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Sample records for altricial passerine house

  1. Impacts of short-term food restriction on immune development in altricial house sparrow nestlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killpack, Tess L; Carrel, Elijah; Karasov, William H

    2015-01-01

    Food limitation is a common ecological scenario for nestling altricial birds, and reductions in growth and maintenance have been observed in resource-limited nestlings. Substantial development of the immune system occurs during the nestling period, yet the resource dependence of this immune development is understudied. We examined constitutive immune system development as well as acute-phase responses to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injection after 48 h of food restriction in house sparrows at 7 and 13 d posthatch. We also examined nestlings that were restricted early (5-7 d) but refed and tested at 13 d posthatch to determine whether altered immune function and growth early in the nestling period were recovered upon return to adequate resource supply. Induced acute-phase protein response was reduced in food-restricted birds, yet no lasting reductions in acute-phase protein levels were observed in previously restricted nestlings that were challenged with LPS after refeeding. Food restriction did not significantly impact constitutive levels of complement-mediated lysis or circulating IgY antibodies. As a comparator to immune measures, we found that organ and tarsus size, as well as muscle size and citrate synthase enzyme activity (an index of muscle cellular aerobic capacity), were significantly reduced in food-restricted nestlings. Reductions in flight muscle mass and function persisted in birds refed after early food restriction, which may have contributed to persistent body temperature reductions observed in refed birds.

  2. Ontogeny of adaptive antibody response to a model antigen in captive altricial zebra finches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tess L Killpack

    Full Text Available Based on studies from the poultry literature, all birds are hypothesized to require at least 4 weeks to develop circulating mature B-cell lineages that express functionally different immunoglobulin specificities. However, many altricial passerines fledge at adult size less than four weeks after the start of embryonic development, and therefore may experience a period of susceptibility during the nestling and post-fledging periods. We present the first study, to our knowledge, to detail the age-related changes in adaptive antibody response in an altricial passerine. Using repeated vaccinations with non-infectious keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH antigen, we studied the ontogeny of specific adaptive immune response in altricial zebra finches Taeniopygia guttata. Nestling zebra finches were first injected at 7 days (7d, 14 days (14d, or 21 days post-hatch (21d with KLH-adjuvant emulsions, and boosted 7 days later. Adults were vaccinated in the same manner. Induced KLH-specific IgY antibodies were measured using ELISA. Comparisons within age groups revealed no significant increase in KLH-specific antibody levels between vaccination and boost in 7d birds, yet significant increases between vaccination and boost were observed in 14d, 21d, and adult groups. There was no significant difference among age groups in KLH antibody response to priming vaccination, yet KLH antibody response post-boost significantly increased with age among groups. Post-boost antibody response in all nestling age groups was significantly lower than in adults, indicating that mature adult secondary antibody response level was not achieved in zebra finches prior to fledging (21 days post-hatch in zebra finches. Findings from this study contribute fundamental knowledge to the fields of developmental immunology and ecological immunology and strengthen the utility of zebra finches as a model organism for future studies of immune ontogeny.

  3. On the origin of brood parasitism in altricial birds

    OpenAIRE

    Yoram Yom-Tov; Eli Geffen

    2006-01-01

    The probability that obligate interspecific brood parasitism (OP), among altricial birds evolved directly from the normal breeding (no parasitism, NP) mode or indirectly through intraspecific nest parasitism (INP) was examined by using maximum-likelihood and parsimony approaches. We examined the probability of ancestral states at 24 key nodes in order to test our hypotheses. The state of the most basal node in a tree of 565 genera of altricial birds is equivocal; however, the state probabilit...

  4. ESTABLISHING NORMAL FECAL FLORA IN WILD AUSTRALIAN PASSERINE BIRDS BY USE OF THE FECAL GRAM STAIN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latham, Benjamin; Leishman, Alan; Martin, John; Phalen, David

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the normal fecal bacterial and fungal flora and parasite prevalence in wild passerine birds found at the Australian Botanic Garden (Mount Annan, New South Wales). Wild passerine birds (n = 186) from 28 species were captured with mist nets. Fecal Gram stains (n = 155) were made from 26 species and analyzed for bacterial density, Gram stain morphology, and the presence of yeast. Fecal wet preparations (n = 139) were made from 24 passerine species and were analyzed for parasites. Our results showed that 81.9% of passerines sampled had bacteria present in their feces. The bacteria found were entirely Gram positive and consisted predominantly of cocci. Individuals that were caught on multiple occasions were found to have stable bacterial populations, apart from the red-browed finch (Neochmia temporalis). Insectivores had higher bacterial densities and cocci proportions than nectarivores had. Yeasts were rare in most species, with the exception of the bell miner (Manorina melanophrys) and noisy miner (Manorina melanocephala). The yeast, Macrorhabdus ornithogaster, and parasites were not observed in any fecal samples. These results will help practitioners to assess the health of Australian passerine species submitted for care or housed in zoological collections.

  5. Body frontal area in passerine birds

    OpenAIRE

    Hedenström, Anders; Rosén, Mikael

    2003-01-01

    Projected body frontal area is used when estimating the parasite drag of bird flight. We investigated the relationship between projected frontal area and body mass among passerine birds, and compared it with an equation based on waterfowl and raptors, which is used as default procedure in a widespread software package for flight performance calculations. The allometric equation based on waterfowl/raptors underestimates the frontal area compared to the passerine equation presented here. Conseq...

  6. Fully reversible phenotypic plasticity of digestive physiology in young house sparrows: lack of long-term effect of early diet composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzek, Pawel; Kohl, Kevin D; Caviedes-Vidal, Enrique; Karasov, William H

    2011-08-15

    Feeding conditions during the nestling period may significantly affect whole-life fitness in altricial birds but little is known about the physiological mechanisms responsible for these effects. Permanent changes (irreversible developmental plasticity) in digestive physiology caused by the neonatal diet may form such a mechanism. We previously showed that the lack of starch in the diet of house sparrow (Passer domesticus) nestlings between 3 and 12 days post-hatching significantly decreased the activity of intestinal maltase, an enzyme essential for starch digestion. To check whether diet-induced variation in maltase activity in young house sparrows is reversible, we raised them under laboratory conditions from 3 until 30 days of age on diets with either 0% starch or 25% starch, with some individuals experiencing a switch in their assigned diet at 12 days of age. We found evidence for the presence of an internal, presumably genetic, program for changes in the activity of maltase and sucrase, which was, however, significantly affected by diet composition (i.e. environmental factor). Digestive enzyme activity in 30 day old birds was not influenced by diet composition prior to day 12 but instead depended only on diet that was fed between days 12 and 30. We conclude that plasticity in the activity of intestinal disaccharidases in house sparrow nestlings represents completely reversible phenotypic flexibility that can help young sparrows to cope with unpredictable variation in food composition during ontogeny without long-term effects on their digestive system. However, comparison with other species suggests that the magnitude of digestive flexibility in young passerines may be evolutionarily matched to species-specific variation in feeding conditions.

  7. Factors determining presence of passerines breeding within White Stork Ciconia ciconia nests.

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    Zbyryt, Adam; Jakubas, Dariusz; Tobolka, Marcin

    2017-08-18

    Nests of White Stork Ciconia ciconia are commonly used by various passerines as nesting sites. In this study, we investigated factors determining presence and number of pairs of species breeding within White Stork nests in an extensive farmland in NE Poland. In 133 (57%) out of 233 White Stork nests, we found at least one breeding pair of passerine bird. These were from three species: House Sparrows Passer domesticus (68% of 133 nests with co-breeding), Tree Sparrows Passer montanus (65%), and Starlings Sturnus vulgaris (30%). The probability of breeding passerines within White Stork nests increased with increasing nest thickness, and was significantly higher in currently occupied nests. Sparrows were more likely to breed in White Stork nests located on electricity poles, situated closer to settlements and surrounded mainly by arable fields where meadows were not prevalent. In this paper, we show that White Stork nests are favorable nesting sites for passerines, as they are well insulated and provide an anti-predatory shield.

  8. Factors determining presence of passerines breeding within White Stork Ciconia ciconia nests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zbyryt, Adam; Jakubas, Dariusz; Tobolka, Marcin

    2017-10-01

    Nests of White Stork Ciconia ciconia are commonly used by various passerines as nesting sites. In this study, we investigated factors determining presence and number of pairs of species breeding within White Stork nests in an extensive farmland in NE Poland. In 133 (57%) out of 233 White Stork nests, we found at least one breeding pair of passerine bird. These were from three species: House Sparrows Passer domesticus (68% of 133 nests with co-breeding), Tree Sparrows Passer montanus (65%), and Starlings Sturnus vulgaris (30%). The probability of breeding passerines within White Stork nests increased with increasing nest thickness, and was significantly higher in currently occupied nests. Sparrows were more likely to breed in White Stork nests located on electricity poles, situated closer to settlements and surrounded mainly by arable fields where meadows were not prevalent. In this paper, we show that White Stork nests are favorable nesting sites for passerines, as they are well insulated and provide an anti-predatory shield.

  9. Passerine birds breeding under chronic noise experience reduced fitness.

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    Julia Schroeder

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fitness in birds has been shown to be negatively associated with anthropogenic noise, but the underlying mechanisms remain obscure. It is however crucial to understand the mechanisms of how urban noise impinges on fitness to obtain a better understanding of the role of chronic noise in urban ecology. Here, we examine three hypotheses on how noise might reduce reproductive output in passerine birds: (H1 by impairing mate choice, (H2 by reducing territory quality and (H3 by impeding chick development. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used long-term data from an island population of house sparrows, Passer domesticus, in which we can precisely estimate fitness. We found that nests in an area affected by the noise from large generators produced fewer young, of lower body mass, and fewer recruits, even when we corrected statistically for parental genetic quality using a cross-fostering set-up, supporting H3. Also, individual females provided their young with food less often when they bred in the noisy area compared to breeding attempts by the same females elsewhere. Furthermore, we show that females reacted flexibly to increased noise levels by adjusting their provisioning rate in the short term, which suggests that noise may be a causal factor that reduces reproductive output. We rejected H1 and H2 because nestbox occupancy, parental body mass, age and reproductive investment did not differ significantly between noisy and quiet areas. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: OUR RESULTS SUGGEST A PREVIOUSLY UNDESCRIBED MECHANISM TO EXPLAIN HOW ENVIRONMENTAL NOISE CAN REDUCE FITNESS IN PASSERINE BIRDS: by acoustically masking parent-offspring communication. More importantly, using a cross-fostering set-up, our results demonstrate that birds breeding in a noisy environment experience significant fitness costs. Chronic noise is omnipresent around human habitation and may produces similar fitness consequences in a wide range of urban bird species.

  10. Community ecology of helminth parasitism in an insular passerine avifauna.

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    Cooper, C L; Crites, J L

    1976-02-01

    Three hundred and thirty specimens of 7 species of passerine birds from South Bass Island, Ottawa County, Ohio, were examined for helminth parasites. The total number of helminth specimens collected was 4,333. Forty-one helminth taxa were identified. Ten species of helminths were identified as having foci of infection on the island. An index of association for these 10 species is presented. The low association revealed between helminth species utilizing common species of intermediate hosts indicated that a single intermediate host specimen is likely to harbor infective stages of only one species of parasitic helminth. An index of similarity is presented to express the species importance relationships of the helminth faunas of the 7 species of birds: red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus), blue jays (Cyanocitta cristata), brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater), common grackles (Quiscalus quiscula), house sparrows (Passer domesticus), starlings (Sturnus vulgaris), and robins (Turdus migratorius). The results reveal that competition between these avian species for invertebrate food resources helps to maximize the transmission of those helminth populations which utilize these same invertebrates as intermediate hosts. The aggregation of birds into mixed feeding flocks insures a heavy loading of the feeding grounds with agents infective for the invertebrate populations.

  11. From Galapagos doves to passerines: Spillover of Haemoproteus multipigmentatus

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    Maricruz Jaramillo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Haemoproteus (Haemoproteus multipigmentatus, a haemosporidian parasite thought to be specific to columbiform birds, was detected in passeriform birds on Santiago Island in the Galapagos archipelago. We surveyed birds along an altitudinal gradient on the islands of Santa Cruz, Isabela and Santiago between June 2013 and July 2015. Molecular screening of 2254 individuals from 25 species of endemic and introduced birds revealed clusters of passerine birds positive for H. multipigmentatus on Santiago Island that coincide with captures of Galapagos doves at sampled sites. Of 507 individuals from 10 species of endemic passerines sampled on Santiago, 58 individuals from 6 species were found positive (11% prevalence. However, no gametocytes were found in the blood smears of positive passerines, suggesting that these species are not competent hosts for the parasite. All 31 doves captured were positive and gametocytes were found upon microscopic examination of all thin blood smears (averaging 357 gametocytes per 10,000 erythrocytes. These findings indicate parasite spillover from doves to passerines, but that passerines are possibly not competent hosts for further parasite transmission. The endemic Galapagos dove acts as a reservoir host for the introduced H. multipigmentatus, however the effect of this parasite on passerines has not been studied. We report on these findings because parasites can have large effects on individual host populations and on the ecology of a community, but may go undetected. Keywords: Haemoproteus, Spillover, Introduced parasite, Reservoir host, Galapagos, Ecuador

  12. From Galapagos doves to passerines: Spillover ofHaemoproteus multipigmentatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo, Maricruz; Rohrer, Sage; Parker, Patricia G

    2017-12-01

    Haemoproteus (Haemoproteus) multipigmentatus , a haemosporidian parasite thought to be specific to columbiform birds, was detected in passeriform birds on Santiago Island in the Galapagos archipelago. We surveyed birds along an altitudinal gradient on the islands of Santa Cruz, Isabela and Santiago between June 2013 and July 2015. Molecular screening of 2254 individuals from 25 species of endemic and introduced birds revealed clusters of passerine birds positive for H. multipigmentatus on Santiago Island that coincide with captures of Galapagos doves at sampled sites. Of 507 individuals from 10 species of endemic passerines sampled on Santiago, 58 individuals from 6 species were found positive (11% prevalence). However, no gametocytes were found in the blood smears of positive passerines, suggesting that these species are not competent hosts for the parasite. All 31 doves captured were positive and gametocytes were found upon microscopic examination of all thin blood smears (averaging 357 gametocytes per 10,000 erythrocytes). These findings indicate parasite spillover from doves to passerines, but that passerines are possibly not competent hosts for further parasite transmission. The endemic Galapagos dove acts as a reservoir host for the introduced H. multipigmentatus, however the effect of this parasite on passerines has not been studied. We report on these findings because parasites can have large effects on individual host populations and on the ecology of a community, but may go undetected.

  13. Metal accumulation and performance of nestlings of passerine bird species at an urban brownfield site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofer, Charles; Gallagher, Frank J. [Department of Ecology, Evolution and Natural Resources, Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey, 14 College Farm Rd., New Brunswick, NJ 08901-8551 (United States); Holzapfel, Claus, E-mail: holzapfe@andromeda.rutgers.ed [Department of Biological Sciences, Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey, Newark, 195 University Ave., Newark, NJ 07102-1811 (United States)

    2010-05-15

    The use of passerine species as bioindicators of metal bioaccumulation is often underutilized when examining the wildlife habitat value of polluted sites. In this study we tested feathers of nestlings of two common bird species (house wren and American robin) for accumulation of Pb, Zn, As, Cr, Cu, Fe in comparison of a polluted, urban brownfield with a rural, unpolluted site. House wren nestlings at the study site accumulated significantly greater concentrations of all target metals except Zn. At the polluted site we found significant species differences of metal concentrations in feathers, with house wrens accumulating greater concentrations of Pb, Fe, and Zn but slightly lesser accumulations of Cr and Cu than American robins. Although house wren nestlings demonstrated significant accumulation of metals, these concentrations showed little effect on size metrics or fledge rates during the breeding season compared to nestlings from the control site. - Nestlings of birds in an urban brownfield accumulated soil contaminants but did not show signs of reduced breeding success or growth.

  14. Some conservation aspects of papyrus endemic passerines around ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bradypterus carpalis, Greater Swamp Warbler Acrocephalus rufescens, Papyrus ... Papyrus Yellow Warbler, the globally Near-threatened Papyrus Gonolek and .... Bennun, L.A. & Njoroge, P. 999. Important bird areas in Kenya. Nairobi, Kenya: East. Africa Natural History Society. Papyrus endemic passerines around Lake ...

  15. Insect diet of some afrotropical insectivorous passerines at the Jos ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Despite being the most common avian dietary strategy, our understanding of the nutrition of avian insectivores lags behind that of less populous granivores, herbivores, and frugivores; thereby attracting research interest. Insect diet of Afrotropical insectivorous passerines at the Jos Wildlife Park was studied by trapping birds ...

  16. Ticks (Ixodidae) from passerine birds in the Carpathian region

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Spitalska, E.; Literák, I.; Sparagano, O. A .E.; Golovchenko, Maryna; Kocianová, E.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 118, 23/24 (2006), 759-764 ISSN 0043-5325 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Passerine birds * Ixodes ricinus * Borrelia * Rickettsia * Ehrlichia * Carpathians Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 0.804, year: 2006

  17. Agonistic behaviour of Palaearctic passerine migrants at a stopover ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We recorded intraspecific and interspecific interactions of Palaearctic migrant passerine birds at Ouadâne, Mauritania, a stopover site in the Sahara desert. ... our observations suggest interspecific interference competition because inferior individuals are temporarily deprived of food, which may influence the fitness of ...

  18. Within-Winter Flexibility in Muscle Masses, Myostatin, and Cellular Aerobic Metabolic Intensity in Passerine Birds.

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    Swanson, David L; King, Marisa O; Culver, William; Zhang, Yufeng

    Metabolic rates of passerine birds are flexible traits that vary both seasonally and among and within winters. Seasonal variation in summit metabolic rates (M sum = maximum thermoregulatory metabolism) in birds is consistently correlated with changes in pectoralis muscle and heart masses and sometimes with variation in cellular aerobic metabolic intensity, so these traits might also be associated with shorter-term, within-winter variation in metabolic rates. To determine whether these mechanisms are associated with within-winter variation in M sum , we examined the effects of short-term (ST; 0-7 d), medium-term (MT; 14-30 d), and long-term (LT; 30-yr means) temperature variables on pectoralis muscle and heart masses, pectoralis expression of the muscle-growth inhibitor myostatin and its metalloproteinase activators TLL-1 and TLL-2, and pectoralis and heart citrate synthase (CS; an indicator of cellular aerobic metabolic intensity) activities for two temperate-zone resident passerines, house sparrows (Passer domesticus) and dark-eyed juncos (Junco hyemalis). For both species, pectoralis mass residuals were positively correlated with ST temperature variables, suggesting that cold temperatures resulted in increased turnover of pectoralis muscle, but heart mass showed little within-winter variation for either species. Pectoralis mRNA and protein expression of myostatin and the TLLs were only weakly correlated with ST and MT temperature variables, which is largely consistent with trends in muscle masses for both species. Pectoralis and heart CS activities showed weak and variable trends with ST temperature variables in both species, suggesting only minor effects of temperature variation on cellular aerobic metabolic intensity. Thus, neither muscle or heart masses, regulation by the myostatin system, nor cellular aerobic metabolic intensity varied consistently with winter temperature, suggesting that other factors regulate within-winter metabolic variation in these birds.

  19. The microbiome of neotropical ticks parasitizing on passerine migratory birds

    OpenAIRE

    Budachetri, Khemraj; Williams, Jaclyn; Mukherjee, Nabanita; Sellers, Michael; Moore, Frank; Karim, Shahid

    2016-01-01

    Seasonal migration of passerine birds between temperate North America and tropical Central and South America is an ecological phenomenon. Migration of birds has been associated with the introduction of ectoparasites like ticks or tick-borne pathogens across the avian migration routes. In this study, the microbial diversity was determined in the ticks and bird DNA samples using 454 pyrosequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA gene. Tick DNA samples showed the dominance of genera Lactococcus, Francisel...

  20. Female promiscuity and genetic diversity in passerine birds

    OpenAIRE

    Gohli, Jostein

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation is about female promiscuity in passerine birds. By using comparative analytical approaches, I have tried to determine why there is such variation in the frequency of this behaviour. I have found that promiscuous species/populations have higher genetic diversity both at neutral loci and at loci directly involved in the recognition of pathogens. These observations may point to benefits from heterozygosity-fitness correlation or increased immunocompetence in offspring. The corr...

  1. De-novo emergence of SINE retroposons during the early evolution of passerine birds.

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    Suh, Alexander; Bachg, Sandra; Donnellan, Stephen; Joseph, Leo; Brosius, Jürgen; Kriegs, Jan Ole; Schmitz, Jürgen

    2017-01-01

    Passeriformes ("perching birds" or passerines) make up more than half of all extant bird species. The genome of the zebra finch, a passerine model organism for vocal learning, was noted previously to contain thousands of short interspersed elements (SINEs), a group of retroposons that is abundant in mammalian genomes but considered largely inactive in avian genomes. Here we resolve the deep phylogenetic relationships of passerines using presence/absence patterns of SINEs. The resultant retroposon-based phylogeny provides a powerful and independent corroboration of previous sequence-based analyses. Notably, SINE activity began in the common ancestor of Eupasseres (passerines excluding the New Zealand wrens Acanthisittidae) and ceased before the rapid diversification of oscine passerines (suborder Passeri - songbirds). Furthermore, we find evidence for very recent SINE activity within suboscine passerines (suborder Tyranni), following the emergence of a SINE via acquisition of a different tRNA head as we suggest through template switching. We propose that the early evolution of passerines was unusual among birds in that it was accompanied by de-novo emergence and activity of SINEs. Their genomic and transcriptomic impact warrants further study in the light of the massive diversification of passerines.

  2. Open cup nests evolved from roofed nests in the early passerines.

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    Price, J Jordan; Griffith, Simon C

    2017-02-08

    The architectural diversity of nests in the passerine birds (order Passeriformes) is thought to have played an important role in the adaptive radiation of this group, which now comprises more than half of avian species and occupies nearly all terrestrial ecosystems. Here, we present an extensive survey and ancestral state reconstruction of nest design across the passerines, focusing on early Australian lineages and including members of nearly all passerine families worldwide. Most passerines build open cup-shaped nests, whereas a minority build more elaborate domed structures with roofs. We provide strong evidence that, despite their relative rarity today, domed nests were constructed by the common ancestor of all modern passerines. Open cup nests evolved from enclosed domes at least four times independently during early passerine evolution, at least three of which occurred on the Australian continent, yielding several primarily cup-nesting clades that are now widespread and numerically dominant among passerines. Our results show that the ubiquitous and relatively simple cup-shaped nests of many birds today evolved multiple times convergently, suggesting adaptive benefits over earlier roofed designs. © 2017 The Author(s).

  3. Passerine bird communities of Iberian dehesas: a review

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    Tellería, J. L.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The Iberian dehesas are a man-made habitat composed of scattered oaks (Quercus spp. and extensive grass cover occupying three million ha in south-western Iberia. This paper compares the structure of the passerine bird communities in this region with other bird assemblages of Iberian woodlands. Although forest bird numbers in the southern half of the Iberian peninsula are decreasing, the dehesas show the highest richness in breeding birds, seemingly as the result of the increased presence of border and open-habitat birds. A low intra-habitat turnover of species was observed in the dehesas, with birds recorded at a sampling point accounting for a high percentage of the total richness of the community. This can be related to the low spatial patchiness of this habitat. In winter, the dehesas continued to maintain many bird species, but showed bird densities similar to other woodlands. This pattern, as well as the scarcity of some common forest passerines during the breeding period, could result from the removal of the shrub layer typical of Mediterranean woodlands.

  4. Coccidia in passerines from the Nevado de Toluca National Park, Mexico.

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    Medina, Juan P; Salgado-Miranda, Celene; García-Conejo, Michele; Galindo-Sánchez, Karla P; Mejía-García, Cristian J; Janczur, Mariusz K; Gomes Lopes, Carlos W; Berto, Bruno P; Soriano-Vargas, Edgardo

    2014-03-01

    In this study, we found unsporulated coccidia oocysts in passerines from the Nevado de Toluca National Park, Mexico. We captured birds and took samples of their droppings during three field visits. We examined a total of 72 fecal samples and found unsporulated coccidia oocysts in 10 samples from five passerine species: Atlapetes pileatus (3), Cardelina ruber (1), Mniotilta varia (1), Oreothlypis celata (2) and Regulus calendula (3). This appears to be the first recorded study of unsporulated coccidia oocysts in passerine species from Mexico.

  5. Comparison of learning ability and memory retention in altricial (Bengalese finch, Lonchura striata var. domestica) and precocial (blue-breasted quail, Coturnix chinensis) birds using a color discrimination task.

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    Ueno, Aki; Suzuki, Kaoru

    2014-02-01

    The present study sought to assess the potential application of avian models with different developmental modes to studies on cognition and neuroscience. Six altricial Bengalese finches (Lonchura striata var. domestica), and eight precocial blue-breasted quails (Coturnix chinensis) were presented with color discrimination tasks to compare their respective faculties for learning and memory retention within the context of the two developmental modes. Tasks consisted of presenting birds with discriminative cues in the form of colored feeder lids, and birds were considered to have learned a task when 80% of their attempts at selecting the correctly colored lid in two consecutive blocks of 10 trials were successful. All of the finches successfully performed the required experimental tasks, whereas only half of the quails were able to execute the same tasks. In the learning test, finches required significantly fewer trials than quails to learn the task (finches: 13.5 ± 9.14 trials, quails: 45.8 ± 4.35 trials, P memory retention tests, which were conducted 45 days after the learning test, finches retained the ability to discriminate between colors correctly (95.0 ± 4.47%), whereas quails did not retain any memory of the experimental procedure and so could not be tested. These results suggested that altricial and precocial birds both possess the faculty for learning and retaining discrimination-type tasks, but that altricial birds perform better than precocial birds in both faculties. The present findings imply that developmental mode is an important consideration for assessing the suitability of bird species for particular experiments. © 2013 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  6. Body size changes in passerine birds introduced to New Zealand from the UK

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    Tim Blackburn

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available One feature of global geographic variation in avian body sizes is that they are larger on isolated islands than on continental regions. Therefore, this study aims to assess whether there have been changes in body size following successful establishment for seven passerine bird species (blackbird Turdus merula, song thrush T. philomelos, house sparrow Passer domesticus, chaffinch Fringilla coelebs, greenfinch Chloris chloris, goldfinch Carduelis carduelis, yellowhammer Emberiza citrinella introduced from the continental islands of the UK to the more isolated oceanic landmass of New Zealand in the middle of the nineteenth century. Measures of tarsus length were taken from individuals from contemporary UK and New Zealand populations of these species, and from historical specimens collected around the time that individuals were translocated from the UK to New Zealand. Analysis of Variance was used to test for size differences between contemporary UK and New Zealand populations, and between historical UK and contemporary UK and New Zealand populations. Historical UK populations have longer tarsi, on average, than 12 (7 UK and 5 New Zealand of the 14 contemporary populations. Significant decreases in tarsus length relative to the historical populations have occurred in the UK for blackbird, chaffinch and greenfinch, and in the New Zealand blackbird population. Contemporary New Zealand house sparrows have significantly longer tarsi, on average, than both historical and contemporary UK populations. Exposure to novel environments may be expected to lead to changes in the morphology and other traits of exotic species, but changes have also occurred in the native range. In fact, contrary to expectations, the most common differences we found were between contemporary and historical UK populations. Consideration of contemporary populations alone would underestimate the true scale of morphological change in these species over time, which may be due to

  7. Autonomous houses. Autonomous house

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, S. (Tokai University, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering)

    1991-09-30

    Self-sufficiency type houses are outlined. On condition that people gain a certain amount of income in relation with the society, they self-suffice under the given environment, allowing themselves to accept a minimum of industrial products with small environmental load. Ordinary supply from outside of fossil energy and materials which depend on it is minimized. Types are classified into three: energy, energy materials and perfect self-sufficiency. A study project for environment symbiotic houses is progressing which is planned by the Ministry of Construction and Institute of Building Energy Conservation and is invested by a private company. Its target is making a house for halving an environmental load by CO{sub 2}, for the purpose of creating the environment symbiotic house which is nice to and in harmony with the global environment and human beings. As a part of the studies on energy-saving and resource conservation on houses, introduced is a plan of an autonomous house at Izu-Atagawa. The passive method and high thermal-insulation are used for air conditioning, and hot spring water for hot water supply. Electric power is generated by hydroelectric power generation using mountain streams and by solar cells. Staple food is purchased, while subsidiary food is sufficed. 17 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Convergent patterns of long-distance nocturnal migration in noctuid moths and passerine birds.

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    Alerstam, Thomas; Chapman, Jason W; Bäckman, Johan; Smith, Alan D; Karlsson, Håkan; Nilsson, Cecilia; Reynolds, Don R; Klaassen, Raymond H G; Hill, Jane K

    2011-10-22

    Vast numbers of insects and passerines achieve long-distance migrations between summer and winter locations by undertaking high-altitude nocturnal flights. Insects such as noctuid moths fly relatively slowly in relation to the surrounding air, with airspeeds approximately one-third of that of passerines. Thus, it has been widely assumed that windborne insect migrants will have comparatively little control over their migration speed and direction compared with migrant birds. We used radar to carry out the first comparative analyses of the flight behaviour and migratory strategies of insects and birds under nearly equivalent natural conditions. Contrary to expectations, noctuid moths attained almost identical ground speeds and travel directions compared with passerines, despite their very different flight powers and sensory capacities. Moths achieved fast travel speeds in seasonally appropriate migration directions by exploiting favourably directed winds and selecting flight altitudes that coincided with the fastest air streams. By contrast, passerines were less selective of wind conditions, relying on self-powered flight in their seasonally preferred direction, often with little or no tailwind assistance. Our results demonstrate that noctuid moths and passerines show contrasting risk-prone and risk-averse migratory strategies in relation to wind. Comparative studies of the flight behaviours of distantly related taxa are critically important for understanding the evolution of animal migration strategies.

  9. Housing culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roesdahl, Else; Scholkmann, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    On houses and their furniture and fittings, and on the study of this - with a comparison of rural, urban, monastic and aristocratic housing, and a special section on heating technologies.......On houses and their furniture and fittings, and on the study of this - with a comparison of rural, urban, monastic and aristocratic housing, and a special section on heating technologies....

  10. Livestock grazing affects the egg size of an insectivorous passerine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Darren M; Redpath, Stephen M; Evans, Sharon A; Elston, David A; Dennis, Peter

    2005-09-22

    Livestock grazing is a major driver of ecosystem change, and has been associated with significant declines in various bird species worldwide. In Britain, there is particular concern that severe grazing pressure is deleteriously affecting vegetation and birds in upland regions. However, the mechanism by which grazing affects birds is unclear. Here, we report for the first time, to our knowledge, that sheep grazing pressure affects the egg size of a common upland passerine: the meadow pipit Anthus pratensis. We manipulated sheep stocking densities in a replicated field experiment, and found that plots with the highest stocking density contained nests with the smallest eggs, and that plots with low stocking density contained nests with the largest eggs. However, eggs laid in ungrazed plots were also small, suggesting that either too many sheep or their removal from upland areas might have a detrimental effect on pipit egg size. We found no significant effect on fledging success but the reduced post-fledging survival of young from smaller eggs, as seen in other studies, could partly explain declines in upland birds.

  11. The microbiome of neotropical ticks parasitizing on passerine migratory birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budachetri, Khemraj; Williams, Jaclyn; Mukherjee, Nabanita; Sellers, Michael; Moore, Frank; Karim, Shahid

    2017-01-01

    Seasonal migration of passerine birds between temperate North America and tropical Central and South America is an ecological phenomenon. Migration of birds has been associated with the introduction of ectoparasites like ticks or tick-borne pathogens across the avian migration routes. In this study, the microbial diversity was determined in the ticks and bird DNA samples using 454 pyrosequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA gene. Tick DNA samples showed the dominance of genera Lactococcus, Francisella, Raoultella, Wolbachia and Rickettsia across all the ticks, but birds DNA did not share common microbial diversity with ticks. Furthermore, "Candidatus Rickettsia amblyommii" infection in the 91 ticks collected off the songbirds was also quantified by qPCR assay. Interestingly, "Candidatus R. amblyommii" was tested positive in 24 ticks (26% infection), and infection varied from as low as three copies to thousands of copies, but bird blood samples showed no amplification. Our results provide evidence that songbirds serve as transport carrier for immature ticks, and less likely to be a reservoir for "Candidatus R. amblyommii". Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Repeatability of feather mite prevalence and intensity in passerine birds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Diaz-Real

    Full Text Available Understanding why host species differ so much in symbiont loads and how this depends on ecological host and symbiont traits is a major issue in the ecology of symbiosis. A first step in this inquiry is to know whether observed differences among host species are species-specific traits or more related with host-symbiont environmental conditions. Here we analysed the repeatability (R of the intensity and the prevalence of feather mites to partition within- and among-host species variance components. We compiled the largest dataset so far available: 119 Paleartic passerine bird species, 75,944 individual birds, ca. 1.8 million mites, seven countries, 23 study years. Several analyses and approaches were made to estimate R and adjusted repeatability (R(adj after controlling for potential confounding factors (breeding period, weather, habitat, spatial autocorrelation and researcher identity. The prevalence of feather mites was moderately repeatable (R = 0.26-0.53; R(adj = 0.32-0.57; smaller values were found for intensity (R = 0.19-0.30; R(adj = 0.18-0.30. These moderate repeatabilities show that prevalence and intensity of feather mites differ among species, but also that the high variation within species leads to considerable overlap among bird species. Differences in the prevalence and intensity of feather mites within bird species were small among habitats, suggesting that local factors are playing a secondary role. However, effects of local climatic conditions were partially observed for intensity.

  13. Song evolution, speciation, and vocal learning in passerine birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Nicholas A; Burns, Kevin J; Tobias, Joseph A; Claramunt, Santiago; Seddon, Nathalie; Derryberry, Elizabeth P

    2017-03-01

    Phenotypic divergence can promote reproductive isolation and speciation, suggesting a possible link between rates of phenotypic evolution and the tempo of speciation at multiple evolutionary scales. To date, most macroevolutionary studies of diversification have focused on morphological traits, whereas behavioral traits─including vocal signals─are rarely considered. Thus, although behavioral traits often mediate mate choice and gene flow, we have a limited understanding of how behavioral evolution contributes to diversification. Furthermore, the developmental mode by which behavioral traits are acquired may affect rates of behavioral evolution, although this hypothesis is seldom tested in a phylogenetic framework. Here, we examine evidence for rate shifts in vocal evolution and speciation across two major radiations of codistributed passerines: one oscine clade with learned songs (Thraupidae) and one suboscine clade with innate songs (Furnariidae). We find that evolutionary bursts in rates of speciation and song evolution are coincident in both thraupids and furnariids. Further, overall rates of vocal evolution are higher among taxa with learned rather than innate songs. Taken together, these findings suggest an association between macroevolutionary bursts in speciation and vocal evolution, and that the tempo of behavioral evolution can be influenced by variation in developmental modes among lineages. © 2016 The Author(s). Evolution © 2016 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  14. Silver spoon effects on plumage quality in a passerine bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minias, Piotr; Włodarczyk, Radosław; Surmacki, Adrian; Iciek, Tomasz

    2015-06-01

    A silver spoon effect means that individuals who develop under favourable circumstances enjoy a fitness or performance advantage later in life. While there is large empirical support for silver spoon effects acting on different life-history traits in birds, such as survival and reproduction, the evidence for the carry-over effects of rearing conditions on the quality of future plumage generations is lacking. Here, we examined whether abilities of individuals to undergo extensive post-juvenile moult may depend on the quality of juvenile plumage developed during the nestling phase in a small passerine showing large individual variation in the extent of post-juvenile moult, the greenfinch (Carduelis chloris). We found that high structural quality and carotenoid chroma of juvenile feathers were positively linked to the extent of post-juvenile moult in this species, thus allowing young birds to attain more adult-like plumage. Silver spoon effects mediated by the juvenile plumage quality were also found to have other fitness-related consequences, as individuals with high-quality juvenile feathers were in better condition during their first winter. As far as we are aware, the results provide the first correlative evidence for a silver spoon effect acting on general plumage quality in birds.

  15. Behavioural trait covaries with immune responsiveness in a wild passerine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sild, Elin; Sepp, Tuul; Hõrak, Peeter

    2011-10-01

    Immune system is highly integrated with the nervous and endocrine systems, which is thought to result in covariation between behavioural syndromes and stress- and immune-associated diseases. Very little is known about the associations between behaviour and immune traits in wild animals. Here we describe such an association in passerine birds, the greenfinches (Carduelis chloris). When wild-caught greenfinches are brought into captivity, some individuals damage their tail feathers against cage walls due to excited behaviour, while others retain their feathers in intact condition. We show that damage to tail feathers was associated with flapping flight movements and the frequency of such flapping bouts was individually consistent over 57 days. Birds with intact tails, i.e., relatively 'calm' individuals mounted stronger antibody response to a novel Brucella abortus antigen and their circulating phagocytes were capable of producing stronger oxidative burst in response to stimulation with bacterial lipopolysaccharide in vitro. As the behavioural trait was assessed 13-25 days before measuring immune responsiveness, our results demonstrate that individuals' coping styles with captivity predicted how these individuals would respond to forthcoming immune challenges. This is a novel evidence about covariation between immune responsiveness and a behavioural trait in a wild-caught animal. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Nest predation and reproductive traits in small passerines: a comparative approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanes, Miguel; Suárez, Francisco

    Nest predation can be a decisive factor in the evolution of bird reproduction strategies. This paper compares several reproductive traits in small passerines on the Iberian Peninsula (n=31) with the probability of daily nest survival from predation. We consider the phylogenetic relationships between species by means of an analysis according to three models of evolutionary change: Brownian, punctuational and GRAFEN'S arbitrary. In this comparative evolutionary scenario, clutch size, egg volume and incubation period appear not to change in relation to nest predation, while the nestling phase duration is a positively-related parameter to daily nest survival from predation. These results are consistent for all models of evolutionary change. Thus, from the perspective of nest predation, the nestling period is the most important evolutionary parameter in small passerines. A hypothetical influence of nest predation on passerine clutch and egg size should only be regarded as an indirect factor, linked to the relationship between these parameters and the duration of the nestling period.

  17. Macroevolution of life-history traits in passerine birds: adaptation and phylogenetic inertia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pienaar, Jason; Ilany, Amiyaal; Geffen, Eli; Yom-Tov, Yoram

    2013-05-01

    We used a recent passerine phylogeny and comparative method to evaluate the macroevolution of body and egg mass, incubation and fledging periods, time to independence and time with parents of the main passerine lineages. We hypothesised that passerine reproductive traits are affected by adaptation to both past and present environmental factors and phenotypic attributes such as body mass. Our results suggest that the evolution of body and egg mass, time to independence, incubation and fledging times are affected by strong phylogenetic inertia and that these breeding traits are all affected by body mass. Time with parents, where major lineages exhibit their own fixed optima and body mass does not have an effect, and clutch size which is affected by body mass and additionally by climate regimes, do not exhibit any phylogenetic inertia. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/CNRS.

  18. Time-specific patterns of nest survival for ducks and passerines breeding in North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Terry L.; Grant, Todd A.

    2012-01-01

    In many bird species, survival can vary with the age of the nest, with the date a nest was initiated, or among years within the same nesting area. A literature review showed that patterns of survival vary in relation to nest age and date and are often contradictory. Inconsistencies could be a result of temporal variation in the environment or life-history differences among species. We examined patterns of nest survival in relation to nest age, date, and year for several duck and passerine species nesting at a single location in North Dakota during 1998–2003. We predicted that if environment shaped nest survival patterns, then temporal patterns in survival might be similar among three species of upland nesting ducks, and also among three species of grassland passerines nesting at the same site. We expected that survival patterns would differ between ducks and passerines because of relatively disparate life histories and differences in predators that prey on their nests. Nest survival was rarely constant among years, seasonally, or with age of the nest for species that we studied. As predicted, the pattern of survival was similar among duck species, driven mainly by differences in nest survival associated with nest initiation date. The pattern of survival also was similar among passerine species, but nest survival was more influenced by nest age than by date. Our findings suggest that some but not all variation in temporal patterns of nest survival in grassland birds reported in the literature can be explained on the basis of temporal environmental variation. Because patterns of survival were dissimilar among ducks and passerines, it is likely that mechanisms such as predation or brood parasitism have variable influences on productivity of ducks and passerines nesting in the same area. Our results indicate that biologists and managers should not assume that temporal environmental variations, especially factors that affect nest survival, act similarly on all

  19. A review on exposure and effects of arsenic in passerine birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Virosta, P; Espín, S; García-Fernández, A J; Eeva, T

    2015-04-15

    Arsenic (As) is a metalloid of high concern because of its toxic effects for plants and animals. However, it is hard to find information on this metalloid in passerines. This review presents a comprehensive overview of As exposure and effects in birds, and more particularly in passerines, as a result of an extensive search of the literature available. Internal tissues are the most frequently analyzed matrices for As determination in passerines (37.5% of the reviewed studies used internal tissues), followed by feathers and eggs (32.5% each), feces (27.5%), and finally blood (15%). A clear tendency is found in recent years to the use of non-destructive samples. Most studies on As concentrations in passerines have been done in great tit (Parus major; 50%), followed by pied flycatcher (Ficedula hypoleuca; 22.5%). Some factors such as diet and migratory status are crucial on the interspecific differences in As exposure. More studies are needed to elucidate if intraspecific factors like age or gender affect As concentrations in different tissues. The literature review shows that studies on As concentrations in passerines have been done mainly in the United States (30%), followed by Belgium (22.5%), and Finland (20%), making evident the scarce or even lack of information in some countries, so we recommend further research in order to overcome the data gap, particularly in the southern hemisphere. Studies on humans, laboratory animals and birds have found a wide range of effects on different organ systems when they are exposed to different forms of As. This review shows that few field studies on As exposure and effects in passerines have been done, and all of them are correlative so far. Arsenic manipulation experiments on passerines are recommended to explore the adverse effects of As in free-living populations at similar levels to those occurring in the environment. This review summarizes the most interesting published studies on As exposure and effects in passerines

  20. Climate niche differentiation between two passerines despite ongoing gene flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaner, Pei-Jen L; Tsao, Tzu-Hsuan; Lin, Rong-Chien; Liang, Wei; Yeh, Chia-Fen; Yang, Xiao-Jun; Lei, Fu-Min; Zhou, Fang; Yang, Can-Chao; Hung, Le Manh; Hsu, Yu-Cheng; Li, Shou-Hsien

    2015-05-01

    Niche evolution underpins the generation and maintenance of biological diversity, but niche conservatism, in which niches remain little changed over time in closely related taxa, and the role of ecology in niche evolution are continually debated. To test whether climate niches are conserved in two closely related passerines in East Asia - the vinous-throated (Paradoxornis webbianus) and ashy-throated (P. alphonsianus) parrotbills - we established their potential allopatric and sympatric regions using ecological niche models and compared differences in their climate niches using niche overlap indices in background tests and multivariate statistical analyses. We also used polymorphism data on 44 nuclear genes to infer their divergence demography. We found that these two parrotbills occupy different climate niches, in both their allopatric and potential sympatric regions. Because the potential sympatric region is the area predicted to be suitable for both parrotbills based on the ecological niche models, it can serve as a natural common garden. Therefore, their observed niche differences in this potential sympatry were not simply rendered by phenotypic plasticity and probably had a genetic basis. Our genetic analyses revealed that the two parrotbills are not evolutionarily independent for the most recent part of their divergence history. The two parrotbills diverged c. 856,000 years ago and have had substantial gene flow since a presumed secondary contact c. 290,000 years ago. This study provides an empirical case demonstrating that climate niches may not be homogenized in nascent species in spite of substantial, ongoing gene flow, which in turn suggests a role for ecology in promoting and maintaining diversification among incipient species. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2015 British Ecological Society.

  1. Multiple weather factors affect apparent survival of European passerine birds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volker Salewski

    Full Text Available Weather affects the demography of animals and thus climate change will cause local changes in demographic rates. In birds numerous studies have correlated demographic factors with weather but few of those examined variation in the impacts of weather in different seasons and, in the case of migrants, in different regions. Using capture-recapture models we correlated weather with apparent survival of seven passerine bird species with different migration strategies to assess the importance of selected facets of weather throughout the year on apparent survival. Contrary to our expectations weather experienced during the breeding season did not affect apparent survival of the target species. However, measures for winter severity were associated with apparent survival of a resident species, two short-distance/partial migrants and a long-distance migrant. Apparent survival of two short distance migrants as well as two long-distance migrants was further correlated with conditions experienced during the non-breeding season in Spain. Conditions in Africa had statistically significant but relatively minor effects on the apparent survival of the two long-distance migrants but also of a presumably short-distance migrant and a short-distance/partial migrant. In general several weather effects independently explained similar amounts of variation in apparent survival for the majority of species and single factors explained only relatively low amounts of temporal variation of apparent survival. Although the directions of the effects on apparent survival mostly met our expectations and there are clear predictions for effects of future climate we caution against simple extrapolations of present conditions to predict future population dynamics. Not only did weather explains limited amounts of variation in apparent survival, but future demographics will likely be affected by changing interspecific interactions, opposing effects of weather in different seasons, and

  2. Obligate brood parasites as selective agents for evolution of egg appearance in passerine birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokke, Bard G; Moksnes, Arne; Røskaft, Eivin

    2002-01-01

    Many passerine host species have counteracted the parasite egg mimicry in their coevolutionary arms race with the common cuckoo (Cuculus canorus) by evolving increased interclutch and reduced intraclutch variation in egg appearance. Such variations make it easier for hosts to recognize a foreign egg, reduce the possibility of making recognition errors, and reduce the ability of the cuckoo to mimic the eggs of a particular host. Here, we investigate if such clutch characteristics have evolved among North American passerines. We predict that due to the absence of brood parasites with egg mimicry on this continent, these passerines should (1) not show any relationship between rejection rates and intra- or interclutch variation, and (2) intraclutch variation should be lower and interclutch variation higher in European hosts exposed to cuckoo parasitism as compared to North American hosts parasitized by cowbirds. Here we present data that show support for most of these and other predictions, as well as when controlling statistically for effects of common descent. However, the effect of continent on intraclutch variation was less than predicted and we discuss a possible reason for this. All things considered, the results demonstrate that parasitism by a specialist brood parasite with egg mimicry is a powerful selective force regarding the evolution of egg characteristics in passerine birds.

  3. Decline in snail abundance due to soil acidification causes eggshell defects in forest passerines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graveland, J; vanderWal, R

    On poor soils in the Netherlands an increasing number of great tits, Parus major, and of other forest passerines produce eggs with defective shells and have low reproductive success as a result of calcium deficiency. A similar increase in eggshell defects has been observed in Germany and Sweden.

  4. Decline in snail abundance due to soil acidification causes eggshell defects in forest passerines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graveland, J.; Van der Wal, R.

    1996-01-01

    On poor soils in the Netherlands an increasing number of great tits, Parus major, and of other forest passerines produce eggs with defective shells and have low reproductive success as a result of calcium deficiency. A similar increase in eggshell defects has been observed in Germany and Sweden.

  5. Predictors of extinction risk of passerine birds in a Central European country

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Koleček, Jaroslav; Albrecht, Tomáš; Reif, J.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 5 (2014), s. 498-506 ISSN 1367-9430 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : red list * life history * habitat specialization * distribution * climate change * threatened species * extinction risk * passerine Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.852, year: 2014

  6. Evaluation of three miniature radio transmitter attachment methods for small passerines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sykes, P.W.; Carpenter, J.W.; Holzman, S.; Geissler, P.H.

    1990-01-01

    Thirty-two immature common yellowthroats were used to evaluate three methods of attaching radio transmitters to the backs of small passerines: adhesive, velcro, and harness. There were no significant differences between the three methods; however, the adhesive method of transmitter attachment to small birds was found to be the preferred technique.

  7. Why housing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aidala, Angela A; Sumartojo, Esther

    2007-11-01

    Housing/lack of housing and HIV are powerfully linked. Housing occupies an important place in the causal chains linking poverty and inequality, and HIV risk and outcomes of infection. The articles in this Special Supplement of AIDS and Behavior confirm the impact of homelessness, and poor or unstable housing, on HIV/AIDS, and challenge scientists to test and policy makers to implement the promise of housing as an innovative response to the epidemic. In order to influence the development of policies on housing to benefit at-risk or HIV-infected persons, however, proponents must justify why this association exists, and how housing can help end the epidemic as well as improve the care and health of persons living with HIV/AIDS. We introduce this supplement with a discussion of the "why" question.

  8. Sperm length variation as a predictor of extrapair paternity in passerine birds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan T Lifjeld

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The rate of extrapair paternity is a commonly used index for the risk of sperm competition in birds, but paternity data exist for only a few percent of the approximately 10400 extant species. As paternity analyses require extensive field sampling and costly lab work, species coverage in this field will probably not improve much in the foreseeable future. Recent findings from passerine birds, which constitute the largest avian order (∼5,900 species, suggest that sperm phenotypes carry a signature of sperm competition. Here we examine how well standardized measures of sperm length variation can predict the rate of extrapair paternity in passerine birds.We collected sperm samples from 55 passerine species in Canada and Europe for which extrapair paternity rates were already available from either the same (n = 24 or a different (n = 31 study population. We measured the total length of individual spermatozoa and found that both the coefficient of between-male variation (CV(bm and within-male variation (CV(wm in sperm length were strong predictors of the rate of extrapair paternity, explaining as much as 65% and 58%, respectively, of the variation in extrapair paternity among species. However, only the CV(bm predictor was independent of phylogeny, which implies that it can readily be converted into a currency of extrapair paternity without the need for phylogenetic correction.We propose the CV(bm index as an alternative measure to extrapair paternity for passerine birds. Given the ease of sperm extraction from male birds in breeding condition, and a modest number of sampled males required for a robust estimate, this new index holds a great potential for mapping the risk of sperm competition across a wide range of passerine birds.

  9. Sperm length variation as a predictor of extrapair paternity in passerine birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lifjeld, Jan T; Laskemoen, Terje; Kleven, Oddmund; Albrecht, Tomas; Robertson, Raleigh J

    2010-10-18

    The rate of extrapair paternity is a commonly used index for the risk of sperm competition in birds, but paternity data exist for only a few percent of the approximately 10400 extant species. As paternity analyses require extensive field sampling and costly lab work, species coverage in this field will probably not improve much in the foreseeable future. Recent findings from passerine birds, which constitute the largest avian order (∼5,900 species), suggest that sperm phenotypes carry a signature of sperm competition. Here we examine how well standardized measures of sperm length variation can predict the rate of extrapair paternity in passerine birds. We collected sperm samples from 55 passerine species in Canada and Europe for which extrapair paternity rates were already available from either the same (n = 24) or a different (n = 31) study population. We measured the total length of individual spermatozoa and found that both the coefficient of between-male variation (CV(bm)) and within-male variation (CV(wm)) in sperm length were strong predictors of the rate of extrapair paternity, explaining as much as 65% and 58%, respectively, of the variation in extrapair paternity among species. However, only the CV(bm) predictor was independent of phylogeny, which implies that it can readily be converted into a currency of extrapair paternity without the need for phylogenetic correction. We propose the CV(bm) index as an alternative measure to extrapair paternity for passerine birds. Given the ease of sperm extraction from male birds in breeding condition, and a modest number of sampled males required for a robust estimate, this new index holds a great potential for mapping the risk of sperm competition across a wide range of passerine birds.

  10. The effects of prey size on diet differentiation of seven passerine species at two spring stopover sites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marchetti, C.M.; Locatelli, D.P.; Van Noordwijk, A.J.; Baldaccini, N.E.

    1998-01-01

    Prey size was evaluated for seven passerine trans-Saharan migrant species at two spring stopover sites in Sardinia, Italy. The species considered were Pied Flycatcher Ficedula hypoleuca, Spotted Flycatcher Muscicapa striata, Redstart Phoenicurus phoenicurus, Garden Warbler Sylvia borin, Whitethroat

  11. Clay Houses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedro, Cathy

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a project designed for fourth-graders that involves making clay relief sculptures of houses. Knowing the clay houses will become a family heirloom makes this lesson even more worth the time. It takes three classes to plan and form the clay, and another two to underglaze and glaze the final products.

  12. Tick-Borne Pathogens in Ticks Feeding on Migratory Passerines in Western Part of Estonia

    OpenAIRE

    Geller, Julia; Nazarova, Lidia; Katargina, Olga; Leivits, Agu; Järvekülg, Lilian; Golovljova, Irina

    2013-01-01

    During southward migration in the years 2006–2009, 178 migratory passerines of 24 bird species infested with ticks were captured at bird stations in Western Estonia. In total, 249 nymphal ticks were removed and analyzed individually for the presence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.), tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), and Anaplasma phagocytophilum. The majority of ticks were collected from Acrocephalus (58%), Turdus (13%), Sylvia (8%), and Parus (6%) bird species. Tick-borne pathog...

  13. Sperm length variation as a predictor of extrapair paternity in passerine birds

    OpenAIRE

    Lifjeld, J. T.; Laskemoen, T.; Kleven, O.; Albrecht, T. (Tomáš); Robertson, R. J.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The rate of extrapair paternity is a commonly used index for the risk of sperm competition in birds, but paternity data exist for only a few percent of the approximately 10400 extant species. As paternity analyses require extensive field sampling and costly lab work, species coverage in this field will probably not improve much in the foreseeable future. Recent findings from passerine birds, which constitute the largest avian order (∼5,900 species), suggest that sperm phenotypes c...

  14. Cliff House

    OpenAIRE

    Treser, Steven Thomas

    2006-01-01

    This thesis began with the goal of designing a bold house cantilevered over the edge of a cliff 120 feet above the water, and evolved into the study of how to design when starting with the primary form of a cube. The cube was chosen as representing the crystalline form of the rock upon which the house sits. The outside shell of the house is horizontal, board formed concrete, also in reference to the layered rock of the cliff face. There are two primary forces cutting away the mas...

  15. Effect of geolocators on migration and subsequent breeding performance of a long-distance passerine migrant.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debora Arlt

    Full Text Available Geolocators are small light-weight data loggers used to track individual migratory routes, and their use has increased exponentially in birds. However, the effects of geolocators on individual performance are still poorly known. We studied geolocator effects on a long-distance migrating passerine bird, the northern wheatear (Oenanthe oenanthe L.. We asked the general question of whether geolocators affect migratory behaviour and subsequent reproductive performance of small passerines by comparing arrival time, breeding time, breeding success and survival of geolocator versus control birds of known identity and breeding history. During two years geolocator birds (n=37 displayed a lower apparent survival (30% as compared to controls (45%, n=164. Furthermore, returning geolocator birds (n=12 arrived on average 3.5 days later, started laying eggs 6.3 days later, and had lower nest success (25% than control birds (78%. Our results suggest that geolocators affect migratory performance with carry-over effects to the timing of breeding and reproductive success in the subsequent breeding season. We discuss the implications of such geolocator effects for the study of migratory strategies of small passerines in general and suggest how to identify and investigate such effects in the future.

  16. The evolution of morphological diversity in continental assemblages of passerine birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jønsson, Knud Andreas; Lessard, Jean-Philippe; Ricklefs, Robert E

    2015-04-01

    Understanding geographic variation in the species richness and lineage composition of regional biotas is a long-standing goal in ecology. Why do some evolutionary lineages proliferate while others do not, and how do new colonists fit into an established fauna? Here, we analyze the morphological structure of assemblages of passerine birds in four biogeographic regions to examine the relative influence of colonization history and niche-based processes on continental communities of passerine birds. Using morphological traits related to habitat choice, foraging technique, and movement, we quantify the morphological spaces occupied by different groups of passerine birds. We further quantify morphological overlap between groups by multivariate discriminant analysis and null model analyses of trait dispersion. Finally, we use subclade disparity through time to assess the temporal component of morphological evolution. We find mixed support for the prediction, based on priority, that first colonizers constrain subsequent colonizers. Indeed, our results show that the assembly of continental communities is idiosyncratic with regards to the diversification of new clades and the filling of morphospace. © 2015 The Author(s).

  17. Duplicated growth hormone genes in a passerine bird, the jungle crow (Corvus macrorhynchos).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Natsumi; Iigo, Masayuki

    2010-07-02

    Molecular cloning, molecular phylogeny, gene structure and expression analyses of growth hormone (GH) were performed in a passerine bird, the jungle crow (Corvus macrorhynchos). Unexpectedly, duplicated GH cDNA and genes were identified and designated as GH1A and GH1B. In silico analyses identified the zebra finch orthologs. Both GH genes encode 217 amino acid residues and consist of five exons and four introns, spanning 5.2 kbp in GH1A and 4.2 kbp in GH1B. Predicted GH proteins of the jungle crow and zebra finch contain four conserved cysteine residues, suggesting duplicated GH genes are functional. Molecular phylogenetic analysis revealed that duplication of GH genes occur after divergence of the passerine lineage from the other avian orders as has been suggested from partial genomic DNA sequences of passerine GH genes. RT-PCR analyses confirmed expression of GH1A and GH1B in the pituitary gland. In addition, GH1A gene is expressed in all the tissues examined. However, expression of GH1B is confined to several brain areas and blood cells. These results indicate that the regulatory mechanisms of duplicated GH genes are different and that duplicated GH genes exert both endocrine and autocrine/paracrine functions. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Female promiscuity is positively associated with neutral and selected genetic diversity in passerine birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gohli, Jostein; Anmarkrud, Jarl A; Johnsen, Arild; Kleven, Oddmund; Borge, Thomas; Lifjeld, Jan T

    2013-05-01

    Passerine birds show large interspecific variation in extrapair paternity rates. There is accumulating evidence that such promiscuous behavior is driven by indirect, genetic benefits to females. Sexual selection theory distinguishes between two types of genetic benefits, additive and nonadditive effects, mediated by preferences for good and compatible genes, respectively. Good genes preferences should imply directional selection and mating skew among males, and thus reduced genetic diversity in the population. In contrast, compatible genes preferences should give balancing selection that retains genetic diversity. Here, we test how well these predictions fit with patterns of variation in genetic diversity and promiscuity levels among passerine birds. We found that more promiscuous species had higher nucleotide diversity at autosomal introns, but not at Z-chromosome introns. We also found that major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class IIB alleles had higher sequence diversity, and therefore should recognize a broader spectrum of pathogens, in more promiscuous species. Our results suggest that female promiscuity targets a multitude of autosomal genes for their nonadditive, compatibility benefits. Also, as immunity genes seem to be of particular importance, we hypothesize that interspecific variation in female promiscuity among passerine birds has arisen in response to the strength of pathogen-mediated selection. © 2013 The Author(s). Evolution © 2013 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  19. White House

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to navigation the WHITE HOUSE President Donald J. Trump Get in Touch Home Briefing Room From the ... Americans The Administration The Administration President Donald J. Trump Vice President Mike Pence First Lady Melania Trump ...

  20. Conformal House

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryttov, Thomas; Sannino, Francesco

    2010-01-01

    fixed point. As a consistency check we recover the previously investigated conformal windows bounds when restricting to a single matter representation. The earlier conformal windows can be imagined to be part now of the new conformal house. We predict the nonperturbative anomalous dimensions...... at the infrared fixed points. We further investigate the effects of adding mass terms to the condensates on the conformal house chiral dynamics and construct the simplest instanton induced effective Lagrangian terms....

  1. Transgenerational effects enhance specific immune response in a wild passerine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juli Broggi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Vertebrate mothers transfer diverse compounds to developing embryos that can affect their development and final phenotype (i.e., maternal effects. However, the way such effects modulate offspring phenotype, in particular their immunity, remains unclear. To test the impact of maternal effects on offspring development, we treated wild breeding house sparrows (Passer domesticus in Sevilla, SE Spain with Newcastle disease virus (NDV vaccine. Female parents were vaccinated when caring for first broods, eliciting a specific immune response to NDV. The immune response to the same vaccine, and to the PHA inflammatory test were measured in 11-day-old chicks from their following brood. Vaccinated chicks from vaccinated mothers developed a stronger specific response that was related to maternal NDV antibody concentration while rearing their chicks. The chicks’ carotenoid concentration and total antioxidant capacity in blood were negatively related to NDV antibody concentration, whereas no relation with PHA response was found. Specific NDV antibodies could not be detected in 11-day-old control chicks from vaccinated mothers, implying that maternally transmitted antibodies are not directly involved but may promote offspring specific immunity through a priming effect, while other immunity components remain unaffected. Maternally transmitted antibodies in the house sparrow are short-lived, depend on maternal circulation levels and enhance pre-fledging chick specific immunity when exposed to the same pathogens as the mothers.

  2. SCHREINER HOUSE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    lte.-.inteJtme.n-t .in 19 21 . .. ~/ . In the oldest part of the house a panel has been left to show visitors the composition and method of construction of the walls during the mid-nineteenth century .. At that time cement was imported, expensive and therefore usually used only for plastering ex- ternally. An examination of the panel ...

  3. Heavy metals and metalloids in egg contents and eggshells of passerine birds from Arizona

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mora, Miguel A.

    2003-01-01

    High concentrations of Sr in eggshells may be associated with lower hatching success of some passerine birds. - Concentrations of inorganic elements were determined in eggs of passerine birds including the endangered southwestern willow flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus) from four regions in Arizona. The main aim of the study was to determine the distribution of metals in egg contents and eggshells, with emphasis on the deposition of Sr in eggshells. Seventy eggs of 11 passerine species were collected at four nesting locations during 2000. Aluminum, Ba, Cr, Cu, Mn, Se, Sr, and Zn, were detected primarily in egg contents of all bird species. Arsenic, Ni, Pb, and V were detected primarily in eggshells. A proportion of most inorganic elements accumulated in the eggshell. Concentrations of Ba, Cu, Mn, Se, Sr, and Zn in egg contents and As, Ba, Cu, and V in eggshells of yellow-breasted chats (Icteria virens) were similar among locations. However, concentrations of Mn, Ni, Sr, and Zn in eggshells were significant different among locations. Except for Cu, Mn, Se, and Zn, concentrations of inorganic elements were 2-35 times greater in eggshells than in eggs. Most concentrations of metals and metalloids in eggs and eggshells of all the bird species were below levels known to affect reproduction or that have other deleterious effects. However, I found somewhat elevated concentrations of Sr in eggshells (highest mean=1505 μg/g dw, n=3) of yellow-breasted chats and willow flycatchers, and in egg contents of yellow warblers (Dendroica petechia) and song sparrows (Melospiza melodia). Whether current observed concentrations of Sr in eggshells are affecting nesting birds in Arizona remains to be determined. Strontium and other metals could be associated with lower hatching success in some areas. This study shows that a proportion of many inorganic elements accumulates in the eggshell and that the potential effects on the proper structure and functioning of the eggshell

  4. A Comprehensive Analysis of Small-Passerine Fatalities from Collision with Turbines at Wind Energy Facilities

    OpenAIRE

    Erickson, Wallace P.; Wolfe, Melissa M.; Bay, Kimberly J.; Johnson, Douglas H.; Gehring, Joelle L.

    2014-01-01

    Small passerines, sometimes referred to as perching birds or songbirds, are the most abundant bird group in the United States (US) and Canada, and the most common among bird fatalities caused by collision with turbines at wind energy facilities. We used data compiled from 116 studies conducted in the US and Canada to estimate the annual rate of small-bird fatalities. It was necessary for us to calculate estimates of small-bird fatality rates from reported all-bird rates for 30% of studies. Th...

  5. Potential impacts of climate change on the winter distribution of Afro-Palaearctic migrant passerines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barbet-Massin, Morgane; Walther, Bruno A; Thuiller, Wilfried

    2009-01-01

    We modelled the present and future sub-Saharan winter distributions of 64 trans-Saharan migrant passerines to predict the potential impacts of climate change. These predictions used the recent ensemble modelling developments and the latest IPCC climatic simulations to account for possible...... changes in range size and location were spatially structured, with species that winter in southern and eastern Africa facing larger range contractions and shifts. Predicted changes in regional species richness for these long-distance migrants are increases just south of the Sahara and on the Arabian...... Peninsula and major decreases in southern and eastern Africa....

  6. Isotopic analysis of island House MartinsDelichon urbicaindicates marine provenance of nutrients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Adam D P; Hentati-Sundberg, Jonas; Österblom, Henrik; McGill, Rona A R; Furness, Robert W

    2014-07-01

    The presence of one of the largest colonies of House Martins in Europe on the small island of Stora Karlsö, Sweden, led us to investigate the source of their food by analysis of stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen. Carbon isotopic values of House Martin nestlings were the same as those of Common Guillemot Uria aalge nestlings fed on marine fish, but differed from local Collared Flycatcher Ficedula albicollis nestlings fed on woodland insects. We infer that these House Martins fed their chicks almost exclusively on insects that had used nutrients derived from seabirds, indicating a dependence on the presence of a large seabird colony. We suggest by extension that some populations of island passerines of high conservation importance may also be dependent on nutrient subsidies from seabird colonies.

  7. Feather mites (Acari, Astigmata from Azorean passerines (Aves, Passeriformes: lower species richness compared to European mainland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigues Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ten passerine species were examined on three islands of the Azores (North Atlantic during 2013 and 2014 in order to identify their feather mite assemblages. We recorded 19 feather mite species belonging to four families of the superfamily Analgoidea (Analgidae, Proctophyllodidae, Psoroptoididae and Trouessartiidae. A high prevalence of feather mite species was recorded on the majority of the examined host species. Only three passerine species (Sylvia atricapilla, Regulus regulus and Serinus canaria presented the same full complex of mite species as commonly occurs in the plumage of their closest relatives in continental Europe. Passer domesticus presented the same limited fauna of feather mites living in the plumage as do its co-specifics in continental Europe. Carduelis carduelis bears the same feather mite species as do most of its continental populations in Europe, but it lacks one mite species occurring on this host in Egypt. Turdus merula, Pyrrhula murina and Fringilla coelebs are missing several mite species common to their continental relatives. This diminution could be explained by the founder effect, whereby a limited number of colonizing individuals did not transport the full set of feather mite species, or by the extinction of some mite species after initially having reached the Azores. The only individual of Motacilla cinerea sampled in this study presented a new host record for the mite species Trouessartia jedliczkai.

  8. Differential influence of urbanisation on Coccidian infection in two passerine birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-V, Carlos A; French, Kris

    2015-06-01

    Urbanisation has the potential to increase the risk of parasitism on wildlife. Although some ectoparasite groups appear unaffected, different responses are hypothesised for parasites with simpler life histories such as gastrointestinal parasites. Red-browed finches (RBF) and the superb fairywrens (SFW), two native passerine birds affected by urbanisation, were examined for Coccidian parasites along an urbanisation gradient in New South Wales, Australia, in order to detect if prevalence might be directly related to the degree of urbanisation. Influence of urbanisation on Coccidian infection was differential. In RBF, the prevalence of Isospora increased significantly in more urbanised areas but prevalence did not change between breeding and non-breeding seasons. In contrast, in SFW, the degree of urbanisation did not significantly change with the degree of urbanisation, and season exhibited no significant effects on the prevalence of coccidians. Diet, behaviour and habits are suspected to be the most influential factors on the variation seen between both species where granivorous and gregarious species are significantly infected. Since the dynamics of urban wildlife-pathogen interactions is largely unexplored, more studies are needed to corroborate if this pattern of Isospora infections can be extended to other passerine birds in cities from Australia and overseas.

  9. Transport of Babesia venatorum-infected Ixodes ricinus to Norway by northward migrating passerine birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Røed Knut H

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bovine babesiosis is regarded as a limited health problem for Norwegian cows, and the incidence has decreased markedly since the 1930s. Rare cases of babesiosis in splenectomised humans from infection with Babesia divergens and B.venatorum have been described. The objective of this study was to determine whether birds can introduce Babesia-infected ticks. There are between 30 and 85 million passerine birds that migrate to Norway every spring. Methods Passerine birds were examined for ticks at four bird observatories along the southern Norwegian coast during the spring migrations of 2003, 2004 and 2005. The presence of Babesia was detected in the nymphs of Ixodes ricinus by real-time PCR. Positive samples were confirmed using PCR, cloning and phylogenetic analyses. Results Of 512 ticks examined, real-time PCR revealed five to be positive (1.0%. Of these, four generated products that indicated the presence of Babesia spp.; each of these were confirmed to be from Babesia venatorum (EU1. Two of the four B. venatorum-positive ticks were caught from birds having an eastern migratory route (P Conclusions Birds transport millions of ticks across the North Sea, the Skagerrak and the Kattegat every year. Thus, even with the low prevalence of Babesia-infected ticks, a substantial number of infected ticks will be transported into Norway each year. Therefore, there is a continuous risk for introduction of new Babesia spp. into areas where I. ricinus can survive.

  10. How unpredictable access to food increases the body fat of small passerines: A mechanistic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anselme, Patrick; Otto, Tobias; Güntürkün, Onur

    2017-11-01

    Unpredictable rewards increase the vigor of responses in autoshaping (a Pavlovian conditioning procedure) and are preferred to predictable rewards in free-choice tasks involving fixed- versus variable-delay schedules. The significance those behavioral properties may have in field conditions is currently unknown. However, it is noticeable that when exposed to unpredictable food, small passerines - such as robins, titmice, and starlings - get fatter than when food is abundant. In functional terms, fattening is viewed as an evolutionary strategy acting against the risk of starvation when food is in short supply. But this functional view does not explain the causal mechanisms by which small passerines come to be fatter under food uncertainty. Here, it is suggested that one of these causal mechanisms is that involved in behavioral invigoration and preference for food uncertainty in the laboratory. Based on a psychological theory of motivational changes under food uncertainty, we developed an integrative computational model to test this idea. We show that, for functional (adaptive) reasons, the excitatory property of reward unpredictability can underlie the propensity of wild birds to forage longer and/or more intensively in an unpredictable environment, with the consequence that they can put on more fat reserves. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Feather mites (Acari, Astigmata) from Azorean passerines (Aves, Passeriformes): lower species richness compared to European mainland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Pedro; Mironov, Sergey; Sychra, Oldrich; Resendes, Roberto; Literak, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Ten passerine species were examined on three islands of the Azores (North Atlantic) during 2013 and 2014 in order to identify their feather mite assemblages. We recorded 19 feather mite species belonging to four families of the superfamily Analgoidea (Analgidae, Proctophyllodidae, Psoroptoididae and Trouessartiidae). A high prevalence of feather mite species was recorded on the majority of the examined host species. Only three passerine species (Sylvia atricapilla, Regulus regulus and Serinus canaria) presented the same full complex of mite species as commonly occurs in the plumage of their closest relatives in continental Europe. Passer domesticus presented the same limited fauna of feather mites living in the plumage as do its co-specifics in continental Europe. Carduelis carduelis bears the same feather mite species as do most of its continental populations in Europe, but it lacks one mite species occurring on this host in Egypt. Turdus merula, Pyrrhula murina and Fringilla coelebs are missing several mite species common to their continental relatives. This diminution could be explained by the founder effect, whereby a limited number of colonizing individuals did not transport the full set of feather mite species, or by the extinction of some mite species after initially having reached the Azores. The only individual of Motacilla cinerea sampled in this study presented a new host record for the mite species Trouessartia jedliczkai. © P. Rodrigues et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2015.

  12. Epidemiologic and pathologic aspects of Salmonella typhimurium infection in passerine birds in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refsum, Thorbjørn; Vikøren, Turid; Handeland, Kjell; Kapperud, Georg; Holstad, Gudmund

    2003-01-01

    Septicemic salmonellosis caused by Salmonella Typhimurium 4, 12: i:1, 2 was diagnosed in 94 (64.8%) of 145 small passerines comprising nine species, examined in Norway during 1999-2000. The birds were found dead at private feeding places throughout the country. The bullfinch (Pyrrhula pyrrhula), Eurasian siskin (Carduelis spinus), common redpoll (Carduelis flammea), and Eurasian greenfinch (Carduelis chloris) were the most frequently affected species. Pathologic findings in 94 carcasses included poor body condition (84%), enlarged spleen (73%), and necrosis of crop/esophagus (78%), liver (53%), spleen (46%), proventriculus (13%), and intestine (5.3%). Histologically, necrosis consisted of debris, fibrin, inflammatory cells, and aggregates of Gram-negative bacteria and occasionally giant cells. Based on information from questionnaires sick and dead birds were observed at feeding places from December to June, with a distinct peak during February and March. The duration of recorded outbreaks varied from less than 1 wk to 4 mo. In a separate study, 1,990 apparently healthy passerines caught at feeding places established for bird-ringing purposes were surveyed for cloacal carriage of Salmonella spp. Forty (2.0%) of the birds examined, representing sampling sites both in southern and northern parts of the country, harbored S. Typhimurium 4, 12: i:1, 2 in their intestines. The carrier species largely reflected the species most often suffering from fatal infection.

  13. Species- and age-related variation in metal exposure and accumulation of two passerine bird species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berglund, A.M.M.; Koivula, M.J.; Eeva, T.

    2011-01-01

    We measured the concentration of several elements (arsenic [As], calcium [Ca], cadmium [Cd], copper [Cu], nickel [Ni], lead [Pb], selenium [Se] and zinc [Zn]) in adult and nestling pied flycatchers (Ficedula hypoleuca) and great tits (Parus major) at different distances to a Cu-Ni smelter in 2009. Feces of nestlings generally failed to correspond with internal element concentrations but reflected the pollution exposure, indicating an increased stress by removal of excess metals. The uptake of Cu and Ni were regulated, but As, Cd, Pb and Se accumulated in liver tissue. Pied flycatchers had generally higher element concentrations than great tits. The higher accumulation of As and Pb in pied flycatcher livers was explained by a more efficient absorption, whereas the higher Cd concentration was primarily due to different intake of food items. Age-related differences occurred between the two species, though both Cd and Se accumulated with age. - Highlights: → We measured metal concentrations in feces and livers of two passerine species. → We examined species- and age-related differences in polluted environments. → Feces was evaluated as a useful non-destructive measure of increased stress. → Generally pied flycatchers accumulated higher concentrations than great tits. → Cadmium and selenium accumulated with age in both species. - Accumulation of metals in liver of two insectivorous passerines reflects inter-specific differences in diet, absorption rate and physiological requirements.

  14. Using Genealogical Mapping and Genetic Neighborhood Sizes to Quantify Dispersal Distances in the Neotropical Passerine, the Black-Capped Vireo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athrey, Giridhar; Lance, Richard F; Leberg, Paul L

    2015-01-01

    Dispersal is a key demographic process, ultimately responsible for genetic connectivity among populations. Despite its importance, quantifying dispersal within and between populations has proven difficult for many taxa. Even in passerines, which are among the most intensely studied, individual movement and its relation to gene flow remains poorly understood. In this study we used two parallel genetic approaches to quantify natal dispersal distances in a Neotropical migratory passerine, the black-capped vireo. First, we employed a strategy of sampling evenly across the landscape coupled with parentage assignment to map the genealogical relationships of individuals across the landscape, and estimate dispersal distances; next, we calculated Wright's neighborhood size to estimate gene dispersal distances. We found that a high percentage of captured individuals were assigned at short distances within the natal population, and males were assigned to the natal population more often than females, confirming sex-biased dispersal. Parentage-based dispersal estimates averaged 2400m, whereas gene dispersal estimates indicated dispersal distances ranging from 1600-4200 m. Our study was successful in quantifying natal dispersal distances, linking individual movement to gene dispersal distances, while also providing a detailed look into the dispersal biology of Neotropical passerines. The high-resolution information was obtained with much reduced effort (sampling only 20% of breeding population) compared to mark-resight approaches, demonstrating the potential applicability of parentage-based approaches for quantifying dispersal in other vagile passerine species.

  15. Comment on Gohli et al. : "Does promiscuity explain differences in levels of genetic diversity across passerine birds?"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spurgin, Lewis G.

    2013-01-01

    Gohli et al. (2013) report a positive relationship between genetic diversity and promiscuity across passerine birds, and suggest that female promiscuity acts as a form of balancing selection, maintaining differences in genetic variation across species. This is an interesting hypothesis, but the

  16. A comprehensive analysis of small-passerine fatalities from collision with turbines at wind energy facilities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wallace P Erickson

    Full Text Available Small passerines, sometimes referred to as perching birds or songbirds, are the most abundant bird group in the United States (US and Canada, and the most common among bird fatalities caused by collision with turbines at wind energy facilities. We used data compiled from 116 studies conducted in the US and Canada to estimate the annual rate of small-bird fatalities. It was necessary for us to calculate estimates of small-bird fatality rates from reported all-bird rates for 30% of studies. The remaining 70% of studies provided data on small-bird fatalities. We then adjusted estimates to account for detection bias and loss of carcasses from scavenging. These studies represented about 15% of current operating capacity (megawatts [MW] for all wind energy facilities in the US and Canada and provided information on 4,975 bird fatalities, of which we estimated 62.5% were small passerines comprising 156 species. For all wind energy facilities currently in operation, we estimated that about 134,000 to 230,000 small-passerine fatalities from collision with wind turbines occur annually, or 2.10 to 3.35 small birds/MW of installed capacity. When adjusted for species composition, this indicates that about 368,000 fatalities for all bird species are caused annually by collisions with wind turbines. Other human-related sources of bird deaths, (e.g., communication towers, buildings [including windows], and domestic cats have been estimated to kill millions to billions of birds each year. Compared to continent-wide population estimates, the cumulative mortality rate per year by species was highest for black-throated blue warbler and tree swallow; 0.043% of the entire population of each species was estimated to annually suffer mortality from collisions with turbines. For the eighteen species with the next highest values, this estimate ranged from 0.008% to 0.038%, much lower than rates attributed to collisions with communication towers (1.2% to 9.0% for top

  17. A comprehensive analysis of small-passerine fatalities from collision with turbines at wind energy facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Wallace P; Wolfe, Melissa M; Bay, Kimberly J; Johnson, Douglas H; Gehring, Joelle L

    2014-01-01

    Small passerines, sometimes referred to as perching birds or songbirds, are the most abundant bird group in the United States (US) and Canada, and the most common among bird fatalities caused by collision with turbines at wind energy facilities. We used data compiled from 116 studies conducted in the US and Canada to estimate the annual rate of small-bird fatalities. It was necessary for us to calculate estimates of small-bird fatality rates from reported all-bird rates for 30% of studies. The remaining 70% of studies provided data on small-bird fatalities. We then adjusted estimates to account for detection bias and loss of carcasses from scavenging. These studies represented about 15% of current operating capacity (megawatts [MW]) for all wind energy facilities in the US and Canada and provided information on 4,975 bird fatalities, of which we estimated 62.5% were small passerines comprising 156 species. For all wind energy facilities currently in operation, we estimated that about 134,000 to 230,000 small-passerine fatalities from collision with wind turbines occur annually, or 2.10 to 3.35 small birds/MW of installed capacity. When adjusted for species composition, this indicates that about 368,000 fatalities for all bird species are caused annually by collisions with wind turbines. Other human-related sources of bird deaths, (e.g., communication towers, buildings [including windows]), and domestic cats) have been estimated to kill millions to billions of birds each year. Compared to continent-wide population estimates, the cumulative mortality rate per year by species was highest for black-throated blue warbler and tree swallow; 0.043% of the entire population of each species was estimated to annually suffer mortality from collisions with turbines. For the eighteen species with the next highest values, this estimate ranged from 0.008% to 0.038%, much lower than rates attributed to collisions with communication towers (1.2% to 9.0% for top twenty species).

  18. A comprehensive analysis of small-passerine fatalities from collisions with turbines at wind energy facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Wallace P.; Wolfe, Melissa M.; Bay, Kimberly J.; Johnson, Douglas H.; Gehring, Joelle L.

    2014-01-01

    Small passerines, sometimes referred to as perching birds or songbirds, are the most abundant bird group in the United States (US) and Canada, and the most common among bird fatalities caused by collision with turbines at wind energy facilities. We used data compiled from 39 studies conducted in the US and Canada to estimate the annual rate of small-bird fatalities. It was necessary for us to calculate estimates of small-bird fatality rates from reported all-bird rates for 30% of studies. The remaining 70% of studies provided data on small-bird fatalities. We then adjusted estimates to account for detection bias and loss of carcasses from scavenging. These studies represented about 15% of current operating capacity (megawatts [MW]) for all wind energy facilities in the US and Canada and provided information on 4,975 bird fatalities, of which we estimated 62.5% were small passerines comprising 156 species. For all wind energy facilities currently in operation, we estimated that about 134,000 to 230,000 small-passerine fatalities from collision with wind turbines occur annually, or 2.10 to 3.35 small birds/MW of installed capacity. When adjusted for species composition, this indicates that about 368,000 fatalities for all bird species are caused annually by collisions with wind turbines. Other human-related sources of bird deaths, (e.g., communication towers, buildings [including windows]), and domestic cats) have been estimated to kill millions to billions of birds each year. Compared to continent-wide population estimates, the cumulative mortality rate per year by species was highest for black-throated blue warbler and tree swallow; 0.043% of the entire population of each species was estimated to annually suffer mortality from collisions with turbines. For the eighteen species with the next highest values, this estimate ranged from 0.008% to 0.038%, much lower than rates attributed to collisions with communication towers (1.2% to 9.0% for top twenty species).

  19. Dataset of Passerine bird communities in a Mediterranean high mountain (Sierra Nevada, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Luque, Antonio Jesús; Barea-Azcón, José Miguel; Álvarez-Ruiz, Lola; Bonet-García, Francisco Javier; Zamora, Regino

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In this data paper, a dataset of passerine bird communities is described in Sierra Nevada, a Mediterranean high mountain located in southern Spain. The dataset includes occurrence data from bird surveys conducted in four representative ecosystem types of Sierra Nevada from 2008 to 2015. For each visit, bird species numbers as well as distance to the transect line were recorded. A total of 27847 occurrence records were compiled with accompanying measurements on distance to the transect and animal counts. All records are of species in the order Passeriformes. Records of 16 different families and 44 genera were collected. Some of the taxa in the dataset are included in the European Red List. This dataset belongs to the Sierra Nevada Global-Change Observatory (OBSNEV), a long-term research project designed to compile socio-ecological information on the major ecosystem types in order to identify the impacts of global change in this area. PMID:26865820

  20. Habitat constraints on the distribution of passerine residents and neotropical migrants in Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, C.S.; Dowell, B.A.; Dawson, D.K.

    1994-01-01

    With continuing tropical deforestation, there is increased concern for birds that depend on forest habitats in Latin America. During the past 10 northern winters, we have conducted quantitative studies of habitat use by wintering migrant songbirds and by residents in the Greater Antilles, Mexico, Central America, and northern South America. Many migrants, but few residents, winter in forest fragments and in certain arboreal agricultural habitats (citrus, cacao, shade coffee). Many other agricultural habitats (sun coffee, mango, commercial banana plantations, and heavily grazed pasture) are avoided by most birds. Some species, such as thrushes and ground-feeding warblers, depend on closed-canopy forest. Some, such as Northern Waterthrush (Seiurus noveboracensis) and Prothonotary Warbler (Protonotaria citrea), winter primarily in mangroves or other swamp forests. The majority of neotropical migrant passerines winter in forest fragments and certain agricultural habitats, as well as mature forest; but many resident species, especially suboscines (Furnariidae, Dendrocolaptidae, Formicariidae, Papridae), are heavily impacted by loss and fragmentation of the forest.

  1. Encephalitozoon hellem infection in aviary passerine and psittacine birds in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosell, J; Máinez, M; Didier, E S; Bowers, L C; Marco, A; Juan-Sallés, C

    2016-03-30

    A European goldfinch (Carduelis carduelis), a canary (Serinus canaria), and a lovebird (Agapornis roseicollis) captive-bred at three different private aviaries in Spain were submitted for necropsy with a history of weakness and ruffled feathers, weight loss associated with glossitis, and respiratory disease, respectively. Microscopically, enterocytes in the jejunum and ileum contained colonies of gram- and Stamp-positive, oval to elliptical microorganisms within parasitophorous vacuoles in the apical cytoplasm. Nested PCR using MSP primers that target microsporidian RNA genes produced amplicons of expected size for Encephalitozoon species, and analysis of forward and reverse DNA sequences confirmed the presence of Encephalitozoon hellem in all cases. The main cause of death of all three birds consisted of concurrent infections. However, intestinal encephalitozoonosis may have contributed to exacerbated catabolism. Encephalitozoonosis (or microsporidiosis) has been rarely described in passerine birds. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Potential impacts of climate change on the winter distribution of Afro-Palaearctic migrant passerines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbet-Massin, Morgane; Walther, Bruno A; Thuiller, Wilfried; Rahbek, Carsten; Jiguet, Frédéric

    2009-04-23

    We modelled the present and future sub-Saharan winter distributions of 64 trans-Saharan migrant passerines to predict the potential impacts of climate change. These predictions used the recent ensemble modelling developments and the latest IPCC climatic simulations to account for possible methodological uncertainties. Results suggest that 37 species would face a range reduction by 2100 (16 of these by more than 50%); however, the median range size variation is -13 per cent (from -97 to +980%) under a full dispersal hypothesis. Range centroids were predicted to shift by 500+/-373 km. Predicted changes in range size and location were spatially structured, with species that winter in southern and eastern Africa facing larger range contractions and shifts. Predicted changes in regional species richness for these long-distance migrants are increases just south of the Sahara and on the Arabian Peninsula and major decreases in southern and eastern Africa.

  3. Dataset of Passerine bird communities in a Mediterranean high mountain (Sierra Nevada, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Luque, Antonio Jesús; Barea-Azcón, José Miguel; Álvarez-Ruiz, Lola; Bonet-García, Francisco Javier; Zamora, Regino

    2016-01-01

    In this data paper, a dataset of passerine bird communities is described in Sierra Nevada, a Mediterranean high mountain located in southern Spain. The dataset includes occurrence data from bird surveys conducted in four representative ecosystem types of Sierra Nevada from 2008 to 2015. For each visit, bird species numbers as well as distance to the transect line were recorded. A total of 27847 occurrence records were compiled with accompanying measurements on distance to the transect and animal counts. All records are of species in the order Passeriformes. Records of 16 different families and 44 genera were collected. Some of the taxa in the dataset are included in the European Red List. This dataset belongs to the Sierra Nevada Global-Change Observatory (OBSNEV), a long-term research project designed to compile socio-ecological information on the major ecosystem types in order to identify the impacts of global change in this area.

  4. Profile of whole blood gene expression following immune stimulation in a wild passerine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meitern, Richard; Andreson, Reidar; Hõrak, Peeter

    2014-06-27

    Immunoecology aims to explain variation among hosts in the strength and efficacy of immunological defences in natural populations. This requires development of biomarkers of the activation of the immune system so that they can be collected non-lethally and sampled from small amounts of easily obtainable tissue. We used transcriptome profiling in wild greenfinches (Carduelis chloris) to detect whole blood transcripts that most profoundly indicate upregulation of antimicrobial defences during acute phase response. The more general aim of this study was to obtain a functional annotation of a substantial portion of the greenfinch transcriptome that would enable to gain access to more specific genomic tools in subsequent studies. The birds received either bacterial lipopolysaccharide or saline injections and RNA-seq transcriptional profiling was performed 12 h after treatment to provide initial functional annotation of the transcriptome and assess whole blood response to immune stimulation. A total of 66,084 transcripts were obtained from de novo Trinty assembly, out of which 23,153 could be functionally annotated. Only 1,911 of these were significantly upregulated or downregulated. The manipulation caused marked upregulation of several transcripts related to immune activation. These included avian-specific antimicrobial agents avidin and gallinacin, but also some more general host response genes, such as serum amyloid A protein, lymphocyte antigen 75 and copper-transporting ATPase 1. However, links with avian immunity for most differentially regulated transcripts remained rather hypothetical, as a large set of differentially expressed transcripts lacked functional annotation. This appears to be the first large scale transcriptional profiling of immune function in passerine birds. The transcriptomic data obtained suggest novel markers for the assessment of the immunological state of wild passerines. Characterizing the function of those possible novel infection markers

  5. Epidemic of salmonellosis in passerine birds in Switzerland with spillover to domestic cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovannini, S; Pewsner, M; Hüssy, D; Hächler, H; Ryser Degiorgis, M-P; von Hirschheydt, J; Origgi, F C

    2013-07-01

    A die-off of passerine birds, mostly Eurasian siskins (Carduelis spinus), occurred in multiple areas of Switzerland between February and March 2010. Several of the dead birds were submitted for full necropsy. Bacteriological examination was carried out on multiple tissues of each bird. At gross examination, common findings were light-tan nodules, 1 to 4 mm in diameter, scattered through the esophagus/crop. Histologically, a necroulcerative transmural esophagitis/ingluvitis was observed. Bacterial cultures yielded Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium. At the same time, 2 pet clinics reported an unusual increase of domestic cats presented with fever, anorexia, occasionally dolent abdomen, and history of presumed consumption of passerine birds. Analysis of rectal swabs revealed the presence of S. Typhimurium in all tested cats. PFGE (pulsed field electrophoresis) analysis was performed to characterize and compare the bacterial isolates, and it revealed an indistinguishable pattern between all the avian and all but 1 of the feline isolates. Cloacal swabs collected from clinically healthy migrating Eurasian siskins (during autumn 2010) did not yield S. Typhimurium. The histological and bacteriological findings were consistent with a systemic infection caused by S. Typhimurium. Isolation of the same serovar from the dead birds and ill cats, along with the overlapping results of the PFGE analysis for all the animal species, confirmed a spillover from birds to cats through predation. The sudden increase of the number of siskins over the Swiss territory and their persistency during the whole winter of 2009-2010 is considered the most likely predisposing factor for the onset of the epidemic.

  6. United States housing, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delton Alderman

    2016-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of the 2013 U.S. housing market, including updated information and data, and is part of an ongoing series of quarterly and annual housing reports that provide historical information on housing permits, starts, houses under construction, and completions. In addition, short briefs present information regarding house sales,...

  7. House Demolitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mordechai Kremnitzer

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the nature of “house demolitions” as used by the State of Israel in the West Bank and East Jerusalem. In our opinion, and in contrast to the view of Israel’s Supreme Court, such demolition orders constitute a penal sanction. As a penal sanction, we argue that this measure violates the basic principles of criminal liability. Even if this conclusion is not accepted, it will be argued that making innocent people homeless is an illegal collective measure. Even if assuming arguendo that it is not an illegal collective measure, it violates the basic principle of personal responsibility. The general conclusion of the article is that the examination of the nature of sanctions should go beyond the labels that are attached to them. Labeling sanctions as either penal or civil may not always reflect its true nature, and labels are sometimes deliberately used or rather misused in order to escape from the requirements stemming from the true essence of a sanction.

  8. United States housing, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delton Alderman

    2013-01-01

    Provides current and historical information on housing market in the United States. Information includes trends for housing permits and starts, housing completions for single and multifamily units, and sales and construction. This report will be updated annually.

  9. American Housing Survey (AHS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The AHS is the largest, regular national housing sample survey in the United States. The U.S. Census Bureau conducts the AHS to obtain up-to-date housing statistics...

  10. TARP Monthly Housing Scorecard

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Treasury — Treasury and the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) jointly produce a Monthly Housing Scorecard on the health of the nation’s housing market. The...

  11. Five new feather mites of the subfamily Pterodectinae (Acariformes: Astigmata: Proctophyllodidae) from passerines and hummingbirds (Aves) of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandes, Fabio Akashi; Pedroso, Luiz Gustavo A; Oniki-Willis, Yoshika

    2016-09-06

    Five new species of feather mites (Proctophyllodidae: Pterodectinae) are described from passerines and hummingbirds of Brazil: Amerodectes longifuscus sp. nov. from Poospiza lateralis (Nordmann, 1835) (Passeriformes: Emberizidae), A. vireonis sp. nov. from Vireo olivaceus (Linnaeus, 1766) (Passeriformes: Vireonidae), Tyrannidectes synallaxis sp. nov. from Synallaxis ruficapilla Vieillot, 1819 (Passeriformes: Furnariidae), Trochilodectes willisi sp. nov. from Phaethornis eurynome (Lesson, 1832) (Apodiformes: Trochilidae), and Xynonodectes phaethornis sp. nov. from Ph. pretrei (Lesson & Delattre, 1839) (Apodiformes: Trochilidae).

  12. White House Communications Agency

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gimble, Thomas

    1995-01-01

    The Chairman, House Committee on Government Reform and Oversight; the Chairman, House Subcommittee on National Security, International Affairs, and Criminal Justice, Committee on Government Reform and Oversight...

  13. Migratory status is not related to the susceptibility to HPAIV H5N1 in an insectivorous passerine species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donata Kalthoff

    Full Text Available Migratory birds have evolved elaborate physiological adaptations to travelling, the implications for their susceptibility to avian influenza are however unknown. Three groups of stonechats (Saxicola torquata from (I strongly migrating, (II weakly migrating and (III non-migrating populations were experimentally infected with HPAIV H5N1. The different bird groups of this insectivorous passerine species were infected in autumn, when the migrating populations clearly exhibit migratory restlessness. Following infection, all animals succumbed to the disease from 3 through 7 days post inoculation. Viral shedding, antigen distribution in tissues, and survival time did not differ between the three populations. However, notably, endothelial tropism of the HPAIV infection was exclusively seen in the group of resident birds. In conclusion, our data document for the first time the high susceptibility of an insectivorous passerine species to H5N1 infection, and the epidemiological role of these passerine birds is probably limited due to their high sensitivity to HPAIV H5N1 infection. Despite pronounced inherited differences in migratory status, the groups were generally indistinguishable in their susceptibility, survival time, clinical symptoms and viral shedding. Nevertheless, the migratory status partly influenced pathogenesis in the way of viral tropism.

  14. Microanatomy of Passerine hard-cornified tissues: beak and claw structure of the Black-capped Chickadee (Poecile atricapillus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hemert, Caroline R.; Handel, Colleen M.; Blake, J.; Swor, Rhonda; O'Hara, Todd M.

    2012-01-01

    The microanatomy of healthy beaks and claws in passerine birds has not been well described in the literature, despite the importance of these structures in avian life. Histological processing of hard-cornified tissues is notoriously challenging and only a few reports on effective techniques have been published. An emerging epizootic of beak deformities among wild birds in Alaska and the Pacific Northwest region of North America recently highlighted the need for additional baseline information about avian hard-cornified structures. In this study, we examine the beak and claw of the Black-capped Chickadee (Poecile atricapillus), a common North American passerine that is affected by what has been described as “avian keratin disorder.” We use light and scanning electron microscopy and high-magnification radiography to document the healthy microanatomy of these tissues and identify features of functional importance. We also describe detailed methods for histological processing of avian hard-cornified structures and discuss the utility of special stains. Results from this study will assist in future research on the functional anatomy and pathology of hard-cornified structures and will provide a necessary reference for ongoing investigations of avian keratin disorder in Black-capped Chickadees and other wild passerine species.

  15. Activity of intestinal carbohydrases responds to multiple dietary signals in nestling house sparrows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzek, Paweł; Kohl, Kevin D; Caviedes-Vidal, Enrique; Karasov, William H

    2013-11-01

    The 'adaptive modulation hypothesis' predicts that activity of digestive enzymes should match the amount of their substrates in diet. Interestingly, many passerine birds do not adjust the activity of intestinal carbohydrases to dietary carbohydrate content. It is difficult to assess the generality of this rule, because in some studies passerines fed on low-carbohydrate and high-lipid diet showed reduced activity of intestinal carbohydrases. However, as carbohydrase activity may be inhibited by high dietary lipid content, it is unclear whether observed effects reflected lack of induction by the low carbohydrate levels or suppression by the high lipid levels. Here, we isolated the specific effects of dietary carbohydrate and lipid on carbohydrases. We hand-fed house sparrow nestlings on diets with 25% starch and 8% lipid (diet HS), no starch and 20% lipid (HL), or 25% starch and 20% lipid (HSL). Our results show that activity of intestinal carbohydrases is simultaneously induced by dietary carbohydrates and decreased by dietary lipid, although the latter effect seems stronger. Activities of maltase and sucrase summed over the total intestine decreased in the order HS>HSL>HL. We observed a complex interaction between diet composition and intestinal position for mass-specific activity of these enzymes, suggesting site-specific responses to changes in digesta composition along the intestines caused by digestion and absorption. We re-interpret results of earlier studies and conclude that there is no unequivocal example of adaptive modulation of intestinal carbohydrases by dietary carbohydrate in adult passerine birds, whereas the present experiment confirms that nestlings of at least some species possess such capacity.

  16. Evolution of iris colour in relation to cavity nesting and parental care in passerine birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Gabrielle L; Thornton, Alex; Clayton, Nicola S

    2017-01-01

    Strong selection pressures are known to act on animal coloration. Although many animals vary in eye colour, virtually no research has investigated the functional significance of these colour traits. Passeriformes have a range of iris colours, making them an ideal system to investigate how and why iris colour has evolved. Using phylogenetic comparative methods, we tested the hypothesis that conspicuous iris colour in passerine birds evolved in response to (a) coordination of offspring care and (b) cavity nesting, two traits thought to be involved in intra-specific gaze sensitivity. We found that iris colour and cooperative offspring care by two or more individuals evolved independently, suggesting that bright eyes are not important for coordinating parental care through eye gaze. Furthermore, we found that evolution between iris colour and nesting behaviour did occur in a dependent manner, but contrary to predictions, transitions to coloured eyes were not more frequent in cavity nesters than non-cavity nesters. Instead, our results indicate that selection away from having bright eyes was much stronger in non-cavity nesters than cavity nesters, perhaps because conspicuous eye coloration in species not concealed within a cavity would be more visible to predators. © 2017 The Authors.

  17. No evidence for pre-copulatory sexual selection on sperm length in a passerine bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lifjeld, Jan T; Laskemoen, Terje; Kleven, Oddmund; Pedersen, A Tiril M; Lampe, Helene M; Rudolfsen, Geir; Schmoll, Tim; Slagsvold, Tore

    2012-01-01

    There is growing evidence that post-copulatory sexual selection, mediated by sperm competition, influences the evolution of sperm phenotypes. Evidence for pre-copulatory sexual selection effects on sperm traits, on the other hand, is rather scarce. A recent paper on the pied flycatcher, Ficedula hypoleuca, reported phenotypic associations between sperm length and two sexually selected male traits, i.e. plumage colour and arrival date, thus invoking pre-copulatory sexual selection for longer sperm. We were unable to replicate these associations with a larger data set from the same and two additional study populations; sperm length was not significantly related to either male plumage colour or arrival date. Furthermore, there was no significant difference in sperm length between populations despite marked differences in male plumage colour. We also found some evidence against the previously held assumption of longer sperm being qualitatively superior; longer sperm swam at the same speed as shorter sperm, but were less able to maintain speed over time. We argue that both empirical evidence and theoretical considerations suggest that the evolution of sperm morphology is not primarily associated with pre-copulatory sexual selection on male secondary sexual traits in this or other passerine bird species. The relatively large between-male variation in sperm length in this species is probably due to relaxed post-copulatory sexual selection.

  18. No evidence for pre-copulatory sexual selection on sperm length in a passerine bird.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan T Lifjeld

    Full Text Available There is growing evidence that post-copulatory sexual selection, mediated by sperm competition, influences the evolution of sperm phenotypes. Evidence for pre-copulatory sexual selection effects on sperm traits, on the other hand, is rather scarce. A recent paper on the pied flycatcher, Ficedula hypoleuca, reported phenotypic associations between sperm length and two sexually selected male traits, i.e. plumage colour and arrival date, thus invoking pre-copulatory sexual selection for longer sperm. We were unable to replicate these associations with a larger data set from the same and two additional study populations; sperm length was not significantly related to either male plumage colour or arrival date. Furthermore, there was no significant difference in sperm length between populations despite marked differences in male plumage colour. We also found some evidence against the previously held assumption of longer sperm being qualitatively superior; longer sperm swam at the same speed as shorter sperm, but were less able to maintain speed over time. We argue that both empirical evidence and theoretical considerations suggest that the evolution of sperm morphology is not primarily associated with pre-copulatory sexual selection on male secondary sexual traits in this or other passerine bird species. The relatively large between-male variation in sperm length in this species is probably due to relaxed post-copulatory sexual selection.

  19. Multiple genetic benefits of female promiscuity in a socially monogamous passerine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossøy, Frode; Johnsen, Arild; Lifjeld, Jan T

    2008-01-01

    The adaptive function of female extrapair mating in socially monogamous passerines is currently debated. In the bluethroat (Luscinia s. svecica), a previous study showed that offspring sired by extrapair males had a higher cell-mediated immunity than their within-pair half siblings, suggesting an immunogenetic benefit of extrapair mating in this species. Here, we expanded that dataset with two more years and investigated the association between extrapair paternity and microsatellite multilocus heterozygosity, in addition to cell-mediated immunity. We found that extrapair offspring were more heterozygous than their within-pair half siblings, and corroborated the previous finding of enhanced cellular immunity in extrapair offspring in this four-year dataset. The increased heterozygosity among extrapair offspring appeared to be a result of extrapair mates being less genetically similar than pair mates, and also less genetically similar than expected by random choice. Together with previous findings in this species, showing that the majority of females participate in extrapair copulations, our results indicate a postcopulatory cryptic female choice of genetically dissimilar males. The enhanced cellular immunity and increased heterozygosity were not related to each other, and hence our results indicate two independent genetic benefits of extrapair mating in the bluethroat.

  20. No Evidence for Pre-Copulatory Sexual Selection on Sperm Length in a Passerine Bird

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lifjeld, Jan T.; Laskemoen, Terje; Kleven, Oddmund; Pedersen, A. Tiril M.; Lampe, Helene M.; Rudolfsen, Geir; Schmoll, Tim; Slagsvold, Tore

    2012-01-01

    There is growing evidence that post-copulatory sexual selection, mediated by sperm competition, influences the evolution of sperm phenotypes. Evidence for pre-copulatory sexual selection effects on sperm traits, on the other hand, is rather scarce. A recent paper on the pied flycatcher, Ficedula hypoleuca, reported phenotypic associations between sperm length and two sexually selected male traits, i.e. plumage colour and arrival date, thus invoking pre-copulatory sexual selection for longer sperm. We were unable to replicate these associations with a larger data set from the same and two additional study populations; sperm length was not significantly related to either male plumage colour or arrival date. Furthermore, there was no significant difference in sperm length between populations despite marked differences in male plumage colour. We also found some evidence against the previously held assumption of longer sperm being qualitatively superior; longer sperm swam at the same speed as shorter sperm, but were less able to maintain speed over time. We argue that both empirical evidence and theoretical considerations suggest that the evolution of sperm morphology is not primarily associated with pre-copulatory sexual selection on male secondary sexual traits in this or other passerine bird species. The relatively large between-male variation in sperm length in this species is probably due to relaxed post-copulatory sexual selection. PMID:22384277

  1. The finch epidemic strain of Trichomonas gallinae is predominant in British non-passerines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Jean F; Lawson, Becki; Durrant, Chris; Beckmann, Katie; John, Shinto; Alrefaei, Abdulwahed F; Kirkbride, Kim; Bell, Diana J; Cunningham, Andrew A; Tyler, Kevin M

    2013-09-01

    Avian trichomonosis, caused by the flagellated protozoan Trichomonas gallinae, is a recently emerged infectious disease of British passerines. The aetiological agent, a clonal epidemic strain of the parasite, has caused unprecedented finch mortality and population-level declines in Britain and has since spread to continental Europe. To better understand the potential origin of this epidemic and to further investigate its host range, T. gallinae DNA extracts were collected from parasite culture and tissue samples from a range of avian species in Britain. Sequence typing at the ITS1/5.8S rRNA/ITS2 region resolved three distinct ITS region types circulating in free-ranging British birds. Subtyping by sequence analyses at the Fe-hydrogenase gene demonstrated further strain variation within these ITS region types. The UK finch epidemic strain was preponderant amongst columbids sampled, however, wide strain diversity was encountered in isolates from a relatively small number of pigeons, suggesting further strains present in columbid populations across the UK are yet to be identified. Fe-hydrogenase gene sequence data in isolates from birds of prey with disease were predominantly identical to the UK finch epidemic strain, demonstrating its presence as a virulent strain in UK birds of prey since at least 2009.

  2. Low intensity, mixed livestock grazing improves the breeding abundance of a common insectivorous passerine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Darren M; Redpath, Stephen M; Evans, Sharon A; Elston, David A; Gardner, Charles J; Dennis, Peter; Pakeman, Robin J

    2006-12-22

    Livestock grazing is a major driver of ecosystem change and has been associated with significant declines in various bird species in Britain and worldwide. However, there is little experimental evidence to show how grazing affects bird populations. We manipulated livestock densities in a replicated field experiment and found that mixed sheep and cattle grazing, at low intensity, improved the breeding abundance of a common upland passerine, the meadow pipit Anthus pratensis, after two years. Plots stocked with sheep alone (at high or low density) or not stocked at all held fewer pipit territories. Despite a year-on-year decline in pairs of meadow pipits in intensively grazed plots, we found no effect of sheep number on breeding abundance. Our results support the hypothesis that mixed species of herbivores generate greater heterogeneity in vegetation structure, which modifies prey availability, resulting in a greater abundance of birds. The results of our study should inform the management of grassland areas and enhance the abundance of some bird species, particularly in areas that have seen significant shifts from mixed livestock grazing to grazing dominated by single species of animals.

  3. Selection for rapid embryo development correlates with embryo exposure to maternal androgens among passerine birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwabl, Hubert; Palacios, Maria G; Martin, Thomas E

    2007-08-01

    Greater offspring predation favors evolution of faster development among species. We hypothesized that greater offspring predation exerts selection on mothers to increase levels of anabolic androgens in egg yolks to achieve faster development. Here, we tested whether (1) concentrations of yolk androgens in passerine species were associated with offspring predation and (2) embryo and nestling development rates were associated with yolk androgen concentrations. We examined three androgens that increase in potency along the synthesis pathway: androstenedione (A(4)) to testosterone (T) to 5 alpha -dihydrotestosterone (5 alpha -DHT). Concentrations of none of these steroids were related to clutch size; only A(4) was allometrically related to egg volume. Species that experience greater predation showed higher yolk concentrations of T and 5 alpha -DHT. Higher concentrations of T and particularly 5 alpha -DHT were strongly correlated with faster development during the embryo period and less so during the nestling period. Development rates were most strongly correlated with 5 alpha -DHT, suggesting that potency increases along the androgen synthesis pathway and that effects are mediated by the androgen receptor pathway. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that selection for faster development by time-dependent offspring mortality may be achieved epigenetically by varying embryo exposure to maternal anabolic steroids.

  4. Intraspecific variation in sperm length is negatively related to sperm competition in passerine birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleven, Oddmund; Laskemoen, Terje; Fossøy, Frode; Robertson, Raleigh J; Lifjeld, Jan T

    2008-02-01

    Spermatozoa are among the most diversified cells in the animal kingdom, but the underlying evolutionary forces affecting intraspecific variation in sperm morphology are poorly understood. It has been hypothesized that sperm competition is a potent selection pressure on sperm variation within species. Here, we examine intraspecific variation in total sperm length of 22 wild passerine bird species (21 genera, 11 families) in relation to the risk of sperm competition, as expressed by the frequency of extrapair paternity and relative testis size. We demonstrate, by using phylogenetic comparative methods, that between-male variation in sperm length within species is closely and negatively linked to the risk of sperm competition. This relationship was even stronger when only considering species in which data on sperm length and extrapair paternity originated from the same populations. Intramale variation in sperm length within species was also negatively, although nonsignificantly, related to sperm competition risk. Our findings suggest that postcopulatory sexual selection is a powerful evolutionary force reducing the intraspecific phenotypic variation in sperm-size traits, potentially driving the diversification of sperm morphology across populations and species.

  5. Selection for rapid embryo development correlates with embryo exposure to maternal androgens among passerine birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwabl, H.; Palacios, M.G.; Martin, T.E.

    2007-01-01

    Greater offspring predation favors evolution of faster development among species. We hypothesized that greater offspring predation exerts selection on mothers to increase levels of anabolic androgens in egg yolks to achieve faster development. Here, we tested whether (1) concentrations of yolk androgens in passerine species were associated with offspring predation and (2) embryo and nestling development rates were associated with yolk androgen concentrations. We examined three androgens that increase in potency along the synthesis pathway: androstenedione (A4) to testosterone (T) to 5??- dihydrotestosterone (5??-DHT). Concentrations of none of these steroids were related to clutch size; only A4 was allometrically related to egg volume. Species that experience greater predation showed higher yolk concentrations of T and 5??-DHT. Higher concentrations of T and particularly 5??-DHT were strongly correlated with faster development during the embryo period and less so during the nestling period. Development rates were most strongly correlated with 5??-DHT, suggesting that potency increases along the androgen synthesis pathway and that effects are mediated by the androgen receptor pathway. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that selection for faster development by time-dependent offspring mortality may be achieved epigenetically by varying embryo exposure to maternal anabolic steroids. ?? 2007 by The University of Chicago. All rights reserved.

  6. Cadmium, lead, and mercury levels in feathers of small passerine birds: noninvasive sampling strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Nicola; Ancora, Stefania; di Fazio, Noemi; Leonzio, Claudio

    2008-10-01

    Bird feathers have been widely used as a nondestructive biological material for monitoring heavy metals. Sources of metals taken up by feathers include diet (metals are incorporated during feather formation), preening, and direct contact with metals in water, air, dust, and plants. In the literature, data regarding the origin of trace elements in feathers are not univocal. Only in the vast literature concerning mercury (as methyl mercury) has endogenous origin been determined. In the present study, we investigate cadmium, lead, and mercury levels in feathers of prey of Falco eleonorae in relation to the ecological characteristics (molt, habitat, and contamination by soil) of the different species. Cluster analysis identified two main groups of species. Differences and correlations within and between groups identified by cluster analysis were then checked by nonparametric statistical analysis. The results showed that mercury levels had a pattern significantly different from those of cadmium and lead, which in turn showed a significant positive correlation, suggesting different origins. Nests of F. eleonorae proved to be a good source for feathers of small trans-Saharan passerines collected by a noninvasive method. They provided abundant feathers of the various species in a relatively small area--in this case, the falcon colony on the Isle of San Pietro, Sardinia, Italy.

  7. Older and wiser? Age differences in foraging and learning by an endangered passerine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franks, Victoria R; Thorogood, Rose

    2018-03-01

    Birds use cues when foraging to help relocate food resources, but natural environments provide many potential cues and choosing which to use may depend on previous experience. Young animals have less experience of their environment compared to adults, so may be slower to learn cues or may need to sample the environment more. Whether age influences cue use and learning has, however, received little experimental testing in wild animals. Here we investigate effects of age in a wild population of hihi (Notiomystis cincta), a threatened New Zealand passerine. We manipulated bird feeders using a novel colour cue to indicate a food reward; once hihi learned its location, we rotated the feeder to determine whether the birds followed the colour or returned to the previous location. Both age groups made fewer errors over trials and learned the location of the food reward, but juveniles continued to sample unrewarding locations more than adults. Following a second rotation, more adults preferred to forage from the hole indicated by the colour cue than juveniles, despite this no longer being rewarding. Overall, juveniles spent longer in the feeder arena to reach the same proportion of foraging time as adults. Combined, these results suggest that juveniles and adults may use an "explore and exploit" foraging strategy differently, and this affects how efficiently they forage. Further work is needed to understand how juveniles may compensate for their inexperience in learning and foraging strategies. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Geographical variation in egg mass and egg content in a passerine bird.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suvi Ruuskanen

    Full Text Available Reproductive, phenotypic and life-history traits in many animal and plant taxa show geographic variation, indicating spatial variation in selection regimes. Maternal deposition to avian eggs, such as hormones, antibodies and antioxidants, critically affect development of the offspring, with long-lasting effects on the phenotype and fitness. Little is however known about large-scale geographical patterns of variation in maternal deposition to eggs. We studied geographical variation in egg components of a passerine bird, the pied flycatcher (Ficedula hypoleuca, by collecting samples from 16 populations and measuring egg and yolk mass, albumen lysozyme activity, yolk immunoglobulins, yolk androgens and yolk total carotenoids. We found significant variation among populations in most egg components, but ca. 90% of the variation was among individuals within populations. Population however explained 40% of the variation in carotenoid levels. In contrast to our hypothesis, we found geographical trends only in carotenoids, but not in any of the other egg components. Our results thus suggest high within-population variation and leave little scope for local adaptation and genetic differentiation in deposition of different egg components. The role of these maternally-derived resources in evolutionary change should be further investigated.

  9. Shifting latitudinal clines in avian body size correlate with global warming in Australian passerines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Janet L; Heinsohn, Robert; Joseph, Leo

    2009-11-07

    Intraspecific latitudinal clines in the body size of terrestrial vertebrates, where members of the same species are larger at higher latitudes, are widely interpreted as evidence for natural selection and adaptation to local climate. These clines are predicted to shift in response to climate change. We used museum specimens to measure changes in the body size of eight passerine bird species from south-eastern Australia over approximately the last 100 years. Four species showed significant decreases in body size (1.8-3.6% of wing length) and a shift in latitudinal cline over that period, and a meta-analysis demonstrated a consistent trend across all eight species. Southern high-latitude populations now display the body sizes typical of more northern populations pre-1950, equivalent to a 7 degrees shift in latitude. Using ptilochronology, we found no evidence that these morphological changes were a plastic response to changes in nutrition, a likely non-genetic mechanism for the pattern observed. Our results demonstrate a generalized response by eight avian species to some major environmental change over the last 100 years or so, probably global warming.

  10. Twenty-five years of change in southern African passerine diversity: nonclimatic factors of change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Péron, Guillaume; Altwegg, Res

    2015-09-01

    We analysed more than 25 years of change in passerine bird distribution in South Africa, Swaziland and Lesotho, to show that species distributions can be influenced by processes that are at least in part independent of the local strength and direction of climate change: land use and ecological succession. We used occupancy models that separate species' detection from species' occupancy probability, fitted to citizen science data from both phases of the Southern African Bird Atlas Project (1987-1996 and 2007-2013). Temporal trends in species' occupancy probability were interpreted in terms of local extinction/colonization, and temporal trends in detection probability were interpreted in terms of change in abundance. We found for the first time at this scale that, as predicted in the context of bush encroachment, closed-savannah specialists increased where open-savannah specialists decreased. In addition, the trend in the abundance of species a priori thought to be favoured by agricultural conversion was negatively correlated with human population density, which is in line with hypotheses explaining the decline in farmland birds in the Northern Hemisphere. In addition to climate, vegetation cover and the intensity and time since agricultural conversion constitute important predictors of biodiversity changes in the region. Their inclusion will improve the reliability of predictive models of species distribution. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Scale-dependent mechanisms of habitat selection for a migratory passerine: an experimental approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Therese M.; Cornell, Kerri L.

    2010-01-01

    Habitat selection theory predicts that individuals choose breeding habitats that maximize fitness returns on the basis of indirect environmental cues at multiple spatial scales. We performed a 3-year field experiment to evaluate five alternative hypotheses regarding whether individuals choose breeding territories in heterogeneous landscapes on the basis of (1) shrub cover within a site, (2) forest land-cover pattern surrounding a site, (3) conspecific song cues during prebreeding settlement periods, (4) a combination of these factors, and (5) interactions among these factors. We tested hypotheses with playbacks of conspecific song across a gradient of landscape pattern and shrub density and evaluated changes in territory occupancy patterns in a forest-nesting passerine, the Black-throated Blue Warbler (Dendroica caerulescens). Our results support the hypothesis that vegetation structure plays a primary role during presettlement periods in determining occupancy patterns in this species. Further, both occupancy rates and territory turnover were affected by an interaction between local shrub density and amount of forest in the surrounding landscape, but not by interactions between habitat cues and social cues. Although previous studies of this species in unfragmented landscapes found that social postbreeding song cues played a key role in determining territory settlement, our prebreeding playbacks were not associated with territory occupancy or turnover. Our results suggest that in heterogeneous landscapes during spring settlement, vegetation structure may be a more reliable signal of reproductive performance than the physical location of other individuals.

  12. Determining conservation priority areas for Palearctic passerine migrant birds in sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno A. Walther

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Migratory bird species breeding in the Palearctic and overwintering in sub-Saharan Africa face multiple conservation challenges. As a result, many of these species have declined in recent decades, some dramatically. We therefore used the best available database for the distribution of 68 passerine migrants in sub-Saharan Africa to determine priority regions for their conservation. After modeling each species' distribution using BIOMOD software, we entered the resulting species distributions at a 1° à - 1° grid resolution into MARXAN software. We then used several different selection procedures that varied the boundary length modifier, species penalty factor, and the inclusion of grid cells with high human footprint and with protected areas. While results differed between selection procedures, four main regions were regularly selected: (1 one centered on southern Mali; (2 one including Eritrea, central Sudan, and northern Ethiopia; (3 one encompassing southwestern Kenya and much of Tanzania and Uganda; and (4 one including much of Zimbabwe and southwestern Zambia. We recommend that these four regions become priority regions for research and conservation efforts for the bird species considered in this study.

  13. Social Housing in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Hedvig; Scanlon, Kath J

    2014-01-01

    Social housing is a cornerstone in the Danish welfare society and is accessible for all households. By law, social housing must be rented at cost rents, which are based on historical costs; rents do not respond to market forces. Social housing aims to provide good standard, secure and affordable...... housing for all. It especially addresses the housing needs of lower-income households as well as new house-holds. This chapter presents how the self-owning Danish non-profit housing associations construct and manage one fifth of the Danish housing stock. Here the tenants’ democracy sets the framework...... for the individual associations as well as each housing estate. In principle, each estate and the association it belongs to must balance its books. An important feature of the sector is the build-up of a funding system which makes it possible to support the financing of major renovations and energy measures as well...

  14. Essays on Housing Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bäckman, Claes

    In Denmark and in many countries around the world, housing markets are of considerable importance for households and policy-makers alike. As the boom and bust in the US and Danish housing market so aptly demonstrated, disruptions in the housing market potentially have wide-ranging consequences...... for individual households and for the aggregate economy. Housing is important because we all have to live somewhere, but also because it serves as a considerable source of both wealth and debt. As such, housing market policy can not only create vast benefits for many, but can also have substantial negative...... impacts for all, and should therefore be a topic of major interest for economists and policy makers alike. This Ph.D. thesis, entitled “Essays on Housing Markets”, analyzes the Danish housing market during the 2000s, with a focus on how policy changes affected house prices and how changes in house prices...

  15. Situation-Based Housing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duelund Mortensen, Peder

    2011-01-01

    Presentation of urban housing research on flexible housing types in the Copenhagen Region: Theoretical background, methodology, analyse of spatial organization, interviews and results. Cases: Pærehaven in Ølby, Køge and M-house in Ørestad, Copenhagen......Presentation of urban housing research on flexible housing types in the Copenhagen Region: Theoretical background, methodology, analyse of spatial organization, interviews and results. Cases: Pærehaven in Ølby, Køge and M-house in Ørestad, Copenhagen...

  16. House Price, House Quality and Economic Growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vries, P.; Boelhouwer, P.J.

    2010-01-01

    The literature on housing markets suggest that periods of economic growth are characterised by a demand for better housing quality and increasing prices. The basic principles of the theory are that the short-run price fluctuations occur due to market imperfection, while over the long term, causality

  17. Housing Inventory Count

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — This report displays the data communities reported to HUD about the nature of their dedicated homeless inventory, referred to as their Housing Inventory Count (HIC)....

  18. Allegheny County Older Housing

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Older housing can impact the quality of the occupant's health in a number of ways, including lead exposure, housing quality, and factors that may exacerbate...

  19. Housing of Hobson's Choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Hedvig

    2010-01-01

    This paper looks at policies implemented to improve troubled housing estates during more than two decades. Based on evaluations of implemented programmes and case studies the paper provides a basis for discussing a number of questions: • Why do we have troubled housing estates? • What...... is the definition of troubled housing estates? • Who lives on troubled housing estates? • Who owns and manages the troubled housing estates? • What have been the reasons behind improvement programmes for troubled housing estates? • What kind of improvement programmes have been implemented and with what kind...... of results? • Have improvement programmes changed the position of the estates on the local housing markets? • What are the changes in policies and results? • What are the perspectives for policy initiatives in the field of troubled housing estates?...

  20. Novel plumage aberrations in Paraguayan non-Passerine Birds, and the definition of a new plumage aberration unique to Psittacidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Smith

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Anomalous plumage colourations are reported for three species of non-passerine birds from Paraguay, Limpkin (Aramaus guarauna; Aramidae, Nanday Parakeet (Nandayus nenday; Psittacidae, and the Little Woodpecker (Veniliornis passerinus; Picidae. A leucistic Limpkin is the first published report of a colour anomaly for the family Aramidae. The colour aberration in N. nenday is hypothesised to be a result of an excess of red psittacofulvin pigments, which are unique to the Psittacidae. Although the mechanisms causing this colour aberration remain unknown, we suggest the term psittacofulvism for the phenotypic effect observed.

  1. Assisted Housing - Public Housing Authorities - National Geospatial Data Asset (NGDA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Public Housing was established to provide decent and safe rental housing for eligible low-income families, the elderly, and persons with disabilities. Public housing...

  2. Seasonal behavioral responses of an arid-zone passerine in a hot environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattinson, Nicholas B; Smit, Ben

    2017-10-01

    Many arid-zone animals have to forage under extremely hot conditions to maintain water and energy balance. The effect of high air temperatures (T air ) on the behavioral patterns of small endothermic animals-characterized by their high energy and water demands-will provide a valuable framework for understanding species vulnerability to climate warming. We determined the seasonal behavioral responses to changes in T air in a~10-g arid-zone passerine, the rufous-eared warbler (Malcorus pectoralis), in the Karoo semi-desert, South Africa. Rufous-eared warblers showed significant temperature-dependence in their behavior in summer, but not in winter. During summer, the warblers frequently experienced T air exceeding 40°C in the shade. For all observations 36°C, the warblers showed reductions in preening (40% decrease), foraging effort (56% decrease), and foraging success (15% decrease), as well as a significant increase in time spent engaged in evaporative cooling behavior. Moreover, as T air increased the warblers shifted increasingly off the ground and out of the full sun, into microsites in the shade (131% increase) and in shrubs (23% increase). In this regard, behavior varied seasonally, with the time spent in the shade 23% higher, and foraging effort 28% higher, in summer compared to winter across a range of moderate T air (15-30°C). Our findings emphasize the link between behavior and temperature in small birds inhabiting hot, arid environments, as well as the importance of understanding these responses for predicting biologically meaningful responses (and hence, vulnerability) of arid-zone avian communities to climactic shifts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Matrix Intensification Affects Body and Physiological Condition of Tropical Forest-Dependent Passerines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justus P Deikumah

    Full Text Available Matrix land-use intensification is a relatively recent and novel landscape change that can have important influences on the biota within adjacent habitat patches. While there are immediate local changes that it brings about, the influences on individual animals occupying adjacent habitats may be less evident initially. High-intensity land use could induce chronic stress in individuals in nearby remnants, leading ultimately to population declines. We investigated how physiological indicators and body condition measures of tropical forest-dependent birds differ between forest adjacent to surface mining sites and that near farmlands at two distances from remnant edge in southwest Ghana. We used mixed effects models of several condition indices including residual body mass and heterophil to lymphocyte (H/L ratios (an indicator of elevated chronic stress to explore the effect of matrix intensity on forest-dependent passerines classed as either sedentary area-sensitive habitat specialists or nomadic generalists. Individual birds occupying tropical forest remnants near surface mining sites were in poorer condition, as indicated by lower residual body mass and elevated chronic stress, compared to those in remnants near agricultural lands. The condition of the sedentary forest habitat specialists white-tailed alethe, Alethe diademata and western olive sunbird, Cyanomitra obscura was most negatively affected by high-intensity surface mining land-use adjacent to remnants, whereas generalist species were not affected. Land use intensification may set in train a new trajectory of faunal relaxation beyond that expected based on habitat loss alone. Patterns of individual condition may be useful in identifying habitats where species population declines may occur before faunal relaxation has concluded.

  4. Matrix Intensification Affects Body and Physiological Condition of Tropical Forest-Dependent Passerines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deikumah, Justus P; McAlpine, Clive A; Maron, Martine

    2015-01-01

    Matrix land-use intensification is a relatively recent and novel landscape change that can have important influences on the biota within adjacent habitat patches. While there are immediate local changes that it brings about, the influences on individual animals occupying adjacent habitats may be less evident initially. High-intensity land use could induce chronic stress in individuals in nearby remnants, leading ultimately to population declines. We investigated how physiological indicators and body condition measures of tropical forest-dependent birds differ between forest adjacent to surface mining sites and that near farmlands at two distances from remnant edge in southwest Ghana. We used mixed effects models of several condition indices including residual body mass and heterophil to lymphocyte (H/L) ratios (an indicator of elevated chronic stress) to explore the effect of matrix intensity on forest-dependent passerines classed as either sedentary area-sensitive habitat specialists or nomadic generalists. Individual birds occupying tropical forest remnants near surface mining sites were in poorer condition, as indicated by lower residual body mass and elevated chronic stress, compared to those in remnants near agricultural lands. The condition of the sedentary forest habitat specialists white-tailed alethe, Alethe diademata and western olive sunbird, Cyanomitra obscura was most negatively affected by high-intensity surface mining land-use adjacent to remnants, whereas generalist species were not affected. Land use intensification may set in train a new trajectory of faunal relaxation beyond that expected based on habitat loss alone. Patterns of individual condition may be useful in identifying habitats where species population declines may occur before faunal relaxation has concluded.

  5. Effect of Climate Change on Mediterranean Winter Ranges of Two Migratory Passerines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José L Tellería

    Full Text Available We studied the effect of climate change on the distribution of two insectivorous passerines (the meadow pipit Anthus pratensis and the chiffchaff Phylloscopus collybita in wintering grounds of the Western Mediterranean basin. In this region, precipitation and temperature can affect the distribution of these birds through direct (thermoregulation costs or indirect effects (primary productivity. Thus, it can be postulated that projected climate changes in the region will affect the extent and suitability of their wintering grounds. We studied pipit and chiffchaff abundance in several hundred localities along a belt crossing Spain and Morocco and assessed the effects of climate and other geographical and habitat predictors on bird distribution. Multivariate analyses reported a positive effect of temperature on the present distribution of the two species, with an additional effect of precipitation on the meadow pipit. These climate variables were used with Maxent to model the occurrence probabilities of species using ring recoveries as presence data. Abundance and occupancy of the two species in the study localities adjusted to the distribution models, with more birds in sectors of high climate suitability. After validation, these models were used to forecast the distribution of climate suitability according to climate projections for 2050-2070 (temperature increase and precipitation reduction. Results show an expansion of climatically suitable sectors into the highlands by the effect of warming on the two species, and a retreat of the meadow pipit from southern sectors related to rain reduction. The predicted patterns show a mean increase in climate suitability for the two species due to the warming of the large highland expanses typical of the western Mediterranean.

  6. The impact of an invasive exotic bush on the stopover ecology of migrant passerines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arizaga, J.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Migration is highly energy-demanding and birds often need to accumulate large fuel loads during this period. However, original habitat at stopover sites could be affected by invasive exotic plants outcompeting native vegetation. The impact of exotic plants on the stopover behavior of migrant bird species is poorly understood. As a general hypothesis, it can be supposed that habitat change due to the presence of exotic plants will affect migrants, having a negative impact on bird abundance, on avian community assemblage, and/or on fuel deposition rate. To test these predictions, we used data obtained in August 2011 at a ringing station in a coastal wetland in northern Iberia which contained both unaltered reedbeds (Phragmites spp. and areas where the reedbeds had been largely replaced by the invasive saltbush (Baccharis halimifolia. Passerines associated with reedbeds during the migration period were used as model species, with a particular focus on sedge warblers (Acrocephalus schoenobaenus. The saltbush promoted a noticeable change on bird assemblage, which became enriched by species typical of woodland habitats. Sedge warblers departed with a higher fuel load, showed a higher fuel deposition rate, and stayed for longer in the control zone than in the invaded zone. Invasive plants, such as saltbush, can impose radical changes on habitat, having a direct effect on the stopover strategies of migrants. The substitution of reedbeds by saltbushes in several coastal marshes in Atlantic Europe should be regarded as a problem with potential negative cons equences for the conservation of migrant bird species associated with this habitat.

  7. Quantifying the Risk of Introduction of West Nile Virus into Great Britain by Migrating Passerine Birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessell, P R; Robinson, R A; Golding, N; Searle, K R; Handel, I G; Boden, L A; Purse, B V; Bronsvoort, B M de C

    2016-10-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito borne arbovirus that circulates within avian reservoirs. WNV can spill over into humans and Equidae that are dead-end hosts for WNV but suffer fever, acute morbidity and sometimes death. Outbreaks of WNV are common across Africa and Eastern Europe, and there have also been sporadic outbreaks in Spain and the Camargue Regional Park in France, but never in Great Britain (GB). These areas all fall along a major bird migration route. In this study, we analyse a scenario in which WNV is circulating in the Camargue or in other wetland areas in France and we estimate the risk of northward migrating passerine birds stopping in a WNV hotspot, becoming infected and carrying active infection to GB. If the disease were circulating in the Camargue during a single migratory season, the probability that one or more migrating birds becomes infected and lands in GB whilst still infected is 0.881 with 0.384 birds arriving in areas of suitable vector habitat. However, if WNV became established in the Grand Brière National Park or La Brenne Regional Park wetland areas further to the north, the model predicts that at least one infected bird will continue to GB. Thus, GB is at risk of WNV introduction from the Camargue, but the risk is considerably greater if WNV were to circulate further north than its previous focus in France, but this is highly sensitive to the force of infection in the infected area. However, the risk of establishment and infection of humans in GB is dependent upon a number of additional factors, in particular the vector and epidemiological situation in GB. © 2014 The Authors. Transboundary and Emerging Diseases Published by Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. Tick-borne pathogens in ticks feeding on migratory passerines in Western part of Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Julia; Nazarova, Lidia; Katargina, Olga; Leivits, Agu; Järvekülg, Lilian; Golovljova, Irina

    2013-07-01

    During southward migration in the years 2006-2009, 178 migratory passerines of 24 bird species infested with ticks were captured at bird stations in Western Estonia. In total, 249 nymphal ticks were removed and analyzed individually for the presence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.), tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), and Anaplasma phagocytophilum. The majority of ticks were collected from Acrocephalus (58%), Turdus (13%), Sylvia (8%), and Parus (6%) bird species. Tick-borne pathogens were detected in nymphs removed from Acrocephalus, Turdus, and Parus bird species. TBEV of the European subtype was detected in 1 I. ricinus nymph removed from A. palustris. B. burgdorferi s.l. DNA was found in 11 ticks (4.4%) collected from Turdus and Parus species. Bird-associated B. garinii and B. valaisiana were detected in I. ricinus nymphs removed from T. merula. Rodent-associated B. afzelii was detected in 3 I. ricinus nymphs from 2 P. major birds. One of the B. afzelii-positive nymphs was infected with a mix of 2 B. afzelii strains, whereas 1 of these strains was also detected in another nymph feeding on the same great tit. The sharing of the same B. afzelii strain by 2 nymphs indicates a possible transmission of B. afzelii by co-feeding on a bird. A. phagocytophilum DNA was detected in 1 I. ricinus nymph feeding on a T. iliacus. The results of the study confirm the possible role of migratory birds in the dispersal of ticks infected with tick-borne pathogens along the southward migration route via Estonia.

  9. Evolutionary and ecological forces influencing population diversification in Bornean montane passerines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Vivien L; Smith, Brian Tilston; Burner, Ryan C; Rahman, Mustafa Abdul; Lakim, Maklarin; Prawiradilaga, Dewi M; Moyle, Robert G; Sheldon, Frederick H

    2017-08-01

    The mountains of Borneo are well known for their high endemicity and historical role in preserving Southeast Asian rainforest biodiversity, but the diversification of populations inhabiting these mountains is poorly studied. Here we examine the genetic structure of 12 Bornean montane passerines by comparing complete mtDNA ND2 gene sequences of populations spanning the island. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian phylogenetic trees and haplotype networks are examined for common patterns that might signal important historical events or boundaries to dispersal. Morphological and ecological characteristics of each species are also examined using phylogenetic generalized least-squares (PGLS) for correlation with population structure. Populations in only four of the 12 species are subdivided into distinct clades or haplotype groups. Although this subdivision occurred at about the same time in each species (ca. 0.6-0.7Ma), the spatial positioning of the genetic break differs among the species. In two species, northeastern populations are genetically divergent from populations elsewhere on the island. In the other two species, populations in the main Bornean mountain chain, including the northeast, are distinct from those on two isolated peaks in northwestern Borneo. We suggest different historical forces played a role in shaping these two distributions, despite commonality in timing. PGLS analysis showed that only a single characteristic-hand-wing index-is correlated with population structure. Birds with longer wings, and hence potentially more dispersal power, have less population structure. To understand historical forces influencing montane population structure on Borneo, future studies must compare populations across the entirety of Sundaland. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Extremes of heat, drought and precipitation depress reproductive performance in shortgrass prairie passerines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrey, Reesa Y.; Skagen, Susan K.; Yackel, Amy; Panjabi, Arvind O.

    2016-01-01

    Climate change elevates conservation concerns worldwide because it is likely to exacerbate many identified threats to animal populations. In recent decades, grassland birds have declined faster than other North American bird species, a loss thought to be due to habitat loss and fragmentation and changing agricultural practices. Climate change poses additional threats of unknown magnitude to these already declining populations. We examined how seasonal and daily weather conditions over 10 years influenced nest survival of five species of insectivorous passerines native to the shortgrass prairie and evaluate our findings relative to future climate predictions for this region. Daily nest survival (n = 870) was best predicted by a combination of daily and seasonal weather variables, age of nest, time in season and bird habitat guild. Within a season, survival rates were lower on very hot days (temperatures ≥ 35 °C), on dry days (with a lag of 1 day) and on stormy days (especially for those species nesting in shorter vegetation). Across years, survival rates were also lower during warmer and drier breeding seasons. Clutch sizes were larger when early spring temperatures were cool and the week prior to egg-laying was wetter and warming. Climate change is likely to exacerbate grassland bird population declines because projected climate conditions include rising temperatures, more prolonged drought and more intense storms as the hydrological cycle is altered. Under varying realistic scenarios, nest success estimates were halved compared to their current average value when models both increased the temperature (3 °C) and decreased precipitation (two additional dry days during a nesting period), thus underscoring a sense of urgency in identifying and addressing the current causes of range-wide declines.

  11. An analysis of continent-wide patterns of sexual selection in a passerine bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møller, A P; Chabi, Y; Cuervo, J J; De Lope, F; Kilpimaa, J; Kose, M; Matyjasiak, P; Pap, P L; Saino, N; Sakraoui, R; Schifferli, L; von Hirschheydt, J

    2006-04-01

    Patterns of selection are widely believed to differ geographically, causing adaptation to local environmental conditions. However, few studies have investigated patterns of phenotypic selection across large spatial scales. We quantified the intensity of selection on morphology in a monogamous passerine bird, the barn swallow Hirundo rustica, using 6495 adults from 22 populations distributed across Europe and North Africa. According to the classical Darwin-Fisher mechanism of sexual selection in monogamous species, two important components of fitness due to sexual selection are the advantages that the most attractive males acquire by starting to breed early and their high annual fecundity. We estimated directional selection differentials on tail length (a secondary sexual character) and directional selection gradients after controlling for correlated selection on wing length and tarsus length with respect to these two fitness components. Phenotype and fitness components differed significantly among populations for which estimates were available for more than a single year. Likewise, selection differentials and selection gradients differed significantly among populations for tail length, but not for the other two characters. Sexual selection differentials differed significantly from zero across populations for tail length, particularly in males. Controlling statistically for the effects of age reduced the intensity of selection by 60 to 81%, although corrected and uncorrected estimates were strongly positively correlated. Selection differentials and gradients for tail length were positively correlated between the sexes among populations for selection acting on breeding date, but not for fecundity selection. The intensity of selection with respect to breeding date and fecundity were significantly correlated for tail length across populations. Sexual size dimorphism in tail length was significantly correlated with selection differentials with respect to breeding date

  12. Variation in maternal effects and embryonic development rates among passerine species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, T.E.; Schwabl, H.

    2008-01-01

    Embryonic development rates are reflected by the length of incubation period in birds, and these vary substantially among species within and among geographical regions. The incubation periods are consistently shorter in North America (Arizona study site) than in tropical (Venezuela) and subtropical (Argentina) South America based on the study of 83 passerine species in 17 clades. Parents, mothers in particular, may influence incubation periods and resulting offspring quality through proximate pathways, while variation in maternal strategies among species can result from selection by adult and offspring mortality. Parents of long-lived species, as is common in the tropics and subtropics, may be under selection to minimize costs to themselves during incubation. Indeed, time spent incubating is often lower in the tropical and subtropical species than the related north temperate species, causing cooler average egg temperatures in the southern regions. Decreased egg temperatures result in longer incubation periods and reflect a cost imposed on offspring by parents because energy cost to the embryo and risk of offspring predation are both increased. Mothers may adjust egg size and constituents as a means to partially offset such costs. For example, reduced androgen concentrations in egg yolks may slow development rates, but may enhance offspring quality through physiological trade-offs that may be particularly beneficial in longer-lived species, as in the tropics and subtropics. We provide initial data to show that yolks of tropical birds contain substantially lower concentrations of growth-promoting androgens than north temperate relatives. Thus, maternal (and parental) effects on embryonic development rates may include contrasting and complementary proximate influences on offspring quality and deserve further field study among species. ?? 2007 The Royal Society.

  13. Testing avian compass calibration: comparative experiments with diurnal and nocturnal passerine migrants in South Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Åkesson, Susanne; Odin, Catharina; Hegedüs, Ramón; Ilieva, Mihaela; Sjöholm, Christoffer; Farkas, Alexandra; Horváth, Gábor

    2014-12-12

    Cue-conflict experiments were performed to study the compass calibration of one predominantly diurnal migrant, the dunnock (Prunella modularis), and two species of nocturnal passerine migrants, the sedge warbler (Acrocephalus schoenobaenus), and the European robin (Erithacus rubecula) during autumn migration in South Sweden. The birds' orientation was recorded in circular cages under natural clear and simulated overcast skies in the local geomagnetic field, and thereafter the birds were exposed to a cue-conflict situation where the horizontal component of the magnetic field (mN) was shifted +90° or -90° at two occasions, one session starting shortly after sunrise and the other ca. 90 min before sunset and lasting for 60 min. The patterns of the degree and angle of skylight polarization were measured by full-sky imaging polarimetry during the cue-conflict exposures and orientation tests. All species showed orientation both under clear and overcast skies that correlated with the expected migratory orientation towards southwest to south. For the European robin the orientation under clear skies was significantly different from that recorded under overcast skies, showing a tendency that the orientation under clear skies was influenced by the position of the Sun at sunset resulting in more westerly orientation. This sun attraction was not observed for the sedge warbler and the dunnock, both orientating south. All species showed similar orientation after the cue-conflict as compared to the preferred orientation recorded before the cue-conflict, with the clearest results in the European robin and thus, the results did not support recalibration of the celestial nor the magnetic compasses as a result of the cue-conflict exposure. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  14. Testing avian compass calibration: comparative experiments with diurnal and nocturnal passerine migrants in South Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Åkesson

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Cue-conflict experiments were performed to study the compass calibration of one predominantly diurnal migrant, the dunnock (Prunella modularis, and two species of nocturnal passerine migrants, the sedge warbler (Acrocephalus schoenobaenus, and the European robin (Erithacus rubecula during autumn migration in South Sweden. The birds' orientation was recorded in circular cages under natural clear and simulated overcast skies in the local geomagnetic field, and thereafter the birds were exposed to a cue-conflict situation where the horizontal component of the magnetic field (mN was shifted +90° or −90° at two occasions, one session starting shortly after sunrise and the other ca. 90 min before sunset and lasting for 60 min. The patterns of the degree and angle of skylight polarization were measured by full-sky imaging polarimetry during the cue-conflict exposures and orientation tests. All species showed orientation both under clear and overcast skies that correlated with the expected migratory orientation towards southwest to south. For the European robin the orientation under clear skies was significantly different from that recorded under overcast skies, showing a tendency that the orientation under clear skies was influenced by the position of the Sun at sunset resulting in more westerly orientation. This sun attraction was not observed for the sedge warbler and the dunnock, both orientating south. All species showed similar orientation after the cue-conflict as compared to the preferred orientation recorded before the cue-conflict, with the clearest results in the European robin and thus, the results did not support recalibration of the celestial nor the magnetic compasses as a result of the cue-conflict exposure.

  15. Leptin affects life history decisions in a passerine bird: a field experiment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mare Lõhmus

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Organisms face trade-offs regarding their life-history strategies, such as decisions of single or multiple broods within a year. In passerines displaying facultative multiple breeding, the probability of laying a second clutch is influenced by several life-history factors. However, information about the mechanistic background of these trade-offs is largely lacking. Leptin is a protein hormone produced by white fat cells, and acts as a signal between peripheral energy depots and the central nervous system. In addition, leptin affects cells at all levels of the reproductive axis and plays a critical role in regulating the allocation of metabolic energy to reproduction. As such, it is possible that leptin levels influence the decision of whether or not to invest time and energy into a second clutch. Accordingly, we expect a treatment with exogenous leptin to result in an increased number of second broods. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: At a later stage during the first brood, female great tits were treated either with long-term leptin-filled cholesterol pellets (the experimental birds or with pellets containing only cholesterol (the control birds. We found that leptin-treated females were significantly more likely to have a second brood and that the earlier females were more likely to lay a second clutch than the late females. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: As both timing of first brood and treatment with leptin were important in the decision of having multiple broods, the trade-offs involved in the breeding strategy most likely depend on multiple factors. Presumably leptin has evolved as a signal of energy supply status to regulate the release of reproductive hormones so that reproduction is coordinated with periods of sufficient nutrients. This study investigated the role of leptin as a mediator between energy resources and reproductive output, providing a fundamentally new insight into how trade-offs work on a functional basis.

  16. The influence of climatic variation and density on the survival of an insular passerine Zosterops lateralis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandvig, Erik M; Coulson, Tim; Kikkawa, Jiro; Clegg, Sonya M

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the influence of environmental factors on population dynamics is fundamental to many areas in biology. Survival is a key factor of population biology, as it is thought to be the predominant driver of growth in long-lived passerines, which can be influenced by both biotic and abiotic environmental conditions. We used mark-recapture methods and generalized linear mixed models to test the influence of density and climatic variation, measured at a regional and local scale (Southern Oscillation Index [SOI] and rainfall, respectively), on seasonal variation in survival rates of an insular population of Silvereyes (Zosterops lateralis chlorocephalus), during a 15-year study period, off the east coast of Australia. We found overall high survival rates for adults and juveniles (81% and 59%, respectively). Local scale climate (i.e. rainfall) and density were the principal environmental factors influencing their survival, both with a negative relationship. A significant interactive effect of density and rainfall influenced survival as they both increased. However, survival remained low when density was at it highest, independent of the amount of rainfall. Nestling survival was negatively influenced by rainfall and density, positively by SOI, and chicks that hatched later in the breeding season had higher survival rates. The regional scale climate variable (i.e. SOI) did not explain survival rates as strongly as rainfall in any age class. Our results contribute to the understanding of insular avian population dynamics and the differential effects of environmental factors across age classes. Climatic predictions expect El Niño events to increase, meaning dryer conditions in eastern Australia, potentially increasing Silvereye survival across age classes. However, the long-term effect of lower rainfall on food availability is unknown; consequently, the outcome of lower rainfall on Silvereye survival rates is uncertain.

  17. Passerine migrant stopover duration and spatial behaviour at an urban stopover site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seewagen, Chad L.; Slayton, Eric J.; Guglielmo, Christopher G.

    2010-09-01

    Migration routes of many Nearctic-Neotropical landbirds pass through the most urbanized regions of North America. Migrants are known to use urban habitats as stopover sites and often occur in cities at exceptional density; yet knowledge of migrant behaviour and ecology in such places is surprisingly limited. We radio-tracked ovenbirds ( Seiurus aurocapillus) during stopovers in a New York City park to obtain some of the first detailed information on how landbird migrants utilize an urban habitat as a stopover site. We examined fine-scale movement patterns, home range sizes, stopover durations, and how arrival condition affected each of these metrics. During both seasons, most birds moved widely throughout the site upon presumed arrival and then either continued migration that night or settled into a more defined area on subsequent days. Area usage varied markedly among individuals during both seasons, ranging 1-16 ha. Stopover durations averaged 3.0 days (range = 1-10 days) during spring and 2.9 days (range = 1-14 days) during autumn. Spatial behaviours and stopover durations were not influenced by arrival condition during spring, and during autumn only movement rates and displacement distances were significantly (negatively) condition-related. Our findings do not support previous assumptions that urban stopover habitats are only used by migrants briefly in times of urgency when alternatives are unavailable. At least half of the birds we studied stopped over for multiple days during both seasons, and bird movements were indicative of an ability to search for, locate, and occupy suitable micro-sites. Ovenbird behaviour in our study site was similar in many ways to what has been observed in recent telemetry studies of ovenbirds and other passerine migrants at various non-urban stopover sites.

  18. Food availability but not melatonin affects nocturnal restlessness in a wild migrating passerine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusani, Leonida; Cardinale, Massimiliano; Schwabl, Ingrid; Goymann, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    A large number of passerine species migrate at night, although most of them are diurnal outside the migratory seasons. This diurnal-to-nocturnal transition is a major life-history event, yet little is known about its physiological control. Previous work showed that during the migratory periods captive birds showing nocturnal migratory restlessness (Zugunruhe) have reduced concentrations of circulating melatonin at night compared to non-migratory periods. This suggested that the hormone melatonin, a main component of the avian circadian system, is involved in the expression of Zugunruhe. Other studies demonstrated that the relationship between low melatonin levels and Zugunruhe is not a seasonal correlation. When Zugunruhe was interrupted by exposing birds to a fasting-and-refeeding protocol, melatonin levels increased. Here we studied whether melatonin and food availability influence the intensity of Zugunruhe in wild migrating garden warblers (Sylvia borin) at a stopover site. Birds were held in recording cages overnight, with or without food available, and either bled to determine melatonin concentrations or treated transdermally with melatonin. We found that melatonin levels at night were correlated with the intensity of diurnal locomotor activity and with condition, but were not correlated with Zugunruhe. Similarly, the melatonin treatment did not have effects on Zugunruhe, whereas food availability increased it. Our study shows that the nocturnal melatonin levels in migrating warblers depend on food availability and are correlated with condition. In addition, it suggests that melatonin does not control Zugunruhe and might rather be involved in energy conservation and/or clock synchronization during migration. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Use of captive starlings to determine effects of pollutants on passerine reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grue, C.E.; Christian, C.L.; Lamb, D.W.; Kenaga, E.E.

    1981-01-01

    Three reproductive trials were conducted to develop techniques for propagation of captive starlings (Stumus vulgaris) which could determine the effects of environmental contaminants on passerine reproduction. Trials were conducted during the spring of 1979 in five adjacent 2.4 by 3 by 12-m outdoor wire pens containing four or ten pairs of starlings, a similar number of nest boxes, perches, water, commercial turkey starter, and alfalfa hay as nesting material. Nestling diets consisted of combinations of Nebraska Brand bird of prey diet, live or frozen mealworms (Tenebrio molitor) and crickets (Acheta domestica), or live earthworms (Pheretima sp.). Starlings reproduced successfully when the number of breeding pairs per pen was reduced from ten to four. The average clutch sizes for each pen (4.3 to 4.9) were similar to those reported for wild starlings. Hatching (60 to 90.4 percent) and fledging (0 to 100 percent) success varied among pens. The fledging success was greatest in the pens which received the most diverse nestling diets: Nebraska Brand diet plus frozen or live mealworms and crickets. Whether the insects were presented alive or frozen appeared to have little effect on the reproductive success. The starlings did not consume or carry earthworms to their young. The body weights of 20-day-old nestlings raised in captivity (X=73.9 g) were similar to those of starlings in the wild. The use of single pairs per pen may eliminate problems in presentation of nestling diets due to asynchrony in breeding between pairs and excessive interactions among individuals, which may interfere with parental care. The starling appears to be an excellent model for examining the effects of environmental contaminants on the reproduction of songbirds in captivity.

  20. Genetic diversity, temporal dynamics, and host specificity in blood parasites of passerines in north China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xi; Dong, Lu; Zhang, Chenglin; Zhang, Yanyun

    2015-12-01

    Avian blood parasites have been preliminarily studied in East Asia, but no data are available from long-term monitoring. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence, genetic diversity, and temporal dynamics of Plasmodium, Haemoproteus, and Leucocytozoon in two passerine communities (one forest and one urban) in north China from 2008 to 2013, as well as the association between infected lineages and host specificities. Out of 633 birds from 40 species, 157 individuals (24.8 %) were infected; overall prevalence was 26.7 % and 16.8 % in two sites, respectively. The dominant avian blood parasite genus in the forest park changed yearly between Plasmodium and Haemoproteus, while the Leucocytozoon maintained a low infection level. Forty-four haplotypes were identified by sequencing a 432-bp fragment of the cytochrome b (cyt b) gene; more than 70 % were novel (six Plasmodium lineages, 16 Haemoproteus lineages, and nine Leucocytozoon lineages). Based on our data gathered over consecutive years, we found that the highly observed lineages of Haemoproteus showed higher host diversities than those of Plasmodium, and the most infected lineage EMEL01 (100 % identity with SGS1) take on the highest host diversity but low temporal diversity of the two genera, implying that this lineage infected a great diversity of species in certain years, but maintained a lower infection level or even disappeared in other years. The results suggest that genetic diversity of avian blood parasites in East Asia is high and provides scope for further research. In addition, compared with overall analysis, yearly prevalence monitoring is important in uncovering the temporal dynamic and host specificity variations over time.

  1. Modeling the flocking propensity of passerine birds in two Neotropical habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomara, Lars Y; Cooper, Robert J; Petit, Lisa J

    2007-08-01

    We examined the importance of mixed-species flock abundance, individual bird home range size, foraging height, and foraging patch characteristics in predicting the propensity for five Neotropical passerine bird species (Slaty Antwren, Myrmotherula schisticolor; Golden-crowned Warbler, Basileuterus culicivorus; Slate-throated Redstart, Myioborus miniatus; Wilson's Warbler, Wilsonia pusilla; and Black-and-white Warbler, Mniotilta varia) to forage within flocks, rather than solitarily. We used study plots in primary mid-elevation forest and in shade coffee fields in western Panama. We expected that all species would spend as much time as possible flocking, but that the social and environmental factors listed above would limit compatibility between flock movements and individual bird movements, explaining variability in flocking propensity both within and among species. Flocking propensity was well predicted by home range size and flock abundance together, for four of the five species. While flock abundance was uniform across plots, home range sizes varied among species and plots, so that home range size appeared to be the principle factor limiting flocking propensity. Estimates of flock abundance were still required, however, for calculating flocking propensity values. Foraging height and patch characteristics slightly improved predictive ability for the remaining species, M. miniatus. In general, individual birds tended to join flocks whenever one was available inside their home range, regardless of a flock's specific location within the home range. Flocking propensities of individual species were lower in shade coffee fields than in forests, and probably vary across landscapes with variations in habitat. This variability affects the stability and species composition of flocks, and may affect survival rates of individual species.

  2. Effect of Climate Change on Mediterranean Winter Ranges of Two Migratory Passerines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellería, José L; Fernández-López, Javier; Fandos, Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    We studied the effect of climate change on the distribution of two insectivorous passerines (the meadow pipit Anthus pratensis and the chiffchaff Phylloscopus collybita) in wintering grounds of the Western Mediterranean basin. In this region, precipitation and temperature can affect the distribution of these birds through direct (thermoregulation costs) or indirect effects (primary productivity). Thus, it can be postulated that projected climate changes in the region will affect the extent and suitability of their wintering grounds. We studied pipit and chiffchaff abundance in several hundred localities along a belt crossing Spain and Morocco and assessed the effects of climate and other geographical and habitat predictors on bird distribution. Multivariate analyses reported a positive effect of temperature on the present distribution of the two species, with an additional effect of precipitation on the meadow pipit. These climate variables were used with Maxent to model the occurrence probabilities of species using ring recoveries as presence data. Abundance and occupancy of the two species in the study localities adjusted to the distribution models, with more birds in sectors of high climate suitability. After validation, these models were used to forecast the distribution of climate suitability according to climate projections for 2050-2070 (temperature increase and precipitation reduction). Results show an expansion of climatically suitable sectors into the highlands by the effect of warming on the two species, and a retreat of the meadow pipit from southern sectors related to rain reduction. The predicted patterns show a mean increase in climate suitability for the two species due to the warming of the large highland expanses typical of the western Mediterranean.

  3. Antioxidant defenses predict long-term survival in a passerine bird.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Saino

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Normal and pathological processes entail the production of oxidative substances that can damage biological molecules and harm physiological functions. Organisms have evolved complex mechanisms of antioxidant defense, and any imbalance between oxidative challenge and antioxidant protection can depress fitness components and accelerate senescence. While the role of oxidative stress in pathogenesis and aging has been studied intensively in humans and model animal species under laboratory conditions, there is a dearth of knowledge on its role in shaping life-histories of animals under natural selection regimes. Yet, given the pervasive nature and likely fitness consequences of oxidative damage, it can be expected that the need to secure efficient antioxidant protection is powerful in molding the evolutionary ecology of animals. Here, we test whether overall antioxidant defense varies with age and predicts long-term survival, using a wild population of a migratory passerine bird, the barn swallow (Hirundo rustica, as a model.Plasma antioxidant capacity (AOC of breeding individuals was measured using standard protocols and annual survival was monitored over five years (2006-2010 on a large sample of selection episodes. AOC did not covary with age in longitudinal analyses after discounting the effect of selection. AOC positively predicted annual survival independently of sex. Individuals were highly consistent in their relative levels of AOC, implying the existence of additive genetic variance and/or environmental (including early maternal components consistently acting through their lives.Using longitudinal data we showed that high levels of antioxidant protection positively predict long-term survival in a wild animal population. Present results are therefore novel in disclosing a role for antioxidant protection in determining survival under natural conditions, strongly demanding for more longitudinal eco-physiological studies of life-histories in

  4. Protein loss during long-distance migratory flight in passerine birds: adaptation and constraint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwilch, Regine; Grattarola, Alessandra; Spina, Fernando; Jenni, Lukas

    2002-03-01

    During long-distance flights, birds catabolize not only fat but also protein. Because there is no storage form of protein, protein catabolism entails a structural or functional loss. In this study, we investigated which organs were most reduced in lean mass during different phases of fat store loss and whether protein loss can be regarded as adaptive or as a constraint. Body and organ composition were analysed both during the autumn migration over continental Europe (sample from Switzerland) and after a long-distance flight over the Sahara and the Mediterranean Sea in spring (sample from Ventotene, Italy) in four species of passerine bird: pied flycatcher Ficedula hypoleuca, willow warbler Phylloscopus trochilus, garden warbler Sylvia borin and barn swallow Hirundo rustica. Large variations in protein mass occurred when long non-stop flights were performed. After a long-distance flight, birds showed a marked increase in net protein loss when fat stores were nearing depletion (analogous to the late phase of endurance fasting when the rate of protein catabolism is increased). When fat reserves were above approximately 5-10 %, protein was derived from all organs, but particularly from the breast muscles. When fat stores diminished further and protein catabolism increased, the mass of the digestive organs was reduced fastest. When the decrease in breast muscle mass during flight was regarded in terms of potential flight performance, it appeared that the use of breast muscle protein with decreasing body mass can be regarded as adaptive as long as fat stores did not reach a critical level. Below approximately 5-10 % body fat, however, protein loss reduced flight performance. This demonstrates that the phase of fasting (the size of the remaining fat stores) is an important condition for understanding the occurrence and effects of protein loss during endurance flights.

  5. Zero energy house

    OpenAIRE

    Milián Martínez, Irene; Vink, Willem; Ortiz Braulio, Ruben

    2008-01-01

    The zero energy house project talks about sustainability. In general terms the house is designed to produce as much energy as it consume. If you take a look to the house its possible to find several systems that takes as much profit as possible to the renewable energies like photovoltaic electricity production, geothermal energy used to run a heat pump or a well thought isolated house. First of all it’s possible to find general information about the topics in house, to make people understa...

  6. Inadequate housing in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franklin Obeng-Odoom

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Two themes are evident in housing research in Ghana. One involves the study of how to increase the number of dwellings to correct the overall housing deficit, and the other focuses on how to improve housing for slum dwellers. Between these two extremes, there is relatively little research on why the existing buildings are poorly maintained. This paper is based on a review of existing studies on inadequate housing. It synthesises the evidence on the possible reasons for this neglect, makes a case for better maintenance and analyses possible ways of reversing the problem of inadequate housing.

  7. Moodulmaja Passion House = "Passion House" modular home

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2015-01-01

    Moodulmaja Passion House. Arhitektuuri sihtkapitali innovatsioonipreemia 2013 kvaliteetse disaini ja perspektiivika arendustegevuse oskusliku sidumise eest. Arhitekt Eero Endjärv (Arhitekt11), sisearhitekt Hannelore Kääramees (Arhitekt11)

  8. Assisted Housing - Multifamily Properties - Assisted

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — HUD's Multifamily Housing property portfolio consist primarily of rental housing properties with five or more dwelling units such as apartments or town houses, but...

  9. A taxonomic, functional, and phylogenetic perspective on the community assembly of passerine birds along an elevational gradient in southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xuelian; Luo, Kang; Brown, Calum; Lin, Luxiang

    2018-03-01

    Integrating multiple facets of biodiversity to describe spatial and temporal distribution patterns is one way of revealing the mechanisms driving community assembly. We assessed the species, functional, and phylogenetic composition and structure of passerine bird communities along an elevational gradient both in wintering and breeding seasons in the Ailao Mountains, southwest China, in order to identify the dominant ecological processes structuring the communities and how these processes change with elevation and season. Our research confirms that the highest taxonomic diversity, and distinct community composition, was found in the moist evergreen broadleaf forest at high elevation in both seasons. Environmental filtering was the dominant force at high elevations with relatively cold and wet climatic conditions, while the observed value of mean pairwise functional and phylogenetic distances of low elevation was constantly higher than expectation in two seasons, suggested interspecific competition could play the key role at low elevations, perhaps because of relative rich resource result from complex vegetation structure and human-induced disturbance. Across all elevations, there was a trend of decreasing intensity of environmental filtering whereas increasing interspecific competition from wintering season to breeding season. This was likely due to the increased resource availability but reproduction-associated competition in the summer months. In general, there is a clear justification for conservation efforts to protect entire elevational gradients in the Ailao Mountains, given the distinct taxonomic, functional, and phylogenetic compositions and also elevational migration pattern in passerine bird communities.

  10. Variation of basal EROD activities in ten passerine bird species--relationships with diet and migration status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainio, Miia J; Kanerva, Mirella; Wahlberg, Niklas; Nikinmaa, Mikko; Eeva, Tapio

    2012-01-01

    Inter-specific differences in animal defence mechanisms against toxic substances are currently poorly understood. The ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) enzyme plays an important role in defence against toxic chemicals in a wide variety of animals, and it is an important biomarker for environmental contamination. We compared basal hepatic EROD activity levels among ten passerine species to see if there is inter-specific variation in enzyme activity, especially in relation to their diet and migration status. Migratory insectivores showed higher EROD activity compared to granivores. We hypothesize that the variable invertebrate diet of migratory insectivores contains a wider range of natural toxins than the narrower diet of granivores. This may have affected the evolution of mixed function oxidases (MFO) system and enzyme activities. We further tested whether metabolic rates or relative liver size were associated with the variation in detoxification capacity. We found no association between EROD activity and relative (per mass unit) basal metabolic rate (BMR). Instead, EROD activity and relative liver mass (% of body mass) correlated positively, suggesting that a proportionally large liver also functions efficiently. Our results suggest that granivores and non-migratory birds may be more vulnerable to environmental contaminants than insectivores and migratory birds. The diet and migration status, however, are phylogenetically strongly connected to each other, and their roles cannot be fully separated in our analysis with only ten passerine species.

  11. Occurrence of eggs and oocysts of gastrointestinal parasites in passerine birds kept in captivity in Para State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Cesar Magalhães-Matos

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to detect helminth eggs and protozoan oocysts in samples of feces from birds of the order Passeriformes in Para State, Brazil. Fecal samples were collected individually from 403 passerine birds seized and kept in captivity in Para State. Samples were processed by the double centrifugation technique in saturated sucrose solution and the coccidial oocyst-positive samples were submitted to sporulation in potassium dichromate 2.0%. Helminth eggs and/or protozoan oocysts were observed in 43.18% (174/403 of the fecal samples examined. Coccidial oocysts were detected in 93.68% (163/174 of the positive samples, whereas helminth eggs were observed in 10.34% (18/174 of the positive samples. Oocyst sporulation occurred in 43.56% (71/163 of the samples, and only Isospora spp. oocysts were detected. Nematode eggs of the superfamilies Trichostrongyloidea (4.60%; 8/174, Ascaridoidea (0.57%; 1/174, and Trichuroidea (0.57%; 1/174 were diagnosed in the positive samples. Cestoda eggs were diagnosed in 2.87% (5/174, whereas Trematoda eggs were detected in 2.30% (4/174 of positive samples. Passerine birds seized and kept in captivity in the visited local presented parasitism by intestinal helminths and protozoan, with a predominance of infection with coccidia of the gender Isospora.

  12. Comparative evidence for the evolution of sperm swimming speed by sperm competition and female sperm storage duration in passerine birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleven, Oddmund; Fossøy, Frode; Laskemoen, Terje; Robertson, Raleigh J; Rudolfsen, Geir; Lifjeld, Jan T

    2009-09-01

    Sperm swimming speed is an important determinant of male fertility and sperm competitiveness. Despite its fundamental biological importance, the underlying evolutionary processes affecting this male reproductive trait are poorly understood. Using a comparative approach in a phylogenetic framework, we tested the predictions that sperm swim faster with (1) increased risk of sperm competition, (2) shorter duration of female sperm storage, and (3) increased sperm length. We recorded sperm swimming speed in 42 North American and European free-living passerine bird species, representing 35 genera and 16 families. We found that sperm swimming speed was positively related to the frequency of extrapair paternity (a proxy for the risk of sperm competition) and negatively associated with clutch size (a proxy for the duration of female sperm storage). Sperm swimming speed was unrelated to sperm length, although sperm length also increased with the frequency of extrapair paternity. These results suggest that sperm swimming speed and sperm length are not closely associated traits and evolve independently in response to sperm competition in passerine birds. Our findings emphasize the significance of both sperm competition and female sperm storage duration as evolutionary forces driving sperm swimming speed.

  13. 75 FR 4100 - Affirmative Fair Housing, Marketing (AFHM) Plan-Multifamily Housing, Affirmative Fair Housing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-26

    ..., Marketing (AFHM) Plan-Multifamily Housing, Affirmative Fair Housing Marketing (AFHM) Plan-Single Family Housing and Affirmative Fair Housing Marketing (AFHM) Plan- Cooperatives/Condominiums AGENCY: Office of...: Title of Proposal: Affirmative Fair Housing, Marketing (AFHM) Plan- MultifamilyHousing, Affirmative Fair...

  14. Radon in Syrian houses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Othman, I.; Hushari, M.; Raja, G.; Alsawaf, A.

    1996-01-01

    A nationwide investigation of radon levels in Syrian houses was carried out during the period 1991-1993. Passive radon diffusion dosemeters using polycarbonate detectors were distributed in houses all over Syria. Detectors were subjected to electrochemical etching to reveal latent tracks of alpha particles. The mean radon concentration in Syrian houses was found to be 45 Bq m -3 with some values several times higher. This investigation indicated that there were a few houses in Syria that require remedial action. Most houses that have high levels of radon were found in the southern area, especially in the Damascus governorate. The study also indicated that radon concentrations were higher in old houses built from mud with no tiling. (author)

  15. Bacterial pathogen emergence required more than direct contact with a novel passerine host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staley, Molly; Hill, Geoffrey E; Josefson, Chloe C; Armbruster, Jonathan W; Bonneaud, Camille

    2018-01-08

    While direct contact may sometimes be sufficient to allow a pathogen to jump into a new host species, in other cases fortuitously adaptive mutations that arise in the original donor host are also necessary. Viruses have been the focus of most host shift studies, so less is known about the importance of ecological versus evolutionary processes to successful bacterial host shifts. Here we tested whether direct contact with the novel host was sufficient to enable the mid-1990s jump of the bacterium Mycoplasma gallisepticum from domestic poultry into house finches ( Haemorhous mexicanus ). We experimentally inoculated house finches with two genetically distinct M. gallisepticum strains obtained either from poultry (Rlow) or from house finches at epizootic outbreak (HF1995). All 15 house finches inoculated with HF1995 became infected, whereas Rlow successfully infected 12 of 15 (80%) inoculated house finches. Comparisons among infected birds showed that, relative to HF1995, Rlow achieved substantially lower bacterial loads in the host respiratory mucosa and was cleared faster. Furthermore, Rlow-infected finches were less likely to develop clinical symptoms than HF1995-infected birds and, when they did, displayed milder conjunctivitis. The lower infection success of Rlow relative to HF1995 was not, however, due to a heightened host antibody response to Rlow. Taken together, our results indicate that contact between infected poultry and house finches was not, by itself, sufficient to explain the jump of M. gallisepticum into house finches. Instead, mutations arising in the original poultry host would have been necessary for successful pathogen emergence in the novel finch host. Copyright © 2018 Staley et al.

  16. State Housing Revival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Donovan, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Government funded housing for people in need is a challenge many countries face around the world. This research investigates how to sustainably regenerate post-war suburban state housing in New Zealand, in particular, the suburb of Glen Innes in Auckland. Reviving the community and regenerating...... affordable housing. Together the conclusions drawn from empirical and ethnographic research, informed a general design toolbox and guidelines. The established guidelines and toolbox were applied at a master plan level and in-depth to an existing state house within the specific neighbourhood in Glen Innes...

  17. Nest-site selection and nest success of an Arctic-breeding passerine, Smith's Longspur, in a changing climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Heather R.; Kendall, Steve J.; Powell, Abby

    2017-01-01

    Despite changes in shrub cover and weather patterns associated with climate change in the Arctic, little is known about the breeding requirements of most passerines tied to northern regions. We investigated the nesting biology and nest habitat characteristics of Smith's Longspurs (Calcarius pictus) in 2 study areas in the Brooks Range of Alaska, USA. First, we examined variation in nesting phenology in relation to local temperatures. We then characterized nesting habitat and analyzed nest-site selection for a subset of nests (n = 86) in comparison with paired random points. Finally, we estimated the daily survival rate of 257 nests found in 2007–2013 with respect to both habitat characteristics and weather variables. Nest initiation was delayed in years with snow events, heavy rain, and freezing temperatures early in the breeding season. Nests were typically found in open, low-shrub tundra, and never among tall shrubs (mean shrub height at nests = 26.8 ± 6.7 cm). We observed weak nest-site selection patterns. Considering the similarity between nest sites and paired random points, coupled with the unique social mating system of Smith's Longspurs, we suggest that habitat selection may occur at the neighborhood scale and not at the nest-site scale. The best approximating model explaining nest survival suggested a positive relationship with the numbers of days above 21°C that an individual nest experienced; there was little support for models containing habitat variables. The daily nest survival rate was high (0.972–0.982) compared with that of most passerines in forested or grassland habitats, but similar to that of passerines nesting on tundra. Considering their high nesting success and ability to delay nest initiation during inclement weather, Smith's Longspurs may be resilient to predicted changes in weather regimes on the breeding grounds. Thus, the greatest threat to breeding Smith's Longspurs associated with climate change may be the loss of low

  18. Housing Data Base for Sustainable Housing Provision

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sultan

    Residential Real Estate. Properties in Nigeria: How Fair are the. Market Prices. JO RIND 9(2), 429-438. Israel, A. A. and Bashiru, A. R. (2008). Public and Private Developers as Agents in. Urban Housing Delivery in Sub-. Saharan Africa: the Situation in Lagos state. Humanity and Social Sciences. Journal, 3(2), 143-150.

  19. Housing Survey. Campus Housing: Finding the Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Shannon

    2016-01-01

    Depending on where you look for statistics, the number of students enrolling in colleges or universities is increasing, decreasing or remaining the about the same. Regardless of those trends, campus housing is a marketing tool for institutions looking to draw students to and keep them on campus. Schools need to offer sufficient beds and…

  20. Dream house in Australia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Michael Asgaard

    2004-01-01

    This first book in the Utzon Library, which deals with Utzon's own houses, contains a number of drawings that have not previously been published. This is especially true of the four projects for his house in Bayview, Sydney, which unfortunately never got past the drawing stage, as Utzon had left ...

  1. Environment and Housing Market

    OpenAIRE

    Armengot Paradinas, Jaime; Ramírez Pacheco, Gema Maria; Bernal Pérez, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    The present paper studies the relationship between residential environment and building value. This allows us to know the elements of definition of the value of a particular housing market area and the variables that define that price. The objective of the research is to identify patterns within the residential housing market in the city area of Madrid.

  2. Housing consumption and urbanization

    OpenAIRE

    Lozano-Gracia, Nancy; Young, Cheryl

    2014-01-01

    Rapid urbanization in Sub-Saharan Africa places immense pressure on urban services to meet the needs of the burgeoning urban population. Although several country- or city-level reports offer insight into the housing challenges of specific places, little is known about regional patterns affecting housing markets. This lack of clear knowledge on the relative importance of the factors influen...

  3. Ndebele Inspired Houses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Nicole

    2012-01-01

    The house paintings of the South African Ndebele people are more than just an attempt to improve the aesthetics of a community; they are a source of identity and significance for Ndebele women. In this article, the author describes an art project wherein students use the tradition of Ndebele house painting as inspiration for creating their own…

  4. Dream house in Australia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Michael Asgaard

    2004-01-01

    This first book in the Utzon Library, which deals with Utzon's own houses, contains a number of drawings that have not previously been published. This is especially true of the four projects for his house in Bayview, Sydney, which unfortunately never got past the drawing stage, as Utzon had left ...... Australia when the authorities finally got around to approving the project....

  5. Multiple pump housing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donoho, II, Michael R.; Elliott; Christopher M.

    2010-03-23

    A fluid delivery system includes a first pump having a first drive assembly, a second pump having a second drive assembly, and a pump housing. At least a portion of each of the first and second pumps are located in the housing.

  6. The Nordic Housing Enabler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helle, Tina; Slaug, Bjørn; Brandt, Åse

    2010-01-01

    This study addresses development of a content valid cross-Nordic version of the Housing Enabler and investigation of its inter-rater reliability when used in occupational therapy rating situations, involving occupational therapists, clients and their home environments. The instrument was translated...... from the original Swedish version of the Housing Enabler, and adapted according to accessibility norms and guidelines for housing design in Sweden, Denmark, Finland and Iceland. This iterative process involved occupational therapists, architects, building engineers and professional translators......, resulting in the Nordic Housing Enabler. For reliability testing, the sampling strategy and data collection procedures used were the same in all countries. Twenty voluntary occupational therapists, pair-wise but independently from each other, collected data from 106 cases by means of the Nordic Housing...

  7. Nordic Housing Enabler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helle, Tina; Brandt, Åse

    2009-01-01

    Development and reliability testing of the Nordic Housing Enabler – an instrument for accessibility assessment of the physical housing. Tina Helle & Åse Brandt University of Lund, Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine (SE) and University College Northern Jutland, Occupational Therapy department (DK......). Danish Centre for Assistive Technology. Abstract. For decades, accessibility to the physical housing environment for people with functional limitations has been of interest politically, professionally and for the users. Guidelines and norms on accessible housing design have gradually been developed......, however, the built environment shows serious deficits when it comes to accessibility. This study addresses development of a content valid cross-Nordic version of the Housing Enabler and investigation of inter-rater reliability, when used in occupational therapy practice. The instrument was translated from...

  8. Assisted Housing - Public Housing Developments - National Geospatial Data Asset (NGDA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The general location of an entire Public Housing Development. A distinct address is chosen to represent the general location of an entire Public Housing Development,...

  9. Melyrid beetles (Choresine): a putative source for the batrachotoxin alkaloids found in poison-dart frogs and toxic passerine birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumbacher, John P; Wako, Avit; Derrickson, Scott R; Samuelson, Allan; Spande, Thomas F; Daly, John W

    2004-11-09

    Batrachotoxins are neurotoxic steroidal alkaloids first isolated from a Colombian poison-dart frog and later found in certain passerine birds of New Guinea. Neither vertebrate group is thought to produce the toxins de novo, but instead they likely sequester them from dietary sources. Here we describe the presence of high levels of batrachotoxins in a little-studied group of beetles, genus Choresine (family Melyridae). These small beetles and their high toxin concentrations suggest that they might provide a toxin source for the New Guinea birds. Stomach content analyses of Pitohui birds revealed Choresine beetles in the diet, as well as numerous other small beetles and arthropods. The family Melyridae is cosmopolitan, and relatives in Colombian rain forests of South America could be the source of the batrachotoxins found in the highly toxic Phyllobates frogs of that region.

  10. Comment on Gohli et al. (2013): "Does promiscuity explain differences in levels of genetic diversity across passerine birds?".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spurgin, Lewis G

    2013-10-01

    Gohli et al. (2013) report a positive relationship between genetic diversity and promiscuity across passerine birds, and suggest that female promiscuity acts as a form of balancing selection, maintaining differences in genetic variation across species. This is an interesting hypothesis, but the enormous variation in genetic diversity present within species is not taken into account in their analyses. This, combined with a small sample size at several levels, makes the relationship between genetic diversity and promiscuity very difficult to interpret. Demonstrating that species-level differences in genetic diversity (if they occur at all) are affected by promiscuity would require a far more comprehensive study than is presently possible. © 2013 The Author(s). Evolution © 2013 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  11. Vitamin profiles in two free-living passerine birds under a metal pollution gradient - A calcium supplementation experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Sandra R; Espín, Silvia; Sánchez-Virosta, Pablo; Salminen, Juha-Pekka; Lilley, Thomas M; Eeva, Tapio

    2017-04-01

    Vitamin and carotenoid deficiency may impair development in free-living vertebrates, because of the importance of these micronutrients to growth, antioxidant defense and calcium regulation. Micronutrient and calcium insufficiency can be intensified by metal pollution which can interfere with nutrient homeostasis or indirectly reduce food availability. Furthermore, absorption of dietary heavy metals is dependent on food calcium and vitamin levels. We investigated the effect of calcium on plasma vitamin and carotenoid profiles and how these affected growth and survival in two passerine birds with different calcium turnover living along a metal pollution gradient. Vitamins (A, D 3 and E) and carotenoids were quantified from blood plasma of great tit (Parus major) and pied flycatcher (Ficedula hypoleuca) nestlings. Metal concentrations in soil and in feces from the same nestlings were used to assess the exposure to air pollution. Additionally, we examined the vitamin level variation between developmental stages (eggs and nestlings within the same brood). Our results showed that generally higher concentrations of vitamins and carotenoids circulate in blood of great tits than in pied flycatchers. In general, birds inhabiting the polluted zone presented lower concentrations of the studied micronutrients. Calcium supplementation and metal pollution decreased vitamin A concentration in pied flycatcher, but not in great tit, while vitamin A affected growth and survival in great tit and pied flycatcher respectively. Our results suggest that populations under exposure to metal pollution may experience increased vitamin A deficiency, and that the two passerine species, while obtaining similar micronutrients in food, respond differently to environmental disturbance of nutrients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. A new approach to evaluate multimodal orientation behaviour of migratory passerine birds recorded in circular orientation cages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozarowska, Agnieszka; Ilieva, Mihaela; Zehtindjiev, Pavel; Akesson, Susanne; Muś, Krzysztof

    2013-11-01

    Circular orientation cages have been used for several decades to record the migratory orientation of passerine migrants, and have been central to the investigation of the functional characteristics of the biological compasses used for orientation. The use of these cages offers unique possibilities to study the migratory behaviour of songbirds, but suffers from statistical limitations in evaluating the directions of the activity recorded in the cages. The migratory activity has been reported to vary, including complex multimodal orientation of migratory passerines tested in orientation cages irrespective of species studied. The currently applied circular statistical methods fail to describe orientation responses differing from unimodal and axial distributions. We propose for the first time a modelling procedure enabling the analysis of multimodal distributions at either an individual or a group level. In this paper we compare the results of conventional methods and the recommended modelling approach. Migratory routes may be more complex than a simple migratory direction, and multimodal behaviour in migratory species at the individual and population levels can be advantageous. Individuals may select the expected migratory direction, but may also return to safer sites en route, i.e. sites already known, which provide food and/or shelter in reverse directions. In individual birds, several directions may be expressed in the same test hour. At the species level, multimodal orientation may give an opportunity to expand the range or may refer to differential migration route preferences in different populations of birds. A conflicting experimental situation may also result in a different preferential orientation. In this paper we suggest a statistical solution to deal with these types of variations in orientation preference.

  13. American Housing Survey (AHS) 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The AHS is the largest, regular national housing sample survey in the United States. The U.S. Census Bureau conducts the AHS to obtain up-to-date housing statistics...

  14. Housing Affordability Data System (HADS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The Housing Affordability Data System (HADS) is a set of files derived from the 1985 and later national American Housing Survey (AHS) and the 2002 and later Metro...

  15. Approaching the Macuti House

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sollien, Silje Erøy

    2011-01-01

    for a strategy to intervene in the "macuti neighbourhoods", conserve the built environment and improve living conditions for the generally poor population living in crowded conditions with lack of suitable urban infrastructure. The macuti house, a type of semi-urban Swahili one story house built of mangrove...... with zink sheet roofs like in most African urban areas, is preferred. However, increased attention on the macuti house and the particular way it was developed in urban Ilha, offers a way to question the identity of the city, its relationship to a wider Swahili building culture and its particuar development...

  16. Allegheny County Housing Tenure

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Home ownership provides a number of financial, social, and health benefits to American families. Especially in areas with housing price appreciation, home ownership...

  17. Rental Housing Finance Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The purpose of the RHFS is to provide current and continuous measure of the financial health and property characteristics of single-family and multifamily rental...

  18. Sustainable Housing Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauring, Gert Michael

    2016-01-01

    Sustainable Housing Design. Integrating technical and housing quality aspects of sustainable architecture in civil engineering education. Summary An integrated design approach to sustainable architecture is outlined that combines concerns for zero energy building, good indoor climate and adequate...... phases. The outcome shows that integrated design further solutions where sustainable urban forms of settlement can be highly energy efficient while also attractive from a user perspective. Key words: Sustainable architecture, integrated design, zero-energy-housing, dense urban living. 1. Introduction...... When designing sustainable housing, energy optimization and satisfactory indoor climates are central issues that need to be incorporated from early design phases if to reach a coherent design. It might also be argued that the energy consumption of contemporary buildings only plays a rela-tively minor...

  19. In-house (disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safak Pavey

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In May 2007 UNHCR established an internal working group to look at developing in-house policies for people with disabilities both for the benefit of people of concern to us and for staff members.

  20. Nordic Housing Enabler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helle, Tina; Brandt, Åse

    . For reliability testing, the sample strategy and data collection procedures were the same in all countries. In total, twenty voluntary occupational therapists collected data from 106 cases by means of the Nordic Housing Enabler. Inter-rater reliability was calculated by means of percentage agreement and kappa......Development and reliability testing of the Nordic Housing Enabler – an instrument for accessibility assessment of the physical housing. Tina Helle & Åse Brandt University of Lund, Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine (SE) and University College Northern Jutland, Occupational Therapy department (DK......, however, the built environment shows serious deficits when it comes to accessibility. This study addresses development of a content valid cross-Nordic version of the Housing Enabler and investigation of inter-rater reliability, when used in occupational therapy practice. The instrument was translated from...

  1. Insights into the genetic architecture of morphological traits in two passerine bird species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, C N S; McFarlane, S E; Hagen, I J; Rönnegård, L; Billing, A M; Kvalnes, T; Kemppainen, P; Rønning, B; Ringsby, T H; Sæther, B-E; Qvarnström, A; Ellegren, H; Jensen, H; Husby, A

    2017-09-01

    Knowledge about the underlying genetic architecture of phenotypic traits is needed to understand and predict evolutionary dynamics. The number of causal loci, magnitude of the effects and location in the genome are, however, still largely unknown. Here, we use genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data from two large-scale data sets on house sparrows and collared flycatchers to examine the genetic architecture of different morphological traits (tarsus length, wing length, body mass, bill depth, bill length, total and visible badge size and white wing patches). Genomic heritabilities were estimated using relatedness calculated from SNPs. The proportion of variance captured by the SNPs (SNP-based heritability) was lower in house sparrows compared with collared flycatchers, as expected given marker density (6348 SNPs in house sparrows versus 38 689 SNPs in collared flycatchers). Indeed, after downsampling to similar SNP density and sample size, this estimate was no longer markedly different between species. Chromosome-partitioning analyses demonstrated that the proportion of variance explained by each chromosome was significantly positively related to the chromosome size for some traits and, generally, that larger chromosomes tended to explain proportionally more variation than smaller chromosomes. Finally, we found two genome-wide significant associations with very small-effect sizes. One SNP on chromosome 20 was associated with bill length in house sparrows and explained 1.2% of phenotypic variation (V P ), and one SNP on chromosome 4 was associated with tarsus length in collared flycatchers (3% of V P ). Although we cannot exclude the possibility of undetected large-effect loci, our results indicate a polygenic basis for morphological traits.

  2. In a Private House

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexei Volkov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article features the advantages of living in a private house, such as feeling of privacy and safety and redistribution of roles between spouses, which have a positive impact on the family relationships, housekeeping and raising children. Besides, living in the country allows to cut down expenses: energy efficiency of present-day building materials enables to build a warm private house with minimum expenditure on warming, and with the possibility to freely regulate the heating system.

  3. Housing Characteristics, 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This report on energy consumption in the residential sector covers the following topics: housing trends 1980--1990, new housing trends, availability and usage of natural gas by households, changes in appliance usage (refrigerators, entertainment appliances, cooking appliances, convenience appliances), age of major household appliances and equipment, household energy conservation activities, demand-side management programs, and a portrait of households using solar or wood as a source of energy

  4. Finn Juhl's House

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Anders V.; Ottensten, Lizette

    Introduction to the architecture, interior design and design items of the Danish designer Finn Juhl's own house, built 1942 in Ordrup, north of Copenhagen. The interior setting is interpreted on the background of Juhl's many writings on design.......Introduction to the architecture, interior design and design items of the Danish designer Finn Juhl's own house, built 1942 in Ordrup, north of Copenhagen. The interior setting is interpreted on the background of Juhl's many writings on design....

  5. Passive houses in Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halse, Andreas

    2008-12-15

    The paper analyzes the introduction of passive houses in the Norwegian house market. Passive houses are houses with extremely low levels of energy consumption for heating, and have not yet been built in Norway, but have started to enter the market in Germany and some other countries. The construction sector is analyzed as a sectoral innovation system. The different elements of the innovation system are studied. This includes government agencies, producers, consumers, finance and education. The analysis shows that passive and low-energy houses are on the verge of market breakthrough. This can partly be explained by economic calculations, and partly by processes of learning and change in the institutional set-up of the sector. The construction sector is a sector characterized by low innovative intensity and little interaction between different agents. Those working to promote passive houses have to some extent managed to cope with these challenges. This has happened by breaking away from the traditional focus of Norwegian energy efficiency policies on technology and the economically rational agents, by instead focusing on knowledge and institutional change at the level of the producers. (Author)

  6. Housing data base for sustainable housing provision | Anunobi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper examined selected data requirements for housing provision in selected housing estates as applicable to house owners with the view of determining the degree of relevance to mass housing provision. The research employed a mixed method approach by collecting both quantitative and qualitative data which ...

  7. Housing management and maintenance practise of Dutch housing associations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Straub, A.

    This paper summarises the state-of-the-art in housing management and maintenance practise of Dutch housing associations based on a survey conducted among almost all housing associations. We address the question what the current developments are in housing management and maintenance practice in the

  8. Growth rate variation among passerine species in tropical and temperate sites: an antagonistic interaction between parental food provisioning and nest predation risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Thomas E.; Llyod, Penn; Bosque, Carlos; Barton, Daniel C.; Biancucci, Atilio L.; Cheng, Yi-Ru; Ton, Riccardo

    2011-01-01

    Causes of interspecific variation in growth rates within and among geographic regions remain poorly understood. Passerine birds represent an intriguing case because differing theories yield the possibility of an antagonistic interaction between nest predation risk and food delivery rates on evolution of growth rates. We test this possibility among 64 Passerine species studied on three continents, including tropical and north and south temperate latitudes. Growth rates increased strongly with nestling predation rates within, but not between, sites. The importance of nest predation was further emphasized by revealing hidden allometric scaling effects. Nestling predation risk also was associated with reduced total feeding rates and per-nestling feeding rates within each site. Consequently, faster growth rates were associated with decreased per-nestling food delivery rates across species, both within and among regions. These relationships suggest that Passerines can evolve growth strategies in response to predation risk whereby food resources are not the primary limit on growth rate differences among species. In contrast, reaction norms of growth rate relative to brood size suggest that food may limit growth rates within species in temperate, but not tropical, regions. Results here provide new insight into evolution of growth strategies relative to predation risk and food within and among species.

  9. Establishing the breeding provenance of a temperate-wintering North American passerine, the Golden-crowned Sparrow, using light-level geolocation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathaniel E Seavy

    Full Text Available The migratory biology and connectivity of passerines remains poorly known, even for those that move primarily within the temperate zone. We used light-level geolocators to describe the migratory geography of a North American temperate migrant passerine. From February to March of 2010, we attached geolocator tags to 33 Golden-crowned Sparrows (Zonotrichia atricapilla wintering on the central coast of California, USA, and recovered four tags the following winter (October to December 2010. We used a bayesian state-space model to estimate the most likely breeding locations. All four birds spent the breeding season on the coast of the Gulf of Alaska. These locations spanned approximately 1200 kilometers, and none of the individuals bred in the same location. Speed of migration was nearly twice as fast during spring than fall. The return rate of birds tagged the previous season (33% was similar to that of control birds (39%, but comparing return rates was complicated because 7 of 11 returning birds had lost their tags. For birds that we recaptured before spring migration, we found no significant difference in mass change between tagged and control birds. Our results provide insight into the previously-unknown breeding provenance of a wintering population of Golden-crowned Sparrows and provide more evidence of the contributions that light-level geolocation can make to our understanding of the migratory geography of small passerines.

  10. Effects of urbanization on host-pathogen interactions, using Yersinia in house sparrows as a model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouffaer, Lieze Oscar; Strubbe, Diederik; Teyssier, Aimeric; Salleh Hudin, Noraine; Van den Abeele, Anne-Marie; Cox, Ivo; Haesendonck, Roel; Delmée, Michel; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Pasmans, Frank; Lens, Luc; Martel, An

    2017-01-01

    Urbanization strongly affects biodiversity, altering natural communities and often leading to a reduced species richness. Yet, despite its increasingly recognized importance, how urbanization impacts on the health of individual animals, wildlife populations and on disease ecology remains poorly understood. To test whether, and how, urbanization-driven ecosystem alterations influence pathogen dynamics and avian health, we use house sparrows (Passer domesticus) and Yersinia spp. (pathogenic for passerines) as a case study. Sparrows are granivorous urban exploiters, whose western European populations have declined over the past decades, especially in highly urbanized areas. We sampled 329 house sparrows originating from 36 populations along an urbanization gradient across Flanders (Belgium), and used isolation combined with 'matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization- time of flight mass spectrometry' (MALDI-TOF MS) and PCR methods for detecting the presence of different Yersinia species. Yersinia spp. were recovered from 57.43% of the sampled house sparrows, of which 4.06%, 53.30% and 69.54% were identified as Y. pseudotuberculosis, Y. enterocolitica and other Yersinia species, respectively. Presence of Yersinia was related to the degree of urbanization, average daily temperatures and the community of granivorous birds present at sparrow capture locations. Body condition of suburban house sparrows was found to be higher compared to urban and rural house sparrows, but no relationships between sparrows' body condition and presence of Yersinia spp. were found. We conclude that two determinants of pathogen infection dynamics, body condition and pathogen occurrence, vary along an urbanization gradient, potentially mediating the impact of urbanization on avian health.

  11. Effects of urbanization on host-pathogen interactions, using Yersinia in house sparrows as a model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strubbe, Diederik; Teyssier, Aimeric; Salleh Hudin, Noraine; Van den Abeele, Anne-Marie; Cox, Ivo; Haesendonck, Roel; Delmée, Michel; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Pasmans, Frank; Lens, Luc; Martel, An

    2017-01-01

    Urbanization strongly affects biodiversity, altering natural communities and often leading to a reduced species richness. Yet, despite its increasingly recognized importance, how urbanization impacts on the health of individual animals, wildlife populations and on disease ecology remains poorly understood. To test whether, and how, urbanization-driven ecosystem alterations influence pathogen dynamics and avian health, we use house sparrows (Passer domesticus) and Yersinia spp. (pathogenic for passerines) as a case study. Sparrows are granivorous urban exploiters, whose western European populations have declined over the past decades, especially in highly urbanized areas. We sampled 329 house sparrows originating from 36 populations along an urbanization gradient across Flanders (Belgium), and used isolation combined with ‘matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization- time of flight mass spectrometry’ (MALDI-TOF MS) and PCR methods for detecting the presence of different Yersinia species. Yersinia spp. were recovered from 57.43% of the sampled house sparrows, of which 4.06%, 53.30% and 69.54% were identified as Y. pseudotuberculosis, Y. enterocolitica and other Yersinia species, respectively. Presence of Yersinia was related to the degree of urbanization, average daily temperatures and the community of granivorous birds present at sparrow capture locations. Body condition of suburban house sparrows was found to be higher compared to urban and rural house sparrows, but no relationships between sparrows’ body condition and presence of Yersinia spp. were found. We conclude that two determinants of pathogen infection dynamics, body condition and pathogen occurrence, vary along an urbanization gradient, potentially mediating the impact of urbanization on avian health. PMID:29281672

  12. Understanding Housing Delays and Relocations Within the Housing First Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerger, Suzanne; Pridham, Katherine Francombe; Jeyaratnam, Jeyagobi; Hwang, Stephen W; O'Campo, Patricia; Kohli, Jaipreet; Stergiopoulos, Vicky

    2016-01-01

    This study explores factors contributing to delays and relocations during the implementation of the Housing First model in Toronto, Ontario. While interruptions in housing tenure are expected en route to recovery and housing stability, consumer and service provider views on finding and keeping housing remain largely unknown. In-person interviews and focus groups were conducted with 48 study participants, including 23 case managers or housing workers and 25 consumers. The following three factors contributed to housing delays and transfers: (1) the effectiveness of communication and collaboration among consumers and service providers, (2) consumer-driven preferences and ambivalence, and (3) provider prioritization of consumer choice over immediate housing access. Two strategies--targeted communications and consumer engagement in housing searches--supported the housing process. Several factors affect the timing and stability of housing. Communication between and among providers and consumers, and a shared understanding of consumer choice, can further support choice and recovery.

  13. Passive House Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strom, I.; Joosten, L.; Boonstra, C. [DHV Sustainability Consultants, Eindhoiven (Netherlands)

    2006-05-15

    PEP stands for 'Promotion of European Passive Houses' and is a consortium of European partners, supported by the European Commission, Directorate General for Energy and Transport. In this working paper an overview is given of Passive House solutions. An inventory has been made of Passive House solutions for new build residences applied in each country. Based on this, the most common basic solutions have been identified and described in further detail, including the extent to which solutions are applied in common and best practice and expected barriers for the implementation in each country. An inventory per country is included in the appendix. The analysis of Passive House solutions in partner countries shows high priority with regard to the performance of the thermal envelope, such as high insulation of walls, roofs, floors and windows/ doors, thermal bridge-free construction and air tightness. Due to the required air tightness, special attention must be paid to indoor air quality through proper ventilation. Finally, efficient ((semi-)solar) heating systems for combined space and DHW heating still require a significant amount of attention in most partner countries. Other basic Passive House solutions show a smaller discrepancy with common practice and fewer barriers have been encountered in partner countries. In the next section, the general barriers in partner countries have been inventoried. For each type of barrier a suggested approach has been given. Most frequently encountered barriers in partner countries are: limited know-how; limited contractor skills; and acceptation of Passive Houses in the market. Based on the suggested approaches to overcoming barriers, this means that a great deal of attention must be paid to providing practical information and solutions to building professionals, providing practical training to installers and contractors and communication about the Passive House concept to the market.

  14. Social Housing Provision in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsenkova, Sasha; Vestergaard, Hedvig

    The paper provides an overview of trends and processes of change affecting new social housing provision in Denmark with a focus on Copenhagen. The local responses are reviewed within the context of changes to the unitary national housing system that functions with a robust range of private and non......-profit housing providers, and a wide range of fiscal and regulatory instruments enhancing the competitive performance of the social housing sector. The research analyses recent housing policy measures and their impact on new social housing provision in Copenhagen. The emphasis is on the mix of housing policy...... instruments implemented in three major policy domains-fiscal, financial and regulatory-to promote the production of new social housing. The system of new social housing provision is examined as a dynamic process of interaction between public and private institutions defining housing policy outcomes...

  15. Passerine Exposure to Primarily PCDFs and PCDDs in the River Floodplains Near Midland, Michigan, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwiernik, Matthew J.; Seston, Rita M.; Coefield, Sarah J.; Plautz, Stephanie C.; Tazelaar, Dustin L.; Shotwell, Melissa S.; Bradley, Patrick W.; Kay, Denise P.; Giesy, John P.

    2009-01-01

    House wren (Troglodytes aedon), tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor), and eastern bluebird (Sialia sialis) tissues collected in study areas (SAs) downstream of Midland, Michigan (USA) contained concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) greater than in upstream reference areas (RAs) in the region. The sum of concentrations of PCDD/DFs (ΣPCDD/DFs) in eggs of house wrens and eastern bluebirds from SAs were 4- to 22-fold greater compared to those from RAs, whereas concentrations in tree swallow eggs were similar among areas. Mean concentrations of ΣPCDD/DFs and sum 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents (ΣTEQsWHO-Avian), based on 1998 WHO avian toxic equivalency factors, in house wren and eastern bluebird eggs ranged from 860 (430) to 1500 (910) ng/kg wet weight (ww) and 470 (150) to 1100 (510) ng/kg ww, respectively, at the most contaminated study areas along the Tittabawassee River, whereas mean concentrations in tree swallow eggs ranged from 280 (100) to 760 (280) ng/kg ww among all locations. Concentrations of ΣPCDD/DFs in nestlings of all studied species at SAs were 3- to 50-fold greater compared to RAs. Mean house wren, tree swallow, and eastern bluebird nestling concentrations of ΣPCDD/DFs and ΣTEQsWHO-Avian ranged from 350 (140) to 610 (300) ng/kg ww, 360 (240) to 1100 (860) ng/kg ww, and 330 (100) to 1200 (690) ng/kg ww, respectively, at SAs along the Tittabawassee River. Concentrations of ΣTEQsWHO-Avian were positively correlated with ΣPCDD/DF concentrations in both eggs and nestlings of all species studied. Profiles of relative concentrations of individual congeners were dominated by furan congeners (69–84%), primarily 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran and 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran, for all species at SAs on the Tittabawassee and Saginaw rivers but were dominated by dioxin congeners at upstream RAs. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10

  16. Domotics Project Housing Block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morón, Carlos; Payán, Alejandro; García, Alfonso; Bosquet, Francisco

    2016-05-23

    This document develops the study of an implementation project of a home automation system in a housing placed in the town of Galapagar, Madrid. This house, which is going to be occupied by a four-member family, consists of 67 constructed square meters distributed in lounge, kitchen, three bedrooms, bath, bathroom and terrace, this being a common arrangement in Spain. Thus, this study will allow extracting conclusions about the adequacy of the home automation in a wide percentage of housing in Spain. In this document, three house automation proposals are developed based on the requirements of the client and the different home automation levels that the Spanish House and Building Automation Association has established, besides two parallel proposals relating to the safety and the technical alarms. The mentioned proposed systems are described by means of product datasheets and descriptions, distribution plans, measurements, budgets and flow charts that describe the functioning of the system in every case. An evaluation of each system is included, based on other studies conclusions on this matter, where expected energy savings from each design, depending on the current cost of lighting, water and gas, as well as the expected economic amortization period is evaluated.

  17. Domotics Project Housing Block

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Morón

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This document develops the study of an implementation project of a home automation system in a housing placed in the town of Galapagar, Madrid. This house, which is going to be occupied by a four-member family, consists of 67 constructed square meters distributed in lounge, kitchen, three bedrooms, bath, bathroom and terrace, this being a common arrangement in Spain. Thus, this study will allow extracting conclusions about the adequacy of the home automation in a wide percentage of housing in Spain. In this document, three house automation proposals are developed based on the requirements of the client and the different home automation levels that the Spanish House and Building Automation Association has established, besides two parallel proposals relating to the safety and the technical alarms. The mentioned proposed systems are described by means of product datasheets and descriptions, distribution plans, measurements, budgets and flow charts that describe the functioning of the system in every case. An evaluation of each system is included, based on other studies conclusions on this matter, where expected energy savings from each design, depending on the current cost of lighting, water and gas, as well as the expected economic amortization period is evaluated.

  18. Control rod housing alignment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, R.C.; Deaver, G.A.; Punches, J.R.; Singleton, G.E.; Erbes, J.G.; Offer, H.P.

    1990-01-01

    This patent describes a process for measuring the vertical alignment between a hole in a core plate and the top of a corresponding control rod drive housing within a boiling water reactor. It comprises: providing an alignment apparatus. The alignment apparatus including a lower end for fitting to the top of the control rod drive housing; an upper end for fitting to the aperture in the core plate, and a leveling means attached to the alignment apparatus to read out the difference in angularity with respect to gravity, and alignment pin registering means for registering to the alignment pin on the core plate; lowering the alignment device on a depending support through a lattice position in the top guide through the hole in the core plate down into registered contact with the top of the control rod drive housing; registering the upper end to the sides of the hole in the core plate; registering the alignment pin registering means to an alignment pin on the core plate to impart to the alignment device the required angularity; and reading out the angle of the control rod drive housing with respect to the hole in the core plate through the leveling devices whereby the angularity of the top of the control rod drive housing with respect to the hole in the core plate can be determined

  19. Differing House Finch Cytokine Expression Responses to Original and Evolved Isolates ofMycoplasma gallisepticum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinkler, Michal; Leon, Ariel E; Kirkpatrick, Laila; Dalloul, Rami A; Hawley, Dana M

    2018-01-01

    The recent emergence of the poultry bacterial pathogen Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) in free-living house finches ( Haemorhous mexicanus ), which causes mycoplasmal conjunctivitis in this passerine bird species, resulted in a rapid coevolutionary arms-race between MG and its novel avian host. Despite extensive research on the ecological and evolutionary dynamics of this host-pathogen system over the past two decades, the immunological responses of house finches to MG infection remain poorly understood. We developed seven new probe-based one-step quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assays to investigate mRNA expression of house finch cytokine genes ( IL1B, IL6, IL10, IL18, TGFB2, TNFSF15 , and CXCLi2 , syn. IL8L ). These assays were then used to describe cytokine transcription profiles in a panel of 15 house finch tissues collected at three distinct time points during MG infection. Based on initial screening that indicated strong pro-inflammatory cytokine expression during MG infection at the periorbital sites in particular, we selected two key house finch tissues for further characterization: the nictitating membrane, i.e., the internal eyelid in direct contact with MG, and the Harderian gland, the secondary lymphoid tissue responsible for regulation of periorbital immunity. We characterized cytokine responses in these two tissues for 60 house finches experimentally inoculated either with media alone (sham) or one of two MG isolates: the earliest known pathogen isolate from house finches (VA1994) or an evolutionarily more derived isolate collected in 2006 (NC2006), which is known to be more virulent. We show that the more derived and virulent isolate NC2006, relative to VA1994, triggers stronger local inflammatory cytokine signaling, with peak cytokine expression generally occurring 3-6 days following MG inoculation. We also found that the extent of pro-inflammatory interleukin 1 beta signaling was correlated with conjunctival MG loads

  20. Differing House Finch Cytokine Expression Responses to Original and Evolved Isolates of Mycoplasma gallisepticum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinkler, Michal; Leon, Ariel E.; Kirkpatrick, Laila; Dalloul, Rami A.; Hawley, Dana M.

    2018-01-01

    The recent emergence of the poultry bacterial pathogen Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) in free-living house finches (Haemorhous mexicanus), which causes mycoplasmal conjunctivitis in this passerine bird species, resulted in a rapid coevolutionary arms-race between MG and its novel avian host. Despite extensive research on the ecological and evolutionary dynamics of this host–pathogen system over the past two decades, the immunological responses of house finches to MG infection remain poorly understood. We developed seven new probe-based one-step quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assays to investigate mRNA expression of house finch cytokine genes (IL1B, IL6, IL10, IL18, TGFB2, TNFSF15, and CXCLi2, syn. IL8L). These assays were then used to describe cytokine transcription profiles in a panel of 15 house finch tissues collected at three distinct time points during MG infection. Based on initial screening that indicated strong pro-inflammatory cytokine expression during MG infection at the periorbital sites in particular, we selected two key house finch tissues for further characterization: the nictitating membrane, i.e., the internal eyelid in direct contact with MG, and the Harderian gland, the secondary lymphoid tissue responsible for regulation of periorbital immunity. We characterized cytokine responses in these two tissues for 60 house finches experimentally inoculated either with media alone (sham) or one of two MG isolates: the earliest known pathogen isolate from house finches (VA1994) or an evolutionarily more derived isolate collected in 2006 (NC2006), which is known to be more virulent. We show that the more derived and virulent isolate NC2006, relative to VA1994, triggers stronger local inflammatory cytokine signaling, with peak cytokine expression generally occurring 3–6 days following MG inoculation. We also found that the extent of pro-inflammatory interleukin 1 beta signaling was correlated with conjunctival MG loads and

  1. Situation based housing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duelund Mortensen, Peder; Welling, Helen; Wiell Nordberg, Lene

    2007-01-01

    In the Nordic countries, there is a century-old tradition of dwellings that can be adapted, rebuilt and recycled regardless of time and place. Functionalism broke with this tradition and created the function-determined dwelling, which was planned on the basis of functional analyses and analyses...... of the average family's lifestyle. These dwellings were ground-breaking when they were built, but today are clearly a product of their time. The reaction to functionalism and the postwar mass production gave rise to flexible dwelling with countless possibilities for room division. The housing of this period has...... characteristics which in the long run have proven to be unfortunate both in terms in terms of durability and architectural quality. Today there is a focus on the development of more open and functionally non-determined housing. A number of new housing schemes in and around Copenhagen reveal a variety...

  2. House Prices and Taxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjedsted Nielsen, Mads

    of only 31%. We use 2007 municipal reform in Denmark in which 256 municipalities changed tax rates, as an exogenous shock to taxes. The exogeneity of the shock to taxes and the size of the data set is an improvement over earlier studies. Our findings significantly downward adjust the degree of tax......This paper is the first to consider a large scale natural experiment to estimate the effect of taxes on house prices. We find that a 1 percentage-point increase in income tax rates lead to a drop in house prices of at most 2.2%. This corresponds to a tax capitalization for the average household...... capitalization from earlier studies. Furthermore, we find no effect of property taxes on house prices. We attribute this to the low levels of Danish municipal property tax rates compared to income tax rates....

  3. The book house

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Niels Henrik; Agger, Steen

    1989-01-01

    base retrieval system for novice users - both adults and children. The use of icons within a spatial metaphor to facilitate direct manipulation of the displayed objects on the screen forms the basis for the interface in guiding the users' navigation in the BOOK HOUSE. This report, one of three......The BOOK HOUSE (and its predecessor, the BOOK AUTOMAT) are computer systems aimed at supporting library users in finding fiction. They are examples of systems using a cognitive work analysis as the basis for design and evaluation - and build on studies of the information retrieval task using actual...... user-librarian negotiations. These studies led to the identification of a set of strategies for searching and retrieving literature as well as a mutri-kimensional framework for classifying fiction. Both of these have been necessary prerequisites for the design of the BOOK HOUSE, a flexible on-line data...

  4. The Nordic Housing Enabler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helle, T.; Nygren, C.; Slaug, B.

    2014-01-01

    , resulting in the Nordic Housing Enabler. For reliability testing, the sampling strategy and data collection procedures used were the same in all countries. Twenty voluntary occupational therapists, pair-wise but independently of each other, collected data from 106 cases by means of the Nordic Housing......This study addresses development of a content-valid cross-Nordic version of the Housing Enabler and investigation of its inter-rater reliability when used in occupational therapy rating situations, involving occupational therapists, clients, and their home environments. The instrument...... Enabler. Inter-rater reliability was calculated by means of percentage agreement and kappa statistics. Overall good percentage agreement for the personal and environmental components of the instrument was shown, indicating that the instrument was sufficiently reliable for application in practice...

  5. Organochlorine pollutants and stable isotopes in resident and migrant passerine birds from northwest Michoacán, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Miguel A.

    2008-01-01

    Although concentrations of organochlorine compounds (OCs) in birds from most of the United States and Canada have decreased over the last 30 years, there is still concern that migrant birds might be exposed to elevated concentrations of OCs during migration in Latin America. The Lerma-Chapala Basin in west-central Mexico is an important migration corridor and wintering area for many species. The objectives of this study were to assess if resident and migrant birds wintering in western Michoacán, Mexico accumulated elevated concentrations of OCs during fall and spring and to determine if the stable isotopes δ15N, δ13C, and δD could be used to predict burdens and origins of DDE accumulation. Resident and migrant passerine insectivorous birds were collected during fall and spring (2001–2002) in northwest Michoacán, near Chapala Lake, Mexico. The carcasses were analyzed for OCs and tail feathers were analyzed for stable isotopes δ15N, δ13C, and δD. The OCs detected in more than 50% of the samples were: oxychlordane (79%), p,p’-DDE (100%), p,p′-DDT (57%), and total PCBs (100%). p,p′-DDE was the OC detected at the highest concentrations, whereas residues of other OCs were near or below detection limits. Overall, there were no significant differences in concentrations of OCs between seasons or between resident and migrant birds. Concentrations of DDE and oxychlordane were somewhat higher in migrant and resident birds during spring than in fall; however, concentrations were significantly different only for oxychlordane. Two resident birds collected in fall and spring had DDE residues >10 μg/g wet weight in carcass. There were no significant differences in δ13C and δ15N values among species, between seasons, or between migrant and resident birds. However, δD values were clearly different between species and helped differentiate migrant from resident birds. δD values also were negatively and significantly correlated with DDE concentrations in carcass

  6. Renovation of social housing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Stina Rask; Hvejsel, Marie Frier; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    in the renovation of social housing. Methodologically, this hypothesis is investigated by re-reading the task of energy renovation through the lens of tectonic architectural theory. Specifically, Eduard Sekler’s etymological distinction between structure, construction, and tectonics is developed as a framework...... for addressing the spatial implications and potentials of technical initiatives in contemporary energy renovations within the continuum described by Scott. The framework is applied in two case studies of recent energy renovations of social housing dwellings. Finally, the paper discusses whether the technical...

  7. Situation based housing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duelund Mortensen, Peder; Welling, Helen; Wiell Nordberg, Lene

    2007-01-01

    of approaches to these goals. This working paper reviews not only a selection of new housing types, but also dwellings from the past, which each contain an aspect of changeability. Our study is based on information from users in the selected housing schemes, gathered from questionnaires, information about...... for living. The suitable condition consists of the dwelling's ability for physical displacement, spatial changes that can suit changing life styles. The situational condition is the not defined, the unfinished and the transitory, which continuously challenges the imagination and calls for the experiment. Our...

  8. Housing Problems of Minorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Robert

    1975-01-01

    This testimony, before a public hearing of the New York City Commission on Human Rights in May 1974, reviews the status of minority group housing and the effects of federal programs upon it, advocating an approach which recognizes the intrinsic locational and real estate value of many black ghettos. (Author/JM)

  9. Housing First i Danmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benjaminsen, Lars; Dyrby, Therese Marie; Enemark, Morten Holm

    at borgeren får en intensiv social støtte i hverdagen. De evidensbaserede bostøttemetoder, der er anvendes sammen med Housing First-tilgangen er Critical Time Intervention (CTI), Intensive Case Management (ICM) og Assertive Community Treatment (ACT). Rapporten beskriver erfaringer omkring de ledelsesmæssige......Rapporten er en evaluering af arbejdet med at udbrede og forankre Housing First-indsatsen og tre evidensbaserede bostøttemetoder. Hovedprincippet i Housing First er, at udsatte borgere, der er endt i hjemløshed, får et permanent sted at bo allerede i starten af et indsatsforløb, samtidig med...... og organisatoriske rammer, målgruppen for indsatserne og om de konkrete indsatser i kommunerne. Evalueringen viser, at både borgere og kommuner har gode erfaringer med Housing First, men at især manglen på billige og passende boliger er en alvorlig barriere for udbredelsen af indsatsen. Evalueringen...

  10. Haunted by Houses

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeece, Molly

    2009-01-01

    Two fourth-grade teachers presented the idea of using the author's art class to inspire the students to write creatively. The theme of scary stories needed an art project to match. The author immediately had a favorite lesson in mind. By putting a small twist on one of her standard "Frank Lloyd Wright House" projects, scary plans began to take…

  11. Housing Price Forecastability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bork, Lasse; Møller, Stig Vinther

    2016-01-01

    We examine U.S. housing price forecastability using principal component analysis (PCA), partial least squares (PLS), and sparse PLS (SPLS). We incorporate information from a large panel of 128 economic time series and show that macroeconomic fundamentals have strong predictive power for future mo...

  12. Woodworking & housing: impacts & actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matt Bumgardner; Urs Buehlmann; Karen. Koenig

    2015-01-01

    The woodworking industry relies heavily on the construction-based markets, particularly those companies involved in cabinetry, furniture, millwork and components. Market conditions, trends and investments all have an impact. It's against this backdrop, that the sixth annual housing market study was conducted in early 2015. A joint effort by Virginia Tech, the U.S...

  13. Interactive Mold House Tour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Get a quick glimpse of some of the most important ways to protect your home from mold by this interactive tour of the Mold House. Room-by-room, you'll learn about common mold issues and how to address them.

  14. Housing, neighbourhoods and interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karin Wittebrood; Matthieu Permentier; with contributions from Fenne Pinkster

    2011-01-01

    Original title: Wonen, wijken en interventies Current Dutch neighbourhood policy is aimed at improving the position of 'priority neighbourhoods'. How successful is the policy proving? Does restructuring and the sale of social housing help? Does increasing the amount of green space and building

  15. The book house

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Niels Henrik; Agger, Steen

    1989-01-01

    user-librarian negotiations. These studies led to the identification of a set of strategies for searching and retrieving literature as well as a mutri-kimensional framework for classifying fiction. Both of these have been necessary prerequisites for the design of the BOOK HOUSE, a flexible on-line data...

  16. Hood River Passive House

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hales, David [BA-PIRC, Spokane, WA (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The Hood River Passive Project was developed by Root Design Build of Hood River Oregon using the Passive House Planning Package (PHPP) to meet all of the requirements for certification under the European Passive House standards. The Passive House design approach has been gaining momentum among residential designers for custom homes and BEopt modeling indicates that these designs may actually exceed the goal of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Building America program to "reduce home energy use by 30%-50% (compared to 2009 energy codes for new homes). This report documents the short term test results of the Shift House and compares the results of PHPP and BEopt modeling of the project. The design includes high R-Value assemblies, extremely tight construction, high performance doors and windows, solar thermal DHW, heat recovery ventilation, moveable external shutters and a high performance ductless mini-split heat pump. Cost analysis indicates that many of the measures implemented in this project did not meet the BA standard for cost neutrality. The ductless mini-split heat pump, lighting and advanced air leakage control were the most cost effective measures. The future challenge will be to value engineer the performance levels indicated here in modeling using production based practices at a significantly lower cost.

  17. Housing and construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delton Alderman

    2014-01-01

    OECD economies, in aggregate, have been sluggish; unemployment remains high in several countries, and minimal gross domestic product gains are forecast for the Euro area through 2016. Recession, sovereign debt problems and lethargic economies continue to constrain Europe’s housing construction market; no improvement is expected before 2015 or...

  18. Doll's House Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibble, Bob

    2009-01-01

    School physics rarely stands still for long. Environmental physics is now an option in some post-16 courses in England. The physics of environments, and in particular the built environment, offers a recognizable context in which to see the applications of physics at work. This article considers how a model doll's house might be used to help…

  19. The Children's House

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peller, Lili E.

    2013-01-01

    Lili Peller's "The Children's House" essay begins where Maria Montessori left off in her description of space articulations. Peller does not name Montessori specifically as she always had a desire to become independent in her own right as a neo-Freudian child analyst. But the Haus Der Kinder founded in summer of 1922 suggests a total…

  20. 24 CFR 982.608 - Congregate housing: Voucher housing assistance payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Housing Types Congregate Housing § 982.608 Congregate housing: Voucher housing assistance payment. (a... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Congregate housing: Voucher housing assistance payment. 982.608 Section 982.608 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and...

  1. Malarial parasites decrease reproductive success: an experimental study in a passerine bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzal, Alfonso; de Lope, Florentino; Navarro, Carlos; Møller, Anders Pape

    2005-02-01

    Malarial parasites are supposed to have strong negative fitness consequences for their hosts, but relatively little evidence supports this claim due to the difficulty of experimentally testing this. We experimentally reduced levels of infection with the blood parasite Haemoproteus prognei in its host the house martin Delichon urbica, by randomly treating adults with primaquine or a control treatment. Treated birds had significantly fewer parasites than controls. The primaquine treatment increased clutch size by 18%; hatching was 39% higher and fledging 42% higher. There were no effects of treatment on quality of offspring, measured in terms of tarsus length, body mass, haematocrit or T-cell-mediated immune response. These findings demonstrate that malarial parasites can have dramatic effects on clutch size and other demographic variables, potentially influencing the evolution of clutch size, but also the population dynamics of heavily infected populations of birds.

  2. Cell size is positively correlated between different tissues in passerine birds and amphibians, but not necessarily in mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlowski, J; Czarnoleski, M; François-Krassowska, A; Maciak, S; Pis, T

    2010-12-23

    We examined cell size correlations between tissues, and cell size to body mass relationships in passerine birds, amphibians and mammals. The size correlated highly between all cell types in birds and amphibians; mammalian tissues clustered by size correlation in three tissue groups. Erythrocyte size correlated well with the volume of other cell types in birds and amphibians, but poorly in mammals. In birds, body mass correlated positively with the size of all cell types including erythrocytes, and in mammals only with the sizes of some cell types. Size of mammalian erythrocytes correlated with body mass only within the most taxonomically uniform group of species (rodents and lagomorphs). Cell volume increased with body mass of birds and mammals to less than 0.3 power, indicating that body size evolved mostly by changes in cell number. Our evidence suggests that epigenetic mechanisms determining cell size relationships in tissues are conservative in birds and amphibians, but less stringent in mammals. The patterns of cell size to body mass relationships we obtained challenge some key assumptions of fractal and cellular models used by allometric theory to explain mass-scaling of metabolism. We suggest that the assumptions in both models are not universal, and that such models need reformulation.

  3. Functional traits reveal the expansion and packing of ecological niche space underlying an elevational diversity gradient in passerine birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigot, Alex L; Trisos, Christopher H; Tobias, Joseph A

    2016-01-13

    Variation in species richness across environmental gradients may be associated with an expanded volume or increased packing of ecological niche space. However, the relative importance of these alternative scenarios remains unknown, largely because standardized information on functional traits and their ecological relevance is lacking for major diversity gradients. Here, we combine data on morphological and ecological traits for 523 species of passerine birds distributed across an Andes-to-Amazon elevation gradient. We show that morphological traits capture substantial variation in species dietary (75%) and foraging niches (60%) when multiple independent trait dimensions are considered. Having established these relationships, we show that the 14-fold increase in species richness towards the lowlands is associated with both an increased volume and density of functional trait space. However, we find that increases in volume contribute little to changes in richness, with most (78%) lowland species occurring within the range of trait space occupied at high elevations. Taken together, our results suggest that high species richness is mainly associated with a denser occupation of functional trait space, implying an increased specialization or overlap of ecological niches, and supporting the view that niche packing is the dominant trend underlying gradients of increasing biodiversity towards the lowland tropics. © 2016 The Author(s).

  4. Avian malaria in Brazilian passerine birds: parasitism detected by nested PCR using DNA from stained blood smears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, S F; Sebaio, F; Branquinho, F C S; Marini, M A; Vago, A R; Braga, E M

    2005-03-01

    The microscopical examination of Giemsa-stained thin blood smears and a nested PCR were performed to detect avian Plasmodium in 275 passerine birds from small and large fragments of Atlantic Forest, Minas Gerais, Brazil. The 275 blood smears were used both for the microscopical examination and nested PCR providing the DNA template used for the reactions. The sensitivity of the nested PCR assay was higher than that observed for blood smears through microscopical examination. High prevalence (39.6%) of Plasmodium infections was detected by nested PCR while the microscopical examination detected only 16.5 % positive birds. Poor agreement was observed between the results of the two different tests. The PCR data obtained were correlated to the forest fragment size of the Atlantic Forest and also correlated to the biological characteristics of the birds (nest type construction, diet, participation in mixed-species flocks, age and sex). Birds captured in the large forest areas were more infected than birds captured in the small areas (51.9 % and 28.5 %, respectively). Diet and participation in mixed-species flocks were correlated to the Plasmodium parasitism. The insectivorous birds and those that participated in mixed-species flocks were more frequently infected (47% and 41.5%, respectively) than the other groups.

  5. The genetic effects of Late Quaternary climatic changes over a tropical latitudinal gradient: diversification of an Atlantic Forest passerine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Horta, Fernando M; Cabanne, Gustavo S; Meyer, Diogo; Miyaki, Cristina Y

    2011-05-01

    The increase in biodiversity from high to low latitudes is a widely recognized biogeographical pattern. According to the latitudinal gradient hypothesis (LGH), this pattern was shaped by differential effects of Late Quaternary climatic changes across a latitudinal gradient. Here, we evaluate the effects of climatic changes across a tropical latitudinal gradient and its implications to diversification of an Atlantic Forest (AF) endemic passerine. We studied the intraspecific diversification and historical demography of Sclerurus scansor, based on mitochondrial (ND2, ND3 and cytb) and nuclear (FIB7) gene sequences. Phylogenetic analyses recovered three well-supported clades associated with distinct latitudinal zones. Coalescent-based methods were applied to estimate divergence times and changes in effective population sizes. Estimates of divergence times indicate that intraspecific diversification took place during Middle-Late Pleistocene. Distinct demographic scenarios were identified, with the southern lineage exhibiting a clear signature of demographic expansion, while the central one remained more stable. The northern lineage, contrasting with LGH predictions, exhibited a clear sign of a recent bottleneck. Our results suggest that different AF regions reacted distinctly, even in opposite ways, under the same climatic period, producing simultaneously favourable scenarios for isolation and contact among populations. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Breeding decisions and output are correlated with both temperature and rainfall in an arid-region passerine, the sociable weaver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mares, Rafael; Doutrelant, Claire; Paquet, Matthieu; Spottiswoode, Claire N; Covas, Rita

    2017-09-01

    Animal reproductive cycles are commonly triggered by environmental cues of favourable breeding conditions. In arid environments, rainfall may be the most conspicuous cue, but the effects on reproduction of the high inter- and intra-annual variation in temperature remain poorly understood, despite being relevant to the current context of global warming. Here, we conducted a multiyear examination of the relationships between a suite of measures of temperature and rainfall, and the onset and length of the breeding season, the probability of breeding and reproductive output in an arid-region passerine, the sociable weaver ( Philetairus socius ). As expected, reproductive output increased with rainfall, yet specific relationships were conditional on the timing of rainfall: clutch production was correlated with rainfall throughout the season, whereas fledgling production was correlated with early summer rainfall. Moreover, we reveal novel correlations between aspects of breeding and temperature, indicative of earlier laying dates after warmer springs, and longer breeding seasons during cooler summers. These results have implications for understanding population trends under current climate change scenarios and call for more studies on the role of temperature in reproduction beyond those conducted on temperate-region species.

  7. Histopathological survey of protozoa, helminths and acarids of imported and local psittacine and passerine birds in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, S S; Hirai, K; Itakura, C

    1992-12-01

    A total of 534 psittacine and passerine birds consisting of 241 imported and 293 local birds were examined histologically. As a result, the following parasites were found: Giardia (86 cases), Knemido-coptes (26 cases), coccidia (10 cases), Ascaridia (6 cases), Cryptosporidium (5 cases), Sarcocystis (5 cases), tapeworm (4 cases), microfilaria (2 cases), Hexamita (1 case), and Spiroptera (1 case). High incidences of giardiasis and knemido-coptic infestation were detected in the local birds, but rarely in the imported birds. Giardial trophozoites were observed mainly in the duodenum of budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus). Knemidocoptic mites burrowed into the epidermis producing proliferative dermatitis in 25 budgerigars and 1 African Grey Parrot (Psittacus erithacus erithacus). This ectoparasite often infested the skin around the cloaca. Coccidiosis was seen only in the small intestines of the finch (Poephila gouldiae gouldiae), African Grey Parrot, Rainbow lory (Trichoglossus haematodus), Indian Ring-necked parakeet (Psittacula krameri manillensis) and peach-faced lovebird (Agapornis roseicollis). Two parrots (Amazona aestiva aestiva and Psittacus erithacus erithacus) and two budgerigars had intestinal cryptosporidiosis. Conjunctivitis associated with cryptosporidial infection was seen in a lovebird. Sarcocystis cysts containing crescent-shaped bradyzoites were found not only in the thigh and breast but also in the heart and cloacal muscles. Other organisms such as Ascaridia, tapeworm, microfilaria, Hexamita, and Spiroptera were clinically less significant. However, infections such as Giardia and Cryptosporidim might have zoonotic implications.

  8. A study of the ciliar tracheal epithelium on passerine birds and small mammals subjected to air pollution: ultrastructural study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorriz, A.; Llacuna, S.; Durfort, M.; Nadal, J. (University of Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain). Faculty of Biology)

    1994-07-01

    A study was made of the ciliar tracheal epithelium on passerine birds and small mammals subjected to NO[sub x], SO[sub 2] emissions and particulates from a coal-fired power plant. The results were compared to those of a non-polluted area, very similar in vegetation, relief, and climatology. The authors studied Carduelis carduelis (goldfinch), Emberiza cia (rock bunting), Parus major (great tit), Turdus merual (blackbird), and Apodemus sylvaticus (wood mouse). All animals were captured in the wild. Also used were goldfinch (Carduelis carduelis) captured in the wild and mice (Mus musculus) from the laboratory. These species were placed in protected cages near the source of pollution for 5 and 12 months. The images of the tracheal epithelium surface and the observation of tracheal sections at transmission and scanning electron microscopy showed a variation in the percentage of ciliated and non-ciliated cells, and a variation in the organization, orientation, and morphology of the cilia in animals from the polluted zone.

  9. Quaternary history of an endemic passerine bird on Corsica Island: Glacial refugium and impact of recent forest regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibault, Jean-Claude; Cibois, Alice; Prodon, Roger; Pasquet, Eric

    2016-03-01

    Molecular studies support the hypothesis that Corsica Island was a glacial refugium for a number of forest birds during the Pleistocene. We focused on the Corsican nuthatch (Sitta whiteheadi), an endemic passerine strongly associated with the laricio pine (Pinus nigra laricio). The range of laricio pine has been impacted by the Pleistocene glacial periods and forest has been recently fragmented by cutting and fires. Using both molecular (mitochondrial and nuclear) and morphological characters, we assessed the variation within the nuthatch population. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that the Corsican nuthatch endured through the late Pleistocene and Holocene climatic variations, and sustained the subsequent cycles of forests reduction/expansion. The results also suggest that the recent anthropization of the landscape resulted in the isolation of a cluster of populations in the northern part of the island. The fragmentation of the habitat of the nuthatch may impede the future of the bird by creating isolated population units between which the gene flow is reduced.

  10. The Housing Development NGOs offering Housing Education and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ). It is important for housing development NGOs to include all four the pillars of sustainable housing development in their projects. Consumer Scientists who specialised in ... A list obtained from contact persons in the field. The NGOs involved in ...

  11. Assisted Housing - Public Housing Buildings - National Geospatial Data Asset (NGDA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The approximate physical location of each individual Public Housing Building. If the building has more than one entrance or street address, the address of the...

  12. Housing and Health: The relationship between housing conditions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    okanlawon

    2011-10-22

    Oct 22, 2011 ... The Book Housing and Health: The Relationship between Housing conditions and the Health of Council Tenants was a report of research work carried out on council housing in metropolitan District of Gateshead in England. The five- chapter book, written by four authors, gives the historical and ...

  13. Assessment of housing design decisions in informal housing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The rapid urbanisation of cities in developing countries has witnessed a growth in the volume of housing construction in the urban areas. The demand for housing and the inability of government to meet this demand has encouraged the growth of informal housing. The concept of healthy buildings is of great importance, ...

  14. 7 CFR 1944.659 - Replacement housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Replacement housing. 1944.659 Section 1944.659...) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) HOUSING Housing Preservation Grants § 1944.659 Replacement housing. Replacement housing applies only to existing, individual owner occupied housing. Replacement housing does not...

  15. 24 CFR 1715.27 - Fair housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fair housing. 1715.27 Section 1715.27 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL HOUSING COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN...

  16. Public Housing Physical Inspection Scores

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — HUD's Real Estate Assessment Center conducts physical property inspections of properties that are owned, insured or subsidized by HUD, including public housing and...

  17. HUD Approved Housing Counseling Agencies

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — HUD sponsors housing counseling agencies throughout the country that can provide advice on buying a home, renting, defaults, foreclosures, and credit issues. This...

  18. Multifamily Housing Physical Inspection Scores

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — HUD's Real Estate Assessment Center conducts physical property inspections of properties that are owned, insured or subsidized by HUD, including public housing and...

  19. Public Housing Agency (PHA) Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The dataset contains current data on low rent and Section 8 units in PHA's administered by HUD. The Section 8 Rental Voucher Program increases affordable housing...

  20. FEMA Housing Assistance Renters - API

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This dataset lists aggregated, non-PII dataset of FEMA Housing Assistance Program for House Renters The data was generated by FEMA's ECIM (Enterprise Coordination...

  1. Ideas about housing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Earon, Ofri

    2009-01-01

    This booklet is a project documentation of a short-term project titled ‘IDEAS ABOUT HOUSING Arkitektkonkurrencernes boligløsninger’. Architectural competitions have been used to develop new living concepts reacting on current political, economical and social flows. Participation in an architectural...... competition provides the architects a possibility to reflect on the current social patterns, and to propose suitable spaces. In this light, the competition proposals represent the visions and dreams of the architects to the contemporary society. “For most of the 20th century, design competitions have been...... an important part of the world of architecture and planning in Denmark. Competitions, sponsored by government organizations, housing associations, or private business, are usually requests to make proposals for a specific project, but they are also sometimes used to elicit ideas about a general project type...

  2. House OK's Russian aid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothstein, L.

    1993-01-01

    This article discusses the 2.5 Billion dollar aid package to Russia which House Appropriations Foreign Operations Subcommittee Chairman David Obey successfully defended on the House floor last June. Arizona Republican Jon Kyl offered an admendment that would cut 700 million from the package and was defeated with a 118 to 140 vote. The bill is currently in the hands of the Senate. The controversy over the bill and details concerning the aid package are discussed. The aid deal includes 250 million dollars for nuclear reactor safety and energy as well as environmental technical assistance, 655 million dollars to aid private sector development, and 704 million dollars for additional technical and economic assistance

  3. Ideas about housing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Earon, Ofri

    2009-01-01

    competition provides the architects a possibility to reflect on the current social patterns, and to propose suitable spaces. In this light, the competition proposals represent the visions and dreams of the architects to the contemporary society. “For most of the 20th century, design competitions have been......This booklet is a project documentation of a short-term project titled ‘IDEAS ABOUT HOUSING Arkitektkonkurrencernes boligløsninger’. Architectural competitions have been used to develop new living concepts reacting on current political, economical and social flows. Participation in an architectural...... an important part of the world of architecture and planning in Denmark. Competitions, sponsored by government organizations, housing associations, or private business, are usually requests to make proposals for a specific project, but they are also sometimes used to elicit ideas about a general project type...

  4. Literacy Mediation in Neighbourhood Houses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Sally

    2015-01-01

    Interactions between staff in Neighbourhood Houses, and the socially and educationally disadvantaged community members who visit Neighbourhood Houses, have been viewed through many lenses, including community development, social support, caring and compassion. This paper looks at Neighbourhood Houses as sites of pedagogical practice. More…

  5. House on the Cliff

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Xueyan

    2017-01-01

    Color is both physical and perceptual. We see color, we feel color, and we dream of color. For the color study, I constructed the perspective drawings of the house as graphic compositions with no materiality. The application of primary colors to the drawings transformed the walls, ceiling, and floor into colored planes, which are common elements of concrete painting and pure Euclidean space, as explored by de Stijl and Rietveld through the medium of architecture. Aesthetic pleasure, following...

  6. Housing characteristics 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    This report, Housing Characteristics 1993, presents statistics about the energy-related characteristics of US households. These data were collected in the 1993 Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS) -- the ninth in a series of nationwide energy consumption surveys conducted since 1978 by the Energy Information Administration of the US Department of Energy. Over 7 thousand households were surveyed, representing 97 million households nationwide. A second report, to be released in late 1995, will present statistics on residential energy consumption and expenditures.

  7. Costly infidelity: low lifetime fitness of extra-pair offspring in a passerine bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Yu-Hsun; Schroeder, Julia; Winney, Isabel; Burke, Terry; Nakagawa, Shinichi

    2014-10-01

    Extra-pair copulation (EPC) is widespread in socially monogamous species, but its evolutionary benefits remain controversial. Indirect genetic benefit hypotheses postulate that females engage in EPC to produce higher quality extra-pair offspring (EPO) than within-pair offspring (WPO). In contrast, the sexual conflict hypothesis posits that EPC is beneficial to males but not to females. Thus, under the sexual conflict hypothesis, EPO are predicted to be no fitter than WPO. We tested these two hypotheses in a 12-year dataset with complete life-history and pedigree information from an isolated island population of house sparrows (Passer domesticus). We compared fitness components of EPO and two types of WPO: (1) WPO from genetically polyandrous "unfaithful" mothers, and (2) WPO from genetically monogamous mothers. We found that all three groups of offspring had similar probabilities of hatching and nestling survival. Unexpectedly, EPO had the lowest probability of recruiting into the breeding population and the lowest lifetime reproductive output. Our results indicate that EPO incurred indirect genetic costs, rather than benefits, which is contrary to indirect benefit models. Importantly, the indirect costs we observed are also underappreciated in current sexual conflict models. Our results call for improved theoretical frameworks that incorporate indirect costs by extending current sexual conflict models. © 2014 The Author(s). Evolution © 2014 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  8. Accumulation of Dechlorane Plus flame retardant in terrestrial passerines from a nature reserve in South China: The influences of biological and chemical variables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Ying [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Wu, Jiang-Ping, E-mail: jpwu@gig.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Tao, Lin [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Mo, Ling [Hainan Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Haikou 571126 (China); Zheng, Xiao-Bo; Tang, Bin [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Luo, Xiao-Jun; Mai, Bi-Xian [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2015-05-01

    Although a number of studies have addressed the bioaccumulation of Dechlorane Plus (DP) flame retardant in wildlife, few data are available on terrestrial organisms. This study examined the presence of DP isomers in the muscle tissue of seven terrestrial resident passerine species, i.e., the great tit (Parus major), the oriental magpie-robin (Copsychus saularis), the red-whiskered bulbul (Pycnonotus jocosus), the light-vented bulbul (Pycnonotus sinensis), the streak-breasted scimitar babbler (Pomatorhinus ruficollis), the long-tailed shrike (Lanius schach), and the orange-headed thrush (Zoothera citrina), from a national nature reserve located in South China. The ∑DP (sum of syn-DP and anti-DP) concentrations ranged from 1.2 to 104 ng/g lipid weight, with significantly higher levels in insectivorous birds than in omnivorous birds. The overall exposure to DP isomers of the current passerines may be attributed to the intensive release of this pollutant from electronic waste recycling sites and industrial zones in the vicinity of the nature reserve. Species-specific DP isomeric profiles were also found, with significantly greater f{sub anti} values (the isomer fractions of anti-DP) in the red-whiskered bulbul and the oriental magpie-robin. Additionally, the f{sub anti} values were significantly negatively correlated to ∑DP concentrations for the individual bird samples, suggesting the influence of DP concentrations on the isomeric profiles. - Highlights: • We investigated the occurrence of DP in seven species of terrestrial passerines. • Insectivorous birds accumulated higher ∑DP concentrations than omnivorous birds. • Inter-species differences in the f{sub anti} values were observed. • The f{sub anti} values were significantly correlated to DP concentrations.

  9. The White House saga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daković Nevena

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Frank Capra expressed his gratitude to the immigrant dream come true by creating a brilliant cinematic myth about the American political system, presenting it as an 'inherently good' when in the hands of honest and good people. His 'morality fairytales', 'fantasies of good will' imbued with belief in restoration of old-new principles, offer complex reflections on an idealised Americanism of the 1930s which have become the foundation of representations of the American political system. The Capraesque narrative - 'a blend of optimism, humor, patriotism, and, to those who really understand his work, (and darkness, despair, and the need to fight for things you care about...' (Bassinger 1982: 48 - as a combination of all-American values, ordinary people and historical figures, a democracy myth - has been extended by an endless network of intertextual echoes in film and TV production. Following the developmental lines - through political melodrama, melodramatic politics and political soap opera - one will be led from Capra to the series The West Wing (1996 - 2006, House of Cards (2013 - 2015 and Madame Secretary (2014 - ; from the comprehensive Washington Postcard (Mr. Smith Goes to Washington, 1939 to the focal points at the White House; from Capra's comedy to the saga of the fight against terrorism led by the president and both ordinary and trained American citizens (White House Down, 2013, Roland Emmerich.

  10. House bat management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhall, Arthur M.

    1982-01-01

    The soundest long-term solution for the management of bats that enter buildings and cause a nuisance problem or present a public health hazard is by batproofing the structure. Chemical toxicants do not solve house bat problems and may create worse ones. This manual describes batproofing techniques that will provide effective and acceptable alternatives for dealing with house bat problems and hazards. Recent declines in bat populations and greater appreciation of the ecological importance of bats have identified the need for sound management strategies that will encourage bat conservation while protecting human health and solving nuisance problems. One of the best deterrents against house bats is to improve the energy efficiency of the structure since bats may enter holes through which heat is lost. Heat conservation methods used for batproofing will also be eligible for Federal residential energy tax credits. The manual should be useful to homeowners, public health officials, physicians, veterinarians, conservationists, and others interested or concerned about bat interactions with humans.

  11. Mental health and housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kari-Koskinen, O; Karvonen, P

    1976-01-01

    With the present trend away from the designing of individual buildings and towards the systematic planning of whole residential communities, it should be possible to take mental health requirements into account at the planning stage. At present, sociologists are all too seldom consulted on matters of residential planning. When discussing the relationship between housing and mental health one cannot restrict oneself only to the external aspects of the house, but rather one must also consider the opportunities available for the members of the family to satisfy their own needs, both within the home and in its immediate surroundings. Factors which may affect residential requirements include geographical location, type and standard of dwelling and time and continuity of occupation. A move between two districts or groups representing different housing norms and values may lead to withdrawal symptoms in the individual. This may arise equally well from the remoteness of the country districts as from the conflicting pressures brought on by the abundance of contacts available in the large towns. Town life tends to heighten susceptibility to neuroses and personality conflicts. The character of a residential area may affect the mental health of its occupants. Faris & Dunham (4), in studying the incidence of various types of mental illness with an urban population, observed that schizophrenia was most common among people who were in some way isolated from social involvement. The striving for spaciousness in residential areas and the creation of a "summer city" or "garden city" image or a "family-centred way of life" may lead to unexpected problems and have a variety of social consequences. Mental health difficulties have been noted, for example, among housewives in "dormitory" towns or suburbs (11). The institutions required by a community may be grouped into four categories, representing the basic needs of its members. These are (1) economic institutions, (2) social and

  12. 24 CFR 982.617 - Shared housing: Rent and voucher housing assistance payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Special Housing Types Shared Housing § 982.617 Shared housing: Rent and voucher housing assistance payment... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Shared housing: Rent and voucher housing assistance payment. 982.617 Section 982.617 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to...

  13. Social dominance explains within-ejaculate variation in sperm design in a passerine bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas Mora, Alfonso; Meniri, Magali; Ciprietti, Sabrina; Helfenstein, Fabrice

    2017-03-04

    Comparative studies suggest that sperm competition exerts stabilizing selection towards an optimal sperm design - e.g., the relative size and covariation of different sperm sections or a quantitative measure of sperm shape - that maximizes male fertility, which results in reduced levels of within-male variation in sperm morphology. Yet, these studies also reveal substantial amounts of unexplained within-ejaculate variance, and the factors presiding to the maintenance of such within-male variation in sperm design at the population level still remain to be identified. Sperm competition models predict that males should progressively invest more resources in their germline as their mating costs increase, i.e., the soma/germline allocation trade-off hypothesis. When access to fertile females is determined by social dominance, the soma/germline allocation trade-off hypothesis predicts that dominant males should invest less in the control of spermatogenesis. Hence, dominance should positively correlate with within-male variance in sperm design. In support of this hypothesis, we found that dominant house sparrow males produce ejaculates with higher levels of within-ejaculate variation in sperm design compared to subordinate males. However, after experimentally manipulating male social status, this pattern was not maintained. Our results suggest that males might control variation in sperm design according to their social status to some extent. Yet, it seems that such within-ejaculate variation in sperm design cannot be rapidly adjusted to a new status. While variation in sperm design could result from various non-exclusive sources, we discuss how strategic allocation of resources to the somatic vs. the germline functions could be an important process shaping the relationship between within-male variation in sperm design and social status.

  14. Is Housing a Health Insult?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Emma; Beer, Andrew; Lester, Laurence; Pevalin, David; Whitehead, Christine; Bentley, Rebecca

    2017-05-26

    In seeking to understand the relationship between housing and health, research attention is often focussed on separate components of people's whole housing 'bundles'. We propose in this paper that such conceptual and methodological abstraction of elements of the housing and health relationship limits our ability to understand the scale of the accumulated effect of housing on health and thereby contributes to the under-recognition of adequate housing as a social policy tool and powerful health intervention. In this paper, we propose and describe an index to capture the means by which housing bundles influence health. We conceptualise the index as reflecting accumulated housing 'insults to health'-an Index of Housing Insults (IHI). We apply the index to a sample of 1000 low-income households in Australia. The analysis shows a graded association between housing insults and health on all outcome measures. Further, after controlling for possible confounders, the IHI is shown to provide additional predictive power to the explanation of levels of mental health, general health and clinical depression beyond more traditional proxy measures. Overall, this paper reinforces the need to look not just at separate housing components but to embrace a broader understanding of the relationship between housing and health.

  15. Environmental health disparities in housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, David E

    2011-12-01

    The physical infrastructure and housing make human interaction possible and provide shelter. How well that infrastructure performs and which groups it serves have important implications for social equity and health. Populations in inadequate housing are more likely to have environmental diseases and injuries. Substantial disparities in housing have remained largely unchanged. Approximately 2.6 million (7.5%) non-Hispanic Blacks and 5.9 million Whites (2.8%) live in substandard housing. Segregation, lack of housing mobility, and homelessness are all associated with adverse health outcomes. Yet the experience with childhood lead poisoning in the United States has shown that housing-related disparities can be reduced. Effective interventions should be implemented to reduce environmental health disparities related to housing.

  16. Environmental Health Disparities in Housing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    The physical infrastructure and housing make human interaction possible and provide shelter. How well that infrastructure performs and which groups it serves have important implications for social equity and health. Populations in inadequate housing are more likely to have environmental diseases and injuries. Substantial disparities in housing have remained largely unchanged. Approximately 2.6 million (7.5%) non-Hispanic Blacks and 5.9 million Whites (2.8%) live in substandard housing. Segregation, lack of housing mobility, and homelessness are all associated with adverse health outcomes. Yet the experience with childhood lead poisoning in the United States has shown that housing-related disparities can be reduced. Effective interventions should be implemented to reduce environmental health disparities related to housing. PMID:21551378

  17. Associations of forest type, parasitism and body condition of two European passerines, Fringilla coelebs and Sylvia atricapilla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüdtke, Bruntje; Moser, Isabelle; Santiago-Alarcon, Diego; Fischer, Markus; Kalko, Elisabeth K V; Schaefer, H Martin; Suarez-Rubio, Marcela; Tschapka, Marco; Renner, Swen C

    2013-01-01

    Human-induced forest modification can alter parasite-host interactions and might change the persistence of host populations. We captured individuals of two widespread European passerines (Fringilla coelebs and Sylvia atricapilla) in southwestern Germany to disentangle the associations of forest types and parasitism by haemosporidian parasites on the body condition of birds. We compared parasite prevalence and parasite intensity, fluctuating asymmetries, leukocyte numbers, and the heterophil to lymphocyte ratio (H/L-ratio) among individuals from beech, mixed-deciduous and spruce forest stands. Based on the biology of bird species, we expected to find fewer infected individuals in beech or mixed-deciduous than in spruce forest stands. We found the highest parasite prevalence and intensity in beech forests for F. coelebs. Although, we found the highest prevalence in spruce forests for S. atricapilla, the highest intensity was detected in beech forests, partially supporting our hypothesis. Other body condition or health status metrics, such as the heterophil to lymphocyte ratio (H/L-ratio), revealed only slight differences between bird populations inhabiting the three different forest types, with the highest values in spruce for F. coelebs and in mixed-deciduous forests for S. atricapilla. A comparison of parasitized versus non-parasitized individuals suggests that parasite infection increased the immune response of a bird, which was detectable as high H/L-ratio. Higher infections with blood parasites for S. atricapilla in spruce forest indicate that this forest type might be a less suitable habitat than beech and mixed-deciduous forests, whereas beech forests seem to be a suboptimal habitat regarding parasitism for F. coelebs.

  18. Evolution of sexual dichromatism in relation to nesting habits in European passerines: a test of Wallace's hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler, J J; Moreno, J

    2012-08-01

    Wallace proposed in 1868 that natural rather than sexual selection could explain the striking differences in avian plumage dichromatism. Thus, he predicted that nesting habits, through their association with nest predation, could drive changes in sexual dichromatism by enabling females in cavity nesters to become as conspicuous as males, whereas Darwin (1871, The Descent of Man and Selection in Relation to Sex, John Murray, London) argued that sexual selection was the sole explanation for dichromatism. Sexual dichromatism is currently used as indicating the strength of sexual selection, and therefore testing Wallace's claim with modern phylogentically controlled methodologies is of prime interest for comparing the roles of natural and sexual selection in affecting the evolution of avian coloration. Here, we have related information on nest attendance, sexual dichromatism and nesting habits (open and cavity nesting) to male and female plumage conspicuousness in European passerines. Nest incubation attendance does not explain male or female plumage conspicuousness but nest type does. Moreover, although females of monochromatic and cavity nesting species are more conspicuous than females of other species, males of monochromatic and open nesting species are those with more cryptic plumage. Finally, analyses of character evolution suggest that changes in nesting habits influence the probability of changes in both dichromatism and plumage conspicuousness of males but do not significantly affect those in females. These results strongly suggest a role of nesting habits in the evolution of plumage conspicuousness of males, and a role for sexual selection also in females, both factors affecting the evolution of sexual dichromatism. We discuss our findings in relation to the debate that Darwin and Wallace maintained more than one century ago on the importance of natural and sexual selection in driving the evolution of plumage conspicuousness and sexual dichromatism in birds

  19. Associations of forest type, parasitism and body condition of two European passerines, Fringilla coelebs and Sylvia atricapilla.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruntje Lüdtke

    Full Text Available Human-induced forest modification can alter parasite-host interactions and might change the persistence of host populations. We captured individuals of two widespread European passerines (Fringilla coelebs and Sylvia atricapilla in southwestern Germany to disentangle the associations of forest types and parasitism by haemosporidian parasites on the body condition of birds. We compared parasite prevalence and parasite intensity, fluctuating asymmetries, leukocyte numbers, and the heterophil to lymphocyte ratio (H/L-ratio among individuals from beech, mixed-deciduous and spruce forest stands. Based on the biology of bird species, we expected to find fewer infected individuals in beech or mixed-deciduous than in spruce forest stands. We found the highest parasite prevalence and intensity in beech forests for F. coelebs. Although, we found the highest prevalence in spruce forests for S. atricapilla, the highest intensity was detected in beech forests, partially supporting our hypothesis. Other body condition or health status metrics, such as the heterophil to lymphocyte ratio (H/L-ratio, revealed only slight differences between bird populations inhabiting the three different forest types, with the highest values in spruce for F. coelebs and in mixed-deciduous forests for S. atricapilla. A comparison of parasitized versus non-parasitized individuals suggests that parasite infection increased the immune response of a bird, which was detectable as high H/L-ratio. Higher infections with blood parasites for S. atricapilla in spruce forest indicate that this forest type might be a less suitable habitat than beech and mixed-deciduous forests, whereas beech forests seem to be a suboptimal habitat regarding parasitism for F. coelebs.

  20. Associations of Forest Type, Parasitism and Body Condition of Two European Passerines, Fringilla coelebs and Sylvia atricapilla

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüdtke, Bruntje; Moser, Isabelle; Santiago-Alarcon, Diego; Fischer, Markus; Kalko, Elisabeth KV.; Schaefer, H. Martin; Suarez-Rubio, Marcela; Tschapka, Marco; Renner, Swen C.

    2013-01-01

    Human-induced forest modification can alter parasite-host interactions and might change the persistence of host populations. We captured individuals of two widespread European passerines (Fringilla coelebs and Sylvia atricapilla) in southwestern Germany to disentangle the associations of forest types and parasitism by haemosporidian parasites on the body condition of birds. We compared parasite prevalence and parasite intensity, fluctuating asymmetries, leukocyte numbers, and the heterophil to lymphocyte ratio (H/L-ratio) among individuals from beech, mixed-deciduous and spruce forest stands. Based on the biology of bird species, we expected to find fewer infected individuals in beech or mixed-deciduous than in spruce forest stands. We found the highest parasite prevalence and intensity in beech forests for F. coelebs. Although, we found the highest prevalence in spruce forests for S. atricapilla, the highest intensity was detected in beech forests, partially supporting our hypothesis. Other body condition or health status metrics, such as the heterophil to lymphocyte ratio (H/L-ratio), revealed only slight differences between bird populations inhabiting the three different forest types, with the highest values in spruce for F. coelebs and in mixed-deciduous forests for S. atricapilla. A comparison of parasitized versus non-parasitized individuals suggests that parasite infection increased the immune response of a bird, which was detectable as high H/L-ratio. Higher infections with blood parasites for S. atricapilla in spruce forest indicate that this forest type might be a less suitable habitat than beech and mixed-deciduous forests, whereas beech forests seem to be a suboptimal habitat regarding parasitism for F. coelebs. PMID:24339923

  1. Growth strategies of passerine birds are related to brood parasitism by the brown-headed cowbird (Molothrus ater).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remes, Vladimír

    2006-08-01

    Sibling competition was proposed as an important selective agent in the evolution of growth and development. Brood parasitism by the brown-headed cowbird (Molothrus ater) intensifies sibling competition in the nests of its hosts by increasing host chick mortality and exposing them to a genetically unrelated nestmate. Intranest sibling competition for resources supplied by parents is size dependent. Thus, it should select for high development rates and short nestling periods, which would alleviate negative impacts of brood parasitic chicks on host young. I tested these predictions on 134 North American passerines by comparative analyses. After controlling for covariates and phylogeny, I showed that high parasitism rate was associated with higher nestling growth rate, lower mass at fledging, and shorter nestling periods. These effects were most pronounced in species in which sibling competition is most intense (i.e., weighing over about 30 g). When species were categorized as nonhosts versus old hosts (parasitized for thousands of years) versus new hosts (parasitized the last 100-200 years), there was a clear effect of this parasitism category on growth strategies. Nestling growth rate was the most evolutionarily flexible trait, followed by mass at fledging and nestling period duration. Adjustments during incubation (incubation period length, egg volume) were less pronounced and generally disappeared after controlling for phylogeny. I show that sibling competition caused by brood parasites can have strong effects on the evolution of host growth strategies and that the evolution of developmental traits can take place very rapidly. Human alteration of habitats causing spread of brood parasites to new areas thus cascades into affecting the evolution of life-history traits in host species.

  2. Linking phenological events in migratory passerines with a changing climate: 50 years in the Laurel Highlands of Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Molly E; DeGroote, Lucas W

    2017-01-01

    Advanced timing of both seasonal migration and reproduction in birds has been strongly associated with a warming climate for many bird species. Phenological responses to climate linking these stages may ultimately impact fitness. We analyzed five decades of banding data from 17 migratory bird species to investigate 1) how spring arrival related to timing of breeding, 2) if the interval between arrival and breeding has changed with increasing spring temperatures, and 3) whether arrival timing or breeding timing best predicted local productivity. Four of 17 species, all mid- to long-distance migrants, hatched young earlier in years when migrants arrived earlier to the breeding grounds (~1:1 day advancement). The interval between arrival on breeding grounds and appearance of juveniles shortened with warmer spring temperatures for 12 species (1-6 days for every 1°C increase) and over time for seven species (1-8 days per decade), suggesting that some migratory passerines adapt to climate change by laying more quickly after arrival or reducing the time from laying to fledging. We found more support for the former, that the rate of reproductive advancement was higher than that for arrival in warm years. Timing of spring arrival and breeding were both poor predictors of avian productivity for most migrants analyzed. Nevertheless, we found evidence that fitness benefits may occur from shifts to earlier spring arrival for the multi-brooded Song Sparrow. Our results uniquely demonstrate that co-occurring avian species are phenologically plastic in their response to climate change on their breeding grounds. If migrants continue to show a weaker response to temperatures during migration than breeding, and the window between arrival and optimal breeding shortens further, biological constraints to plasticity may limit the ability of species to adapt successfully to future warming.

  3. Linking phenological events in migratory passerines with a changing climate: 50 years in the Laurel Highlands of Pennsylvania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molly E McDermott

    Full Text Available Advanced timing of both seasonal migration and reproduction in birds has been strongly associated with a warming climate for many bird species. Phenological responses to climate linking these stages may ultimately impact fitness. We analyzed five decades of banding data from 17 migratory bird species to investigate 1 how spring arrival related to timing of breeding, 2 if the interval between arrival and breeding has changed with increasing spring temperatures, and 3 whether arrival timing or breeding timing best predicted local productivity. Four of 17 species, all mid- to long-distance migrants, hatched young earlier in years when migrants arrived earlier to the breeding grounds (~1:1 day advancement. The interval between arrival on breeding grounds and appearance of juveniles shortened with warmer spring temperatures for 12 species (1-6 days for every 1°C increase and over time for seven species (1-8 days per decade, suggesting that some migratory passerines adapt to climate change by laying more quickly after arrival or reducing the time from laying to fledging. We found more support for the former, that the rate of reproductive advancement was higher than that for arrival in warm years. Timing of spring arrival and breeding were both poor predictors of avian productivity for most migrants analyzed. Nevertheless, we found evidence that fitness benefits may occur from shifts to earlier spring arrival for the multi-brooded Song Sparrow. Our results uniquely demonstrate that co-occurring avian species are phenologically plastic in their response to climate change on their breeding grounds. If migrants continue to show a weaker response to temperatures during migration than breeding, and the window between arrival and optimal breeding shortens further, biological constraints to plasticity may limit the ability of species to adapt successfully to future warming.

  4. A Model of Housing Quality Determinants (HQD for Affordable Housing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afaq Hyder Chohan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This research identifies the design quality determinants and parameters for affordable housing in a developing metropolis, Karachi, Pakistan. The absence of quality housing in Karachi has resulted in a variety of factors including policy failure, violation of bylaws, housing scarcity and more low quality housing. The combination of these factors has resulted in poor housing design and construction and has lowered the overall quality of housing. Homeowners (end-users experience unplanned maintenance and repairs. This study provides a design quality model for use as a survey tool among professionals and endusers. This study resulted in a table of 24 quality determinants marked as Housing Quality Determinants (HQD grouped into eight sections. This research concludes that the existing design quality of affordable housing in Karachi could be enhanced by resolving problems related to design, construction, services, site development, neighbourhood and sustainability. The HQD model provides a platform for developing quality indicators of housing design and an opportunity for local and international design and construction professionals to rethink design in the context of housing quality. This article provides the development of the HQD framework (model.

  5. Gut microbes limit growth in house sparrow nestlings (Passer domesticus) but not through limitations in digestive capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohl, Kevin D; Brun, Antonio; Bordenstein, Seth R; Caviedes-Vidal, Enrique; Karasov, William H

    2018-03-01

    Recent research often lauds the services and beneficial effects of host-associated microbes on animals. However, hosting these microbes may come at a cost. For example, germ-free and antibiotic-treated birds generally grow faster than their conventional counterparts. In the wild, juvenile body size is correlated with survival, so hosting a microbiota may incur a fitness cost. Avian altricial nestlings represent an interesting study system in which to investigate these interactions, given that they exhibit the fastest growth rates among vertebrates, and growth is limited by their digestive capacity. We investigated whether reduction and restructuring of the microbiota by antibiotic treatment would: (i) increase growth and food conversion efficiency in nestling house sparrows (Passer domesticus); (ii) alter aspects of gut anatomy or function (particularly activities of digestive carbohydrases and their regulation in response to dietary change); and (iii) whether there were correlations between relative abundances of microbial taxa, digestive function and nestling growth. Antibiotic treatment significantly increased growth and food conversion efficiency in nestlings. Antibiotics did not alter aspects of gut anatomy that we considered but depressed intestinal maltase activity. There were no significant correlations between abundances of microbial taxa and aspects of host physiology. Overall, we conclude that microbial-induced growth limitation in developing birds is not driven by interactions with digestive capacity. Rather, decreased energetic and material costs of immune function or beneficial effects from microbes enriched under antibiotic treatment may underlie these effects. Understanding the costs and tradeoffs of hosting gut microbial communities represents an avenue of future research. © 2017 The Authors. Integrative Zoology published by International Society of Zoological Sciences, Institute of Zoology/Chinese Academy of Sciences and John Wiley & Sons

  6. House of Generations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geert Jensen, Birgitte

    2017-01-01

    proximity to where people live, a flexible day care centre (nursery and kindergarten) as well as common facilities, which also function as a community centre for the local area. This paper shows how Studio Design and Social Innovation at Aarhus School of Architecture has, in conjunction with Aarhus...... participate in the project: Health and Care, Children and Youth, and Social Conditions and Employment. A public housing association that provides student dorms also participates in the project. The physical framework will be a building with a total area of approx. 25,000 m², located at Pier 4, at Aarhus...

  7. 20 CFR 654.407 - Housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Housing. 654.407 Section 654.407 Employees... EMPLOYMENT SERVICE SYSTEM Housing for Agricultural Workers Housing Standards § 654.407 Housing. (a) Housing... occupants against the elements. (b) Housing shall have flooring constructed of rigid materials, smooth...

  8. 24 CFR 81.22 - Housing plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Housing plans. 81.22 Section 81.22 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development THE... LOAN MORTGAGE CORPORATION (FREDDIE MAC) Housing Goals § 81.22 Housing plans. (a) If the Secretary...

  9. 24 CFR 983.52 - Housing type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Housing type. 983.52 Section 983.52 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT PROJECT-BASED...

  10. 12 CFR 1282.22 - Housing plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Housing plans. 1282.22 Section 1282.22 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY HOUSING GOALS AND MISSION ENTERPRISE HOUSING GOALS AND MISSION Housing Goals § 1282.22 Housing plans. (a) If the Director determines, under § 1282.21, that an...

  11. Organohalogen contamination in passerine birds from three metropolises in China: Geographical variation and its implication for anthropogenic effects on urban environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Le-Huan; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Liu, Hong-Ying; Zeng, Yan-Hong; Zheng, Xiao-Bo; Wu, Jiang-Ping; Yu, Yun-Jiang; Mai, Bi-Xian

    2014-01-01

    Contamination of organohalogen pollutants (OHPs), including dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), decabromodiphenylethane (DBDPE), hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs), and dechlorane plus (DP) in three metropolises of China, Beijing, Wuhan, and Guangzhou, and a reference rural site were determined using terrestrial residential passerine species as bioindicator. DDTs dominated in Wuhan whereas flame retardants dominated in Guangzhou and Beijing. No geographical variation was found for PCB levels but it exhibited different homologue profiles among different sites which could be attributed to different dietary sources of birds. Industry characteristics of the sampling location contributed to the geographical differences in the occurrence and contamination profile of OHPs. The transformation of traditional agriculture characterized contamination profiles to industry characterized profiles in Beijing and Guangzhou implicates significantly environmental concern on the flame retardants contamination in non-hot-spot regions of China. - Highlights: • Various OHPs were determined in passerine birds from three metropolises of China. • Geographical variations of OHPs levels and contamination profiles were observed. • More concern should be taken on the dominance of FRs in Chinese developed cities. • Diet source characterized by δ 13 C plays a key role in PCB pattern determination. - Geographical variations of OHPs contamination profiles indicate significant impact of industrialization and urbanization on Chinese urban environment

  12. Housing, architecture and contemporaneity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Medrano

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses contemporary collective housing based on an understanding of the postmodern concept, and its differences and similarities to some early expressions of the modern movement. To this effect, this paper establishes the differences between the superficiality of modernism's stylistic positions to understand its fundamental reasons, which are associated with today's society or the post-industrial (postmodern society. Studies include works by David Harvey, Frederic Jamenson, Mike Featherstone, Andreas Huyssen, and Lyotard, who historically organized the principles of the late 20th century's great dilemma: the transition from the modern to the postmodern (as a system of production, culture, information, etc.. This transition is not as simple as is usually claimed, and it can hold the key to our contemporary dilemmas. If we were modern and did not close the full cycle of modernity, how could we be postmodern? Collective and social housing exacerbate this paradox. If we do not effectively address this issue, this debate will remain shallow.

  13. Housing discrimination 101.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, D

    2000-01-01

    To examine the hypothesis that phone-based discrimination exists, an undergraduate course was conducted at the University of Pennsylvania. It was noted that racial housing audits were designed in such a way that teams of White and Black auditors were assigned similar identities and characteristics. To this effect, systematic differences in treatment were taken to reflect racial discrimination. The course, ¿Research Design: Measurement of Discrimination,¿ was carried out as a response to the pressure to involve undergraduates in research. A racially diverse group of students registered, among them speakers of Black English Vernacular, Black Accented English, and White Middle Class English. A total of 79 rental units advertised in newspapers and rental guides were audited by the class. Overall, results of the study suggest that telephone audits constitute a potentially cheap, easy, and efficient way of measuring and studying processes of racial discrimination in urban housing markets. Compared with Whites, African Americans were less likely to be told of a unit's availability, more likely to speak to a rental agent, to pay an application fee, and to have credit mentioned as an issue. In addition, these racial effects interacted with and were exacerbated by gender class.

  14. Challenges for Large Housing Estates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Hedvig

    This paper examines policies and improvement programmes implemented to improve troubled housing estates during three decades. It is based on evaluations of implemented programmes conducted for the Danish ministry of housing and the National Building Fund as well as similar studies from other...... European countries. Case studies illustrate local developments and outcomes and are the base for questioning the original identification of problems and thus the chosen solutions. Perspectives for current policy initiatives in the field of troubled housing estates are discussed in a general housing market...

  15. Social Housing: wood prefabrication techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziana Ferrante

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Student housing, a particular and quite significant part of social housing, and innovation in processing and production of industrial building components made of a material (wood not adequately inquired: two fields of research that have been explored for a long time allowing here to share and compare experiences gained thus far. By a selection of samples of wooden student housing in Europe we have documented the performances of this material and we have underlined, at the same time, through what happens abroad, the need of an organic national social housing plan that can meet an unsatisfied demand and boost the construction industry during this particular stage of economic crisis.

  16. Malaysian Affordability Housing Policies Revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samad Diwa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Housing has always been a significant aspiration of family expression and distinctly priciest investment by household. It plays a momentous role in the country’s economy and so central to the societal well-being that is emplaced in the United Nation Universal declaration of Human rights. Yet in developed and developing world alike, cities struggle to provide decent housing for lower and middle income population. The provision of affordable housing is a major policy concern around the world with Malaysia being no exception; rising income hardly keep pace with price hike of housing unit and housing interventions has majorly concentrated on demand side leading to a non-responsive supply sector. Therefore, this paper highlights affordable housing issues pertaining Malaysia. It formulates Malaysian Map of affordability and conducts an evaluation of global housing schemes to better identify policy priorities for Malaysia. It’s significant to harmonize supply and demand side factors in the housing market to ensure that housing supply fits the needs of citizens based on the location, price and target group. In case of Malaysia supply oriented initiative are of urgency in short and medium run. This must be supported by long term demand side schemes in parallel. Convergence of these two factors is essential for a balanced equilibrium and obtaining affordability.

  17. Challenges for Large Housing Estates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Hedvig

    European countries. Case studies illustrate local developments and outcomes and are the base for questioning the original identification of problems and thus the chosen solutions. Perspectives for current policy initiatives in the field of troubled housing estates are discussed in a general housing market......This paper examines policies and improvement programmes implemented to improve troubled housing estates during three decades. It is based on evaluations of implemented programmes conducted for the Danish ministry of housing and the National Building Fund as well as similar studies from other...

  18. Housing Policies and Health Inequalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marí-Dell'Olmo, Marc; Novoa, Ana M; Camprubí, Lluís; Peralta, Andrés; Vásquez-Vera, Hugo; Bosch, Jordi; Amat, Jordi; Díaz, Fernando; Palència, Laia; Mehdipanah, Roshanak; Rodríguez-Sanz, Maica; Malmusi, Davide; Borrell, Carme

    2017-04-01

    A large body of literature shows the link between inadequate housing conditions and poor physical and mental health. The aim of this paper is to summarize the research on the impact of local housing policies on health inequalities, focusing on the issues of access to housing and fuel poverty as studied in the SOPHIE project. Our case studies in Spain showed that people facing housing insecurity, experienced intense levels of mental distress. We found that access to secure and adequate housing can improve the health of these populations, therefore, public policies that address housing instability and their consequences are urgently needed. Housing conditions related to fuel poverty are associated with poorer health and are unevenly distributed across Europe. We found possible positive effects of façade insulation interventions on cold-related mortality in women living in social housing; but not in men. Policies on housing energy efficiency can reduce the health consequences of fuel poverty, but need to be free to users, target the most vulnerable groups and be adaptable to their needs.

  19. Radionuclides in house dust

    CERN Document Server

    Fry, F A; Green, N; Hammond, D J

    1985-01-01

    Discharges of radionuclides from the British Nuclear Fuel plc (BNFL) reprocessing plant at Sellafield in Cumbria have led to elevated concentrations radionuclides in the local environment. The major routes of exposure of the public are kept under review by the appropriate Government departments and monitoring is carried out both by the departments and by BNFL itself. Recently, there has been increasing public concern about general environmental contamination resulting from the discharges and, in particular, about possible exposure of members of the public by routes not previously investigated in detail. One such postulated route of exposure that has attracted the interest of the public, the press and Parliament arises from the presence of radionuclides within houses. In view of this obvious and widespread concern, the Board has undertaken a sampling programme in a few communities in Cumbria to assess the radiological significance of this source of exposure. From the results of our study, we conclude that, alt...

  20. House While Woman Grows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şengül Öymen Gür

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Discourses on woman/space relations boomed in the 90s. The fundamental reason was to give support to the Feminist Movement. This trend which has had feeble effect on architectural design remained controversial. The comprehensive research expounded in this article which was based on an open-ended questionnaire that targeted at determining the gender roles at home, applied to female subjects who simulated the national demographics, clearly demonstrated that the home experience of an average Turkish woman basically consists of kitchens; the female who runs the house does not really have a place for herself at home. However she does not perceive her restrained, secondary role an issue worthy of struggling to change and she grants spaces for recreation and study to the male. The well-established civil laws conducive for equality has not changed this disturbing situation and do not seem to do so in the near future.

  1. Pathology of mass housing projects in Iran (Mehr Housing Plan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mass housing in construction industry is known as projects that mass production methods are used to construct residential units in it. Mass housing is a model of construction that has high economic, technical and managerial feasibility and should optimize three areas of quality, time and cost. But it should be noted that in ...

  2. Subsidized Housing, Public Housing, and Adolescent Violence and Substance Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leech, Tamara G. J.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the separate relationships of public housing residence and subsidized housing residence to adolescent health risk behavior. Data include 2,530 adolescents aged 14 to 19 who were children of the National the Longitudinal Study of Youth. The author used stratified propensity methods to compare the behaviors of each…

  3. Associations of passerine birds, rabbits, and ticks with Borrelia miyamotoi and Borrelia andersonii in Michigan, U.S.A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamer Sarah A

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Wild birds contribute to maintenance and dissemination of vectors and microbes, including those that impact human, domestic animal, and wildlife health. Here we elucidate roles of wild passerine birds, eastern cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus, and Ixodes dentatus ticks in enzootic cycles of two spirochetes, Borrelia miyamotoi and B. andersonii in a region of Michigan where the zoonotic pathogen B. burgdorferi co-circulates. Methods Over a four-year period, wild birds (n = 19,631 and rabbits (n = 20 were inspected for tick presence and ear tissue was obtained from rabbits. Samples were tested for Borrelia spirochetes using nested PCR of the 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer region (IGS and bidirectional DNA sequencing. Natural xenodiagnosis was used to implicate wildlife reservoirs. Results Ixodes dentatus, a tick that specializes on birds and rabbits and rarely bites humans, was the most common tick found, comprising 86.5% of the 12,432 ticks collected in the study. The relapsing fever group spirochete B. miyamotoi was documented for the first time in ticks removed from wild birds (0.7% minimum infection prevalence; MIP, in I. dentatus, and included two IGS strains. The majority of B. miyamotoi-positive ticks were removed from Northern Cardinals (Cardinalis cardinalis. Borrelia andersonii infected ticks removed from birds (1.6% MIP, ticks removed from rabbits (5.3% MIP, and rabbit ear biopsies (5% comprised twelve novel IGS strains. Six species of wild birds were implicated as reservoirs for B. andersonii. Frequency of I. dentatus larval and nymphal co-feeding on birds was ten times greater than expected by chance. The relatively well-studied ecology of I. scapularis and the Lyme disease pathogen provides a context for understanding how the phenology of bird ticks may impact B. miyamotoi and B. andersonii prevalence and host associations. Conclusions Given the current invasion of I. scapularis, a human biting species

  4. A New Index of Housing Sentiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bork, Lasse; Møller, Stig Vinther; Pedersen, Thomas Quistgaard

    We propose a new measure for housing sentiment and show that it accurately tracks expectations about future house price growth rates. We construct the housing sentiment index using partial least squares on household survey responses to questions about buying conditions for houses. We …find...... that housing sentiment explains a large share of the time-variation in house prices during both boom and bust cycles and it strongly outperforms several macroeconomic variables typically used to forecast house prices....

  5. Development of a Measure of Housing and Housing Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Colleen; Young, M Scott; Teague, Gregory; Rynearson-Moody, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    The Housing Program Measure (HPM) was designed to document critical elements of a range of housing program types and associated services. Qualitative methods, including literature review and open-ended interviews, were used to determine pertinent HPM domains and to develop the pool of items. The measure was pre-tested, and reliability and validity analyses were applied to revise and strengthen the measure. The resulting measure furthers homelessness research by providing a tool that can be used to define housing and housing services interventions across diverse projects and disciplines, to facilitate program management by matching housing resources to the needs of homeless individuals, and to support model development by measuring progress to goals.

  6. Economic analysis of passive houses and lowenergy houses compared to standard houses

    OpenAIRE

    Audenaert, Amaryllis; De Cleyn, S; Vankerckhove, B

    2007-01-01

    As the energy demand used for space heating accounts for 78% of EU15 household delivered energy consumption significant reductions in energy demand can be achieved by promoting low energy buildings. Our study investigates three building types: the standard house, the low-energy house and the passive house. As more far-reaching measures concerning energy savings usually lead to higher investments, the aim of our study is to perform an economic analysis in order to determine the economic viabil...

  7. Collaborative housing and housing providers : towards an analytical framework of multi-stakeholder collaboration in housing co-production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Czischke Ljubetic, D.K.

    2017-01-01

    Many European countries are experiencing a recent (re)emergence of collaborative housing, such as co-housing, housing co-operatives and other forms of collective self-organised housing. One of the less studied aspects of these housing forms is the relationship between users (i.e. residents) and

  8. Support housing for radioisotope generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fries, B.A.

    1976-01-01

    A support housing for on-site radioisotope generation is disclosed in which the formation of a short-lived daughter radioisotope from its longer-lived parent features countercurrent batch flow of the eluting reagent interior of the housing. 6 claims, 4 drawing figures

  9. The Philosophy of University Housing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, James A.

    2012-01-01

    This article examines a stated philosophy of university housing and the philosophy's effect on the facilitation of the personal and intellectual growth of students residing in the residence halls and the development of a sense of community. This particular philosophy governs the housing operations at Southern Illinois University at Carbondale.…

  10. Fire Sales and House Prices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Meisner Nielsen, Kasper

    We exploit a natural experiment in Denmark to investigate when forced sales lead to fire sale discounts. Forced sales result from sudden deaths of house owners in an institutional environment in which beneficiaries are forced to settle the estate, and hence sell the house, within 12 months. We...

  11. Environmentally Friendly Sustainable Housing Construction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Therefore it is right time, and is now both a great incentive and a great opportunity to use sustainable building construction techniques. Housing is a major sector and is responsible for about 20-30% of green house gas emissions in developed countries. Therefore an effective response to climate change can be achieved ...

  12. Unitary Housing Regimes in Transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bengtsson, Bo; Jensen, Lotte

    2013-01-01

    to the Danish and Swedish housing regimes are analysed and the responses and outcomes in terms of policy change and/or institutional continuity (path dependence) are compared. Overall, the more decentralized Danish housing regime seems to have resisted pressures for change and retrenchment better so far than...

  13. The demise of compound houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Jørgen; Eskemose Andersen, Jørgen

    2006-01-01

    of compound housing and analyses the advantages and disadvantages of life within such housing in Kumasi. Issues of privacy, image and communal life are usually cited by occupants dissatiesfied with life in compound houses, and the difficulty of extending them without spoiling the open spaces...... perceptions of what is acceptable urban life to the growing cohort of young African households. In addition, there is a need to explore innovative forms of tenure in order to secure the majority of Kumasi's population access to land for housing.......The compound house has long provided the accomodation required by low income households in West African cities. In Kumasi, Ghana, evidence suggests that no new compounds are being built. Instead, the city is being ringed by relatively affluent villa-style development while neighbourhoods dominated...

  14. Housing Welfare Policies in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lotte

    2013-01-01

    It is commonplace to refer to the Nordic countries of Sweden, Norway, Denmark, Finland and Iceland as a distinctive and homogenous welfare regime. As far as social housing is concerned, however, the institutional heritage of the respective countries significantly frames the ways in which social...... marketization, welfare criticism and internationalization. The aim is to provide outside readers a theoretically guided empirical insight into Scandinavian social housing policy. The paper first lines up the core of the inbuilt argument of historical institutionalism in housing policy. Secondly, it briefly...... the past quarter of a decade. The third section then concentrates on the differences between Denmark, Sweden and Norway in which social housing is, our was originally, embedded in a universal welfare policy targeting the general level of housing quality for the entire population. Differences stand out...

  15. The mast on the house

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landberg, L.

    1997-01-01

    . The knowledge gained will be used to give guide-lines as to the use of the WASP program to correct the observations. Should the house/hut simply be treated as an extension of the mast, should the house/hut be treated as a hill with speed-up effects, or should the house/hill be ignored completely? The paper...... will show that the house/hut should indeed be treated as a hill with speed-up effects. Placing meteorological masts on houses or huts is common practice in quite a few countries in the world. The problem is therefore one which most people involved in detailed wind resource assessment will face sooner...

  16. Farmworker Housing Quality and Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcury, Thomas A; Jacobs, Ilene J; Ruiz, Virginia

    2015-11-01

    On 11 November 2014, Farmworker Housing Quality and Health: A Transdisciplinary Conference was convened to draw together experts from the variety of disciplines who contribute to research and practice focused on farmworker housing and health in order to delineate current knowledge and propose next steps. The conference addressed three specific aims: (1) to consolidate current knowledge on characteristics and quality of housing provided for farmworkers; (2) to delineate pertinent directions and areas for farmworker housing health and safety research and policy; and (3) to facilitate the development of working groups to support the implementation of research, education, and engineering projects to improve farmworker housing. This article provides an overview of the conference. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. Unitary Housing Regimes in Transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bengtsson, Bo; Jensen, Lotte

    2013-01-01

    Path dependence is strong in housing institutions and policy. In both Denmark and Sweden, today’s universal and ‘unitary’ (Kemeny) housing regimes can be traced back to institutions that were introduced fifty years back in history or more. Recently, universal and unitary housing systems...... in Scandinavia, and elsewhere, are under challenge from strong political and economic forces. These challenges can be summarized as economic cutbacks, privatization and Europeanization. Although both the Danish and the Swedish housing system are universal and unitary in character, they differ considerably...... in institutional detail. Both systems have corporatist features, however in Denmark public housing is based on local tenant democracy and control, and in Sweden on companies owned and controlled by the municipalities, combined with a centralized system of rent negotiations. In the paper the present challenges...

  18. Women's housing conditions in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shefali, M K

    1996-01-01

    This news article describes women's housing conditions, housing policy, and pilot programs to house poor women in Bangladesh. Although Bangladesh has a constitution that reinforces the equal status of women, in practice, men dominate and patrilineal customs determine inheritance and property rights. Religious affiliation also determines land tenure and inheritance. Muslim women can inherit 12.5% of their husband's property if there are children. 25% is inherited if wives are without children. Hindu women without sons can inherit their husband's property, but not parental property. Many families refuse to release property to women without a fight. Women, regardless of ownership of land, rarely control or use their land. The custom of requiring men to maintain wives during the marriage, and daughters until marriage, creates obstacles to women's decision making about property. Without collateral and other security women are unable to secure bank loans. Many women are also constrained by the requirement of male consent or guarantees for bank transactions. Banks do not have a gender responsive criteria for selecting loan recipients. The government does not provide sufficient housing to satisfy the growing housing needs due to population growth. Some housing is available from slum landlords. A National Housing Policy was formulated in 1993. Priority would be given to the housing needs of low income women in urban areas and women-headed households with income below the poverty line. The policy does not address the underlying factors that prevent equal access to housing for women. The government prepared a Human Settlement and Urban Development proposal for the Habitat II conference. The plan did not address gender issues. Special efforts are being made by nongovernmental groups to meet the housing needs of professional women and for some disadvantaged women.

  19. 38 CFR 18.445 - Housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Housing. 18.445 Section....445 Housing. (a) Housing provided by a recipient. A recipient that provides housing to its nonhandicapped students shall provide comparable, convenient, and accessible housing to qualified handicapped...

  20. 24 CFR 3.405 - Housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Housing. 3.405 Section 3.405 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development... Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 3.405 Housing. (a) Generally...

  1. 45 CFR 605.45 - Housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Housing. 605.45 Section 605.45 Public Welfare... § 605.45 Housing. (a) Housing provided by the recipient. A recipient that provides housing to its nonhandicapped students shall provide comparable, convenient, and accessible housing to handicapped students at...

  2. 34 CFR 104.45 - Housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Housing. 104.45 Section 104.45 Education Regulations of... Postsecondary Education § 104.45 Housing. (a) Housing provided by the recipient. A recipient that provides housing to its nonhandicapped students shall provide comparable, convenient, and accessible housing to...

  3. HOUSING INSURANCE IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FLOREA IANC MARIA MIRABELA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Last few years have shown that Romania is not protected from the consequences of climate change. It is clear that type flood events may cause social problems and losses is difficult financing from public resources, especially in the context of the existence of budget constraints. The only viable system to cope with such disasters is insurance system that has the ability to spread risks by reinsurance Natural disasters - earthquakes, floods, landslides - are just some of the risks that may threaten your home. And if natural disasters can seem distant danger, think as fires, floods caused by broken pipes or theft of household goods are trouble can happen anytime to anyone. To protect yourself in such unpleasant situations, whose frequency is unfortunately on the rise, it is necessary to be assured. Thus, you will be able to recover losses in the event that they occur. The house is undoubtedly one of the most important assets we own. Therefore, the Romans began to pay increasingly more attention to domestic insurance products. Since 2011, voluntary home insurance, life insurance with, were the most dynamic segments of the market.

  4. Do housing regimes matter? : Assessing the concept of housing regimes through configurations of housing outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dewilde, C.L.

    2017-01-01

    Based on a conceptualisation of de-commodification as the right to decent and affordable housing, we assessed to what extent this right is realised for low-to-moderate-income owners and renters across Western European housing regimes in 1995 and 2012. If differences in the social production of

  5. 75 FR 5706 - Federal Housing Administration: Insurance for Manufactured Housing: Reopening of Public Comment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-04

    ... 2502-AI45 Federal Housing Administration: Insurance for Manufactured Housing: Reopening of Public.... ACTION: Proposed rule; reopening of public comment period. SUMMARY: On September 15, 2008, HUD published a proposed rule entitled ``Federal Housing Administration: Insurance for Manufactured Housing.'' The...

  6. Hexabromocyclododecane in terrestrial passerine birds from e-waste, urban and rural locations in the Pearl River Delta, South China: levels, biomagnification, diastereoisomer- and enantiomer-specific accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yu-Xin; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Mo, Ling; He, Ming-Jing; Zhang, Qiang; Chen, She-Jun; Zou, Fa-Sheng; Mai, Bi-Xian

    2012-12-01

    Diastereoisomers and enantiomers of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) were determined in muscle and stomach contents of three terrestrial passerine birds from e-waste, urban and rural locations in South China. The highest HBCD concentration was found at the urban site, followed by the e-waste site, suggesting that HBCD was linked to urbanization and industrialization, as well as e-waste recycling activities. Trophic magnification for α-HBCD was observed in the terrestrial food chain. Diastereisomeric pattern in birds showed the predominance of α-isomer, with a minor contribution of γ-isomer. The enantiomeric analysis revealed a preferential enrichment of (-)-α-HBCD and (+)-γ-HBCD. The similarity in enantiomeric fractions of HBCD isomers between muscle and stomach contents of birds suggested that dietary uptake may be responsible for the observed nonracemic distribution of HBCD isomers in the studied birds although in vivo enantioselective biotic processes cannot be ruled out. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. NOTES ON TAXONOMY AND DISTRIBUTION OF MYRSIDEA SERINI (SÉGUY, 1944 (PHTHIRAPTERA: AMBLYCERA: MENOPONIDAE ON SOUTHERN SOUTH AMERICAN PASSERINE BIRDS (AVES: PASSERIFORMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ARMANDO C. CICCHINO

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Myrsidea serini (Séguy, 1944 is recorded from three different passerine hosts from Argentina and Chile: Carduelis barbata (Molina, 1782 (Fringillidae, Chrysomus thilius petersi (Laubmann, 1934 and Agelaioides badius badius (Vieillot, 1819 (Icteridae. Somatic features and body measurements from available specimens belonging to these host-populations are compared with those recorded from Old World hosts, finding only some slight differences in certain body measurements (here interpreted as correlated to differences in host sizes, but none in chaetotaxy. This species was synoxenic with Myrsidea psittaci Carriker, 1955 on C. t. petersi in at least two localities in Buenos Aires Province, Argentina. Comparative studies of external chorionic architecture of the eggs, preferential sites of oviposition, prevalence has been carried out for both species, along with some remarks concerning the still problematic species, Myrsidea argentina (Kellogg, 1906, originally recorded off Carduelis magellanica (Vieillot, 1805.

  8. CoC Housing Inventory Count Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Continuum of Care (CoC) Homeless Assistance Programs Housing Inventory Count Reports are a snapshot of a CoC’s housing inventory, available at the national and state...

  9. Does migratory distance affect fuelling in a medium-distance passerine migrant?: results from direct and step-wise simulated magnetic displacements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Ilieva

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In birds, fat accumulation before and during migration has been shown to be endogenously controlled and tuned by, among other factors, the Earth's magnetic field. However, our knowledge about the influence of the geomagnetic field on the fuelling in migrating birds is still limited to just a few nocturnally migrating passerine species. In order to study if variations of the magnetic field can also influence the fuelling of both day- and night-migrating passerines, we caught first-year dunnocks (Prunella modularis and subjected them to three magnetic field conditions simulated by a system of magnetic coils: (1 local geomagnetic field of southern Sweden, (2 magnetic field corresponding to the centre of the expected wintering area, and (3 magnetic field met at the northern limit of the species' breeding distribution. We did not find a difference in mass increase between the birds kept in a local magnetic field and a field resembling their wintering area, irrespectively of the mode of magnetic displacement, i.e. direct or step-wise. However, the dunnocks magnetically displaced north showed a lower rate of fuelling in comparison to the control group, probably due to elevated activity. Compared with previous studies, our results suggest that the fuelling response to magnetic displacements during the migration period is specific to the eco-physiological situation. Future studies need to address if there is an effect of magnetic field manipulation on the level of migratory activity in dunnocks and how widespread the influence of local geomagnetic field parameters is on fuelling decisions in different bird species, which have different migratory strategies, distances and migration history.

  10. Art Practices & The Housing Crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Aitken, J.

    2016-01-01

    The Institute of Urban Dreaming (IUD) is hosting a one-day symposium examining how contemporary art practices engage with the current housing crisis. The event will consist of a series of talks and round table discussions. It aims to consider the encounter between art and housing in a critical, trans-disciplinary way. It will consider housing and art practice before & beyond the current trend for socially engaged art. It will also debate the ethics and politics of practices that relate to gen...

  11. House price responsiveness of housing investments across major European economies

    OpenAIRE

    Gattini, Luca; Ganoulis, Ioannis

    2012-01-01

    In comparison with the large literature on house prices, housing investments have been studied far less. This paper investigates the behaviour of private residential investments for the six largest European economies, namely: Germany, France, Italy, Spain, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom. It employs a common modelling structure based on an error correction approach and country specific models. First, co-integration among the parsimoniously specified set of fundamental variables is dete...

  12. Feeding and digestive responses to fatty acid intake in two South American passerines with different food habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ríos, Juan Manuel; Barceló, Gonzalo F; Narváez, Cristobal; Maldonado, Karin; Sabat, Pablo

    2014-08-01

    Specific fatty acids (FA) such as unsaturated (UFA) and saturated (SFA) fatty acids contained in foods are key factors in the nutritional ecology of birds. By means of a field and experimental approach, we evaluated the effect of diet on the activity of three esterases involved in FA hydrolysis; carboxylesterase (CE: 4-NPA-CE and a-NA-CE) and butyrylcholinesterase, in two South American passerines: the omnivorous rufous-collared sparrow (Zonotrichia capensis) and the granivorous common diuca-finch (Diuca diuca). The activity of the three esterases was measured in the intestines of freshly caught individuals over two distinct seasons and also after a chronic intake of a UFA-rich or SFA-rich diet in the laboratory. In turn, we assessed the feeding responses of the birds choosing amongst diets contrasting in the kind of specific FA (UFA- vs. SFA-treated diets). During summer, field CE activities (4-NPA-CE and a-NA-CE) in the small intestine were higher in the rufous-collared sparrow (25.3 ± 3.3 and 81.4 ± 10.8 µmol min(-1) g tissue(-1), respectively) than in the common diuca-finch (10.0 ± 3.0 and 33.9 ± 13.1 µmol min(-1) g tissue(-1), respectively). Two hour feeding trial test indicated that both species exhibited a clear preference for UFA-treated diets. On average, the rufous-collared sparrow consumed 0.46 g 2 h(-1) of UFA-rich diets and 0.12 g 2 h(-1) of SFA-rich diets. In turn, the consumption pattern of the common diuca-finch averaged 0.73 and 0.16 g 2 h(-1) for UFA-rich and SFA-rich diets, respectively. After a month of dietary acclimation to UFA-rich and SFA-rich diets, both species maintained body mass irrespective of the dietary regime. Additionally, the intestinal 4-NPA-CE activity exhibited by birds fed on a UFA-rich or SFA-rich diet was higher in the rufous-collared sparrow (39.0 ± 5.3 and 44.2 ± 7.3 µmol min(-1) g tissue(-1), respectively) than in the common diuca-finch (13.3 ± 1.9 and 11.2 ± 1.4 µmol min(-1) g tissue(-1), respectively

  13. White House Communications Agency - Phase II

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1996-01-01

    .... The Chairman, House Committee on Government Reform and Oversight; the Chairman, House Subcommittee on National Security, International Affairs, and Criminal Justice, Committee on Government Reform and Oversight...

  14. Architectural Strategies of Transformation to Modern Housing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, Terri

    2015-01-01

    This dissertation addresses the topic of sustainable transformation of Modern housing in Denmark......This dissertation addresses the topic of sustainable transformation of Modern housing in Denmark...

  15. Housing First or no housing? Housing and homelessness at the end of alcohol and drug treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyb, Evelyn

    2016-10-01

    The rate of alcohol and drug dependency is high among homeless persons in Norway as well as in other Western societies. National homeless surveys also show a certain correlation between discharge from institutions and homelessness. However, the rate of homelessness versus the rate with fixed abode at the end of specialised alcohol and drug treatment has not been examined using quantitative methods. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in alcohol and drug treatment units in the national health services and private clinics. The survey investigates the housing outcome at the end of treatment compared to the situation at the start of treatment using an individual questionnaire for patients ending treatment in a specific time window. Housing outcome is measured by the odds ratio of having a fixed abode at the end of treatment in relation to main intoxicating substance, type of treatment (in- and outpatient), completing versus cutting short the treatment, housing situation at the start of treatment, socioeconomic capital, mental health problems, individual plan, medical assisted treatment, and a set of background variables. The housing versus homeless situation hardly changes during the treatment period. In both a bivariate analysis and a simple multivariate model, principal intoxicating substance is the strongest predictor of having a fixed abode both before and after treatment. However, a more sophisticated analysis indicates that socioeconomic resources and social capital play along with the preferred intoxicating substance as predictors of having permanent housing. After more than a decade of a housing-led national homeless policy, and wide embracement of Housing First approaches in the European Union, homeless persons entering specialised alcohol and drug treatment are likely to return to the streets and hostels at the end of treatment. Access to housing after treatment is very limited for those lacking resources to solve their housing problem without assistance

  16. House passes resolution on occupation

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Venemaalt Baltimaade okupeerimise tunnistamist nõudva resolutsiooni vastuvõtmisest USA Kongressi Esindajate Kojas Leedu päritolu kongressmani John Shimkuse eestvedamisel. Vt. ka resolutsiooni teksti "House Concurrent Resolution 128" lk. 14

  17. Housing and energy in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marsh, Rob; Grupe Larsen, Vibeke; Kragh, Mikkel

    2010-01-01

    in electricity consumption, reflecting wider technological and social transformations in the movement from an industrial to a knowledge based society. In new housing it is shown that electricity consumption now dominates the total primary energy consumption, and that as a consequence traditional heat saving......  This paper examines the historical background, current context and future challenges for housing energy consumption in Denmark. There has been a radical transformation in housing energy consumption over the last 30 years, with an absolute reduction in heat consumption and a rapid growth...... paradigms are relatively less effective, and can result in overheating and rising electricity consumption. At the same time, climate change concerns show that rising temperatures will in the future result in a falling heat demand and increasing cooling demand in housing. With this background, a theoretical...

  18. Allegheny County Poor Housing Conditions

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This estimate of the percent of distressed housing units in each Census Tract was prepared using data from the American Community Survey and the Allegheny County...

  19. Housing equity withdrawal in Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ong, R.; Jefferson, T.; Austen, S.; Haffner, M.E.A.; Wood, G.A.

    2014-01-01

    More Australian home owners are using housing equity withdrawal to unlock financial resources to fund living expenses, especially in retirement. Policy is needed to address potential adverse consequences of these strategies.

  20. Multifamily Housing Rehabilitation Process Improvements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sweet, Marshall L. [Partnership for Home Innovation, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States); Francisco, Abby [Partnership for Home Innovation, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States); Roberts, Sydney G. [Partnership for Home Innovation, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Rea Ventures Group, LLC (Rea Ventures) partnered with Southface Energy Institute (Southface)—a member of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Partnership for Home Innovation Building America research team—to rehabilitate 418 low-income multifamily rental apartments located at 14 properties in Georgia (International Energy Conservation Code Climate Zones 2–4). These 22-year-old units with individual utility meters were arranged in row house or townhouse style. Rehabilitation plans were developed using a process prescribed by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Rural Development program, which partially funded the building upgrades. The USDA is responsible for building, upgrading, and subsidizing housing in rural areas nationwide; this housing includes more than 14,000 existing multifamily housing developments. In 2012, more than $100 million in grants and loans were allocated for that purpose.

  1. Indoor Air Quality Test House

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description:In order to enable studies of a range of indoor air quality and ventilation issues, EL maintains a highly instrumented three-bedroom test house. Previous...

  2. Economic analysis of passive houses and low-energy houses compared with standard houses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Audenaert, A.; Cleyn, S.H. de; Vankerckhove, B.

    2008-01-01

    As the energy demand used for space heating accounts for 78% of EU15 household delivered energy consumption, significant reductions in energy demand can be achieved by promoting low-energy buildings. Our study investigates three building types: the standard house, the low-energy house and the passive house. As more far-reaching measures concerning energy savings usually lead to higher investments, the aim of our study is to perform an economic analysis in order to determine the economic viability of the three building types

  3. The mast on the house

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landberg, L.

    2000-01-01

    will show that the house/hut should indeed be treated as a hill with speed-up effects. Placing meteorological masts on houses or huts is common practice in quite a few countries in the world. The problem is therefore one which most people involved in detailed wind resource assessment will face sooner......An often encountered problem when preparing the basic input data for a wind atlas study is the correction for the influence of the house or hut on which the mast—whose data form the basis of this wind atlas—is placed. The article will describe an experiment where this problem has been addressed....... The knowledge gained will be used to give guidelines as to the use of the WAsP program to correct the observations. Should the house/hut simply be treated as an extension of the mast, should the house/hut be treated as a hill with speed-up effects, or should the house/hill be ignored completely? The paper...

  4. Tracking Changes in European Housing Finance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunde, Jens; Whitehead, Christine

    2016-01-01

    The article discusses the changing trends in the housing finance industry of Europe. The article further mentions that the modus operandi of the industry has remained stable amid economic fluctuations in the overall housing sector between 1990-2015. Moreover, the need to reduce the public spending...... on housing is considered as one of the reasons for introducing private housing finance....

  5. 24 CFR 982.352 - Eligible housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... SECTION 8 TENANT BASED ASSISTANCE: HOUSING CHOICE VOUCHER PROGRAM Where Family Can Live and Move § 982.352 Eligible housing. (a) Ineligible housing. The following types of housing may not be assisted by a PHA in...; (5) Section 236 rental assistance payments; (6) Tenant-based assistance under the HOME Program; (7...

  6. 24 CFR 954.103 - Housing strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Housing strategy. 954.103 Section... INDIAN HOME PROGRAM Applying for Assistance § 954.103 Housing strategy. Grantees are not required to submit a housing strategy to receive HOME funds. However, the application must demonstrate how the...

  7. United States housing, first quarter 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delton Alderman

    2014-01-01

    Provides current and historical information on housing market in the United States. Information includes trends for housing permits and starts, housing under construction, and housing completions for single and multifamily units, and sales and construction. This report will be updated regularly.

  8. 22 CFR 229.405 - Housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Housing. 229.405 Section 229.405 Foreign... Programs or Activities Prohibited § 229.405 Housing. (a) Generally. A recipient shall not, on the basis of... services or benefits related to housing, except as provided in this section (including housing provided...

  9. 45 CFR 1170.45 - Housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Housing. 1170.45 Section 1170.45 Public Welfare... ACTIVITIES Postsecondary Education § 1170.45 Housing. (a) Housing provided by the recipient. A recipient that provides housing to its nonhandicapped students shall provide comparable, convenient, and accessible...

  10. 22 CFR 146.405 - Housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Housing. 146.405 Section 146.405 Foreign... Activities Prohibited § 146.405 Housing. (a) Generally. A recipient shall not, on the basis of sex, apply... benefits related to housing, except as provided in this section (including housing provided only to married...

  11. 7 CFR 15b.33 - Housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Housing. 15b.33 Section 15b.33 Agriculture Office of... RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Postsecondary Education § 15b.33 Housing. (a) Housing provided by the recipient. A recipient that provides housing to its nonhandicapped students shall provide comparable...

  12. 44 CFR 19.405 - Housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Housing. 19.405 Section 19... Prohibited § 19.405 Housing. (a) Generally. A recipient shall not, on the basis of sex, apply different rules... related to housing, except as provided in this section (including housing provided only to married...

  13. 45 CFR 84.45 - Housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Housing. 84.45 Section 84.45 Public Welfare... PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Postsecondary Education § 84.45 Housing. (a) Housing provided by the recipient. A recipient that provides housing to its nonhandicapped students shall...

  14. 49 CFR 25.405 - Housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Housing. 25.405 Section 25.405 Transportation... Activities Prohibited § 25.405 Housing. (a) Generally. A recipient shall not, on the basis of sex, apply... benefits related to housing, except as provided in this section (including housing provided only to married...

  15. 10 CFR 1042.405 - Housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Housing. 1042.405 Section 1042.405 Energy DEPARTMENT OF... Activities Prohibited § 1042.405 Housing. (a) Generally. A recipient shall not, on the basis of sex, apply... benefits related to housing, except as provided in this section (including housing provided only to married...

  16. 28 CFR 54.405 - Housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Housing. 54.405 Section 54.405 Judicial... Activities Prohibited § 54.405 Housing. (a) Generally. A recipient shall not, on the basis of sex, apply... benefits related to housing, except as provided in this section (including housing provided only to married...

  17. 22 CFR 217.45 - Housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Housing. 217.45 Section 217.45 Foreign... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Postsecondary Education § 217.45 Housing. (a) Housing provided by the recipient. A recipient that provides housing to its nonhandicapped students shall provide...

  18. 6 CFR 17.405 - Housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Housing. 17.405 Section 17.405 Domestic Security... Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 17.405 Housing. (a) General. A recipient shall not, on the... different services or benefits related to housing, except as provided in this section (including housing...

  19. 22 CFR 142.45 - Housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Housing. 142.45 Section 142.45 Foreign... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Postsecondary Education § 142.45 Housing. (a) Housing provided by the recipient. A recipient that provides housing to its nonhandicapped students shall provide...

  20. 7 CFR 3565.252 - Housing types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Housing types. 3565.252 Section 3565.252 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GUARANTEED RURAL RENTAL HOUSING PROGRAM Property Requirements § 3565.252 Housing types. The property may...

  1. Adventure of Architecture Example of Housing and Housing Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Asasoğlu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Housing and the concept of space associated with this requirement are among the initial attitudes towards the human reign over the nature. The dawn of the structured environment found life with this approach within the nature. Both, housing and the housing design process overlap with the historical development of modern man, and is covered within the concept of architecture today. The contribution made by culture within this period is yet another undeniable fact. While the interaction between architecture and culture are moving forward thereby leaving traces in every era throughout the history, the culture of housing and housing design exhibits a parallel attitude which is a subsidiary, yet a highly title with a close human relationship. Culture and architecture are two closely interacting aspects which are drawing the borders of each other from time to time, hinting at quality and quantity, and evaluating such. Quite naturally, the structure which is in a deep relationship with mankind is in an exchange with all physical, social and economic qualities of the human. These qualities are fundamental determinants of the concept of culture as a human trait. The process of architecture which is usually defined as a sequence of eras that involve social movements, impulses and trends, sometimes kept moving ahead in the pursuit of individual leadership and styles. The concerns regarding the solution of space problems, setting up /designing venues and arranging the environment in line with the requirements brought up increasingly complex issues and stacks of solutions which follow such problems. It is this dynamic structure which forms the basis of the architectural problem to date. Starting with the housing and residential concepts, this study brings a critical view on the application samples and methods of the relationship between architecture and culture in terms of our country in particular while putting emphasis on the architectural venture of the

  2. Community Resistance to Planned Housing for the Elderly: Ageism or General Antipathy to Group Housing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangum, Wiley P.

    1988-01-01

    Compared community resistance to elderly housing and to other group housing through survey of two suburban communities. Found all group housing was objectionable; least objectionable were one-story apartments, shared housing, and multi-story apartments for elderly, in that order. Antipathy to group housing was far more important predictor of…

  3. 24 CFR 982.606 - Congregate housing: Who may reside in congregate housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Special Housing Types Congregate Housing § 982.606 Congregate housing: Who may reside in congregate housing. (a) An elderly person or a person with disabilities may reside in a congregate housing unit. (b... person with disabilities. (2) The PHA must approve a live-in aide if needed as a reasonable accommodation...

  4. 24 CFR 8.25 - Public housing and multi-family Indian housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Public housing and multi-family Indian housing. 8.25 Section 8.25 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development NONDISCRIMINATION BASED ON HANDICAP IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS AND...

  5. 24 CFR 92.252 - Qualification as affordable housing: Rental housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Qualification as affordable housing: Rental housing. 92.252 Section 92.252 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development HOME INVESTMENT PARTNERSHIPS PROGRAM Project Requirements § 92.252...

  6. 24 CFR 8.28 - Housing certificate and housing voucher programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Housing certificate and housing voucher programs. 8.28 Section 8.28 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development NONDISCRIMINATION BASED ON HANDICAP IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS AND...

  7. Social housing solutions for Rome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Cangelli

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Research today should focus on building a fairer and more sustainable longterm development model, compared to the present situation, capable of effectively meeting the political, economic, market and social demands. Social housing encompasses all these elements and is currently in a phase of applied experimentation. For some time now universities have been usefully contributing to furthering the issue of social housing and the time is now ripe to apply the results produced by the large number of researches in this field. The aim of the paper is to provide an overview of the design process and the environmental features of the Master Plan relating to a significant Social Housing project in the area of Collina Muratella, in Rome, within the framework of a research project commissioned to the DATA Department of La Sapienza University of Rome by the construction firm Lamaro Appalti Unipersonale spa.

  8. Sustainable Plus-energy Houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazanci, Ongun Berk; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    This study is an outcome of Elforsk, project number 344-060, Bæredygtige Energi-Plus huse (Sustainable plus-energy houses). The focus of this report is to document the approach and the results of different analyses concerning a plus-energy, single family house. The house was designed...... was monitored. This report is structured as follows. Chapter 1 presents the project and briefly explains the different phases of the project. The details of the house’s construction and its HVAC system are explained in Chapter 2, along with the energy efficiency measures and innovations. Chapter 3 introduces...... the investigations carried out in detail, with respect to different phases of the project. The investigations presented are divided into four phases: design phase and pre-competition period, competition period, year-round measurements in Denmark, and improvement suggestions for building and HVAC system. The results...

  9. Problems of house arrest application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail Vladimirovich Kolesnikov

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective to determine the position of house arrest in the system of preventive measures and to identify the main problems of criminal procedural regulation that prevent its broader use during the preliminary investigation and trial. Methods dialectical approach to the analysis of social phenomena allowing to view them in static and dynamic aspect evolutionarysynergetic paradigm providing the opportunity to explore the phenomenon under investigation with respect to the system subordinate and coordinating relationships within the system. Dialectical approach and the evolutionarysynergetic paradigm determined the choice of specific methods of research historical comparative law comparative formallegal statistical. Results the problems arising with application of house arrest are grouped by author depending on the structure of the provisions of Article 107 of the CriminalProcedural Code of the Russian Federation. The first group of problems includes the determination of the location of the accused suspect under house arrest and the scope of the legal restrictions imposed. The second group includes the establishment of terms of house arrest and their subsequent renewal or change of the preventive measure. The third group is the identification of persons to which the house arrest will be the best preventive measure. The results of the study allow to make proposals to change the current wording of Art. 107 of the CriminalProcedural Code of Russia. Scientific novelty a comprehensive study of current state of the normativelegal regulation of house arrest in the context of its practical application. Practical value the main provisions and conclusions of the article can be used in scientific and pedagogical activity when considering questions about the nature of preventive measures related to the restraint of personal liberty of the accused. nbsp

  10. Informal activities delivering formal housing: A case study of house ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Also notable members of building artisanal associations were interviewed to obtain qualitative data. All data were analysed using descriptive statistical tools and content analysis for quantitative and qualitative data respectively. Result showed that housing provision activities at the local level undergoes different stages of ...

  11. Renewal of Postwar Housing Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Danielsen, Claus

    2015-01-01

    This paper assesses Danish postwar housing architecture in relation to the concept of ‘everyday tectonics’. It is argued that the extensive criticism of the architecture of the postwar housing developments is probably linked to their tectonic qualities, but that, to an even higher degree......, it is also linked to the normative changes and altered perceptions of ‘a good life’ which appeared after the buildings had been constructed. Three generations of renovation and redevelopment of the developments are described and analysed, and three different architectural strategies are mapped. The first two...

  12. Control rod housing alignment apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, R.C.; Deaver, G.A.; Punches, J.R.; Singleton, G.E.; Erbes, J.G.; Offer, H.P.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses an alignment device for precisely locating the position of the top of a control rod drive housing from an overlying and corresponding hole and alignment pin in a core plate within a boiling water nuclear reactor. It includes a shaft, the shaft having a length sufficient to extend from the vicinity of the top of the control rod drive housing up to and through the hole in the core plate; means for registering the top of the shaft to the hole in the core plate, the registering means including means for registering with an alignment pin in the core plate adjacent the hole

  13. Money Illusion and Housing Frenzies

    OpenAIRE

    Brunnermeier, Markus K; Julliard, Christian

    2007-01-01

    A reduction in inflation can fuel run-ups in housing prices if people suffer from money illusion. For example, investors who decide whether to rent or buy a house by simply comparing monthly rent and mortgage payments do not take into account the fact that inflation lowers future real mortgage costs. We decompose the price-rent ratio into a rational component—meant to capture the 'proxy effect' and risk premia—and an implied mispricing. We find that inflation and nominalinterest rates explain...

  14. Power System for Intelligent House

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Jahelka

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Power supply of intelligent houses or house phones is possible to do with standard transformer with voltage stabilizer or with intelligent power supply. Standard solution can has as a result of failure fuse blown or fire occurrence. Intelligent power supply switch off power and tests with little current whether short circuit is removed. After it resume system power supply. At the same time it cares of system backup with accumulator, informs control system about short circuit or failure net power supply, or can switch off all system power after command from control system.

  15. Assisted Housing - Low Income Housing Tax Credit Properties - National Geospatial Data Asset (NGDA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The Low-Income Housing Tax Credit (LIHTC) is the primary Federal program for creating affordable housing in the United States. The LIHTC database, created by HUD and...

  16. Assisted Housing - Housing Choice Vouchers by Tract - National Geospatial Data Asset (NGDA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development’s (HUD) Housing Choice Voucher Program (HCVP) is the federal government's major program for assisting very...

  17. Social Housing for Mine Workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allen, Nacho Ruiz; Ruiz Esquiroz, Jose Antonio

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the project was to design and build state subsidized housing in Cerredo (Asturias), a mining town located in the very heart of the Cantabrian Mountains, where no residential construction had been made for over 25 years. The volumetric we propose has an angular shape. It is a geometry...

  18. Housing Price Volatility and Econometrics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sunega, Petr; Lux, Martin; Zemčík, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 2 (2014), s. 70-78 ISSN 2336-2839 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP404/12/1446 Institutional support: RVO:68378025 ; RVO:67985998 Keywords : econometrics * housing prices * price bubbles Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography

  19. The Danish Social Housing Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rikke Skovgaard; Haagerup, Christian Deichmann

    2017-01-01

    With Denmark faring reasonably well through the global financial crisis, the policy changes to the social housing sector caused by the crisis have been limited. Nevertheless, changes have taken place nonetheless both in terms of policy and in the residential composition of the sector which policies...

  20. Fire Sales and House Prices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Meisner Nielsen, Kasper

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates when forced sales of real estate turn into fire sales by using a natural experiment that allows us to separate supply and demand effects: Forced sales result from sudden death of house owners and are thus unrelated to current market conditions. We find that forced sales...

  1. Literacy House: Annual Report 1968.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Literacy House, Lucknow (India).

    The 1968 annual report of Literacy House focuses on functional literacy, food production, and family planning as well as on structural reorganization. A new organizational chart is included and the role of each individual in the organization is presented. The primary functions (training and research), and some details about the work of the…

  2. Plex housing: a renewed tradition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    Maisonettes, duplexes and triplexes have enjoyed much success some 60 to 100 years ago, particularly in Montreal. They are still being built in Montreal, but despite their continuing appeal, they have several drawbacks in today's context, not the least of which are small rooms, dysfunctional kitchens, lack of storage space, narrow outside spaces and lack of intimacy. A CMHC-sponsored study has been commissioned to provide a better understanding of the role of plex houses within today's housing context, to assess their ability to accommodate contemporary interests, lifestyles, design and construction practices, and to assess their potential to be revitalized to take advantage of their many benefits that fit in well with today's stress on fostering social interaction and encouraging sustainable development. This fact sheet places special emphasis on the structural and facade components of plex houses, with suggestions on how new design, new construction materials and methods could be used to re-popularize this type of housing that is so much part of the character and quality of life of many of the older areas of Montreal and other cities.

  3. Performance analysis on natural energy autonomous house, HARBEMAN house; Shizen energy jiritsu house (HARBEMAN house) no simulation ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujino, T.; Saito, T. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    Outlined herein are a procedure developed to simulate performance of an energy-autonomous (independent) solar house referred to as HARBEMAN HOUSE (HH) built in 1996 in City of Sendai, comparison between the simulated and observed results, and characteristics of the solar house. The house is equipped with a solar collector and sky radiator, both installed on the roof, the former facing south to collect solar energy and generate hot water whereas the latter facing north to radiate heat and generate cool water. Both are connected to an underground heat-insulated tank having a capacity of 31m{sup 3}, which stores hot or cool water to keep their conditions for extended periods. The solar system operates in heat- or cool-storage mode. In the heat-storage mode, quantity of heat stored increases, although at a slow rate, as tank capacity increases. In the cool-storage mode, on the other hand, quantity of cool stored increases in proportion to tank capacity. This is because solar energy is collected throughout the year whereas cooling by radiation is concentrated in early spring. Loss rate of heat stored increases as tank capacity increases, and the opposite trend is observed with cool stored. 12 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. The House as a Product

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eekhout, A.J.C.M.; Vogler, A.

    2016-01-01

    Industrialized housing has been a common phenomenon in the building industry since the industrial revolution; the casting of iron components enabled Victorian iron casters to prefabricate entire buildings and to export them to all British colonies. It got a second boost from Modernist architects

  5. The demise of compound houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Jørgen; Eskemose Andersen, Jørgen

    2006-01-01

    The compound house has long provided the accomodation required by low income households in West African cities. In Kumasi, Ghana, evidence suggests that no new compounds are being built. Instead, the city is being ringed by relatively affluent villa-style development while neighbourhoods dominated...

  6. Retrofitting of existing housing stock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Unterrainer, Walter

    2015-01-01

    The paper is a case study in retrofitting an urban quarter with social housing of the 1950´s and 1960´s - a model project in Amberg/Germany. It documents and discusses applied ´acupuncture´ and innovative strategies on very different scales as well as on different layers, in order to meet the goa...

  7. House Prices and Public Debt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjedsted Nielsen, Mads; Rzeznik, Aleksandra

    By using the 2002 case of fraud in the Danish municipality Farum by then mayor Peter Brixtofte as an exogenous shock to public debt of 1 billion DKK, I estimate the effect of public debt on house prices. I find that the average home ownership lost about 570,000 DKK or as much as 29% of the average...

  8. Housing & woodworking: latest trends & impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urs Buehlmann; Matt Bumgardner; Karen. Koenig

    2014-01-01

    Trends in housing and other construction-related sectors continue to have a significant impact on the wood products industry, particularly cabinetry, furniture, millwork and components. This fifth annual survey assesses the market conditions for secondary woodworking manufacturers involved in construction-based sectors and includes information on their status and...

  9. Tomorrow's house: solar housing in 1940s America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Daniel A

    2014-01-01

    In the years surrounding World War II, solar house heating was seen by many American architects, journal editors, and policymakers as a necessary component of the expansion into suburbia. As the technological and financial aspects of home ownership came to take on broad social implications, design strategies of architectural modernism--including the expansive use of glass, the open plan and façade, and the flexible roof line--were seen as a means to construct suburbs that were responsive to anticipated concerns over materials allocations, over energy-resource scarcity, and over the economic challenges to postwar growth. As this article demonstrates, experiments in passive solar house design were a prominent means for envisioning the suburbs as an opportunity for new kinds of building and new ways of living. The article documents these developments and places them in the context of related efforts to think about the future.

  10. Are there different requirements for trace elements in eumelanin- and pheomelanin-based color production? A case study of two passerine species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zduniak, Piotr; Surmacki, Adrian; Erciyas-Yavuz, Kiraz; Chudzińska, Maria; Barałkiewicz, Danuta

    2014-09-01

    Melanin is the most common pigment in animal integuments including bird plumage. It has been shown that several trace elements may play roles in the production and signaling function of melanin-colored plumage. We investigated coloration and content of various metal elements in the rectrices of two insectivorous passerines, Common Redstarts (Phoenicurus phoenicurus) and Blackcaps (Sylvia atricapilla), which have eumelanin- and pheomelanin-based coloration, respectively. We hypothesized that 1) the two species would differ in concentrations of metals important in melanin synthesis (Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn), 2) differences in metal concentration levels would be related to feather coloration. Our study confirmed the first prediction and provides the first evidence that selected elements may play a greater role in pheomelanin than in eumelanin synthesis. Concentrations of three elements considered as important in melanin synthesis (Ca, Fe, Zn) were 52% to 93% higher in rusty colored Common Redstart feathers compared to the dark gray Blackcap feathers. However, element concentrations were not correlated with feather coloration or sex in either species. Our study suggests that, of the two melanin forms, pheomelanin synthesis may bear higher costs associated with the acquisition of specific elements or limited elements may create trade-offs between ornamentation and other physiological functions. Our findings warrant further investigations designed to better understand the roles of macro- and microelements in the synthesis of both forms of melanin. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. 24 CFR 1006.101 - Housing plan requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... period covered by the plan, including transitional housing; homeless housing; college housing; and... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Housing plan requirements. 1006.101 Section 1006.101 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development...

  12. Competition between social and private rental housing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lennartz, C.

    2013-01-01

    In the context of shifting regulatory approaches and changing provision structures in many Western rental housing systems, the notion of competition between social and private rental housing has received increasing attention from practitioners and academic researchers. This thesis explores and

  13. A New Index of Housing Sentiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bork, Lasse; Møller, Stig Vinther; Pedersen, Thomas Quistgaard

    We propose a new measure for housing sentiment and show that it accurately tracks expectations about future house price growth rates. We construct the housing sentiment index using partial least squares on questions related to consumers' opinions of buying conditions for houses from University...... of Michigan's consumer survey. We find that housing sentiment strongly outperforms several macroeconomic variables typically used to forecast house prices. An in-sample forecast regression using quarterly data over the period 1975-2014 shows that housing sentiment is able to explain 48 percent of next quarter......'s national house price growth. Out-of-sample forecast regressions yield similar results. The strong predictive power of the sentiment index is robust across forecast horizons and holds at the state-level....

  14. Creating Affordable Housing through self-management:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Ole; Stensgaard, Anne Gro

    The paper presents a case on self-management in the Danish social housing sector as a way of providing affordable housing. It is based on an evaluation of a Danish concept for affordable housing, Social Housing Plus (“AlmenBolig+”). The concept was introduced in 2007, and so far app 1.400 housing......-management” amongst the residents, which is a new and controversial approach in the Danish social housing sector, where the traditional approach is a high service level regarding maintenance, operation and administration, but these services also have a high impact on the rent. This paper will outline the ideas behind...... the Social Housing Plus-concept, the preconditions for the self-management approach, and the experiences so far from the various housing estates built on the concept. This will include a discussion of the social impacts of the selfmanagement among the residents, e.g. in relation to a participation and sense...

  15. Capital Gains Taxation and House Price Fluctuations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuest, Clemens; Nielsen, Søren Bo

    2004-01-01

    Recent years have seen large swings in house prices in many countries. Motivated by housing price variations, proposals for taxing capital gains on housing have repeatedly been put forth. The idea seems to be that such taxes would curb the redistribution occurring between those owning houses...... and those trying to get into the market for owner-occupied housing. Our paper shows that at least in simple settings, a tax on real capital gains on housing will only lead to even bigger price swings and will not be able to redistribute between people appearing on either side of the housing market.......Keywords: capital gains tax, housing market, price fluctuationsJEL-Classification: H23, H24, R 31.Addresses:...

  16. Comprehensive Housing Affordability Strategy (CHAS) 2008 - 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) periodically receives custom tabulations of data from the U.S. Census Bureau that are largely not...

  17. DoD Leasing of Family Housing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Steensma, David

    1991-01-01

    .... The audit objectives were to determine if the Services acquire family housing under build-to-lease arrangements in compliance with Public Law 98-115, if leasing of family housing is an economical...

  18. Opportunities for manufactured housing in Canada

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bairstow, Dale

    1985-01-01

    In the fall of 1984, Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation commissioned this study because it wanted to find out why manufactured housing appeared to be increasing in importance in certain foreign...

  19. Going Smokefree Matters - Multiunit Housing Infographic

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Explore the Going Smokefree Matters – Multiunit Housing Infographic which outlines key facts related to the effects of secondhand smoke exposure in multiunit housing.

  20. Poor housing quality: Prevalence and health effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Emma; Lester, Laurence H; Bentley, Rebecca; Beer, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Housing is a central component of productive, healthy, and meaningful lives, and a principle social determinant of health and well-being. Surprisingly, though, evidence on the ways that housing influences health in Australia is poorly developed. This stems largely from the fact that the majority of the population are accommodated in good quality housing. The dominance of a "good housing paradigm" means that households living in poor quality and unhealthy housing are doubly disadvantaged-by the quality of their housing and because policy makers in Australia do not acknowledge the health effects of housing. In this article, we examine the relationship between health outcomes and quality of housing. We base our analysis on data from the Household Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) survey, a panel dataset that is representative across Australia. We find a sizeable, policy-important, and to date under-acknowledged cohort of Australians whose health is influenced by poor-condition dwellings.

  1. THE SYSTEM OF HOUSE FINANCING IN ROMANIA

    OpenAIRE

    Gina Cristina BANICA; Cornelia PARLOG

    2007-01-01

    The system of house financing represents a part of the system for house building and acquisition. It is made up of a net of intermediaries which offer, on one side, the financial instruments needed for savings and inputs mobilization, while on the other side they offer credits (outputs) for buying houses and for works intended to achieve the modernization of the house. It is conceived and used in close connection with national , regional and local politics and programs.

  2. Bioclimatic architecture and Traditional Houses in Diyarbakir

    OpenAIRE

    Can Tuncay Akin

    2006-01-01

    Today although a contemporary house or apartment is built with new materials according to technology and regulations to provide a satisfactory microclimate within the building, it is difficult to say they are successful comparing with a house that is constructed with traditional methods and materials even built by a non-architect. In this paper microclimatic elements of traditional Diyarbakýr houses are determined systemically comparing with the typology, design features that makes a house su...

  3. Disagreement in the Norwegian housing market

    OpenAIRE

    Wingate, Alexander; Svensen, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Do differences of opinion affect house prices? This thesis investigates how disagreement affects house prices and housing turnover. We construct a disagreement index using household’s beliefs on future house price developments. The main contribution of this study is that the household survey captures real expectations in contrast to many similar studies that use analyst forecasts or volatility based measures. This study finds that higher disagreement is significantly associated wi...

  4. About the modern house - and the classical

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauberg, Jørgen

    2010-01-01

    In text and illustrations describes the classical house and the classical city, represented by Andrea Palladio (1508-80), and the modern house, the modern city and building task, represented by Le Corbusier (1857-1965).......In text and illustrations describes the classical house and the classical city, represented by Andrea Palladio (1508-80), and the modern house, the modern city and building task, represented by Le Corbusier (1857-1965)....

  5. Post-Tsunami Reconstruction in Sri Lanka: Houses or Housing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazai, B.; Franco, G.; Ingram, J. C.; Rumbaitis del Rio, C.

    2005-12-01

    Reconstruction can be an opportunity to address longer-term livelihood vulnerability within poor communities and households, and to empower the most vulnerable. The post-tsunami reconstruction efforts in Sri Lanka can be seen on two disconnected scales. On a local scale there seems to be a growing recognition by district-level government and NGOs on the importance of households in creating social, human and financial capital, as demonstrated by many programs targeted at rebuilding livelihoods and income-generating activities. On a national scale, however, programs have revealed an emphasis on houses as the physical capital rather than housing as the arena of social and economic life. The aim of national-scale programs is to deliver tangible and quantifiable products, in the form of houses built, often without regard of whether this complements or disrupts livelihoods. One example of such a directive is the implementation of a coastal buffer zone which will ban any new construction within a 100 to 200 meter band from the ocean and allowing only structures that sustained less than 40 percent damage to remain and rebuild. In general these kind of surviving structures along the coast are businesses such as hotels and restaurants. In an island nation such as Sri Lanka, where beach front property is by and large considered low-income housing, typically inhabited by fishermen who rely on the ocean for their livelihoods, the buffer zone constitutes a drastic oversight of local processes shaping these households. The product-oriented solution on the national scale has resulted in building permanent houses for fishery communities in resettlement sites kilometers away from the ocean. The focus of this presentation will be on reconciling the need for immediate shelter needs with a long-term perspective of livelihood rehabilitation using Sri Lanka as a case study. Houses themselves are often not an immediate priority for local people, whose first need is likely to resume income

  6. Renewal of Postwar Housing Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Danielsen, Claus

    2015-01-01

    This paper assesses Danish postwar housing architecture in relation to the concept of ‘everyday tectonics’. It is argued that the extensive criticism of the architecture of the postwar housing developments is probably linked to their tectonic qualities, but that, to an even higher degree......, it is also linked to the normative changes and altered perceptions of ‘a good life’ which appeared after the buildings had been constructed. Three generations of renovation and redevelopment of the developments are described and analysed, and three different architectural strategies are mapped. The first two...... strategies spring from a critical approach to the original architecture of the industrialised construction. The two strategies seek to break away from this architecture by altering the original buildings: either by changing their style or changing their tectonics. The third strategy neither breaks...

  7. Wood-framed houses for earthquake zones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Klavs Feilberg

    Wood-framed houses with a sheathing are suitable for use in earthquake zones. The Direction describes a method of determining the earthquake forces in a house and shows how these forces can be resisted by diaphragm action in the walls, floors, and roof, of the house. An appendix explains how...

  8. Your Housing Dollar. [Revised.] Money Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baran, Nancy H., Ed.; Tarrant, Sharon M., Ed.

    This booklet on housing, 1 in a series of 12, covers all the basic aspects of personal- and family-money management. Suitable for use by high school and college students as well as adults, this handbook shows how to determine housing needs and analyze housing costs, whether one rents, buys, or builds a home. The first five sections briefly…

  9. Innovative solutions in passive house details

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mlecnik, E.; Hilderson, W.

    2008-01-01

    For the realization of the first passive house demonstration projects in Belgium, passive houses were requested by convinced clients, designed by architects with experience in low energy building, and built by contractors with a feeling for working in building teams. These first passive house

  10. Social Housing in the Netherlands, Chapter 10

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsinga, M.; Wassenberg, F.

    2007-01-01

    Nowhere else in Europe does social housing dominate the housing market as it does in the Netherlands. Over one third of all households rent a social-sector dwelling. There are 2.4 million social rented dwellings, a number that has been stable during the last decade. Almost all social housing is

  11. The Crisis in Low-Income Housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, J. Roderick

    1989-01-01

    Describes the lack of low- and moderate-income housing as a growing national crisis. Presents data from a report of the National Housing Task Force and discusses activities of the National Corporation for Housing Partnerships. Advocates federal, state and local government, and private sector involvement in developing a national agenda for housing…

  12. 24 CFR 982.619 - Cooperative housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT SECTION 8 TENANT BASED ASSISTANCE: HOUSING CHOICE VOUCHER PROGRAM Special Housing Types... from a cooperative member (such rental assistance is not a special housing type, and is subject to..., operating expenses, and necessary payments to cooperative reserve funds. However, the carrying charge does...

  13. 29 CFR 1917.41 - House falls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false House falls. 1917.41 Section 1917.41 Labor Regulations...) MARINE TERMINALS Cargo Handling Gear and Equipment § 1917.41 House falls. (a) Span beams shall be secured... working with house fall blocks. (c) Designated employees shall inspect chains, links, shackles, swivels...

  14. House Prices, Bubbles and City Size

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J.P.M. Thissen (Mark); M.J. Burger (Martijn); F.G. van Oort (Frank)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractWe build a theoretical model that relates house price, city size and the expected future growth of demand for housing. Our model combines the Alonso-Mills model on urban economics with insights from financial economics on house prices. Estimating the model for cities in the US, we

  15. A social philosophy of housing

    OpenAIRE

    King, Peter

    2003-01-01

    This book presents an original perspective by opening up housing to a philosophical approach. It fully integrates discussions on contemporary housing policy and social philosophy in a manner not previously attempted in the housing literature. Professor Jim Kemeny (Uppsala University) described it as ‘the first systematic application of social philosophy from an individual choice perspective’.

  16. Health performance of housing : Indicators and tools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hasselaar, E.

    2006-01-01

    Occupants in air-tight houses and with poorly maintained mechanical ventilation systems have stimulated the study of health hazards of housing. Five hundred houses were inspected, to diagnose the relation between lay-out, construction, technical services, interior decorations and potential indoor

  17. 45 CFR 618.405 - Housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Housing. 618.405 Section 618.405 Public Welfare... the Basis of Sex in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 618.405 Housing. (a) Generally. A... requirements, or offer different services or benefits related to housing, except as provided in this section...

  18. 28 CFR 551.104 - Housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Housing. 551.104 Section 551.104 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT MISCELLANEOUS Pretrial Inmates § 551.104 Housing. To the extent practicable, pretrial inmates will be housed separately from convicted...

  19. 43 CFR 41.405 - Housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Housing. 41.405 Section 41.405 Public... in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 41.405 Housing. (a) Generally. A recipient shall not... offer different services or benefits related to housing, except as provided in this section (including...

  20. 7 CFR 15a.32 - Housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Housing. 15a.32 Section 15a.32 Agriculture Office of... § 15a.32 Housing. (a) General. A recipient shall not, on the basis of sex, apply different rules or regulations, impose different fees or requirements, or offer different services or benefits related to housing...

  1. 38 CFR 23.405 - Housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Housing. 23.405 Section... Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 23.405 Housing. (a) Generally... fees or requirements, or offer different services or benefits related to housing, except as provided in...

  2. 40 CFR 5.405 - Housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Housing. 5.405 Section 5.405 Protection... in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 5.405 Housing. (a) Generally. A recipient shall not... offer different services or benefits related to housing, except as provided in this section (including...

  3. 45 CFR 2555.405 - Housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Housing. 2555.405 Section 2555.405 Public Welfare... Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 2555.405 Housing. (a... different fees or requirements, or offer different services or benefits related to housing, except as...

  4. 29 CFR 36.405 - Housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Housing. 36.405 Section 36.405 Labor Office of the Secretary....405 Housing. (a) Generally. A recipient shall not, on the basis of sex, apply different rules or regulations, impose different fees or requirements, or offer different services or benefits related to housing...

  5. 10 CFR 5.405 - Housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Housing. 5.405 Section 5.405 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY....405 Housing. (a) Generally. A recipient shall not, on the basis of sex, apply different rules or regulations, impose different fees or requirements, or offer different services or benefits related to housing...

  6. 18 CFR 1317.405 - Housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Housing. 1317.405... Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 1317.405 Housing. (a... different fees or requirements, or offer different services or benefits related to housing, except as...

  7. 36 CFR 1211.405 - Housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Housing. 1211.405 Section... Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 1211.405 Housing. (a... different fees or requirements, or offer different services or benefits related to housing, except as...

  8. 32 CFR 196.405 - Housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Housing. 196.405 Section 196.405 National... Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 196.405 Housing. (a... different fees or requirements, or offer different services or benefits related to housing, except as...

  9. 34 CFR 106.32 - Housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Housing. 106.32 Section 106.32 Education Regulations of... Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 106.32 Housing. (a) Generally... fees or requirements, or offer different services or benefits related to housing, except as provided in...

  10. 31 CFR 28.405 - Housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Housing. 28.405 Section 28.405 Money... in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 28.405 Housing. (a) Generally. A recipient shall not... offer different services or benefits related to housing, except as provided in this section (including...

  11. 13 CFR 113.405 - Housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Housing. 113.405 Section 113.405... Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Education Programs Or Activities Prohibited § 113.405 Housing. (a... different fees or requirements, or offer different services or benefits related to housing, except as...

  12. 14 CFR 1253.405 - Housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Housing. 1253.405 Section 1253.405... in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 1253.405 Housing. (a) Generally. A recipient shall..., or offer different services or benefits related to housing, except as provided in this section...

  13. 15 CFR 8a.405 - Housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Housing. 8a.405 Section 8a.405... in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 8a.405 Housing. (a) Generally. A recipient shall not... offer different services or benefits related to housing, except as provided in this section (including...

  14. 41 CFR 101-4.405 - Housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Housing. 101-4.405... Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 101-4.405 Housing. (a) Generally. A recipient shall not, on... offer different services or benefits related to housing, except as provided in this section (including...

  15. 45 CFR 86.32 - Housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Housing. 86.32 Section 86.32 Public Welfare... in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 86.32 Housing. (a) Generally. A recipient shall not... offer different services or benefits related to housing, except as provided in this section (including...

  16. Rethinking Affordable Housing Delivery: An Analytical Insight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olanrewaju Abdullateef

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaysia currently has a housing shortage of 12 million units. Towards the year 2020, this would require an annual supply of a minimum of 2 million homes. With the current production rate, the deficits will remain over the next 100 years. The crisis will lead to poor standards of living, un-affordable rental price, high mortgage payment, abandonment, and dilapidation of the existing housing stock. Lack of affordable housing is already a source of concern among many Malaysians. The middle and lower income earners spend more than 30% of their income on rent or for mortgage payment. Housing rent or mortgage is a basic need like foods, education, clothing and health. The government has introduced various measures to address the housing deficit. Despite these measures, the housing supply and distribution gaps continue to grow. To better understand the issues, there is a need to examine how the procurement planning in the affordable housing delivery supply chain and market is formulated, explore how cost of affordable housing would be reduced, identify the user value systems in affordable housing, and identify the criteria in the current regulatory framework? For these purposes, this paper reviews the relevant literature to reach preliminary findings on the stated issues. Among the factors found accounting for housing shortages, the overwhelming factors were that of poor policies, strategies, practice, management, and finance. The findings are meaningful in framing an affordable housing delivery model. It could also be useful to stakeholders involved in affordable housing delivery in Malaysia and elsewhere.

  17. Variation in housing design: identifying customer preferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofman, Erwin; Halman, Johannes I.M.; Ion, Roxana A.

    2006-01-01

    House builders in different countries are exploring ways to deliver higher levels of customisation in housing design. To create such variety at acceptable cost, it is important to know how potential buyers of new houses prioritise the different elements such as bathroom, kitchen and roof type of a

  18. Chicagoland Single-Family Housing Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spanier, J. [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR), Des Plaines, IL (United States); Scheu, R. [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR), Des Plaines, IL (United States); Brand, L. [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR), Des Plaines, IL (United States); Yang, J. [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR), Des Plaines, IL (United States)

    2012-06-01

    In this report, the PARR team identifies housing characteristics and energy use for fifteen housing types in the Chicagoland (Cook County, Illinois) region and specifies measure packages that provide an optimum level of energy savings based on a BEopt analysis. The analysis is based on assessor data and actual energy consumption data on 432,605 houses representing approximately 30% of the population.

  19. Chicagoland Single-Family Housing Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spanier, J.; Scheu, R.; Brand, L.; Yang, J.

    2012-06-01

    In this report, the PARR team identifies housing characteristics and energy use for fifteen housing types (groups) in the Chicagoland (Cook County, Illinois) region and specifies measure packages that provide an optimum level of energy savings based on a BEopt analysis. The analysis is based on assessor data and actual energy consumption data on 432,605 houses representing approximately 30% of the population.

  20. House dust extracts contain potent immunological adjuvants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beukelman, C.J.; Dijk, H. van; Aerts, P.C.; Rademaker, P.M.; Berrens, L.; Willers, J.M.N.

    1987-01-01

    A crude aqueous extract of house dust and two house dust subfractions were tested for adjuvant activity in a sensitivity assay performed in mice. Evidence is presented that house dust contains at least two potent immunological adjuvants. One of these, present in both subfractions, was probably

  1. Assessing housing growth when census boundaries change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandra D. Syphard; Susan I. Stewart; Jason McKeefry; Roger B. Hammer; Jeremy S. Fried; Sherry Holcomb; Volker C. Radeloff

    2009-01-01

    The US Census provides the primary source of spatially explicit social data, but changing block boundaries complicate analyses of housing growth over time. We compared procedures for reconciling housing density data between 1990 and 2000 census block boundaries in order to assess the sensitivity of analytical methods to estimates of housing growth in Oregon. Estimates...

  2. Community Participation in Housing Development Trends: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this article is to assess the extent of community participation in housing development trends in Khayelitsha Township in Cape Town. Even though the 1994 democracy ushered in new directives on housing provision by the state, there is still a backlog in providing affordable houses to the poor and needy. A mixed ...

  3. Building America House Simulation Protocols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendron, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Engebrecht, Cheryn [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2010-09-01

    The House Simulation Protocol document was developed to track and manage progress toward Building America's multi-year, average whole-building energy reduction research goals for new construction and existing homes, using a consistent analytical reference point. This report summarizes the guidelines for developing and reporting these analytical results in a consistent and meaningful manner for all home energy uses using standard operating conditions.

  4. Spatial housing economics: a survey

    OpenAIRE

    Meen, Geoff

    2016-01-01

    This introduction to the Virtual Special Issue surveys the development of spatial housing economics from its roots in neo-classical theory, through more recent developments in social interactions modelling, and touching on the role of institutions, path dependence and economic history. The survey also points to some of the more promising future directions for the subject that are beginning to appear in the literature. The survey covers elements hedonic models, spatial econometrics, neighbourh...

  5. Multifamily Housing Rehabilitation Process Improvements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sweet, Marshall L. [Partnership for Home Innovation, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States); Francisco, Abby [Partnership for Home Innovation, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States); Roberts, Sydney G. [Partnership for Home Innovation, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Rea Ventures Group, LLC, (Rea Ventures) partnered with Southface Energy Institute (Southface) on the rehabilitation of 418 low-income rental multifamily apartments located at 14 different properties in Georgia (Climate Zones 2-4). These 22-year old, individually-metered units were arranged in rowhouse or townhouse style units. Rehabilitation plans were developed using a process prescribed by the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) Rural Development program, who partially funded the building upgrades. The USDA is responsible for building, upgrading, and subsidizing housing in rural areas nationwide. In 2012, over $100 million was allocated in grants and loans. Due to the unique financing mechanism as well as long-term ownership requirements, property owners are especially motivated to invest in upgrades that will increase durability and tenant retention. These buildings represent a large stock of rural affordable housing that have the potential for significant energy and cost savings for property owners and tenants. Southface analyzed the energy upgrade potential of one stereotypical property in the Rea Ventures portfolio. This study will provide insight into the most cost-effective, implementable energy efficiency and durability upgrades for this age multifamily housing, having an enormous impact not only on the portfolio of Rea Ventures but on the vast USDA and larger Federal portfolio. Additionally, Southface will identify gaps in the current capital needs assessment process, examine available audit and simulation tools and protocols, and evaluate additional auditor training or certification needs.

  6. Mass Housing and Changings in Housing Demand, Case of Diyarbakir, Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    M. Oguz Sinemillioglu; Can Tuncay Akın; Havva Özyılmaz

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze changings in housing demand, especially in term of house size in Diyarbakır case, in Turkey. Though Housing in Turkey is in a free market system, there is a Mass Housing Administration (TOKÃ ) has been doing mass houses for, relatively, middle class income people. Diyarbakır, one of the cities that TOKÃ has done two thousand houses, has taken too much migration, so that the demand in housing form and structure has different alterations. This process should ...

  7. The transformation of the dimension of the meaning of traditional house joglo into a modern house

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmini; Nadiroh, Ulin; Wakidah Basriyani, Ani

    2018-01-01

    Joglo is a traditional Javanese house in Indonesia. This traditional house is now beginning to be displaced by modern house models. However, the layout and meaning of traditional houses still exist that applied to modern house building. This study aims to reveal the transformation of the meaning of traditional Joglo house space to a modern home made in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. The method used is case study. Technique of collecting data through literature study, observation, and indepth interview. The results showed that the traditional Joglo house began to be abandoned and changed into a modern style house. Although the shape changes but the meaning does not just disappear. The meaning of traditional Joglo house space transformed both the form of function and its meaning. Home positioning is adjusted to environmental conditions for the sake of practicality and the aesthetic side. Additional space on the house is a garage, as a place to keep moving property for homeowners.

  8. Structure of social networks in a passerine bird: consequences for sexual selection and the evolution of mating strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Kevin P; Badyaev, Alexander V

    2010-09-01

    The social environment is a critical determinant of fitness and, in many taxa, is shaped by an individual's behavioral discrimination among social contexts, suggesting that animals can actively influence the selection they experience. In competition to attract females, males may modify sexual selection by choosing social environments in which they are more attractive relative to rivals. Across the population, such behaviors should influence sexual selection patterns by altering the relationship between male mating success and sexual ornament elaboration. Here we use network analysis to examine patterns of male social behavior in relation to plumage ornamentation and mating success in a free-living population of house finches. During the nonbreeding season, less elaborate males changed associations with distinct social groups more frequently, compared to more elaborate males that showed greater fidelity to a single social group. By the onset of pair formation, socially labile males effectively increased their attractiveness relative to other males in the same flocks. Consequently, males that frequently moved between social groups had greater pairing success than less social individuals with equivalent sexual ornamentation. We discuss these results in relation to conditional mating tactics and the role of social behavior in evolutionary change by sexual selection.

  9. The strategic facilities management organisation in housing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Susanne Balslev; Jensen, Per Anker; Jensen, Jesper Ole

    2012-01-01

    Two houses in the same street can be built in the same year, they can look the same, and still they might provide very different support for sustainable living. This article points to the Strategic Facilities Management Organisation (SFMO) as the most important concept, to understand and manage...... literature on sustainable facilities management, where it fills a gap as it deals with housing and strategic FM. Intended readers are those interested in housing administration and especially the transition of existing housing into more sustainable housing. Intended readers include building owners, policy...

  10. Housing policy socialization and de-commodification in South Korea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ronald, R.; Lee, H.

    2012-01-01

    South Korea has undergone significant housing system transformations in recent decades involving radical expansions in state housing provision. Growth in social forms of public housing ostensibly contradicts the neoliberal trend toward the privatization of social housing sectors elsewhere in the

  11. The cytoskeletal proteins in the contractile tissues of the testis and its excurrent ducts of the passerine bird, Masked Weaver (Ploceus velatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozegbe, P C; Aire, T A; Deokar, M S

    2012-02-01

    The cellular composition of the testicular capsule, seminiferous peritubular tissue, the epithelia as well as periductal muscle cell layers of the excurrent ducts was studied, in sexually mature and active Masked Weaver (Ploceus velatus) birds of the passerine family, Ploceidae. Ultrastructure of the contractile cells in the testicular capsule, peritubular and periductal tissues showed that these cells were smooth muscles of typical morphological characteristics. Variability in the immunohistochemical co-expression of microfilaments and intermediate filaments in the different tissues was evident. Actin and desmin proteins were co-expressed immunohistochemically in the testicular capsule and seminiferous peritubular smooth muscle layer. Actin was singly and very weakly expressed in the rete testis epithelium while cytokeratins and desmin were co-expressed in the epithelium of the excurrent ducts. The periductal muscle layer of all ducts of the epididymis, the ductus deferens as well as the seminal glomus, strongly co-expressed actin and desmin. Vimentin was absent in all cells and tissue types studied. There is clear evidence that the tissues of the male gonad and its excurrent ducts in the Masked Weaver, as has been reported for members of the Galloanserae and Ratitae, contain well-formed contractile tissues whose function would include the transportation of luminal through-flow from the testis into, and through, its excurrent ducts. The microtubule helix in the head and of the mid-piece, of elongating spermatids, as well as of the mature spermatozoa in the various excurrent ducts, including some spermatozoa in the seminal glomus, also co-expressed these three proteins. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of experimental calcium availability and anthropogenic metal pollution on eggshell characteristics and yolk carotenoid and vitamin levels in two passerine birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espín, Silvia; Ruiz, Sandra; Sánchez-Virosta, Pablo; Salminen, Juha-Pekka; Eeva, Tapio

    2016-05-01

    The maternal investment into egg quality depends on the condition of the female, the quality of the mate, and the quality of the environment. In that sense, availability of nutrients and exposure to pollutants are essential parameters to consider. The main aim of this study is to assess the effects of calcium (Ca) availability and anthropogenic metal pollution on early-stage reproduction in two passerine species, great tits (Parus major) and pied flycatchers (Ficedula hypoleuca), inhabiting a Ca-poor and metal-polluted area in SW Finland. Both species were able to obtain sufficient Ca for eggshell formation, and metal pollution was below the level of having negative effects in the egg size and eggshell characteristics. However, metal polluted environment negatively affected yolk lutein and vitamin D3 levels in both species, probably because of a lower access to carotenoid-rich diet and higher metal interference with vitamin D3 metabolism. The higher levels of vitamin D3 in yolks in the unpolluted zone could also be due to upregulated D3 levels as a response to the lower natural Ca availability. Yolk carotenoids and vitamin D3 were positively associated with nestling growth and size, supporting their importance for the appropriate chick development. The interspecific differences in yolk nutrient concentrations possibly reflect the different growth rate of these species. Pied flycatchers are likely adapted to low Ca availability through an efficient vitamin D3 metabolism, but their Ca intake could be close to a deficient level. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Blue and green egg-color intensity is associated with parental effort and mating system in passerines: support for the sexual selection hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler, Juan J; Moreno, Juan; Avilés, Jesús M; Møller, Anders P

    2005-03-01

    Among several adaptive explanations proposed to account for variation in avian egg color, that related to sexual selection is of particular interest because of its possible generality. Briefly, it proposes that because biliverdin (the pigment responsible for blue-green eggshell coloration) is an antioxidant, deposition in the eggshell by laying females may signal the capacity of females to control free radicals, despite the handicap of removing this antioxidant from their body. If males adjust parental effort in response to the intensity of the blue coloration of eggs, thereby investing more in the offspring of high-quality mates, blue eggs may represent a postmating sexually selected signal in females. Here, by image and spectrophotometric analyses of the eggs of European passerines, we tested two different predictions of the hypothesis. First, variables related to intraspecific variation in parental effort (i.e., the duration of the nestling period controlled for body mass) should be positively related to the intensity of blue-green color of the eggshell across species. Second, there should be a positive relationship between intensity of blue-green color of eggs and degree of polygyny. These predictions were supported: intensity of blue-green coloration (i.e., chroma) was significantly related to the duration of the nestling period and to degree of polygyny after controlling for possible confounding variables (i.e., body mass, incubation period, and nest type) and similarity due to common descent. Nest type (hole or nonhole) also explained a significant proportion of variation in egg chroma, perhaps reflecting different selection pressures (i.e., light conditions, risk of parasitism) affecting species with the two types of nests.

  14. Advanced long-term bird banding and climate data mining in spring confirm passerine population declines for the Northeast Chinese-Russian flyway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Shengwu; Huettmann, Falk; Guo, Yumin; Li, Xianda; Ouyang, Yanlan

    2016-09-01

    The migration of birds is fascinating for humans but it's also a serious environmental monitoring and management issue on a global level. Bird banding using mistnets has been the method of choice for decades worldwide; linking these data with climate data allows to infer on global warming and outlier events. However, good methods to achieve this effectively in time and space for many species are still missing; data for Asia are specifically sparse and often 'messy'. Here we present a data mining summary information for data from two bird banding stations (Gaofeng and Qingfeng) along the vast Northeast Chinese-Russian flyway. Bird data were collected during spring 2002-2011 with standardized techniques and then linked with related climate data in the banding as well as the wintering sites. This creates a complex data set which is based on a decade and which includes many predictors. This first-time data mining analysis with 'data cloning' and machine learning methods (boosted regression trees) shows how to extract the major signals in this unique dataset from highly correlated and interacting predictors. Our results indicate a large-scale warming trend for the flyway, with a start in 2003, and a freezing rain outlier event in 2008; the last years remained on a rather warm level. All evidence along this vast flyway supports major changes, warming trends, habitat losses and consequently strong passerine declines. Presumably human pressures are a major factor either way and we propose to address these problems immediately for betterment if meaningful conservation targets are to be met.

  15. Retrofitting of existing housing stock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Unterrainer, Walter

    2015-01-01

    The paper is a case study in retrofitting an urban quarter with social housing of the 1950´s and 1960´s - a model project in Amberg/Germany. It documents and discusses applied ´acupuncture´ and innovative strategies on very different scales as well as on different layers, in order to meet the goal...... of a sustainable retrofitting project in a holistic sense: This included cultural, social, environmental and economic sustainability. The first phase of the project is built and the process included a high level of user participation. The project is an example of integral design from competition level...

  16. 24 CFR 982.514 - Distribution of housing assistance payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... payment. 982.514 Section 982.514 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban... URBAN DEVELOPMENT SECTION 8 TENANT BASED ASSISTANCE: HOUSING CHOICE VOUCHER PROGRAM Rent and Housing Assistance Payment § 982.514 Distribution of housing assistance payment. The monthly housing assistance...

  17. The Special Importance of Housing Policy for the Housing Situation of Ethnic Minorities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Hans Skifter; Turner, Lena Magnusson; Søholt, Susanne

    2013-01-01

    population varies much. These differences can only to some extent be explained by income inequalities on the housing markets in the countries, inequalities that affect immigrants. Other important explanations of why immigrants perform worse on the housing market is the shortage of rental housing (Norway......The purpose of this article is to uncover, whether housing policy has a special importance for immigrants, compared with the whole population, by comparing housing policies and immigrants’ housing outcomes in four Nordic countries: Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. There are substantial...... differences between housing policies and housing outcomes in Nordic countries, despite their common background as welfare states. The study shows that immigrants have very different positions on the housing markets in the countries and that the degree of overcrowding among immigrants compared with the whole...

  18. The Special Importance of Housing Policy for the Housing Situation of Ethnic Minorities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Hans Skifter; Magnusson Turner, Lena; Søholt, Susanne

    population varies much. These differences can only to some extent be explained by income inequalities on the housing markets in the countries, inequalities that affect immigrants. Other important explanations of why immigrants perform worse on the housing market is the shortage of rental housing (Norway......The purpose of this article is to uncover, whether housing policy has a special importance for immigrants, compared with the whole population, by comparing housing policies and immigrants’ housing outcomes in four Nordic countries: Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. There are substantial...... differences between housing policies and housing outcomes in Nordic countries, despite their common background as welfare states. The study shows that immigrants have very different positions on the housing markets in the countries and that the degree of overcrowding among immigrants compared with the whole...

  19. The impact of housing policies and housing markets on ethnic spatial segregation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Hans Skifter; Andersson, Roger; Wessel, Terje

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines how ethnic segregation is connected to an ethnic division of the housing market and a spatial separation of different housing tenures in four Nordic cities. Explanations for the differences across the cities are found by comparing housing markets and housing policies....... The housing markets are in all four cities ethnically segmented with high concentrations of immigrants in some forms of tenures (especially social/public housing) and low concentrations in others. We further discuss the reasons for the observed pattern. The paper shows that the spatial distribution...... housing, while co-operative housing is crucial in the fourth. It is also shown that a policy of neighbourhood tenure mix in one of the cities has resulted in a relatively low degree of segregation in spite of high concentrations of immigrants in social/public housing....

  20. Effects of substance abuse on housing stability of homeless mentally Ill persons in supported housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurlburt, M S; Hough, R L; Wood, P A

    1996-07-01

    The study examined two-year housing outcomes of homeless mentally ill clients who took part in an experimental investigation of supported housing. The relationships between housing outcomes and client characteristics, such as gender, psychiatric diagnosis, and substance use, were of primary interest. A two-factor, longitudinal design was used. Homeless clients in San Diego County who were diagnosed as having chronic and severe mental illness were randomly assigned to four experimental conditions. Half of the clients were given better access to independent housing through Section 8 rent subsidy certificates. All clients received flexible case management, but half were provided more comprehensive case management services. The housing of each individual over a two-year period was classified in one of three categories: stable independent housing, stable housing in another setting in the community, or unstable housing. Clients with access to Section 8 housing certificates were much more likely to achieve independent housing than clients without access to Section 8 certificates, but no differences emerged across the two different levels of case management. Housing stability was strongly mediated by several covariates, especially the presence of problems with drugs or alcohol. Supported housing interventions can be very successful tools for stabilizing homeless mentally ill individuals in independent community settings. Advantages include the low level of restrictiveness of these settings and the preference of many clients for independent housing. However, the success of supported housing projects is likely to depend strongly on the specific characteristics of the population being served.

  1. Labour Mobility and Housing: The Impact of Housing Tenure and Housing Affordability on Labour Migration in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lux, Martin; Sunega, Petr

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 3 (2012), s. 489-504 ISSN 0042-0980 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA403/09/1915 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70280505 Keywords : housing * housing policy * housing tenure Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography Impact factor: 1.493, year: 2012 http://usj.sagepub.com/content/early/2011/05/20/0042098011405693

  2. Performance analysis on natural energy autonomous house (HARBEMAN house); Shizen energy jiritsu house (HARBEMAN house) ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujino, T.; Saito, T. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    To reduce fossil fuel consumption and CO2 emission, this article introduces an actually constructed natural energy autonomous house. It has a solar collector on the south roof for hot water supply and a sky radiator on the north roof for cooling water supply. The sky radiator uses radiation cooling phenomena into the space by electromagnetic wave through the window of atmosphere. This house also has an insulated tank with a capacity of 31 m{sup 3} in its underground. In the long-term heat storage mode, the heat is collected through the solar radiation during the period from summer to spring and is stored in the underground water tank, to use it for heating and hot water supply in winter. The heat can be recovered from the garbage waste incinerator. A gas fired auxiliary boiler is used for the shortage. In the long-term heat regeneration mode, the heat is regenerated through the sky radiator during the period from spring to summer and is stored in the underground water tank, to use it for cooling in summer. For the shortage, the water is cooled using a heat pump operated by the midnight power. The insulating performance is improved by using the pair glass in windows and the glass wool in the walls. Rain water is collected in a tank with a capacity of 2 m{sup 3}, to use it for toilet water. Annual energy and water saving is equivalent to 600,000 yen. 10 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. House Dust Mite Respiratory Allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calderón, Moisés A; Kleine-Tebbe, Jörg; Linneberg, Allan

    2015-01-01

    Although house dust mite (HDM) allergy is a major cause of respiratory allergic disease, specific diagnosis and effective treatment both present unresolved challenges. Guidelines for the treatment of allergic rhinitis and asthma are well supported in the literature, but specific evidence on the e......Although house dust mite (HDM) allergy is a major cause of respiratory allergic disease, specific diagnosis and effective treatment both present unresolved challenges. Guidelines for the treatment of allergic rhinitis and asthma are well supported in the literature, but specific evidence...... of specific IgE testing, but availability is limited. Treatment options for HDM allergy are limited and include HDM avoidance, which is widely recommended as a strategy, although evidence for its efficacy is variable. Clinical efficacy of pharmacotherapy is well documented; however, symptom relief does...... not extend beyond the end of treatment. Finally, allergen immunotherapy has a poor but improving evidence base (notably on sublingual tablets) and its benefits last after treatment ends. This review identifies needs for deeper physician knowledge on the extent and impact of HDM allergy in respiratory disease...

  4. Comparative Analysis of Norwegian Passive House Criteria and of Criteria related to the Concept of International Passive House Standard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anton, Karin; Vestergaard, Inge

    2013-01-01

    The analysis shows differences in definition of apssive house criterias. It also communicates issues os the passive house concept that are nor completely transferred by the Norwegian passive house standard.......The analysis shows differences in definition of apssive house criterias. It also communicates issues os the passive house concept that are nor completely transferred by the Norwegian passive house standard....

  5. Supported housing for people with serious mental illness: resident perspectives on housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Ryan; Seasons, Mark

    2002-01-01

    Supported housing involves integrated housing that is adequate and affordable, paired with flexible, individualized mental health support services. In this qualitative study, interviews were conducted with supported housing residents in cities and towns in southwestern Ontario to examine their housing experience. Questions were organized around 4 dimensions of housing: (a) physical environment, (b) social environment, (c) affordability and choice, and (d) residential history. The inquiry, which occurred at neighbourhood and dwelling-unit levels, revealed 4 themes: (a) loneliness, (b) making do with socially and structurally inferior housing, (c) a desire for more understanding, and (d) a concern with an individual's sense of integration into a community.

  6. Open houses and closed rooms: Tokelau housing in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howden-Chapman, P; Pene, G; Crane, J; Green, R; Iupati, L; Prior, I; Teao, I

    2000-06-01

    The migrant Tokelau community in New Zealand, through the Wellington Tokelau Association, is playing an active role in partnership with the Wellington School of Medicine to develop a research program to help improve the health of its people. The relationship between crowded homes and health was investigated in six focus groups. While cultural patterns were an essential part of Tokelau hospitality, the decision to "double up" households was often the result of "rational" economic decision making in relation to household expenditures such as rent and food. The implication for public health practitioners is that while overcrowding may be a health hazard for residents, the most effective solutions by the community are higher household income and more flexible housing designs that accommodate multifamily households.

  7. The strategic facilities management organisation in housing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Susanne Balslev; Jensen, Per Anker; Jensen, Jesper Ole

    2012-01-01

    Two houses in the same street can be built in the same year, they can look the same, and still they might provide very different support for sustainable living. This article points to the Strategic Facilities Management Organisation (SFMO) as the most important concept, to understand and manage...... implementation of sustainable facilities management in housing administration. The concept provides a frame for understanding the roles and relations of tenants, owners, administrators and operators. The paper is based on a Danish research project on environmentally sound building operation including literature...... literature on sustainable facilities management, where it fills a gap as it deals with housing and strategic FM. Intended readers are those interested in housing administration and especially the transition of existing housing into more sustainable housing. Intended readers include building owners, policy...

  8. Perspectives on housing among homeless emerging adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Tiffany N; Thompson, Sanna J

    2013-02-01

    Homeless emerging adults need the safety and stability of housing programs if they are to avoid the elements and victimization of the streets, however, barriers to obtaining housing are numerous. This study identified factors associated with perspectives of housing services among 29 homeless emerging adults (ages 18-23 years) through one-on-one interviews. Data were gathered and analyzed using grounded theory methodology for qualitative information. Major themes of peer support and positive personal and programmatic interactions in the context of emerging adult development were noted as important factors in housing service utilization. These major themes should be taken into consideration for current housing programs, due to homeless emerging adults' oscillation between their desire for formal support and personal independence. Greater emphasis on services that do not require long term commitments and are more flexible in addressing specific barriers to housing for homeless emerging adults may increase use. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Game theoretical framework in determining house prices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiddin, Nor Syuhadah; Zaibidi, Nerda Zura; Sulaiman, Nor Intan Saniah; Abidin, Norhaslinda Zainal

    2017-11-01

    Housing is a vital component in world's economic development as it provides big contribution of the wealth. The issue of high house prices, worrying several parties, especially middle income buyers in Malaysia. Basically, in housing, there are three main parties involved; buyer, property developer and government. Interaction between those parties will give an impact to the housing market, specifically house prices. The complexity of the interaction has increased due to the differences in each party's preferences and interest. In this research, the main objective is to develop the framework of the interactions among those parties using game theoretical approach. To do so, the preferences and target of each party are investigated and their constraints are established. From the framework, it offers some ideas on how the interaction occurs and how it affect the house prices.

  10. Sustainable Living and Co-Housing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marckmann, Bella; Gram-Hanssen, Kirsten; Christensen, Toke Haunstrup

    2012-01-01

    In this article we examine aspects of the different arguments for the environmental advantages of co-housing compared with individual households. The analysis is structured around four main questions, which are argued to be decisive for the question of co-housing and sustainability. The first...... is whether co-housing offers better opportunities for choosing and using more sustainable technologies, which also relates to the question of whether co-housing offers better opportunities for building smaller and denser and thus more energy efficient buildings. The second and third questions are socially...... oriented; one relates to the claim that co-housing can support pro-environmental behaviour among residents as they can support each other’s norms and practices. The fourth and last claim relates to a discussion of co-housing as a more sustainable opportunity especially for people living alone...

  11. Housing and the Monetary Transmission Mechanism

    OpenAIRE

    Frederic S. Mishkin

    2007-01-01

    The housing market is of central concern to monetary policy makers. To achieve the dual goals of price stability and maximum sustainable employment, monetary policy makers must understand the role that housing plays in the monetary transmission mechanism if they are to set policy instruments appropriately. In this paper, I examine what we know about the role of housing in the monetary transmission mechanism and then explore the implications of this knowledge for the conduct of monetary policy...

  12. Essays on the house money effect

    OpenAIRE

    Arnokourou, Athanasia

    2016-01-01

    This thesis provides a detailed analysis of the so-called `house money' or windfall endowment effect and its main determinants. Chapter 1 provides a detailed survey on the literature related to the house money effect. This effect according to Thaler and Johnson (1990) - refers to the situation where prior gains mitigate the influence of loss aversion and facilitate risk-seeking. The concept borrows its name from the expression employed in the gambling parlance of "playing with the house money...

  13. Hazardous waste sites and housing appreciation rates

    OpenAIRE

    McCluskey, Jill Jennifer; Rausser, Gordon C

    2000-01-01

    The dynamic effect of a hazardous waste site is analyzed by investigating the causal relationship between housing appreciation rates and house location in relation to a hazardous waste site using resale data from individual sales transactions in Dallas County, Texas. The results indicate that in the period in which the hazardous waste site was identified and cleanup occurred, residential property owners in close proximity to the hazardous waste site experienced lower housing appreciation rate...

  14. Immigrant language barriers and house prices

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, Andreas M.

    2011-01-01

    Are language skills important in explaining the nexus between house prices and immigrant inflows? The language barrier hypothesis says immigrants from a non common language country value amenities more than immigrants from common language countries.> ; In turn, immigrants from non common language countries are less price sensitive to house price changes than immigrants from a common language country. Tests of the language barrier hypothesis with Swiss house prices show that an immigration inf...

  15. Do Central Banks React to House Prices?

    OpenAIRE

    Finocchiaro, Daria; Queijo von Heideken, Virginia

    2007-01-01

    The substantial fluctuations in house prices recently experienced by many industrialized economies have stimulated a vivid debate on the possible implications for monetary policy. In this paper, we ask whether the U.S. Fed, the Bank of Japan and the Bank of England have reacted to house prices. We study the responses of these central banks by estimating a structural model for each country where credit constrained agents borrow against real estate. The main result is that house price movements...

  16. Exploring the Housing Needs of Older People in Standard and Sheltered Social Housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Siobhan; Kenny, Lorna; Day, Mary Rose; O'Connell, Cathal; Finnerty, Joe; Timmons, Suzanne

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Our home can have a major impact on our physical and mental health; this is particularly true for older people who may spend more time at home. Older people in social (i.e., public) housing are particularly vulnerable. Housing options for older people in social housing include standard design dwellings or specially designed "sheltered housing." The most suitable housing model should be identified, with older people consulted in this process. Method: Survey of older people (aged ≥60) living in standard or sheltered social housing. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics in SPSS Version 22. Results: Overall, 380 surveys were returned (response rate = 47.2%). All older people had similar housing needs. Those in sheltered housing were more satisfied with the physical home design and reported more positive outcomes. Older people in standard housing were less likely to have necessary adaptations to facilitate aging-in-place. Discussion: Older people in standard housing reported more disability/illnesses, are worried about the future, and felt less safe at home. However, few wanted to move, and very few viewed sheltered housing as an alternative, suggesting limited knowledge about their housing options. Future social housing designs should be flexible, that is, adaptable to the needs of the tenants over time.

  17. Housing Programs for Homeless Individuals With Mental Illness: Effects on Housing and Mental Health Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benston, Elizabeth A

    2015-08-01

    This systematic review analyzed the best available research in the United States on permanent supportive housing programs for homeless individuals with mental illness and the effect of these programs on housing status and mental health. It updates older and broader reviews that included weaker studies or those that did not analyze permanent housing as an input and housing and mental health as primary outcomes. The literature search (1980-2013) yielded 14 studies (randomized controlled trials and quasi-experimental studies). The studies found that a majority of participants placed in experimental housing programs with case management support remained in housing for at least one year or experienced more days housed than homeless relative to a comparison group. Although this finding is in line with previous literature reviews on permanent supportive housing, this analysis found limitations in each of the 14 reviewed studies, such as attrition, selection and response bias, imprecise definitions and implementation of housing programs, and a lack of appropriate controls. Only three of the reviewed studies reported using a housing fidelity assessment tool to test whether the housing intervention was faithful to theoretical standards, and conceptions and implementation of housing varied widely across studies, threatening internal and external validity. Pitfalls in the best available studies on permanent supportive housing programs in the United States limit the ability of research to inform the policy goal of ending chronic homelessness and demonstrate a need for further experimental research upon which to make funding and policy decisions, especially in light of prioritized federal funds.

  18. La Lever house, New York

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio de Miguel

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Resumen

    En el último siglo la mítica ciudad de Nueva York ha sido capaz de definir y transmitir las más contagiosas propuestas de  construcción del futuro.
    El edificio de la Lever House, erigido en el corazón de Manhattan al comienzo de la prodigiosa década de los cincuenta, consiguió ser la constatación de que el perseguido sueño de la “torre de cristal” era por fin posible. La poética y secular conquista de la  levedad avanzó entonces a través de un prosaico y paradójico objeto publicitario. Un particular crisol de negocio, oportunidad y audacia hicieron de ésta sorprendente pieza un icono   fundamental de la globalizada arquitectura moderna americana.


    Nota* En la edición electrónica este artículo se ha publicado con toda documentación gráfica aportada por el autor.

    Palabras clave

    Lever house, torre, levedad, cristal, publicidad, icono

    Abstract

    In the last century, the mythical city of New York has been able to define and transmit the most contagious proposals of  innovative construction.
    The Lever House Building, erected in the heart of Manhattan at  the start of the prodigious 1950s managed to become a  statement for the possibility of finally realizing the sought‐after
    dream of building a glass tower. The poetics and secular   conquest of lightness therefore made a leap forward through a prosaic and paradoxical publicity item. A special crucible of business, opportunity and audacity made a fundamental icon of globalized modern American Architecture out of this surprising work.


    Note * In the online edition this article is published with all graphic material provided by the author.

  19. User Cost and Irish House Prices

    OpenAIRE

    Duffy, David

    2011-01-01

    PUBLISHED A measure commonly used to assess house prices is the house price?to? rent ratio. This ratio captures the costs of alternative forms of accommodation, namely buying or renting. In the long run these two costs should move together. If house prices rise compared to rents, more people may choose to rent rather than buy. This drives rents up and house prices down. In other words, if the alternative costs of accommodation are not moving together then people would switch between buying...

  20. Modal analysis of gear housing and mounts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Teik C.; Singh, RAJ.; Zakrajsek, James J.

    1989-01-01

    Dynamic finite element analysis of a real gear housing is presented. The analysis was conducted for the housing without the rotating components (gears, shafts, and bearings). Both rigid and flexible mounting conditions for the gear housing are considered in this analysis. The flexible support simulates the realistic mounting condition on a rotorcraft, and the rigid one is analyzed for comparison purposes. The effect of gear housing stiffeners is also evaluated. The results indicate that the first six natural modes of the flexibly mounted gear housing in the 0 to 200 Hz range correspond to the translational and rotational rigid body vibration modes of the housing. Above this range, the housing plate elastic modes begin to occur. In the case of the rigid mount, only the housing plate elastic modes are observed which are verified by modal analysis experiments. Parametric studies show that the housing plate stiffeners and rigid mounts tend to increase most of the natural frequencies, the lower ones being affected the most.

  1. Fear and Loathing in the Housing Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chauvet, Marcelle; Gabriel, Stuart; Lutz, Chandler

    We use Google search data to develop a broad-based and real-time index of housing distress. Unlike established indicators, this new Housing Distress Index (HDI) directly reflects sentiment revealed through search queries. Research findings indicate that the HDI provides important new insights...... in determination of national and city-specific housing returns, the VIX, foreclosures, and returns on subprime mortgage credit-default swaps. Further, the effects of housing distress on returns are asymmetric and stronger during times of crisis. Overall, results suggest that real estate and related markets...

  2. POST-CRISIS HOUSING MARKET PROBLEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Sadikov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available At present, Russian housing market is characterized, on one hand, with acute shortage of dwellings for absolute majority of the population and on the other hand, with existence of many obstacles that block the market to develop so as to solve this problem. Housing market development trends are discussed along with due consideration of the state housing policy. There are several main directions of this development: increasing scope of little-story and economy class buildings, increased use of resource-saving technologies and widening the practice of public-private partnership. At the same time, state financial support to housing construction is planned to get gradually decreased.

  3. Motives for choice of housing tenure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Hans Skifter

    Tenure choice is a very important element of housing choice, but amazingly little research has been done about why different people prefer different housing tenures. In the economic literature tenure choice is mainly explained as a matter of financial investment. In this paper is shown that many...... other aspects than investment considerations influence preferences for tenure. Preferences for homeownership are to a very large degree connected to detached houses with garden and the freedom to dispose over and adapt these houses is the most important motive. Preferences for tenure vary much with life...

  4. Leadership Styles of Oxford House Officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komer, Anne C; Jason, Leonard A; Harvey, Ronald; Olson, Brad

    Oxford House recovery homes are unusual compared to most recovery homes in that they function entirely without the use of staff; instead members are elected to officer positions. The aim of this study was to perform preliminary analysis of the types of leadership styles utilized by members of oxford house. Twentynine house residents of five Oxford Houses were asked to rate their own leadership styles using the leader behavior description questionnaire and the multifactor leader questionnaire. Results showed that participants were more likely to use person-oriented behaviors above task-oriented actions. Transformational leadership was associated with higher outcomes than Transactional leadership. Implications for future research are discussed.

  5. Defense Logistics Agency Family Housing Requirements

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Granetto, Paul

    1999-01-01

    The Director, Defense Logistics Agency (Installation Support Group) requested the audit to review the process the Defense Logistics Agency installations use to determine family housing requirements...

  6. [Allergenic mites (Acariformes, Pyroglyphidae) in house dust].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhëltikova, T M; Petrova-Nikitina, A D; Kanchurin, A Kh; Berzhets, V M; Muzylëva, I L

    1987-01-01

    Paper is the second part of the literature review on house dust mites (including 1985). It deals with the diagnosis of the dust mite allergy, the nature of the mite allergens, distribution and population density of the mites in various premises, seasonal population dynamics and population age structure of the dermatophagoid mites, life cycle and breeding of Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and D. farinae on different food substrates. The methods of the house dust mite control are discussed. The original data on the house dust mite distribution in Moscow is shown. A comparative estimation of the results of mite antigens in the house dust discovering by the acarological and three immunological methods are given.

  7. Use of housing vouchers in Georgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Golda

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of Housing Purchase Vouchers offers IDPs durablehousing and community integration, while allowing theman opportunity to choose their own homes and their owndurable solution.

  8. Differential Health and Social Needs of Older Adults Waitlisted for Public Housing or Housing Choice Vouchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carder, Paula; Luhr, Gretchen; Kohon, Jacklyn

    2016-01-01

    Affordable housing is an important form of income security for low-income older persons. This article describes characteristics of older persons waitlisted for either public housing or a housing choice voucher (HCV; previously Section 8) in Portland, Oregon. 358 persons (32% response rate) completed a mailed survey with questions about demographics, health and housing status, food insecurity, and preference for housing with services. Findings indicate that many waitlisted older persons experienced homelessness or housing instability, poor health, high hospital use, and food insecurity. Public housing applicants were significantly more likely to report lower incomes, homelessness, and food insecurity than HCV applicants. We conclude with policy implications for housing and health agencies that serve low-income older persons.

  9. Student Housing a Resilient Housing Rental Market: Case of Federal Polytechnic Neighbourhood Bauchi, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zubairu Abubakar Ghani

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In the last three decades globally higher institutions (HIs have been experiencing an unprecedented upsurge in student population and student enrolment in His generally outstrip the HIs student housing. In many countries of the world like Nigeria, HIs are obviously incapacitated in accommodating the growing student population which compelled numerous students to overflow into their HIs’ neighbourhood seeking for alternative housing accommodation in the private housing rental market. Indeed the scenario of HIs student's housing shortfalls and increasing students housing demand evolved the interest of many people in a student housing rental market. This is because it has been uncovered that business in student housing rental is lucrative and guaranteeing business that ensured profit for a long term. This paper, therefore, explores the nature and landscape of student housing rental in Nigeria where the business is immature then drawn the conclusion.

  10. Innovatieve huisvesting voor vleeskuikenouderdieren: "Quality Time" stal = Innovative broiler breeder housing system: 'Quality Time' house

    OpenAIRE

    Emous, van, R.A.; Gunnink, H.

    2011-01-01

    In this study results are presented of the research of implementing the innovative housing system "Quality Time" concept in a practical poultry house for broiler breeders. The "Quality Time" concept can improve the sexual behaviour and fertility of the eggs.

  11. Housing Options for Older Adults: A Guide for Making Housing Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are selfcontained, with their own bedroom, bathroom, small kitchen and living area. Alternatively, individual living spaces, consisting ... by the size or type of housing. ■ Universal Design: Housing design features and products for the home ...

  12. House price uncertainty in the Dutch owner-occupied housing market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Droes, M.I.

    2011-01-01

    The recent decline in house prices reminds us that the uncertainty in house prices may be substantial. This uncertainty is of fundamental concern to homeowners since buying or selling a home is one of the single most important financial decisions they make. This dissertation investigates house price

  13. Combining apps targeting professionals and senior citizens to improve housing accessibility and influence housing provision policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helle, Tina; Iwarsson, Susanne; Lunn, Tine Bieber

    2015-01-01

    Two separate apps that address the increasingly important issue of accessible housing for senior citizens have been developed in different project settings. One of the apps was developed to facilitate the process for professional raters to assess housing accessibility in the context of individual...... and influence housing provision policies....

  14. THE MAIN CULPRIT IN ALLERGIC RHINITIS - HOUSE DUST OR HOUSE DUST MITE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhey

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Allergic rhinitis especially perennial type makes life miserable for the patient. House dust mite is one of the major players causing it. This study is to compare the allergen i n city of house dust mite versus house dust and evaluate any cross - allergenicity between them. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective study in a tertiary referral hospital. MATERIALS & METHODS: Forty patients of allergic rhinitis and well matched controls were subjected to intradermal skin tests to house dust and house dust mite allergen. The skin tests were graded as per standard norms and the responses matched after correlating with different parameters. Statistical analysis was done and the results evaluated. RESULTS: House dust mite was the main allergen, as compared to house dust, responsible for causing allergic rhinitis. The allergen reactivity potential of house dust mite was significantly more as compared to house dust. And, as such there was no statistically significant cross - allergenicity between the two groups. CONCLUSION: House dust mite rather than house dust is the main culprit in causing allergic rhinitis. Hence, precautionary and preventive measures to control the exposure to house dust mite can be undertaken

  15. Public Housing Smarts: Two Universities Discover a Trove of Opportunity in New Orleans' Public Housing System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulard, Garry

    1998-01-01

    Tulane University and Xavier University (Louisiana) are both taking an active role in revitalizing the New Orleans public housing authority, the sixth-largest in the country. In partnership with the federal Department of Housing and Urban Development and the city's housing authority, the two institutions are cooperating in a major renovation…

  16. 77 FR 37252 - Delegations of Authority for the Office of Housing-Federal Housing Administration (FHA...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-20

    ... family housing programs, in relation to the following functions: 1. The general power to sign any... single family housing programs, in relation to the following functions: 1. The general power to sign any... conduct of single family housing programs in relation to the following functions: 1. The general power to...

  17. Sustainable Housing in the Urban Context: International Sustainable Development Indicator Sets and Housing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winston, Nessa; Pareja Eastaway, Montserrat

    2008-01-01

    Housing, an essential aspect of quality of life, is also significant for sustainable development (SD). All of the major international statements on SD refer to housing or settlement strategies. However, indicator sets derived from these statements often fail to include good indicators of sustainable housing. This article outlines the…

  18. Housing Stability among Homeless Individuals with Serious Mental Illness Participating in Housing First Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Carol; Montgomery, Ann Elizabeth; Locke, Gretchen

    2009-01-01

    This article presents findings from an exploratory study of three programs using the Housing First approach to provide permanent supportive housing for single, homeless adults with serious mental illness and often co-occurring substance-related disorders. This approach provides direct, or nearly direct, access to housing that is intended to be…

  19. Competition-driven niche segregation on a landscape scale: Evidence for escaping from syntopy towards allotopy in two coexisting sibling passerine species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reif, Jiří; Reifová, Radka; Skoracka, Anna; Kuczyński, Lechosław

    2018-02-11

    The role of interspecific competition for generating patterns in species' distribution is hotly debated and studies taking into account processes occurring at both large and small spatial scales are almost missing. Theoretically, competition between species with overlapping niches should result in divergence of their niches in sympatry to reduce the costs of competition. Many species show a mosaic distribution within sympatric zones, with the syntopic sites occupied by both species, and allotopic sites where only one species occurs. It is unclear whether such mosaics arise as a consequence of competition-driven niche segregation or due to the decline of their abundances towards range edges driven by environmental gradients. If the interspecific competition matters, we should observe (1) a shift in habitat preferences of one or both species between syntopy and allotopy, and (2) between allopatry and allotopy. Moreover, (3) species should show greater divergence in their habitat preferences in allotopy than in allopatry where (4) no differences in habitat preferences may occur. Finally, (5) shifts should be generally greater in the competitively subordinate species than in the dominant species. We used a unique dataset on abundance of two closely related passerine species, the Common Nightingale (Luscinia megarhynchos) and the Thrush Nightingale (Luscinia luscinia), collected across their syntopy, allotopy and allopatry. The predictions were tested within a generalized mixed-effects modelling framework. After accounting for environmental gradients perpendicular to the species' contact zone, we found a strong support for all but one prediction. Habitat preferences of both species shifted markedly between syntopy and allotopy, as well as between allopatry and allotopy. Whereas the species preferred the same habitats in allopatry, their preferences became strikingly different in allotopy where the abundance of the Common Nightingale increased towards dry and warm sites

  20. New business model of flexible housing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zairul, Z.; Geraedts, R.P.

    2015-01-01

    The Open Building (OB) and the concept of flexible housing has alwaysassociated with user’s ability to respond to changing demand. It is necessary that housing can adap to changing market conditions and different users’ requirements. Flexibility makes a crucial concept that one cannot ignore.

  1. Cluster Housing for Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerson, Eric

    2004-01-01

    While there is extensive evidence on the overall benefits of deinstitutionalisation, the move from institutional care to providing accommodation and support in small to medium sized dispersed housing schemes has not gone uncontested. Recently, a number of commentators have argued for the development of cluster housing on the basis that it may…

  2. Architectural Quality of Low Energy Houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauring, Michael; Marsh, Rob

    2008-01-01

    This paper expounds a systematic vocabulary concerning architectural quality in houses in general and low energy houses in particular. The vocabulary consists of nine themes. Inside each theme, examples are given of how to achieve both architectural quality and good environmental performance...

  3. Climatization, energy and design in rural housing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aroztegui, J.

    1994-01-01

    The Work analyzes the possibilities to influence in the energy inputs of the air conditioning in the rural housing through architectonic project decisions. It presents a methodology to guide the first project decisions and to evaluate the future of the housing behavior

  4. Airborne microorganisms and dust from livestock houses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, Y.; Aarnink, A.J.A.; Jong, de M.C.M.; Groot Koerkamp, P.W.G.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiencies and suitability of samplers for airborne microorganisms and dust, which could be used in practical livestock houses. Two studies were performed: 1) Testing impaction and cyclone pre-separators for dust sampling in livestock houses; 2)

  5. Essays on the economics of housing subsidies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schilder, F.P.W.

    2012-01-01

    In a perfect market a government needs not to intervene. For several reasons the housing market is not a perfect market and, thus, governments generally tend to intervene. The Dutch government, however, intervenes mainly by subsidies to such an extent that the housing market has become strongly

  6. Urbanization, housing and environmental quality indicators ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Urbanization, housing and environmental quality indicators. ... Journal of Agriculture, Forestry and the Social Sciences ... Urbanization ideally should also imply an enhancement of housing quality and other components of human settlements such as power supply, portable water, good roads, proper refuse and sewage ...

  7. Determinants Of Housing Satisfaction In Residential Localities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Six major dimensions or factors were produced as determinants of housing satisfaction in Uyo. These factors are social infrastructure, housing facilities, consumers goods availability, health and leisure water supply and security service factors. These six factors accounted for 80% of the variation within the data set. These six ...

  8. Housing policy realignment in East Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ronald, R.

    2010-01-01

    The article assesses the realignment of housing policy in various countries in East Asia since the late 1990s. Housing policies in East Asia reflect differences in institutional contents and combinations of public and private elements. The promotion of home ownership policies allows the expansion of

  9. Changing housing policy landscapes in Asia Pacific

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ronald, R.; Chiu, R.L.H.

    2010-01-01

    The Asia Pacific region, and in particular East Asia, underwent rapid urbanisation and industrialisation in the latter decades of the twentieth century. Central to this transformation was intensive public and private investment in the housing sector. Although housing was largely commodified, public

  10. Housing trends & impacts on wood products manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matt Bumgardner; Urs Buehlmann; Al Schuler; Karen. Koenig

    2012-01-01

    While there are some signs of improvement in the business conditions and sales volume faced by the secondary wood industry in relation to the housing market, they are slow in coming. This third annual housing market survey looks at the trends in the industry and analyzes what has changed in terms of market conditions, company performance and the actions being taken by...

  11. Competency development of southern African housing officers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. The Report on the Ministerial Committee for the Review of the Provision of Student Housing at South African Universities (Department of Higher Education and Training, 2011) has provided a comprehensive review of residences across several housing functional areas. In one of the residence management and ...

  12. The Spatial Dimension of House Prices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunlong Gong

    2017-04-01

    This research underlines market forces in the operation of Chinese interurban housing markets in the post-reform era, and contributes to the understanding of spatial dimension of house prices, not only in China, but also in other market-oriented economies.

  13. Housing's impact on wood products sales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matt Bumgardner; Urs Buehlmann; Karen. Koenig

    2017-01-01

    What are the market conditions for woodworkers involved in construction-based sectors and what investments are planned to improve capabilities in the current business environment? For a fifth straight year, construction-based mar­kets continued their growth trends in 2016, as U.S. spending on single family housing, multi-family housing, and nonresidential construction...

  14. The housing ladder, taxation, and borrowing constraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Swank (Job); J. Kakes; A.F. Tieman

    2003-01-01

    textabstractUsing a multi-tier model of the housing market, we show that both starters and movers benefit from mortgage interest deduction for higher income groups. However, such tax favouring also tends to facilitate house price explosions, especially when interest rates and downpayment ratios are

  15. Aisle-truss houses of Northern Jutland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eybye, Birgitte Tanderup

    2014-01-01

    , which make them relevant to research. This paper investigates resource-saving and sustainable principles in the aisle-truss houses of Thy, Northern Jutland. General features as well as three cases of the one-wing dwelling aisle-truss houses are studied. The aim is to improve the understanding of aisle...

  16. Passive house networks : How can they deliver?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mlecnik, E.

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines experiences with the diffusion of the passive house concept, applied to the situation of ‘emerging’ countries like Belgium and the Netherlands. Adopter categories considering the passive house concept are defined. A marketing study based on Rogers’ theory of diffusion of

  17. State Skill Standards: Housing and Interior Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevada Department of Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Meeting the Housing and Interior Design Standards will provide students with skills for personal family life and towards becoming a professional in the interior design field. The mission of Housing and Interior Design education is to prepare students for family life, work life, and careers in the fashion industry by creating opportunities to…

  18. Fear and Loathing in the Housing Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chauvet, Marcelle; Gabriel, Stuart; Lutz, Chandler

    We use Google search data to develop a broad-based and real-time index of housing distress. Unlike established indicators, this new Housing Distress Index (HDI) directly reflects sentiment revealed through search queries. Research findings indicate that the HDI provides important new insights in ...

  19. Housing equity, residential mobility and commuting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloze, Gintautas; Skak, Morten

    2016-01-01

    Highly productive economies require a flexible labor force with workers that move in accordance with the changing demand for goods and services. In times with falling housing prices, the mobility of home owning workers may be hampered by a lock-in effect of low or even negative housing equity. Th...

  20. The housing market: modeling and assessment methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zapadnjuk Evgenij Aleksandrovich

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the theoretical foundations of econometric simulation model that can be used to study the housing sector. Shows the methods of the practical use of correlation and regression models in the analysis of the status and prospects of development of the housing market.