: An Integrated Model

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Hing Keung

    2013-01-01

    Previous theories of moral development such as those by Piaget and Kohlberg usually focused on the cognitive or rational aspect, and seldom included the affective aspect in their construction. The characteristics of the stages of moral development in the present paper are elaborated with special reference to psychological needs, altruism and human relationships, and justice reasoning. The three stages are: (1) Physical Survival, Selfishness, and Obedience, (2) Love Needs, Reciprocal Altruism,...

  8. Chimpanzees Help Each Other upon Request

    OpenAIRE

    Shinya Yamamoto; Tatyana Humle; Masayuki Tanaka

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The evolution of altruism has been explained mainly from ultimate perspectives. However, it remains to be investigated from a proximate point of view how and in which situations such social propensity is achieved. We investigated chimpanzees' targeted helping in a tool transfer paradigm, and discuss the similarities and differences in altruism between humans and chimpanzees. Previously it has been suggested that chimpanzees help human experimenters by retrieving an object which th...

  9. The moral development of the child: an integrated model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hing Keung

    2013-01-01

    Previous theories of moral development such as those by Piaget and Kohlberg usually focused on the cognitive or rational aspect, and seldom included the affective aspect in their construction. The characteristics of the stages of moral development in the present paper are elaborated with special reference to psychological needs, altruism and human relationships, and justice reasoning. The three stages are: (1) Physical Survival, Selfishness, and Obedience, (2) Love Needs, Reciprocal Altruism, and Instrumental Purpose; and (3) Belongingness Needs, Primary Group Altruism, and Mutual Interpersonal Expectations. At Stage 1, a deep and profound attachment to parents, empathy toward the significant others, and obedience to authorities all contribute to the physical survival of a person at this stage. People at Stage 2 are self-protective, dominant, exploitative, and opportunistic. The need to love and to be loved is gratified on the basis of reciprocal altruism. People at Stage 3 have a strong desire to gratify their belongingness needs to a primary group. They are willing to sacrifice for the benefits of the group at great cost. While the psychological needs and altruism are related to the affective aspect of moral development, the justice reasoning is related to the cognitive aspect. The proposed theoretical model attempts to integrate the affective and cognitive aspects of moral development, and prototypic responses to questions related to hypothetical moral dilemmas are presented to substantiate the proposed stage structures. It is hypothesized that the sequence of these three stages is invariant of person and culture. PMID:24350226

  10. Attitude towards littering as a mediator of the relationship between personality attributes and responsible environmental behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → Independently, altruism and locus of control contributed significantly toward attitude towards littering. → Altruism and locus of control jointly contributed significantly to attitude towards littering. → The results further show a significant joint influence of altruism and locus of control on REB. → The independent contributions reveal that altruism and locus of control contribute significantly to REB. → Attitude towards littering mediates the relationship between locus of control and REB. - Abstract: The study tested whether attitude towards littering mediates the relationship between personality attributes (altruism and locus of control) and responsible environmental behavior (REB) among some residents of Ibadan metropolis, Nigeria. Using multistage sampling technique, measures of each construct were administered to 1360 participants. Results reveal significant independent and joint influence of personality attributes on attitude towards littering and responsible environmental behavior, respectively. Attitude towards littering also mediates the relationship between personality characteristics and REB. These findings imply that individuals who possess certain desirable personality characteristics and who have unfavorable attitude towards littering have more tendencies to engage in pro-environmental behavior. Therefore, stakeholders who have waste management as their priority should incorporate this information when guidelines for public education and litter prevention programs are being developed. It is suggested that psychologists should be involved in designing of litter prevention strategies. This will ensure the inclusion of behavioral issues in such strategies. An integrated approach to litter prevention that combines empowerment, cognitive, social, and technical solutions is recommended as the most effective tool of tackling the litter problem among residents of Ibadan metropolis.

  11. 'Corpore sano in mens sana'. The Morality of Blood Donation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casado Neira, David

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Modern conceptions of health separate body from soul in the familiar Cartesian dualism. In blood donation this separation is easy to identify: embodiment is a civilizing process, and altruism is the moral basis that supports it. The donor is treated as essentially a vessel of blood, a mere container which can be directed to discharge its contents into blood banks. The biomedical use of blood is not morally neutral; indeed, the donor's moral conscience is mobilised in order to get them to donate blood as a gift, or offering. By associating donors' altruism with their bodies' physical nature as a container from which blood can be extracted, altruism is treated as a physiological phenomenon.

  12. Social cognitive role of schizophrenia candidate gene GABRB2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shui Ying Tsang

    Full Text Available The occurrence of positive selection in schizophrenia-associated GABRB2 suggests a broader impact of the gene product on population fitness. The present study considered the possibility of cognition-related GABRB2 involvement by examining the association of GABRB2 with psychosis and altruism, respectively representing psychiatric and psychological facets of social cognition. Four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were genotyped for quantitative trait analyses and population-based association studies. Psychosis was measured by either the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS or antipsychotics dosage, and altruism was based on a self-report altruism scale. The minor alleles of SNPs rs6556547, rs1816071 and rs187269 in GABRB2 were correlated with high PANSS score for positive symptoms in a Han Chinese schizophrenic cohort, whereas those of rs1816071 and rs1816072 were associated with high antipsychotics dosage in a US Caucasian schizophrenic cohort. Moreover, strongly significant GABRB2-disease associations were found among schizophrenics with severe psychosis based on high PANSS positive score, but no significant association was observed for schizophrenics with only mild psychosis. Interestingly, in addition to association with psychosis in schizophrenics, rs187269 was also associated with altruism in healthy Han Chinese. Furthermore, parallel to correlation with severe psychosis, its minor allele was correlated with high altruism scores. These findings revealed that GABRB2 is associated with psychosis, the core symptom and an endophenotype of schizophrenia. Importantly, the association was found across the breadth of the psychiatric (psychosis to psychological (altruism spectrum of social cognition suggesting GABRB2 involvement in human cognition.

  13. The handicap principle and the argument of subversion from within

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baron, Christian

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the very disparate positions that various actors have taken towards the argument of subversion from within (a classical argument against the evolution of altruism by group selection) in a set of related debates on group selection, altruism and the handicap principle. Using this...... connected to important epistemological differences related in part (but not solely) to their disciplinary background. Apart from conflicting evolutionary views concerning the theoretical feasibility of the handicap effect, these antagonists both differed in the confidence they ascribed to mathematical...

  14. Altruistické chování vysokoškolských studentů ekonomické fakulty

    OpenAIRE

    Malochová, Šárka

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this bachelor's thesis is to find out whether the students of Faculty of Business and Economics have altruistic behaviour or not. In course of the work I'm going to describe the current state of altruism in society on the basis of statistic data with respect to Czech Republic and to a selected group of university school students. The basic terms altruism, prosocial behaviour and value orientation are defined in the text. The practical part is structured according to questionnaire ...

  15. Disentangling the Sources of Pro-socially Motivated Effort: A Field Experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Tonin, Mirco; Vlassopoulos, Michael

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents evidence from a field experiment, which aims to identify the two sources of workers’ pro-social motivation that have been considered in the literature: action-oriented altruism and output-oriented altruism. To this end we employ an experimental design that first measures the level of effort exerted by student workers on a data entry task in an environment that elicits purely selfish behavior and we compare it to effort exerted in an environment that also induces action-ori...

  16. Male Mating Signaling in Social Dilemma Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Niels Holm

    2013-01-01

    According to sexual selection theory and costly signaling theory, men benefit from signaling costly mate qualities to attractive women. To date, several studies have investigated whether men use conspicuous altruism to attract women, but the findings are mixed. This study investigated whether men...... being observed by an attractive woman engage in competitive economic altruism in three social dilemma games — the Dictator Game, Trust Game (2nd mover), and Public Goods Game — in comparison to men being observed by a non-attractive woman. Results showed that altruistic contributions in the games were...

  17. Determinants of organizational citizenship behavior: A case study of higher education institutes in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazia Bashir

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study empirically examines the relationship between altruism, conscientiousness, and civic virtue, three of the antecedents of organizational citizenship behavior, in higher education institutes in the Khyber Pakhtonkhuwa Province (KPK of Pakistan. The study is based on primary data collected from ninety-five employees of various institutes in Pakistan. The data is analyzed using the techniques of rank correlation coefficient and multiple regression analysis. All the findings are tested at 0.01 and 0.05 levels of significance. The result concludes that altruism, conscientiousness, and civic virtue have strong positive impacts on the organizational citizenship behavior in the context of higher education institutes in Pakistan.

  18. Complex Adaptive Systems and the Evolution of Reciprocation

    OpenAIRE

    Sigmund, K.

    1998-01-01

    Complex adaptive systems play a major role in the theory of reciprocal altruism. Starting with Axelrod's celebrated computer tournaments, a wide variety of computer simulations show that cooperation can evolve in populations of selfish agents, both with direct and indirect reciprocation.

  19. Investigation and Procedure According To Some Variables and Attitudes Toward Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gülaçti, Fikret

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to reveal the attitudes of students to the teaching profession in terms of self-esteem, altruism, social comparison, life satisfaction, humor style, a five-factor personality types of the students of the Pedagogical Formation Education Certificate Program (PFECP), and to determine the relationships if there is between…

  20. Parental background and other-regarding preferences in children

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bauer, Michal; Chytilová, J.; Pertold-Gebicka, B.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 1 (2014), s. 24-46. ISSN 1386-4157 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP402/12/G130 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : other-regarding preferences * altruism * selfishness Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.397, year: 2014

  1. The Effect of Empathy in Proenvironmental Attitudes and Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berenguer, Jaime

    2007-01-01

    Previous studies have pointed out the importance of empathy in improving attitudes toward stigmatized groups and toward the environment. In the present article, it is argued that environmental behaviors and attitudes can be improved using empathic perspective-taking for inducing empathy. Based on Batson's Model of Altruism, it was predicted that…

  2. Lending a helping hand : Provision of helping behaviors beyond professional career responsibilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emmerik, I.J. Hetty van; Jawahar, I.M.

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Purpose – The purpose of this study is to investigate if gender and altruism evidence similar relationships with the different types of helping behaviors (e.g. organizational citizenship behaviors, OCBs; volunteering, vol; and helping kin, HK). Design/methodology/approach – Data from

  3. Parental Motivation in Family Farm Intergenerational Transfers

    OpenAIRE

    Lange, Kelly Y.; Johnson, Jeffrey W.; Johnson, Phillip N.; Hudson, Darren; Belasco, Eric J

    2011-01-01

    An intergenerational transfer model incorporating both altruism and exchange is presented for family farm transfers. A simulation study is conducted to test parental motivation in intergenerational transfers of family farm businesses. Results indicated that family farm intergenerational transfers are altruistically motivated.

  4. Explaining Altruistic Sharing in the Dictator Game: The Role of Affective Empathy, Cognitive Empathy, and Justice Sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edele, Aileen; Dziobek, Isabel; Keller, Monika

    2013-01-01

    Experimental games like the dictator game have proven of great value for the study of altruism and sharing behavior. It has been shown that individuals differ substantially in the amount of money they offer to an anonymous receiver. Yet, to date little is known about how personality dispositions shape differences in altruistic sharing. The current…

  5. Helping others in online games: prosocial behavior in cyberspace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chih-Chien; Wang, Chia-Hsin

    2008-06-01

    This study examined the reasons players help others in the virtual space of online games. Results of an online empirical survey indicated that both altruism and reciprocity influence prosocial behavior simultaneously. Additionally, the study found that male players are more likely than female players to seek friendship of opposite sex. PMID:18537505

  6. Moral Education in the Republic of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ger-Bei

    1990-01-01

    Examines Taiwanese moral education, which has traditionally developed moral themes from Confucian ethics found in Chinese literature. Emphasizing altruism and self-discipline, lists moral values that primary and middle school students encounter in "Chinese Readers," the predominantly used texts. Questions how industrialization and…

  7. Gender and Competition in Adolescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreber, Anna; Essen, Emma von; Ranehill, Eva

    2013-01-01

    We look at gender differences among adolescents in Sweden in preferences for competition, altruism and risk. For competitiveness, we explore two different tasks that differ in associated stereotypes. We find no gender difference in competitiveness when comparing performance under competition to...

  8. Virtue Ethics, Care Ethics, and "The Good Life of Teaching"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Marissa

    2012-01-01

    In "The Good Life of Teaching: An Ethics of Professional Practice," Chris Higgins (2011) reminds people that "self-interest and altruism, personal freedom and social roles, and practical wisdom and personhood" have been ancient philosophical topics that remain vitally important in the practice of contemporary teaching and learning. One of the most…

  9. Altruistic learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Seymour

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The origin of altruism remains one of the most enduring puzzles of human behaviour. Indeed, true altruism is often thought either not to exist, or to arise merely as a miscalculation of otherwise selfish behaviour. In this paper, we argue that altruism emerges directly from the way in which distinct human decision-making systems learn about rewards. Using insights provided by neurobiological accounts of human decision-making, we suggest that reinforcement learning in game-theoretic social interactions (habitization over either individuals or games and observational learning (either imitative of inference based lead to altruistic behaviour. This arises not only as a result of computational efficiency in the face of processing complexity, but as a direct consequence of optimal inference in the face of uncertainty. Critically, we argue that the fact that evolutionary pressure acts not over the object of learning ('what' is learned, but over the learning systems themselves ('how' things are learned, enables the evolution of altruism despite the direct threat posed by free-riders.

  10. Altruistic learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymour, Ben; Yoshida, Wako; Dolan, Ray

    2009-01-01

    The origin of altruism remains one of the most enduring puzzles of human behaviour. Indeed, true altruism is often thought either not to exist, or to arise merely as a miscalculation of otherwise selfish behaviour. In this paper, we argue that altruism emerges directly from the way in which distinct human decision-making systems learn about rewards. Using insights provided by neurobiological accounts of human decision-making, we suggest that reinforcement learning in game-theoretic social interactions (habitisation over either individuals or games) and observational learning (either imitative of inference based) lead to altruistic behaviour. This arises not only as a result of computational efficiency in the face of processing complexity, but as a direct consequence of optimal inference in the face of uncertainty. Critically, we argue that the fact that evolutionary pressure acts not over the object of learning ('what' is learned), but over the learning systems themselves ('how' things are learned), enables the evolution of altruism despite the direct threat posed by free-riders. PMID:19826495

  11. Sex and the Leuthold Free Rider Experiment; Some Results from an Israeli Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleiman, Ephraim; Rubenstein, Yona

    1996-01-01

    Reports on the replication of Jane Leuthold's experiment concerning consumer choice, investments, and free riding indexes. This experiment, conducted in an Israeli undergraduate economics class, broadened the subjects' characteristics questionnaire to include issues of social consciousness and altruism. Includes four tables of statistical data.…

  12. Unto Others: Illustrating the Human Capacity for Cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, J. Andrew; Urbanski, John; Hunt, Jason

    2011-01-01

    Research in both evolutionary economics and evolutionary psychology provides strong evidence that human behavior can be, and is, a complex mix of hedonism and altruism with a strong inclination toward cooperation under certain conditions. In this article, behavioral assumptions made in mainstream business theory are compared and contrasted with…

  13. Mysteries of Morality

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeScioli, Peter; Kurzban, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Evolutionary theories of morality, beginning with Darwin, have focused on explanations for altruism. More generally, these accounts have concentrated on conscience (self-regulatory mechanisms) to the neglect of condemnation (mechanisms for punishing others). As a result, few theoretical tools are available for understanding the rapidly…

  14. Gratitude in Youth: A Review of Gratitude Interventions and Some Ideas for Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froh, Jeffrey J.; Bono, Giacomo

    2011-01-01

    Offering and receiving help are fundamental to human survival. The fact that children engage in beneficial social exchanges before they can even fully appreciate them underscores the importance of cooperation and altruism for human society. Gratitude is a higher-level moral emotion that enables people to notice, understand, and capitalize on…

  15. The evolution of generalized reciprocity on social interaction networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Doorn, Gerrit Sander; Taborsky, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Generalized reciprocity (help anyone, if helped by someone) is a minimal strategy capable of supporting cooperation between unrelated individuals. Its simplicity makes it an attractive model to explain the evolution of reciprocal altruism in animals that lack the information or cognitive skills need

  16. Molecular Mechanism of the Two-Component Suicidal Weapon of Neocapritermes taracua Old Workers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bourguignon, T.; Šobotník, J.; Brabcová, Jana; Sillam-Dusses, D.; Buček, Aleš; Krasulová, Jana; Vytisková, B.; Demianova, Z.; Mareš, Michael; Roisin, Y.; Vogel, H.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 33, č. 3 (2016), s. 809-819. ISSN 0737-4038 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LO1302 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : altruism * colony defense * termite * Isoptera * laccase Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 9.105, year: 2014

  17. Religious Diversity, Empathy, and God Images: Perspectives from the Psychology of Religion Shaping a Study among Adolescents in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Leslie J.; Croft, Jennifer S.; Pyke, Alice

    2012-01-01

    Major religious traditions agree in advocating and promoting love of neighbour as well as love of God. Love of neighbour is reflected in altruistic behaviour and empathy stands as a key motivational factor underpinning altruism. This study employs the empathy scale from the Junior Eysenck Impulsiveness Questionnaire to assess the association…

  18. Spotting altruistic dictator game players and mingling with them : the elective assortation of classmates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pradel, Julia; Euler, Harald A.; Fetchenhauer, Detlef

    2009-01-01

    Altruism can evolve through assortation if the selfish advantage of egoistic individuals is outcompeted by the benefits of mutual cooperation between altruists. This selection process is possible if (a) individuals can distinguish altruists from egoists and (b) altruists cooperate electively with ot

  19. Altruistic traits are predicted by neural responses to monetary outcomes for self vs charity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Martín, René; Kwak, Youngbin; Pearson, John M; Woldorff, Marty G; Huettel, Scott A

    2016-06-01

    Human altruism is often expressed through charitable donation-supporting a cause that benefits others in society, at cost to oneself. The underlying mechanisms of this other-regarding behavior remain imperfectly understood. By recording event-related-potential (ERP) measures of brain activity from human participants during a social gambling task, we identified markers of differential responses to receipt of monetary outcomes for oneself vs for a charitable cause. We focused our ERP analyses on the frontocentral feedback-related negativity (FRN) and three subcomponents of the attention-related P300 (P3) brain wave: the frontocentral P2 and P3a and the parietal P3b. The FRN distinguished between gains and losses for both self and charity outcomes. Importantly, this effect of outcome valence was greater for self than charity for both groups and was independent of two altruism-related measures: participants' pre-declared intended donations and the actual donations resulting from their choices. In contrast, differences in P3 subcomponents for outcomes for self vs charity strongly predicted both of our laboratory measures of altruism-as well as self-reported engagement in real-life altruistic behaviors. These results indicate that individual differences in altruism are linked to individual differences in the relative deployment of attention (as indexed by the P3) toward outcomes affecting other people. PMID:27030510

  20. Quality Self Assessment: A Process of Course Team Development or Contrived Collegiality and Impression Management?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boocock, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Ethnographic research in an FE College (College X) between 2000 and 2005 was designed to uncover the extent to which quality self-assessment processes had effectively utilised productive motivational inputs (i.e. lecturer self-interest, intrinsic motivation, altruism and tacit knowledge) in line with New Labour's agenda of improved skills in…

  1. Spending Natural Resource Revenues in an Altruistic Growth Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Elisabeth Hermann

    This paper examines how revenues from a natural resource interact with growth and welfare in an overlapping generations model with altruism. The revenues are allocated between public productive services and direct transfers to members of society by spending policies. We analyze how these policies...... spending policies may be part of the reason why natural resources seem to affect economic performance across nations differently...

  2. Gender, Values, and Occupational Interests among Children, Adolescents, and Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisgram, Erica S.; Bigler, Rebecca S.; Liben, Lynn S.

    2010-01-01

    Work fulfills personal values, perhaps differently for males and females. Explored here was the role values play in shaping occupational interests. Study 1 examined children's, adolescents', and adults' (N = 313) occupational values (regarding money, power, family, altruism), occupational interests, and perceptions of values afforded by…

  3. THE MEDIATING ROLE OF LEADERSHIP STYLES ON THE ORGANIZATIONAL CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIOR AND INNOVATIVENESS RELATIONSHIP

    OpenAIRE

    Ozsahin, Mehtap; Sudak, Melike Kivanc

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on the relationships among the organizational citizenship behavior, leadership behavior and innovativeness. The relationships among the three dimensions of leadership behavior-change oriented leadership, task oriented leadership, relation oriented leadership-, five dimensions of organizational citizenship behavior (OCV)- altruism, courtesy, civic virtue,  conscientiousness, sportsmanship-, and innovativeness have been examined in details.  Afield survey using questionnaires...

  4. Can Love Be Taught?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savesky, Kathy

    1984-01-01

    Provided are synopses of selected presentations and discussions that evaluated and provided an understanding of the role of empathy in human behavior toward animals. Factors hampering such empathy, origin of empathy and altruism, and childrens' attitudes toward and knowledge of animals were among the areas explored. (BC)

  5. Static and evolutionary quantum public goods games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Zeyang; Qin, Gan; Hu, Lingzhi; Li, Songjian; Xu, Nanyang; Du, Jiangfeng

    2008-05-01

    We apply the continuous-variable quantization scheme to quantize public goods game and find that new pure strategy Nash equilibria emerge in the static case. Furthermore, in the evolutionary public goods game, entanglement can also contribute to the persistence of cooperation under various population structures without altruism, voluntary participation, and punishment.

  6. How Social an Animal? The Human Capacity for Caring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batson, C. Daniel

    1990-01-01

    Discusses whether humans have a capacity to care about others, or if the target of concern is always oneself. Presents evidence that supports the empathy-altruism hypothesis, suggesting that humans are capable of empathy and caring for another in need. Discusses limits on human capacity for altruistic caring. (JS)

  7. Evoluce morálky

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hříbek, Tomáš

    Praha : Filosofia, 2011, s. 171-206. ISBN 978-80-7007-358-2 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA401/08/0904 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z90090514 Keywords : Darwinism * altruism * egoism * ethical naturalism * metaethics * moral antirealism Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  8. Proceedings of a Symposium: Education and Contemporary America (Boise, Idaho, October 9-11, 1980).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlberg, E. John, Jr., Ed.; And Others

    Papers presented at this symposium were on the following topics: (1) the role of education in clarifying the relation of the individual to the state and the basic meaning of citizenship; (2) the mythologies of college teaching; (3) the movement of education from elitism to educational populism; (4) how empathy, morality, and altruism affect…

  9. Sociobiology: Science or Ideology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Arthur

    1992-01-01

    Discusses contributions of E. O. Wilson and others to the development of sociobiology. Considers sociobiology's origins, the study of social behavior, the inclusive fitness theory of behavior, haplodiploidy, reciprocal altruism, ecological perspectives, species richness, social evolution, societal explanations for infanticide, sociobiology and the…

  10. Teaching Children of Catastrophe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, Geneva

    2008-01-01

    It was heartwarming to see so many states, school districts, and communities throughout the United States open their doors to the children of Katrina. This response was a graphic portrayal of the spirit of volunteerism, the value of the more able assisting the less fortunate, and the sense of altruism that surfaces when major crises occur.…

  11. What a Seriously At-Risk Student Would Really Like To Say to Teachers about Classroom Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Julia

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the growing problem of troubled youth and the increasing role of schools in meeting children's developmental needs for attachment, achievement, autonomy, and altruism. Relates a 12-year-old at-risk student's comments about what teachers should do and say to promote greater self-esteem among students and encourage them to stay in school.…

  12. Empathy and Helping in a Non-Distress Situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gano, Lori

    Theories about helping behavior have branched into two basic areas: egoistic and altruistic. Egoistic theories describe helping as being induced by sadness or distress; the Empathy-Altruism hypothesis contends that people help when they feel empathy for another in need. Fultz, Schaller, and Cialdini (1988) looked at the possibility that three…

  13. The Nature of Empathy: Discriminant Analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jegerski, Jane A.; Upshaw, Harry S.

    Hoffman's (1975) theory holds that altruism is based on cognitive development and mechanisms for empathic distress present from birth, with the individual going through stages of personal distress, empathic concern, and perspective taking. The Davis Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI), a measure of empathy, contains four subscales: personal…

  14. A Comparison of Forgiveness and Pro-Social Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scobie, G. E. W.; Scobie, E. D.

    2000-01-01

    Considers how forgiveness is learned and what developmental features it has in common with other prosocial activities. Maintains that viewing forgiveness within a moral developmental framework does not consider its complex nature nor address related issues such as damage severity, restoring relationships, empathy, or altruism. Explores these areas…

  15. Empathy as a Motivator of Altruistic Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannotti, Ronald J.

    Empathy has been hypothesized as a mediator facilitating prosocial behaviors such as altruism. Definitions and measures of empathy disagree as to the extent to which the observer's response is affective and the necessity for the observer to understand the other's point of view. A conceptualization of empathy which includes these considerations has…

  16. Cross-Age Tutoring: Effects on Tutors' Attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yogev, Abraham; Ronen, Rachel

    1982-01-01

    The psychological benefits of a high school tutoring program were investigated. Results gathered from questionnaires answered by high school students tutoring junior high school students, both before and after the tutoring experience, indicated that tutors' empathy, altruism, and self-esteem increased as a result of program participation.…

  17. Prosocial Behaviors in a Mainstreamed Preschool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackmon, Alyce Akers; Dembo, Myron H.

    A study was conducted to determine the frequency of three types of prosocial interactions--empathy, helping, and altruism--which nonhandicapped preschool children could exhibit toward their handicapped peers. Subjects were 32 nonhandicapped 4- to 5-year-olds and 13 developmentally disabled 3- to 5-year-olds attending a mainstreamed preschool…

  18. Vanquishing Virtue: The Impact of Medical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulehan, Jack; Williams, Peter C.

    2001-01-01

    Asserts that North American medical education favors an explicit commitment to traditional values of doctoring--empathy, compassion, and altruism--but a tacit commitment to behaviors grounded in an ethic of detachment, self-interest, and objectivity. Explores differing ways (conflation, deflation, and maintaining of values) that students respond…

  19. Mind the Gap: Why Do People Act Environmentally and What Are the Barriers to Pro-Environmental Behavior?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollmuss, Anja; Agyeman, Julian

    2002-01-01

    Describes a few of the most influential and commonly used analytical frameworks including early U.S. linear progression models; altruism, empathy, and prosocial behavior models; and sociological models. Analyzes factors that have been found to have some influence, positive or negative, on pro-environmental behavior such as demographic factors,…

  20. An Illustrative Case of High-Empathy Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Sharon R.

    1984-01-01

    Describes personality traits of teachers rated as highly empathic in a study of 24 teachers of emotionally disturbed children. Results suggested that teachers rated high in empathy also rated high on teaching performance. They had moderate feelings of self-worth and altruism but low feelings of acceptability to others. (JAC)

  1. Female College Students' Perceptions of Organ Donation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boland, Kathleen; Baker, Kerrie

    2010-01-01

    The current process of organ donation in the U.S. relies on the premise of altruism or voluntary consent. Yet, human organs available for donation and transplant do not meet current demands. The literature has suggested that college students, who represent a large group of potential healthy organ donors, often are not part of donor pools. Before…

  2. ALTRUISTIC EDUCATION - GANDHIAN PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.AMBEDKAR

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The well-being of the individuals, and the social groups, and not the welfare of the society as such, is always the ultimate end of morality. The welfare of society as a whole is a means to the welfare of the units. In the early stages of social evolution, egoism is strong and altruism weak. The moral code prohibits acts of aggression and imposes restraints on the individual in the interest of co-operation. Altruism is essential to the development of life and the increase of happiness, and self-sacrifice is no less primordial than self-preservation. The egoistic satisfactions of each individual in a society depend on such altruistic actions as being just, seeing justice done, upholding and improving the agencies for the administration of justice and improving others physically, intellectually, and morally, pure egoism and pure altruism are equally illegitimate. In the words of Auguste Comte Altruism is the opposite of Egoism. This paper discusses Gandhiji's view about Altruistic Education. The present educational system has to be such that every boy and girl is able to know, love and do good and promote a culture of acceptance, tolerance and love for social justice.

  3. Representing culture in interstellar messages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakoch, Douglas A.

    2008-09-01

    As scholars involved with the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI) have contemplated how we might portray humankind in any messages sent to civilizations beyond Earth, one of the challenges they face is adequately representing the diversity of human cultures. For example, in a 2003 workshop in Paris sponsored by the SETI Institute, the International Academy of Astronautics (IAA) SETI Permanent Study Group, the International Society for the Arts, Sciences and Technology (ISAST), and the John Templeton Foundation, a varied group of artists, scientists, and scholars from the humanities considered how to encode notions of altruism in interstellar messages . Though the group represented 10 countries, most were from Europe and North America, leading to the group's recommendation that subsequent discussions on the topic should include more globally representative perspectives. As a result, the IAA Study Group on Interstellar Message Construction and the SETI Institute sponsored a follow-up workshop in Santa Fe, New Mexico, USA in February 2005. The Santa Fe workshop brought together scholars from a range of disciplines including anthropology, archaeology, chemistry, communication science, philosophy, and psychology. Participants included scholars familiar with interstellar message design as well as specialists in cross-cultural research who had participated in the Symposium on Altruism in Cross-cultural Perspective, held just prior to the workshop during the annual conference of the Society for Cross-cultural Research . The workshop included discussion of how cultural understandings of altruism can complement and critique the more biologically based models of altruism proposed for interstellar messages at the 2003 Paris workshop. This paper, written by the chair of both the Paris and Santa Fe workshops, will explore the challenges of communicating concepts of altruism that draw on both biological and cultural models.

  4. The brain's functional network architecture reveals human motives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, Grit; Morishima, Yosuke; Leiberg, Susanne; Sul, Sunhae; Fehr, Ernst

    2016-03-01

    Goal-directed human behaviors are driven by motives. Motives are, however, purely mental constructs that are not directly observable. Here, we show that the brain's functional network architecture captures information that predicts different motives behind the same altruistic act with high accuracy. In contrast, mere activity in these regions contains no information about motives. Empathy-based altruism is primarily characterized by a positive connectivity from the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) to the anterior insula (AI), whereas reciprocity-based altruism additionally invokes strong positive connectivity from the AI to the ACC and even stronger positive connectivity from the AI to the ventral striatum. Moreover, predominantly selfish individuals show distinct functional architectures compared to altruists, and they only increase altruistic behavior in response to empathy inductions, but not reciprocity inductions. PMID:26941317

  5. Directed altruistic living donation: what is wrong with the beauty contest?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorlock, Greg

    2015-11-01

    This paper explores the specific criticism of directed altruistic living organ donation that it creates a 'beauty contest' between potential recipients of organs. The notion of the beauty contest in transplantation was recently used by Neidich et al who stated that '[a]ltruism should be the guiding motivation for all donations, and when it [is], there is no place for a beauty contest'. I examine this beauty contest objection from two perspectives. First, I argue that, when considered against the behaviour of donors, this objection cannot be consistently raised without also objecting to other common aspects of organ donation. I then explore the beauty contest objection from the perspective of recipients, and argue that if the beauty contest is objectionable, it is because of a tension between recipient behaviour and the altruism that supposedly underpins the donation system. I conclude by briefly questioning the importance of this tension in light of the organ shortage. PMID:26126975

  6. Developing a Measure of Virtual Community Citizenship Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luman Yong

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the kinds of behaviors that constitute virtual community citizenship behaviors (VCCB and tests three factors that may influence community members’ willingness to engage in VCCB. More specifically, the authors propose a multi-dimensional VCCB construct (altruism, civic virtue, consciousness, courtesy, and sportsmanship and three antecedents of VCCB (affective commitment, structural embeddedness and membership tenure. Four dimensions including altruism, civic virtue, courtesy and loyalty emerged as a result of behavioral examples collection from SMEs using critical incident technique and a VCCB survey with 19 Likert type items reflecting the behavioral examples within each dimension was created. Data was collected from an online discussion forum (The Grad Cafe to address the research questions of this study. Results indicate that affective commitment was a significant predictor of the virtual community citizenship behaviors. A research agenda for studying VCCB is presented.

  7. Kszta ł towanie orientacji aksjologicznych w rodzinie i w szkole w opinii nastolatków/ A Teenager’s reβlection on formation of the value orientations in the family and at school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VILIJA GRINCEVIČIENĖ

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Family and school – the most important social institutions in which the young generation is prepared to live in tomorrow’s society. Analysis of the research revealed that in the period of age from 14 to 19 the most important values is considered as: empathy, perfection, justice, self-improvement, self-esteem, security, acceptance, courage, knowledge, creativity, competitiveness, friendship, cooperation, responsibility and altruism. Family, which successfully trains and educates such values as security, justice, altruism, empathy, self-esteem, enable the young generation to develop social competence. The main values conveyed in the school-competitiveness,education, cooperation, friendship, recognition. Looking at the situation from a range of competencies, a school distinguished by communication, learning to learn skills and personal development. A closer interaction between school and family accelerate the positive socialization process of young generation and guarantee the further development of the formation process of value orientations (personality development.

  8. Opportunities and Possibilities from Illness: Volunteer Experiences among People Infected with HIV/AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lirio del Carmen Gutiérrez Rivera

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available All illnesses can be interpreted. In the case of HIV/AIDS, experience and interpretation are intercepted by meanings that recluse, insulate and morally expose patients and their social networks. Volunteers stand out in these networks, because they are the only ones that continue to have contact with patients. In many cases, they are stigmatized. This article is about the experience of female volunteers with people infected with HIV/AIDS. The phenomenological experience allows studying their perceptions, verifications and modifications of the disease. The results show the following: first, HIV/AIDS is an opportunity to thank a past event; second, it is an opportunity to construct, through altruism, a space of opportunity for them and their patients; third, HIV/AIDS shows social shortages. Although this experience does not construct political identities or legal discourse, it confronts and inverts negative perceptions of the disease through actions of care whose essential component is love, altruism and brotherhood.

  9. PREFERENCE AND EVOLUTION IN THE ITERATED PRISONER'S DILEMMA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Xianjia; Liu Weibing

    2009-01-01

    Game theory is extensively used to study strategy-making and actions of play-ers. The authors proposed an analysis method for study the evolutionary outcome and behaviors of players with preference in iterated prisoner's dilemma. In this article, a pref-erence parameter k was introduced in the payoff matrix, wherein the value of k denotes the player's degree of egoism and altruism (preference). Then, a game-theoretic dynamical model was formulated using Birth-and-Death process. The authors studied how prefer-ence influences the evolutionary equilibrium and behaviors of players. The authors get the general results: egoism leads to defection, and altruism can make players build trust and maintain cooperation, and so, the hope of the Pareto optimal solution. In the end, the simulation experiments proved the efficiency of the method.

  10. Consumer recycling: An ethical decision-making process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Culiberg, Barbara; Bajde, Domen

    2013-01-01

    its key concept, that is, moral intensity, which we extend by adding altruism as an important personality trait that influences pro-social behaviour. The data were collected from a sample of 367 adult consumers, representative of the Slovenian population by gender and age. The hypotheses were tested...... using structural equation modelling. The results of our study confirmed the relationships between three key facets of ethical decision making: moral recognition, moral judgment and moral intention. Higher levels of moral recognition were found to lead to more positive moral judgments, which in turn...... positively influenced the formation of intentions to recycle. Moreover, moral intensity was found to be a significant predictor of moral recognition and moral judgment, while altruism was found to be a significant predictor of moral recognition. These findings hold important implications for public policy...

  11. A pilot feasibility study of a peer-led mindfulness program for medical students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danilewitz, Marlon; Bradwejn, Jacques; Koszycki, Diana

    2016-01-01

    Background Mindfulness meditation has gained momentum in medical circles for bolstering wellbeing and other facets of professionalism. This study evaluated the feasibility and benefits of a peer-led mindfulness meditation program (MMP) on medical student wellness and professionalism. Method Pre-clerkship students were recruited and randomized to the 8-week MMP or wait-list. Feasibility outcomes included ease of recruitment, program attendance and homework compliance. Other outcomes included self-reported psychological distress, empathy, self-compassion, mindfulness, altruism and program satisfaction. Results The MMP decreased levels of stress and enhanced mindfulness, self-compassion and altruism from baseline to post-study. Changes were not significant for the wait-list condition. Although satisfaction with the MMP was high compliance was suboptimal. Conclusions A peer-led MMP is feasible and may be a promising approach to enhance medical student wellbeing. Further research is needed to explore strategies to improve program compliance in this student population. PMID:27103950

  12. Who intervenes against homophobic behavior? Attributes that distinguish active bystanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poteat, V Paul; Vecho, Olivier

    2016-02-01

    Research on homophobic behavior has focused on students engaging in this behavior or students toward whom this behavior is directed. There has been little attention to the large segment of students who observe this behavior, including active bystanders who defend or support students when homophobic behavior occurs. Among 722 high school students (55% female, 87% white, 86% heterosexual), 66.8% had observed at least one instance of homophobic behavior in the past 30 days. Gender (in this case, girls more so than boys), leadership, courage, altruism, justice sensitivity, and number of LGBT friends were associated with engagement in more active bystander behavior in response to observing homophobic behavior. Further, gender, courage, altruism, and number of LGBT friends each made unique contributions in accounting for variability in students' defending behavior in a comprehensive regression model. Findings highlight qualities that interventionists should cultivate in students that could lead to more active bystander engagement against homophobic behavior. PMID:26790700

  13. Altruismo y capacidad de aprendizaje organizativo: Un estudio en las empresas mejor valoradas por los trabajadores en España

    OpenAIRE

    Jacob Guinot; Ricardo Chiva; Fermín Mallén

    2015-01-01

    Due to the new characteristics of the economic and business environment, organizational learning capability has become essential for organizational competitiveness and success. Therefore, there is a need to develop firm strategies that foster organizational learning capability within organizations. This study shows the importance of altruism in organizations in order to facilitate the organizational learning process, and thus enhancing organizational performance. Due to the new characteris...

  14. Welfare programs and motivation bias of social workers

    OpenAIRE

    Jean-Marie Lozachmeur; Pierre Boyer

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies optimal disability and welfare benets with imperfect disability tagging. Labor supply is aected by the levels of both disability and welfare benets. The tagging process is implemented by social workers that may have some altruism toward claimants. All the individuals that are not working are eligible for welfare benets. We analyze the optimal structure of benets and the implications of a reform aimed at raising the standard for being eligible for disability benets.

  15. The experiment of affective web risk communication on HLW geological disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dialog mode web contents regarding the HLW risk is effective to altruism. To make it more effectively, we introduced affective elements such as facial expression of character agents and sympathetic response on the BBS by experts, which brought us smooth risk communication. This paper describes the result of preliminary experiments surrounding the affective ways to communicate on the risk of HLW geological disposal, leading to enhance the social cooperation, and the public open experiment for one month on the Web. (author)

  16. Are people ethical? An experimental approach

    OpenAIRE

    Rowen, D.; Dietrich, M

    2007-01-01

    Do ethical motivations and attitudes affect behaviour? We examine this issue in six Prisoner´s Dilemma and Prisoner´s Dilemma related games using an online experiment where individuals were asked to make choices and subsequently to express the motivations for their choices and their general attitudes. The experimental evidence of 1,701 students suggests that the motivations and attitudes of respondents regarding altruism, inequality aversion, reciprocity and aversion to lying are important fo...

  17. Segregate or cooperate- a study of the interaction between two species of Dictyostelium

    OpenAIRE

    Jones Emily I; Mehdiabadi Natasha J; Ridgeway Julia G; Jack Chandra N; Edwards Tracy A; Queller David C; Strassmann Joan E.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background A major challenge for evolutionary biology is explaining altruism, particularly when it involves death of one party and occurs across species. Chimeric fruiting bodies of Dictyostelium discoideum and Dictyostelium purpureum develop from formerly independent amoebae, and some die to help others. Here we examine co-aggregation between D. discoideum and D. purpureum, determine its frequency and which party benefits, and the extent of fair play in contribution to the altruisti...

  18. How does socio-economic status shape a child's personality?

    OpenAIRE

    Deckers, Thomas; Falk, Armin; Kosse, Fabian; Schildberg-Hörisch, Hannah

    2015-01-01

    We show that socio-economic status (SES) is a powerful predictor of many facets of a child's personality. The facets of personality we investigate encompass time preferences, risk preferences, and altruism, as well as crystallized and fluid IQ. We measure a family's SES by the mother's and father's average years of education and household income. Our results show that children from families with higher SES are more patient, tend to be more altruistic and less likely to be risk seeking, and sc...

  19. Rzecz o nepotyzmie i kumoterstwie

    OpenAIRE

    Rosicki, Remigiusz

    2012-01-01

    The paper comprises an introduction, four parts, and conclusions. The introduction char- acterizes the fundamental notions discussed in the paper, namely kin selection, nepotism, cronyism and political capitalism. The first part of the paper concerns kin selection and reciprocal altruism, which are deemed to be the fundamental mechanisms of socialization. This part indicates that nepotism has a biological justification (and in R. Dawkins’ interpretation – a genetic justificatio...

  20. Does food sharing in vampire bats demonstrate reciprocity?

    OpenAIRE

    Carter, Gerald; Wilkinson, Gerald

    2013-01-01

    Claims of reciprocity (or reciprocal altruism) in animal societies often ignite controversy because authors disagree over definitions, naturalistic studies tend to demonstrate correlation not causation, and controlled experiments often involve artificial conditions. Food sharing among common vampire bats has been a classic textbook example of reciprocity, but this conclusion has been contested by alternative explanations. Here, we review factors that predict food sharing in vampire bats based...

  1. Social memory, social stress, and economic behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Taiki Takahashi

    2005-01-01

    Social memory plays a pivotal role in social behaviors, from mating behaviors to cooperative behaviors based on reciprocal altruism. More specifically, social/person recognition memory is supposed, by behavioral-economic and game-theoretic analysis, to be required for tit- for-tat like cooperative behaviors to evolve under the N-person iterated prisoner fs dilemma game condition. Meanwhile, humans are known to show a social stress response during face-to-face social interactions, which might ...

  2. Assessing Calling in Chinese College Students: Development of a Measure and Its Relation to Hope

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Chunyu; Herrmann, Anne; Hirschi, Andreas; Wei, Jia; ZHANG, JINFU

    2015-01-01

    Research suggests that perceiving a calling towards a particular career is relatively frequent among college students in Western cultures. However, little is known about how this applies to other cultural contexts. This study assessed the perception of career as a calling in the Chinese culture. Study 1 reports the development of the Chinese Calling Scale (CCS), based on a sample of 788 Chinese college students, and identifies three dimensions of a calling: Altruism, Guiding Force, and Meanin...

  3. Decision Criteria in Ethical Dilemma Situations: Empirical Examples from Austrian Managers

    OpenAIRE

    Litschka, Michael; Suske, Michaela; Brandtweiner, Roman

    2011-01-01

    This paper is the result of an empirical research project analysing the decision behaviour of Austrian managers in ethical dilemma situations. While neoclassical economic theory would suggest a pure economic rational basis for management decisions, the empirical study conducted by the authors put other concepts to a test, thereby analysing their importance for managerial decision making: specific notions of fairness, reciprocal altruism, and commitment. After reviewing some of ...

  4. What motivates and restricts chinese Wikipedians to contribute to english Wikipedia?

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, F.

    2016-01-01

    Wikipedia, world’s biggest and most popular online encyclopedia, contains more than 26 million articles in over 280 languages, behind which are contributors voluntarily dedicating their time and effort. Hence, the Wikipedia contributors' motivations have been a popular topic in academic researches. According to the prior studies, people contribute to Wikipedia entries are motivated by altruism, reputation and enjoyment. However, researches on the motivation and restrictions of Chinese Wikiped...

  5. Knowledge sharing in virtual communities: a social exchange theory perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Li Jinyang

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The author tried to identify the knowledge sharing behaviors on the internet, using structural equation modeling methods, proposing a model based on social exchange theory in which share willingness, trust, reciprocity, altruism tended to have impact on people’s knowledge sharing behaviors in virtual communities. Design/methodology/approach: We presented an empirical research which integrated social exchange theory and structural equation modeling methods to analyze several important...

  6. On the economics of interpersonal relationships: three essays on social capital, social norms and social identity

    OpenAIRE

    Herbaux, Denis

    2009-01-01

    For decades, economic theories have been mostly based on rational choices made by selfish individuals to maximize their utility, while sociology spent a lot of efforts describing the environment of individuals and explaining how this environment shapes theirs decisions. However, the last thirty years have seen many sociological concepts appear in the economic literature. For example, behavioral economics introduces things such as envy or altruism in economic theories. Other notions such as so...

  7. Individuals and institutions in social economics

    OpenAIRE

    Goodwin, Neva

    1991-01-01

    This is Chapter 4 from "Social Economics: An Alternative Theory" (St. Martin's Press, 1991). This chapter focuses on the human subjects of economic study, suggesting that the psychology offered in neoclassical economics is severely inadequate to serve as the foundation for a social science. Psychological issues that deserve more attention in economics include altruism, trust, learning processes, and the values of "doing" and "being" - these last being contrasted with the neoclassical emph...

  8. Grandma plays favourites: X-chromosome relatedness and sex-specific childhood mortality †

    OpenAIRE

    Fox, Molly; Sear, Rebecca; Beise, Jan; Ragsdale, Gillian; Voland, Eckart; Knapp, Leslie A.

    2009-01-01

    Biologists use genetic relatedness between family members to explain the evolution of many behavioural and developmental traits in humans, including altruism, kin investment and longevity. Women's post-menopausal longevity in particular is linked to genetic relatedness between family members. According to the ‘grandmother hypothesis’, post-menopausal women can increase their genetic contribution to future generations by increasing the survivorship of their grandchildren. While some demographi...

  9. Mental health literacy about depression and schizophrenia among Swedish teenagers: a vignette study

    OpenAIRE

    Tartani, Evaggelia

    2011-01-01

    Although the prevalence of mental pathology is high, public’s mental health literacy (i.e. knowledge about mental disorders) has not been examined to a great extent. The main purpose of this study was to examine mental health literacy concerning depression and schizophrenia in a setting of adolescents in Sweden. A secondary aim was to explore stigmatizing attitudes towards mentally ill and levels of altruism among adolescents regarding help-seeking behavior. The present study employed qualita...

  10. Evolutionary models of in-group favoritism

    OpenAIRE

    Masuda, Naoki; Fu, Feng

    2015-01-01

    In-group favoritism is the tendency for individuals to cooperate with in-group members more strongly than with out-group members. Similar concepts have been described across different domains, including in-group bias, tag-based cooperation, parochial altruism, and ethnocentrism. Both humans and other animals show this behavior. Here, we review evolutionary mechanisms for explaining this phenomenon by covering recently developed mathematical models. In fact, in-group favoritism is not easily r...

  11. Charity and the Bequest Motive: Evidence from Seventeenth-Century Wills

    OpenAIRE

    Leslie Moscow McGranahan

    2000-01-01

    This paper researches motivations for charitable bequests by looking at gifts to the poor in wills written in Suffolk, England, in the 1620s and 1630s. The findings that wealthier and more religious individuals and those with fewer children give more to the poor support an altruistic model of testator utility. However, the result that individuals who give to more people outside of their immediate families are more likely to give to the poor contradicts the simple altruism model. This result i...

  12. The Economy of Internet-Based Hospitality Exchange

    OpenAIRE

    Tagiew, Rustam

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze and compare general development and individual behavior on two non-profit internet-based hospitality exchange services -- bewelcome.org and warmshowers.org. We measure the effort needed to achieve a real-life interaction, whereby the advantages of mutual altruism arise. The effort needed is the communication quantified in units of time. Since the amount of effort is not obvious to individual users, the development of the effort investing strategy is investigated. The...

  13. Group Identity and Relation-Specific Investment: An Experimental Investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Hodaka Morita; Maroš Servátka

    2012-01-01

    The hold-up problem has played a central role in the study of firm boundaries that originated with the pathbreaking essay by Coase (1937). This paper studies a previously unexplored mechanism through which integration could resolve the hold-up problem. Based on Tajfel and Turner’s (1979) social identification theory, we conjecture that team membership increases the degree of altruism towards another team member, and this in turn helps resolving the hold-up problem. We test this conjecture in ...

  14. Leaving the Nest : The Interaction of Parental Income and Family Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Anne Laferrere

    2005-01-01

    The influence of parental income on the choice of young adults to leave the parents'home is still an open question. This paper suggests a model in which either moreparental income increases the independent child's consumption and encourages leaving(standard altruism) or increases more his consumption when co-residing (proximityaltruism) and induces to stay. Besides, housing is a non-transferable good, and lesshousing consumption at the parents' induces to move out. Empirical tests on French d...

  15. Analýza fenoménu dárcovství krve v České republice

    OpenAIRE

    Košťálová, Romana

    2010-01-01

    The thesis deals with the issue of blood donation and it has a total of fifteen parts. The first chapter describes theoretical knowledges of motivational factors, altruism and economic view on it. It is followed by informations about the history of blood donation and treatments with blood, anatomy of blood and blood groups. The section of blood donation provides general informations about conditions of donation, resulting benefits, risks for donor and recipient and commercial collection of pl...

  16. Generation Y and Blood Donation: The Impact of Altruistic Help in a Darwiportunistic Scenario

    OpenAIRE

    Scholz, Christian

    2010-01-01

    This article focuses on the members of Generation Y and their willingness to offer voluntary (unpaid) blood donations. Using statistics from various sources, a three-stage model is developed to explain blood donation behaviour especially of this generation. It consists of i) developing altruism, ii) raising the willingness to donate blood, and iii) activating actual blood donation behaviour. Members of Generation Y live in a Darwinistic society. They also to some degree act opportunistically,...

  17. 'Corpore sano in mens sana'. The Morality of Blood Donation

    OpenAIRE

    Casado Neira, David

    2006-01-01

    Modern conceptions of health separate body from soul in the familiar Cartesian dualism. In blood donation this separation is easy to identify: embodiment is a civilizing process, and altruism is the moral basis that supports it. The donor is treated as essentially a vessel of blood, a mere container which can be directed to discharge its contents into blood banks. The biomedical use of blood is not morally neutral; indeed, the donor's moral conscience is mobilised in order to get them to dona...

  18. Transfers within a Three Generations Family: When the Rotten Kids Turn into Altruistic Parents

    OpenAIRE

    Cremer, Helmuth; Roeder, Kerstin

    2014-01-01

    We study exchanges between three overlapping generations with non-dynastic altruism. The middleaged choose informal care provided to their parents and education expenditures for their children. The young enjoy their education, while the old may leave a bequest to their children. Within each period the three generations play a “game” inspired by Becker's (1974, 1991) rotten kids framework, with the added features that the rotten kids turn into the altruistic parent in the next period and that ...

  19. OPTION WEALTH AND BEQUEST VALUES: THE VALUE OF PROTECTING FUTURE GENERATIONS FROM THE HEALTH RISKS OF NUCLEAR WASTE STORAGE

    OpenAIRE

    Riddel, Mary C.; Shaw, W. Douglass

    2002-01-01

    We devise a simple model of intergenerational altruism under uncertainty. We present an estimable form of the model that relies on a few, plausible, assumptions. We apply the model to data collected in a survey of Southern Nevadans concerning the proposed Yucca Mountain Nuclear Waste Repository in Nye County, NV. We find strong evidence of a bequest motive. Approximately one third of the option wealth lost by households near the repository can be attributed to costs to future generations.

  20. Egalitarianism under population change: age structure does matter

    OpenAIRE

    Raouf Boucekkine; Giorgio Fabbri; Fausto Gozzi

    2014-01-01

    We study the compatibility of the optimal population size concepts produced by different social welfare functions and egalitarianism meant as “equal consumption for all individuals of all generations”. Social welfare functions are parameterized by an altruism parameter generating the Benthamite and Millian criteria as polar cases. The economy considered is in continuous time and is populated by homogeneous cohorts with a given life span. Production functions are linear in labor, (costly) proc...

  1. The Laughter as Hope Principle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateus Domingues da Silva

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The work aims to establish a parallel between the concept of laughter and the Hope Principle of Ernst Bloch, differentiating their relationship between the pursuit of individual happiness, said to be ideological, deceptive and precarious, and the pursuit of collective happiness, altruistic, that despite utopian it is also true and real, just for being selfless and real because, as a collective expression, indicating concretely and politically, is a real possibility.Keywords: Laughter, Hope Principle, Ernest Bloch, altruism.

  2. Relationship between Motivation and Behavior of SNS User

    OpenAIRE

    Hui Chen

    2012-01-01

    With 225 SNS network users as the subjects, the research focuses on the influence of SNS network users’ motivation on their behavior. Data are collected through questionnaires and the relationship between motivation and behavior is studied with relative analytical methods. As shown in the study, information and instrument motivation, entertainment and aesthetic motivation, social connection motivation, altruism motivation, ascription and identification motivation, and intrisic motivatio...

  3. SÜPERMARKET ÇALISANLARI ÜZERİNDE BİR ARAŞTIRMA: ADANA İLİ ÖRNEĞİ

    OpenAIRE

    İPLİK, Fatma Nur

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the correlation between the organizational justice perceptions and altruism, conscientiousness, sportsmanship, courtesy and civic virtue that are the five dimensions of organizational citizenship behaviors of employees. In the direction of this purpose, organizational justice and organizational citizenship behavior scales that take place in the literature were implemented to the employees of a local supermarket chain in the city of Adana

  4. ALGILANAN ÖRGÜTSEL ADALETİN ÖRGÜTSEL VATANDASLIK DAVRANISLARI ÜZERİNDEKİ ETKİSİNİN BELİRLENMESİNE YÖNELİK

    OpenAIRE

    İPLİK, Fatma Nur

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the correlation between the organizational justice perceptions and altruism, conscientiousness, sportsmanship, courtesy and civic virtue that are the five dimensions of organizational citizenship behaviors of employees. In the direction of this purpose, organizational justice and organizational citizenship behavior scales that take place in the literature were implemented to the employees of a local supermarket chain in the city of Adana

  5. Do consumers buy organic food for sustainability or selfish reasons?

    OpenAIRE

    Bergès, Fabian; Monier-Dilhan, Sylvette

    2013-01-01

    The expansion of organic agriculture has been a key issue in sustainable development. We study consumers’ motives for purchasing organic agricultural products by analysing a basket of goods from a panel of French households. Buying organic products can be motivated by altruism, where the purchase reflects concerns for sustainable development, or by self-interest, where the purchase reflects concerns for health and/or product quality. The altruistic motivation can be analysed by looking at the...

  6. Determinants of organizational citizenship behavior: A case study of higher education institutes in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Nazia Bashir; Amber Sardar; Khalid Zaman; Aamir Khan Swati; Shazia Fakhr

    2012-01-01

    This study empirically examines the relationship between altruism, conscientiousness, and civic virtue, three of the antecedents of organizational citizenship behavior, in higher education institutes in the Khyber Pakhtonkhuwa Province (KPK) of Pakistan. The study is based on primary data collected from ninety-five employees of various institutes in Pakistan. The data is analyzed using the techniques of rank correlation coefficient and multiple regression analysis. All the findings are tested...

  7. Incentive Use in Research: Protecting Vulnerable Populations from Exploitation

    OpenAIRE

    Haruna Muwonge; Lawrence Fred Sembajwe

    2013-01-01

    Global investment in Medical Research and Development has markedly increased in the last few decades. However, due to the decreasing public altruism, researchers have come under increased pressures from the funding bodies to produce results. Out of desperation, some researchers have resorted to using incentives as a means of sourcing for volunteers. Consequently, the research burden has disproportionately been shared among the most vulnerable populations in the society. Incentives especially ...

  8. Modes of Collective Action in Village Economies:Evidence from Natural and Artefactual Field Experiments in a Developing Country

    OpenAIRE

    SAWADA Yasuyuki; Kasahara, Ryuji; Aoyagi, Aoyagi; Shoji, Masahiro; Ueyama, Mika

    2012-01-01

    In a canonical model of collective action, individual contribution to collective action is negatively correlated with group size. Yet, empirical evidence on the group size effect has been mixed, partly due to heterogeneities in group activities. In this paper, we first construct a simple model of collective action with the free rider problem, altruism, public goods, and positive externalities of social networks. We then empirically test the theoretical implications of the group size effect on...

  9. Individual and Corporate Social Responsibility

    OpenAIRE

    Bénabou, Roland; Tirole, Jean

    2010-01-01

    Society's demands for individual and corporate social responsibility as an alternative response to market and distributive failures are becoming increasingly prominent. We first draw on recent developments in the 'psychology and economics' of prosocial behavior to shed light on this trend, which reflects a complex interplay of genuine altruism, social or self image concerns, and material incentives. We then link individual concerns to corporate social responsibility, contrasting three possibl...

  10. A Review of Transpersonal Theory and Its Application to the Practice of Psychotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Kasprow, Mark C.; Scotton, Bruce W.

    1999-01-01

    Transpersonal theory proposes that there are developmental stages beyond the adult ego, which involve experiences of connectedness with phenomena considered outside the boundaries of the ego. In healthy individuals, these developmental stages can engender the highest human qualities, including altruism, creativity, and intuitive wisdom. For persons lacking healthy ego development, however, such experiences can lead to psychosis. Superficially, transpersonal states look similar to psychosis. H...

  11. Do pro-social and anti-social attitudes determine an individual's happiness and social support?

    OpenAIRE

    Kellett, Sarah

    2008-01-01

    ABSTRACT The present study aimed to examine whether or not an individual who holds pro-social attitudes will have increased levels of perceived social support and subjective well-being (SWB), and whether or not an individual who holds anti-social attitudes will have decreased levels of perceived social support and SWB. Prior research, although not having examined this link directly, is indicative that this pattern may be found. Pro-social attitudes were judged in terms of altruism, and ant...

  12. Faktory ovlivňující rozhodování spotřebitelů o způsobech nakládání s komunálním odpadem

    OpenAIRE

    Doležalová, Simona

    2009-01-01

    My diploma paper is concerned with problems of consumer's relationship to the communal waste. The aim of my work is to identify which factors influence the consumer's decision making about how to dispose of the communal waste. I focus on both economic and noneconomic incentives like social norms, altruism, motivation or information. Which role does the state play? I follow with legislative problems and different ways of waste disposal in the Czech republic with the comperison with the Europea...

  13. Dynamic Voluntary Contribution to a Public Good: Learning to be a Free Rider

    OpenAIRE

    Clemens, Christiane; Riechmann, Thomas

    2001-01-01

    This paper explores the question whether boundedly rational agents learn to behave optimally when asked to voluntarily contribute to a public good. The decision process of individuals is described by an Evolutionary Algorithm. We analyze the learning process of purely and impurely altruistic agents and find that in both cases the contribution level converges towards the Nash equilibrium although, with pure altruism, exact free rider-behavior is never observed. The latter result corresponds to...

  14. The impact of military identity on performance in the Norwegian Armed Forces

    OpenAIRE

    Johansen, Rino Bandlitz

    2013-01-01

    From a Norwegian point of view, doctrinaire guidance now set the premises for new perspectives related to the military ethos and identity. The exodus of idealism, a military identity based on traditional values as altruism, patriotism and nationalism, has opened up for professionalism as a preferred and necessary military identity in the Norwegian armed forces. Based on this paradigmatic change, it follows that if professionalism could be reliably defined and measured, it might...

  15. Social identity and the formation of health insurance networks.

    OpenAIRE

    De Weerdt, Joachim; Fafchamps, Marcel

    2011-01-01

    In a panel survey of an informal insurance network in Tanzania we find none of the tell-tale signs that insurance transfers follow reciprocal risk sharing arrangements among selfinterested individuals: insurance remittances do not occur through informal loans; transfers are not regressive; and they do not fall when shocks are repeated over time. The evidence of unreciprocated transfers occurring between kin is suggestive of risk sharing based on altruism or social norms.

  16. The relationship of ethical and economic behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Tomáš Sigmund

    2015-01-01

    Altruism and the ethical relationship to other people affect behaviour of subjects in economic environment. Economy tries to capture this behaviour, there are various models, but it hasn´t been successful in fi nding one model describing various types and cases of altruistic behaviour. Business ethics faces a similar problem as it lacks a defi nition of what exactly ethical behaviour means. This paper claims impossibility of fi nding a unanimous defi nition belongs to ethics and is its charac...

  17. Algılanan Adaletin Örgütsel Vatandaşlık Davranışı Üzerindeki Etkisini Belirlemeye Yönelik Görgül Bir Çalışma

    OpenAIRE

    ARSLANTAŞ, Cüneyt

    2005-01-01

    To examine the direct effect of perceived fairness on organizational citizenship behavior, data obtained from 44 white-collar employees working in sale department at a firm were used. Initially, perceived fairness and organizational citizenship behavior were defined and then correlation and regression analysis were performed according to the methodology of the research. As a conclusion, interactional justice was found to have a direct effect on identification with company, altruism toward...

  18. Economists: cheaters with altruistic instincts

    OpenAIRE

    Muñoz-Izquierdo, Nora; Gil-Gómez de Liaño, Beatriz; Rin-Sánchez, Francisco Daniel; Pascual-Ezama, David

    2014-01-01

    Based on an experiment conducted with undergraduate students from three different majors (business economics, psychology and engineering), we study the relationship between honesty and altruism. We asked participants to toss a coin with a black and a white side. Participants won a chocolate if they reported the white outcome, whereas no gift was given if they reported black. It was done privately, so they could decide whether or not to cheat. Reporting the prize-losing side (that is, being ho...

  19. Toward a New Social Contract Theory in Organization Science

    OpenAIRE

    Huff, Anne Sigismund

    1994-01-01

    This article suggests that strategy research (and other management disciplines as well) should move beyond a neo-Hobbesian approach to contracting toward a new social contract approach. Work from an agency theory perspective in particular has generated utilitarian insights, but its description of agent behavior is too limited and its assumptions are not a useful guide to productive alliances among firms. Altruism, ethics, goodwill, moral sentiments, and trust need to be placed in the foregrou...

  20. Motivace ke studiu psychologie

    OpenAIRE

    TENKL, Tomáš

    2013-01-01

    This undergraduate thesis is focused on motivation for studying psychology. The theoretical part contains topics of psychology of motivation, formal classification of motives, explanation of self-determination theory and theory of implicit and explicit motivation. Another topic in theoretical part considers helping professions and includes ? chapters about altruism, motivation for helping professions, the helper syndrome and the burnout syndrome. Further there are described projective methods...

  1. The Columbia-Harlem Homeless Medical Partnership: A New Model for Learning in the Service of Those in Medical Need

    OpenAIRE

    Batra, Priya; Chertok, Judy Sara; Fisher, Carl Erik; Manseau, Marc William; Manuelli, Victoria Nicole; Spears, James

    2009-01-01

    Though altruism and patient advocacy are promoted in medical education curricula, students are given few opportunities to develop these skills. Student-run clinics focusing on the health needs of the underserved can provide important health services to needy patients while providing students with career-influencing primary care experiences. The Columbia-Harlem Homeless Medical Partnership (CHHMP)—a project initiated by medical students to provide primary care to Northern Manhattan's homeless ...

  2. Direct Tests of Models of Social Preferences and a New Model

    OpenAIRE

    Cox, James C.; Vjollca Sadiraj

    2010-01-01

    Departures from "economic man" behavior in many games in which fairness is a salient characteristic are now well documented in the experimental economics literature. These data have inspired development of new models of social preferences incorporating inequality aversion and quasi-maximin preferences. We report experiments that provide direct tests of these social preference models. Data from the experiments motivate a new model of egocentric altruism. The model rationalizes data from our di...

  3. Are there nonverbal cues to commitment? An exploratory study using the zero-acquaintance video presentation paradigm

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, WM

    2003-01-01

    Altruism is difficult to explain evolutionarily if subtle cheaters exist in a population (Trivers, 1971). A pathway to the evolutionary maintenance of cooperation is nonverbal altruist-detection. One adaptive advantage of nonverbal altruist-detection is the formation of trustworthy division of labour partnerships (Frank, 1988). Three studies were designed to test a fundamental assumption behind altruistic partner preference models. In the first experiment perceivers (blind with respect to tar...

  4. A Comparison of the Relationship between Cultural Factors and Responsibility among Youths of Ghorveh and Baneh Cities

    OpenAIRE

    Majid Movahed; Rezgar Salehi; Maryam Hosseini

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Studies show that responsibility in every society regulates social and humanitarian relations and increases empathy and altruism among people. It can be effective in improvement of social security, social functions, academic success, mental health, self-esteem and also self-actualization. In addition, reinforcing responsibility leads to a decrease in social deviance, delinquency, crime and society’s behavioral problems. Given the important role of social responsibility, enhanc...

  5. Against the magnanimous in medical ethics.

    OpenAIRE

    Kottow, M H

    1990-01-01

    Supererogatory acts are considered by some to be part of medicine, whereas others accept supererogation to be a gratuitous virtue, to be extolled when present, but not to be demanded. The present paper sides with those contending that medicine is duty-bound to benefit patients and that supererogation/altruism must per definition remain outside and beyond any role-description of the profession. Medical ethics should be bound by rational ethics and steer away from separatist views which grant e...

  6. Forward and Backward Intergenerational Goods: A Theory of Intergenerational Exchange

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Rangel

    2000-01-01

    December 1999 This papers develops a theory of intergenerational exchange for generations that are either selfish or have non-dynastic altruism. The main building blocks of the theory are forward and backward intergenerational goods (FIGs and BIGs) and the relationship between them. A FIG is a transfer from present to future generations, like parental investments in education and the preservation of the environment. A BIG is a transfer from future to present generations, like pay-as-you-go so...

  7. Pozitivní vztah sociálních pracovníků k drogově závislým klientům

    OpenAIRE

    BROŽOVÁ, Eva

    2012-01-01

    My thesis is called a positive relationship with social workers to drug addicted clients. The aim of my work is to investigate the reason of the positive relationship between social workers and drug addicts. To search for the reason of faithful workers, I come from the text of Deus Caritas Est and the search for reasons for positive relationship of atheist worker, I come from the theory of social exchange, altruism and approach of Carl R. Rogers.

  8. The Non-optimality of For-Profit Firms Acting as Philanthropic Agents

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    We present a model of the nonprofit organization that leads to an allocation in the economy that is Pareto Optimal. This is in contrast to the usual assumption that an economy in which individuals exhibit altruism will not lead to a Pareto Optimal outcome. The presence of nonprofit organizations that function according to this model leads to an outcome in the economy that is Pareto Optimal. The result of Pareto Optimality is based on several assumptions, including the assumption that nonprofi...

  9. Social preferences and public economics: Mechanism design when social preferences depend on incentives

    OpenAIRE

    Bowles, Samuel; Hwang, Sung-Ha

    2007-01-01

    Social preferences such as altruism, reciprocity, intrinsic motivation and a desire to uphold ethical norms are essential to good government, often facilitating socially desirable allocations that would be unattainable by incentives that appeal solely to self-interest. But experimental and other evidence indicates that conventional economic incentives and social preferences may be either complements or substitutes, explicit incentives crowding in or crowding out social preferences. We investi...

  10. Critical behavior in an evolutionary Ultimatum Game

    OpenAIRE

    Eguíluz, Víctor M.; Tessone, Claudio J.

    2007-01-01

    Experimental studies have shown the ubiquity of altruistic behavior in human societies. The social structure is a fundamental ingredient to understand the degree of altruism displayed by the members of a society, in contrast to individual-based features, like for example age or gender, which have been shown not to be relevant to determine the level of altruistic behavior. We explore an evolutionary model aiming to delve how altruistic behavior is affected by social structure. We investigate t...

  11. Essays on Social Preference

    OpenAIRE

    Jeon, Joo Young

    2014-01-01

    This thesis consists of six essays related to experimental investigation of social preference. We investigate the effects of a pure income effect on social preference in the first essay. In the second essay we explore the effects of gender in altruism and the corresponding anticipation behavior. The third essay discusses the effects of different type of rebate schemes on altruistic behavior. We study the effects of a real and a minimal identity on initiation and escalation of conflict i...

  12. Doing good does you good : Prosocial behavior as a sexual and social signal

    OpenAIRE

    Ehlebracht, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    How can evolutionary theories explain prosocial behavior that violates the premises of the inclusive fitness theory and the theory of reciprocal altruism? The basic idea underlying this thesis is that good deeds might evoke future benefits by signaling the qualities of an individual to third parties, ultimately increasing his or her value as a partner in a biological market. Together with Olga Stavrova, Julia Pradel, Thomas Schlösser, and Detlef Fetchenhauer, I examined the effects of isol...

  13. A Behavioral Test of Accepting Benefits that Cost Others: Associations with Conduct Problems and Callous-Unemotionality

    OpenAIRE

    Sakai, Joseph T.; Dalwani, Manish S.; Gelhorn, Heather L.; Mikulich-Gilbertson, Susan K.; Crowley, Thomas J.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Youth with conduct problems (CP) often make decisions which value self-interest over the interests of others. Self-benefiting behavior despite loss to others is especially common among youth with CP and callous-unemotional traits (CU). Such behavioral tendencies are generally measured using self- or observer-report. We are unaware of attempts to measure this tendency with a behavioral paradigm. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In our AlAn's (altruism-antisocial) game a computer program...

  14. What is trustworthiness and what drives it?

    OpenAIRE

    Cox, James C; Kerschbamer, Rudolf; Neururer, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports the results of experiments designed to isolate the impact of various combinations of the following motives on trustworthiness: (i) unconditional other-regarding preferences -- like altruism, inequality aversion, quasi-maximin, etc.; (ii) deal-responsiveness -- reacting to actions that allow for a mutual improvement by adopting behavior that implies a mutual improvement; (iii) gift-responsiveness -- reacting to choices that allow the trustee to obtain an improvement by adopt...

  15. Genetic and environmental contributions to pro-social attitudes: a twin study of social responsibility.

    OpenAIRE

    Rushton, J. Philippe

    2004-01-01

    Although 51 twin and adoption studies have been performed on the genetic architecture of antisocial behaviour, only four previous studies have examined a genetic contribution to pro-social behaviour. Earlier work by the author with the University of London Institute of Psychiatry Adult Twin Register found that genes contributed approximately half of the variance to measures of self-report altruism, empathy, nurturance and aggression, including acts of violence. The present study extends those...

  16. Developing and validating a scale of altruistic leadership

    OpenAIRE

    Zheltoukhova, Ksenia

    2016-01-01

    The focus of many disciplines on cooperation as a strategy for effective societal functioning stimulates continuing debate on altruism generally and altruistic leadership more specifically. Theoretical articulation of the concept of altruistic leadership is limited, with most leadership scholars focusing on self-sacrificial behaviours, rather than leaders’ motivational state. This thesis draws on the social science literature to address the question of the nature of altruistic leadership and ...

  17. Lending a helping hand: Provision of helping behaviors beyond professional career responsibilities.

    OpenAIRE

    Van Emmerik, IJ.H.; I.M. Jawahar

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Purpose – The purpose of this study is to investigate if gender and altruism evidence similar relationships with the different types of helping behaviors (e.g. organizational citizenship behaviors, OCBs; volunteering, vol; and helping kin, HK). Design/methodology/approach – Data from websurveys of 178 professional employees are analyzed using Zellner’s seemingly unrelated regression (SURE). Findings – Results indicate women engage in HK to a greater extent than men, however this diff...

  18. Meaningful travel: Women, independent travel and the search for self and meaning

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Erica; Harris, Candice

    2006-01-01

    It is increasingly recognised by researchers that tourism experiences incorporate more than just physical travel to a place, as they can also involve spiritual elements, psychological and physical benefits, altruism, self-development, and life-change. Building on this recognition, this paper puts forward the idea that independent travel plays an important and meaningful part in the course of people's lives. The concept of 'meaningful travel' is defined and explored, using women's experiences ...

  19. The social side of Homo economicus

    OpenAIRE

    Rankin, D. J.

    2011-01-01

    Many recent experiments in the field of behavioural economics appear to demonstrate a willingness of humans to behave altruistically, even when it is not in their interest to do so. This has led to the assertion that humans have evolved a special predisposition towards altruism. Recent studies have questioned this, and demonstrated that selfless cooperation does not hold up in controlled experiments. As I discuss here, this calls for more economic 'field experiments' and highlights the need f...

  20. Essays in Behavioural Economics.

    OpenAIRE

    Gneezy, U.

    1997-01-01

    Most of the economic literature takes preferences as given. Economists use them as the building blocks of their models, estimate them in lab experiments and correlate them with life outcomes. But we only rarely ask about their origins. How come that fundamental preferences such as risk aversion, reciprocity, inequality aversion and altruism vary so strongly across individuals? Are they biologically predetermined or can we shape them through upbringing and education? This dissertation aims to ...

  1. Fairness expectations and altruistic sharing in 15-month-old human infants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco F H Schmidt

    Full Text Available Human cooperation is a key driving force behind the evolutionary success of our hominin lineage. At the proximate level, biologists and social scientists have identified other-regarding preferences--such as fairness based on egalitarian motives, and altruism--as likely candidates for fostering large-scale cooperation. A critical question concerns the ontogenetic origins of these constituents of cooperative behavior, as well as whether they emerge independently or in an interrelated fashion. The answer to this question will shed light on the interdisciplinary debate regarding the significance of such preferences for explaining how humans become such cooperative beings. We investigated 15-month-old infants' sensitivity to fairness, and their altruistic behavior, assessed via infants' reactions to a third-party resource distribution task, and via a sharing task. Our results challenge current models of the development of fairness and altruism in two ways. First, in contrast to past work suggesting that fairness and altruism may not emerge until early to mid-childhood, 15-month-old infants are sensitive to fairness and can engage in altruistic sharing. Second, infants' degree of sensitivity to fairness as a third-party observer was related to whether they shared toys altruistically or selfishly, indicating that moral evaluations and prosocial behavior are heavily interconnected from early in development. Our results present the first evidence that the roots of a basic sense of fairness and altruism can be found in infancy, and that these other-regarding preferences develop in a parallel and interwoven fashion. These findings support arguments for an evolutionary basis--most likely in dialectical manner including both biological and cultural mechanisms--of human egalitarianism given the rapidly developing nature of other-regarding preferences and their role in the evolution of human-specific forms of cooperation. Future work of this kind will help

  2. Friendship and social relationships in a Tibetan village

    OpenAIRE

    Xue, Ming

    2014-01-01

    Friendship is prevalent in human societies. Friendships are often formed among genetically unrelated individuals, who are willing to help each other in times of need, without careful accounting of benefits given to and received from each other. Evolutionarily, altruistic behavior among nonrelatives is inherently risky. This raises a question: how is altruism maintained among unrelated friends? The goal of my dissertation is to shed light on the form and function of human friendship from an ev...

  3. Ibn Khaldun on Solidarity (“Asabiyah”) - Modern Science on Cooperativeness and Empathy : a comparison

    OpenAIRE

    Gierer, Alfred

    2008-01-01

    Understanding cooperative human behaviour depends on insights into the biological basis of human altruism, as well as into socio-cultural development. In terms of evolutionary theory, kinship and reciprocity are well established as underlying cooperativeness. Reasons will be given suggesting an additional source, the capability of a cognition-based empathy that may have evolved as a by-product of strategic thought. An assessment of the range, the intrinsic limitations, and the conditions for ...

  4. Evolutionary foundations of human prosocial sentiments

    OpenAIRE

    Silk, Joan B.; House, Bailey R.

    2011-01-01

    A growing body of evidence shows that humans are remarkably altruistic primates. Food sharing and division of labor play an important role in all human societies, and cooperation extends beyond the bounds of close kinship and networks of reciprocating partners. In humans, altruism is motivated at least in part by empathy and concern for the welfare of others. Although altruistic behavior is well-documented in other primates, the range of altruistic behaviors in other primate species, includin...

  5. Real Estate Prices and the Importance of Bequest Taxation

    OpenAIRE

    Bellettini, Giorgio; Taddei, Filippo

    2009-01-01

    Taxation of bequests and donations is an important determinant of real estate prices. We show that, ceteris paribus, a decrease in taxes on inter vivos donations and bequests brings about an increase in real estate prices. We provide a general equilibrium rationalization in the context of OLG economies featuring intergenerational altruism. This has relevant policy implications. We test the predictions of our theory employing a unique policy shock: the abolition of bequest and donation taxatio...

  6. Does morality have a biological basis? An empirical test of the factors governing moral sentiments relating to incest.

    OpenAIRE

    Lieberman, Debra; Tooby, John; COSMIDES, LEDA

    2003-01-01

    Kin-recognition systems have been hypothesized to exist in humans, and adaptively to regulate altruism and incest avoidance among close genetic kin. This latter function allows the architecture of the kin recognition system to be mapped by quantitatively matching individual variation in opposition to incest to individual variation in developmental parameters, such as family structure and co-residence patterns. Methodological difficulties that appear when subjects are asked to disclose incestu...

  7. And who is your neighbor?: Explaining the effect of religion oncharitable giving and volunteering

    OpenAIRE

    Bekkers, René; Schuyt, Theo

    2008-01-01

    We study differences in contributions of time and money to churches and non-religious nonprofit organizations between members of different religious denominations in the Netherlands. We hypothesize that contributions to religious organizations are based on involvement in the religious community, while contributions to non-religious organizations are more likely to be rooted in prosocial values such as altruism, equality, and responsibility for the common good, which are socialized in religiou...

  8. Resources and innovation in family businesses : the Janus-face of family socioemotional preferences.

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, D.; Wright, M.; Le Breton-Miller, I.; Scholes, L.

    2015-01-01

    Family business socio-emotional preferences are often Janus-faced. Some strive to create a strong business they can pass on to offspring by building innovation-promoting resources such as human, relational, and financial capital. Other family firms cater to family desires for unqualified nepotism, altruism towards undeserving kin, and appropriation of firm assets to fulfill parochial desires that erode these resources. This article explores how such preferences, together with their impact on ...

  9. The evolution of reciprocal sharing

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, Jim

    1984-01-01

    Genetical models of the evolution of reciprocal altruism (as distinct from cooperation, mutualism, or nepotism) have difficulty explaining the initial establishment of an altruist gene in a selfish deme. Though potential mechanisms have been suggested, there is an alternative: much "altruistic" behavior may in fact be purely selfish in origin and consequently reciprocity need not be invoked to provide a selective benefit to the actor. _Sharing_ and _helping_ are fundamentally different behavi...

  10. Limited food induces nepotism in drywood termites

    OpenAIRE

    Korb, Judith

    2006-01-01

    The evolution of cooperation and altruistic behaviour where individuals forego their own reproduction to help others reproduce can be explained by kin selection. Depending on the costs and benefits provided, altruism can be evolutionarily favoured if it is directed at close relatives. A considerable body of data supports the role of relatedness as a key determinant of cooperation and conflict within societies. However, the role of ecological factors and, in particular, how these costs and ben...

  11. Effects of Sperm Conjugation and Dissociation on Sperm Viability In Vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Higginson, Dawn M.; Henn, Kali R. H.

    2012-01-01

    Sperm conjugation is an unusual variation in sperm behavior where two or more spermatozoa physically unite for motility or transport through the female reproductive tract. Conjugation has frequently been interpreted as sperm cooperation, including reproductive altruism, with some sperm advancing their siblings toward the site of fertilization while ostensibly forfeiting their own ability to fertilize through damage incurred during conjugate break-up. Conversely, conjugation has been proposed ...

  12. Empathy in Clinical Practice: How Individual Dispositions, Gender, and Experience Moderate Empathic Concern, Burnout, and Emotional Distress in Physicians

    OpenAIRE

    Ezequiel Gleichgerrcht; Jean Decety

    2013-01-01

    To better understand clinical empathy and what factors can undermine its experience and outcome in care-giving settings, a large-scale study was conducted with 7,584 board certified practicing physicians. Online validated instruments assessing different aspects of empathy, distress, burnout, altruistic behavior, emotional awareness, and well-being were used. Compassion satisfaction was strongly associated with empathic concern, perspective taking and altruism, while compassion fatigue (burnou...

  13. Aid to fragile states: Do donors help or hinder?

    OpenAIRE

    Browne, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    he record of aid to fragile and poorly-performing states is the real test of aid effectiveness. Rich countries can justify aid to fragile states both through altruism and self-interest. But, with some exceptions, donors have appeared at the wrong times and with the wrong attitudes, even sometimes undermining development progress. State failure has dimensions of both will and capacity. Failure demands constructive engagement by donors, in some cases to save people in weak states from their lea...

  14. Religious attitudes and home bias: theory and evidence from a pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Leroch; Carlo Reggiani; Gianpaolo Rossini; Eugenio Zucchelli

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between religion and home bias. We propose a simple theoretical framework that suggests that countries interacting via their representative individuals might show a certain degree of religion-driven international altruism that in turn affects trade. We test these predictions exploiting data from a survey on religious attitudes and individuals' preferences over consumption of home-produced versus foreign goods that we designed and carried out in 15 diffe...

  15. Prosocial Norms as a Positive Youth Development Construct: A Conceptual Review

    OpenAIRE

    Siu, Andrew M. H.; Daniel T. L. Shek; Ben Law

    2012-01-01

    Prosocial norms like reciprocity, social responsibility, altruism, and volunteerism are ethical standards and beliefs that youth development programs often want to promote. This paper reviews evolutionary, social-cognitive, and developmental theories of prosocial development and analyzes how young people learn and adopt prosocial norms. The paper showed that very few current theories explicitly address the issue of how prosocial norms, in form of feelings of moral obligations, may be challeng...

  16. Long-term social bonds promote cooperation in the iterated Prisoner's Dilemma

    OpenAIRE

    St-Pierre, Angèle; Larose, Karine; Dubois, Frédérique

    2009-01-01

    Reciprocal altruism, one of the most probable explanations for cooperation among non-kin, has been modelled as a Prisoner's Dilemma. According to this game, cooperation could evolve when individuals, who expect to play again, use conditional strategies like tit-for-tat or Pavlov. There is evidence that humans use such strategies to achieve mutual cooperation, but most controlled experiments with non-human animals have failed to find cooperation. One reason for this could be that subjects fail...

  17. Child Labor and Resistance to Change

    OpenAIRE

    Bellettini, Giorgio; Berti Ceroni, Carlotta

    2003-01-01

    We study the interactions between technological innovation, investment in human capital and child labor. In our setting new technologies require new skills and new skills can be developed only through schooling. In a two-stage game, first firms decide on innovation, then households decide on education. In equilibrium the presence of inefficient child labor depends on parameters related to technology, parents’ altruism and the diffusion of firm property. When child labor exists, it is due to e...

  18. Child Labor and Resistance to Change.

    OpenAIRE

    Bellettini, Giorgio; Ceroni, Carlotta Berti; Ottaviano, Gianmarco I. P.

    2003-01-01

    We study the interactions between technological innovation, investment in human capital and child labor. In our setting new technologies require new skills and new skills can be developed only through schooling. In a two-stage game, first firms decide on innovation, then households decide on education. In equilibrium the presence of inefficient child labor depends on parameters related to technology, parents' altruism and the diffusion of firm property. When child labor exists, it is due to e...

  19. Empathy-related Responding: Associations with Prosocial Behavior, Aggression, and Intergroup Relations

    OpenAIRE

    Eisenberg, Nancy; Eggum, Natalie D.; Di Giunta, Laura

    2010-01-01

    Empathy-related responding, including empathy, sympathy, and personal distress, has been implicated in conceptual models and theories about prosocial behavior and altruism, aggression and antisocial behavior, and intergroup relationships. Conceptual arguments and empirical findings related to each of these topics are reviewed. In general, there is evidence that empathy and/or sympathy are important correlates of, and likely contributors to, other-oriented prosocial behavior, the inhibition of...

  20. Psychological characteristics of the male beater of their female partner, residing in city of Bucaramanga, Colombia.

    OpenAIRE

    Armando Aguilera Torrado

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the personalities of the male beater of their female partner. Method: We evaluate, by means of BFQ / IMAFE tests, 50 convicted aggressors, registered by the Attorney General Office. We also interviewedthem. Results: Aggressors had very low marks in general culture, information, cooperativism, cordiality, altruism, friendship, generosity and empathy. They showed a low marks in reflexion, order, and in being meticulous, diligent, perseverant, as wells as, in being energet...

  1. Prosociální rysy u dobrovolníků

    OpenAIRE

    HRUŠKOVÁ, Monika

    2014-01-01

    The thesis describes the prosocial characteristics of the volunteers. Everyone who works in the social sphere should acquire the prosocial characteristics, as they form an integral part when working with people. The theoretical part of the thesis is divided into three main chapters. The first chapter is about the history of volunteerism. Characteristics of volunteering are described in the second chapter of the theoretical work. Prosocial behaviour, personality traits, altruism and empathy ar...

  2. What does it take to help an outgroup?

    OpenAIRE

    Jansen, Bianca G M

    2010-01-01

    The present thesis has focused on helping behaviour towards disadvantaged outgroups. Research was done at an intergroup level, and obtained its theoretical foundation from the Social Identity theory (Tajfel & Turner, 1986), self-categorization theory (Turner, 1985; Turner et al., 1987) and the empathy-altruism model (Batson, 1987, 1991; Batson et al., 1989; Batson & Shaw, 1991) and focused on the influence of identity content and ingroup norms in investigating outgroup helping. Experiments we...

  3. Are Turkish Enterpreneurs Altrustic? Evidence From Western Black Sea Region

    OpenAIRE

    Sarıbaş, Hakan; Yıldırım, Halil

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we examine the level of altruistic motive of entrepreneurs who live in three cities of Western Black Sea Region of Turkey, Zonguldak, Bartın and Karabuk. Members of Chambers of Commerce and Industry in these cities were randomly selected and surveyed about four aspects of altruism: altruistic love, altruistic values, altruistic behaviors and empathy. We have also asked for their opinions about how government decision makers should be in the public service. It is found that ...

  4. Toward an Understanding of why Suggestions Work in Charitable Fundraising: Theory and Evidence from a Natural Field Experiment

    OpenAIRE

    James T. Edwards; John A. List

    2013-01-01

    People respond to those who ask. Within the charitable fundraising community, the power of the ask represents the backbone of most fundraising strategies. Despite this, the optimal design of communication strategies has received less formal attention. For their part, economists have recently explored how communication affects empathy, altruism, and giving rates to charities. Our study takes a step back from this literature to examine how suggestions–a direct ask for a certain amount of money–...

  5. Enhanced subgenual cingulate response to altruistic decisions in remitted major depressive disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Erdem Pulcu; Roland Zahn; Jorge Moll; Trotter, Paula D.; Emma J. Thomas; Gabriella Juhasz; J.F.William Deakin; Anderson, Ian M; Sahakian, Barbara J.; Rebecca Elliott

    2014-01-01

    Background: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with functional abnormalities in fronto-meso-limbic networks contributing to decision-making, affective and reward processing impairments. Such functional disturbances may underlie a tendency for enhanced altruism driven by empathy-based guilt observed in some patients. However, despite the relevance of altruistic decisions to understanding vulnerability, as well as everyday psychosocial functioning, in MDD, their functional neuroanato...

  6. Osobnostní charakteristiky u záchranářů

    OpenAIRE

    DAVIDOVÁ, Klára

    2009-01-01

    The profession of rescuers is very stressful and requires high level of resistance against stress, connected to pro-social tendencies, which are altruism and empathy. The theoretical part is divided into five topics related to the research. These topics are: helping professions, competence of helping professions, pro-social behaviour, integrated emergency system in the Czech Republic and the last theoretical part concerns personality. The objective of this research was to identify some person...

  7. Помогающее поведения, связанное с проявлением заботы: адаптация методики "измерение показателей методики"

    OpenAIRE

    Кухтова, Н. В.

    2012-01-01

    This article represents theoretical and empirical bases a foreign technique «Instrumental Caring Inventory (ICI)» (M.À.H. Donius). It is directed on rendering assistance studying through display of care and the interconnected components (empathy, compassion, altruism). The adaptation of a foreign technique for its application in a new sotsio-cultural environment is spent. Here you can find the results of validity (substantial, criterial, constructive) and reliability (verification o...

  8. Vyresniųjų klasių mokinių altruistinio elgesio ir asmenybės empatiškumo sąsajos

    OpenAIRE

    Adomaitytė, Dovilė

    2005-01-01

    The society’s position in the XXI century is likely to become egocentric leaving personal values aside. Altruism and empathy are being ousted from our lives. Instead of them a lack of sympathy, help, understanding and passiveness towards other people’s misfortune is noticed. This is especially characteristic of the young generation. Therefore, the question about teenagers’ altruistic behavior arises, i.e. if teenagers tend to provide non-selfish help or support and what the level of their emp...

  9. Setting up an Email Peer Support Scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutson, Nicky; Cowie, Helen

    2007-01-01

    This article opens with a review of current research on peer interventions and their capacity to impact on school climate and bystander behaviour, as well as to meet the aims of fostering altruism. The main focus of the article is a study of an email support group in an all-boys school in the United Kingdom. It was set up in response to an…

  10. The Future of Social Security

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez-Eiras, Martín; Niepelt, Dirk

    2007-01-01

    We analyze the effect of the projected demographic transition on the political support for social security, and equilibrium outcomes. Embedding a probabilistic-voting setup of electoral competition in the Diamond (1965) OLG model, we find that intergenerational transfers arise in the absence of altruism, commitment, or trigger strategies. Closed-form solutions predict population ageing to lead to higher social security tax rates, a rising share of pensions in GDP, but eventually lower social ...

  11. Chimpanzees help each other upon request.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinya Yamamoto

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The evolution of altruism has been explained mainly from ultimate perspectives. However, it remains to be investigated from a proximate point of view how and in which situations such social propensity is achieved. We investigated chimpanzees' targeted helping in a tool transfer paradigm, and discuss the similarities and differences in altruism between humans and chimpanzees. Previously it has been suggested that chimpanzees help human experimenters by retrieving an object which the experimenter is trying to reach. In the present study, we investigated the importance of communicative interactions between chimpanzees themselves and the influence of conspecific partner's request on chimpanzees' targeted helping. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We presented two tool-use situations (a stick-use situation and a straw-use situation in two adjacent booths, and supplied non-corresponding tools to paired chimpanzees in the two booths. For example, a chimpanzee in the stick-use situation was supplied with a straw, and the partner in the straw-use situation possessed a stick. Spontaneous tool transfer was observed between paired chimpanzees. The tool transfer events occurred predominantly following recipients' request. Even without any hope of reciprocation from the partner, the chimpanzees continued to help the partner as long as the partner required help. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results provide further evidence for altruistic helping in chimpanzees in the absence of direct personal gain or even immediate reciprocation. Our findings additionally highlight the importance of request as a proximate mechanism motivating prosocial behavior in chimpanzees whether between kin or non-kin individuals and the possible confounding effect of dominance on the symmetry of such interactions. Finally, in contrast to humans, our study suggests that chimpanzees rarely perform acts of voluntary altruism. Voluntary altruism in chimpanzees is not

  12. Situating care in mainstream health economics: an ethical dilemma?

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, John B.; McMaster, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Standard health economics concentrates on the provision of care by medical professionals. Yet ‘care’ receives scant analysis; it is portrayed as a spillover effect or externality in the form of interdependent utility functions. In this context care can only be conceived as either acts of altruism or as social capital. Both conceptions are subject to considerable problems stemming from mainstream health economics’ reliance on a reductionist social model built around instrumental rationality an...

  13. A Teenager’s reflection on formation of the value orientations in the family and at school

    OpenAIRE

    VILIJA GRINCEVIČIENĖ

    2012-01-01

    Family and school – the most important social institutions in which the young generation is prepared to live in tomorrow’s society. Analysis of the research revealed that in the period of age from 14 to 19 the most important values is considered as: empathy, perfection, justice, self-improvement, self-esteem, security, acceptance, courage, knowledge, creativity, competitiveness, friendship, cooperation, responsibility and altruism. Family, which successfully trains and educates...

  14. Lethal altruists: itineraries along the dark outskirts of moralistic prosociality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobeña, Adolf

    2009-06-01

    Suicide bombers are the most spectacular example of an impregnable morality toward one's own group that co-exists alongside a radical amorality toward members of another group. Suicide bombers carry out massacres with the utter conviction that they are acting in accordance with values associated with the greatest good. Suicidal attacks are conceived as a form of lethal altruism, a damaging drift from human cooperative tendencies and one that requires a detailed understanding. Strong altruism is a main component of a cluster of temperamental traits that may distinguish individuals with propensities to put themselves at the threshold of major progroupal sacrifices. Among all populations there will be pockets of extreme moralizing altruists willing to make high investments in others, investments involving great personal risk. A research framework is outlined to study other constitutionally based traits (dominance, boldness, aggressiveness, machiavellianism, narcissism, messianism, credulity/religiosity) that may also contribute to the different roles played by self-recruited members in combative cells that in turn are crucial for the ties they establish and the tactics employed. Individually oriented research may reveal profiles distinguishing between potential inducers and performers of martyrdom. As a rule, machiavellistic leaders do not usually squander their personal choices on group commitments; on the contrary, their gift for simulating altruism is used for individual gains. Potential martyrs, on the other hand, are by definition squanderers. Evidence accrued in recent years in fields going from behavioral economics to cognitive neuroimaging makes such an endeavor feasible. PMID:19580547

  15. Social justice and research using human biological material: A response to Mahomed, Nöthling-Slabbert and Pepper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordaan, Donrich W

    2016-07-01

    Social justice in the context of research using human biological material is an important contemporary legal-ethical issue. A question at the heart of this issue is the following: Is it fair to expect a research participant (a person who participates in such research by, among others, making available biological material from his or her body) to participate on an altruistic basis, while the researchers and the investors in the research can gain commercially from the research? In a recent article, Mahomed, Nöthling-Slabbert and Pepper proposed that research participants should be entitled to share in the profits emanating from such research via a proposed new statutory right to the intellectual property emanating from such research. In order to stimulate debate on this important issue of social justice, this article responds to the position of Mahomed et al. by focusing on two main points: Firstly, I contend that Mahomed et al. fail to make a convincing argument in favour of shifting away from altruism; secondly, I caution against framing the debate in terms of the binary poles of altruism v. profitsharing, and suggest that should healthcare public policy ever move away from altruism, various non-monetary forms of benefit-sharing by research participants should be considered. PMID:27384358

  16. Motives of Intergeneration Support in Lithuania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Gedvilaitė-Kordušienė

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article fills the gap in the research on the motives of intergenerational support. Using qualitative data, it examines the question of intergenerational support between adult children and their parents. The theoretical premises for the study are derived from the theory of symbolic interactionism. The interviews with the dyads of support providers and receivers reveal a strong emphasis on the exchange. The exchange based on the logic of reciprocity is either latent or manifest. Other symbolic meanings of the logic of reciprocity, i. e., exchange as an investment and a social debt, can also be noticed. The analysis of the motives demonstrates the reasons for the formation of the intergenerational attitudes: a role of demonstration effect and a strong role of primary and secondary socialization with certain internalized attitudes. Altruism is expressed by emphasizing emotions and affection. Several thematic segments are apparent in the interviews: altruism as an unquestioned phenomenon, altruism as a primordial quality and attachment as an object of reflection. The article suggests that the inclusion of an action level into intergenerational relationship studies helps to deepen the understanding of family relationships

  17. Filantropía democrática y sentimientos morales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Béjar, Helena

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The following article analizes the moral sentiments attached to volunteer work as a civic practice which links individualism and altruism. I consider individualism as the moral center of contemporary culture, whereas altruism is an extraordinary behaviour, both in the moral and the social sense. I have studied the motivations of formal volunteerism, leaving aside informal help. I have found three discourses that have been considered as ideal types, even though in all of them individualism and altruism are intertwined. The so-called individualistic language, the Christian one and the civic one express the contemporary moral languages, which contain a specific conception of the social ties and the moral sentiments that are adscribed to it.

    El siguiente trabajo analiza los sentimientos morales dentro del voluntariado como una práctica cívica que enlaza el individualismo, eje axial de la cultura contemporánea, y el altruismo, entendido como un comportamiento extraordinario, tanto social como moralmente. En concreto, se estudian las motivaciones del voluntariado formal, dejando de lado la ayuda informal y espontánea. Aparecen tres discursos que se presentan como tipos ideales, aunque en todos ellos se combinen la dicotomía altruismo/egoísmo. Tales discursos son el individualista, el cristiano y el cívico, y expresan los lenguajes morales contemporáneos que hablan sobre los valores en torno a la vinculación social y los sentimientos morales a ella asociados.

  18. Evolutionary foundations of human prosocial sentiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silk, Joan B; House, Bailey R

    2011-06-28

    A growing body of evidence shows that humans are remarkably altruistic primates. Food sharing and division of labor play an important role in all human societies, and cooperation extends beyond the bounds of close kinship and networks of reciprocating partners. In humans, altruism is motivated at least in part by empathy and concern for the welfare of others. Although altruistic behavior is well-documented in other primates, the range of altruistic behaviors in other primate species, including the great apes, is much more limited than it is in humans. Moreover, when altruism does occur among other primates, it is typically limited to familiar group members--close kin, mates, and reciprocating partners. This suggests that there may be fundamental differences in the social preferences that motivate altruism across the primate order, and there is currently considerable interest in how we came to be such unusual apes. A body of experimental studies designed to examine the phylogenetic range of prosocial sentiments and behavior is beginning to shed some light on this issue. In experimental settings, chimpanzees and tamarins do not consistently take advantage of opportunities to deliver food rewards to others, although capuchins and marmosets do deliver food rewards to others in similar kinds of tasks. Although chimpanzees do not satisfy experimental criteria for prosociality in food delivery tasks, they help others complete tasks to obtain a goal. Differences in performance across species and differences in performance across tasks are not yet fully understood and raise new questions for further study. PMID:21690372

  19. Impact of the human egalitarian syndrome on darwinian selection mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, C

    1997-07-01

    With nothing more than kin selection and reciprocal altruism theories to work with, the selection basis of human degrees of altruism and cooperation is often difficult to explain. However, during our prehistoric foraging phase, a highly stable egalitarian syndrome arose that had profound effects on Darwinian selection mechanics. The band's insistence on egalitarianism seriously damped male status rivalry and thereby reduced the intensity of selection within the group by reducing phenotypic variation at that level, while powerful social pressure to make decisions consensual at the band level had a similar effect. Consensual decisions also had another effect: they increased variation between groups because entire bands enacted their subsistence strategies collectively and the strategies varied between bands. By reducing the intensity of individual selection and boosting group effects, these behaviors provided a unique opportunity for altruistic genes to be established and maintained. In addition, the egalitarian custom of socially isolating or actively punishing lazy or cheating noncooperators reduced the free-rider problem. In combination, these phenotypic effects facilitated selection of altruistic genes in spite of some limited free riding. This selection scenario remained in place for thousands of generations, and the result was a shift in the balance of power between individual and group selection in favor of group effects. This new balance today is reflected in an ambivalent human nature that exhibits substantial altruism in addition to selfishness and nepotism. PMID:18811308

  20. Inter-group conflict and cooperation: field experiments before, during and after sectarian riots in Northern Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio S Silva

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The idea that cooperative groups out-compete less cooperative groups has been proposed as a theoretical possibility for the evolution of cooperation through cultural group selection. Previous studies have found an association between increased cooperation and exposure to inter-group violence, but most have not been able to identify the specific target of cooperation and are based on correlational data making it difficult to establish causality. In this study we test the hypothesis that inter-group conflict promotes parochial altruism (i.e. in-group altruism and out-group hostility by using longitudinal data of a real-world measure of cooperation – charity and school donations – sampled before, during and after violent sectarian riots between Catholics and Protestants in Belfast, Northern Ireland. We find that conflict is associated with reductions in all types of cooperation, with reduced donations to a neutral charity, and both in-group and out-group primary schools. After the conflict, both in-group and out-group donations increased again. In this context we find no evidence that inter-group conflict promotes parochial altruism.

  1. Knowledge sharing in virtual communities: A social exchange theory perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Jinyang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The author tried to identify the knowledge sharing behaviors on the internet, using structural equation modeling methods, proposing a model based on social exchange theory in which share willingness, trust, reciprocity, altruism tended to have impact on people’s knowledge sharing behaviors in virtual communities. Design/methodology/approach: We presented an empirical research which integrated social exchange theory and structural equation modeling methods to analyze several important factors influencing members’ knowledge sharing behaviors in virtual communities. Findings: We analyzed the knowledge sharing behaviors in virtual communities. We found that members’ altruism can not predict knowledge sharing behaviors. We also found that members’ sharing willingness is the most important factor on virtual community knowledge sharing behaviors compared with trust, reciprocity and altruism. Originality/value: From the perspective of social exchange theory, we did empirical test and verified the proposed research model by using structural equation modeling methods. Our finding can help recognize people’s incentive about knowledge sharing.

  2. Etika Kepedulian : Welas Asih Dalam Tindakan Moral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeremias Jena

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract : Compassion in ethical discourse is used to describe the attitudes and actions of moral agent in helping the vulnerables and the suffering. Discourse around compassion generally focused on whether compassion is an attitude of sympathy or empathy, or it is the attitude of compassion derived from an altruistic attitude which is inherent in intelligent being. This paper argues that compassion is realized only in the context of ethics of care. For that reason, the paper will first distinguish simpaty from empathy and contextualize them within the realm of altruism. At the same time this approach plays the role of criticizing emotive ethics of David Hume and Kantian ethics which is attacked by Kantian ethics as heteronomous.Keywords : sympathy, empathy, altruism, epiphanic experience, caring encounters, care ethicsAbstrak : Sikap welas asih (compassion dalam diskursus etika digunakan untuk mendeskripsikan sikap dan tindakan moral menolong sesama yang rentan dan menderita. Diskursus seputar sikap welas asih umumnya difokuskan pada apakah sikap tersebut adalah bagian dari sikap simpati atau empati? Atau, apakah sikap welas asih adalah wujud dari sikap altruistik yang umumnya dimiliki makhluk hidup berperasaan dan berinteligensi? Tulisan ini pertama-tama akan menunjukkan bahwa sikap welas asih lebih dekat dengan konsep dan sikap simpati. Untuk memahami hal ini, pembedaannya dengan empati akan dikemukakan. Di atas semuanya itu, sikap welas asih (simpati dan empati dibedakan juga dari sikap altruistik manusia. Melalui tulisan ini akan ditunjukkan pula bahwa hanya melalui etika kepedulian (ethics of care kita dapat memahami welas asih sebagai sikap dan tindakan moral. Ini sekaligus menjadi kritik tajam terhadap etika Humean yang terlalu memuja perasaan moral dan etika Kantian yang menghojat emosi atau perasaan moral sebagai etika manusia heteronom.Kata kunci : Simpati, Empati, Altruisme, Pengalaman epifani, Perjumpaan penuh belas kasih, Etika

  3. The primary solution of global poor health and poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tegegne, Ayalew

    2008-01-01

    There is a huge global burden of disease and mortality. The principal underlying cause is regarded as poverty. This is associated with a global order of fear, over-consumption, over-population and violence, which can interact in a vicious circle. It is proposed that the solution to the problem is not only the relief of poverty, but the institution of a new order in which the individual is sovereign. This in turn requires a trinity of ideals for the individual: self-control to avoid over-consumption, altruism to cope with fear, and peace to manage violence. PMID:18488673

  4. A Competitive Market in Human Organs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny Frederick

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available I offer consequentialist and deontological arguments for a competitive market in human organs, from live as well as dead donors. I consider the objections that a market in organs will frustrate altruism, coerce the desperate, expose under-informed agents to unacceptable risks, exacerbate inequality, degrade those who participate in it, involve a kind of slavery, impose invidious costs, and impair third-party choice sets. I show that each of these objections is without merit and that, in consequence, the opposition to markets in organs is an untenable endorsement of death, suffering and the suppression of freedom.

  5. Same behavior, different consequences: reactions to men's and women's altruistic citizenship behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilman, Madeline E; Chen, Julie J

    2005-05-01

    In 2 experimental studies, the authors hypothesized that the performance of altruistic citizenship behavior in a work setting would enhance the favorability of men's (but not women's) evaluations and recommendations, whereas the withholding of altruistic citizenship behavior would diminish the favorability of women's (but not men's) evaluations and recommendations. Results supported the authors' predictions. Together with the results of a 3rd study demonstrating that work-related altruism is thought to be less optional for women than for men, these results suggest that gender-stereotypic prescriptions regarding how men and women should behave result in different evaluative reactions to the same altruistic behavior, depending on the performer's sex. PMID:15910140

  6. The evolution of human warfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitman, George R

    2011-01-01

    Here we propose a new theory for the origins and evolution of human warfare as a complex social phenomenon involving several behavioral traits, including aggression, risk taking, male bonding, ingroup altruism, outgroup xenophobia, dominance and subordination, and territoriality, all of which are encoded in the human genome. Among the family of great apes only chimpanzees and humans engage in war; consequently, warfare emerged in their immediate common ancestor that lived in patrilocal groups who fought one another for females. The reasons for warfare changed when the common ancestor females began to immigrate into the groups of their choice, and again, during the agricultural revolution. PMID:22081837

  7. Evolutionary models of in-group favoritism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Naoki; Fu, Feng

    2015-01-01

    In-group favoritism is the tendency for individuals to cooperate with in-group members more strongly than with out-group members. Similar concepts have been described across different domains, including in-group bias, tag-based cooperation, parochial altruism, and ethnocentrism. Both humans and other animals show this behavior. Here, we review evolutionary mechanisms for explaining this phenomenon by covering recently developed mathematical models. In fact, in-group favoritism is not easily realized on its own in theory, although it can evolve under some conditions. We also discuss the implications of these modeling results in future empirical and theoretical research. PMID:25926978

  8. Explaining cooperative groups via social niche construction

    OpenAIRE

    Powers, Simon T.; Noble, Jason; Arranz, Jordi; de Pinedo Garcia, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    Cooperative behaviours can be defined as those that benefit others at an apparent cost to self. How these kinds of behaviours evolve has been a topic of great interest in evolutionary biology, as the Darwinian paradigm seems to suggest that nature will be “red in tooth and claw” and that we would not expect one organism to evolve to help another. The evolution-of-cooperation literature has therefore generally been about showing how the altruism involved in these cases is only apparent (see Be...

  9. What's not wrong with conditional organ donation?

    OpenAIRE

    Wilkinson, T

    2003-01-01

    In a well known British case, the relatives of a dead man consented to the use of his organs for transplant on the condition that they were transplanted only into white people. The British government condemned the acceptance of racist offers and the panel they set up to report on the case condemned all conditional offers of donation. The panel appealed to a principle of altruism and meeting the greatest need. This paper criticises their reasoning. The panel's argument does not show that condi...

  10. Wisdom: a goal of nursing education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Antonio, Jocelyn

    2014-02-01

    The attainment of wisdom is a goal of intellectual development manifested in an individual by a solid knowledge base, effective critical thinking skills, creative problem solving, and a sense of duty and altruism to humankind. Promoting the achievement of wisdom as a focal point in a nursing program can provide a unifying perspective in the development of a curriculum. Teaching strategies such as case studies, small group discussions, mentoring, reflective writing, and professional networking are effective ways to promote wisdom in nursing students. PMID:24308535

  11. Attitudes towards blood and living organ donations

    OpenAIRE

    Cabasés Hita, Juan Manuel; Errea, María

    2010-01-01

    We model the decision of whether or not to become a blood/living organ donor. The expected utility for becoming a donor is a function of the degree of altruism, the consumption of goods, the costs of donation, the very pleasure of giving, and the recipient’s utility associated to donation. Empirically, we observe differences in the expected costs and benefits from donation between blood and non-blood donors, and between individuals with different willingness to donate living organs. Looking a...

  12. Enhanced subgenual cingulate response to altruistic decisions in remitted major depressive disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdem Pulcu

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: We showed that altruistic decisions probe residual sgACC hypersensitivity in MDD even after symptoms are fully remitted. The sgACC has previously been shown to be associated with guilt which promotes altruistic decisions. In contrast, the striatum showed common activation to both simple and altruistic rewards and could be involved in the so-called “warm glow” of donation. Enhanced neural response in the depression group, in areas previously linked to altruistic decisions, supports the hypothesis of a possible association between hyper-altruism and depression vulnerability, as shown by recent epidemiological studies.

  13. Incentives for organ donation: pros and cons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chkhotua, A

    2012-01-01

    Altruism still remains the main principle of organ donation worldwide. However, since the current practices has not met the demand for organs, new strategies should be found to encourage organ donation. Implementation of financial incentives in transplantation is a matter of debate among experts in the fields of transplantation, ethics, law, and economics. It should be acknowledged that donors incur many expenses while participating in the transplant process, which seems unfair. Various forms of incentives have been suggested and are currently used worldwide. This article describes current attitudes toward incentives for in transplantation used in different countries, arguing in favor as well as against them. PMID:22841275

  14. PROGRAMMING GENES IN BRAIN AND PROBLEM OF SOCIAL BEHAVIOR ОF MAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. B. Fuks

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Transcription factors programmed genes of brain cells. Then proteins synthesized form long term memory. Two genes of hormone vasopressin receptor – genes of altruism / selfishnessand one oxytocin receptor gene provide social recognition, memory and behavior. Human population divided into three groups: homozygous altruists, homozygous egoists and heterozygous group containing both vasopressin genes. Behavior genes programming in the last group occurs within the first two weeks of life. Negative programming of masses of people in this group could be the cause of social disasters in the twentieth century.

  15. Why Pay More? Tax Planning of Married Couples

    OpenAIRE

    Büttner, Thiess; Erbe, Katharina; Grimm, Veronika

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores whether tax planning by households is consistent with a minimization of the family tax burden or whether and to what extent altruism and concerns about the tax loss of individual household members matter. To this end, we take advantage of a specific feature of the German tax system which allows married couples to decide which of three different payroll tax regimes applies. Using a 10% random sample of the individual income tax files of all German tax payers, we find that a...

  16. The role of the hospice volunteer in community settings

    OpenAIRE

    Draper, Janet; Kernohan, George; McNamara, Aine; Komaromy, Carol

    2014-01-01

    In the UK, there are between 70,000 and 100,000 hospice volunteers, of whom half have direct patient contact. This seminar draws on a commissioned literature review that highlighted how ‘volunteering is integral to voluntary action and often motivated by altruism.’ The review concluded that hospice at home volunteers can help improve the quality of responsiveness of end of life care, improve access to care and can support care and death in the person’s own home. Volunteers gain health and soc...

  17. Citizenship and withdrawal in the workplace: relationship between organizational citizenship behavior, intention to leave current job and intention to leave the organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paillé, Pascal; Grima, François

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) and employee intention to leave the organization and current job using a sample of French employees. A survey was sent to 1,200 alumni of a business school in France. Participation in the study was voluntary. The participants were 355 working adults with French citizenship. This paper provides several interesting findings. While no relationship was found between altruism and intention to leave both the organization and the current job, sportsmanship, civic virtue and helping others emerged as the strongest predictors of intention to leave the organization and intention to leave the current job. Results are discussed. PMID:21755656

  18. Children and the Wealth of Nations

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Cordoba

    2012-01-01

    This paper uses calibrated versions of the Barro-Becker model to compute measures of well-being for 142 countries between 1970 and 2005. In the model, individuals are altruistic toward their descendants: they enjoy the well-being of their children. We derive a model based measure of effective "quantity of life," the effective life span of an individual. It depends positively on life expectancy, degree of altruism and number of children, and negatively on the rate of time discounting. Our calc...

  19. PSY 301 NEW Courses / uoptutorial

    OpenAIRE

    NEHA

    2015-01-01

    PSY 301 Week 1 DQ 1 Social Psychology PSY 301 Week 1 DQ 2 The Acting Self PSY 301 Week 2 Assignment Prejudice, Stereotypes, and Discrimination PSY 301 Week 2 DQ 1 Attitude and Behavior PSY 301 Week 2 DQ 2 Attributions PSY 301 Week 3 Assignment Persuasion Who, What, To Whom PSY 301 Week 3 DQ 1 Persuasion Techniques PSY 301 Week 3 DQ 2 Obedience and Conformity PSY 301 Week 4 Asssignment Power of Love and Relationships PSY 301 Week 4 DQ 1 Altruism and ProsocialBehavior...

  20. PEOPLE/POINTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Warm-hearted Philanthropist Guo Mingyi,a 52-year-old worker from the Anshan Iron and Steel Group in northeast China’s Liaoning Province,has become a household name in China because of his altruism.President Hu Jintao has called on people around the country to follow Guo’s example.Since 1990,Guo has donated 60,000 milliliters of blood during 54 sessions,in all the total volume contained in 10 adult bodies and enough to save 75

  1. Moral emotions as determinants of third-party punishment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rob M. A. Nelissen

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Third-party punishment has recently received attention as an explanation for human altruism. Feelings of anger in response to norm violations are assumed to motivate third-party sanctions, yet there is only sparse and indirect support for this idea. We investigated the impact of both anger and guilt feelings on third-party sanctions. In two studies both emotions were independently manipulated. Results show that anger and guilt independently constitute sufficient but not necessary causes of punishment. Low levels of punishment are observed only when neither emotion is elicited. We discuss the implications of these findings for the functions of altruistic sanctions.

  2. Personality Traits of Altruistic People: Empathy and the Big Five Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Tait, Dorothy J

    2009-01-01

    Previous research has shown that empathy and personality is related to helping behaviour. This study looks at helping in relation to affective empathy and Costa and McCrae’s (1992) Big Five personality traits, using both males (n = 22) and females (n = 32). It also looks at helping in relation to people’s dispositional levels of altruism, empathy and personal distress, which have not been widely looked at in previous research. These are measured before and after exposure to a help-provokin...

  3. Measuring In-Group and Out-Group Helping in Communal Living: Helping and Substance Abuse Recovery

    OpenAIRE

    Viola, Judah J.; Joseph R. Ferrari; Davis, Margaret I.; Leonard A. Jason

    2009-01-01

    With a national U.S. sample of communal-living residents in substance abuse recovery, the tendency to help members inside and/or outside their community was examined. Study 1 (n = 670) developed of the Communal Living In-Group Helping Scale to distinguish helping directed toward housemates vs. others. Study 2 (n = 419) used this communal helping measure and a general altruism scale to explore gender, ethnicity, and 12-Step sponsorship related to in-group (housemates) and out-group (others in ...

  4. The social side of Homo economicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, Daniel J

    2011-01-01

    Many recent experiments in the field of behavioural economics appear to demonstrate a willingness of humans to behave altruistically, even when it is not in their interest to do so. This has led to the assertion that humans have evolved a special predisposition towards altruism. Recent studies have questioned this, and demonstrated that selfless cooperation does not hold up in controlled experiments. As I discuss here, this calls for more economic 'field experiments' and highlights the need for greater integration of the evolutionary and economic sciences. PMID:21087808

  5. Networks with dispersed degrees save stable coexistence of species in cyclic competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Naoki; Konno, Norio

    2006-12-01

    Coexistence of individuals with different species or phenotypes is often found in nature in spite of competition between them. Stable coexistence of multiple types of individuals have implications for maintenance of ecological biodiversity and emergence of altruism in society, to name a few. Various mechanisms of coexistence including spatial structure of populations, heterogeneous individuals, and heterogeneous environments, have been proposed. In reality, individuals disperse and interact on complex networks. We examine how heterogeneous degree distributions of networks influence coexistence, focusing on models of cyclically competing species. We show analytically and numerically that heterogeneity in degree distributions promotes stable coexistence.

  6. Bayesian Auctions with Friends and Foes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Po-An; Kempe, David

    We study auctions whose bidders are embedded in a social or economic network. As a result, even bidders who do not win the auction themselves might derive utility from the auction, namely, when a friend wins. On the other hand, when an enemy or competitor wins, a bidder might derive negative utility. Such spite and altruism will alter the bidding strategies. A simple and natural model for bidders’ utilities in these settings posits that the utility of a losing bidder i as a result of bidder j winning is a constant (positive or negative) fraction of bidder j’s utility.

  7. The physics of evolution and biodiversity: Old answers to new questions, and more...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Yam, Yaneer

    2013-03-01

    In recent years there has been a contentious battle among prominent biologists about the validity of Kin versus Group Selection as models of evolutionary biology. I will show that the controversy is widely misunderstood and is rooted in the mean field basis of RA Fisher's statistical treatment of population biology, which is the origin of the ``gene centered view''-kin selection and inclusive fitness-but is also often used in analysis of group selection. As in statistical physics, symmetry breaking and pattern formation, and their spatial realizations, result in breakdown of the mean field approximation and the widely believed mathematical 'proofs' of the universality of the gene centered view. Our simulation and analysis (http://necsi.edu/research/evoeco/) of the role of this breakdown in spatial ecology, biodiversity, speciation and altruism, suggest there is an entire field of new opportunities to explore in the implications for evolutionary theory. The difference between biodiversity of wildtype populations and narrowly homogeneous laboratory types manifest the self-consistency of theoretical assumptions and laboratory experiments performed under conditions in which the mean field approximation applies. In contrast, the highly diverse natural populations manifest the role of boundaries between types (hybrid zones), speciation by spontaneous clustering, and spatio-temporal dynamics in predator prey systems. Altruism arises in evolving populations due to the spontaneous dynamic group formation and the heritability of environmental conditions created by parents and experienced by offspring (niche construction with symmetry breaking), so that altruists are better able to survive over the long term than selfish variants. Many versions of the mean field approximation that are traditionally used eliminate these spatio-temporal processes, leading to false analytic conclusions about their impossibility. The traditional view of altruism influenced views also of

  8. Empathy Emerges Spontaneously in the Ultimatum Game: Small Groups and Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Iranzo, Jaime; Floría, Luis M.; Moreno, Yamir; Sánchez, Angel

    2012-01-01

    The Ultimatum game, in which one subject proposes how to share a pot and the other has veto power on the proposal, in which case both lose everything, is a paradigmatic scenario to probe the degree of cooperation and altruism in human subjects. It has been shown that if individuals are empathic, i.e., they play the game having in mind how their opponent will react by offering an amount that they themselves would accept, then non-rational large offers well above the smallest possible ones are ...

  9. Prosociální chování u zdravotních sester

    OpenAIRE

    KOCMICHOVÁ, Kateřina

    2007-01-01

    This work is focusing on questions of for-social behavior and altruism of nurses. For-social behavior is an important social phenomenon, such an antipole of non-provoked agresivity and probably of all other bad behavior (asocial, antisocial) . It is such behavior that keeps social bindings and that makes us closer one another. For-social behavior is characterized by acts done in favor of others without expectation of reward (financial, material) or social approval. In the first part of the di...

  10. 英文摘要

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Empirical Research of Young Volunteer's Motivation A Case Study of Collage Students in Shandong Province Abstract: As the mainstay of the volunteer groups, young volunteers have been playing an important role to promote economic and social progress. Participation in volunteering is driven by various motivations. Based on samples from collage students in Shandong province, this paper focuses on the factors influencing young volunteers' motivations. It is found that altruism, political status, age, education, family members and social relationships have significant impact on making a collage student to be a volunteer.

  11. Altruizmas ir jaunimo altruistiškumo ugdymo veiksniai

    OpenAIRE

    Lileikis, Saulius

    2004-01-01

    Straipsnyje atskleisti altruizmo koncepcijos ištakų bei raidos momentai ir, remiantis dorovinės pozicijos koncepcija, kuri implikuoja žinias apie dorovines vertybes, dorovinius požiūrius ir su jais susijusius išgyvenimus, siekius realizuoti dorovines vertybes ir konkrečių veiksmų sąveiką, ištirta jaunimo pozicija jų altruistiškumo ugdymo veiksnių atžvilgiu. The present article analyzes the beginning and development of conception of altruism. on the ground of conception of the moral positio...

  12. Impact of Genetic Counseling and Testing on Altruistic Motivations to Test for BRCA1/2: a Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Rahul; Vogelgesang, Joseph; Kelly, Kimberly

    2016-06-01

    Despite the importance of altruism in an individual's participation in genetic counseling and testing, little research has explored the change in altruistic motivations to test over time. This study analyzed altruistic motivations to test and change in altruistic motivations after genetic counseling and testing among individuals (N = 120) at elevated risk for BRCA1/2 mutations. The perceived benefits of genetic testing were assessed and utilized in a mixed-methods, repeated measures design at three time points: pre-counseling, counseling and post-genetic testing, along with transcripts of genetic counseling sessions. Qualitative analysis using an immersion/crystallization method resulted in six common perceived benefits of testing: cancer prevention, awareness, family's survival, relief from anxiety, for science, and future planning. Perceived benefits were then coded into three categories according to Hamilton's kin selection theory: altruistic motivation, personal motivation, and motivation for mutual benefit. At pre-counseling, those with a personal cancer history (p = 0.003) and those with one or more children (p = 0.013), were significantly more likely to cite altruistic motivations to test. Altruistic motivations significantly increased post-counseling (p = 0.01) but declined post-testing (p cancer to have altruistic motivations for testing. Genetic counseling may have increased altruistic motivations to help family and may be a prime opportunity to discuss other forms of altruism. PMID:26578231

  13. Experiencing a natural disaster alters children's altruistic giving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yiyuan; Li, Hong; Decety, Jean; Lee, Kang

    2013-09-01

    Altruism is thought to be a major contributor to the development of large-scale human societies. However, much of the evidence supporting this belief comes from individuals living in pacific and often affluent environments. It is entirely unknown whether humans act altruistically when facing adversity. Adversity is arguably a common human experience (as manifested in, e.g., personal tragedies, political upheavals, and natural disasters). In the research reported here, we found that experiencing a natural disaster affected children's altruistic giving. Immediately after witnessing devastations caused by a major earthquake, 9-year-olds became more altruistic. In addition, the more empathic they were, the more they gave. In contrast, experiencing a major earthquake caused 6-year-olds to be more selfish. Three years after the earthquake, children's altruistic tendencies returned to pre-earthquake levels, which suggests that changes in children's altruistic giving are an acute response to the immediate aftermath of a major natural disaster. These findings suggest that environmental insults and empathy play crucial roles in human altruism. PMID:23842959

  14. How the social brain experiences empathy: Summary of a gathering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Peggy; Bartal, Ben-Ami

    2010-01-01

    Explaining how, and even why, the social brain experiences empathy is a complex integrative endeavor that has been explored by scientists of several disciplines working with both animal and human subjects. Current thoughts on empathy and its connection to behavior—prosocial, altruistic, and cruel alike—were explored by scholars in the fields of biology, philosophy, psychology, and anthropology at a conference in Chicago. The speakers' individually unique perspectives merged to provide an inclusive overview of the biological basis of, and cultural influences upon, empathy. The nature of empathy in nonhuman animals, the endocrine requirements for empathy,the effects of empathy on moral behavior, the social nature of pain, the relation between empathy and altruism,the ethnography of empathy, and empathy in the medical setting were discussed. The interdisciplinary nature of the conference demonstrated the advantages of communicating findings across fields while also delineating the difficulties that can stem from the existence of multiple approaches to, and definitions of, empathy. Future progress will be aided by working toward common definitions for empathy, sympathy, altruism, and so on, in concert with cross-disciplinary dialogues that allow practitioners of each discipline to be informed by paradigms and findings from complementary disciplines. PMID:20131156

  15. Supporting renewable energy on liberalised markets: green electricity between additionally and consumer sovereignty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The German feed-in regulation has been perhaps the most effective promotional policy for green electricity. However, with the growing momentum of the liberalisation process the current regulation is challenged by structural problems about how to address the demand side. Price regulation leaves little room for private green electricity market activities. Moreover, the success of the feed-in regulation depends on a strict differentiation of the political segment and the emerging green electricity markets. The question, therefore, is about the role green electricity markets can (or should) perform in general. In order to evaluate green electricity markets the additionality criteria is frequently used, implying that markets are only desirable if they lead to additional environmental effects. The additionality criteria has two implications: First, transformed into individual behaviour, additionality implies that consumers are assumed to act as pure altruists. However, there is evidence from empirical studies that green electricity consumers behave more as impure altruists: they are not so much interested in the objective environmental impact of their behaviour but more objected to receive a private satisfaction from buying an environmental friendly product. Whereas theoretical models in the case of pure altruism suggest that private activities crowd out totally when policy becomes active in supporting the public good, this crowding out disappears in the case of impure altruism. Second, using end-state criteria such as the additionality principle as precondition, and neglecting process criteria such as consumer sovereignty, means to prevent establishing competitive market process right at the outset in principle. (author)

  16. Interhousehold meat sharing among Mayangna and Miskito horticulturalists in Nicaragua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koster, Jeremy

    2011-12-01

    Recent analyses of food sharing in small-scale societies indicate that reciprocal altruism maintains interhousehold food transfers, even among close kin. In this study, matrix-based regression methods are used to test the explanatory power of reciprocal altruism, kin selection, and tolerated scrounging. In a network of 35 households in Nicaragua's Bosawas Reserve, the significant predictors of food sharing include kinship, interhousehold distance, and reciprocity. In particular, resources tend to flow from households with relatively more meat to closely related households with little, as predicted by kin selection. This generalization is especially true of household dyads with mother-offspring relationships, which suggests that studies of food sharing may benefit from distinctions between lineal and collateral kin. Overall, this analysis suggests that exchanges among kin are primarily associated with differences in need, not reciprocity. Finally, although large game is distributed widely, qualitative observations indicate that hunters typically do not relinquish control of the distribution in ways predicted by costly signaling theory. PMID:22388945

  17. Modelling antecedents of blood donation motivation among non-donors of varying age and education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemmens, K P H; Abraham, C; Ruiter, R A C; Veldhuizen, I J T; Dehing, C J G; Bos, A E R; Schaalma, H P

    2009-02-01

    Understanding blood donation motivation among non-donors is prerequisite to effective recruitment. Two studies explored the psychological antecedents of blood donation motivation and the generalisability of a model of donation motivation across groups differing in age and educational level. An older well-educated population and a younger less well-educated population were sampled. The studies assessed the role of altruism, fear of blood/needles and donation-specific cognitions including attitudes and normative beliefs derived from an extended theory of planned behaviour (TPB). Across both samples, results showed that affective attitude, subjective norm, descriptive norm, and moral norm were the most important correlates of blood donation intentions. Self-efficacy was more important among the younger less well-educated group. Altruism was related to donation motivation but only indirectly through moral norm. Similarly, fear of blood/needles only had an indirect effect on motivation through affective attitude and self-efficacy. Additional analyses with the combined data set found no age or education moderation effects, suggesting that this core model of donation-specific cognitions can be used to inform future practical interventions recruiting new blood donors in the general population. PMID:18547458

  18. Neural signatures of third-party punishment: evidence from penetrating traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Leila; Moody, Lara; Grafman, Jordan; Krueger, Frank

    2016-02-01

    The ability to survive within a cooperative society depends on impartial third-party punishment (TPP) of social norm violations. Two cognitive mechanisms have been postulated as necessary for the successful completion of TPP: evaluation of legal responsibility and selection of a suitable punishment given the magnitude of the crime. Converging neuroimaging research suggests two supporting domain-general networks; a mentalizing network for evaluation of legal responsibility and a central-executive network for determination of punishment. A whole-brain voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping approach was used in conjunction with a rank-order TPP task to identify brain regions necessary for TPP in a large sample of patients with penetrating traumatic brain injury. Patients who demonstrated atypical TPP had specific lesions in core regions of the mentalizing (dorsomedial prefrontal cortex [PFC], ventromedial PFC) and central-executive (bilateral dorsolateral PFC, right intraparietal sulcus) networks. Altruism and executive functioning (concept formation skills) were significant predictors of TPP: altruism was uniquely associated with TPP in patients with lesions in right dorsolateral PFC and executive functioning was uniquely associated with TPP in individuals with lesions in left PFC. Our findings contribute to the extant literature to support underlying neural networks associated with TPP, with specific brain-behavior causal relationships confirming recent functional neuroimaging research. PMID:26276809

  19. Neural and cognitive characteristics of extraordinary altruists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Abigail A.; Stoycos, Sarah A.; Brethel-Haurwitz, Kristin M.; Robinson, Paul; VanMeter, John W.; Cardinale, Elise M.

    2014-01-01

    Altruistic behavior improves the welfare of another individual while reducing the altruist’s welfare. Humans’ tendency to engage in altruistic behaviors is unevenly distributed across the population, and individual variation in altruistic tendencies may be genetically mediated. Although neural endophenotypes of heightened or extreme antisocial behavior tendencies have been identified in, for example, studies of psychopaths, little is known about the neural mechanisms that support heightened or extreme prosocial or altruistic tendencies. In this study, we used structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging to assess a population of extraordinary altruists: altruistic kidney donors who volunteered to donate a kidney to a stranger. Such donations meet the most stringent definitions of altruism in that they represent an intentional behavior that incurs significant costs to the donor to benefit an anonymous, nonkin other. Functional imaging and behavioral tasks included face-emotion processing paradigms that reliably distinguish psychopathic individuals from controls. Here we show that extraordinary altruists can be distinguished from controls by their enhanced volume in right amygdala and enhanced responsiveness of this structure to fearful facial expressions, an effect that predicts superior perceptual sensitivity to these expressions. These results mirror the reduced amygdala volume and reduced responsiveness to fearful facial expressions observed in psychopathic individuals. Our results support the possibility of a neural basis for extraordinary altruism. We anticipate that these findings will expand the scope of research on biological mechanisms that promote altruistic behaviors to include neural mechanisms that support affective and social responsiveness. PMID:25225374

  20. The correlation between justice and organizational citizenship behavior and organizational identity among nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbabisarjou, Azizollah; Hajipour, Reza; Sadeghian, Mahdi

    2014-11-01

    "The correlation between justice and organizational citizenship behavior and organizational identity among the nurses", aimed to correlate different aspects of personal feelings and organizational identity in a population of nurses. The population included all nurses working at hospitals affiliated to administry of health, treatment and medical education in Shahre-Kord (Iran) 2009. A sample consisting of 168 nurses was randomly selected out of the population. The study adopted a descriptive-correlative method. The Organizational Justice Questionnaire (1998), the Organizational Citizenship Questionnaire, and Organizational Identity Questionnaire (1982) were used for gathering data. Data was analyzed through multiple regression analysis. The findings revealed that 4 dimensions of organizational citizenship behavior (altruism, civic virtue, conscientiousness, and self-development) are correlated with organizational identity (R² = 0.612); and loyalty and obedience are correlated with distributional justice (R² = 0.71). Also, loyalty, altruism, and obedience are correlated with procedural justice (R² = 0.69) and loyalty and self-development are correlated with distributional justice (R² = 0.89). A correlation was also detected between interactional justice and organizational identity (R² = 0.89). The findings of the study could serve to identify the factors contributing to the creation and recreation of organizational identity, citizenship behavior and justice among nurses, to promote the performance of the organization, and to achieve organizational goals. PMID:25363122

  1. Gratitude for help among adult friends and siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotkirch, Anna; Lyons, Minna; David-Barrett, Tamas; Jokela, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Although gratitude is a key prosocial emotion reinforcing reciprocal altruism, it has been largely ignored in the empirical literature. We examined feelings of gratitude and the importance of reciprocity in same-sex peer relations. Participants were 772 individuals (189 men; mean age = 28.80) who completed an online survey using a vignette design. We investigated (i) differences in reported gratitude and the importance of reciprocity among same-sex siblings and same-sex friends, and (ii) how relationship closeness moderates these associations. Based on the theory of kin altruism, we expect that people would feel more grateful towards friends than towards their siblings, and that lack of gratitude or failure to pay back a loan would bother more with friends than with siblings, irrespective of emotional closeness. Results showed that levels of gratitude and expectations of reciprocity were higher towards friends compared to siblings. This was the case also after controlling for emotional closeness. Being close generally made participants feel more grateful and expect lower displays of gratitude in the other. Closeness was also strongly associated with emotional gratitude among siblings compared to friends. We conclude that feelings and displays of gratitude have a special role in friendships. Although a close sibling may elicit as much gratitude as a friend does, even a very close friend is not exempt from the logic of reciprocity in the same way that a sibling is. PMID:25300047

  2. New Understanding of Henchard's Tragedy in "The Mayor of Casterbridge"%New Understanding of Henchard's Tragedy in "The Mayor of Casterbridge"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪雅君

    2012-01-01

    No masterpiece by great writers is single-sided. It is always polyhedron and is bound to show new sides if we read it in a different perspective. Traditionally, "the Mayor of Casterbridge", one of the important novels by Thomas Hardy, is an illustration of the inevitable doom of the patriarchal economy in the English countryside in the 19th century England due to the merciless squeeze by industrial expansion. However, considering the widespread accepted theory of Adam Smith's economic man and moral man, we could find that man are always in conflict between the two. Someone who are very rational and perfectly informed to pur- sue their own profits and wealth regardless of others' interests could always successfully gain their wealth with the cost of losing their own happiness, while others who always care about someone else, put themselves in someone else's places, and regard some- one else's happiness as their concerns could eventually get their real happiness and sweet life with a sympathetic heart. Adam Smith thinks that the egoism (economic man) and the altruism (moral man) are both human's natural instincts. Only a moderately prudent balance and union between the two could both develop the economy and gain the happiness. In "The Mayor of Caster- bridge", I-Ienchard's tragedy just lies in the abundance of egoism but the shortage of altruism. That's to say, he possesses too many characteristics of economic man but too little of moral man. Then Henchard inevitably begins his tragic way with no repen- tance.

  3. Children’s altruistic behavior in context: The role of emotional responsiveness and culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajhans, Purva; Altvater-Mackensen, Nicole; Vaish, Amrisha; Grossmann, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    Altruistic behavior in humans is thought to have deep biological roots. Nonetheless, there is also evidence for considerable variation in altruistic behaviors among individuals and across cultures. Variability in altruistic behavior in adults has recently been related to individual differences in emotional responsiveness to fear in others. The current study examined the relation between emotional responsiveness (using eye-tracking) and altruistic behavior (using the Dictator Game) in 4 to 5-year-old children (N = 96) across cultures (India and Germany). The results revealed that increased altruistic behavior was associated with a greater responsiveness to fear faces (faster fixation), but not happy faces, in both cultures. This suggests that altruistic behavior is linked to our responsiveness to others in distress across cultures. Additionally, only among Indian children greater altruistic behavior was associated with greater sensitivity to context when responding to fearful faces. These findings further our understanding of the origins of altruism in humans by highlighting the importance of emotional processes and cultural context in the development of altruism. PMID:27137754

  4. Altruistic sharing behavior in children: Role of theory of mind and inhibitory control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Buyun; Huang, Zhelan; Xu, Guifeng; Jin, Yu; Chen, Yajun; Li, Xiuhong; Wang, Qingxiong; Song, Shanshan; Jing, Jin

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to assess altruistic sharing behavior in children aged 3 to 5, 6 to 8, and 9 to 11 years and to explore the involvement of potential cognitive mechanisms, namely theory of mind (ToM) and inhibitory control. A total of 158 children completed a dictator game with stickers as incentives. ToM was evaluated using a false belief task in preschoolers and the Strange Story Test in school-age children. Inhibitory control was assessed in preschoolers with the Day-Night task and in older children with the Stroop Color-Word Test. The result was that 48.10% of children aged 3 to 5 years decided to share, and the percentage rose significantly with increasing age. The difference in altruism level in children who decided to share among the three age groups was nonsignificant. These results suggest that mechanisms underlying the decision to share or not and altruistic behavior may be different. No significant linear relations were found between cognitive processes (i.e., ToM and inhibitory control) and sharing behavior. Surprisingly, 9- to 11-year-olds who shared 3 of 10 stickers performed worse in inhibitory control than did those who shared any other number of stickers. In conclusion, the proportion of children who decided to share, but not the level of altruism, increased with age. ToM was not involved in altruistic sharing, whereas inhibitory control may play a role when deciding how much to share. PMID:26452508

  5. Productive and counterproductive job crafting: A daily diary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demerouti, Evangelia; Bakker, Arnold B; Halbesleben, Jonathon R B

    2015-10-01

    The present study aims to uncover the way daily job crafting influences daily job performance (i.e., task performance, altruism, and counterproductive work behavior). Job crafting was conceptualized as "seeking resources," "seeking challenges," and "reducing demands" and viewed as strategies individuals use to optimize their job characteristics. We hypothesized that daily job crafting relates to daily job demands and resources (work pressure and autonomy), which consequently relate to daily work engagement and exhaustion and ultimately to job performance. A sample of 95 employees filled in a quantitative diary for 5 consecutive working days (n occasions = 475). We predicted and found that daily seeking resources was positively associated with daily task performance because daily autonomy and work engagement increased. In contrast, daily reducing demands was detrimental for daily task performance and altruism, because employees lower their daily workload and consequently their engagement and exhaustion, respectively. Only daily seeking challenges was positively (rather than negatively) associated with daily counterproductive behavior. We conclude that employee job crafting can have both beneficial and detrimental effects on job performance. PMID:25798721

  6. Cultural transmission and the evolution of human behaviour: a general approach based on the Price equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Mouden, C; André, J-B; Morin, O; Nettle, D

    2014-02-01

    Transmitted culture can be viewed as an inheritance system somewhat independent of genes that is subject to processes of descent with modification in its own right. Although many authors have conceptualized cultural change as a Darwinian process, there is no generally agreed formal framework for defining key concepts such as natural selection, fitness, relatedness and altruism for the cultural case. Here, we present and explore such a framework using the Price equation. Assuming an isolated, independently measurable culturally transmitted trait, we show that cultural natural selection maximizes cultural fitness, a distinct quantity from genetic fitness, and also that cultural relatedness and cultural altruism are not reducible to or necessarily related to their genetic counterparts. We show that antagonistic coevolution will occur between genes and culture whenever cultural fitness is not perfectly aligned with genetic fitness, as genetic selection will shape psychological mechanisms to avoid susceptibility to cultural traits that bear a genetic fitness cost. We discuss the difficulties with conceptualizing cultural change using the framework of evolutionary theory, the degree to which cultural evolution is autonomous from genetic evolution, and the extent to which cultural change should be seen as a Darwinian process. We argue that the nonselection components of evolutionary change are much more important for culture than for genes, and that this and other important differences from the genetic case mean that different approaches and emphases are needed for cultural than genetic processes. PMID:24329934

  7. Anna Freud and the Holocaust: mourning and survival guilt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, John J

    2014-12-01

    This article explores the period of Anna Freud's life after she was informed of the deaths of her aunts in Nazi concentration camps during World War II. Understanding of this period may be enhanced by consideration of the role of the Holocaust in her complicated mourning process. A series of her dreams is re-examined from the point of view of survivor guilt and the complicated mourning of her father in the context of the Holocaust. It is argued that unconscious reproaches against her father led to an identification with him that included his 'decision' to leave his sisters in Vienna. Survivor guilt in relation to her aunts' murders is seen as one of the complicating factors in the mourning process. In addition the article discusses the possible role of this period, particularly her work with child concentration camp survivors, in her post-war writing. The noted duality in her work between innovation and conservatism is explored in terms of an outcome of the mourning process of this period. It is argued that her views on mourning, trauma, attachment, and the widening scope of indications for psychoanalysis were influenced by the outcome of her mourning process. Finally, an irony is noted in the fact that her attitude about altruism never changed despite the role of the altruism of others in her rescue from the Nazis. PMID:25363600

  8. Antecedents of citizenship behaviour in online customer communities: An empirical investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercy Mpinganjira

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Use of online communities for knowledge generation has become a common phenomenon. In order for online communities to serve as affective spaces for knowledge generation and exchange, members need to behave in ways that are in line with good citizenship. However, because of the limited research, not much is known about citizenship behaviour in such communities and the factors that foster such conduct.Objectives: This article aims to examine the performance of citizenship behaviours by members of online customer communities, and the factors that influence this.Methodology: Data were collected from 303 contributing members of online customer communities using a structured questionnaire. Structural equation modelling was used to analyse the data collected.Results: The findings show moderate levels of engagement in citizenship behaviours among the respondents. Engagement in citizenship behaviours was in general found to be influenced more by the level of affective commitment towards the community than by the perceived levels of social support. Both affective commitment and perceived social support were found to have less influence on compliant citizenship behaviour when compared with altruism and personal initiative. Affective commitment was found to influence personal initiative most strongly, while social support had its strongest influence on altruism. Conclusion: The results provide insights for managers of online customer communities into factors to which they should give attention in order to enhance the performance of citizenship behaviours.

  9. Children's altruistic behavior in context: The role of emotional responsiveness and culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajhans, Purva; Altvater-Mackensen, Nicole; Vaish, Amrisha; Grossmann, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    Altruistic behavior in humans is thought to have deep biological roots. Nonetheless, there is also evidence for considerable variation in altruistic behaviors among individuals and across cultures. Variability in altruistic behavior in adults has recently been related to individual differences in emotional responsiveness to fear in others. The current study examined the relation between emotional responsiveness (using eye-tracking) and altruistic behavior (using the Dictator Game) in 4 to 5-year-old children (N = 96) across cultures (India and Germany). The results revealed that increased altruistic behavior was associated with a greater responsiveness to fear faces (faster fixation), but not happy faces, in both cultures. This suggests that altruistic behavior is linked to our responsiveness to others in distress across cultures. Additionally, only among Indian children greater altruistic behavior was associated with greater sensitivity to context when responding to fearful faces. These findings further our understanding of the origins of altruism in humans by highlighting the importance of emotional processes and cultural context in the development of altruism. PMID:27137754

  10. The Dental Values Scale: development and validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langille, Angela D; Catano, Victor M; Boran, Thomas L; Cunningham, Donald P

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to produce a valid scale for use in measuring the values of dental students and practitioners--the lack of which has impeded research on professionalism in dentistry. Following standard scale development procedures, we had focus groups of dental practitioners (N=23) develop a ninety-nine-item pool of value terms related to dentistry. Next, Canadian dentists (N=449) rated the relevance of each item through an online survey. They also rated the values in a generic values measure, Schwartz's Values Scale. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses identified twenty-five items representing five values: Altruism, Personal Satisfaction, Conscientiousness, Quality of Life, and Professional Status. These values correlate with related dimensions from Schwartz's measure; they also correspond to the values in the American Dental Education Association's statement on professionalism. We then administered the new Dental Values Scale to dental students (N=96) to determine the relationship between practitioner and student values. First-year students were higher in Conscientiousness, Altruism, and Personal Satisfaction than practitioners, but these values decreased over time to those held by the dentists. We discuss the implication of these results and the potential value of the new scale for dental education. PMID:21123496

  11. Lying aversion and prosocial behaviour

    CERN Document Server

    Biziou-van-Pol, Laura; Novaro, Arianna; Liberman, Andrés Occhipinti; Capraro, Valerio

    2015-01-01

    The focus of this paper is the moral conflict between lying aversion and prosociality. What does telling a white lie signal about a person's prosocial tendencies? How does believing a possibly untruthful message signal about a listener's prosocial tendencies? To answer these questions, we conducted a 2x3 experiment. In the first stage we measured altruistic tendencies using a Dictator Game and cooperative tendencies using a Prisoner's dilemma. In the second stage, we used a sender-receiver game to measure aversion to telling a Pareto white lie (i.e., a lie that helps both the liar and the listener), aversion to telling an altruistic white lie (i.e., a lie that helps the listener at the expense of the liar), and skepticism towards believing a possibly untruthful message. We found three major results: (i) both altruism and cooperation are positively correlated with aversion to telling a Pareto white lie; (ii) neither altruism nor cooperation are significantly correlated with aversion to telling an altruistic wh...

  12. The cognitive basis of social behavior: cognitive reflection overrides antisocial but not always prosocial motives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corgnet, Brice; Espín, Antonio M.; Hernán-González, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Even though human social behavior has received considerable scientific attention in the last decades, its cognitive underpinnings are still poorly understood. Applying a dual-process framework to the study of social preferences, we show in two studies that individuals with a more reflective/deliberative cognitive style, as measured by scores on the Cognitive Reflection Test (CRT), are more likely to make choices consistent with “mild” altruism in simple non-strategic decisions. Such choices increase social welfare by increasing the other person's payoff at very low or no cost for the individual. The choices of less reflective individuals (i.e., those who rely more heavily on intuition), on the other hand, are more likely to be associated with either egalitarian or spiteful motives. We also identify a negative link between reflection and choices characterized by “strong” altruism, but this result holds only in Study 2. Moreover, we provide evidence that the relationship between social preferences and CRT scores is not driven by general intelligence. We discuss how our results can reconcile some previous conflicting findings on the cognitive basis of social behavior. PMID:26594158

  13. Relatedness with different interaction configurations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Peter D; Grafen, A

    2010-02-01

    In an inclusive fitness model of social behaviour, a key concept is that of the relatedness between two interactants. This is typically calculated with reference to a "focal" actor taken to be representative of all actors, but when there are different interaction configurations, relatedness must be constructed as an average over all such configurations. We provide an example of such a calculation in an island model with local reproduction but global mortality, leading to variable island size and hence variable numbers of individual interactions. We find that the analysis of this example significantly sharpens our understanding of relatedness. As an application, we obtain a version of Hamilton's rule for a tag-based model of altruism in a randomly mixed population. For large populations, the selective advantage of altruism is enhanced by low (but not too low) tag mutation rates and large numbers of tags. For moderate population sizes and moderate numbers of tags, we find a window of tag mutation rates with critical benefit/cost ratios of between 1 and 3. PMID:19833134

  14. Urban begging and ethnic nepotism in Russia : An ethological pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butovskaya, M; Salter, F; Diakonov, I; Smirnov, A

    2000-06-01

    Ethnic nepotism theory predicts that even in times of communal peace altruism is more pronounced within than between ethnic groups. The present study tested the hypothesis that altruism in the form of alms giving would be greater within than between ethnic groups, and greater between more closely related groups than between more distant groups. The three groups chosen for study were ethnic Russians, Moldavians, and Gypsies. Russians are genetically closer to Moldavians than to Gypsies. Observations were made of 128 ethnic Russian, 25 Moldavian, and 25 Gypsy beggars receiving gifts from ethnic Russians in Moscow trains. The Gypsies were mainly girls, contrary to the Russian sample. Multivariate analysis identified three main strategies: active, personified, and appeasing-undirected. Russian strategies were most variable. Gypsies presented strong charity releasers: 84% were children who played music and sang and showed appeasing-undirected behavior. The few adults were highly submissive or friendly. Nevertheless, their success was limited compared with that of ethnic Russians despite the latter's demanding behavior and their being mostly mature or elderly persons. Moldavians received an intermediate amount of charity. The hypothesis was supported. PMID:26193365

  15. Philosophy of organ donation: Review of ethical facets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalal, Aparna R

    2015-06-24

    Transplantation ethics is a philosophy that incorporates systematizing, defending and advocating concepts of right and wrong conduct related to organ donation. As the demand for organs increases, it is essential to ensure that new and innovative laws, policies and strategies of increasing organ supply are bioethical and are founded on the principles of altruism and utilitarianism. In the field of organ transplantation, role of altruism and medical ethics values are significant to the welfare of the society. This article reviews several fundamental ethical principles, prevailing organ donation consent laws, incentives and policies related to the field of transplantation. The Ethical and Policy Considerations in Organ Donation after Circulatory Determination of Death outline criteria for death and organ retrieval. Presumed consent laws prevalent mostly in European countries maintain that the default choice of an individual would be to donate organs unless opted otherwise. Explicit consent laws require organ donation to be proactively affirmed with state registries. The Declaration of Istanbul outlines principles against organ trafficking and transplant tourism. World Health Organization's Guiding Principles on Human Cell, Tissue and Organ Transplantation aim at ensuring transparency in organ procurement and allocation. The ethics of financial incentives and non-financial incentives such as incorporation of non-medical criteria in organ priority allocation have also been reviewed in detail. PMID:26131406

  16. Factors influencing physicians' knowledge sharing on web medical forums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tung Cheng; Lai, Ming Cheng; Yang, Shu Wen

    2016-09-01

    Web medical forums are relatively unique as knowledge-sharing platforms because physicians participate exclusively as knowledge contributors and not as knowledge recipients. Using the perspective of social exchange theory and considering both extrinsic and intrinsic motivations, this study aims to elicit the factors that significantly influence the willingness of physicians to share professional knowledge on web medical forums and develops a research model to explore the motivations that underlie physicians' knowledge-sharing attitudes. This model hypothesizes that constructs, including shared vision, reputation, altruism, and self-efficacy, positively influence these attitudes and, by extension, positively impact knowledge-sharing intention. A conventional sampling method and the direct recruitment of physicians at their outpatient clinic gathered valid data from a total of 164 physicians for analysis in the model. The empirical results support the validity of the proposed model and identified shared vision as the most significant factor of influence on knowledge-sharing attitudes, followed in descending order by knowledge-sharing self-efficacy, reputation, and altruism. PMID:25888432

  17. The 'Honne-Tatemae' Dimension in Japan's Foreign Aid Policy: Overseas Development Aid Allocations in Southeast Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FURUOKA, Fumitaka, and KATO, Iwao

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper employs the socio-psychological concept of 'honne-tatemae' to analyse Japanese foreign aid policy. Tatemae refers to the 'façade' or 'appearances' while honne signifies the 'real intention'. The Japanese government has pledged to use foreign aid to promote economic development and political stability in developing countries. On the other hand, Japan's official development assistance (ODA program has been repeatedly criticised for being employed as a tool to promote Japan's own commercial interests. In this context, altruism could be a superficial principle of Japanese foreign aid policy which forms the 'tatemae' dimension while selfishness could represent a true hidden motive for the aid giving and form the 'honne' dimension. The present paper uses panel data analysis to examine which element – honne or tatemae – has influenced the decision-making process of allocation of Japan's ODA to Southeast Asia. The findings indicate that the volumes of Japan's exports to and income levels in the aid recipient countries had a significant influence on foreign aid distribution. The Japanese government tended to allocate bigger amounts of money to Japan's major trade partners in ASEAN. At the same time, the poorer nations in the region received more of Japan's ODA compared to the comparatively well-off nations. In other words, both altruism (tatemae dimension and selfishness (honne dimension characterise Japan's ODA flows.

  18. The roles of the medial prefrontal cortex and striatum in reputation processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izuma, Keise; Saito, Daisuke N; Sadato, Norihiro

    2010-01-01

    How we are viewed by other individuals-our reputation-has a considerable influence on our everyday behaviors and is considered an important concept in explaining altruism, a uniquely human trait. Previously it has been proposed that processing one's own reputation requires a reputation representation in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and a value representation in the striatum. Here, we directly tested this idea using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Subjects disclosed their behavioral tendencies with reference to social norms in the presence or absence of other people, a manipulation that is known to greatly affect an individual's concern for their reputation. The mPFC showed strong activation during self-referential processing, and this activity was enhanced by the mere presence of observers. Moreover, the striatum was also strongly activated when subjects responded in front of observers. Thus, the present study demonstrated that the mPFC and striatum were automatically recruited when the task placed a high demand on processing how one is viewed by others. Taken together, our findings suggest that the mPFC and the striatum play a key role in regulating human social behaviors, and these results provide valuable insight into the neural basis of human altruism. PMID:19705330

  19. [What is professionalism?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohbu, Sadayoshi

    2012-01-01

    What is a profession? According to Cruess, it is an occupation whose core element is work that is based on the mastery of a complex body of knowledge and skills. It is a vocation in which knowledge of some department of science or learning, or the practice of an art founded on it, is used in the service of others. Its members profess a commitment to competence, integrity, morality, altruism, and the promotion of the public good within their domain. These commitments form the basis of a social contract between a profession and society, which in return grants the profession autonomy in practice and the privilege of self-regulation. Although medical professionals share the role of healer, there are wide variations between individuals. Professionalism is the basis of medicine's contract with society. Public trust is essential to that contract, and public trust depends on the integrity of both individual professionals and the whole profession. The introduction to this important symposium includes definitions of professions and of medical professionalism. It also includes discussions of reciprocal altruism, conflicts of interest in medical societies, the theory of cognitive dissonance, and the moral foundations of professionalism. PMID:23196504

  20. Mediation of short and longer term effects of an intervention program to enhance resilience in immigrants from Mainland China to Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Xiaonan eYu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Few clinical trials report on the active intervention components that result in outcome changes, although this is relevant to further improving efficacy and adapting effective programs to other populations. This paper presents follow-up analyses of a randomized controlled trial to enhance adaptation by increasing knowledge and personal resilience in two separate brief interventions with immigrants from Mainland China to Hong Kong (Yu et al., 2014b. The present paper extends our previous one by reporting on the longer term effect of the interventions on personal resilience, and examining whether the Resilience intervention worked as designed to enhance personal resilience. The four-session intervention targeted at self-efficacy, positive thinking, altruism, and goal setting. In this randomized controlled trial, 220 immigrants were randomly allocated to three arms: Resilience, Information (an active control arm, and Control arms. Participants completed measures of the four active components (self-efficacy, positive thinking, altruism, and goal setting at baseline and immediately after the intervention. Personal resilience was assessed at baseline, post-intervention, and three- and six-month follow-ups. The results showed that the Resilience arm had greater increases in the four active components post-intervention. Changes in each of the four active components at the post-intervention assessment mediated enhanced personal resilience at the three-month follow-up in the Resilience arm. Changes in self-efficacy and goal setting showed the largest effect size, and altruism showed the smallest. The arm effects of the Resilience intervention on enhanced personal resilience at the six-month follow-up were mediated by increases of personal resilience post-intervention (Resilience versus Control and at the three-month follow-up (Resilience versus Information. These findings showed that these four active components were all mediators in this Resilience

  1. Student voluntarism in transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, S A; Clark, C; Walfish, S

    1979-01-01

    The university student volunteer as a social change agent is in a period of transition. There is no returning to the idealism and activism of the 1960s if this and future generations of students continue to see self-preservation and individual advancement as their only viable option here in America. In view of the changing nature of today's students, the conventional definitions of volunteers, such as Shultz's (1972) altruist, average, and pseudo-volunteer, must be reconsidered. Does the acceptance of minimal pay or demand for academic credit preclude one's being a true altruist? Further, is altruism a necessary or sufficient condition of voluntarism? While we must attempt to answer these questions, the purpose here was to suggest viable first steps in reviving and enhancing student voluntarism. Some of the most salient points are: (1) Student volunteers provide critically needed services to the community, (2) Students are increasingly demanding tangible personal and educational gains for services through voluntarism, (3) Faculty support is vital to student voluntarism and they should be encouraged to actively design their classes to integrate classroom theory and practice through volunteering, and (4) The community agencies served should be active participants in the faculty, student, agency triad, and not merely passive recipients of services. The future of student voluntarism must be viewed in the larger context of changes occurring in the society-at-large, such as cynicism, mistrust of authority figures and leaders, and a move away from altruism and toward symbiosis and/or individualism. There is widespread disillusionment with "band-aid" approaches to solving enormous social problems, i.e., trying to help the few while some of society's most fundamental structures guarantee the perpetuation of poverty, crime, and general anomie. The rekindling of the ideology of cooperative altruism will take ingenuity and tireless effort. Meanwhile, if community psychology

  2. 慈善捐赠动机与后果研究述评--基于经济学视角%A Review on the Motivations and Consequences of Philanthropic Donations---Based on the Economics Perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张敦力; 汪佑德; 汪攀攀

    2013-01-01

    The philanthropic motivations falls into three catalogues: value rationality with social responsibili-ty-altruism,purposive rationality for self-centered strategy-egoism,and regulation rationality out of survival The philanthropic motivations falls into three catalogues: value rationality with social responsibili-ty-altruism,purposive rationality for self-centered strategy-egoism,and regulation rationality out of survival pressure-mutual benefit. The consequences of charitable donation seem contradictory but logically consistent internally. Charitable donation in China differs from that of the western countries in its scale,structure and mode. On this basis,social and economic,cultural and system factors of China should be taken as external variables in the research of motivations and consequences of charitable donation. In such research,the moti-vations of altruism,egoism and mutual benefit should be integrated,related theories of western economics and management should be used for reference and empirical methods should be applied. Through studies about the relation between charitable donation and social benefits,short-term effects and long-term effects,consis-tent results will be drawn for the improvement of domestic charity.%慈善捐赠动机可归为:价值理性社会责任---利他;目的理性自身战略---自利;法规理性生存压力---互利。慈善捐赠的后果看似相互矛盾但内在逻辑一致。我国慈善捐赠的规模、结构与模式与西方显著不同。在研究我国企业慈善捐赠动机与后果时,应该把中国的社会、经济、文化与制度因素作为外部变量考虑进去。今后应结合慈善捐赠的他利、自利和互利动机,借鉴西方经济学与管理学相关理论,采用实证研究方法,来研究慈善捐赠与社会效益、短期效果和长期利益的关系,得出内在逻辑一致结论,以促进我国企业慈善捐赠规模发展和水平提高。

  3. Α quantitative investigation of personality and psychological characteristics on volunteers in the humanitarian non government organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kouliou F.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the heart of volunteerism, as derived from the literature review, the protection of human dignity is identified, since through volunteerism the image of the self is reflected. However, little is known today about the personality characteristics of volunteers at a quantitative level. Most studies around volunteerism focus mostly on a more qualitative and theoretical approach of volunteerism. Aim: The present study was designed to investigate specific psychological characteristics of the personality (altruism, happiness, narcissism, religiousness and the overall family environment which are associated with volunteerism in primary nursing services. More specifically, it was attempted to: a compare the volunteers and non volunteers groups as far as the specific characteristics are concerned, b correlate the individual subscale of each variable both for the whole sample and for each group separately. Methods: The study sample was decided to consist of 121 people who came from two main sources: a volunteers in the nursing section of the Humanitarian NGO of the Hellenic Red Cross and b non- volunteers, members of the healthy population of the wider area of health. The volunteers group consisted of 63 people (52.1%, while the control group consisted of 58 people (47.9% who reported that they had never been involved in volunteerism. The data collection was conducted through a written questionnaire filled at a place and time chosen by the participants. The tools used were: a A questionnaire of sociodemographic characteristics, b The Altruism subscale, c The Subjective Happiness Scale, d The Narcissistic Personality Scale and e The Scale for measuring the Family Environment. Results: From the statistical analysis it was shown that the two groups differentiated quite significantly concerning altruism (P=0.000. Also, they were significantly differentiated concerning narcissism (P=0.012 and moral and religious emphasis of the family environment

  4. Strategies generalization and payoff fluctuation optimization in the iterated ultimatum game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Enock; da Silva, Roberto; Martinez, Alexandre Souto

    2014-10-01

    An iterated version of ultimatum game, based on generalized probabilistic strategies, which are mathematically modeled by accepting proposal functions is presented. These strategies account for the behavior of the players by mixing levels of altruism and greed. We obtained analytically the moments of the payoff of the players under such a generalization. Our analysis is divided into two cases: (i) no memory players, where players do not remember previous decisions, and (ii) one-step memory players, where the offers depend on players' last decision. We start considering the former case. We show that when the combination of the proposer's altruism and responder's greed levels balances the proposer's greedy and responder's altruism levels, the average and variance of the payoff of both players are the same. Our analysis is carried out considering that the acceptance of an offer depends on: (a) a fixed probability p or (b) the value offered. The combination of cases (i) and (a) shows that there exists a p value that maximizes the cumulative gain after n iterations. Moreover, we show n×p diagrams with ïso-average” and ïso-variance” of the cumulative payoff. Our analytical results are validated by Monte Carlo simulations. For the latter case, we show that when players have no memory (i), there are cutoff values, which the variance of the proposer's cumulative payoff presents local maximum and minimum values, while for the responder, the same amount presents a global maximum. Case (b) combined with one-step memory players (ii), we verified, via MC simulations that, for the same number of iterations, the responder obtains different cumulative payoffs by setting different cutoff values. This result composes an interesting pattern of stripes in the cutoff per n diagrams. Simultaneously, looking at variance of this amount, for the responder player in a similar diagram, we observe regions of iso-variance in non trivial patterns which depend on initial value of the

  5. Role of organizational citizenship behavior in promoting knowledge sharing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Dehghani

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Organizational citizenship behavior has been linked to overall organizational effectiveness, thus these types of employee behaviors have important consequences in the workplace. One of the important consequences of these types of behaviors is knowledge sharing. Thus, the current study examined the role of organizational citizenship behavior in promoting knowledge sharing. Method: A descriptive correlation design was employed in this study. We collected the data from Kharazmi University employees in city of Tehran in 2014. The statistical population consisted of 484 Kharazmi University employees from which 210 persons were selected randomly (using simple random sampling by the Krejcie and Morgan (1978 sample size determination table. Data werecollected through organizational citizenship behavior questionnaire and knowledge sharing questionnaire. To examine the reliability of the questionnaires, Cronbach alpha coefficient was used. These coefficients were 0.80 for attitude toward knowledge sharing and 0.77 for intention to share knowledge. Also, for organizational citizenship behavior it ranged from 0.71 (courtesy to 0.82 (altruism. To determine the validity, content validity method was applied. All descriptive statistics, t-test, Pearson correlation and multiple regression were performed using SPSS 19. Results: The results of t-test indicated that the means of organizational citizenship behavior (mean=2.50 and all its dimensions (altruism: 2.60, conscientiousness: 2.52, sportsmanship: 2.41, courtesy: 2.49, civic virtue: 2.45 among employees were at the moderate level. The results showed that the correlation between organizational citizenship behavior and knowledge sharing was significant (r=0.50, P<0.001. Other results showed that the correlations between knowledge sharing and organizational citizenship behavior dimensions - Altruism (r=0.35, Conscientiousness (r=0.19, Sportsmanship (r=0.46, Courtesy (r=0.39, Civic virtue (r=0

  6. Individual differences in allocation of funds in the dictator game associated with length of the arginine vasopressin 1a receptor RS3 promoter region and correlation between RS3 length and hippocampal mRNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knafo, A; Israel, S; Darvasi, A; Bachner-Melman, R; Uzefovsky, F; Cohen, L; Feldman, E; Lerer, E; Laiba, E; Raz, Y; Nemanov, L; Gritsenko, I; Dina, C; Agam, G; Dean, B; Bornstein, G; Ebstein, R P

    2008-04-01

    Human altruism is a widespread phenomenon that puzzled evolutionary biologists since Darwin. Economic games illustrate human altruism by showing that behavior deviates from economic predictions of profit maximization. A game that most plainly shows this altruistic tendency is the Dictator Game. We hypothesized that human altruistic behavior is to some extent hardwired and that a likely candidate that may contribute to individual differences in altruistic behavior is the arginine vasopressin 1a (AVPR1a) receptor that in some mammals such as the vole has a profound impact on affiliative behaviors. In the current investigation, 203 male and female university students played an online version of the Dictator Game, for real money payoffs. All subjects and their parents were genotyped for AVPR1a RS1 and RS3 promoter-region repeat polymorphisms. Parents did not participate in online game playing. As variation in the length of a repetitive element in the vole AVPR1a promoter region is associated with differences in social behavior, we examined the relationship between RS1 and RS3 repeat length (base pairs) and allocation sums. Participants with short versions (308-325 bp) of the AVPR1a RS3 repeat allocated significantly (likelihood ratio = 14.75, P = 0.001, df = 2) fewer shekels to the 'other' than participants with long versions (327-343 bp). We also implemented a family-based association test, UNPHASED, to confirm and validate the correlation between the AVPR1a RS3 repeat and monetary allocations in the dictator game. Dictator game allocations were significantly associated with the RS3 repeat (global P value: likelihood ratio chi(2) = 11.73, df = 4, P = 0.019). The association between the AVPR1a RS3 repeat and altruism was also confirmed using two self-report scales (the Bardi-Schwartz Universalism and Benevolence Value-expressive Behavior scales). RS3 long alleles were associated with higher scores on both measures. Finally, long AVPR1a RS3 repeats were associated with

  7. Comment upon 'Public goods and private interests: understanding non-residential demand for green power'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article presents a critique of the recent contribution to Energy Policy (November 2001) by Wiser, Fowlie and Holt, entitled, 'Public goods and private interests: understanding non-residential demand for green power'. In their article, the aforementioned authors explore the proposition that business and other organisations adopt green power, and will pay even a premium for it, because of what the authors describe as 'altruism'. According to the article below, although Wiser et al. address an important problem and raise interesting issues, their attempt at challenging received theory and existing paradigms is undermined by the manner in which their research was undertaken. Deficiencies arise with regard to survey techniques, data preparation, model specification, and statistical methods. The deficiencies in their research methods cast doubt upon their findings, facilitating alternative interpretations of their empiricism

  8. Individual Factors and Knowledge Sharing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene Okyere-Kwakye

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Knowledge management has been acknowledged as an important element for businesses today. While individuals within the organizations might recognize the importance of knowledge management for the success of their day to day business functions, previous literatures have shown that individuals are still reluctant to participate in knowledge management efforts especially knowledge sharing. As the behavior people show in different situations depends highly on their personal intentions as well as the social forces, the degree of the reluctance or willingness towards sharing their knowledge might also fit in the same case. Based on previous studies we develop a conceptual framework to suggest a relationship between knowledge sharing and four of the individual factors namely altruism, self efficacy, mutual reciprocity and trust. Questionnaire is proposed to collect data and multiple regressions as the statistical technique to analyze the data. Conclusion/Recommendations: This study makes an attempt to discuss some of the individual factors that can affect knowledge sharing.

  9. On Some Conceptual and Explanatory Difficulties of Evolutionary Ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Bracanovic

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available In the article it is argued that contemporary evolutionary ethics – to the extent it accepts sociobiological strategies of naturalizing human morality – faces some serious conceptual and explanatory difficulties. Conceptual difficulty consists in recognizing that “morality” is not the same as “altruism”, but rather comprises several specific elements which distinguish it from both evolutionary and psychological altruism. Explanatory difficulty consists in recognizing that the phenomenon of morality appropriately conceptualized cannot be incorporated into standard sociobiological explanations without endangering some basic assumptions of those explanations, primarily the assumption of “gene selectionism”, as well as the assumption of “evolutionarily stable strategies” (ESS. The basic argument is that one cannot retain both the appropriate concept (description of human morality and key assumptions of sociobiological explanations.

  10. A teoria da dupla herança e a evolução da moralidade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Portela Lopes de Almeida

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A darwinian evolutionary approach can contribute to reassess philosophical problems in different fields, including ethics and moral theory. Sociobiology and evolutionary psychology address these issues by presupposing mechanisms such as kin selection and reciprocal altruism. However, these mechanisms can’t account for cooperation in the human species. Dual inheritance theory addresses human cooperation differently, by taking into account the above-mentioned classical biological mechanisms without ignoring, however, relevant knowledge produced by social scientists. According to this approach, human social psychology comprises tribal social instincts and symbolic markers. One implication of this approach is that there are innate and universal moral principles hardwired in the human mind-brain, which where selected through an evolutionary process that makes life possible in large, structured social groups. Although innate, these principles are plastically shaped to meet the demands of different cultural niches in particular societies.

  11. Spirituality and religion among French prisoners: an effective coping resource?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandhouj, Olfa; Aubin, Henri-Jean; Amirouche, Ammar; Perroud, Nader Ali; Huguelet, Philippe

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the role of spirituality and religiousness (SR) among detainees. Thirty detainees from a French short-stay prison were assessed with the World Health Organization Quality of Life-Spirituality Religion and Personal Beliefs questionnaire (WHOQOL-SRPB) and with open questions about SR. Forty percent of detainees described SR as an important way of coping with incarceration and stressful events, as a means of finding inner peace, showing altruism, and gaining the respect of others. SR involvement was associated with reports of decreased suicide risk and of the prevention of future offences. SR appears to be an important coping mechanism and may help the transition to the community following incarceration. This study endorses the view that SR should be considered when treating this population. PMID:23782706

  12. Does food sharing in vampire bats demonstrate reciprocity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Gerald; Wilkinson, Gerald

    2013-11-01

    Claims of reciprocity (or reciprocal altruism) in animal societies often ignite controversy because authors disagree over definitions, naturalistic studies tend to demonstrate correlation not causation, and controlled experiments often involve artificial conditions. Food sharing among common vampire bats has been a classic textbook example of reciprocity, but this conclusion has been contested by alternative explanations. Here, we review factors that predict food sharing in vampire bats based on previously published and unpublished data, validate previous published results with more precise relatedness estimates, and describe current evidence for and against alternative explanations for its evolutionary stability. Although correlational evidence indicates a role for both direct and indirect fitness benefits, unequivocally demonstrating reciprocity in vampire bats still requires testing if and how bats respond to non-reciprocation. PMID:24505498

  13. Impact of Roles Assignation on Heterogeneous Populations in Evolutionary Dictator Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xinyang; Liu, Qi; Sadiq, Rehan; Deng, Yong

    2014-11-01

    The evolution of cooperation is a hot and challenging topic in the field of evolutionary game theory. Altruistic behavior, as a particular form of cooperation, has been widely studied by the ultimatum game but not by the dictator game, which provides a more elegant way to identify the altruistic component of behaviors. In this paper, the evolutionary dictator game is applied to model the real motivations of altruism. A degree-based regime is utilized to assess the impact of the assignation of roles on evolutionary outcome in populations of heterogeneous structure with two kinds of strategic updating mechanisms, which are based on Darwin's theory of evolution and punctuated equilibrium, respectively. The results show that the evolutionary outcome is affected by the role assignation and that this impact also depends on the strategic updating mechanisms, the function used to evaluate players' success, and the structure of populations.

  14. 'Healthy gums do matter': A case study of clinical leadership within primary dental care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, D; Saleem, S; Hawthorn, E; Pealing, R; Ashley, M; Bridgman, C

    2015-09-25

    The Health and Social Care Act 2012 heralded wide reaching reforms intended to place clinicians at the heart of the health service. For NHS general dental practice, the conduits for this clinical leadership are the NHS England local professional networks. In Greater Manchester, the local professional network has developed and piloted a clinician led quality improvement project: 'Healthy Gums DO Matter, a Practitioner's Toolkit'. Used as a case study, the project highlighted the following facilitators to clinical leadership in dentistry: supportive environment; mentoring and transformational leadership; alignment of project goals with national policy; funding allowance; cross-boundary collaboration; determination; altruism; and support from wider academic and specialist colleagues. Barriers to clinical leadership identified were: the hierarchical nature of healthcare, territorialism and competing clinical commitments. PMID:26404983

  15. Mental health promotion through resilience and resiliency education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Glenn E; Waite, Phillip J

    2002-01-01

    The article provides a brief review of the metatheory of resilience and resiliency, a description of a resiliency training program, and also a summary of results of a resiliency training program. Resilience in this paper is a self-righting force within everyone that drives him/her to pursue self actualization, altruism, wisdom, and harmony with a spiritual source of strength. The resiliency process is the experience of being disrupted by change, opportunities, adversity, stressors or challenges and, after some disorder, accessing personal gifts and strengths to grow stronger through the disruption. The resiliency training program is presented as a five-day progressive program that provides experiences for participants to enhance personal resilience and to pursue resilient relationships. Research previously conducted in a large government organization showed immediate and posttest improvements in resilience, locus of control, purpose in life, self-esteem, interpersonal relationships, and job satisfaction. PMID:12014295

  16. Development and validation of an Agreeableness scale in the Big Five personality model / Construção e validação da escala fatorial de Socialização no modelo dos Cinco Grandes Fatores de Personalidade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Henrique Sancineto da Silva Nunes

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to develop and assess construct validity of an Agreeableness scale (Escala Fatorial de Socialização – EFS in the Big Five model. In this model, Agreeableness is comprised by traits that describe altruism, straightforwardness, trust in people, as well as coldness, antisocial behaviors, among others. The participants were 1.100 individuals, from five States in Brazil, of both sexes, with high school or university level of education. Factor analyses were conducted to determine the EFS dimensions. A 3-factor solution was found to be more adequate. The factors found were named: Cordiality, Pro-sociability, and Trust in people. Internal consistency (Cronbach's alphas for the factors were .91, .84, and .80 respectively, and .92 for the general scale.

  17. Legal and ethical issues of uterus transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickens, Bernard M

    2016-04-01

    The clinically detailed report of a successful uterus transplantation and live birth in Sweden, in which a family friend donated her uterus, provides a basis for expanded practice. Family members and friends can serve as living donors without offending legal or ethical prohibitions of paid organ donation, even though family members and friends often engage in reciprocal gift exchanges. Donations from living unrelated sources are more problematic, and there is a need to monitor donors' genuine altruism and motivation. Donation by deceased women-i.e. cadaveric donation-raises issues of uterus suitability for transplantation, and how death is diagnosed. Organs' suitability for donation is often achieved by ventilation to maintain cardiac function for blood circulation, but laws and cultures could deem that a heartbeat indicates donors' live status. Issues could arise concerning ownership and control of organs between recovery from donors and implantation into recipients, and on removal following childbirth, that require legal resolution. PMID:26873131

  18. The evolution of adhesiveness as a social adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Thomas; Doulcier, Guilhem; De Monte, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    Cellular adhesion is a key ingredient to sustain collective functions of microbial aggregates. Here, we investigate the evolutionary origins of adhesion and the emergence of groups of genealogically unrelated cells with a game-theoretical model. The considered adhesiveness trait is costly, continuous and affects both group formation and group-derived benefits. The formalism of adaptive dynamics reveals two evolutionary stable strategies, at each extreme on the axis of adhesiveness. We show that cohesive groups can evolve by small mutational steps, provided the population is already endowed with a minimum adhesiveness level. Assortment between more adhesive types, and in particular differential propensities to leave a fraction of individuals ungrouped at the end of the aggregation process, can compensate for the cost of increased adhesiveness. We also discuss the change in the social nature of more adhesive mutations along evolutionary trajectories, and find that altruism arises before directly beneficial behavior, despite being the most challenging form of cooperation. PMID:26613415

  19. Implicit and explicit processes in social cognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frith, Christopher; Frith, Uta

    2008-01-01

    In this review we consider research on social cognition in which implicit processes can be compared and contrasted with explicit, conscious processes. In each case, their function is distinct, sometimes complementary and sometimes oppositional. We argue that implicit processes in social interaction...... are automatic and are often opposed to conscious strategies. While we are aware of explicit processes in social interaction, we cannot always use them to override implicit processes. Many studies show that implicit processes facilitate the sharing of knowledge, feelings, and actions, and hence......, perhaps surprisingly, serve altruism rather than selfishness. On the other hand, higher-level conscious processes are as likely to be selfish as prosocial....

  20. An empirical investigation on the effects of spiritual leadership components on organizational learning capacity: A case study of Payame Noor University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Hossein

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation on the effects of spiritual leadership components on organizational learning capacity for a case study of Payame Noor University, Iran. The proposed study uses a standard questionnaire for measuring spirituality leadership proposed by Fry (2003 [Fry, L. W. (2003. Toward a theory of spiritual leadership. The leadership quarterly, 14(6, 693-727.] and for measuring the impact of organizational learning capacity, the proposed study uses another questionnaire proposed by Teo et al. (2006 [Teo, H. H., Wang, X., Wei, K. K., Sia, C. L., & Lee, M. K. (2006. Organizational learning capacity and attitude toward complex technological innovations: an empirical study. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 57(2, 264-279.]. The results of our survey have indicated that all components of spiritual leadership, except love and altruism as meaningful, influence spirituality leadership, significantly.