WorldWideScience

Sample records for altruism

  1. Kantian Altruism in Economics and Ibn Khaldun

    OpenAIRE

    Sarıbaş, Hakan

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the concept of Kantian Altruism in the writings of Ibn Khaldun is examined. Government efficiency improves when Kantian Altruism becomes the characteristic of public decision makers. It is also argued that Kantian Altruism coincides with the altruism in the writings of Ibn Khaldun.

  2. Altruism and International Labour Migration

    OpenAIRE

    Damien Gaumont; Alice Mesnard

    1999-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of altruism on the pattern of labour migration in a two-country overlapping generations model. We show that differences in degrees of altruism across countries lead to bilateral migration flows. Starting from the autarkic steady-state equilibrium, restrictions on labour migration are relaxed. In temporary post-migration equilibrium factor prices are equal across countries. We then characterize the unique stable steady-state equilibrium: both countries are po...

  3. Selfishness as second-order altruism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldakar, Omar Tonsi; Wilson, David Sloan

    2008-05-13

    Selfishness is seldom considered a group-beneficial strategy. In the typical evolutionary formulation, altruism benefits the group, selfishness undermines altruism, and the purpose of the model is to identify mechanisms, such as kinship or reciprocity, that enable altruism to evolve. Recent models have explored punishment as an important mechanism favoring the evolution of altruism, but punishment can be costly to the punisher, making it a form of second-order altruism. This model identifies a strategy called "selfish punisher" that involves behaving selfishly in first-order interactions and altruistically in second-order interactions by punishing other selfish individuals. Selfish punishers cause selfishness to be a self-limiting strategy, enabling altruists to coexist in a stable equilibrium. This polymorphism can be regarded as a division of labor, or mutualism, in which the benefits obtained by first-order selfishness help to "pay" for second-order altruism. PMID:18448681

  4. Estate Taxation with Altruism Heterogeneity

    OpenAIRE

    Emmanuel Farhi; Iván Werning

    2013-01-01

    We develop a theory of optimal estate taxation in a model where bequest inequality is driven by differences in parental altruism. We show that a wide range of results are possible, from positive taxes to subsidies. The results depend on redistributive objectives implicit in the cardinal specification of utility and social welfare functions. We propose a normalization that is helpful in classifying these different possibilities. We isolate cases where the optimal policy bans negative bequests ...

  5. Selective altruism in collective games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zappalà, Dario A.; Pluchino, Alessandro; Rapisarda, Andrea

    2014-09-01

    We study the emergence of altruistic behaviour in collective games. In particular, we take into account Toral's version of collective Parrondo's paradoxical games, in which the redistribution of capital between agents, who can play different strategies, creates a positive trend of increasing capital. In this framework, we insert two categories of players, altruistic and selfish ones, and see how they interact and how their capital evolves. More in detail, we analyse the positive effects of altruistic behaviour, but we also point out how selfish players take advantage of that situation. The general result is that altruistic behaviour is discouraged, because selfish players get richer while altruistic ones get poorer. We also consider a smarter way of being altruistic, based on reputation, called "selective altruism", which prevents selfish players from taking advantage of altruistic ones. In this new situation it is altruism, and not selfishness, to be encouraged and stabilized. Finally, we introduce a mechanism of imitation between players and study how it influences the composition of the population of both altruistic and selfish players as a function of time for different initial conditions and network topologies adopted.

  6. CSMA Local Area Networking under Dynamic Altruism

    CERN Document Server

    Antoniadis, Panayotis; Griffin, Christopher; Jin, Youngmi; Kesidis, George

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we consider medium access control of local area networks (LANs) under limited-information conditions as befits a distributed system. Rather than assuming "by rule" conformance to a protocol designed to regulate packet-flow rates (e.g., CSMA windowing), we begin with a non-cooperative game framework and build a dynamic altruism term into the net utility. The effects of altruism are analyzed at Nash equilibrium for both the ALOHA and CSMA frameworks in the quasistationary (fictitious play) regime. We consider either power or throughput based costs of networking, and the cases of identical or heterogeneous (independent) users/players. In a numerical study we consider diverse players, and we see that the effects of altruism for similar players can be beneficial in the presence of significant congestion, but excessive altruism may lead to underuse of the channel when demand is low.

  7. CSMA Local Area Networking under Dynamic Altruism

    OpenAIRE

    Antoniadis, Panayotis; Fdida, Serge; Griffin, Christopher; Jin, Youngmi; Kesidis, George

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we consider medium access control of local area networks (LANs) under limited-information conditions as befits a distributed system. Rather than assuming "by rule" conformance to a protocol designed to regulate packet-flow rates (e.g., CSMA windowing), we begin with a non-cooperative game framework and build a dynamic altruism term into the net utility. The effects of altruism are analyzed at Nash equilibrium for both the ALOHA and CSMA frameworks in the quasistationary (fictit...

  8. Competitive environments sustain costly altruism with negligible assortment of interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doncaster, C Patrick; Jackson, Adam; Watson, Richard A

    2013-10-03

    Competition hinders the evolution of altruism amongst kin when beneficiaries gain at the expense of competing relatives. Altruism is consequently deemed to require stronger kin selection, or trait-selected synergies, or elastic population regulation, to counter this effect. Here we contest the view that competition puts any such demands on altruism. In ecologically realistic scenarios, competition influences both altruism and defection. We show how environments that pit defectors against each other allow strong altruism to evolve even in populations with negligible kin structure and no synergies. Competition amongst defectors presents relative advantages to altruism in the simplest games between altruists and defectors, and the most generic models of altruistic phenotypes or genotypes invading non-altruistic populations under inelastic density regulation. Given the widespread inevitability of competition, selection will often favour altruism because its alternatives provide lower fitness. Strong competition amongst defectors nevertheless undermines altruism, by facilitating invasion of unrelated beneficiaries as parasites.

  9. ALTRUISM, ITS NATURE, ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snezana JOKSIMOVIC

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available The present article argues about the concept of altruism and the related concepts, as well as the motivation of the altruistic and the other forms of archisocial behavior. The situational as well as individual components of altruism have also been analyzed. The effect of the age and sex, certain features of character and values accepted as the representatives of individual components has been considered too. In conformity with the interaction understanding according to which one’s behavior is the result of the mutual action (interaction between a person and a situation, the author points out that to understand an altruistic behavior in takes having the entire survey over the circumstances saucing the demonstration of altruism and the properties of the personalities that exert the altruistic behavior.In the part of the article dealing whit the development and the simulation of altruism the author makes an analysis of the role of the family, persons of the same age and the school. Beside the adequate action of certain agents of socialization, the author is particularly in favor of the organized and well-devised participation of the young in the humanity work as one the most efficient ways to stimulate altruism.

  10. An Emergent Theory of Altruism and Self-Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Stephen V.; Black, Linda L.

    2011-01-01

    Beliefs about altruism and self-interest of 25 participants were examined through a grounded theory methodology. Altruism was defined as the promotion of needs of others and self-interest as the promotion of needs of self. Data sources included interviews, focus group, journal analysis, artifacts, and a measure of altruism. The relationship…

  11. Authenticity, Autonomy and Altruism: Keys for Transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarken, Rodney

    2011-01-01

    The value of authentic knowing, autonomous behavior and altruistic motivation is presented. Authenticity, autonomy and altruism are primary human capacities and keys for individual and collective transformation. Realizing the full development of these three basic potentialities can serve as goals and standards for well-being. Authenticity,…

  12. Altruism, Conformism, and Incentives in the Workplace

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Tichem (Jan)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Performance pay can motivate employees, but money is not the only motivation in the workplace. Altruism, which means that someone enjoys the well-being of someone else, can also provide a powerful motivation. The first part of this thesis studies theoretically how altru

  13. The mystery of altruism and transcultural nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowd, Steven; Davidhizar, Ruth; Giger, Joyce Newman

    2007-01-01

    Why do some individuals choose the professions they do? Is it for altruistic reasons? This article examines this question from the standpoints of sociobiology, evolutionary biology, game theory, and memetics. Implications for transcultural nursing are included. The Giger-Davidhizar Transcultural Assessment Model is presented as a nursing model and might explain altruism even beyond other models. An overview of the Giger-Davidhizar Transcultural Assessment Model is included. PMID:17314628

  14. Theory of Mind, Material Altruism and Family Context in Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin, Burhanettin; Jones, Ithel

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between theory of mind, material altruism, and family context was examined. Forty-one preschool children (16 females and 25 males) enrolled in a private school participated in the study. Results of this study showed no relationship between theory of mind and altruism. There were no significant correlations between theory of mind…

  15. Psychological characteristics of remedial teachers of different altruism levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Shulzhenko

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors of this paper studied psychological characteristics of remedial teachers with different altruism levels. Altruism is a motive to render assistance to anyone not consciously related to one’s own selfish interests. Subjectively it manifests itself in sympathy, being oriented towards helping others. Altruism is opposed to selfishness, which is incompatible with disinterested concern for the welfare of others and willingness to sacrifice personal interests for them. The main driving force behind altruistic behaviour is a drive to improve the situation of others rather than expecting some reward. In psychology, altruism is considered as a system of personality value priorities in which interests of another person or social community are a central motive and a moral evaluation criterion.

  16. Associations among altruism, burnout dimensions, and organizational citizenship behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Emmerik, IJ. Hetty van; Jawahar, I.M.; Stone, Thomas H.

    2005-01-01

    Most studies of burnout have focused on lack of resources, prevalence of burnout, and negative outcomes. In contrast, this study examined the relationships among altruism, burnout and a positive outcome, namely, the engagement in organizational citizenship behaviour. Web questionnaires were distributed to employees in three professional organizations. The results from the 178 respondents indicated that altruism is related to organizational citizenship behaviour. Of the three dimensions of bur...

  17. Selfish punishment: altruism can be maintained by competition among cheaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldakar, Omar Tonsi; Farrell, Dene Leo; Wilson, David Sloan

    2007-11-21

    Altruistic punishment refers to a class of behaviors that deters cheating at a cost to the punisher, making it a form of second-order altruism. Usually, it is assumed that the punishers are themselves "solid citizens" who refrain from cheating. We show in a simulation model that altruism and punishment paradoxically become negatively correlated, leading to a form of selfish punishment. Examples of selfish punishment can be found in organisms as diverse as wasps, birds, and humans. PMID:17854839

  18. Natural selection of altruism in inelastic viscous homogeneous populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grafen, Alan; Archetti, Marco

    2008-06-21

    Biological explanations are given of three main uninterpreted theoretical results on the selection of altruism in inelastic viscous homogeneous populations, namely that non-overlapping generations hinder the evolution of altruism, fecundity effects are more conducive to altruism than survival effects, and one demographic regime (so-called death-birth) permits altruism whereas another (so-called birth-death) does not. The central idea is 'circles of compensation', which measure how far the effects of density dependence extend from a focal individual. Relatednesses can then be calculated that compensate for density dependence. There is very generally a 'balancing circle of compensation', at which the viscosity of the population slows up selection of altruism, but does not affect its direction, and this holds for altruism towards any individual, not just immediate neighbours. These explanations are possible because of recent advances in the theory of inclusive fitness on graphs. The assumption of node bitransitivity in that recent theory is relaxed to node transitivity and symmetry of the dispersal matrix, and new formulae show how to calculate relatedness from dispersal and vice versa. PMID:18371985

  19. Insect compassion, evidence of altruism, reciprocity, and midwifery behavior in aphids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altruism is characterized by an act provided by a donor to a recipient that is considered detrimental to the donor yet benefits the recipient. Evidence of altruism is abundant in nature. In insects, altruism is manifest by ant and bee colonies where sterile workers provide labor, care of young, co...

  20. The Survival and Welfare Implications of Altruism when Preferences are Endogenous

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Anders

    This paper is a contribution to the economic literature studying altruism. In a simple evolutionary model of endogenous preferences we show that individuals with altruistic preferences can survive. We also analyze the material welfare implications of altruism. Policies that promote altruism...

  1. Media and children's aggression, fear, and altruism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Barbara J

    2008-01-01

    Noting that the social and emotional experiences of American children today often heavily involve electronic media, Barbara Wilson takes a close look at how exposure to screen media affects children's well-being and development. She concludes that media influence on children depends more on the type of content that children find attractive than on the sheer amount of time they spend in front of the screen. Wilson begins by reviewing evidence on the link between media and children's emotions. She points out that children can learn about the nature and causes of different emotions from watching the emotional experiences of media characters and that they often experience empathy with those characters. Although research on the long-term effects of media exposure on children's emotional skill development is limited, a good deal of evidence shows that media exposure can contribute to children's fears and anxieties. Both fictional and news programming can cause lasting emotional upset, though the themes that upset children differ according to a child's age. Wilson also explores how media exposure affects children's social development. Strong evidence shows that violent television programming contributes to children's aggressive behavior. And a growing body of work indicates that playing violent video games can have the same harmful effect. Yet if children spend time with educational programs and situation comedies targeted to youth, media exposure can have more prosocial effects by increasing children's altruism, cooperation, and even tolerance for others. Wilson also shows that children's susceptibility to media influence can vary according to their gender, their age, how realistic they perceive the media to be, and how much they identify with characters and people on the screen. She concludes with guidelines to help parents enhance the positive effects of the media while minimizing the risks associated with certain types of content. PMID:21338007

  2. Extraterrestrial altruism evolution and ethics in the cosmos

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    Extraterrestrial Altruism examines a basic assumption of the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI): that extraterrestrials will be transmitting messages to us for our benefit. This question of whether extraterrestrials will be altruistic has become increasingly important in recent years as SETI scientists have begun contemplating transmissions from Earth to make contact. Should we expect altruism to evolve throughout the cosmos, or is this only wishful thinking? Would this make biological sense? Is it dangerous to send messages to other worlds, as Stephen Hawking has suggested? Would extraterrestrial societies be based on different ethical principles? Extraterrestrial Altruism explores these and related questions about the motivations of civilizations beyond Earth, providing new insights that are critical for SETI. Chapters are authored by leading scholars from diverse disciplines—anthropology, astronomy, biology, chemistry, computer science, cosmology, engineering, history of science, law, philos...

  3. Communicative genes in the evolution of empathy and altruism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Ross

    2011-11-01

    This paper discusses spontaneous communication and its implications for understanding empathy and altruism. The question of the possibility of "true" altruism-giving up one's genetic potential in favor of the genetic potential of another-is a fundamental issue common to the biological, behavioral, and social sciences. Darwin regarded "social instincts and sympathies" to be critical to the social order, but the possibility of biologically-based prosocial motives and emotions was questioned when selection was interpreted as operating at the level of the gene. In the selfish gene hypothesis, Dawkins argued that the unit of evolutionary selection must be an active, germ-line replicator: a unit whose activities determine whether copies of it are made across evolutionary timescales. He argued that the only active replicator existing across evolutionary timescales is the gene, so that the "selfish gene" is a replicator motivated only to make copies of itself. The communicative gene hypothesis notes that genes function by communicating, and the phenotype communication involves not only the individual sending and receiving abilities of the individual genes involved, but also the relationship between them relative to other genes. Therefore the selection of communication as phenotype involves the selection of individual genes and also their relationship. Relationships become replicators, and are selected across evolutionary timescales including social relationships (e.g., sex, nurturance, dominance-submission). An interesting implication of this view: apparent altruism has been interpreted by selfish gene theorists as due to kin selection and reciprocity, in which the survival of kin and comrade indirectly favor the genetic potential of the altruist. From the viewpoint of the communicative gene hypothesis, rather than underlying altruism, kin selection and reciprocity are ways of restricting altruism to kin and comrade: they are mechanisms not of altruism but of xenophobia

  4. Parenting with style: Altruism and paternalism in intergenerational preference transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Doepke, Matthias; Zilibotti, Fabrizio

    2012-01-01

    We construct a theory of intergenerational preference transmission that rationalizes the choice between alternative parenting styles (related to Baumrind 1967). Parents maximize an objective function that combines Beckerian and paternalistic altruism towards children. They can affect their children's choices via two channels: either by influencing their preferences or by imposing direct restrictions on their choice sets. Different parenting styles (authoritarian, authoritative, and permissive...

  5. Parenting with Style: Altruism and Paternalism in Intergenerational Preference Transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Doepke, Matthias; Zilibotti, Fabrizio

    2012-01-01

    We construct a theory of intergenerational preference transmission that rationalizes the choice between alternative parenting styles (related to Baumrind 1967). Parents maximize an objective function that combines Beckerian and paternalistic altruism towards children. They can affect their children's choices via two channels: either by influencing their preferences or by imposing direct restrictions on their choice sets. Different parenting styles (authoritarian, authoritative, and permissive...

  6. Parenting with Style: Altruism and Paternalism in Intergenerational Preference Transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Matthias Doepke; Fabrizio Zilibotti

    2014-01-01

    We develop a theory of intergenerational preference transmission that rationalizes the choice between parenting styles. Parents maximize an objective function that combines Beckerian altruism and paternalism towards children. They can affect their children's choices via two channels: either by influencing children's preferences or by imposing direct restrictions on their choice sets. Different parenting styles (authoritarian, authoritative, permissive) emerge as equilibrium outcomes, and are ...

  7. Altruism and reward: motivational compatibility in deceased organ donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voo, Teck Chuan

    2015-03-01

    Acts of helping others are often based on mixed motivations. Based on this claim, it has been argued that the use of a financial reward to incentivize organ donation is compatible with promoting altruism in organ donation. In its report Human Bodies: Donation for Medicine and Research, the Nuffield Council on Bioethics uses this argument to justify its suggestion to pilot a funeral payment scheme to incentivize people to register for deceased organ donation in the UK. In this article, I cast a sceptical eye on the above Nuffield report's argument that its proposed funeral payment scheme would prompt deceased organ donations that remain altruistic (as defined by and valued the report). Specifically, I illustrate how this scheme may prompt various forms of mixed motivations which would not satisfy the report's definition of altruism. Insofar as the scheme produces an expectation of the reward, it stands diametrical to promoting an 'altruistic perspective'. My minimal goal in this article is to argue that altruism is not motivationally compatible with reward as an incentive for donation. My broader goal is to argue that if a financial reward is used to incentivize organ donation, then we should recognize that the donation system is no longer aiming to promote altruism. Rewarded donation would not be altruistic but it may be ethical given a persistent organ shortage situation. PMID:24547770

  8. Central role of altruism in the recruitment of gamete donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennings, Guido

    2015-03-01

    This paper explores problems associated with using altruism as the central value in gamete donation, and in doing so draws on empirical data that sheds light on why gamete donors choose to donate. Donation of bodily material is, arguably, supposed to be motivated by altruism, and this is the view taken by many European governments. Other values are often ignored or rejected as morally inappropriate. This paper analyses some conceptual and practical problems with the use of altruism as the motivation to determine moral acceptability-drawing on empirical data that suggests gamete donors are not motivated purely by altruism, and that motivations are in fact quite complex. Two problems are first analysed: (1) how do we distinguish altruistic from non-altruistic donations and (2) how do we distinguish between removing barriers and providing incentives. A final question, triggered by the Nuffield Council on Bioethics' report, is whether the meaning of the payment should be decided on the basis of an a priori definition or on the basis of the donors' subjective experience. It is concluded that there are different legitimate core values in donation, which should be balanced. In order to value the good generated by donation, donors with mixed motives should be accepted, as long as helping others is an important motive and also features in their motivation. PMID:25743052

  9. How altruism can pay in a collective game

    CERN Document Server

    Zappalà, Dario A; Rapisarda, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    We consider a collective version of Parrondo's paradox, a game in which the redistribution of capital between agents, who can play different strategies, creates a positive trend of increasing capital. In this framework, we insert two categories of players, altruistic and egoistic ones, and see how they interact and how their initial capital changes, considering also different network topologies. In particular, we analyse the positive effects of the altruists' behaviour, but we also point out how the egoists take advantage of them. The general result is that the altruistic behaviour is discouraged, because egoists get richer while altruists get poorer. We consider also a smarter version of being altruistic, based on reputation, called selective altruism, which prevents egoistic players from taking advantage of altruistic ones. In this new situation it is altruism, and not egoism, to be encouraged. Finally, we introduce a mechanism of imitation between players and study how it influences the composition of the ...

  10. Parenting with Style: Altruism and Paternalism in Intergenerational Preference Transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Fabrizio Zilibotti; Matthias Doepke

    2014-01-01

    We construct a theory of intergenerational preference transmission that rationalizes the choice between alternative parenting styles (related to Baumrind 1967). Parents maximize an objective function that combines Beckerian and paternalistic altruism towards children. They can affect their children’s choices via two channels: either by influencing their preferences or by imposing direct restrictions on their choice sets. Different parenting styles (authoritarian, authoritative, and permissi...

  11. Parenting with style: altruism and paternalism in intergenerational preference transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Matthias Doepke; Fabrizio Zilibotti

    2014-01-01

    We develop a theory of intergenerational transmission of preferences that rationalizes the choice between alternative parenting styles (as set out in Baumrind 1967). Parents maximize an objective function that combines Beckerian altruism and paternalism towards children. They can affect their children’s choices via two channels: either by influencing children’s preferences or by imposing direct restrictions on their choice sets. Different parenting styles (authoritarian, authoritative, and pe...

  12. Parenting with style: Altruism and paternalism in intergenerational preference transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Matthias Doepke; Fabrizio Zilibotti

    2012-01-01

    We construct a theory of intergenerational preference transmission that rationalizes the choice between alternative parenting styles (related to Baumrind 1967). Parents maximize an objective function that combines Beckerian and paternalistic altruism towards children. They can affect their children’s choices via two channels: either by influencing their preferences or by imposing direct restrictions on their choice sets. Different parenting styles (authoritarian, authoritative, and permissive...

  13. Parenting with style: altruism and paternalism in intergenerational preference transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Doepke, Matthias; Zilibotti, Fabrizio

    2014-01-01

    We develop a theory of intergenerational transmission of preferences that rationalizes the choice between alternative parenting styles (as set out in Baumrind 1967). Parents maximize an objective function that combines Beckerian altruism and paternalism towards children. They can affect their children's choices via two channels: either by influencing children's preferences or by imposing direct restrictions on their choice sets. Different parenting styles (authoritarian, authoritative, and pe...

  14. Parenting with Style: Altruism and Paternalism in Intergenerational Preference Transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Doepke, Matthias; Zilibotti, Fabrizio

    2014-01-01

    We develop a theory of intergenerational transmission of preferences that rationalizes the choice between alternative parenting styles (as set out in Baumrind 1967). Parents maximize an objective function that combines Beckerian altruism and paternalism towards children. They can affect their children's choices via two channels: either by influencing children's preferences or by imposing direct restrictions on their choice sets. Different parenting styles (authoritarian, authoritative, and pe...

  15. Parenting with Style: Altruism and Paternalism in Intergenerational Preference Transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Matthias Doepke; Fabrizio Zilibotti

    2014-01-01

    We develop a theory of intergenerational transmission of preferences that rationalizes the choice between alternative parenting styles (as set out in Baumrind 1967). Parents maximize an objective function that combines Beckerian altruism and paternalism towards children. They can affect their children’s choices via two channels: either by influencing children’s preferences or by imposing direct restrictions on their choice sets. Different parenting styles (authoritarian, authoritative, and pe...

  16. Psykososiale faktorer altruisme og arbeidsengasjement. En krysskulturell studie

    OpenAIRE

    Kvamme, Synøve; Nilsen, May Linn; Bolann, Benedicte Yoo Mee Ra

    2007-01-01

    This is a cross-cultural study of organisations founded in positive psychology. The samples of 289 subjects are from South Africa (91) and Norway (198). The study is a tentative mapping of psychosocial factors related to work engagement where altruism was tested as a moderating factor. There were no significant differences on the general level of work engagement for the two countries, but relating to the three subscales there were two significant differences. Work absorption wa...

  17. Prosocial Behaviors and Altruism among Citizens of Isfahan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armita Nooien

    2013-07-01

    Desirable social behaviors\t0/04\t1\t0/027\t0/126\t0/61 The results of testing hypotheses 6 and 7 show that there is no significance difference between the two groups of veterans and released prisoners. Altruism can be effective in increasing levels of moral reasoning and prosocial behavior, but it was not an effective factor in classification of veterans of the holy defense in this research.

  18. The neuropeptide oxytocin regulates parochial altruism in intergroup conflict among humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.K.W. de Dreu; L.L. Greer; M.J.J. Handgraaf; S. Shalvi; G.A. van Kleef; M. Baas; F.S. ten Velden; E. van Dijk; S.W.W. Feith

    2010-01-01

    Humans regulate intergroup conflict through parochial altruism; they self-sacrifice to contribute to in-group welfare and to aggress against competing out-groups. Parochial altruism has distinct survival functions, and the brain may have evolved to sustain and promote in-group cohesion and effective

  19. Altruism and Helping: The Evolution of a Field--The 2008 Cooley-Mead Presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piliavin, Jane Allyn

    2009-01-01

    I present a selective history of the evolution of the study of altruism and helping behavior, using a series of questions and answers. Some of the topics covered include the motives for helping, the origins of helping and altruism in evolution and child development, the relationship of organizations to helping, and the psychological and health…

  20. Connection between Classroom Abuse and Manifest Aggressiveness, Anxiety and Altruism

    OpenAIRE

    Bilić, Vesna

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to find out if the students exposed to abuse differ in their level of anxiety, aggressiveness, and altruism from other students, and to test if the pattern of these differences differs depending on whether the abuse they suffer is emotional or physical. The research was carried out on a sample of 127 senior elementary school students. The data was gathered at the end of the 2003/04 school year, and obtained through the respondents’ self-statements in ...

  1. Testing for Altruism and Social Pressure in Charitable Giving

    OpenAIRE

    Stefano DellaVigna; List, John A.; Ulrike Malmendier

    2009-01-01

    Every year, 90 percent of Americans give money to charities. Is such generosity necessarily welfare enhancing for the giver? We present a theoretical framework that distinguishes two types of motivation: individuals like to give, e.g., due to altruism or warm glow, and individuals would rather not give but dislike saying no, e.g., due to social pressure. We design a door-to-door fund-raising drive in which some households are informed about the exact time of solicitation with a flyer on their...

  2. Why Do Babies Cry: Once Again About Egoism and Altruism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levit L.Z.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with a ratio between egoistic and altruistic components in a person’s motivation and activity. The author provides new interpretations for the widely known examples of altruistic behavior. The results of experimental investigations discovering positive correlations, which exist between egoism and altruism in a person’s daily activity, are quoted. The author touches upon the problem of egoism as a new possible subject of psychology. The incorporation of egoism concept into the structure of modern humanitarian science opens new perspectives for theorizing and experimental investigations

  3. Reluctant altruism and peer pressure in charitable giving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane Reyniers

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Subjects donate individually (control group or in pairs (treatment group. Those in pairs reveal their donation decision to each other. Average donations in the treatment group are significantly higher than in the control group. Paired subjects have the opportunity to revise their donation decision after discussion. Pair members shift toward each others' initial decisions. Subjects are happier with their decision when their donations are larger, but those in pairs are less happy, controlling for amount donated. These findings suggest reluctant altruism due to peer pressure in charitable giving.

  4. Chill-inducing music enhances altruism in humans

    OpenAIRE

    Fukui, Hajime; Toyoshima, Kumiko

    2014-01-01

    Music is a universal feature of human cultures, and it has both fascinated and troubled many researchers. In this paper we show through the dictator game (DG) that an individual’s listening to preferred “chill-inducing” music may promote altruistic behavior that extends beyond the bounds of kin selection or reciprocal altruism. Participants were 22 undergraduate and postgraduate students who were divided into two groups, the in-group and the out-group, and they acted as dictators. The dictato...

  5. The evolution of utility functions and psychological altruism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clavien, Christine; Chapuisat, Michel

    2016-04-01

    Numerous studies show that humans tend to be more cooperative than expected given the assumption that they are rational maximizers of personal gain. As a result, theoreticians have proposed elaborated formal representations of human decision-making, in which utility functions including "altruistic" or "moral" preferences replace the purely self-oriented "Homo economicus" function. Here we review mathematical approaches that provide insights into the mathematical stability of alternative utility functions. Candidate utility functions may be evaluated with help of game theory, classical modeling of social evolution that focuses on behavioral strategies, and modeling of social evolution that focuses directly on utility functions. We present the advantages of the latter form of investigation and discuss one surprisingly precise result: "Homo economicus" as well as "altruistic" utility functions are less stable than a function containing a preference for the common welfare that is only expressed in social contexts composed of individuals with similar preferences. We discuss the contribution of mathematical models to our understanding of human other-oriented behavior, with a focus on the classical debate over psychological altruism. We conclude that human can be psychologically altruistic, but that psychological altruism evolved because it was generally expressed towards individuals that contributed to the actor's fitness, such as own children, romantic partners and long term reciprocators.

  6. The evolution of utility functions and psychological altruism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clavien, Christine; Chapuisat, Michel

    2016-04-01

    Numerous studies show that humans tend to be more cooperative than expected given the assumption that they are rational maximizers of personal gain. As a result, theoreticians have proposed elaborated formal representations of human decision-making, in which utility functions including "altruistic" or "moral" preferences replace the purely self-oriented "Homo economicus" function. Here we review mathematical approaches that provide insights into the mathematical stability of alternative utility functions. Candidate utility functions may be evaluated with help of game theory, classical modeling of social evolution that focuses on behavioral strategies, and modeling of social evolution that focuses directly on utility functions. We present the advantages of the latter form of investigation and discuss one surprisingly precise result: "Homo economicus" as well as "altruistic" utility functions are less stable than a function containing a preference for the common welfare that is only expressed in social contexts composed of individuals with similar preferences. We discuss the contribution of mathematical models to our understanding of human other-oriented behavior, with a focus on the classical debate over psychological altruism. We conclude that human can be psychologically altruistic, but that psychological altruism evolved because it was generally expressed towards individuals that contributed to the actor's fitness, such as own children, romantic partners and long term reciprocators. PMID:26598465

  7. Altruism via kin-selection strategies that rely on arbitrary tags with which they coevolve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelrod, Robert; Hammond, Ross A; Grafen, Alan

    2004-08-01

    Hamilton's rule explains when natural selection will favor altruism between conspecifics, given their degree of relatedness. In practice, indicators of relatedness (such as scent) coevolve with strategies based on these indicators, a fact not included in previous theories of kin recognition. Using a combination of simulation modeling and mathematical extension of Hamilton's rule, we demonstrate how altruism can emerge and be sustained in a coevolutionary setting where relatedness depends on an individual's social environment and varies from one locus to another. The results support a very general expectation of widespread, and not necessarily weak, conditional altruism in nature. PMID:15446434

  8. RATIONAL-IRRATIONAL ELECTORAL PREFERENCES, ALTRUISM AND EXPRESSIVE BEHAVIOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai Ungureanu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Caplan (2000, 2001, 2006 proposed the rational-irrationality model arguing that irrationality is a good as any other, whose consumption is maximized in relation to its costs and benefits. Applying this model to the problem of electoral behavior Caplan implies that voters ‘afford’ many irrational beliefs, because the lack of individual decisiveness renders vote as a consequenceless act. This paper contributes to the development of knowledge by analyzing the compatibility of rational irrationality with active electoral behavior. Two important arguments are being proposed: First, Wittman’s (2008 intuition that rational irrationality is incompatible with voting could be supported only about a particular type of altruism, which Caplan actually seems to reject. Second, rational irrationality seems to be compatible with expressive motivations, reinforcing the conclusion that rational-irrational individuals are active voters in mass elections.

  9. Connection between classroom abuse and manifest aggressiveness, anxiety and altruism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilić, Vesna

    2006-12-01

    The objective of this paper is to find out if the students exposed to abuse differ in their level of anxiety, aggressiveness, and altruism from other students, and to test if the pattern of these differences differs depending on whether the abuse they suffer is emotional or physical. The research was carried out on a sample of 127 senior elementary school students. The data was gathered at the end of the 2003/04 school year, and obtained through the respondents' self-statements in questionnaires about childhood abuse and by the scales of manifest aggressiveness, anxiety and altruism. The frequency analysis has shown that various forms of emotional abuse are more common in schools than physical abuse, and that they are reaching disturbing proportions. For example, more than half of the participants in the study reported facing intimidation and threats in school, and over a third of them have been yelled at. Although less commonplace, physical abuse in school can by no means be ignored. Those students who suffer from frequent physical abuse are more dissatisfied with school (r=0.174, pbullied students can be differentiated from their non-abused schoolmates as they are manifestly more anxious and aggressive, regardless of whether they suffer physical or emotional abuse. Instances of different forms of emotional and physical classroom abuse have increased alarmingly. Such traumatic experiences affect children's health and functioning in school, as well as in their private lives. The interdisciplinary studies of this phenomenon and the education of all those who work with young people emerge as the top priority in the prevention of this kind of abuse. PMID:17243540

  10. Altruism and skepticism in public attitudes toward food nanotechnologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, J. [University of Minnesota, Department of Educational Psychology, College of Education and Human Development (United States); Fatehi, L. [Humphrey School of Public Affairs, University of Minnesota (United States); Kuzma, J., E-mail: jkuzma@ncsu.edu [North Carolina State University, School of Public and International Affairs and Genetic Engineering and Society Center (United States)

    2015-03-15

    To better explore and understand the public's perceptions of and attitudes toward emerging technologies and food products, we conducted a US-based focus group study centered on nanotechnology, nano-food, and nano-food labeling. Seven focus groups were conducted in seven locations in two different US metropolitan areas from September 2010 to January 2011. In addition to revealing context-specific data on already established risk and public perception factors, our goal was to inductively identify other nano-food perception factors of significance for consideration when analyzing why and how perceptions and attitudes are formed to nanotechnology in food. Two such factors that emerged—altruism and skepticism—are particularly interesting in that they may be situated between different theoretical frameworks that have been used for explaining perception and attitude. We argue that they may represent a convergence point among theories that each help explain different aspects of both how food nanotechnologies are perceived and why those perceptions are formed. In this paper, we first review theoretical frameworks for evaluating risk perception and attitudes toward emerging technologies, then review previous work on public perception of nanotechnology and nano-food, describe our qualitative content analysis results for public perception toward nano-food—focusing especially on altruism and skepticism, and discuss implications of these findings in terms of how public attitudes toward nano-food could be formed and understood. Finally, we propose that paying attention to these two factors may guide more responsible development of nano-food in the future.

  11. Altruism and skepticism in public attitudes toward food nanotechnologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To better explore and understand the public's perceptions of and attitudes toward emerging technologies and food products, we conducted a US-based focus group study centered on nanotechnology, nano-food, and nano-food labeling. Seven focus groups were conducted in seven locations in two different US metropolitan areas from September 2010 to January 2011. In addition to revealing context-specific data on already established risk and public perception factors, our goal was to inductively identify other nano-food perception factors of significance for consideration when analyzing why and how perceptions and attitudes are formed to nanotechnology in food. Two such factors that emerged—altruism and skepticism—are particularly interesting in that they may be situated between different theoretical frameworks that have been used for explaining perception and attitude. We argue that they may represent a convergence point among theories that each help explain different aspects of both how food nanotechnologies are perceived and why those perceptions are formed. In this paper, we first review theoretical frameworks for evaluating risk perception and attitudes toward emerging technologies, then review previous work on public perception of nanotechnology and nano-food, describe our qualitative content analysis results for public perception toward nano-food—focusing especially on altruism and skepticism, and discuss implications of these findings in terms of how public attitudes toward nano-food could be formed and understood. Finally, we propose that paying attention to these two factors may guide more responsible development of nano-food in the future

  12. Selective pressures for accurate altruism targeting: evidence from digital evolution for difficult-to-test aspects of inclusive fitness theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clune, Jeff; Goldsby, Heather J; Ofria, Charles; Pennock, Robert T

    2011-03-01

    Inclusive fitness theory predicts that natural selection will favour altruist genes that are more accurate in targeting altruism only to copies of themselves. In this paper, we provide evidence from digital evolution in support of this prediction by competing multiple altruist-targeting mechanisms that vary in their accuracy in determining whether a potential target for altruism carries a copy of the altruist gene. We compete altruism-targeting mechanisms based on (i) kinship (kin targeting), (ii) genetic similarity at a level greater than that expected of kin (similarity targeting), and (iii) perfect knowledge of the presence of an altruist gene (green beard targeting). Natural selection always favoured the most accurate targeting mechanism available. Our investigations also revealed that evolution did not increase the altruism level when all green beard altruists used the same phenotypic marker. The green beard altruism levels stably increased only when mutations that changed the altruism level also changed the marker (e.g. beard colour), such that beard colour reliably indicated the altruism level. For kin- and similarity-targeting mechanisms, we found that evolution was able to stably adjust altruism levels. Our results confirm that natural selection favours altruist genes that are increasingly accurate in targeting altruism to only their copies. Our work also emphasizes that the concept of targeting accuracy must include both the presence of an altruist gene and the level of altruism it produces.

  13. The distribution of wealth in the presence of altruism for simple economic models

    CERN Document Server

    Rodriguez-Achach, M

    2005-01-01

    We study the effect of altruism in two simple asset exchange models: the yard sale model (winner gets a random fraction of the poorer player's wealth) and the theft and fraud model (winner gets a random fraction of the loser's wealth). We also introduce in these models the concept of bargaining efficiency, which makes the poorer trader more aggressive in getting a favorable deal thus augmenting his winning probabilities. The altruistic behavior is controlled by varying the number of traders that behave altruistically and by the degree of altruism that they show. The resulting wealth distribution is characterized using the Gini index. We compare the resulting values of the Gini index at different levels of altruism in both models. It is found that altruistic behavior does lead to a more equitable wealth distribution but only for unreasonable high values of altruism that are difficult to expect in a real economic system.

  14. Altruism, gift giving and reciprocity in organ donation: a review of cultural perspectives and challenges of the concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, C; Randhawa, G

    2014-10-01

    Living and deceased organ donation are couched in altruism and gift discourse and this article reviews explores cultural views towards these concepts. Altruism and egoism theories and gift and reciprocity theories are outlined from a social exchange theory perspective to highlight the key differences between altruism and the gift and the wider implications of reciprocation. The notion of altruism as a selfless act without expectation or want for repayment juxtaposed with the Maussian gift where there are the obligations to give, receive and reciprocate. Lay perspectives of altruism and the gift in organ donation are outlined and illustrate that there are differences in motivations to donate in different programmes of living donation and for families who decide to donate their relative's organs. These motivations reflect cultural views of altruism and the gift and perceptions of the body and death.

  15. Balancing Egoism and Altruism on MIMO Interference Channel

    CERN Document Server

    Ho, Zuleita Ka Ming

    2009-01-01

    This paper considers the so-called multiple-input-multiple-output interference channel (MIMO-IC) which has relevance in applications such as multi-cell coordination in cellular networks as well as spectrum sharing in cognitive radio networks among others. We address the design of precoding (i.e. beamforming) vectors at each sender with the aim of striking a compromise between beamforming gain at the intended receiver (Egoism) and the mitigation of interference created towards other receivers (Altruism). Combining egoistic and altruistic beamforming has been shown previously to be instrumental to optimizing the rates in a multiple-input-single-output interference channel MISO-IC (i.e. where receivers have no interference canceling capability) [5], [7]. Here we explore these game-theoretic concepts in the more general context of MIMO channels and using the framework of Bayesian games [17], allowing us to derive (semi-)distributed precoding techniques. We draw parallels with existing work on the MIMO-IC, includi...

  16. Chill-inducing music enhances altruism in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajime eFukui

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Music is a universal feature of human cultures, and it has both fascinated and troubled many researchers. In this paper we show through the Dictator Game that an individual’s listening to preferred chill-inducing music may promote altruistic behavior that extends beyond the bounds of kin selection or reciprocal altruism. Participants were 22 undergraduate and postgraduate students who were divided into two groups, the In-group (IG and the Out-group (OG, and they acted as dictators. The dictators listened to their own preferred chill-inducing music, to music they disliked, or to silence, and then played the Dictator Game. In this hypothetical experiment, the dictators were given real money (which they did not keep and were asked to distribute it to the recipients, who were presented as stylized images of men and women displayed on a computer screen. The dictators played the Dictator Game both before and after listening to the music. Both male and female dictators gave more money after listening to their preferred music and less after listening to the music they disliked, whereas silence had no effect on the allocated amounts. The group to which the recipient belonged did not influence these trends. The results suggest that listening to preferred chill-inducing music promotes altruistic behavior.

  17. Chill-inducing music enhances altruism in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukui, Hajime; Toyoshima, Kumiko

    2014-01-01

    Music is a universal feature of human cultures, and it has both fascinated and troubled many researchers. In this paper we show through the dictator game (DG) that an individual's listening to preferred "chill-inducing" music may promote altruistic behavior that extends beyond the bounds of kin selection or reciprocal altruism. Participants were 22 undergraduate and postgraduate students who were divided into two groups, the in-group and the out-group, and they acted as dictators. The dictators listened to their own preferred "chill-inducing" music, to music they disliked, or to silence, and then played the DG. In this hypothetical experiment, the dictators were given real money (which they did not keep) and were asked to distribute it to the recipients, who were presented as stylized images of men and women displayed on a computer screen. The dictators played the DG both before and after listening to the music. Both male and female dictators gave more money after listening to their preferred music and less after listening to the music they disliked, whereas silence had no effect on the allocated amounts. The group to which the recipient belonged did not influence these trends. The results suggest that listening to preferred "chill-inducing" music promotes altruistic behavior. PMID:25389411

  18. Reason, emotion, compassion: can altruism survive professionalisation in the humanitarian sector?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonnier, Gilles

    2015-04-01

    The humanitarian sector has grown enormously over the past two decades. Some fear that professionalisation comes at the expense of altruistic volunteering. This may be a valid concern if altruism is the product of organisational culture and individual experiences rather than an innate trait. This paper examines advances in evolutionary biology and neurology that provide evidence in support of both the nature and nurture arguments, echoing earlier insights from social sciences. It then questions to what extent humanitarian principles build on altruistic impulses or instead seek to constrain them, and reviews recruitment profiles of selected humanitarian organisations and applicants' letters accordingly. This initial investigation warrants further research to identify how altruism as a personal trait and an organisational principle has influenced diverse humanitarian actors and traditions. This paper outlines how training curricula and organisational reward systems can build on-rather than stifle-natural altruism to nurture critical, reflexive practitioners. PMID:25439560

  19. Reason, emotion, compassion: can altruism survive professionalisation in the humanitarian sector?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonnier, Gilles

    2015-04-01

    The humanitarian sector has grown enormously over the past two decades. Some fear that professionalisation comes at the expense of altruistic volunteering. This may be a valid concern if altruism is the product of organisational culture and individual experiences rather than an innate trait. This paper examines advances in evolutionary biology and neurology that provide evidence in support of both the nature and nurture arguments, echoing earlier insights from social sciences. It then questions to what extent humanitarian principles build on altruistic impulses or instead seek to constrain them, and reviews recruitment profiles of selected humanitarian organisations and applicants' letters accordingly. This initial investigation warrants further research to identify how altruism as a personal trait and an organisational principle has influenced diverse humanitarian actors and traditions. This paper outlines how training curricula and organisational reward systems can build on-rather than stifle-natural altruism to nurture critical, reflexive practitioners.

  20. Mechanism of altruism approach to blood donor recruitment and retention: a review and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, E

    2015-08-01

    Why do people donate blood? Altruism is the common answer. However, altruism is a complex construct and to answer this question requires a systematic analysis of the insights from the biology, economics and psychology of altruism. I term this the mechanism of altruism (MOA) approach and apply it here for understanding blood donor motivation. The answer also has enormous implications for the type of interventions we choose to adopt as a society. A MOA approach so far shows that blood donors are a mixture of (i) warm-glow givers (donation is emotionally rewarding) and (ii) reluctant altruists (cooperate rather than defect when free-riding is high). Donors also show 'saintly sinning' with the extra 'moral currency' form blood donation allowing them to be less generous in other contexts. The MOA approach suggests why financial incentives, in terms of gifts/lottery tickets, are effective and suggests a number of novel interventions for donor recruitment: 'voluntary reciprocal altruism' and 'charitable incentivisation'. The MOA approach also highlights the need for an intervention developed specifically for recipients to allow them to show their gratitude to donors and for society to celebrate blood donation. It is suggests a 'Monument to Blood Donors' will achieve this. The approach suggests a number of novel research questions into (i) donor self-selection effects, (ii) conditional cooperation and (iii) construct overlap with Theory of Planned Behaviour (e.g. affective attitudes and warm-glow). The MOA offers a powerful way to understand blood donor motivations around altruism and develop theoretically driven interventions. PMID:26311129

  1. How the competitive altruism leads to bistable homogeneous states of cooperation or defection

    CERN Document Server

    Jarynowski, A; Kulakowski, K

    2011-01-01

    Our recent minimal model of cooperation (P. Gawronski et al, Physica A 388 (2009) 3581) is modified as to allow for time-dependent altruism. This evolution is based on reputation of other agents, which in turn depends on history. We show that this modification leads to two absorbing states of the whole system, where the cooperation flourishes in one state and is absent in another one. The effect is compared with the results obtained with the model of indirect reciprocity, where the altruism of agents is constant.

  2. Altruism and the Flourishing Teacher: Exploring a Christian Theology of Love

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthias, Laurie R.

    2016-01-01

    This article responds to Chris Higgins' (2010) claim that perpetuating the myth of altruism is a factor that leads to teacher burnout, thus making "flourishing teacher" an oxymoron. It does so by exploring various views of the Christian concepts of agape, kenosis, and desire, debunking some persistent definitions that linger in Christian…

  3. A quantitative test of Hamilton's rule for the evolution of altruism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Waibel

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of altruism is a fundamental and enduring puzzle in biology. In a seminal paper Hamilton showed that altruism can be selected for when rb - c > 0, where c is the fitness cost to the altruist, b is the fitness benefit to the beneficiary, and r is their genetic relatedness. While many studies have provided qualitative support for Hamilton's rule, quantitative tests have not yet been possible due to the difficulty of quantifying the costs and benefits of helping acts. Here we use a simulated system of foraging robots to experimentally manipulate the costs and benefits of helping and determine the conditions under which altruism evolves. By conducting experimental evolution over hundreds of generations of selection in populations with different c/b ratios, we show that Hamilton's rule always accurately predicts the minimum relatedness necessary for altruism to evolve. This high accuracy is remarkable given the presence of pleiotropic and epistatic effects as well as mutations with strong effects on behavior and fitness (effects not directly taken into account in Hamilton's original 1964 rule. In addition to providing the first quantitative test of Hamilton's rule in a system with a complex mapping between genotype and phenotype, these experiments demonstrate the wide applicability of kin selection theory.

  4. Idealism, Altruism, Career Orientation, and Emotional Exhaustion among Social Work Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngai, Steven Sek-yum; Cheung, Chau-kiu

    2009-01-01

    The present study examines the genesis of emotional exhaustion among undergraduate social work students in Hong Kong. Of particular concern are the relationships among key factors, including the student's idealism, altruism and career orientation, and emotional exhaustion. To investigate this, the study employed survey data collected from 165…

  5. Coresidence duration and cues of maternal investment regulate sibling altruism across cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sznycer, Daniel; De Smet, Delphine; Billingsley, Joseph; Lieberman, Debra

    2016-08-01

    Genetic relatedness is a fundamental determinant of social behavior across species. Over the last few decades, researchers have been investigating the proximate psychological mechanisms that enable humans to assess their genetic relatedness to others. Much of this work has focused on identifying cues that predicted relatedness in ancestral environments and examining how they regulate kin-directed behaviors. Despite progress, many basic questions remain unanswered. Here we address three of these questions. First, we examine the replicability of the effect of two association-based cues to relatedness-maternal perinatal association (MPA) and coresidence duration-on sibling-directed altruism. MPA, the observation of a newborn being cared for by one's mother, strongly signals relatedness, but is only available to the older sibling in a sib-pair. Younger siblings, to whom the MPA cue is not available, appear to fall back on the duration of their coresidence with an older sibling. Second, we determine whether the effects of MPA and coresidence duration on sibling-directed altruism obtain across cultures. Last, we explore whether paternal perinatal association (PPA) informs sibship. Data from six studies conducted in California, Hawaii, Dominica, Belgium, and Argentina support past findings regarding the role of MPA and coresidence duration as cues to siblingship. By contrast, PPA had no effect on altruism. We report on levels of altruism toward full, half, and step siblings, and discuss the role alternate cues might play in discriminating among these types of siblings. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27267325

  6. Social heuristics and social roles: Intuition favors altruism for women but not for men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rand, David G; Brescoll, Victoria L; Everett, Jim A C; Capraro, Valerio; Barcelo, Hélène

    2016-04-01

    Are humans intuitively altruistic, or does altruism require self-control? A theory of social heuristics, whereby intuitive responses favor typically successful behaviors, suggests that the answer may depend on who you are. In particular, evidence suggests that women are expected to behave altruistically, and are punished for failing to be altruistic, to a much greater extent than men. Thus, women (but not men) may internalize altruism as their intuitive response. Indeed, a meta-analysis of 13 new experiments and 9 experiments from other groups found that promoting intuition relative to deliberation increased giving in a Dictator Game among women, but not among men (Study 1, N = 4,366). Furthermore, this effect was shown to be moderated by explicit sex role identification (Study 2, N = 1,831): the more women described themselves using traditionally masculine attributes (e.g., dominance, independence) relative to traditionally feminine attributes (e.g., warmth, tenderness), the more deliberation reduced their altruism. Our findings shed light on the connection between gender and altruism, and highlight the importance of social heuristics in human prosociality. PMID:26913619

  7. Altruism--a coping mechanism for patients on clinical trials: a nursing perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Judith Brown; Seda, Julie S; Kardinal, Carl G

    2013-10-01

    Altruism often is expressed by patients with advanced cancer as a coping mechanism and a motivational factor for participation in clinical trials. Those who participate develop a sense of hope that their life is a contribution, which may continue to live beyond their deaths.

  8. Altruism the Essense of the Iranian Nurses’ Job Satisfaction: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrabadi, Alireza Nikbakht; Forooshani, Zahra Sadat Dibaji; Rafiee, Forough

    2016-01-01

    Skillful and efficient human resource is one of the most important tools for reaching the organizational targets and it is almost impossible to reach the predetermined goals and success without having skillful human resources. Therefore, having a study on the personnel’s job satisfaction is recommended for all of the organizations. Since the health organizations are among the most important organizations of any country, paying attention to the nurses’ job satisfaction as the main providers of the health care services gets very important. In fact, their attempts guarantee the efficient human resources’ health in the society. Understanding the Iranian nurses’ experiences of their job satisfaction. The present paper studies the implicit and explicit aspects of the clinical nurses’ job satisfaction. The needed information is collected via interviews, and then the participants’ contextual data is analyzed by the qualitative content analysis. The research results introduce the altruism as the foundation for the nurses’ job satisfaction. Altruism is composed of three categories of the patient advocacy, spiritual job satisfaction, and professional commitment. Altruism has made the nurses deliver the required health cares to the patients with all their love, while their profession has many difficulties. Job satisfaction resulted from altruism is experienced as a pleasant feeling along with enjoyment resulted from addressing the needs of a patient who looks forward to the nurse’s advocacy. According to this kind of job satisfaction, the nurse’s professional commitment is to advocate for the patient. Also, the research results show that spirituality is the inseparable component of altruism and it has a vital role in the nurses’ job satisfaction. The spirituality helps the nurses to deliver targeted acts and interventions. PMID:27045394

  9. Gender differences in altruism: Expectations, actual behaviour and accuracy of beliefs

    CERN Document Server

    Brañas-Garza, Pablo; Rascón-Ramírez, Ericka

    2016-01-01

    Previous research shows that women are more altruist than men in dictator game experiments. Yet, little is known whether women are expected to be more altruist than men. Here we elicit third-parties' beliefs about dictators' donations conditional on knowing the gender of the dictator. Our data provide evidence of three main findings: (i) women are expected to be more altruist than men; (ii) both men and women have correct beliefs about the level of altruism among men; and (iii) both men and women overestimate the level of altruism among women. In doing so, our results uncover a perception gap according to which, although women are more altruist than men, they are expected to be even more altruist than they actually are.

  10. A mechanism for the evolution of altruism among nonkin: positive assortment through environmental feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepper, John W; Smuts, Barbara B

    2002-08-01

    The evolution of altruism often requires genetic similarity among interactors. For structured populations in which a social trait affects all group members, this entails positive assortment, meaning that cooperators and noncooperators tend to be segregated into different groups. Several authors have claimed that mechanisms other than common descent can produce positive assortment, but this claim has not been generally accepted. Here, we describe one such mechanism. The process of "environmental feedback" requires only that the cooperative trait affects the quality of the local environment and that individuals are more likely to leave low-quality than high-quality environments. We illustrate this dynamic using an agent-based spatial model of feeding restraint. Depending on parameter settings, results included both positive assortment (required for the evolution of altruism) and negative assortment (required for the evolution of spite). The mechanism of environmental feedback appears to be a general one that could play a role in the evolution of many forms of cooperation.

  11. Testosterone is associated with cooperation during intergroup competition by enhancing parochial altruism

    OpenAIRE

    Luise eReimers; Esther Kristina Diekhof

    2015-01-01

    The steroid hormone testosterone is widely associated with negative behavioral effects, such as aggression or dominance. However, recent studies applying economic exchange tasks revealed conflicting results. While some point to a prosocial effect of testosterone by increasing altruistic behavior, others report that testosterone promotes antisocial tendencies. Taking into account additional factors such as parochial altruism (i.e., ingroup favoritism and outgroup hostility) might help to expla...

  12. Sex-ratio conflicts, kin selection, and the evolution of altruism

    OpenAIRE

    Alonso, Wladimir J.; Schuck-Paim, Cynthia

    2002-01-01

    Kin-selection theory has thrived in the explanation of a wide variety of biological phenomena, chiefly the evolution of biological altruism as that found in sterile castes of eusocial insects. Much of the way in which it has been tested is based on the existence of conflicts over sex-ratio production within eusocial colonies. However, despite neatly showing eusocial colonies as arenas where selection at the gene level triggers the appearance of sophisticated disputes, these studies have only ...

  13. The Negative Association between Religiousness and Children's Altruism across the World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decety, Jean; Cowell, Jason M; Lee, Kang; Mahasneh, Randa; Malcolm-Smith, Susan; Selcuk, Bilge; Zhou, Xinyue

    2015-11-16

    Prosocial behaviors are ubiquitous across societies. They emerge early in ontogeny and are shaped by interactions between genes and culture. Over the course of middle childhood, sharing approaches equality in distribution. Since 5.8 billion humans, representing 84% of the worldwide population, identify as religious, religion is arguably one prevalent facet of culture that influences the development and expression of prosociality. While it is generally accepted that religion contours people's moral judgments and prosocial behavior, the relation between religiosity and morality is a contentious one. Here, we assessed altruism and third-party evaluation of scenarios depicting interpersonal harm in 1,170 children aged between 5 and 12 years in six countries (Canada, China, Jordan, Turkey, USA, and South Africa), the religiousness of their household, and parent-reported child empathy and sensitivity to justice. Across all countries, parents in religious households reported that their children expressed more empathy and sensitivity for justice in everyday life than non-religious parents. However, religiousness was inversely predictive of children's altruism and positively correlated with their punitive tendencies. Together these results reveal the similarity across countries in how religion negatively influences children's altruism, challenging the view that religiosity facilitates prosocial behavior. PMID:26549259

  14. Socially Enforced Nepotism: How Norms and Reputation Can Amplify Kin Altruism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Doug

    2016-01-01

    Kin selection, which can lead organisms to behave altruistically to their genetic relatives, works differently when-as is often the case in human societies-altruism can be boosted by social pressure. Here I present a model of social norms enforced by indirect reciprocity. In the model there are many alternative stable allocations of rewards ("distributional norms"); a stable norm is stable in the sense that each player is best off following the norm if other players do the same. Stable norms vary widely in how equally they reward players with unequal abilities. In a population of mixed groups (some group members follow one norm, some follow another, and some compromise) with modest within-group coefficients of relatedness, selection within groups favors those who compromise, and selection between groups favors generous generalized reciprocity rather than balanced reciprocity. Thus evolved social norms can amplify kin altruism, giving rise to a uniquely human mode of kin-based sociality distinct from spontaneous altruism among close kin, or cooperation among non-kin. PMID:27305045

  15. Socially Enforced Nepotism: How Norms and Reputation Can Amplify Kin Altruism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doug Jones

    Full Text Available Kin selection, which can lead organisms to behave altruistically to their genetic relatives, works differently when-as is often the case in human societies-altruism can be boosted by social pressure. Here I present a model of social norms enforced by indirect reciprocity. In the model there are many alternative stable allocations of rewards ("distributional norms"; a stable norm is stable in the sense that each player is best off following the norm if other players do the same. Stable norms vary widely in how equally they reward players with unequal abilities. In a population of mixed groups (some group members follow one norm, some follow another, and some compromise with modest within-group coefficients of relatedness, selection within groups favors those who compromise, and selection between groups favors generous generalized reciprocity rather than balanced reciprocity. Thus evolved social norms can amplify kin altruism, giving rise to a uniquely human mode of kin-based sociality distinct from spontaneous altruism among close kin, or cooperation among non-kin.

  16. The coevolution of altruism and punishment: role of the selfish punisher.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamaru, Mayuko; Iwasa, Yoh

    2006-06-01

    Punishment is an important mechanism promoting the evolution of altruism among non-relatives. We investigate the coevolution of altruism and punitive behavior, considering four possible strategies: the altruist punisher (AP, a cooperator who punishes defectors), the altruist non-punisher (AN, a pure cooperator), the selfish punisher (SP, a defector who punishes defectors), and the selfish non-punisher (SN, a pure defector). The SP uses a paradoxical strategy as it punishes other defectors. We analyse the effects of SP and AN on the coevolution of altruism and punishment. We study both the score-dependent viability model (whereby the game's score affects survivorship only) and the score-dependent fertility model (whereby the score affects fertility only). In the viability model of a completely mixed population, SP first drives out SN, and hence it helps cooperators (AP and AN) to evolve. In contrast, in the fertility model of a completely mixed population, neither SP nor AN helps the evolution of cooperation. In both the viability and fertility models of a lattice-structured population, SP promotes the spread of AP. In contrast, AN discourages the evolution of AP. These results can be understood that punishment is a form of spite behavior, paying a cost to reduce the fitness of the opponents, and that different models give different magnitude of advantage to spite behavior. PMID:16325865

  17. Testosterone is associated with cooperation during intergroup competition by enhancing parochial altruism

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    Luise eReimers

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The steroid hormone testosterone is widely associated with negative behavioral effects, such as aggression or dominance. However, recent studies applying economic exchange tasks revealed conflicting results. While some point to a prosocial effect of testosterone by increasing altruistic behavior, others report that testosterone promotes antisocial tendencies. Taking into account additional factors such as parochial altruism (i.e., ingroup favoritism and outgroup hostility might help to explain this contradiction. First evidence for a link between testosterone and parochial altruism comes from recently reported data of male soccer fans playing the ultimatum game. In this study high levels of endogenous testosterone predicted increased altruistic punishment during outgroup interactions and at the same time heightened ingroup generosity. Here, we report findings of another experimental task, the prisoner’s dilemma, applied in the same context to examine the role of testosterone on parochial tendencies in terms of cooperation. In this task, fifty male soccer fans were asked to decide whether or not they wanted to cooperate with partners marked as either fans of the subject’s own favorite team (ingroup or fans of other teams (outgroups. Our results show that high testosterone levels were associated with increased ingroup cooperation during intergroup competition. In addition, subjects displaying a high degree of parochialism during intergroup competition had significantly higher levels of testosterone than subjects who did not differentiate much between the different groups. In sum, the present data demonstrate that the behavioral effects of testosterone are not limited to aggressive and selfish tendencies but may imply prosocial aspects depending on the context. By this means, our results support the previously reported findings on testosterone-dependent intergroup bias and indicate that this social hormone might be an important factor driving

  18. Reputational concerns, not altruism, motivate restraint when gambling with other people's money

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kodi B. Arfer

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available People may behave prosocially not only because they value the welfare of others, but also to protect their own reputation. We examined the separate roles of altruism and reputational concerns in moral-hazard gambling tasks, which allowed subjects to gamble with a partner's money. In Study 1, subjects who were told that their partner would see their choices were more prosocial. In Study 2, subjects were more prosocial to a single partner when their choices were transparent than when their choices were attributed to a third party. We conclude that reputational concerns are a key restraint on selfish exploitation under moral hazard.

  19. Private provision of a public good: cooperation and altruism of internet forum users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Ros-Galvez

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We ran an experiment with users of Internet forums. In a dictator game, we find that the level of altruism is positively related to the activity in the forum. In a public good game, there is no relation between cooperation in the game and contribution to the content of the forum. Subjects are not more altruistic with partners from the same forum but do cooperate more with them. These results suggest that the public good provided in Internet forums is mainly provided by a group of unconditional altruistic users, and that the sense of belonging supports the cooperation in that provision.

  20. Reputational concerns, not altruism, motivate restraint when gambling with other people's money.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arfer, Kodi B; Bixter, Michael T; Luhmann, Christian C

    2015-01-01

    People may behave prosocially not only because they value the welfare of others, but also to protect their own reputation. We examined the separate roles of altruism and reputational concerns in moral-hazard gambling tasks, which allowed subjects to gamble with a partner's money. In Study 1, subjects who were told that their partner would see their choices were more prosocial. In Study 2, subjects were more prosocial to a single partner when their choices were transparent than when their choices were attributed to a third party. We conclude that reputational concerns are a key restraint on selfish exploitation under moral hazard.

  1. CRUCIAL DIMENSIONS OF HUMAN ALTRUISM AFFECTIVE VS. CONCEPTUAL FACTORS LEADING TO HELPING OR REINFORCING OTHERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna eSzuster

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to identify factors leading to favorable attitudes towards other people from different social categories. The parts of article reflect divers levels of altruism regulation: from the primary affective responses to environment, through social norms, to abstract moral concept related to good and evil. The latter allow to understand perspective of other people (including those belonging to out-groups, to accept their values, to engage not only into helping behavior but also to support others development.

  2. Altruism can proliferate through population viscosity despite high random gene flow.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto H Schonmann

    Full Text Available The ways in which natural selection can allow the proliferation of cooperative behavior have long been seen as a central problem in evolutionary biology. Most of the literature has focused on interactions between pairs of individuals and on linear public goods games. This emphasis has led to the conclusion that even modest levels of migration would pose a serious problem to the spread of altruism through population viscosity in group structured populations. Here we challenge this conclusion, by analyzing evolution in a framework which allows for complex group interactions and random migration among groups. We conclude that contingent forms of strong altruism that benefits equally all group members, regardless of kinship and without greenbeard effects, can spread when rare under realistic group sizes and levels of migration, due to the assortment of genes resulting only from population viscosity. Our analysis combines group-centric and gene-centric perspectives, allows for arbitrary strength of selection, and leads to extensions of Hamilton's rule for the spread of altruistic alleles, applicable under broad conditions.

  3. Overlapping generations or infinitely-lived agents. Intergenerational altruism and the economics of global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Do we need an overlapping generations model for the economics of global warming? To answer this question, an infinitely-lived agent (ILA) approach and an overlapping generations (OLG) model are contrasted. ILA and OLG can be viewed as polar representations of intergenerational altruism. With ILA an immortal agent acts through his investments/savings decisions as trustee on the behalf of the future generations. With OLG, agents need not behave altruistic. They simply save during working years and dissave completely during retirement. Nevertheless, ILA and OLG must not differ in their implication for greenhouse policy. Greenhouse gas abatement is a straightforward alternative to physical capital formation and, even without altruism, each age cohort has an incentive to provide current abatement in order to reduce future damages attributable to climate change. Indeed, under reasonable assumptions and parameter values, our simulations reveal such an invariance result. Provided carbon taxes are the only policy tool and tax revenues are recycled through socially mandated rules, projections of economic growth, climate change and energy consumption are only insignificantly affected by the choice of approach. 4 figs., 2 tabs., 14 refs

  4. Overlapping generations or infinitely-lived agents. Intergenerational altruism and the economics of global warming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephan, G.; Mueller-Fuerstenberger, G.; Previdoli, P. [Department of Applied Microeconomics, University of Bern, Bern (Switzerland)

    1997-07-01

    Do we need an overlapping generations model for the economics of global warming? To answer this question, an infinitely-lived agent (ILA) approach and an overlapping generations (OLG) model are contrasted. ILA and OLG can be viewed as polar representations of intergenerational altruism. With ILA an immortal agent acts through his investments/savings decisions as trustee on the behalf of the future generations. With OLG, agents need not behave altruistic. They simply save during working years and dissave completely during retirement. Nevertheless, ILA and OLG must not differ in their implication for greenhouse policy. Greenhouse gas abatement is a straightforward alternative to physical capital formation and, even without altruism, each age cohort has an incentive to provide current abatement in order to reduce future damages attributable to climate change. Indeed, under reasonable assumptions and parameter values, our simulations reveal such an invariance result. Provided carbon taxes are the only policy tool and tax revenues are recycled through socially mandated rules, projections of economic growth, climate change and energy consumption are only insignificantly affected by the choice of approach. 4 figs., 2 tabs., 14 refs.

  5. A Comparative Investigation of TPB and Altruism Frameworks for an Empirically Based Communication Approach to Enhance Paper Recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaisamrej, Rungrat; Zimmerman, Rick S.

    2014-01-01

    This research compared the ability of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) and the altruism framework (AM) to predict paper-recycling behavior. It was comprised of formative research and a major survey. Data collected from 628 undergraduate students in Thailand were analyzed using structural equation modeling. Results showed that TPB was superior…

  6. Age-Related Differences in Altruism across Adulthood: Making Personal Financial Gain versus Contributing to the Public Good

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freund, Alexandra M.; Blanchard-Fields, Fredda

    2014-01-01

    Four studies utilizing different methodological approaches investigated adult age-related differences in altruism (i.e., contributions to the public good) and the self-centered value of increasing personal wealth. In Study 1, data from the World Values Survey (World Values Survey Association, 2009) provided 1st evidence of a negative association…

  7. The Effect of Similarity/Dissimilarity of Race and Personal Interests on Empathy and Altruism in Second Graders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panofsky, Anne D.

    The experiment reported in this dissertation investigated the effect of similarity/dissimilarity of race and personal interests on empathy and altruism in second graders. It was hypothesized that white children would empathize more with other white children than with black children. It was also hypothesized that white children would empathize more…

  8. Balancing Egoism and Altruism on the Interference Channel: The MIMO case

    CERN Document Server

    Ho, Zuleita K M

    2010-01-01

    This paper considers the so-called MIMO interference channel. This situation has relevance in applications such as multi-cell coordination in cellular networks as well as spectrum sharing in cognitive radio networks among others. We address the design of precoding (i.e. beamforming) vectors at each sender with the aim of striking a compromise between beamforming gain at the intended receiver (Egoism) and the mitigation of interference created towards other receivers (Altruism). Combining egoistic and altruistic beamforming has been shown previously to be instrumental to optimizing the rates in a MISO interference channel (i.e. where receivers have no interference canceling capability) . Here we explore these game-theoretic concepts in the more general context of MIMO channels and using the framework of Bayesian games, allowing us to derive (semi-)distributed precoding techniques. We draw parallels with existing work on the MIMO interference channel, including rate-optimizing and interference-alignement precod...

  9. Altruism and Re-Orientation as Core for the Development of Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simeon Omale

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Jan Knippers Black in his book, Development in Theory and Practice: Paradigm and Paradoxes had identified theories ranging from Liberal international School; modernization school; cultural weakness; Interdependence School as reasons for the unparalleled development of the world. While often these are used along the like of cultural imperialism and the un-even trade opportunities as reasons for Africa’s developmental quagmire, it is the opinion of this paper that Africa’s underdevelopment are largely products of our actions and non-actions. It is in this light that we seek to argue for the development of the spirit of Altruism and a reorientation of the national consciousness via investment in the Early Child Education adopting participatory learning and communication approach as necessary panacea for Africa’s development. By instilling in the young minds the expediency of a more altruistic modus vivendi, the culture of egoistic corruption could be overturned.

  10. Altruism and economic behavior: II--private charity and public policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennett, D A

    1980-10-01

    The relative advantages of private charitable organizations as against government agencies in achieving efficient redistribution of income and supply of services are examined. Central to this discussion is the elasticity of private giving to tax concessions and the proportion of donor dollars being absorbed in overhead. Recent estimates of these magnitudes are summarized. Of parallel concern is to what extent can reliance on altruism by sellers of goods and services serve as a substitute for government regulations to enforce standards, prices or product disclosures. Finally, the ways in which government can use and encourage private charitable impulse to maximize social welfare are examined; of particular interest here is the literature surrounding Richard Titmuss' work on blood donorship which raises the issue of whether or not extension of markets reduces, rather than extends, individual choice. The growing technological complexities of society, it is concluded, render the altruistic virtues of trust and consideration increasingly valuable-if increasingly rare. PMID:10248809

  11. What's in it for me? Self-regard precludes altruism and spite in chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Keith; Hare, Brian; Call, Josep; Tomasello, Michael

    2006-04-22

    Sensitivity to fairness may influence whether individuals choose to engage in acts that are mutually beneficial, selfish, altruistic, or spiteful. In a series of three experiments, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) could pull a rope to access out-of-reach food while concomitantly pulling another piece of food further away. In the first study, they could make a choice that solely benefited themselves (selfishness), or both themselves and another chimpanzee (mutualism). In the next two experiments, they could choose between providing food solely for another chimpanzee (altruism), or for neither while preventing the other chimpanzee from receiving a benefit (spite). The main result across all studies was that chimpanzees made their choices based solely on personal gain, with no regard for the outcomes of a conspecific. These results raise questions about the origins of human cooperative behaviour. PMID:16627288

  12. A reexamination of Gilligan's analysis of the female moral system : Distaff altruism will not succeed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coney, N S; Mackey, W C

    1997-09-01

    Gilligan's (1982) refinement of Kohlberg's theory on moral development operates on two theses: (1) females, more so than males, reach moral decisions based on the personalities of the relevant individuals; and (2) female behaviors stemming from moral decisions are based upon "care" and "responsibility for others." This article accepts the first thesis but argues that the second is incorrect. That is, self-interest-i.e., aiding "blood" kin and/or carefully monitoring reciprocity-rather than "altruism" is argued to be the operant dynamic in forging distaff morality and resultant behavior. Six empirical examples are presented as contraindicative of Gilligan's second thesis. Finally, it is suggested that selection for the psychological traits of independence and the mastery of subtle social chess yielded ancestral females who had more descendants-us-than did females with alternative profiles. PMID:26196966

  13. Altruism, Rivalry and Crowding-Out in the Nonprofit Firm's Supply of Charity Services: The Case of Hospitals

    OpenAIRE

    Frank, Richard G.; David S. Salkever

    1988-01-01

    This paper extends previous research on Individuals' supply of charitable donations to the behavior of nonprofit firms. Specifically, we study provision of charity care by private, nonprofit hospitals. We demonstrate that In the absence of large positive income effects on charity care supply, convex preferences for the nonprofit hospital imply crowding out by other private or government hospitals. Extending our model to include patient heterogeneity and impure altruism (rivalry) provides a po...

  14. Religion, altruism, knowledge and attitudes toward organ donation: a survey among a sample of Israeli college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalaila, Rabia

    2013-03-01

    Previous studies have shown that religiosity level, religion, altruism, knowledge, attitudes toward organ donation and registration status are related to future organ donation. The current study examines this association in a multicultural society such as Israel, which had not been studied so far. A convenience sample of 563 students was included in this cross-sectional study. Data about the study measures were collected by a structured and valid questionnaire. Results showed that willingness to donate was positively related to altruism level, positive attitudes toward organ donation and donor registration. However, level of knowledge had no impact on willingness. Finally, while Christian students were more willing to donate organs than students of other religions, religiosity was negatively associated with willingness to donate organs. These results suggest that positive attitudes, a signed organ donor card and a high level of altruism may ultimately translate into an act of donation in the future. Religion and religiosity level are still barriers to future organ donations in a multicultural society such as Israel.

  15. Pro-community altruism and social status in a Shuar village.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Michael E

    2003-06-01

    Reciprocity theory (RT) and costly signaling theory (CST) provide different explanations for the high status of pro-community altruists: RT proposes that altruists are positively and negatively sanctioned by others, whereas CST proposes that altruists are attractive to others. Only RT, however, is beset by first- and higher-order free rider problems, which must be solved in order for RT to explain status allocations. In this paper, several solutions to RT's free rider problems are proposed, and data about status allocations to Ecuadorian Shuar pro-community altruists are analyzed in light of RT and CST. These data confirm that perceived pro-community altruists are indeed high status and suggest that (1) community residents skillfully monitor the altruism of coresidents, (2) residents who engage in opportunities to broadcast desirable qualities are high status only to the extent that they are considered altruistic, and (3) individuals who sanction coresidents based on coresidents' contributions to the community are themselves relatively high status. To a greater extent than CST, RT straightforwardly predicts all of these results. PMID:26190058

  16. Altruism, Noise, and the Paradox of Voter Turnout: An Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah A. Tulman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the paradox of voter turnout, wherein observed voting participation rates are far greater than what rational choice theory would predict. Voters face multiple voting choices, stochastic voting costs, and candidates offering different economic platforms. A combination of two approaches attempts to resolve this paradox: quantal response equilibrium (QRE analysis, which introduces noise into the decision-making process, and the possibility of ethical (altruism-motivated voting. A series of laboratory experiments empirically tests the predictions of the resulting model. Participants in the experiments are also given opportunities for communicating online with their immediate neighbors, in order to enhance the chances that subjects would realize the possibility of ethical voting. The results show that ethical voting occurs but gains momentum only in the presence of a vocal advocate and even then it mostly dissipated by the second half of the session. The QRE-based model was able to explain some but not all of the overvoting that was observed, relative to the Nash equilibrium prediction. There is evidence to suggest that communication via the chat feature generated some of the voting and also some of the ethical voting.

  17. Public goods and the evolution of altruism: the case of law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Paul H

    2007-09-01

    Though Hamilton's rule is commonly interpreted as relating to two individuals, an alternative interpretation is that it can apply to an altruistic act with respect to a large group of related persons, such as an ethnic group. Then provision of a public good to such a group can be explained by Hamilton's rule. An important class of public goods is the provision of a "legal system" for the group. Provision of this good can have positive feedback effects: as there is more enforcement, it pays to define more complex and valuable rights, and in turn such rights lead to larger and more effective societies. As societies become larger, the ability to enforce rights increases because the number of enforcers increases. However, as in many other human activities, there may be two conflicting systems for provision of this good. There is the evolutionarily old system that would involve face to face transactions, often with kin. There is also a newer, rule-governed legal system for impersonal exchanges. These may be in conflict. The older rules may sometimes frustrate the more efficient newer system. Moreover, those persons who benefit from kin-based transaction networks may resist the creation of a formal legal system. I also note that altruism within the group may lead to xenophobia outside the group and thus to ethnic conflict. Finally, I discuss some evidence consistent with this analysis. PMID:18837583

  18. 利他驱动的应用层组播%Altruism Driven Application-Layer Multicast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王淼; 彭鸽; 张玉军; 李国杰

    2011-01-01

    节点自私问题是目前应用层组播技术面临的挑战之一.自私节点可能有意或者无意地停止转发某些数据包,导致流媒体质量下降.为了解决应用层组播中节点自私性问题,提出了一种利他驱动的应用层组播,简称ADALM机制.ADALM根据一个节点对其他节点的转发贡献,计算出该节点的利他值;基于利他值构造组播树,使得利他值较大的节点位于树的较高层.和本领域其他研究相比,ADALM在利他值计算和组播树构造方面均有创新:首先,利他值基于父亲节点和孩子节点的反馈,使得系统可以有效地检测出自私节点;节点无需发送额外的探测包去测量其邻居节点的服务质量;在组播树的构造和维护过程中,仅需要调整O(1g N)个节点;最后,利他值计算和组播树构造采用分布式方法来实现.仿真结果表明,即使存在一定比例的自私节点,ADALM也能构造一棵高性能的组播树,并且具有较低的控制负荷.%Selfishness issue is one of big challenges of current application-layer multicast techniques.The selfish participants might stop forwarding data accidentally or deliberately, which will affect the overall streaming quality. To address the selfishness issue in the application-layer multicast, an altruism driven application-layer multicast (ADALM) is presented. ADALM defines an altruism value for each node associative to its contributions to the system. The multicast tree is constructed to place the nodes with greater altruism value at the higher layer of the tree. As compared with other studies in this area, ADALM exhibits innovative advantages in both altruism value computation and multicast tree construction. Firstly, the node's altruism value is generated from the feedback from its parent and children, which enables the system to detect the selfish nodes effectively. Peers don't need the extra probe messages to measure the QoS of their neighbors. During the process of tree

  19. The Empirical Ties between Religious Motivation and Altruism in Foster Parents: Implications for Faith-Based Initiatives in Foster Care and Adoption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Howell-Moroney

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Amidst a crisis shortage of foster homes in the child welfare system, a number of innovative faith-based collaborations aimed at recruiting foster parents have recently emerged. It has been suggested that these collaborations offer a unique opportunity to recruit committed and altruistic parents as caregivers, providing much needed capacity to an overloaded child welfare system. This paper uses data from the National Survey of Current and Former Foster Parents to examine the associations between religious motivations for fostering, altruism and various measures of foster home utilization and longevity. The empirical results demonstrate that religiously motivated foster parents are more likely to have altruistic reasons for fostering, and scored higher than the non-religiously motivated group on an index of altruism. A separate empirical analysis shows that the interaction of high levels of altruism and religious motivation is associated with higher foster home utilization. No association was found between religious altruism and the parent’s expressed intent to continue providing foster care. The implications of these findings for current faith-based collaboration in the child welfare arena are discussed.

  20. Evolutionary game theory and the tower of Babel of cooperation: Altruism, free-riding, parasitism and the structure of the interactions in a world with finite resources

    OpenAIRE

    Requejo-Martínez, Rubén J.

    2013-01-01

    The study of the evolution of cooperative behaviours --which provide benefits to others-- and altruism --which provides benefits to others at a cost to oneself-- has been on the core of the evolutionary game theoretical framework since its foundation. The fast development of the theory during the last years has improved our knowledge of the issue, but carried attached a diversification of concepts which affected communication between scientists. Furthermore, the main root of conflict in the s...

  1. 基于脑神经系统的利他行为模型分析%Analysis of Altruism Behavior Model Based on Neuroeconomic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐俊; 王翊; 陈根

    2011-01-01

    利他行为是人类行为的一个重要方面,随着行为经济学的发展,这方面的研究受到重视.利他行为模型的研究尽管在描述上还处于简单阶段,但是已经显示出良好的前景.本文沿着斯密有关理性与情感论述的思想,结合现代行为经济学中的研究成果,应用脑神经经济学系统分析框架构造利他行为模型,它在"约束条件下最大化自身偏好"的基础上,包容了理性与情感这两种不同的行为决策模式,从"内生"的角度解释利他行为.最后,应用模型结果解释受到广泛实验研究的独裁者博弈实验结果.%As an important part of human act. With the development of behaviorial economics, altruism behavior has received much attention in academia. Although altruism behavior model is still at its initial stage, it bas shown favorable prospect. Following Smith' thought related on rational and feeling, this paper uses Neuroeconomic framework to construct a altruism behavior model based on the research fruits in modern behavioral economics. This model involves two behavior models of rationality and feeling based on "maximizing one' s preference under constraint" , which can well interpret altruism behavior from an "endogenous" perspective. Finally this model is used to explain the results of the experiment on dictator game.

  2. Interpreting the Altruism Ideology of Confucius and Mencius from the Viewpoint of Evolutionary Psychology%进化心理学视角下孔子、孟子的利他思想

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭庆科; 刘辉

    2015-01-01

    从进化心理学中的利他理论为研究切入点,我们可以发现,孔子和孟子的利他思想以亲缘利他为主,同时强调亲缘和群体内成员间利他的互惠性,并通过道德训教和舆论压力强化利他行为。孔子和孟子虽然也提倡纯粹利他,但纯粹利他不容易被纳入伦理纲常之中。孔孟式亲缘利他和互惠利他思想有深刻的进化心理学机制,符合生物学和心理学规律,所以成为中国古代的主导性伦理。其局限是对亲缘利他过分推崇,且人际间的互惠关系不具备平等性,因而不符合进化上稳定的利他策略。%Kin altruism ,reciprocal altruism and pure altruism were all advocated by Confucians in Pre‐Qin Period .But kin altruism had been put in the core of moral system .In the Five Constant Virtues of Confucianism ,only fidelity related to reciprocal altruism ,and there is no position for pure altruism .In kin altruism reciprocity also was stipulated . Due to the hierarchical structures in interpersonal relationships ,reciprocal benefits between people were rarely fair .So in Confucianism there is more altruism in kin than in no‐kin .This altruism rules proposed by the Confucians almost properly fit the psychological mechanism founded by the evolutionary biologists and psychologists . No human can refuse family love , so Confucianism popularized in ancient China and eventually became the main ideology . Confucianism excessively emphasized the values of familylove ;this hampered the actualization of equal right and universal love in the w hole nation .Confucian altruism is not Evolutionary Stable Strategy (ESS) in the long‐run .In present China ,kinship love should be emphasized as has ever been ,but everyone should be entitled the equal right to be benefited .

  3. Blood Products and the Commodification Debate: The Blurry Concept of Altruism and the 'Implicit Price' of Readily Available Body Parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufner, Annette

    2015-12-01

    There is a widespread consensus that a commodification of body parts is to be prevented. Numerous policy papers by international organizations extend this view to the blood supply and recommend a system of uncompensated volunteers in this area--often, however, without making the arguments for this view explicit. This situation seems to indicate that a relevant source of justified worry or unease about the blood supply system has to do with the issue of commodification. As a result, the current health minister of Ontario is proposing a ban on compensation even for blood plasma--despite the fact that Canada can only generate 30 % of the plasma needed for fractionation into important plasma protein products and has to purchase the rest abroad. In the following, I am going to suggest a number of alternative perspectives on the debate in order to facilitate a less dogmatic and more differentiated debate about the matter. Especially in light of the often over-simplified notions of altruism and commodification, I conclude that the debate has not conclusively established that it would be morally objectionable to provide blood plasma donors with monetary compensation or with other forms of explicit social recognition as an incentive. This is especially true of donations for fractionation into medicinal products by profit-oriented pharmaceutical companies. PMID:25471706

  4. Altruism in the wild: when affiliative motives to help positive people overtake empathic motives to help the distressed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, David J; Preston, Stephanie D; Stansfield, R Brent

    2014-06-01

    Psychological theories of human altruism suggest that helping results from an evolved tendency in caregiving mammals to respond to distress or need with empathy and sympathy. However, theories from biology, economics, and social psychology demonstrate that social animals also evolved to affiliate with and help desirable social partners. These models make different predictions about the affect of those we should prefer to help. Empathic models predict a preference to help sad, distressed targets in need, while social affiliative models predict a preference for happy, positive, successful targets. We compared these predictions in 3 field studies that measured the tendency to help sad, happy, and neutral confederates in a real-world, daily context: holding the door for a stranger in public. People consistently held the door more for happy over sad or neutral targets. To allow empathic motivations to compete more strongly against social affiliative ones, a 4th study examined a more consequential form of aid for hypothetical hospital patients in clear need. These conditions enhanced the preference to help a sad over a happy patient, because sadness made the patient appear sicker and in greater need. However, people still preferred the happy patient when the aid required a direct social interaction, attesting to the strength of social affiliation motives, even for sick patients. Theories of prosocial behavior should place greater emphasis on the role of social affiliation in motivating aid, particularly in everyday interpersonal contexts. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:24364686

  5. BMI is not related to altruism, fairness, trust or reciprocity: Experimental evidence from the field and the lab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brañas-Garza, Pablo; Espín, Antonio M; Lenkei, Balint

    2016-03-15

    Over the past few decades obesity has become one of the largest public policy concerns among the adult population in the developed world. Obesity and overweight are hypothesized to affect individuals' sociability through a number of channels, including discrimination and low self-esteem. However, whether these effects translate into differential behavioural patterns in social interactions remains unknown. In two large-scale economic experiments, we explore the relationship between Body Mass Index (BMI) and social behaviour, using three paradigmatic economic games: the dictator, ultimatum, and trust games. Our first experiment employs a representative sample of a Spanish city's population (N=753), while the second employs a sample of university students from the same city (N=618). Measures of altruism, fairness/equality, trust and reciprocity are obtained from participants' experimental decisions. Using a variety of regression specifications and control variables, our results suggest that BMI does not exert an effect on any of these social preferences. Some implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:26780149

  6. 利他主义、代理成本与家族企业成长%Altruism,Agency Costs and Family Business Growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈建林

    2011-01-01

    家族管理模式的代理成本是高还是低?这是国外家族企业代理问题研究领域争论的焦点。本文分析了利他主义对家族企业代理成本的动态影响作用,本文认为:在家族企业发展的初期,利他主义有利于降低家族管理的代理成本;在家族企业发展的后期,利他主义会增加家族管理的代理成本。在此基础上,本文对学术界关于家族企业代理成本的争论进行整合,并从代理成本的维度提出了家族企业管理模式相机选择的原则。%Are the agency costs of family management high or low? This is a focus of foreign researches about family business agency issue.The paper analyzes the dynamic impact from altruism to agency costs of family business.The paper argues that: altruism will help reduce the agency costs of family management in the early stages of family business,and altruism will increase the family management agency costs in the late stages of family business.On this basis,the paper integrates the debate about agency costs of the family business,and puts forward the principle of discretion options of family business management model on the dimensions of agency costs.

  7. In intergroup conflict, self-sacrifice is stronger among pro-social individuals, and parochial altruism emerges especially among cognitively taxed individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreu, Carsten K W De; Dussel, D Berno; Velden, Femke S Ten

    2015-01-01

    Parochial altruism is decomposed in a tendency to benefit the in-group along with a tendency to ignore, derogate, and harm rivaling out-groups. Building off recent work suggesting that decisions to cooperate can be relatively fast and intuitive, we examine parochial altruism in intergroup conflict when cognitive deliberation is rendered difficult or not. Predictions were tested in an experiment using an incentivized Intergroup Prisoner's Dilemma-Maximizing Differences Game with 95 subjects classified as either pro-social or pro-self being randomly allocated to high vs. low impulse-control conditions. Results showed, first of all, that self-sacrificial decisions to contribute were made faster than decisions not to contribute, and that faster decision time associated with more positive expectations of in-group members. Second, we observed that lowering impulse control with a difficult rather than easy Stroop Task increased the amount contributed to a pool that benefited in-group members while harming out-group members; thus reducing deliberation increased parochial altruism. Finally, results replicated earlier work showing that especially pro-social (vs. pro-self) individuals contributed more to the in-group and did not lower their contributions to the between-group pool that benefitted their in-group and, simultaneously, hurt the out-group. This pattern emerged independent of their impulse control. Thus, (in-group bounded) cooperation is more prominent among individuals with strong rather than weak other-regarding preferences. Moreover, the intuitive tendency to cooperate may have evolved in the context of intergroup conflict and therefore is sharp-edged-in-group bounded and including willingness to aggress out-groups. PMID:25999888

  8. In Intergroup Conflict, Self-sacrifice is Stronger among Pro-social Individuals and Parochial Altruism Emerges specially among Cognitively Taxed Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carsten K.W. De Dreu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Parochial altruism is decomposed in a tendency to benefit the in-group along with a tendency to ignore, derogate, and harm rivaling out-groups. Building off recent work suggesting that decisions to cooperate can be relatively fast and intuitive, we examine parochial altruism in intergroup conflict when cognitive deliberation is rendered difficult or not. Predictions were tested in an experiment using an incentivized Intergroup Prisoner’s Dilemma—Maximizing Differences Game (IPD-MD with ninety-five subjects classified as either pro-social or pro-self being randomly allocated to high vs. low impulse-control conditions. Results showed, first of all, that decisions to contribute and self-sacrifice were made faster than decisions not to contribute, and that longer decision time associated with less positive expectations of in-group members. Second, we observed that lowering impulse control with a difficult rather than easy Stroop Task increased the amount contributed to a pool that benefited in-group members while harming out-group members; thus reducing deliberation increased parochial altruism. Finally, results replicated earlier work showing that especially pro-social (versus pro-self individuals contributed more to the in-group and did not lower their contributions to the between-group pool that benefitted their in-group and, simultaneously, hurt the out-group. This pattern emerged independent of their impulse control. Thus, (in-group bounded cooperation is more prominent among individuals with strong rather than weak other-regarding preferences. Moreover, the intuitive tendency to cooperate may have evolved in the context of intergroup conflict and therefore is sharp-edged—in-group bounded and including willingness to aggress out-groups.

  9. Altruism in Congestion Games

    CERN Document Server

    Hoefer, Martin

    2008-01-01

    This paper studies the effects of introducing altruistic agents into atomic congestion games. Altruistic behavior is modeled by a trade-off between selfish and social objectives. In particular, we assume agents optimize a linear combination of personal delay of a strategy and the resulting increase in social cost. Our model can be embedded in the framework of congestion games with player-specific latency functions. Stable states are the Nash equilibria of these games, and we examine their existence and the convergence of sequential best-response dynamics. Previous work shows that for symmetric singleton games with convex delays Nash equilibria are guaranteed to exist. For concave delay functions we observe that there are games without Nash equilibria and provide a polynomial time algorithm to decide existence for symmetric singleton games with arbitrary delay functions. Our algorithm can be extended to compute best and worst Nash equilibria if they exist. For more general congestion games existence becomes NP...

  10. Parochial altruism in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhard, Helen; Fischbacher, Urs; Fehr, Ernst

    2006-08-24

    Social norms and the associated altruistic behaviours are decisive for the evolution of human cooperation and the maintenance of social order, and they affect family life, politics and economic interactions. However, as altruistic norm compliance and norm enforcement often emerge in the context of inter-group conflicts, they are likely to be shaped by parochialism--a preference for favouring the members of one's ethnic, racial or language group. We have conducted punishment experiments, which allow 'impartial' observers to punish norm violators, with indigenous groups in Papua New Guinea. Here we show that these experiments confirm the prediction of parochialism. We found that punishers protect ingroup victims--who suffer from a norm violation--much more than they do outgroup victims, regardless of the norm violator's group affiliation. Norm violators also expect that punishers will be lenient if the latter belong to their social group. As a consequence, norm violations occur more often if the punisher and the norm violator belong to the same group. Our results are puzzling for evolutionary multi-level selection theories based on selective group extinction as well as for theories of individual selection; they also indicate the need to explicitly examine the interactions between individuals stemming from different groups in evolutionary models. PMID:16929297

  11. Beyond the Selective Puzzle of Egoism and Altruism%超越利己与利他的选择困惑

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱晓东

    2014-01-01

    At present,for a considerable part of college students,they are always vacillating in the face of the difficult problem whether he should become an altruist or an egoist. Only by going beyond the narrow shackles of egoism and altruism criterion,and striving to become the independent subjects,could they grasp the orientation toward living in the new era.%目前,对于相当一部分大学生来说,面对应该做一个利己主义者,还是做一个利他主义者的选择难题摇摆不定。他们只有超越利己与利他准则的狭隘桎梏,努力成为独立主体,才能在新的时代条件下把握生活的方向。

  12. On the Altruism Motive of the Undergraduates' Prosocial Behavior and Social Intervention%大学生亲社会行为主观助人动机和社会干预探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁芳盛

    2009-01-01

    The status quo of the undergraduates' prosocial behavior is not so positive. A random investigation has been made on the altruism motive of their prosocial behavior. The result shows: the norm of reciprocity and social norm learning have a great influence upon the altruism motive of the undergraduate' prosocial behavior. The next influence is the social change theory and empathy-altruism hypothesis. The undergraduate's first subjective choice is empathy.%当前大学生亲社会行为并不表现积极.本研究以调查问卷的方式随机考察大学生亲社会行为主观助人动机.调查发现大学生主观助人动机受社会规范学习和互惠规范影响为主,其次是社会交换理论的影响以及移情和利他主义的假设.大学生主观陈述时首选助人动机为满足精神愉悦感.

  13. KANTIAN'S ETHICS AND THE POSSIBILITY OF ALTRUISM (THOMAS NAGEL A ÉTICA KANTIANA E A POSSIBILIDADE DO ALTRUÍSMO (THOMAS NAGEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen Stolzenberg

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The present article discusses the relation of Th. Nagel’s ethics of altruism with kantian ethics. According to Nagel himself, his position resembles that of Kant in two respects: it defends the thesis of the autonomy of moral motivation, and it bases moral on a determinate self-conception of persons. However, differently from Kant, the principle of Nagel’s ethics is just the modest presupposition that persons essentially understand themselves as being one among a plurality of other persons. Starting from the nagelian argument in The Possibility of Altruism (1970, but contemplating also Nagel’s more recent position in The Last Word (1999, it is argued that in order to defend his conception of a rational ethics in a convincing way, Nagel has to approximate himself more to the kantian foundation of ethics than he wants to admit.O presente artigo discute a relação da ética do altruísmo, defendida por Thomas Nagel, com a ética kantiana. Segundo o próprio Nagel, sua posição é semelhante à de Kant sob dois aspectos: ela defende a tese da autonomia da motivação moral, e ela funda a moral numa determinada autoconcepção da pessoa. No entanto, diferentemente de Kant, o princípio da ética nageliana é apenas o pressuposto modesto de que uma pessoa essencialmente considera a si mesma como sendo uma numa pluralidade de pessoas. Partindo do argumento nageliano em The Possibility of Altruísmo (1970, mas contemplando também a posição mais recente de Nagel em The Last Word (1999, argumenta-se que Nagel só pode defender sua concepção de uma ética racional de modo convincente, se ele se aproximar mais da fundamentação kantiana da ética do que ele pretende.

  14. Face-to-Face Sharing with Strangers and Altruistic Punishment of Acquaintances for Strangers: Young Adolescents Exhibit Greater Altruism than Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Jian; Yang, Yue; Wang, Zhiwen

    2016-01-01

    Young adolescents are generally considered to be self-absorbed. Studies indicate that they lack relevant general cognitive abilities, such as impulse control, that mature in early adulthood. However, their idealism may cause them to be more intolerant of unfair treatment to others and thus result in their engaging in more altruistic behavior. The present study aimed to clarify whether young adolescents are more altruistic than adults and thus indicate whether altruistic competence is domain-specific. One hundred 22 young adolescents and adults participated in a face-to-face, two-round, third-party punishment experiment. In each interaction group, a participant served as an allocator who could share money units with a stranger; another participant who knew the allocator could punish the acquaintance for the stranger. Participants reported their emotions after the first round, and at the end of the experiment, the participants justified their behavior in each round. The results indicated that the young adolescents both shared more and punished more than did the adults. Sharing was associated with a reference to fairness in the justifications, but altruistic punishment was associated with subsequent positive emotion. In sum, greater altruism in young adolescents compared to adults with mature cognitive abilities provides evidence of domain-specificity of altruistic competence. Moreover, sharing and altruistic punishment are related to specific cognitive and emotional mechanisms, respectively. PMID:27752246

  15. Apoptotic wing degeneration and formation of an altruism-regulating glandular appendage (gemma) in the ponerine ant Diacamma sp. from Japan (Hymenoptera, Formicidae, Ponerinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotoh, A; Sameshima, S; Tsuji, K; Matsumoto, T; Miura, T

    2005-02-01

    We here show an example of morphological novelties, which have evolved from insect wings into the specific structures controlling social behaviour in an ant species. Most ant colonies consist of winged queen(s) and wingless workers. In the queenless ponerine ant Diacamma sp. from Japan, however, all female workers have a pair of small thoracic appendages, called "gemmae", which are homologous to the forewings and acts as an organ regulating altruism expression. Most workers, whose gemmae are clipped off by other colony members, become nonreproductive helpers, while only a single individual with complete gemmae becomes functionally reproductive. We examined histologically the development of gemmae, and compared it with that of functional wings in males. Female larvae had well-developed wing discs for both fore- and hindwings. At pupation, however, the wing discs started to evaginate and later degenerate. The hindwing discs completely degenerated, while the degeneration of forewing discs was incomplete, leading to the formation of gemmae. The degeneration process involved apoptotic cell death as confirmed by TUNEL assay. In addition, glandular cells differentiated from the epithelial cells of the forewing buds after completion of pupation. The mechanism of developmental transition from wing to gemma can be regarded as an evolutionary gain of new function, which can be seen in insect appendages and vertebrate limbs. PMID:15647944

  16. “公司利他权”之践行机制%The practical mechanism of "corporate altruism rights"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田保军

    2011-01-01

    If we really want to make company directors and other executives actively implement the "altruistic right",in China,we should not only establish and generalize the values of "altruistic right of company";but also clearly define terms of "the right of the company altruism","other interested parties","the purpose of the abstract terms","general rights and specific rights" and "business judgment rule" in " Company Law";furthermore,we should continue to improve relevant laws and regulations on "corporate altruism right", judicial and administrative systems and behaviors,complemented by other social security system.%要想真正使公司董事等高管积极实施"利他权",在我国不仅要树立和普及"公司利他权"之"价值理念";在《公司法》方面还应明确规定"公司利他权"及"其他利害关系人条款"、"抽象性目的条款"、"一般权利和具体权利",更应明确规定董事等公司高管之"商业判断规则";再者,还应不断完善相关"公司利他权"方面之其他配套法律、法规,完善司法制度和行政制度及行为,并辅之以其他社会保障制度。

  17. Self-love and other-love: Research on the relationships among narcissism, empathy and implicit altruism%自爱与他爱:自恋、共情与内隐利他的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何宁; 朱云莉

    2016-01-01

    Narcissism (narcissistic personality disorder or narcissistic personality trait) has long been characterized in the clinical and nonclinical literature by a lack of empathy. Although a large body of empirical studies link empathy to altruism as the trigger for prosocial behaviors, few studies have directly explored the relationships among narcissism, empathy and altruism. Here, we present two experiments that examined the relationships among these three dimensions and provide insights into the narcissists' state empathy and its association with their altruistic tendencies. The total sample comprised 173 undergraduates divided into two groups, narcissists and non-narcissists, based on their responses to the Narcissistic Personality Inventory. Adopting split-half methods, participants scoring above the average were identified as narcissists and those below as non-narcissists. In study 1, the Interpersonal Reactivity Index–C and the Implicit Association Test were applied to compare the two groups on measures of empathy and implicit altruism. Narcissists were hypothesized to demonstrate lower levels of empathy and weaker tendencies of implicit altruism compared to non-narcissists. In study 2, a video was employed to investigate state empathy and its connection to implicit altruism. A 2 (narcissism: narcissists vs. non-narcissists) × 2 (experimental treatment: priming vs. control) design was applied, with participants randomly assigned into the two experimental conditions. The second hypothesis was that the priming of empathy would increase the empathy and implicit altruism of narcissists, whereas non-narcissists would be unaffected. In Study 1, narcissists demonstrated lower levels of emotional (but not cognitive) empathy, and of implicit altruism, compared to their non-narcissistic counterparts. In Study 2, a significantly higher level of state empathy and implicit altruism among narcissists emerged after priming compared to the control group, suggesting that

  18. 自爱与他爱:自恋、共情与内隐利他的关系%Self-love and other-love: Research on the relationships among narcissism, empathy and implicit altruism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何宁; 朱云莉

    2016-01-01

    Narcissism (narcissistic personality disorder or narcissistic personality trait) has long been characterized in the clinical and nonclinical literature by a lack of empathy. Although a large body of empirical studies link empathy to altruism as the trigger for prosocial behaviors, few studies have directly explored the relationships among narcissism, empathy and altruism. Here, we present two experiments that examined the relationships among these three dimensions and provide insights into the narcissists' state empathy and its association with their altruistic tendencies. The total sample comprised 173 undergraduates divided into two groups, narcissists and non-narcissists, based on their responses to the Narcissistic Personality Inventory. Adopting split-half methods, participants scoring above the average were identified as narcissists and those below as non-narcissists. In study 1, the Interpersonal Reactivity Index–C and the Implicit Association Test were applied to compare the two groups on measures of empathy and implicit altruism. Narcissists were hypothesized to demonstrate lower levels of empathy and weaker tendencies of implicit altruism compared to non-narcissists. In study 2, a video was employed to investigate state empathy and its connection to implicit altruism. A 2 (narcissism: narcissists vs. non-narcissists) × 2 (experimental treatment: priming vs. control) design was applied, with participants randomly assigned into the two experimental conditions. The second hypothesis was that the priming of empathy would increase the empathy and implicit altruism of narcissists, whereas non-narcissists would be unaffected. In Study 1, narcissists demonstrated lower levels of emotional (but not cognitive) empathy, and of implicit altruism, compared to their non-narcissistic counterparts. In Study 2, a significantly higher level of state empathy and implicit altruism among narcissists emerged after priming compared to the control group, suggesting that

  19. The status and analysis of nursing students' empathy and altruism%实习护生同理心与利他观念现状及二者相关性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵蕾; 李媛; 王倩倩

    2013-01-01

    目的:调查医院实习护生的同理心与利他观念现状,分析二者间的相关性,为提高实习护生的同理心及利他观念水平提供理论基础.方法:采用中文版Jefferson同理心量表和大学生利他行为问卷,对某三级甲等医院的265名实习护生进行问卷调查.结果:①实习护生同理心总得分在52 ~ 108分之间,平均(90.05±13.63)分,本科生同理心总得分最高,中专生最低;实习护生是否独生子女、是否是学生干部组间得分差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).②实习护生利他观念总得分为在98 ~ 159分之间,平均(129.72±10.04)分;是否是学生干部组间得分差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).③同理心总得分及各维度(观点采择、情感护理、换位思考)得分分别与利他观念总得分呈正相关(P<0.001).结论:实习护生的同理心、利他观念在不同学历和不同生活背景情况下存在一定差异,学校及医院应注重对于同理心得分水平较低护生的培养,以促进护生整体利他观念水平的提高.%Objective: To study the status of nursing students' empathy and altruism, and analyze the relationship between them. Methods: The Chinese version of the Jefferson scale of empathy and the altruistic behavior of college students scale were distributed to 265 nursing students from a level-three, first-class hospital in Taian. Results: The total score of empathy was 52~108, and the average score was 90.05±13.63; the total score of the undergraduate students was highest; the total score of technical secondary school students was lowest; there were significant differences (P<0.05) between whether only-child, student leaders or not. The total score of altruism was 98~159, and the average score was 129.72±10.04; it showed differences (P<0.05) between the student leaders or not. Empathy and its dimensions showed a positive correlation with altruism (P<0.001). Conclusion: There were differences in nursing students

  20. CPM领导行为模式对员工利他行为及工作投入的作用机制%The Impact Mechanisms of CPM Leadership on Employees' Altruism and Job Involvement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李明; 凌文辁

    2012-01-01

    Leadership has increasingly attracted the attention of researchers in different fields. Though researchers have carried out a large number of empirical studies, people still do not have an adequate understanding of the mechanisms of leadership. The effectiveness of leadership theory is based on certain cultural contexts. With traditional culture and modern culture integrated, people are more involved in the quest of what kinds of leadership will be more efficient, and how leadership functions in Chinese culture. In 1980s, Ling Wenquan put forward the CPM leadership theory, which reflects typical Chinese characteristics and provides a theoretical framework to understand the leadership effectiveness in Chinese organizations. But the function of CPM leadership has never been studied empirically.. Hence, the purpose of this study was to discuss the mechanisms in which CPM leadership affects employees' attitude and behavior, especially on employees' altruism and job involvement. A questionnaire that included the CPM leadership scale, trust in supervisor, affective commitment, job involvement and altruism was employed as the tool in this study. A total of 602 valid samples were collected from enterprises and institutions of more than 26 provinces and cities in China. The data were analyzed with SPSS 15.0 and AMOS 7. 0. Cronbach's alpha coefficients indicated acceptable measurement reliabilities, and confirmatory factor analysis showed that the discriminated validity of the measurement was also satisfactory. The procedure of testing mediators proposed by Baron and Kendy ( 1986 ) was employed to examine the relations between variables. Path analysis was used to examine the hypotheses. Alternative nested models were established and compared with the hypothesized model in two stages. In the first stage, we tested the hypothesis that trust in supervisors mediated the relationship between CPM leadership and employees' job involvement and altruism. In order to get a stringent

  1. Insuficiencia de los constructos psicológicos en la educación del altruismo Insuficiência dos construtos psicológicos no ensino do altruísmo Insufficiency of psychological constructs in education in altruism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Osorio

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Con frecuencia los estudios relacionados con el altruismo lo abordan desde constructos psicológicos como la memoria, la afectividad, la motivación o el aprendizaje. Son escasas, en cambio, las aproximaciones desde la voluntad y la virtud. El presente artículo pretende vincular estos conceptos con ese campo de investigación, para aportar nuevas claves de interpretación sobre la educación del altruismo y para el diseño de estrategias pedagógicas en este campo. Algunas evidencias empíricas muestran que los constructos psicológicos resultan insuficientes para explicar la conducta altruista y suformación, mientras que recurriendo también a la visión aristotélica de la voluntad y de la virtud se alcanza una comprensión más íntegra y pedagógica del altruismo como objeto educativo.Freqüentemente, estudos associados com altruísmo o abordam desde construtos psicológicos como memória, emoção, motivação ou aprendizagem. São poucas, entretanto, as abordagens a partir da vontade e da virtude. Este artigo tenta vincular esses conceitos com esse campo da investigação, para fornecer novas pistas na interpretação acerca do ensino do altruísmo e na concepção de estratégias de ensino nesta área. Algumas evidências empíricas indicam que os constructos psicológicos são insuficientes para explicar o comportamento altruísta e sua formação, enquanto se recorrer à visão aristotélica da vontade e da virtude chega-se a uma compreensão mais plena e pedagógica do altruísmo como objeto de ensinoStudies dealing with altruism often approach the subject from psychological constructs such as memory, feelings, motivation or learning. Very few deal with it from the standpoint of volition and virtue. This article attempts to link these concepts to that field of research in an effort to provide new keys for interpretation regarding education in altruism and for the design of teaching strategies in this field. Some empirical evidence

  2. Altruism, spite and choosy females

    OpenAIRE

    Lehmann, Laurent; Perrin, Nicolas

    2004-01-01

    Natural selection favours the genes which are able to introduce replicates of themselves in the next generation with higher certainty than do rival genes (Hamilton 1963). The fitness of an individual, it’s ability to produce future parents, depends on it’s own behaviour as well as on the behaviour of other individuals in the population. For instance, the intensity of competition an individual experience depends on the exploitation of resources by neighbours. The fitness is thus frequency depe...

  3. Altruism, spite and choosy females

    OpenAIRE

    Lehmann L.

    2003-01-01

    Natural selection favours the genes which are able to introduce replicates of themselves in the next generation with higher certainty than do rival genes (Hamilton 1963). The fitness of an individual, it?s ability to produce future parents, depends on it?s own behaviour as well as on the behaviour of other individuals in the population. For instance, the intensity of competition an individual experience depends on the exploitation of resources by neighbours. The fitness is thus frequency depe...

  4. What is Moral Education in Line with Justice:Altruism,Egoism or Reciprocity?%合乎正义的道德教育:利他、利己抑或互惠?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡金木

    2015-01-01

    The moral arrangement in social life needs to accord with the principles of justice.Moral ed-ucation should be based on justice and achieve a balance between moral right and moral duty,and egoism and altruism.One important reason for moral education inefficiency is that it ignores the basis,overem-phasizing the moral duty of altruism and with little attention paid on the moral right of egoism.Moral edu-cation embodies strong idealism characteristics and replaces bottom-line moral requirements with high-standard moral ideal.Moral education in line with justice should first recognize the rationality of self-inter-est.Second,it does not infringe the rights of others.Third,it encourages people to do good to return. Good moral deserves happiness and “good people”should get what they deserve.Finally,it advocates the spirit of tolerance between multiple subjects,leaving moral life space for others.%社会生活中的道德安排需要符合正义的原则,道德教育也应该建基于正义之上,在道德权利与道德义务之间、在利己与利他之间实现一种平衡。当前道德教育低效的一个重要原因就是忽视了这一基础,过于关注利他性的道德义务而较少关注利己性的道德权利。道德教育陷入道德理想主义之中,以高标准的道德理想代替底线的道德要求。合乎正义的道德教育首先应该承认利己的合理性;其次,要守住道德边界,不能侵犯个体的正当权利;再次,善有善报,德福一致而不能让“好人”吃亏;最后,多元道德主体间需要有一种宽容精神,为“他者”留出道德生活空间。

  5. 突发灾害条件下中学生利他动机的构成及发展倾向%Middle School Student's Altruism Motivation Compose and Develop Tendency Under the Condition of the Unexpectedly Calamity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿希峰; 马丽枝; 张守武

    2012-01-01

    本文采用自编情境故事问卷,考察了初二和高一学生在三种突发灾害条件下利他动机的构成及发展倾向。结论如下:突发灾害条件下中学生的利他动机主要由赞许动机、避免惩罚动机、互惠动机、移情动机、社会责任动机、自我牺牲动机构成;中学生的利他动机呈现出由低水平动机向高水平动机的发展趋势;在不同情境下中学生的利他动机表现出跨情境的一致性;在同一情境下中学生的主导利他动机表现出情境差异性。%Adopt situation story questionnaire by self- compile, inspect middle school two grade and high school one grade student' s altruism motivation compose and develop tendency under the condition of three kinds of the unexpectedly ca- lamity. Gain the following conclusion: middle school student' s altruism motivation compose under the condition of the unex- pectedly calamity main including praise motivation, avoid punish motivation, reciprocal motivation, empathy motivation, so- cial responsibility motivation, self- sacrifice motivation. Their altruism motivation present the develop tendency from low- level to high - level; present across situation' s identical under the different situation and situation' s difference under the same situation.

  6. 论维新思想家的己他两利思想及"多源同流"的特点%On egoism and altruism of the thinkers of Reform Movement and their multi-sources with the same result

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵璐; 陈陶然

    2009-01-01

    为了给构建社会主义和谐社会提供历史借鉴,运用文献分析等方法对维新思想家的己他两利思想进行研究.维新思想家认为利已是推动社会发展的动力;利他是追求个人利益的前提;个体与群体是对立统一的关系;培养合群之德是救亡图存的关键.维新思想家的己他两利思想具有"多源同流"的特点.%In order to offer a historical reference to form a harmonious socialist so?iety, using the method of analyzing the historical data, the unification of egoism and altruism of reformation thinkers was discussed. Egoism is the driv-ing force of social development. Altruism is the pursuit of personal interests. Self - interest and other - interest is the relationship between the unity and opposites. Moral education of getting on well with others is the key to salva-tion. The theory unification of self - interest and other - interest of thinkers of Reform Movement of 1898 has the characteristics of multi - sources with the same result.

  7. Human altruism from an evolutionary perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fetchenhauer, D; Bierhoff, HW

    2004-01-01

    According to Darwin's theory of evolution by natural selection altruistic behavior appears to be a paradox. Because altruistic behaviors are defined as acts of transferring resources to another person without getting any resources back (at least in the short run) it could be argued that any altruist

  8. Indiscriminate altruism: unduly nice parents and siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, L

    1997-03-01

    Many animals can identify their relatives and bias altruistic behaviour in their favour. However, recent studies have also uncovered cases where nepotism might be expected but is weak or absent within social groups. For instance, in some bird and mammal species, males apparently feed offsping that have been sired by other males at the same rate as their own offspring. Similarly, social insect workers fail to favour more closely related individuals within their colony. Why is this so? PMID:21237992

  9. Media and Children's Aggression, Fear, and Altruism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Barbara J.

    2008-01-01

    Noting that the social and emotional experiences of American children today often heavily involve electronic media, Barbara Wilson takes a close look at how exposure to screen media affects children's well-being and development. She concludes that media influence on children depends more on the type of content that children find attractive than on…

  10. Altruism during predation in an assassin bug

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejean, Alain; Revel, Messika; Azémar, Frédéric; Roux, Olivier

    2013-10-01

    Zelus annulosus is an assassin bug species mostly noted on Hirtella physophora, a myrmecophyte specifically associated with the ant Allomerus decemarticulatus known to build traps on host tree twigs to ambush insect preys. The Z. annulosus females lay egg clutches protected by a sticky substance. To avoid being trapped, the first three instars of nymphs remain grouped in a clutch beneath the leaves on which they hatched, yet from time to time, they climb onto the upper side to group ambush preys. Long-distance prey detection permits these bugs to capture flying or jumping insects that alight on their leaves. Like some other Zelus species, the sticky substance of the sundew setae on their forelegs aids in prey capture. Group ambushing permits early instars to capture insects that they then share or not depending on prey size and the hunger of the successful nymphs. Fourth and fifth instars, with greater needs, rather ambush solitarily on different host tree leaves, but attract siblings to share large preys. Communal feeding permits faster prey consumption, enabling small nymphs to return sooner to the shelter of their leaves. By improving the regularity of feeding for each nymph, it likely regulates nymphal development, synchronizing molting and subsequently limiting cannibalism.

  11. Altruism, Empathy, and Sex Offender Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Tony; Durrant, Russil

    2013-01-01

    Treatment programs for serious offenders such as sex offenders typically include an empathy training component as part of a comprehensive intervention package. The reasons for doing so are partly based on research evidence indicating that social disconnection and relationship ruptures related to empathy failures often trigger offending, and also…

  12. Rewarding Altruism? A Natural Field Experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Nicola Lacetera; Mario Macis; Robert Slonim

    2011-01-01

    We present evidence from a natural field experiment involving nearly 100,000 individuals on the effects of offering economic incentives for blood donations. Subjects who were offered economic rewards to donate blood were more likely to donate, and more so the higher the value of the rewards. They were also more likely to attract others to donate, spatially alter the location of their donations towards the drives offering rewards, and modify their temporal donation schedule leading to a short-...

  13. Habit Formation, Dynastic Altruism, and Population Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Schäfer, Andreas; Valente, Simone

    2007-01-01

    We study the general equilibrium properties of two growth models with overlapping generations, habit formation and endogenous fertility. In the neoclassical model, habits modify the economy's growth rate and generate transitional dynamics in fertility; station- ary income per capita is associated with either increasing or decreasing population and output, depending on the strength of habits. In the AK specification, growing population and increasing consumption per capita require that the hab...

  14. Theoretical Basis and the Latest Extension of Homo Economicus Hypothesis with Altruism-Egoism Consistency%利他一利己一致性经济人假说的理论基础与最新拓展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈惠雄

    2012-01-01

    经济人假说是经济学分析人类行为的起点。迄今为止,关于经济人假说的理论分歧仍然存在着一些尚未解决的深层次的理论分歧点。主要包括:(1)经济人的利己性究竞是“物质利己”还是“意识利己”;(2)经济人的利己内涵究竞应局限于“工具价值”,还是应拓展到“终极价值”;(3)利己、利他、利己一利他、利他一利已经济人假说究竞能否融通,并构建其符合真在世界人类行为模式的经济人理论假说体系;(4)学术界对经济人之“经济”一词可能长期误读。这些问题的认识与解决程度,决定着经济人假说的相关核心论题的长期纷纭能否达成某些确定的一致性结果。工具价值构建经济人假说具有理论局限,基于人性的利他一利己内在统一性(人性一般)与趋乐避苦统一性(目的一般),两者完整地解释了由人性统一性与统一人性的统一目的构成的人类行为一般性。这不仅为诸多经济人假说的融通提供了一个一般性理论基础,而且为科学认知人类行为、实现经济社会科学发展提供了一个人类行为解释的新框架。%The theory divergence of homo economicus hypothesis suggestion that there still some underlying theoretical points remain unresolved. It Mainly including: Whether the essence of homo economicus egoism should be limited to "instrumental value" or be expanded to "ultimate value"; Whether there is consistency between altruism and egoism and thus to construct homo economicus hypothesis theory system of human behavior patterns in a real world; Academic world may misunderstand the word "Economicus" over a long period of time. The paper will construct a general behavior pattern of homo economieus with multiple preference structure in a real world, clarify underlying theoretical points related, and provide a new theoretical path through which several kinds of homo

  15. The Impact from Management Pattern to Agency Costs in Listed Family Business - The Controversy and Integration of Agency Theory and Altruism Theory%上市家族企业管理模式对代理成本的影响——代理理论和利他主义理论的争论和整合

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈建林

    2012-01-01

    本文采用我国339家上市家族企业2006年的数据.分析了家族管理模式对上市家族企业代理成本的影响。本文得出以下结论:(1)两权舍一有利于降低企业的代理成本。其中,创业家族管理者对降低企业代理成本有显著的效果。第二代家族管理者降低代理成本的效果不显著。(2)家族权威、差序式治理对代理成本没有显著的治理效果。本文的研究结论有助于整合代理理论和利他主义理论的争论。%The paper uses 339 listed family businesses'data in 2006 and analyzes the impact from family management pattern to family business agency costs. The paper draws the following conclusions. (1) The unity of two rights helps reduce the agency costs of the enterprise. The effect of family entrepreneur in family business to reduce enterprise's agency cost is significant, and the effect of the second generation of family manager to reduce the agency cost is not significant. (2) Family authority and diversity-orderly governance have not significant effect on agency costs. The conclusions of this study help integrate the controversy of agency theory and altruism theory.

  16. Completed egoism and intended altruism boost healthy food choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weibel, Christian; Messner, Claude; Brügger, Adrian

    2014-06-01

    Based on the self-licensing literature and goal theory, we expected and found that completed (im)moral actions lead to markedly different food choices (Studies 1 & 2) than intended (im)moral actions (Study 2). In Study 1, people more often chose healthy over unhealthy food options when they recalled a completed egoistic action than when they recalled a completed altruistic action. Study 2 confirmed this finding and furthermore showed that the self-licensing effect in food choices is moderated by the action stage (completed versus intended) of the moral or immoral action. This article extends the existing self-licensing literature and opens up new perspectives for changing consumers' food consumption behavior.

  17. Evolutionary dynamics of altruism and cheating among social amoebas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brännström, A; Dieckmann, U

    2005-08-01

    Dictyostelium discoideum is a eukaryotic amoeba, which, when starvation is imminent, aggregates to form fruiting bodies consisting of a stalk of reproductively dead cells that supports spores. Because different clones may be involved in such aggregations, cheater strategies may emerge that allocate a smaller fraction of cells to stalk formation, thus gaining a reproductive advantage. In this paper, we model the evolutionary dynamics of allocation strategies in Dictyostelium under the realistic assumption that the number of clones involved in aggregations follows a random distribution. By determining the full course of evolutionary dynamics, we show that evolutionary branching in allocation strategies may occur, resulting in dimorphic populations that produce stalkless and stalked fruiting bodies. We also demonstrate that such dimorphisms are more likely to emerge when the variation in the number of clones involved in aggregations is large.

  18. Institutional incentives for altruism: gifting blood in China

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Chengpu; Holroyd, Eleanor; Cheng, Yu; Fai Lau, Joseph Tak

    2013-01-01

    Background In mainland China, the motivation behind voluntary blood donation is a relatively new and understudied behavior. In recent times provincial governments in China have implemented various institutional incentive measures. However, little is known regarding the effectiveness of such measures. This qualitative study investigated the nature and outcomes of some identified institutionalized mechanisms, in particular how these were created and distributed in the form of incentives for vol...

  19. Stochastic group selection model for the evolution of altruism

    CERN Document Server

    Silva, A T C; Silva, Ana T. C.

    1999-01-01

    We study numerically and analytically a stochastic group selection model in which a population of asexually reproducing individuals, each of which can be either altruist or non-altruist, is subdivided into $M$ reproductively isolated groups (demes) of size $N$. The cost associated with being altruistic is modelled by assigning the fitness $1- \\tau$, with $\\tau \\in [0,1]$, to the altruists and the fitness 1 to the non-altruists. In the case that the altruistic disadvantage $\\tau$ is not too large, we show that the finite $M$ fluctuations are small and practically do not alter the deterministic results obtained for $M \\to \\infty$. However, for large $\\tau$ these fluctuations greatly increase the instability of the altruistic demes to mutations. These results may be relevant to the dynamics of parasite-host systems and, in particular, to explain the importance of mutation in the evolution of parasite virulence.

  20. Emergence of human cooperation and altruism by evolutionary feedback selection

    CERN Document Server

    Darcet, D

    2006-01-01

    Strong reciprocity is a fundamental human characteristic associated with our extraordinary sociality and cooperation. Laboratory experiments on social dilemma games and many field studies have quantified well-defined levels of cooperation and propensity to punish/reward. The level of cooperation is observed to be strongly dependent on the availability of punishments and/or rewards. Here, we suggest that the propensity for altruistic punishment and reward is an emergent property that has co-evolved with cooperation by providing an efficient feedback mechanism through both biological and cultural interactions. By favoring high survival probability and large individual gains, the propensity for altruistic punishment and rewards reconciles self- and group interests. We show that a simple cost/benefit analysis at the level of a single agent, who anticipates the action of her fellows, determines an optimal level of altruistic punishment, which explains quantitatively experimental results on the third-party punishme...

  1. Altruism in multiplayer snowdrift games with threshold and punishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chunyan; Liu, Zhongxin; Sun, Qinglin; Chen, Zengqiang

    2015-09-01

    The puzzle of cooperation attracts broader concerns of the scientific community nowadays. Here we adopt an extra mechanism of punishment in the framework of a threshold multiple-player snowdrift game employed as the scenario for the cooperation problem. Two scenarios are considered: defectors will suffer punishment regardless of the game results, and defectors will incur punishment only when the game fails. We show by analysis that given this assumption, punishing free riders can significantly influence the evolution outcomes, and the results are driven by the specific components of the punishing rule. Particularly, punishing defectors always, not only when the game fails, can be more effective for maintaining public cooperation in multi-player systems. Intriguingly larger thresholds of the game provide a more favorable scenario for the coexistence of the cooperators and defectors under a broad value range of parameters. Further, cooperators are best supported by the large punishment on defectors, and then dominate and stabilize in the population, under the premise that defectors always incur punishment regardless of whether the game ends successfully or not.

  2. Altruism and sacrifice : mafia free gift giving in south Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Pipyrou, Stavroula

    2014-01-01

    As a social phenomenon that torments modern states, mafia receives considerable political and legal attention. The term mafia itself is often directly related to criminality and violence. Thus far violence has been employed as an analytical construct that could explain compliance with the mafia ethos. Nevertheless this schema fails to take into consideration possible discourses that make mafia tolerable. Drawing on fieldwork conducted in Reggio Calabria, South Italy, this paper explores disti...

  3. ALTRUISM, EGOISM AND GROUP COHESION IN A LOCAL INTERACTION MODEL

    OpenAIRE

    José A. García Martínez

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we have introduced and parameterized the concept of ?group cohesion? in a model of local interaction with a population divided into groups. This allows us to control the level of ?isolation? of these groups: We thus analyze if the degree of group cohesion is relevant to achieve an efficient behaviour and which level would be the best one for this purpose. We are interested in situations where there is a trade off between efficiency and individual incentives. This trade off is st...

  4. An inclusive fitness analysis of altruism on a cyclical network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grafen, A

    2007-11-01

    A recent model studies the evolution of cooperation on a network, and concludes with a result connecting the benefits and costs of interactions and the number of neighbours. Here, an inclusive fitness analysis is conducted of the only case solved analytically, of a cycle, and the identical result is obtained. This brings the result within a biologically familiar framework. It is notable that the benefits and costs in the inclusive fitness framework need to be derived, and are not the benefits and costs that are the parameters in the original model. The relatedness is a quadratic function of position in a cycle of size N: an individual is related by 1 to itself, by (N - 5)/(N + 1) to an immediate neighbour, and by very close to -1/2 to the most distant individuals. The inclusive fitness analysis explains hitherto puzzling features of the results. PMID:17956390

  5. Prosocial Behaviors and Altruism among Citizens of Isfahan

    OpenAIRE

    Armita Nooien; Mohammad Bagher Kajbaf; Mehrnoosh Foroudastan

    2013-01-01

    Introduction People live in groups and by cooperating with each other they obtain various benefits. Because life condition is dangerous and unpredictable, cooperation and partnership for survival is very valuable (Haynde, 2001). Indeed, the material and spiritual life of each society is dependent on the existence of people who have internalized moral values and try to serve others by prosocial behaviors. Stable people who are less affected by situations and conditions, may behave more acc...

  6. From Altruism to Non-Cooperation in Routing Games

    CERN Document Server

    Azad, Amar Prakash; El-Azouzi, R

    2008-01-01

    The paper studies the routing in the network shared by several users. Each user seeks to optimize either its own performance or some combination between its own performance and that of other users, by controlling the routing of its given flow demand. We parameterize the degree of cooperation which allows to cover the fully non-cooperative behavior, the fully cooperative behavior, and even more, the fully altruistic behavior, all these as special cases of the parameter's choice. A large part of the work consists in exploring the impact of the degree of cooperation on the equilibrium. Our first finding is to identify multiple Nash equilibria with cooperative behavior that do not occur in the non-cooperative case under the same conditions (cost, demand and topology). We then identify Braess like paradox (in which adding capacity or adding a link to a network results in worse performance to all users) and study the impact of the degree of cooperation on it. We identify another type of paradox in cooperation scena...

  7. Reluctant altruism and peer pressure in charitable giving

    OpenAIRE

    Diane Reyniers; Richa Bhalla

    2013-01-01

    Subjects donate individually (control group) or in pairs (treatment group). Those in pairs reveal their donation decision to each other. Average donations in the treatment group are significantly higher than in the control group. Paired subjects have the opportunity to revise their donation decision after discussion. Pair members shift toward each others' initial decisions. Subjects are happier with their decision when their donations are larger, but those in pairs are less happy, controlling...

  8. “90后”实习护生对护理中利他行为的态度及影响因素的质性研究%Attitude of 90 practical nursing stu dents to altruism and its influencing factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李君; 王兰; 曹立云; 贾冰

    2015-01-01

    [目的]探讨90后实习护生对护理中利他行为的态度及影响因素。[方法]采用质性研究中的现象学研究方法,面对面、半结构深度访谈了7位90后实习护生。采用 NVivo10分析资料。[结果]关于90后实习护生对护理中利他行为的态度,萃取出5个主要的结构概念:观察到利他行为是一件令人开心的事情;以后也会做更多的利他行为;在实施利他行为时,内心充满矛盾和纠结;理解和宽容不帮助其他人的护士;护理中的利他行为既有利又有弊。对态度的影响因素萃取出4个主要的结构概念:同理心和认知观念;当时所处的状态;对护理服务意识的敏感性;科室多年来形成的护理工作氛围。[结论]护理教育者和护理管理者应建立导向性激励机制,为护生多树立良好的榜样,进一步改善护生的临床实习环境,以加强对护生同理心的培养。%Objective:To probe into the attitude of 90 practical nursing students to altruism and its influencing factors.Methods:The seven 90's practical nursing students were interviewed by using face to face and semi structured depth interview and the phenomenological research method in qualitative research.The data was ana-lyzed by the software of NVivo10.Results:About 90's practical nurses students'attitude to altruistic behavior in nursing.Five major structured concepts were extracted:the altruistic behavior was a pleasure;more altruistic be-haviors will be done;when implementing the altruistic behavior,the heart was full of contradictions and strug-gles;understanding and tolerance of the nurses who didn't help others;altruistic behaviors in nursing had both sides,advantages and disadvantages.Four major structured concepts were extracted about influencing factors of attitude:empathy and cognitive concept;the state at that time;sensitivity to the consciousness of nursing serv-ice;nursing work atmosphere formed in the department for

  9. The social responsibility in spanish energy companies. Can altruism be lucrative?

    OpenAIRE

    Palencia-Lefler, Manuel; Arciniega, Mittzy; Codina, Mireia

    2009-01-01

    Based on a study of the social responsibility in the most representative Spanish Energy Companies, its introduces a reflection of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) as a strategy that emphasizes its role and potential contribution to the marketing discipline. Using an inductive method, this research has taken as sample the three representative Spanish Energy Companies (Endesa, Iberdrola and Gas Natural) and has focused its investigation in the management of their CSR actions, considering t...

  10. Altruism, egoism, or neither: A cognitive-efficiency-based evolutionary biological perspective on helping behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Armin W

    2016-04-01

    I argue for differences in the cognitive efficiency of different psychologies underlying helping behavior, and present an account of the adaptive pressures that result from these differences. Specifically, I argue that organisms often face pressure to move away from only being egoistically motivated to help: non-egoistic organisms are often able to determine how to help other organisms more quickly and with less recourse to costly cognitive resources like concentration and attention. Furthermore, I also argue that, while these pressures away from pure egoism can lead to the evolution of altruists, they can also lead to the evolution of reciprocation-focused behaviorist helpers or even of reflex-driven helpers (who are neither altruists nor egoists). In this way, I seek to broaden the set of considerations typically taken into account when assessing the evolution of the psychology of helping behavior-which tend to be restricted to matters of reliability-and also try to make clearer the role of evolutionary biological considerations in the discussion of this apparently straightforwardly psychological phenomenon.

  11. Egoism, altruism, and social justice : theory and experiments on cooperation in social dilemmas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, Sjerp de

    1991-01-01

    Cooperative or altruistic behavior in the absence of egoistic incentives is an issue that has puzzled many social scientists. In this book an attempt is made to gain more insight into such behavior for a specific type of situation: the social dilemma. ...

  12. Overcoming healthcare workers vaccine refusal--competition between egoism and altruism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betsch, C

    2014-12-04

    Vaccination reduces the risk of becoming infected with and transmitting pathogens. The role of healthcare workers (HCWs) in controlling and limiting nosocomial infections has been stressed repeatedly. This has also been recognised at a political level, leading the European Council of Ministers in 2009 to encourage coverage of 75% seasonal influenza vaccine in HCWs. Although there are policies, recommendations and well-tolerated vaccines, still many HCWs refuse to get vaccinated. This article uses literature from psychology and behavioural economics to understand vaccination decisions and the specific situation of HCWs. HCWs are expected to be highly motivated to protect others. However, their individual vaccination decisions follow the same principles (of weighting individual risks) as everyone else’s vaccination decisions. This will lead to decisional conflict in a typical social dilemma situation, in which individual interests are at odds with collective interests. Failure to get vaccinated may be the result. If we understand the motivations and mechanisms of HCWs’ vaccine refusal, interventions and campaigns may be designed more effectively. Strategies to increase HCWs’ vaccine uptake should be directed towards correcting skewed risk perceptions and activating pro-social motivation in HCWs.

  13. Blood, sex, personality, power, and altruism: factors influencing the validity of strong reciprocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Eamonn; Corr, Philip

    2012-02-01

    It is argued that the generality of strong reciprocity theory (SRT) is limited by the existence of anonymous spontaneous cooperation, maintained in the absence of punishment, despite free-riding. We highlight how individual differences, status, sex, and the legitimacy of non-cooperation need to be examined to increase the internal and ecological validity of SRT experiments and, ultimately, SRT's external validity.

  14. Winners and Losers in a World with Global Warming: Noncooperation, Altruism, and Social Welfare

    OpenAIRE

    Caplan, Arthur J.; Christopher J. Ellis; Silva, Emilson C.D.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, global warming is an asymmetric transboundary externality which benefits some countries or regions and harms others. We use a simple two-country model to analyze the effects of global warming on resource allocations, the global-warming stock, and national and global welfare.

  15. Selfishness and Altruism in the Distribution of Travel Time and Income

    OpenAIRE

    Nebiyou Tilahun; David Levinson

    2006-01-01

    Most economic models assume that individuals act out their preferences based on their own self interest. However there have also been other paradigms in the economics literature that have tried to capture alternative manifestations of human behavior that include fairness. This study examines people's preferences when it comes to their travel time and their income and what type of trade offs they are willing to make to live in a society where the distributions of travel time and income are fai...

  16. Materialism, Reciprocity and Altruism in the Prisoner's Dilemma - An Evolutionary Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Poulsen, Anders; Poulsen, Odile

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we study the evolution of preferences when players are engaged in simultaneous and sequential move Prisoner's Dilemma games. Our results provide some simple insights into the experimentally observed behavior.

  17. The remittances behaviour of the second generation in Europe: altruism or self-interest?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ambrosetti, E.; Cela, E.; Fokkema, C.M.

    2011-01-01

    Whereas most research on remittances focuses on first-generation migrants, the aim of this paper is to investigate the remitting behaviour of the host country-born children of migrants - the second generation - in various European cities. Some important studies found that migrant transnationalism is

  18. Trust and altruism--organ distribution scandals: do they provide good reasons to refuse posthumous donation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufner, Annette; Harris, John

    2015-06-01

    A recent organ distribution scandal in Germany raises questions of general importance on which many thousands of lives may well depend. The scandal in Germany has produced reactions that are likely to occur whenever and wherever distribution irregularities occur and become public knowledge. After it had become known that physicians in three German hospitals were in the habit of manipulating records in order to fast-track their patients' cases, the country experienced a decrease of available organs by a staggering 40% in October 2012. Even though this loss of trust by donors and their families is understandable, and potentially a legitimate form of protest against wrongful distribution, the withdrawal of agreement to serve as a posthumous donor in response to irregularities also inevitably results in avoidable poor outcomes for highly vulnerable individuals. In this paper, we provide a moral analysis of such dilemmas and make recommendations as to the way forward. PMID:25889262

  19. What's in it for me? Self-regard precludes altruism and spite in chimpanzees

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Keith; Hare, Brian; Call, Josep; Tomasello, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Sensitivity to fairness may influence whether individuals choose to engage in acts that are mutually beneficial, selfish, altruistic, or spiteful. In a series of three experiments, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) could pull a rope to access out-of-reach food while concomitantly pulling another piece of food further away. In the first study, they could make a choice that solely benefited themselves (selfishness), or both themselves and another chimpanzee (mutualism). In the next two experiments,...

  20. Incentives when altruism is impure: the case of blood and living organ donations

    OpenAIRE

    Errea, María; Cabasés Hita, Juan Manuel

    2013-01-01

    The decision to donate blood and living organs is considered voluntary and altruistic. However, the shortage of donors has opened an interesting debate in recent years, considering offering economic incentives to donors. This paper analyzes theoretically and empirically, the effects of incentives over individuals when facing the decision of becoming donors. Results show that crowding-in of blood donors would be more likely by offering 'Information concerning blood donations' or 'Blood Tests'....

  1. Egoism, altruism, and social justice: theory and experiments on cooperation in social dilemmas

    OpenAIRE

    de Vries, Sjerp

    1991-01-01

    Cooperative or altruistic behavior in the absence of egoistic incentives is an issue that has puzzled many social scientists. In this book an attempt is made to gain more insight into such behavior for a specific type of situation: the social dilemma. ...

  2. Rewarding altruism: addressing the issue of payments for volunteers in public health initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    South, Jane; Purcell, Martin E; Branney, Peter; Gamsu, Mark; White, Judy

    2014-03-01

    Lay involvement in public health programmes occurs through formalised lay health worker (LHW) and other volunteer roles. Whether such participation should be supported, or indeed rewarded, by payment is a critical question. With reference to policy in England, UK, this paper argues how framing citizen involvement in health only as time freely given does not account for the complexities of practice, nor intrinsic motivations. The paper reports results on payment drawn from a study of approaches to support lay people in public health roles, conducted in England, 2007-9. The first phase of the study comprised a scoping review of 224 publications, three public hearings and a register of projects. Findings revealed the diversity of approaches to payment, but also the contested nature of the topic. The second phase investigated programme support matters in five case studies of public health projects, which were selected primarily to reflect role types. All five projects involved volunteers, with two utilising forms of payment to support engagement. Interviews were conducted with a sample of project staff, LHWs (paid and unpaid), external partners and service users. Drawing on both lay and professional perspectives, the paper explores how payment relates to social context as well as various motivations for giving, receiving or declining financial support. The findings show that personal costs are not always absorbed, and that there is a potential conflict between financial support, whether sessional payment or expenses, and welfare benefits. In identifying some of the advantages and disadvantages of payment, the paper highlights the complexity of an issue often addressed only superficially. It concludes that, in order to support citizen involvement, fairness and value should be considered alongside pragmatic matters of programme management; however policy conflicts need to be resolved to ensure that employment and welfare rights are maintained.

  3. Life Course, Altruism, Rational Choice, and Aspirations in Social Work Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paat, Yok-Fong

    2016-01-01

    Utilising semi-structured interviews, this study investigated various educational determinants contributing to college major selection and career choice of 40 undergraduates who had been admitted to a social work programme in southwestern United States. Major key principles of the life course approach were incorporated in this study to elucidate…

  4. Understanding amygdala responsiveness to fearful expressions through the lens of psychopathy and altruism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Abigail A

    2016-06-01

    Because the face is the central focus of human social interactions, emotional facial expressions provide a unique window into the emotional lives of others. They play a particularly important role in fostering empathy, which entails understanding and responding to others' emotions, especially distress-related emotions such as fear. This Review considers how fearful facial as well as vocal and postural expressions are interpreted, with an emphasis on the role of the amygdala. The amygdala may be best known for its role in the acquisition and expression of conditioned fear, but it also supports the perception and recognition of others' fear. Various explanations have been supplied for the amygdala's role in interpreting and responding to fearful expressions. They include theories that amygdala responses to fearful expressions 1) reflect heightened vigilance in response to uncertain danger, 2) promote heightened attention to the eye region of faces, 3) represent a response to an unconditioned aversive stimulus, or 4) reflect the generation of an empathic fear response. Among these, only empathic fear explains why amygdala lesions would impair fear recognition across modalities. Supporting the possibility of a link between fundamental empathic processes and amygdala responses to fear is evidence that impaired fear recognition in psychopathic individuals results from amygdala dysfunction, whereas enhanced fear recognition in altruistic individuals results from enhanced amygdala function. Empathic concern and caring behaviors may be fostered by sensitivity to signs of acute distress in others, which relies on intact functioning of the amygdala. PMID:26366635

  5. Between Altruism and the Market: an Economist’s View of the Fight Against Poverty

    OpenAIRE

    Jean-Claude Berthélemy

    2012-01-01

    It is no easy task to conclude this special issue of FACTS Reports, given the sheer breadth and diversity of the analyses it contains. One would need in-depth knowledge of a whole range of fields – anthropology, sociology, history, law, management, economics – to adequately identify all of the lessons that can be drawn from these papers. Let me, then, stay with my own field of competence, and offer a conclusion from the standpoint of an economist.The fight against poverty is, admittedly, an a...

  6. Organ transplantation: is the best approach a legalized market or altruism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemmons, Allison

    2009-01-01

    More than 100,000 individuals are on the waiting list to receive a lifesaving transplant, but many of them will not receive the organ they need. Legislation has been passed to support organ donation--the current organ procurement system in the United States is governed by the Uniform Anatomical Gift Act of 1968 and the National Organ Transplant Act of 1984--but a shortage of donated organs remains. Potential solutions include a legalized organ market, expanded legislation, therapeutic cloning, and xenotransplantation. If no change occurs, the black market in organ procurement will continue to expand. A comprehensive approach consisting of both short-term (increased education and national paired-kidney exchange) and long-term solutions (expanded legislation to fund and promote therapeutic cloning) is presented in this essay. PMID:19681356

  7. The evolution of altruism in spatial threshold public goods games via an insurance mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianlei; Zhang, Chunyan

    2015-05-01

    The persistence of cooperation in public goods situations has become an important puzzle for researchers. This paper considers the threshold public goods games where the option of insurance is provided for players from the standpoint of diversification of risk, envisaging the possibility of multiple strategies in such scenarios. In this setting, the provision point is defined in terms of the minimum number of contributors in one threshold public goods game, below which the game fails. In the presence of risk and insurance, more contributions are motivated if (1) only cooperators can opt to be insured and thus their contribution loss in the aborted games can be (partly or full) covered by the insurance; (2) insured cooperators obtain larger compensation, at lower values of the threshold point (the required minimum number of contributors). Moreover, results suggest the dominance of insured defectors who get a better promotion by more profitable benefits from insurance. We provide results of extensive computer simulations in the realm of spatial games (random regular networks and scale-free networks here), and support this study with analytical results for well-mixed populations. Our study is expected to establish a causal link between the widespread altruistic behaviors and the existing insurance system.

  8. 利己还是利他?--索伯-威尔逊的利他主义进化模型评介%Altruism or Egoism: A Review About Sober and Wilson's Model on the Evolution of Altruism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李秦秦

    2005-01-01

    20世纪60年代开始,一些社会生物学家开始试图从进化的角度来说明人类利他行为,但却不愿意复活达尔文自然选择的残酷涵义.因此在其基础上先后建立了群选择和亲选择理论,在群体和亲族的范围内解释了利他主义行为.艾利奥特·索伯和大卫·斯洛恩·威尔逊在他们一书中,从生物学和心理学上给我们一种新的视角,即将群选择理论精致化,细分为群内选择和群间选择.根据这一进化模型,尽管在群内选择中利己主义占有优势,但在群间选择中利他主义占有优势.从全球范围看,利他主义将得到进化.

  9. Group selection, kin selection, altruism and cooperation: when inclusive fitness is right and when it can be wrong

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. van Veelen

    2009-01-01

    Group selection theory has a history of controversy. After a period of being in disrepute, models of group selection have regained some ground, but not without a renewed debate over their importance as a theoretical tool. In this paper I offer a simple framework for models of the evolution of altrui

  10. 伦理学中的利己与利他之辨%Egoism and Altruism in Ethics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苟敏; 李耀华

    2010-01-01

    利己与利他之争,自古以来,百家争鸣,观点各异,演绎出多彩多姿的异质文化图景.以利己为根据形成了个性独立的西方文化主脉,以利他为归依构建了集体主义的中国文化精魂.利己与利他本质上是一致的,互融互通,互惠互利.利己通过利他来实现,利他以利己而真实存在.二者相存相依,并行不悖.

  11. [From altruism to altruistic punishment: a criticism on granting priority in the waiting list to donor-card holders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barilan, Yechiel Michael

    2014-01-01

    In 2008 Israel enacted a new law on organ transplantation which granted priority on the waiting list to holders of donor-cards who become patients in need of organ transplantation. This paper offers ethical criticism of the priority system arguing that the "reward" is by necessary also a "punishment". Moreover, because donor-cards have no binding power in Israeli law, the reward/punishment is actually directed at declarations, not actions, and, consequently, violates the freedom of conscience and expression. The reward system is also incompatible with fundamental values of medical ethics and with the very logic of talion, because the law punishes non-signers but not patients who are responsible for the loss of their organs. Lastly, I argue, that because priority on a waiting list is a positional good, it communicates a false message as if donation is an excellence of the few, and it legitimizes a rational choice to prefer wholesomeness of the cadaver to the risk of low rank in the priority list.

  12. The Role of Community Trust and Altruism in Knowledge Sharing: An Investigation of a Virtual Community of Teacher Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsiu-Ling; Fan, Hsueh-Liang; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2014-01-01

    The knowledge sharing process within a virtual community of teacher professionals is viewed as a social exchange process in that the knowledge sharing intention and behavior of individuals are influenced by the exchange relationship among members. However, relatively little research has focused on this approach to exploring the factors that…

  13. An Analysis of Teachers' General Tendency to Procrastinate, Perception of Professional Efficiency/Self Efficiency and Altruism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilmac, Bulent

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Teaching as a profession requires the possession of certain characteristics. Teachers accept their students as individuals and cherish them. Teachers' reasons behind their choice to become a teacher are believed to be professional affection, spiritual satisfaction and a perception of teaching as the ideal profession. Furthermore the…

  14. Altruism, personal benefit, and anxieties: a phenomenological study of healthy volunteers' experiences in a placebo‐controlled trial of duloxetine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwakye, Isaac N.; Garner, Matthew; Baldwin, David S.; Bamford, Susan; Pinkney, Verity

    2016-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to develop an in‐depth understanding of healthy volunteers' experiences of mental health trials. Methods A qualitative study was nested within a healthy volunteer placebo‐controlled trial of duloxetine, a psychotropic drug used for treating patients with major depression and generalized anxiety disorder. Eight participants were interviewed, and data were analyzed using interpretative phenomenological analysis. Results Interviewees described volunteering for the trial because they were interested in research, wanted the monetary incentive, wanted to help researchers, and wanted to be part of something. On entering the trial, participants considered the possible risks and described feeling anxious, excited, and determined; they had some clear expectations and some loosely held hopes about what would happen. During the trial, participants were curious about whether they were taking duloxetine or placebo, self‐monitored their bodies' reactions, and guessed which treatment they received. On being un‐blinded to treatment allocation after completing the trial, some participants' guesses were confirmed, but others were surprised, and a few were disappointed. Conclusions Small changes to advertising/consent materials to reflect volunteers' motivations could improve recruitment rates to similar trials; “active” placebos might be particularly useful for maintaining blinding in healthy volunteer trials; and sensitive procedures are needed for un‐blinding participants to treatment allocation. © 2016 The Authors. Human Psychopharmacology: Clinical and Experimental published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27378326

  15. 市场经济与利他主义、利己主义的界限%Boundary between Altruism and Egoism in Market Economy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文建东; 李欲晓

    2004-01-01

    本文界定了不同的利他主义行为,从经济学的角度对中国利他主义缺乏的原因给予了解释,指出利他主义不只是道德规范问题,也更多地包括经济动机.本文还比较了市场、政府和利他主义行为在满足社会成员需求和配置资源过程中的效率,指出在市场经济活动中应该正确界定利他主义和利己主义的界限.

  16. On Egoism and Altruism of Subject in Market Economy%论市场经济主体的自利与利他

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程淑兰

    2006-01-01

    自利和利他是市场经济发展中最深厚的人性根源.人的生存发展需要和市场经济的交换、竞争特征,使追求自利成为市场经济的内在动力,但经济行为主体在追求自身利益最大化的同时又必须以利他为前提.利他不但是一种经济行为,而且是一种价值追求.在市场经济实践中,要达到自利和利他的平衡,互利双赢是基本的经济伦理基础.

  17. The Confucianists and Taoism and Central to Buddhist Thought of Egoism and Altruism%浅议儒道释的自利利他思想

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹建国

    2011-01-01

    中国作为有着悠久历史的文化古国,在人类的思想文化探索进程中,发挥了重要的作用.儒道释三家学说作为中国文化核心的价值观,几千年来对中国人产生了极其深远的影响.儒家、道家和佛家都提出了自利利他、推己及人的观点.提倡人们去帮助别人,利益他人,从而更好地利益自己,体现了鲜明的利他思想倾向.

  18. The Empirical Ties between Religious Motivation and Altruism in Foster Parents: Implications for Faith-Based Initiatives in Foster Care and Adoption

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Howell-Moroney

    2014-01-01

    Amidst a crisis shortage of foster homes in the child welfare system, a number of innovative faith-based collaborations aimed at recruiting foster parents have recently emerged. It has been suggested that these collaborations offer a unique opportunity to recruit committed and altruistic parents as caregivers, providing much needed capacity to an overloaded child welfare system. This paper uses data from the National Survey of Current and Former Foster Parents to examine the associations betw...

  19. Dopamine D4 Receptor Gene and Religious Affiliation Correlate with Dictator Game Altruism in Males and not Females: Evidence for Gender-sensitive Gene x Culture Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yushi eJiang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available On a large sample of 2288 Han Chinese undergraduates, we investigated how religion and DRD4 are related to human altruistic giving behavior as measured with the Andreoni-Miller Dictator Game. This game enables us to clearly specify (non-selfishness, efficiency, and fairness motives for sharing. Participants were further classified into religious categories (Christian, Buddhist-Tao, and No Religion based on self-reports, and genotyped for the dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4 gene exon III VNTR. Our analysis revealed a significant interaction between religion and DRD4 correlated with giving behavior solely among males: Whereas no significant association between religion and sharing decisions was observed in the majority 4R/4R genotype group, a significant difference in giving behavior between Christian and non-Christian males was seen in the non-4R/4R group, with Christian men being overall more altruistic (less selfish and fairer than non-Christian men. These results support the vantage sensitivity hypothesis regarding DRD4 that the non-4R/4R ‘susceptibility’ genotype is more responsive to a positive environment provided by some religions.

  20. SOME ASPECTS AND RELATIONS BETWEEN ALTRUISM, SOCIALIZATION AND INTEGRATION IN THE PROCESS OF HUMANISATION OF THE LIFE CONDITIONS OF DISABLED PERSONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonche TRAJKOVSKI

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Human beings were not born on their own will, and through their lives they live facing a lot of challenges, many problems, suffer­ings, but they are always guided by their ideals, ambitions and joys (of their own and of others. On the unpredictable life path people are always guided by others, their close family and friends, good and naive people, professional and not very experi­enced, good-hearted, ambitious and sincere ones.In that context of enigmatic and uncertain living conditions, especially in the period of chaotic social conditions in transitional countries, the problems of disabled persons are the most marginalized questions.

  1. Dopamine D4 receptor gene and religious affiliation correlate with dictator game altruism in males and not females: evidence for gender-sensitive gene × culture interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Yushi; Bachner-Melman, Rachel; Chew, Soo Hong; Ebstein, Richard P.

    2015-01-01

    On a large sample of 2288 Han Chinese undergraduates, we investigated how religion and DRD4 are related to human altruistic giving behavior as measured with the Andreoni-Miller Dictator Game. This game enables us to clearly specify (non-)selfishness, efficiency, and fairness motives for sharing. Participants were further classified into religious categories (Christian, Buddhist-Tao, and No Religion) based on self-reports, and genotyped for the dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) gene exon III VNTR. O...

  2. Egoism, altruism and reciprocal altruism: the latest development in Darwin' evolution theory——In commemoration of the 150~(th) anniversary of darwin's the origin of species%"利己、利他与互利":达尔文进化论的新发展——纪念《物种起源》发表150周年

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘鹤玲

    2009-01-01

    达尔文自然选择学说揭示了生物有机体的竞争进化,却无法解释个体间的利他与合作行为.20世纪下半叶,随着生物学家对动物利他与合作行为的研究,逐渐揭示了生物有机体利己与利他、竞争进化与合作进化的关系,进一步补充和完善了自然选择学说,推动了达尔文进化论的新发展.

  3. The Evolutionary Origins of Human Generosity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Komter, Aafke

    2010-01-01

    This article examines how altruism and self-interest are linked in human generosity, and what social scientists can learn from this linkage. The origins of generosity are explored by combining biological, psychological, anthropological and sociological evidence. Kinship altruism, reciprocal altruism

  4. On the Comparison between Confucianism and Mahayana about their Egoism and Altruism%儒家"义利之辨"与佛教"自利利他"比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈坚

    2007-01-01

    "义利之辨"是儒家的一个传统论题,"自利利他"是佛教的一个基本主张,这两者在形式上具有一定的同构性,即"义"相当于"利他",而"利"相当于"自利",但在内容上两者却有很大的差别,体现了儒佛之间不同的价值取向.儒家的"义利之辨"是在伦理向度上立义的,而佛教的"自利利他"则是在境界向度上立义的;儒家在"义利"关系的处理上重视"义",以"义"为前提来达成"义"与"利"的平衡,而佛教在"自利利他"关系的处理上则重视"自利",以"自利"为前提来达成"自利"与"利他"的平衡.

  5. Moral Thinking of the Collectivism: Reflection of the Egoism and Altruism%集体主义的道德思考——利己与利他的反思

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵倩; 刘律律

    2010-01-01

    社会主义新的时代背景下,完善和发展集体主义,丰富集体主义内涵,对集体主义的道德思考提出了更多的要求.集体主义中存在利己与利他的问题,集体主义是利己与利他的统一.

  6. 论西方金融法规理论基础的利他主义和利己主义%Altruism and Egoism on the Basis of Western Financial Regulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙云

    2011-01-01

    消费者与金融服务业者之间的差距日益加大,会对消费者权益有所危害.各国在金融法规革新时,都将如何提升对消费者的保护列为重要课题.在这些金融法规的制定过程中,政府都会遵循一些理论作为其制定的基础.按照凯恳的理论,这些理论基础主要分成两个比较大的流派,一个是利他主义,一个是利己主义.

  7. Egoism or Altruism: Education Management Obstacles and Countermeasures Analysis in the Context of Right Asymmetry%利己还是利他:权力不对称下的教育管理障碍与对策分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟祥林

    2010-01-01

    教育管理过程是在部门管理者组织之下通过部门成员合作而创造集体产品的过程,其间由于制度设计的不合理会使部门管理者具有更多的空间进行制度变通,当部门发展预期较差时部门管理者会做出保护自身职位收益的挟择,部门管理者的机会选择于是损失部门发展的效率.所以建立淘汰机制的、同职不同待遇、部门管理者能够进行横向比较的机制是学校高层规范部门管理者行为的制度设计方面必须考虑的.

  8. Motives and Results of M&A from the Aspects of Self-interest and Altruism%从利己性与利他性看企业并购的动因与结果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓红

    2012-01-01

    并购作为企业自我发展与资本经营的重要途径,在近代经济发展与企业成长史上扮演着重要的角色.国内外学者从经济学、管理学等不同学科对企业并购的动因、行为、结果(绩效)进行了大量而系统的研究,取得了显著的成果.从现代心理学的角度重新阐释企业并购的动因与结果,认为企业发起并购活动的最终动因可归结为利己,而利己动机驱动下并购结果却具有利他性.

  9. 服务型领导、利他导向文化与科研人员成长%Servant leadership,altruism oriented culture,and the growth of scientific researchers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苗青

    2009-01-01

    科研人员成长是科研领导者、科研机构文化环境以及科研人员个体特征交互作用的结果.借鉴服务型领导(SL)理论、利他导向型文化,构建影响科研人员成长的理论模型.统计结果表明(N=223):①SL的促进作用非常明显;②不同利他导向型文化组合,成长绩效各维度呈显著区别;③因利他导向型文化组合不同,SL的影响呈现"全面性、选择性、反向性"3种模式.研究证明了利他导向型文化的调节效应,揭示了SL影响过程的微观机理与适用条件.

  10. On the Neural Correlates and Spontaneity of Consciousness and the Objective Basis of Human Altruism%意识的神经相关性、自发性与人类利他主义的客观基础

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁建新; 张华

    2008-01-01

    人类利他主义一直是生物学和哲学研究的重要问题.意识的神经相关性和自发性表明了主体的伦理行为在意识的层面上是将对他人的福利意识和自身的关心同时关联起来的,这表明人类利他主义的客观基础可以从意识的神经相关性和自发性上得以理解.

  11. 尸体器官捐献:寻求利己与利他的合宜%Human Body Organ Donation: Seeking for Proper Combination of Egoism and Altruism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张珊

    2014-01-01

    我国尸体器官捐献数量远远落后于器官移植发达国家,无法满足患者需求,在器官捐献的伦理引导上过于偏重“利他”是造成这种困境的重要原因.人类的天性是“利已”与“利他”的矛盾混合体,在尸体器官捐献的伦理判断中不应将“利已”与“利他”作为两种对立的道德观,而是应该在道德宣传和制度设计上寻求“利已”与“利他”的合宜,在精神上感召,同时在利益上适当驱动,才能赋予公众更强的动力,推动我国的尸体器官捐献走出困境.

  12. The altruistic medical researcher: gone and forgotten?

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Schroeder, H P

    1997-09-01

    With increasing economic, political, and bureaucratic involvement in research, there is little focus on the medical researcher's idealistic and benevolent intentions. Benevolence is a pillar of ethical human-subjects research, and altruism is a form of benevolence that is difficult to quantify. It is interest in the welfare of others without personal benefit. This article examines the extent of altruism in medical research from philosophical, psychological, and practical points of view. With the emergence of experimental human trials in the first half of the century, the fame and recognition of physicians largely precluded altruistic motivation. From the philosophical perspective, altruism is at best an optional moral principle. It is not evident in ethical guidelines. In the scientific process, altruism can exist only in ethical and properly designed research. Egoism, scientific misconduct, and conflicts of interest undermine it; but altruism is also a potential solution for these problems. Research is not globally oriented and has an unjust distribution. In an evolutionary model, altruism cannot thrive due to its lack of rewards and feedback, particularly in the economic climate of today's science. Anonymity is decreasing, selfishness is increasing. Research has become an industry, and virtuous ideals are a romantic notion. If we use altruism as an indicator, then its rarity and fragility indicate research's unhealthy state.

  13. A Demarcation's Principle Between Egoism or Altruism About Human Action -An Analysis Based on the Behavior Mechanism of "for Oneself by Benefiting Others"%一个有关行为的利己性和利他性之划界标准——基于"为己利他"行为机理的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱富强

    2010-01-01

    基于行为的目的一手段这一角度,可以更好地对人类行为中的利己主义和利他主义进行区分.正是基于这一视角,我们可以从真实世界中抽象出"为己利他"行为机理.它不仅可以将利他和利己统一起来,而且有助于理解社会秩序的扩展.一般地,需求层次越高、社会性越强,个体的通感能力越强,移情效应就越显著,个人在追求自身利益的同时也就越能关注相关者的利益,从而更倾向于遵循"为己利他"行为机理.

  14. 利己利他问题对构建和谐社会的启示——四象限模型的提出、验证和实证分析%Enlightenment of Egoism and Altruism Problem for Construction of a Harmonious Society——Based on Raising, Verification and Empirical Analysis of Four Quadrant Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙子泉; 韩恺; 范如国

    2016-01-01

    文章提出了利己利他四象限模型,通过基于420份调查问卷的描述性分析以及聚类分析、方差分析证明了模型的合理性,并运用结构方程模型探究了利己性、利他性和幸福感之间的路径关系.研究证明:利己利他四象限模型的提出是合理的,模型中四类人幸福感显著不同;利己性利他性显著影响幸福感,利己性越强的人幸福感越低,利他性越强的人幸福感越高;而改变消极人性观和积极培养社会责任是抑制利己性和培养利他性的重点.

  15. An Analysis of Game Theory on Egoism and Altruism--a new perspective on study of moral educationin of early childhood%利己与利他的博弈论分析--幼儿德育研究的新视角

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裘指挥; 张丽

    2006-01-01

    依据博弈论的观点,"互利互惠"有助于实现个人与团体利益的最优化.幼儿在与同伴的交往实践中经过多次博弈,往往会发现"互利互惠"这一"金规则".这一博弈的过程有利于儿童社会性的发展和摆脱"自我中心主义"的状态.

  16. How to Define Egoism and Altruism in Human's Action——A Survey on the Popular Demarcation's Criterion%如何界定人类行为是利己还是利他?——对几种流行划界标准的审视

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱富强

    2010-01-01

    界定人类行为性质的流行标准主要有:基于行为后果的幸福快乐说、基于行为动机的本能冲动说、基于生命延续的自我保存说和基于普遍主义的抽象道义说.但所有这些学说根本上并不能提供一个有效区分利己和利他的标准:前三者着眼于人的动物性本能而最终将人的行为都归纳为利己的,从而构成了现代经济学泛经济人化分析的基础;后者则引入了一个先验的外部准则,但由于脱离了人类的经验基础而往往成为道德上的说教.

  17. 利己与利他的博弈论辨析--中小学德育研究的新视角%An analysis of game theory on egoism and altruism--a new perspective on study of moral education in primary and middle schools

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万俊

    2002-01-01

    中小学德育研究中,运用博弈论建立"利己与利他"关系的博弈论模型,并对"利己与利他"这一基本命题展开深入地探讨,就有可能突破庸俗化的"辩证理解"而有一个较为成熟的新的解答."利己与利他"关系的博弈论模型,是中小学进行德育研究的一种新的视角.

  18. Valores, altruísmo e comportamentos de ajuda: comparando doadores e não doadores de sangue = Values, altruism and helping behaviors: comparing donors and non-donors of blood = Valores, altruismo y comportamientos de ayuda: comparando donantes y no-donantes de sangrep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gouveia, Valdiney Velôso

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Os comportamentos de ajuda e altruísmo consistem em ações em prol do bem-estar do outro, variando quanto ao grau de entrega e sendo fundamentais para as relações interpessoais. Portanto, saber o que motiva tais comportamentos pode contribuir para compreender a natureza humana e desenvolver intervenções fomentando condutas pró-sociais. Este estudo objetivou conhecer em que medida os valores humanos se correlacionam com estes construtos em grupos de doadores e não doadores de sangue. Participaram 142 pessoas da população geral (idade: M=27, DP=19,93; 60,6% mulheres, compondo, equitativamente, os dois grupos (doadores e não doadores. Por meio de ANOVA avaliou-se em que medida as pontuações destes diferiam acerca dos construtos avaliados. Observou-se que os doadores são mais altruístas e apresentam mais comportamentos de ajuda, além destes construtos terem apresentado correlações com valores que caracterizam uma orientação universalista. Discutem-se estes achados à luz da teoria funcionalista dos valores humanos

  19. "个人与社会"和"利他与利己"——迪尔凯姆现代性问题解决方案的理论起点探析%"Individual and Society" and "Altruism and Egoism"——Probe into the theoretical origin of Durkheim's solution to modernity problem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王林平

    2010-01-01

    在迪尔凯姆的现代性问题解决方案中,个人人格与社会团结的关系是其解决问题的理论起点.但是迪尔凯姆时这个问题的回答并不是人们通常认为的仅仅是"个人依赖社会"那样简单,它可以进一步分解为"个人与社会的关系"和"利己与利他的关系".在19世纪的法国主流思想中,"个人主义"一词所表达的意思与迪尔凯姆用"失范(anomie)"和"利己主义(egoism)"这对概念所要表达的意思几乎是完全一致的.正是基于这种具体语境,迪尔凯姆对上述问题持有的其实是一种基于利己与利他相统一基础上的坚持利他先于利己的原则立场.

  20. Resource allocation to kin, friends, and strangers by 3- to 6-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hui Jing; Chang, Lei

    2016-10-01

    Kin altruism has been widely observed across species, including humans. However, few studies have discussed the development of kin altruism or its relationship with theory of mind. In this study, 3- to 6-year-old children allocated resources between themselves and kin, a friend, or a stranger in three allocation tasks where the allocation either incurred a cost, incurred no cost, or conferred a disadvantage. The results showed that, compared with 3- and 4-year-olds, 5- and 6-year-olds acted more altruistically toward kin and that kin altruism was uncorrelated with theory of mind. These findings suggest that, within the context of resource allocation, kin altruism emerges toward the end of early childhood and probably differs from other prosocial behavior that relies solely on the understanding of others' perspectives. PMID:27336694

  1. The impact of online brand community type on consumer's community engagement behaviors: consumer-created vs. marketer-created online brand community in online social-networking web sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Doohwang; Kim, Hyuk Soo; Kim, Jung Kyu

    2011-01-01

    The current study proposed and tested a theoretical model of consumers' online brand community engagement behaviors, with particular attention given to online brand community type (consumer vs. marketer-created). By integrating attribution and social identity theories, this study investigated the causal linkages between intrinsic motives of altruism, social identification motivations, and online brand community engagement behaviors. The results showed that consumers' online brand community engagement intentions were indirectly influenced by the different types of communities through different levels of consumers' attributions to intrinsic motives of altruism. This study also found that, in the attribution processes, consumers' intrinsic motives of altruism motivated them to identify themselves socially with the online communities they join. Finally, this study demonstrated that the intrinsic motives of altruism and social identification motivations provided strong social incentives to motivate consumers to engage in subsequent online brand community behaviors. PMID:21329444

  2. The relevance of Erich Fromm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacciagaluppi, Marco

    2014-06-01

    The author stresses Fromm's role as a precursor in psychoanalysis and shows his connections with three scientific developments following on his death in 1980: the trauma literature, attachment theory and the evolution of altruism.

  3. Social evolution: reciprocity there is.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taborsky, Michael

    2013-06-01

    The theory of cooperation predicts that altruism can be established by reciprocity, yet empirical evidence from nature is contentious. Increasingly though, experimental results from social vertebrates challenge the nearly exclusive explanatory power of relatedness for the evolution of cooperation.

  4. Redistribution and the Efficiency-Justice Trade-off

    OpenAIRE

    Petersen, Hans-Georg

    2004-01-01

    Contents: Justice of Needs and Redistribution -The Basics of the Utility Theory -Social Welfare Functions and Redistribution -Utility Possibility Curves on Egoism, Altruism and Envy -Types of Social Welfare Functions The Trade-off Problem Concluding Remarks

  5. Attitudes of the selfless

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zettler, Ingo; Hilbig, B.E.

    2010-01-01

    Previous research on political orientations, which can be understood as one's left- versus right-wing attitude, has shown that some personality factors yield explanatory power. In the current work, we consider the role of altruism - a personality construct which does not exclusively map onto one...... association between altruism and left-wing attitudes, and altruism was found to account for substantial variance in political orientation after controlling for the HEXACO factors of personality. We conclude that altruism is an important construct which deserves attention whenever political attitudes or other...... to explain unique variance in political orientation beyond the 'Big Six' broad dimensions as it relates to aspects not covered by the latter. Both hypotheses were tested in a web-based questionnaire study (N = 137). Besides replicating findings of previous research, results corroborated a strong positive...

  6. Choosy Cannibals Preferentially Consume Siblings with Relatively Low Fitness Prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugas, Matthew B; McCormack, Larkin; Gadau, Alice; Martin, Ryan A

    2016-07-01

    When an individual can selfishly cannibalize a relative or altruistically set it free, the benefits of altruism will be positively associated with the relative's fitness prospects (the benefits it receives from altruism). We tested the prediction that altruism should be preferentially directed toward high-quality relatives using larvae of the New Mexican spadefoot toad (Spea multiplicata), a species in which tadpoles plastically express omnivore and carnivore ecomorphs. In a no-choice design, we presented carnivores with sibling or nonsibling omnivores varying in developmental stage, which is positively associated with survival in this toad's ephemeral larval environment. There was a significant interaction between relatedness and developmental stage on the probability of cannibalism: carnivores were overall more likely to cannibalize less developed omnivores, but this effect was exaggerated when the potential victim was a sibling. This evidence that altruists favor relatives with high fitness prospects highlights the numerous factors shaping altruism's payoffs. PMID:27322127

  7. Empathy promotes altruistic behavior in economic interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimecki, Olga M; Mayer, Sarah V; Jusyte, Aiste; Scheeff, Jonathan; Schönenberg, Michael

    2016-01-01

    What are the determinants of altruism? While economists assume that altruism is mainly driven by fairness norms, social psychologists consider empathy to be a key motivator for altruistic behavior. To unite these two theories, we conducted an experiment in which we compared behavior in a standard economic game that assesses altruism (the so-called Dictator Game) with a Dictator Game in which participants' behavioral choices were preceded either by an empathy induction or by a control condition without empathy induction. The results of this within-subject manipulation show that the empathy induction substantially increased altruistic behavior. Moreover, the increase in experienced empathy predicted over 40% of the increase in sharing behavior. These data extend standard economic theories that altruism is based on fairness considerations, by showing that empathic feelings can be a key motivator for altruistic behavior in economic interactions.

  8. Empathy promotes altruistic behavior in economic interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimecki, Olga M; Mayer, Sarah V; Jusyte, Aiste; Scheeff, Jonathan; Schönenberg, Michael

    2016-01-01

    What are the determinants of altruism? While economists assume that altruism is mainly driven by fairness norms, social psychologists consider empathy to be a key motivator for altruistic behavior. To unite these two theories, we conducted an experiment in which we compared behavior in a standard economic game that assesses altruism (the so-called Dictator Game) with a Dictator Game in which participants' behavioral choices were preceded either by an empathy induction or by a control condition without empathy induction. The results of this within-subject manipulation show that the empathy induction substantially increased altruistic behavior. Moreover, the increase in experienced empathy predicted over 40% of the increase in sharing behavior. These data extend standard economic theories that altruism is based on fairness considerations, by showing that empathic feelings can be a key motivator for altruistic behavior in economic interactions. PMID:27578563

  9. Chimpanzees Help Each Other upon Request

    OpenAIRE

    Shinya Yamamoto; Tatyana Humle; Masayuki Tanaka

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The evolution of altruism has been explained mainly from ultimate perspectives. However, it remains to be investigated from a proximate point of view how and in which situations such social propensity is achieved. We investigated chimpanzees' targeted helping in a tool transfer paradigm, and discuss the similarities and differences in altruism between humans and chimpanzees. Previously it has been suggested that chimpanzees help human experimenters by retrieving an object which th...

  10. Chimpanzees Help Each Other upon Request

    OpenAIRE

    Yamamoto, Shinya; Humle, Tatyana; Tanaka, Masayuki

    2009-01-01

    Background: The evolution of altruism has been explained mainly from ultimate perspectives. However, it remains to be investigated from a proximate point of view how and in which situations such social propensity is achieved. We investigated chimpanzees' targeted helping in a tool transfer paradigm, and discuss the similarities and differences in altruism between humans and chimpanzees. Previously it has been suggested that chimpanzees help human experimenters by retrieving an object which th...

  11. Deconstructing Giving: Donor Types and How They Give

    OpenAIRE

    Lata Gangadharan; Philip J. Grossman; Kristy Jones

    2014-01-01

    We examine the extent to which individual donors are warm glow or altruistic givers and whether this distinction motivates giving decisions, particularly paternalism. Results from our experiment suggest that motivations for giving are heterogeneous, ranging from pure altruism to impure altruism to pure warm glow. Of 115 donors, in our setting 30 are purely altruistic givers, 36 are impure givers and up to 17 could be considered pure warm-glow givers. We find that donors are predominantly pate...

  12. Altruistic Behavior Under Incomplete Information

    OpenAIRE

    Bolle, Friedel; Kritikos, Alexander S.

    2004-01-01

    Models to the issue of altruism which rely on externalities of well-being are rarely used explicitly. In this paper we compare such utility-based approaches with the standard approach on altruism which is based on externalities of income. Testable differences of both types of models are derived in the case of incomplete information. More specifically, applied to the Dictator Game and the Impunity Game both played under incomplete information, the utility-based based approach predicts dictator...

  13. The Moral Development of The Child: An Integrated Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hing Keung eMa

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Previous theories of moral development such as those by Piaget and Kohlberg usually focused on the cognitive or rational aspect, and seldom included the affective aspect in their construction. The characteristics of the stages of moral development in the present paper are elaborated with special reference to psychological needs, altruism and human relationships, and justice reasoning. The three stages are: (1 Physical Survival, Selfishness and Obedience, (2 Love Needs, Reciprocal Altruism and Instrumental Purpose; and (3 Belongingness Needs, Primary Group Altruism and Mutual Interpersonal Expectations. At Stage 1, a deep and profound attachment to parents, empathy toward the significant others, and obedience to authorities all contribute to the physical survival of a person at this stage. People at Stage 2 are self-protective, dominant, exploitative and opportunistic. The need to love and to be loved is gratified on the basis of reciprocal altruism. People at Stage 3 have a strong desire to gratify their belongingness needs to a primary group. They are willing to sacrifice for the benefits of the group at great cost. While the psychological needs and altruism are related to the affective aspect of moral development, the justice reasoning is related to the cognitive aspect. The proposed theoretical model attempts to integrate the affective and cognitive aspects of moral development, and prototypic responses to questions related to hypothetical moral dilemmas are presented to substantiate the proposed stage structures. It is hypothesized that the sequence of these three stages is invariant of person and culture.

  14. Attitude towards littering as a mediator of the relationship between personality attributes and responsible environmental behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → Independently, altruism and locus of control contributed significantly toward attitude towards littering. → Altruism and locus of control jointly contributed significantly to attitude towards littering. → The results further show a significant joint influence of altruism and locus of control on REB. → The independent contributions reveal that altruism and locus of control contribute significantly to REB. → Attitude towards littering mediates the relationship between locus of control and REB. - Abstract: The study tested whether attitude towards littering mediates the relationship between personality attributes (altruism and locus of control) and responsible environmental behavior (REB) among some residents of Ibadan metropolis, Nigeria. Using multistage sampling technique, measures of each construct were administered to 1360 participants. Results reveal significant independent and joint influence of personality attributes on attitude towards littering and responsible environmental behavior, respectively. Attitude towards littering also mediates the relationship between personality characteristics and REB. These findings imply that individuals who possess certain desirable personality characteristics and who have unfavorable attitude towards littering have more tendencies to engage in pro-environmental behavior. Therefore, stakeholders who have waste management as their priority should incorporate this information when guidelines for public education and litter prevention programs are being developed. It is suggested that psychologists should be involved in designing of litter prevention strategies. This will ensure the inclusion of behavioral issues in such strategies. An integrated approach to litter prevention that combines empowerment, cognitive, social, and technical solutions is recommended as the most effective tool of tackling the litter problem among residents of Ibadan metropolis.

  15. 'Corpore sano in mens sana'. The Morality of Blood Donation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casado Neira, David

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Modern conceptions of health separate body from soul in the familiar Cartesian dualism. In blood donation this separation is easy to identify: embodiment is a civilizing process, and altruism is the moral basis that supports it. The donor is treated as essentially a vessel of blood, a mere container which can be directed to discharge its contents into blood banks. The biomedical use of blood is not morally neutral; indeed, the donor's moral conscience is mobilised in order to get them to donate blood as a gift, or offering. By associating donors' altruism with their bodies' physical nature as a container from which blood can be extracted, altruism is treated as a physiological phenomenon.

  16. Social cognitive role of schizophrenia candidate gene GABRB2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shui Ying Tsang

    Full Text Available The occurrence of positive selection in schizophrenia-associated GABRB2 suggests a broader impact of the gene product on population fitness. The present study considered the possibility of cognition-related GABRB2 involvement by examining the association of GABRB2 with psychosis and altruism, respectively representing psychiatric and psychological facets of social cognition. Four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were genotyped for quantitative trait analyses and population-based association studies. Psychosis was measured by either the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS or antipsychotics dosage, and altruism was based on a self-report altruism scale. The minor alleles of SNPs rs6556547, rs1816071 and rs187269 in GABRB2 were correlated with high PANSS score for positive symptoms in a Han Chinese schizophrenic cohort, whereas those of rs1816071 and rs1816072 were associated with high antipsychotics dosage in a US Caucasian schizophrenic cohort. Moreover, strongly significant GABRB2-disease associations were found among schizophrenics with severe psychosis based on high PANSS positive score, but no significant association was observed for schizophrenics with only mild psychosis. Interestingly, in addition to association with psychosis in schizophrenics, rs187269 was also associated with altruism in healthy Han Chinese. Furthermore, parallel to correlation with severe psychosis, its minor allele was correlated with high altruism scores. These findings revealed that GABRB2 is associated with psychosis, the core symptom and an endophenotype of schizophrenia. Importantly, the association was found across the breadth of the psychiatric (psychosis to psychological (altruism spectrum of social cognition suggesting GABRB2 involvement in human cognition.

  17. Rethinking Oedipus: an evolutionary perspective of incest avoidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, M T

    1993-03-01

    The author presents a biological hypothesis of incest avoidance. Pertinent literature from evolutionary biology, ethology, anthropology, and clinical research is reviewed. Secure early bonding to immediate kin predicts later adaptive kin-directed behaviors, including preferential altruism (kin selection) and incest avoidance. Impaired bonding predicts aberrant kin-directed behavior, including diminished altruism, neglect, and an increased incidence of incest. Failed bonding predicts the highest frequency of incest. Secure bonding to kin may function to establish adaptive kin-directed behaviors, including incest avoidance. Bonding is conceived of as the developmental foundation of a form of social attraction, here called "familial attraction," which is evolutionarily distinct from sexual attraction.

  18. The cultural contagion of conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelfand, Michele; Shteynberg, Garriy; Lee, Tiane; Lun, Janetta; Lyons, Sarah; Bell, Chris; Chiao, Joan Y.; Bruss, C. Bayan; Al Dabbagh, May; Aycan, Zeynep; Abdel-Latif, Abdel-Hamid; Dagher, Munqith; Khashan, Hilal; Soomro, Nazar

    2012-01-01

    Anecdotal evidence abounds that conflicts between two individuals can spread across networks to involve a multitude of others. We advance a cultural transmission model of intergroup conflict where conflict contagion is seen as a consequence of universal human traits (ingroup preference, outgroup hostility; i.e. parochial altruism) which give their strongest expression in particular cultural contexts. Qualitative interviews conducted in the Middle East, USA and Canada suggest that parochial altruism processes vary across cultural groups and are most likely to occur in collectivistic cultural contexts that have high ingroup loyalty. Implications for future neuroscience and computational research needed to understand the emergence of intergroup conflict are discussed. PMID:22271785

  19. Altruistické chování vysokoškolských studentů ekonomické fakulty

    OpenAIRE

    Malochová, Šárka

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this bachelor's thesis is to find out whether the students of Faculty of Business and Economics have altruistic behaviour or not. In course of the work I'm going to describe the current state of altruism in society on the basis of statistic data with respect to Czech Republic and to a selected group of university school students. The basic terms altruism, prosocial behaviour and value orientation are defined in the text. The practical part is structured according to questionnaire ...

  20. Parochial Altruists or Ideologues? An Agent Based Model of Commitment to Self Sacrifice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giti Zahedzadeh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available 'What motivates suicide attackers remains an open question. From an evolutionary perspective, commitment to suicide missions is puzzling since such behavior is fitness reducing. We model suicide terrorism by drawing on two fundamental human motivations: altruism and selfishness. Martyrdom can be viewed as altruistic- benefiting group members at a cost to oneself, as well as selfish- ideological belief in a profitable afterlife. Our simulations identify that some degree of both behaviors are essential in order to facilitate a commitment to sacrifice. Thus, manipulations of ideology and altruism can tip the threshold and set the agents on the path of martyrdom. '

  1. The handicap principle and the argument of subversion from within

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baron, Christian

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the very disparate positions that various actors have taken towards the argument of subversion from within (a classical argument against the evolution of altruism by group selection) in a set of related debates on group selection, altruism and the handicap principle. Using this...... connected to important epistemological differences related in part (but not solely) to their disciplinary background. Apart from conflicting evolutionary views concerning the theoretical feasibility of the handicap effect, these antagonists both differed in the confidence they ascribed to mathematical...

  2. Determinants of organizational citizenship behavior: A case study of higher education institutes in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazia Bashir

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study empirically examines the relationship between altruism, conscientiousness, and civic virtue, three of the antecedents of organizational citizenship behavior, in higher education institutes in the Khyber Pakhtonkhuwa Province (KPK of Pakistan. The study is based on primary data collected from ninety-five employees of various institutes in Pakistan. The data is analyzed using the techniques of rank correlation coefficient and multiple regression analysis. All the findings are tested at 0.01 and 0.05 levels of significance. The result concludes that altruism, conscientiousness, and civic virtue have strong positive impacts on the organizational citizenship behavior in the context of higher education institutes in Pakistan.

  3. Spending Natural Resource Revenues in an Altruistic Growth Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Elisabeth Hermann

    This paper examines how revenues from a natural resource interact with growth and welfare in an overlapping generations model with altruism. The revenues are allocated between public productive services and direct transfers to members of society by spending policies. We analyze how these policies...... influence the dynamics, and how the dynamics are influenced by the abundance of the revenue. Abundant revenues may harm growth, but growth and welfare can be oppositely affected. We also provide the socially optimal policy. Overall, the analysis suggests that variation in the strength of altruism...

  4. Gender, Values, and Occupational Interests among Children, Adolescents, and Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisgram, Erica S.; Bigler, Rebecca S.; Liben, Lynn S.

    2010-01-01

    Work fulfills personal values, perhaps differently for males and females. Explored here was the role values play in shaping occupational interests. Study 1 examined children's, adolescents', and adults' (N = 313) occupational values (regarding money, power, family, altruism), occupational interests, and perceptions of values afforded by…

  5. Virtue Ethics, Care Ethics, and "The Good Life of Teaching"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Marissa

    2012-01-01

    In "The Good Life of Teaching: An Ethics of Professional Practice," Chris Higgins (2011) reminds people that "self-interest and altruism, personal freedom and social roles, and practical wisdom and personhood" have been ancient philosophical topics that remain vitally important in the practice of contemporary teaching and learning. One of the most…

  6. Public Education, Public Good.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, John

    1986-01-01

    Criticizes policies which would damage or destroy a public education system. Examines the relationship between government-provided education and democracy. Concludes that privatization of public education would emphasize self-interest and selfishness, further jeopardizing the altruism and civic mindedness necessary for the public good. (JDH)

  7. Investigation and Procedure According To Some Variables and Attitudes Toward Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gülaçti, Fikret

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to reveal the attitudes of students to the teaching profession in terms of self-esteem, altruism, social comparison, life satisfaction, humor style, a five-factor personality types of the students of the Pedagogical Formation Education Certificate Program (PFECP), and to determine the relationships if there is between…

  8. Explaining Altruistic Sharing in the Dictator Game: The Role of Affective Empathy, Cognitive Empathy, and Justice Sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edele, Aileen; Dziobek, Isabel; Keller, Monika

    2013-01-01

    Experimental games like the dictator game have proven of great value for the study of altruism and sharing behavior. It has been shown that individuals differ substantially in the amount of money they offer to an anonymous receiver. Yet, to date little is known about how personality dispositions shape differences in altruistic sharing. The current…

  9. Religious Diversity, Empathy, and God Images: Perspectives from the Psychology of Religion Shaping a Study among Adolescents in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Leslie J.; Croft, Jennifer S.; Pyke, Alice

    2012-01-01

    Major religious traditions agree in advocating and promoting love of neighbour as well as love of God. Love of neighbour is reflected in altruistic behaviour and empathy stands as a key motivational factor underpinning altruism. This study employs the empathy scale from the Junior Eysenck Impulsiveness Questionnaire to assess the association…

  10. Beyond the Call of Duty? Essays on motivation and self-selection of bureaucrats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.W.J.M. Buurman (Margaretha)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThe existence and effects of public service motivation (PSM), or altruism, among bureaucrats, is a well-debated topic among economists and administrative scientists (see e.g. Perry and Hondeghem 2008a, Besley and Ghatak 2005, Francois 2000 and 2007). However, the debate about motivation

  11. Quality Self Assessment: A Process of Course Team Development or Contrived Collegiality and Impression Management?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boocock, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Ethnographic research in an FE College (College X) between 2000 and 2005 was designed to uncover the extent to which quality self-assessment processes had effectively utilised productive motivational inputs (i.e. lecturer self-interest, intrinsic motivation, altruism and tacit knowledge) in line with New Labour's agenda of improved skills in…

  12. Theorizing slum tourism: performing, negotiating and transforming inequality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Dürr; R. Jaffe

    2012-01-01

    This Exploration focuses on the emerging field of slum tourism research, which has the poten- tial to connect Latin American and Caribbean studies on tourism and urban inequality. Slum tourism involves transforming poverty, squalor and violence into a tourism product. Drawing on both altruism and vo

  13. Parental Motivation in Family Farm Intergenerational Transfers

    OpenAIRE

    Lange, Kelly Y.; Johnson, Jeffrey W.; Johnson, Phillip N.; Hudson, Darren; Belasco, Eric J

    2011-01-01

    An intergenerational transfer model incorporating both altruism and exchange is presented for family farm transfers. A simulation study is conducted to test parental motivation in intergenerational transfers of family farm businesses. Results indicated that family farm intergenerational transfers are altruistically motivated.

  14. An Evolutionary Perspective on War Heroism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rusch, Hannes; Störmer, C.

    2015-01-01

    Humans are one of the most cooperative and altruistic species on the planet. At the same time, humans have a long history of violent and deadly intergroup conflicts or wars. Recently, contemporary evolutionary theorists have revived Charles Darwin’s idea that human in-group altruism and out-group ho

  15. Dedicated Doctors: Public and Private Provision of Health Care with Altruistic Physicians

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Delfgaauw (Josse)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractPhysicians are supposed to serve patients' interests, but some are more inclined to do so than others. This paper studies how the system of health care provision affects the allocation of patients to physicians when physicians differ in altruism. We show that allowing for private provisi

  16. Sociobiology: Science or Ideology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Arthur

    1992-01-01

    Discusses contributions of E. O. Wilson and others to the development of sociobiology. Considers sociobiology's origins, the study of social behavior, the inclusive fitness theory of behavior, haplodiploidy, reciprocal altruism, ecological perspectives, species richness, social evolution, societal explanations for infanticide, sociobiology and the…

  17. THE MEDIATING ROLE OF LEADERSHIP STYLES ON THE ORGANIZATIONAL CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIOR AND INNOVATIVENESS RELATIONSHIP

    OpenAIRE

    Ozsahin, Mehtap; Sudak, Melike Kivanc

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on the relationships among the organizational citizenship behavior, leadership behavior and innovativeness. The relationships among the three dimensions of leadership behavior-change oriented leadership, task oriented leadership, relation oriented leadership-, five dimensions of organizational citizenship behavior (OCV)- altruism, courtesy, civic virtue,  conscientiousness, sportsmanship-, and innovativeness have been examined in details.  Afield survey using questionnaires...

  18. Unto Others: Illustrating the Human Capacity for Cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, J. Andrew; Urbanski, John; Hunt, Jason

    2011-01-01

    Research in both evolutionary economics and evolutionary psychology provides strong evidence that human behavior can be, and is, a complex mix of hedonism and altruism with a strong inclination toward cooperation under certain conditions. In this article, behavioral assumptions made in mainstream business theory are compared and contrasted with…

  19. The evolution of generalized reciprocity on social interaction networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Doorn, Gerrit Sander; Taborsky, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Generalized reciprocity (help anyone, if helped by someone) is a minimal strategy capable of supporting cooperation between unrelated individuals. Its simplicity makes it an attractive model to explain the evolution of reciprocal altruism in animals that lack the information or cognitive skills need

  20. Male Mating Signaling in Social Dilemma Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Niels Holm

    2013-01-01

    According to sexual selection theory and costly signaling theory, men benefit from signaling costly mate qualities to attractive women. To date, several studies have investigated whether men use conspicuous altruism to attract women, but the findings are mixed. This study investigated whether men...

  1. Proceedings of a Symposium: Education and Contemporary America (Boise, Idaho, October 9-11, 1980).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlberg, E. John, Jr., Ed.; And Others

    Papers presented at this symposium were on the following topics: (1) the role of education in clarifying the relation of the individual to the state and the basic meaning of citizenship; (2) the mythologies of college teaching; (3) the movement of education from elitism to educational populism; (4) how empathy, morality, and altruism affect…

  2. Social preferences and environmental quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adda, D' Giovanna; Levely, Ian

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the effect of exogenous health shocks in utero and in infancy on the development of social preferences later in childhood. We use data from binarychoice dictator games run with school children in rural Sierra Leone to measure aversion to inequality, altruism and spite toward

  3. Lending a helping hand : Provision of helping behaviors beyond professional career responsibilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emmerik, I.J. Hetty van; Jawahar, I.M.

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Purpose – The purpose of this study is to investigate if gender and altruism evidence similar relationships with the different types of helping behaviors (e.g. organizational citizenship behaviors, OCBs; volunteering, vol; and helping kin, HK). Design/methodology/approach – Data from

  4. Altruistic learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Seymour

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The origin of altruism remains one of the most enduring puzzles of human behaviour. Indeed, true altruism is often thought either not to exist, or to arise merely as a miscalculation of otherwise selfish behaviour. In this paper, we argue that altruism emerges directly from the way in which distinct human decision-making systems learn about rewards. Using insights provided by neurobiological accounts of human decision-making, we suggest that reinforcement learning in game-theoretic social interactions (habitization over either individuals or games and observational learning (either imitative of inference based lead to altruistic behaviour. This arises not only as a result of computational efficiency in the face of processing complexity, but as a direct consequence of optimal inference in the face of uncertainty. Critically, we argue that the fact that evolutionary pressure acts not over the object of learning ('what' is learned, but over the learning systems themselves ('how' things are learned, enables the evolution of altruism despite the direct threat posed by free-riders.

  5. Altruistic learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymour, Ben; Yoshida, Wako; Dolan, Ray

    2009-01-01

    The origin of altruism remains one of the most enduring puzzles of human behaviour. Indeed, true altruism is often thought either not to exist, or to arise merely as a miscalculation of otherwise selfish behaviour. In this paper, we argue that altruism emerges directly from the way in which distinct human decision-making systems learn about rewards. Using insights provided by neurobiological accounts of human decision-making, we suggest that reinforcement learning in game-theoretic social interactions (habitisation over either individuals or games) and observational learning (either imitative of inference based) lead to altruistic behaviour. This arises not only as a result of computational efficiency in the face of processing complexity, but as a direct consequence of optimal inference in the face of uncertainty. Critically, we argue that the fact that evolutionary pressure acts not over the object of learning ('what' is learned), but over the learning systems themselves ('how' things are learned), enables the evolution of altruism despite the direct threat posed by free-riders. PMID:19826495

  6. Sex and the Leuthold Free Rider Experiment; Some Results from an Israeli Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleiman, Ephraim; Rubenstein, Yona

    1996-01-01

    Reports on the replication of Jane Leuthold's experiment concerning consumer choice, investments, and free riding indexes. This experiment, conducted in an Israeli undergraduate economics class, broadened the subjects' characteristics questionnaire to include issues of social consciousness and altruism. Includes four tables of statistical data.…

  7. Female College Students' Perceptions of Organ Donation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boland, Kathleen; Baker, Kerrie

    2010-01-01

    The current process of organ donation in the U.S. relies on the premise of altruism or voluntary consent. Yet, human organs available for donation and transplant do not meet current demands. The literature has suggested that college students, who represent a large group of potential healthy organ donors, often are not part of donor pools. Before…

  8. Helping others in online games: prosocial behavior in cyberspace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chih-Chien; Wang, Chia-Hsin

    2008-06-01

    This study examined the reasons players help others in the virtual space of online games. Results of an online empirical survey indicated that both altruism and reciprocity influence prosocial behavior simultaneously. Additionally, the study found that male players are more likely than female players to seek friendship of opposite sex. PMID:18537505

  9. Person-Organization Fit and Contextual Performance: Do Shared Values Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Scott A.; Svyantek, Daniel J.

    1999-01-01

    In a study of 221 employees, perceptions of organizational culture and discrepancy between ideal and actual culture predicted both task performance and contextual (altruism, conscientiousness, organizational citizenship) performance. Organizational warmth, organizational competence, and reward were significant predictors of contextual performance.…

  10. Remittances and their Effect on Emigration Intentions in Egypt, Morocco and Turkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.P. van Dalen (Hendrik); G. Groenewold; T. Fokkema (Tineke)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractWhat determines remittances – altruism or enlightened self-interest - and do remittances trigger additional migration? These two questions are examined empirically in Egypt, Turkey and Morocco for households with family members living abroad. Results show, first, that one cannot clearly

  11. Does Empathy Trigger Only Altruistic Motivation? How About Selflessness or Justice?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Lange, Paul A. M.

    2008-01-01

    A key question in research on empathy is what interpersonal motivations might be activated by empathy. Does empathy promote only a concern with other's outcomes ("altruism"), as well as decreased concern with one's own outcomes ("selflessness"), or an increased concern with equality in outcomes ("eg

  12. What a Seriously At-Risk Student Would Really Like To Say to Teachers about Classroom Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Julia

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the growing problem of troubled youth and the increasing role of schools in meeting children's developmental needs for attachment, achievement, autonomy, and altruism. Relates a 12-year-old at-risk student's comments about what teachers should do and say to promote greater self-esteem among students and encourage them to stay in school.…

  13. The hair stylist, the corn merchant, and the doctor: ambiguously altruistic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Lois

    2014-01-01

    The medical profession has a tradition of presenting itself as exceptionally altruistic. This article challenges the idea that physicians are, or should be, more altruistic than other professionals or other people, and goes so far as to posit that even a professional aspiration of altruism can have negative consequences.

  14. Consumer choices: Going green to be seen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. van den Bergh (Bram); V. Griskevicius (Vladas); J.M. Tybur (Joshua)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractWhat motivates consumers to buy eco-friendly products? Are people’s choices linked to their concern for the environment and thus to be viewed as expressions of altruism, or are motives fragile and self-serving reflections of concern about social status within the community?

  15. The impact of a natural disaster on altruistic behaviour and crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemieux, Frederic

    2014-07-01

    Institutional altruism in the form of a public-sector intervention and support for victims and social altruism generated by mutual aid and solidarity among citizens constitute a coming together in a crisis. This coming together and mutual support precipitate a decrease in crime rates during such an event. This paper presents an analysis of daily fluctuations in crime during the prolonged ice storms in Quebec, Canada, in January 1998 that provoked an electrical blackout. Of particular interest are the principal crisis-related influences on daily crime patterns. A first series of analyses examines the impact of altruistic public-sector mobilisation on crime. A significant decline in property crime rates was noticed when cheques were distributed to crisis victims in financial need in Montérégie, and hence they were attributable to public intervention (institutional altruism). Moreover, the rate of social altruism (financial donations), which was more substantial in adjoining rather than distant regions, was inversely proportional to crime rates.

  16. Spotting altruistic dictator game players and mingling with them : the elective assortation of classmates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pradel, Julia; Euler, Harald A.; Fetchenhauer, Detlef

    2009-01-01

    Altruism can evolve through assortation if the selfish advantage of egoistic individuals is outcompeted by the benefits of mutual cooperation between altruists. This selection process is possible if (a) individuals can distinguish altruists from egoists and (b) altruists cooperate electively with ot

  17. Representing culture in interstellar messages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakoch, Douglas A.

    2008-09-01

    As scholars involved with the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI) have contemplated how we might portray humankind in any messages sent to civilizations beyond Earth, one of the challenges they face is adequately representing the diversity of human cultures. For example, in a 2003 workshop in Paris sponsored by the SETI Institute, the International Academy of Astronautics (IAA) SETI Permanent Study Group, the International Society for the Arts, Sciences and Technology (ISAST), and the John Templeton Foundation, a varied group of artists, scientists, and scholars from the humanities considered how to encode notions of altruism in interstellar messages . Though the group represented 10 countries, most were from Europe and North America, leading to the group's recommendation that subsequent discussions on the topic should include more globally representative perspectives. As a result, the IAA Study Group on Interstellar Message Construction and the SETI Institute sponsored a follow-up workshop in Santa Fe, New Mexico, USA in February 2005. The Santa Fe workshop brought together scholars from a range of disciplines including anthropology, archaeology, chemistry, communication science, philosophy, and psychology. Participants included scholars familiar with interstellar message design as well as specialists in cross-cultural research who had participated in the Symposium on Altruism in Cross-cultural Perspective, held just prior to the workshop during the annual conference of the Society for Cross-cultural Research . The workshop included discussion of how cultural understandings of altruism can complement and critique the more biologically based models of altruism proposed for interstellar messages at the 2003 Paris workshop. This paper, written by the chair of both the Paris and Santa Fe workshops, will explore the challenges of communicating concepts of altruism that draw on both biological and cultural models.

  18. The brain's functional network architecture reveals human motives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, Grit; Morishima, Yosuke; Leiberg, Susanne; Sul, Sunhae; Fehr, Ernst

    2016-03-01

    Goal-directed human behaviors are driven by motives. Motives are, however, purely mental constructs that are not directly observable. Here, we show that the brain's functional network architecture captures information that predicts different motives behind the same altruistic act with high accuracy. In contrast, mere activity in these regions contains no information about motives. Empathy-based altruism is primarily characterized by a positive connectivity from the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) to the anterior insula (AI), whereas reciprocity-based altruism additionally invokes strong positive connectivity from the AI to the ACC and even stronger positive connectivity from the AI to the ventral striatum. Moreover, predominantly selfish individuals show distinct functional architectures compared to altruists, and they only increase altruistic behavior in response to empathy inductions, but not reciprocity inductions. PMID:26941317

  19. Directed altruistic living donation: what is wrong with the beauty contest?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorlock, Greg

    2015-11-01

    This paper explores the specific criticism of directed altruistic living organ donation that it creates a 'beauty contest' between potential recipients of organs. The notion of the beauty contest in transplantation was recently used by Neidich et al who stated that '[a]ltruism should be the guiding motivation for all donations, and when it [is], there is no place for a beauty contest'. I examine this beauty contest objection from two perspectives. First, I argue that, when considered against the behaviour of donors, this objection cannot be consistently raised without also objecting to other common aspects of organ donation. I then explore the beauty contest objection from the perspective of recipients, and argue that if the beauty contest is objectionable, it is because of a tension between recipient behaviour and the altruism that supposedly underpins the donation system. I conclude by briefly questioning the importance of this tension in light of the organ shortage. PMID:26126975

  20. PREFERENCE AND EVOLUTION IN THE ITERATED PRISONER'S DILEMMA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Xianjia; Liu Weibing

    2009-01-01

    Game theory is extensively used to study strategy-making and actions of play-ers. The authors proposed an analysis method for study the evolutionary outcome and behaviors of players with preference in iterated prisoner's dilemma. In this article, a pref-erence parameter k was introduced in the payoff matrix, wherein the value of k denotes the player's degree of egoism and altruism (preference). Then, a game-theoretic dynamical model was formulated using Birth-and-Death process. The authors studied how prefer-ence influences the evolutionary equilibrium and behaviors of players. The authors get the general results: egoism leads to defection, and altruism can make players build trust and maintain cooperation, and so, the hope of the Pareto optimal solution. In the end, the simulation experiments proved the efficiency of the method.

  1. Directed altruistic living donation: what is wrong with the beauty contest?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorlock, Greg

    2015-11-01

    This paper explores the specific criticism of directed altruistic living organ donation that it creates a 'beauty contest' between potential recipients of organs. The notion of the beauty contest in transplantation was recently used by Neidich et al who stated that '[a]ltruism should be the guiding motivation for all donations, and when it [is], there is no place for a beauty contest'. I examine this beauty contest objection from two perspectives. First, I argue that, when considered against the behaviour of donors, this objection cannot be consistently raised without also objecting to other common aspects of organ donation. I then explore the beauty contest objection from the perspective of recipients, and argue that if the beauty contest is objectionable, it is because of a tension between recipient behaviour and the altruism that supposedly underpins the donation system. I conclude by briefly questioning the importance of this tension in light of the organ shortage.

  2. Developing a Measure of Virtual Community Citizenship Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luman Yong

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the kinds of behaviors that constitute virtual community citizenship behaviors (VCCB and tests three factors that may influence community members’ willingness to engage in VCCB. More specifically, the authors propose a multi-dimensional VCCB construct (altruism, civic virtue, consciousness, courtesy, and sportsmanship and three antecedents of VCCB (affective commitment, structural embeddedness and membership tenure. Four dimensions including altruism, civic virtue, courtesy and loyalty emerged as a result of behavioral examples collection from SMEs using critical incident technique and a VCCB survey with 19 Likert type items reflecting the behavioral examples within each dimension was created. Data was collected from an online discussion forum (The Grad Cafe to address the research questions of this study. Results indicate that affective commitment was a significant predictor of the virtual community citizenship behaviors. A research agenda for studying VCCB is presented.

  3. Kszta ł towanie orientacji aksjologicznych w rodzinie i w szkole w opinii nastolatków/ A Teenager’s reβlection on formation of the value orientations in the family and at school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VILIJA GRINCEVIČIENĖ

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Family and school – the most important social institutions in which the young generation is prepared to live in tomorrow’s society. Analysis of the research revealed that in the period of age from 14 to 19 the most important values is considered as: empathy, perfection, justice, self-improvement, self-esteem, security, acceptance, courage, knowledge, creativity, competitiveness, friendship, cooperation, responsibility and altruism. Family, which successfully trains and educates such values as security, justice, altruism, empathy, self-esteem, enable the young generation to develop social competence. The main values conveyed in the school-competitiveness,education, cooperation, friendship, recognition. Looking at the situation from a range of competencies, a school distinguished by communication, learning to learn skills and personal development. A closer interaction between school and family accelerate the positive socialization process of young generation and guarantee the further development of the formation process of value orientations (personality development.

  4. Opportunities and Possibilities from Illness: Volunteer Experiences among People Infected with HIV/AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lirio del Carmen Gutiérrez Rivera

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available All illnesses can be interpreted. In the case of HIV/AIDS, experience and interpretation are intercepted by meanings that recluse, insulate and morally expose patients and their social networks. Volunteers stand out in these networks, because they are the only ones that continue to have contact with patients. In many cases, they are stigmatized. This article is about the experience of female volunteers with people infected with HIV/AIDS. The phenomenological experience allows studying their perceptions, verifications and modifications of the disease. The results show the following: first, HIV/AIDS is an opportunity to thank a past event; second, it is an opportunity to construct, through altruism, a space of opportunity for them and their patients; third, HIV/AIDS shows social shortages. Although this experience does not construct political identities or legal discourse, it confronts and inverts negative perceptions of the disease through actions of care whose essential component is love, altruism and brotherhood.

  5. Who intervenes against homophobic behavior? Attributes that distinguish active bystanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poteat, V Paul; Vecho, Olivier

    2016-02-01

    Research on homophobic behavior has focused on students engaging in this behavior or students toward whom this behavior is directed. There has been little attention to the large segment of students who observe this behavior, including active bystanders who defend or support students when homophobic behavior occurs. Among 722 high school students (55% female, 87% white, 86% heterosexual), 66.8% had observed at least one instance of homophobic behavior in the past 30 days. Gender (in this case, girls more so than boys), leadership, courage, altruism, justice sensitivity, and number of LGBT friends were associated with engagement in more active bystander behavior in response to observing homophobic behavior. Further, gender, courage, altruism, and number of LGBT friends each made unique contributions in accounting for variability in students' defending behavior in a comprehensive regression model. Findings highlight qualities that interventionists should cultivate in students that could lead to more active bystander engagement against homophobic behavior. PMID:26790700

  6. Setting up an Email Peer Support Scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutson, Nicky; Cowie, Helen

    2007-01-01

    This article opens with a review of current research on peer interventions and their capacity to impact on school climate and bystander behaviour, as well as to meet the aims of fostering altruism. The main focus of the article is a study of an email support group in an all-boys school in the United Kingdom. It was set up in response to an…

  7. Altruismo y capacidad de aprendizaje organizativo: Un estudio en las empresas mejor valoradas por los trabajadores en España

    OpenAIRE

    Jacob Guinot; Ricardo Chiva; Fermín Mallén

    2015-01-01

    Due to the new characteristics of the economic and business environment, organizational learning capability has become essential for organizational competitiveness and success. Therefore, there is a need to develop firm strategies that foster organizational learning capability within organizations. This study shows the importance of altruism in organizations in order to facilitate the organizational learning process, and thus enhancing organizational performance. Due to the new characteris...

  8. Incentive Use in Research: Protecting Vulnerable Populations from Exploitation

    OpenAIRE

    Haruna Muwonge; Lawrence Fred Sembajwe

    2013-01-01

    Global investment in Medical Research and Development has markedly increased in the last few decades. However, due to the decreasing public altruism, researchers have come under increased pressures from the funding bodies to produce results. Out of desperation, some researchers have resorted to using incentives as a means of sourcing for volunteers. Consequently, the research burden has disproportionately been shared among the most vulnerable populations in the society. Incentives especially ...

  9. Modes of Collective Action in Village Economies:Evidence from Natural and Artefactual Field Experiments in a Developing Country

    OpenAIRE

    SAWADA Yasuyuki; Kasahara, Ryuji; Aoyagi, Aoyagi; Shoji, Masahiro; Ueyama, Mika

    2012-01-01

    In a canonical model of collective action, individual contribution to collective action is negatively correlated with group size. Yet, empirical evidence on the group size effect has been mixed, partly due to heterogeneities in group activities. In this paper, we first construct a simple model of collective action with the free rider problem, altruism, public goods, and positive externalities of social networks. We then empirically test the theoretical implications of the group size effect on...

  10. Fairness expectations and altruistic sharing in 15-month-old human infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Marco F H; Sommerville, Jessica A

    2011-01-01

    Human cooperation is a key driving force behind the evolutionary success of our hominin lineage. At the proximate level, biologists and social scientists have identified other-regarding preferences--such as fairness based on egalitarian motives, and altruism--as likely candidates for fostering large-scale cooperation. A critical question concerns the ontogenetic origins of these constituents of cooperative behavior, as well as whether they emerge independently or in an interrelated fashion. The answer to this question will shed light on the interdisciplinary debate regarding the significance of such preferences for explaining how humans become such cooperative beings. We investigated 15-month-old infants' sensitivity to fairness, and their altruistic behavior, assessed via infants' reactions to a third-party resource distribution task, and via a sharing task. Our results challenge current models of the development of fairness and altruism in two ways. First, in contrast to past work suggesting that fairness and altruism may not emerge until early to mid-childhood, 15-month-old infants are sensitive to fairness and can engage in altruistic sharing. Second, infants' degree of sensitivity to fairness as a third-party observer was related to whether they shared toys altruistically or selfishly, indicating that moral evaluations and prosocial behavior are heavily interconnected from early in development. Our results present the first evidence that the roots of a basic sense of fairness and altruism can be found in infancy, and that these other-regarding preferences develop in a parallel and interwoven fashion. These findings support arguments for an evolutionary basis--most likely in dialectical manner including both biological and cultural mechanisms--of human egalitarianism given the rapidly developing nature of other-regarding preferences and their role in the evolution of human-specific forms of cooperation. Future work of this kind will help determine to what

  11. Fairness expectations and altruistic sharing in 15-month-old human infants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco F H Schmidt

    Full Text Available Human cooperation is a key driving force behind the evolutionary success of our hominin lineage. At the proximate level, biologists and social scientists have identified other-regarding preferences--such as fairness based on egalitarian motives, and altruism--as likely candidates for fostering large-scale cooperation. A critical question concerns the ontogenetic origins of these constituents of cooperative behavior, as well as whether they emerge independently or in an interrelated fashion. The answer to this question will shed light on the interdisciplinary debate regarding the significance of such preferences for explaining how humans become such cooperative beings. We investigated 15-month-old infants' sensitivity to fairness, and their altruistic behavior, assessed via infants' reactions to a third-party resource distribution task, and via a sharing task. Our results challenge current models of the development of fairness and altruism in two ways. First, in contrast to past work suggesting that fairness and altruism may not emerge until early to mid-childhood, 15-month-old infants are sensitive to fairness and can engage in altruistic sharing. Second, infants' degree of sensitivity to fairness as a third-party observer was related to whether they shared toys altruistically or selfishly, indicating that moral evaluations and prosocial behavior are heavily interconnected from early in development. Our results present the first evidence that the roots of a basic sense of fairness and altruism can be found in infancy, and that these other-regarding preferences develop in a parallel and interwoven fashion. These findings support arguments for an evolutionary basis--most likely in dialectical manner including both biological and cultural mechanisms--of human egalitarianism given the rapidly developing nature of other-regarding preferences and their role in the evolution of human-specific forms of cooperation. Future work of this kind will help

  12. How does socio-economic status shape a child's personality?

    OpenAIRE

    Deckers, Thomas; Falk, Armin; Kosse, Fabian; Schildberg-Hörisch, Hannah

    2015-01-01

    We show that socio-economic status (SES) is a powerful predictor of many facets of a child's personality. The facets of personality we investigate encompass time preferences, risk preferences, and altruism, as well as crystallized and fluid IQ. We measure a family's SES by the mother's and father's average years of education and household income. Our results show that children from families with higher SES are more patient, tend to be more altruistic and less likely to be risk seeking, and sc...

  13. Rzecz o nepotyzmie i kumoterstwie

    OpenAIRE

    Rosicki, Remigiusz

    2012-01-01

    The paper comprises an introduction, four parts, and conclusions. The introduction char- acterizes the fundamental notions discussed in the paper, namely kin selection, nepotism, cronyism and political capitalism. The first part of the paper concerns kin selection and reciprocal altruism, which are deemed to be the fundamental mechanisms of socialization. This part indicates that nepotism has a biological justification (and in R. Dawkins’ interpretation – a genetic justificatio...

  14. Social memory, social stress, and economic behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Taiki Takahashi

    2005-01-01

    Social memory plays a pivotal role in social behaviors, from mating behaviors to cooperative behaviors based on reciprocal altruism. More specifically, social/person recognition memory is supposed, by behavioral-economic and game-theoretic analysis, to be required for tit- for-tat like cooperative behaviors to evolve under the N-person iterated prisoner fs dilemma game condition. Meanwhile, humans are known to show a social stress response during face-to-face social interactions, which might ...

  15. Motivace ke studiu psychologie

    OpenAIRE

    TENKL, Tomáš

    2013-01-01

    This undergraduate thesis is focused on motivation for studying psychology. The theoretical part contains topics of psychology of motivation, formal classification of motives, explanation of self-determination theory and theory of implicit and explicit motivation. Another topic in theoretical part considers helping professions and includes ? chapters about altruism, motivation for helping professions, the helper syndrome and the burnout syndrome. Further there are described projective methods...

  16. Mental health literacy about depression and schizophrenia among Swedish teenagers: a vignette study

    OpenAIRE

    Tartani, Evaggelia

    2011-01-01

    Although the prevalence of mental pathology is high, public’s mental health literacy (i.e. knowledge about mental disorders) has not been examined to a great extent. The main purpose of this study was to examine mental health literacy concerning depression and schizophrenia in a setting of adolescents in Sweden. A secondary aim was to explore stigmatizing attitudes towards mentally ill and levels of altruism among adolescents regarding help-seeking behavior. The present study employed qualita...

  17. Wisdom: a goal of nursing education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Antonio, Jocelyn

    2014-02-01

    The attainment of wisdom is a goal of intellectual development manifested in an individual by a solid knowledge base, effective critical thinking skills, creative problem solving, and a sense of duty and altruism to humankind. Promoting the achievement of wisdom as a focal point in a nursing program can provide a unifying perspective in the development of a curriculum. Teaching strategies such as case studies, small group discussions, mentoring, reflective writing, and professional networking are effective ways to promote wisdom in nursing students.

  18. Decision Criteria in Ethical Dilemma Situations: Empirical Examples from Austrian Managers

    OpenAIRE

    Litschka, Michael; Suske, Michaela; Brandtweiner, Roman

    2011-01-01

    This paper is the result of an empirical research project analysing the decision behaviour of Austrian managers in ethical dilemma situations. While neoclassical economic theory would suggest a pure economic rational basis for management decisions, the empirical study conducted by the authors put other concepts to a test, thereby analysing their importance for managerial decision making: specific notions of fairness, reciprocal altruism, and commitment. After reviewing some of ...

  19. Does food sharing in vampire bats demonstrate reciprocity?

    OpenAIRE

    Carter, Gerald; Wilkinson, Gerald

    2013-01-01

    Claims of reciprocity (or reciprocal altruism) in animal societies often ignite controversy because authors disagree over definitions, naturalistic studies tend to demonstrate correlation not causation, and controlled experiments often involve artificial conditions. Food sharing among common vampire bats has been a classic textbook example of reciprocity, but this conclusion has been contested by alternative explanations. Here, we review factors that predict food sharing in vampire bats based...

  20. Empathy in Clinical Practice: How Individual Dispositions, Gender, and Experience Moderate Empathic Concern, Burnout, and Emotional Distress in Physicians

    OpenAIRE

    Ezequiel Gleichgerrcht; Jean Decety

    2013-01-01

    To better understand clinical empathy and what factors can undermine its experience and outcome in care-giving settings, a large-scale study was conducted with 7,584 board certified practicing physicians. Online validated instruments assessing different aspects of empathy, distress, burnout, altruistic behavior, emotional awareness, and well-being were used. Compassion satisfaction was strongly associated with empathic concern, perspective taking and altruism, while compassion fatigue (burnou...

  1. Resources and innovation in family businesses : the Janus-face of family socioemotional preferences.

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, D.; Wright, M.; Le Breton-Miller, I.; Scholes, L.

    2015-01-01

    Family business socio-emotional preferences are often Janus-faced. Some strive to create a strong business they can pass on to offspring by building innovation-promoting resources such as human, relational, and financial capital. Other family firms cater to family desires for unqualified nepotism, altruism towards undeserving kin, and appropriation of firm assets to fulfill parochial desires that erode these resources. This article explores how such preferences, together with their impact on ...

  2. The evolution of reciprocal sharing

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, Jim

    1984-01-01

    Genetical models of the evolution of reciprocal altruism (as distinct from cooperation, mutualism, or nepotism) have difficulty explaining the initial establishment of an altruist gene in a selfish deme. Though potential mechanisms have been suggested, there is an alternative: much "altruistic" behavior may in fact be purely selfish in origin and consequently reciprocity need not be invoked to provide a selective benefit to the actor. _Sharing_ and _helping_ are fundamentally different behavi...

  3. Limited food induces nepotism in drywood termites

    OpenAIRE

    Korb, Judith

    2006-01-01

    The evolution of cooperation and altruistic behaviour where individuals forego their own reproduction to help others reproduce can be explained by kin selection. Depending on the costs and benefits provided, altruism can be evolutionarily favoured if it is directed at close relatives. A considerable body of data supports the role of relatedness as a key determinant of cooperation and conflict within societies. However, the role of ecological factors and, in particular, how these costs and ben...

  4. Effects of Sperm Conjugation and Dissociation on Sperm Viability In Vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Higginson, Dawn M.; Henn, Kali R. H.

    2012-01-01

    Sperm conjugation is an unusual variation in sperm behavior where two or more spermatozoa physically unite for motility or transport through the female reproductive tract. Conjugation has frequently been interpreted as sperm cooperation, including reproductive altruism, with some sperm advancing their siblings toward the site of fertilization while ostensibly forfeiting their own ability to fertilize through damage incurred during conjugate break-up. Conversely, conjugation has been proposed ...

  5. SÜPERMARKET ÇALISANLARI ÜZERİNDE BİR ARAŞTIRMA: ADANA İLİ ÖRNEĞİ

    OpenAIRE

    İPLİK, Fatma Nur

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the correlation between the organizational justice perceptions and altruism, conscientiousness, sportsmanship, courtesy and civic virtue that are the five dimensions of organizational citizenship behaviors of employees. In the direction of this purpose, organizational justice and organizational citizenship behavior scales that take place in the literature were implemented to the employees of a local supermarket chain in the city of Adana

  6. ALGILANAN ÖRGÜTSEL ADALETİN ÖRGÜTSEL VATANDASLIK DAVRANISLARI ÜZERİNDEKİ ETKİSİNİN BELİRLENMESİNE YÖNELİK

    OpenAIRE

    İPLİK, Fatma Nur

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the correlation between the organizational justice perceptions and altruism, conscientiousness, sportsmanship, courtesy and civic virtue that are the five dimensions of organizational citizenship behaviors of employees. In the direction of this purpose, organizational justice and organizational citizenship behavior scales that take place in the literature were implemented to the employees of a local supermarket chain in the city of Adana

  7. OPTION WEALTH AND BEQUEST VALUES: THE VALUE OF PROTECTING FUTURE GENERATIONS FROM THE HEALTH RISKS OF NUCLEAR WASTE STORAGE

    OpenAIRE

    Riddel, Mary C.; Shaw, W. Douglass

    2002-01-01

    We devise a simple model of intergenerational altruism under uncertainty. We present an estimable form of the model that relies on a few, plausible, assumptions. We apply the model to data collected in a survey of Southern Nevadans concerning the proposed Yucca Mountain Nuclear Waste Repository in Nye County, NV. We find strong evidence of a bequest motive. Approximately one third of the option wealth lost by households near the repository can be attributed to costs to future generations.

  8. Dynamic Voluntary Contribution to a Public Good: Learning to be a Free Rider

    OpenAIRE

    Clemens, Christiane; Riechmann, Thomas

    2001-01-01

    This paper explores the question whether boundedly rational agents learn to behave optimally when asked to voluntarily contribute to a public good. The decision process of individuals is described by an Evolutionary Algorithm. We analyze the learning process of purely and impurely altruistic agents and find that in both cases the contribution level converges towards the Nash equilibrium although, with pure altruism, exact free rider-behavior is never observed. The latter result corresponds to...

  9. The impact of military identity on performance in the Norwegian Armed Forces

    OpenAIRE

    Johansen, Rino Bandlitz

    2013-01-01

    From a Norwegian point of view, doctrinaire guidance now set the premises for new perspectives related to the military ethos and identity. The exodus of idealism, a military identity based on traditional values as altruism, patriotism and nationalism, has opened up for professionalism as a preferred and necessary military identity in the Norwegian armed forces. Based on this paradigmatic change, it follows that if professionalism could be reliably defined and measured, it might...

  10. Algılanan Adaletin Örgütsel Vatandaşlık Davranışı Üzerindeki Etkisini Belirlemeye Yönelik Görgül Bir Çalışma

    OpenAIRE

    ARSLANTAŞ, Cüneyt

    2005-01-01

    To examine the direct effect of perceived fairness on organizational citizenship behavior, data obtained from 44 white-collar employees working in sale department at a firm were used. Initially, perceived fairness and organizational citizenship behavior were defined and then correlation and regression analysis were performed according to the methodology of the research. As a conclusion, interactional justice was found to have a direct effect on identification with company, altruism toward...

  11. Economists: cheaters with altruistic instincts

    OpenAIRE

    Muñoz-Izquierdo, Nora; Gil-Gómez de Liaño, Beatriz; Rin-Sánchez, Francisco Daniel; Pascual-Ezama, David

    2014-01-01

    Based on an experiment conducted with undergraduate students from three different majors (business economics, psychology and engineering), we study the relationship between honesty and altruism. We asked participants to toss a coin with a black and a white side. Participants won a chocolate if they reported the white outcome, whereas no gift was given if they reported black. It was done privately, so they could decide whether or not to cheat. Reporting the prize-losing side (that is, being ho...

  12. Chimpanzees help each other upon request.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinya Yamamoto

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The evolution of altruism has been explained mainly from ultimate perspectives. However, it remains to be investigated from a proximate point of view how and in which situations such social propensity is achieved. We investigated chimpanzees' targeted helping in a tool transfer paradigm, and discuss the similarities and differences in altruism between humans and chimpanzees. Previously it has been suggested that chimpanzees help human experimenters by retrieving an object which the experimenter is trying to reach. In the present study, we investigated the importance of communicative interactions between chimpanzees themselves and the influence of conspecific partner's request on chimpanzees' targeted helping. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We presented two tool-use situations (a stick-use situation and a straw-use situation in two adjacent booths, and supplied non-corresponding tools to paired chimpanzees in the two booths. For example, a chimpanzee in the stick-use situation was supplied with a straw, and the partner in the straw-use situation possessed a stick. Spontaneous tool transfer was observed between paired chimpanzees. The tool transfer events occurred predominantly following recipients' request. Even without any hope of reciprocation from the partner, the chimpanzees continued to help the partner as long as the partner required help. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results provide further evidence for altruistic helping in chimpanzees in the absence of direct personal gain or even immediate reciprocation. Our findings additionally highlight the importance of request as a proximate mechanism motivating prosocial behavior in chimpanzees whether between kin or non-kin individuals and the possible confounding effect of dominance on the symmetry of such interactions. Finally, in contrast to humans, our study suggests that chimpanzees rarely perform acts of voluntary altruism. Voluntary altruism in chimpanzees is not

  13. Long-term social bonds promote cooperation in the iterated Prisoner's Dilemma

    OpenAIRE

    St-Pierre, Angèle; Larose, Karine; Dubois, Frédérique

    2009-01-01

    Reciprocal altruism, one of the most probable explanations for cooperation among non-kin, has been modelled as a Prisoner's Dilemma. According to this game, cooperation could evolve when individuals, who expect to play again, use conditional strategies like tit-for-tat or Pavlov. There is evidence that humans use such strategies to achieve mutual cooperation, but most controlled experiments with non-human animals have failed to find cooperation. One reason for this could be that subjects fail...

  14. A Comparison of the Relationship between Cultural Factors and Responsibility among Youths of Ghorveh and Baneh Cities

    OpenAIRE

    Majid Movahed; Rezgar Salehi; Maryam Hosseini

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Studies show that responsibility in every society regulates social and humanitarian relations and increases empathy and altruism among people. It can be effective in improvement of social security, social functions, academic success, mental health, self-esteem and also self-actualization. In addition, reinforcing responsibility leads to a decrease in social deviance, delinquency, crime and society’s behavioral problems. Given the important role of social responsibility, enhanc...

  15. Individuals and institutions in social economics

    OpenAIRE

    Goodwin, Neva

    1991-01-01

    This is Chapter 4 from "Social Economics: An Alternative Theory" (St. Martin's Press, 1991). This chapter focuses on the human subjects of economic study, suggesting that the psychology offered in neoclassical economics is severely inadequate to serve as the foundation for a social science. Psychological issues that deserve more attention in economics include altruism, trust, learning processes, and the values of "doing" and "being" - these last being contrasted with the neoclassical emph...

  16. Grandma plays favourites: X-chromosome relatedness and sex-specific childhood mortality †

    OpenAIRE

    Fox, Molly; Sear, Rebecca; Beise, Jan; Ragsdale, Gillian; Voland, Eckart; Knapp, Leslie A.

    2009-01-01

    Biologists use genetic relatedness between family members to explain the evolution of many behavioural and developmental traits in humans, including altruism, kin investment and longevity. Women's post-menopausal longevity in particular is linked to genetic relatedness between family members. According to the ‘grandmother hypothesis’, post-menopausal women can increase their genetic contribution to future generations by increasing the survivorship of their grandchildren. While some demographi...

  17. Lending a helping hand: Provision of helping behaviors beyond professional career responsibilities.

    OpenAIRE

    Van Emmerik, IJ.H.; I.M. Jawahar

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Purpose – The purpose of this study is to investigate if gender and altruism evidence similar relationships with the different types of helping behaviors (e.g. organizational citizenship behaviors, OCBs; volunteering, vol; and helping kin, HK). Design/methodology/approach – Data from websurveys of 178 professional employees are analyzed using Zellner’s seemingly unrelated regression (SURE). Findings – Results indicate women engage in HK to a greater extent than men, however this diff...

  18. The social side of Homo economicus

    OpenAIRE

    Rankin, D. J.

    2011-01-01

    Many recent experiments in the field of behavioural economics appear to demonstrate a willingness of humans to behave altruistically, even when it is not in their interest to do so. This has led to the assertion that humans have evolved a special predisposition towards altruism. Recent studies have questioned this, and demonstrated that selfless cooperation does not hold up in controlled experiments. As I discuss here, this calls for more economic 'field experiments' and highlights the need f...

  19. Meaningful travel: Women, independent travel and the search for self and meaning

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Erica; Harris, Candice

    2006-01-01

    It is increasingly recognised by researchers that tourism experiences incorporate more than just physical travel to a place, as they can also involve spiritual elements, psychological and physical benefits, altruism, self-development, and life-change. Building on this recognition, this paper puts forward the idea that independent travel plays an important and meaningful part in the course of people's lives. The concept of 'meaningful travel' is defined and explored, using women's experiences ...

  20. The Economy of Internet-Based Hospitality Exchange

    OpenAIRE

    Tagiew, Rustam

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze and compare general development and individual behavior on two non-profit internet-based hospitality exchange services -- bewelcome.org and warmshowers.org. We measure the effort needed to achieve a real-life interaction, whereby the advantages of mutual altruism arise. The effort needed is the communication quantified in units of time. Since the amount of effort is not obvious to individual users, the development of the effort investing strategy is investigated. The...

  1. Group Identity and Relation-Specific Investment: An Experimental Investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Hodaka Morita; Maroš Servátka

    2012-01-01

    The hold-up problem has played a central role in the study of firm boundaries that originated with the pathbreaking essay by Coase (1937). This paper studies a previously unexplored mechanism through which integration could resolve the hold-up problem. Based on Tajfel and Turner’s (1979) social identification theory, we conjecture that team membership increases the degree of altruism towards another team member, and this in turn helps resolving the hold-up problem. We test this conjecture in ...

  2. Individual and Corporate Social Responsibility

    OpenAIRE

    Bénabou, Roland; Tirole, Jean

    2010-01-01

    Society's demands for individual and corporate social responsibility as an alternative response to market and distributive failures are becoming increasingly prominent. We first draw on recent developments in the 'psychology and economics' of prosocial behavior to shed light on this trend, which reflects a complex interplay of genuine altruism, social or self image concerns, and material incentives. We then link individual concerns to corporate social responsibility, contrasting three possibl...

  3. Toward a New Social Contract Theory in Organization Science

    OpenAIRE

    Huff, Anne Sigismund

    1994-01-01

    This article suggests that strategy research (and other management disciplines as well) should move beyond a neo-Hobbesian approach to contracting toward a new social contract approach. Work from an agency theory perspective in particular has generated utilitarian insights, but its description of agent behavior is too limited and its assumptions are not a useful guide to productive alliances among firms. Altruism, ethics, goodwill, moral sentiments, and trust need to be placed in the foregrou...

  4. The Columbia-Harlem Homeless Medical Partnership: A New Model for Learning in the Service of Those in Medical Need

    OpenAIRE

    Batra, Priya; Chertok, Judy Sara; Fisher, Carl Erik; Manseau, Marc William; Manuelli, Victoria Nicole; Spears, James

    2009-01-01

    Though altruism and patient advocacy are promoted in medical education curricula, students are given few opportunities to develop these skills. Student-run clinics focusing on the health needs of the underserved can provide important health services to needy patients while providing students with career-influencing primary care experiences. The Columbia-Harlem Homeless Medical Partnership (CHHMP)—a project initiated by medical students to provide primary care to Northern Manhattan's homeless ...

  5. Assessing Calling in Chinese College Students: Development of a Measure and Its Relation to Hope

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Chunyu; Herrmann, Anne; Hirschi, Andreas; Wei, Jia; ZHANG, JINFU

    2015-01-01

    Research suggests that perceiving a calling towards a particular career is relatively frequent among college students in Western cultures. However, little is known about how this applies to other cultural contexts. This study assessed the perception of career as a calling in the Chinese culture. Study 1 reports the development of the Chinese Calling Scale (CCS), based on a sample of 788 Chinese college students, and identifies three dimensions of a calling: Altruism, Guiding Force, and Meanin...

  6. Analýza fenoménu dárcovství krve v České republice

    OpenAIRE

    Košťálová, Romana

    2010-01-01

    The thesis deals with the issue of blood donation and it has a total of fifteen parts. The first chapter describes theoretical knowledges of motivational factors, altruism and economic view on it. It is followed by informations about the history of blood donation and treatments with blood, anatomy of blood and blood groups. The section of blood donation provides general informations about conditions of donation, resulting benefits, risks for donor and recipient and commercial collection of pl...

  7. Generation Y and Blood Donation: The Impact of Altruistic Help in a Darwiportunistic Scenario

    OpenAIRE

    Scholz, Christian

    2010-01-01

    This article focuses on the members of Generation Y and their willingness to offer voluntary (unpaid) blood donations. Using statistics from various sources, a three-stage model is developed to explain blood donation behaviour especially of this generation. It consists of i) developing altruism, ii) raising the willingness to donate blood, and iii) activating actual blood donation behaviour. Members of Generation Y live in a Darwinistic society. They also to some degree act opportunistically,...

  8. 'Corpore sano in mens sana'. The Morality of Blood Donation

    OpenAIRE

    Casado Neira, David

    2006-01-01

    Modern conceptions of health separate body from soul in the familiar Cartesian dualism. In blood donation this separation is easy to identify: embodiment is a civilizing process, and altruism is the moral basis that supports it. The donor is treated as essentially a vessel of blood, a mere container which can be directed to discharge its contents into blood banks. The biomedical use of blood is not morally neutral; indeed, the donor's moral conscience is mobilised in order to get them to dona...

  9. Direct Tests of Models of Social Preferences and a New Model

    OpenAIRE

    Cox, James C.; Vjollca Sadiraj

    2010-01-01

    Departures from "economic man" behavior in many games in which fairness is a salient characteristic are now well documented in the experimental economics literature. These data have inspired development of new models of social preferences incorporating inequality aversion and quasi-maximin preferences. We report experiments that provide direct tests of these social preference models. Data from the experiments motivate a new model of egocentric altruism. The model rationalizes data from our di...

  10. Are there nonverbal cues to commitment? An exploratory study using the zero-acquaintance video presentation paradigm

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, WM

    2003-01-01

    Altruism is difficult to explain evolutionarily if subtle cheaters exist in a population (Trivers, 1971). A pathway to the evolutionary maintenance of cooperation is nonverbal altruist-detection. One adaptive advantage of nonverbal altruist-detection is the formation of trustworthy division of labour partnerships (Frank, 1988). Three studies were designed to test a fundamental assumption behind altruistic partner preference models. In the first experiment perceivers (blind with respect to tar...

  11. A Teenager’s reflection on formation of the value orientations in the family and at school

    OpenAIRE

    VILIJA GRINCEVIČIENĖ

    2012-01-01

    Family and school – the most important social institutions in which the young generation is prepared to live in tomorrow’s society. Analysis of the research revealed that in the period of age from 14 to 19 the most important values is considered as: empathy, perfection, justice, self-improvement, self-esteem, security, acceptance, courage, knowledge, creativity, competitiveness, friendship, cooperation, responsibility and altruism. Family, which successfully trains and educates...

  12. On the economics of interpersonal relationships: three essays on social capital, social norms and social identity

    OpenAIRE

    Herbaux, Denis

    2009-01-01

    For decades, economic theories have been mostly based on rational choices made by selfish individuals to maximize their utility, while sociology spent a lot of efforts describing the environment of individuals and explaining how this environment shapes theirs decisions. However, the last thirty years have seen many sociological concepts appear in the economic literature. For example, behavioral economics introduces things such as envy or altruism in economic theories. Other notions such as so...

  13. Real Estate Prices and the Importance of Bequest Taxation

    OpenAIRE

    Bellettini, Giorgio; Taddei, Filippo

    2009-01-01

    Taxation of bequests and donations is an important determinant of real estate prices. We show that, ceteris paribus, a decrease in taxes on inter vivos donations and bequests brings about an increase in real estate prices. We provide a general equilibrium rationalization in the context of OLG economies featuring intergenerational altruism. This has relevant policy implications. We test the predictions of our theory employing a unique policy shock: the abolition of bequest and donation taxatio...

  14. The Laughter as Hope Principle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateus Domingues da Silva

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The work aims to establish a parallel between the concept of laughter and the Hope Principle of Ernst Bloch, differentiating their relationship between the pursuit of individual happiness, said to be ideological, deceptive and precarious, and the pursuit of collective happiness, altruistic, that despite utopian it is also true and real, just for being selfless and real because, as a collective expression, indicating concretely and politically, is a real possibility.Keywords: Laughter, Hope Principle, Ernest Bloch, altruism.

  15. Against the magnanimous in medical ethics.

    OpenAIRE

    Kottow, M H

    1990-01-01

    Supererogatory acts are considered by some to be part of medicine, whereas others accept supererogation to be a gratuitous virtue, to be extolled when present, but not to be demanded. The present paper sides with those contending that medicine is duty-bound to benefit patients and that supererogation/altruism must per definition remain outside and beyond any role-description of the profession. Medical ethics should be bound by rational ethics and steer away from separatist views which grant e...

  16. Doing good does you good : Prosocial behavior as a sexual and social signal

    OpenAIRE

    Ehlebracht, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    How can evolutionary theories explain prosocial behavior that violates the premises of the inclusive fitness theory and the theory of reciprocal altruism? The basic idea underlying this thesis is that good deeds might evoke future benefits by signaling the qualities of an individual to third parties, ultimately increasing his or her value as a partner in a biological market. Together with Olga Stavrova, Julia Pradel, Thomas Schlösser, and Detlef Fetchenhauer, I examined the effects of isol...

  17. Social preferences and public economics: Mechanism design when social preferences depend on incentives

    OpenAIRE

    Bowles, Samuel; Hwang, Sung-Ha

    2007-01-01

    Social preferences such as altruism, reciprocity, intrinsic motivation and a desire to uphold ethical norms are essential to good government, often facilitating socially desirable allocations that would be unattainable by incentives that appeal solely to self-interest. But experimental and other evidence indicates that conventional economic incentives and social preferences may be either complements or substitutes, explicit incentives crowding in or crowding out social preferences. We investi...

  18. A Behavioral Test of Accepting Benefits that Cost Others: Associations with Conduct Problems and Callous-Unemotionality

    OpenAIRE

    Sakai, Joseph T.; Dalwani, Manish S.; Gelhorn, Heather L.; Mikulich-Gilbertson, Susan K.; Crowley, Thomas J.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Youth with conduct problems (CP) often make decisions which value self-interest over the interests of others. Self-benefiting behavior despite loss to others is especially common among youth with CP and callous-unemotional traits (CU). Such behavioral tendencies are generally measured using self- or observer-report. We are unaware of attempts to measure this tendency with a behavioral paradigm. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In our AlAn's (altruism-antisocial) game a computer program...

  19. Developing and validating a scale of altruistic leadership

    OpenAIRE

    Zheltoukhova, Ksenia

    2016-01-01

    The focus of many disciplines on cooperation as a strategy for effective societal functioning stimulates continuing debate on altruism generally and altruistic leadership more specifically. Theoretical articulation of the concept of altruistic leadership is limited, with most leadership scholars focusing on self-sacrificial behaviours, rather than leaders’ motivational state. This thesis draws on the social science literature to address the question of the nature of altruistic leadership and ...

  20. Aid to fragile states: Do donors help or hinder?

    OpenAIRE

    Browne, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    he record of aid to fragile and poorly-performing states is the real test of aid effectiveness. Rich countries can justify aid to fragile states both through altruism and self-interest. But, with some exceptions, donors have appeared at the wrong times and with the wrong attitudes, even sometimes undermining development progress. State failure has dimensions of both will and capacity. Failure demands constructive engagement by donors, in some cases to save people in weak states from their lea...

  1. Critical behavior in an evolutionary Ultimatum Game

    OpenAIRE

    Eguíluz, Víctor M.; Tessone, Claudio J.

    2007-01-01

    Experimental studies have shown the ubiquity of altruistic behavior in human societies. The social structure is a fundamental ingredient to understand the degree of altruism displayed by the members of a society, in contrast to individual-based features, like for example age or gender, which have been shown not to be relevant to determine the level of altruistic behavior. We explore an evolutionary model aiming to delve how altruistic behavior is affected by social structure. We investigate t...

  2. Essays on Social Preference

    OpenAIRE

    Jeon, Joo Young

    2014-01-01

    This thesis consists of six essays related to experimental investigation of social preference. We investigate the effects of a pure income effect on social preference in the first essay. In the second essay we explore the effects of gender in altruism and the corresponding anticipation behavior. The third essay discusses the effects of different type of rebate schemes on altruistic behavior. We study the effects of a real and a minimal identity on initiation and escalation of conflict i...

  3. Situating care in mainstream health economics: an ethical dilemma?

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, John B.; McMaster, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Standard health economics concentrates on the provision of care by medical professionals. Yet ‘care’ receives scant analysis; it is portrayed as a spillover effect or externality in the form of interdependent utility functions. In this context care can only be conceived as either acts of altruism or as social capital. Both conceptions are subject to considerable problems stemming from mainstream health economics’ reliance on a reductionist social model built around instrumental rationality an...

  4. Selfish or selfless? On the signal value of emotion in altruistic behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barasch, Alixandra; Levine, Emma E; Berman, Jonathan Z; Small, Deborah A

    2014-09-01

    Theories that reject the existence of altruism presume that emotional benefits serve as ulterior motives for doing good deeds. These theories argue that even in the absence of material and reputational benefits, individuals reap utility from the feelings associated with doing good. In response to this normative view of altruism, this article examines the descriptive question of whether laypeople penalize emotional prosocial actors. Six studies find that emotion serves as a positive signal of moral character, despite the intrapsychic benefits associated with it. This is true when emotion motivates prosocial behavior (Studies 1, 2, 3, and 5) and when emotion is a positive outcome of prosocial behavior (i.e., "warm glow"; Studies 4, 5, and 6). Emotional actors are considered to be moral because people believe emotion provides an honest and direct signal that the actor feels a genuine concern for others. Consequently, prosocial actors who are motivated by the expectation of emotional rewards are judged differently than prosocial actors who are motivated by other benefits, such as reputational or material rewards (Study 6). These results suggest that laypeople do not view altruism as incompatible with all benefits to the self.

  5. Motives of Intergeneration Support in Lithuania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Gedvilaitė-Kordušienė

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article fills the gap in the research on the motives of intergenerational support. Using qualitative data, it examines the question of intergenerational support between adult children and their parents. The theoretical premises for the study are derived from the theory of symbolic interactionism. The interviews with the dyads of support providers and receivers reveal a strong emphasis on the exchange. The exchange based on the logic of reciprocity is either latent or manifest. Other symbolic meanings of the logic of reciprocity, i. e., exchange as an investment and a social debt, can also be noticed. The analysis of the motives demonstrates the reasons for the formation of the intergenerational attitudes: a role of demonstration effect and a strong role of primary and secondary socialization with certain internalized attitudes. Altruism is expressed by emphasizing emotions and affection. Several thematic segments are apparent in the interviews: altruism as an unquestioned phenomenon, altruism as a primordial quality and attachment as an object of reflection. The article suggests that the inclusion of an action level into intergenerational relationship studies helps to deepen the understanding of family relationships

  6. Knowledge sharing in virtual communities: A social exchange theory perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Jinyang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The author tried to identify the knowledge sharing behaviors on the internet, using structural equation modeling methods, proposing a model based on social exchange theory in which share willingness, trust, reciprocity, altruism tended to have impact on people’s knowledge sharing behaviors in virtual communities. Design/methodology/approach: We presented an empirical research which integrated social exchange theory and structural equation modeling methods to analyze several important factors influencing members’ knowledge sharing behaviors in virtual communities. Findings: We analyzed the knowledge sharing behaviors in virtual communities. We found that members’ altruism can not predict knowledge sharing behaviors. We also found that members’ sharing willingness is the most important factor on virtual community knowledge sharing behaviors compared with trust, reciprocity and altruism. Originality/value: From the perspective of social exchange theory, we did empirical test and verified the proposed research model by using structural equation modeling methods. Our finding can help recognize people’s incentive about knowledge sharing.

  7. Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) do not develop contingent reciprocity in an experimental task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosnan, Sarah Frances; Silk, Joan B; Henrich, Joseph; Mareno, Mary Catherine; Lambeth, Susan P; Schapiro, Steven J

    2009-07-01

    Chimpanzees provide help to unrelated individuals in a broad range of situations. The pattern of helping within pairs suggests that contingent reciprocity may have been an important mechanism in the evolution of altruism in chimpanzees. However, correlational analyses of the cumulative pattern of interactions over time do not demonstrate that helping is contingent upon previous acts of altruism, as required by the theory of reciprocal altruism. Experimental studies provide a controlled approach to examine the importance of contingency in helping interactions. In this study, we evaluated whether chimpanzees would be more likely to provide food to a social partner from their home group if their partner had previously provided food for them. The chimpanzees manipulated a barpull apparatus in which actors could deliver rewards either to themselves and their partners or only to themselves. Our findings indicate that the chimpanzees' responses were not consistently influenced by the behavior of their partners in previous rounds. Only one of the 11 dyads that we tested demonstrated positive reciprocity. We conclude that contingent reciprocity does not spontaneously arise in experimental settings, despite the fact that patterns of behavior in the field indicate that individuals cooperate preferentially with reciprocating partners.

  8. Impact of the human egalitarian syndrome on darwinian selection mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, C

    1997-07-01

    With nothing more than kin selection and reciprocal altruism theories to work with, the selection basis of human degrees of altruism and cooperation is often difficult to explain. However, during our prehistoric foraging phase, a highly stable egalitarian syndrome arose that had profound effects on Darwinian selection mechanics. The band's insistence on egalitarianism seriously damped male status rivalry and thereby reduced the intensity of selection within the group by reducing phenotypic variation at that level, while powerful social pressure to make decisions consensual at the band level had a similar effect. Consensual decisions also had another effect: they increased variation between groups because entire bands enacted their subsistence strategies collectively and the strategies varied between bands. By reducing the intensity of individual selection and boosting group effects, these behaviors provided a unique opportunity for altruistic genes to be established and maintained. In addition, the egalitarian custom of socially isolating or actively punishing lazy or cheating noncooperators reduced the free-rider problem. In combination, these phenotypic effects facilitated selection of altruistic genes in spite of some limited free riding. This selection scenario remained in place for thousands of generations, and the result was a shift in the balance of power between individual and group selection in favor of group effects. This new balance today is reflected in an ambivalent human nature that exhibits substantial altruism in addition to selfishness and nepotism. PMID:18811308

  9. Social justice and research using human biological material: A response to Mahomed, Nöthling-Slabbert and Pepper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordaan, Donrich W

    2016-06-17

    Social justice in the context of research using human biological material is an important contemporary legal-ethical issue. A question at the heart of this issue is the following: Is it fair to expect a research participant (a person who participates in such research by, among others, making available biological material from his or her body) to participate on an altruistic basis, while the researchers and the investors in the research can gain commercially from the research? In a recent article, Mahomed, Nöthling-Slabbert and Pepper proposed that research participants should be entitled to share in the profits emanating from such research via a proposed new statutory right to the intellectual property emanating from such research. In order to stimulate debate on this important issue of social justice, this article responds to the position of Mahomed et al. by focusing on two main points: Firstly, I contend that Mahomed et al. fail to make a convincing argument in favour of shifting away from altruism; secondly, I caution against framing the debate in terms of the binary poles of altruism v. profitsharing, and suggest that should healthcare public policy ever move away from altruism, various non-monetary forms of benefit-sharing by research participants should be considered.

  10. Inter-group conflict and cooperation: field experiments before, during and after sectarian riots in Northern Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio S Silva

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The idea that cooperative groups out-compete less cooperative groups has been proposed as a theoretical possibility for the evolution of cooperation through cultural group selection. Previous studies have found an association between increased cooperation and exposure to inter-group violence, but most have not been able to identify the specific target of cooperation and are based on correlational data making it difficult to establish causality. In this study we test the hypothesis that inter-group conflict promotes parochial altruism (i.e. in-group altruism and out-group hostility by using longitudinal data of a real-world measure of cooperation – charity and school donations – sampled before, during and after violent sectarian riots between Catholics and Protestants in Belfast, Northern Ireland. We find that conflict is associated with reductions in all types of cooperation, with reduced donations to a neutral charity, and both in-group and out-group primary schools. After the conflict, both in-group and out-group donations increased again. In this context we find no evidence that inter-group conflict promotes parochial altruism.

  11. Inter-Group Conflict and Cooperation: Field Experiments Before, During and After Sectarian Riots in Northern Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Antonio S; Mace, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    The idea that cooperative groups out-compete less cooperative groups has been proposed as a theoretical possibility for the evolution of cooperation through cultural group selection. Previous studies have found an association between increased cooperation and exposure to inter-group violence, but most have not been able to identify the specific target of cooperation and are based on correlational data making it difficult to establish causality. In this study we test the hypothesis that inter-group conflict promotes parochial altruism (i.e., in-group altruism and out-group hostility) by using longitudinal data of a real-world measure of cooperation-charity and school donations-sampled before, during and after violent sectarian riots between Catholics and Protestants in Belfast, Northern Ireland. We find that conflict is associated with reductions in all types of cooperation, with reduced donations to a neutral charity, and both in-group and out-group primary schools. After the conflict, both in-group and out-group donations increased again. In this context we find no evidence that inter-group conflict promotes parochial altruism.

  12. Social justice and research using human biological material: A response to Mahomed, Nöthling-Slabbert and Pepper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordaan, Donrich W

    2016-07-01

    Social justice in the context of research using human biological material is an important contemporary legal-ethical issue. A question at the heart of this issue is the following: Is it fair to expect a research participant (a person who participates in such research by, among others, making available biological material from his or her body) to participate on an altruistic basis, while the researchers and the investors in the research can gain commercially from the research? In a recent article, Mahomed, Nöthling-Slabbert and Pepper proposed that research participants should be entitled to share in the profits emanating from such research via a proposed new statutory right to the intellectual property emanating from such research. In order to stimulate debate on this important issue of social justice, this article responds to the position of Mahomed et al. by focusing on two main points: Firstly, I contend that Mahomed et al. fail to make a convincing argument in favour of shifting away from altruism; secondly, I caution against framing the debate in terms of the binary poles of altruism v. profitsharing, and suggest that should healthcare public policy ever move away from altruism, various non-monetary forms of benefit-sharing by research participants should be considered. PMID:27384358

  13. Inter-Group Conflict and Cooperation: Field Experiments Before, During and After Sectarian Riots in Northern Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Antonio S.; Mace, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    The idea that cooperative groups out-compete less cooperative groups has been proposed as a theoretical possibility for the evolution of cooperation through cultural group selection. Previous studies have found an association between increased cooperation and exposure to inter-group violence, but most have not been able to identify the specific target of cooperation and are based on correlational data making it difficult to establish causality. In this study we test the hypothesis that inter-group conflict promotes parochial altruism (i.e., in-group altruism and out-group hostility) by using longitudinal data of a real-world measure of cooperation—charity and school donations—sampled before, during and after violent sectarian riots between Catholics and Protestants in Belfast, Northern Ireland. We find that conflict is associated with reductions in all types of cooperation, with reduced donations to a neutral charity, and both in-group and out-group primary schools. After the conflict, both in-group and out-group donations increased again. In this context we find no evidence that inter-group conflict promotes parochial altruism. PMID:26640449

  14. Filantropía democrática y sentimientos morales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Béjar, Helena

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The following article analizes the moral sentiments attached to volunteer work as a civic practice which links individualism and altruism. I consider individualism as the moral center of contemporary culture, whereas altruism is an extraordinary behaviour, both in the moral and the social sense. I have studied the motivations of formal volunteerism, leaving aside informal help. I have found three discourses that have been considered as ideal types, even though in all of them individualism and altruism are intertwined. The so-called individualistic language, the Christian one and the civic one express the contemporary moral languages, which contain a specific conception of the social ties and the moral sentiments that are adscribed to it.

    El siguiente trabajo analiza los sentimientos morales dentro del voluntariado como una práctica cívica que enlaza el individualismo, eje axial de la cultura contemporánea, y el altruismo, entendido como un comportamiento extraordinario, tanto social como moralmente. En concreto, se estudian las motivaciones del voluntariado formal, dejando de lado la ayuda informal y espontánea. Aparecen tres discursos que se presentan como tipos ideales, aunque en todos ellos se combinen la dicotomía altruismo/egoísmo. Tales discursos son el individualista, el cristiano y el cívico, y expresan los lenguajes morales contemporáneos que hablan sobre los valores en torno a la vinculación social y los sentimientos morales a ella asociados.

  15. 中学生利他动机的调查研究%An Investigation into the Altruistic Motivation of Middle School Students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡惠

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨中学生的利他动机现状和利他动机的影响因素。方法:采用中学生利己性利他动机量表和利他性利他动机量表,对广州某中学在校334名中学生进行调查。结果:中学生报告低度利己性利他动机和高度利他性利他动机。性别、学生干部等因素均同中学生利己性利他动机无关。学生干部、年级、家长职业同中学生利他性利他动机有显著关系。%Goal: to investigate the status quo of the altruistic motivation of middle school students and its influencing factors.Approach: making use of the altruistic motivation inventory of Egoism and Altruism to perform a public-opinion poll among 334 middle school students in Guangzhou.Result: low-level altruistic motivation of Egoism and high-level altruistic motivation of Altruism,and such factors as gender,student cadre have nothing to do with the altruistic motivation of Egoism while such factors as student leader,grade and parents' jobs have something remarkable to do with the altruistic motivation of Altruism.

  16. Effects of Fairness Concerns on Supply Chain Coordination and Contract Design%批发价格契约下考虑公平关切的供应链协调及契约设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛占文; 郁艳青; 何龙飞

    2014-01-01

    本文将公平关切分为利己性和利他性两因子,在不同因子水平下研究了批发价格契约下供应链的协调及旁支付契约设计。发现虽然供应链仍不能协调,但是当零售商追求利他性的同时会促进利己性的实现,使零售商的最优决策更加接近系统最优;当零售商追求利己性时会达到损人不利己的效果使零售商的最优决策偏离系统最优,并添加算例进行了验证。同时,还发现公平关切因子与旁支付函数系数无关。%Incorporating fairness concerns into supply chain management is an important research direction to behavior operation management .Fairness concerns are divided into altruism preference and egoism pref-erence , and the impact of different fairness concerns on supply chain coordination of wholesale price con -tract and side-payment self-enforcing contract is studied .And it shows that although supply chain cannot coordinate when the retailer seeks altruism , it will help its egoism and make its optimal decision much closer to the system;when the retailer seeks egoism , it will do harm to both its altruism and egoism , get-ting its optimal decision further away from the system .A numerical example is given to verify the effective-ness of the conclusion .What’s more, it also shows that fairness concerns are not related to the coefficients of the side-payment function .

  17. Etika Kepedulian : Welas Asih Dalam Tindakan Moral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeremias Jena

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract : Compassion in ethical discourse is used to describe the attitudes and actions of moral agent in helping the vulnerables and the suffering. Discourse around compassion generally focused on whether compassion is an attitude of sympathy or empathy, or it is the attitude of compassion derived from an altruistic attitude which is inherent in intelligent being. This paper argues that compassion is realized only in the context of ethics of care. For that reason, the paper will first distinguish simpaty from empathy and contextualize them within the realm of altruism. At the same time this approach plays the role of criticizing emotive ethics of David Hume and Kantian ethics which is attacked by Kantian ethics as heteronomous.Keywords : sympathy, empathy, altruism, epiphanic experience, caring encounters, care ethicsAbstrak : Sikap welas asih (compassion dalam diskursus etika digunakan untuk mendeskripsikan sikap dan tindakan moral menolong sesama yang rentan dan menderita. Diskursus seputar sikap welas asih umumnya difokuskan pada apakah sikap tersebut adalah bagian dari sikap simpati atau empati? Atau, apakah sikap welas asih adalah wujud dari sikap altruistik yang umumnya dimiliki makhluk hidup berperasaan dan berinteligensi? Tulisan ini pertama-tama akan menunjukkan bahwa sikap welas asih lebih dekat dengan konsep dan sikap simpati. Untuk memahami hal ini, pembedaannya dengan empati akan dikemukakan. Di atas semuanya itu, sikap welas asih (simpati dan empati dibedakan juga dari sikap altruistik manusia. Melalui tulisan ini akan ditunjukkan pula bahwa hanya melalui etika kepedulian (ethics of care kita dapat memahami welas asih sebagai sikap dan tindakan moral. Ini sekaligus menjadi kritik tajam terhadap etika Humean yang terlalu memuja perasaan moral dan etika Kantian yang menghojat emosi atau perasaan moral sebagai etika manusia heteronom.Kata kunci : Simpati, Empati, Altruisme, Pengalaman epifani, Perjumpaan penuh belas kasih, Etika

  18. From Neural and Social Cooperation to the Global Emergence of Cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo eGrigolini

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The recent article cite{hebbian} discusses the emergence of intelligencevia criticality as a consequence of locality breakdown. Herein, we use criticality for the foundation of a novel generation of game theory making the local interaction between players yield long-range effects.We first establish that criticality is not confined to the Ising-like structure of the sociological model of cite{hebbian}, called the decision making model (DMM, through the study of the emergence of altruism using the altruism-selfishness model (ASM. Bothmodels generate criticality, one by imitation of opinion (DMM the other byimitation of behavior (ASM.The dynamics of a sociological network $mathcal{S}$ influences thebehavioral network $mathcal{F}$ through two game theoretic paradigms:(i emph{the value of altruism} ; (ii emph{the benefit of rapid consensus}.In (i the network $mathcal{S}$ debates the moral issue ofaltruism by means of the DMM, while at the level $mathcal{F}$ the individuals operate according to the ASM. The individuals of the level $mathcal{S}$, through a weak influence on the individuals of the level $mathcal{F}$,exert a societal control on $mathcal{F}$, fitting the principle of complexity management and complexity matching. In (ii the benefit to society is the rapid attainment of consensus in the $mathcal{S}$ level.The agents of the level $mathcal{F}$ operate according to the prisoner'sdilemma prescription, with the defectors acting as DMMcontrarians at the level $mathcal{S}$. The contrarians, acting as the inhibitory links of neural networks, exert on society the same beneficial effect of maintaining the criticality-induced resilience that they generate in neural networks. The conflict between personal and social benefit makes the networks evolve toward criticality.Finally, we show that the theory of this article is compatible with recent discoveries in the burgeoning field of social neuroscience.

  19. The primary solution of global poor health and poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tegegne, Ayalew

    2008-01-01

    There is a huge global burden of disease and mortality. The principal underlying cause is regarded as poverty. This is associated with a global order of fear, over-consumption, over-population and violence, which can interact in a vicious circle. It is proposed that the solution to the problem is not only the relief of poverty, but the institution of a new order in which the individual is sovereign. This in turn requires a trinity of ideals for the individual: self-control to avoid over-consumption, altruism to cope with fear, and peace to manage violence. PMID:18488673

  20. War as a moral imperative (not just practical politics by other means).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginges, Jeremy; Atran, Scott

    2011-10-01

    We present findings from one survey and five experiments carried out in the USA, Nigeria and the Middle East showing that judgements about the use of deadly intergroup violence are strikingly insensitive to quantitative indicators of success, or to perceptions of their efficacy. By demonstrating that judgements about the use of war are bounded by rules of deontological reasoning and parochial commitment, these findings may have implications for understanding the trajectory of violent political conflicts. Further, these findings are compatible with theorizing that links the evolution of within-group altruism to intergroup violence.

  1. Same behavior, different consequences: reactions to men's and women's altruistic citizenship behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilman, Madeline E; Chen, Julie J

    2005-05-01

    In 2 experimental studies, the authors hypothesized that the performance of altruistic citizenship behavior in a work setting would enhance the favorability of men's (but not women's) evaluations and recommendations, whereas the withholding of altruistic citizenship behavior would diminish the favorability of women's (but not men's) evaluations and recommendations. Results supported the authors' predictions. Together with the results of a 3rd study demonstrating that work-related altruism is thought to be less optional for women than for men, these results suggest that gender-stereotypic prescriptions regarding how men and women should behave result in different evaluative reactions to the same altruistic behavior, depending on the performer's sex. PMID:15910140

  2. Investigating Love’s Universal Attributes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jankowiak, William; Shen, Yifei; Yao, Shiyu;

    2015-01-01

    , Lithuanian) and in the United States. Expanding on their study, we used a similar questionnaire that also includes additional questions designed to probe the youth of urban China’s perception and understanding of romantic love as an emotional and psychological force. We found that Chinese youths’ responses...... are similar to the Euro-American five core findings that all individuals, regardless of gender, experience when “in love.” These core attributes are as follows: “I will do anything for the person I love” (or altruism), “I constantly think about the person I am in love with” (or intrusive thinking), “romantic...

  3. 英文摘要

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Empirical Research of Young Volunteer's Motivation A Case Study of Collage Students in Shandong Province Abstract: As the mainstay of the volunteer groups, young volunteers have been playing an important role to promote economic and social progress. Participation in volunteering is driven by various motivations. Based on samples from collage students in Shandong province, this paper focuses on the factors influencing young volunteers' motivations. It is found that altruism, political status, age, education, family members and social relationships have significant impact on making a collage student to be a volunteer.

  4. Altruizmas ir jaunimo altruistiškumo ugdymo veiksniai

    OpenAIRE

    Lileikis, Saulius

    2004-01-01

    Straipsnyje atskleisti altruizmo koncepcijos ištakų bei raidos momentai ir, remiantis dorovinės pozicijos koncepcija, kuri implikuoja žinias apie dorovines vertybes, dorovinius požiūrius ir su jais susijusius išgyvenimus, siekius realizuoti dorovines vertybes ir konkrečių veiksmų sąveiką, ištirta jaunimo pozicija jų altruistiškumo ugdymo veiksnių atžvilgiu. The present article analyzes the beginning and development of conception of altruism. on the ground of conception of the moral positio...

  5. The heritability of blood donation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Ole Birger; Axel, Skytthe; Rostgaard, Klaus;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Voluntary blood donation is believed to be mostly motivated by altruism. Because studies have suggested that altruistic personality is determined by both genetic and environmental factors, we speculated that willingness to donate blood could also be governed by constitutional factors...... active Danish blood donors from 2002 to 2012, to establish blood donor status for Danish twins, who at age 17 years became eligible for donation in 2002 or later. Casewise concordance in monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins were presented and heritability was estimated in Mx by variance component...... to donate blood, respectively. CONCLUSION: Becoming a volunteer blood donor is determined by both genetic and environmental factors shared within families....

  6. Brain intersections of aesthetics and morals: perspectives from biology, neuroscience, and evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidel, D W; Nadal, M

    2011-01-01

    For centuries, only philosophers debated the relationship between aesthetics and morality. Recently, with advances in neuroscience, the debate has moved to include the brain and an evolved neural underpinning linking aesthetic reactions and moral judgment. Biological survival emphasizes mate selection strategies, and the ritual displays have been linked to human aesthetics in the arts, in faces, and in various daily decision making. In parallel, cultural human practices have evolved to emphasize altruism and morality. This article explores the biological background and discusses the neuroscientific evidence for shared brain pathways for aesthetics and morals.

  7. The role of the hospice volunteer in community settings

    OpenAIRE

    Draper, Janet; Kernohan, George; McNamara, Aine; Komaromy, Carol

    2014-01-01

    In the UK, there are between 70,000 and 100,000 hospice volunteers, of whom half have direct patient contact. This seminar draws on a commissioned literature review that highlighted how ‘volunteering is integral to voluntary action and often motivated by altruism.’ The review concluded that hospice at home volunteers can help improve the quality of responsiveness of end of life care, improve access to care and can support care and death in the person’s own home. Volunteers gain health and soc...

  8. Personality Traits of Altruistic People: Empathy and the Big Five Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Tait, Dorothy J

    2009-01-01

    Previous research has shown that empathy and personality is related to helping behaviour. This study looks at helping in relation to affective empathy and Costa and McCrae’s (1992) Big Five personality traits, using both males (n = 22) and females (n = 32). It also looks at helping in relation to people’s dispositional levels of altruism, empathy and personal distress, which have not been widely looked at in previous research. These are measured before and after exposure to a help-provokin...

  9. Measuring In-Group and Out-Group Helping in Communal Living: Helping and Substance Abuse Recovery

    OpenAIRE

    Viola, Judah J.; Joseph R. Ferrari; Davis, Margaret I.; Leonard A. Jason

    2009-01-01

    With a national U.S. sample of communal-living residents in substance abuse recovery, the tendency to help members inside and/or outside their community was examined. Study 1 (n = 670) developed of the Communal Living In-Group Helping Scale to distinguish helping directed toward housemates vs. others. Study 2 (n = 419) used this communal helping measure and a general altruism scale to explore gender, ethnicity, and 12-Step sponsorship related to in-group (housemates) and out-group (others in ...

  10. The social side of Homo economicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, Daniel J

    2011-01-01

    Many recent experiments in the field of behavioural economics appear to demonstrate a willingness of humans to behave altruistically, even when it is not in their interest to do so. This has led to the assertion that humans have evolved a special predisposition towards altruism. Recent studies have questioned this, and demonstrated that selfless cooperation does not hold up in controlled experiments. As I discuss here, this calls for more economic 'field experiments' and highlights the need for greater integration of the evolutionary and economic sciences. PMID:21087808

  11. A Competitive Market in Human Organs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny Frederick

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available I offer consequentialist and deontological arguments for a competitive market in human organs, from live as well as dead donors. I consider the objections that a market in organs will frustrate altruism, coerce the desperate, expose under-informed agents to unacceptable risks, exacerbate inequality, degrade those who participate in it, involve a kind of slavery, impose invidious costs, and impair third-party choice sets. I show that each of these objections is without merit and that, in consequence, the opposition to markets in organs is an untenable endorsement of death, suffering and the suppression of freedom.

  12. Incentives for organ donation: pros and cons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chkhotua, A

    2012-01-01

    Altruism still remains the main principle of organ donation worldwide. However, since the current practices has not met the demand for organs, new strategies should be found to encourage organ donation. Implementation of financial incentives in transplantation is a matter of debate among experts in the fields of transplantation, ethics, law, and economics. It should be acknowledged that donors incur many expenses while participating in the transplant process, which seems unfair. Various forms of incentives have been suggested and are currently used worldwide. This article describes current attitudes toward incentives for in transplantation used in different countries, arguing in favor as well as against them. PMID:22841275

  13. Attitudes towards blood and living organ donations

    OpenAIRE

    Cabasés Hita, Juan Manuel; Errea, María

    2010-01-01

    We model the decision of whether or not to become a blood/living organ donor. The expected utility for becoming a donor is a function of the degree of altruism, the consumption of goods, the costs of donation, the very pleasure of giving, and the recipient’s utility associated to donation. Empirically, we observe differences in the expected costs and benefits from donation between blood and non-blood donors, and between individuals with different willingness to donate living organs. Looking a...

  14. Enhanced subgenual cingulate response to altruistic decisions in remitted major depressive disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdem Pulcu

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: We showed that altruistic decisions probe residual sgACC hypersensitivity in MDD even after symptoms are fully remitted. The sgACC has previously been shown to be associated with guilt which promotes altruistic decisions. In contrast, the striatum showed common activation to both simple and altruistic rewards and could be involved in the so-called “warm glow” of donation. Enhanced neural response in the depression group, in areas previously linked to altruistic decisions, supports the hypothesis of a possible association between hyper-altruism and depression vulnerability, as shown by recent epidemiological studies.

  15. The evolution of human warfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitman, George R

    2011-01-01

    Here we propose a new theory for the origins and evolution of human warfare as a complex social phenomenon involving several behavioral traits, including aggression, risk taking, male bonding, ingroup altruism, outgroup xenophobia, dominance and subordination, and territoriality, all of which are encoded in the human genome. Among the family of great apes only chimpanzees and humans engage in war; consequently, warfare emerged in their immediate common ancestor that lived in patrilocal groups who fought one another for females. The reasons for warfare changed when the common ancestor females began to immigrate into the groups of their choice, and again, during the agricultural revolution. PMID:22081837

  16. Colony fusion and worker reproduction after queen loss in army ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kronauer, Daniel J C; Schöning, Caspar; d'Ettorre, Patrizia;

    2010-01-01

    Theory predicts that altruism is only evolutionarily stable if it is preferentially directed towards relatives, so that any such behaviour towards seemingly unrelated individuals requires scrutiny. Queenless army ant colonies, which have anecdotally been reported to fuse with queenright foreign...... colonies, are such an enigmatic case. Here we combine experimental queen removal with population genetics and cuticular chemistry analyses to show that colonies of the African army ant Dorylus molestus frequently merge with neighbouring colonies after queen loss. Merging colonies often have no direct co...

  17. PSY 301 NEW Courses / uoptutorial

    OpenAIRE

    NEHA

    2015-01-01

    PSY 301 Week 1 DQ 1 Social Psychology PSY 301 Week 1 DQ 2 The Acting Self PSY 301 Week 2 Assignment Prejudice, Stereotypes, and Discrimination PSY 301 Week 2 DQ 1 Attitude and Behavior PSY 301 Week 2 DQ 2 Attributions PSY 301 Week 3 Assignment Persuasion Who, What, To Whom PSY 301 Week 3 DQ 1 Persuasion Techniques PSY 301 Week 3 DQ 2 Obedience and Conformity PSY 301 Week 4 Asssignment Power of Love and Relationships PSY 301 Week 4 DQ 1 Altruism and ProsocialBehavior...

  18. PEOPLE/POINTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Warm-hearted Philanthropist Guo Mingyi,a 52-year-old worker from the Anshan Iron and Steel Group in northeast China’s Liaoning Province,has become a household name in China because of his altruism.President Hu Jintao has called on people around the country to follow Guo’s example.Since 1990,Guo has donated 60,000 milliliters of blood during 54 sessions,in all the total volume contained in 10 adult bodies and enough to save 75

  19. Moral emotions as determinants of third-party punishment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rob M. A. Nelissen

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Third-party punishment has recently received attention as an explanation for human altruism. Feelings of anger in response to norm violations are assumed to motivate third-party sanctions, yet there is only sparse and indirect support for this idea. We investigated the impact of both anger and guilt feelings on third-party sanctions. In two studies both emotions were independently manipulated. Results show that anger and guilt independently constitute sufficient but not necessary causes of punishment. Low levels of punishment are observed only when neither emotion is elicited. We discuss the implications of these findings for the functions of altruistic sanctions.

  20. Factors influencing physicians' knowledge sharing on web medical forums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tung Cheng; Lai, Ming Cheng; Yang, Shu Wen

    2016-09-01

    Web medical forums are relatively unique as knowledge-sharing platforms because physicians participate exclusively as knowledge contributors and not as knowledge recipients. Using the perspective of social exchange theory and considering both extrinsic and intrinsic motivations, this study aims to elicit the factors that significantly influence the willingness of physicians to share professional knowledge on web medical forums and develops a research model to explore the motivations that underlie physicians' knowledge-sharing attitudes. This model hypothesizes that constructs, including shared vision, reputation, altruism, and self-efficacy, positively influence these attitudes and, by extension, positively impact knowledge-sharing intention. A conventional sampling method and the direct recruitment of physicians at their outpatient clinic gathered valid data from a total of 164 physicians for analysis in the model. The empirical results support the validity of the proposed model and identified shared vision as the most significant factor of influence on knowledge-sharing attitudes, followed in descending order by knowledge-sharing self-efficacy, reputation, and altruism. PMID:25888432

  1. 'From Man to Bacteria': W.D. Hamilton, the theory of inclusive fitness, and the post-war social order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swenson, Sarah A

    2015-02-01

    W.D. Hamilton's theory of inclusive fitness aimed to define the evolved limits of altruism with mathematical precision. Although it was meant to apply universally, it has been almost irretrievably entwined with the particular case of social insects that featured in his famous 1964 papers. The assumption that social insects were central to Hamilton's early work contradicts material in his rich personal archive. In fact, careful study of Hamilton's notes, letters, diaries, and early essays indicates the extent to which he had humans in mind when he decided altruism was a topic worthy of biological inquiry. For this reason, this article reconsiders the role of extra-scientific factors in Hamilton's early theorizing. In doing so, it offers an alternative perspective as to why Hamilton saw self-sacrifice to be an important subject. Although the traditional narrative prioritizes his distaste for benefit-of-the-species explanations as a motivating factor behind his foundational work, I argue that greater attention ought to be given to Hamilton's hope that science could be used to address social ills. By reconsidering the meaning Hamilton intended inclusive fitness to have, we see that while he was no political ideologue, the socio-political relevance of his theory was nevertheless integral to its development.

  2. New Understanding of Henchard's Tragedy in "The Mayor of Casterbridge"%New Understanding of Henchard's Tragedy in "The Mayor of Casterbridge"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪雅君

    2012-01-01

    No masterpiece by great writers is single-sided. It is always polyhedron and is bound to show new sides if we read it in a different perspective. Traditionally, "the Mayor of Casterbridge", one of the important novels by Thomas Hardy, is an illustration of the inevitable doom of the patriarchal economy in the English countryside in the 19th century England due to the merciless squeeze by industrial expansion. However, considering the widespread accepted theory of Adam Smith's economic man and moral man, we could find that man are always in conflict between the two. Someone who are very rational and perfectly informed to pur- sue their own profits and wealth regardless of others' interests could always successfully gain their wealth with the cost of losing their own happiness, while others who always care about someone else, put themselves in someone else's places, and regard some- one else's happiness as their concerns could eventually get their real happiness and sweet life with a sympathetic heart. Adam Smith thinks that the egoism (economic man) and the altruism (moral man) are both human's natural instincts. Only a moderately prudent balance and union between the two could both develop the economy and gain the happiness. In "The Mayor of Caster- bridge", I-Ienchard's tragedy just lies in the abundance of egoism but the shortage of altruism. That's to say, he possesses too many characteristics of economic man but too little of moral man. Then Henchard inevitably begins his tragic way with no repen- tance.

  3. Gratitude for help among adult friends and siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotkirch, Anna; Lyons, Minna; David-Barrett, Tamas; Jokela, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Although gratitude is a key prosocial emotion reinforcing reciprocal altruism, it has been largely ignored in the empirical literature. We examined feelings of gratitude and the importance of reciprocity in same-sex peer relations. Participants were 772 individuals (189 men; mean age = 28.80) who completed an online survey using a vignette design. We investigated (i) differences in reported gratitude and the importance of reciprocity among same-sex siblings and same-sex friends, and (ii) how relationship closeness moderates these associations. Based on the theory of kin altruism, we expect that people would feel more grateful towards friends than towards their siblings, and that lack of gratitude or failure to pay back a loan would bother more with friends than with siblings, irrespective of emotional closeness. Results showed that levels of gratitude and expectations of reciprocity were higher towards friends compared to siblings. This was the case also after controlling for emotional closeness. Being close generally made participants feel more grateful and expect lower displays of gratitude in the other. Closeness was also strongly associated with emotional gratitude among siblings compared to friends. We conclude that feelings and displays of gratitude have a special role in friendships. Although a close sibling may elicit as much gratitude as a friend does, even a very close friend is not exempt from the logic of reciprocity in the same way that a sibling is. PMID:25300047

  4. The roles of the medial prefrontal cortex and striatum in reputation processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izuma, Keise; Saito, Daisuke N; Sadato, Norihiro

    2010-01-01

    How we are viewed by other individuals-our reputation-has a considerable influence on our everyday behaviors and is considered an important concept in explaining altruism, a uniquely human trait. Previously it has been proposed that processing one's own reputation requires a reputation representation in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and a value representation in the striatum. Here, we directly tested this idea using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Subjects disclosed their behavioral tendencies with reference to social norms in the presence or absence of other people, a manipulation that is known to greatly affect an individual's concern for their reputation. The mPFC showed strong activation during self-referential processing, and this activity was enhanced by the mere presence of observers. Moreover, the striatum was also strongly activated when subjects responded in front of observers. Thus, the present study demonstrated that the mPFC and striatum were automatically recruited when the task placed a high demand on processing how one is viewed by others. Taken together, our findings suggest that the mPFC and the striatum play a key role in regulating human social behaviors, and these results provide valuable insight into the neural basis of human altruism.

  5. Gratitude for help among adult friends and siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotkirch, Anna; Lyons, Minna; David-Barrett, Tamas; Jokela, Markus

    2014-07-06

    Although gratitude is a key prosocial emotion reinforcing reciprocal altruism, it has been largely ignored in the empirical literature. We examined feelings of gratitude and the importance of reciprocity in same-sex peer relations. Participants were 772 individuals (189 men; mean age = 28.80) who completed an online survey using a vignette design. We investigated (i) differences in reported gratitude and the importance of reciprocity among same-sex siblings and same-sex friends, and (ii) how relationship closeness moderates these associations. Based on the theory of kin altruism, we expect that people would feel more grateful towards friends than towards their siblings, and that lack of gratitude or failure to pay back a loan would bother more with friends than with siblings, irrespective of emotional closeness. Results showed that levels of gratitude and expectations of reciprocity were higher towards friends compared to siblings. This was the case also after controlling for emotional closeness. Being close generally made participants feel more grateful and expect lower displays of gratitude in the other. Closeness was also strongly associated with emotional gratitude among siblings compared to friends. We conclude that feelings and displays of gratitude have a special role in friendships. Although a close sibling may elicit as much gratitude as a friend does, even a very close friend is not exempt from the logic of reciprocity in the same way that a sibling is.

  6. I want to help you, but I am not sure why: gaze-cuing induces altruistic giving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Robert D; Bayliss, Andrew P; Szepietowska, Anna; Dale, Laura; Reeder, Lydia; Pizzamiglio, Gloria; Czarna, Karolina; Wakeley, Judi; Cowen, Phillip J; Tipper, Steven P

    2014-04-01

    Detecting subtle indicators of trustworthiness is highly adaptive for moving effectively amongst social partners. One powerful signal is gaze direction, which individuals can use to inform (or deceive) by looking toward (or away from) important objects or events in the environment. Here, across 5 experiments, we investigate whether implicit learning about gaze cues can influence subsequent economic transactions; we also examine some of the underlying mechanisms. In the 1st experiment, we demonstrate that people invest more money with individuals whose gaze information has previously been helpful, possibly reflecting enhanced trust appraisals. However, in 2 further experiments, we show that other mechanisms driving this behavior include obligations to fairness or (painful) altruism, since people also make more generous offers and allocations of money to individuals with reliable gaze cues in adapted 1-shot ultimatum games and 1-shot dictator games. In 2 final experiments, we show that the introduction of perceptual noise while following gaze can disrupt these effects, but only when the social partners are unfamiliar. Nonconscious detection of reliable gaze cues can prompt altruism toward others, probably reflecting the interplay of systems that encode identity and control gaze-evoked attention, integrating the reinforcement value of gaze cues. PMID:23937180

  7. Cultural transmission and the evolution of human behaviour: a general approach based on the Price equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Mouden, C; André, J-B; Morin, O; Nettle, D

    2014-02-01

    Transmitted culture can be viewed as an inheritance system somewhat independent of genes that is subject to processes of descent with modification in its own right. Although many authors have conceptualized cultural change as a Darwinian process, there is no generally agreed formal framework for defining key concepts such as natural selection, fitness, relatedness and altruism for the cultural case. Here, we present and explore such a framework using the Price equation. Assuming an isolated, independently measurable culturally transmitted trait, we show that cultural natural selection maximizes cultural fitness, a distinct quantity from genetic fitness, and also that cultural relatedness and cultural altruism are not reducible to or necessarily related to their genetic counterparts. We show that antagonistic coevolution will occur between genes and culture whenever cultural fitness is not perfectly aligned with genetic fitness, as genetic selection will shape psychological mechanisms to avoid susceptibility to cultural traits that bear a genetic fitness cost. We discuss the difficulties with conceptualizing cultural change using the framework of evolutionary theory, the degree to which cultural evolution is autonomous from genetic evolution, and the extent to which cultural change should be seen as a Darwinian process. We argue that the nonselection components of evolutionary change are much more important for culture than for genes, and that this and other important differences from the genetic case mean that different approaches and emphases are needed for cultural than genetic processes. PMID:24329934

  8. Anna Freud and the Holocaust: mourning and survival guilt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, John J

    2014-12-01

    This article explores the period of Anna Freud's life after she was informed of the deaths of her aunts in Nazi concentration camps during World War II. Understanding of this period may be enhanced by consideration of the role of the Holocaust in her complicated mourning process. A series of her dreams is re-examined from the point of view of survivor guilt and the complicated mourning of her father in the context of the Holocaust. It is argued that unconscious reproaches against her father led to an identification with him that included his 'decision' to leave his sisters in Vienna. Survivor guilt in relation to her aunts' murders is seen as one of the complicating factors in the mourning process. In addition the article discusses the possible role of this period, particularly her work with child concentration camp survivors, in her post-war writing. The noted duality in her work between innovation and conservatism is explored in terms of an outcome of the mourning process of this period. It is argued that her views on mourning, trauma, attachment, and the widening scope of indications for psychoanalysis were influenced by the outcome of her mourning process. Finally, an irony is noted in the fact that her attitude about altruism never changed despite the role of the altruism of others in her rescue from the Nazis. PMID:25363600

  9. Impact of Genetic Counseling and Testing on Altruistic Motivations to Test for BRCA1/2: a Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Rahul; Vogelgesang, Joseph; Kelly, Kimberly

    2016-06-01

    Despite the importance of altruism in an individual's participation in genetic counseling and testing, little research has explored the change in altruistic motivations to test over time. This study analyzed altruistic motivations to test and change in altruistic motivations after genetic counseling and testing among individuals (N = 120) at elevated risk for BRCA1/2 mutations. The perceived benefits of genetic testing were assessed and utilized in a mixed-methods, repeated measures design at three time points: pre-counseling, counseling and post-genetic testing, along with transcripts of genetic counseling sessions. Qualitative analysis using an immersion/crystallization method resulted in six common perceived benefits of testing: cancer prevention, awareness, family's survival, relief from anxiety, for science, and future planning. Perceived benefits were then coded into three categories according to Hamilton's kin selection theory: altruistic motivation, personal motivation, and motivation for mutual benefit. At pre-counseling, those with a personal cancer history (p = 0.003) and those with one or more children (p = 0.013), were significantly more likely to cite altruistic motivations to test. Altruistic motivations significantly increased post-counseling (p = 0.01) but declined post-testing (p cancer to have altruistic motivations for testing. Genetic counseling may have increased altruistic motivations to help family and may be a prime opportunity to discuss other forms of altruism. PMID:26578231

  10. [The emergence of indirect reciprocity: evolutionary foundation of altruistic behavior based on "strict discriminator"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashima, Rie; Takahashi, Nobuyuki

    2005-12-01

    Although there have been a number of studies that theoretically and empirically examined altruism based on direct reciprocity, few have been conducted on how altruism based on indirect reciprocity emerges. Recent advances in biological research, however, have suggested possible answers to the question. For instance, Nowak and Sigmund (1998a, b) proposed that what they called image scoring strategy made indirect reciprocity possible. After critically examining their work, Leimar and Hammerstein (2001) pointed out several limitations to the theory, and instead proposed standing strategy as an explanation. Although careful attempts to replicate the findings by them and Panchanathan and Boyd (2003) supported the arguments against image scoring, we reveal that standing strategy was not a satisfactory answer either. Based on a series of evolutionary simulations, we propose a new strategy, which we call strict discriminator, as an alternative. Strict discriminators are discriminating altruists, similar to the altruists with image scoring or standing strategy, but they are different in that its criterion for discrimination is stricter: unconditional altruists are excluded from their reciprocity.

  11. Urban begging and ethnic nepotism in Russia : An ethological pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butovskaya, M; Salter, F; Diakonov, I; Smirnov, A

    2000-06-01

    Ethnic nepotism theory predicts that even in times of communal peace altruism is more pronounced within than between ethnic groups. The present study tested the hypothesis that altruism in the form of alms giving would be greater within than between ethnic groups, and greater between more closely related groups than between more distant groups. The three groups chosen for study were ethnic Russians, Moldavians, and Gypsies. Russians are genetically closer to Moldavians than to Gypsies. Observations were made of 128 ethnic Russian, 25 Moldavian, and 25 Gypsy beggars receiving gifts from ethnic Russians in Moscow trains. The Gypsies were mainly girls, contrary to the Russian sample. Multivariate analysis identified three main strategies: active, personified, and appeasing-undirected. Russian strategies were most variable. Gypsies presented strong charity releasers: 84% were children who played music and sang and showed appeasing-undirected behavior. The few adults were highly submissive or friendly. Nevertheless, their success was limited compared with that of ethnic Russians despite the latter's demanding behavior and their being mostly mature or elderly persons. Moldavians received an intermediate amount of charity. The hypothesis was supported. PMID:26193365

  12. The correlation between justice and organizational citizenship behavior and organizational identity among nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbabisarjou, Azizollah; Hajipour, Reza; Sadeghian, Mahdi

    2014-11-01

    "The correlation between justice and organizational citizenship behavior and organizational identity among the nurses", aimed to correlate different aspects of personal feelings and organizational identity in a population of nurses. The population included all nurses working at hospitals affiliated to administry of health, treatment and medical education in Shahre-Kord (Iran) 2009. A sample consisting of 168 nurses was randomly selected out of the population. The study adopted a descriptive-correlative method. The Organizational Justice Questionnaire (1998), the Organizational Citizenship Questionnaire, and Organizational Identity Questionnaire (1982) were used for gathering data. Data was analyzed through multiple regression analysis. The findings revealed that 4 dimensions of organizational citizenship behavior (altruism, civic virtue, conscientiousness, and self-development) are correlated with organizational identity (R² = 0.612); and loyalty and obedience are correlated with distributional justice (R² = 0.71). Also, loyalty, altruism, and obedience are correlated with procedural justice (R² = 0.69) and loyalty and self-development are correlated with distributional justice (R² = 0.89). A correlation was also detected between interactional justice and organizational identity (R² = 0.89). The findings of the study could serve to identify the factors contributing to the creation and recreation of organizational identity, citizenship behavior and justice among nurses, to promote the performance of the organization, and to achieve organizational goals. PMID:25363122

  13. Factors Influencing the Identification of Sustainable Opportunities by SMEs: Empirical Evidence from Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Progress Choongo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study uses the model of Patzelt and Shepherd (2011 to examine the factors influencing the identification of sustainable opportunities among SMEs in a developing country, Zambia. The factors under investigation include knowledge of the natural/social environment, perception of threats to the natural/social environment, altruism towards others and entrepreneurial knowledge. We interviewed 220 owner-managers in the trading and service sector who supply goods and services to the mining industry in Zambia. We found that altruism towards others was partially supported by our empirical results while the positive effects of knowledge of the natural/social environment and perception of threats to the natural/social environment on the identification of sustainable opportunities were not supported. Contrary to our expectations, entrepreneurial knowledge does not positively moderate the relationship between explanatory variables and the identification of sustainable opportunities. In sum, we found only limited empirical support for the model of Patzelt and Shepherd (2011 concerning the identification of sustainable opportunities. Our findings contribute to literature on entrepreneurship and sustainable opportunity identification by showing what factors influence the identification of sustainable opportunities. This can help us to create awareness among entrepreneurs regarding the effects of entrepreneurial activities on the environment and society; consequently, stimulating entrepreneurs to identify sustainable opportunities.

  14. Antecedents of citizenship behaviour in online customer communities: An empirical investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercy Mpinganjira

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Use of online communities for knowledge generation has become a common phenomenon. In order for online communities to serve as affective spaces for knowledge generation and exchange, members need to behave in ways that are in line with good citizenship. However, because of the limited research, not much is known about citizenship behaviour in such communities and the factors that foster such conduct.Objectives: This article aims to examine the performance of citizenship behaviours by members of online customer communities, and the factors that influence this.Methodology: Data were collected from 303 contributing members of online customer communities using a structured questionnaire. Structural equation modelling was used to analyse the data collected.Results: The findings show moderate levels of engagement in citizenship behaviours among the respondents. Engagement in citizenship behaviours was in general found to be influenced more by the level of affective commitment towards the community than by the perceived levels of social support. Both affective commitment and perceived social support were found to have less influence on compliant citizenship behaviour when compared with altruism and personal initiative. Affective commitment was found to influence personal initiative most strongly, while social support had its strongest influence on altruism. Conclusion: The results provide insights for managers of online customer communities into factors to which they should give attention in order to enhance the performance of citizenship behaviours.

  15. Reasons behind the participation in biomedical research: a brief review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Mansoldo Dainesi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Clinical research is essential for the advancement of Medicine, especially regarding the development of new drugs. Understanding the reasons behind patients' decision of participating in these studies is critical for the recruitment and retention in the research. OBJECTIVES: To examine the decision-making of participants in biomedical research, taking into account different settings and environments where clinical research is performed. Methods: A critical review of the literature was performed through several databases using the keywords: "motivation", "decision", "reason", "biomedical research", "clinical research", "recruitment", "enrollment", "participation", "benefits", "altruism", "decline", "vulnerability" and "ethics", between August and November 2013, in English and in Portuguese. RESULTS: The review pointed out that the reasons can be different according to some characteristics such as the disease being treated, study phase, prognoses and socioeconomic and cultural environment. Access to better health care, personal benefits, financial rewards and altruism are mentioned depending on the circumstances. CONCLUSION: Finding out more about individuals' reasons for taking part in the research will allow clinical investigators to design studies of greater benefit for the community and will probably help to remove undesirable barriers imposed to participation. Improving the information to health care professionals and patients on the benefits and risks of clinical trials is certainly a good start.

  16. The roles of the medial prefrontal cortex and striatum in reputation processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izuma, Keise; Saito, Daisuke N; Sadato, Norihiro

    2010-01-01

    How we are viewed by other individuals-our reputation-has a considerable influence on our everyday behaviors and is considered an important concept in explaining altruism, a uniquely human trait. Previously it has been proposed that processing one's own reputation requires a reputation representation in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and a value representation in the striatum. Here, we directly tested this idea using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Subjects disclosed their behavioral tendencies with reference to social norms in the presence or absence of other people, a manipulation that is known to greatly affect an individual's concern for their reputation. The mPFC showed strong activation during self-referential processing, and this activity was enhanced by the mere presence of observers. Moreover, the striatum was also strongly activated when subjects responded in front of observers. Thus, the present study demonstrated that the mPFC and striatum were automatically recruited when the task placed a high demand on processing how one is viewed by others. Taken together, our findings suggest that the mPFC and the striatum play a key role in regulating human social behaviors, and these results provide valuable insight into the neural basis of human altruism. PMID:19705330

  17. Philosophy of organ donation: Review of ethical facets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalal, Aparna R

    2015-06-24

    Transplantation ethics is a philosophy that incorporates systematizing, defending and advocating concepts of right and wrong conduct related to organ donation. As the demand for organs increases, it is essential to ensure that new and innovative laws, policies and strategies of increasing organ supply are bioethical and are founded on the principles of altruism and utilitarianism. In the field of organ transplantation, role of altruism and medical ethics values are significant to the welfare of the society. This article reviews several fundamental ethical principles, prevailing organ donation consent laws, incentives and policies related to the field of transplantation. The Ethical and Policy Considerations in Organ Donation after Circulatory Determination of Death outline criteria for death and organ retrieval. Presumed consent laws prevalent mostly in European countries maintain that the default choice of an individual would be to donate organs unless opted otherwise. Explicit consent laws require organ donation to be proactively affirmed with state registries. The Declaration of Istanbul outlines principles against organ trafficking and transplant tourism. World Health Organization's Guiding Principles on Human Cell, Tissue and Organ Transplantation aim at ensuring transparency in organ procurement and allocation. The ethics of financial incentives and non-financial incentives such as incorporation of non-medical criteria in organ priority allocation have also been reviewed in detail. PMID:26131406

  18. [What is professionalism?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohbu, Sadayoshi

    2012-01-01

    What is a profession? According to Cruess, it is an occupation whose core element is work that is based on the mastery of a complex body of knowledge and skills. It is a vocation in which knowledge of some department of science or learning, or the practice of an art founded on it, is used in the service of others. Its members profess a commitment to competence, integrity, morality, altruism, and the promotion of the public good within their domain. These commitments form the basis of a social contract between a profession and society, which in return grants the profession autonomy in practice and the privilege of self-regulation. Although medical professionals share the role of healer, there are wide variations between individuals. Professionalism is the basis of medicine's contract with society. Public trust is essential to that contract, and public trust depends on the integrity of both individual professionals and the whole profession. The introduction to this important symposium includes definitions of professions and of medical professionalism. It also includes discussions of reciprocal altruism, conflicts of interest in medical societies, the theory of cognitive dissonance, and the moral foundations of professionalism.

  19. The evolution of generalized reciprocity on social interaction networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Doorn, Gerrit Sander; Taborsky, Michael

    2012-03-01

    Generalized reciprocity (help anyone, if helped by someone) is a minimal strategy capable of supporting cooperation between unrelated individuals. Its simplicity makes it an attractive model to explain the evolution of reciprocal altruism in animals that lack the information or cognitive skills needed for other types of reciprocity. Yet, generalized reciprocity is anonymous and thus defenseless against exploitation by defectors. Recognizing that animals hardly ever interact randomly, we investigate whether social network structure can mitigate this vulnerability. Our results show that heterogeneous interaction patterns strongly support the evolution of generalized reciprocity. The future probability of being rewarded for an altruistic act is inversely proportional to the average connectivity of the social network when cooperators are rare. Accordingly, sparse networks are conducive to the invasion of reciprocal altruism. Moreover, the evolutionary stability of cooperation is enhanced by a modular network structure. Communities of reciprocal altruists are protected against exploitation, because modularity increases the mean access time, that is, the average number of steps that it takes for a random walk on the network to reach a defector. Sparseness and community structure are characteristic properties of vertebrate social interaction patterns, as illustrated by network data from natural populations ranging from fish to primates.

  20. Anna Freud and the Holocaust: mourning and survival guilt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, John J

    2014-12-01

    This article explores the period of Anna Freud's life after she was informed of the deaths of her aunts in Nazi concentration camps during World War II. Understanding of this period may be enhanced by consideration of the role of the Holocaust in her complicated mourning process. A series of her dreams is re-examined from the point of view of survivor guilt and the complicated mourning of her father in the context of the Holocaust. It is argued that unconscious reproaches against her father led to an identification with him that included his 'decision' to leave his sisters in Vienna. Survivor guilt in relation to her aunts' murders is seen as one of the complicating factors in the mourning process. In addition the article discusses the possible role of this period, particularly her work with child concentration camp survivors, in her post-war writing. The noted duality in her work between innovation and conservatism is explored in terms of an outcome of the mourning process of this period. It is argued that her views on mourning, trauma, attachment, and the widening scope of indications for psychoanalysis were influenced by the outcome of her mourning process. Finally, an irony is noted in the fact that her attitude about altruism never changed despite the role of the altruism of others in her rescue from the Nazis.

  1. Supporting renewable energy on liberalised markets: green electricity between additionally and consumer sovereignty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The German feed-in regulation has been perhaps the most effective promotional policy for green electricity. However, with the growing momentum of the liberalisation process the current regulation is challenged by structural problems about how to address the demand side. Price regulation leaves little room for private green electricity market activities. Moreover, the success of the feed-in regulation depends on a strict differentiation of the political segment and the emerging green electricity markets. The question, therefore, is about the role green electricity markets can (or should) perform in general. In order to evaluate green electricity markets the additionality criteria is frequently used, implying that markets are only desirable if they lead to additional environmental effects. The additionality criteria has two implications: First, transformed into individual behaviour, additionality implies that consumers are assumed to act as pure altruists. However, there is evidence from empirical studies that green electricity consumers behave more as impure altruists: they are not so much interested in the objective environmental impact of their behaviour but more objected to receive a private satisfaction from buying an environmental friendly product. Whereas theoretical models in the case of pure altruism suggest that private activities crowd out totally when policy becomes active in supporting the public good, this crowding out disappears in the case of impure altruism. Second, using end-state criteria such as the additionality principle as precondition, and neglecting process criteria such as consumer sovereignty, means to prevent establishing competitive market process right at the outset in principle. (author)

  2. Children’s altruistic behavior in context: The role of emotional responsiveness and culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajhans, Purva; Altvater-Mackensen, Nicole; Vaish, Amrisha; Grossmann, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    Altruistic behavior in humans is thought to have deep biological roots. Nonetheless, there is also evidence for considerable variation in altruistic behaviors among individuals and across cultures. Variability in altruistic behavior in adults has recently been related to individual differences in emotional responsiveness to fear in others. The current study examined the relation between emotional responsiveness (using eye-tracking) and altruistic behavior (using the Dictator Game) in 4 to 5-year-old children (N = 96) across cultures (India and Germany). The results revealed that increased altruistic behavior was associated with a greater responsiveness to fear faces (faster fixation), but not happy faces, in both cultures. This suggests that altruistic behavior is linked to our responsiveness to others in distress across cultures. Additionally, only among Indian children greater altruistic behavior was associated with greater sensitivity to context when responding to fearful faces. These findings further our understanding of the origins of altruism in humans by highlighting the importance of emotional processes and cultural context in the development of altruism. PMID:27137754

  3. The 'Honne-Tatemae' Dimension in Japan's Foreign Aid Policy: Overseas Development Aid Allocations in Southeast Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FURUOKA, Fumitaka, and KATO, Iwao

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper employs the socio-psychological concept of 'honne-tatemae' to analyse Japanese foreign aid policy. Tatemae refers to the 'façade' or 'appearances' while honne signifies the 'real intention'. The Japanese government has pledged to use foreign aid to promote economic development and political stability in developing countries. On the other hand, Japan's official development assistance (ODA program has been repeatedly criticised for being employed as a tool to promote Japan's own commercial interests. In this context, altruism could be a superficial principle of Japanese foreign aid policy which forms the 'tatemae' dimension while selfishness could represent a true hidden motive for the aid giving and form the 'honne' dimension. The present paper uses panel data analysis to examine which element – honne or tatemae – has influenced the decision-making process of allocation of Japan's ODA to Southeast Asia. The findings indicate that the volumes of Japan's exports to and income levels in the aid recipient countries had a significant influence on foreign aid distribution. The Japanese government tended to allocate bigger amounts of money to Japan's major trade partners in ASEAN. At the same time, the poorer nations in the region received more of Japan's ODA compared to the comparatively well-off nations. In other words, both altruism (tatemae dimension and selfishness (honne dimension characterise Japan's ODA flows.

  4. Neural and cognitive characteristics of extraordinary altruists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Abigail A.; Stoycos, Sarah A.; Brethel-Haurwitz, Kristin M.; Robinson, Paul; VanMeter, John W.; Cardinale, Elise M.

    2014-01-01

    Altruistic behavior improves the welfare of another individual while reducing the altruist’s welfare. Humans’ tendency to engage in altruistic behaviors is unevenly distributed across the population, and individual variation in altruistic tendencies may be genetically mediated. Although neural endophenotypes of heightened or extreme antisocial behavior tendencies have been identified in, for example, studies of psychopaths, little is known about the neural mechanisms that support heightened or extreme prosocial or altruistic tendencies. In this study, we used structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging to assess a population of extraordinary altruists: altruistic kidney donors who volunteered to donate a kidney to a stranger. Such donations meet the most stringent definitions of altruism in that they represent an intentional behavior that incurs significant costs to the donor to benefit an anonymous, nonkin other. Functional imaging and behavioral tasks included face-emotion processing paradigms that reliably distinguish psychopathic individuals from controls. Here we show that extraordinary altruists can be distinguished from controls by their enhanced volume in right amygdala and enhanced responsiveness of this structure to fearful facial expressions, an effect that predicts superior perceptual sensitivity to these expressions. These results mirror the reduced amygdala volume and reduced responsiveness to fearful facial expressions observed in psychopathic individuals. Our results support the possibility of a neural basis for extraordinary altruism. We anticipate that these findings will expand the scope of research on biological mechanisms that promote altruistic behaviors to include neural mechanisms that support affective and social responsiveness. PMID:25225374

  5. Neural signatures of third-party punishment: evidence from penetrating traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Leila; Moody, Lara; Grafman, Jordan; Krueger, Frank

    2016-02-01

    The ability to survive within a cooperative society depends on impartial third-party punishment (TPP) of social norm violations. Two cognitive mechanisms have been postulated as necessary for the successful completion of TPP: evaluation of legal responsibility and selection of a suitable punishment given the magnitude of the crime. Converging neuroimaging research suggests two supporting domain-general networks; a mentalizing network for evaluation of legal responsibility and a central-executive network for determination of punishment. A whole-brain voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping approach was used in conjunction with a rank-order TPP task to identify brain regions necessary for TPP in a large sample of patients with penetrating traumatic brain injury. Patients who demonstrated atypical TPP had specific lesions in core regions of the mentalizing (dorsomedial prefrontal cortex [PFC], ventromedial PFC) and central-executive (bilateral dorsolateral PFC, right intraparietal sulcus) networks. Altruism and executive functioning (concept formation skills) were significant predictors of TPP: altruism was uniquely associated with TPP in patients with lesions in right dorsolateral PFC and executive functioning was uniquely associated with TPP in individuals with lesions in left PFC. Our findings contribute to the extant literature to support underlying neural networks associated with TPP, with specific brain-behavior causal relationships confirming recent functional neuroimaging research.

  6. Modelling antecedents of blood donation motivation among non-donors of varying age and education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemmens, K P H; Abraham, C; Ruiter, R A C; Veldhuizen, I J T; Dehing, C J G; Bos, A E R; Schaalma, H P

    2009-02-01

    Understanding blood donation motivation among non-donors is prerequisite to effective recruitment. Two studies explored the psychological antecedents of blood donation motivation and the generalisability of a model of donation motivation across groups differing in age and educational level. An older well-educated population and a younger less well-educated population were sampled. The studies assessed the role of altruism, fear of blood/needles and donation-specific cognitions including attitudes and normative beliefs derived from an extended theory of planned behaviour (TPB). Across both samples, results showed that affective attitude, subjective norm, descriptive norm, and moral norm were the most important correlates of blood donation intentions. Self-efficacy was more important among the younger less well-educated group. Altruism was related to donation motivation but only indirectly through moral norm. Similarly, fear of blood/needles only had an indirect effect on motivation through affective attitude and self-efficacy. Additional analyses with the combined data set found no age or education moderation effects, suggesting that this core model of donation-specific cognitions can be used to inform future practical interventions recruiting new blood donors in the general population. PMID:18547458

  7. The Dental Values Scale: development and validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langille, Angela D; Catano, Victor M; Boran, Thomas L; Cunningham, Donald P

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to produce a valid scale for use in measuring the values of dental students and practitioners--the lack of which has impeded research on professionalism in dentistry. Following standard scale development procedures, we had focus groups of dental practitioners (N=23) develop a ninety-nine-item pool of value terms related to dentistry. Next, Canadian dentists (N=449) rated the relevance of each item through an online survey. They also rated the values in a generic values measure, Schwartz's Values Scale. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses identified twenty-five items representing five values: Altruism, Personal Satisfaction, Conscientiousness, Quality of Life, and Professional Status. These values correlate with related dimensions from Schwartz's measure; they also correspond to the values in the American Dental Education Association's statement on professionalism. We then administered the new Dental Values Scale to dental students (N=96) to determine the relationship between practitioner and student values. First-year students were higher in Conscientiousness, Altruism, and Personal Satisfaction than practitioners, but these values decreased over time to those held by the dentists. We discuss the implication of these results and the potential value of the new scale for dental education. PMID:21123496

  8. Relatedness with different interaction configurations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Peter D; Grafen, A

    2010-02-01

    In an inclusive fitness model of social behaviour, a key concept is that of the relatedness between two interactants. This is typically calculated with reference to a "focal" actor taken to be representative of all actors, but when there are different interaction configurations, relatedness must be constructed as an average over all such configurations. We provide an example of such a calculation in an island model with local reproduction but global mortality, leading to variable island size and hence variable numbers of individual interactions. We find that the analysis of this example significantly sharpens our understanding of relatedness. As an application, we obtain a version of Hamilton's rule for a tag-based model of altruism in a randomly mixed population. For large populations, the selective advantage of altruism is enhanced by low (but not too low) tag mutation rates and large numbers of tags. For moderate population sizes and moderate numbers of tags, we find a window of tag mutation rates with critical benefit/cost ratios of between 1 and 3. PMID:19833134

  9. Neural signatures of third-party punishment: evidence from penetrating traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Leila; Moody, Lara; Grafman, Jordan; Krueger, Frank

    2016-02-01

    The ability to survive within a cooperative society depends on impartial third-party punishment (TPP) of social norm violations. Two cognitive mechanisms have been postulated as necessary for the successful completion of TPP: evaluation of legal responsibility and selection of a suitable punishment given the magnitude of the crime. Converging neuroimaging research suggests two supporting domain-general networks; a mentalizing network for evaluation of legal responsibility and a central-executive network for determination of punishment. A whole-brain voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping approach was used in conjunction with a rank-order TPP task to identify brain regions necessary for TPP in a large sample of patients with penetrating traumatic brain injury. Patients who demonstrated atypical TPP had specific lesions in core regions of the mentalizing (dorsomedial prefrontal cortex [PFC], ventromedial PFC) and central-executive (bilateral dorsolateral PFC, right intraparietal sulcus) networks. Altruism and executive functioning (concept formation skills) were significant predictors of TPP: altruism was uniquely associated with TPP in patients with lesions in right dorsolateral PFC and executive functioning was uniquely associated with TPP in individuals with lesions in left PFC. Our findings contribute to the extant literature to support underlying neural networks associated with TPP, with specific brain-behavior causal relationships confirming recent functional neuroimaging research. PMID:26276809

  10. Cooperation and conflict: field experiments in Northern Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Antonio S; Mace, Ruth

    2014-10-01

    The idea that cohesive groups, in which individuals help each other, have a competitive advantage over groups composed of selfish individuals has been widely suggested as an explanation for the evolution of cooperation in humans. Recent theoretical models propose the coevolution of parochial altruism and intergroup conflict, when in-group altruism and out-group hostility contribute to the group's success in these conflicts. However, the few empirical attempts to test this hypothesis do not use natural groups and conflate measures of in-group and unbiased cooperative behaviour. We conducted field experiments based on naturalistic measures of cooperation (school/charity donations and lost letters' returns) with two religious groups with an on-going history of conflict-Catholics and Protestants in Northern Ireland. Conflict was associated with reduced donations to out-group schools and the return of out-group letters, but we found no evidence that it influences in-group cooperation. Rather, socio-economic status was the major determinant of cooperative behaviour. Our study presents a challenge to dominant perspectives on the origins of human cooperation, and has implications for initiatives aiming to promote conflict resolution and social cohesion.

  11. Lying aversion and prosocial behaviour

    CERN Document Server

    Biziou-van-Pol, Laura; Novaro, Arianna; Liberman, Andrés Occhipinti; Capraro, Valerio

    2015-01-01

    The focus of this paper is the moral conflict between lying aversion and prosociality. What does telling a white lie signal about a person's prosocial tendencies? How does believing a possibly untruthful message signal about a listener's prosocial tendencies? To answer these questions, we conducted a 2x3 experiment. In the first stage we measured altruistic tendencies using a Dictator Game and cooperative tendencies using a Prisoner's dilemma. In the second stage, we used a sender-receiver game to measure aversion to telling a Pareto white lie (i.e., a lie that helps both the liar and the listener), aversion to telling an altruistic white lie (i.e., a lie that helps the listener at the expense of the liar), and skepticism towards believing a possibly untruthful message. We found three major results: (i) both altruism and cooperation are positively correlated with aversion to telling a Pareto white lie; (ii) neither altruism nor cooperation are significantly correlated with aversion to telling an altruistic wh...

  12. 从《道德情操论》中的道德坐标系看公平缺失问题%Problems of Lack of Fairness From the"Theory of Moral Sentiments"in Moral Coordinate System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石烁

    2014-01-01

    Justice is the supreme of the pursuit of the development of human society, and is also an important issue in Adam Simy's moral philosophy. Adam Simy talked about "self altruism" problem in the "theory of moral sentiments". That is why the egoistic individuals control their selfish impulse, and complete the altruistic practice. At the same time, "theory of moral sentiments"also try to answer"self altruism behavior for the construction of"how to have the effect of social morality and then provides an important standard for Fairness Evaluation.%公平是人类社会发展所追求的至高境界,也是亚当·斯密道德哲学的重要议题。亚当·斯密在《道德情操论》探讨了“克己利他”问题,即具有利己本性的个人为何会控制其自私利己的冲动,完成利他的实践。同时,《道德情操论》中也试图解答“克己利他”行为对于社会道德的构建到底具有怎样的影响,从而为公平问题的评判提供了重要标准。

  13. A Review on the Motivations and Consequences of Philanthropic Donations---Based on the Economics Perspective%慈善捐赠动机与后果研究述评--基于经济学视角

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张敦力; 汪佑德; 汪攀攀

    2013-01-01

    The philanthropic motivations falls into three catalogues: value rationality with social responsibili-ty-altruism,purposive rationality for self-centered strategy-egoism,and regulation rationality out of survival The philanthropic motivations falls into three catalogues: value rationality with social responsibili-ty-altruism,purposive rationality for self-centered strategy-egoism,and regulation rationality out of survival pressure-mutual benefit. The consequences of charitable donation seem contradictory but logically consistent internally. Charitable donation in China differs from that of the western countries in its scale,structure and mode. On this basis,social and economic,cultural and system factors of China should be taken as external variables in the research of motivations and consequences of charitable donation. In such research,the moti-vations of altruism,egoism and mutual benefit should be integrated,related theories of western economics and management should be used for reference and empirical methods should be applied. Through studies about the relation between charitable donation and social benefits,short-term effects and long-term effects,consis-tent results will be drawn for the improvement of domestic charity.%慈善捐赠动机可归为:价值理性社会责任---利他;目的理性自身战略---自利;法规理性生存压力---互利。慈善捐赠的后果看似相互矛盾但内在逻辑一致。我国慈善捐赠的规模、结构与模式与西方显著不同。在研究我国企业慈善捐赠动机与后果时,应该把中国的社会、经济、文化与制度因素作为外部变量考虑进去。今后应结合慈善捐赠的他利、自利和互利动机,借鉴西方经济学与管理学相关理论,采用实证研究方法,来研究慈善捐赠与社会效益、短期效果和长期利益的关系,得出内在逻辑一致结论,以促进我国企业慈善捐赠规模发展和水平提高。

  14. Individual differences in allocation of funds in the dictator game associated with length of the arginine vasopressin 1a receptor RS3 promoter region and correlation between RS3 length and hippocampal mRNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knafo, A; Israel, S; Darvasi, A; Bachner-Melman, R; Uzefovsky, F; Cohen, L; Feldman, E; Lerer, E; Laiba, E; Raz, Y; Nemanov, L; Gritsenko, I; Dina, C; Agam, G; Dean, B; Bornstein, G; Ebstein, R P

    2008-04-01

    Human altruism is a widespread phenomenon that puzzled evolutionary biologists since Darwin. Economic games illustrate human altruism by showing that behavior deviates from economic predictions of profit maximization. A game that most plainly shows this altruistic tendency is the Dictator Game. We hypothesized that human altruistic behavior is to some extent hardwired and that a likely candidate that may contribute to individual differences in altruistic behavior is the arginine vasopressin 1a (AVPR1a) receptor that in some mammals such as the vole has a profound impact on affiliative behaviors. In the current investigation, 203 male and female university students played an online version of the Dictator Game, for real money payoffs. All subjects and their parents were genotyped for AVPR1a RS1 and RS3 promoter-region repeat polymorphisms. Parents did not participate in online game playing. As variation in the length of a repetitive element in the vole AVPR1a promoter region is associated with differences in social behavior, we examined the relationship between RS1 and RS3 repeat length (base pairs) and allocation sums. Participants with short versions (308-325 bp) of the AVPR1a RS3 repeat allocated significantly (likelihood ratio = 14.75, P = 0.001, df = 2) fewer shekels to the 'other' than participants with long versions (327-343 bp). We also implemented a family-based association test, UNPHASED, to confirm and validate the correlation between the AVPR1a RS3 repeat and monetary allocations in the dictator game. Dictator game allocations were significantly associated with the RS3 repeat (global P value: likelihood ratio chi(2) = 11.73, df = 4, P = 0.019). The association between the AVPR1a RS3 repeat and altruism was also confirmed using two self-report scales (the Bardi-Schwartz Universalism and Benevolence Value-expressive Behavior scales). RS3 long alleles were associated with higher scores on both measures. Finally, long AVPR1a RS3 repeats were associated with

  15. Mediation of short and longer term effects of an intervention program to enhance resilience in immigrants from Mainland China to Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Xiaonan eYu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Few clinical trials report on the active intervention components that result in outcome changes, although this is relevant to further improving efficacy and adapting effective programs to other populations. This paper presents follow-up analyses of a randomized controlled trial to enhance adaptation by increasing knowledge and personal resilience in two separate brief interventions with immigrants from Mainland China to Hong Kong (Yu et al., 2014b. The present paper extends our previous one by reporting on the longer term effect of the interventions on personal resilience, and examining whether the Resilience intervention worked as designed to enhance personal resilience. The four-session intervention targeted at self-efficacy, positive thinking, altruism, and goal setting. In this randomized controlled trial, 220 immigrants were randomly allocated to three arms: Resilience, Information (an active control arm, and Control arms. Participants completed measures of the four active components (self-efficacy, positive thinking, altruism, and goal setting at baseline and immediately after the intervention. Personal resilience was assessed at baseline, post-intervention, and three- and six-month follow-ups. The results showed that the Resilience arm had greater increases in the four active components post-intervention. Changes in each of the four active components at the post-intervention assessment mediated enhanced personal resilience at the three-month follow-up in the Resilience arm. Changes in self-efficacy and goal setting showed the largest effect size, and altruism showed the smallest. The arm effects of the Resilience intervention on enhanced personal resilience at the six-month follow-up were mediated by increases of personal resilience post-intervention (Resilience versus Control and at the three-month follow-up (Resilience versus Information. These findings showed that these four active components were all mediators in this Resilience

  16. Role of organizational citizenship behavior in promoting knowledge sharing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Dehghani

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Organizational citizenship behavior has been linked to overall organizational effectiveness, thus these types of employee behaviors have important consequences in the workplace. One of the important consequences of these types of behaviors is knowledge sharing. Thus, the current study examined the role of organizational citizenship behavior in promoting knowledge sharing. Method: A descriptive correlation design was employed in this study. We collected the data from Kharazmi University employees in city of Tehran in 2014. The statistical population consisted of 484 Kharazmi University employees from which 210 persons were selected randomly (using simple random sampling by the Krejcie and Morgan (1978 sample size determination table. Data werecollected through organizational citizenship behavior questionnaire and knowledge sharing questionnaire. To examine the reliability of the questionnaires, Cronbach alpha coefficient was used. These coefficients were 0.80 for attitude toward knowledge sharing and 0.77 for intention to share knowledge. Also, for organizational citizenship behavior it ranged from 0.71 (courtesy to 0.82 (altruism. To determine the validity, content validity method was applied. All descriptive statistics, t-test, Pearson correlation and multiple regression were performed using SPSS 19. Results: The results of t-test indicated that the means of organizational citizenship behavior (mean=2.50 and all its dimensions (altruism: 2.60, conscientiousness: 2.52, sportsmanship: 2.41, courtesy: 2.49, civic virtue: 2.45 among employees were at the moderate level. The results showed that the correlation between organizational citizenship behavior and knowledge sharing was significant (r=0.50, P<0.001. Other results showed that the correlations between knowledge sharing and organizational citizenship behavior dimensions - Altruism (r=0.35, Conscientiousness (r=0.19, Sportsmanship (r=0.46, Courtesy (r=0.39, Civic virtue (r=0

  17. 慈善捐赠动机与后果研究述评--基于经济学视角%A Review on the Motivations and Consequences of Philanthropic Donations---Based on the Economics Perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张敦力; 汪佑德; 汪攀攀

    2013-01-01

    The philanthropic motivations falls into three catalogues: value rationality with social responsibili-ty-altruism,purposive rationality for self-centered strategy-egoism,and regulation rationality out of survival The philanthropic motivations falls into three catalogues: value rationality with social responsibili-ty-altruism,purposive rationality for self-centered strategy-egoism,and regulation rationality out of survival pressure-mutual benefit. The consequences of charitable donation seem contradictory but logically consistent internally. Charitable donation in China differs from that of the western countries in its scale,structure and mode. On this basis,social and economic,cultural and system factors of China should be taken as external variables in the research of motivations and consequences of charitable donation. In such research,the moti-vations of altruism,egoism and mutual benefit should be integrated,related theories of western economics and management should be used for reference and empirical methods should be applied. Through studies about the relation between charitable donation and social benefits,short-term effects and long-term effects,consis-tent results will be drawn for the improvement of domestic charity.%慈善捐赠动机可归为:价值理性社会责任---利他;目的理性自身战略---自利;法规理性生存压力---互利。慈善捐赠的后果看似相互矛盾但内在逻辑一致。我国慈善捐赠的规模、结构与模式与西方显著不同。在研究我国企业慈善捐赠动机与后果时,应该把中国的社会、经济、文化与制度因素作为外部变量考虑进去。今后应结合慈善捐赠的他利、自利和互利动机,借鉴西方经济学与管理学相关理论,采用实证研究方法,来研究慈善捐赠与社会效益、短期效果和长期利益的关系,得出内在逻辑一致结论,以促进我国企业慈善捐赠规模发展和水平提高。

  18. Α quantitative investigation of personality and psychological characteristics on volunteers in the humanitarian non government organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kouliou F.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the heart of volunteerism, as derived from the literature review, the protection of human dignity is identified, since through volunteerism the image of the self is reflected. However, little is known today about the personality characteristics of volunteers at a quantitative level. Most studies around volunteerism focus mostly on a more qualitative and theoretical approach of volunteerism. Aim: The present study was designed to investigate specific psychological characteristics of the personality (altruism, happiness, narcissism, religiousness and the overall family environment which are associated with volunteerism in primary nursing services. More specifically, it was attempted to: a compare the volunteers and non volunteers groups as far as the specific characteristics are concerned, b correlate the individual subscale of each variable both for the whole sample and for each group separately. Methods: The study sample was decided to consist of 121 people who came from two main sources: a volunteers in the nursing section of the Humanitarian NGO of the Hellenic Red Cross and b non- volunteers, members of the healthy population of the wider area of health. The volunteers group consisted of 63 people (52.1%, while the control group consisted of 58 people (47.9% who reported that they had never been involved in volunteerism. The data collection was conducted through a written questionnaire filled at a place and time chosen by the participants. The tools used were: a A questionnaire of sociodemographic characteristics, b The Altruism subscale, c The Subjective Happiness Scale, d The Narcissistic Personality Scale and e The Scale for measuring the Family Environment. Results: From the statistical analysis it was shown that the two groups differentiated quite significantly concerning altruism (P=0.000. Also, they were significantly differentiated concerning narcissism (P=0.012 and moral and religious emphasis of the family environment

  19. Consumer recycling: An ethical decision-making process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Culiberg, Barbara; Bajde, Domen

    2013-01-01

    approaching it as an ethical decision-making process. Our study takes a more holistic approach and integrates the recycling literature with business ethics theory in order to develop a conceptual model of ethical decision making involved in recycling. The model is based on Jones' issue-contingent model...... using structural equation modelling. The results of our study confirmed the relationships between three key facets of ethical decision making: moral recognition, moral judgment and moral intention. Higher levels of moral recognition were found to lead to more positive moral judgments, which in turn...... and its key concept, that is, moral intensity, which we extend by adding altruism as an important personality trait that influences pro-social behaviour. The data were collected from a sample of 367 adult consumers, representative of the Slovenian population by gender and age. The hypotheses were tested...

  20. Health, widowhood, and family support in the North and South Pacific: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNally, James W

    2003-01-01

    This paper compares the impacts of health and widowhood on the level of support received by elderly women living in small island communities within the Philippines and Fiji. Using a theoretical perspective of ongoing reciprocal exchange as opposed to altruistic support within household economies, this paper reviews the impacts of disability and economic contributions on the level of support an elderly female receives. It is hypothesized that as the health of the widow declines her access to care will also diminish due to an inability to contribute to the household economies of the extended family. This paper extends existing work on health and family support of widowed females in the developing world by performing a cross-national comparative analysis as well as by explicitly testing the assumptions of altruism that are a central assumption of most models of long-term care in underdeveloped nations.

  1. Spatial Evolutionary Games of Interaction among Generic Cancer Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach, Lars Arve; Sumpter, David J.T.; Alsner, Jan;

    2003-01-01

    mixing of cells by instead implementing an individual-based model that includes the stochastic and spatial effects likely to occur in tumours. The scope for coexistence of genotypic strategies changed with the inclusion of explicit space and stochasticity. The spatial models show some interesting...... deviations from their mean-field counterparts, for example the possibility of altruistic (paracrine) cell strategies to thrive. Such effects can however, be highly sensitive to model implementation and the more realistic models with semi-synchronous and stochastic updating do not show evolution of altruism....... We do find some important and consistent differences between the spatial and mean-field models, in particular that the parameter regime for coexistence of growth-promoting and non-promoting cell types is narrowed. For certain parameters in the model a selective collapse of a generic growth promoter...

  2. Sport og etik

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Rasmus Bysted

    eksisterende empiri på området. Denne omstændighed gav anledning til afhandlingens tese om, at der hersker en diskrepans mellem sportive og moralske værdier, således at sporten snarere disponerer for egoisme frem for altruisme. I bestræbelsen på at levere en rationel rekonstruktion af denne sportsetiske...... egensfære-orienterede værdihensyn med henblik på en empatibaseret, rationel forvaltning af andre individers livskvalitet. Egoisme blev udlagt som et bevidst fravalg af fremmedsfære-orienterede hensyn til fordel for egensfære-orienterede hensyn. Via en begrebsanalytisk undersøgelse af sportsbegrebet blev...

  3. Peering Strategic Game Models for Interdependent ISPs in Content Centric Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Zhao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Emergent content-oriented networks prompt Internet service providers (ISPs to evolve and take major responsibility for content delivery. Numerous content items and varying content popularities motivate interdependence between peering ISPs to elaborate their content caching and sharing strategies. In this paper, we propose the concept of peering for content exchange between interdependent ISPs in content centric Internet to minimize content delivery cost by a proper peering strategy. We model four peering strategic games to formulate four types of peering relationships between ISPs who are characterized by varying degrees of cooperative willingness from egoism to altruism and interconnected as profit-individuals or profit-coalition. Simulation results show the price of anarchy (PoA and communication cost in the four games to validate that ISPs should decide their peering strategies by balancing intradomain content demand and interdomain peering relations for an optimal cost of content delivery.

  4. Neural components of altruistic punishment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily eDu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Altruistic punishment, which occurs when an individual incurs a cost to punish in response to unfairness or a norm violation, may play a role in perpetuating cooperation. The neural correlates underlying costly punishment have only recently begun to be explored. Here we review the current state of research on the neural basis of altruism from the perspectives of costly punishment, emphasizing the importance of characterizing elementary neural processes underlying a decision to punish. In particular, we emphasize three cognitive processes that contribute to the decision to altruistically punish in most scenarios: inequity aversion, cost-benefit calculation, and social reference frame to distinguish self from others. Overall, we argue for the importance of understanding the neural correlates of altruistic punishment with respect to the core computations necessary to achieve a decision to punish.

  5. An Evaluation of Teachers’ Opinions about the Servant Leadership Behaviours of School Principals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Insley

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the servant leadership behaviors that were displayed, or expected to be displayed, by principals towards the teaching staff at their schools, from the teachers’ perspectives. The data was collected during focus group discussion with 12 teachers who were in service in primary and secondary schools. The teachers were chosen using the snowball sampling method. The data obtained from the participants was analyzed using content analysis. When the findings were evaluated, it was determined that the principals were not qualified enough to display servant leadership behaviors. Moreover, the teachers stated that principals should display servant leadership behaviors that are oriented towards community building, sharing, empathy, active listening, humility, and altruism. In this respect, it can be suggested that principals should receive servant leadership education through instructional programs that should be developed.

  6. Risk-Averse Evolutionary Game Model of Aviation Joint Emergency Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Pan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We study effects of risk-averse attitude of both participators in aviation joint emergency response on the coevolution of cooperation mechanisms and individual preferences between airport and nonprofit organization. First, based on the current aviation joint emergency mechanism in China, we put forward two mechanisms to select the joint nonprofit organization, including reputation cooperation and bidding competition. Meanwhile, we consider two preferences including altruism and selfishness. Then we build replicator dynamics equations using the theory of conditional value-at-risk (CVaR taking risk aversion attitude into account. Finally, we introduce the factor of government and give all participators some suggestions. We show that the risk-averse attitude of the other game participator affects the one participator’s decision and the effects subject to some parameters.

  7. Distributional Preferences, Reciprocity-Like Behavior, and Efficiency in Bilateral Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Daniel J.

    2014-01-01

    Under what conditions do distributional preferences, such as altruism or a concern for fair outcomes, generate efficient trade? I analyze theoretically a simple bilateral exchange game: each player sequentially takes an action that reduces his own material payoff but increases the other player’s. Each player’s preferences may depend on both his/her own material payoff and the other player’s. I identify two key properties of the second-mover’s preferences: indifference curves kinked around “fair” material-payoff distributions, and materials payoffs entering preferences as “normal goods.” Either property can drive reciprocity-like behavior and generate a Pareto efficient outcome. PMID:25664144

  8. Selfish sentinels in cooperative mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clutton-Brock, T H; O'Riain, M J; Brotherton, P N; Gaynor, D; Kansky, R; Griffin, A S; Manser, M

    1999-06-01

    Like humans engaged in risky activities, group members of some animal societies take turns acting as sentinels. Explanations of the evolution of sentinel behavior have frequently relied on kin selection or reciprocal altruism, but recent models suggest that guarding may be an individual's optimal activity once its stomach is full if no other animal is on guard. This paper provides support for this last explanation by showing that, in groups of meerkats (Suricata suricatta), animals guard from safe sites, and solitary individuals as well as group members spend part of their time on guard. Though individuals seldom take successive guarding bouts, there is no regular rota, and the provision of food increases contributions to guarding and reduces the latency between bouts by the same individual.

  9. Impact of Roles Assignation on Heterogeneous Populations in Evolutionary Dictator Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xinyang; Liu, Qi; Sadiq, Rehan; Deng, Yong

    2014-11-01

    The evolution of cooperation is a hot and challenging topic in the field of evolutionary game theory. Altruistic behavior, as a particular form of cooperation, has been widely studied by the ultimatum game but not by the dictator game, which provides a more elegant way to identify the altruistic component of behaviors. In this paper, the evolutionary dictator game is applied to model the real motivations of altruism. A degree-based regime is utilized to assess the impact of the assignation of roles on evolutionary outcome in populations of heterogeneous structure with two kinds of strategic updating mechanisms, which are based on Darwin's theory of evolution and punctuated equilibrium, respectively. The results show that the evolutionary outcome is affected by the role assignation and that this impact also depends on the strategic updating mechanisms, the function used to evaluate players' success, and the structure of populations.

  10. Helping Others, Warming Yourself: Altruistic Behaviors Increase Warmth Feelings of the Ambient Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Tian-Yi; Li, Jingyu; Jia, Huiyuan; Xie, Xiaofei

    2016-01-01

    Altruistic behaviors typically improve the welfare of the recipient at the cost of the performer’s resources and energy. Do altruistic performers obtain any positive internal reward from altruistic behaviors? We conducted six experiments to explore whether altruistic behaviors could increase performer’s warmth perception of the ambient environment. The first three studies focused on crisis situations. A retrospective field study (Study 1, with Hurricane Sandy) and two laboratory studies (Studies 2a and 2b, with an earthquake scenario) found that people who helped others felt warmer of the ambient environment than people who did not. We extended to daily life situations and found that participants who performed helping behaviors in laboratory (either voluntarily in Study 3a or randomly assigned to in Study 3b) and passers-by who donated to a charity (Study 4) reported warmer perception of the ambient environment than those who did not. These findings suggested an immediate internal reward of altruism.

  11. Legal and ethical issues of uterus transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickens, Bernard M

    2016-04-01

    The clinically detailed report of a successful uterus transplantation and live birth in Sweden, in which a family friend donated her uterus, provides a basis for expanded practice. Family members and friends can serve as living donors without offending legal or ethical prohibitions of paid organ donation, even though family members and friends often engage in reciprocal gift exchanges. Donations from living unrelated sources are more problematic, and there is a need to monitor donors' genuine altruism and motivation. Donation by deceased women-i.e. cadaveric donation-raises issues of uterus suitability for transplantation, and how death is diagnosed. Organs' suitability for donation is often achieved by ventilation to maintain cardiac function for blood circulation, but laws and cultures could deem that a heartbeat indicates donors' live status. Issues could arise concerning ownership and control of organs between recovery from donors and implantation into recipients, and on removal following childbirth, that require legal resolution. PMID:26873131

  12. Does food sharing in vampire bats demonstrate reciprocity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Gerald; Wilkinson, Gerald

    2013-11-01

    Claims of reciprocity (or reciprocal altruism) in animal societies often ignite controversy because authors disagree over definitions, naturalistic studies tend to demonstrate correlation not causation, and controlled experiments often involve artificial conditions. Food sharing among common vampire bats has been a classic textbook example of reciprocity, but this conclusion has been contested by alternative explanations. Here, we review factors that predict food sharing in vampire bats based on previously published and unpublished data, validate previous published results with more precise relatedness estimates, and describe current evidence for and against alternative explanations for its evolutionary stability. Although correlational evidence indicates a role for both direct and indirect fitness benefits, unequivocally demonstrating reciprocity in vampire bats still requires testing if and how bats respond to non-reciprocation. PMID:24505498

  13. Conflicts and alliances in insect families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundström, L.; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan

    2001-01-01

    Hamilton's principle of inclusive fitness implies that reproductive altruism can evolve, because individuals can pass on genes not only through their own offspring, but also through the offspring of their relatives. Social insects are spectacular examples of how some individuals may be selected...... to forgo reproduction and instead help others reproduce. Social Hymenoptera are also special because relatedness patterns within families can be asymmetrical, so that optimal sex-ratios, preferred male parentage or preferred mating frequencies become objects of reproductive conflict. The now extensive...... of kin selection as a major evolutionary force, the results suggest that workers frequently control sex allocation. However, the very establishment of such worker control has made new conflicts come to light, between mothers and fathers and between adult individuals and brood. Evidence...

  14. Volunteering as Red Queen mechanism for cooperation in public goods games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauert, C.; De Monte, Silvia; Hofbauer, J.;

    2002-01-01

    The evolution of cooperation among nonrelated individuals is one of the fundamental problems in biology and social sciences. Reciprocal altruism fails to provide a solution if interactions are not repeated often enough or groups are too large. Punishment and reward can be very effective but require...... that defectors can be traced and identified. Here we present a simple but effective mechanism operating under full anonymity. Optional participation can foil exploiters and overcome the social dilemma. In voluntary public goods interactions, cooperators and defectors will coexist. We show that this result holds...... under very diverse assumptions on population structure and adaptation mechanisms, leading usually not to an equilibrium but to an unending cycle of adjustments (a Red Queen type of evolution). Thus, voluntary participation offers an escape hatch out of some social traps. Cooperation can subsist...

  15. Limited food induces nepotism in drywood termites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korb, Judith

    2006-09-22

    The evolution of cooperation and altruistic behaviour where individuals forego their own reproduction to help others reproduce can be explained by kin selection. Depending on the costs and benefits provided, altruism can be evolutionarily favoured if it is directed at close relatives. A considerable body of data supports the role of relatedness as a key determinant of cooperation and conflict within societies. However, the role of ecological factors and, in particular, how these costs and benefits interact with relatedness remains poorly understood. By studying 16 colonies, here I show that in a drywood termite ecological factors determine the importance of relatedness. In colonies with limited food supply, nestmates restrict cooperative interactions mainly to close relatives, while non-discriminative cooperation occurs when food is abundant. This shows for the first time directly the interaction between ecological conditions and relatedness in shaping cooperation. PMID:17148404

  16. Meanings and purposes of caring for a family member: an autoethnography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppes, Steve

    2005-01-01

    Engagement in two interlinked areas of occupation, familial social participation and caring for my father at the end of his life, led to a journey of self-discovery. A qualitative research methodology, autoethnography, is used to develop a narrative that examines engagement in these two occupations before, during, and after my father's illness and death. I discuss meanings and purposes of familial social participation and caregiving, suggesting that transforming fear of death to awareness of death is a central purpose of caregiving. Implications for therapists and caregivers include considerations about the value of occupation, discussion of a continuum of caregiving, examination of boundaries when caring for a parent, thoughts about the roles of altruism, love, anger, and "bad faith" in caregiving, and analysis of sons as caregivers for fathers. Further research on meanings and purposes of caregiving is proposed. PMID:15969274

  17. Marketing of human organs and tissues is justified and necessary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevorkian, J

    1989-01-01

    The bioethical guidelines now banning commerce in human body parts to be used for transplantation manifest unrealistic and arbitrary inflexibility which perpetuates and worsens the deficit in organ supply. Instead of relying on traditionally revered but now outmoded and even irrelevant bioethical maxims, formulators of the guidelines should have concentrated on a more meaningful situational adaptation to contemporary real-life circumstances. Many unexpectedly relevant and important nuances of concepts such as property, ownership, and altruism must now be taken into account. Hypothetical examples explore the morality of a universal ban by fiat and the associated problems of organ supply and demand, of cost and affordability, and of fair equity. It is difficult to justify purely altruistic organ donation today, when the health care professions and industries are frantically pursuing commercial profits. It is concluded that the ban should be scrapped in favor of a well-organized, open, and legally regulated commercial market for human organs and tissues.

  18. Association Between Organizational Citizenship Behavior and Educational Performance of Faculty Members in Tabriz University of Medical Sciences- 2014 [Res Dev Med Educ 2015;4(1:81-84

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asadullah Khadivi

    2015-12-01

    Results: There was a significant relationship between altruism and educational performance (P =0.043. There was a significant relationship between conscientiousness and educational performance (p=0.046. A significant relationship was observed between sportsmanship and educational performance (p=0.004. There was no significant relationship between civic virtue and educational performance (p=0.98. A significant relationship was observed between respect and educational performance (P>0.001. There was no relationship between citizenship behavior and gender of the faculty members (P> 0.05. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that the more faculty members have the spirit of cooperation and assistance to colleagues and students and try to understand the specific situations that students face, the more effective they are in increasing the educational performance at the university level.

  19. Evaluating career values of dietetic students. A model for other allied health professions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez, Vista V; Shanklin, Carol W

    2004-01-01

    Increased job opportunities in health professions make recruitment of students imperative. Effective recruitment requires a knowledge of what students value when making career decisions. This study of dietetic (n = 514) and other college students (n = 352) showed that achievement and economic security were the most important factors in their career selection regardless of major or race. Dietetic majors rated achievement, economic security, ability utilization, personal development, altruism, and working conditions significantly higher than did nondietetic students (p values important to students in this study are attainable through careers in dietetics and other allied health professions. The results of this study should be examined further with a larger sample of allied health majors to assist educators in recruiting and providing career counseling to students. PMID:15053221

  20. Ethics, standards, and TQM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botticelli, M G

    1995-04-01

    The most important ethical issue for our profession is the responsibility to assure the care delivered by our colleagues and ourselves meets a self-imposed standard of excellence. There is anecdotal and experimental evidence that we have not fulfilled this obligation. Peer review has proven, for a number of reasons, to be ineffective; however, improvements in the epidemiologic sciences should provide better standards and total quality management (TQM) might prove to be of value in monitoring, comparing and improving the decisions made by physicians. Its promise lies in its emphasis on statistical analysis, its focus on systematic rather than human error, and its use of outcomes as standards. These methods, however, should not diminish our other professional responsibilities: Altruism, peer review, and in Hippocrates' words "to prescribe regimens for the good of our patients-and never do harm to anyone."

  1. Evolution of cooperation in spatial public goods games with common resource dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakano, Joe Yuichiro

    2007-08-21

    Investment in a common resource shared by all players is difficult to evolve despite higher returns because a non-investor (free-rider) always receives more than an investor (altruist). This situation is referred to as the Tragedy of the Commons and is often observed in various biological systems including environmental problems of human society. Punishment and reputation are effective mechanisms but require cooperator's ability to identify free-riders. Volunteering can work in anonymous public goods games but this requires voluntary participation, which is not always the case. Here, we show that the evolution of altruism is possible in anonymous and obligate public goods games if we consider the spatiotemporal dynamics of the common resource that incorporate spatial diffusion and internal dynamics of the commons. The investors' strategy to counter free-riders is to increase population density and to outnumber them with the common resource level kept as low as that of the free-riders. PMID:17512952

  2. Importance of facial physical attractiveness of audiovisual models in descriptions and preferences of children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Cristina; Conde, Elena; Torres, Esteban

    2005-08-01

    We performed a cross-sectional study with three age groups (8, 14, and 17 years) to evaluate developmental differences in stereotyped beliefs about physical attractiveness and the value of this as perceived by the participants. Given the current importance of television in the development of social knowledge, television models were used. The children and adolescents were asked to evaluate, using bipolar open scales, the physical attractiveness, likeableness, generosity, intelligence, fun, and altruism of 12 television models of both sexes, previously selected by judges, as well as the desire to resemble or feel close to the models. Analysis showed developmental differences across age groups both in the concept of physical attractiveness and in stereotyped beliefs about this. As in other areas of social knowledge, the younger children's responses were bipolar, global, and much more stereotyped, while the adolescents introduced subtle distinctions and elaborated their responses. Nevertheless, physical attractiveness appeared a desirable characteristic for all age groups. PMID:16350629

  3. SUFISTIC AND TRANSFORMATIVE PEDAGOGIC VALUES IN SYAIKH SITI JENAR NOVEL BY AGUS SUNYOTO GENETIC STRUCTURALISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugeng Riadi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to know and understand more deeply about mystical values and transformative pedagogic values in the Syaikh Siti Jenar novel written by Agus Sunyoto. The focus of this study was the intrinsic and extrinsic structure of meaning in the novel. The method applied in this study is  content analysis  using genetic structure by Lucien Goldmann. The results of the study show a number of sufistic values and transformative pedagogic values. Sufistic values include: repentance, ascetic, indigent, patience, gratitude, pleasure, and trust. While the transformative pedagogic values include altruism, egalitarian, pluralism, and eclectic. The findings of the author's world view includes figures deconstruction of the teachings of Syaikh Siti Jenar, cultural missionary endeavor, the concept of superhuman, mystical literature, and literary history.

  4. Mugabe: victim of the IMF and World Bank?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, J L

    2000-06-01

    This paper discusses the role of President Robert Mugabe on the economic crisis in Zimbabwe. It is noted that President Mugabe adopted the Economic Structural Adjustment Programme in 1990. The introduction of this program had more to do with the demands of major exporters, such as White farmers and multinational companies, and the demise of socialist thinking than with any high ideals of altruism. As part of the market strategy, the government removed food subsidies, deregulated the exchange rate, and increased education and health fees. Such moves contributed to the existing crisis in the country, in which access to fertile land has become a matter of survival for many of the 7 million people caught within overcrowded and environmentally degraded communal lands.

  5. The evolution of adhesiveness as a social adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Thomas; Doulcier, Guilhem; De Monte, Silvia

    2015-11-27

    Cellular adhesion is a key ingredient to sustain collective functions of microbial aggregates. Here, we investigate the evolutionary origins of adhesion and the emergence of groups of genealogically unrelated cells with a game-theoretical model. The considered adhesiveness trait is costly, continuous and affects both group formation and group-derived benefits. The formalism of adaptive dynamics reveals two evolutionary stable strategies, at each extreme on the axis of adhesiveness. We show that cohesive groups can evolve by small mutational steps, provided the population is already endowed with a minimum adhesiveness level. Assortment between more adhesive types, and in particular differential propensities to leave a fraction of individuals ungrouped at the end of the aggregation process, can compensate for the cost of increased adhesiveness. We also discuss the change in the social nature of more adhesive mutations along evolutionary trajectories, and find that altruism arises before directly beneficial behavior, despite being the most challenging form of cooperation.

  6. Agents That Negotiate Proficiently with People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Sarit

    Negotiation is a process by which interested parties confer with the aim of reaching agreements. The dissemination of technologies such as the Internet has created opportunities for computer agents to negotiate with people, despite being distributed geographically and in time. The inclusion of people presents novel problems for the design of autonomous agent negotiation strategies. People do not adhere to the optimal, monolithic strategies that can be derived analytically, as is the case in settings comprising computer agents alone. Their negotiation behavior is affected by a multitude of social and psychological factors, such as social attributes that influence negotiation deals (e.g., social welfare, inequity aversion) and traits of individual negotiators (e.g., altruism, trustworthiness, helpfulness). Furthermore, culture plays an important role in their decision making and people of varying cultures differ in the way they make offers and fulfill their commitments in negotiation.

  7. Common language or Tower of Babel? On the evolutionary dynamics of signals and their meanings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Baalen, Minus; Jansen, Vincent A A

    2003-01-01

    We investigate how the evolution of communication strategies affects signal credibility when there is common interest as well as a conflict between communicating individuals. Taking alarm calls as an example, we show that if the temptation to cheat is low, a single signal is used in the population. If the temptation increases cheaters will erode the credibility of a signal, and an honest mutant using a different signal ('a private code') will be very successful until this, in turn, is cracked by cheaters. In such a system, signal use fluctuates in time and space and hence the meaning of a given signal is not constant. When the temptation to cheat is too large, no honest communication can maintain itself in a Tower of Babel of many signals. We discuss our analysis in the light of the Green Beard mechanism for the evolution of altruism. PMID:12590773

  8. Mental health promotion through resilience and resiliency education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Glenn E; Waite, Phillip J

    2002-01-01

    The article provides a brief review of the metatheory of resilience and resiliency, a description of a resiliency training program, and also a summary of results of a resiliency training program. Resilience in this paper is a self-righting force within everyone that drives him/her to pursue self actualization, altruism, wisdom, and harmony with a spiritual source of strength. The resiliency process is the experience of being disrupted by change, opportunities, adversity, stressors or challenges and, after some disorder, accessing personal gifts and strengths to grow stronger through the disruption. The resiliency training program is presented as a five-day progressive program that provides experiences for participants to enhance personal resilience and to pursue resilient relationships. Research previously conducted in a large government organization showed immediate and posttest improvements in resilience, locus of control, purpose in life, self-esteem, interpersonal relationships, and job satisfaction. PMID:12014295

  9. Which activation function of cooperation describes human behavior?

    CERN Document Server

    Jarynowski, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    Properties of cooperation's probability function in Prisoner`s Dilemma have impact on evolution of game. Basic model defines that probability of cooperation depends linearly, both on the player's altruism and the co-player's reputation. I propose modification of activation function to smooth one (hyperbolic tangent with scaling parameter a, which corresponds to its shape) and observe three phases for different range of a. (1) For small a, strategies seem to randomly change in time and situation of mixed choices (one cooperates and second defects) dominate. (2) For medium a, players choose only one strategy for given period of time (the common state can switch to opposite one with some probability). (3) For large a, mixed strategy (once defect, once cooperate) is coexisting with common strategies and no change is allowed. I believe that proposed function characterizes better socio-economical phenomena and especially phase 1 and 2 contain most of human behavior.

  10. Importance of facial physical attractiveness of audiovisual models in descriptions and preferences of children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Cristina; Conde, Elena; Torres, Esteban

    2005-08-01

    We performed a cross-sectional study with three age groups (8, 14, and 17 years) to evaluate developmental differences in stereotyped beliefs about physical attractiveness and the value of this as perceived by the participants. Given the current importance of television in the development of social knowledge, television models were used. The children and adolescents were asked to evaluate, using bipolar open scales, the physical attractiveness, likeableness, generosity, intelligence, fun, and altruism of 12 television models of both sexes, previously selected by judges, as well as the desire to resemble or feel close to the models. Analysis showed developmental differences across age groups both in the concept of physical attractiveness and in stereotyped beliefs about this. As in other areas of social knowledge, the younger children's responses were bipolar, global, and much more stereotyped, while the adolescents introduced subtle distinctions and elaborated their responses. Nevertheless, physical attractiveness appeared a desirable characteristic for all age groups.

  11. Meanings and purposes of caring for a family member: an autoethnography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppes, Steve

    2005-01-01

    Engagement in two interlinked areas of occupation, familial social participation and caring for my father at the end of his life, led to a journey of self-discovery. A qualitative research methodology, autoethnography, is used to develop a narrative that examines engagement in these two occupations before, during, and after my father's illness and death. I discuss meanings and purposes of familial social participation and caregiving, suggesting that transforming fear of death to awareness of death is a central purpose of caregiving. Implications for therapists and caregivers include considerations about the value of occupation, discussion of a continuum of caregiving, examination of boundaries when caring for a parent, thoughts about the roles of altruism, love, anger, and "bad faith" in caregiving, and analysis of sons as caregivers for fathers. Further research on meanings and purposes of caregiving is proposed.

  12. Formation and Development of Psychology of Forgiveness in the United States: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pechin Yu.V.,

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available We provide an overview of studies of the phenomenon of forgiveness in modern American psychology. We discuss the works of the leaders of this area: Robert Enright, Everett Worthington, Michael McCullough and others. The features of the American approach in psychology of forgiveness are close connection with the psychology of religion, focus on practical problems of psychotherapy and counseling, interdisciplinary research. Over three decades, a theoretical model of forgiveness and forgiveness research methodology (Enright questionnaire have been developed, as well as several models of therapy, educational programs for teaching forgiveness to children and teenagers, peace reconciliation programs in the areas of ethnic and religious conflicts. On different samples of subjects, the healing effects of forgiveness on the psychological state have been proven (decreased feelings of resentment, anger and revenge, and positive correlation of forgiveness and altruism, the ability to gratitude, relationship satisfaction, improved physical well-being (stabilized blood pressure, boosted immune system were reported

  13. Beyond the Drake Equation: On the Probability of the Nature of Extraterrestrial Life Forms in Our Galaxy Today

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Harold A.

    2014-01-01

    I will discuss my research into the issues associated with the nature of any extraterrestrials that may be encountered in the future in our galaxy. This research was sparked by statements made by Stephen Hawking in 2010 regarding his fear of emitting radiation from our Earth so that an extraterrestrial intelligent civilization may be alerted to our existence in the galaxy today. While addressing issues of extraterrestrial altruism, a probabilistic equation was developed which addresses the number of extraterrestrial intelligent life forms that may exist in our galaxy today, who could use our bodies for nourishment or reproductive purposes. The equation begins with the results from a Drake Equation calculation, and proceeds by addressing such biochemical parameters as the fraction of ETIs with: dextro sugar stereo-isomers; levo amino acid stereo-isomers; similar codon interpretation; chromosomal length and, similar cell membrane structure to allow egg penetration.

  14. Darwin's apes and "savages".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Contreras, Jorge

    2010-02-01

    Since his visit to Tierra del Fuego in the 1830s, Darwin had been fascinated by the "savages" that succeeded in surviving on such a "broken beach", and because they were certainly similar in behaviour to our ancestors. However, he was also fascinated by baboons' behaviour, according to Brehm's accounts: hamadryas baboons showed a strong altruism to the point of risking their own lives in order to save their infants from attack by dogs. In 1871, he mentions he would rather have descended from brave baboons than from "savages", considered egoistic. We study the two sources of these ideas and try to show how Darwin's comparative reflections on apes and "savages" made him the first evolutionist anthropologist. PMID:20338533

  15. Teaching professionalism to residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Eileen J; Jackson, J Craig; Kratz, Lyn; Marcuse, Edgar K; McPhillips, Heather A; Shugerman, Richard P; Watkins, Sandra; Stapleton, F Bruder

    2003-01-01

    The need to teach professionalism during residency has been affirmed by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education, which will require documentation of education and evaluation of professionalism by 2007. Recently the American Academy of Pediatrics has proposed the following components of professionalism be taught and measured: honesty/integrity, reliability/responsibility, respect for others, compassion/empathy, self-improvement, self-awareness/knowledge of limits, communication/collaboration, and altruism/advocacy. The authors describe a curriculum for introducing the above principles of professionalism into a pediatrics residency that could serve as a model for other programs. The curriculum is taught at an annual five-day retreat for interns, with 11 mandatory sessions devoted to addressing key professionalism issues. The authors also explain how the retreat is evaluated and how the retreat's topics are revisited during the residency, and discuss general issues of teaching and evaluating professionalism.

  16. Helping Others, Warming Yourself: Altruistic Behaviors Increase Warmth Feelings of the Ambient Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Tian-Yi; Li, Jingyu; Jia, Huiyuan; Xie, Xiaofei

    2016-01-01

    Altruistic behaviors typically improve the welfare of the recipient at the cost of the performer's resources and energy. Do altruistic performers obtain any positive internal reward from altruistic behaviors? We conducted six experiments to explore whether altruistic behaviors could increase performer's warmth perception of the ambient environment. The first three studies focused on crisis situations. A retrospective field study (Study 1, with Hurricane Sandy) and two laboratory studies (Studies 2a and 2b, with an earthquake scenario) found that people who helped others felt warmer of the ambient environment than people who did not. We extended to daily life situations and found that participants who performed helping behaviors in laboratory (either voluntarily in Study 3a or randomly assigned to in Study 3b) and passers-by who donated to a charity (Study 4) reported warmer perception of the ambient environment than those who did not. These findings suggested an immediate internal reward of altruism.

  17. Perceptions of a community sample about participation in future HIV vaccine trials in south India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyamathi, Adeline M; Suhadev, Mohanarani; Swaminathan, Soumya; Fahey, John L

    2007-07-01

    Focus group discussions were conducted to assess factors that might impact participation of subgroups in Chennai for future HIV vaccine trials. The participants were 112 men and women representing the following: (1) transport workers; (2) clients who attended a sexually transmitted disease clinic; (3) injection drug users; (4) men having sex with men; (5) women in sex work; and (6) monogamous married women. Participants expressed an intense interest in future HIV vaccine trials. Willingness to participate in future trials included altruism and the desire to have a protective vaccine for the future. Assurances regarding stigma and confidentiality, and compensation for families in the event of a poor outcome with a future HIV vaccine trial were reported. Concerns also centered on the impact of seroconverting, and a possible increase in risk behaviors. The need for education and counseling about the dangers of engaging in risky behavior during and after participating in a future HIV vaccine trial is discussed. PMID:17016758

  18. Genetic heterogeneity in wild isolates of cellular slime mold social groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathe, Santosh; Kaushik, Sonia; Lalremruata, Albert; Aggarwal, Ramesh K; Cavender, James C; Nanjundiah, Vidyanand

    2010-07-01

    This study addresses the issues of spatial distribution, dispersal, and genetic heterogeneity in social groups of the cellular slime molds (CSMs). The CSMs are soil amoebae with an unusual life cycle that consists of alternating solitary and social phases. Because the social phase involves division of labor with what appears to be an extreme form of "altruism", the CSMs raise interesting evolutionary questions regarding the origin and maintenance of sociality. Knowledge of the genetic structure of social groups in the wild is necessary for answering these questions. We confirm that CSMs are widespread in undisturbed forest soil from South India. They are dispersed over long distances via the dung of a variety of large mammals. Consistent with this mode of dispersal, most social groups in the two species examined for detailed study, Dictyostelium giganteum and Dictyostelium purpureum, are multi-clonal. PMID:20179919

  19. Unequal social engagement for older adults: constraints on choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozanova, Julia; Keating, Norah; Eales, Jacquie

    2012-03-01

    Although some studies have confirmed positive associations between social engagement and well-being in later life, this study aimed to understand why some seniors cannot be engaged. The authors analyzed the lived experiences of 89 seniors in three rural communities in Canada, from semi-structured interviews and using the constant comparison method. Five factors make choices for social engagement in later life unequal among older adults who differ by gender, class, age, and health status. Profound engagement in care work, compulsory altruism, personal resources, objectively perceived and subjectively available engagement opportunities, and ageist barriers around paid work constrain choices for seniors who lack privilege in the context of a market economy, particularly for low-income older women. To avoid stigmatizing vulnerable older persons, societal barriers to meaningful activities must be addressed - for example, through provision of income security or by reversing inter- and intragenerational ageism in access to the labor market.

  20. Two types of psychological hedonism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garson, Justin

    2016-04-01

    I develop a distinction between two types of psychological hedonism. Inferential hedonism (or "I-hedonism") holds that each person only has ultimate desires regarding his or her own hedonic states (pleasure and pain). Reinforcement hedonism (or "R-hedonism") holds that each person's ultimate desires, whatever their contents are, are differentially reinforced in that person's cognitive system only by virtue of their association with hedonic states. I'll argue that accepting R-hedonism and rejecting I-hedonism provides a conciliatory position on the traditional altruism debate, and that it coheres well with the neuroscientist Anthony Dickinson's theory about the evolutionary function of hedonic states, the "hedonic interface theory." Finally, I'll defend R-hedonism from potential objections. PMID:26614552

  1. Effects of the light--dark cycle on a water tank social interaction test in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nejdi, A; Guastavino, J M; Lalonde, R

    1996-01-01

    Mice were exposed to a water tank interaction test in which food could be obtained either by wading in the water or by attacking littermates. A tank with progressively rising water levels caused mice in groups of four to differentiate into those willing to wade (carrier mice) from those unwilling to wade (noncarrier mice). Noncarrier mice could only obtain food by stealing it from carrier mice or from other noncarrier mice. It was found that mice during the dark period of the light--dark cycle were more willing to wade in the search for food rather than attempt to steal food from other mice. Because mice are generally more active during the dark period, this result suggests that higher activity levels increase the willingness to share the work load, a form of altruism, rather than promote parasitic behavior and aggression.

  2. Oxytocin and the Biopsychology of Performance in Team Sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gert-Jan Pepping

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the biopsychological underpinnings of expert performance in team sports. In this paper we show that there is a vast support for oxytocin as a neuropeptide involved in the encouragement of important processes linked to greater team performance in sport. We argue that oxytocin is related to biopsychological processes aimed at convergence of emotions and moods between people, and in doing so it is a critical neuropeptide involved in the shaping of important team processes in sport such as trust, generosity, altruism, cohesion, cooperation, and social motivation, and also envy and gloating. Future research should examine the role of oxytocin in these essential components of sport performance. In particular, the link between oxytocin, emotional contagion and the cultivation of experiences of positive emotions is a worthwhile line of investigation for sport participation and development as well as high performance in sport.

  3. A study on relationship between female employees’ organizational citizenship behavior and job satisfaction within organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Iranshahi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an investigation to assess the relationship between female employees’ organizational citizenship behavior and job satisfaction within organization. A questionnaire is designed and distributed among employees who work in city of Qom, Iran and after analyzing the responses by SPSS software program, the relationships between variables are assessed by Pearson test after confirming the normality of the data using Kolmogrov-Smirnov test. The results of the studies reflect a strong relationship between citizen-organization behavior of female employees and job satisfaction. In addition, the survey examines six sub-hypotheses and confirms that there are positive and meaningful relationships between female employees’ custom, altruism, work consciousness, mutual coordination, fairness and courtesy on one side and job satisfaction on the other side.

  4. WHAT DOES IT MEAN TO BE A FEMALE CITIZEN IN POLAND? A QUANTITATIVE STUDY OF THE CIVIL ACTIVITY OF WOMEN IN THE PROVINCE OF SILESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Tomczyk

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The current article is a report on the quantitative research of civil activity of women in the Province of Silesia (N = 200. The research technique used here is CATI (Computer Assisted Telephone Interview. The starting point of the proposal is the conceptualization of the term active citizenship and subsequently the identification of specific indicators that will be taken to represent the phenomenon explored (such as political participation, interest in government, law enforcement, altruism and volunteering, trust in people and institutions, and the use of the privileges of direct democracy. The article shows the importance of this project for development of civil society in Poland and the possibility of change that can be achieved in this way.

  5. Organizational citizenship behavior in schools: validation of a questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Paula C; Paixão, Rui; Alarcão, Madalena; Gomes, A Duarte

    2014-01-01

    The present study examines the psychometric properties (including factorial validity) of an organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) scale in a school context. A total of 321 middle and high school teachers from 59 schools in urban and rural areas of central Portugal completed the OCB scale at their schools. The confirmatory factor analysis validated a hierarchical model with four latent factors on the first level (altruism, conscientiousness, civic participation and courtesy) and a second order factor (OCB). The revised model fit with the data, χ 2 /gl = 1.97; CFI = .962; GFI = .952, RMSEA = .05. The proposed scale (comportamentos de cidadania organizacional em escolas- Revista CCOE-R)- is a valid instrument to assess teacher's perceptions of OCB in their schools, allowing investigation at the organizational level of analysis. PMID:25012512

  6. Gender and Competition in Adolescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreber, Anna; Essen, Emma von; Ranehill, Eva

    2013-01-01

    We look at gender differences among adolescents in Sweden in preferences for competition, altruism and risk. For competitiveness, we explore two different tasks that differ in associated stereotypes. We find no gender difference in competitiveness when comparing performance under competition...... performance, beliefs about relative performance, and risk preferences, or for beliefs only. Girls are also more altruistic and less risk taking than boys....... to that without competition. We further find that boys and girls are equally likely to self-select into competition in a verbal task, but that boys are significantly more likely to choose to compete in a mathematical task. This gender gap diminishes and becomes nonsignificant when we control for actual...

  7. 'Healthy gums do matter': A case study of clinical leadership within primary dental care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, D; Saleem, S; Hawthorn, E; Pealing, R; Ashley, M; Bridgman, C

    2015-09-25

    The Health and Social Care Act 2012 heralded wide reaching reforms intended to place clinicians at the heart of the health service. For NHS general dental practice, the conduits for this clinical leadership are the NHS England local professional networks. In Greater Manchester, the local professional network has developed and piloted a clinician led quality improvement project: 'Healthy Gums DO Matter, a Practitioner's Toolkit'. Used as a case study, the project highlighted the following facilitators to clinical leadership in dentistry: supportive environment; mentoring and transformational leadership; alignment of project goals with national policy; funding allowance; cross-boundary collaboration; determination; altruism; and support from wider academic and specialist colleagues. Barriers to clinical leadership identified were: the hierarchical nature of healthcare, territorialism and competing clinical commitments. PMID:26404983

  8. The evolution of adhesiveness as a social adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Thomas; Doulcier, Guilhem; De Monte, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    Cellular adhesion is a key ingredient to sustain collective functions of microbial aggregates. Here, we investigate the evolutionary origins of adhesion and the emergence of groups of genealogically unrelated cells with a game-theoretical model. The considered adhesiveness trait is costly, continuous and affects both group formation and group-derived benefits. The formalism of adaptive dynamics reveals two evolutionary stable strategies, at each extreme on the axis of adhesiveness. We show that cohesive groups can evolve by small mutational steps, provided the population is already endowed with a minimum adhesiveness level. Assortment between more adhesive types, and in particular differential propensities to leave a fraction of individuals ungrouped at the end of the aggregation process, can compensate for the cost of increased adhesiveness. We also discuss the change in the social nature of more adhesive mutations along evolutionary trajectories, and find that altruism arises before directly beneficial behavior, despite being the most challenging form of cooperation. PMID:26613415

  9. Neural components of altruistic punishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Emily; Chang, Steve W. C.

    2015-01-01

    Altruistic punishment, which occurs when an individual incurs a cost to punish in response to unfairness or a norm violation, may play a role in perpetuating cooperation. The neural correlates underlying costly punishment have only recently begun to be explored. Here we review the current state of research on the neural basis of altruism from the perspectives of costly punishment, emphasizing the importance of characterizing elementary neural processes underlying a decision to punish. In particular, we emphasize three cognitive processes that contribute to the decision to altruistically punish in most scenarios: inequity aversion, cost-benefit calculation, and social reference frame to distinguish self from others. Overall, we argue for the importance of understanding the neural correlates of altruistic punishment with respect to the core computations necessary to achieve a decision to punish. PMID:25709565

  10. Touch communicates distinct emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertenstein, Matthew J; Keltner, Dacher; App, Betsy; Bulleit, Brittany A; Jaskolka, Ariane R

    2006-08-01

    The study of emotional signaling has focused almost exclusively on the face and voice. In 2 studies, the authors investigated whether people can identify emotions from the experience of being touched by a stranger on the arm (without seeing the touch). In the 3rd study, they investigated whether observers can identify emotions from watching someone being touched on the arm. Two kinds of evidence suggest that humans can communicate numerous emotions with touch. First, participants in the United States (Study 1) and Spain (Study 2) could decode anger, fear, disgust, love, gratitude, and sympathy via touch at much-better-than-chance levels. Second, fine-grained coding documented specific touch behaviors associated with different emotions. In Study 3, the authors provide evidence that participants can accurately decode distinct emotions by merely watching others communicate via touch. The findings are discussed in terms of their contributions to affective science and the evolution of altruism and cooperation. PMID:16938094

  11. Detecting kin selection at work using inclusive fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grafen, Alan

    2007-03-01

    A recent model shows that altruism can evolve with limited migration and variable group sizes, and the authors claim that kin selection cannot provide a sufficient explanation of their results. It is demonstrated, using a recent reformulation of Hamilton's original arguments, that the model falls squarely within the scope of inclusive fitness theory, which furthermore shows how to calculate inclusive fitness and the relevant relatedness. A distinction is drawn between inclusive fitness, which is a method of analysing social behaviour; and kin selection, a process that operates through genetic similarity brought about by common ancestry, but not by assortation by genotype or by direct assessment of genetic similarity. The recent model is analysed, and it turns out that kin selection provides a sufficient explanation to considerable quantitative accuracy, contrary to the authors' claims. A parallel analysis is possible and would be illuminating for all models of social behaviour in which individuals' effects on each other's offspring numbers combine additively. PMID:17254996

  12. A teoria da dupla herança e a evolução da moralidade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Portela Lopes de Almeida

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A darwinian evolutionary approach can contribute to reassess philosophical problems in different fields, including ethics and moral theory. Sociobiology and evolutionary psychology address these issues by presupposing mechanisms such as kin selection and reciprocal altruism. However, these mechanisms can’t account for cooperation in the human species. Dual inheritance theory addresses human cooperation differently, by taking into account the above-mentioned classical biological mechanisms without ignoring, however, relevant knowledge produced by social scientists. According to this approach, human social psychology comprises tribal social instincts and symbolic markers. One implication of this approach is that there are innate and universal moral principles hardwired in the human mind-brain, which where selected through an evolutionary process that makes life possible in large, structured social groups. Although innate, these principles are plastically shaped to meet the demands of different cultural niches in particular societies.

  13. Evolution of cooperative cross-feeding could be less challenging than originally thought.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvie Estrela

    Full Text Available The act of cross-feeding whereby unrelated species exchange nutrients is a common feature of microbial interactions and could be considered a form of reciprocal altruism or reciprocal cooperation. Past theoretical work suggests that the evolution of cooperative cross-feeding in nature may be more challenging than for other types of cooperation. Here we re-evaluate a mathematical model used previously to study persistence of cross-feeding and conclude that the maintenance of cross-feeding interactions could be favoured for a larger parameter ranges than formerly observed. Strikingly, we also find that large populations of cross-feeders are not necessarily vulnerable to extinction from an initially small number of cheats who receive the benefit of cross-feeding but do not reciprocate in this cooperative interaction. This could explain the widespread cooperative cross-feeding observed in natural populations.

  14. Analysis of opinion spreading in homogeneous networks with signed relationships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, significant attention has been devoted to opinion dynamics in social networks, in which all the relationships between individuals are assumed as positive ones (i.e. friend, altruism or trust). However, many realistic social networks include negative relationships (i.e. enemy or distrust) as well as positive ones. In order to find the dynamical behavior of opinion spreading in signed networks, we propose a model taking into account the impacts of positive and negative relationships. Based on this model, we analyze the dynamical process and provide a detailed mathematical analysis for identifying the threshold of opinion spreading in homogeneous networks with signed relationships. By performing numerical simulations for the threshold in three different signed networks, we find that the theoretical and numerical results are in good agreement, confirming the correctness of our exact solution. (paper)

  15. La sociologie fiscale.

    OpenAIRE

    LEROY Marc

    2009-01-01

    La sociologie fiscale questionne les relations fondamentales entre l’impôt, l’Etat et la société. Cet article présente une revue de la littérature et des problématiques envisagées dans leur aspect sociopolitique. Plusieurs représentations sociales sont considérées : l’impôt-contribution, l’impôt-échange, et l’impôt-obligation/contrainte/tribut, mais l’élaboration d’une typologie de l’Etat fiscal met l’accent sur l’impôt-contribution payé par le citoyen qui est capable d’altruisme pour finance...

  16. Deducting the Organizational Citizenship Behavior Dimensions and its Antecedent (Job Satisfaction in the Indian Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Vaijayanthi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In spite of the rapid growth of research in Organizational Citizenship Behaviors (OCB in the recent past, there exists a considerable confusion in the concepts regarding the construction of OCB dimensions. It has also been accepted by researchers that OCB as a phenomenon is subjective to the national culture. Substantial organization studies have been directed towards comprehending and appreciating OCB as a dependent variable. The researchers hypothesized that Job Satisfaction (JS would be strongly related to OCB. Hence the two primary objective of this study was to explore the conceptual dimensions of the OCB construct in the Indian context and secondly to investigate on JS as an antecedent of OCB. The cognitive measure of JS adopted in this study was confirmed to be positively correlated with the four dimensions of OCB namely, altruism, courtesy, conscientiousness and civic virtue. The extrinsic factors of JS were more strongly correlated to OCB than the intrinsic factors.

  17. A survey relation of organizational culture and organizational citizenship behavior with employees’ empowerment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Ebrahim Sadati

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to study the relationship between organizational culture and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB with employees’ empowerment. Empowering employee’s breeds success by providing a suitable framework to utilize the necessary skills in an attempt to realize organizational goals. In this paper, four dimensions of employees’ empowerment including meaningfulness, choice, competence and impact are investigated. We also identify four dimensions for organizational culture including adaptability, consistency, involvement and mission. The paper also specifies five basic dimensions of OCB, which consists of altruism, conscientiousness, sportsmanship, courtesy and civic virtue. These basic dimensions of both independent and dependent variables construct the research conceptual model and the required data is gathered from the Tehran Municipality. This proposed study considers 180 employees who participated in our survey. The investigation of the proposed model is also performed based on the Structural Equation Modeling (SEM.

  18. Motivations and Benefits of Student Volunteering: Comparing Regular, Occasional, and Non-Volunteers in Five Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Smith

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Programmes targeting student volunteering and service learning are part of encouraging civic behaviour amongst young people. This article reports on a large scale international survey comparing volunteering amongst tertiary students at universities in Australia, Canada, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, and the United States of America. The data revealed high rates of student volunteering and the popularity of occasional or episodic volunteering. There were strong commonalities in student volunteering behaviour, motivations and benefits across the five Western predominately English-speaking countries. Altruism and self-orientated career motivations and benefits were most important to students; however volunteering and non-volunteering students differed in the relative value they attached to volunteering for CV-enhancement and social factors.

  19. Marriage Squeeze and Intergenerational Support in Contemporary Rural China: Evidence from X County of Anhui Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xiaoyi; Guo, Qiuju; Feldman, Marcus W

    2015-01-01

    With China's gender imbalance and increasingly severe male marriage squeeze, patterns of intergenerational support in rural areas are likely to undergo significant change. Using data from a survey of four towns from X county in Anhui province carried out in 2008, this article analyzes the effects of sons' marital status on intergenerational support. Random-effect regression analysis shows that son's marital status has strong effects on financial support to and coresidence with parents. Compared with married sons, older unmarried sons (so-called forced bachelors) tend to provide less financial support to their parents and are more likely to live with their parents. Parents' support of sons, as well as the parents' own needs and sons' capabilities all affect the support provided by sons. These results show that both theories of exchange and altruism are simultaneously relevant in the context of the marriage squeeze of contemporary rural China.

  20. A systematic review on social dilemmas and moral emotions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Analía Saavedra

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The growing interest in the role of emotions in behavioral economics, and the absence of reviews on this subject have motivated this work, which purpose was analyze the empirical evidence on the role of moral emotions in social dilemmas situations. The reviewed articles (n= 17 were obtained from EBSCO, OVID and ScienceDirect. We analyzed the following aspects: objectives, sample, experimental game or task, and results. A group of studies was focused on the influence of moral emotions on cooperation, using mainly the Give-Some game or the Ultimatum Game. Another group of studies was focused on the role of empathy-altruism in helping behaviors, using distribution tasks. The analysis of results shows that guilt and shame increase the tendency to cooperate, while emotions like anger and disgust diminish it. Furthermore, the induction of empathy promoted altruistic behavior and helping behaviors. This review provides useful elements to be considered in future research.

  1. The Daily Lives of People With HIV Infection: A Qualitative Study of the Control Group in an Expressive Writing Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metaweh, Maria; Ironson, Gail; Barroso, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Emotional disclosure is an expressive writing technique used in psychotherapy to process traumatic and stressful life experiences. While emotional disclosure interventions frequently use control groups, there are few qualitative analyses of these control groups. Our study's purpose was to analyze the control essays written by HIV-infected informants about their daily activities in an augmented written emotional disclosure intervention. Latent and manifest qualitative content analyses revealed prevalent contextual themes within the data. The emergent themes were socioeconomic status (SES), self-care, religiosity/spirituality, and social support. Emotional disclosure control subjects contributed substantial findings in terms of SES, self-care, resiliency, religiosity/spirituality, and social support and altruism. PMID:27426408

  2. An empirical investigation on the effects of spiritual leadership components on organizational learning capacity: A case study of Payame Noor University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Hossein

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation on the effects of spiritual leadership components on organizational learning capacity for a case study of Payame Noor University, Iran. The proposed study uses a standard questionnaire for measuring spirituality leadership proposed by Fry (2003 [Fry, L. W. (2003. Toward a theory of spiritual leadership. The leadership quarterly, 14(6, 693-727.] and for measuring the impact of organizational learning capacity, the proposed study uses another questionnaire proposed by Teo et al. (2006 [Teo, H. H., Wang, X., Wei, K. K., Sia, C. L., & Lee, M. K. (2006. Organizational learning capacity and attitude toward complex technological innovations: an empirical study. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 57(2, 264-279.]. The results of our survey have indicated that all components of spiritual leadership, except love and altruism as meaningful, influence spirituality leadership, significantly.

  3. A neural model of decision making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben

    2008-01-01

    : Decision making relies on integration across brain levels of emotional intelligence (LU) and logico-matematico intelligence (RIA), respectively. The integrated decision making formula approaching zero by bottom-up emotional and  frontoparietal-downward logico-matematico learning is: CONC := LU...... to the blood-oxygen-level (BOLD signal). This enables the detection of neural activity during ordinary thinking, feeling and decision-making which are much more subtle than the neural dysfunction detected by the Electroencephalogram (EEG). A limitation of fMRI is the lack of distinction between facilitating...... such as fairness, trust, altruism, memory, learning and knowledge. The goal of neuroeconomics is stated as to provide a descriptive decision-making theory, which is not restricted to economic theory and more realistic than that of economic man.    Reviewing how neuroscience can inform economics [Camerer et al...

  4. Evolutionary stability and resistance to cheating in an indirect reciprocity model based on reputation

    CERN Document Server

    Martinez-Vaquero, Luis A

    2013-01-01

    Indirect reciprocity is one of the main mechanisms to explain the emergence and sustainment of altruism in societies. The standard approach to indirect reciprocity are reputation models. These are games in which players base their decisions on their opponent's reputation gained in past interactions with other players (moral assessment). The combination of actions and moral assessment leads to a large diversity of strategies, thus determining the stability of any of them against invasions by all the others is a difficult task. We use a variant of a previously introduced reputation-based model that let us systematically analyze all these invasions and determine which ones are successful. Accordingly we are able to identify the third-order strategies (those which, apart from the action, judge considering both the reputation of the donor and that of the recipient) that are evolutionarily stable. Our results reveal that if a strategy resists the invasion of any other one sharing its same moral assessment, it can r...

  5. Predictive Power of Parenting Styles on Children’s Social Skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Bartholomeu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between parenting styles and children’s social skills, establishing significant correlations between those two constructs. A total of 202 children, 7 to 10 years old, male and female, attending second to fourth year of government schools in São Paulo, Brazil, were participants of this research. They collectively completed Children’s Social Skills Test (THAS-C and Parental Styles Inventory (IEP. Results suggest that positive parental styles are predictors of altruism, while negative parental styles are predictors of assertiveness, conversation, and social confidence. Regarding general social skills, variables that offered the best probable model were positive monitoring, lax discipline, moral behavior, and physical abuse (the higher the general social skill, the lesser the abusive parenting styles. As a conclusion, it seems that different social skills are related to positive and negative parenting styles, reinforcing the idea of a social skill as an attribute of behavior.

  6. Helping Others, Warming Yourself: Altruistic Behaviors Increase Warmth Feelings of the Ambient Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Tian-Yi; Li, Jingyu; Jia, Huiyuan; Xie, Xiaofei

    2016-01-01

    Altruistic behaviors typically improve the welfare of the recipient at the cost of the performer’s resources and energy. Do altruistic performers obtain any positive internal reward from altruistic behaviors? We conducted six experiments to explore whether altruistic behaviors could increase performer’s warmth perception of the ambient environment. The first three studies focused on crisis situations. A retrospective field study (Study 1, with Hurricane Sandy) and two laboratory studies (Studies 2a and 2b, with an earthquake scenario) found that people who helped others felt warmer of the ambient environment than people who did not. We extended to daily life situations and found that participants who performed helping behaviors in laboratory (either voluntarily in Study 3a or randomly assigned to in Study 3b) and passers-by who donated to a charity (Study 4) reported warmer perception of the ambient environment than those who did not. These findings suggested an immediate internal reward of altruism. PMID:27656158

  7. Social responsibility, substance use, and sexual risk behavior in men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Aaron M; Benotsch, Eric G; Cejka, Anna; Luckman, Diana

    2014-01-01

    Considerable public health literature focuses on relationships between problematic human characteristics (e.g., psychopathology) and unhealthy behaviors. A recent movement termed positive psychology emphasizes the advantages of assessing relationships between human strengths (e.g., altruism) and beneficial health behaviors. The present study assessed social responsibility, an orientation to help or protect others even when there is nothing to be gained as an individual, and its relationship to HIV-relevant behaviors. In our sample of 350 men who have sex with men (MSM), social responsibility was negatively correlated with substance use and HIV risk behaviors. Men who had been tested for HIV and knew their HIV status-a behavior that helps men protect their partners but does not protect themselves from the virus-also scored higher in social responsibility. Interventions designed to reduce HIV risk behavior in MSM may benefit from efforts to promote human strengths.

  8. 2007 Microbial Population Biology (July 22-26, 2007)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anthony M. Dean

    2008-04-01

    Microbial Population Biology covers a diverse range of cutting edge issues in the microbial sciences and beyond. Firmly founded in evolutionary biology and with a strongly integrative approach, past meetings have covered topics ranging from the dynamics and genetics of adaptation to the evolution of mutation rate, community ecology, evolutionary genomics, altruism, and epidemiology. This meeting is never dull: some of the most significant and contentious issues in biology have been thrashed out here. We anticipate the 2007 meeting being no exception. The final form of the 2007 meeting is yet to be decided, but the following topics are likely to be included: evolutionary emergence of infectious disease and antibiotic resistance, genetic architecture and implications for the evolution of microbial populations, ageing in bacteria, biogeography, evolution of symbioses, the role of microbes in ecosystem function, and ecological genomics.

  9. Two types of psychological hedonism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garson, Justin

    2016-04-01

    I develop a distinction between two types of psychological hedonism. Inferential hedonism (or "I-hedonism") holds that each person only has ultimate desires regarding his or her own hedonic states (pleasure and pain). Reinforcement hedonism (or "R-hedonism") holds that each person's ultimate desires, whatever their contents are, are differentially reinforced in that person's cognitive system only by virtue of their association with hedonic states. I'll argue that accepting R-hedonism and rejecting I-hedonism provides a conciliatory position on the traditional altruism debate, and that it coheres well with the neuroscientist Anthony Dickinson's theory about the evolutionary function of hedonic states, the "hedonic interface theory." Finally, I'll defend R-hedonism from potential objections.

  10. Native supercolonies of unrelated individuals in the invasive Argentine ant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jes Søe; Krieger, Michael J. B.; Vogel, Valérie;

    2006-01-01

    Kinship among group members has long been recognized as a main factor promoting the evolution of sociality and reproductive altruism, yet some ants have an extraordinary social organization, called unicoloniality, whereby individuals mix freely among physically separated nests. This type of social...... organization is not only a key attribute responsible for the ecological dominance of these ants, but also an evolutionary paradox because relatedness between nestmates is effectively zero. Recently, it has been proposed that, in the Argentine ant, unicoloniality is a derived trait that evolved after its...... introduction into new habitats. Here we test this basic assumption by conducting a detailed genetic analysis of four native and six introduced populations with five to 15 microsatellite loci and one mitochondrial gene. In contrast to the assumption that native populations consist of family-based colonies with...

  11. Exploring the Key Factors of Knowledge Sharing via Employee Weblogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Rahimi Moghadam

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, two dependent variables of individual's intention and attitude have been defined for knowledge sharing via the employee weblog and independent variables have been determined in 3 groups of social influence factor, technology acceptance factor and social cognitive factor with subset variables including the subjective norm, social identity, group norm (first group, perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, perceived enjoyment (second group, self-efficacy, personal outcome expectation, altruism and trust (third group. This research reviews the previous studies in the field of knowledge sharing via the employee weblog. The main difference of this research with other studies is to collect and complete a full set of factors affecting the knowledge sharing according to the factors raised in previous studies. Finally the suggestions have been provided for conducting the statistical studies in Iran.

  12. Behavioral Finances versus Technical and Fundamental Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Stancu

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the field of modern finance has progressed impressively, it is still hard to explain on a scientific basis why people behave nonrationally when dealing with money. The classic finance assumes people rationalize and optimize their financial decisions. Behavioral Finance adds the importance of what investors should do and complements the mantra of classic finance with what people actually do, in terms of economic decisions. The new field of Neuroeconomy investigates the subtle and profound interactions within the human brain when faced with uncertainties of an economic decision. The most basic psychological traits of human being (fear, anger, greed and altruism stamp an indelible mark on our decisions about money. The intellect (understanding a situation, reason (long term consequences of the contemplated action and emotion (the judge of the course of action are all intercorrelated resorts behind human decision making.

  13. Relation between alexithymia and the five-factor model of personality: a facet-level analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luminet, O; Bagby, R M; Wagner, H; Taylor, G J; Parker, J D

    1999-12-01

    The relation between alexithymia and both the domain and the facet level of the five-factor model (FFM) of personality was examined in a sample of 101 university students by using the Twenty-Item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20; Bagby, Taylor, & Parker, 1994) and the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (Costa & McCrae, 1992c). Consistent with the alexithymia construct, the TAS-20 was positively correlated with Neuroticism (N) and negatively correlated with Extraversion (E) and Openness (O), whereas no significant relations were found with Agreeableness (A) and Conscientiousness (C). Analysis of the lower order traits (i.e., facets) of the FFM revealed that depression for N; positive emotions and assertiveness for E; feelings and actions for O; altruism, tender-mindedness, and modesty for A; and competence for C predicted alexithymia. These results support the uniqueness of the alexithymia construct, which is represented by a cluster of traits across the dimensions and facets of the FFM. PMID:10689648

  14. Food-Sharing Networks in Lamalera, Indonesia: Status, Sharing, and Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolin, David A

    2012-07-01

    Costly signaling has been proposed as a possible mechanism to explain food sharing in foraging populations. This sharing-as-signaling hypothesis predicts an association between sharing and status. Using exponential random graph modeling (ERGM), this prediction is tested on a social network of between-household food-sharing relationships in the fishing and sea-hunting village of Lamalera, Indonesia. Previous analyses (Nolin 2010) have shown that most sharing in Lamalera is consistent with reciprocal altruism. The question addressed here is whether any additional variation may be explained as sharing-as-signaling by high-status households. The results show that high-status households both give and receive more than other households, a pattern more consistent with reciprocal altruism than costly signaling. However, once the propensity to reciprocate and household productivity are controlled, households of men holding leadership positions show greater odds of unreciprocated giving when compared to households of non-leaders. This pattern of excessive giving by leaders is consistent with the sharing-as-signaling hypothesis. Wealthy households show the opposite pattern, giving less and receiving more than other households. These households may reciprocate in a currency other than food or their wealth may attract favor-seeking behavior from others. Overall, status covariates explain little variation in the sharing network as a whole, and much of the sharing observed by high-status households is best explained by the same factors that explain sharing by other households. This pattern suggests that multiple mechanisms may operate simultaneously to promote sharing in Lamalera and that signaling may motivate some sharing by some individuals even within sharing regimes primarily maintained by other mechanisms. PMID:22822299

  15. 近代中国消费价值观的和谐意蕴及其现实意义%On the Harmonious Implication of Consumption Value and its Realistic Significance in Modern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵璐

    2012-01-01

    Taking the modem thinkers as the research object, the harmonious implication consumption value lies in three aspects:equal emphasis on morality and interest, the value basis of harmonious morali ty and interest; Egoism and Altruism, the value principle of harmonious egoism and altruism;value orien tation of thrifty and luxurious harmony and moderate consumption. The modem consumption value has certain theoretical value and realistic meaning in the following aspects: the correct coping with the rela tionship between consumption and economics, construction of a scientific concept of moderate consump tion as well as the harmonious coexistence of both material and spiritual consumption, etc.%以近代思想家为研究对象,可以看出近代消费价值观的和谐意蕴包含三个方面:“义利”并重、“义利”和谐的价值基础;“己他”两利、“己他”和谐的价值原则;“俭奢”和谐、适度消费的价值取向。近代消费价值观在正确处理消费与经济的关系、构建适度消费的科学消费观、兼顾物质消费与精神消费的和谐并存等方面对构建和谐社会具有一定的理论价值与现实意义。

  16. 社会主义市场经济条件下的集体主义教育研究%The Collectivism Education Research under the Condition of Socialist Market Economy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖扬眉; 林楠

    2012-01-01

    Under the condition of socialist market economy, collectivism education faces the great challenge. Teachers should grasp the characteristics of the times, and construct recognition of values : mutual aid and cooperation spirit of socialization of production based on market economy; objective altruism, services and sociality of market economy;the approval of collectivism of egoism and altruism for the pursuit of personal values and make them truly believe in and adhere to the collectivism, so under the condition of socialist market economy truly effective. interests. Guide students to establish correct that it will make the collectivism education%在社会主义市场经济条件下,集体主义教育的开展面临前所未有的挑战。教师应抓住时代特征,构建价值认同,一是市场经济基于社会化大生产的互助合作精神;二是市场经济客观上的利他性、服务性和社会性;三是己他两利的集体主义对个人利益追求的肯定。对学生进行正确的价值引导,使他们真正信仰并坚持集体主义,使社会主义市场经济条件下的集体主义教育真正切实有效。

  17. 基于两种不同动机的组织公民行为研究%A Research of Organizational Citizneship Behavior Based on Two Different Motives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊耘; 颜静; 马贵梅

    2014-01-01

    文章将组织公民行为(OCB)的动机区分为理性利己和社会利他,以他人取向不同水平和回报的不同情境为切入点,运用情感事件理论和他人取向理论,结合问卷与实验心理学方法,对基于两种不同动机的OCB产生的机制进行了深入研究。结果表明:当存在回报期望,他人取向低的员工更有可能基于理性利己的动机而产生高水平OCB;当不存在回报或存在回报责任时,他人取向高的个体更有可能基于社会利他的动机产生高水平OCB。%The research explores to classify organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) into rational self-interest motives and social altruism,and take two different levels of individual’s other orientation and three different scenarios of return as the start-ing point. It carries out the study on generating mechanisms of OCB in depth based on two different motives,by applying emo-tional events theory and other orientation theory,and sorting with questionnaires and experimental psychology method. The re-sults show that,when there is expectation of return,individuals with lower other orientation are more likely to produce higher OCB based on rational self-interest,while there is no return or return obligation exists,individuals with higher other orienta-tion are more likely to produce high levels of OCB based on social altruism.

  18. The Motivations and Experiences of Young Women in a Microbicide Trial in the USA and Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giguere, Rebecca; Zimet, Gregory D; Kahn, Jessica A; Dolezal, Curtis; Leu, Cheng-Shiun; Mabragaña, Marina; McGowan, Ian; Carballo-Diéguez, Alex

    2013-09-01

    Young women are an important target group in microbicide research, yet little is known about why they participate and stay in microbicide trials. Our study examined motivations for participating in a Phase I microbicide trial among 61 women ages 18 - 24 years in the continental USA and Puerto Rico. We also examined their perspectives on study participation. Participants underwent a semi-structured in-depth interview in which they were asked about factors that motivated enrollment and their experiences while participating. They also completed a Web-based Computer Assisted Self Interview in which they were asked to rate study burden (1 = low to 4 = high). Factors that motivated enrollment were altruism (29%), compensation (17%), a combination of altruism and compensation (37%) and free medical exams (17%). Factors that encouraged participants to stay in the study were study staff (95%), confirmation of good health (41%), and the opportunity to learn about their bodies (17%). Mean ratings of study burden ranged from 1.83 (having to travel to site) to 2.41 (colposcopy), indicating that participants were not highly bothered by visits or procedures. Although Phase I trials require invasive procedures, participants were not highly bothered by them and recognized them as necessary. Good relationships with staff and clear information about how procedures contribute to study goals may encourage participants to remain in trials. Young women may be motivated to enter microbicide trials by stressing the role they will play in discovering better HIV-prevention methods and highlighting the comprehensive preventive exams they will receive. PMID:24324918

  19. Do gray wolves (Canis lupus) support pack mates during aggressive inter-pack interactions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, Kira A; McIntyre, Richard T

    2016-09-01

    For group-living mammals, social coordination increases success in everything from hunting and foraging (Crofoot and Wrangham in Mind the Gap, Springer, Berlin, 2010; Bailey et al. in Behav Ecol Sociobiol 67:1-17, 2013) to agonism (Mosser and Packer in Anim Behav 78:359-370, 2009; Wilson et al. in Anim Behav 83:277-291, 2012; Cassidy et al. in Behav Ecol 26:1352-1360, 2015). Cooperation is found in many species and, due to its low costs, likely is a determining factor in the evolution of living in social groups (Smith in Anim Behav 92:291-304, 2014). Beyond cooperation, many mammals perform costly behaviors for the benefit of group mates (e.g., parental care, food sharing, grooming). Altruism is considered the most extreme case of cooperation where the altruist increases the fitness of the recipient while decreasing its own fitness (Bell in Selection: the mechanism of evolution. Oxford University Press, Oxford 2008). Gray wolf life history requires intra-pack familiarity, communication, and cooperation in order to succeed in hunting (MacNulty et al. in Behav Ecol doi: 10.1093/beheco/arr159 2011) and protecting group resources (Stahler et al. in J Anim Ecol 82: 222-234, 2013; Cassidy et al. in Behav Ecol 26:1352-1360, 2015). Here, we report 121 territorial aggressive inter-pack interactions in Yellowstone National Park between 1 April 1995 and 1 April 2011 (>5300 days of observation) and examine each interaction where one wolf interferes when its pack mate is being attacked by a rival group. This behavior was recorded six times (17.6 % of interactions involving an attack) and often occurred between dyads of closely related individuals. We discuss this behavior as it relates to the evolution of cooperation, sociality, and altruism. PMID:27193460

  20. Incentive Use in Research: Protecting Vulnerable Populations from Exploitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haruna Muwonge

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Global investment in Medical Research and Development has markedly increased in the last few decades. However, due to the decreasing public altruism, researchers have come under increased pressures from the funding bodies to produce results. Out of desperation, some researchers have resorted to using incentives as a means of sourcing for volunteers. Consequently, the research burden has disproportionately been shared among the most vulnerable populations in the society. Incentives especially monetary ones present an ethical dilemma because of the uncertainties’ surrounding the morality, amount and type of payment, vulnerability of volunteers and possible threats to voluntary participation. Several studies done on the use of incentives in medical research have noted that financial motivation was the number one reason for subjects to volunteer in Medical research. Mutual benefit and freedom of choice by participants were given as reasons to support their use. However, scientists who are against the use of incentives believe that they are coercive or undue inducements, and may influence a subjects’ ability to give an informed consent. Guidelines exist that protect vulnerable groups from exploitation, although none sheds light into the use of incentives. Nonetheless, in the face of the waning public altruism, the benefits of using incentives far outweigh the dangers, although researchers should avoid situations where their use may become problematic. As a mode of payment to research subjects, researchers should adopt a combination of the Dickerts’ Wage and re-imbursement models as guides in quantifying the incentive. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2013; 22(3.000: 408-417

  1. Game Training and its Effects on Equilibrium%博弈训练及其对均衡的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张登兵

    2011-01-01

    Training and learning are two unitive parts of the game. Game learning reduces the uncertainty of a game to raise the utility of agents, while game training is a strategy to deal with game learning. Trainers use believable signals to effect the game learning of others and change the opponents' believes, then increase the utilities. The targets of game training includes two parts, concealing facts or revealing facts. The paper points out that game training must obey the rules of "self-beneficial, altruism, believable, identifiable." Trainers should survey the whole game environment, choose the self-beneficial and altruism training strategies, then they can acquire an better training effect at last.%训练和学习是博弈中的一对统一体.博弈学习是通过降低博弈语境的不确定性来提高博弈收益,而博弈训练则是针对博弈学习的一种策略.训练者通过可信的信号传递来影响对手的博弈学习结果,改变受训者的信念,从而提高博弈收益.博弈训练的目标可分为事实隐藏和事实揭示.在使用博弈训练时,应遵循"利已、利他、可信、可辩"的原则,从全局的角度审视整个博弈环境,选择利己利他的训练方法,最终取得较优的训练效果.

  2. Association between Organizational Citizenship Behavior and Educational Performance of Faculty Members in Tabriz University of Medical Sciences- 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazratian Teimour

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Regarding the educational goals of university and academic performance, it seems that organizational citizenship behavior (OCB is one of the effective variables in increasing the educational performance of university faculty members. The present study aims to investigate the relationship between organizational citizenship behavior (OCB and educational performance of the faculty members of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences in 2013-14. Methods: Researchers selected 127 faculty members and 1,120 students from different grades in order to investigate the relationship between altruism, conscientiousness, sportsmanship, civic virtue and respect and the educational performance of faculty members. Generalized estimating equations (GEE were used in this method. Data were analyzed using SPSS 21 software and the significance level of 0.05. Results: There was a significant relationship between altruism and educational performance (P =0.043. There was a significant relationship between conscientiousness and educational performance (p=0.046. A significant relationship was observed between sportsmanship and educational performance (p=0.004. There was no significant relationship between civic virtue and educational performance (p=0.98. A significant relationship was observed between respect and educational performance (P>0.001. There was no relationship between citizenship behavior and gender of the faculty members (P> 0.05.Conclusion: The results of this study showed that the more faculty members have the spirit of cooperation and assistance to colleagues and students and try to understand the specific situations that students face, the more effective they are in increasing the educational performance at the university level.

  3. Genetic clusters and sex-biased gene flow in a unicolonial Formica ant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chapuisat Michel

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Animal societies are diverse, ranging from small family-based groups to extraordinarily large social networks in which many unrelated individuals interact. At the extreme of this continuum, some ant species form unicolonial populations in which workers and queens can move among multiple interconnected nests without eliciting aggression. Although unicoloniality has been mostly studied in invasive ants, it also occurs in some native non-invasive species. Unicoloniality is commonly associated with very high queen number, which may result in levels of relatedness among nestmates being so low as to raise the question of the maintenance of altruism by kin selection in such systems. However, the actual relatedness among cooperating individuals critically depends on effective dispersal and the ensuing pattern of genetic structuring. In order to better understand the evolution of unicoloniality in native non-invasive ants, we investigated the fine-scale population genetic structure and gene flow in three unicolonial populations of the wood ant F. paralugubris. Results The analysis of geo-referenced microsatellite genotypes and mitochondrial haplotypes revealed the presence of cryptic clusters of genetically-differentiated nests in the three populations of F. paralugubris. Because of this spatial genetic heterogeneity, members of the same clusters were moderately but significantly related. The comparison of nuclear (microsatellite and mitochondrial differentiation indicated that effective gene flow was male-biased in all populations. Conclusion The three unicolonial populations exhibited male-biased and mostly local gene flow. The high number of queens per nest, exchanges among neighbouring nests and restricted long-distance gene flow resulted in large clusters of genetically similar nests. The positive relatedness among clustermates suggests that kin selection may still contribute to the maintenance of altruism in unicolonial

  4. The virus stops with me: HIV-infected Ugandans' motivations in preventing HIV transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Rachel; Lifshay, Julie; Nakayiwa, Sylvia; Katuntu, David; Lindkvist, Pille; Bunnell, Rebecca

    2009-02-01

    Few Positive Prevention interventions have been implemented in Africa; however, greater attention is now being paid to interventions that include messages of personal responsibility or altruism that may motivate HIV-infected individuals towards HIV prevention behaviors in Africa. We conducted 47 in-depth interviews in 2004 with HIV-infected men and women purposefully sampled to represent a range of sexual activities among clients of an AIDS support organization in Uganda. Qualitative interviews were selected from a cross-sectional survey of 1092 HIV-infected men and women. Clients were interviewed about their concerns around sexual HIV transmission, feelings of responsibility and reasons for these feelings, as well as about the challenges and consequences of actions to prevent HIV transmission. The reasons they provided for their sense of prevention responsibility revolved around ethical and practical themes. Responsibility toward sexual partners was linked to the belief that conscious transmission of HIV equals murder, would cause physical and emotional harm, and would leave children orphaned. The primary reason specific to preventing HIV transmission to unborn children was the perception that they are 'innocent'. Most participants felt that HIV-infected individuals held a greater responsibility for preventing HIV transmission than did HIV-uninfected individuals. Respondents reported that their sense of responsibility lead them to reduce HIV transmission risk, encourage partner testing, disclose HIV test results, and assume an HIV/AIDS educator role. Challenges to HIV preventive behavior and altruistic intentions included: sexual desire; inconsistent condom use, especially in long term relationships; myths around condom use; fear of disclosure; gender-power dynamics; and social and financial pressure. Our finding that altruism played an important role in motivating preventive behaviors among HIV-infected persons in Uganda supports the inclusion of altruistic

  5. Healthcare practitioners' personal and professional values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyo, Mpatisi; Goodyear-Smith, Felicity A; Weller, Jennifer; Robb, Gillian; Shulruf, Boaz

    2016-05-01

    Personal and professional values of healthcare practitioners influence their clinical decisions. Understanding these values for individuals and across healthcare professions can help improve patient-centred decision-making by individual practitioners and interprofessional teams, respectively. We aimed to identify these values and integrate them into a single framework using Schwartz's values model. We searched Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, CINAHL and ERIC databases for articles on personal and professional values of healthcare practitioners and students. We extracted values from included papers and synthesized them into a single framework using Schwartz's values model. We summarised the framework within the context of healthcare practice. We identified 128 values from 50 included articles from doctors, nurses and allied health professionals. A new framework for the identified values established the following broad healthcare practitioner values, corresponding to Schwartz values (in parentheses): authority (power); capability (achievement); pleasure (hedonism); intellectual stimulation (stimulation); critical-thinking (self-direction); equality (universalism); altruism (benevolence); morality (tradition); professionalism (conformity); safety (security) and spirituality (spirituality). The most prominent values identified were altruism, equality and capability. This review identified a comprehensive set of personal and professional values of healthcare practitioners. We integrated these into a single framework derived from Schwartz's values model. This framework can be used to assess personal and professional values of healthcare practitioners across professional groups, and can help improve practitioners' awareness of their values so they can negotiate more patient-centred decisions. A common values framework across professional groups can support shared education strategies on values and help improve interprofessional teamwork and decision-making. PMID:26215664

  6. Social Decision-making: The Equilibrium between Self interest and the Interests of Others%社会决策:自我利益与他人利益的权衡

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏彦捷; 张慧; 张康

    2012-01-01

    The conflict between self-interest and the interests of others is assumed to be one of the key conflicts involved in social decision-making. The trade-off between self-interest and the interests of others becomes pivotal. In classical western economic theories, pursuing material self-interest was assumed to be the sole human motivation. This assumption has been challenged recently in the field of developmental psychology, comparative psychology, economic psychology, behavioral economics, and neuroeconomics. It is established that people are also concerned about others' welfare. The concurrence of pursuing self-interest and caring for the interests of others brings about the problem of how people consider the equilibrium between the two. Several important concepts, such as pro-self behavior, strategic other-regarding behavior, pro-social behavior, cooperation, altruism, reciprocity, and fairness, involve the trade-off between self-interest and the interests of others. However, previous theories failed to integrate these concepts. In this review, self-interest and the interests of others were constructed as two sides of the equilibrium involved in social decision-making. Through the construction, the important concepts involved in social decision-making behavior ( such as proself behavior, strategic other-regarding behavior, prosocial behavior, cooperation, altruism, reciprocity, fairness), were integrated into one framework. The concept of fairness means considering self-interest and the interests of others to the same extent. The concept of proself means considering self-interest more than the interests of others. The concept of strategic other-regarding means strategically considering others in order to pursue self-interest. The concept of altruism means sacrificing self-interest to benefit others. The concept of cooperation means considering the interests of both sides simultaneously. The concept of reciprocity means sacrificing self-interest to benefit others at

  7. “达尔文难题”的解释方法及其博弈论模型研究%Research on the Interpretation of"Darwin Problem" and its Game Theory Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾栗

    2014-01-01

    文章在科学哲学的视野下分析了解释达尔文难题的几种路径:群体选择理论、亲缘选择理论、互惠理论、副产品理论等。首先分析了这些途径各自的论域、理论自洽性和局限性等问题。进而提出在社会生物学范式下利他问题的两种研究的方法论:第一,对所有动物共有的利他行为进行分类,并提出了新的分类标准;第二,对人类特有的利他行为构建新的研究纲领进行研究。随后在新的研究纲领下构建了人类纯粹利他行为的博弈论模型。并提出利他问题的最终解决需要综合自然主义方法与非自然主义方法才能实现。%In the perspective of the philosophy of science this article explores several paths for the interpretations of Darwin problem:group selection theory,kin selection theory,reciprocal theory,and the theory of by-product.It analyses the self-consistency and limitation of these theories.Then two methods for the solution of the altruism problem are put forward in the paradigm of the social biology:First,classification of all animal common altruistic behavior with proposals for new classification standard;Second,con-struction of a new research programme to study of altruistic behavior unique to humans.So we can structure a theory model which belongs to purely altruistic behavior of human beings on the new research program with a conclusion that a comprehensive use of nat-uralistic method and non-naturalistic method is needed to provide a final solution for the altruism problem.

  8. Research into features of personality in health care professionals in the area of voluntary work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos Zoubris

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Volunteering is an activity that develops in a personal, spontaneous, free, without personal benefits. This is offered by individual citizens, individually or through organizations. Aim: The aim of the present study was to investigate the features of personality for health professionals to volunteering. Methodology: The data collection was done by completing a written questionnaire in time and place of participants’ choice. The tools used were: (a Questionnaire of socio-demographic characteristics, (b the Altruism Scale, (c the Narcissistic Personality Inventory and (d the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire. The statistical analysis was performed using the SPSS (18 statistical package. Results: In this study involved 110 doctors and nurses of Sparta General Hospital (overall study sample, 64.2% of the sample were male, 57.3% were married, 37.7% were tertiary education graduates, while 99.1% had the Greek ethnicity. Results showed that the mean value of the Narcissistic Personality Inventory in women was (7.8 while in men was (11.4. At this point Independent Sample t-test showed statistically significant difference to the mean value of the NPI between women and men t = 2.470 p =0.017. Regarding to volunteering, the mean values of Narcissistic Personality Inventory showed statistically significant difference between those who had participate in a voluntary effort and those you hadn’t (t-test = 2.2927 & p-value = 0.004. Independent Sample t-test showed statistically significant difference to the mean value of the NPI between the marital status groups but in significance level of 10% (t-test = 1.927 & p-value = 0.071. Conclusions: The results of this study highlight the relationship between specific personality traits with volunteering. According to the results, there appear to be some evidence that individuals, who have participated in a voluntary effort, are people with a high sense of altruism, present low score in the scale of narcissistic

  9. Role of "Enterprise Quality" in Management of Medical Institutions%论“企业品质”于医疗机构管理中的实践发轫

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金鑫; 李敏

    2012-01-01

    企业品质并非利他行为,而是在利他的考量下,追求自利的表现,从自利的过程中达到利他的效果.企业品质于医疗机构管理中的实践表明,影响医疗机构品质的因素主要有四个面向,即高层主管行为、员工价值观、员工不伦理行为、员工工作满意度与组织承诺的关系.通过有效耕犁四个面向的内在机制,贞定出医疗机构品质的实践运用在于追求自身与社会的互利,此为确立竞争优势的基石.借此为发轫契机,研究建议从医疗机构的伦理气候、医疗机构的伦理观、医疗机构的伦理规范与善尽社会责任这四条枢轴来关怀员工、注重沟通、建立互信,以期为医疗机构的和谐发展提供可借鉴的路径指引.%Enterprise quality is not altruistic behavior, but consider the altruism, the pursuit of self-interest performance, from the process of self-interest to altruism effect. Enterprise quality in the management of medical institutions practice shows that influence the quality of medical institutions are the major factors to four dimensions, namely the top executive behavior, employees values, staff are not ethical behaviour, staff job satisfaction and organizational commitment of the relationship. The plough through effective four dimensions intrinsic mechanism, determine the quality of medical institutions cheer practice by itself and society lies in the pursuit of mutual benefit, to establish the competitive advantage of the foundation. Take this opportunity for firstly, research suggests from medical establishment ethical climate and medical institutions of ethics and medical institutions code of ethics and to fulfill the social responsibility that four pivot to our employees, and paying attention to the communication, mutual trust, so as to the harmonious development of the medical institutions provide guidance for the path.

  10. Emergency Medicine Resident Perceptions of Medical Professionalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Jauregui

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Medical professionalism is a core competency for emergency medicine (EM trainees; but defining professionalism remains challenging, leading to difficulties creating objectives and performing assessment. Because professionalism is dynamic, culture-specific, and often taught by modeling, an exploration of trainees’ perceptions can highlight their educational baseline and elucidate the importance they place on general conventional professionalism domains. To this end, our objective was to assess the relative value EM residents place on traditional components of professionalism. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional, multi-institutional survey of incoming and graduating EM residents at four programs. The survey was developed using the American Board of Internal Medicine’s “Project Professionalism” and the Accreditation Council of Graduate Medical Education definition of professionalism competency. We identified 27 attributes within seven domains: clinical excellence, humanism, accountability, altruism, duty and service, honor and integrity, and respect for others. Residents were asked to rate each attribute on a 10-point scale. We analyzed data to assess variance across attributes as well as differences between residents at different training levels or different institutions. Results: Of the 114 residents eligible, 100 (88% completed the survey. The relative value assigned to different professional attributes varied considerably, with those in the altruism domain valued significantly lower and those in the “respect for others” and “honor and integrity” valued significantly higher (p<0.001. Significant differences were found between interns and seniors for five attributes primarily in the “duty and service” domain (p<0.05. Among different residencies, significant differences were found with attributes within the “altruism” and “duty and service” domains (p<0.05. Conclusion: Residents perceive differences in

  11. Oxytocin model of formation of psychotic symptoms and its implications for research on oxytocinergic pathway in schizophrenia

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    Holka-Pokorska, Justyna

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available There are more and more data to support the dysregulation of the oxytocinergic pathway in schizophrenia. The development of the above branch of knowledge began to evolve alongside the mainstream of studies concerning gene polymorphisms for dopaminergic, glutamatergic and serotoninergic systems. Both experimental studies and clinical trials have demonstrated an antipsychotic effect of oxytocin. Starting with the pioneering neuroendocrinobehavioral experiment which demonstrated that oxytocin nasal spray increases the level of trust in healthy volunteers dozens of experiments were carried out confirming the modulatory role of oxytocin for the recognition of emotion, social memory, pro-social behaviours, collaborative behaviours and behaviours that require generosity and altruism. According to ,oxytocin model’ of development of psychotic symptoms – oxytocinergic system dysregulation may affect the incorrect attribution of meaning of emotional information from the environment. This can be manifested in the form of social cognition dysfunction and leads to abnormal social behaviour as withdrawal from social contact, isolation and formulation of paranoid delusions. From the clinical psychiatry point of view it became crucially need for research on selective oxytocin receptor agonists, as they may be used in the treatment of diseases which manifest in social withdrawal, lack of trust and the absence of affiliation behaviour as in schizophrenia.

  12. Challenging emotional prejudice by changing self-concept: priming independent self-construal reduces racial in-group bias in neural responses to other's pain.

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    Wang, Chenbo; Wu, Bing; Liu, Yi; Wu, Xinhuai; Han, Shihui

    2015-09-01

    Humans show stronger empathy for in-group compared with out-group members' suffering and help in-group members more than out-group members. Moreover, the in-group bias in empathy and parochial altruism tend to be more salient in collectivistic than individualistic cultures. This work tested the hypothesis that modifying self-construals, which differentiate between collectivistic and individualistic cultural orientations, affects in-group bias in empathy for perceived own-race vs other-race pain. By scanning adults using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we found stronger neural activities in the mid-cingulate, left insula and supplementary motor area (SMA) in response to racial in-group compared with out-group members' pain after participants had been primed with interdependent self-construals. However, the racial in-group bias in neural responses to others' pain in the left SMA, mid-cingulate cortex and insula was significantly reduced by priming independent self-construals. Our findings suggest that shifting an individual's self-construal leads to changes of his/her racial in-group bias in neural responses to others' suffering.

  13. 'Morals can not be drawn from facts but guidance may be': the early life of W.D. Hamilton's theory of inclusive fitness.

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    Swenson, Sarah A

    2015-12-01

    W.D. Hamilton's theory of inclusive fitness saw the evolution of altruism from the point of view of the gene. It was at heart a theory of limits, redefining altruistic behaviours as ultimately selfish. This theory inspired two controversial texts published almost in tandem, E.O. Wilson's Sociobiology: The New Synthesis (1975) and Richard Dawkins's The Selfish Gene (1976). When Wilson and Dawkins were attacked for their evolutionary interpretations of human societies, they claimed a distinction between reporting what is and declaring what ought to be. Can the history of sociobiological theories be so easily separated from its sociopolitical context? This paper draws upon unpublished materials from the 1960s and early 1970s and documents some of the ways in which Hamilton saw his research as contributing to contemporary concerns. It pays special attention to the 1969 Man and Beast Smithsonian Institution symposium in order to explore the extent to which Hamilton intended his theory to be merely descriptive versus prescriptive. From this, we may see that Hamilton was deeply concerned about the political chaos he perceived in the world around him, and hoped to arrive at a level of self-understanding through science that could inform a new social order. PMID:26530161

  14. 'Morals can not be drawn from facts but guidance may be': the early life of W.D. Hamilton's theory of inclusive fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swenson, Sarah A

    2015-12-01

    W.D. Hamilton's theory of inclusive fitness saw the evolution of altruism from the point of view of the gene. It was at heart a theory of limits, redefining altruistic behaviours as ultimately selfish. This theory inspired two controversial texts published almost in tandem, E.O. Wilson's Sociobiology: The New Synthesis (1975) and Richard Dawkins's The Selfish Gene (1976). When Wilson and Dawkins were attacked for their evolutionary interpretations of human societies, they claimed a distinction between reporting what is and declaring what ought to be. Can the history of sociobiological theories be so easily separated from its sociopolitical context? This paper draws upon unpublished materials from the 1960s and early 1970s and documents some of the ways in which Hamilton saw his research as contributing to contemporary concerns. It pays special attention to the 1969 Man and Beast Smithsonian Institution symposium in order to explore the extent to which Hamilton intended his theory to be merely descriptive versus prescriptive. From this, we may see that Hamilton was deeply concerned about the political chaos he perceived in the world around him, and hoped to arrive at a level of self-understanding through science that could inform a new social order.

  15. Conformity-Driven Agents Support Ordered Phases in the Spatial Public Goods Game

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    Javarone, Marco Alberto; Caravelli, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the spatial Public Goods Game in the presence of conformity-driven agents on a bi-dimensional lattice with periodic boundary conditions. The present setting usually considers fitness-driven agents, i.e., agents that tend to imitate the strategy of their fittest neighbors. Here, fitness is a general property usually adopted to quantify the extent to which individuals are able to succeed, or at least to survive, in a competitive environment. However, when social systems are considered, the evolution of a population might be affected also by social behaviors as conformity, stubbornness, altruism, and selfishness. Although the term evolution can assume different meanings depending on the considered domain, here it corresponds to the set of processes that lead a system towards an equilibrium or a steady-state. In doing so, we use two types of strategy update rules: fitness-driven and conformity-driven. We map fitness to the agents' payoff so that richer agents are those most imitated by fitness-driv...

  16. AVPR1A variant associated with preschoolers' lower altruistic behavior.

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    Reut Avinun

    Full Text Available The genetic origins of altruism, defined here as a costly act aimed to benefit non-kin individuals, have not been examined in young children. However, previous findings concerning adults pointed at the arginine vasopressin receptor 1A (AVPR1A gene as a possible candidate. AVPR1A has been associated with a range of behaviors including aggressive, affiliative and altruistic phenotypes, and recently a specific allele (327 bp of one of its promoter region polymorphisms (RS3 has been singled out in particular. We modeled altruistic behavior in preschoolers using a laboratory-based economic paradigm, a modified dictator game (DG, and tested for association between DG allocations and the RS3 "target allele." Using both population and family-based analyses we show a significant link between lower allocations and the RS3 "target allele," associating it, for the first time, with a lower proclivity toward altruistic behavior in children. This finding helps further the understanding of the intricate mechanisms underlying early altruistic behavior.

  17. The validity and value of inclusive fitness theory.

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    Bourke, Andrew F G

    2011-11-22

    Social evolution is a central topic in evolutionary biology, with the evolution of eusociality (societies with altruistic, non-reproductive helpers) representing a long-standing evolutionary conundrum. Recent critiques have questioned the validity of the leading theory for explaining social evolution and eusociality, namely inclusive fitness (kin selection) theory. I review recent and past literature to argue that these critiques do not succeed. Inclusive fitness theory has added fundamental insights to natural selection theory. These are the realization that selection on a gene for social behaviour depends on its effects on co-bearers, the explanation of social behaviours as unalike as altruism and selfishness using the same underlying parameters, and the explanation of within-group conflict in terms of non-coinciding inclusive fitness optima. A proposed alternative theory for eusocial evolution assumes mistakenly that workers' interests are subordinate to the queen's, contains no new elements and fails to make novel predictions. The haplodiploidy hypothesis has yet to be rigorously tested and positive relatedness within diploid eusocial societies supports inclusive fitness theory. The theory has made unique, falsifiable predictions that have been confirmed, and its evidence base is extensive and robust. Hence, inclusive fitness theory deserves to keep its position as the leading theory for social evolution.

  18. Suicide Triggers Described by Herodotus

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    Auchincloss, Stephane; Ahmadi, Jamshid

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to better understand the triggers of suicide, particularly among the ancient Greek and Persian soldiers and commanders. Method: ‘Herodotus:TheHistories’ is a history of the rulers and soldiery who participated in the Greco-Persian wars (492-449 BCE). A new translation (2013) of this manuscript was studied. Accounts of suicide were collected and collated, with descriptions of circumstances, methods, and probable triggers. Results: Nine accounts of suicide were identified. Eight of these were named individuals (4 Greeks and 4 Persians); of whom, seven were male. Only one (not the female) appeared to act in response to a mental disorder. Other triggers of suicide included guilt, avoidance of dishonour/punishment and altruism. Cutting/ stabbing was the most common method; others included hanging, jumping, poison, and burning (the single female). Conclusion: While soldiers at a time of war do not reflect the general community, they are nevertheless members of their society. Thus, this evidence demonstrates that suicide triggered by burdensome circumstances (in addition to mental disorder) was known to the Greek and Persian people more than two millennia ago. PMID:27437010

  19. A conceptual framework for international service-learning course planning: promoting a foundation for ethical practice in the physical therapy and occupational therapy professions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lattanzi, Jill Black; Pechak, Celia

    2011-01-01

    As physical therapy (PT) and occupational therapy (OT) educational programs endeavor to foster core values of social responsibility, justice, and altruism in an increasingly global community, the incorporation of local and international service-learning (ISL) into the curriculum is growing. Much of the research has focused on the measurement of student learning, with little written about the impact on the host community. Proponents of global health initiatives are calling for consideration of all stakeholders to ensure ethical practice. This paper explores the current literature related to PT and OT ISL and builds a conceptual framework for ISL course planning. The essential phases in the framework include: 1) pre-experience planning/preparation stage, 2) field immersion experience stage, and 3) postexperience stage. The essential elements are: 1) cultural competency training, 2) communication and coordination with community, 3) comprehensive assessment, and 4) strategic planning. The authors suggest this framework as a practical tool to structure ISL courses with an explicit emphasis on ethical concerns. Additionally, they seek to foster more dialogue and action related to the promotion of ethical practices in ISL in PT and OT education programs. PMID:21695371

  20. Purposeful Travel to Nepal: An Ethnographic Study of the Eudemonic and Hedonistic Experiences of Volunteers

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    Curtin Susanna

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purposeful travel is apparent in relatively new modes of tourism and particularly in volunteer holidays where tourists are searching for meaningful experiences which provide a sense of physical, emotional or spiritual fulfilment. The positive outcomes of volunteer holidays on destinations is heavily debated from questioning the morals and merits of a growing profit-making sector to whether destinations have little or no long term benefit from such travel. Whilst the author acknowledges the wealth of literature in this regard, she concentrates on the notion that volunteering is not just about helping other people or worthy causes but also about personal self-development and social egoism. She concludes that these two features have eudemonic outcomes and that these are worthy of investigation. Based on an ethnographic study, this paper analyses the experiences of participants on an elephant conservation expedition to Bardia National Park, Nepal. In its evaluation it conveys the close relationship between altruism and egoism as well as the eudemonic outcomes that purposeful travel can sometimes provide.