Sample records for alto-aluminio da peninsula

  1. Crecimiento del maíz en vertisoles con alto aluminio en la Baixada Maranhense pre-Amazonia, Brasil.

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    Alessandro Costa-da Silva


    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar el crecimiento del maíz en suelos con alto contenido de aluminio. Se midió el efecto del Al3+ en raíces y la cantidad de materia seca (raíz, hoja y tallo de maíz. Se efectuó la caracterización físico-química de cuatro muestras de suelo con alto aluminio colectadas del horizonte Ap, en tres municipios de la región conocida como Baixada Maranhense (Pre-Amazonia, Brasil: Santa Rita (SR, Arari (AR y Vitoria do Mearim (VM y un testigo colectado en el municipio de São Luís, Área del Núcleo de Tecnología Rural (T. El estudio, ejecutado en 2009, se llevó a cabo en invernadero y se utilizó 2 dm3 de suelo por maceta. Asimismo las muestras fueron divididas en muestras con y sin fertilización. La variación en la longitud de la raíz y de materia seca de las hojas difirió significativamente entre tratados con y sin fertilizante, excepto en la muestra de la localidad T. La producción de materia seca de raíz, tallo y hoja fue mayor en todos los suelos cuando se fertilizó. El suelo testigo también superó a todos los demás en cuanto a producción de materia seca en la raíz, posiblemente como resultado de una menor cantidad de Al3+ (1,2 cmolc/dm3 en comparación con los suelos SR, AR y VM (6,8; 8,0 y 7,0 cmolc/dm3 respectivamente. Se concluye la fertilización reduce el efecto detrimental del aluminio en la producción de maíz en la Baixada Maranhense.

  2. High altitude Chironomidae (Diptera of Serra da Estrela (Portugal: Additions to the Portuguese and Iberian Peninsula fauna

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    Rieradevall, M.


    Full Text Available A Chironomidae (Diptera fauna list for headwater streams of high altitude areas in Serra da Estrela (Portugal is presented, doubling the previously established species richness for the region. The findings include 17 new records for Portugal, which represent an increase to 219 species for the Continental Portugal Chironomidae fauna. Two new records were detected for the Iberian Peninsula: one species (Tvetenia duodenaria, and one subgenus –Psectrocladius (Mesopsectrocladius–; and the presence of the genus Natarsia is confirmed. The last two occurrences correspond to monoespecific taxa of the Palearctic region. However, as taxonomic identification has been based on larval material, instead of pupae, pupal exuviae or imagoes, species level assignment is still uncertain.

    Se presenta una lista de especies de Chironomidae (Diptera recolectadas en los ríos de cabecera de zonas de alta montaña en la Serra da Estrela (Portugal. Con esta aportación se duplica la riqueza de especies regional conocida hasta el momento y se eleva la fauna de quironómidos del Portugal continental a 219 especies. Se incluyen dos nuevas citas para la Península Ibérica, una especie (Tvetenia duodenaria y un subgénero –Psectrocladius (Mesopsectrocladius–, y se confirma la presencia del género Natarsia. En los dos últimos casos se trata de larvas de taxones hasta el momento monoespecíficos en la región paleárctica, pero al no haberse recolectado pupas o adultos no se puede asegurar la identificación específica.

  3. The Yucatan Peninsula (United States)


    This MODIS true-color image of the Yucatan Peninsula was acquired from data captured on October 6, 2001. The Peninsula is comprised of several Mexican states, including Yucatan in the north, Quintana Roo to the east, and Campeche to the west. Mexico also shares the Yucatan Peninsula with the countries of Belize and Guatamala, located to the south of these states. Phytoplankton show up as blue-green swirls off the western coast of Yucatan, in the center of the image, mixed in with sediment and other organic matter. Off the eastern coast of the Peninsula, running north and south along the right side of he image, the region's barrier reef is visible. Second only to Australia's Great Barrier Reef in size, the reef spans 180 miles from the northern tip of the Peninsula south into the Gulf of Honduras, and houses over 35 different species of reef-building corals.

  4. Kenai Peninsula Caribou Management Plan (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Caribou were extirpated from the Kenai Peninsula by 1912 and reintroduced via transplants from the Nelchina Herd in the mid 1960s and again in the mid 1980s. The...

  5. Anaglyph, Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico (United States)


    This anaglyph (stereoscopic view) of Mexico's Yucatan Peninsula was generated entirely from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) data, and shows a subtle but distinctive indication of the Chicxulub impact crater. Most scientists now agree that this impact was the cause of the Cretatious-Tertiary extinction, the event 65 million years ago that marked the demise of the dinosaurs as well as the majority of life then on Earth. The crater's rim is marked by a shallow semicircular depression arcing about an offshore center point in the upper left of the picture. (The arcing depression is just above the blue line, when viewed with the naked eye.) This depression, or trough, only about 3 to 5 meters (10 - 15 feet) deep and about 5 kilometers (3 miles) wide, was likely caused by collapse of limestone caverns preferentially above the crater rim, resulting in an arcing chain of sinkholes. The limestone that covers most of the Yucatan Peninsula post-dates the impact crater. However, the crater pattern apparently controls the subsidence pattern just enough to show through.This anaglyph was created by deriving a shaded relief image from the SRTM data, draping it back over the SRTM elevation model, and then generating two differing perspectives, one for each eye. Illumination is from the north (top). When viewed through special glasses, the anaglyph is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Anaglyph glasses cover the left eye with a red filter and cover the right eye with a blue filter. The total relief (range of elevations) across this entire image is less than 300 meters (1000 feet).Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was

  6. Avian Habitat Data; Seward Peninsula, Alaska, 2012 (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data product contains avian habitat data collected on the Seward Peninsula, Alaska, USA, during 21 May – 10 June 2012. We conducted replicated 10-min surveys at...

  7. Korea Peninsula Landscape Extends from Continent End

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ The Korea peninsula extends southward from the eastern end of the Asian continent. It is divided just slightly north of the 38th parallel. The peninsula is roughly 1020 km(612 miles) long and 175 km(105 miles) wide at its narrowest point. Korean people are big sports fans. During the past 20 years, Korea has hosted many international sports events including the 1988 Seoul Olympic Games and the 2002 FIFA World Cup, and has achieved excellent results in various sports competitions.

  8. Mitochondrial DNA structure in the Arabian Peninsula

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    Cabrera Vicente M


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Two potential migratory routes followed by modern humans to colonize Eurasia from Africa have been proposed. These are the two natural passageways that connect both continents: the northern route through the Sinai Peninsula and the southern route across the Bab al Mandab strait. Recent archaeological and genetic evidence have favored a unique southern coastal route. Under this scenario, the study of the population genetic structure of the Arabian Peninsula, the first step out of Africa, to search for primary genetic links between Africa and Eurasia, is crucial. The haploid and maternally inherited mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA molecule has been the most used genetic marker to identify and to relate lineages with clear geographic origins, as the African Ls and the Eurasian M and N that have a common root with the Africans L3. Results To assess the role of the Arabian Peninsula in the southern route, we genetically analyzed 553 Saudi Arabs using partial (546 and complete mtDNA (7 sequencing, and compared the lineages obtained with those present in Africa, the Near East, central, east and southeast Asia and Australasia. The results showed that the Arabian Peninsula has received substantial gene flow from Africa (20%, detected by the presence of L, M1 and U6 lineages; that an 18% of the Arabian Peninsula lineages have a clear eastern provenance, mainly represented by U lineages; but also by Indian M lineages and rare M links with Central Asia, Indonesia and even Australia. However, the bulk (62% of the Arabian lineages has a Northern source. Conclusion Although there is evidence of Neolithic and more recent expansions in the Arabian Peninsula, mainly detected by (preHV1 and J1b lineages, the lack of primitive autochthonous M and N sequences, suggests that this area has been more a receptor of human migrations, including historic ones, from Africa, India, Indonesia and even Australia, than a demographic expansion center along the

  9. Historic magmatism on the Reykjanes Peninsula, Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peate, David W.; Baker, Joel A.; Jakobssen, Sveinn P.


    We present new compositional data on a suite of historic lava flows from the Reykjanes Peninsula, Iceland. They were erupted over a short time period between c. 940 and c. 1340 AD and provide a snap-shot view of melt generation and evolution processes beneath this onshore, 65 km long, ridge segment...

  10. A paleomagnetic study of the Antarctic Peninsula (United States)

    Poblete, F.; Arriagada, C.; Roperch, P.


    In the Paleozoic, South America, South Africa and Antarctica were part of Gondwana. The Weddell Sea began to form at about 146 Ma, after rifting between the Antarctic Peninsula and southernmost South America. Much uncertainty still exists about the geometrical fit and subsequent drift history between Patagonia and Antarctica. Geophysical and geological data which describe the tectonic history are sparsely distributed and often of poor quality. During the last two years we have collected more than 1000 paleomagnetic samples from 70 sites at several localities (King George Island, Robert Island, Yankee Bay, Half Moon Island, Byers Peninsula and Snow Island) from the South Shetland Islands and Anderson Island in the northern tip of Antarctic Peninsula. Our main objective was to provide first-order constraints on latitudinal displacements and the amount of tectonic rotations as an essential test of published tectonic models. Paleomagnetic results were obtained from 50 sites. All samples from sites in volcanic and intrusive rocks have well-defined univectorial magnetizations. Unfortunately, all sites in late Paleozoic sediments have been remagnetized and the magnetizations are often unstable upon thermal demagnetization. Cretaceous and Cenozoic units display very little apparent polar wander. Results from intrusive rocks of expected Jurassic age do not confirm the expected relative rotation betwen the Antarctic Peninsula and East Antarctica. Further radiometric dating are needed to confirm the age of these units.

  11. Neogene vertebrates from the Gargano Peninsula, Italy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freudenthal, M.


    Fissure-fillings in Mesozoic limestones in the Gargano Peninsula yield rich collections of fossil vertebrates, which are characterized by gigantism and aberrant morphology. Their age is considered to be Vallesian or Turolian. The special features of the fauna are probably due to isolation on an isla

  12. Statistical Analysis of Iberian Peninsula Megaliths Orientations (United States)

    González-García, A. C.


    Megalithic monuments have been intensively surveyed and studied from the archaeoastronomical point of view in the past decades. We have orientation measurements for over one thousand megalithic burial monuments in the Iberian Peninsula, from several different periods. These data, however, lack a sound understanding. A way to classify and start to understand such orientations is by means of statistical analysis of the data. A first attempt is done with simple statistical variables and a mere comparison between the different areas. In order to minimise the subjectivity in the process a further more complicated analysis is performed. Some interesting results linking the orientation and the geographical location will be presented. Finally I will present some models comparing the orientation of the megaliths in the Iberian Peninsula with the rising of the sun and the moon at several times of the year.

  13. Arms Control in the Korean Peninsula. (United States)


    defense expenditures of both sides are assessed as follows:4 The South Korean population outnumbers North Korea two to one. This presents difficulties for...99. Kim, Chum-Kon, The Korean War, Seoul, Kwang-Myong Publishing Company Ltd., 1980. The Text of Mutual Defense Treaty between Korea and the USA...AIR WAR COLLEGE RESEARCH REPORT ABSTRACT TITLE: Arms Control in the Korean Peninsula AUTHOR: Kim, Hyon, Colonel, Republic of Korea Air Force - 1

  14. Qatar Peninsula, United Arab Emirates, Persian Gulf (United States)


    In this view of the Qatar Peninsula, United Arab Emirates, Persian Gulf, (25.0N, 51.0E) a large oil spill, seen as a large dark toned mass in the water covers much of the surface of the western Persian Gulf. Qatar is one of several of the oil rich United Arab Emirate states. Oil spills and oil pollution of the environment are common occurrances associated with oil tanker loading operations.

  15. First Dinosaur Tracks from the Arabian Peninsula (United States)

    Schulp, Anne S.; Al-Wosabi, Mohammed; Stevens, Nancy J.


    Background The evolutionary history of Mesozoic terrestrial vertebrates from the Arabian Peninsula is virtually unknown. Despite vast exposures of rocky outcrops, only a handful of fossils have yet been described from the region. Here we report a multi-taxon dinosaur track assemblage near Madar village, 47 km north of Sana'a, Republic of Yemen. This represents the first dinosaur tracksite from the Arabian Peninsula, and the only multi-taxon dinosaur ichnosite in the Middle East. Methodology/Findings Measurements were taken directly from trackway impressions, following standard ichnological conventions. The presence of bipedal trackmakers is evidenced by a long series of pes imprints preserving smoothly rounded posterior margins, no evidence of a hallux, bluntly rounded digit tips and digital divarication angles characteristic of ornithopod dinosaurs. Nearby, eleven parallel quadrupedal trackways document a sauropod herd that included large and small individuals traveling together. Based on the morphology of manus impressions along with a narrow-gauged stance, the quadrupedal trackways were made by non-titanosauriform neosauropods. Additional isolated tracks and trackways of sauropod and ornithopod dinosaurs are preserved nearby. Conclusions/Significance Taken together, these discoveries present the most evocative window to date into the evolutionary history of dinosaurs of the Arabian Peninsula. Given the limited Mesozoic terrestrial record from the region, this discovery is of both temporal and geographic significance, and massive exposures of similarly-aged outcrops nearby offer great promise for future discoveries. PMID:18493306

  16. Kelp gulls, Larus dominicanus (Aves: Laridae, breeding in Keller Peninsula, King George Island, Antarctic Peninsula

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    Joaquim O. Branco


    Full Text Available We examined the distribution, abundance and density of the Kelp Gull, Larus dominicanus (Lichtenstein, 1823, at Keller Peninsula on two occasions during the breeding season of 2007-2008 (once for incubation and once for chick stages and compared our results with previously published data. We present information on the number of eggs, incubation success, and initial development of L. dominicanus chicks in the studied sites. The abundance and density of the species has remained statistically similar in Keller Peninsula over the last 30 years (since 1978-1979. Although the abundance and density were almost unchanged, we recorded alterations in the occupation of the breeding areas by L. dominicanus, mainly the abandonment of breeding sites in the eastern portion of Keller Peninsula. The results of the present study compared with similar previous investigations on the abundance of L. dominicanus indicate that the populations have been in equilibrium over the years.

  17. Geologic framework of the Alaska Peninsula, southwest Alaska, and the Alaska Peninsula terrane (United States)

    Wilson, Frederic H.; Detterman, Robert L.; DuBois, Gregory D.


    The Alaska Peninsula is composed of the late Paleozoic to Quaternary sedimentary, igneous, and minor metamorphic rocks that record the history of a number of magmatic arcs. These magmatic arcs include an unnamed Late Triassic(?) and Early Jurassic island arc, the early Cenozoic Meshik arc, and the late Cenozoic Aleutian arc. Also found on the Alaska Peninsula is one of the most complete nonmetamorphosed, fossiliferous, marine Jurassic sedimentary sections known. As much as 8,500 m of section of Mesozoic sedimentary rocks record the growth and erosion of the Early Jurassic island arc.

  18. The climatology of dust aerosol over the arabian peninsula

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    A. Shalaby


    Full Text Available Dust storms are considered to be a natural hazard over the Arabian Peninsula, since they occur all year round with maximum intensity and frequency in Spring and Summer. The Regional Climate Model version 4 (RegCM4 has been used to study the climatology of atmospheric dust over the Arabian Peninsula from 1999 to 2012. This relatively long simulation period samples the meteorological conditions that determine the climatology of mineral dust aerosols over the Arabian Peninsula. The modeled Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD has been compared against ground-based observations of three Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET stations that are distributed over the Arabian Peninsula and daily space based observations from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR, the Moderate resolution Imaging SpectroRadimeter (MODIS and Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI. The large scale atmospheric circulation and the land surface response that lead to dust uplifting have been analyzed. While the modeled AOD shows that the dust season extends from March to August with two pronounced maxima, one over the northern Arabian Peninsula in March with AOD equal to 0.4 and one over the southern Arabian Peninsula in July with AOD equal to 0.7, the observations show that the dust season extends from April to August with two pronounced maxima, one over the northern Arabian Peninsula in April with AOD equal to 0.5 and one over the southern Arabian Peninsula in July with AOD equal to 0.5. In spring a high pressure dominates the Arabian Peninsula and is responsible for advecting dust from southern and western part of the Arabian Peninsula to northern and eastern part of the Peninsula. Also, fast developed cyclones in northern Arabian Peninsula are responsible for producing strong dust storms over Iraq and Kuwait. However, in summer the main driver of the surface dust emission is the strong northerly wind ("Shamal" that transport dust from the northern Arabian Peninsula toward south parallel

  19. Natality and calf mortality of the Northern Alaska Peninsula and Southern Alaska Peninsula caribou herds

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    Richard A. Sellers


    Full Text Available We studied natality in the Northern Alaska Peninsula (NAP and Southern Alaska Peninsula (SAP caribou (Rangifer tarandus granti herds during 1996-1999, and mortality and weights of calves during 1998 and 1999- Natality was lower in the NAP than the SAP primarily because most 3-year-old females did not produce calves in the NAP Patterns of calf mortality in the NAP and SAP differed from those in Interior Alaska primarily because neonatal (i.e., during the first 2 weeks of life mortality was relatively low, but mortality continued to be significant through August in both herds, and aggregate annual mortality was extreme (86% in the NAP Predators probably killed more neonatal calves in the SAP, primarily because a wolf den (Canis lupus was located on the calving area. Despite the relatively high density of brown bears (Ursus arctos and bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus, these predators killed surprisingly few calves. Golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos were uncommon on the Alaska Peninsula. At least 2 calves apparently died from pneu¬monia in the range of the NAP but none were suspected to have died from disease in the range of the SAP. Heavy scav¬enging by bald eagles complicated determining cause of death of calves in both the NAP and SAP.

  20. A Management Strategy for Kenai Peninsula Brown Bears (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Increasing human activity and land development on the Kenai Peninsula, Alaska has brought about concern for the brown bear (Ursus arctos) population. The human...

  1. 24 arc-second Kenai Peninsula Bororugh Alaska Elevation Grid (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 24 arc-second Kenai Peninsula Bororugh Alaska Elevation Grid provides bathymetric data in ASCII raster format of 24 second resolution in geographic coordinates....

  2. 2013-2014 USGS Lidar: Olympic Peninsula (WA) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TASK NAME: USGS Olympic Peninsula Washington LIDAR LiDAR Data Acquisition and Processing Production Task USGS Contract No. G10PC00057 Task Order No. G13PD00849...

  3. Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula, Alaska ESI: FISHL (Fish Lines) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains biological resource data for anadromous fish streams in Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula, Alaska. Vector lines in this data set represent...

  4. Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula, Alaska ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains biological resource data for alcids, shorebirds, waterfowl, diving birds, pelagic birds, gulls and terns in Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula,...

  5. Delmarva Peninsula Fox Squirrel Five Year Review Summary and Evaluation (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This review constitutes an evaluation of information on the Delmarva Peninsula fox squirrel that has become available since 1993, when the Delmarva Fox Squirrel...

  6. Investigations of the Delmarva Peninsula Fox Squirrel 1966 (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of doing n census study of the Delmarva Peninsula Fox Squirrel is to provide some basis for determining the annual and periodic fluctuation in the...

  7. Avian Point Transect Survey; Seward Peninsula, Alaska, 2012 (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data product contains avian point-transect survey data and habitat data collected on the Seward Peninsula, Alaska, USA, during 21 May – 10 June 2012. We...

  8. Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula, Alaska ESI: VOLCANOS (Volcano Points) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains the locations of volcanos in Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula, Alaska. Vector points in the data set represent the location of the volcanos....

  9. The Trail Inventory of Alaska Peninsula NWR [Cycle 2 (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Alaska Peninsula National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are...

  10. A new species of Dalbergia (Leguminosae from Malay Peninsula

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    Bambang - Sunarno


    Full Text Available SUNARNO, BAMBANG & OHASHI, HIROSHI. 2002. A new species of Dalbergia (Leguminosae from Malay Peninsula. Reinwardtia 12(1: 117–119. ⎯ A new species, Dalbergia johoriensis from the Malay Peninsula is described. It is close to D. rostrata and D. havilandii but readily distinguished by the grooved midrib beneath, flowers with narrower standard and wings and style hairy in the lower part.

  11. The Korean Peninsula after the Tian An Incident

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Feng


    The sinking of South Korea's Tian An ship on March 26, 2010 and the shelling of Yin Ping Island on November 23 the same year marked anew stage to developments on the Korean Peninsula. They dealt a heavy blow to diplomatic multilateral efforts aimed at solving the nuclear issue on the Peninsula. Indeed, they pushed the region almost to the brink of war. Those nations involved had to urgently readjust their policy.

  12. Analysis of the relationship between the monthly temperatures and weather types in Iberian Peninsula (United States)

    Peña Angulo, Dhais; Trigo, Ricardo; Nicola, Cortesi; José Carlos, González-Hidalgo


    In this study, the relationship between the atmospheric circulation and weather types and the monthly average maximum and minimum temperatures in the Iberian Peninsula is modeled (period 1950-2010). The temperature data used were obtained from a high spatial resolution (10km x 10km) dataset (MOTEDAS dataset, Gonzalez-Hidalgo et al., 2015a). In addition, a dataset of Portuguese temperatures was used (obtained from the Portuguese Institute of Sea and Atmosphere). The weather type classification used was the one developed by Jenkinson and Collison, which was adapted for the Iberian Peninsula by Trigo and DaCamara (2000), using Sea Level Pressure data from NCAR/NCEP Reanalysis dataset (period 1951-2010). The analysis of the behaviour of monthly temperatures based on the weather types was carried out using a stepwise regression procedure of type forward to estimate temperatures in each cell of the considered grid, for each month, and for both maximum and minimum monthly average temperatures. The model selects the weather types that best estimate the temperatures. From the validation model it was obtained the error distribution in the time (months) and space (Iberian Peninsula). The results show that best estimations are obtained for minimum temperatures, during the winter months and in coastal areas. González-Hidalgo J.C., Peña-Angulo D., Brunetti M., Cortesi, C. (2015a): MOTEDAS: a new monthly temperature database for mainland Spain and the trend in temperature (1951-2010). International Journal of Climatology 31, 715-731. DOI: 10.1002/joc.4298

  13. Wind resource characterization in the Arabian Peninsula

    KAUST Repository

    Yip, Chak Man Andrew


    Wind energy is expected to contribute to alleviating the rise in energy demand in the Middle East that is driven by population growth and industrial development. However, variability and intermittency in the wind resource present significant challenges to grid integration of wind energy systems. These issues are rarely addressed in the literature of wind resource assessment in the Middle East due to sparse meteorological observations with varying record lengths. In this study, the wind field with consistent space–time resolution for over three decades at three hub heights (50m, 80m, 140m) over the whole Arabian Peninsula is constructed using the Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) dataset. The wind resource is assessed at a higher spatial resolution with metrics of temporal variations in the wind than in prior studies. Previously unrecognized locations of interest with high wind abundance and low variability and intermittency have been identified in this study and confirmed by recent on-site observations. In particular, the western mountains of Saudi Arabia experience more abundant wind resource than most Red Sea coastal areas. The wind resource is more variable in coastal areas along the Arabian Gulf than their Red Sea counterparts at a similar latitude. Persistent wind is found along the coast of the Arabian Gulf.

  14. Nowcasting of convective cells over Italian Peninsula

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    C. M. Medaglia


    Full Text Available The aim of the study is the individuation of convective cells over the Italian peninsula with the conjunction use of geostationary satellite data (METEOSAT, MSG satellite in the IR and WV channels and lightning data. We will use GCD (Global Convective Diagnostic algorithm developed at Aviation Weather Centre (AWC of NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. This algorithm is based on the idea that a deep convective cloud will not have any significant moisture above it. This technique works quite well at identifying active deep convection and can be applied to all the world's geostationary satellites. However it does not always agree with lightning sensors. Low topped convection with lightning will be missed. We will extend the capabilities of GCD using lightning data. The new product will be validate over different cases in the central Italy using the C-band polarimetric radar of ISAC-CNR (Institute of Atmospheric Sciences and Climate-of the Italian National Research Council Rome.

  15. Trichinella pseudospiralis in the Iberian peninsula. (United States)

    Zamora, M J; Alvarez, M; Olmedo, J; Blanco, M C; Pozio, E


    Nematode worms of the genus Trichinella are zoonotic parasites circulating in most continents, including Europe. In Spain, Trichinella spiralis and Trichinella britovi are highly prevalent in wildlife but seldom in domestic pigs. In Portugal, only T. britovi was documented in wild carnivores. In the period 2006-2013 in Spain, 384 (0.0001%) pigs and 1399 (0.20%) wild boars (Sus scrofa) were positive for Trichinella spp. larvae, which were identified as T. spiralis or T. britovi. In 2014, Trichinella pseudospiralis larvae were isolated from a wild boar hunted in the Gerona province, Cataluña region, North-East of Spain, near the border to France. This is the first report of T. pseudospiralis in the Iberian peninsula, which suggests a broad distribution area of this zoonotic nematode in Europe. Since larvae of this Trichinella species do not encapsulate in the host muscles, they can be detected only by artificial digestion of muscle samples. T. pseudospiralis is the only Trichinella species infecting both mammals and birds. Birds can spread this pathogen over great distances including islands triggering new foci of infections in areas previously considered at low risk for this pathogen.

  16. Potamogeton schweinfurthii in the Iberian Peninsula

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    Petit, Albert


    Full Text Available We provide the first records for the Iberian Peninsula of Potamogeton schweinfurthii A. Benn., a species distributed mainly in Africa that was not discovered in Europe until 2005, where it is assumed to be indigenous but it has generally been confused with P. lucens. The Iberian specimens, which for the most part are from recent collections, have been identified based on morphological characteristics and molecular studies. We have detected 8 localities, 4 in the northeastern area of the Peninsula (Catalonia and Navarra and 4 from the West (south and north of Portugal and western Andalusia. Our studies show that it is a very rare species on a regional level. Although it is a mainly tropical and subtropical species, we have found that P. schweinfurthii (both natural populations and those cultivated has a high tolerance to climates with severe winters and frequent frosts. The large proportion of populations found in anthropogenic habitats, and the fact that most European records are from the past half-century, suggest that P. schweinfurthii may have experienced a recent expansion favoured by the construction of large number of artificial water bodies in the Mediterranean region. This raises the possibility that P. schweinfurthii in Europe is a species that forms temporary populations and has a naturally unstable area.Se aportan las primeras citas de Potamogeton schweinfurthii A. Benn. en la Península Ibérica, una especie de área básicamente africana que no fue descubierta en Europa hasta 2005, donde se supone que es autóctona y en general había sido confundida con P. lucens. Los ejemplares ibéricos han sido identificados por sus caracteres morfológicos y por estudios moleculares y, en su mayor parte, proceden de recolecciones recientes. Se ha detectado en 8 localidades, 4 del noreste peninsular (Cataluña y Navarra y 4 del oeste (sur y norte de Portugal y Andalucía occidental. Según la información actualmente disponible, se trataría de

  17. Saker Falcon on the Crimean Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor V. Karyakin


    Full Text Available In this article we made a revaluation of a number of the Saker (Falco cherrug on the Crimean Peninsula based on data obtained in an expedition conducted in May 9–26 of 2015. During this expedition Sakers were observed on 58 sites (31 times they were seen on pylons of power lines, 14 – on cliffs in the foothills of Crimean Mountains, 8 – on the coastal cliffs and 4 on the coastal precipices, and one adult male was seen in the forest shelter belt near Syvash lagoon. We revealed 49 breeding territories of Saker including 42 occupied nests with successful breeding. The estimation of the total number of breeding population on peninsula is 145–184 (mean 165 breeding pairs, including 125–159 (mean 142 pairs which breeding attempts were successful in 2015. The distance between the neighboring pairs is 1.95–15.21 km (mean 6.56±3.37 km, n=43. Pylons of power lines were used by 30 breeding pairs (61.22% out of 49, and 29 successful nests (69.05% out of 42 were built on pylons. Supposedly, 63.83% of all breeding pairs in Crimea are bred on pylons, and the percentage of successful nests out of the total number of nests in population is 71.89%. From the 34 nests that were built on pylons, 24 (70.59% were located on the concrete pylons and 10 (29.41% on the metal ones. On cliffs and precipices we found 24 nests in total. Eighteen (75% of them were built on a bare ground, while the others were found in the nests built by other bird species (most of them were made in the former nests of the Raven (Corvus corax, and one pair occupies a nest of the Long-legged Buzzard (Buteo rufinus located on cliff. The percentage of successful nests out of occupied ones was 85.71%. We found broods of 1–4 nestlings, which in average (n=23 makes 2.83±0.78 nestling per successful nest. The majority of broods (65.22% consisted of 3 nestlings. On 20 breeding territories (90.91% male birds were older then 2 years old, and two breeding territories (9.09% were occupied

  18. New Mesostigmata records and species from the Korean Peninsula*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kontschán, Jenő


    Full Text Available A total of 20 Mesostigmata species are recorded from the Korean Peninsula, of which 15 (Asca nubes Ishikawa, 1969, Lasioseius tomokoae Ishikawa, 1969, Evimirus uropodinus (Berlese, 1903, Macrocheles glaber (Müller, 1860, Macrocheles punctatus Ishikawa, 1967, Pachylaelaps ishizuchiensis Ishikawa, 1977, Gamasiphis pulchellus (Berlese, 1887, Ololaelaps ussurinensis Bregetova & Koroleva, 1964, Gamasellus humosus Ishikawa, 1969, Gamasholaspis variabilis Petrova, 1967, Parholaspulus hiasmaticus Petrova, 1967, Podocinum tsushimanum Ishikawa, 1970, Neoparasitus scleoides Ishikawa, 1969, Veigaia ochracea Bregetova, 1961, Uropoda similihamulifera Hiramatsu, 1979 are presented as first occurrences from this peninsula. Asca aphidioides (Linnaeus, 1758 is already reported from the southern part of the peninsula, but we present the first occurrence in the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea. One species (Trachytes koreana Kontschán & Lim, sp. nov. is described and illustrated in this paper. Seventeen of the recovered species were collected in the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea; the others were collected in the area of Republic of Korea.

  19. The mangrove and its conservation in Leizhou Peninsula, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Xiu-mei; Han Wei-dong; Liu Shu-qing


    Leizhou Peninsula, located at southern end of mailand China, has 9284.3 ha mangrove distributed more than 100 sites along its inlets and open coastlines. This paper presents the surveys on mangrove area in Leizhou Peninsula during 2000 and 2008, especially the survey in the eight major mangrove areas in 2002. The flora recorded in mangrove systems includes 69 large algea species, 13 native true mangrove species, nine native semi-mangrove species, and another seven intoduced true mangrove species with Sonneratia apetala as the quickest growing exotic mangrove species dominatant in the mangrove plantations, and more than 100 land flora species, consisting of 17 main mangrove associations. The plant biodiversity habitats remained mainly small patches and diverse, and were becoming worse under the intensive disturbance of human acitivities and coastal pollutions, which decreased the value of mangrove coasts as the important sites for flying-by migrating birds in Leizhou Peninsula. The effective mangrove conservation measures should be implemented.

  20. A Flat Spectral Response AWG Demultiplexer Composed of Slabs with Islands and Peninsulas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yutaka; Natsume; Junji; Yamauchi; Ryoichi; Tazawa; Koji; Ishikawa; Shigeru; Kawaguchi; Yuichi; Yamamoto; Hisamatsu; Nakano


    Phase adjustment elements called islands and peninsulas are introduced to obtain an AWG demultiplexer with a flat spectral response. Use of the peninsulas enables us to achieve a IdB bandwidth of 0.5 nm.

  1. A Flat Spectral Response AWG Demultiplexer Composed of Slabs with Islands and Peninsulas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yutaka Natsume; Junji Yamauchi; Ryoichi Tazawa; Koji Ishikawa; Shigeru Kawaguchi; Yuichi Yamamoto; Hisamatsu Nakano


    Phase adjustment elements called islands and peninsulas are introduced to obtain an AWG demultiplexer with a flat spectral response. Use of the peninsulas enables us to achieve a 1dB bandwidth of 0.5 nm.

  2. Pteropods and climate off the Antarctic Peninsula (United States)

    Loeb, Valerie J.; Santora, Jarrod A.


    Shelled (thecosome) and naked (gymnosome) pteropods are regular, at times abundant, members of Southern Ocean zooplankton assemblages. Regionally, shelled species can play a major role in food webs and carbon cycling. Because of their aragonite shells thecosome pteropods may be vulnerable to the impacts of ocean acidification; without shells they cannot survive and their demise would have major implications for food webs and carbon cycling in the Southern Ocean. Additionally, pteropod species in the southwest Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean inhabit a region of rapid warming and climate change, the impacts of which are predicted to be observed as poleward distribution shifts. Here we provide baseline information on intraseasonal, interannual and longer scale variability of pteropod populations off the Antarctic Peninsula between 1994 and 2009. Concentrations of the 4 dominant taxa, Limacina helicina antarctica f. antarctica, Clio pyramidata f. sulcata, Spongiobranchaea australis and Clione limacina antarctica, are similar to those monitored during the 1928-1935 Discovery Investigations and reflect generally low values but with episodic interannual abundance peaks that, except for C. pyr. sulcata, are related to basin-scale climate forcing associated with the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) climate mode. Significant abundance increases of L. helicina and S. australis after 1998 were associated with a climate regime shift that initiated a period dominated by cool La Niña conditions and increased nearshore influence of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC). This background information is essential to assess potential future changes in pteropod species distribution and abundance associated with ocean warming and acidification. construct maps of pteropod spatial frequency and mean abundance to assess their oceanographic associations; quantify pteropod abundance anomalies for comparing intraseasonal and interannual variability relative to m-3 environmental

  3. Interactions Between Islamic and Christian Traditions in the Iberian Peninsula (United States)

    González-García, A. César; Belmonte, Juan Antonio

    Pre-Romanesque churches in the Iberian Peninsula include a number of constructions from the fourth-fifth to the eleventh century when the first Romanesque churches appeared in the north of Spain. This period of time coincided with the Muslim invasion of the Peninsula. An important number of churches and mosques were built with prescriptions for the orientation, which possibly included astronomical observations. Investigations show that both groups of monuments reacted by avoiding the areas of theoretical influence of the other religion while trying to obey their own orientation rules.

  4. Possibilities for wind energy on the Kola peninsula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolff, J.; Rathmann, O.; Lundsager, P. [and others


    This paper presents an extensive feasibility study regarding the introduction of wind energy in the energy supply of the Kola peninsula in north-western Russia that was carried out during 1996-97. The study covers as well grid connected wind turbines as autonomous systems and a wind atlas was prepared. Special emphasis is put on non-technical activities and objectives like financing models, international funding and a sound politic support. The wind resources on the Kola peninsula are excellent and there are still no reasons to why wind energy installations couldn`t be carried out successfully. Recommendations for starting this development are presented. (au)

  5. Reflections on How to Handle Possible Changes in the Korean Peninsula

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tang Yongsheng


    The political situation in the Korean Peninsula has experienced twists and turns in recent years. Although a positive trend appeared in the Six-Party Talks, uncertainties still exist in the Peninsula. North Korea's two underground nuclear tests and transfer of supreme power are symbols of a critical period in structural change in the Peninsula.

  6. Review: The Yucatán Peninsula karst aquifer, Mexico

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauer-Gottwein, Peter; Gondwe, Bibi Ruth Neuman; Charvet, Guillaume


    The Yucatán Peninsula karst aquifer is one of the most extensive and spectacular karst aquifer systems on the planet. This transboundary aquifer system extends over an area of approximately 165,000 km2 in México, Guatemala and Belize. The Triassic to Holocene Yucatán limestone platform is located...

  7. Crustal structure beneath the southern Korean Peninsula from local earthquakes (United States)

    Kim, Kwang-Hee; Park, Jung-Ho; Park, Yongcheol; Hao, Tian-Yao; Kim, Han-Joon


    The three-dimensional subsurface structure beneath the southern Korean Peninsula is poorly known, even though such information could be key in verifying or rejecting several competing models of the tectonic evolution of East Asia. We constructed a three-dimensional velocity model of the upper crust beneath the southern Korean Peninsula using 19,935 P-wave arrivals from 747 earthquakes recorded by high-density local seismic networks. Results show significant lateral and vertical variations: velocity increases from northwest to southeast at shallow depths, and significant velocity variations are observed across the South Korea Tectonic Line between the Okcheon Fold Belt and the Youngnam Massif. Collision between the North China and South China blocks during the Early Cretaceous might have caused extensive deformation and the observed negative velocity anomalies in the region. The results of the tomographic inversion, combined with the findings of previous studies of Bouguer and isostatic gravity anomalies, indicate the presence of high-density material in the upper and middle crust beneath the Gyeongsang Basin in the southeastern Korean Peninsula. Although our results partially support the indentation tectonic model, it is still premature to discard other tectonic evolution models because our study only covers the southern half of the peninsula.

  8. Two new Gelechiidae for the Iberian Peninsula (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karsholt, Ole; Vives Moreno, Antonio


    Two new species of Gelechiidae, Chrysoesthia hispanica Karsholt & Vives, sp. n. from Spain and Neofriseria hitadoella Karsholt & Vives, sp. n. from Spain and Portugal are described. The adults and male and female genitalia are illustrated. The generic assignment of C. hispanica is discussed. KEY ...... WORD: Lepidoptera, Gelechiidae, new species, Iberian peninsula....

  9. Gyroporus ammophilus, a new poisonous bolete from the Iberian Peninsula

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castro, M.L.; Freire, L.


    Gyroporus ammophilus, a poisonous bolete occurring in Pinus woods on sandy soils along the western Atlantic coast of the Iberian Peninsula, originally published as a variety of G. castaneus, is formally raised to the rank of species. The distinguishing characters of Gyroporus ammophilus are given ag

  10. Pumas and Prepositions: Training Nature Guides in the Yucatan Peninsula. (United States)

    Brown, Cynthia


    In the Yucatan Peninsula (Mexico), the 10-week Nature Guide Training Program integrates English immersion with natural history and environmental interpretation to train rural adults as nature guides and conservation leaders. Most graduates have found work as ecotourism guides or in conservation-related activities, and many have provided English…

  11. Drought variability and change across the Iberian Peninsula (United States)

    Coll, J. R.; Aguilar, E.; Ashcroft, L.


    Drought variability and change was assessed across the Iberian Peninsula over more than 100 years expanding through the twentieth century and the first decade of the twenty-first century. Daily temperature and precipitation data from 24 Iberian time series were quality controlled and homogenized to create the Monthly Iberian Temperature and Precipitation Series (MITPS) for the period 1906-2010. The Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI), driven only by precipitation, and the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI), based on the difference between the precipitation and the reference evapotranspiration (ET0), were computed at annual and seasonal scale to describe the evolution of droughts across time. The results confirmed that a clear temperature increase has occurred over the entire Iberian Peninsula at the annual and seasonal scale, but no significant changes in precipitation accumulated amounts were found. Similar drought variability was provided by the SPI and SPEI, although the SPEI showed greater drought severity and larger surface area affected by drought than SPI from 1980s to 2010 due to the increase in atmospheric evaporative demand caused by increased temperatures. Moreover, a clear drying trend was found by the SPEI for most of the Iberian Peninsula at annual scale and also for spring and summer, although the SPI did not experience significant changes in drought conditions. From the drying trend identified for most of the Iberian Peninsula along the twentieth century, an increase in drought conditions can also be expected for this region in the twenty-first century according to future climate change projections and scenarios.

  12. A sketch of language history in the Korean Peninsula. (United States)

    Lee, Sean


    Among 7100 languages spoken on Earth, the Koreanic language is the 13th largest, with about 77 million speakers in and around the Korean Peninsula. In comparison to other languages of similar size, however, surprisingly little is known about the evolution of the Koreanic language. This is mainly due to two reasons. The first reason is that the genealogical relationship of the Koreanic to other neighboring languages remains uncertain, and thus inference from the linguistic comparative method provides only provisional evidence. The second reason is that, as the ancestral Koreanic speakers lacked their own writing system until around 500 years ago, there are scant historical materials to peer into the past, except for those preserved in Sinitic characters that we have no straightforward way of interpreting. Here I attempt to overcome these disadvantages and shed some light on the linguistic history of the Korean Peninsula, by analyzing the internal variation of the Koreanic language with methods adopted from evolutionary biology. The preliminary results presented here suggest that the evolutionary history of the Koreanic language is characterized by a weak hierarchical structure, and intensive gene/culture flows within the Korean Peninsula seem to have promoted linguistic homogeneity among the Koreanic variants. Despite the gene/culture flows, however, there are still three detectable linguistic barriers in the Korean Peninsula that appear to have been shaped by geographical features such as mountains, elevated areas, and ocean. I discuss these findings in an inclusive manner to lay the groundwork for future studies.

  13. A sketch of language history in the Korean Peninsula.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean Lee

    Full Text Available Among 7100 languages spoken on Earth, the Koreanic language is the 13th largest, with about 77 million speakers in and around the Korean Peninsula. In comparison to other languages of similar size, however, surprisingly little is known about the evolution of the Koreanic language. This is mainly due to two reasons. The first reason is that the genealogical relationship of the Koreanic to other neighboring languages remains uncertain, and thus inference from the linguistic comparative method provides only provisional evidence. The second reason is that, as the ancestral Koreanic speakers lacked their own writing system until around 500 years ago, there are scant historical materials to peer into the past, except for those preserved in Sinitic characters that we have no straightforward way of interpreting. Here I attempt to overcome these disadvantages and shed some light on the linguistic history of the Korean Peninsula, by analyzing the internal variation of the Koreanic language with methods adopted from evolutionary biology. The preliminary results presented here suggest that the evolutionary history of the Koreanic language is characterized by a weak hierarchical structure, and intensive gene/culture flows within the Korean Peninsula seem to have promoted linguistic homogeneity among the Koreanic variants. Despite the gene/culture flows, however, there are still three detectable linguistic barriers in the Korean Peninsula that appear to have been shaped by geographical features such as mountains, elevated areas, and ocean. I discuss these findings in an inclusive manner to lay the groundwork for future studies.

  14. Modeling of Regional Climate over Red Sea and Arabian Peninsula

    KAUST Repository

    Stenchikov, Georgiy L.


    Observations, re-analyses, and climate model simulations show strong surface temperature trends in Middle East and Arabian Peninsula in the last 30 years. Trends are especially pronounced in summer exceeding +1K/decade. However, some regions, e.g., the So

  15. Drought trends in the Iberian Peninsula over the last 112 years (United States)

    Gouveia, Célia M.; Ramos, Patrícia; Russo, Ana; Trigo, Ricardo M.


    time between drought events, although no clear pattern has emerged. Gouveia C.M., Bastos A., Trigo R.M., DaCamara C.C. (2012) "Drought impacts on vegetation in the pre and post-fire events over Iberian Peninsula". Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences, 12, 3123-3137, 2012. Hoerling, M., Eischeid, J., Perlwitz, J., Quan, X., Zhang, T., and Pegion, P. (2012). On the increased frequency of Mediterranean drought. J. Clim., 25, 2146-2161. Trigo R.M., Añel J., Barriopedro D., García-Herrera R., Gimeno L., Nieto R., Castillo R., Allen M.R., Massey N. (2013), The record Winter drought of 2011-12 in the Iberian Peninsula [in "Explaining Extreme Events of 2012 from a Climate Perspective". [Peterson, T. C., M. P. Hoerling, P.A. Stott and S. Herring, Eds.] Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 94 (9), S41-S45. Vicente-Serrano S.M., López-Moreno J.I., Beguería S., Lorenzo-Lacruz J., Sanchez-Lorenzo A., García-Ruiz J.M., Azorin-Molina C., Móran-Tejeda E., Revuelto J., Trigo R., Coelho F., Espejo F.: Evidence of increasing drought severity caused by temperature rise in southern Europe. Environmental Research Letters, 9, 044001, 2014. Acknowledgements: This work was partially supported by national funds through FCT (Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia, Portugal) under project QSECA (PTDC/AAGGLO/4155/2012).

  16. Drought variability and change across the Iberian Peninsula (United States)

    Coll, Joan Ramon; Aguilar, Enric


    Drought variability and change is assessed in this study across the Iberian Peninsula along the 20th century and the first decade of the 21st century using state of the art drought indices: the Sc-PDSI, the SPI and the SPEI. Daily temperature and precipitation data from 24 time-series regularly spread over Iberian Peninsula are quality controlled and also homogenized in a monthly scale to create the Monthly Iberian Temperature and Precipitation Series (MITPS) for the period 1906-2010. The Sc-PDSI, the 12-month SPI and 12-month SPEI are computed on a monthly basis using the newly MITPS dataset to identify dry and wet conditions across time. Precipitation data is only required to compute SPI, but potential evapotranspiration (PET) is also needed to perform the Sc-PDSI and SPEI, which is estimated using the Tornthwaite's method. The analysis conducted in this study confirms that drought conditions are worsening for most of the Iberian Peninsula across time strongly induced by global warming especially during the last three decades. All drought indices have found a drying trend in the Pyrenees, Ebro basin, central Iberia and in the south and south-eastern area while a wetting trend is identified in the western and in the north-western region. Future projections also indicate a clear increase in hydrological drought conditions along the 21st century, thus, water saving and the application of effective water management strategies will be crucial to minimize the impact of hydrological droughts over the Iberian Peninsula into the near future. KEY WORDS: Drought, climate change, Iberian Peninsula, drought indices.

  17. High resolution reconstruction of monthly autumn and winter precipitation of Iberian Peninsula for last 150 years. (United States)

    Cortesi, N.; Trigo, R.; González-Hidalgo, J. C.; Ramos, A.


    Precipitation over Iberian Peninsula (IP) presents large values of interannual variability and large spatial contrasts between wet mountainous regions in the north and dry regions in the southern plains. Unlike other European regions, IP was poorly monitored for precipitation during 19th century. Here we present a new approach to fill this gap. A set of 26 atmospheric circulation weather types (Trigo R.M. and DaCamara C.C., 2000) derived from a recent SLP dataset, the EMULATE (European and North Atlantic daily to multidecadal climate variability) Project, was used to reconstruct Iberian monthly precipitation from October to March during 1851-1947. Principal Component Regression Analysis was chosen to develop monthly precipitation reconstruction back to 1851 and calibrated over 1948-2003 period for 3030 monthly precipitation series of high-density homogenized MOPREDAS (Monthly Precipitation Database for Spain and Portugal) database. Validation was conducted over 1920-1947 at 15 key site locations. Results show high model performance for selected months, with a mean coefficient of variation (CV) around 0.6 during validation period. Lower CV values were achieved in western area of IP. Trigo, R. M., and DaCamara, C.C., 2000: "Circulation weather types and their impact on the precipitation regime in Portugal". Int. J. Climatol., 20, 1559-1581.

  18. Hurricane Ike Deposits on the Bolivar Peninsula, Galveston Bay, Texas (United States)

    Evans, Cynthia A.; Wilkinson, M. J.; Eppler, Dean


    In September 2008, Hurricane Ike made landfall on Galveston Bay, close to the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC). The storm flooded much of the area with a storm surge ranging from 11 -20 feet. The Bolivar peninsula, the southeastern coast of Galveston Bay, experienced the brunt of the surge. Several agencies collected excellent imagery baselines before the storm and complementary data a few days afterward that helped define the impacts of the storm. In April of 2011, a team of scientists and astronauts from JSC conducted field mapping exercises along the Bolivar Peninsula, the section of the Galveston Bay coast most impacted by the storm. Astronauts routinely observe and document coastal changes from orbit aboard the International Space Station. As part of their basic Earth Science training, scientists at the Johnson Space Center take astronauts out for field mapping exercises so that they can better recognize and understand features and processes that they will later observe from the International Space Station. Using pre -storm baseline images of the Bolivar Peninsula near Rollover Pass and Gilchrist (NOAA/Google Earth Imagery and USGS aerial imagery and lidar data), the astronauts mapped current coastline positions at defined locations, and related their findings to specific coastal characteristics, including channel, jetties, and other developments. In addition to mapping, we dug trenches along both the Gulf of Mexico coast as well as the Galveston Bay coast of the Bolivar peninsula to determine the depth of the scouring from the storm on the Gulf side, and the amount of deposition of the storm surge deposits on the Bay side of the peninsula. The storm signature was easy to identify by sharp sediment transitions and, in the case of storm deposits, a layer of storm debris (roof shingles, PVC pipes, etc) and black, organic rich layers containing buried sea grasses in areas that were marshes before the storm. The amount of deposition was generally about 20 -25 cm

  19. Distribution of Radioactive Materials in the Absheron Peninsula, Azerbaijan - 13567

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vandergraaf, Tjalle T. [Consultant, Pinawa, MB, R0E 1L0 (Canada); Mamedov, Gudrat G.; Ramazanov, Mahammadali A.; Badalov, Vatan H. [Baku State University, Baku (Azerbaijan); Naghiyev, Jalal A. [Institute of Radiation Problems of ANAS, Baku (Azerbaijan); Mehdiyeva, Afat A. [National Aerospace Agency of Ministry of Defense Industry, Baku (Azerbaijan)


    The Absheron Peninsula forms the extreme Eastern part of Azerbaijan and juts into the Caspian Sea. The region has a long history of oil and gas exploration, transport, and processing and includes a number of abandoned chemical plants that were used in the separation of iodine from formation waters. As a result of lax environmental standards during the Soviet era, the industrial activity has led to serious contamination from oils residues, heavy metals and naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM). Radiometric surveys performed over a wide range of the Absheron Peninsula showed generally low NORM concentrations. However, radiation levels two to three orders of magnitude above background levels were detected at two abandoned iodine separation plants near the capital city, Baku. These elevated radiation levels are mainly due to Ra-226 and U-238 with lower contributions from Ra-228 and U-235. (authors)


    Adams, J. K.; Finkelstein, S. A.


    Arctic regions have heightened sensitivity to climatic changes, however regional scale differences exist in the magnitude and timing of response to climatic changes. Modern and paleoclimate data indicate spatial variability in Arctic climates due to local variations in topography, sea ice persistence, or proximity to the coast. Melville Peninsula in the east-central Canadian Arctic is in a modern transitional climate area, with a relatively continental climate to the west and a more maritime climate to the east. Thus, shifting climates may particularly influence the region, and may have affected Thule migration during the past millennium. The presence of Thule archaeological sites and a transitional climate make the Melville Peninsula an area of high importance for paleoclimate reconstructions. Lake sediment cores from two adjacent lakes in the Sarcpa Lake region in the interior Melville Peninsula (68°33’N and 88°17’W, 220 m a.s.l.) were analyzed for diatom assemblages. Diatoms (microscopic algae) were well preserved in these cores and thus, could be used to track paleoclimatic changes. Unofficially named SP02 and SP04, the lakes are 3 and 2.5 ha, respectively. Chronologies were constructed using 210Pb activity and AMS radiocarbon dates. All dates are presented as calendar years before AD 1950. Diatoms appear in SP02 5,900 yrs BP; coupled with high magnetic susceptibility and lower LOI550 in sediment older than 5,900 yrs BP, the appearance of diatoms at this time confirms earlier suggestions of a persistent ice cap on the Peninsula until 6,500 yrs BP. Diatom assemblages are dominated by Fragilarioid species, particularly Staurosira construens var. venter and Staurosirella pinnata. Peak diatom concentration and LOI550 between 4,200 yrs BP and 2,900 yrs BP may indicate the Holocene Thermal Maximum (HTM) on Melville Peninsula. Timing of the HTM on the Peninsula is similar to that from the Baffin Island region to the east. High ratios of Staurosirella pinnata

  1. Efficiency Of Ground Water Resources In Northeast Sinai Peninsula, Egypt


    Sewidan, A. S. [احمد صفوت سويدان


    The present study deals with actual quantitative and qualitative evaluation of the groundwater resources in El Sheikh Zuwayid-Rafah area, the northeast coast of Sinai Peninsula. The quantitative analysis is achieved by using groundwater contour maps in 1982 and 1988m while the qualitative evaluation is done using an isosalinity contour map in 1988. A resulting modulus contour map (1982-1988) is drawn to show the variations in the groundwater flow condition. An efficiency groundwater map is co...

  2. Blue and fin whale acoustics and ecology off Antarctic Peninsula



    Blue (Balaenoptera musculus) and fin whales (B. physalus) in the Southern Ocean were subjects of extensive whaling industry during the twentieth century. Their current population numbers remain low, making population monitoring using traditional visual surveys difficult. Both blue and fin whales produce low frequency, regularly repeated calls and are suitable for acoustic monitoring. Eight, continuously recording acoustic recorders were deployed off the Western Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) betwe...

  3. A new 100-m Digital Elevation Model of the Antarctic Peninsula derived from ASTER Global DEM: methods and accuracy assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Cook


    Full Text Available A high resolution surface topography Digital Elevation Model (DEM is required to underpin studies of the complex glacier system on the Antarctic Peninsula. A complete DEM with better than 200 m pixel size and high positional and vertical accuracy would enable mapping of all significant glacial basins and provide a dataset for glacier morphology analyses. No currently available DEM meets these specifications. We present a new 100-m DEM of the Antarctic Peninsula (63–70° S, based on ASTER Global Digital Elevation Model (GDEM data. The raw GDEM products are of high-quality on the rugged terrain and coastal-regions of the Antarctic Peninsula and have good geospatial accuracy, but they also contain large errors on ice-covered terrain and we seek to minimise these artefacts. Conventional data correction techniques do not work so we have developed a method that significantly improves the dataset, smoothing the erroneous regions and hence creating a DEM with a pixel size of 100 m that will be suitable for many glaciological applications. We evaluate the new DEM using ICESat-derived elevations, and perform horizontal and vertical accuracy assessments based on GPS positions, SPOT-5 DEMs and the Landsat Image Mosaic of Antarctica (LIMA imagery. The new DEM has a mean elevation difference of −4 m (± 25 m RMSE from ICESat (compared to −13 m mean and ±97 m RMSE for the original ASTER GDEM, and a horizontal error of less than 2 pixels, although elevation accuracies are lower on mountain peaks and steep-sided slopes. The correction method significantly reduces errors on low relief slopes and therefore the DEM can be regarded as suitable for topographical studies such as measuring the geometry and ice flow properties of glaciers on the Antarctic Peninsula. The DEM is available for download from the NSIDC website: (High resolution reconstruction of monthly precipitation of Iberian Peninsula using circulation weather types (United States)

    Cortesi, N.; Trigo, R.; Gonzalez-Hidalgo, J. C.; Ramos, A. M.


    Precipitation over the Iberian Peninsula (IP) is highly variable and shows large spatial contrasts between wet mountainous regions, to the north, and dry regions in the inland plains and southern areas. In this work, a high-density monthly precipitation dataset for the IP was coupled with a set of 26 atmospheric circulation weather types (Trigo and DaCamara, 2000) to reconstruct Iberian monthly precipitation from October to May with a very high resolution of 3030 precipitation series (overall mean density one station each 200 km2). A stepwise linear regression model with forward selection was used to develop monthly reconstructed precipitation series calibrated and validated over 1948-2003 period. Validation was conducted by means of a leave-one-out cross-validation over the calibration period. The results show a good model performance for selected months, with a mean coefficient of variation (CV) around 0.6 for validation period, being particularly robust over the western and central sectors of IP, while the predicted values in the Mediterranean and northern coastal areas are less acute. We show for three long stations (Lisbon, Madrid and Valencia) the comparison between model and original data as an example to how these models can be used in order to obtain monthly precipitation fields since the 1850s over most of IP for this very high density network.

  4. Spatiotemporal variations in the surface velocities of Antarctic Peninsula glaciers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Chen


    Full Text Available Velocity is an important parameter for the estimation of glacier mass balance, which directly signals the response of glaciers to climate change. Antarctic ice sheet movement and the associated spatiotemporal velocity variations are of great significance to global sea level rise. In this study, we estimate Antarctic Peninsula glacier velocities using the co-registration of optically sensed images and correlation (hereafter referred to as COSI-Corr based on moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer Level 1B data (hereafter referred to as MODIS L1B. The results show that the glaciers of Graham Land and the Larsen Ice Shelf have substantially different velocity features. The Graham Land glaciers primarily flow from the peninsula ridge towards the Weddell Sea and Bellingshausen Sea on the east and west sides, respectively. There are very large velocity variations among the different ice streams, with a minimum of −1 and a maximum of 1500 m a−1 (with an average of 100–150 m a−1. Over the period 2000–2012, the glaciers of Graham Land accelerated in the south but slowed down in the north. In contrast, the Larsen Ice Shelf flows in a relatively uniform direction, mainly towards the northeast into the Weddell Sea. Its average velocity is 750–800 m a−1 and the maximum is > 1500 m a−1. During the period 2000–2012, the Larsen Ice Shelf experienced significant acceleration. The use of COSI-Corr based on MODIS L1B data is suitable for glacier velocity monitoring on the Antarctic Peninsula over long time series and large spatial scales. This method is clearly advantageous for analysing macro-scale spatiotemporal variations in glacier movement.

  5. The Taimyr Peninsula and the Severnaya Zemlya archipelago, Arctic Russia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möller, Per; Alexanderson, Helena; Funder, Svend Visby;


    We here suggest a glacial and climate history of the Taimyr Peninsula and Severnaya Zemlya archipelago in arctic Siberia for the last about 150 000 years (ka). Primarily it is based on results from seven field seasons between 1996 and 2012, to a large extent already published in papers referred...... to in the text e and on data presented by Russian workers from the 1930s to our days and by German colleagues working there since the 1990s. Although glaciations even up here often started in the local mountains, their culminations in this region invariably seems to have centred on the shallow Kara Sea...

  6. The Hel Peninsula – Smart Grid Pilot Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sławomir Noske


    Full Text Available The paper presents the scope and results of engineering, and the scope of Smart Grid deployment in the Hel Peninsula. The following functionalities will be described: Fault Detection, Isolation & Recovery – FDIR function, Integrated Volt/Var Control (IVVC function, advanced supervision of LV grid, including distributed energy resources. The paper contains implementation results and research findings, as well as preliminary cost-benefit analysis of the project. Moreover, since Smart Metering and Smart Grid projects are being deployed in the same region – the Hel Peninisula – the benefit achieved by merging the two projects will be explained.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simo Georgiev


    Full Text Available This paper puts forward the knowledge of the immigration itineraries of the ancestors of five extant salmonid species on Balkan Peninsula which are the following: Acantholingua ohridana (Steindachner, 1892, Hucho hucho (Linnaeus, 1758, Salmo trutta Linnaeus, 1758, Salmothymus obtusirostris Heckel, 1851 and Thymallus thymallus (Linnaeus, 1758. The thesis for the migration itineraries is based on the anatomical, molecular and zoogeographical facts recently published. These latest facts complement or reject the previous thesis that considered the origin of separate species, which in this paper are analyzed together. A new position on the origin of some S. trutta populations inhabiting the Mediterranean Sea watershed is proposed. The new thesis is that they did not inhabit it from the west, through the Atlantic Ocean and Gibraltar, but from the North, through the branches of the former Sarmatian Sea, using the continental way. A. ohridana and S. obtusirostris, the only endemic Balkanean salmonids, have developed here from the mutual ancestor with the extant Siberian Brachymystax lenok (Pallas, 1773. This ancestor came first, together with the S. trutta lineage known as »marmorata«. Using the same migration way, the T. thymallus population of Soča River, the North.West boundary of Balkan Peninsula remained restricted at that corner of Adriatic Sea watershed. In the Black Sea watershed (the Danube River flow extension on Balkan Peninsula the distribution of T. thymallus coincides with the distribution of H. hucho. The thesis which has been proposed for this, largest contemporary Balkan Peninsula salmonid fish was that it came here last, after the connections between the Mediterranean Sea basin and once existent Sarmatian Sea disappeared. This occurred after the end of the last glaciations. This has been concluded on the basis of the exclusion of the areas of the »marmorata« lineage of S. trutta (Mediterranean Sea watershed and H. hucho (Black Sea

  8. [Natural focus of tularemia on the Kerchen peninsula (Crimea)]. (United States)

    Golkovskiĭ, G M; Mitsevich, G F; Khaĭtovich, A B; Alekseev, E V; Korchevskiĭ, P G


    The study confirming the existence of the steppe-type natural focus of tularemia on the Kerch peninsula has been carried out. For the first time the cultures of Francisella tularensis have been isolated. Voles and house mice play the main role in the circulation of the infection. The parasitic system comprises ticks (Ixodidae and Nyalomma), as well as some species of fleas. In carrying out erizootological studies for detecting tularemia in the Crimea the use of low temperature (0 degrees C) for the preservation of specimens and preparations in recommended.

  9. Uranium Mineralization Type and Its Recognition Remark in Liaodong Peninsula

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Jibin; Yang Fu


    Liaodong peninsula is located in the northeastern part of North China Platform. The basement of platform in this district is composed of Archean - Paleoproterozoic metamorphic rocks and granitic complex with sedimentary rocks covering.Mesozoic and Cenozoic rocks sporadically occur in some subsidence basins. Multiple tectonic movements and metamorphism and magmatism with multi - mineralization following formed various U deposits. Based on knowledge obtained from long standing working, this paper presents an overview of crust evolution and different U mineralization at last proposes the forming conditions and recognition for U ore.

  10. The use of circulation weather types to predict upwelling activity along the Western Iberian Peninsula coast (United States)

    Ramos, Alexandre M.; Cordeiro Pires, Ana; Sousa, Pedro M.; Trigo, Ricardo M.


    Coastal upwelling is a phenomenon that occurs in most western oceanic coasts due to the presence of mid-latitude high-pressure systems that generate equatorward winds along the coast and consequent offshore displacement of surface waters that in turn cause deeper, colder, nutrient-rich waters to arise. In western Iberian Peninsula (IP) the high-pressure system associated to northerly winds occurs mainly during spring and summer. Upwelling systems are economically relevant, being the most productive regions of the world ocean and crucial for fisheries. In this work, we evaluate the intra- and inter-annual variability of the Upwelling Index (UI) off the western coast of the IP considering four locations at various latitudes: Rias Baixas, Aveiro, Figueira da Foz and Cabo da Roca. In addition, the relationship between the variability of the occurrence of several circulation weather types (Ramos et al., 2011) and the UI variability along this coast was assessed in detail, allowing to discriminate which types are frequently associated with strong and weak upwelling activity. It is shown that upwelling activity is mostly driven by wind flow from the northern quadrant, for which the obtained correlation coefficients (for the N and NE types) are higher than 0.5 for the four considered test locations. Taking into account these significant relationships, we then developed statistical multi-linear regression models to hindcast upwelling series (April to September) at the four referred locations, using monthly frequencies of circulation weather types as predictors. Modelled monthly series reproduce quite accurately observational data, with correlation coefficients above 0.7 for all locations, and relatively small absolute errors. Ramos AM, Ramos R, Sousa P, Trigo RM, Janeira M, Prior V (2011) Cloud to ground lightning activity over Portugal and its association with Circulation Weather Types. Atmospheric Research 101:84-101. doi: 10.1016/j.atmosres.2011.01

  11. Interanual variability os solar radiation in Peninsula Iberica; Variabilidad interanual de la radiacion solar en la Peninsula Iberica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pozo-Vazquez, D.; Tovar-Pescador, J.; Gamiz-Fortis, S.; Esteban-Parra, M.; Castro-Diez, Y.


    The NAO climatic phenomenon is the main responsible for the interanual cloud cover variability in Europe. We explore the relationship between the NAO and the solar radiation spatio-temporal variability in Europe during winter. Measured monthly sums of sunshine duration and short-wave downward solar flux reanalysis data have been used. Correlation analysis between the NAO index and the measured sunshine duration shows a maximum positive value (+0.75) over the Iberian Peninsula. Accordingly, solar radiation in this area undergoes an interanual variability that can reach up to 30%, with the derived consequences for a reliable solar energy resources evaluation. (Author)

  12. New evidence of early Neanderthal disappearance in the Iberian Peninsula. (United States)

    Galván, Bertila; Hernández, Cristo M; Mallol, Carolina; Mercier, Norbert; Sistiaga, Ainara; Soler, Vicente


    The timing of the end of the Middle Palaeolithic and the disappearance of Neanderthals continue to be strongly debated. Current chronometric evidence from different European sites pushes the end of the Middle Palaeolithic throughout the continent back to around 42 thousand years ago (ka). This has called into question some of the dates from the Iberian Peninsula, previously considered as one of the last refuge zones of the Neanderthals. Evidence of Neanderthal occupation in Iberia after 42 ka is now very scarce and open to debate on chronological and technological grounds. Here we report thermoluminescence (TL) and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dates from El Salt, a Middle Palaeolithic site in Alicante, Spain, the archaeological sequence of which shows a transition from recurrent to sporadic human occupation culminating in the abandonment of the site. The new dates place this sequence within MIS 3, between ca. 60 and 45 ka. An abrupt sedimentary change towards the top of the sequence suggests a strong aridification episode coinciding with the last Neanderthal occupation of the site. These results are in agreement with current chronometric data from other sites in the Iberian Peninsula and point towards possible breakdown and disappearance of the Neanderthal local population around the time of the Heinrich 5 event. Iberian sites with recent dates (<40 ka) attributed to the Middle Palaeolithic should be revised in the light of these data.

  13. Distribution and characteristic of PAHs in snow of Fildes Peninsula

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guangshui Na; Chunyang Liu; Zhen Wang; Linke Ge; Xindong Ma; Ziwei Yao


    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) investigation in different matrices has been reported largely,whereas reports on snow samples were limited.Snow,as the main matrix in the polar region,has an important study meaning.PAHs in snow samples were analyzed to investigate the distribution and contamination status of them in the Antarctic,as well as to provide some references for global migration of PAHs.Snow samples collected in Fildes Peninsula were enriched and separated by solid-phase membrane disks and eluted by methylene dichloride,then quantified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.All types of PAHs were detected except for Benzo(a)pyrene.Principal component analysis method was applied to characterize them.Three factors (Naphthalene,Fluorene and Pbenanthrene) accounted for 60.57%,21.61% and 9.80%,respectively.The results showed that the major PAHs sources maybe the atmospheric transportation,and the combustion of fuel in Fildes Peninsula.The comparison of concentration and types of PAHs between accumulated snow and fresh snow showed that the main compound concentrations in accumulated snow samples were higher than those in fresh ones.The risk assessment indicated that the amount of PAHs in the snow samples would not lead to ecological risk.

  14. Radiation dates of Holocene shorelines in Peninsula Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tjia, H.D. (National Univ. of Malaysia, Bangi, Selangor); Fuji, S. (Toyama Univ. (Japan)); Kigoshi, K. (Gakushuin Univ., Tokyo (Japan))


    Fifteen newly determined radiocarbon dates indicate the presence of former shorelines up to 3 meters above present high tide level in the tectonically stable Peninsula of Malaysia. The sea level indicators consist of oysters in growth position (9 samples), molluscs in beach deposits (2), corals in growth position (3), and beachrock (1). In the Peninsula living oysters occur up to or slightly above high tide, modern beach deposits may occur as high as 1.5 meters above high tide, and corals live up to low tide level. The literature shows that high tide, and corals live up to low tide level. The literature shows that beachrock marks intertidal zones. Combined with seven previously published ages of raised shorelines in the region, strong evidence is presented for one or more high Holocene, eustatic sea level stands in the continental part of Southeast Asia. Periods of high sea levels occur between 2500 and 2900 yr BP, and between 4200 and 5700 yr BP. There is also some indication of high sea level between 8300 and 9500 yr BP.

  15. Temperature Trends and Distribution in the Arabian Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad N. ElNesr


    Full Text Available Problem statement: Temperature trend’s investigation is important for proper water resources management and urban planning. This study aims to investigate trends and distribution of temperature in the past thirty years for the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA, which represents about 86% of the Arabian Peninsula’s area. Approach: The trend in the temperature time series, including the recorded maximum, average and minimum daily values, were analyzed using non-parametric statistics. These were Mann-Kendall tau coefficient and Sen’s slope estimator. Results: (1: The study showed a warming trend through 9 months of the year except in November to January where non-significant cooling trends were observed. (2: The most significant warming trend appears in the summer months of June, August and September around the central region of KSA. (3 Spatially, The northwestern and southern regions were the least affected by the warming trend. Conclusion: The study concluded that KSA as well as the Arabian Peninsula are suffering from a considerable warming temperature trend, which is an important issue to be considered for rural development and water resources management.

  16. El Grupo Trinity Peninsula en la península Tabarin, extremo norte de la península Antártica The Trinity Peninsula Group in the Tabarin Peninsula, northern end of the Antarctic Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A. del Valle


    Full Text Available La península Tabarin, Antártida Occidental, exhibe rocas deformadas durante los ciclos orogénicos gondwánico y ándico. La Formación Hope Bay y Formación Düse Bay (Carbonífero tardío-Triásico están incluidas dentro del Grupo Trinity Peninsula, registrando el ciclo orogénico gondwánico. Las estructuras sedimentarias, asociaciones de facies y rasgos deposicionales de la Formación Hope Bay, sugieren sedimentación en ambientes marinos someros. La presencia de capas calcáreas con morfología build-up y matas calcáreas, y rocas piroclásticas, incluyendo ignimbritas, peperitas y depósitos ricos es escoria volcánica, también indican escasa profundidad del mar para la sedimentación de la Formación Düse Bay. El área de aporte del Grupo Trinity Peninsula estaba compuesta por rocas volcánicas y plutónicas con cantidades menores de rocas sedimentarias y metamórficas, probablemente ubicadas hacia el este para la parte inferior Formación Hope Bay de la secuencia, y hacia el oeste para la parte superior de la Formación Düse Bay, con mayor participación volcánica en el último caso. El ambiente de sedimentación más probable para la Formación Hope Bay fue una plataforma silícicoclástica somera y de baja energía, y una cuenca de retroarco de antepaís, relacionada con la orogenia gondwánica, en el caso de la Formación Düse Bay.The Tabarin Peninsula, West Antarctica, showsrocks deformed by both the Gondwanic and Andean orogenic cycles. The Hope Bay Formation and Düse Bay Formation (Late Carboniferous-Triassic are included within the Trinity Peninsula Group, recording the Gondwanic orogenic cycle. Sedimentary structures, facies associations and depositional features of Hope Bay Formation, suggest shallow marine deposition. The presence in the Düse Bay Formation of calcareous beds with build-up morphology and algal mats, and primary pyroclastic rocks including: ignimbrites, peperites and scoria-rich fall deposits, also

  17. Holocene glacier dynamics on James Ross Island, NE Antarctic Peninsula (United States)

    Davies, B. J.; Glasser, N. F.; Hambrey, M.


    The northern Antarctic Peninsula is currently warming very rapidly, which has resulted in ice sheet thinning, ice-shelf collapse, and rapid and widespread glacier recession. These small mountain glaciers are predicted to make a large sea level contribution over the coming century. Reconstructing past rates, volumes and magnitudes of change, particularly with respect to the former configuration of former ice sheets and ice shelves, is vital to contextualise contemporary change and to improve predictions of future ice-sheet behaviour. The aim of this research is therefore to investigate the relationship of deglacial ice sheet thinning and Holocene glacier fluctuations around James Ross Island, northeast Antarctic Peninsula, with temperature changes recorded in the Mount Haddington Ice Core. We use a combination of geomorphological mapping, from field campaigns and remotely sensed images, cosmogenic nuclide ages on glacially transported boulders, and numerical modelling with a simple 1D flowline model. Prior to 18 ka, James Ross Island was inundated by a thick and mainly cold-based ice sheet, which scattered granite erratics across the island. Ice sheet thickness and the rate of thinning is constrained by granite erratics on Terrapin Hill (610 m a.s.l.), and from flat-topped mesas at 370 m a.s.l. on Ulu Peninsula. During deglaciation and a period of rapid warming and eustatic sea level rise, the area was drained by Prince Gustav Ice Stream. The ice sheet reached its current configuration by around 6 ka, with glacier readvances around 4-5 ka. At Boulder Valley, near Terrapin Hill on James Ross Island, a large glacial readvance reached the current shoreline. It pre-dated the Mid-Holocene sea level high-stand, and has shorelines imprinted upon its seaward face. After 5.3 cal. ka BP and post-dating the mid-Holocene sea level high-stand, there was a readvance of at least 7 km by glacier 'IJR-45' on Ulu Peninsula. Rapid glacier recession occurred during a period of

  18. Thickness of the surficial aquifer, Delmarva Peninsula, Maryland and Delaware (United States)

    Denver, Judith; Nardi, Mark R.


    A digital map of the thickness of the surficial unconfined aquifer, including from the land surface and unsaturated zone to the bottom of sediments of geologic units identified as part of the surficial aquifer, was produced to improve understanding of the hydrologic system in the Maryland and Delaware portions of the Delmarva Peninsula. The map is intended to be used in conjunction with other environmental coverages (such land use, wetlands, and soil characteristics) to provide a subsurface hydrogeologic component to studies of nitrate transport that have historically relied on maps of surficial features. It could also be used to study the transport of other water soluble chemicals. The map was made using the best currently available data, which was of varying scales. It was created by overlaying a high resolution land surface and bathymetry digital elevation model (DEM) on a digital representation of the base of the surficial aquifer, part of hydrogeologic framework, as defined by Andreasen and others (2013). Thickness was calculated as the difference between the top of land surface and the bottom of the surficial aquifer sediments, which include sediments from geologic formations of late-Miocene through Quaternary age. Geologic formations with predominantly sandy surficial sediments that comprise the surficial aquifer on the Delmarva Peninsula include the Parsonsburg Sand, Sinepuxent Formation (Fm.), and parts of the Omar Fm. north of Indian River Bay in Delaware, the Columbia Fm., Beaverdam Fm., and Pennsauken Fm. (Ator and others 2005; Owens and Denney, 1986; Mixon, 1985; Bachman and Wilson, 1984). Formations with mixed texture and sandy stratigraphy including the Scotts Corner Fm. and Lynch Heights Fm. in Delaware are also considered part of the surficial aquifer (Ramsey, 1997). Subcropping aquifers and confining beds underlie the surficial aquifer throughout the Peninsula and may increase or limit its thickness, respectively (Andreasen and others, 2013

  19. Climate Variabilities of Sea Level around the Korean Peninsula

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong-Hoon YOUN; Im Sang OH; Young-Hyang PARK; Ki-Hyun KIM


    In order to study the climate variabilities of the sea level around the Korean Peninsula, tidal data observed at local stations in Korea were compared against those obtained using TOPEX/POSEIDON (T/P) altimetric sea level data. In the course of our study, the amount of sea level rise was estimated using the tidal data from 9 stations selected by an anomaly coherency analysis. The results indicated that the sea level has risen by 0.28 cm yr-1 around the Korean Peninsula over the past two decades. The extent of such a rise is about two times higher than that of the global increase (0.1-0.2 cm yr-1). However,because most global warming effects occurred mainly over mid- and high-latitudes, this level of change appears to be realistic. According to the spectral analysis (at a spectral window of k = 2, k is the number of subdivisions), the decadal band of sea level variability is computed at 30% of the energy. Its spectral peak is found at 12.8 years. In the interannual band, the predominant sea level variability is in the 1.4-1.9-year band, with a sharp peak at 1.6 years. A secondary peak, although marginal, has a period of 2.2years. Based on our estimates of sea level height from Topex/Poseidon, the quasi-biennial periodicity of 1.6 years is the representative interannual sea level variability in the seas adjacent to Korea. Trends vary greatly according to the geographical location, from a maximum of 1.0 cm yr-1 (the southern sector of the East Sea) to a minimum of 0.17 cm yr-1 (the northern sector of the East Sea). This is fairly consistent with the qualitative description already given with reference to the global map. As an analogue to the pattern seen in Korea, that of the Yellow Sea reveals practically the same trend as that of the adjacent seas (0.56 cm yr-1). However, in the case of TOPEX/POSEIDON (T/P) data, there is no clear evidence of a linkage between the interannual sea level variability around the Korean Peninsula and ENSO.

  1. Sensitivity to the use of 3DVAR data assimilation in the numerical downscaling of precipitation over the Iberian Peninsula using WRF and WRFDA through the period 1990-1999. (United States)

    Saenz, Jon; Ibarra-Berastegi, Gabriel; Esnaola, Ganix; Ezcurra, Agustín; Díaz de Argandoña, Javier; González-Rojí, Santos J.


    A numerical downscaling exercise over the Iberian Peninsula has been run nesting the WRF model inside ERA40. The Iberian Peninsula has been covered by a 15km x 15 km grid with 35 vertical levels. Three model configurations have been tested. The first one (NO_DA) follows the usual strategies used with numerical downscaling, after the model is initialised, the model runs forced by boundary conditions alone. The second experiment (DA12h) is configured the same way as the NO_DA case, but 3DVAR data assimilation is run every 12 hours (00Z and 12Z) using observations used during the preparation of ERA40 and obtained from the analysis feedback files from ERA40. The third experiment (DA06h) is configured the same way as the NO_DA case, but data assimilation of observations is performed every six hours (00Z, 06Z, 12Z and 18Z). Seasonally (monthly) varying background error covariance matrices have been prepared according to the mesoscale model configuration. Daily precipitation values have been evaluated against daily observations from ENSEMBLES (9.0) and Spain 02 gridded datasets over the Iberian Peninsula. Results show that, for area averaged precipitation, the results from all the experiments are quite similar and very close to observations. Seasonal precipitation averages show quite a good general agreement with the ones in E-OBS although with a higher spatial variability that is closer to the one in Spain 02 gridded data. It is similar to the topography over the area, and this suggests that the model reproduces spatial variability not present in one of the observational datasets. The seasonal biases of precipitation are lower for both DA runs than for the NO_DA one. Correlation coefficients of daily precipitation anomalies (after removing the seasonal cycle) show that both DA12h and DA06h experiments produce better agreement with observed precipitation. The Root Mean Squared Differences (RMSD) between model runs and observations are of the same order of magnitude than

  2. Peninsula Effects on Birds in a Coastal Landscape: Are Coves More Species Rich than Lobes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam Riffell


    Full Text Available Peninsula effects - decreasing richness with increasing distance along peninsula lobes - have been identified for many taxa on large peninsulas. Peninsula effects are caused by differences in colonization and extinction predicted by island biogeography or by environmental gradients along the peninsula. We compared species-area regressions for cove patches (i.e., mainland to regressions for lobe patches (i.e., on peninsula tips for wet meadow birds along a highly interdigitated shoreline (northern Lake Huron, USA. We conducted analysis both with and without accounting for variation in habitat and landscape characteristics (i.e., environmental gradients of wet meadows. Species-area regressions for coves did not differ from lobes, nor did these results differ when we accounted for gradients. Similarly, few species were more abundant in coves. Peninsula effects may have been lacking because lobe patches were located ≈ 800 m on average from the mainland, and birds are highly mobile and can easily sample patches over these distances. One important caveat was that wet meadow patches > 5 ha were located in coves, so coves would still be important considerations in conservation plans because of the contribution of large patches to reproductive success, dispersal and population dynamics.

  3. Spatial Analysis of b-value Variability in Armutlu Peninsula (NW Turkey) (United States)

    Yeken, Tekin


    Spatial variations of b values were studied by means of 2376 earthquakes with a magnitude completeness of 2.7 in the Armutlu Peninsula (NW Turkey) during a 15-year period following the destructive earthquake on August 17, 1999 in Kocaeli. The b value of L6 for the entire Armutlu Peninsula represents a large value for a global value, but this analysis suggested that the distribution of b value around the Armutlu Peninsula varied extensively from 1.2 to 2.6. Several pockets of high bvalue reflected changes in the physical properties of the Armutlu Peninsula. The southern part of the peninsula represents a lower b value against the northern part of the peninsula. A high b value was observed around Termal and Armutlu towns where plenty of geothermal springs occur. Seismic tomography studies revealed a low velocity zone beneath the Termal area where the high b value was imaged in this study. A seismic swarm which is considered to be related with geothermal activity also occurred in 2014 at the same place. This observation suggests that it is possible to propose that the high b value in the northern part of the peninsula could be related to hydrothermal/geothermal activity which contributes to lowering the effective stress.

  4. Population structure of three Psammodromus species in the Iberian Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose L. Horreo


    Full Text Available The knowledge of a species’ population structure is essential for the development of adequate conservation actions as well as for the understanding of its evolution. The population structure is unknown in all species of the Genus Psammodromus, including the Western Sand Racer (Psammodromus occidentalis; a recently described species, the Edward’s Sand Racer (P. edwardsianus and the Spanish Sand Racer (P. hispanicus. In this article, the genetic variability and population structure of Psammodromus edwardsianus, P. hispanicus, and P. occidentalis were studied in the Iberian Peninsula covering their natural geographic distribution. Mitochondrial DNA showed genetically different units in all species with higher genetic variability in their southern populations (latitudinal variation. Genetic differentiation was different among species and contrasted to those of species with similar characteristics. Our results therefore highlight the importance of species-specific studies analysing population structure.

  5. Practice of Propaganda on Korean Peninsula (1945-1960

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhyvora Olexii


    Full Text Available The topic of propaganda, which was thought to be a part of the Cold War past, was recently revived by modern and rather successful application in Georgian, Syrian and Ukrainian conflicts. In this regard Korean Peninsula is a perfect example of prolonged use of mutual practice of indoctrination to study its origins. This article discuses the evolution of propaganda use by both Democratic People’s Republic of Korea and Republic of Korea (1945-1960 in cultural, economic and political dimensions. Qualitative text analysis and case study in conjunction with theoretical framework of A. E. Cassirer, S. Langer, E. Barneys and W. Lippmann are used to establish techniques used, and to explain its overall success.

  6. Climatic record of the Iberian peninsula from lake Moncortes' sediments (United States)

    Cao, Min; Huguet, Carme; Rull, Valenti; Valero, Blas; Rosell-Mele, Antoni


    Climatic record of the Iberian peninsula from lake Moncortes' sediments Min Cao1, Carme Huguet1, Valenti Rull2, Blas L. Valero-Garces3, Antoni Rosell-Melé1,4 1Institut de Ciència i Tecnologia Ambientals (ICTA), Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Cerdanyola del Vallès, Catalonia, Spain; 2Institut de Botanic de Barcelona (CSIC), Passeig del Migdia s/n, 08038, Barcelona, Spain, 3 Instituto Pirenaico de Ecologıa (CSIC), Avda. Montañana 1005, 50059 Zaragoza, Spain, 4Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats (ICREA), 08010 Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain. The continuing buildup of industrial greenhouse gases in the atmosphere and concomitant increase in global temperatures has made much of the world's society aware that decades to centuries of environmental change lie ahead, and that these will have profound economic, political and societal impacts. The Iberian Peninsula lies in the boundary between tropical and subtropical climates and seems to amplify the climatic signals form the northern hemisphere through both atmospheric and water circulation feedbacks, making it an ideal site to monitor Northern hemisphere climate changes. This extreme sensitivity to climatic changes also makes the Iberian Peninsula extremely vulnerable to future climate changes. This is why understanding sensitivity to climate change and the consequences it will have on both climate and the hydrological cycle is key to implement preventive measures. The aim of our study is to come up with a high resolution quantitative reconstruction of climate variability (temperature, production and precipitation) in the Iberian Peninsula from lake sediments. We also want to establish the relation between those changes and the ones observed in both ice cores from Greenland and paleotemperature records from marine sediments of the continental Iberian margin. For these reasons we sampled a core in Moncortes (42.3N, 0.99E), a lake of karstic origin with an average depth of 25m and an area of 0

  7. Leishmania spp. Epidemiology of Canine Leishmaniasis in the Yucatan Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. López-Céspedes


    Full Text Available Canine Leishmaniasis is widespread in various Mexican states, where different species of Leishmania have been isolated from dogs. In the present study, we describe the detection of L. braziliensis, L. infantum, and L. mexicana in serum of dogs from the states of Yucatan and Quintana Roo in the Yucatan Peninsula (Mexico. A total of 412 sera were analyzed by ELISA using the total extract of the parasite and the iron superoxide dismutase excreted by different trypanosomatids as antigens. We found the prevalence of L. braziliensis to be 7.52%, L. infantum to be 6.07%, and L. mexicana to be 20.63%, in the dog population studied. The results obtained with ELISA using iron superoxide dismutase as the antigen were confirmed by western blot analysis with its greater sensitivity, and the agreement between the two techniques was very high.

  8. A Mineralogical Study of Diatomite in Leizhou Peninsula

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王辅亚; 张惠芬; 等


    In this paper diatomite samples taken from the Leizhou Peninsula have been studied by chemical analysis, DTA, TG, XRD, IR ,SEM and X-ray Energy Spectroscopy.The study shows that the diatomaceous genera and species and their organic contents are variable with buried depth ,from Melosira to Stephanodiscus and then to Cyclotella. Various impurities in the samples, such as quartz, kaolinite and montmorillonite indicate different sedimentary environments. When heated, the diatom would change in shape due to the phase transformation in which amorphous silica crystallized from disordered opal to ordered cristobalite. The temperatures of phase transformation are different for various diatoms due to the presence of different impurities and constituents of diatomaceous genera and species.

  9. Ocean forcing of glacier retreat in the western Antarctic Peninsula. (United States)

    Cook, A J; Holland, P R; Meredith, M P; Murray, T; Luckman, A; Vaughan, D G


    In recent decades, hundreds of glaciers draining the Antarctic Peninsula (63° to 70°S) have undergone systematic and progressive change. These changes are widely attributed to rapid increases in regional surface air temperature, but it is now clear that this cannot be the sole driver. Here, we identify a strong correspondence between mid-depth ocean temperatures and glacier-front changes along the ~1000-kilometer western coastline. In the south, glaciers that terminate in warm Circumpolar Deep Water have undergone considerable retreat, whereas those in the far northwest, which terminate in cooler waters, have not. Furthermore, a mid-ocean warming since the 1990s in the south is coincident with widespread acceleration of glacier retreat. We conclude that changes in ocean-induced melting are the primary cause of retreat for glaciers in this region.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodgers, A; Al-Amri, A


    We report results from the third and final year of our project (ROA0101-35) to collect seismic event and waveform data recorded in and around the Arabian Peninsula. This effort involves several elements. We are working with King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology to collect data from the Saudi National Seismic Network, that consists of 38 digital three-component stations (27 broadband and 11 short-period). We have an ongoing collaboration with the Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research, which runs the eight station Kuwait National Seismic Network. We installed two temporary broadband stations in the United Arab Emirates (funded by NNSA NA-24 Office of Non-Proliferation & International Security). In this paper we present a summary of data collected under these efforts including integration of the raw data into LLNL's Seismic Research Database and preliminary analysis of souce parameters and earth structure.

  11. Settlement Nenets on the Yamal Peninsula: Who Are They?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena V. Liarskaya


    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the present situation on the Yamal Peninsula. At the beginning of the 20th century the majority of Nenets living on Yamal were nomads. Over the last decades, settlement component has become a part of Nenets culture; failure to recognize this component while describing the present state of Nenets culture leads to serious distortions. For a presentday Nenets, life in a settlement is a possible alternative to life in the tundra, whereas the spheres of two ways of life existing in Nenets culture, namely, a tundra life and a settlement life, are spatially separated. It is considered normal when a Nenets belonging to a younger generation possesses both alternatives of culture simultaneously, knows the rules determining the choice of the lifestyle, can effectively perform the switch from one lifestyle to another, and can use both.

  12. SHRIMP U-Pb dating and geochemistry of the Cretaceous plutonic rocks in the Korean Peninsula: A new tectonic model of the Cretaceous Korean Peninsula (United States)

    Kim, Sung Won; Kwon, Sanghoon; Park, Seung-Ik; Lee, Changyeol; Cho, Deung-Lyong; Lee, Hong-Jin; Ko, Kyoungtae; Kim, Sook Ju


    The Cretaceous tectonomagmatism of the Korean Peninsula was examined based on geochemical and geochronological data of the Cretaceous plutonic rocks, along with distribution of volcano-sedimentary nonmarine N- to NE-trending fault bounded sedimentary basins. We conducted sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP) zircon U-Pb ages and whole-rock geochemical compositions of 21 Cretaceous plutonic rocks, together with previously published data, from the central to southern Korean Peninsula. Four age groups of plutonic rocks were identified: Group I (ca. 119-106 Ma) in the northern to central area, Group II (ca. 99-87 Ma) in the central southern area, Group III (ca. 85-82 Ma) in the central to southern area, and Group IV (ca. 76-67 Ma) in the southernmost area. These results indicate a sporadic trenchward-younging trend of the Cretaceous magmatism in the Korean Peninsula. The Group I, II, and III rocks are dominated by high-K calc-alkaline I-type rocks with rift-related A-type granitoids. In contrast, the Group IV rocks are high-K calc-alkaline I-type plutonic rocks with no A-type rocks. The geochemical signatures of the entire groups indicated LREEs (light rare earth elements) enrichments and negative Nb, Ta, and Ti anomalies, indicating normal arc magmatism. A new tectonic model of the Cretaceous Korean Peninsula was proposed based on temporal and spatial distribution of the Cretaceous plutons represented by four age groups; 1) magmatic quiescence throughout the Korean Peninsula from ca. 160 to 120 Ma, 2) intrusions of the I- and A-type granitoids in the northern and central Korean Peninsula (Group I plutonic rocks from ca. 120 to 100 Ma) resulted from the partial melting of the lower continental crust due to the rollback of the Izanagi plate expressed as the conversion from flat-lying subduction to normal subduction. The Gyeongsang nonmarine sedimentary rift basin in the Korean Peninsula and adakite magmatism preserved in the present-day Japanese Islands

  13. Weather Types, temperature and relief relationship in the Iberian Peninsula: A regional adiabatic processes under directional weather types (United States)

    Peña Angulo, Dhais; Trigo, Ricardo; Cortesi, Nicola; Gonzalez-Hidalgo, Jose Carlos


    We have analyzed at monthly scale the spatial distribution of Pearson correlation between monthly mean of maximum (Tmax) and minimum (Tmin) temperatures with weather types (WTs) in the Iberian Peninsula (IP), represent them in a high spatial resolution grid (10km x 10km) from MOTEDAS dataset (Gonzalez-Hidalgo et al., 2015a). The WT classification was that developed by Jenkinson and Collison, adapted to the Iberian Peninsula by Trigo and DaCamara, using Sea Level Pressure data from NCAR/NCEP Reanalysis dataset (period 1951-2010). The spatial distribution of Pearson correlations shows a clear zonal gradient in Tmax under the zonal advection produced in westerly (W) and easterly (E) flows, with negative correlation in the coastland where the air mass come from but positive correlation to the inland areas. The same is true under North-West (NW), North-East (NE), South-West (SW) and South-East (SE) WTs. These spatial gradients are coherent with the spatial distribution of the main mountain chain and offer an example of regional adiabatic phenomena that affect the entire IP (Peña-Angulo et al., 2015b). These spatial gradients have not been observed in Tmin. We suggest that Tmin values are less sensitive to changes in Sea Level Pressure and more related to local factors. These directional WT present a monthly frequency over 10 days and could be a valuable tool for downscaling processes. González-Hidalgo J.C., Peña-Angulo D., Brunetti M., Cortesi, C. (2015a): MOTEDAS: a new monthly temperature database for mainland Spain and the trend in temperature (1951-2010). International Journal of Climatology 31, 715-731. DOI: 10.1002/joc.4298 Peña-Angulo, D., Trigo, R., Cortesi, C., González-Hidalgo, J.C. (2015b): The influence of weather types on the monthly average maximum and minimum temperatures in the Iberian Peninsula. Submitted to Hydrology and Earth System Sciences.

  14. Problemas da sociologia da arte


    Bastide, Roger


    A partir de um balanço das realizações consideradas pelo autor como as mais relevantes no campo da sociologia da arte até o final dos anos de 1940, o texto propõe novos rumos para a disciplina, considerando o modo como a arte é socialmente produzida como linguagem e valor.

  15. Drought impact on vegetation in pre and post fire events in Iberian Peninsula (United States)

    Gouveia, C. M.; Bastos, A.; Trigo, R. M.; DaCamara, C.


    In 2004/2005, the Iberian Peninsula was stricken by an exceptional drought that affected more than one third of Portugal and part of southern Spain during more than 9 months. This severe drought had a strong negative impact on vegetation dynamics, as it coincided with the period of high photosynthetic activity (Gouveia et al., 2009). Since water availability is a crucial factor in post-fire vegetation recovery, it is desirable to assess the impact that such water-stress conditions had on fire sensitivity and post-fire vegetation recovery. Fire events in the European Mediterranean areas have become a serious problem and a major ecosystem disturbance, increasing erosion and soil degradation. In Portugal, the years 2003 and 2005 were particularly devastating. In 2003 it was registered the maximal burnt area since 1980, with more than 425000 ha burned, representing about 5% of Portuguese mainland. The 2005 fire season registered the highest number of fire occurrences in Portugal and the second year with the greatest number of fires in Spain. The high number of fire events observed during the summer 2005 in the Iberian Peninsula is linked, in part, to the extreme drought conditions that prevailed during the preceding winter and spring seasons of 2004/2005. Vegetation recovery after the 2003 and 2005 fire seasons was estimated using the mono-parametric model developed by Gouveia et al. (2010), which relies on monthly values of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), from 1999 to 2009, at 1kmresolution, as obtained from the VEGETATION-SPOT5 instrument.. This model was further used to evaluate the effect of drought in pre and post vegetation activity. Besides the standard NDVI, the Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) and the Normalized Difference Drought Index (NDDI) were computed in order to evaluate drought intensity. In the case of the burnt scars of 2003, when data corresponding to the months of drought are removed, recovery times are considerably shorter

  16. Multichannel Seismic Reflection Data - SCAR - Antarctic Peninsula - 1985, SDLS CD-ROM vol 16 (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data are stacked multichannel marine seismic reflection data recorded during 1985 field season along the north side of the Antarctic-Peninsula by the British...

  17. Fall 1986 productivity estimates of emperor geese from aerial photographs on the Alaska peninsula (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Production estimates for emperor geese (Anser canagicus) were obtained from aerial photographs taken from six locations on the north side of the Alaska Peninsula in...

  18. Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula, Alaska ESI: M_MAMMAL (Marine Mammal Polygons) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains biological resource data for marine mammals in Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula, Alaska. Vector polygons in this data set represent locations of...

  19. Socioeconomic Features - Cook Inlet/Kenai Peninsula Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Summary Data (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Point and line coverage depicting several human-use, or socioeconomic features in the Cook Inlet/Kenai Peninsula region including oil facilities, oil platforms,...

  20. Multichannel Seismic Reflection Data - SCAR - Antarctic Peninsula - 1988-1989, SDLS CD-ROM vol 25 (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data are stacked multichannel marine seismic reflection data recorded during 1988-89 in the Antarctic Peninsula, Antarctica, by the Japan National Oil...

  1. Multichannel Seismic Reflection Data - SCAR - Antarctic Peninsula 1987-88, SDLS CD-ROM vol 24 (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data are stacked multichannel marine seismic reflection data recorded during 1987-88 in the Antarctic Peninsula, Antarctica, by the Japan National Oil...

  2. Alaska Peninsula/Becharof National Wildlife Refuge Complex : Annual narrative report : Calendar year 1992 (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Alaska Peninsula and Becharof NWRs outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1992 calendar year. The report begins with a summary...

  3. Alaska Peninsula/Becharof National Wildlife Refuges : Annual narrative report : Calendar year 1988 (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Alaska Peninsula and Becharof NWRs outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1988 calendar year. The report begins with a summary...

  4. Kenai Peninsula Brown Bear Studies : Report of the Interagency Brown Bear Study Team, 1986 (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes work conducted during the 1986 field season on brown bear (Ursus arctos) from the Kenai Peninsula, Alaska. Ground surveys were conducted to...

  5. Alaska Peninsula/Becharof National Wildlife Refuges : Annual narrative report : Calendar year 1989 (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Alaska Peninsula and Becharof NWRs outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1989 calendar year. The report begins with a summary...

  6. Revised Comprehensive Conservation Plan: Alaska Peninsula and Becharof National Wildlife Refuges (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on Alaska Peninsula and Becharof NWRs for the next 15 years. This plan outlines the...

  7. Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula, Alaska ESI: M_MAMPT (Marine Mammal Points) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains biological resource data for seals and sea lions in Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula, Alaska. Vector points in this data set represent locations...

  8. Alaska Peninsula/Becharof National Wildlife Refuges : Annual narrative report : Calendar year 1990 (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Alaska Peninsula and Becharof NWRs outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1990 calendar year. The report begins with a summary...

  9. Alaska Peninsula/Becharof National Wildlife Refuges : Annual narrative report : Calendar year 1987 (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Alaska Peninsula and Becharof NWRs outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1987 calendar year. The report begins with a summary...

  10. Alaska Peninsula National Wildlife Refuge : Annual narrative report : Calendar year 1981 (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Alaska Peninsula NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1981 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of the year's...

  11. Alaska Peninsula/Becharof National Wildlife Refuge Complex : Annual narrative report : Calendar year 1996 (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Alaska Peninsula and Becharof NWRs outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1996 calendar year. The report begins with a summary...

  12. 2005 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Olympic Peninsula (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Terrapoint collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data for the Olympic Peninsula project of 2005, totaling approximately 114.59 sq mi: 24.5 for Clallam...

  13. Map Service Showing Geology and Geologic Provinces of the Arabian Peninsula (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The geology data set for this map includes arcs, polygons, and labels that outline and describe the general geologic age and type of bedrock of the Arabian Peninsula...

  14. Alaska Peninsula/Becharof National Wildlife Refuge Complex : Annual narrative report : Calendar year 1991 (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Alaska Peninsula and Becharof NWRs outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1991 calendar year. The report begins with a summary...

  15. Alaska Peninsula National Wildlife Refuge : Annual narrative report : Calendar year 1984 (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Alaska Peninsula NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1984 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of the year's...

  16. Alaska Peninsula/Becharof National Wildlife Refuge Complex : Annual narrative report : Calendar year 1993 (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Alaska Peninsula and Becharof NWRs outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1993 calendar year. The report begins with a summary...

  17. Alaska Peninsula/Becharof National Wildlife Refuge Complex : Annual narrative report : Calendar year 1995 (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Alaska Peninsula and Becharof NWRs outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1995 calendar year. The report begins with a summary...

  18. Alaska Peninsula/Becharof National Wildlife Refuge Complex : Annual narrative report : Calendar year 1994 (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Alaska Peninsula and Becharof NWRs outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1994 calendar year. The report begins with a summary...

  19. A special report on fishery resources of the Kenai Peninsula, Territory of Alaska (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The commercial fishery resource of the Kenai Peninsula has an average annual value of $3,611,000. In addition, a sport fishery of considerable importance exists in...

  20. Transport pathway and depocenter of anthropogenic heavy metals off the Shandong Peninsula, China (United States)

    Xu, Gang; Liu, Jian; Pei, Shaofeng; Gao, Maosheng; Kong, Xianghuai


    Surface sediment grain size as well as the spatial distribution, sources and geochemical baseline levels of heavy metals in the south Shandong Peninsula clinoform were analyzed to determine the transport pathway and main depocenter of anthropogenic heavy metals off the peninsula. Results showed that the surface sediments were primarily silt-sized components, and the fine grain matter mainly originated from the Yellow River and rivers around Laizhou Bay. Heavy metals Cu, Pb, Zn, Cr, and Cd were predominantly from natural sources and their spatial distributions were controlled by grain size; conversely, anthropogenic As (concentration above geochemical baseline level 10.9 mg/kg) was principally derived from human activities, and its transportation from the Yellow River and Laizhou Bay was controlled by the Shandong Coastal Current off the Shandong Peninsula. Furthermore, the anthropogenic As was deposited in three main areas, that is, the Yellow River estuary, Laizhou Bay, and south Shandong Peninsula clinoform.

  1. Alaska Peninsula National Wildlife Refuge: Final Comprehensive Conservation Plan, Environmental Impact Statement, and Wilderness Review (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document includes a final environmental impact statement (EIS) for the Alaska Peninsula Refuge Comprehensive Conservation Plan. It describes five alternative...

  2. A special report on fishery resources of the Kenai Peninsula, Territory of Alaska (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report evaluates existing fisheries of the Kenai Peninsula and is broken down in two section, values associated with commercial fishery resources and value of...

  3. Habitat suitability index model for moose (Alces alces) on the Kenai peninsula (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This descriptive model applies only to moose on the Kenai Peninsula and was specifically developed for use in the evaluation of potential impacts on moose resulting...

  4. A review of scientific research trends within ASPA No. 126 Byers Peninsula, South Shetland Islands, Antarctica



    Byers Peninsula, Livingston Island, was one of the first sites in Antarctica designated for environmental conservation and scientific protection. Research on Byers Peninsula has been predominantly international, with 88 indexed publications (93% of them published during last 20 years) from 209 authors affiliated to 110 institutions from 22 nations, all of which are signatories to the Antarctic Treaty. Palaeontological research represented 20% of the published articles. The variety of freshwat...

  5. Interdecadal variation of precipitation days in August in the Korean Peninsula (United States)

    Choi, Jae-Won; Cha, Yumi; Kim, Hae-Dong


    The present study examines a climate regime shift in the time series of the number of rainy days during August in the Korean Peninsula. The statistical change-point analysis indicates that a significant shift occurred in the time series around 1998, providing a rationale to divide it into two parts: 1975-1997 for the shorter rainy-day period and 1998-2012 for the longer rainy-day period. To examine the cause of recent rapid increases in the number of days with precipitation in August in the Korean Peninsula, differences in the averages of large-scale environments between the 1998-2012 period and the 1975-1997 period were analyzed. The differences in stream flows showed that anomalous cyclones were reinforced in the East Asian continent while anomalous anticyclones were reinforced in the western North Pacific at all layers of the troposphere. The anomalous anticyclones reinforced in the western North Pacific were associated with the western North Pacific subtropical high (WNPSH) developed a little more toward the Korean Peninsula recently. Consequently, the Korean Peninsula has been affected by anomalous south westerlies that supplied warm and humid airs from low tropical regions to the Korean Peninsula. The vertical thermal instability (warm anomaly at lower-level and cold anomaly at middle and upper-level) developed near the Korean Peninsula. In addition, upper tropospheric jets were reinforced further recently near the Korean Peninsula to provide good environments for development of upward flows. The frequency of TCs that affect the Korean Peninsula in August also increased rapidly since 1998.

  6. An Updated Checklist and Perspective Study of Millipedes (Arthropoda: Myriapoda: Diplopoda in the Korean Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anh D. Nguyen


    Full Text Available The Korean peninsula has diverse habitats and so would be expected to have a rich millipede fauna because of its location between the Paleoarctic and Oriental regions. To facilitate studies on millipedes, this work provides an updated list and discussion of Korean millipedes. A total of 69 species had been recorded up to 2010, but since then no new species have been reported. Among 69 species, 49 are endemic to the Korean peninsula. From 1950 to the present, an average of only seven new species from the Korean peninsula has been described per decade. This number does not reflect the biodiversity of millipedes in Korea, especially when compared to Taiwan, which has only one-third the area of the Korean peninsula, but from which a greater number of millipede species have been recorded (75 vs. 69 species. Japan has twofold the land area of the Korean peninsula, and an almost threefold higher number of millipede species. Further, more-intensive surveys will likely result in identification of more millipede species in the Korean peninsula.

  7. Stand structure and dynamics of sand pine differ between the Florida panhandle and peninsula (United States)

    Drewa, P.B.; Platt, W.J.; Kwit, C.; Doyle, T.W.


    Size and age structures of stand populations of numerous tree species exhibit uneven or reverse J-distributions that can persist after non-catastrophic disturbance, especially windstorms. Among disjunct populations of conspecific trees, alternative distributions are also possible and may be attributed to more localized variation in disturbance. Regional differences in structure and demography among disjunct populations of sand pine (Pinus clausa (Chapm. ex Engelm.) Vasey ex Sarg.) in the Florida panhandle and peninsula may result from variation in hurricane regimes associated with each of these populations. We measured size, age, and growth rates of trees from panhandle and peninsula populations and then compiled size and age class distributions. We also characterized hurricanes in both regions over the past century. Size and age structures of panhandle populations were unevenly distributed and exhibited continuous recruitment; peninsula populations were evenly sized and aged and exhibited only periodic recruitment. Since hurricane regimes were similar between regions, historical fire regimes may have been responsible for regional differences in structure of sand pine populations. We hypothesize that fires were locally nonexistent in coastal panhandle populations, while periodic high intensity fires occurred in peninsula populations over the past century. Such differences in local fire regimes could have resulted in the absence of hurricane effects in the peninsula. Increased intensity of hurricanes in the panhandle and current fire suppression patterns in the peninsula may shift characteristics of sand pine stands in both regions. ?? 2007 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  8. Francisella species in ticks and animals, Iberian Peninsula. (United States)

    Lopes de Carvalho, I; Toledo, A; Carvalho, C L; Barandika, J F; Respicio-Kingry, L B; Garcia-Amil, C; García-Pérez, A L; Olmeda, A S; Zé-Zé, L; Petersen, J M; Anda, P; Núncio, M S; Escudero, R


    The presence of Francisella species in 2134 ticks, 93 lagomorphs and 280 small mammals from the Iberian Peninsula was studied. Overall, 19 ticks and 6 lagomorphs were positive for Francisella tularensis subsp. holarctica, suggesting, as described for other regions, that lagomorphs may have an important role in the maintenance of F. tularensis in nature. Of the 6 positive lagomorphs, 4 were identified as the European rabbit, Oryctogalus cuniculus. Additionally, 353 ticks and 3 small mammals were PCR positive for Francisella-like endosymbionts (FLEs) and one small mammal was also positive for Francisella hispaniensis-like DNA sequences. Among FLE positive specimens, a variety of sequence types were detected: ticks were associated with 5 lpnA sequence types, with only one type identified per tick, in contrast to 2 lpnA sequence types detected in a single wood mouse (Apodemus sylvaticus). To our knowledge, this is the first report of FLEs in free-living small mammals as well as the first detection of F. hispaniensis-like sequences in a natural setting.

  9. The genus Nigritella (Orchidaceae in the Iberian Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sáez, Llorenç


    Full Text Available As a result of the revision of Nigritella L.C.M. Richard in the Iberian Peninsula, here we recompile information of its variability, taxonomy, nomenclature and chorology. Two taxa are recognized: Nigritella austriaca subsp. iberica (Teppner & E. Klein L. Sáez, comb. nov. and N. gabasiana Teppner & Klein, and the presence of N. corneliana is excluded. Detailed phytodermologic analysis showed that size of guard cells is useful for species identification.Tras la revisión del género Nigritella L.C.M. Richard en la Península Ibérica, se aportan datos sobre la variabilidad, taxonomía, nomenclatura y corología de sus diferentes especies. Se reconocen dos táxones: Nigritella austriaca subsp. iberica (Teppner & E. Klein L. Sáez, comb. nov. y N. gabasiana Teppner & Klein, y se excluye la presencia de N. corneliana. El análisis fitodermológico indica que el tamaño de las células oclusivas es un carácter útil para la identificación de ambas especies

  10. Speedup and fracturing of George VI Ice Shelf, Antarctic Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. O. Holt


    Full Text Available George VI Ice Shelf (GVIIS is located on the Antarctic Peninsula, a region where several ice shelves have undergone rapid breakup in response to atmospheric and oceanic warming. We use a combination of optical (Landsat, radar (ERS 1/2 SAR and laser altimetry (GLAS datasets to examine the response of GVIIS to environmental change and to offer an assessment on its future stability. The spatial and structural changes of GVIIS (ca. 1973 to ca. 2010 are mapped and surface velocities are calculated at different time periods (InSAR and optical feature tracking from 1989 to 2009 to document changes in the ice shelf's flow regime. Surface elevation changes are recorded between 2003 and 2008 using repeat track ICESat acquisitions. We note an increase in fracture extent and distribution at the south ice front, ice-shelf acceleration towards both the north and south ice fronts and spatially varied negative surface elevation change throughout, with greater variations observed towards the central and southern regions of the ice shelf. We propose that whilst GVIIS is in no imminent danger of collapse, it is vulnerable to ongoing atmospheric and oceanic warming and is more susceptible to breakup along its southern margin in ice preconditioned for further retreat.

  11. Recent increase in Antarctic Peninsula ice core uranium concentrations (United States)

    Potocki, Mariusz; Mayewski, Paul A.; Kurbatov, Andrei V.; Simões, Jefferson C.; Dixon, Daniel A.; Goodwin, Ian; Carleton, Andrew M.; Handley, Michael J.; Jaña, Ricardo; Korotkikh, Elena V.


    Understanding the distribution of airborne uranium is important because it can result in both chemical and radiological toxicity. Ice cores offer the most robust reconstruction of past atmospheric levels of toxic substances. Here we present the first sub-annually dated, continuously sampled ice core documenting change in U levels in the Southern Hemisphere. The ice core was recovered from the Detroit Plateau, northern Antarctic Peninsula, in 2007 by a joint Brazilian-Chilean-US team. It displays a significant increase in U concentration that coincides with reported mining activities in the Southern Hemisphere, notably Australia. Raw U concentrations in the Detroit Plateau ice core increased by as much as 102 between the 1980s and 2000s accompanied by increased variability in recent years. Decadal mean U concentrations increased by a factor of ∼3 from 1980 to 2007, reaching a mean of 205 pg/L from 2000 to 2007. The fact that other terrestrial source dust elements such as Ce, La, Pr, and Ti do not show a similar increase and that the increased U concentrations are enriched above natural crustal levels, supports an anthropogenic source for the U as opposed to a change in atmospheric circulation.

  12. Fractal behaviour of the seismicity in the Southern Iberian Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Lana


    Full Text Available The fractal behaviour of the seismicity in the Southern Iberian Peninsula is analysed by considering two different series of data: the distance and the elapsed time between consecutive seismic events recorded by the seismic network of the Andalusian Institute of Geophysics (AIG. The fractal analyses have been repeated by considering four threshold magnitudes of 2.5, 3.0, 3.5 and 4.0. The re-scaled analysis lets to determine if the seismicity shows strong randomness or if it is characterised by time-persistence and the cluster dimension indicates the degree of time and spatial clustering of the seismicity. Another analysis, based on the reconstruction theorem, permits to evaluate the minimum number of nonlinear equations describing the dynamical mechanism of the seismicity, its 'loss of memory', its chaotic character and the instability of a possible predicting algorithm. The results obtained depict some differences depending on distances or elapsed times and the different threshold levels of magnitude also lead to slightly different results. Additionally, only a part of the fractal tools, the re-scaled analysis, have been applied to five seismic crises in the same area.

  13. Angiostrongylus species in wild carnivores in the Iberian Peninsula. (United States)

    Gerrikagoitia, X; Barral, M; Juste, R A


    A survey of Angiostrongylus parasites was carried out between 2003 and 2006 in wild carnivore species in the Basque Country (Northern Spain). Parasitological examination consisted in the dissection of heart and lungs for the extraction of adult worms. Nematodes were identified using morphometrical features and also PCR amplification and sequencing analysis. The animal species included in this study were Eurasian badger (Meles meles), Weasel (Mustela nivalis), Beech marten (Martes foina), Pine marten (Martes martes), Polecat (Mustela putorius), American mink (Mustela vison), Red fox (Vulpes vulpes), Wolf (Canis lupus), Wild cat (Felis silvestris), and Small-spotted genet (Genetta genetta). Angiostrongylus parasites were only found in foxes and badgers at prevalences of 33.3% and 24%, respectively. Identification of the nematodes by morphometrical features revealed that foxes were infected with A. vasorum while badgers were infected by a different species of Angiostrongylus most likely A. daskalovi. Sequencing data of the second internal transcribed spacer region of ribosomal DNA (ITS2) of isolates from each species confirmed the species difference. The high prevalence of Angiostrongylus found in the present survey, indicates that the wild cycle of two different species of Angiostrongylus is present in the Basque Country. To our knowledge this is the first report of A. daskalovi in the Iberian Peninsula.

  14. Mitochondrial DNA sequence variation in the Anatolian Peninsula (Turkey)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hatice Mergen; Reyhan Öner; Cihan Öner


    Throughout human history, the region known today as the Anatolian peninsula (Turkey) has served as a junction connecting the Middle East, Europe and Central Asia, and, thus, has been subject to major population movements. The present study is undertaken to obtain information about the distribution of the existing mitochondrial D-loop sequence variations in the Turkish population of Anatolia. A few studies have previously reported mtDNA sequences in Turks. We attempted to extend these results by analysing a cohort that is not only larger, but also more representative of the Turkish population living in Anatolia. In order to obtain a descriptive picture for the phylogenetic distribution of the mitochondrial genome within Turkey, we analysed mitochondrial D-loop region sequence variations in 75 individuals from different parts of Anatolia by direct sequencing. Analysis of the two hypervariable segments within the noncoding region of the mitochondrial genome revealed the existence of 81 nucleotide mutations at 79 sites. The neighbour-joining tree of Kimura’s distance matrix has revealed the presence of six main clusters, of which H and U are the most common. The data obtained are also compared with several European and Turkic Central Asian populations.

  15. Groundwater Recharge and Hydrogeochemical Evolution in Leizhou Peninsula, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yintao Lu


    Full Text Available An analysis of the stable isotopes and the major ions in the surface water and groundwater in the Leizhou Peninsula was performed to identify the sources and recharge mechanisms of the groundwater. In this study, 70 water samples were collected from rivers, a lake, and pumping wells. The surface water was considered to have a lower salinity than the groundwater in the region of study. The regression equations for δD and δ18O for the surface water and the groundwater are similar to those for precipitation, indicating meteoric origins. The δD and δ18O levels in the groundwater ranged from −60‰; to −25‰; and −8.6‰; to −2.5‰, respectively, and were lower than the stable isotope levels from the winter and spring precipitation. The groundwater in the southern area was classified as the Ca2+-Mg2+-HCO3--type, whereas the groundwater in the northern area included three types (Na+-Cl−-type, Ca2+-Mg2+-HCO3--type, and Ca2+-Mg2+-Cl−-type, indicating rapid and frequent water-rock exchange in the region. A reasonable conclusion is that the groundwater chemistry is dominated by rock weathering and rainwater of local origin, which are influenced by seawater carried by the Asian monsoon.

  16. Heat flow through the sea bottom around the Yucatan Peninsula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khutorskoy, M.D.; Kononov, V.I.; Polyak, B.G. (Geological Inst., Moscow (USSR)); Fernandez, R. (Centro de Investigacion Cientifica y Educacion Superior de Ensenada, Baja California (Mexico)); Matveev, V.G.; Rot, A.A. (Polytechnical Inst., Kuybyshev (USSR))


    Heat flow studies were conducted in January-February 1987, off the Atlantic Coast of Mexico on board the R/V Akademik Nikolai Strakhov. Two areas were surveyed, one transecting the Salt Dome Province and the Campeche Canyon, in the Gulf of Mexico, and the other, on the eastern flank of the Yucatan Peninsula. Conductive heat flow through the bottom sediments was determined as the product of vertical temperature gradient and in situ thermal conductivity, measured with a thermal probe using a multithermistor array and real-time processing capabilities. Forward two-dimensional modeling allows one to estimate heat flow variations at both sites from local disturbances and to obtain average heat flow values of 51 mW/m{sup 2} for the transect within the Gulf of Mexico and 38 and 69 mW/m{sup 2} for two basins within the Yucatan area. Sea bottom relief has a predominant effect over other environmental factors in the scatter of heat flow determination in the Gulf of Mexico.

  17. Evolution of the Antarctic Peninsula lithosphere: Evidence from Mesozoic mafic rocks (United States)

    Riley, T. R.; Curtis, M. L.; Flowerdew, M. J.; Whitehouse, M. J.


    New geochronology from a thick (> 800 m) basaltic succession along the eastern margin of the Antarctic Peninsula confirm a Middle Jurassic age (178 ± 1 Ma). This marginally postdates the adjacent Ferrar large igneous province of the Transantarctic Mountains and predates the extensive silicic volcanism of the Mapple Formation (~ 170 Ma) of the Antarctic Peninsula. The geochemistry of other rare, but broadly contemporaneous, basaltic successions of the Antarctic Peninsula, along with Cretaceous-age mafic dykes, are used to interpret the influences of lithospheric and asthenospheric mantle sources during the Mesozoic. Two significant high magmatic addition rate events occurred along the Antarctic Peninsula continental margin at 170 and 110 Ma and can be correlated to events along the South American Cordillera. These 'flare-up' events are characterised by extensive silicic (mostly ignimbrite) volcanism of the Chon Aike Province (V2 event: 170 Ma) and significant granitoid batholith emplacement of the Lassiter Coast intrusive suite (110 Ma). The 170 Ma event is exposed across large parts of the northern Antarctic Peninsula, whilst the 110 Ma event is more widespread across the southern Antarctic Peninsula. The basaltic volcanism described here precedes the 'flare-up' event at 170 Ma and has geochemical characteristics that indicate a thickened lithosphere prevailed. A major dyke swarm that followed the 170 Ma event indicates that extensive lithospheric thinning had occurred, which allowed the ascent of depleted mafic melts. The thinning was the direct result of widespread lower crustal/upper lithospheric melting associated with the silicic volcanism. In the southern Antarctic Peninsula, the lithosphere remained over thickened until the emplacement of the major batholiths of the Lassiter Coast intrusive suite at 110 Ma and was then immediately followed by the emplacement of more asthenosphere-like melts indicating extensive lithospheric thinning.

  18. Nord Stream’s Extension to the Kurgalsky Peninsula: Implications for an EIA

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    Lott, Alexander


    Full Text Available Nord Stream is planning to lay two submarine pipelines in the Baltic Sea in addition to the ones which already enable the export of natural gas from the Russian Arctic to Germany and the European Union (EU. The main difference between the initial Nord Stream project and the extension project is that the Russian landfall is now planned to be located on the southern coast instead of the northern coast of the Gulf of Finland. The location of the Russian landfall is not yet finally determined. According to Nord Stream the landfall will either be stationed in the Kurgalsky Peninsula or in the Soikinsky Peninsula. Unlike the Soikinsky Peninsula, the Kurgalsky Peninsula is a Ramsar wetland of international importance, a coastal and marine Baltic Sea protected area as well as a candidate Emerald site. Its environment is thus protected currently under both the Ramsar and Helsinki conventions. International environmental organisations deem the project as a danger to the protected area. Nonetheless, due to feasibility reasons Nord Stream has considered the Kurgalsky Peninsula advantageous in comparison with the Soikinsky Peninsula as it would significantly reduce onshore and offshore pipeline route length. The aim of this paper is to establish whether Nord Stream and Russia are obligated to applyan EIA procedure in respect of the potential construction activities in and near the Kurgalsky Peninsula under international law and, if so, under which legal instruments it should be done. In particular, the paper aims at mapping some of the interconnections between the environmental impact assessment (EIA procedure and the relevant international conventions in the fields of marine environmental protection, protection of migratory birds and biological diversity.

  19. Sustainable development of Shandong peninsula Peninsula urban agglomeration: a scenario analysis based on water shortage and water environment changes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    China has experienced a rapid urbanization since late 1970s. The great increase of urban population has resulted in various environmental changes, of which urban water shortage and water environment problems have occurred in most cities, especially in the rapidly developing urban agglomerations in the eastern coastal region. This research, taking Shandong Peninsula Urban Agglomeration (SPUA) as a case study area, analyzes the urbanization expansion in the last decades, discusses the water shortage and water environment changes following the rapid economic development and urbanization such as groundwater sinking in the urban and plain area, sea water and salt-water intrusion in the coastal cities, water pollution overspreading and "water ecosystem degradation, and puts forwards some strategies for sustainability in populous regions with severe water shortage. Some countermeasures for sustainable development of SPUA are put forward, such as modern water resources inter-city networks to regulate water resource between cities, adjusting urbanization policy and urban scale planning to promote the development of small towns and medium sized cities, optimizing urban industry structure by restricting high water consumption enterprises and stimulating the growth of tertiary industry, improving water use efficient to reduce freshwater consumption and wastewater discharge, introducing economic means to water pricing and water management system. and restoring ecological conditions to strengthen the natural water-making capacity.

  20. Ancient bronze horse muzzles of the Iberian Peninsula

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    Garcés Estallo, Ignasi


    Full Text Available Horse muzzles and Bronze muzzles are unique equestrian tools that have been referred to in scattered accounts throughout history. Nevertheless, the majority of these objects have received short descriptions and an overall study is still missing. The lack of a comprehensive study hinges on the over looked importance of these items and the superficial manner that have characterized their documentation. Both these reasons have limited observations on chronology and archaeological investigation. The recent identification of new unpublished exemplars among the Museums’ collections in Barcelona and Lleida has encouraged the authors of this paper to start a new study dedicated to these objects. Starting from a catalogue inclusive of all muzzles and muzzles currently known in the Iberian Peninsula, an attempt will be made to propose an accurate description, typological classification and, for some of the items, a revision of the decorative scenes that have marked their place in bronze horse muzzle and muzzle chronology. The formal development and the chronological framework here proposed refer to those of the exemplars found in Greece and in Italy. The broadening of the geographical area will allow reconsideration of those social phenomena that have in the past determined the diffusion of elements in horse tack throughout most of the western Peninsula in the Mediterranean.

    Los bozales y las muserolas en bronce para caballo constituyen unos excepcionales complementos ecuestres cuyo conocimiento se encuentra disperso en una extensa bibliografía. De muchos ejemplares apenas se ha publicado una breve descripción y nunca hasta el presente han sido objeto de un estudio monográfico, quizás por el desaliento que produce el desconocimiento de su procedencia en unos casos, o la superficial noticia del contexto de aparición en la mayoría de ellos, hecho que ha limitado las consideraciones cronológicas y de asociación. La identificación de nuevos

  1. Heterogeneous structure of the lithosphere of the Taimyr Peninsula (United States)

    Litvinova, Tamara; Petrova, Alevtina


    Magnetic anomalies of the lower crust is well manifested in the satellite measurements and their reductions for the heights H = 100 and 400 km. Currently, however, a great interest is the area of negative magnetic anomalies, allocated to the same heights. They are confined to a special permeable zones of the crust and lithosphere, having increased geothermal activity and are associated with a variety of minerals. In digital magnetic anomalies and gravity anomalies circumpolar map of the Arctic Ocean (Total) was built geomagnetic and density sections along latitudinal and longitudinal cross sections of negative magnetic anomalies (n = 100 km). In the Taimyr Peninsula they capture the largest Fadyukudinsko Kotuiskaya-ring structure. In the north-central Siberia Fadyukudinsko Kotuiskaya ring structure is the "hub" articulation largest geoblocks (Anabar, Kureisko-Tunguska and North Kara). It is manifested in the gravity and magnetic field is also a ring structure. With Fadyukudinsko Kotui-ring structure formation associated injectors and high-carbonate metasomatic rocks tectonites controlling uranium and thorium-uranium-fluorite-barite-rare earth mineralization (VF Proskurnin, et al. 2010). It hypabyssal front of the hot spots. Fadyukudinsko-Kotuiskaya structure is defined posletrappovoe place in the north of the Eurasian plate, responding to a hot spot or a spot lower mantle plumes Triassic [Kravchenko SM, Hain VE 1996 Sazonov AM, Zvyagin EA, Leontiev SI et al., 2010]. Latitude and longitude revealed Profile permeable zones of low magnetic properties and density, confined to a weakened layer in the middle crust. Negative satellite magnetic anomalies (n = 100 km) at depths of 20 - 25-30 km weakly magnetic lens revealed a low density. The upper crust they overlap and dense magnetic rocks. At the bottom of the crust, these lenses are underlain by layers of dense and magnetic structures.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simo Georgijev


    Full Text Available Author disputes the position of the authors K o t t e l a t (1997 and K o t t e l a t & F r e y h o f (2007 about the existence of several species belonging to the Salmo genus in some parts of Balkan Peninsula: Salmo aphelios Kottelat, 1997; Salmo balcanicus (Karaman, 1927; Salmo farioides (Karaman, 1938; Salmo labrax Pallas, 1814; Salmo letnica (Karaman, 1924; Salmo lumi Poljakov, Filipi & Basho, 1958; Salmo macedonicus (Karaman, 1924; Salmo montenigrinus (Karaman, 1933; Salmo pelagonicus Karaman, 1938; Salmo peristericus Karaman, 1938; Salmo taleri (Karaman, 1932. Majority of those species were described by dr. Stanko Karaman, the author who is, regarding the number of described species of European freshwater fishes, on the second place, just behind Carl Linnaeus. It is hardly believable that four trout species were formed in a small and oligotrophic microhabitat like Ohrid Lake, or three species in the Vardar River, knowing that the factor of geographic isolation doesn’t exist in either of the habitats. The author’s position is that all of these species are actually just types of one, highly plastic regarding the micro ecological conditions and phenotypic manifestations, species: Salmo trutta (Linnaeus, 1785. The author supports his opinion by his own results, as well the results of other scientists, obtained through studies of ecology and taxonomy of the brown trout in fluent and still water microhabitats. Also the author suggests that it is unacceptable to apply the terminology immanent to the anthropogenic factor in a sphere of another scientific area where such factor doesn't exist (agronomy-race and biology-natural selection.

  3. Cenotes – Lakes of the Yucatan Peninsula (Mexico

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    Szeroczyńska Krystyna


    Full Text Available Cenote lakes are natural sinkholes or depressions resulting from the collapse of limestone bedrock exposing the groundwater underneath. Thousands of such lakes are particularly encountered on the Yucatan Peninsula (Mexico. These lakes were of great significance for the Maya culture as important religious places and primary source of drink­ing water. They permitted the survival of Mayan communities through dry periods known as “Maya drought”. Most of the cenote lakes are large open water pools measuring tens of meters in diameter. The majority of cenotes are smaller sheliered sites. Their waiers are usually very clear and oligotrophic, originating from rain waier filtering slowly through the ground. The auihors visited and coliected zooplankion samples from eight cenotes in November 2013, namely: Ik-Kil, Samula, Zaci, X-Kekn, Actum Ha, Cristal, Sian Ka’an, and Chan Chemuxil (transect Merida-Tulum- Cancun. The analysed lakes differ considerably in morphological terms, varying from very deep to shallow. Some of them are under human impact (tourists. The water samples were anaiysed for zooplankton content, but the phyto­plankton frequently occurring was also taken into account. The obtained results are largely varied, indicated big eco­logical verity among cenotes which depended on lake age, localization and morphometry. As showed our study Cladocera zooplankion was very rare and only present at several sites. Beiween the fauna community Copepoda and Ostracoda species were the most abundant. Phytoplankton were present in all studied lakes and it sees that played the central role in those ecosystems.

  4. Chemical constraints of groundwater management in the Yucatan peninsula, Mexico (United States)

    Back, W.; Lesser, J. M.


    Two critical objectives of water management in the Yucatan are: (1) to develop regional groundwater supplies for an expanding population and tourism based on the Mayan archeological sites and excellent beaches; and (2) to control groundwater pollution in a chemically sensitive system made vulnerable by geologic conditions. The Yucatan peninsula is a coastal plain underlain by permeable limestone and has an annual rainfall of more than 1000 mm. Such a setting should provide abundant supplies of water; however, factors of climate and hydrogeology have combined to form a hydrologic system with chemical boundaries that decrease the amount of available fresh water. Management of water resources has long had a major influence on the cultural and economic development of the Yucatan. The Mayan culture of the northern Yucatan developed by extensive use of groundwater. The religion was water-oriented and the Mayan priests prayed to Chac, the water god, for assistance in water management primarily to decrease the severity of droughts. The Spaniards arrived in 1517 and augmented the supplies by digging wells, which remained the common practice for more than 300 years. Many wells now have been abandoned because of serious problems of pollution resulting from the use of a sewage disposal well adjacent to each supply well. The modern phase of water management began in 1959 when the Secretaría de Recursos Hidráulicos (S.R.H.) was charged with the responsibility for both scientific investigations and development programmes for water-supply and sewage-disposal systems for cities, villages and islands.

  5. Assessing methods for developing crop forecasting in the Iberian Peninsula (United States)

    Ines, A. V. M.; Capa Morocho, M. I.; Baethgen, W.; Rodriguez-Fonseca, B.; Han, E.; Ruiz Ramos, M.


    Seasonal climate prediction may allow predicting crop yield to reduce the vulnerability of agricultural production to climate variability and its extremes. It has been already demonstrated that seasonal climate predictions at European (or Iberian) scale from ensembles of global coupled climate models have some skill (Palmer et al., 2004). The limited predictability that exhibits the atmosphere in mid-latitudes, and therefore de Iberian Peninsula (PI), can be managed by a probabilistic approach based in terciles. This study presents an application for the IP of two methods for linking tercile-based seasonal climate forecasts with crop models to improve crop predictability. Two methods were evaluated and applied for disaggregating seasonal rainfall forecasts into daily weather realizations: 1) a stochastic weather generator and 2) a forecast tercile resampler. Both methods were evaluated in a case study where the impacts of two seasonal rainfall forecasts (wet and dry forecast for 1998 and 2015 respectively) on rainfed wheat yield and irrigation requirements of maize in IP were analyzed. Simulated wheat yield and irrigation requirements of maize were computed with the crop models CERES-wheat and CERES-maize which are included in Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer (DSSAT v.4.5, Hoogenboom et al., 2010). Simulations were run at several locations in Spain where the crop model was calibrated and validated with independent field data. These methodologies would allow quantifying the benefits and risks of a seasonal climate forecast to potential users as farmers, agroindustry and insurance companies in the IP. Therefore, we would be able to establish early warning systems and to design crop management adaptation strategies that take advantage of favorable conditions or reduce the effect of adverse ones. ReferencesPalmer, T. et al., 2004. Development of a European multimodel ensemble system for seasonal-to-interannual prediction (DEMETER). Bulletin of the

  6. Mercury in Hair of Muskox on the Seward Peninsula

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    Claudia Ihl


    Full Text Available Problem statement: Muskoxen (Ovibus moschatus are distant relatives of sheep (Caprinae and have roamed the Arctic for a million years, with populations reaching North America between 150,000 and 250,000 years ago. Muskox populations could be negatively influenced by climate change and increased exposure to contaminants. Since the snow depth is a critical factor in their ecology, effects could occur throughout their distribution. Muskox typically feed on plants on hilltops and upper slopes where shrubs are increasing at the expense of graminoid and lichen species. Besides changes in plant species composition, wildfires and flooding, as well as renewed mining developments, can lead to an increased incidence of total Hg (THg bioavailability. Approach: In this survey THg concentrations were measured in the hair of muskox at several sites on Seward Peninsula of Alaska, USA. Results: Muskox exhibited mean THg levels in the hair of 29.3 ng g-1 for the west base of Mineral Mountain, 28.6 ng g-1 for Nature Hill and 23.0 ng g-1 for the camp at Deering. Means for THg levels at Anvil were 35.2 ng g-1 at the top, 31.8 ng g-1 on the southwest slope and 29.9 ng g-1 at the base. Qiviut from two muskox at Anvil and Mineral Mountain possessed lower THg values than when compared to their guard hair (32.9 and 44.8 ng g-1, respectively. Conclusion: These current THg levels are relatively low and helping establish a baseline for Hg exposure in muskoxen.

  7. Petrography, geochemistry and geodynamic environment of potassic alkaline rocks in Eslamy peninsula, northwest of Iran

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B Hajalilou; M Moayyed; Gh Hosseinzadeh


    Eslamy peninsula, 360 km2 in area, is located in the eastern coast of Urmieh lake in the northwest of Iran. This peninsula is a complex stratovolcano with a collapsed center, which is elevated due to later intrusions of sub-volcanic masses with trachytic to microsyenitic composition. The composite cone consists of a sequence of leucite tephrite, tephrite, leucite basanite, basanite and related pyroclastic rocks. Magmatic activities in the Eslamy peninsula begin with potassic alkaline to ultrapotassic and basic, silica-undersaturated shoshonitic rocks and they are followed by intrusions of lamprophyric dykes and end with acidic magmatism including trachytic, microsyenitic, syenitic and phonolitic domes. The original magma of the Eslamy peninsula rocks has a potassic alkaline nature (Roman type) rich in LREE and LILE and depleted of HREE. These characteristics suggest that the origin of magma can be from deep mantle with a garnet lherzolite composition, a low partial melting rate which has been contaminated by crustal materials in its way up. Fractional crystallization of olivine, diopsidic clinopyroxene and leucite played an important role in the evolution of magmas. Scrutinizing the geodynamic environment of Eslamy peninsula rocks in discrimination diagrams indicates that these rocks must have been formed in a post-collision magmatic arc setting.

  8. Shelves around the Iberian Peninsula (II): Evolutionary sedimentary patterns; Las plataformas continentales de la Peninsula Iberica (II): Patrones sedimentarios evolutivos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lobo, F. J.; Duran, R.; Roque, C.; Ribo, M.; Carrera, G.; Mendes, I.; Ferrin, A.; Fernandez-Salas, L. M.; Garcia-Gil, S.; Galpalsoro, I.; Rosa, F.; Barcenas, P.


    We present a synthetic view of continental-shelf evolutionary patterns around the Iberian Peninsula, focusing on proposed sequence stratigraphy interpretations and attempting a comparison between Atlantic- and Mediterranean-type shelf-margin constructions. Most of the studied shelves show a dominance of regressive to low stand deposition through successive pro gradations, particularly evident in the Pliocene-Quaternary, documenting the influence of glacio-eustasy. Transgressive to high stand development predating the Last Glacial Maximum seems to be favoured off major rivers, but the highest variability is seen during post glacial evolution. Transgressive deposits tend to show a higher spatial variability, ranging from pro graded para sequences to extensive sand sheets. Holocene high- stand deposits usually show a more homogeneous character, with development of proximal wedge-shaped deposits and a distal sheet-like deposition. Atlantic continental shelves off Iberia display three different types of shelf growth: depositional shelves, shelves with restricted pro gradation and erosional shelves. They result from the interplay between depositional and hydrodynamic regimes, with the occurrence of a latitudinal gradation from erosional shelves in the Cantabrian continental shelf to depositional shelves in the northern Gulf of Cadiz shelf. Some shelf sectors do not correspond to this general pattern, as shelf sedimentation is mainly controlled by morpho-structural features (e.g., ria environments and shelves crossed by major tectonic accidents). The Mediterranean continental shelves of Iberia show two basic types, high- versus low-supply shelves, and their growth patterns are mainly a response to the amount of fluvial supply. The low-supply style is clearly the most frequent type, and it may show further complexity according to the occurrence of submarine canyons and/or morpho-structural control. (Author)

  9. Nucleotide sequencing and serologic analysis of Cache Valley virus isolates from the Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico. (United States)

    Blitvich, Bradley J; Loroño-Pino, Maria A; Garcia-Rejon, Julian E; Farfan-Ale, Jose A; Dorman, Karin S


    Nucleotide sequencing was performed on part of the medium and large genome segments of 17 Cache Valley virus (CVV) isolates from the Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico. Alignment of these sequences to all other sequences in the Genbank database revealed that they have greatest nucleotide identity (97-98 %) with the equivalent regions of Tlacotalpan virus (TLAV), which is considered to be a variety of CVV. Next, cross-plaque reduction neutralization tests (PRNTs) were performed using sera from mice that had been inoculated with a representative isolate from the Yucatan Peninsula (CVV-478) or the prototype TLAV isolate (61-D-240). The PRNT titers exhibited a twofold difference in one direction and no difference in the other direction suggesting that CVV-478 and 61-D-240 belong to the same CVV subtype. In conclusion, we demonstrate that the CVV isolates from the Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico are genetically and antigenically similar to the prototype TLAV isolate.

  10. Spatial distribution and characteristics of permafrost in Hurd Peninsula, Livingston Island, Maritime Antarctic (United States)

    Vieira, G.; Ramos, M.; Trindade, A.; Gruber, S.; Hauck, C.; Mora, C.; Batista, V.; Neves, M.; Pimpirev, C.; Kenderova, R.


    The Antarctic Peninsula is one of Earth's regions experiencing a faster increase on temperatures, with Mean Annual Air Temperatures (MAAT) rising ca. 2.5 °C in the last 50 years. The northerly location of the Antarctic Peninsula in respect to the Antarctic and its oceanic setting originate a milder and moister climate than in the Antarctic continent. The Northern Antarctic Peninsula is roughly located between the isotherms of MAAT of -1 °C to -8 °C at sea-level and therefore the northern tip and especially the South Shetlands are close to the limits of permafrost occurrence. If the observed warming trend is to continue in the near future, the region might suffer widespread permafrost degradation. Research on the permafrost environment of Hurd Peninsula has been taking place with systematical measurements by our group since January 2000 and currently we are able to provide a good overview of the spatial distribution and characteristics of permafrost terrain in Hurd Peninsula. Our research is based on shallow boreholes (Collado Ramos (115m). In 2006 Electrical Tomography Resistivity and refraction seismic profiles have been performed, providing us with a good overview of the general conditions of the permafrost terrain in the area. Air temperatures are measured at different sites accounting for altitude since a few years and during 3 summer campaigns the radiation balance was monitored continuously at two sites. Detailed geomorphological mapping of periglacial features has been conducted at a scale 1:5,000 providing important information about the geomorphological dynamics. Using the data gathered since 2000 it is now possible to present the general characteristics of the permafrost distribution in Hurd Peninsula as a first step towards a more comprehensive approach that is now starting that involves empirico-statistical modeling, remote sensing, as well as downscaling of mesoscale climate data.

  11. Penguin eggshell membranes reflect homogeneity of mercury in the marine food web surrounding the Antarctic Peninsula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brasso, Rebecka L., E-mail: [University of North Carolina Wilmington, Department of Biology and Marine Biology, 601 South College Road, Wilmington, NC 28403 (United States); Polito, Michael J. [University of North Carolina Wilmington, Department of Biology and Marine Biology, 601 South College Road, Wilmington, NC 28403 (United States); Lynch, Heather J. [Ecology and Evolution Department, 640 Life Sciences Bldg., Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794 (United States); Naveen, R. [Oceanites Inc., PO Box 15259, Chevy Chase, MD 20825 (United States); Emslie, Steven D. [University of North Carolina Wilmington, Department of Biology and Marine Biology, 601 South College Road, Wilmington, NC 28403 (United States)


    Remote regions such as the Antarctic have become increasingly important for investigations into far-reaching anthropogenic impacts on the environment, most recently in regard to the global mercury cycle. Spatial patterns of mercury availability in four regions of the Antarctic Peninsula were investigated using three species of sympatrically breeding Pygoscelis penguins as biomonitors. Eggshells with intact membranes from Adelie, Gentoo, and Chinstrap penguins were collected at 24 breeding colonies in the South Orkney Islands, South Shetland Islands, eastern Antarctic Peninsula, and western Antarctic Peninsula during the 2006/2007 austral summer. In addition, we compared eggshell membrane mercury concentrations with eggshell stable isotope values ({delta}{sup 15}N and {delta}{sup 13}C) to determine if species-specific trophic or foraging habitat preferences influenced female mercury exposure prior to breeding. With few exceptions, mercury concentrations were found to be fairly homogeneous throughout the Antarctic Peninsula suggesting little spatial variation in the risk of exposure to dietary mercury in this food web. Mercury concentrations in Gentoo and Adelie penguins were similar while Chinstrap penguins tended to have higher eggshell membrane mercury concentrations than their congeners. However, inter and intra-specific differences in eggshell membrane mercury concentration were not related to eggshell {delta}{sup 15}N or {delta}{sup 13}C values, a likely result of all three species foraging at similar trophic positions. The lack of regional-scale differences in mercury availability in this marine ecosystem may be a reflection of generally uniform atmospheric deposition and upwelling of regionally homogeneous deep water rather than from geographically distinct point sources. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We examined regional patterns of mercury availability in the Antarctic Peninsula. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Three species of Pygoscelis

  12. Groundwater temperature transients on the Armutlu peninsula, eastern Marmara region (United States)

    Woith, Heiko; Caka, Deniz; Seyis, Cemil; Italiano, Francesco; Celik, Cengiz; Wang, Rongjiang; Baris, Serif


    Since many years MAM and GFZ in co-operation with Kocaeli University (KU) operate fluid monitoring stations around the Sea of Marmara. In the frame of MARsite (MARsite has received funding from the European Union's Seventh Programme for research, technological development and demonstration under grant agreement No 308417) these networks were jointly evaluated for the first time. The on-land fluid monitoring networks continuously monitor the following parameters: soil radon (21 sites), temperature and conductivity of thermal springs (9 sites) operated by MAM covering the whole Marmara region; fluid pressure and water level/temperature (8 sites) within ARNET operated by GFZ/KU. ARNET is a combined seismological/hydrogeological monitoring network covering the Armutlu peninsula located SE of Istanbul. Additional to the geothermal wells and springs - our main target to detect transients of potentially seismo-tectonic origin - three shallow groundwater wells (tenth of meters deep) are being operated to identify and quantify seasonal variations, and meteorological influences like rainfall and snowmelt. But it turned out that these shallow aquifer systems showed very stable conditions with very small annual temperature amplitudes (0.2 - 0.3°C). One of these shallow monitoring wells is located just south of Lake Iznik (in the village of Sölöz) very close to the southern branch of the North Anatolian Fault Zone. Water level showed a steady decreasing trend since June 2012. This trend resulted in a data gap starting in January 2014, when the water level dropped below the sensor position. After adjusting the sensor position, positive spikes in the borehole temperature were recorded in June and August 2014, and again in 2015. The spikes are characterised by a sharp temperature increase followed by a decay lasting several days until the pre-event temperature was reached again. Since the spikes occurred on two independent logger systems, and since they lasted several days, a

  13. Assessment of the Climate Vulnerabilities of the Arabian Peninsula (United States)

    Alharbi, T.; Sultan, M.; Ahmed, M.; Chouinard, K.


    The Arabian Peninsula (AP), like many places around the world, is apparently witnessing the impacts (amount, patterns, and frequency of precipitation) of global warming. Precipitation over the AP is largely controlled by two main wind regimes, the winter (October to March) northerlies or northwesterlies, hereafter referred to as westerlies, and the summer (April to September) monsoonal wind regimes. The global monthly Climate Prediction Centers (CPC) Merged Analysis of Precipitation (CMAP) data (spatial resolution: 2.5° × 2.5°; temporal resolution: monthly; operational period: January 1979 to November 2011) was used to investigate the nature and magnitude of precipitation variations over the AP throughout 1979 - 2010. Trends in CMAP-derived precipitation patterns were examined over the winter and summer seasons throughout Periods I (1979-1995) and II (1996-2010). Reversals in precipitation patterns were observed in Periods I and II, where areas witnessing an increase in precipitation in Period I showed a decrease in precipitation throughout Period II, and vice versa for the remaining areas. Our findings suggest: (1) an increase in precipitation during Period I over the southeastern and southwestern coastal areas of AP (e.g., Muscat, Sanaa, and Jeddah) that is probably related to the intensification of the monsoons at the expense of the westerlies, (2) an increase in precipitation during Period II over the northwestern and southeastern of AP (e.g., northwestern Saudi Arabia, Empty Quarter, western and southwestern Oman, and eastern Yemen) is here attributed to intensification of the westerlies, and 3) the general similarity of annual trend patterns to the summer trend (Period I) and to winter trend (Period II) suggest that the annual trends are largely controlled by monsoonal wind regimes in Period I and by the westerlies in Period II. Outputs (i.e., precipitation) of climatic models (CCSM4.0) over the AP are being extracted (for upcoming 100 years) , downscaled

  14. Recent trends of extreme temperature indices for the Iberian Peninsula (United States)

    Fonseca, D.; Carvalho, M. J.; Marta-Almeida, M.; Melo-Gonçalves, P.; Rocha, A.


    Climate change and extreme climate events have a significant impact on societies and ecosystems. As a result, climate change projections, especially related with extreme temperature events, have gained increasing importance due to their impacts on the well-being of the population and ecosystems. However, most studies in the field are based on coarse global climate models (GCMs). In this study, we perform a high resolution downscaling simulation to evaluate recent trends of extreme temperature indices. The model used was Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) forced by MPI-ESM-LR, which has been shown to be one of the more robust models to simulate European climate. The domain used in the simulations includes the Iberian Peninsula and the simulation covers the 1986-2005 period (i.e. recent past). In order to study extreme temperature events, trends were computed using the Theil-Sen method for a set of temperature indexes defined by the Expert Team on Climate Change Detection and Indices (ETCCDI). For this, daily values of minimum and maximum temperatures were used. The trends of the indexes were computed for annual and seasonal values and the Mann-Kendall Trend test was used to evaluate their statistical significance. In order to validate the results, a second simulation, in which WRF was forced by ERA-Interim, was performed. The results suggest an increase in the number of warm days and warm nights, especially during summer and negative trends for cold nights and cold days for the summer and spring. For the winter, contrary to the expected, the results suggest an increase in cold days and cold nights (warming hiatus). This behavior is supported by the WRF simulation forced by ERA-Interim for the autumn days, pointing to an extension of the warming hiatus phenomenon to the remaining seasons. These results should be used with caution since the period used to calculate the trends may not be long enough for this purpose. However, the general sign of trends are similar for

  15. Quaternary vegetation and climate changes on Banks Peninsula, South Island, New Zealand (United States)

    Soons, J. M.; Moar, N. T.; Shulmeister, J.; Wilson, H. D.; Carter, J. A.


    Late Quaternary terrestrial and marine pollen records from the Canterbury Plains and Banks Peninsula suggest that climates during the peak of Marine Isotope Stage 7 (MIS 7) were similar to those prevailing during stage 5e and the Holocene. Podocarp forest (notably Prumnopitys taxifolia—matai) characterises each interglaciation. In contrast, marine records from DSDP 594 cores, off the east coast of Canterbury, indicate that stage 7 was dominated by montane forest ( Libocedrus sp. and Phyllocladus). This suggests temperatures as much as 3 °C colder than indicated by the Banks Peninsula assemblage. Age control from both sites appears to be robust. Some of the differences may be related to the taphonomy of the pollen at both sites. DSDP 594 may reflect a more southerly catchment of fluvially and aeolian-derived pollen than does the Banks Peninsula site. Banks Peninsula was alternately separated from, and joined to, the mainland as Quaternary sea levels fell and rose. Assuming modern ocean current patterns, during interglacials the south-north Southland Current would have swept through the seaway separating the island from the mainland, diverting the flow of rivers embouching on the Canterbury coast, and moving sediments and fluvially transported pollen northwards. Little of this material would have reached DSDP 594, nor, if wind patterns were similar to those of today, would wind-borne pollen from Banks Peninsula have reached the site. It is probable that vegetation on the Peninsula was consistently distinct from that recorded at DSDP 594, which has a more southerly derivation. In contrast to the high mountain areas of the South Island, the low levels of grass pollen in the available record suggest that the Peninsula retained a woody vegetation over much of its area during glacial periods. This was favoured by the physiography of the area, with a variety of micro-climates, and by the extensive areas available for colonisation at times of low sea level. The podocarp

  16. Size fractionated atmospheric aerosol in the Iberian Peninsula


    Mirante, Fátima Isabel Cordeiro


    Um dos principais fatores que afetam negativamente a qualidade do ambiente em muitas cidades em todo o mundo é o material particulado (PM). A sua presença na atmosfera pode ter impactos negativos na saúde humana, clima, património edificado e ecossistemas. Muitos dos estudos realizados em áreas urbanas focam apenas as frações respiráveis (PM10 e PM2,5). No entanto, os processos de formação, a identificação das fontes emissoras e os efeitos dependem muito da distribuição gran...

  17. Earthquake induced landslide hazard field observatory in the Avcilar peninsula (United States)

    Bigarre, Pascal; Coccia, Stella; Theoleyre, Fiona; Ergintav, Semih; Özel, Oguz; Yalçinkaya, Esref; Lenti, Luca; Martino, Salvatore; Gamba, Paolo; Zucca, Francesco; Moro, Marco


    Earthquake-triggered landslides have an increasing disastrous impact in seismic regions due to the fast growing urbanization and infrastructures. Just considering disasters from the last fifteen years, among which the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake, the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake, and the 2011 Tohoku earthquake, these events generated tens of thousands of coseismic landslides. Those resulted in amazing death toll and considerable damages, affecting the regional landscape including its hydrological main features. Despite a strong impetus in research during past decades, knowledge on those geohazards is still fragmentary, while databases of high quality observational data are lacking. These phenomena call for further collaborative researches aiming eventually to enhance preparedness and crisis management. The MARSITE project gathers research groups in a comprehensive monitoring activity developed in the Sea of Marmara Region, one of the most densely populated parts of Europe and rated at high seismic risk level since the 1999 Izmit and Duzce devastating earthquakes. Besides the seismic threat, landslides in Turkey and in this region constitute an important source of loss. The 6th Work Package of MARSITE project gathers 9 research groups to study earthquake-induced landslides focusing on two sub-regional areas of high interest among which the Cekmece-Avcilar peninsula, located westwards of Istanbul, as a highly urbanized concentrated landslide prone area, showing high susceptibility to both rainfalls while affected by very significant seismic site effects. A multidisciplinary research program based on pre-existing studies has been designed with objectives and tasks linked to constrain and tackle progressively some challenging issues related to data integration, modeling, monitoring and mapping technologies. Since the start of the project, progress has been marked on several important points as follows. The photogeological interpretation and analysis of ENVISAT-ERS DIn

  18. Chalybion Omissum (Kohl, 1889 (Hymenoptera: Sphecidae, Sceliphrini: New Records from the Balkan Peninsula (Southern Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olszewski Piotr


    Full Text Available The paper presents new information about the occurrence of Chalybion omissum (KOHL, 1889 in central part of Balkan Peninsula (southern Bulgaria. Seven specimens were caught at 4 sites: N of Kurdzhali (UTM: LG61, Usstrem village (MG55, NE of Kalimantsi village (GL09, NE of Madzharovo (MG01.

  19. Mires and mire types of Peninsula Mitre, Tierra del Fuego, Argentina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grootjans, A.; Iturraspe, R.; Fritz, C.; Moen, A.; Joosten, H.


    In 2007, a field visit by members of the International Mire Conservation Group (IMCG) to the Atlantic coast of Peninsula Mitre (the easternmost part of Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego, Argentina) gathered information on mire diversity in this remote wild area with largely pristine mires. Our expedit

  20. A refinement of the emission data for Kola Peninsula based on inverse dispersion modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prank, M.; Sofiev, M.; Denier Van Der Gon, H.A.C.; Kaasik, M.; Ruuskanen, T.M.; Kukkonen, J.


    The study reviews the emission estimates of sulphur oxides (SOx) and primary particulate matter (PM) from the major industrial sources of Kola Peninsula. Analysis of the disagreements between the existing emission inventories for the Kola region combined with forward and inverse ensemble dispersion

  1. Spectral distribution of gravity wave momentum fluxes over the Antarctic Peninsula from Concordiasi superpressure balloon data (United States)

    Walterscheid, R. L.; Gelinas, L. J.; Mechoso, C. R.; Schubert, G.


    Gravity waves generated by flow over the steep topography of the Antarctic Peninsula transport significant amounts of zonal and meridional momentum into the stratosphere. Quantitative determination of this transport has been carried out for wave periods of 1 h or greater using data from a previous Antarctic superpressure balloon campaign in austral spring 2005 (VORCORE). The present study uses data from the later Concordiasi campaign (2010) to extend the momentum flux determination to shorter periods. Maps of the vertical fluxes of meridional and zonal momentum are presented for periods down to 12 min. We find that the momentum fluxes for periods below 1 h are comparable to those at longer periods, despite larger variances at longer periods. The momentum fluxes in the vicinity of the peninsula provide a significant zonal acceleration of the lower stratosphere, confirming a conclusion from the VORCORE data. The geographical distribution of fluxes around the peninsula has peaks both leeward and windward of the main terrain features. Numerical simulations suggest that the separate peaks may be related to wave transience caused by unsteady winds over the peninsula. Momentum fluxes comprise a main distribution maximizing at moderate flux values and a secondary distribution maximizing at high values exhibiting a high degree of intermittency. The high flux events account for the largest part of the average flux and suggest that drag parameterizations should take them into account. It is found that waves generated by the jet stream are also a significant source of momentum flux.

  2. Geology of the Prince William Sound and Kenai Peninsula region, Alaska (United States)

    Wilson, Frederic H.; Hults, Chad P.


    The Prince William Sound and Kenai Peninsula region includes a significant part of one of the world’s largest accretionary complexes and a small part of the classic magmatic arc geology of the Alaska Peninsula. Physiographically, the map area ranges from the high glaciated mountains of the Alaska and Aleutian Ranges and the Chugach Mountains to the coastal lowlands of Cook Inlet and the Copper River delta. Structurally, the map area is cut by a number of major faults and postulated faults, the most important of which are the Border Ranges, Contact, and Bruin Bay Fault systems. The rocks of the map area belong to the Southern Margin composite terrane, a Tertiary and Cretaceous or older subduction-related accretionary complex, and the Alaska Peninsula terrane. Mesozoic rocks between these two terranes have been variously assigned to the Peninsular or the Hidden terranes. The oldest rocks in the map area are blocks of Paleozoic age within the mélange of the McHugh Complex; however, the protolith age of the greenschist and blueschist within the Border Ranges Fault zone is not known. Extensive glacial deposits mantle the Kenai Peninsula and the lowlands on the west side of Cook Inlet and are locally found elsewhere in the map area. This map was compiled from existing mapping, without generalization, and new or revised data was added where available.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The fossil plants studied in this paper were collected by the Chinese Antarctic Expeditions (1986—1987 and 1987—1988) from the locality Fossil Hill on the Fildes Peninsula southwest of the King George Island of the South Shetland Islands.

  4. Cretaceous deposits and flora of the Muravyov-Amurskii Peninsula (Amur Bay, sea of Japan) (United States)

    Volynets, E. B.


    The Cretaceous sections and plant macrofossils are investigated in detail near Vladivostok on the Muravyov-Amurskii Peninsula of southern Primorye. It is established that the Ussuri and Lipovtsy formations in the reference section of the Markovskii Peninsula rest with unconformity upon Upper Triassic strata. The continuous Cretaceous succession is revealed in the Peschanka River area of the northern Muravyov-Amurskii Peninsula, where plant remains were first sampled from the lower and upper parts of the Korkino Group, which are determined to be the late Albian-late Cenmanian in age. The taxonomic composition of floral assemblages from the Ussuri, Lipovtsy, and Galenki formations is widened owing to additional finds of plant remains. The Korkino Group received floral characteristics for the first time. The Cretaceous flora of the peninsula is represented by 126 taxa. It is established that ferns and conifers are dominant elements of the Ussuri floral assemblage, while the Lipovtsy Assemblage is dominated by ferns, conifers, and cycadphytes. In addition, the latter assemblage is characterized by the highest taxonomic diversity. The Galenki Assemblage is marked by the first appearance of rare flowering plants against the background of dominant ferns and conifers. The Korkino floral assemblage is subdivided into two subassemblages dominated by different groups: conifers in the early and flowering plants in the late.

  5. Elements of success in cooperatives conformed by Maya women in the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osorio Vazqez, Maria Cristina; Bressers, Hans; Franco Garcia, Maria Laura; Boer, de Cheryl; Reyes Maya, Oscar Ivan


    This paper describes different elements leading to the success of cooperatives formed by indigenous Maya women of the Yucatan Peninsula in Mexico. These elements have shown to facilitate the sustainability (permanence over time) of the cooperatives and their presence in the market, while improving t

  6. Erythemal ultraviolet irradiation trends in the Iberian Peninsula from 1950 to 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Román


    Full Text Available Erythemal ultraviolet (UVER irradiation was reconstructed at nine Spanish locations, with series starting around 1950 in at least five places. Each series was checked by applying homogeneity tests in order to discard non-homogeneous series. Available series were used to create an averaged Iberian Peninsula UVER series. Results indicate that annual UVER irradiation in the Iberian Peninsula increased by 155 J m−2 (6.5% between 1950 and 2011 due to a decrease observed in atmospheric ozone rather than changes in aerosol and clouds. Annual UVER irradiation increased by 135 J m−2 (5.6% between 1985 and 2011, mainly due to changes in aerosol and clouds. UVER irradiation over the open human body (UVERob was calculated by multiplying daily UVER irradiation by the daily open body fraction, a function of air temperature. Annual UVERob increased by 12.5 % between 1950 and 2011 in the Iberian Peninsula, half of the increase being caused by temperature changes, and the other half by ozone changes. Annual UVERob in the Iberian Peninsula increased by a total of 10.1% between 1985 and 2011, with 20.7%, 35.1% and 44.2% of this increase being caused by changes in ozone, aerosol and clouds, and temperature, respectively.

  7. Rapid bedrock uplift in the Antarctic Peninsula explained by viscoelastic response to recent ice unloading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nield, Grace A.; Barletta, Valentina Roberta; Bordoni, Andrea;


    Since 1995 several ice shelves in the Northern Antarctic Peninsula have collapsed and triggered ice-mass unloading, invoking a solid Earth response that has been recorded at continuous GPS (cGPS) stations. A previous attempt to model the observation of rapid uplift following the 2002 breakup of L...

  8. Identification of potential sources of airborne Olea pollen in the southwest Iberian Peninsula

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernández-Rodriguez, S.; Skjøth, Carsten Ambelas; Tormo Molina, R.;


    This study aims to determine the potential origin of Olea pollen recorded in Badajoz in the Southwest of the Iberian Peninsula during 2009–2011. This was achieved using a combination of daily average and diurnal (hourly) airborne Olea pollen counts recorded at Badajoz (south-western Spain) and Év...

  9. High-resolution climate modelling of Antarctica and the Antarctic Peninsula

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wessem, J.M.


    In this thesis we have used a high-resolution regional atmospheric climate model (RACMO2.3) to simulate the present-day climate (1979-2014) of Antarctica and the Antarctic Peninsula. We have evaluated the model results with several observations, such as in situ surface energy balance (SEB) observati

  10. [[Characterization of the potential geographical distribution area of parrot species in Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico]. (United States)

    Plasencia Vázquez, Alexis Herminio; Escalona Segura, Griselda


    Psittacidae family is one of the most endangered groups in Mexico, since many of their habitats are disappearing. In this research, we characterized the land cover of the potential geographical distribu- tion area of eight extant parrot species within the Yucatan Peninsula. We used the Maximum Entropy algorithm (MaxEnt) and species historical records. To externally validate the models, we used presence and absence records from field observations (2010-2012). To characterize the distribution area, we used the vegetation and land use maps of INEGI Series IV (2007-2010). The models showed a good performance, according to the values of the area under the curve (AUC), which ranged between 0.88-0.95 with the training data and between 0.82-0.91 with test data. We located most of the species in sites where the models predicted their presence. In the Peninsula, over 76% of the parrots' potential geographical distribution area is forested, except for Amazona oratrix. The subhumid tropical forest is the best represented, and the livestock for land use. The most affected species within the Peninsula are: Amazona farinosa and A. oratrix. The Calakmul Biosphere Reserve is the most important area for parrots' protection in the Peninsula. Knowing the characteristics of distribution areas is an essential part in the establishment of parrots' conservation strategies.

  11. Some helminth parasites of Epinephelus morio (Pisces: Serranidae) from the peninsula of Yucatan, Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moravec, F.; Vidal-Martínez, V.M.; Aguirre-Macedo, M.L.


    Moravec, F., V.M. Vidal-Martinez & M.L. Aguirre-Macedo, 1995. Some helminth parasites of Epinephelus morio (Pisces: Serranidae) from the Peninsula of Yucatan, Mexico. Studies Nat. Hist. Caribbean Region 72: 55-68. One nematode species, Hysterothylacium eurycheilum, the acanthocephalan Gorgorhynchus

  12. Wind characteristics on the Yucatan Peninsula based on short term data from meteorological stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soler-Bientz, Rolando [CREST, Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, Loughborough University, LE11 3TU (United Kingdom); Energy Laboratory, Faculty of Engineering, Autonomous University of Yucatan, Merida, Yucatan (Mexico); Watson, Simon [CREST, Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, Loughborough University, LE11 3TU (United Kingdom); Infield, David [Institute of Energy and Environment, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow (United Kingdom)


    Due to the availability of sparsely populated and flat open terrain, the Yucatan Peninsula located in eastern Mexico is a promising region from the perspective of wind energy development. Study of the diurnal and seasonal wind resource is an important stage in the move towards commercial exploitation of wind power in this Latin American region. An analysis of the characteristics of the wind resource of the Yucatan Peninsula is presented in this paper, based on 10 min averaged wind speed data from nine meteorological stations, between 2000 and 2007. Hourly and monthly patterns of the main environmental parameters have been examined. Highly directional behaviour was identified that reflects the influence of winds coming from the Caribbean Sea and the Gulf of Mexico. The characteristics of the wind speed variation observed at the studied sites reflected their proximity to the coast and whether they were influenced by wind coming predominantly from over the land or predominantly from over the sea. The atmospheric stability over the eastern seas of the Yucatan Peninsula was also analysed to assess thermal effects for different wind directions. The findings were consistent with the variation in average wind speeds observed at the coastal sites where winds came predominantly from over the sea. The research presented here is to be used as a basis for a wind atlas for the Yucatan Peninsula. (author)

  13. Indication of a species in an extinction vortex: The ocellated turkey on the Yucatan peninsula, Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kampichler, C.; Calmé, S.; Weissenberger, H.; Arriaga-Weiss, S.


    The ocellated turkey Meleagris ocellata (OT) is a large, unmistakable endemic bird of the Yucatan peninsula. The species has suffered a considerable loss of distributional area as well as local abundance between 1980 and 2000 and is classified as endangered according to Mexican norms. We applied Cla

  14. Acremonium camtosporum isolated as an endophyte of Bursera simaruba from Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico (United States)

    Bursera simaruba (Burseraceae) is a frequent and co-dominant tree of tropical sub-caducifolious forest in the Yucatan Peninsula. This species is important ecologically because it can grow in poor, clay or sandy, saline soils. The Mayan communities use this plant medicinally for its analgesic, antimy...

  15. Computing the volume response of the Antarctic Peninsula ice sheet to warming scenarios to 2200

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barrand, N.E.; Hindmarsh, R.C.A.; Arthern, R.J.; Williams, C.R.; Mouginot, J.; Scheuchl, B.; Rignot, Eric; Ligtenberg, S.R.M.; van den Broeke, M.R.; Edwards, T.L.; Cook, A.J.; Simonsen, S.B.


    The contribution to sea level to 2200 from the grounded, mainland Antarctic Peninsula ice sheet (APIS) was calculated using an ice-sheet model initialized with a new technique computing ice fluxes based on observed surface velocities, altimetry and surface mass balance, and computing volume response

  16. Dynamics of the Coordination of Economy-Society and Resource-Environment in Shandong Peninsula, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Han Rongqing; Zhao Minghua


    Shandong Peninsula, as a more developed region in Shandong Province even the east coast of China, is facing challenges from resources and environment pressures. This paper tried to track and assess the coordination status and the dynamic between resource-environment and economy-society systems in Shandong Peninsula during 2001-2008 in order to provide deci- sion support for regional sustainability. An appraisal index system was built including five aspects of harmony degree (A), sustain- ability degree (B), opening degree (C), stability degree (D) and controllability degree (E). The results showed that: 1) The coor- dination level of resource-environment and economy-society in Shandong Peninsula has continuously grown, and it has undergone three stages: no coordinated degree (2001-2002), weak coordi- nated degree (2003-2006) and basically coordinated degree (2007- 2008). 2) Five indexes of criterion hierarchy also increased overall, but each index showed different trends. Harmony degree, sustain- ability degree and opening degree rose all the time, while stability degree and controllability degree alternately rose and fell. The improvement of controllability degree was the slowest. 3) The ag- gravating trend of environmental pollution was slowing down. The economic growth was driven by industrial growth and urbanization typically and investment was still the main force to pull the regional economic growth. At the same time, technology and education were becoming more and more important for economic growth. The level of foreign capital utility declined and the geographical advantage of Shandong Peninsula was exerted. Meanwhile some characteristics of knowledge economy were presenting. Water re- sources become the main constraint factor of fast development in Shandong Peninsula. It is necessary to further strengthen the coordination ability of government on regional sustainable development.

  17. Links between Synoptic Weather Types and Extreme Wet Events in the Arabian Peninsula (1960-2100)

    KAUST Repository

    El Kenawy, Ahmed M.


    In this work, an automated version of the Lamb weather type classification scheme was applied to classify daily weather types in the Arabian Peninsula. The output catalogue included ten basic weather types, which describe the direction and vorticity of airflow in the peninsula (i.e., cyclonic, anticyclonic and directional). These large-scale patterns were first defined for the observed climate (1960-2013), allowing for an assessment of the spatial and temporal variations in circulation-rainfall relationships over the peninsula using rainfall data from 209 weather observatories. The same methodology was then applied to assess how the defined weather types will be presented in future climate simulations (under RCP45 and RCP85 emission scenarios) and to explore their probable dependency with rainfall characteristics. In this regard, daily simulated SLP derived from an ensemble of 12 climate models within the CMIP5 project were used for two future time-slices (2035-2060 and 2075-2100). Our findings indicate that the cyclonic (C) type represented the most frequent classification with 69.2% of days, followed by SE directional flows (21%). It was also found that the main circulation features influencing winter (spring) rainfall across the peninsula are the strong influence of the anticyclonic (easterly and southeasterly) air masses. Generally, the role of airflows originating from the Indian Ocean is larger than those of the Mediterranean and the Red Seas. The trend results of defined weather types show that the cyclonic (anticyclonic) conditions tend to decrease (increase). This picture is likely to continue during the 21st century. The only exception corresponds to the summer season. Here, understanding the association between atmospheric circulation patterns and rainfall in the Arabian Peninsula can be important for the understanding of climatic variability and thus developing circulation-based downscaling methods in this region.

  18. Storage of treated sewage effluent and stormwater in a saline aquifer, Pinellas Peninsula, Florida (United States)

    Rosenshein, J.S.; Hickey, J.J.


    The Pinellas Peninsula, an area of 750 square kilometres (290 square miles) in coastal west-central Florida, is a small hydrogeologic replica of Florida. Most of the Peninsula's water supply is imported from well fields as much as 65 kilometres (40 miles) inland. Stresses on the hydrologic environment of the Peninsula and on adjacent water bodies, resulting from intensive water-resources development and waste discharge, have resulted in marked interest in subsurface storage of waste water (treated effluent and untreated storm water) and in future retrieval of the stored water for nonpotable use. If subsurface storage is approved by regulatory agencies, as much as 265 megalitres per day (70 million gallons a day) of waste water could be stored underground within a few years, and more than 565 megalitres per day (150 million gallons a day) could be stored in about 25 years. This storage would constitute a large resource of nearly fresh water in the saline aquifers underlying about 520 square kilometres (200 square miles) of the Peninsula.The upper 1,060 metres (3,480 feet) of the rock column underlying four test sites on the Pinellas Peninsula have been explored. The rocks consist chiefly of limestone and dolomite. Three moderately to highly transmissive zones, separated by leaky confining beds, (low permeability limestone) from about 225 to 380 metres (740 to 1,250 feet) below mean sea level, have been identified in the lower part of the Floridan aquifer in the Avon Park Limestone. Results of withdrawal and injection tests in Pinellas County indicate that the middle transmissive zone has the highest estimated transmissivity-about 10 times other reported values. The chloride concentration of water in this zone, as well as in the two other transmissive zones in the Avon Park Limestone in Pinellas Peninsula, is about 19,000 milligrams per litre. If subsurface storage is approved and implemented, this middle zone probably would be used for storage of the waste water and

  19. Geophysical evidence for Quaternary deformation within the offshore San Andreas Fault System, Point Reyes Peninsula, California (United States)

    Stozek, B.


    Our previous work studying the rate and style of uplift of marine terraces on the Point Reyes Peninsula indicates the peninsula has been undergoing differential uplift due to interacting fault geometries in the offshore zone. To better understand offshore fault interactions, recently collected mini-sparker seismic reflection data acquired by the USGS and multi-beam bathymetric data acquired by California State University at Monterey Bay within the 3-mile (5 km) limit offshore of the Point Reyes Peninsula, are being used to reinterpret the tectono-stratigraphic framework of the San Andreas fault (SAF) system. Eight offshore Shell exploratory well logs that provide seismic velocity and paleontologic data are being used in conjunction with industry multichannel (deep-penetration) seismic reflection profiles to provide age control and extend the analyses beyond 3 mile limit of the high-resolution data. Isopach and structure maps of key stratigraphic intervals were generated to show how the stratigraphic units are influenced by fault interactions. These datasets allow for new interpretations of the offshore Neogene stratigraphy and the evolution of the Point Reyes fault, an offshore component of the SAF system. Observations of Quaternary sedimentary sequences in the high-resolution mini-sparker dataset provide evidence of localized areas of subsidence and uplift within the offshore SAF system. For example, the most recent angular unconformity above the Point Reyes fault deepens to the north where the fault bends from an east-west to a more northerly orientation. Stratigraphic horizons in the offshore zone are correlated with the same geologic units exposed on the Point Reyes Peninsula. Both unconformity-bounded sedimentary sequences mapped on reflection profiles in the offshore and marine terraces that have been uplifted on the peninsula are tied to sea-level fluctuations. Our new interpretation of the Point Reyes fault zone will be incorporated into a kinematic fault

  20. Apparent Stress Variation in Response to Seamount Subduction at Nicoya Peninsula, Costa Rica (United States)

    Stankova-Pursley, J.; Bilek, S. L.; Phillips, W. S.; Newman, A. V.


    Seamounts are high relief features seen on many oceanic plates, including the Cocos plate offshore Costa Rica. As these features enter the subduction zone at Middle America Trench, they may perturb interface coupling by changing physical properties of the plate interface. Here we explore the role of seamounts on rupture process of microseismicity along Nicoya Peninsula, Costa Rica. This peninsula lies close to a region where down-going Cocos plate structure varies along-strike of the trench. The Cocos plate has low relief along the north and central parts of Nicoya Peninsula, where the subducting plate was created at East Pacific Rise (EPR). Seamounts dot the plate subducting at the southern tip of the peninsula, where the plate was created at Cocos-Nazca Spreading center (CNS). Given these structural differences, we are able to evaluate possible along-strike variations in earthquake source properties. We use 357 earthquakes from the Costa Rica Seismogenic Zone (CR-SEIZE) project to estimate the effects of seamount subduction on apparent stress (σa). We compute σa, which is a measure of stress drop combined with seismic efficiency, using waveform coda because of its proven stability relative to measurements using direct arrivals. We allow variable source scaling, finding that non-constant scaling provides good fit for our data, suggesting that seismic moment is not proportional to the cube root of corner frequency at ML 0.8 to 4.2. σa values for well constrained data indicate along strike variations between the northern and southern tips of the peninsula. Except in the region of a previously subducted seamount in the Gulf of Nicoya where the mean σa is 1.03 MPa, the southern and central portions of the peninsula have mean σa values 0.79 and 0.89 MPa respectively, while the mean σa value in the northern region is 1.66 MPa. The larger mean σa values in the northern region and in the Gulf of Nicoya implies that the interface is more strongly coupled where there

  1. Characteristics of storms that contribute to extreme precipitation events over the Iberian Peninsula (United States)

    Trigo, Ricardo; Ramos, Alexandre M.; Ordoñez, Paulina; Liberato, Margarida L. R.; Trigo, Isabel F.


    Floods correspond to one of the most deadly natural disasters in the Iberian Peninsula during the last century. Quite often these floods are associated to intense low pressure systems with an Atlantic origin. In recent years a number of episodes have been evaluated on a case-by-case approach, with a clear focus on extreme events, thus lacking a systematic assessment. In this study we focus on the characteristics of storms for the extended winter season (October to March) that are responsible for the most extreme rainfall events over large areas of the Iberian Peninsula. An objective method for ranking daily precipitation events during the extended winter is used based on the most comprehensive database of high resolution (0.2º latitude by 0.2º longitude) gridded daily precipitation dataset available for the Iberian Peninsula. The magnitude of an event is obtained after considering the total area affected as well as its intensity in every grid point (taking into account the daily normalised departure from climatology). Different precipitation rankings are studied considering the entire Iberian Peninsula, Portugal and also the six largest river basins in the Iberian Peninsula (Duero, Ebro, Tagus, Minho, Guadiana and Guadalquivir). Using an objective cyclone detecting and tracking scheme [Trigo, 2006] the storm track and characteristics of the cyclones were obtained using the ERA-Interim reanalyses for the 1979-2008 period. The spatial distribution of extratropical cyclone positions when the precipitation extremes occur will be analysed over the considered sub-domains (Iberia, Portugal, major river basins). In addition, we distinguish the different cyclone characteristics (lifetime, direction, minimum pressure, position, velocity, vorticity and radius) with significant impacts in precipitation over the different domains in the Iberian Peninsula. This work was partially supported by FEDER (Fundo Europeu de Desenvolvimento Regional) funds through the COMPETE (Programa

  2. Structural and hydrologic controls of subduction zone seismogenic behavior along the Nicoya Peninsula, Costa Rica (United States)

    Audet, P.; Schwartz, S. Y.


    Subduction zone thrust faults exhibit variations in rupture behavior that include potentially great (M>8) earthquakes and slow propagating (M~7) slip. The factors controlling transitions in frictional properties are loosely constrained and include variations in temperature, lithologies and pore-fluid pressures. Along the Nicoya Peninsula, Costa Rica, the seismogenic zone is characterized by strong heterogeneity in mechanical properties and a lateral change in the origin of the subducting plate. We use observations of scattered teleseismic waves to examine structural properties (compressional to shear velocity ratio, or Vp/Vs) of the subduction zone elements beneath the Nicoya Peninsula and report two findings: 1) evidence for inferred high pore fluid pressures within the subducting oceanic crust, in agreement with results globally and 2) contrasts from lower to higher forearc and oceanic Vp/Vs ratios from northwest to southeast that correlate with changes in interseismic locking, seismogenic behavior and the origin of the subducting plate. We interpret these results as representing differences in permeability and thus fluid overpressures in the oceanic crust. We suggest that enhanced permeability of the East Pacific Rise (EPR) crust being subducted beneath the northwest portion of the Nicoya Peninsula results in lower pore-fluid pressure, higher effective stress and strength compared with the Cocos Nazca Spreading Center (CNS) crust, subducted beneath the southeastern Nicoya Peninsula. The higher pore-fluid pressure within the CNS crust is consistent with the lower coupling and large slow slip events observed in this region. We posit that the elevated fluid pressures here are periodically released allowing fluids to migrate into the upper plate reducing its velocities. Changes in hydrologic properties resulting from differences in the structural integrity of the subducting oceanic crust appear to control the seismogenic segmentation along the Nicoya Peninsula. (a

  3. Radiocarbon chronologies and extinction dynamics of the Late Quaternary mammalian megafauna of the Taimyr Peninsula, Russian Federation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MacPhee, RDE; Tikhonov, AN; Mol, D; Maliave, CD; Van der Plicht, H; Greenwood, AD; Flemming, C; Agenbroad, L; MacPhee, Ross D.E.; Tikhonov, Alexei N.; Marliave, Christian de; Greenwood, Alex D.


    This paper presents 75 new radiocarbon dates based on late Quaternary mammal remains recovered from eastern Taimyr Peninsula and adjacent parts of the northern Siberian lowlands, Russian Federation, including specimens of woolly mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius), steppe bison (Bison priscus), muskox (

  4. Aerial survey of sea otters and other marine mammals Alaska Peninsula and Aleutian Islands, 19 April to 9 May 1965 (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — An aerial survey, 19 April to 9 May 1965 yielded information on marine animals and birds in the Aleutian Islands and limited areas along the Alaska Peninsula. In...

  5. Geodatabase of the datasets used to represent the two subunits of the Pennsylvanian aquifer in the Lower Peninsula of Michigan (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This geodatabase includes spatial datasets that represent the Pennsylvanian aquifers in the Lower Peninsula of Michigan. Included are: (1) polygon extents; datasets...

  6. Monitoring Lake Temperature at Kodiak, Togiak and Alaska Peninsula/Becharof National Wildlife Refuges: 2011 Progress Report (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Instrument arrays were established to conduct long-term, all-season monitoring of water temperature at eight lakes on Kodiak, Togiak, and Alaska Peninsula/Becharof...

  7. Impact of predation by Ostracion immaculatus (Pisces: Ostraciidae) on the macrofouling community structure in Kanayama Bay, Kii Peninsula (Japan)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raveendran, T.V.; Harada, E.

    An investigation on the impact of predation by Ostracion immaculatus on fouling community structure in Kanayama Bay, Kii Peninsula, Japan was undertaken from April 1994 to February 1995. Caging experiments with three size groups of O. immaculatus...

  8. How unique is the tiger beetle fauna (Coleoptera, Cicindelidae of the Balkan Peninsula?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radomir Jaskula


    Full Text Available The tiger beetle fauna of the Balkan Peninsula is one of the richest in Europe and includes 19 species or 41% of the European tiger beetle fauna. Assembled by their biogeographical origins, the Balkan tiger beetle species fall into 14 different groups that include, Mediterranean, Middle Oriental, Central Asiatic, Euro-Siberian, South and East European, Pannonian-Sarmatian, West Palaearctic, Turano-European and Afrotropico Indo-Mediterranean species. The Mediterranean Sclerophyl and the Pontian Steppe are the Balkan biogeographical provinces with the highest species richness, while the Balkan Highlands has the lowest Cicindelidae diversity. Most species are restricted to single habitat types in lowland areas of the Balkan Peninsula and only Calomera aulica aulica and Calomera littoralis nemoralis occur in respectively 3 and 4 different types of habitat. About 60% of all Balkan Cicindelidae species are found in habitats potentially endangered by human activity.

  9. [Distribution of Ecteinascidia turbinata (Ascidiacea: Perophoridae) in mangroves of the Yucatán Peninsula, Mexico]. (United States)

    Carballo, J L


    The ascidian Ecteinascidia turbinata synthesizes some of the most promising substances against solid-type tumors, but the only available source are the natural populations of this tunicate, which is reared or collected in different parts of the world. A total of 33 locations were sampled in the Gulf of Mexico and the Yucatan Peninsula. The tunicate was not found in Veracruz, Tabasco and Campeche, but it was well established on mangrove roots in the Yucatan Peninsula where we estimated densities more or less equal to one colony and an average production of 115 g of biomass per lineal meter of mangrove coastline in one location (Río Lagartos). Sustainable management appears to be possible.

  10. Mercury accumulation in sediments and seabird feathers from the Antarctic Peninsula. (United States)

    Calle, Paola; Alvarado, Omar; Monserrate, Lorena; Cevallos, Juan Manuel; Calle, Nastenka; Alava, Juan José


    In an effort to assess the impact of mercury in the Antarctic Peninsula, we conducted ecotoxicological research in this region during the summer of 2012 and 2013. The objectives were to assess: (a) mercury levels in sediment samples; (b) mercury accumulation in Antarctic seabird feathers: Catharacta lonnbergi (brown skua), Pygoscelis papua (gentoo penguin) and Pygoscelis antarctica (chinstrap penguin); and (c) biomagnification (BMF predator/prey) and biota sediment accumulation (BSAF skuas/sediment) factors. Mercury concentrations in sediment were relatively low. Mercury concentrations were significantly higher in brown skuas and gentoo penguins than in chinstrap penguins (2012), and significantly higher in brown skuas than in both penguins (2013). BMF indicated 2-7.5 times greater mercury levels in brown skuas than in penguins. BSAF values suggested an apparent temporal decrease of 18.2% of this ratio from 2012 to 2013. Long-range environmental transport is the likely route of entry of mercury into the Antarctic Peninsula.

  11. Holocene environmental change according to lake core in Fildes Peninsula of King George Island, Antarctica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李小梅; 袁宝印; 赵俊琳


    Lake core sampled from Xihu in Fildes Peninsula of King Gorge Island, Antarctica could reveal the environmental change of the district. The lake core(GA7) , 9.28 meters long ,was sectioned at an interval of 2 cm. Through measuring the organic carbon, magnetic susceptibility, granularity and organic carbon isotope of GA7, by use of 14C age it was estimated that there were four periods of high temperature in Fildes Peninsula: 4800-4400 aB.P., 3600-3350 aB.P.,2100-1800 aB.P. and 900 aB.P. - present. Meanwhile, results showed that there was a strikingly positive correlation between the content of organic carbon and that of organic carbon isotope(δC13org) which could be the substitute indicators of environmental temperature.

  12. A diverse assemblage of fossil hardwood from the Upper Tertiary (Miocene?) of the Arauco Peninsula, Chile (United States)

    Schöning, Meike; Bandel, Klaus


    Silicified woods of 10 dicotyledonous tree families of probably Miocene age from the Arauco Peninsula, central Chile are described and classified according to their anatomy. The diversity is surprisingly high, in that of the 19 samples analyzed, virtually every one could belong to a different species of tree or shrub. Almost all species document a damp climate, and most have related species living in the central zone of modern Chile. The samples were collected in a narrow zone on Punta El Fraile, west of the town of Arauco. The following families are based on woods from the Arauco Peninsula: Anacardiaceae, Boraginaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Fagaceae, Lauraceae, Leguminosae, Monimiaceae, the first report of fossil Myristicaceae, Myrtaceae, and Proteaceae. Their diagenetic history is connected to tuffaceous material and calcareous concretions.

  13. Tectonics and seismicity of the Apulian Ridge south of Salento peninsula (Southern Italy)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Argnani, A.; Ligi, M. [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto per la Geologia Marina, Bologna (Italy); Frugoni, F. [Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Rome (Italy); Cosi, R. [Coastal Consulting and Exploration Srl, Gallipoli, LE (Italy); Favali, P. [Chieti Univ. G. D' Annunzio, Chieti (Italy). Dipt. di Scienze della Terra


    Multichannel reflection seismic data were acquired south of the Salento peninsula, in an area where crustal seismicity has been recorded. Seismic profiles show the presence of small grabens bounded by extensional faults with NW-SE direction. These grabens are filled with Plio-Quaternary sediments and represent the prolongation of the grabens located onshore in the Salento peninsula. Outer arc extension due to flexuring of the Adriatic-Apulian lithosphere under the double load of the Hellenides and Apennines-Calabrian arc is thought to have originated these grabens. The Adriatic-Apulian continental lithosphere presents a very small radius of curvature and a decoupling between upper crust and mantle lithosphere is expected. Inner arc compression within the upper crust may be responsible for the seismicity recorded in the area.

  14. Description of three new troglobiontic species of Cybaeodes (Araneae, Liocranidae) endemic to the Iberian Peninsula. (United States)

    Ribera, Carles; De Mas, Eva


    Three new troglobiontic species of the spider genus Cybaeodes Simon endemic to caves in the southeastern Iberian Peninsula are described and illustrated: Cybaeodes indalo sp. n. from Almería, C. dosaguas sp. n. from València and C. magnus sp. n. from Alacant. The new species confirm the presence of Cybaeodes on the Iberian Peninsula and its wide distribution throughout the Western Mediterranean including Algeria, Tunisia, Italy, France, Spain and the islands of Sardinia, Sicily and Mallorca. A record of C. liocraninus (Simon), from an Iberian cave was probably based on misidentified specimens of C. magnus sp. n. C. liocraninus is known only from Algeria and should be removed from lists of the Iberian fauna. In addition, the three new species are clear candidates for protection: they have highly restricted ranges and show a high degree of adaptation to the subterranean environment.

  15. Electromagnetic sounding of the Kola Peninsula with a powerful extremely low frequency source (United States)

    Velikhov, E. P.; Grigoriev, V. F.; Zhdanov, M. S.; Korotayev, S. M.; Kruglyakov, M. S.; Orekhova, D. A.; Popova, I. V.; Tereschenko, E. D.; Schors, Y. G.


    Experiment on electromagnetic sounding of the Kola Peninsula using unique mobile measuring complex of the low-frequency sounding was conducted, allowing to investigate a geoelectric section with a depth of several kilometers on distances up to 100 km from the stationary transmitting aerial. Excess on the order of amplitudes of the vertical component above the horizontal at all frequencies of sounding was registered in a number of points of measurements. This feature managed to be explained quantitatively by circulation of current on regional faults with the closure of current through the sea—before unknown galvanic coastal effect. Interpretation of the results of modeling and neural network solving of inverse problem essentially specifies the fault tectonics of the central part of the Kola Peninsula. Anomaly remote from the observation profile was found out—local pinch of a crustal conductive layer consisting of graphitized rocks and associated with the zone of overthrust.

  16. Early Iron Age gold buttons from South-Western Iberian Peninsula. Identification of a gold metallurgical workshop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monge Soares, António M.


    Full Text Available Early Iron Age gold buttons from Castro dos Ratinhos, Fortios and Outeiro da Cabeça were analysed by conventional EDXRF, Micro-PIXE, SEM-EDS and Optical Microscopy. EDXRF results point out to a rather homogeneous alloy composition throughout all the analysed buttons. PIXE microanalyses show that all the button components (disk, tab and peripheral grooved decorated rod have the same alloy composition. PIXE and SEM-EDS microanalyses, supplemented with optical microscopy characterization, show the absence of chemical composition differences between distinct components and joining zones, suggesting that no solder had been applied, i.e. that a partial melting/solid state diffusion process had been used for the welding of button components. Finally, the noticeable similar compositions together with the use of the same welding process and the very similar artefact typologies suggest that those small gold treasures could be interpreted as the result of the work of a single metallurgical workshop, probably located somewhere in the South-Western Iberian Peninsula.

    Botones de oro pertenecientes a la primera Edad del Hierro, procedentes de Castro dos Ratinhos, Fortios e Outeiro da Cabeça (Portugal, fueron analizados por EDXRF y Micro-PIXE. Los resultados de los análisis por EDXRF mostraron una composición similar en todos los botones, independientemente de su procedencia. Por otra parte, los microanálisis por PIXE permitieron verificar que los componentes soldados de cada botón (disco, presilla y cordón exterior tienen la misma composición química. Además de eso, las áreas de soldadura fueron estudiadas mediante Micro-PIXE, SEM-EDS y posterior análisis metalográfico por microscopia óptica de reflexión. Estos análisis permitieron comprobar la ausencia de soldaduras en las zonas de unión de estos componentes, lo que nos permite concluir que debe haber tenido lugar un proceso de fusión parcial y de difusión en estado sólido para unir

  17. The Key to Stability on the Korean Peninsula - United States, Japan and China (United States)


    US diplomatic, defense , and economic efforts on the Korean 7 Peninsula rest. Our treaty commitment and the presence of US troops in South Korea help...the Korean people and ROK service members. —Kim Dae-jung President, Republic of Korea , 1998-2003 Mutual Defense Treaty To deter the North... Korean threat of attack, the Republic of Korea entered into a defense alliance with the United States. This was formalized when the “ROK-US Mutual

  18. Effect of alteration zones on water quality: A case study from Biga Peninsula, Turkey


    Baba, Alper; Gündüz, Orhan


    Widespread and intense zones of silicified, propylitic, and argillic alteration can be found in the Çan volcanics of Biga Peninsula, northwest Turkey. Most of the springs in the study area surface out from the boundary between fractured aquifer (silicified zone) and impervious boundary (argillic zone). This study focuses on two such springs in KirazlI area (KirazlI and Balaban springs) with a distinct quality pattern. Accordingly, field parameters (temperature, pH, and electrical conductivity...

  19. Mosquitoes Associated with Ditch-Plugged and Control Tidal Salt Marshes on the Delmarva Peninsula


    Leisnham, Paul T.; Sarah Sandoval-Mohapatra


    A study was conducted during the summer of 2009 (from July to September) to characterize mosquito communities among different habitats in five historically ditched tidal salt marshes and three adjacent wooded areas in the E.A. Vaughn Wetland Management Area on the Maryland Delmarva Peninsula, USA. Study marshes are characteristic of Atlantic coastal salt marshes that had undergone grid ditching from the 1930s to 1950s. In the autumn of 2008 (October and November) ditches were plugged near the...

  20. Mires and mire types of Peninsula Mitre, Tierra del Fuego, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Grootjans


    Full Text Available In 2007, a field visit by members of the International Mire Conservation Group (IMCG to the Atlantic coast of Peninsula Mitre (the easternmost part of Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego, Argentina gathered information on mire diversity in this remote wild area with largely pristine mires. Our expedition showed that Peninsula Mitre hosts a wide variety of habitats across two exciting ecological gradients: (i a regional west–east gradient from Sphagnum magellanicum dominated mires in the west to Astelia pumila dominated mires in the east; and (ii a gradient from extremely acid to extremely carbonate rich mire types induced by local bedrock. The large variety of hydromorphological mire types comprises raised bogs, blanket bogs, sloping fens, string fens, flat fens and calcareous spring fens. In the Atlantic coastal area, the abundance of Sphagnum magellanicum in the ombrogenic systems decreases conspicuously from west to east with the species being almost absent in the east. However, the fossil record shows thick layers of Sphagnum peat close beneath mire surfaces everywhere, indicating that substantial hydrological and ecological changes have taken place in the recent past. We observed large scale erosion in the mires along the Atlantic coast. Locally, well-developed fen systems are present, including calcareous spring fens with active travertine (tufa deposition. The regional vegetation can be regarded as a parallel to that of boreal oceanic regions in the northern hemisphere. The mires and peatlands of the peninsula are of global significance. They are impressive, peculiar, extensive and largely pristine mires in a globally very rare climatic and biogeographical context embedded in a landscape with significant natural dynamics. The damaging impact of free-roaming cattle on the mires and upland vegetation is, however, conspicuous and needs urgent attention. Peninsula Mitre deserves the highest possible protection, e.g. as a provincial protected

  1. Consumers' Attitudes towards Edible Wild Plants: A Case Study of Noto Peninsula, Ishikawa Prefecture, Japan


    Bixia Chen; Zhenmian Qiu


    This study explored the rural revitalizing strategy in FAO's Globally Important Agricultural Heritage System (GIAHS) site in Noto Peninsula, Ishikawa Prefecture of Japan, using a case study of edible wild plants. This study assessed the current and possible future utilization of edible wild plants as one important NTFP by clarifying the attitudes of consumers and exploring the challenges of harvesting edible wild plants. Traditional ecological knowledge associated with edible wild plants and ...

  2. Tettigonia balcanica, a new species from the Balkan Peninsula (Orthoptera, Tettigoniidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.P. Chobanov


    Full Text Available Tettigonia balcanica, sp. n., discovered in the mountainous regions of the Central, Western and North Balkan Peninsula, is described in this paper. This species has many similarities with T. silana and T. cantans. However, it differs by the song and some morphological characters. Its range differs from that of T. cantans, with which it has been confused so far, but the border between their ranges has yet to be specified.

  3. Nature and tectonic setting of the Guadalquivier Bank (Gulf of Cadiz, SW Iberian Peninsula)


    Vegas, Ramón; Medialdea, T.; Muñoz García, Mercedes; Díaz del Río, V.; Somoza, L.


    During two oceanographic cruises on the Guadalquivir Bank (continental slope of the southwestern Atlantic margin of the Iberian Peninsula), Variscan basement rocks were dredged, as well as, lithified hardground-related carbonate sediments containing Late Tortonian-Early Messinian foraminifers. Basement samples contained graywackes, shales, quartzites, basic volcanics, and metabasites in amphibolite facies. All these sedimentary and volcanic rocks can be attributed to the Volcano-Sedimentar...

  4. Monterey Peninsula Water Supply Project. Supplemental Draft Environmental Impact Report/Statement II. Volume 2. (United States)


    sanderlings, long-billed dowitchers, and I western, California and Heermann’s gulls. Brown pelicans, double-crested cormorants, and surf scooters are typical...sediment carried in suspension above the stream bed (see suspended load). Board: The Monterey Peninsula Water Management District’s seven-member Board...silt and fine sand, which is carried in suspension above the bottom of a stream by moving water, as contrasted with the bed load rolled along the

  5. Holy War, Crusade and "Reconquista" in recent anglo-american historiography about the Iberian Peninsula



    In contemporary Western societies, who are going through a neo-romantic stage, the Crusades have led to an immense literature and a remarkable popularity. In the scientific field, this phenomenon has encouraged the debate on the ideological and cultural issues surrounding Crusade. Since that in the Iberian Peninsula had developed fights between Muslims and Christians before 1096, it is inevitable that historians have wondered about the influence of the reconquest in the origins...

  6. Distribution of phthalate esters in agricultural soil with plastic film mulching in Shandong Peninsula, East China. (United States)

    Li, Kankan; Ma, Dong; Wu, Juan; Chai, Chao; Shi, Yanxi


    The content of phthalate esters (PAEs) was investigated in 36 vegetable fields with plastic film mulching in Shandong Peninsula, East China. Soils at depths of 0-10 cm, 10-20 cm, and 20-40 cm were collected, and 16 PAEs were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. PAEs were detected in all the analyzed samples. The total contents of the 16 PAEs (Σ16PAEs) ranged from 1.374 to 18.810 mg/kg, with an average of 6.470 mg/kg. Among the four areas of Shandong Peninsula, including Qingdao, Weihai, Weifang, and Yantai, the highest Σ16PAE in the soil was observed in Weifang district (9.786 mg/kg), which is famous for large-scale vegetable production. Despite the significant differences among the Σ16PAEs, the PAE compositions in soils with plastic film mulching in Shandong Peninsula were comparable. Diethyl phthalate (DEP), diisobutyl phthalate, and di(4-methyl-2-pentyl) phthalate were present in all the samples, whereas di-n-hexyl phthalate was detected only in Qingdao (∼1%) and dicyclohexyl phthalate was observed only in Weifang (5.7-8.2%) in low proportions. The ratios of dimethyl phthalate, DEP, and di-n-butyl phthalate, which exceeded allowable concentrations, were 63.9-100% at different soil depths, indicating high PAE pollution. The concentration of butyl benzyl phthalate detected only in Weifang exceeded the recommended allowable soil concentration. Overall, the high PAE content in the soil with plastic film mulching in Shandong Peninsula is an issue of concern because of the large amounts of plastic film used.

  7. The Dependency between the Arabian Peninsula Wet Events and Sea Level Pressure Patterns during Spring Season

    KAUST Repository

    El Kenawy, Ahmed M.


    This work investigates the relationships between regional extreme wet events in the Arabian Peninsula during the spring season (MAM) and sea level pressure (SLP) patterns. Based on NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data, S-mode principal components were computed from the de-seasonalized daily SLP for spring months between 1960 and 2013. The analysis covered a window for the region (15-70°E and 2.5-50°N). This window coupled different oceanic-land influences (e.g. the Indian, Mediterranean and the Sahara configurations) that may impart an effect on rainfall variations in the study domain. A set of eight significant circulation spatial patterns were retained, which explained 84.8% of the total explained variance. The derived patterns explained a wide variety of flows over the peninsula, with a clear distinction between zonal and meridional advections. The extreme wet events (R95 and R99) were defined from a relatively dense network of 209 observatories covering the peninsula, using the 95th and 99th percentile of rainfall distribution respectively. The links between the dominant SLP patterns and significant wet events were established and the physical interpretations of these associations were examined. The results, as revealed by the location and intensity of high pressure centers, highlight the strength of eastern and southeastern advections corresponding to these extreme events. Other patterns have a local character, suggesting an orographic origin of some wet events in the region. The relationships described in this research can advance the understanding of the large-scale processes that contribute to the wet weather events in the Arabian Peninsula. These findings can therefore contribute to better management of water resources and agricultural practices in the region.

  8. An annotated distributional checklist of exotic freshwater fishes from the Baja California Peninsula, Mexico


    Gorgonio Ruiz-Campos; Salvador Contreras-Balderas; Asunción Andreu-Soler; Alejandro Varela-Romero; Ernesto Campos


    We documented the distributional status of 27 exotic fish species in the inland waters of the Baja California Peninsula, Mexico, based on voucher specimens collected from 122 sites between 1977 and 2010, and on published records. The species reported here are representatives of genera from the Atlantic drainages of North America (Ictalurus, Ameiurus, Pylodictis, Morone, Lepomis, Pomoxis, Dorosoma, Cyprinella, and Micropterus), Middle America (Poecilia, Gambusia, and Xiphophorus), Eurasia (Cyp...

  9. Wildlife uses and hunting patterns in rural communities of the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico


    Santos-Fita Dídac; Naranjo Eduardo J; Rangel-Salazar José


    Abstract Background Subsistence hunting is a traditional practice providing food and many other goods for households in the Yucatan Peninsula, southeast Mexico. Economic, demographic, and cultural change in this region drive wildlife habitat loss and local extinctions. Improving our understanding about current practices of wildlife use may support better management strategies for conserving game species and their habitat. We aimed to evaluate if wildlife use remained relevant for the subsiste...

  10. Vegetation stability and the habitat associations of the endemic taxa of the Olympic Peninsula, Washington, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel G. Gavin


    Full Text Available Explanations for areas of endemism often involve relative climatic stability, or low climate velocity, over time scales ranging from the Pleistocene to the late Cenozoic. Given that many narrowly endemic taxa in forested landscapes display discrete habitat associations, habitat stability should be similarly important for endemic persistence. Furthermore, while past climate variability is exceedingly difficult to quantify on millennial time scales, past distributions of habitats may be robustly inferred from paleoecological records. The Olympic Peninsula, Washington, supports a biota with several insular features including 29 endemic plant and animal taxa. Here I present the geographic distribution and habitat of the endemic taxa, and then examine the vegetation stability of the past 14,300 years from five pollen records associated with discrete vegetation zones on the peninsula. I show that 11 endemics have distributions centered on dry alpine scree and rock in the northeastern quadrant of the peninsula, and nine occur in shaded riparian forests in the southwest. Vegetation turnover during the post-glacial period was smallest in these areas. However, another long pollen record from the western peninsula reveals existence of shrub tundra and greatly reduced forest cover, indicating southward displacement of shaded riparian habitats by perhaps as much as 100 km. Although this study supports an association of post-glacial vegetation stability with endemism, records spanning the glacial maximum indicate widespread tundra during long periods of the late Pleistocene and therefore suggest southern displacement of forest-associated endemics. While some of the alpine scree-associated endemics may have persisted in situ, many others likely arrived via a variety of dispersal trajectories. These histories include dispersal from southern refugia towards ocean barriers preventing further northward dispersal, contraction from more widespread distributions, and

  11. Local population structure in Arabian Peninsula revealed by Y-STR diversity. (United States)

    Alshamali, Farida; Pereira, Luísa; Budowle, Bruce; Poloni, Estella S; Currat, Mathias


    Genetic studies have been underway on Arabian Peninsula populations because of their pivotal geographic location for population migration and times of occurrence. To assist in better understanding population dynamics in this region, evidence is presented herein on local population structure in the Arabian Peninsula, based on Y-STR characterisation in four Arabian samples and its comparison in a broad geographical scale. Our results demonstrate that geography played an important role in shaping the genetic structure of the region around the Near-East. Populations are grouped regionally but none of these groups is significantly differentiated from others and all groups merge in the Near-East, in keeping with this important migration corridor for the human species. Focusing on the Arabian Peninsula, we show that Dubai and Oman share genetic affinities with other Near-Eastern populations, while Saudi Arabia and Yemen show a relative distinctive isolated background. Those two populations may have been kept relatively separated from migration routes, maybe due to their location in a desert area.

  12. Hydrological extremes in hyperarid regions: A diagnostic characterization of intense precipitation over the Central Arabian Peninsula (United States)

    Kumar, Kondapalli Niranjan; Entekhabi, Dara; Molini, Annalisa


    Aridity is typically associated with deep and dry daytime boundary layers, stable nighttime stratification, divergent flows, and limited large-scale moisture advection. All these factors are paramount in regulating the hydroclimatology of hyperarid regions, resulting in extremely intermittent—and often intense—local precipitation patterns. However, the link between synoptic-scale forcing and intense precipitation over arid regions has been scarcely investigated in the literature and still remains exceedingly unexplored. We present here a diagnostic study of intense precipitation in the Central Arabian Peninsula, based on the analysis of local extreme signatures embedded in synoptic patterns. Special emphasis is given to the genesis of winter extremes over the Peninsula, and to possible effects of synchronization between the atmospheric circulation over the Mediterranean and the Indian Ocean. Based on composites of the tropospheric circulation for a large ensemble of intense events, we show that moisture necessary to trigger winter extremes over the Peninsula starts to build up in average 8 days before heavy rainfall occurrence, mainly as a consequence of the interplay between the Mediterranean and the Monsoonal circulation. Moisture advection is in turn associated with an upper troposphere cyclonic circulation and pronounced potential vorticity intrusions. Overall, our results demonstrate how large-scale precursors can be effectively used to improve the predictability of rainfall extremes in hyperarid regions.

  13. Geodetic implications on block formation and geodynamic domains in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctic Peninsula (United States)

    Berrocoso, M.; Fernández-Ros, A.; Prates, G.; García, A.; Kraus, S.


    The South Shetland Islands archipelago is dynamically complex due to its tectonic surroundings. Most islands are part of a formerly active volcanic arc, although Deception, Penguin and Bridgeman Islands, as well as several submarine volcanoes, are characterized by active back-arc volcanism. Geodetic benchmarks were deployed and the movement of the lithosphere to which they were fixed measured to provide geodynamic insight for the South Shetland Islands, Bransfield Basin and Antarctic Peninsula area based on surface deformation. These benchmarks' data add spatial and temporal coverage to previous results. The results reveal two different geodynamic patterns, each confined to a distinct part of the South Shetland Islands archipelago. The inferred absolute horizontal velocity vectors for the benchmarks in the northeastern part of the archipelago are consistent with the opening of the Bransfield Basin, while benchmark vectors in the southwestern part of the archipelago are similar to those of the benchmarks on the Antarctic Peninsula. In between, Snow, Deception and Livingston Islands represent a transition zone. In this area, the horizontal velocity vectors relative to the Antarctic plate shift northeastwards from N to NW. Furthermore, the South Shetland Islands benchmarks, except for that at Gibbs (Elephant) Islands, indicate subsidence, which might be a consequence of the slab roll-back at the South Shetland Trench. In contrast, the uplift revealed by the Antarctic Peninsula benchmarks suggests glacial isostatic adjustment after the Larson B ice-shelf breakup.

  14. Impacts of the north and tropical Atlantic Ocean on the Antarctic Peninsula and sea ice. (United States)

    Li, Xichen; Holland, David M; Gerber, Edwin P; Yoo, Changhyun


    In recent decades, Antarctica has experienced pronounced climate changes. The Antarctic Peninsula exhibited the strongest warming of any region on the planet, causing rapid changes in land ice. Additionally, in contrast to the sea-ice decline over the Arctic, Antarctic sea ice has not declined, but has instead undergone a perplexing redistribution. Antarctic climate is influenced by, among other factors, changes in radiative forcing and remote Pacific climate variability, but none explains the observed Antarctic Peninsula warming or the sea-ice redistribution in austral winter. However, in the north and tropical Atlantic Ocean, the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (a leading mode of sea surface temperature variability) has been overlooked in this context. Here we show that sea surface warming related to the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation reduces the surface pressure in the Amundsen Sea and contributes to the observed dipole-like sea-ice redistribution between the Ross and Amundsen-Bellingshausen-Weddell seas and to the Antarctic Peninsula warming. Support for these findings comes from analysis of observational and reanalysis data, and independently from both comprehensive and idealized atmospheric model simulations. We suggest that the north and tropical Atlantic is important for projections of future climate change in Antarctica, and has the potential to affect the global thermohaline circulation and sea-level change.

  15. [Characterization of S gene of a strain of hantavirus isolated from Apodemus peninsulae in Heilongjiang Province]. (United States)

    Chen, Lu-Fei; Chen, Shu-Hong; Wang, Kai-Li; Zhang, Jing; Li, Ji-Hong


    In order to study the molecular characterization of the hantavirus isolated from Apodemus peninsulae in Heilongjiang Province, the S gene of a new strain NA33 was amplified, sequenced and analyzed. The results showed that the complete nucleotide sequence of the S gene of NA33 strain was composed of 1 693 nucleotides with TA-rich. The S gene contained one ORF, starting at position 37 and ending at position 1 326, encoding the N protein of 429 amino acid residues, and in line with HTN-based coding. Sequence comparison of the S genes between NA33 and reference hantavirus strains showed that NA33 was more homologous to Amur-like viruses than to the Hantaan (HTN) viruses or the other hantaviruses. Phylogenetic analysis of the amino acid sequence of N proteins showed that NA33 was clustered into the group of Amur-like viruses and was more similar to Far East Russia and Jilin strains isolated from Apodemus peninsulae. The phylogenetic tree indicated a certain degree of host-dependent characteristics and geographical aggregation characteristics of hantanviruses. Furthermore, the amino acid sequence of N protein of NA33 had the conserved amino acid sites of Amur-like viruses. In conclusion, Apodemus peninsulae carried Amur-like viruses in Heilongjiang province and was an important infectious source of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS).

  16. Transport and distribution of nutrients in anchovy spawning ground to the southern waters of Shandong Peninsula

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Shengquan; Lin Yi'an; Jin Mingming; Liu Xiaoya


    The distribution of nutrients and the effect of side transport of nutrients on anchovy spawning ground to the southern waters of Shandong Peninsula are discussed based on the data collected in June 2000, May and June 2001. The coastal current and upwelling are the main physical processes of nutrient transport to the southern waters of Shandong Peninsula. The concentrations of nutrients, Chla, the density of anchovy eggs, larva and juvenile fish increase obviously where they are greatly affected by these processes, while the contents of nutrients and Chl-a, the density of anchovy eggs, larva and juvenile fish decrease significantly where these processes diminish or disappear. The investigation suggest that the side transport of nutrients by Lubei (North Shandong) coastal current in the northern area causes the Chl-a content to be high and dense anchovy eggs, larva and juvenile fish to be dense in the coastal area of the Chengshan Cape. In the southern area, the riverine input from Subei irrigation ditch with high content of nutrients inshore and upwelling in the western edge of the Huanghai Sea Cold Water offshore should be responsible for high Chl-a concentration and dense anchovy eggs, larva and juvenile fish.It is possible that these processes of nutrient transport have controlled the anchovy spawning ground to the southem waters of Shandong Peninsula.

  17. Seasonal transmission of Leishmania (Leishmania mexicana in the state of Campeche, Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrade-Narvaez Fernando J


    Full Text Available In the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico, localized cutaneous leishmaniasis (LCL caused by Leishmania (Leishmania mexicana is a typical wild zoonosis restricted to the forest, and humans are only accidentally involved. The transmission of L. (L. mexicana has been related to the patient's occupation: "chicleros"(gum collectors and agricultural workers. The objective of this study was to document L. (L. mexicana seasonally of transmission in endemic areas of LCL in the state of Campeche, Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. The timing of incidence of LCL in humans during 1993-1994, as well as the rate and time of infection in rodents and sand flies between February 1993 and March 1995 were analyzed. Rodents and sand flies were found infected between November and March, when men carried out their field activities and are exposed. Based on results analyzed, it is concluded that L. (L. mexicana in the endemic area of LCL in the state of Campeche, Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico, presents a seasonal transmission restricted to the months of November to March. The knowledge of the timing of the transmission cycle in an endemic area of leishmaniasis is very important because intervention measures on the high-risk focus and population might be restricted.

  18. Inter-annual variation of NDVI over Korea Peninsula using harmonic analysis (United States)

    Kim, In-hwan; Han, Kyung-Soo; Pi, Kyoung-Jin; Park, Soo-Jae; Kim, Sang-Il


    Global warming and climatic changes due to human activities impact on marine and terrestrial ecosystems, which feedbacks to climate system. These negative feedbacks amplify or accelerate again global climate change. In particular, life cycle of vegetation sensitively vary according to global climate change. This study attempts to analyze quantitatively vegetation change in Korea peninsula using harmonic analysis. Satellite data was extracted from SPOT/VEGETATION S10 MVC (Maximum Value Composite) NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) products during 10 years (1999 to 2008) around Korea peninsula. This NDVI data set was pre-processed to correct noise pixels cause by cloud and ground wetness. Variation of vegetation life cycle was analyzed through amplitudes and phases of annual harmonic components (first harmonic components) per year for two land cover types (cropland and forest). The results clearly show that the peak of vegetation life cycle in Korea peninsula is brought forward to early. Especially, it represents that the phases over low latitudes area between 32.8°N and 38°N steadily decrease every year both forest and cropland. The study estimated that phase values moved up approximately 0.5 day per year in cropland and 0.8 day per year in forest.

  19. Remotely-Sensed Glacier Change Estimation: a Case Study at Lindblad Cove, Antarctic Peninsula (United States)

    Fieber, K. D.; Mills, J. P.; Miller, P. E.; Fox, A. J.


    This study builds on existing literature of glacier change estimation in polar regions and is a continuation of efforts aimed at unlocking the information encapsulated in archival aerial photography of Antarctic Peninsula glaciers. Historical aerial imagery acquired in 1957 over three marine-terminating glaciers at Lindblad Cove on the West Coast of Trinity Peninsula is processed to extract digital elevation models (DEMs) which are subsequently compared to DEMs generated from present day (2014) WorldView-2 satellite stereo-imagery. The new WorldView-2 images offer unprecedented sub-metre resolution of the Antarctic Peninsula and are explored here to facilitate improved registration and higher accuracy analysis of glacier changes. Unlike many studies, which focus on glacier fronts or only restricted regions of glaciers, this paper presents a complete coverage of elevation changes across the glacier surfaces for two of the studied glaciers. The study utilises a robust least squares matching technique to ensure precise registration of the archival and modern DEMs, which is applied due to lack of existing ground control in this remote region. This case study reveals that, while many glaciers in polar regions are reported as experiencing significant mass loss, some glaciers are stable or even demonstrate mass gain. All three glaciers reported here demonstrated overall mean increases in surface elevation, indicative of positive mass balance ranging from 0.6 to 5.8 metre water equivalent between 1957 and 2014.

  20. Salmon Futures: Stakeholder-driven salmon management scenarios under changing environmental conditions on Alaska's Kenai Peninsula (United States)

    Trammell, E. J.; Krupa, M.


    Understanding the adaptive capacity of individuals within natural resource management agencies is a key component of assessing the vulnerability of salmon to future environmental change. We seek to explore the adaptive capacity of natural resource agencies on Alaska's Kenai Peninsula by exploring the drivers and implications of different salmon allocation scenarios through participatory workshops with managers. We present here the initial results from the first workshop, which explores the various drivers responsible for changes in salmon allocation. Ranging from global to local, and biophysical to socioeconomic, these drivers are also linked to specific actors in the region. These complex interactions comprise the Kenai Peninsula's social-ecological system and determine its ability to react to change. Using a stakeholder-driven scenario framework, we aim to: 1) explore the adaptive capacity of natural resource agencies in the region by exploring and exposing managers to different but logically coherent salmon allocation scenarios; 2) build stakeholder confidence in the science of environmental change on the Kenai Peninsula; and 3) develop a decision support tool that helps regional resource managers better understand their changing environment. We utilize and present the scenario framework as a platform for integrating hydrologic, landscape, and cultural change information into actionable decisions, crafted by the stakeholders, so that landscape change on the Kenai becomes more coordinated.

  1. Monitoring the concentration of N2O in the Fildes Peninsula, maritime Antarctica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Gases in the marine boundary layer in Fildes Peninsula, maritime Antarctica were sampled and analyzed for the first time. Sampling sites included areas covered by moss and lichen growth, penguin colonies and an area where scientific research stations are located. A total of 211 samples were analyzed for N2O concentrations, with an average of (321.33±3.07) nL/L. This is above the global average value of 314 nL/L. It is found that the N2O concentrations evidently increase during the summer months. Concentrations around the research stations are higher than at remote areas, indicating a potential source from human activities on the island. N2O concentrations at a large penguin colony on Barton Peninsula are the highest among the sampled areas. This may explain why N2O concentrations in Fildes Peninsula are higher than the global average. Our preliminary conclusions are that human activities and emissions from penguin dropping-amended soil and vegetation soil constitute the major sources of N2O in the maritime Antarctic atmosphere.

  2. Investigations of fungal diversity in wooden structures and soils at historic sites on the Antarctic Peninsula. (United States)

    Arenz, Brett E; Blanchette, Robert A


    Investigations of microbial diversity in Antarctic are important to begin to understand ecosystem functioning and decomposition processes. This study documents fungi at 9 historic sites on the Antarctic Peninsula collected from wooden structures, other organic materials, and soils during a joint National Science Foundation and British Antarctic Survey expedition in 2007. Many of these sites had wooden structures built by the British during the World War II Operation Tabarin, but others visited included the American "East Base" on Stonington Island and the Swedish hut on Snow Hill Island. Fungi were cultured on several different media and pure cultures were obtained and identified by DNA sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer region. Cadophora species previously found to attack historic wooden structures on Ross Island, Antarctica, were found at all but 1 location sampled in the Peninsula region. Fungi causing decay in the historic wooden structures and artifacts and those causing mold problems inside the structures are of great concern, and conservation efforts are urgently needed to help preserve these important polar heritage structures. The results presented also expand our knowledge on the identity of fungi present throughout the Antarctic Peninsula region and provide insights into the organisms responsible for decomposition and nutrient recycling.

  3. Seasonal transmission of Leishmania (Leishmania) mexicana in the state of Campeche, Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. (United States)

    Andrade-Narvaez, Fernando J; Canto Lara, Silvia B; Van Wynsberghe, Nicole R; Rebollar-Tellez, Eduardo A; Vargas-Gonzalez, Alberto; Albertos-Alpuche, Nelly E


    In the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico, localized cutaneous leishmaniasis (LCL) caused by Leishmania (Leishmania) mexicana is a typical wild zoonosis restricted to the forest, and humans are only accidentally involved. The transmission of L. (L.) mexicana has been related to the patient's occupation: "chicleros" (gum collectors) and agricultural workers. The objective of this study was to document L. (L.) mexicana seasonally of transmission in endemic areas of LCL in the state of Campeche, Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. The timing of incidence of LCL in humans during 1993-1994, as well as the rate and time of infection in rodents and sand flies between February 1993 and March 1995 were analyzed. Rodents and sand flies were found infected between November and March, when men carried out their field activities and are exposed. Based on results analyzed, it is concluded that L. (L.) mexicana in the endemic area of LCL in the state of Campeche, Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico, presents a seasonal transmission restricted to the months of November to March. The knowledge of the timing of the transmission cycle in an endemic area of leishmaniasis is very important because intervention measures on the high-risk focus and population might be restricted.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. D. Fieber


    Full Text Available This study builds on existing literature of glacier change estimation in polar regions and is a continuation of efforts aimed at unlocking the information encapsulated in archival aerial photography of Antarctic Peninsula glaciers. Historical aerial imagery acquired in 1957 over three marine-terminating glaciers at Lindblad Cove on the West Coast of Trinity Peninsula is processed to extract digital elevation models (DEMs which are subsequently compared to DEMs generated from present day (2014 WorldView-2 satellite stereo-imagery. The new WorldView-2 images offer unprecedented sub-metre resolution of the Antarctic Peninsula and are explored here to facilitate improved registration and higher accuracy analysis of glacier changes. Unlike many studies, which focus on glacier fronts or only restricted regions of glaciers, this paper presents a complete coverage of elevation changes across the glacier surfaces for two of the studied glaciers. The study utilises a robust least squares matching technique to ensure precise registration of the archival and modern DEMs, which is applied due to lack of existing ground control in this remote region. This case study reveals that, while many glaciers in polar regions are reported as experiencing significant mass loss, some glaciers are stable or even demonstrate mass gain. All three glaciers reported here demonstrated overall mean increases in surface elevation, indicative of positive mass balance ranging from 0.6 to 5.8 metre water equivalent between 1957 and 2014.

  5. Clinical picture of cutaneous leishmaniases due to Leishmania (Leishmania mexicana in the Yucatan peninsula, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrade-Narváez Fernando J


    Full Text Available Localized cutaneous leishmaniasis (LCL, known as "chiclero's ulcer" in southeast Mexico, was described by Seidelin in 1912. Since then, the sylvatic region of the Yucatan peninsula has been identified as an endemic focus of LCL. The purpose of the present work was to describe the clinical picture of LCL caused by Leishmania (Leishmania mexicana in the Yucatan peninsula. A total of 136 cases of LCL, based on isolation and characterization of L. (L. mexicana by isoenzymes and/or monoclonal antibodies, were selected. Some variability of clinical features regarding number, type, size, form, location and time of evolution of the lesions was observed. The most frequently observed presentation was a single, ulcerated, rounded small lesion, located on the ear, with an evolution time of less than three months, with neither cutaneous metastases nor lymphatic nor mucosal involvement. This picture corresponds to previous studies carried out in the same endemic area where an organism of the L. mexicana complex has been incriminated as a major aetiological agent of classical "chiclero's ulcer", confirming that in the Yucatan peninsula LCL due to L. (L. mexicana when located on the pinna of the ear is a remarkable characteristic.

  6. Abrupt along-strike change in tectonic style: San Andreas Fault zone, San Francisco Peninsula (United States)

    Zoback, Mary Lou; Jachens, Robert C.; Olson, Jean A.


    Seismicity and high-resolution aeromagnetic data are used to define an abrupt change from compressional to extensional tectonism within a 10- to 15-km-wide zone along the San Andreas fault on the San Francisco Peninsula and offshore from the Golden Gate. This 100-km-long section of the San Andreas fault includes the hypocenter of the Mw = 7.8 1906 San Francisco earthquake as well as the highest level of persistent microseismicity along that ˜470-km-long rupture. We define two distinct zones of deformation along this stretch of the fault using well-constrained relocations of all post-1969 earthquakes based a joint one-dimensional velocity/hypocenter inversion and a redetermination of focal mechanisms. The southern zone is characterized by thrust- and reverse-faulting focal mechanisms with NE trending P axes that indicate "fault-normal" compression in 7- to 10-km-wide zones of deformation on both sides of the San Andreas fault. A 1- to 2-km-wide vertical zone beneath the surface trace of the San Andreas is characterized by its almost complete lack of seismicity. The compressional deformation is consistent with the young, high topography of the Santa Cruz Mountains/Coast Ranges as the San Andreas fault makes a broad restraining left bend (˜10°) through the southernmost peninsula. A zone of seismic quiescence ˜15 km long separates this compressional zone to the south from a zone of combined normal-faulting and strike-slip-faulting focal mechanisms (including a ML = 5.3 earthquake in 1957) on the northernmost peninsula and offshore on the Golden Gate platform. Both linear pseudogravity gradients, calculated from the aeromagnetic data, and seismic reflection data indicate that the San Andreas fault makes an abrupt ˜3-km right step less than 5 km offshore in this northern zone. A similar right-stepping (dilatational) geometry is also observed for the subparallel San Gregorio fault offshore. Persistent seismicity and extensional tectonism occur within the San Andreas

  7. A Study of the San Andreas Slip Rate on the San Francisco Peninsula, California (United States)

    Feigelson, L. M.; Prentice, C.; Grove, K.; Caskey, J.; Ritz, J. F.; Leslie, S.


    The most recent large earthquake on the San Andreas Fault (SAF) along the San Francisco Peninsula was the great San Francisco earthquake of April 18, 1906, when a Mw= 7.8 event ruptured 435-470 km of the northern SAF. The slip rate for this segment of the SAF is incompletely known but is important for clarifying seismic hazard in this highly urbanized region. A previous study south of our site has found an average slip rate of 17±4 mm/yr for the late Holocene on the San Francisco Peninsula segment of the SAF. North of the Golden Gate, the SAF joins the San Gregorio Fault with an estimated slip rate of 6 mm/yr. A trench study north of where the two faults join has produced an average late Holocene slip rate of 24±3 mm/yr. To refine slip-rate estimates for the peninsula segment of the SAF, we excavated a trench across the fault where we located an abandoned channel between the San Andreas and Lower Crystal Springs reservoirs. This abandoned channel marks the time when a new channel cut across the SAF; the new channel has since been offset in a right-lateral sense about 20 m. The measured amount of offset and the age of the youngest fluvial sediments in the abandoned channel will yield a slip rate for the San Francisco Peninsula segment of the SAF. We excavated a trench across the abandoned channel and logged the exposed sediments. Our investigation revealed channel-fill alluvium incised and filled by probable debris flow sediments, and a wide fault zone in bedrock, west of the channel deposits. The most prominent fault is probably the strand that moved in 1906. We completed a total-station survey to more precisely measure the offset stream, and to confirm that the fault exposed in the trench aligns with a fence that is known to have been offset 2.8m during the 1906 earthquake. We interpret the debris flow sediments to represent the last phase of deposition prior to abandonment of the old channel. We collected samples for radiocarbon dating, optically stimulated

  8. Mass Balance of the Northern Antarctic Peninsula and its Ongoing Response to Ice Shelf Loss (United States)

    Scambos, T. A.; Berthier, E.; Haran, T. M.; Shuman, C. A.; Cook, A. J.; Bohlander, J. A.


    An assessment of the most rapidly changing areas of the Antarctic Peninsula (north of 66°S) shows that ice mass loss for the region is dominated by areas affected by eastern-Peninsula ice shelf losses in the past 20 years. Little if any of the mass loss is compensated by increased snowfall in the northwestern or far northern areas. We combined satellite stereo-image DEM differencing and ICESat-derived along-track elevation changes to measure ice mass loss for the Antarctic Peninsula north of 66°S between 2001-2010, focusing on the ICESat-1 period of operation (2003-2009). This mapping includes all ice drainages affected by recent ice shelf loss in the northeastern Peninsula (Prince Gustav, Larsen Inlet, Larsen A, and Larsen B) as well as James Ross Island, Vega Island, Anvers Island, Brabant Island and the adjacent west-flowing glaciers. Polaris Glacier (feeding the Larsen Inlet, which collapsed in 1986) is an exception, and may have stabilized. Our method uses ASTER and SPOT-5 stereo-image DEMs to determine dh/dt for elevations below 800 m; at higher elevations ICESat along-track elevation differencing is used. To adjust along-track path offsets between its 2003-2009 campaigns, we use a recent DEM of the Peninsula to establish and correct for cross-track slope (Cook et al., 2012, doi:10.5194/essdd-5-365-2012; . We reduce the effect of possible seasonal variations in elevation by using only integer-year repeats of the ICESat tracks for comparison. Mass losses are dominated by the major glaciers that had flowed into the Prince Gustav (Boydell, Sjorgren, Röhss), Larsen A (Edgeworth, Bombardier, Dinsmoor, Drygalski), and Larsen B (Hektoria, Jorum, and Crane) embayments. The pattern of mass loss emphasizes the significant and multi-decadal response to ice shelf loss. Areas with shelf losses occurring 30 to 100s of years ago seem to be relatively stable or losing mass only slowly (western glaciers, northernmost areas). The

  9. Lower Miocene stratigraphy along the Panama Canal and its bearing on the Central American Peninsula.

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    Michael Xavier Kirby

    Full Text Available Before the formation of the Central American Isthmus, there was a Central American Peninsula. Here we show that southern Central America existed as a peninsula as early as 19 Ma, based on new lithostratigraphic, biostratigraphic and strontium chemostratigraphic analyses of the formations exposed along the Gaillard Cut of the Panama Canal. Land mammals found in the Miocene Cucaracha Formation have similar body sizes to conspecific taxa in North America, indicating that there existed a terrestrial connection with North America that allowed gene flow between populations during this time. How long did this peninsula last? The answer hinges on the outcome of a stratigraphic dispute: To wit, is the terrestrial Cucaracha Formation older or younger than the marine La Boca Formation? Previous stratigraphic studies of the Panama Canal Basin have suggested that the Cucaracha Formation lies stratigraphically between the shallow-marine Culebra Formation and the shallow-to-upper-bathyal La Boca Formation, the latter containing the Emperador Limestone. If the La Boca Formation is younger than the Cucaracha Formation, as many think, then the peninsula was short-lived (1-2 m.y., having been submerged in part by the transgression represented by the overlying La Boca Formation. On the other hand, our data support the view that the La Boca Formation is older than the Cucaracha Formation. Strontium dating shows that the La Boca Formation is older (23.07 to 20.62 Ma than both the Culebra (19.83-19.12 Ma and Cucaracha (Hemingfordian to Barstovian North American Land Mammal Ages; 19-14 Ma formations. The Emperador Limestone is also older (21.24-20.99 Ma than the Culebra and Cucaracha formations. What has been called the "La Boca Formation" (with the Emperador Limestone, is re-interpreted here as being the lower part of the Culebra Formation. Our new data sets demonstrate that the main axis of the volcanic arc in southern Central America more than likely existed as a

  10. 75 FR 2920 - In the Matter of the Designation of al-Qa'ida in the Arabian Peninsula (AQAP), Also Known as al... (United States)


    ... Matter of the Designation of al-Qa'ida in the Arabian Peninsula (AQAP), Also Known as al-Qa'ida of Jihad Organization in the Arabian Peninsula, Also Known as Tanzim Qa'idat al-Jihad fi Jazirat al- Arab, Also Known as... al-Qa'ida in the Arabian Peninsula (AQAP), and also known as al-Qa'ida of Jihad Organization in...

  11. Beach ridges U-Th dating in Tongoy bay and tectonic implications for a peninsula-bay system, Chile (United States)

    Saillard, M.; Riotte, J.; Regard, V.; Violette, A.; Hérail, G.; Audin, L.; Riquelme, R.


    Along the Chilean coast, peninsulas associated with bays seem to behave as a complex system. They act as barrier to propagation of megathrust earthquakes along strike. To better understand how such a system works from ocean side to more inland, we investigated the area between the Tongoy bay and the Altos de Talinay in northern Chile (˜30°S). It represents a forearc peninsula-bay system in which a normal fault (Puerto Aldea fault) has been described as accommodating a relative vertical motion between the two parts, the peninsula being uplifted with respect to the bay. We dated shells from beach ridges by U-Th disequilibria in order to compare the bay area to the peninsula area for which 10Be dating of wave-cut platforms are available (Saillard et al., 2009). These indicate: (1) the Puerto Aldea fault activity probably ceased since at least ˜230 ka, implying the bay and peninsula parts are evolving together since then; (2) the uplift rate is variable and has decreased from ˜0.8 m/ka to ˜0.2 m/ka between ˜300 and 100 ka.

  12. Extreme precipitation events in the Iberian Peninsula and its association with Atmospheric Rivers (United States)

    Ramos, Alexandre M.; Liberato, Margarida L. R.; Trigo, Ricardo M.


    Extreme precipitation events in the Iberian Peninsula during the winter half of the year have major socio-economic impacts associated with floods, landslides, extensive property damage and life losses. In recent years, a number of works have shed new light on the role played by Atmospheric Rivers (ARs) in the occurrence of extreme precipitation events in both Europe and USA. ARs are relatively narrow regions of concentrated WV responsible for horizontal transport in the lower atmosphere corresponding to the core section of the broader warm conveyor belt occurring over the oceans along the warm sector of extra-tropical cyclones. Over the North Atlantic ARs are usually W-E oriented steered by pre-frontal low level jets along the trailing cold front and subsequently feed the precipitation in the extra-tropical cyclones. It was shown that more than 90% of the meridional WV transport in the mid-latitudes occurs in the AR, although they cover less than 10% of the area of the globe. The large amount of WV that is transported can lead to heavy precipitation and floods. An automated ARs detection algorithm is used for the North Atlantic Ocean Basin allowing the identification and a comprehensive characterization of the major AR events that affected the Iberian Peninsula over the 1948-2012 period. The extreme precipitation days in the Iberian Peninsula were assessed recently by us (Ramos et al., 2014) and their association (or not) with the occurrence of AR is analyzed in detail here. The extreme precipitation days are ranked by their magnitude and are obtained after considering 1) the area affected and 2) the precipitation intensity. Different rankings are presented for the entire Iberian Peninsula, Portugal and also for the six largest Iberian river basins (Minho, Duero, Tagus, Guadiana, Guadalquivir and Ebro) covering the 1950-2008 period (Ramos et al., 2014). Results show that the association between ARs and extreme precipitation days in the western domains (Portugal

  13. Climate Change Scenarios in the Yucatan Peninsula to the year 2020 (United States)

    Orellana, R.; Espadas, C.; Conde, C.; Gay, C.


    A topic that has not been sufficiently analyzed is that the global warming is already affecting, and that it will have worst consequences in those regions with transitional climates, which have more sensibility to changes. This is the case of the Yucatan Peninsula which is semi-arid in their northern portion, and toward the south is subhumid, with a tendency to be more rainy toward the south. To have an estimation of what could happen in the future, the Intergovernmental Panel of Climatic Change (IPCC) has promoted the use of General Circulation Models (GCM), as well as the construction of possible emission scenarios that integrate different global and regional socioeconomic and demographic conditions, which project then a possible increase of emissions of greenhouse gases. These conditions are recognized as the decisive forces that will determine the variations of temperature and of precipitation. These projections are useful for the analysis of climatic change, and in particular for the assessments of the possible impacts and of the initiatives of adaptation and of mitigation that should be implemented in every country or region. In Mexico, most of those evaluations of climate change have been carried out generally at country level. For that reason, it is necessary to direct the research at regional level. In this work, we evaluated the potential climatic changes on the Yucatan Peninsula, considering the different changes of temperature and precipitation as a consequence for different emission scenarios and for the horizon 2020. To project the environmental responses of the region, we used as a base scenario the available temperature and precipitation information of the period 1961-1990, registered in 85 meteorological stations of the peninsula. With these data, we generated climate change scenarios using the outputs of four General Circulation Models: HADLEY, ECHAM, GFDL and CGCM, and the emission scenarios A1FI, A2, B1 and B2. The outputs of these models were

  14. Active faults in the deformation zone off Noto Peninsula, Japan, revealed by high- resolution seismic profiles (United States)

    Inoue, T.; Okamura, Y.; Murakami, F.; Kimura, H.; Ikehara, K.


    Recently, a lot of earthquakes occur in Japan. The deformation zone which many faults and folds have concentrated exists on the Japan Sea side of Japan. The 2007 Noto Hanto Earthquake (MJMA 6.9) and 2007 Chuetsu-oki Earthquake (MJMA 6.8) were caused by activity of parts of faults in this deformation zone. The Noto Hanto Earthquake occurred on 25 March, 2007 under the northwestern coast of Noto Peninsula, Ishikawa Prefecture, Japan. This earthquake is located in Quaternary deformation zone that is continued from northern margin of Noto Peninsula to southeast direction (Okamura, 2007a). National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST) carried out high-resolution seismic survey using Boomer and 12 channels short streamer cable in the northern part off Noto Peninsula, in order to clarify distribution and activities of active faults in the deformation zone. A twelve channels short streamer cable with 2.5 meter channel spacing developed by AIST and private corporation is designed to get high resolution seismic profiles in shallow sea area. The multi-channel system is possible to equip on a small fishing boat, because the data acquisition system is based on PC and the length of the cable is short and easy to handle. Moreover, because the channel spacing is short, this cable is very effective for a high- resolution seismic profiling survey in the shallow sea, and seismic data obtained by multi-channel cable can be improved by velocity analysis and CDP stack. In the northern part off Noto Peninsula, seismic profiles depicting geologic structure up to 100 meters deep under sea floor were obtained. The most remarkable reflection surface recognized in the seismic profiles is erosion surface at the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). In the western part, sediments about 30 meters (40 msec) thick cover the erosional surface that is distributed under the shelf shallower than 100m in depth and the sediments thin toward offshore and east. Flexures like deformation in

  15. Taxonomic review of the genus Chamaemelum Miller (Asteraceae in the Iberian peninsula and the Balearic lslands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedí i González, Carles


    Full Text Available A taxonomic review of the genus Chamaemelum Miller (Asteraceae in the Iberian peninsula and the Balearic Islands is carried out. Two changes in nomenclature are proposed: Chamaemelum nobile ( L. All. forma discoideum (Willk. comb. & stat. nov. and C. fuscatum (Brot. Vasc. forma minor (Hoffmanns. & Link comb. & stat. nov. For each taxon the correct name as well as the corresponding synonyms are given. A dichotomic key of the recognized taxa and a list of the herharium sheets studied are provided.

    Se realiza una revisión taxonómica del género Chamaemelum Miller (Asteraceae en la Península Ibérica e Islas Baleares. Se proponen dos cambios nomenclaturles: Chamaemelum nobile (L. All. forma discoideum (Willk. comb. & stat. nov. y C. fuscatum (Brot. Vasc. forma minor (Hoffmanns. & Link comb. & stat. nov. Para cada taxon se da el nombre correcto, así como las correspondientes sinonimias. Se adjunta una clave dicotómica de los táxones reconocidos y una relación de los testimonios de herbario estudiados.

  16. Contaminants in the coastal karst aquifer system along the Caribbean coast of the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metcalfe, Chris D., E-mail: [Worsfold Water Quality Centre, Trent University, Peterborough, ON, K9J 7B8 (Canada); Beddows, Patricia A. [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL (United States); Bouchot, Gerardo Gold [Departemento de Recursos del Mar, CINVESTAV Unidad Merida, Yucatan (Mexico); Metcalfe, Tracy L.; Li Hongxia [Worsfold Water Quality Centre, Trent University, Peterborough, ON, K9J 7B8 (Canada); Van Lavieren, Hanneke [UN University Institute for Water, Environment and Health (UNU-INWEH), Hamilton, ON (Canada)


    Intensive land development as a result of the rapidly growing tourism industry in the 'Riviera Maya' region of the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico may result in contamination of groundwater resources that eventually discharge into Caribbean coastal ecosystems. We deployed two types of passive sampling devices into groundwater flowing through cave systems below two communities to evaluate concentrations of contaminants and to indicate the possible sources. Pharmaceuticals and personal care products accumulated in the samplers could only have originated from domestic sewage. PAHs indicated contamination by runoff from highways and other impermeable surfaces and chlorophenoxy herbicides accumulated in samplers deployed near a golf course indicated that pesticide applications to turf are a source of contamination. Prevention and mitigation measures are needed to ensure that expanding development does not impact the marine environment and human health, thus damaging the tourism-based economy of the region. - Research highlights: > Intensive land development as a result of the rapidly growing tourism industry in the 'Riviera Maya' region of the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico is contaminating groundwater resources that discharge into Caribbean coastal ecosystems. > Passive sampling devices deployed in groundwater flowing through cave systems below two communities in the Riviera Maya accumulated: pharmaceuticals and personal care products originating from domestic sewage. > PAHs originating from runoff from highways and other impermeable surfaces; chlorophenoxy herbicides originating from pesticide applications to lawns and turf. > Prevention and mitigation measures are needed to ensure that expanding development does not impact the marine environment and human health in the region. - Contaminants accumulated in passive samplers deployed in flooded cave systems in the Yucatan Peninsula in Mexico indicate contamination by domestic sewage, runoff and applications of

  17. Radionuclides in soils of Byers Peninsula, South Shetland Islands, Western Antarctica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navas, A. [Estacion Experimental de Aula Dei, CSIC, Apartado 202, Zaragoza (Spain)]. E-mail:; Soto, J. [Dpt. Ciencias Medicas y Quirurgicas, Universidad de Cantabria, Avda, Cardenal Herrera Oria s/n. 39011 Santander (Spain); Lopez-Martinez, J. [Dpt. Quimica Agricola, Geologia y Geoquimica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma, de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain)


    As a part of a broader study of the surface formations in maritime Antarctica, a preliminary survey on the content of radionuclides has been carried out in soils of Byers Peninsula, located in the western end of Livingston Island, South Shetland Islands. Data on natural and artificial radionuclides are very scarce in Antarctica and the studied soil samples can be representative of the maritime Antarctic environment. Byers Peninsula has an extensive presence of permafrost and an active layer, the studied soils being Criosols and Cryic Leptosols. A series of soil cores between 13 and 40 cm depth have been collected in different lithological and altitudinal contexts. In the southwestern sector of the peninsula, soils have been sampled in seven different sites along a transect on different geomorphological units from an upper marine platform (88 m above sea level) to a Holocene raised beach at an altitude of 24 m a.s.l. The parent materials are mainly Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous marine sandstones and conglomerates and Lower Cretaceous volcanoclastic materials. Individual samples have been obtained from the cores according to textural and colour criteria and analysed for {sup 238}U, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th, {sup 40}K and {sup 137}Cs by gamma spectrometry. Radionuclides show variations in the depth profile as well as in the different morphoedaphic environments studied. Variability in some radionuclides seems to be related to mineralogy derived from parent materials as well as with cryogenic and soil processes affecting the depth distribution of the granulometric fractions and the organic matter.

  18. Spatial distribution and development of soils in tropical karst areas from the Peninsula of Yucatan, Mexico (United States)

    Bautista, Francisco; Palacio-Aponte, Gerardo; Quintana, Patricia; Zinck, Joseph Alfred


    Better understanding of soil formation requires knowing the spatial distribution of the soils that allows constructing models of soil sequences in multiple directions along various types of gradients. This approach was applied to comprehend the soil formation from the soil distribution in the tropical karst areas of the Peninsula of Yucatan, Mexico. For soil mapping, a two-step methodology was followed. First, a geomorphic analysis was performed; subsequently, 382 soil profiles were reclassified and integrated into a geopedologic map. Additional soil survey was carried out in areas where soil information was lacking (123 soil profiles). Satellite images were used to identify flooded areas. After conducting numerous field verifications and analyses, landforms and soils were combined to make a soilscape map. Based on field observations and the soilscape map, soil development was analyzed on soil sequences. Four geomorphic environments were identified, karstic plains and hills with Leptosols, Cambisols, Luvisols, and Vertisols; coastal plains with Arenosols, Regosols, Solonchacks, and Histosols; fluvio-paludal plains with Gleysols, Histosols, Leptosols and Solonchacks; and tectono-karstic plains and hills with Leptosols, Cambisols, Luvisols, and Vertisols. Relevant soil forming factors in the Peninsula of Yucatan include time of emersion of the limestone platforms, climate, rock type, and macro- and micro-relief. Other factors such as groundwater level, fractures, also have an influence on soil formation. Karst development can be considered as a complex soil and relief forming factor. Terra Rossa soils as Leptosols, Cambisols, Luvisols, Nitisols and Vertisols in the Peninsula of Yucatan may be polygenic. In some cases, the theory of residual origin fits better the data than the theory of allochthonous origin; in other cases, it is the other way around.

  19. Increasing sea surface temperature and range shifts of intertidal gastropods along the Iberian Peninsula (United States)

    Rubal, Marcos; Veiga, Puri; Cacabelos, Eva; Moreira, Juan; Sousa-Pinto, Isabel


    There are well-documented changes in abundance and geographical range of intertidal invertebrates related to climate change at north Europe. However, the effect of sea surface warming on intertidal invertebrates has been poorly studied at lower latitudes. Here we analyze potential changes in the abundance patterns and distribution range of rocky intertidal gastropods related to climate change along the Iberian Peninsula. To achieve this aim, the spatial distribution and range of sub-tropical, warm- and cold-water species of intertidal gastropods was explored by a fully hierarchical sampling design considering four different spatial scales, i.e. from region (100 s of km apart) to quadrats (ms apart). Variability on their patterns of abundance was explored by analysis of variance, changes on their distribution ranges were detected by comparing with previous records and their relationship with sea water temperature was explored by rank correlation analyses. Mean values of sea surface temperature along the Iberian coast, between 1949 and 2010, were obtained from in situ data compiled for three different grid squares: south Portugal, north Portugal, and Galicia. Lusitanian species did not show significant correlation with sea water temperature or changes on their distributional range or abundance, along the temperature gradient considered. The sub-tropical species Siphonaria pectinata has, however, increased its distribution range while boreal cold-water species showed the opposite pattern. The latter was more evident for Littorina littorea that was almost absent from the studied rocky shores of the Iberian Peninsula. Sub-tropical and boreal species showed significant but opposite correlation with sea water temperature. We hypothesized that the energetic cost of frequent exposures to sub-lethal temperatures might be responsible for these shifts. Therefore, intertidal gastropods at the Atlantic Iberian Peninsula coast are responding to the effect of global warming as it

  20. Diversity and community assembly patterns of epigean vs. troglobiont spiders in the Iberian Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cardoso Pedro


    Full Text Available Cave-obligate organisms usually have smaller ranges and their assemblages have higher beta diversity than their epigean counterparts. Phylogenetic and functional diversity is usually low in cave communities, leading to taxonomic and functional disharmony, with entire groups missing from the subterranean realm. The objective of this work is to compare range, beta diversity, phylogenetic and functional diversity, taxonomic and functional disharmony of epigean versus troglobiont spiders in the Iberian Peninsula. The median extent of occurrence was found to be 33 times higher for epigean than for cave species. Beta diversity was significantly higher for troglobiont assemblages. Cave assemblages present lower phylogenetic and functional diversities than expected by chance. Taxonomic disharmony was noticeable, with many speciose families, namely Gnaphosidae, Salticidae and Lycosidae, absent in caves. Functional disharmony was equally high, with ambush hunters and sensing web weavers being absent in caves. The small range and high beta diversity of troglobiont spiders in the Iberian Peninsula is typical of many cave-obligate organisms, caused by the fragmentation and isolation of cave systems and the low vagility and high habitat specialization of species. Caves were colonized mainly by pre-adapted lineages, with high proportions of eutroglophile species. Some families no longer occur in surface habitats, possibly since the last glaciations, and currently are restricted to caves in the region. Few hunting strategies and web types are efficient in caves and these dominate among the troglobiont species. As troglobiont communities are of low alpha diversity, with low functional redundancy, have narrow ranges, present high levels of population fragmentation and are taxonomically unique, they should present higher proportions of imperilled species than epigean spiders in the Iberian Peninsula. Some species are probably endangered and require urgent

  1. Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB) Bioaccumulation in Fish: A Look at Michigan's Upper Peninsula (United States)

    Sokol, E. C.; Urban, N. R.; Perlinger, J. A.; Khan, T.; Friedman, C. L.


    Fish consumption is an important economic, social and cultural component of Michigan's UpperPeninsula, where safe fish consumption is threatened due to polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)contamination. Despite its predominantly rural nature, the Upper Peninsula has a history of industrialPCB use. PCB congener concentrations in fish vary 50-fold in Upper Peninsula lakes. Several factors maycontribute to this high variability including local point sources, unique watershed and lakecharacteristics, and food web structure. It was hypothesized that the variability in congener distributionscould be used to identify factors controlling concentrations in fish, and then to use those factors topredict PCB contamination in fish from lakes that had not been monitored. Watershed and lakecharacteristics were acquired from several databases for 16 lakes sampled in the State's fishcontaminant survey. Species congener distributions were compared using Principal Component Analysis(PCA) to distinguish between lakes with local vs. regional, atmospheric sources; six lakes were predictedto have local sources and half of those have confirmed local PCB use. For lakes without local PCBsources, PCA indicated that lake size was the primary factor influencing PCB concentrations. The EPA'sbioaccumulation model, BASS, was used to predict PCB contamination in lakes without local sources as afunction of food web characteristics. The model was used to evaluate the hypothesis that deep,oligotrophic lakes have longer food webs and higher PCB concentrations in top predator fish. Based onthese findings, we will develop a mechanistic watershed-lake model to predict PCB concentrations infish as a function of atmospheric PCB concentrations, lake size, and trophic state. Future atmosphericconcentrations, predicted by modeling potential primary and secondary emission scenarios, will be usedto predict the time horizon for safe fish consumption.

  2. Past and Future Climate Change Impacts on Mountain Forests on the Olympic Peninsula (Washington, USA) (United States)

    Schwörer, C.; Fisher, D. M.; Gavin, D. G.; Temperli, C.; Bartlein, P. J.


    Mountain forest composition and distribution is strongly affected by temperature and is expected to shift to higher elevations with climate change. However, warmer winters will also lead to an upward shift of the snowline and a decrease in snowpack at lower and intermediate elevations. In the mountain ranges of Western North America, snowpack plays an important role in providing additional moisture during the dry summer months. It is therefore unclear if the projected climate change will lead to a rise of subalpine forest due to a longer growing season or a contraction due to drought stress. Since forest succession processes take place over decades and centuries we use LandClim, a dynamic vegetation model, to assess the impact of climate change on mountain forests on the Olympic Peninsula (Washington, USA). As a reality check we first simulate vegetation dynamics since the last Ice Age and compare model output with paleobotanical data from five natural archives that span the topographic and climatic gradients on the Peninsula. LandClim produces realistic present-day species compositions with respect to elevation and precipitation gradients. Moreover, the simulations of forest dynamics for the last 16,000 years generally agree with the pollen and macrofossil data. We then simulated mountain forests under future climate projections. As a result, our model indicates drastic changes in species composition with a replacement of mountain hemlock (Tsuga mertensiana) by more drought-resistant species such as subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa). On the drier, eastern side of the Peninsula, the model even suggests a lowering of timberline due to insufficient moisture availability in shallow alpine soils. Our results have important implications for ecosystem managers and stress the urgency of climate change mitigation.

  3. Assessments of Maize Yield Potential in the Korean Peninsula Using Multiple Crop Models (United States)

    Kim, S. H.; Myoung, B.; Lim, C. H.; Lee, S. G.; Lee, W. K.; Kafatos, M.


    The Korean Peninsular has unique agricultural environments due to the differences in the political and socio-economical systems between the Republic of Korea (SK, hereafter) and the Democratic Peoples' Republic of Korea (NK, hereafter). NK has been suffering from the lack of food supplies caused by natural disasters, land degradation and failed political system. The neighboring developed country SK has a better agricultural system but very low food self-sufficiency rate (around 1% of maize). Maize is an important crop in both countries since it is staple food for NK and SK is No. 2 maize importing country in the world after Japan. Therefore evaluating maize yield potential (Yp) in the two distinct regions is essential to assess food security under climate change and variability. In this study, we have utilized multiple process-based crop models capable of regional-scale assessments to evaluate maize Yp over the Korean Peninsula - the GIS version of EPIC model (GEPIC) and APSIM model that can be expanded to regional scales (APSIM regions). First we evaluated model performance and skill for 20 years from 1991 to 2010 using reanalysis data (Local Data Assimilation and Prediction System (LDAPS); 1.5km resolution) and observed data. Each model's performances were compared over different regions within the Korean Peninsula of different regional climate characteristics. To quantify the major influence of individual climate variables, we also conducted a sensitivity test using 20 years of climatology. Lastly, a multi-model ensemble analysis was performed to reduce crop model uncertainties. The results will provide valuable information for estimating the climate change or variability impacts on Yp over the Korean Peninsula.

  4. Abandoned Beach Ridges in the Mejillones Peninsula, Northern Chile: Implications for Paleoseismology of Great Subduction Earthquakes. (United States)

    del Río, I. A.; Gonzalez, G.; Antinao, J. L.; McDonald, E.; González-Carrasco, J. F.; Shrivastava, M. N.


    The Mejillones Peninsula, in northern Chile, shows a well-preserved set of beach ridges parallel to the present coast. These beach ridges can be observed up to 20 km inland and at 200 m above sea level. Previous dating performed in fossils extracted from the oldest beach ridges yielded ages of 400 ka (Victor et al., 2011). However, numerical ages for younger beach ridges have not been determined, therefore a complete time record is not available. InSar data show that the Mejillones Peninsula was uplifted several centimeters during the last two subduction earthquakes (Antofagasta Mw 8.1, 1995 earthquake and the Mw 7.7, 2007 Tocopilla earthquake) occurred in the area (Loveless et al., 2010). A permanent GPS station deployed by CALTECH ( in this peninsula has measured a coseismic uplift during the 2007 Tocopilla earthquake. This data suggest that the beach ridges were abandoned as a consequence of coseismic uplift during great subduction earthquakes and therefore they represent the long-term record of past earthquakes. In order to prove this hypothesis we excavated five trenches across the beach ridges. Our idea is to look for stratigraphic evidence of the abandonment mechanism and to collect samples for dating the beach ridges using the method of optically stimulated luminescence (OSL). The ages will be used to estimate long-term uplift rate and temporal variation of this rate. By confronting short-term uplift rate provided by GPS data with long-term rate we hope to know what it is the amount of the coseismic slip that remain in the geological record.

  5. Study of thrust and nappe tectonics in the eastern Jiaodong Peninsula, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG HongYuan; HOU QuanLin; CAO DaiYong


    Thrust and nappe tectonics have affected the eastern Jiaodong Peninsula, the easternmost terminal of the Sulu Ultra-high Pressure Metamorphic Belt. Four nappes have been mapped, named respectively the Shidao, Rongcheng, Mishan and Mouping nappes. The methods used included multi-scale structural analysis and structural chronology analysis. These nappes define four deep level slip-thrust shear zones that were mainly active in the Mesozoic. The amount of ductile deformation decreases from the Shidao to Rongcheng to Mouping to Mishan shear zones, and shows an inverse relationship with temperature. 40Ar/39Ar chronological analysis and the chronological results of former workers reveal four movement steps defined by the development of thrusts and nappes in the late Triassic (210-180 Ma), extensional movement from the Jurassic to early Cretaceous (180-130 Ma), slip-thrust movement in the Early Cretaceous (130-120 Ma), and extensional movement since the Late Cretaceous (120 Ma). The order of boundary shear zone motion in the period of slip-thrust movement during the Early Cretaceous (130-120 Ma) was along the Shidao, Rongcheng, Mouping and finally the Mishan shear zone. This resulted in clockwise rotation of the nappes relative to block west to the Tan-Lu Faults. Because of the similar evolutionary history of the Tan-Lu Faults and the thrust and nappe structure in the eastern Jiaodong Peninsula, slip dislocation along the Tan-Lu Faults might have been absorbed by thrust and nappe tectonics in the Jiaodong area in the Mesozoic era, resulting in much less dislocation on the Tan-Lu faults in North Eastern China than that in south along the Jiaodong Peninsula.

  6. Study of thrust and nappe tectonics in the eastern Jiaodong Peninsula, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Thrust and nappe tectonics have affected the eastern Jiaodong Peninsula, the easternmost terminal of the Sulu Ultra-high Pressure Metamorphic Belt. Four nappes have been mapped, named respectively the Shidao, Rongcheng, Mishan and Mouping nappes. The methods used included multi-scale struc- tural analysis and structural chronology analysis. These nappes define four deep level slip-thrust shear zones that were mainly active in the Mesozoic. The amount of ductile deformation decreases from the Shidao to Rongcheng to Mouping to Mishan shear zones, and shows an inverse relationship with temperature. 40Ar/39Ar chronological analysis and the chronological results of former workers reveal four movement steps defined by the development of thrusts and nappes in the late Triassic (210-180 Ma), extensional movement from the Jurassic to early Cretaceous (180-130 Ma), slip-thrust movement in the Early Cretaceous (130-120 Ma), and extensional movement since the Late Cretaceous (120 Ma). The order of boundary shear zone motion in the period of slip-thrust movement during the Early Cre- taceous (130-120 Ma) was along the Shidao, Rongcheng, Mouping and finally the Mishan shear zone. This resulted in clockwise rotation of the nappes relative to block west to the Tan-Lu Faults. Because of the similar evolutionary history of the Tan-Lu Faults and the thrust and nappe structure in the eastern Jiaodong Peninsula, slip dislocation along the Tan-Lu Faults might have been absorbed by thrust and nappe tectonics in the Jiaodong area in the Mesozoic era, resulting in much less dislocation on the Tan-Lu faults in North Eastern China than that in south along the Jiaodong Peninsula.

  7. Identification and characterisation of regional ozone episodes in the southwest of the Iberian Peninsula (United States)

    Domínguez-López, D.; Vaca, F.; Hernández-Ceballos, M. A.; Bolívar, J. P.


    Tropospheric ozone is considered one of the most significant air pollutants due to its negative effects on human health, agricultural crops, ecosystems and climate. The features of the southwest of the Iberian Peninsula (high temperatures and high solar radiation, the presence of the Guadalquivir basin and sources of precursors) favour the occurrence of episodes of high concentrations that cause exceedances of legal thresholds with relative frequency. Despite this, no study examining regional ozone episodes has been carried out in this region until now. In the present work a surface hourly ozone dataset (2003-2006) measured at 11 representative stations located in the southwest of the Iberian Peninsula (western Andalusia) was analysed in order to identify and characterise, for the first time, the regional ozone episodes that occur in this area. Using a statistical criterion, eight regional episodes were identified and analysed. The analysis of synoptic weather patterns revealed that these episodes occur in conjunction with two different synoptic conditions (high surface pressure either close to the British Isles or over the Atlantic Ocean). Both conditions generate weak isobaric surface pressure over the Iberian Peninsula, favouring the establishment of easterly winds at 500 m and the development of winds with two main prevailing directions (southwest-northwest, following the Guadalquivir basin) in the study area. During episodic days ozone follows a similar daily cycle to that observed on non-episode summer days, although the levels reached during the former are higher. In both cases, a direct relationship between the daily ozone cycle and the local wind regimen was not observed. This therefore seems to indicate that the daily cycle followed by ozone is mainly regulated by the precursor emissions produced in the environment, by the temperature changes taking place during the day and by the influence of the lower troposphere during anticyclonic weather conditions.

  8. Variation of Surface Ozone Recorded at the Eastern Coastal Region of the Malaysian Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aida S. Ismail


    Full Text Available Problem statement: Variations of ozone (O3 concentrations in the Eastern Coastal Region of the Malaysia peninsula were investigated using data obtained from the Malaysian Department of the Environment. The aim of this study was to determine the monthly and seasonal variations of ozone concentrations at all monitoring sites. This study deals with the air quality data recorded at four air quality monitoring stations in the East Coast of the Malaysian peninsula over a ten year period (1997- 2006. Approach: We focused on the usage of S-Plus and SPSS to analyze this data. The S-Plus programming was used to impute missing data and SPSS was used to obtain the variations of ozone and also to clarify the relationship between stations. Results: Over the entire 10 year period (1997- 2006, the trend in annual baseline ozone generally increased each year for all the four monitoring sites. There was also a seasonal variability in the measured ozone levels with high concentrations during the southwest monsoon and the northeast monsoon season, producing a significant increase in the amplitude of the seasonal cycle. The results also shown that the highest ozone concentrations were recorded at the Bukit Kuang air monitoring station (S1, with a daily mean value of 19 ppb followed by the Indera Mahkota air monitoring station (S2. The concentration of ozone recorded at Kota Bharu (S3 and Kuala Terengganu (S4, two stations located in the city centre, was found to be lower than the values recorded at Bukit Kuang and Indera Mahkota. The correlation between O3 and NO is high at Kuala Terengganu (S4 (ñ = -0.579, whilst the relationship between O3 and NO2 are high (ñ = -0.397 at Indera Mahkota (S2. Conclusion: The concentration of ozone in the East Coast of Malaysian peninsula depends on the concentration of NOx and seasonal meteorological factors.

  9. Prevalence and diversity of Hepatozoon canis in naturally infected dogs in Japanese islands and peninsulas. (United States)

    El-Dakhly, Khaled Mohamed; Goto, Minami; Noishiki, Kaori; El-Nahass, El-Shaymaa; Hirata, Akihiro; Sakai, Hiroki; Takashima, Yasuhiro; El-Morsey, Ahmed; Yanai, Tokuma


    Canine hepatozoonosis is a worldwide protozoal disease caused by Hepatozoon canis and Hepatozoon americanum and is transmitted by ixodid ticks, Rhipicephalus and Amblyomma spp., respectively. H. canis infection is widespread in Africa, Europe, South America, and Asia, including Japan. The objective of this study was to study the distribution pattern and diversity of H. canis in naturally infected dogs in nine Japanese islands and peninsulas. Therefore, 196 hunting dogs were randomly sampled during the period from March to September 2011 and the ages and sexes were identified. Direct microscopy using Giemsa-stained blood smears revealed H. canis gametocytes in the peripheral blood of 45 (23.6%) dogs. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed on EDTA-anticoagulated blood, initially with the common primer set (B18S-F and B18S-R) amplifying the 1,665-bp portion of the 18S rRNA gene, and then with the specific primer set (HepF and HepR) amplifying about 660 bp fragments of the same gene. Based on PCR, 84 (42.9%) dogs were positive using the common primer and 81 (41.3%) were positive using the specific primer. The current investigation indicated that all screened areas, except for Sado Island and Atsumi Peninsula, were infected. Yaku Island had the highest infection rate (84.6% in males and 100.0% in females), while Ishigaki Island showed the lowest infection rates (8.3% in males and 17.7% in females). Both sexes were infected with no significant difference. However, diversity of infection among the surveyed islands and peninsulas was significantly different (P < 0.05). Although H. canis has previously been reported in dogs in Japan, the higher infection rate described in the current study and the diversity of infection in a wide range of islands strongly encourage prospective studies dealing with the prevention and treatment of the infection in dogs, as well as control of ticks.

  10. Preliminary study of the offshore wind and temperature profiles at the North of the Yucatan Peninsula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soler-Bientz, Rolando, E-mail: [CREST, Electronic and Electrical Engineering, Loughborough University (United Kingdom); Energy Laboratory, Faculty of Engineering, Autonomous University of Yucatan (Mexico); Watson, Simon [CREST, Electronic and Electrical Engineering, Loughborough University (United Kingdom); Infield, David [Institute of Energy and Environment, University of Strathclyde (United Kingdom); Ricalde-Cab, Lifter [Energy Laboratory, Faculty of Engineering, Autonomous University of Yucatan (Mexico)


    Highlights: {yields} This is the first study that reports the properties of the vertical wind resources for the offshore conditions of the North coast of the Yucatan Peninsula. {yields} A significant and detailed analysis of the thermal patterns has revealed a complex structure of the atmospheric boundary layer close to the shore. {yields} The structure of the diurnal wind patterns was assessed to produce an important reference for the wind resource availability in the study region. {yields} It was identified that the sea breeze blows in directions almost parallel to the shoreline of the North of the Yucatan Peninsula during the majority of the 24 h cycle. {yields} The analysis of the offshore data revealed a persistent non-uniform surface boundary layer developed as result of the advection of a warn air over a cold sea. - Abstract: The stability conditions in the atmospheric boundary layer, the intensity of the wind speeds and consequently the energy potential available in offshore conditions are highly influenced by the distance from the coastline and the differences between the air and sea temperatures. This paper presents a preliminary research undertook to study the offshore wind and temperature vertical profiles at the North-West of the Yucatan Peninsula coast. Ten minute averages were recorded over approximately 2 years from sensors installed at two different heights on a communication tower located at 6.65 km from the coastline. The results have shown that the offshore wind is thermally driven by differential heating of land and sea producing breeze patterns which veer to blow parallel to the coast under the action of the Coriolis force. To investigate further, a dataset of hourly sea surface temperatures derived from GEOS Satellite thermal maps was combined with the onsite measured data to study its effect on the vertical temperature profile. The results suggested largely unstable conditions and the potentially development of a shallow Stable Internal

  11. Active infection and morphometric study of Trypanosoma evansi among horses in Peninsula Malaysia. (United States)

    Elshafie, E I; Sani, R A; Hassan, L; Sharma, R; Bashir, A; Abubakar, I A


    Apart from occasional reports of clinical disease affecting horses, there is no information about Trypanosoma evansi in horses in Peninsula Malaysia. Thus, a cross-sectional study was conducted in eight states in Peninsula Malaysia to determine the active presence of T. evansi in horses. A total of 527 blood samples were obtained and examined by haematocrit centrifugation technique (HCT), Giemsa-stained thin blood smear (GSS), morphometric measurements, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and cloning of PCR products. The results showed an overall parasitological prevalence of 0.57% (3/527, CI: 1.6-0.19%) with both HCT and GSS. Morphometric study revealed the mean total length of the trypanosomes including the free flagellum was 27.94 ± 2.63 μm. PCR successfully amplified a trypanosome specific 257 bp in 1.14% of samples (6/527, CI: 2.4-0.52%) and was confirmed by nucleotide sequences. The mean packed cell volume (PCV) for the positive cases detected by HCT was lower (23% ± 7.00) compared to the positive cases detected by PCR alone in the state of Terengganu (35% ± 4.73). In conclusion, this study showed T. evansi infection occurred in low frequency in horses in Peninsula Malaysia, and anaemia coincided with parasitaemic animals. PCR is considered as a sensitive diagnostic tool when parasitaemia is undetectable. The slight lengthier mean of parasite and anaemia may indicate a virulent strain of T. evansi circulating throughout the country. Thus, it's highly recommended to shed light on host-parasite relationship for better epidemiological understanding.

  12. First finding of a mammoth female ( Mammuthus primigenius Blum.) on the Taimyr Peninsula (United States)

    Kirillova, I. V.; Shidlovskiy, F. K.; Khasanov, B. F.


    The first finding of a mammoth female skeleton from the Kastykhtakh River valley, Taimyr Peninsula, is described. The skeleton consists of 104 elements including the skull and lower jaw; small distal limb bones, tail vertebrae, and one tusk are absent. There are teeth of the two last changes in the jaws. The skeleton elements have individual features: sigmoid contact of the low second and third molars, crack in the neural arch of the atlas, and false joint and calluses on places of the rib fractures. The calibrated radiocarbon dating of the tubular bone is 32 070-30 565 yr (Kargin interglacial time).

  13. Precipitation over the Arabian Peninsula: Global Forcing and Tele-connections (United States)

    Kumar, NIranjan; Abouelmagd, Abdou A.; McCabe, Matthew F.; Molini, Annalisa


    We investigate the spatio-temporal variability of precipitation over the Arabian Peninsula, its relationships with large-scale climate indices and atmospheric circulation patterns, and its possible connection with the dynamics of sea surface temperatures in the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans, and in the Mediterranean. Whether El Niño-Southern Oscillation has been shown to be one of the primary drivers of precipitation inter-annual variability over this region, the role of North Atlantic Oscillation in shaping the extremely intermittent hydro-climatology of the Arabian Peninsula has been scarcely explored in the literature. Using a composite analysis of Global Precipitation Climatology Centre (GPCC) precipitation data for winter months (DJFM), we observed that during El Niño years when the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) persist in a negative phase, the Arabian Peninsula receives more rainfall while precipitation drastically decreases during La Niña years and when NAO is in its positive phase. Also, El Niño winters are more conducive to a negative NAO phase. Basing on NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis, we also found a distinct shift in phase of Rossby wave patterns during El Niño and La Niña years, most likely mediated by the winter sub-tropical stream. Rossby waves are known to have an equivalent barotropic structure that projects to the lower troposphere. Our analysis highlighted how the jet stream position is shifted towards low latitudes during El Niño years. Since the subtropical jet stream is also affecting precipitation over the Arabian Peninsula - being the core of the subtropical jet stronger during the winter over this region - we conjecture that the combined effect of the shift in the position of the jet stream and the change of phase of Rossby waves (with associated low level vorticity anomalies) during El Niño years could result in an increase of onshore moisture advection from neighboring oceans.This could be the cause of increased precipitation in particular

  14. Preliminary evidence for 17 coastal terraces on Fildes Peninsula, King George Island, Antarctica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHU Zhuding; YIN Xuebin; SUN Liguang; WANG Yuhong


    This study confirms the presence of 17 coastal terraces on Fildes Peninsula, Antarctica based on field observations and grain size analysis. The terraces formed by isostatic uplift during climate warming and glacier melting, and each level corresponds to a relatively stable period of climate. The grain size characteristics indicate an overlapping sedimentary origin for the sediments on the coastal terraces. The consistency of regional sea level rise, climate change, and glacial area suggest the presence of similar coastal terraces on King George Island since 18.0 ka.

  15. Introduction: The Arab Spring in the Arabian Peninsula and its aftermath


    Bonnefoy, Laurent; Louër, Laurence


    In the Arabian Peninsula, mobilizations in 2011 against authoritarian rulers took various shapes and followed different rationales. For that matter, Yemen, Bahrain and Oman, where mass-mobilizations took place, are very different from Qatar and the United Arab Emirates where only a small segment of intellectuals demanded reforms. Contestation also met with varying levels of success. As such, Yemen, where President ‘Alī ‘Abdallāh Ṣāliḥ was forced to resign, is again different from Bahrain wher...

  16. Assessing the Snow Advance Index as potential predictor of winter streamflow of the Iberian Peninsula Rivers (United States)

    Hidalgo-Muñoz, José Manuel; García-Valdecasas-Ojeda, Matilde; Raquel Gámiz-Fortis, Sonia; Castro-Díez, Yolanda; Jesús Esteban-Parra, María


    This study examines the ability of the Eurasian snow cover increase during the previous October as potential predictor of winter streamflow in the Iberian Peninsula Rivers. The streamflow data base used has been provided by the Center for Studies and Experimentation of Public Works, CEDEX. Series from gauging stations and reservoirs with less than 10% of missing data (filled by regression with well correlated neighboring stations) have been considered. The homogeneity of these series has been evaluated through the Pettit test and degree of human alteration by the Common Area Index. The application of these criteria led to the selection of 382 streamflow time series homogeneously distributed over the Iberian Peninsula, covering the period 1975-2008. For this streamflow data, winter seasonal values were obtained by averaging the monthly values from January to March. The recently proposed Snow Advance Index (SAI) was employed to monitor the snow cover increase during previous October. The stability of the correlations was the criterion followed to establish if SAI could be considered as potential predictor of winter streamflow at each gauging station. Winter streamflow is predicted using a linear regression model. A leave-one-out cross validation approach was adopted to create calibration and validations subsets. The correlation coefficient (RHO), Root Mean Square Error Skill Score (RMSESS) and the Gerrity Skill Score (GSS) were used to evaluate the forecasting skill. From the 382 stations evaluated, significant and stable correlations with SAI were found in 238 stations, covering most of the IP (except for the Cantabrian and Mediterranean slopes). Some forecasting skill was found in 223 of them, being this skill moderate (RHO>0.44, RMSESS>10%, GSS>0.2) in 141 of them, and particularly good (RHO>0.5, RMSESS>20%, GSS>0.4) in 23. This study shows that the SAI of previous October is a reliable predictor of following winter streamflow for the Iberian Peninsula Rivers


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    This paper makes an analysis and study on altogether 8 palyniferous samples from the volcano-sedimentary rock series in the Half Three Point area of the Fildes Peninsula, King George Island, Antarctica, the rock series being grey tuffaceous siltstone in lithological characters, about 5m in thickness. Only after making a number of analyses, could we find the relatively abundant sporopollen fossils from 4 samples (Nos. GWP 4—7). But the fossils are poorly preserved, and most of them can hardly be identifi...

  18. Influence of climatic changes on pollution levels in the Balkan Peninsula

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zlatev, Z.; Georgiev, K.; Dimov, I.


    The aim of the paper is to study the influence of future climatic changes on some high pollution levels that can cause damages on plants, animals and human beings. The particular area of interest is the Balkan Peninsula. Four important quantities have been selected: (a) annual concentrations, (b...... of these scenarios, are carefully studied. The major conclusion is that the increase of the temperature, alone or in combination with some other factors, leads to rather considerable increases of some pollution levels, which might become dangerous for the environment. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  19. Distributions of surface sediments surrounding the Antarctic Peninsula and its environmental significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Chunjuan; CHEN Zhihua; LI Chunshun; DU Dewen; YAN Shijuan; ZHU Zhiwei


    We analyzed grain size composition to provide information on the types and distributions as well as depositional varieties of marine surface sediments from the area surrounding the Antarctic Peninsula. The samples retrieved from the study area contain gravel, sand, silt and clay. As suggested by bathymetry and morphology, the study area is characterized by neritic, hemipelagic and pelagic deposits. The glacial-marine sediments can be divided into two types, residual paratill and compound paratill, which are primarily transported by glaciers and as ice-rafted debris. Ocean current effects on deposition are more obvious, and the deposit types are distributed consistently with terrain variations.

  20. Confidence building in Northeast Asia: Possible first steps for cooperation on the Korean peninsula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vannoni, M.; Biringer, K.


    International relations are often devoted to establishing agreements that define, control, or regulate issues of potential conflict or dispute. These agreements span a full range of national and international issues from human rights to resource allocations and national security. The scope of these agreements can vary from bilateral arrangements to global treaties or control regimes. In many cases, elements of the agreement are monitored to verify compliance or increase confidence among parties that the terms of the agreement are being met. This article outlines options for cooperation on the Korean peninsula that could build confidence and reduce tension. The role of monitoring technology in helping to implement such agreements is also described.

  1. Investigations on carotenoids in lichens. XII. Some species from the Pyrenean Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazyli Czeczuga


    Full Text Available By means of column and thin-layer chromatography, the authors investigated the presence of various carotenoids in thalli of 12 species of lichens from the Pyrenean Peninsula. The following carotenoids were found: lycophyll, lycoxanthin, β-carotene, α-, β-cryptoxanthin, lutein, lutein epoxide, zeaxanthin, antheraxanthin, canthaxanthin, phoenicoxanthin, adonixanthin, α-doradexanthin, astaxanthin, diatoxanthin, neoxanthin, violaxanthin, mutatochrome, mutatoxanthin and rhodoxanthin. The total content of carotenoids ranged from 2.299 (Cetraria cucullata to 39.402 mg•g-1 dry weight (Pseudoevernia furfuraceae.

  2. An intersection model for estimating sea otter mortality along the Kenai Peninsula (United States)

    Bodkin, J.L.; Udevitz, M.S.; Loughlin, T.R.


    We developed an intersection model to integrate parameters estimated from three distinct data sets that resulted from the Exxon Valdez oil spill: (1) the distribution, amount, and movements of spilled oil; (2) the distribution and abundance of sea otters along the Kenai Peninsula; and (3) the estimates of site-specific sea otter mortality relative to oil exposure from otters captured for rehabilitation and from collected carcasses. In this chapter, we describe the data sets and provide examples of how they can be used in the model to generate acute loss estimates. We also examine the assumptions required for the model and provide suggestions for improving and applying the model.

  3. The pupal morphology of the Carabus (s. l. (Coleoptera, Carabidae in the southwestern Iberian peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cárdenas, A. M.


    Full Text Available The pupae of Carabus (s. l. of the south-west Iberian peninsula are described. The study was carried out with pupae of Macrothorax rugosus (Fabricius, 1792, Hadrocarabus dufouri (Dejean, 1831, H. lusitanicus (Fabricius, 1801 and Rhabdotocarabus melancholicus (Fabricius, 1798 reared in the laboratory from adults caught in the field. By determining and testing various morphological structures, all three genera were identified. These results indicate that the presence or absence of setae on the pronotum, the distribution of hairs on the abdominal tergi and the development of tergal expansions from urotergi are the most significant features for identification.

  4. Phytoecological indicators for biological recultivation of soils polluted with oil in the Absheron peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. Gurbanov


    Full Text Available Phytoecological indicators of polluted soils of Amirov Oil-and-Gas Production Department (Garadag district,Baku were studied. Phytocenological and biomorphological analysis of flora was done with the aim of further biological rehabilitation of Absheron peninsula. Oil products (black oil, boring waters, etc. pollution turns the plant cover into a dead mass. Decontamination of soil and rehabilitation of microbial community improve the soil’s fertility. Wild and cultured plant indicators may be used in biopurification of the soils polluted with oil products. Sowing of the fodder crops followed by the technical remediation forms the clean areas of higher productivity.


    Southworth, C. Scott; ,


    Landsat and Seasat satellite images and aerial photographs of eastern Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico, were analyzed to delineate geologic controls of ground water. Significant interpretation results include the delineation of linear topographic swales, interpreted as fractures, extending more than 50 km along strike from the previously known limit of the Holbox fracture system; the alignment of sink holes (cenotes) and inlets (caletas) on strike with existing faults and fracture systems; and the identification of tonal anomalies in Ingles Lagoon suggesting fresh-water discharge from a submarine spring.

  6. 77 FR 61046 - The Amendment of the Designation of Al-Qa'ida in the Arabian Peninsula, aka Al-Qa'ida of Jihad... (United States)


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE The Amendment of the Designation of Al-Qa'ida in the Arabian Peninsula, aka Al-Qa'ida of Jihad Organization in the Arabian Peninsula, aka Tanzim Qa'idat al-Jihad fi Jazirat al-Arab, aka Al- Qa'ida in Yemen, aka...

  7. 77 FR 61046 - The Review and Amendment of the Designation of Al-Qa'ida in the Arabian Peninsula, aka Al-Qa'ida... (United States)


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE The Review and Amendment of the Designation of Al-Qa'ida in the Arabian Peninsula, aka Al-Qa'ida of Jihad Organization in the Arabian Peninsula, aka Tanzim Qa'idat al-Jihad fi Jazirat al-Arab, aka Al- Qa'ida in...

  8. Study of Diurnal Cycle Variability of Planetary Boundary Layer Characteristics over the Red Sea and Arabian Peninsula

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Weigang


    This work is aimed at investigating diurnal cycle variability of the planetary boundary layer characteristics over the Arabian Peninsula and the Red Sea region. To fulfill this goal the downscaling simulations are performed using Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. We analyze planetary boundary layer height, latent and sensible heat fluxes, and surface air temperature. The model results are compared with observations in different areas, for different seasons, and for different model resolutions. The model results are analyzed in order to better quantify the diurnal cycle variability over the Arabian Peninsula and the Red Sea. The specific features of this region are investigated and discussed.

  9. Prediction of current species distribution of Cheilosia proxima group (Diptera: Syrphidae on the Balkan peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milić Dubravka M.


    Full Text Available Predicting species distribution in different climates is most often made by climate models (“climate envelope models” - CEM which are using the current geographical distribution of species and climate characteristics of the area. Hoverflies (Insecta: Diptera: Syrphidae can act as bioindicators and monitors of climate change and habitat quality. Cheilosia Meigen, 1822 is one of the largest hoverflies genera, with about 450 described species. The aim of this study was to model the current potential distribution of six species from Cheilosia proxima group on the Balkan Peninsula (Cheilosia aerea Dufour, 1848, C. balkana Vujić, 1994, C. gigantea Zetterstedt, 1838, C. pascuorum Becker, 1894, C. proxima Zetterstedt, 1843 and C. rufimana Becker, 1894 using maximum entropy modeling (Maxent. It is observed that parameters with highest influence on the analyzed species are Altitude and BIO 15 (Precipitation Seasonality for all species, except C. rufimana. Parameter that also substantially influenced for all species, except C. pascuorum, is BIO 18 (Precipitation of Warmest Quarter. The models of current distribution have shown that the most important area of the Balkan Peninsula, for species from Cheilosia proxima group, is Dinaric mountains. Information obtained in this paper can help in future monitoring of species, as well as for the conservation measures, especially for endemics and rare species. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173002 i br. 43002

  10. Diurnal cycle of the dust instantaneous direct radiative forcing over the Arabian Peninsula

    KAUST Repository

    Osipov, S.


    In this study we attempted to better quantify radiative effects of dust over the Arabian Peninsula and their dependence on input parameters. For this purpose we have developed a stand-alone column radiation transport model coupled with the Mie, T-matrix and geometric optics calculations and driven by reanalysis meteorological fields and atmospheric composition. Numerical experiments were carried out for a wide range of aerosol optical depths, including extreme values developed during the dust storm on 18–20 March 2012. Comprehensive ground-based observations and satellite retrievals were used to estimate aerosol optical properties, validate calculations and carry out radiation closure. The broadband surface albedo, fluxes at the bottom and top of the atmosphere as well as instantaneous dust radiative forcing were estimated both from the model and observations. Diurnal cycle of the shortwave instantaneous dust direct radiative forcing was studied for a range of aerosol and surface characteristics representative of the Arabian Peninsula. Mechanisms and parameters responsible for diurnal variability of the radiative forcing were evaluated. We found that intrinsic variability of the surface albedo and its dependence on atmospheric conditions, along with anisotropic aerosol scattering, are mostly responsible for diurnal effects.

  11. Rapid glacial retreat on the Kamchatka Peninsula during the early 21st century (United States)

    Lynch, Colleen M.; Barr, Iestyn D.; Mullan, Donal; Ruffell, Alastair


    Monitoring glacier fluctuations provides insights into changing glacial environments and recent climate change. The availability of satellite imagery offers the opportunity to view these changes for remote and inaccessible regions. Gaining an understanding of the ongoing changes in such regions is vital if a complete picture of glacial fluctuations globally is to be established. Here, satellite imagery (Landsat 7, 8 and ASTER) is used to conduct a multi-annual remote sensing survey of glacier fluctuations on the Kamchatka Peninsula (eastern Russia) over the 2000-2014 period. Glacier margins were digitised manually and reveal that, in 2000, the peninsula was occupied by 673 glaciers, with a total glacier surface area of 775.7 ± 27.9 km2. By 2014, the number of glaciers had increased to 738 (reflecting the fragmentation of larger glaciers), but their surface area had decreased to 592.9 ± 20.4 km2. This represents a ˜ 24 % decline in total glacier surface area between 2000 and 2014 and a notable acceleration in the rate of area loss since the late 20th century. Analysis of possible controls indicates that these glacier fluctuations were likely governed by variations in climate (particularly rising summer temperatures), though the response of individual glaciers was modulated by other (non-climatic) factors, principally glacier size, local shading and debris cover.

  12. Environmental geophysics at the Southern Bush River Peninsula, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davies, B.E.; Miller, S.F.; McGinnis, L.D. [and others


    Geophysical studies have been conducted at five sites in the southern Bush River Peninsula in the Edgewood Area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. The goals of the studies were to identify areas containing buried metallic objects and to provide diagnostic signatures of the hydrogeologic framework of the site. These studies indicate that, during the Pleistocene Epoch, alternating stands of high and low sea level resulted in a complex pattern of channel-fill deposits. Paleochannels of various sizes and orientations have been mapped throughout the study area by means of ground-penetrating radar and EM-31 techniques. The EM-31 paleochannel signatures are represented onshore either by conductivity highs or lows, depending on the depths and facies of the fill sequences. A companion study shows the features as conductivity highs where they extend offshore. This erosional and depositional system is environmentally significant because of the role it plays in the shallow groundwater flow regime beneath the site. Magnetic and electromagnetic anomalies outline surficial and buried debris throughout the areas surveyed. On the basis of geophysical measurements, large-scale (i.e., tens of feet) landfilling has not been found in the southern Bush River Peninsula, though smaller-scale dumping of metallic debris and/or munitions cannot be ruled out.

  13. Assessing extreme droughts in the Iberian Peninsula during 1750–1850 from rogation ceremonies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Domínguez-Castro


    Full Text Available Among the different meteorological risks, droughts are the ones with the highest socio-economical impact in the Iberian Peninsula. Drought events have been largely studied in the instrumental period, but very little is known about the characteristics of droughts in the preinstrumental period. In this work, new series of rogation ceremonies identify severe droughts within the period 1750–1850. The overlapping of the rogation series with some instrumental series served to identify some climatic characteristics of rogation ceremonies: a during spring, rainfall deficits needed to celebrate rogation ceremonies are smaller than in any other season; b when the number of location celebrating rogations increases in a region the hydrological deficit on each location increases as well.

    On the other hand, it was found that the periods 1750–1754 and 1779–1783 are probably the driest periods of the 101 analyzed years. Both show an important number of rogations all over the Iberian Peninsula and during all the seasons.

    The most extended drought of this period occurred during the spring of 1817, affecting 15 of the 16 locations studied. This drought was influenced by the Tambora eruption (1815. The study of the climate footprint of this eruption and its comparison with similar situations in the series suggest that the spring drought of 1824 may be associated with the eruptions of the Galunggung and Usu volcanoes (1822. Further studies are required to confirm this fact and understand the atmospheric mechanisms involved.

  14. Contribution of unit managers to the training of student nurses in the Cape Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Troskie


    Full Text Available The article is based on research conducted over the period 1993 to 1996 in the Cape Peninsula. The purpose of the study was to determine the contribution of unit managers towards the training of student nurses coming to their units for clinical practice. The sample consisted of student nurses training in the four nursing colleges in the Cape Peninsula, and the unit managers working in the health services accommodating students for clinical practice in the same area. The findings revealed that the majority of unit managers were teaching students whenever they had the opportunity. Generally unit managers were prepared for their teaching function, but many students were not satisfied with some clinical learning opportunities presented to them, for example drawing up patient care plans, discussing patients’ treatment plans when handing over report, giving assistance regarding care decisions and lending support when students are confronted with patient care problems. There appears to be a need to educate unit managers regarding these and other aspects of the students’ training programme.

  15. Contribution of unit managers to the training of student nurses in the Cape Peninsula. (United States)

    Troskie, R; Guwa, S N; Booyens, S W


    The article is based on research conducted over the period 1993 to 1996 in the Cape Peninsula. The purpose of the study was to determine the contribution of unit managers towards the training of student nurses coming to their units for clinical practica. The sample consisted of student nurses training in the four nursing colleges in the Cape Peninsula, and the unit managers working in the health services accommodating students for clinical practica in the same area. The findings revealed that the majority of unit managers were teaching students whenever they had the opportunity. Generally unit managers were prepared for their teaching function, but many students were not satisfied with some clinical learning opportunities presented to them, for example drawing up patient care plans, discussing patients' treatment plans when handing over report, giving assistance regarding care decisions and lending support when students are confronted with patient care problems. There appears to be a need to educate unit managers regarding these and other aspects of the students' training programme.

  16. Study on Sonneratia apetala productivity in restored forests in Leizhou Peninsula, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The exotic Sonneratia apetala in Leizhou Peninsula, has shown outstanding fast-growing ability in restored mangrove forests, at the middle and high tide intertidal zone, with year-round fresh water input from drainage. By setting plot and selecting standard tree, investigation and measurement on height growth, diameter growth, biomass, productivity, and so on, were made in a S. apetala plantation at age of six at Lanbei, Fucheng, Leizhou Peninsula in May 2001. The investigating results showed that the mean annual height growth of plantation was 2.03 m and mean annual growth of diameter at breast height (DBH) was 2.35 cm. There exists a significant correlation between the diameter at ground surface (DGS) and DBH. The average biomass of a single standard tree in dry weight was 95.647 kg/m2. A ratio of above-ground biomass to under-ground biomass was 1.60. The stand biomass of unit area was 22.955 kg/m2, singletree wood volume was 88.23 dm3, and the annual wood volume productivity (PA) of the same year was 0.407. The forest energy accumulation was 424.851 MJ/m2, with annual solar energy fixing rate of 40.68 ×10-7%. It is concluded that S. apetala species had characteristics of outstanding high biomass accumulation and could be used as coastal planting tree species in southern China.

  17. A refinement of the emission data for Kola Peninsula based on inverse dispersion modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Prank


    Full Text Available The study reviews the emission estimates of sulphur oxides (SOx and primary particulate matter (PM from the major industrial sources of Kola Peninsula. Analysis of the disagreements between the existing emission inventories for the Kola region combined with forward and inverse ensemble dispersion modelling, analysis of observation time-series and model-measurement comparison showed that the emission of the Nikel metallurgy plant was missing or strongly under-estimated in the major European emission inventories, such as EMEP, EDGAR, TNO-GEMS, and PAREST-MEGAPOLI. In some cases it was misplaced or mis-attributed to other sources of the region. A more consistent inventory of the anthropogenic emissions of SOx and PM has been compiled for the Peninsula, compared with the existing estimates and verified by means of dispersion modelling. In particular, the SILAM model simulations for 2003 and 2006 with the revised emission data showed much smaller under-estimation of SO2 concentrations at 8 Finnish and Norwegian observational stations. For the nearest site to the plant the 10-fold underestimation turned to a 1.5-fold over-prediction. Temporal correlation improved more moderately (up to 45% for concentrations, up to 3 times for deposition. The study demonstrates the value of a combined usage of forward and inverse ensemble modelling for source apportionment in case of limited observational data.

  18. A geomorphological response of beaches to Typhoon Meari in the eastern Shandong Peninsula in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Dong; YANG Jichao; LI Guangxue; DADA Olusegun A; GONG Lixin; WANG Nan; WANG Xiangdong; ZHANG Bin


    Eight representative beach profiles on the eastern coast of the Shandong Peninsula are observed and measured in 2011 and 2012 to determine the coastal processes under the lower tropical wind speed condition and the beach response to and recovery from the tropical storm Meari in a rare typhoon region. The results show that it is the enhancement and directional change of cross-shore and longshore sediment transports caused by Meari that leads to the beach morphological changes, and most of the sediment transports occur during the pre-Meari landing phase. The erosional scarp formation and the berm or beach face erosion are the main geomorphological responses of the beaches to the storm. The storm characteristics are more important than the beach shapes in the storm response process of the beaches on Shandong Peninsula. The typhoon is a fortuitous strong dynamic event, and the effect on the dissipative beach is more obvious than it is on the reflective beach in the study region. Furthermore, the beach trend is the main factor that controlls the storm effect intensity, and it is also closely related to the recovery of the beach profiles.

  19. Seismotectonic Properties and Zonation of the Far-Eastern Eurasian Plate Around the Korean Peninsula (United States)

    Hong, Tae-Kyung; Park, Seongjun; Houng, Soung Eil


    Regional seismotectonics provides crucial information for seismic hazard analysis, which is difficult to address with short-term earthquake records. The far-eastern Eurasian plate around the Korean Peninsula presents a stable intraplate environment with diffuse seismicity, of which responsible tectonics and active faults are difficult to identify. Combined analysis of instrumental and historical earthquake records is required for assessment of long-term seismicity properties. Seismotectonic provinces are identified from the spatial distribution of seismicity properties controlled by the medium properties and stress field. The boundaries of the seismotectonic provinces are defined considering the medium properties that can be inferred from geological, geophysical and tectonic features. The Gutenberg-Richter frequency-magnitude relationships and maximum magnitudes for the seismotectonic provinces are determined using instrumental and historical earthquake records. The validity of maximum magnitude estimation is tested with synthetic data. A parametric method, the Tate-Pisarenko method, produces more accurate estimates than non-parametric methods. A modified Tate-Pisarenko method is proposed for estimation of maximum magnitudes for incomplete short-term earthquake catalogs. The maximum magnitude of events for the whole region is approximately the same as the average of the maximum magnitudes of events for subdivided provinces, causing apparent variation in maximum magnitudes depending on the number of seismotectonic provinces. Consideration of a reasonable number of seismotectonic provinces may be needed for proper assessment of seismic hazard potentials is recommended. The combined analysis of historical and instrumental earthquake records suggests maximum magnitudes greater than 7 around the peninsula.

  20. Characterization of the largest relic Eurasian wild grapevine reservoir in Southern Iberian Peninsula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arroyo-García, R.; Cantos, M.; Lara, M.; López, M.A.; Gallardo, A.; Ocete, C.A.; Pérez, A.; Bánáti, B.; García, J.L.; Ocete, R.


    Wild grapevine is becoming a threatened species in the Iberian Peninsula due to human impacts. The aim of this work was to carry out a holistic study for six years of the largest wild grapevine population found up to date in SW Iberian Peninsula. This population has 115 vines. Ampelographic and soil characteristics have been studied. Evaluation of its environment has also been studied by describing the main parasitic species and natural enemies of pests. The ability of this plant material for its micropropagation and storage in slow-growth conditions has been tested. Microvinification resulted in a wine with good acidity and medium color intensity, two interesting characteristics under a warm climatology. Finally, the identification of private alleles in this wild population, absent in other locations from the Northern and Southern Iberian territories, is a very valuable feature and confirms the importance of establishing conservation programs. The population here studied is genetically unique and potentially useful for commercial rootstocks and cultivars breeding that would improve viticulture and enology. (Author)

  1. Embryonic glaciers on the Balkan peninsula: state and changes in the last several years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil GACHEV


    Full Text Available Mountain glaciers are among the best natural indicators of short-term climatic variations. Although presently there are no classical glaciers on the Balkan peninsula, mountains in this part of Europe comprise a number of small but permanent firn-ice patches, which can be categorized as embryonic glaciers. They are subdivided into: typical glacierets (most of them and small glaciers (a hybrid form between glacierets and cirque glaciers. Most of these features have survived the warming since the end of the Little Ice Age, and are considered to have persisted for at least five centuries without a complete melt (Grunewald et al., 2008; Gachev, Stoyanov, 2013.Researches in the last several years (Milivojević et al.. 2008; Hughes, 2007, 2009; Djurović, 2009, 2012; Gachev et al., 2009 and others revealed the presence of embryonic glaciers in just three mountain ranges throughout the Balkan peninsula: Prokletije mountains (in Albania, Durmitor (in Montenegro and Pirin (in Bulgaria (fig. 1. They are all located in north and northeast facing strongly shaded cirque bottoms of carbonate bedrock (limestone, marble at altitudes from 2035 to 2620 m a. s. l., and usually have areas from less than 1 ha to 5 - 6 ha.  

  2. A reversal of fortunes: climate change 'winners' and 'losers' in Antarctic Peninsula penguins. (United States)

    Clucas, Gemma V; Dunn, Michael J; Dyke, Gareth; Emslie, Steven D; Naveen, Ron; Polito, Michael J; Pybus, Oliver G; Rogers, Alex D; Hart, Tom


    Climate change is a major threat to global biodiversity. Antarctic ecosystems are no exception. Investigating past species responses to climatic events can distinguish natural from anthropogenic impacts. Climate change produces 'winners', species that benefit from these events and 'losers', species that decline or become extinct. Using molecular techniques, we assess the demographic history and population structure of Pygoscelis penguins in the Scotia Arc related to climate warming after the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). All three pygoscelid penguins responded positively to post-LGM warming by expanding from glacial refugia, with those breeding at higher latitudes expanding most. Northern (Pygoscelis papua papua) and Southern (Pygoscelis papua ellsworthii) gentoo sub-species likely diverged during the LGM. Comparing historical responses with the literature on current trends, we see Southern gentoo penguins are responding to current warming as they did during post-LGM warming, expanding their range southwards. Conversely, Adélie and chinstrap penguins are experiencing a 'reversal of fortunes' as they are now declining in the Antarctic Peninsula, the opposite of their response to post-LGM warming. This suggests current climate warming has decoupled historic population responses in the Antarctic Peninsula, favoring generalist gentoo penguins as climate change 'winners', while Adélie and chinstrap penguins have become climate change 'losers'.

  3. Climate and vegetation history from a 14,000-year peatland record, Kenai Peninsula, Alaska (United States)

    Jones, Miriam C.; Peteet, Dorothy M.; Kurdyla, Dorothy; Guilderson, Thomas


    Analysis of pollen, spores, macrofossils, and lithology of an AMS 14C-dated core from a subarctic fen on the Kenai Peninsula, Alaska reveals changes in vegetation and climate beginning 14,200 cal yr BP. Betula expansion and contraction of herb tundra vegetation characterize the Younger Dryas on the Kenai, suggesting increased winter snowfall concurrent with cool, sunny summers. Remarkable Polypodiaceae (fern) abundance between 11,500 and 8500 cal yr BP implies a significant change in climate. Enhanced peat preservation and the occurrence of wet meadow species suggest high moisture from 11,500 to 10,700 cal yr BP, in contrast to drier conditions in southeastern Alaska; this pattern may indicate an intensification and repositioning of the Aleutian Low (AL). Drier conditions on the Kenai Peninsula from 10,700 to 8500 cal yr BP may signify a weaker AL, but elevated fern abundance may have been sustained by high seasonality with substantial snowfall and enhanced glacial melt. Decreased insolation-induced seasonality resulted in climatic cooling after 8500 cal yr BP, with increased humidity from 8000 to 5000 cal yr BP. A dry interval punctuated by volcanic activity occurred between 5000 and 3500 cal yr BP, followed by cool, moist climate, coincident with Neoglaciation. Tsuga mertensiana expanded after ~ 1500 cal yr BP in response to the shift to cooler conditions.

  4. A refinement of the emission data for Kola Peninsula based on inverse dispersion modelling (United States)

    Prank, M.; Sofiev, M.; Denier van der Gon, H. A. C.; Kaasik, M.; Ruuskanen, T. M.; Kukkonen, J.


    The study reviews the emission estimates of sulphur oxides (SOx) and primary particulate matter (PM) from the major industrial sources of Kola Peninsula. Analysis of the disagreements between the existing emission inventories for the Kola region combined with forward and inverse ensemble dispersion modelling, analysis of observation time-series and model-measurement comparison showed that the emission of the Nikel non-ferrous metallurgy plant was missing from the EMEP inventory, as well as from some others, being in some cases misplaced or mis-attributed to other sources of the region. A more consistent inventory of the anthropogenic emissions of SOx and PM has been compiled for the peninsula, compared with the existing estimates and verified by means of dispersion modelling. In particular, the SILAM model simulations for 2003 and 2006 with the revised emission data showed much lower bias - up to 6 times for the most-affected sites - for SO2 with regard to the measured concentrations of 8 Finnish and Norwegian observational stations in the region. Temporal correlation improved moderately (10-20%) but homogeneously over Lapland. The study demonstrates the value of a combined usage of forward and inverse ensemble modelling for source apportionment in case of limited observational data.

  5. A refinement of the emission data for Kola Peninsula based on inverse dispersion modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Prank


    Full Text Available The study reviews the emission estimates of sulphur oxides (SOx and primary particulate matter (PM from the major industrial sources of Kola Peninsula. Analysis of the disagreements between the existing emission inventories for the Kola region combined with forward and inverse ensemble dispersion modelling, analysis of observation time-series and model-measurement comparison showed that the emission of the Nikel non-ferrous metallurgy plant was missing from the EMEP inventory, as well as from some others, being in some cases misplaced or mis-attributed to other sources of the region. A more consistent inventory of the anthropogenic emissions of SOx and PM has been compiled for the peninsula, compared with the existing estimates and verified by means of dispersion modelling. In particular, the SILAM model simulations for 2003 and 2006 with the revised emission data showed much lower bias – up to 6 times for the most-affected sites – for SO2 with regard to the measured concentrations of 8 Finnish and Norwegian observational stations in the region. Temporal correlation improved moderately (10–20% but homogeneously over Lapland. The study demonstrates the value of a combined usage of forward and inverse ensemble modelling for source apportionment in case of limited observational data.

  6. Abundance and breeding distribution of seabirds in the northern part of the Danco Coast, Antarctic Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana A. Juáres


    Full Text Available Seabird abundances and breeding distribution have the potential to serve as ecological indicators. The western Antarctic Peninsula is one of the three sites in the world with the greatest increases in local temperature during the last 50 years. The aim of this study was to monitor the distribution and abundance of breeding populations of seabirds in the northern sector of the Danco Coast, north-west of the Antarctic Peninsula, during the breeding season 2010/11. The birds were the Wilson′s storm petrel (Oceanites oceanicus, South Polar skua (Stercorarius maccormicki, kelp gull (Larus dominicanus, Antarctic tern (Sterna vittata, snowy sheathbill (Chionis alba, chinstrap penguin (Pygoscelis antarctica, southern giant petrel (Macronectes giganteus, gentoo penguin (Pygoscelis papua, Cape petrel (Daption capense and Antarctic shag (Phalacrocorax bransfieldensis. Annual breeding population growth increased in pygoscelids, southern giant petrel and sheathbill, and for the remaining species, breeding population trends were stable. Given that seabird populations can provide valuable information on the conditions of their feeding and nesting environments, this study highlights the need to maintain basics monitoring studies.

  7. Evolution of extreme Total Water Levels along the northern coast of the Iberian Peninsula

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    D. F. Rasilla Álvarez


    Full Text Available This paper assesses the evolution of storminess along the northern coast of the Iberian Peninsula through the calculation of extreme (1% Total Water Levels (eTWL on both observed (tide gauge and buoy data and hindcasted (SIMAR-44 data. Those events were first identified and then characterized in terms of oceanographic parameters and atmospheric circulation features. Additionally, an analysis of the long-term trends in both types of data was performed. Most of the events correspond to a rough wave climate and moderate storm surges, linked to extratropical disturbances following a northern track. While local atmospheric conditions seem to be evolving towards lesser storminess, their impact has been balanced by the favorable exposure of the northern coast of the Iberian Peninsula to the increasing frequency and strength of distant disturbances crossing the North Atlantic. This evolution is also correctly reproduced by the simulated long-term evolution of the forcing component (meteorological sea level residuals and wave run up of the Total Water Level values calculated from the SIMAR 44 database, since sea level residuals have been experiencing a reduction while waves are arriving with longer periods. Finally, the addition of the rate of relative sea level trend to the temporal evolution of the atmospheric forcing component of the Total Water Level values is enough to simulate more frequent and persistent eTWL.

  8. Absence of 21st century warming on Antarctic Peninsula consistent with natural variability. (United States)

    Turner, John; Lu, Hua; White, Ian; King, John C; Phillips, Tony; Hosking, J Scott; Bracegirdle, Thomas J; Marshall, Gareth J; Mulvaney, Robert; Deb, Pranab


    Since the 1950s, research stations on the Antarctic Peninsula have recorded some of the largest increases in near-surface air temperature in the Southern Hemisphere. This warming has contributed to the regional retreat of glaciers, disintegration of floating ice shelves and a 'greening' through the expansion in range of various flora. Several interlinked processes have been suggested as contributing to the warming, including stratospheric ozone depletion, local sea-ice loss, an increase in westerly winds, and changes in the strength and location of low-high-latitude atmospheric teleconnections. Here we use a stacked temperature record to show an absence of regional warming since the late 1990s. The annual mean temperature has decreased at a statistically significant rate, with the most rapid cooling during the Austral summer. Temperatures have decreased as a consequence of a greater frequency of cold, east-to-southeasterly winds, resulting from more cyclonic conditions in the northern Weddell Sea associated with a strengthening mid-latitude jet. These circulation changes have also increased the advection of sea ice towards the east coast of the peninsula, amplifying their effects. Our findings cover only 1% of the Antarctic continent and emphasize that decadal temperature changes in this region are not primarily associated with the drivers of global temperature change but, rather, reflect the extreme natural internal variability of the regional atmospheric circulation.

  9. Rhizobium anhuiense as the predominant microsymbionts of Lathyrus maritimus along the Shandong Peninsula seashore line. (United States)

    Li, Yan; Wang, En Tao; Liu, Yajing; Li, Xiangyue; Yu, Bing; Ren, Chenggang; Liu, Wei; Li, Yunzhao; Xie, Zhihong


    Beach pea [Lathyrus maritimus Bigelow, or Lathyrus japonicus subsp. maritimus (L.) P.W. Ball] is a wild legume distributed on the seashore line, and the rhizobia nodulating with this plant have been reported only rarely. In order to reveal the diversity of beach pea rhizobia on the seashore line of Shandong Peninsula, China, a total of 124 bacterial strains were isolated from the root nodules of beach pea plants collected from five sites. All the isolates were divided into five recA types after screening by recA gene sequence analysis and they consisted of Rhizobium anhuiense covering 122 symbiotic isolates in three recA types, as well as two single isolates Rhizobium sp. and Rhizobium lusitanum representing distinct recA types. The recA genotype III of R. anhuiense (103 isolates) represented by strain YIC11270 was dominant at all five sampling sites. Identical symbiotic genes (nodC and nifH) were detected in the three recA genotypes of R. anhuiense isolates that were closely related to those of the pea and faba rhizobia. This study clarified that R. anhuiense was the main symbiont for beach pea rhizobia on the seashore line of Shandong Peninsula. The low level genetic diversity of beach pea rhizobia revealed by both MLSA and the symbiotic genes might be related to the strong selection pressure produced by the saline-alkaline environment and the host plants.


    Watts, Dominique E; Benson, Anna-Marie


    We collected blood samples from wolves ( Canis lupus ) on the Alaska Peninsula, southwest Alaska, US, 2006-11 and tested sera for antibodies to canine adenovirus (CAV), canine coronavirus (CCV), canine distemper virus (CDV), canine herpesvirus (CHV), canine parainfluenza (CPI), canine parvovirus (CPV), Neospora caninum , and Toxoplasma gondii . Detected antibody prevalence was 90% for CAV, 28% for CCV, 12% for CDV, 93% for CHV, 0% for CPI, 20% for CPV, 0% for N. caninum, and 86% for T. gondii . Prevalence of CCV antibodies suggested a seasonal pattern with higher prevalence during spring (43%) than in fall (11%). Prevalence of CCV antibodies also declined during the 6-yr study with high prevalence during spring 2006-08 (80%, n=24) and low prevalence during spring 2009-11 (4%, n=24). Prevalence of N. caninum and T. gondii antibodies were highly variable in the study area during 2006-11. Results suggested that some pathogens might be enzootic on the Alaska Peninsula (e.g., CAV and CHV) while others may be epizootic (e.g., CCV, N. caninum , T. gondii ).

  11. Bellingshausen Sea ice extent recorded in an Antarctic Peninsula ice core (United States)

    Porter, Stacy E.; Parkinson, Claire L.; Mosley-Thompson, Ellen


    Annual net accumulation (An) from the Bruce Plateau (BP) ice core retrieved from the Antarctic Peninsula exhibits a notable relationship with sea ice extent (SIE) in the Bellingshausen Sea. Over the satellite era, both BP An and Bellingshausen SIE are influenced by large-scale climatic factors such as the Amundsen Sea Low, Southern Annular Mode, and Southern Oscillation. In addition to the direct response of BP An to Bellingshausen SIE (e.g., more open water as a moisture source), these large-scale climate phenomena also link the BP and the Bellingshausen Sea indirectly such that they exhibit similar responses (e.g., northerly wind anomalies advect warm, moist air to the Antarctic Peninsula and neighboring Bellingshausen Sea, which reduces SIE and increases An). Comparison with a time series of fast ice at South Orkney Islands reveals a relationship between BP An and sea ice in the northern Weddell Sea that is relatively consistent over the twentieth century, except when it is modulated by atmospheric wave patterns described by the Trans-Polar Index. The trend of increasing accumulation on the Bruce Plateau since 1970 agrees with other climate records and reconstructions in the region and suggests that the current rate of sea ice loss in the Bellingshausen Sea is unrivaled in the twentieth century.

  12. [Microbial Processes and Genesis of Methane Gas Jets in the Coastal Areas of the Crimea Peninsula]. (United States)

    Malakhova, T V; Kanapatskii, T A; Egorov, V N; Malakhova, L V; Artemov, Yu G; Evtushenko, D B; Gulin, S B; Pimenov, N V


    Hydroasoustic techniques were used for detection and mapping of gas jet areas in the coastal regions of the Crimean peninsula. Gas seep areas in the bays Laspi, Khersones, and Kazach'ya were chosen for detailed microbiological investigation. The first type of gas jets, observed in the Laspi Bay, was probably associated with discarge of deep thermogenic methane along the faults. Methane isotopic composition was char- acterized by Δ13C of -35.3 degrees. While elevated rates of aerobic methane oxidation were revealed in the sandy sediments adjacent to the methane release site, no evidence of bacterial mats was found. The second type of gas emission, observed in the Khersones Bay, was accompanied by formation of bacterial biofilms of the "Thiodendron" microbial community type, predominated by filamentous, spirochete-like organisms, in the areas of gas seepage. The isotopic composition of methane was there considerably lower (-60.4 degrees), indicating a considerable contribution of modern microbial methane to the gas bubbles discharged in this bay. Activity of the third type of gas emission, the seeps of the Kazach'ya Bay, probably depended directly on modern microbial processes of organic matter degradation in the upper sediment layers. The rates of sulfate reduction and methanogenesis were 260 and 34 μmol dm(-3) day(-1), respectively. Our results indicate different mechanisms responsible for formation of methane jets in the Laspi Bay and in the coastal areas of the Heracles Peninsula, where the bays Kazach'ya and Khersones are located.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukyanov A. A.


    Full Text Available The work presents the results of the scientific research in the Taman Peninsula soil properties. We carry out the historic review of the studies in the Taman Peninsula soils, and its geological structure. We present morphological characteristics of the soil profile for the southern, calcareous, ultra heavy loam chernozem developed from the loessial loams and forming genetic horizons. The studies of the humus content in the soils show the associations between its percentage and the type and intensity of the agricultural use. Studies of the soils structure and composition demonstrate marked aggravation of the soils physical properties caused by grape growing. The best results of the particle size analysis have been achieved for the woodland soils. In woodlands, after their establishment, the soils under the grass and crown layers develop free of the anthropogenic impact. We register self-supporting growth of organic matter and natural processes of soil fertility recovery; therefore, such soils are characterized with a greater content of organic matter as compared to the soils under grape plantings cultivated in the monoculture regime. Reduced soil organic matter (humus content in vineyards results from the disturbed biological interchange of the matter and increased anthropogenic impact causing erosion processes

  14. Composition and microstructure of Roman metallic artefacts of Southwestern Iberian Peninsula (United States)

    Valério, P.; Voráčová, E.; Silva, R. J. C.; Araújo, M. F.; Soares, A. M. M.; Arruda, A. M.; Pereira, C.


    The Roman invasion introduces new alloys and metallurgical practices in Iberian Peninsula. The southwestern end of this region has many evidences of connections with the Roman World, but there are no studies about the manufacture and use of copper-based artefacts during this period. Therefore, a set of about 20 ornaments, tools and small attachments recovered at the Roman sites of Monte Molião and Cidade das Rosas was studied by an analytical approach combining micro-EDXRF, optical microscopy, SEM-EDS and Vickers microhardness testing. The artefact composition shows a good correlation with function, namely pure copper for nails and rivets, low-tin bronze (2-6 wt% Sn) for basic tools, high-tin bronze (14 wt% Sn) for fibulae and high-lead bronze (19 wt% Pb) for a decorated jug handle. The manufacture also depends on function because most artefacts were subjected to thermomechanical processing, except the ornaments that would not benefit from post-casting work. Brass and gunmetal were only present in the site with a later chronology. A metallurgy visibly ruled by economical, aesthetical and technological concerns reinforces the evidences about the total integration of Southwestern Iberian Peninsula in the Roman World, but further studies will be essential to determine the evolution of copper-based alloys in Lusitania under Roman influence.

  15. Preliminary study of long-term wind characteristics of the Mexican Yucatan Peninsula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soler-Bientz, Rolando [Centre for Renewable Energy Systems Technology, Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, Holywell Park, Loughborough University, Loughborough, Leicestershire LE11 3TU (United Kingdom); Energy Laboratory, Faculty of Engineering, Autonomous University of Yucatan Facultad de Ingenieria, Av. Industrias no contaminantes x Anillo periferico norte s/n, Merida, Yucatan (Mexico); Watson, Simon [Centre for Renewable Energy Systems Technology, Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, Holywell Park, Loughborough University, Loughborough, Leicestershire LE11 3TU (United Kingdom); Infield, David [Institute of Energy and Environment, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow (United Kingdom)


    Mexico's Yucatan Peninsula is one of the most promising areas for wind energy development within the Latin American region but no comprehensive assessment of wind resource has been previously published. This research presents a preliminary analysis of the meteorological parameters relevant to the wind resource in order to find patterns in their long-term behaviour and to establish a foundation for subsequent research into the wind power potential of the Yucatan Peninsula. Three meteorological stations with data measured for a period between 10 and 20 years were used in this study. The monthly trends of ambient temperature, atmospheric pressure and wind speed data were identified and are discussed. The directional behaviour of the winds, their frequency distributions and the related Weibull parameters are presented. Wind power densities for the study sites have been estimated and have been shown to be relatively low (wind power class 1), though a larger number of suitable sites needs to be studied before a definitive resource evaluation can be reported. (author)

  16. Ocean-atmosphere exchange of organic carbon and CO2 surrounding the Antarctic Peninsula (United States)

    Ruiz-Halpern, S.; Calleja, M. Ll.; Dachs, J.; Del Vento, S.; Pastor, M.; Palmer, M.; Agustí, S.; Duarte, C. M.


    Exchangeable organic carbon (OC) dynamics and CO2 fluxes in the Antarctic Peninsula during austral summer were highly variable, but the region appeared to be a net sink for OC and nearly in balance for CO2. Surface exchangeable dissolved organic carbon (EDOC) measurements had a 43 ± 3 (standard error, hereafter SE) μmol C L-1 overall mean and represented around 66% of surface non-purgeable dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in Antarctic waters, while the mean concentration of the gaseous fraction of organic carbon (GOC H-1) was 46 ± 3 SE μmol C L-1. There was a tendency towards low fugacity of dissolved CO2 (fCO2-w) in waters with high chlorophyll a (Chl a) content and high fCO2-w in areas with high krill densities. However, such relationships were not found for EDOC. The depth profiles of EDOC were also quite variable and occasionally followed Chl a profiles. The diel cycles of EDOC showed two distinct peaks, in the middle of the day and the middle of the short austral dark period, concurrent with solar radiation maxima and krill night migration patterns. However, no evident diel pattern for GOC H-1 or CO2 was observed. The pool of exchangeable OC is an important and active compartment of the carbon budget surrounding the Antarctic Peninsula and adds to previous studies highlighting its importance in the redistribution of carbon in marine environments.

  17. The deglaciation of the Tröllaskagi Peninsula, Northern Iceland, based on cosmogenic datings (United States)

    Palacios, David; Andres, Nuria; Sæmundsson, Þorsteinn; Brynjólfsson, Skafti


    The Tröllaskagi Peninsula is a mountainous area in central northern Iceland. Deep valleys have dissected the Tertiary plateau basalts which form the peninsula, ranging in altitude from sea level to 1500 m. The aim of this work is to provide an initial approach to the deglaciation process in some valleys in the Tröllaskagi Peninsula, mainly by dating polished thresholds and some moraine boulders using cosmic radiation exposure and production of isotope 36Cl. The results obtained lead to the following conclusions: a) In the outermost coastal areas, i.e. the peninsular capes and the mouths of the great fjords, the dating of polished thresholds situated at present around 100-150 m a.s.l obtains ages immediately after Heinrich Event 1: thus two thresholds located at the end point of the Skagi Peninsula give ages of 16.9 ± 1.5 ka and 17.1 ± 1.6 ka. At the entrance to the Eyjafjördur, fjord near the town of Dalvik, another polished threshold has been dated to 16.3 ± 1.4 ka. b) In the intermediate areas of the fiords, deglaciation occurred just at the end of the Oldest Dryas: two thresholds, one on each side of the Skagafjördur fjord at around 150 m a.s.l. obtain minimum ages of 12.6 ± 1.2 ka on the edge of the Skagi Peninsula and 13.8 ± 1.3 ka on the island of Þórđarhöfđi, at a similar altitude. c) The bottoms of the great valleys which originate in the central highlands of the island and which currently drain the proglacial waters from the inland ice caps were deglaciated very early in the Holocene. Dates ranging from 11.5 to 10.00 ka were obtained from 7 polished thresholds at altitudes of between 120 and 700 m a.s.l. in the valley of the Eystri and Vestrari Jökulrsár Rivers which flows into the Skagafjördur fjord, with no clear altitude-related differences observed in the chronology. Taking into account the margin of error, these results may in fact show that the deglaciation of these thresholds was practically simultaneous. A similar date of 11.6 ±1

  18. Upper Cenozoic deposits of the central Delmarva Peninsula, Maryland and Delaware (United States)

    Owens, James Patrick; Denny, Charles Storrow


    The surface and shallow subsurface sediments of the lower Delmarva Peninsula include beds ranging in age from Miocene to Holocene. The oldest beds appear to be typical shelf deposits of the Chesapeake Group (Calvert-Choptank age). These marine units are overlain by deltaic deposits, which range from fluviatile facies in the north (Pensauken Formation) to marginal marine and marine beds in the south ('Yorktown(?) and Cohansey(?)' Formations as used by Rasmussen and Slaughter in 1955). This large deltaic mass underlies most of the Delmarva Peninsula. Fossil age determinations supplemented by some radiometric dates indicate the delta to be largely late Miocene in age. The nonmarine facies of the delta, the Pensauken Formation, previously was considered to be Pleistocene in age. The late Miocene delta and possibly the Yorktown Formation (lower to middle Pliocene) are overlain by a feldspathic sand, the Beaverdam, which is at least in part marginal marine. Microflora recovered from this formation include species no longer indigenous to the Delmarva region ('exotics'). On the basis of existing information, microfloral assemblages containing 'exotics' are pre-Pleistocene in age. The Beaverdam therefore is pre-Pleistocene in age, probably late Pliocene. A highly dissected and weathered unit, the Walston Silt, caps the uplands of the central Delmarva Peninsula, where it overlies the Beaverdam. The Walston has a microflora containing 'exotics' and therefore is considered to be the youngest Tertiary unit (uppermost Pliocene) in this area. Sediments forming a barrier-back-barrier sequence fringe most of the southern Maryland-Delaware part of the Delmarva Peninsula and are found at altitudes of as much as 15 m (50 ft) above sea level. This sequence, the Omar Formation, is Sangamon in age and has been dated radiometrically as 60,000 to about 100,000 years old. The microflora in these beds contains no 'exotics,' and the assemblage suggests a warm-temperate environment. The Omar

  19. Hydrogeologic framework, groundwater movement, and water budget of the Kitsap Peninsula, west-central Washington (United States)

    Welch, Wendy B.; Frans, Lonna M.; Olsen, Theresa D.


    This report presents information used to characterize the groundwater-flow system on the Kitsap Peninsula, and includes descriptions of the geology and hydrogeologic framework, groundwater recharge and discharge, groundwater levels and flow directions, seasonal groundwater-level fluctuations, interactions between aquifers and the surface‑water system, and a water budget. The Kitsap Peninsula is in the Puget Sound lowland of west-central Washington, is bounded by Puget Sound on the east and by Hood Canal on the west, and covers an area of about 575 square miles. The peninsula encompasses all of Kitsap County, the part of Mason County north of Hood Canal, and part of Pierce County west of Puget Sound. The peninsula is surrounded by saltwater and the hydrologic setting is similar to that of an island. The study area is underlain by a thick sequence of unconsolidated glacial and interglacial deposits that overlie sedimentary and volcanic bedrock units that crop out in the central part of the study area. Geologic units were grouped into 12 hydrogeologic units consisting of aquifers, confining units, and an underlying bedrock unit. A surficial hydrogeologic unit map was developed and used with well information from 2,116 drillers’ logs to construct 6 hydrogeologic sections and unit extent and thickness maps. Unconsolidated aquifers typically consist of moderately to well-sorted alluvial and glacial outwash deposits of sand, gravel, and cobbles, with minor lenses of silt and clay. These units often are discontinuous or isolated bodies and are of highly variable thickness. Unconfined conditions occur in areas where aquifer units are at land surface; however, much of the study area is mantled by glacial till, and confined aquifer conditions are common. Groundwater in the unconsolidated aquifers generally flows radially off the peninsula in the direction of Puget Sound and Hood Canal. These generalized flow patterns likely are complicated by the presence of low

  20. Numerical simulation of the groundwater-flow system of the Kitsap Peninsula, west-central Washington (United States)

    Frans, Lonna M.; Olsen, Theresa D.


    A groundwater-flow model was developed to improve understanding of water resources on the Kitsap Peninsula. The Kitsap Peninsula is in the Puget Sound lowland of west-central Washington, is bounded by Puget Sound on the east and by Hood Canal on the west, and covers an area of about 575 square miles. The peninsula encompasses all of Kitsap County, Mason County north of Hood Canal, and part of Pierce County west of Puget Sound. The peninsula is surrounded by saltwater, and the hydrologic setting is similar to that of an island. The study area is underlain by a thick sequence of unconsolidated glacial and interglacial deposits that overlie sedimentary and volcanic bedrock units that crop out in the central part of the study area. Twelve hydrogeologic units consisting of aquifers, confining units, and an underlying bedrock unit form the basis of the groundwater-flow model.Groundwater flow on the Kitsap Peninsula was simulated using the groundwater-flow model, MODFLOW‑NWT. The finite difference model grid comprises 536 rows, 362 columns, and 14 layers. Each model cell has a horizontal dimension of 500 by 500 feet, and the model contains a total of 1,227,772 active cells. Groundwater flow was simulated for transient conditions. Transient conditions were simulated for January 1985–December 2012 using annual stress periods for 1985–2004 and monthly stress periods for 2005–2012. During model calibration, variables were adjusted within probable ranges to minimize differences between measured and simulated groundwater levels and stream baseflows. As calibrated to transient conditions, the model has a standard deviation for heads and flows of 47.04 feet and 2.46 cubic feet per second, respectively.Simulated inflow to the model area for the 2005–2012 period from precipitation and secondary recharge was 585,323 acre-feet per year (acre-ft/yr) (93 percent of total simulated inflow ignoring changes in storage), and simulated inflow from stream and lake leakage was 43

  1. CEDEX research activities in Antarctica. Aquatic ecosystems in Byers Peninsula (Livingston Island, maritime Antarctica); Actividad investigadora del CEDEX en la Antartida. Ecosistemas acuaticos de la Peninsula Byers (Isla Livingston, Antartida)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toro, M.; Quesada, A.; Camacho, A.; Oliva, M.; Alcami, A.; Antoniades, D.; Banon, M.; Fassnacht, S.; Fernandez-Valiente, E.; Galan, L.; Giralt, S.; Granados, I.; Justel, A.; Liu, E. J.; Lopez-Bravo, A.; Martinez-Cortizas, A.; Pla-Rabes, S.; Rastrojo, A.; Rico, E.; Rochera, C.; Van de Vijver, B.; Velazquez, D.; Villaescusa, J. A.; Vicent, W. F.


    Since 2001 CEDEX has taken part in many Antarctic joint research projects with different institutions from Spain and other countries, developing scientific activities in the International Camp of Byers Peninsular (Livingston Island, South Shetland Islands, Antarctica). This place was designed as an Antarctic Specially Protected Area (No.126) because the importance and value of its terrestrial and aquatic habitats. It is one of the largest ice-free areas of maritime Antarctica, with the highest diversity of environments and geological, hydrological and biological processes in the whole region, all of them in a pristine state. Byers Peninsula is considered the most significant limnological area in the Antarctic Peninsula region because it hosts a high number of lakes, ponds and streams, with an exceptional fauna and flora diversity, including the most singular, representative or endemic Antarctic species. Furthermore, the lakes sedimentary record is one of the widest and complete archives in Antarctic Peninsula region for the palaeocological and climatic study of the Holocene. Because Byers Peninsula is an Antarctic biodiversity hotspot, and it is located in one of the areas in the Earth where global warming is being more significant, it must be considered as a suitable international reference site for limnetic, terrestrial and coastal studies, and long term monitoring programmes. (Author)

  2. Genealogias da alegria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Vasconcelos de Almeid


    Full Text Available Genealogias da Alegria tem por objetivo rastrear conceitos e construir planos sobre os quais podemos pensar a alegria como campo problemático. Trata-se de traçar linhas e acoplar fragmentos históricos e literários com a finalidade de subsidiar a discussão contemporânea em torno da alegria. O procedimento genealógico vale-se de trechos das obras de Calímaco e Luciano de Samósata, da elegia erótica romana e da alegria cristã. O passo seguinte consiste em rastrear o pensamento da alegria na obra de Gilles Deleuze, especialmente em três momentos: uma passagem de Diferença e Repetição, um trecho dos Diálogos extraído de Da Superioridade da Literatura Anglo-americana e a comunicação Pensamento Nômade no Colóquio de Cerisy. A alegria não se define como sentimento ou emoção; ao contrário, está ligada à premissa de afirmação da vida e ao caráter trágico da existência.

  3. A sabedoria da democracia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilson Matilde Diana


    Full Text Available a maior parte da história, a democracia foi desprezada como uma forma política inferior – a regra do povo, ou “dos muitos”, era logo identificada como a regra da ralé, da escória. Herdando do povo a volubilidade e a instabilidade, a democracia estava sempre perigosamente próxima do arbítrio e da anarquia, com toda a violência que se costuma associar a isso.

  4. Three new cryptic species of the lamprey genus Lampetra Bonnaterre, 1788 (Petromyzontiformes: Petromyzontidae) from the Iberian Peninsula

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mateus, C.S.; Alves, M.J.; Quintella, B.R.; Almeida, P.R.


    The Iberian Peninsula is a repository for biodiversity, presenting high levels of endemism in both plants and animals. In this peninsular region, brook lampreys confined to small, isolated river basins evolved in allopatry giving rise to evolutionary lineages, as revealed by mitochondrial DNA marker

  5. Evaluating the potential water quality impacts of animal feeding operations on National Wildlife Refuges on the Delmarva Peninsula (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Delmarva peninsula is one of the largest poultry areas in the U.S., producing some 600 million chickens and 1.6 billion pounds of manure annually. In addition to...

  6. Evaluation of trace elements distribution in water, sediment, soil and cassava plant in Muria peninsula environment by NAA method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muryono, H.; Sumining; Agus Taftazani; Kris Tri Basuki; Sukarman, A. [Yogyakarta Nuclear Research Center, Yogyakarta (Indonesia)


    The evaluation of trace elements distribution in water, sediment, soil and cassava plant in Muria peninsula by NAA method were done. The nuclear power plant (NPP) and the coal power plant (CPP) will be built in Muria peninsula, so, the Muria peninsula is an important site for samples collection and monitoring of environment. River-water, sediment, dryland-soil and cassava plant were choosen as specimens samples from Muria peninsula environment. The analysis result of trace elements were used as a contributed data for environment monitoring before and after NPP was built. The trace elements in specimens of river-water, sediment, dryland-soil and cassava plant samples were analyzed by INAA method. It was found that the trace elements distribution were not evenly distributed. Percentage of trace elements distribution in river-water, sediment, dryland-soil and cassava leaves were 0.00026-0.037% in water samples, 0.49-62.7% in sediment samples, 36.29-99.35% in soil samples and 0.21-99.35% in cassava leaves. (author)

  7. A ground-validated NDVI dataset for monitoring vegetation dynamics and mapping phenology in Fennoscandia and the Kola peninsula

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beck, P.S.A.; Jonsson, P.; Hogda, K.A.; Karlsen, S.R.; Skidmore, A.K.; Eklundh, L.


    An NDVI dataset covering Fennoscandia and the Kola peninsula was created for vegetation and climate studies, using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer 16-day maximum value composite data from 2000 to 2005. To create the dataset, (1) the influence of the polar night and snow on the NDVI val

  8. Crustal growth history of the Korean Peninsula:Constraints from detrital zircon ages in modern river sediments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Taejin Choi; Yong Il Lee; Yuji Orihashi


    U-Pb analyses were carried out on detrital zircon grains from major river-mouth sediments draining South Korea to infer provenance characteristics and the crustal growth history of the southern Korean Peninsula, using a laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (LA-ICP-MS). The Korean Peninsula is located in the East Asian continental margin and mainly comprises three Precambrian massifs and two metamorphic belts in between them. We obtained 515 concordant to slightly discordant zircon ages ranging from ca. 3566 to ca. 48 Ma. Regardless of river-mouth location, predominance of Mesozoic (249e79 Ma) and Paleoproterozoic (2491e1691 Ma) ages with subordinate Archean ages in-dicates that the zircon ages reflect present exposures of plutonic/metamorphic rocks in the drainage basins of the South Korean rivers and the crustal growth of the southern Korean Peninsula was focused in these two periods. Comparison of detrital zircon-age data between the North and South Korean river sediments reveals that the Paleoproterozoic zircon age distributions of both regions are nearly identical, while the NeoproterozoicePaleozoic ages exist and the Mesozoic ages are dominant in southern Korean Peninsula. This result suggests that Precambrian terrains in Korea record the similar pre-Mesozoic magmatic history and that the influence of Mesozoic magmatism was mainly focused in South Korea.

  9. Teaching English at Sekolah Agama Rakyat (People's Religious Schools) in Northern Peninsula Malaysia: Methodology Development and Preliminary Observations (United States)

    Ilias, Nurulhayati; Adnan, Airil Haimi Mohd


    This research article is based on a pilot study that we carried out to gain preliminary insights into how English is taught at "Sekolah Agama Rakyat" ("SAR" or literally translated as "People's Islamic Religious Schools") in a state in northern Peninsula Malaysia. In the process of carrying out the study, we tested…

  10. Trace fossils from the eocene Lillebælt clay formation, Røsnæs Peninsula, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jan Kresten; Milàn, Jesper; Mesfun, Daniel


    A cliff exposure of the Eocene Lillebælt Clay Formation, on the Røsnæs peninsula of Zealand, Denmark, has yielded a diverse trace-fossil assemblage. The trace fossils are described formally for the first time and assigned to Phymatoderma melvillensis, unnamed clusters of small burrows, Ophiomorph...

  11. Genetic differentiation, origin and dispersal of Gammarus gauthieri from the Iberian peninsula and North Africa (Crustacea, Amphipoda)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheepmaker, Maarten


    Genetic differentiation among population samples of G. gauthieri on both sides of the Strait of Gibraltar was investigated by enzyme electrophoresis at 20 enzyme loci with reference to G. gauthieri and G. ibericus from different areas in the Iberian peninsula. Levels of divergence resolved suggest t

  12. Evaluation of high-resolution WRF climate simulations for hydrological variables over Iberian Peninsula (United States)

    García-Valdecasas-Ojeda, Matilde; De Franciscis, Sebastiano; Raquel Gámiz-Fortis, Sonia; Castro-Díez, Yolanda; Esteban-Parra, María Jesus


    Meteorological inputs play an essential role in predicting the potential effects of climate change on water resources. Consequently, this study is focused on evaluating the skill of Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model to simulate present climate characteristics in term of different variables used for hydrological modeling. For the 35-yr period (1980-2014), high-resolution simulations have been performed with a spatial resolution of 0.088° over a domain encompassing the Iberian Peninsula, and nested in the coarser EURO-CORDEX domain (0.44° resolution). WRF model was driven by the global bias-corrected climate model output data from version 1 of NCAR's Community Earth System Model (CESM1). In addition, other simulation forced by the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) Interim Reanalysis (ERA-Interim) as "perfect boundary conditions" was also run. For validation purposes, WRF outputs were compared for Spain and Portugal independently, using two observational data sources: the Spain02 version 4 daily precipitation and (maximum and minimum) temperature gridded datasets, and the PT02 daily gridded precipitation data. The study was carried out at different time scales in order to evaluate the model ability to capture long-term mean values (from annual to monthly) and high-order statistics (extreme events) by directly comparing grid-points. Furthermore, the observational gridded data were grouped using a multistep regionalization to facilitate the comparison in term of several parameters such as the monthly annual cycle or the percentiles of daily values. The main result is that WRF provides useful information at regional scale, with significant improvement in complex terrain areas such as Iberian Peninsula. Although considerable errors are still observed, the model is able to capture the main precipitation and temperature patterns. The major benefits of using WRF are related to the better representation of extreme events that are an

  13. An interpretation of the interannual mass trend change over the Indochina Peninsula observed by GRACE data (United States)

    Yamamoto, K.; Fukuda, Y.; Nakaegawa, T.; Hasegawa, T.; Taniguchi, M.


    In Research Institute for Humanity and Nature, a project “Human Impacts on Urban Subsurface Environments” to assess impacts of human activities on urban subsurface environment in several Asian developing cities is now in progress. Although one of the main purposes of the project is to investigate local groundwater systems on and around the urban cities, the project also aims to understand large-scale landwater movements including the areas, and Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite gravity data is used for the purpose. In the previous study (Yamamoto et al., 2010), we recovered the regional-scale interannual landwater mass variation over the Indochina Peninsula, which includes one of the test cities in the project, i.e. Bangkok, Thailand, by using GRACE data. The recovered mass variation showed the change of the interannual trend at around the beginning of 2005: it decreased up to the beginning of 2005, and after that, increased up to 2009. The compared results with observed/modeled hydrological and meteorological data sets showed that the observed trend change did not caused by regional human activities, e.g. excessive groundwater pumping, but caused by global-scale meteorological phenomena. In fact, the interannual mass variation showed high correlation with the climate index represents the intensity of Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) phenomena. In this study, we investigated the correlation mechanism between the interannual mass change in the Indochina Peninsula and the IOD phenomena, which is the spatial anomaly pattern of sea surface temperature. We firstly made the moisture flux data sets in the GRACE mission duration by using atmospheric objective reanalysis data. The obtained flux pattern was discussed by comparing with the typical flux pattern during the pure IOD years estimated by Ummenhofer et al., 2009. Further, the moisture flux over the Indochina Peninsula was assessed whether the value is quantitatively agreeable by comparing with

  14. Drought impacts on vegetation in the pre- and post-fire events over Iberian Peninsula (United States)

    Gouveia, C. M.; Bastos, A.; Trigo, R. M.; DaCamara, C. C.


    The present work aims to study the combined effect of drought and large wildfires in the Iberian Peninsula relying on remotely sensed data of vegetation dynamics and leaf moisture content, in particular monthly NDVI, NDWI and NDDI time series from 1999-2009, derived from VEGETATION dataset. The impact of the exceptional 2004/2005 drought on vegetation was assessed for vegetation recovering from the extraordinary fire season of 2003 and on the conditions that contributed to the onsetting of the fire season of 2005. Drought severity was estimated by the cumulative negative effect on photosynthetic activity (NDVI) and vegetation dryness (NDDI), with about 2/3 of Iberian Peninsula presenting vegetative stress and low water availability conditions, in spring and early summer of 2005. Furthermore, NDDI has shown to be very useful to assess drought, since it combines information on vegetation and water conditions. Moreover, we show that besides looking at the inter-annual variability of NDVI and NDDI, it is useful to evaluate intra-annual changes (δNDVI and δNDDI), as indicators of change in vegetation greenness, allowing a detailed picture of the ability of the different land-cover types to resist to short-term dry conditions. In order to assess drought impact on post-fire regeneration, recovery times were evaluated by a mono-parametric model based on NDVI data and values corresponding to drought months were set to no value. Drought has shown to delay recovery times for several months in all the selected scars from 2003. The analysis of vegetation dynamics and fire selectivity in 2005 suggests that fires tended to occur in pixels presenting lower vegetative and water stress conditions during spring and early summer months. Additionally, pre-fire vegetation dynamics, in particular vegetation density and water availability during spring and early summer, has shown to influence significantly the levels of fire damage. These results stress the role of fuel availability in

  15. High-resolution speleothem record of precipitation from the Yucatan Peninsula spanning the Maya Preclassic Period (United States)

    Medina-Elizalde, Martín; Burns, Stephen J.; Polanco-Martínez, Josué M.; Beach, Timothy; Lases-Hernández, Fernanda; Shen, Chuan-Chou; Wang, Hao-Cheng


    We produced a new high-resolution absolute U-Th dated stalagmite oxygen isotope record (δ18O) from Río Secreto, Playa del Carmen, Yucatan Peninsula (YP). This new 1434-year stalagmite record (named Itzamna after the Maya god of creation) spans the time interval between BCE 1037 and CE 397 with an average resolution of 8 ± 2 years. It provides a novel view of climate evolution over the Preclassic and early Classic periods in Maya history. To understand the controls of regional precipitation δ18O on seasonal time scales, we characterized the amount effect between precipitation amount (P) and precipitation δ18O (δP). We found that precipitation δ18O in the Yucatan Peninsula is controlled by the amount effect on seasonal scales (δP/ΔP = - 0.0137 ± 0.0031‰ per mm, r = 0.9), as suspected but never before demonstrated. Cave drip δ18O is consistent with the annual amount-weighted δ18O composition of precipitation. Multiple lines of evidence suggest that stalagmite δ18O reflects isotopic equilibrium conditions and thus stalagmite δ18O changes are interpreted to reflect precipitation amount. We determined quantitative precipitation changes from the stalagmite δ18O record following previous methods (Medina-Elizalde and Rohling, 2012). The stalagmite precipitation record suggests twelve periods of anomalous precipitation reductions ranging between about 30 and 70% below mean conditions at the time and with durations from 6 years to 31 years. Between BCE 520 and 166, the speleothem precipitation record suggests that the YP experienced an interval of high precipitation labeled the Late Preclassic Humid Period (LPHP) with precipitation maxima of up to + 86 ± 20%. Preclassic Maya cultural expansion in El Mirador Basin, located in northern Guatemala, took place while the peninsula transitioned from the LPHP to an interval with below average precipitation. We find that the Preclassic abandonment of major centers in the Mirador Basin and others around the Maya

  16. Modelling Chemical Patterns of Atmospheric Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the Iberian Peninsula (United States)

    Ratola, Nuno; Jiménez-Guerrero, Pedro


    Semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) such as PBDEs, PCBs, organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) or PAHs, are widespread and generated in a multitude of anthropogenic (and natural for PAHs) processes and although they are found in the environment at low concentrations, possess an extraordinary carcinogenic capacity (Baussant et al., 2001) and high ecotoxicity due to their persistence in different matrices (air, soil, water, living organisms). In particular, PAHs are originated by combustion processes or release from fossil fuels and can be transported in the atmosphere over long distances in gaseous or particulate matter (Baek et al., 1991). The establishment of strategies for sampling and chemical transport modelling of SVOCs in the atmosphere aiming the definition and validation of the spatial, temporal and chemical transport patterns of contaminants can be achieved by an integrated system of third-generation models that represent the current state of knowledge in air quality modelling and experimental data collected in field campaigns. This has implications in the fields of meteorology, atmospheric chemistry and even climate change. In this case, an extensive database already obtained on levels of atmospheric PAHs from biomonitoring schemes in the Iberian Peninsula fuelled the establishment of the first models of behaviour for PAHs. The modelling system WRF+CHIMERE was implemented with high spatial and temporal resolution to the Iberian Peninsula in this first task (9 km for the Iberian Peninsula, 3 km to Portugal, 1 hour), using PAHs atmospheric levels collected over a year-long sampling scheme comprising 4 campaigns (one per season) in over 30 sites. Daily information on meteorological parameters such as air temperature, humidity, rainfall or wind speed and direction was collected from the weather stations closest to the sampling sites. Diagnosis and forecasts of these meteorological variables using MM5 or WRF were used to feed a chemistry transport model

  17. Seismic anisotropy and velocity structure beneath the southern half of the Iberian Peninsula (United States)

    Serrano, I.; Hearn, T. M.; Morales, J.; Torcal, F.


    Travel times of 11,612 Pn arrivals collected from 7675 earthquakes are inverted to image the uppermost mantle velocity and anisotropy structure beneath the southern half of the Iberian Peninsula and surrounding regions. Pn phases are routinely identified and picked for epicentral distances from 200 to 1200 km. The method used in this study allows simultaneous imaging of variations of Pn velocity and anisotropy. The results show an average uppermost mantle velocity beneath the study area of 8.0 km/s. The peninsular area covered by the Iberian massif is characterized by high Pn velocity, as expected in tectonically stable regions, indicating areas of the Hercynian belt that have not recently been reactivated. The margins of the Iberian Peninsula have undergone a great number of recent tectonic events and are characterized by a pronouncedly low Pn velocity, as is common in areas greatly affected by recent tectonic and magmatic activity. Our model indicates that the Betic crustal root might be underlined by a negative anomaly beneath the southeastern Iberian Peninsula. In the Atlantic Ocean, we find a sharp variation in the uppermost mantle velocities that coincides with the structural complexity of the European and African plate boundary in the Gulf of Cadiz. Our results show a very pronounced low-velocity anomaly offshore from Cape San Vicente whereas high velocities are distributed along the coast in the Gulf of Cadiz. In the Alboran Sea and northern Morocco, the direction of the fastest Pn velocity found is almost parallel to the Africa-Eurasia plate convergence vector (northwest-southeast) whereas to the north, this direction is almost parallel to the main trend of the Betic Cordillera, i.e. east-west in its central part and north-south in the curvature of the Arc of Gibraltar. This suggests that a significant portion of the uppermost mantle has been involved in the orogenic deformation that produced the arcuate structure of the Betic Cordillera. However, we

  18. Bosmina (Eubosmina coregoni Baird, 1857 (Crustacea, Branchiopoda, Anomopoda: New planktonic invader in the Iberian peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldes, A. M.


    Full Text Available Bosmina (Eubosmina coregoni Baird, 1857 has been recorded for the first time in the Iberian Peninsula. It is a planktonic cladoceran widely distributed in the Holarctic region which was never previously referred in the Iberian Peninsula in spite of the numerous and intensive studies on freshwater planktonic fauna in this geographic area in the last three decades. The species appeared in five reservoirs located in the Northwest quadrant. Excepting Valdecañas reservoir, which can be considered eutrophic, the others (Bárcena, Peares, Belesar and Aguieira were classified as meso-eutrophic. The only morphotype found corresponds to Bosmina (Eubosmina coregoni ssp. coregoni. The maximum abundance of this species occurred during the winter period. It is plausible to consider that waterfowl migration and the presence of recreational boats might be the dispersion vector of this species in Iberian Peninsula.Se cita Bosmina (Eubosmina coregoni Baird, 1857 por vez primera en la península ibérica. Se trata de un cladócero planctónico ampliamente distribuido en la región holártica, que no había sido previamente referido en la península ibérica a pesar de los numerosos e intensivos estudios sobre la fauna planctónica de agua dulce realizados durante las últimas tres décadas en este ámbito geográfico. La especie ha aparecido en cinco embalses situados en el cuadrante noroccidental. Con excepción del Embalse de Valdecañas, que se puede considerar eutrófico, los restantes (Bárcena, Peares, Belesar y Aguieira fueron clasificados como mesoeutróficos. El único morfotipo encontrado corresponde a Bosmina (Eubosmina coregoni ssp. coregoni. La abundancia máxima de la especie ocurrió durante el período del invierno. Es plausible considerar que las aves acuáticas y la presencia de embarcaciones de recreo pudieron ser un vector importante de la dispersión de esta especie en la península ibérica.

  19. Ocean Drilling Program Leg 178 (Antarctic Peninsula): Sedimentology of glacially influenced continental margin topsets and foresets (United States)

    Eyles, N.; Daniels, J.; Osterman, L.E.; Januszczak, N.


    Ocean Drilling Program Leg 178 (February-April 1998) drilled two sites (Sites 1097 and 1103) on the outer Antarctic Peninsula Pacific continental shelf. Recovered strata are no older than late Miocene or early Pliocene (<4.6 Ma). Recovery at shallow depths in loosely consolidated and iceberg-turbated bouldery sediment was poor but improved with increasing depth and consolidation to allow description of lithofacies and biofacies and interpretation of depositional environment. Site 1097 lies on the outer shelf within Marguerite Trough which is a major outlet for ice expanding seaward from the Antarctic Peninsula and reached a maximum depth drilled of 436.6 m below the sea floor (mbsf). Seismic stratigraphic data show flat-lying upper strata resting on strata that dip gently seaward. Uppermost strata, to a depth of 150 mbsf, were poorly recovered, but data suggest they consist of diamictites containing reworked and abraded marine microfauna. This interval is interpreted as having been deposited largely as till produced by subglacial cannibalization of marine sediments (deformation till) recording ice sheet expansion across the shelf. Underlying gently dipping strata show massive, stratified and graded diamictite facies with common bioturbation and slump stuctures that are interbedded with laminated and massive mudstones with dropstones. The succession contains a well-preserved in situ marine microfauna typical of open marine and proglacial marine environments. The lower gently dipping succession at Site 1097 is interpreted as a complex of sediment gravity flows formed of poorly sorted glacial debris. Site 1103 was drilled in that part of the continental margin that shows uppermost flat-lying continental shelf topsets overlying steeper dipping slope foresets seaward of a structural mid-shelf high. Drilling reached a depth of 363 mbsf with good recovery in steeply dipping continental slope foreset strata. Foreset strata are dominated by massive and chaotically

  20. Wildlife uses and hunting patterns in rural communities of the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos-Fita Dídac


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Subsistence hunting is a traditional practice providing food and many other goods for households in the Yucatan Peninsula, southeast Mexico. Economic, demographic, and cultural change in this region drive wildlife habitat loss and local extinctions. Improving our understanding about current practices of wildlife use may support better management strategies for conserving game species and their habitat. We aimed to evaluate if wildlife use remained relevant for the subsistence of rural residents of the Yucatan Peninsula, as well as if local hunting practices were related to environmental, geographical, and cultural factors. Methods Fieldwork was done between March 2010 and March 2011. Information was obtained through conversations, interviews, and participant observation. Record forms allowed recording animals hunted, biomass extracted, distance intervals to hunting sites, habitat types and seasonality of wildlife harvests. Data were analyzed using one-way Analysis of Variance, and Generalized Linear Models. Results Forty-six terrestrial vertebrate species were used for obtaining food, medicine, tools, adornments, pets, ritual objects, and for sale and mitigating damage. We recorded 968 animals taken in 664 successful hunting events. The Great Curassow, Ocellated Turkey, paca, white-tailed deer, and collared peccary were the top harvested species, providing 80.7% of biomass (10,190 kg. The numbers of animals hunted and biomass extracted declined as hunting distances increased from villages. Average per capita consumption was 4.65 ± 2.7 kg/person/year. Hunting frequencies were similar in forested and agricultural areas. Discussion Wildlife use, hunting patterns, and technologies observed in our study sites were similar to those recorded in previous studies for rural Mayan and mestizo communities in the Yucatan Peninsula and other Neotropical sites. The most heavily hunted species were those providing more products and by

  1. Postglacial relative sea level change at Fildes Peninsula, King George Island (West Antarctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. V. Polishchuk


    Full Text Available Analysis and integration of data obtained in our field and laboratory investigations of 2008–2012 together with results of previous paleogeographic studies were conducted to reveal parameters and factors of the post-glacial changes in the relative sea-level on the Fildes Peninsula and the King George Island. Results of dating of organic material taken from cross-sections of Quaternary deposits, data on morphology of marine landforms as well as on bottom sediments in lakes were used to construct a curve of changes in the relative sea-level.Our research has shown that the rapid rise of relative sea level in the area (since the beginning of the Holocene decelerated about 8000 years BP, achieving its maximum about 7000 years BP. This was followed by the fall of relative sea-level (the land elevation by 18–20  m in total, and it was characterized by relatively high rate of fall during periods of 6000– 5000 years BP, 4000–2500 years BP, and during the last 1500 years; the rate decreased in 5000–4000 years BP and 2500– 1600 years BP. The changes in relative sea level in this region were determined by the following factors: the eustatic component of the global changes in sea-level and, possibly, oscillations in the global sea level of another nature; local parameters of the Last glacial maximum; a course of the Peninsula deglaciation; regional physical characteristics of the Earth's crust and the mantle substances; local tectonic processes, including the isostatic rebound. Since the beginning of the Holocene up to about 7000 years BP, the main contribution to changes of the relative sea-level in this area was made by the global eustatic factor. The subsequent fall of the relative sea-level (elevation of the Peninsula surface proceeded under condition of reduced role of the eustatic factor and predominance of other factors.

  2. Volumetric runoff coefficients for experimental rural catchments in the Iberian Peninsula (United States)

    Taguas, Encarnación V.; Molina, Cecilio; Nadal-Romero, Estela; Ayuso, José L.; Casalí, Javier; Cid, Patricio; Dafonte, Jorge; Duarte, Antonio C.; Farguell, Joaquim; Giménez, Rafael; Giráldez, Juan V.; Gómez, Helena; Gómez, Jose A.; González-Hidalgo, J. Carlos; Keizer, J. Jacob; Lucía, Ana; Mateos, Luciano; Rodríguez-Blanco, M. Luz; Schnabel, Sussane; Serrano-Muela, M. Pilar


    Analysis of runoff and peaks therein is essential for designing hydraulic infrastructures and for assessing the hydrological implications of likely scenarios of climate and/or land-use change. Different methods are available to calculate runoff coefficients. For instance, the runoff coefficient of a catchment can be described either as the ratio of total depth of runoff to total depth of rainfall or as the ratio of peak flow to rainfall intensity for the time of concentration (Dhakal et al. 2012). If the first definition is considered, runoff coefficients represent the global effect of different features and states of catchments and its determination requires a suitable analysis according to the objectives pursued (Chow et al., 1988). In this work, rainfall-runoff data and physical attributes from small rural catchments located in the Iberian Peninsula (Portugal and Spain) were examined in order to compare the representative values of runoff coefficients using three different approaches: i) statistical analysis of rainfall-runoff data and their quantiles (Dhakal et al., 2012); ii) probabilistic runoff coefficients from the rank-ordered pairs of observed rainfall-runoff data and their relationships with rainfall depths (Schaake et al., 1967); iii) finally, a multiple linear model based on geomorphological attributes. These catchments exhibit great variety with respect to their natural settings, such as climate, topography and lithology. We present a preliminary analysis of the rainfall-runoff relationships as well as their variability in a complex context such as the Iberian Peninsula where contrasted environmental systems coexist. We also discuss reference parameters representing runoff coefficients commonly included into hydrological models. This study is conceived as the first step to explore further working protocols and modeling gaps in a very susceptible area to the climate change such as the Iberian Peninsula's, where the analysis of runoff coefficients is

  3. A genetic reconstruction of the history of the population of the Iberian Peninsula. (United States)

    Bertranpetit, J; Cavalli-Sforza, L L


    The genetic patterns detectable in human populations of the Iberian Peninsula are shown by means of 'synthetic genetic maps', i.e. geographic maps of the highest principal components (PC) of gene frequencies. This method of analysis separates independent patterns of the genetic landscape, which hopefully represents different, major evolutionary events of the past. Among these are clines established by ancient important migrations, and local differentiations of populations due to barriers responsible for relative isolation. Only events of some magnitude from a demographic point of view, involving populations having initially definite genetic differences are detectable by the method. For this to be true, the genetic consequences of these events must not have been entirely smoothed out by later, prolonged genetic exchange between neighbours; but simulations have shown that long clines produced by major migrations can be rather stable in time. The first synthetic map, corresponding to the first PC, shows that the major difference in the Iberian Peninsula is that between people originally of Basque and non-Basque descent. The recession in time of the boundaries of the Basque-speaking area seems correlated with the progressive genetic dilution of the Basque genotype in modern populations, as we move away from the centre of the Basque area. Clearly there must have been a close relationship in the progressive loss of the Basque language and increasing genetic admixture with neighbours. Most probably, Basques represent descendants of Paleolithic and/or Mesolithic populations and non-Basques later arrivals, beginning with the Neolithic. The second synthetic map is correlated with early Neolithic infiltrations from the eastern edge of the Pyrenees. It has been shown by archaeologists that, in some areas, early Neolithics lived side by side at overlapping dates with well developed Mesolithics. The demographic impact of Neolithic farmers versus Mesolithics, and therefore their

  4. The pressure-temperature-time evolution of the Antarctic Peninsula - magmatic arc and/or terrane tectonics? (United States)

    Wendt, A. S.; Vidal, O.; Vaughan, A.


    The tectonic mobility in orogenic systems requires that the geologic history of each rock unit must be evaluated on the merits of the information gleaned more from individual outcrops than from regional generalisation. Continental margins affected by tectonic processes commonly have a region where the stratigraphic elements should be considered suspect in regard to palaeogeographic linkages both among the elements and between each element and the adjoining continent. Such occurrences might be considered as a natural consequence of the mobility and transient state of oceanic crust so that exotic far-travelled crustal fragments can be expected. The collision of those fragments and their distribution patterns reflect in general a combination of several tectonic phases such as overthrusting, stitching of plutons along the contact and welding metamorphism. The Antarctic Peninsula is an example "par excellence" for testing those tectonic processes occurring along continental margins. Prior to Mid-Jurassic times, the peninsula in its entity is thought to have formed a part of the palaeo-Pacific margin. East-directed subduction along the margin occurred during Mesozoic-Tertiary times producing a magmatic arc complex, in which volcanic and plutonic rocks are distributed widely along the length of the peninsula. However, recent discoveries suggest also that the Antarctic Peninsula is composed of at least two terranes in transpressional contact with para-autochthonous continental Gondwana margin. The reconstruction of the geological history becomes a challenging task in the hostile environment of the Antarctic where individual outcrops are scattered over large geographical distances, and structural relationships are obscured by thick layers of ice. In this work, we are attempting to correlate for the first time the pressure-temperature-time evolution of metamorphic rocks parallel to the spine of the peninsula and their structural relationship to the volcanic and plutonic

  5. Corporeidade da voz : estudo da vocalidade poetica


    Fernando Manoel Aleixo


    Resumo: Este material é o resultado da investigação prática da voz realizada a partir do desenvolvimento do princípio da sabedoria sensível do corpo. O texto expõe as etapas percorridas no levantamento de experiências e reflexões pedagógicas sobre a voz do ator, no estabelecimento de referências sobre o corpo e o aprendizado sensível e, também, no processo de composição poética do espetáculo teatral Voz Mercê Abstract: This material springs from a practical investigative work on voice base...

  6. The Holocene deglaciation of the Byers Peninsula (Livingston Island, Antarctica) based on the dating of lake sedimentary records (United States)

    Oliva, M.; Antoniades, D.; Giralt, S.; Granados, I.; Pla-Rabes, S.; Toro, M.; Liu, E. J.; Sanjurjo, J.; Vieira, G.


    The process of deglaciation in the Antarctic Peninsula region has large implications for the geomorphological and ecological dynamics of the ice-free environments. However, uncertainties still remain regarding the age of deglaciation in many coastal environments, as is the case in the South Shetland Islands. This study focuses on the Byers Peninsula, the largest ice-free area in this archipelago and the one with greatest biodiversity in Antarctica. A complete lacustrine sedimentary sequence was collected from five lakes distributed along a transect from the western coast to the Rotch Dome glacier front: Limnopolar, Chester, Escondido, Cerro Negro and Domo lakes. A multiple dating approach based on 14C, thermoluminescence and tephrochronology was applied to the cores in order to infer the Holocene environmental history and identify the deglaciation chronology in the Byers Peninsula. The onset of the deglaciation started during the Early Holocene in the western fringe of the Byers Peninsula according to the basal dating of Limnopolar Lake (ca. 8.3 cal. ky BP). Glacial retreat gradually exposed the highest parts of the Cerro Negro nunatak in the SE corner of Byers, where Cerro Negro Lake is located; this lake was glacier-free since at least 7.5 ky. During the Mid-Holocene the retreat of the Rotch Dome glacier cleared the central part of the Byers plateau of ice, and Escondido and Chester lakes formed at 6 cal. ky BP and 5.9 ky, respectively. The dating of the basal sediments of Domo Lake suggests that the deglaciation of the current ice-free easternmost part of the Byers Peninsula occurred before 1.8 cal. ky BP.

  7. Industrial heritage sites in Spitsbergen (Svalbard), South Georgia and the Antarctic Peninsula: Sources of historical information (United States)

    Hacquebord, Louwrens; Avango, Dag


    Industrial heritage sites in Polar Regions are very important as sources of historical information. Together with archival documents this information gives us the possibility to complete the picture of the exploitation of natural resources in those regions. Thirty years of historical-archaeological field research at whaling and mining sites in Spitsbergen (Svalbard), South Georgia and the Antarctic Peninsula has shown that these sites can provide unique evidence about the driving forces behind industrial development, the design of industrial technology, the structure of the settlements, strategies to control natural resources and achieve political influence, and the impact of resource extraction on the local environment. In this article we will give examples of the results of our research at these sites.

  8. The geomagnetic field intensity variations in the Iberian Peninsula during the last millennium (United States)

    Nachasova, I. E.; Akimova, S. V.


    The pattern of variations in the intensity of the geomagnetic field starting from the middle of the sixth millennium B.C. is reconstructed from the data about the intensity of the ancient geomagnetic field in the region of the Iberian Peninsula provided by the archaeomagnetic studies of ceramics from archaeological monuments. In this time interval, the intensity of the field widely varies from ~30 to ~90 µT. The smooth variation of the field is superimposed by the variations with characteristic times from thousands to hundreds of years. The intensity variations can be subdivided into two groups: rather sharp variations with a characteristic duration of about 200 years and smooth quasi-harmonic fluctuations with a duration of a few hundred years.

  9. A Preliminary Paleomagnetic Rsult of Quaternary Drilling Core form Southern Leizhou Peninsula,Guangdong Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王俊达; 梁池生; 等


    313 orientated samples were collected from Drilling Core ZK1 in southern Leizhou Peninsula for the study of Quaternary paleomagnetic strato-chronology.Te polarity measurement results indicate that the core recorded paleomagnetic information in three main parts:the upper one of the core,from the ground surface to the depth of 39m ,is normally magnetized in polarity,the middle one,from 39m 59 210m in depth,mainly shows reversed polarity and the lower one recorded normal polarity again.They correspond to the Brunhes normal chron,the Matuyama reversed chron and the Guass normal chron in the geomagnetic polarity time scale,respectively.The age of he core could be over 3.4Ma.Meanwhile,the magnetic susceptibility was measured and its result is significant for stratigraphic division and paleoclimatic research.

  10. Snow chemistry measurements on James Ross Island (Antarctic Peninsula) showing sea-salt aerosol modifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aristarain, A.J. [Instituto Antartico Argentino (Argentina). Lab. de Estratigrafia Glaciar y Geoquimica de la Nieve; Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas, Mendoza (Argentina); Delmas, R.J. [Laboratoire de Glaciologie et Geophysique de l' Environnement du CNRS, St Martin d' Heres (France)


    The fractionation of atmospheric sea-salt has been investigated by glaciochemical analysis of the sea-salt deposited on the snow covering the small ice cap of James Ross Island, Antarctic Peninsula, at an elevation of 1640m. The data show that, generally, but not always, the sea-salt deposited at this location most likely originates directly from seawater, as is the case at lower latitudes. It is found that the original chemical composition of the sea-salt aerosol is significantly modified, in particular by the reaction of sea-salt particles in the atmosphere with acid species. A ternary diagram (sodium, chloride, sulfate) is used to enlighten the involved modification processes. The study points out the frequent formation of HCl in the regional atmosphere. (Author)

  11. Macroalgal diversity of Santa Cesarea-Castro (Salento Peninsula, southeastern Italy

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    Antonella Bottalico


    Full Text Available The benthic macroalgal flora from the eastern Ionian coastal area of the Peninsula Salentina is scarcely studied. This study gives a contribution to the knowledge on its biodiversity in this area, which also includes marine caves, and the geographical distribution of some interesting species. A total of 174 macroalgae (119 Rhodophyta, 27 Ochrophyta, and 28 Chlorophyta were identified. Six species are first records for the region, one of which, Liagora ceranoides, represents a new record for the Italian flora. The vegetation of most of the wave-exposed rocky substrata, as well as of the two sulphureous caves at Santa Cesarea Terme is characterised by extensive populations of Corallinales. The chorological spectrum of the flora shows a high occurrence of Indo-Pacific and Circumtropical elements, thus resulting more similar to that of floras of the Greek Ionian Sea.

  12. An annotated check-list of lophogastrids (Crustacea: Lophogastrida) from the seas of the Iberian Peninsula. (United States)

    Vicente, Carlos San


    The zoogeographic distribution of lophogastrid species occurring in the diverse seas of the Iberian Peninsula and neighbouring areas is analysed. For each species, data on general distribution, bathymetric ranges, habitat and localities reported on published data are provided. A total of 16 lophogastrids species belonging to 6 genera have been recorded, representing the 30% of all known world extant species and the 67% of genera. Two of them are common to the Atlantic and the Mediterranean. All known Iberian species are present in the Macaronesian region, 43.8% in the North-western Atlantic and 12.5% in the western Mediterranean. Lophogastrid distributions suggest the existence of an evolution and distribution centre of the group located around the Macaronesian Islands.

  13. Detection of hand, foot and mouth disease in the Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Machain-Williams


    Full Text Available We report a case of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD in a 5-year-old male from Merida City in the Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico. A clinical and physical examination revealed that the patient had symptoms typical of HFMD, including fever, fatigue, odynophagia, throat edema, hyperemia, lesions on the hands and feet, and blisters in the oral cavity. The patient fully recovered after a convalescence period of almost three weeks. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and nucleotide sequencing revealed that the etiological agent was enterovirus 71 (EV71. The sequence has greatest (90.4% nucleotide identity to the corresponding regions of EV71 isolates from the Netherlands and Singapore. Although HFMD is presumably common in Mexico, surprisingly there are no data in the PubMed database to support this. This case report provides the first peer-reviewed evidence of HFMD in Mexico.

  14. Geology of the Arabian Peninsula; shield area of western Saudi Arabia (United States)

    Brown, Glen F.; Schmidt, Dwight L.; Huffman, A. Curtis


    Western Arabia lies within the low-latitude desert of north Africa and the Middle East, the core being the Arabian segment of the African Shield. The core of complex basement rocks accounts for about 670,000 km2, or one-third of the Arabian Peninsula. Reconnaissance mapping of these crystalline rocks, together with bordering sedimentary rocks and volcanic flows, begun in 1950, resulted during the next 13 years in a series of geologic and geographic maps without extensive texts. The maps served as general guides for development of natural resources, including water supplies, ore deposits, and building materials. An intensive exploration program that began in 1963 and involved numerous geologists has vastly increased geologic information.

  15. Contaminants in the coastal karst aquifer system along the Caribbean coast of the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. (United States)

    Metcalfe, Chris D; Beddows, Patricia A; Bouchot, Gerardo Gold; Metcalfe, Tracy L; Li, Hongxia; Van Lavieren, Hanneke


    Intensive land development as a result of the rapidly growing tourism industry in the "Riviera Maya" region of the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico may result in contamination of groundwater resources that eventually discharge into Caribbean coastal ecosystems. We deployed two types of passive sampling devices into groundwater flowing through cave systems below two communities to evaluate concentrations of contaminants and to indicate the possible sources. Pharmaceuticals and personal care products accumulated in the samplers could only have originated from domestic sewage. PAHs indicated contamination by runoff from highways and other impermeable surfaces and chlorophenoxy herbicides accumulated in samplers deployed near a golf course indicated that pesticide applications to turf are a source of contamination. Prevention and mitigation measures are needed to ensure that expanding development does not impact the marine environment and human health, thus damaging the tourism-based economy of the region.

  16. Two decades of inorganic carbon dynamics along the Western Antarctic Peninsula (United States)

    Hauri, C.; Doney, S. C.; Takahashi, T.; Erickson, M.; Jiang, G.; Ducklow, H. W.


    We present 20 years of seawater inorganic carbon measurements collected along the western shelf and slope of the Antarctic Peninsula. Water column observations from summertime cruises and seasonal surface underway pCO2 measurements provide unique insights into the spatial, seasonal and interannual variability of the dynamic system. The discrete measurements from depths > 2000 m align well with World Ocean Circulation Experiment observations across the time-series and underline the consistency of the data set. Analysis shows large spatial gradients in surface alkalinity and dissolved inorganic carbon content, with a concomitant wide range of Ωarag from values statistically significant increasing trend of up to 23 μatm per decade in fall and spring and a concomitant decreasing pH, pointing towards first signs of ocean acidification in the region. The combination of ongoing ocean acidification and freshwater input may soon provoke more unfavorable conditions than what the ecosystem experiences today.

  17. Two decades of inorganic carbon dynamics along the West Antarctic Peninsula (United States)

    Hauri, C.; Doney, S. C.; Takahashi, T.; Erickson, M.; Jiang, G.; Ducklow, H. W.


    We present 20 years of seawater inorganic carbon measurements collected along the western shelf and slope of the Antarctic Peninsula. Water column observations from summertime cruises and seasonal surface underway pCO2 measurements provide unique insights into the spatial, seasonal, and interannual variability in this dynamic system. Discrete measurements from depths > 2000 m align well with World Ocean Circulation Experiment observations across the time series and underline the consistency of the data set. Surface total alkalinity and dissolved inorganic carbon data showed large spatial gradients, with a concomitant wide range of Ωarag (statistically significant long-term trends, the combination of on-going ocean acidification and freshwater input may soon induce more unfavorable conditions than the ecosystem experiences today.

  18. Moth Fauna of Gageodo Island in the Southwestern Sea, Korean Peninsula, including Seven Unrecorded Species (Lepidoptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choi, Sei-Woong


    Full Text Available We surveyed moths on Gageodo island in the southwestern sea of the Korean Peninsula over three years (2009, 2012, 2013 and found a total of 253 species in 18 families. Geometridae had the greatest species richness, with 63 species, followed by Noctuidae, Erebidae, Crambidae and Sphingidae. The annual changes in species richness and abundance were not different and seasonal occurrence of species showed a unimodal pattern in which the numbers of species and individuals increased from April and May, peaked in June and decreased to September and October. Seven moth species (Pyralidae: Herculia drabicilialis Yamanaka, Didia striatella (Inoue; Crambidae: Clupeosoma pryeri (Butler, Demobotys pervulgalis (Hampson, Yezobotys dissimilis (Yamanaka, Syllepte cissalis Yamanaka; Erebidae: Hypena sinuosa (Wileman are reported for the first time in Korea.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yesugey Sadik Cengiz


    Full Text Available Earthquakes are tectonic events that take place within the fractures of the earth's crust, namely faults. Above certain scale, earthquakes can result in widespread fatalities and substantial financial loss. In addition to the movement of tectonic plates relative to each other, it is widely discussed that there are other external influences originate outside earth that can trigger earthquakes. These influences are called "triggering effects". The purpose of this article is to present a statistical view to elaborate if the solar geomagnetic storms trigger earthquakes.As a model, the research focuses on the Anatolian peninsula, presenting 41 years of historical data on magnetic storms and earthquakes collated from national and international resources. As a result of the comparative assessment of the data, it is concluded that the geomagnetic storms do not trigger earthquakes.

  20. Sharing Water on the Iberian Peninsula: A Europeanisation Approach to Explaining Transboundary Cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanie J. Bukowski


    Full Text Available This paper applies the Europeanisation perspective to the policy change evident in the 1998 Convention on Cooperation for the Protection and Sustainable Use of the Waters of the Spanish-Portuguese Basins (Albufeira convention. The 'top-down' Europeanisation framework is applied here to a case involving simultaneous, joint adaptation to European Union (EU policy in terms of two states negotiating a transborder agreement that encompasses institutional changes required by that policy. This study provides an analysis of transnational policy change in an area of vital importance in international relations, namely, shared freshwater resources. It finds that while the Europeanisation framework may be applied effectively to transboundary adaptation (not just cross-country comparison and goes a long way in explaining cooperation on the Iberian Peninsula, it is incomplete in its consideration of other influences within and beyond 'Europe', from the global to the local levels.

  1. Coastal geomorphic evolution at the Denglou Cape,the Leizhou Peninsula

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽荣; 赵焕庭; 宋朝景; 袁家义; 于红兵


    The Denglou Cape, southwest of the Leizhou Peninsula, is the most typical tropical coast in the continent of China. The coastal geomorphic development basics of the geology and Quaternary environment change are discussed. Aerial photograph interpretation with fieldwork is applied to draw the outlines of geomorphic types. Based on the investigative data, the exogenic forces and marine organism conditions concerning tropical coast development in the area are expounded, and coastal dynano-deposition geomorphic bodies are analysed, mainly with sea cliff-abrasion platform, barrier-lagoon system,modern beach, coral reef and mangrove tidal flat, and the general process of coastal evolution at this area, as well as coastline changes since middle Holocene transgression.

  2. Genetic variation in parthenogenetic Artemia from the Shandong Peninsula, P.R.C. (United States)

    King, Charles E.; Zhao, Yuqi; Liu, Xin; Li, Mingren


    Results are presented of a survey of isozyme frequencies in parthenogenetic Artimia from six salterns in the Shandong Peninsula, P.R.C. Three of the eleven enzymes we scored using polyacryamide gel electrophoresis proved to be useful for analysis of electromorph frequency variation. These enzymes are tetrazolium oxidase (TO), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and malate dehydrogenase (MDH). Each of these systems showed extensive isozyme variation both within and between salterns. In addition, we have examined the possibility that electromorph frequencies may vary as the result of natural selection for adaptation to specific salinity, or salinity-associated environmental conditions. An indication of clinal variation was found in two series of ponds differing in salinity, however more extensive data are needed before it is possible to conclude that these patterns are the result of natural selection. Finally, the use of isozyme analyses such as ours, for unraveling taxonomic problems in Artemia is discussed.

  3. Evaluation of the Mineral Status of Two Ecosystems for Sustainable Goat Rearing in the Iberian Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Vilallonga


    Full Text Available The mineral status in two ecosystems typical of the Iberian Peninsula was evaluated. Ecosystem I was formed by forests and ecosystem II by hilly areas. The levels of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, iron, copper, zinc and selenium in soils, rations and serum were measured. The concentratons of iron, copper, zinc and selenium were also checked in liver. Ecosystem I showed higher values of every mineral, except for phosphorus. Seasonal differences were recorded for rations and serum, with higher values in spring. The rations produced by both ecosystems met the mineral requirements of goats in lactation. Thus, both ecosystems are suitable for the development of an ecological goat farming system. However, extra supply of minerals, particularly calcium, may be needed in the maximum productions periods.

  4. Detailed ice loss pattern in the northern Antarctic Peninsula: widespread decline driven by ice front retreats

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    T. A. Scambos


    Full Text Available The northern Antarctic Peninsula (nAP, 3 a−1 and 24.9 ± 7.8 Gt a−1. This mass loss is compatible with recent gravimetric assessments, but it implies that almost all the gravimetry-inferred loss lies in the nAP sector. Mass loss is highest for eastern glaciers affected by major ice shelf collapses in 1995 and 2002, where twelve glaciers account for 60% of the total imbalance. However, losses at smaller rates occur throughout the nAP, and at high and low elevation, despite increased snow accumulation along the western coast and at high elevations. We interpret the widespread mass loss to be driven by decades of ice front retreats on both sides of the nAP, and by the propagation of kinematic waves triggered at the fronts into the interior.

  5. Monitoring of vegetation dynamics and assessing vegetation response to drought in the Iberian Peninsula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Haro, F. J.; Moreno, A.; Perez-Hoyos, A.; Gilabert, M. A.; Melia, J.; Belda, F.; Poquet, D.; Martinez, B.; Verger, A.


    Monitoring the vegetation activity over long time-scales is necessary to discern ecosystem response to climate variability. Spatial and temporally consistent estimates of the biophysical variables such as fractional vegetation cover (FVC) and leaf area index (LAI) have been obtained in the context of DULCINEA Project. We used long-term monthly climate statistics to build simple climatic indices (SPI, moisture index) at different time scales. From these indices, we estimated that the climatic disturbances affected both the growing season and the total amount of vegetation. This implies that the anomaly of vegetation cover is a good indicator of moisture condition and can be an important data source when used for detecting an monitoring drought in the Iberian Peninsula. The impact of climate variability on the vegetation dynamics has shown not to be the same for every region. We concluded that the relationships between vegetation anomaly and moisture availability are significant for the arid and semiarid areas. (Author) 6 refs.

  6. Cross-Correlation Earthquake Precursors in the Hydrogeochemical and Geoacoustic Signals for the Kamchatka Peninsula

    CERN Document Server

    Ryabinin, G V; Polyakov, Yu S; Timashev, S F


    We propose a new type of earthquake precursor based on the analysis of correlation dynamics between geophysical signals of different nature. The precursor is found using a two-parameter cross-correlation function introduced within the framework of flicker-noise spectroscopy, a general statistical physics approach to the analysis of time series. We consider an example of cross-correlation analysis for water salinity time series, an integral characteristic of the chemical composition of groundwater, and geoacoustic emissions recorded at the G-1 borehole on the Kamchatka peninsula in the time frame from 2001 to 2003, which is characterized by a sequence of three groups of significant seismic events. We found that cross-correlation precursors took place 27, 31, and 35 days ahead of the strongest earthquakes for each group of seismic events, respectively. At the same time, precursory anomalies in the signals themselves were observed only in the geoacoustic emissions for one group of earthquakes.

  7. Dolomitization in a mixing zone of near-seawater composition, Late Pleistocene, northeastern Yucatan Peninsula (United States)

    Ward, W. C.; Halley, Robert B.


    Patches of dolomite occur in cores of reefal limestone from the shallow subsurface on the northeastern coast of the Yucatan Peninsula. This limestone accumulated during an interglacial high stand of sea level about 200,000 years ago. Dolomitization was preceded by freshwater diagenesis, including precipitation of sparry calcite cement, stabilization of Mg-calcitic skeletal fragments, and partial dissolution of aragonitic components. This suggests a predolomitization lowering of sea level with the consequent freshening of pore water. The subsequent precipitation of dolomite indicates a return to high sea level with the consequent increase in Mg/Ca ratio of pore water. Dolomitization took place during a brief high stand of sea level, either shortly after deposition about 200,000 yr BP, r, more likely, about 125,000 yr BP.

  8. The Romanian Schools and Churches in Balkan Peninsula. 1864-1948. Archives Documents

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    Adina Berciu-Drăghicescu


    Full Text Available The present article on Romanian schools and churches, in the Balkan Peninsula, over the period 1918-1948 is based on the unprecedented documents identified in the funds preserved in the Diplomatic Archives of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and in the Central Historic National Archives in Bucharest. The author has studied and selected the unprecedented documents that had the most important significance for the purpose of presenting the evolution of the school and churche situation of the Romanian communities situated at the south of the Danube, starting from year 1864, when the first school was established in Tarnova, (Macedonia and up to 1948 when the Romanian state abandoned the work unveiled by ruler Al. Ioan Cuza. The article presents this situation, very dramatic, of the Romanian communities from the Balkans based on the documents of Archives.

  9. Monitoring of land-based glaciers on James Ross Island, Antarctic Peninsula (United States)

    Laska, Kamil; Nyvlt, Daniel; Engel, Zbynek; Stachon, Zdenek


    Antarctic Peninsula has been considered one of the most rapidly warming parts of our planet during the second half of the 20th century. Therefore, James Ross Island located near the northern tip of the Antarctic Peninsula, represents a unique place to study the sensitivity of glacier systems to regional atmospheric warming. Since 2006, an integrated multidisciplinary study of glaciers and terrestrial ecosystems has been carried out in the northern part of Ulu Peninsula, James Ross Island. In this contribution, glacier monitoring network consisting of four dominant land-based glaciers at the Ulu Peninsula is presented. Davies Dome (DD) is an ice dome, which originates on the surface of a flat volcanic mesa at >400 m a.s.l. and terminates as a single 700 m wide outlet in Whisky Bay. In 2006, Davies Dome had an area of 6.5 km2 and lay in the altitude range 0-514 m a.s.l. Whisky Glacier (WG) is a cold-based land-terminating valley glacier, which is surrounded by an extensive area of debris-covered ice. WG covered an area of 2.4 km2 and ranged from 215 to 520 m a.s.l. Triangular Glacier (TG) is a southwest-facing land-terminating glacier with an area of 0.6 km2 ranging from 302 to 107 m a.s.l. with well-developed ice-cored terminal moraine. San Jose Glacier (SJG) is a south-facing land-terminating piedmont glacier rejuvenated from the above lying Lachman Crags Dome (~640 m a.s.l.). SJG covers an area of 0.6 km2 and extends between 138 and 310 m a.s.l. Moreover, monitoring network consists of five automatic weather stations (AWS) placed in the central and marginal parts of the selected glaciers. Each AWS was equipped with the EMS33 air temperature and humidity probes placed inside the radiation shields. Apart from that, additional instruments, e.g. albedometer, propeller anemometer, snow depth sensors were installed on the central part of DD and WG. Since 2009, annual mass balance measurements have been realized on the DD, WG and TG glaciers. In 2010, ice thickness and

  10. Solar shortwave radiation in the Iberian Peninsula along the last six decades (United States)

    Bilbao, Julia; Román, Roberto; de Miguel, Argimiro; Pérez-Burgos, Ana


    The solar total shortwave radiation (SW, 305-2,800 nm) reaching the Earth surface is a key factor in the Earth energy balance and in the climate change. A decrease in SW levels has a cooling effect over the Earth. The SW changes are of interest in order to know the possible climatic effects. However long-term measured SW series are scarce, for example the oldest SW measurements in Spain are from 1973. The main objective of this work is to reconstruct and analyze nine long-term SW series from 1950 to 2011 in nine Spanish places located in the Iberian Peninsula. The data from different satellite retrievals were downloaded at the nine places: Total ozone column from different databases, spectral surface albedo and water vapour column from MODIS instrument, aerosol optical depth at 443 nm and Angström Exponent (between 443 nm and 670 nm) from MISR instrument onboard Terra satellite, and single scattering albedo from OMI instrument onboard Aura satellite. Moreover, sunshine duration records taken in the places were used. The UVSPEC/Libradtran radiative transfer model was run to obtain the daily SW irradiation under cloudless conditions in each location using as inputs monthly climatology tables calculated with the mentioned satellite retrievals. A model to obtain SW irradiation through the cloudless simulations and the sunshine records was developed, finding a great agreement with the monthly averaged SW measurements: a root mean square error of 5% and a mean bias error of 0.7%. The proposed model was used to obtain the daily SW irradiation, and the monthly, seasonal and annual averages, on the nine locations from 1950 to 2011. The homogeneity of these series was tested obtaining that all series are homogeneous. The anomalies of the series were calculated and a new series (Iberian Peninsula) of anomalies were obtained as an average of the nine locations. The annual SW on the Iberian Peninsula (the averaged series) shown a negative and statistically significant (99

  11. The unusual life history of a southern Iberian Peninsula population of Torleya major (Ephemeroptera:Ephemerellidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M. J. López-Rodriguez; J. M. Tierno de Figueroa; J. Alba-Tercedor


    The nymphal biology of a population of Torleya major (Klapálek) in southern Iberian Peninsula was studied. An atypical life cycle pattern is described, with eggs hatching in August producing a fast-developing cohort with adults emerging in autumn and a second slow-developing cohort with adults emerging in spring of the following year. Nymphal growth occurred primarily in summer-autumn (in the first cohort) and in spring (in the second). The origin of such a life history is discussed. Nymphs were collector-gatherers,consuming mainly detritus. Although ontogenetic shifts on the use of trophic resources were detected, similar food was utilized during the months when both cohorts cohabited,eliminating the possibility that the rapid growth of the first cohort could be related to the utilization of different food resources.

  12. Detection of hand, foot and mouth disease in the yucatan peninsula of Mexico. (United States)

    Machain-Williams, Carlos; Dzul-Rosado, Alma R; Yeh-Gorocica, Aarón B; Rodriguez-Ruz, Katia G; Noh-Pech, Henry; Talavera-Aguilar, Lourdes; Salazar, Ma Isabel; Castro-Mussot, María Eugenia; Reyes-Solis, Guadalupe; Garcia-Rejon, Julián E; Puerto-Manzano, Fernando I; Blitvich, Bradley J


    We report a case of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) in a 5-year-old male from Merida City in the Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico. A clinical and physical examination revealed that the patient had symptoms typical of HFMD, including fever, fatigue, odynophagia, throat edema, hyperemia, lesions on the hands and feet, and blisters in the oral cavity. The patient fully recovered after a convalescence period of almost three weeks. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and nucleotide sequencing revealed that the etiological agent was enterovirus 71 (EV71). The sequence has greatest (90.4%) nucleotide identity to the corresponding regions of EV71 isolates from the Netherlands and Singapore. Although HFMD is presumably common in Mexico, surprisingly there are no data in the PubMed database to support this. This case report provides the first peer-reviewed evidence of HFMD in Mexico.

  13. Plate boundary deformation and man-made subsidence around geothermal fields on the Reykjanes Peninsula, Iceland

    KAUST Repository

    Keiding, Marie


    We present Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) data from 1992-1999 and 2003-2008 as well as GPS data from 2000-2009 for the active plate boundary on the Reykjanes Peninsula, southwest Iceland. The geodetic data reveal deformation mainly due to plate spreading, anthropogenic subsidence caused by geothermal fluid extraction and, possibly, increasing pressure in a geothermal system. Subsidence of around 10. cm is observed during the first 2. years of production at the Reykjanes geothermal power plant, which started operating in May 2006. We model the surface subsidence around the new power plant using point and ellipsoidal pressure sources in an elastic halfspace. Short-lived swarms of micro-earthquakes as well as aseismic fault movement are observed near the geothermal field following the start of production, possibly triggered by the stresses induced by geothermal fluid extraction. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

  14. The impact of dust storms on the Arabian Peninsula and the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Jish Prakash, P.


    Located in the dust belt, the Arabian Peninsula is a major source of atmospheric dust. Frequent dust outbreaks and some 15 to 20 dust storms per year have profound effects on all aspects of human activity and natural processes in this region. To quantify the effect of severe dust events on radiation fluxes and regional climate characteristics, we simulated the storm that occurred from 18 to 20 March 2012 using a regional weather research forecast model fully coupled with the chemistry/aerosol module (WRF–Chem). This storm swept over a remarkably large area affecting the entire Middle East, northeastern Africa, Afghanistan, and Pakistan. It was caused by a southward propagating cold front, and the associated winds activated the dust production in river valleys of the lower Tigris and Euphrates in Iraq; the coastal areas in Kuwait, Iran, and the United Arab Emirates; the Rub al Khali, An Nafud, and Ad Dahna deserts; and along the Red Sea coast on the west side of the Arabian Peninsula. Our simulation results compare well with available ground-based and satellite observations. We estimate the total amount of dust generated by the storm to have reached 94 Mt. Approximately 78% of this dust was deposited within the calculation domain. The Arabian Sea and Persian Gulf received 5.3 Mt and the Red Sea 1.2 Mt of dust. Dust particles bring nutrients to marine ecosystems, which is especially important for the oligotrophic Northern Red Sea. However, their contribution to the nutrient balance in the Red Sea remains largely unknown. By scaling the effect of one storm to the number of dust storms observed annually over the Red Sea, we estimate the annual dust deposition to the Red Sea, associated with major dust storms, to be 6 Mt.

  15. Meteorological hazard assessment based on trends and abrupt changes in rainfall characteristics on the Korean peninsula (United States)

    Sung, Jang Hyun; Chung, Eun-Sung; Kim, Yeonjoo; Lee, Bo-Ram


    This study presents a statistical approach for assessing meteorological hazards based on trends and abrupt changes in precipitation characteristics. Daily rainfall data from 64 stations in South Korea (SK) and 27 stations in North Korea (NK) were used to identify temporal patterns in the rainfall characteristics of both regions using seven rainfall indices, such as the total annual rainfall and annual number of wet days. This study suggests the use of three steps in identifying meteorological hazards based on two statistical analyses. In step 1, we conducted a trend analysis of a 10-year moving average of the rainfall index using the Mann-Kendall (MK) trend test. Most stations (65.6 %) in SK exhibit clear increasing trends in five indices, whereas far fewer have data indicating any trends in five of the indices in NK (25.9 %). In step 2, abrupt changes in all rainfall indices were identified using a Bayesian Change Point (BCP) approach. The results contradict those from the MK trend analysis. The proportion of stations in NK where trends were identified is much higher than that in SK. In step 3, the results from the two previous steps were integrated to identify the meteorological hazards based on the identified trend and change point. The BCP approach can be used to identify meteorological hazards that MK cannot, as the former approach focuses on the change point during the entire period. As a result, meteorological stability at the sites of weather stations can be identified, and then the meteorological hazards across the entire Korean peninsula can be spatially interpolated. Although SK and NK are located on the same peninsula, distinct differences in the trends were observed.

  16. Impact of Siberian forest fires on the atmosphere over the Korean Peninsula during summer 2014 (United States)

    Jung, Jinsang; Lyu, Youngsook; Lee, Minhee; Hwang, Taekyung; Lee, Sangil; Oh, Sanghyub


    Extensive forest fires occurred during late July 2014 across the forested region of Siberia, Russia. Smoke plumes emitted from Siberian forest fires underwent long-range transport over Mongolia and northeast China to the Korean Peninsula, which is located ˜ 3000 km south of the Siberian forest. A notably high aerosol optical depth of ˜ 4 was observed at a wavelength of 500 nm near the source of the Siberian forest fires. Smoke plumes reached 3-5 km in height near the source and fell below 2 km over the Korean Peninsula. Elevated concentrations of levoglucosan were observed (119.7 ± 6.0 ng m-3), which were ˜ 4.5 times higher than those observed during non-event periods in July 2014. During the middle of July 2014, a haze episode occurred that was primarily caused by the long-range transport of emission plumes originating from urban and industrial complexes in East China. Sharp increases in SO42- concentrations (23.1 ± 2.1 µg m-3) were observed during this episode. The haze caused by the long-range transport of Siberian forest fire emissions was clearly identified by relatively high organic carbon (OC) / elemental carbon (EC) ratios (7.18 ± 0.2) and OC / SO42- ratios (1.31 ± 0.07) compared with those of the Chinese haze episode (OC / EC ratio: 2.4 ± 0.4; OC / SO42- ratio: 0.21 ± 0.05). Remote measurement techniques and chemical analyses of the haze plumes clearly show that the haze episode that occurred during late July 2014 was caused mainly by the long-range transport of smoke plumes emitted from Siberian forest fires.

  17. Forest response to increasing typhoon activity on the Korean peninsula: evidence from oak tree-rings. (United States)

    Altman, Jan; Doležal, Jiří; Cerný, Tomáš; Song, Jong-Suk


    The globally observed trend of changing intensity of tropical cyclones over the past few decades emphasizes the need for a better understanding of the effects of such disturbance events in natural and inhabited areas. On the Korean Peninsula, typhoon intensity has increased over the past 100 years as evidenced by instrumental data recorded from 1904 until present. We examined how the increase in three weather characteristics (maximum hourly and daily precipitation, and maximum wind speed) during the typhoon activity affected old-growth oak forests. Quercus mongolica is a dominant species in the Korean mountains and the growth releases from 220 individuals from three sites along a latitudinal gradient (33-38°N) of decreasing typhoon activity were studied. Growth releases indicate tree-stand disturbance and improved light conditions for surviving trees. The trends in release events corresponded to spatiotemporal gradients in maximum wind speed and precipitation. A high positive correlation was found between the maximum values of typhoon characteristics and the proportion of trees showing release. A higher proportion of disturbed trees was found in the middle and southern parts of the Korean peninsula where typhoons are most intense. This shows that the releases are associated with typhoons and also indicates the differential impact of typhoons on the forests. Finally, we present a record of the changing proportion of trees showing release based on tree-rings for the period 1770-1979. The reconstruction revealed no trend during the period 1770-1879, while the rate of forest disturbances increased rapidly from 1880 to 1979. Our results suggest that if typhoon intensity rises, as is projected by some climatic models, the number of forest disturbance events will increase thus altering the disturbance regime and ecosystem processes.

  18. First record of the alien pest Rhaponticum repens (Compositae in the Iberian Peninsula

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    Martínez-Flores, F.


    Full Text Available First record of the alien pest Rhaponticum repens (Compositae in the Iberian Peninsula.- Rhaponticum repens is reported for the first time for the flora of the Iberian Peninsula. The species is native from Central Asia and has become invasive in Argentina, Canada, Europe and the USA. It was detected for the first time in abandoned fields from Vilablareix, near the city of Girona (Catalonia, Spain and in the valley of the Vinalopó in Alicante (Valencia, Spain, where it was collected as early as in 1959 but misdentified. Molecular data, based on nrDNA region ITS, suggest that the reported populations may be closely related to plants from the United States. Due to the extremely noxious character of the species and the possible relationship of Spanish plants with the invasive American populations, some kind of monitoring is recommended.Rhaponticum repens (Compositae, una nueva planta alóctona para la Península Ibérica.- Se cita por primera vez la especie Rhaponticum repens para la flora de la Península Ibérica. Rhaponticum repens es una especie nativa de Asia central que actúa como invasora en diversos países como Argentina, Canadá o los Estados Unidos. Se ha encontrado por primera vez en campos de cultivo abandonados en el pueblo de Vilablareix, cerca de la ciudad de Girona (Cataluña, España y en el valle del Vinalopó (Valencia, España, donde fue recolectada y mal identificada en 1959. Los datos moleculares, obtenidos a partir de la región ITS del nrDNA, sugieren que estas poblaciones podrían estar relacionadas con plantas invasoras de Estados Unidos. Debido al carácter extremadamente invasor de la especie, y a su posible origen secundario a partir de las poblaciones norteamericanas, se recomienda el seguimiento de estas poblaciones.

  19. Preliminary Geochemical and Rock Magnetic Study of a Stalagmite From Quintana Roo, Northeastern Yucatan Peninsula (United States)

    Urrutia-Fucugauchi, J.; Perez-Cruz, L.; Zhao, X.; Rebolledo-Vieyra, M.; Rodriguez, A.


    We present the preliminary results of geochemical, stable isotopes and rock magnetic studies of a stalagmite from a cave in eastern Quintana Roo, northern Yucatan peninsula. In the past years, there has been increased interest in understanding the paleoclimatic and paleoenvironmental evolution of the Yucatan peninsula and northern Central America, investigating the relationships between climate variations and the development of the Maya civilization. In particular, the variations in regional precipitation and occurrence of several drought periods, which might have been related to the collapse of the Classic Maya period. Stable isotope data on speleothems from different sites in Yucatan and Central America have provided evidence on changes in precipitation, which have affected the Maya region. The stalagmite is ~47 cm long and about 4-5 cm wide at its base. It was collected from the Hilariós Well cave in Tulum, Quintana Roo. Magnetic susceptibility and geochemical analyses have been completed as part of the initial characterization of the stalagmite, with measurements taken every centimeter. Geochemical analyses have been carried out for x-ray fluorescence, with a Niton XRF analyzer. Magnetic susceptibility was determined with a Bartington MS2 instrument using the high resolution surface probe. Additional rock magnetic analyses include magnetic hysteresis loops and isothermal remanent magnetization (IRM) acquisition, and saturation IRM demagnetization, which have been measured with a MicroMag instrument. Hysteresis loops are diamagnetic, with small varying low-coercivity ferromagnetic components. The elemental compositions of major oxides and trace elements vary with depth. Calcium is the major element and displays a pattern of small amplitude fluctuations with a trend to lower values at the bottom, which are also shown in other elements such as barium. Silica and elements such as titanium and strontium are positively correlated and show an apparent cyclic pattern

  20. Interaction of landscape varibles on the potential geographical distribution of parrots in the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico

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    Plasencia–Vázquez, A. H.


    Full Text Available The loss, degradation, and fragmentation of forested areas are endangering parrot populations. In this study, we determined the influence of fragmentation in relation to vegetation cover, land use, and spatial configuration of fragments on the potential geographical distribution patterns of parrots in the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. We used the potential geographical distribution for eight parrot species, considering the recently published maps obtained with the maximum entropy algorithm, and we incorporated the probability distribution for each species. We calculated 71 metrics/variables that evaluate forest fragmentation, spatial configuration of fragments, the ratio occupied by vegetation, and the land use in 100 plots of approximately 29 km², randomly distributed within the presence and absence areas predicted for each species. We also considered the relationship between environmental variables and the distribution probability of species. We used a partial least squares regression to explore patterns between the variables used and the potential distribution models. None of the environmental variables analyzed alone determined the presence/absence or the probability distribution of parrots in the Peninsula. We found that for the eight species, either due to the presence/absence or the probability distribution, the most important explanatory variables were the interaction among three variables, particularly the interactions among the total forest area, the total edge, and the tropical semi–evergreen medium– height forest. Habitat fragmentation influenced the potential geographical distribution of these species in terms of the characteristics of other environmental factors that are expressed together with the geographical division, such as the different vegetation cover ratio and land uses in deforested areas.

  1. Age-specific survival of tundra swans on the lower Alaska Peninsula (United States)

    Meixell, Brandt W.; Lindberg, Mark S.; Conn, Paul B.; Dau, Christian P.; Sarvis, John E.; Sowl, Kristine M.


    The population of Tundra Swans (Cygnus columbianus columbianus) breeding on the lower Alaska Peninsula represents the southern extremity of the species' range and is uniquely nonmigratory. We used data on recaptures, resightings, and recoveries of neck-collared Tundra Swans on the lower Alaska Peninsula to estimate collar loss, annual apparent survival, and other demographic parameters for the years 1978–1989. Annual collar loss was greater for adult males fitted with either the thinner collar type (0.34) or the thicker collar type (0.15) than for other age/sex classes (thinner: 0.10, thicker: 0.04). The apparent mean probability of survival of adults (0.61) was higher than that of immatures (0.41) and for both age classes varied considerably by year (adult range: 0.44–0.95, immature range: 0.25–0.90). To assess effects of permanent emigration by age and breeding class, we analyzed post hoc the encounter histories of swans known to breed in our study area. The apparent mean survival of known breeders (0.65) was generally higher than that of the entire marked sample but still varied considerably by year (range 0.26–1.00) and indicated that permanent emigration of breeding swans was likely. We suggest that reductions in apparent survival probability were influenced primarily by high and variable rates of permanent emigration and that immigration by swans from elsewhere may be important in sustaining a breeding population at and near Izembek National Wildlife Refuge.

  2. The impact of dust storms on the Arabian Peninsula and the Red Sea

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    P. Jish Prakash


    Full Text Available Located in the dust belt, the Arabian Peninsula is a major source of atmospheric dust. Frequent dust outbreaks and some 15 to 20 dust storms per year have profound effects on all aspects of human activity and natural processes in this region. To quantify the effect of severe dust events on radiation fluxes and regional climate characteristics, we simulated the storm that occurred on 18–20 March 2012 using a regional weather research forecast model fully coupled with the chemistry/aerosol module (WRF-Chem. This storm swept over a remarkably large area affecting the entire Middle East, North-Eastern Africa, Afghanistan and Pakistan. It was caused by a southward propagating cold front and associated winds activated the dust production in river valleys of the lower Tigris and Euphrates in Iraq, the coastal areas in Kuwait, Iran, and the United Arab Emirates, Rub al Khali, An Nafud and Ad Dahna deserts, and along the Red Sea coast on the west side of the Arabian Peninsula. Our simulation results compare well with available ground-based and satellite observations. The total amount of dust generated by the storm reached 93.76 Mt. About 80% of this amount deposited within the calculation domain. The Arabian Sea and Persian Gulf received 5.3 Mt, and the Red Sea 1.2 Mt. Dust particles bring nutrients to marine ecosystems, which is especially important for the oligothrophic Northern Red Sea. However, their contribution to the nutrient balance in the Red Sea remains largely unknown. By scaling the effect of one storm to the number of dust storms observed annually over the Red Sea, we roughly estimate the annual dust deposition to the Red Sea to be 6 Mt.

  3. Late Quaternary Stratigraphy, Glacial Limits, and Paleoenvironments of the Marresale Area, Western Yamal Peninsula, Russia (United States)

    Forman, Steven L.; Ingólfsson, Ólafur; Gataullin, Valery; Manley, William; Lokrantz, Hanna


    Stratigraphic records from coastal cliff sections near the Marresale Station on the Yamal Peninsula, Russia, yield new insight on ice-sheet dynamics and paleoenvironments for northern Eurasia. Field studies identify nine informal stratigraphic units from oldest to youngest (the Marresale formation, Labsuyakha sand, Kara diamicton, Varjakha peat and silt, Oleny sand, Baidarata sand, Betula horizon, Nenets peat, and Chum sand) that show a single glaciation and a varied terrestrial environment during the late Pleistocene. The Kara diamicton reflects regional glaciation and is associated with glaciotectonic deformation from the southwest of the underlying Labsuyakha sand and Marresale formation. Finite radiocarbon and luminescence ages of ca. 35,000 to 45,000 yr from Varjakha peat and silt that immediately overlies Kara diamicton place the glaciation >40,000 yr ago. Eolian and fluvial deposition ensued with concomitant cryogenesis between ca. 35,000 and 12,000 cal yr B.P. associated with the Oleny and the Baidarata sands. There is no geomorphic or stratigraphic evidence of coverage or proximity of the Yamal Peninsula to a Late Weichselian ice sheet. The Nenets peat accumulated over the Baidarata sand during much of the past 10,000 yr, with local additions of the eolian Chum sand starting ca. 1000 yr ago. A prominent Betula horizon at the base of the Nenets peat contains rooted birch trees ca. 10,000 to 9000 cal yr old and indicates a >200-km shift northward of the treeline from the present limits, corresponding to a 2° to 4°C summer warming across northern Eurasia.

  4. The Sociophonetic and Acoustic Vowel Dynamics of Michigan's Upper Peninsula English (United States)

    Rankinen, Wil A.

    The present sociophonetic study examines the English variety in Michigan's Upper Peninsula (UP) based upon a 130-speaker sample from Marquette County. The linguistic variables of interest include seven monophthongs and four diphthongs: 1) front lax, 2) low back, and 3) high back monophthongs and 4) short and 5) long diphthongs. The sample is stratified by the predictor variables of heritage-location, bilingualism, age, sex and class. The aim of the thesis is two fold: 1) to determine the extent of potential substrate effects on a 71-speaker older-aged bilingual and monolingual subset of these UP English speakers focusing on the predictor variables of heritage-location and bilingualism, and 2) to determine the extent of potential exogenous influences on an 85-speaker subset of UP English monolingual speakers by focusing on the predictor variables of heritage-location, age, sex and class. All data were extracted from a reading passage task collected during a sociolinguistic interview and measured instrumentally. The findings of this apparent-time data reveal the presence of lingering effects from substrate sources and developing effects from exogenous sources based upon American and Canadian models of diffusion. The linguistic changes-in-progress from above, led by middle-class females, are taking shape in the speech of UP residents of whom are propagating linguistic phenomena typically associated with varieties of Canadian English (i.e., low-back merger, Canadian shift, and Canadian raising); however, the findings also report resistance of such norms by working-class females. Finally, the data also reveal substrate effects demonstrating cases of dialect leveling and maintenance. As a result, the speech spoken in Michigan's Upper Peninsula can presently be described as a unique variety of English comprised of lingering substrate effects as well as exogenous effects modeled from both American and Canadian English linguistic norms.

  5. Phthalic acid esters in soils from vegetable greenhouses in Shandong Peninsula, East China. (United States)

    Chai, Chao; Cheng, Hongzhen; Ge, Wei; Ma, Dong; Shi, Yanxi


    Soils at depths of 0 cm to 10 cm, 10 cm to 20 cm, and 20 cm to 40 cm from 37 vegetable greenhouses in Shandong Peninsula, East China, were collected, and 16 phthalic acid esters (PAEs) were detected using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). All 16 PAEs could be detected in soils from vegetable greenhouses. The total of 16 PAEs (Σ16PAEs) ranged from 1.939 mg/kg to 35.442 mg/kg, with an average of 6.748 mg/kg. Among four areas, including Qingdao, Weihai, Weifang, and Yantai, the average and maximum concentrations of Σ16PAEs in soils at depths of 0 cm to 10 cm appeared in Weifang, which has a long history of vegetable production and is famous for extensive greenhouse cultivation. Despite the different concentrations of Σ16PAEs, the PAE compositions were comparable. Among the 16 PAEs, di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), and diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP) were the most abundant. Compared with the results on agricultural soils in China, soils that are being used or were used for vegetable greenhouses had higher PAE concentrations. Among PAEs, dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP) and DnBP exceeded soil allowable concentrations (in US) in more than 90% of the samples, and DnOP in more than 20%. Shandong Peninsula has the highest PAE contents, which suggests that this area is severely contaminated by PAEs.


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    Oreshkin Dmitrij Vladimirovich


    Full Text Available Crude oil and gas fields are located in remote areas known for their severe geological and climatic conditions that are aggravated by the presence of the paleocrystic frozen rock. Borehole drilling causes generation of the substantial amount of drilling waste. The sludge weighs millions of tons. Any rock is to remain frozen at any drilling site in the Yamal peninsula. Semifluid drilling waste occupies extensive areas around drilling sites; they prevent development of the surface infrastructure, they interfere with the work of drilling technicians and contribute to hazardous working conditions, they are a challenge to the local ecology. The above factors produce a negative impact on the environment and prevent sustainable development of the region. For example, disposal of drilling waste at condensed gas fields operated in the Yamal peninsula represents a substantial problem. Drilling waste contains drilling fluid used in the process of borehole drilling. It was discovered in the course of the preliminary research that drilling fluids were composite suspensions that contained bentonite, heavy spar, caustic soda, dilutants, and polymers. It was found out that the sludge was composed of silica, calcite, dolomite, aragonite, magnesite, some feldspars, heavy spar, gypsum and anhydrite, micas, hydromicas, clay minerals. Projections provided in the paper say that pre-neutralized sludge may be used in the manufacturing of building materials, such as bricks, claydite, small-size building units, etc. The authors argue that further research of the sludge elements and microstructure, as well as its chemical, mineral, granulometric and X-ray phase analyses need to be performed.

  7. Ecological niche modeling of sympatric krill predators around Marguerite Bay, Western Antarctic Peninsula (United States)

    Friedlaender, Ari S.; Johnston, David W.; Fraser, William R.; Burns, Jennifer; Halpin, Patrick N.; Costa, Daniel P.


    Adélie penguins ( Pygoscelis adeliae), carabeater seals ( Lobodon carcinophagus), humpback ( Megaptera novaeangliae), and minke whales ( Balaenoptera bonaernsis) are found in the waters surrounding the Western Antarctic Peninsula. Each species relies primarily on Antarctic krill ( Euphausia superba) and has physiological constraints and foraging behaviors that dictate their ecological niches. Understanding the degree of ecological overlap between sympatric krill predators is critical to understanding and predicting the impacts on climate-driven changes to the Antarctic marine ecosystem. To explore ecological relationships amongst sympatric krill predators, we developed ecological niche models using a maximum entropy modeling approach (Maxent) that allows the integration of data collected by a variety of means (e.g. satellite-based locations and visual observations). We created spatially explicit probability distributions for the four krill predators in fall 2001 and 2002 in conjunction with a suite of environmental variables. We find areas within Marguerite Bay with high krill predator occurrence rates or biological hot spots. We find the modeled ecological niches for Adélie penguins and crabeater seals may be affected by their physiological needs to haul-out on substrate. Thus, their distributions may be less dictated by proximity to prey and more so by physical features that over time provide adequate access to prey. Humpback and minke whales, being fully marine and having greater energetic demands, occupy ecological niches more directly proximate to prey. We also find evidence to suggest that the amount of overlap between modeled niches is relatively low, even for species with similar energetic requirements. In a rapidly changing and variable environment, our modeling work shows little indication that krill predators maintain similar ecological niches across years around Marguerite Bay. Given the amount of variability in the marine environment around the

  8. On the validation of a realistic model of mesoscale coastal circulation in the Western Iberian Peninsula (United States)

    Dubert, Jesus; Cordeiro, Nuno; Nolasco, Rita


    Realistic simulations of the circulation off the Western Iberian Peninsula, for the period 2001-2009 are compared against satellite observations of sea surface temperature (SST), for the summer upwelling season. This was done by means of comparisons of climatological means of monthly sst, standard deviation, and monthly anomalies obtained from satellite, and from the numerical model. Also, the observed mesoscale structures like filaments, are also compared with those obtained with the model, for the same period. The model consists in a ROMS-AGRIF configuration at ~3km resolution, forced with 6h NCEP2 reanalysis and Quikscat forcing for winds for the referred period, in the presence of river inflow for the main rivers of the region. The boundary conditions are obtained by offline nesting from a configuration of a larger domain, forced in the same way, and offshore Levitus climatological boundaries. The filament characterization for the satellite data, and the outputs of the numerical model, was done based on an automatic data treatment, which allows to study the filaments seasonal and interannual variability for the studied period. It was also made a study and a discussion of the surface climatology based on the satellite images and the model, in order to characterize, the surface temperature field, the monthly means, standard deviation and the deviations from the mean. In order to explain the observed and modelled anomalies, NCEP winds reanalysis are used in several points in the studied domain. The main purpose of this study is a step forward in the validation of the numerical configuration resolving mesoscale in the Western Iberian Peninsula, and to is to determine whether or not the model is able to reproduce the observed mesoscale features, the monthly anomalies of sst, and the monthly climatology.

  9. Landscape-Scale Controls on Aboveground Forest Carbon Stocks on the Osa Peninsula, Costa Rica.

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    Philip Taylor

    Full Text Available Tropical forests store large amounts of carbon in tree biomass, although the environmental controls on forest carbon stocks remain poorly resolved. Emerging airborne remote sensing techniques offer a powerful approach to understand how aboveground carbon density (ACD varies across tropical landscapes. In this study, we evaluate the accuracy of the Carnegie Airborne Observatory (CAO Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR system to detect top-of-canopy tree height (TCH and ACD across the Osa Peninsula, Costa Rica. LiDAR and field-estimated TCH and ACD were highly correlated across a wide range of forest ages and types. Top-of-canopy height (TCH reached 67 m, and ACD surpassed 225 Mg C ha-1, indicating both that airborne CAO LiDAR-based estimates of ACD are accurate in tall, high-biomass forests and that the Osa Peninsula harbors some of the most carbon-rich forests in the Neotropics. We also examined the relative influence of lithologic, topoedaphic and climatic factors on regional patterns in ACD, which are known to influence ACD by regulating forest productivity and turnover. Analyses revealed a spatially nested set of factors controlling ACD patterns, with geologic variation explaining up to 16% of the mapped ACD variation at the regional scale, while local variation in topographic slope explained an additional 18%. Lithologic and topoedaphic factors also explained more ACD variation at 30-m than at 100-m spatial resolution, suggesting that environmental filtering depends on the spatial scale of terrain variation. Our result indicate that patterns in ACD are partially controlled by spatial variation in geologic history and geomorphic processes underpinning topographic diversity across landscapes. ACD also exhibited spatial autocorrelation, which may reflect biological processes that influence ACD, such as the assembly of species or phenotypes across the landscape, but additional research is needed to resolve how abiotic and biotic factors

  10. Soil-landform-plant communities relationships of a periglacial landscape at Potter Peninsula, Maritime Antarctica (United States)

    Poelking, E. L.; Schaefer, C. E. R.; Fernandes Filho, E. I.; de Andrade, A. M.; Spielmann, A. A.


    Integrated studies on the interplay between soils, periglacial geomorphology and plant communities are crucial for the understanding of climate change effects on terrestrial ecosystems of Maritime Antarctica, one of the most sensitive areas to global warming. Knowledge on physical environmental factors that influence plant communities can greatly benefit studies on monitoring climate change in Maritime Antarctica, where new ice-free areas are being constantly exposed, allowing plant growth and organic carbon inputs. The relationship between topography, plant communities and soils was investigated in Potter Peninsula, King George Island, Maritime Antarctica. We mapped the occurrence and distribution of plant communities and identified soil-landform-vegetation relationships. The vegetation map was obtained by classification of a Quickbird image, coupled with detailed landform and characterization of 18 soil profiles. The sub-formations were identified and classified, and we also determined the total elemental composition of lichens, mosses and grasses. Plant communities at Potter Peninsula occupy 23% of the ice-free area, at different landscape positions, showing decreasing diversity and biomass from the coastal zone to inland areas where sub-desert conditions prevail. There is a clear dependency between landform and vegetated soils. Soils with greater moisture or poorly drained, and acid to neutral pH, are favourable for mosses subformations. Saline, organic-matter rich ornithogenic soils of former penguin rookeries have greater biomass and diversity, with mixed associations of mosses and grasses, while stable felseenmeers and flat rocky cryoplanation surfaces are the preferred sites for Usnea and Himantormia lugubris lichens, at the highest surface. Lichens subformations cover the largest vegetated area, showing varying associations with mosses.

  11. Soil-landform-plant-community relationships of a periglacial landscape on Potter Peninsula, maritime Antarctica (United States)

    Poelking, E. L.; Schaefer, C. E. R.; Fernandes Filho, E. I.; de Andrade, A. M.; Spielmann, A. A.


    Integrated studies on the interplay between soils, periglacial geomorphology and plant communities are crucial for the understanding of climate change effects on terrestrial ecosystems of maritime Antarctica, one of the most sensitive areas to global warming. Knowledge on physical environmental factors that influence plant communities can greatly benefit studies on the monitoring of climate change in maritime Antarctica, where new ice-free areas are being constantly exposed, allowing plant growth and organic carbon inputs. The relationship between topography, plant communities and soils was investigated on Potter Peninsula, King George Island, maritime Antarctica. We mapped the occurrence and distribution of plant communities and identified soil-landform-vegetation relationships. The vegetation map was obtained by classification of a QuickBird image, coupled with detailed landform and characterization of 18 soil profiles. The sub-formations were identified and classified, and we also determined the total elemental composition of lichens, mosses and grasses. Plant communities on Potter Peninsula occupy 23% of the ice-free area, at different landscape positions, showing decreasing diversity and biomass from the coastal zone to inland areas where sub-desert conditions prevail. There is a clear dependency between landform and vegetated soils. Soils that have greater moisture or are poorly drained, and with acid to neutral pH, are favourable for moss sub-formations. Saline, organic-matter-rich ornithogenic soils of former penguin rookeries have greater biomass and diversity, with mixed associations of mosses and grasses, while stable felsenmeers and flat rocky cryoplanation surfaces are the preferred sites for Usnea and Himantormia lugubris lichens at the highest surface. Lichens sub-formations cover the largest vegetated area, showing varying associations with mosses.

  12. Incorporating climate change trends to near future variability of crop yields in Iberia Peninsula (United States)

    Capa-Morocho, Mirian; Baethgen, Walter E.; Fernandes, Kátia; Rodríguez-Fonseca, Belén; Ruiz-Ramos, Margarita


    In this study, we analyze the effects of near future climate variability on cropping systems in Iberian Peninsula (IP). For this purpose, we generated climate sequences that simulate realistic variability on annual to decadal time scales. The sequences incorporate nonlinear climate change trends, using statistical methods and and an ensemble of global climate models from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5). Then, the climate sequences are temporal downscaled into daily weather data and used as inputs to crop models. As case study, we evaluate the impacts of plausible future climate scenarios on rain-fed wheat yield two agricultural locations in IP. We adapted the method by Greene et al., (2012 and 2015) for informing climate projections for the coming decades with a combination of seasonal to interannual and anthropogenically forced climate change information for accounting the Near-term Climate Change. Long-term data containing solar radiation, maximum and minimum temperature and rainfall are needed to apply this method. The climate variability observed was decomposed into long-range trend, decadal and interannual variability to understand the relative importance of each time scale. The interannual variability was modeled based on the observational records. The results of this study may have important implications on public and private sectors to analyze the probabilistic projections of impacts and agronomic adaptations of near future climate variability in Iberian Peninsula. This study has been funded by MACSUR project from FACCE-JPI. References Greene, A.M., Goddard, L., Gonzalez, P.L., Ines, A.V. and Chryssanthacopoulos, J., 2015.A climate generator for agricultural planning in southeastern South America.Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 203: 217-228. Greene, A.M., Hellmuth, M. and Lumsden, T., 2012. Stochastic decadal climate simulations for the Berg and Breede water management areas, western Cape province, South Africa. Water Resources

  13. Climatic variations on longest tree-ring chronologies for Kola Peninsula and Finnish Lapland (United States)

    Kasatkina, E. A.; Shumilov, O. I.; Timonen, M.; Mielikainen, K.; Helama, S.; Kanatjev, A. G.; Kirtsideli, I. Yu.


    We investigated the external factor (solar activity, volcanic eruptions) influence on tree growth at high latitudes. We analysed a 561-year tree-ring record of pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and a 676-year juniper (Juniperus Sibirica Burgst.) tree-ring chronology collected nearby the northern timberline (67.77-68.63N; 33.25-36.52 E) at the Kola Peninsula, northwestern Russia. As well known the climatic impacts of solar and volcanic activity vary regionally, and major volcanic eruptions do not always result in regional cooling. A response of tree growth at the Kola Peninsula to climatic changes due to solar variability and volcanic eruptions was revealed. For example, Dalton minimum of solar activity (1801-1816 AD) and Laki (1783 AD) and Tambora (1815 AD) volcanic eruptions appeared to cause the greatest ring-width reduction and cooling. The minima of solar activity Sporer (1416-1534 AD) and Maunder (1645-1715 AD) were as well accompanied by temperature decreases. Intervals with an absence of significant volcanic eruptions correspond to intervals of increased ring-width values. A superposed epoch analysis of 19 large (Volcanic Explosivity Index, VEI>5) volcanic events revealed a significant suppression of tree growth for up to 8 years following volcanic eruptions. The similar effect (supression of tree growth after powerful volcanic eruptions) was obtained under analysis of the 7641-year supra-long pine tree-ring chronology for Finnish Lapland. Our results documenting the regional climatic impacts of solar and volcanic activity permit us to understand the dynamics of the climate system and its response to external forcing. This work is financially supported by grant from Russian Foundation for Basic Research (grant No. 09-04-98801), by the Program of the Russian Academy and by the Regional Scientific Program of Murmansk region.

  14. Phthalic acid esters in soils from vegetable greenhouses in Shandong Peninsula, East China.

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    Chao Chai

    Full Text Available Soils at depths of 0 cm to 10 cm, 10 cm to 20 cm, and 20 cm to 40 cm from 37 vegetable greenhouses in Shandong Peninsula, East China, were collected, and 16 phthalic acid esters (PAEs were detected using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. All 16 PAEs could be detected in soils from vegetable greenhouses. The total of 16 PAEs (Σ16PAEs ranged from 1.939 mg/kg to 35.442 mg/kg, with an average of 6.748 mg/kg. Among four areas, including Qingdao, Weihai, Weifang, and Yantai, the average and maximum concentrations of Σ16PAEs in soils at depths of 0 cm to 10 cm appeared in Weifang, which has a long history of vegetable production and is famous for extensive greenhouse cultivation. Despite the different concentrations of Σ16PAEs, the PAE compositions were comparable. Among the 16 PAEs, di(2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP, di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP, di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP, and diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP were the most abundant. Compared with the results on agricultural soils in China, soils that are being used or were used for vegetable greenhouses had higher PAE concentrations. Among PAEs, dimethyl phthalate (DMP, diethyl phthalate (DEP and DnBP exceeded soil allowable concentrations (in US in more than 90% of the samples, and DnOP in more than 20%. Shandong Peninsula has the highest PAE contents, which suggests that this area is severely contaminated by PAEs.

  15. Meta-Analysis of Mitochondrial DNA Variation in the Iberian Peninsula (United States)

    Barral-Arca, Ruth; Pischedda, Sara; Gómez-Carballa, Alberto; Pastoriza, Ana; Mosquera-Miguel, Ana; López-Soto, Manuel; Martinón-Torres, Federico; Álvarez-Iglesias, Vanesa; Salas, Antonio


    The Iberian Peninsula has been the focus of attention of numerous studies dealing with mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation, most of them targeting the control region segment. In the present study we sequenced the control region of 3,024 Spanish individuals from areas where available data were still limited. We also compiled mtDNA haplotypes from the literature involving 4,588 sequences and 28 population groups or small regions. We meta-analyzed all these data in order to shed further light on patterns of geographic variation, taking advantage of the large sample size and geographic coverage, in contrast with the atomized sampling strategy of previous work. The results indicate that the main mtDNA haplogroups show primarily clinal geographic patterns across the Iberian geography, roughly along a North-South axis. Haplogroup HV0 (where haplogroup U is nested) is more prevalent in the Franco Cantabrian region, in good agreement with previous findings that identified this area as a climate refuge during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), prior to a subsequent demographic re-expansion towards Central Europe and the Mediterranean. Typical sub-Saharan and North African lineages are slightly more prevalent in South Iberia, although at low frequencies; this pattern has been shaped mainly by the transatlantic slave trade and the Arab invasion of the Iberian Peninsula. The results also indicate that summary statistics that aim to measure molecular variation, or AMOVA, have limited sensitivity to detect population substructure, in contrast to patterns revealed by phylogeographic analysis. Overall, the results suggest that mtDNA variation in Iberia is substantially stratified. These patterns might be relevant in biomedical studies given that stratification is a common cause of false positives in case-control mtDNA association studies, and should be also considered when weighting the DNA evidence in forensic casework, which is strongly dependent on haplotype frequencies. PMID


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The present paper summarizes a joint effort undertaken by the Instituto Geográfico Militar de Chile (IGM) and the Instituto Antártico Chileno (INACH) in order to obtain digital cartography of the Fildes Peninsula,Rey Jorge Island,Antarctica.This peninsula constitutes the prototype project area for the main IGM_INACH project N° 153 “Cartographic Survey and Geographic Information System of the South Shetlands Islands" The Digital Cartography was implemented at the 1∶5 000 scale,using geodetic GPS control points referenced to ITRF 92 and WGS 84 Data.The UTM Projection was used.All products were produced in compliance with the cartographic standards of the IGM. This cartography was designed in order to satisfy the requirements of a Geographic Information System developed by INACH.This geo_referenced database incorporates a variety of thematic information,enabling it to support scientific investigations,environmental and multi_disciplinary studies,and other applications. As a result of this project the Instituto Geográfico Militar de Chile produced a map at 1∶5 000 scale in digital format,and also a 1∶10 000 topographic map,in paper format,with two editions: first edition of two charts and a second edition with one chart covering the whole project area. Chile and other countries have a number of important permanent activities in this area. These maps are designed to support several and diverse geo_spatial studies related to these activities.

  17. North Atlantic Oscillation and moisture transport towards the Iberian Peninsula during winter (United States)

    Ordóñez, Paulina; Liberato, Margarida L. R.; Gouveia, Célia; Trigo, Ricardo M.


    The North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) is the major source of interannual variability in winter precipitation over the Iberian Peninsula (IP). Recent works have identified the most important sources of moisture that supply the IP during different seasons of the year, including the nearby western Mediterranean and the tropical-subtropical North Atlantic corridor that extends from the Gulf of Mexico to the IP, and the IP itself (Gimeno et al., 2010). However, although rainfall is directly related to the moisture supply, the relationship between the water vapor transported towards IP and the NAO phase remains unclear. In this work the moisture transport towards IP was analyzed using a Lagrangian diagnosis method, which relies on the Lagrangian particle dispersion model FLEXPART. This methodology computes budgets of evaporation minus precipitation (E-P) by evaluating changes in the specific humidity along back-trajectories. Here we have computed (for each day) the evolution of moisture of the particles bound for Iberia up to 10 days prior to their arrival. The analysis was constrained to the winter (DJF) season, responsible for the largest fraction of precipitation, for the 20 years of ECMWF Reanalyses ERA40 dataset from 1980 to 2000. The contribution of the NAO phase on the water budgets is examined using composites of the obtained (E - P) fields for the 5 most extreme positive and negative NAO years of the study period. Results confirm that the IP is dominated by positive (negative) E-P anomalies during positive (negative) NAO phase. Additionally an anomalous water vapor sink (source) region located approximately over the Gulf Stream is found during positive (negative) NAO phase. Gimeno L., Nieto R., Trigo R.M. , Vicente-Serrano S.M, Lopes-Moreno J.I., (2010) "Where does the Iberian Peninsula moisture come from? An answer based on a Lagrangian approach". J. Hydrometeorology, 11, 421-436 DOI: 10.1175/2009JHM1182.1.

  18. Soil–landform–plant communities relationships of a periglacial landscape at Potter Peninsula, Maritime Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. L. Poelking


    Full Text Available Integrated studies on the interplay between soils, periglacial geomorphology and plant communities are crucial for the understanding of climate change effects on terrestrial ecosystems of Maritime Antarctica, one of the most sensitive areas to global warming. Knowledge on physical environmental factors that influence plant communities can greatly benefit studies on monitoring climate change in Maritime Antarctica, where new ice-free areas are being constantly exposed, allowing plant growth and organic carbon inputs. The relationship between topography, plant communities and soils was investigated in Potter Peninsula, King George Island, Maritime Antarctica. We mapped the occurrence and distribution of plant communities and identified soil–landform–vegetation relationships. The vegetation map was obtained by classification of a Quickbird image, coupled with detailed landform and characterization of 18 soil profiles. The sub-formations were identified and classified, and we also determined the total elemental composition of lichens, mosses and grasses. Plant communities at Potter Peninsula occupy 23% of the ice-free area, at different landscape positions, showing decreasing diversity and biomass from the coastal zone to inland areas where sub-desert conditions prevail. There is a clear dependency between landform and vegetated soils. Soils with greater moisture or poorly drained, and acid to neutral pH, are favourable for mosses subformations. Saline, organic-matter rich ornithogenic soils of former penguin rookeries have greater biomass and diversity, with mixed associations of mosses and grasses, while stable felseenmeers and flat rocky cryoplanation surfaces are the preferred sites for Usnea and Himantormia lugubris lichens, at the highest surface. Lichens subformations cover the largest vegetated area, showing varying associations with mosses.

  19. Response of Peat-forming Ecosystems of the Western Antarctic Peninsula to Recent Climate Change (United States)

    Tardona, M.; Beilman, D.; Yu, Z.; Loisel, J.


    Amplified warming and related environmental changes in the high latitudes have a complex geographic pattern, with the Western Antarctic Peninsula experiencing one of the fastest rates of recent warming globally. To better understand the response of terrestrial Antarctic ecosystems to polar change, we applied a paleoscience approach to organic soil profiles from 13 aerobic peatbank ecosystems on 7 islands along the peninsula from 67.6 to 64.2°S. Peatbank ecosystem ages were obtained by Radiocarbon measurements of organic matter from the base of these profiles and cluster in three groups: older than 1000 years old (as old as 2750 years old), 400-500 years old, and younger than 65 years with fixed bomb-spike carbon. Three of these peatbank profiles were studied in detail, and show growth rates over the last 65 years of ~2.5 mm yr-1. This rate is faster than those observed during previous periods but is similar to other recent nearby studies that report recent growth rates of ~2.6 mm yr-1. Organic carbon storage ranged from 6.1 to 21.3 kgC m-2. Values of moss bank organic matter δ13C show progressively more depleted δ13C values; in which depletion increases 3.0‰ over recent decades. Overall increase in source-independent discrimination is 1.7‰, consistent with published records from other locations and an increase in photosynthetic activity at the regional scale. Source-independent discrimination displays substantial variations corresponding negatively to variation of organic matter C:N values. Our results imply several recent changes in Antarctic peat forming ecosystem processes including formation of new moss banks, increased accumulation rates, and high variability in source-independent discrimination. These changes are complex but affected by contemporary climate changes of the region including increasing temperatures over the past century.

  20. Investigation of sea-breeze convergence in Salento Peninsula (southeastern Italy) (United States)

    Comin, Alcimoni Nelci; Miglietta, Mario Marcello; Rizza, Umberto; Acevedo, Otavio Costa; Degrazia, Gervasio Annes


    The frequency, the location and the characteristics of convective rainfall events induced by the convergence of different sea breeze systems on a Mediterranean peninsula (Salento, in southeastern Italy) are analyzed. Such events have been studied considering satellite/radar images and output fields from two Limited Area Models in the summer period of 2011-2013. A total of 20 days have been detected in which the precipitation due to sea-breeze convergence was clearly observed in satellite and radar images. The synoptic conditions associated with these events have been identified considering the averages of some relevant meteorological parameters in the selected days and the anomaly with respect to the climate. The presence of a cold trough in the central Mediterranean basin appears as a fundamental ingredient for the occurrence of sea breeze convergence and associated precipitation. High-resolution simulations with two state-of-art numerical models have revealed that both of them are generally able to simulate a convergence pattern correctly, apart from a couple of cases for each model. The higher rainfall amounts occur with weak synoptic wind, and weak-to-moderate values of Convective Available Potential Energy (CAPE). When the synoptic wind is of moderate intensity, the region of convergence moves toward the Adriatic coast for a prevailing southerly component, and toward the Ionian coast for a prevailing northerly component. On the opposite, the skin sea surface temperature is relatively uniform and the difference between the Ionian and the Adriatic Seas, surrounding the peninsula on the east and west side, is generally smaller than 1 K, having only a marginal effect on the sea breeze patterns. Similarly, the value of CAPE before the occurrence of rainfall has low prognostic value. The results shows that limited area models with a grid spacing of few km appear as appropriate tools for the simulation for such relatively small scale phenomena.

  1. Bedrock geologic map of the northern Alaska Peninsula area, southwestern Alaska (United States)

    Wilson, Frederic H.; Blodgett, Robert B.; Blome, Charles D.; Mohadjer, Solmaz; Preller, Cindi C.; Klimasauskas, Edward P.; Gamble, Bruce M.; Coonrad, Warren L.


    The northern Alaska Peninsula is a region of transition from the classic magmatic arc geology of the Alaska Peninsula to a Proterozoic and early Paleozoic carbonate platform and then to the poorly understood, tectonically complex sedimentary basins of southwestern Alaska. Physiographically, the region ranges from the high glaciated mountains of the Alaska-Aleutian Range to the coastal lowlands of Cook Inlet on the east and Bristol Bay on the southwest. The lower Ahklun Mountains and finger lakes on the west side of the map area show strong effects from glaciation. Structurally, a number of major faults cut the map area. Most important of these are the Bruin Bay Fault that parallels the coast of Cook Inlet, the Lake Clark Fault that cuts diagonally northeast to southwest across the eastern part of the map area, and the presently active Holitna Fault to the northwest that cuts surficial deposits.Distinctive rock packages assigned to three provinces are overlain by younger sedimentary rocks and intruded by widely dispersed latest Cretaceous and (or) early Tertiary granitic rocks. Much of the east half of the map area lies in the Alaska-Aleutian Range province; the Jurassic to Tertiary Alaska-Aleutian Range batholith and derivative Jurassic sedimentary rocks form the core of this province, which is intruded and overlain by the Aleutian magmatic arc. The Lime Hills province, the carbonate platform, occurs in the north-central part of the map area. The Paleozoic and Mesozoic Ahklun Mountains province in the western part of the map area includes abundant chert, argillite, and graywacke and lesser limestone, basalt, and tectonic mélange. The Kuskokwim Group, an Upper Cretaceous turbidite sequence, is extensively exposed and bounds all three provinces in the west-central part of the map area.

  2. Comparison of chemical hydrogeology of the carbonate peninsulas of Florida and Yucatan (United States)

    Back, W.; Hanshaw, B.B.


    Aquifers of the peninsulas of Florida and northern Yucatan are Tertiary marine carbonate formations showing many lithologic and faunal similarities. In addition, the tropical to subtropical climates of the two areas are similar, each having annual rainfall of about 1000 to 1500 mm. Despite similarities in these fundamental controls, contrasts in the hydrologic and geochemical systems are numerous and striking. For example, Florida has many rivers; Yucatan has none. Maximum thickness of fresh ground water in Florida is about 700 meters; in the Yucatan it is less than 70 meters. In Florida the gradient of the potentiometric surface averages about 1 meter per kilometer; in the Yucatan it is exceedingly low, averaging about 0.02 meter per kilometer. In Florida the chemical character of water changes systematically downgradient, owing to solution of minerals of the aquifer and corresponding increases in total dissolved solids, sulfate, calcium, and Mg-Ca ratio; in the Yucatan no downgradient change exists, and dominant processes controlling the chemical character of the water are solution of minerals and simple mixing of the fresh water and the body of salt water that underlies the peninsula at shallow depth. Hydrologic and chemical differences are caused in part by the lower altitude of the Yucatan plain. More important, however, these differences are due to the lack of an upper confining bed in Yucatan that is hydrologically equivalent to the Hawthorn Formation of Florida. The Hawthorn cover prevents recharge and confines the artesian water except where it is punctured by sinkholes, but sands and other unconsolidated sediments fill sinkholes and cavities and impede circulation. In the Yucatan the permeability of the entire section is so enormous that rainfall immediately infiltrates to the water table and then moves laterally to discharge areas along the coasts. ?? 1970.

  3. Environmental responses of the Northeast Antarctic Peninsula to the Holocene climate variability (United States)

    Barbara, Loïc.; Crosta, Xavier; Leventer, Amy; Schmidt, Sabine; Etourneau, Johan; Domack, Eugene; Massé, Guillaume


    In this study, we present a unique high-resolution Holocene record of oceanographic and climatic change based on analyses of diatom assemblages combined with biomarker data from a sediment core collected from the Vega Drift, eastern Antarctic Peninsula (EAP). These data add to the climate framework already established by high-resolution marine sedimentary records from the Palmer Deep, western Antarctic Peninsula (WAP). Heavy sea ice conditions and reduced primary productivity were observed prior to 7.4 ka B.P. in relation with the proximity of the glacial ice melt and calving. Subsequent Holocene oceanographic conditions were controlled by the interactions between the Westerlies-Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC)-Weddell Gyre dynamics. A warm period characterized by short seasonal sea ice duration associated with a southern shift of both ACC and Westerlies field persisted until 5 ka B.P. This warm episode was then followed by climate deterioration during the middle-to-late Holocene (5 to 1.9 ka B.P.) with a gradual increase in annual sea ice duration triggered by the expansion of the Weddell Gyre and a strong oceanic connection from the EAP to the WAP. Increase of benthic diatom species during this period was indicative of more summer/autumn storms, which was consistent with changes in synoptic atmospheric circulation and the establishment of low- to high-latitude teleconnections. Finally, the multicentennial scale variability of the Weddell Gyre intensity and storm frequency during the late Holocene appeared to be associated with the increased El Niño-Southern Oscillation frequency.

  4. Nesting ecology of Chelonia mydas (Testudines: Cheloniidae) on the Guanahacabibes Peninsula, Cuba. (United States)

    Azanza Ricardo, Julia; Ibarra Martín, Maria E; González Sansón, Gaspar; Abreu Grobois, F Alberto; Eckert, Karen L; Espinosa López, Georgina; Oyama, Ken


    The nesting colony of green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas) at Guanahacabibes Peninsula Biosphere Reserve and National Park is one of the largest in the Cuban archipelago; however, little information about its nesting ecology is available. Temporal and spatial variation in nesting and reproductive success as well as morphometric characteristics of gravid females were used to ecologically characterize this colony. Nine beaches of the Southernmost coast of Guanahacabibes Peninsula were monitored for 14 years (1998-2012) to determine green turtle nesting activity, from May to September (peak nesting season in this area). Beach dimensions were measured to determine nest density using the length and the area. Afterward the beaches were divided in two categories, index and secondary. Females were measured and tagged to compare new tagged females (823) with returning tagged females (140). Remigration interval was also determined. Temporal variation was identified as the annual number of nesting emergences and oviposits per female, with apparent peaks in reproductive activity on a biennial cycle in the first six years followed by periods of annual increase in nest number (2003-2008) and periods of decreasing number of nests (2010-2012). We also found intra-seasonal variation with the highest nesting activity in July, particularly in the second half of the month. The peak emergence time was 22:00-02:00 hr. In terms of spatial variation, smaller beaches had the highest nest density and nesting was more frequent 6-9m from the high tide line, where hatchling production was maximized although hatchling success was high on average, above 80%. Morphometric analysis of females was made and newly tagged turtles were smaller on average than remigrants. Our results are only a first attempt at characterizing Guanahacabibes' populations but have great value for establishing conservation priorities within the context of national management plans, and for efficient monitoring and protection

  5. Chemical and biological tracers to determine groundwater flow in karstic aquifer, Yucatan Peninsula (United States)

    Lenczewski, M.; Leal-Bautista, R. M.; McLain, J. E.


    Little is known about the extent of pollution in groundwater in the Yucatan Peninsula; however current population growth, both from international tourism and Mexican nationals increases the potential for wastewater release of a vast array of contaminants including personal care products, pharmaceuticals (Rx), and pathogenic microorganisms. Pathogens and Rx in groundwater can persist and can be particularly acute in this region where high permeability of the karst bedrock and the lack of top soil permit the rapid transport of contaminants into groundwater aquifers. The objective of this research is to develop and utilize novel biological and chemical source tracking methods to distinguish between different sources of anthropogenic pollution in degraded groundwater. Although several methods have been used successfully to track fecal contamination sources in small scale studies, little is known about their spatial limitations, as source tracking studies rarely include sample collection over a wide geographical area and with different sources of water. In addition, although source tracking methods to distinguish human from animal fecal contamination are widely available, this work has developed source tracking distinguish between separate human populations is highly unique. To achieve this objective, we collected water samples from a series of drinking wells, cenotes (sinkholes), wastewater treatment plants, and injection wells across the Yucatan Peninsula and examine potential source tracers within the collected water samples. The result suggests that groundwater sources impacted by tourist vs. local populations contain different chemical stressors. This work has developed a more detailed understanding of the presence and persistence of personal care products, pharmaceuticals, and fecal indicators in a karstic system; such understanding will be a vital component for the protection Mexican groundwater and human health. Quantification of different pollution sources

  6. Cartografia da paisagem alterada

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    Simone Cortezão


    Full Text Available O presente trabalho de pesquisa surge da investigação de paisagens alteradas, áreas pós-industriais e da geografia urbana que é conformada pela indústria. A preocupação principal é revê-las como espaço de investigação crítica sob o ponto de vista particular, integradas às noções da peculiar natureza industrial com suas consequentes transformações na paisagem, além das relações do indivíduo com esse novo meio produzido. “Cartografia da paisagem alterada” é uma pesquisa que indicia a paisagem alterada em pelo menos dois estratos: um que é o da construção da geografia da cidade pela indústria, e o outro que é a paisagem alterada subjetivamente, o que configura uma crítica e uma reação à conformação sócio geográfica em outros parâmetros - da proximidade, da experiência vivida e da construção de um vocabulário próprio.  A pesquisa teórica sobre áreas pós-industriais, associada a referências nas artes e arquitetura, constitui o primeiro estrato. Teorias e procedimentos artísticos de Robert Smithson, Joseph Beuys e Rem Koolhaas fornecem material para o segundo, mediante a pesquisa do cotidiano no lugar, a região do Vale do Aço, que se configura em um guia - glossário

  7. The fitoaty: an unidentified carnivoran species from the Masoala peninsula of Madagascar

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    Cortni Borgerson


    Full Text Available Little is known about carnivoran ecology and population dynamics in northeastern Madagascar, especially on the little studied Masoala peninsula. This leaves the status of threatened carnivores on the Masoala peninsula poorly understood. Even less is known about the relative taxonomic position and role of domestic, feral, and possible wild cats in Madagascar. Adequate conservation of the Masoala peninsula will remain limited until the status, threats, and roles of felines and native carnivorans in regional system dynamics are documented. Six of the ten car­nivoran species belonging to the endemic family Eupleridae, as well as introduced civets, domestic dogs, and cats are known to exist on the peninsula. This paper reports an animal of unknown identity in the Masoala carnivoran assemblage, the fitoaty. Specifically it, (i reports preliminary observations on the fitoaty collected on the Masoala peninsula, and (ii describes fitoaty distribution and habits based on local knowledge. Fitoaty appear to have a broad geographic range on the peninsula and to prefer contiguous forests near and within the Masoala National Park. The author tentatively identifies the fitoaty as Felis sp. but extensive carnivoran trapping and genetic testing of the fitoaty are needed to adequately assess the range and identity of this carnivoran and its potential impact on local ecosystems. RÉSUMÉL’écologie et la dynamique des populations de carnivores du Nord - est de Madagascar sont mal connues, plus particulièrement sur la presqu’île Masoala qui a été peu étudiée. Ce manque de connaissances empêche de statuer sur le degré de menace auquel font face les carnivores de la presqu’île. Il en est de même de la position taxinomique et du rôle écologique des chats domestiques et sauvages à Madagascar. La conservation de la presqu’île Masoala finira par pêcher tant que le statut, les menaces et les rôles des félins et des carnivores autochtones ne seront

  8. Phycological biodiversity at the Natural Park Serra da Enciña da Lastra (Ourense, Spain

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    López Rodríguez, M. del Carmen


    Full Text Available We have studied the phycological diversity at the Natural Park of Serra da Enciña da Lastra (Ourense, Spain and present here the algae checklist of the Galir river, the only permanent fluvial course in the area. This geographical zone is a SCI (Site of Community Importance and is located within an European Nature Reserve belonging to the “Nature 2000” network. Despite its environmental importance there is no previous phycological survey to this study. We collected samples in three points along the river, and measured physical and chemical water parameters (pH, conductivity, temperature, and dissolved oxygen. The checklist includes 88 taxa: 6 Cyanophyta, 4 Rhodophyta, 60 Heterokontophyta (58 Bacillariophyceae, 2 Xantophyceae, 1 Dinophyta, 2 Euglenophyta, and 15 Chlorophyta. Within the Rhodophyta we highlight the presence of Lemanea condensata, as a new record to the Iberian Peninsula. In addition, we have identified 8 new records for Galicia and 14 for Ourense.Se ha estudiado la diversidad ficológica del río Galir, el único curso fluvial permanente del Parque Natural Serra da Enciña da Lastra (Orense, España. Es un Lugar de Importancia Comunitaria (LIC incluido en la red de espacios naturales “Natura 2000”. A pesar de su importancia ambiental, no hay ningún estudio ficológico previo al presente. El catálogo de la flora ficológica incluye táxones recogidos de tres puntos del río y se han tenido en cuenta algunos parámetros físico-químicos del agua: pH, conductividad, temperatura y oxígeno disuelto. El catálogo florístico incluye 88 táxones: 6 Cyanophyta, 4 Rhodophyta, 60 Heterokontophyta (58 Bacillariophyceae y 2 Xantophyceae, 1 Dinophyta, 2 Euglenophyta y 15 Chlorophyta. Entre las Rhodophyta destaca Lemanea condensata, por ser nueva cita para la Península Ibérica. Además, se han encontrado 8 nuevas citas para Galicia y 14 para la provincia de Orense.


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    Vera M.A.Tordino Brandão


    Full Text Available O Programa de Gerontologia da PUC desenvolve pesquisas focando o ser na perspectiva do envelhecimento. As atividades são interdisciplinares e reúnem docentes, alunos e ex-alunos. Nesta mesa redonda apresentamos um panorama sobre estes estudos. Na área da educação e comunicação o foco está centrado na longevidade e na preparação e representação social da velhice. São ressaltadas como temáticas: a formação continuada de profissionais e pesquisadores; o significado da religiosidade/espiritualidade ao longo da trajetória, e sua repercussão na qualidade de vida do idoso; os programas sócio-educacionais para idosos e concepções sobre educação; o monitoramento da mídia na cobertura da crescente longevidade e seus impactos. Em identidade e modos de morar reflete-se sobre soluções planejadas e sua adequação para a inclusão do envelhecimento populacional como questão fundamental, que implica a elaboração de novas políticas, investigações e, especialmente, apresenta-se como questão a ser analisada, refletida e vivenciada pela sociedade em geral. Quanto à saúde, o Programa desenvolve várias pesquisas numa abordagem interdisciplinar tendo como objetos de estudo: a terapia assistida com animais direcionada a idosos com diagnóstico de Alzheimer; o acompanhamento terapêutico e o atendimento psicoterapêutico em grupo, a aplicação da técnica de Calatonia em idosos moradores de ILPI, além da investigação sobre impasses clínicos no idoso frágil. Palavras-chave: gerontologia, longevidade, envelhecimento


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    José Luiz Contador


    Full Text Available Este trabalho examina teoricamente os fatores determinantes da competitividade do produto e do negócio, imprescindíveis à elaboração de estratégias competitivas que visam à obtenção e sustentação de vantagens competitivas. Esse tema é objeto tanto da área de marketing estratégico quanto da de estratégia empresarial. Nas duas áreas, há um ponto de consenso que afirma que a empresa deve diferenciar sua oferta para conquistar e manter vantagem competitiva. Mas, os estudos conduzidos por meio do modelo de Campos e Armas da Competição revelaram que a empresa pode diferenciar seu produto e/ou serviço de modo mais amplo, levando em consideração, na formulação da sua estratégia competitiva, também o campo da competição, quer do produto, quer dela própria. Assim, o objetivo deste artigo é evidenciar que, para a empresa ser competitiva, além de diferenciar seu produto e/ou seu serviço no sentido tradicional, ela precisa: 1 diferenciar seu produto incluindo a definição em quais campos vai competir em cada segmento; e 2 escolher as armas da competição que irá utilizar e definir a intensidade de cada arma. Para atingir tal objetivo, foram necessários vários conceitos do modelo de Campos e Armas da Competição: campo da competição, arma da competição, tese do modelo, configuração dos campos da competição, campo coadjuvante, produto coadjuvante e par produto-mercado. Como uma proposta inovadora sempre desperta dúvida, é mostrado o processo de validação do modelo de Campos e Armas da Competição e são discutidas sua universalidade, consistência e completude.

  11. Stable isotopes and Antarctic moss banks: Plants and soil microbes respond to recent warming on the Antarctic Peninsula (United States)

    Royles, Jessica; Amesbury, Matthew; Ogée, Jérôme; Wingate, Lisa; Convey, Peter; Hodgson, Dominic; Griffiths, Howard; Leng, Melanie; Charman, Dan


    The Antarctic Peninsula is one of the most rapidly warming regions on Earth, with air temperature increases of as much as 3°C recorded since the 1950s. However, the longer-term context of this change is limited and existing records, largely relying on ice core data, are not suitably located to be able to trace the spatial signature of change over time. We are working on a project exploiting stable isotope records preserved in moss peat banks spanning 10 degrees of latitude along the Antarctic Peninsula as an archive of late Holocene climate variability. Here we present a unique time series of past moss growth and soil microbial activity that has been produced from a 150 year old moss bank at Lazarev Bay, Alexander Island (69°S), a site at the southern limit of significant plant growth in the Antarctic Peninsula region. These moss banks are ideal archives for palaeoclimate research as they are well-preserved by freezing, generally monospecific, easily dated by radiocarbon techniques, and have sufficiently high accumulation rates to permit decadal resolution. We use accumulation rates, cellulose δ13C and fossil testate amoebae to show that growth rates, assimilation and microbial productivity rose rapidly in the 1960s, consistent with temperature change, although recently may have stalled, concurrent with other evidence. The increase in biological activity is unprecedented in the last 150 years. Along with work completed on Signy Island (60°S), in the South Orkney Islands, in which we used carbon isotope evidence to show recent climate-related enhancement of CO2 assimilation and peat accumulation rates in Antarctica, the observed relationships between moss growth, microbial activity and climate suggests that moss bank records have the potential to test the regional expression of temperature variability shown by instrumental data on the Antarctic Peninsula over centennial to millennial timescales, by providing long-term records of summer growth conditions

  12. Preliminary assessment of potential environmental effects of the Borealis iron ore development proposal on birds of Melville Peninsula, N.W.T (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Vegetation communities in the Parry Bay area of Melville Peninsula, North West Territory were segregated into 10 classes through a combined biophysical and automatic...

  13. Huon Peninsula, Papua New Guinea Fossil and Living Coral Isotope (delta 18O) Data for 130,000 years BP to Present (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Results of analysis of cores collected from 'fossil' massive Porites corals exposed in the raised reefs of the Huon Peninsula, Papua New Guinea (see below for age...

  14. MaritimeMaya2011: The Costa Escondida Project: Exploring the Hidden World of the Maritime Maya on the Yucatan Peninsula between 20110509 and 20110531 (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The northeast tip of the Yucatan Peninsula is a largely unexplored coastline where ancient Maya traders traveled in massive dugout canoes filled with goods from...

  15. Reflection point navigation for Multi-channel streamer seismic-reflection profiles collected by the U.S. Geological Survey along the Delmarva Peninsula, MD and VA, 2014 (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Delmarva Peninsula is a 220-kilometer-long headland, spit, and barrier island complex that was significantly affected by Hurricane Sandy. A U.S. Geological...

  16. Trackline navigation for Multi-channel streamer seismic-reflection profiles collected by the U.S. Geological Survey along the Delmarva Peninsula, MD and VA, 2014 (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Delmarva Peninsula is a 220-kilometer-long headland, spit, and barrier island complex that was significantly affected by Hurricane Sandy. A U.S. Geological...

  17. PNG formatted images of Multi-channel streamer seismic-reflection profiles collected by the U.S. Geological Survey along the Delmarva Peninsula, MD and VA, 2014 (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Delmarva Peninsula is a 220-kilometer-long headland, spit, and barrier island complex that was significantly affected by Hurricane Sandy. A U.S. Geological...

  18. Trackline navigation for Swath interferometric data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey along the Delmarva Peninsula, MD and VA, 2014 (Esri polyline shapefile, GCS WGS 84) (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Delmarva Peninsula is a 220-kilometer-long headland, spit, and barrier island complex that was significantly affected by Hurricane Sandy. A U.S. Geological...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumiko K. Sakane


    Full Text Available São apresentados espectros infravermelhos da creatina, na faixa de 4000 a 400 cm−1. Os resultados são comparados com espectros observados e calculados, publicados na literatura.

  20. Het Italiaanse voorzetsel da

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, M.G. de


    SAMENVATTING In een voorzetselstudie in het kader van Jackendoffs semantische theorie wordt het sterk polyseme Italiaanse voorzetsel da geanalyseerd als een verzameling deelbetekenissen waarbij de meeste door een of meer semantische regels afgeleid kunnen worden van de basisbetekenis ruimtelijke He

  1. Impacto ambiental da apicultura



    A cultura da abelha doméstica Apis. mellifera L. ou apicultura é conhecida desde a antiguidade, sendo o mel uni alimento natural corrente entre os povos primitivos. Pinturas rupestres mostram que desde o neolítico o homem era atraído pelo mel, pois tentava recolher ninhos de abelhas selvagens e instalava-os em cavidades naturais das rochas, muito perto da sua habitação.

  2. Robust inferences on climate change patterns of precipitation extremes in the Iberian Peninsula (United States)

    de Melo-Gonçalves, Paulo; Rocha, Alfredo; Santos, João A.


    grid points where a significant climate change is found with a predefined low uncertainty. Results highlight the importance of taking into account the spread across an ensemble of climate simulations when making inferences on climate change from the ensemble-mean or ensemble-median. This is specially true for climate projections of extreme indices such CDD and R95T. For PRCTOT, a decrease in annual precipitation over the entire peninsula is projected, specially in the north and northwest where it can decrease down to 400 mm by the middle of the 21st century. This decrease is expected to occur throughout the year except in winter. Annual CDD is projected to increase till the middle of the 21st century overall the peninsula, reaching more than three weeks in the southwest. This increase is projected to occur in summer and spring. For Rx5day, a decrease is projected to occur during spring and autumn in the major part of the peninsula, and during summer in northern Iberia. Finally, R95T is projected to decrease around 20% in northern Iberia in summer, and around 15% in the south-southwest in autumn.

  3. Circulation patterns and wave climate along the coast of the Iberian Peninsula (United States)

    Rasilla Álvarez, D.; García Codrán, J. C.


    Evidences of an active erosion (beach retreat, falling cliffs, damaged infrastructures) are observed in many coastal areas around the Iberian Peninsula. Morphogenetic coastal processes result from individual episodes of storminess that can accelerate or mitigate the expected impacts of the global rising trend of average sea levels. Thus, a good understanding of the local forcing processes is required in order to assess the impacts of future sea levels. The spatial and temporal variability of the wave climate along the cost of the Iberian Peninsula and their relationships with regional scale circulation patterns and local-scale winds are the main objectives of this contribution. The oceanographic data set consists of observed hourly data from 7 buoys disseminated along the Spanish coastline, and hindcasted 3-hourly analogous parameters (SIMAR 44 database), provided by Puertos del Estado. Sea level pressure, surface 10m U and V wind components gridded data were obtained from NCEP Reanalysis, while storm tracks and cyclone statistics were extracted from the CDC Map Room Climate Products Storm Track Data ( The influence of the local conditions was highlighted comparing meteorological data from the buoys and synop reports from coastal stations. To explore the regional atmospheric mechanisms responsible for the wave variability, a regional Eulerian approach (a synoptic typing) were combined with a larger-scale Lagrangian method, based on the analysis of storm-tracks over the area. The synoptic catalogue was obtained following a well-known procedure that combines Principal Component Analysis (PCA) for reduction purposes and clustering (Ward plus K-means) to define the circulation types. As expected, rougher wave climate are observed along the northern and western coast of the Iberian Peninsula, open to the Atlantic storms. The Mediterranean shorelines experiences calmer conditions, although the Gulf of Lions, Catalonian coast

  4. Impact of Horizontal Resolution and Cumulus Parameterization Scheme on the Simulation of Heavy Rainfall Events over the Korean Peninsula

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Seung-Woo LEE; Dong-Kyou LEE; Dong-Eon CHANG


    In this paper, we present the results from high-resolution numerical simulations of three heavy rainfall events over the Korean Peninsula. The numerical results show that the prediction accuracy for heavy rainfall events improved as horizontal resolution increased. The fine-grid precipitation fields were much closer to the real precipitation fields in the case of large synoptic forcing over the Korean Peninsula. In the case of large convective available potential energy and weak synoptic forcing, it seems that even when using a high resolution, the models still showed poor performance in reproducing the observed high precipitation amounts. However, activation of the cumulus parameterization scheme in the intermediate resolution of 9 km, even at a grid spacing of 3 km, had a positive impact on the simulation of the heavy rainfall event.

  5. Analyses of computer programs for the probabilistic estimation of design earthquake and seismological characteristics of the Korean Peninsula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Gi Hwa [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    The purpose of the present study is to develop predictive equations from simulated motions which are adequate for the Korean Peninsula and analyze and utilize the computer programs for the probabilistic estimation of design earthquakes. In part I of the report, computer programs for the probabilistic estimation of design earthquake are analyzed and applied to the seismic hazard characterizations in the Korean Peninsula. In part II of the report, available instrumental earthquake records are analyzed to estimate earthquake source characteristics and medium properties, which are incorporated into simulation process. And earthquake records are simulated by using the estimated parameters. Finally, predictive equations constructed from the simulation are given in terms of magnitude and hypocentral distances.

  6. 'Unlocking the archive': Using photogrammetry of historic aerial photographs to extend the record of glacier change on the Antarctic Peninsula (United States)

    Clarke, Lucy; Fox, Adrian


    Changes to glacier fronts and ice shelves and glacier acceleration are well documented, but there is almost no data on mass changes for the more than 400 glaciers on the Antarctic Peninsula. Current research demonstrates that the Antarctic Peninsula is contributing to sea-level change at a similar rate to that of other fast-changing near-polar or large mountain-glacier environments such as Iceland, Patagonia and Alaska (Hock, 2009). Forecasting the future impacts of the Antarctic Peninsula ice sheet on sea level will require a much improved understanding of 20th Century and contemporary glacier mass changes. Satellite data has been used to calculate these changes over the last three decades, but methods to quantify this over a longer time scale have eluded researchers. However, there is an archive of aerial photography of the Antarctic Peninsula dating back to the 1940s, this has been largely ignored due to the range of technical problems associated with deriving quantitative data from historic aerial photographs. This presentation demonstrates how advances in photogrammetric processing and capture of modern aerial photography have allowed this archive to be 'unlocked'. Accurate photogrammetric reconstruction from aerial photographs traditionally requires known ground control points acquired in the field; in remote and inaccessible areas, such as the Antarctic Peninsula, this is often impossible and so has restricted the use of photogrammetric analysis of the available aerial photography. A method for providing control for historic photos without fieldwork on the ground, by linking them to a newly acquired, highly accurate photogrammetric model adjusted through direct kinematic GPS positioning of the camera was developed by Fox and Cziferszky (2008), and this is now being applied to a number of glaciers across the Antarctic Peninsular using Intergraph Photogrammetry Suite (Erdas LPS 2013) software. This presentation will outline the photogrammetric workflow and

  7. The Distribution of Geomagnetic Field Components on the Southern Part of the Korean Peninsula for Epoch 2010.0

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutaek Lim


    Full Text Available NGII(National Geography Information Institute of Korea consigned KIGAM(Korea Institute of Geoscience & Mineral Resources to do absolute geomagnetic measurements on 32 geomagnetic repeat stations evenly distributed on the southern part of Korean Peninsula in the year 2010 and to produce geomagnetic field components' distribution maps for the year 2010.0. The result of the processing of the measured data, i. e., the geomagnetic field components' distribution, shows a near similarity with that calculated from IGRF-11 although the latter was processed without any real geomagnetic data measured on the Korean Peninsula as an input. This implies that we installed the repeat stations on sites with good geomagnetic conditions and that our result in accordance with the IGRF represents well the regional distribution trend, i. e., it is dominated by relatively long wavelength components.

  8. Estimation of Future Return Levels for Heavy Rainfall in the Iberian Peninsula: Comparison of Methodologies (United States)

    Parey, S.


    F. J. Acero1, S. Parey2, T.T.H. Hoang2, D. Dacunha-Castelle31Dpto. Física, Universidad de Extremadura, Avda. de Elvas s/n, 06006, Badajoz 2EDF/R&D, 6 quai Watier, 78401 Chatou Cedex, France 3Laboratoire de Mathématiques, Université Paris 11, Orsay, France Trends can already be detected in daily rainfall amount in the Iberian Peninsula (IP), and this will have an impact on the extreme levels. In this study, we compare different ways to estimate future return levels for heavy rainfall, based on the statistical extreme value theory. Both Peaks over Threshold (POT) and block maxima with the Generalized Extreme Value (GEV) distribution will be used and their results compared when linear trends are assumed in the parameters: threshold and scale parameter for POT and location and scale parameter for GEV. But rainfall over the IP is a special variable in that a large number of the values are 0. Thus, the impact of taking this into account is discussed too. Another approach is then tested, based on the evolutions of the mean and variance obtained from the time series of rainy days only, and of the number of rainy days. A statistical test, similar to that designed for temperature in Parey et al. 2013, is used to assess if the trends in extremes can be considered as mostly due to these evolutions when considering only rainy days. The results show that it is mainly the case: the extremes of the residuals, after removing the trends in mean and standard deviation, cannot be differentiated from those of a stationary process. Thus, the future return levels can be estimated from the stationary return level of these residuals and an estimation of the future mean and standard deviation. Moreover, an estimation of the future number of rainy days is used to retrieve the return levels for all days. All of these comparisons are made for an ensemble of high quality rainfall time series observed in the Iberian Peninsula over the period 1961-2010, from which we want to estimate a 20-year

  9. Sensitivity of fire weather index to different reanalysis products in the Iberian Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Bedia


    Full Text Available Wildfires are a major concern on the Iberian Peninsula, and the establishment of effective prevention and early warning systems are crucial to reduce impacts and losses. Fire weather indices are daily indicators of fire danger based upon meteorological information. However, their application in many studies is conditioned to the availability of sufficiently large climatological time series over extensive geographical areas and of sufficient quality. Furthermore, wind and relative humidity, important for the calculation of fire spread and fuel flammability parameters, are relatively scarce data. For these reasons, different reanalysis products are often used for the calculation of surrogate fire danger indices, although the agreement with those derived from observations remains as an open question to be addressed.

    In this study, we analyze this problem focusing on the Canadian Fire Weather Index (FWI – and the associated Seasonal Severity Rating (SSR – and considering three different reanalysis products of varying resolutions on the Iberian Peninsula: NCEP, ERA-40 and ERA-Interim. Besides the inter-comparison of the resulting FWI/SSR values, we also study their correspondence with observational data from 7 weather stations in Spain and their sensitivity to the input parameters (precipitation, temperature, relative humidity and wind velocity.

    As a general result, ERA-Interim reproduces the observed FWI magnitudes with better accuracy than NCEP, with lower/higher correlations in the coast/inland locations. For instance, ERA-Interim summer correlations are above 0.5 in inland locations – where higher FWI magnitudes are attained – whereas the corresponding values for NCEP are below this threshold. Nevertheless, departures from the observed distributions are generally found in all reanalysis, with a general tendency to underestimation, more pronounced in the case of NCEP. In spite of these limitations, ERA-Interim may still

  10. Karyosystematics and molecular taxonomy of the anomalous blue butterflies (Lepidoptera, Lycaenidae) from the Balkan Peninsula (United States)

    Vishnevskaya, Maria S.; Saifitdinova, Alsu F.; Lukhtanov, Vladimir A.


    Abstract The Balkan Peninsula represents one of the hottest biodiversity spots in Europe. However, the invertebrate fauna of this region is still insufficiently investigated, even in respect of such well-studied organisms as Lepidoptera. Here we use a combination of chromosomal, molecular and morphological markers to rearrange the group of so-called anomalous blue butterflies (also known as ‘brown complex’ of the subgenus Agrodiaetus Hübner, [1822] and as the Polyommatus (Agrodiaetus) admetus (Esper, 1783) species group) and to reveal its cryptic taxonomic structure. We demonstrate that Polyommatus aroaniensis (Brown, 1976) is not as widespread in the Balkans as was previously thought. In fact, it has a dot-like distribution range restricted to the Peloponnese Peninsula in South Greece. Polyommatus orphicus Kolev, 2005 is not as closely related to the Turkish species Polyommatus dantchenkoi (Lukhtanov & Wiemers, 2003) as was supposed earlier. Instead, it is a Balkan endemic represented by two subspecies: Polyommatus orphicus orphicus (Bulgaria) and Polyommatus orphicus eleniae Coutsis & De Prins, 2005 (Northern Greece). Polyommatus ripartii (Freyer, 1830) is represented in the Balkans by an endemic subspecies Polyommatus ripartii pelopi. The traditionally recognized Polyommatus admetus (Esper, 1783) is shown to be a heterogeneous complex and is divided into Polyommatus admetus sensu stricto (the Balkans and west Turkey) and Polyommatus yeranyani (Dantchenko & Lukhtanov, 2005) (east Turkey, Armenia, Azerbaijan and Iran). Polyommatus nephohiptamenos (Brown & Coutsis, 1978) is confirmed to be a species with a dot-like distribution range in Northern Greece. Finally, from Central Greece (Timfristos and Parnassos mountains) we describe Polyommatus timfristos Lukhtanov, Vishnevskaya & Shapoval, sp. n. which differs by its haploid chromosome number (n=38) from the closely related and morphologically similar Polyommatus aroaniensis (n=47-48) and Polyommatus orphicus (n

  11. Slip mode segmentation of the megathrust beneath Nicoya Peninsula, Costa Rica (United States)

    Voss, Nick; Malservisi, Rocco; Liu, Zhen; Dixon, Timothy H.; Protti, Marino; Gonzales, Victor; Schwartz, Susan; Jiang, Yan


    The Nicoya Peninsula, Costa Rica, overlies a section of a subduction megathrust close to the Middle America Trench. This location allows terrestrial geodetic monitoring of the surface deformation above the seismogenic zone, a region that is often underwater in many subduction zones. A continuous Global Positioning System network has operated in the Nicoya peninsula of northern Costa Rica since 2002 observing a number of deep and shallow slow slip events (SSEs) with a recurrence interval of ~21 months. On September 5th 2012, a Mw 7.6 nucleated just underneath the geodetic network. We explore the relationship between these recurrent SSEs and the large earthquake. We find that SSE recurrence interval appears constant before and after the earthquake. Using a modified version of the Extended Network Inversion Filter [e.g. McGuire and Segall, 2003] (ENIF) to identify time dependent characteristics of SSEs before and after the 2012 Nicoya earthquake, we find that slip starts updip prior to the earthquake in the shallow, 15 km depth, section of the subduction zone and then migrates to a deep patch beneath the Nicoya gulf. Following the earthquake, high slip rates initiate down dip (40 km depth) and remain downdip, a change from observations of SSEs prior to the earthquake. In this study, we also analyze the temporal and spatial evolution of the surface deformation at different temporal scales (from hours to years) after the earthquake to infer the aseismic slip due to postsiesmic response on the fault interface. We compare the portion of postseismic displacement interpreted as afterslip with our previous analysis of SSE. Our results show that the main rupture was followed by significant early afterslip for the first 3 hours after the main event followed by regular afterslip decaying exponentially. During the first few months, the afterslip has most likely filled gaps left by the coseismic rupture (in particular updip). We also show that afterslip seems to be bounded by

  12. Thermal regime of active layer at two lithologically contrasting sites on James Ross Island, Antarctic Peninsula. (United States)

    Hrbáček, Filip; Nývlt, Daniel; Láska, Kamil


    Antarctic Peninsula region (AP) represents one of the most rapidly warming parts of our planet in the last 50 years. Despite increasing research activities along both western and eastern sides of AP in last decades, there is still a lot of gaps in our knowledge relating to permafrost, active layer and its thermal and physical properties. This study brings new results of active layer monitoring on James Ross Island, which is the largest island in northern AP. Its northern part, Ulu Peninsula, is the largest ice-free area (more than 200 km2) in the region. Due its large area, we focused this study on sites located in different lithologies, which would affect local thermal regime of active layer. Study site (1) at Abernethy Flats area (41 m a.s.l.) lies ~7 km from northern coast. Lithologically is formed by disintegrated Cretaceous calcareous sandstones and siltstones of the Santa Marta Formation. Study site (2) is located at the northern slopes of Berry Hill (56 m a.s.l.), about 0.4 km from northern coastline. Lithology is composed of muddy to intermediate diamictites, tuffaceous siltstones to fine grained sandstones of the Mendel Formation. Data of air temperature at 2 meters above ground and the active layer temperatures at 75 cm deep profiles were obtained from both sites in period 1 January 2012 to 31 December 2014. Small differences were found when comparing mean air temperatures and active temperatures at 5 and 75 cm depth in the period 2012-2014. While the mean air temperatures varied between -7.7 °C and -7.0 °C, the mean ground temperatures fluctuated between -6.6 °C and -6.1 °C at 5 cm and -6.9 °C and -6.0 °C at 75 cm at Abernethy Flats and Berry Hill slopes respectively. Even though ground temperature differences along the profiles weren't pronounced during thawing seasons, the maximum active layer thickness was significantly larger at Berry Hill slopes (80 to 82 cm) than at Abernethy Flats (52 to 64 cm). We assume this differences are affected by

  13. Characterization of Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae with High Rate of Autochthonous Transmission in the Arabian Peninsula.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ágnes Sonnevend

    Full Text Available To establish the role of local transmission versus possible pathogen import due to previous foreign exposure in infections caused by carbapenem non-susceptible Enterobacteriaceae in the Arabian Peninsula, 200 independent isolates collected in 16 hospitals of Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Oman and the United Arab Emirates were studied. All strains were multidrug resistant; 42.5% of them also qualified as extremely drug resistant. The frequency of various carbapenemases varied according to the participating countries, but in the collection, as a whole, blaNDM-1 was the most frequently encountered carbapenemase gene (46.5% followed by blaOXA-48-like gene (32.5%. A comparatively high rate (8.9% of multi-clonal strains carrying both blaNDM and blaOXA-48-like genes in the United Arab Emirates, representing the most resistant subgroup, was encountered. No KPC-expressing isolates were detected. Three major clones of blaNDM-1 carrying Klebsiella pneumoniae of ST152 (n = 22, Saudi Arabia, ST14 (n = 7, United Arab Emirates and ST147 types (n = 9, Oman were identified, the latter two clones carrying similar, but not identical HI1b incompatibility type plasmids of >170 kb. While from 78.6% of the cases with documented foreign hospitalization blaNDM positive strains were isolated, these strains formed only 25.6% of all the isolates expressing this enzyme. In fact, 56.8% of the NDM, 75.7% of OXA-48-like and 90.9% of VIM positive strains were recovered from patients without documented foreign exposure, neither in the form of travel or prior hospitalization abroad, suggesting a high rate of autochthonous infections. This, considering the extensive links of these countries to the rest of the world, predicts that trends in the local epidemiology of carbapenem resistant strains may increasingly affect the spread of these pathogens on the global scale. These results call for improved surveillance of carbapenem resistant Enterobacteriaceae in the countries of the Arabian

  14. Composition and fluxes of submarine groundwater along the Caribbean coast of the Yucatan Peninsula (United States)

    Null, Kimberly A.; Knee, Karen L.; Crook, Elizabeth D.; de Sieyes, Nicholas R.; Rebolledo-Vieyra, Mario; Hernández-Terrones, Laura; Paytan, Adina


    Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) to the coastal environment along the eastern Yucatan Peninsula, Quintana Roo, Mexico was investigated using a combination of tracer mass balances and analytical solutions. Two distinct submarine groundwater sources including water from the unconfined surficial aquifer discharging at the beach face and water from a deeper aquifer discharging nearshore through submarine springs (ojos) were identified. The groundwater of nearshore ojos was saline and significantly enriched in short-lived radium isotopes (223Ra, 224Ra) relative to the unconfined aquifer beach face groundwater. We estimated SGD from ojos using 223Ra and used a salinity mass balance to estimate the freshwater discharge at the beach face. Analytical calculations were also used to estimate wave set-up and tidally driven saline seepage into the surf zone and were compared to the salinity-based freshwater discharge estimates. Results suggest that average SGD from ojos along the Yucatan Peninsula Caribbean coast is on the order of 308 m3 d-1 m-1 and varies between sampling regions. Higher discharge was observed in the southern regions (568 m3 d-1 m-1) compared to the north (48 m3 d-1 m-1). Discharge at the beach face was in the range of 3.3-8.5 m3 d-1 m-1 for freshwater and 2.7 m3 d-1 m-1 for saline water based on the salinity mass balance and wave- and tidally-driven discharge, respectively. Although discharge from the ojos was larger in volume than discharge from the unconfined aquifer at the beach face, dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) was significantly higher in beach groundwater; thus, discharge of this unconfined beach aquifer groundwater contributed significantly to total DIN loading to the coast. DIN fluxes were up to 9.9 mol d-1 m-1 from ojos and 2.1 mol d-1 m-1 from beach discharge and varied regionally along the 500 km coastline sampled. These results demonstrate the importance of considering the beach zone as a significant nutrient source to coastal waters

  15. ABCGheritage project - promoting geotourism in northern Finland, northern Norway and the Kola Peninsula (United States)

    Pihlaja, Jouni; Johansson, Peter; Lauri, Laura S.


    Nature tourism has been a growing business sector in the Barents area during the recent decades. With the purpose to develop nature tourism in a sustainable way, a cooperation project ABCGheritage - Arctic Biological, Cultural and Geological Heritage has been carried out. Project has received partial funding from the EU Kolarctic ENPI program. In the geoheritage part of the project the main activities were aimed to develop pro-environmental ways of geotourism in the area. The three main participants in the geoheritage part of the project are the Geological Survey of Finland, Northern Finland Office, the Geological Institute of the Kola Science Centre of the Russian Academy of Sciences and Bioforsk Soil and Environment from northeastern Norway. The duration of the project is 2012-2014 and most of the work has already been completed even if most of the results are not published yet. Totally ten different tasks have been implemented in the geological part of the project. The largest task has been the preparation of a geological outdoor map and guide book of the Khibiny Tundra locating in the central part of the Kola Peninsula. In Finland already 11 such maps have been published, and the experiences gained during their production have been used in this project, too. Geological heritage trails to the Khibiny Tundra have also been created and they will be drawn on the map. The second concrete result is the Barents Tour for Geotourist -guide, which will be published as a guide book, web pages and an exhibition. The route comprises ca 35 best geological demonstration sites along the circle route from northern Finland to northeastern Norway, from there to Kola Peninsula and then back to Finland. Information of the route will be available for all interested travelers. In addition to the geological outdoor map of the Khibiny Tundra and "Barents Tour for Geotourists"-guide, the primary outputs of the project are the geological nature trails on the field, geological

  16. Atmospheric pollutants in fog and rain events at the northwestern mountains of the Iberian Peninsula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernández-González, Ricardo; Yebra-Pimentel, Iria; Martínez-Carballo, Elena [Nutrition and Bromatology Group, Analytical and Food Chemistry Department, Faculty of Food Science and Technology, University of Vigo, Ourense Campus, E32004 Ourense (Spain); Simal-Gándara, Jesús, E-mail: [Nutrition and Bromatology Group, Analytical and Food Chemistry Department, Faculty of Food Science and Technology, University of Vigo, Ourense Campus, E32004 Ourense (Spain); Pontevedra-Pombal, Xabier, E-mail: [Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry Department, Faculty of Biology, University of Santiago de Compostela, Santiago Campus, E15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain)


    Atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and exist in gas and particle phases, as well as dissolved or suspended in precipitation (fog or rain). While the hydrosphere is the main reservoir for PAHs, the atmosphere serves as the primary route for global transport of PCBs. In this study, fog and rain samples were collected during fourteen events from September 2011 to April 2012 in the Xistral Mountains, a remote range in the NW Iberian Peninsula. PAH compounds [especially of low molecular weight (LMW)] were universally found, but mainly in the fog-water samples. The total PAH concentration in fog-water ranged from non-detected to 216 ng · L{sup −1} (mean of 45 ng · L{sup −1}), and was much higher in fall than in winter. Total PAH levels in the rain and fog events varied from non-detected to 1272 and 33 ng · L{sup −1} for, respectively, LMW and high molecular weight (HMW) PAHs. Diagnostic ratio analysis (LMW PAHs/HMW PAHs) suggested that petroleum combustion was the dominant contributor to PAHs in the area. Total PCB levels in the rain and fog events varied from non-detected to 305 and 91 ng · L{sup −1} for, respectively, PCBs with 2–3 Cl atoms and 5–10 Cl atoms. PCBs, especially those with 5–10 Cl atoms, were found linked to rain events. The occurrence of the most volatile PCBs, PCBs with 2–3 Cl atoms, is related to wind transport from far away sources, whereas the occurrence of PCBs with 5–10 Cl atoms seems to be related with the increase of its deposition during rainfall at the end of summer and fall. The movement of this fraction of PCBs is facilitated by its binding to air-suspended particles, whose concentrations usually show an increase as the result of a prolonged period of drought in summer. - Highlights: • There is no work about both PAHs and PCBs in fog-rain events. • None of the existing works is about the case of the northwestern mountains

  17. A preliminary strategic environmental impact assessment of mineral and hydrocarbon activities on the Nuussuaq peninsula, West Greenland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boertmann, D.; Asmund, G.; Glahder, C.; Tamstorf, M.


    There is an increasing interest for mineral and hydrocarbon exploration in Greenland and in both regards the Nuussuaq peninsula is in focus. This preliminary strategic environmental impact assessment describes the status of the biological knowledge from the area and designates potential conflicts between activities and the biological environment. Furthermore biological knowledge gaps are identified. These should be filled before specific environmental impacts assessments can be carried out and relevant studies to fill these data gaps are proposed. (au)

  18. Taxonomic review of the genus Isometopus (Hemiptera: Miridae: Isometopinae) from the Korean Peninsula, with description of a new species. (United States)

    Kim, Junggon; Jung, Sunghoon


    The genus Isometopus is reviewed from the Korean Peninsula with a new species: I. jejuensis sp. nov. I. japonicus Hasegawa, 1946 is also reported from South Korea for the first time. Genital structures of male and female of I. japonicus are illustrated and described for the first time. Last instar of I. japonicas is also described. Biological notes such as host plants and morphological characters are provided with the photographs and illustrations. A key to the Korean Isometopus species is also provided.

  19. Socio-economic and marketing aspects of Laila and Bottom Long Line fisheries in the Kalpitiya peninsula of Sri Lanka


    Wimalasena, H.D.; de Mel, W.D.M.


    Surrounding Net Fishery (laila) and Bottom Long Line Fishery which operate in the coastal waters of Kalpitiya Peninsula, compete for the same fish resources, resulting in a fishery dispute between the respective fishermen. Both fisheries target demersal as well as mid pelagic fishes, such as travellys (parava), mullets (galmalu) and barracudas (ulava). As the dispute had an adverse impact on the social harmony in the fishing community of the area, a socio-economic survey was conducted to stud...

  20. Infections in travellers returning to Turkey from the Arabian peninsula: a retrospective cross-sectional multicenter study. (United States)

    Erdem, H; Ak, O; Elaldi, N; Demirdal, T; Hargreaves, S; Nemli, S A; Cag, Y; Ulug, M; Naz, H; Gunal, O; Sirmatel, F; Sipahi, O R; Alpat, S N; Ertem-Tuncer, G; Sozen, H; Evlice, O; Meric-Koc, M; Dogru, A; Koksaldi-Motor, V; Tekin, R; Ozdemir, D; Ozturk-Engin, D; Savasci, U; Karagoz, E; Cekli, Y; Inan, A


    Mass gatherings pooling people from different parts of the world-the largest of which is to Mecca, Saudi Arabia, for Hajj-may impose risks for acquisition and dissemination of infectious diseases. A substantial number of pilgrims to Hajj and Umrah are Turkish citizens (456,000 in 2014) but data are lacking on scale of the problem. We did a retrospective cross-sectional multicenter study in Turkey to explore the range of infections among inpatients who had recently returned from the Arabian Peninsula. Our inclusion criteria were patients who had acquired an infection during their trip to an Arabian Peninsula country, or who became symptomatic within 1 week of their return. The data were collected retrospectively for January 1, 2013 and March 1, 2015. 185 Turkish patients were recruited to the study across 15 referral centers with travel associated infectious diseases after returning from Arabian Peninsula countries (predominantly Saudi Arabia 163 [88.1 %] for religious purposes 162 [87.5 %]). Seventy four (40.0 %) of them were ≥ 65 years old with numerous comorbidities including diabetes (24.3 %) and COPD (14.1 %). The most common clinical diagnosis was respiratory tract infections (169 [91.5 %]), followed by diarrheal diseases (13 [7 %]), and there was one case of MERS-CoV. Patients spent a median of 5 (3-7) days as hospital inpatients and overall mortality was 1.1 %. Returning travellers from the Arabian Peninsula present as inpatients with a broad range of infectious diseases similar to common community acquired infections frequently seen in daily medical practices in Turkey.

  1. Interseismic megathrust coupling beneath the Nicoya Peninsula, Costa Rica, from the joint inversion of InSAR and GPS data (United States)

    Xue, Lian; Schwartz, Susan; Liu, Zhen; Feng, Lujia


    The Nicoya Peninsula, Costa Rica, was struck by a long-anticipated and gap-filling Mw 7.6 earthquake in 2012. To study interseismic strain accumulation on the megathrust beneath the Nicoya Peninsula, we present an improved interseismic coupling model by integrating interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) and GPS data. Our model reveals three strongly coupled patches. The first strongly coupled patch locates beneath the Nicoya Peninsula and ruptured during the 2012 earthquake. The second strongly coupled patch locates offshore the central Nicoya Peninsula and remained largely unbroken. However, this region is close to and possibly intermingled with shallow slow slip and tremor, suggesting that accumulated strain in this region may be released both seismically and aseismically. The third strongly coupled patch offshore of the southeastern end of Nicoya overlaps part of the coseismic rupture of the 1990 Mw 7.0 Nicoya Gulf earthquake, indicating that significant strain has re-accumulated since this event. Incorporating InSAR data provides a more refined interseismic coupling model than using GPS alone and allows for a more reliable comparison with local seismic and aseismic activities. This comparison indicates that strongly locked regions during the interseismic stage are the loci of coseismic slip, and deep slow slip and low-frequency earthquakes occur in regions of low coupling or transition zones from low to high coupling, while shallow slow slip and tremor commingle with strongly coupled regions. Our study demonstrates that InSAR data can be used to recover small long-wavelength deformation signals with refined resolution in challenging subduction zone environments when integrated with GPS observations.

  2. Possible manifestations of underwater mud volcanoes based on results of sonar investigations in region of Taman Peninsula (United States)

    Kaevitser, V. I.; Rimskii-Korsakov, N. A.; Smolyaninov, I. V.; Razmanov, V. M.; Krivtsov, A. P.


    This paper presents the results of three-dimensional acoustic seabed mapping in the region of the Taman Peninsula in the Black Sea using an interferometric side-scan sonar and an acoustic profiler. Mapping has revealed underwater objects identified as manifestations of underwater mud volcanism. Detailed analysis of sonar images of the relief and seabed profiles in the region of the objects has confirmed the original hypothesis.

  3. Bioaccumulation and biomagnification of total mercury in four exploited shark species in the Baja California Peninsula, Mexico


    Maz-Courrau, A.; López-Vera, C; Galván Magaña, Felipe; Escobar-Sánchez, O.; Rosíles-Martínez, R; Sanjuán-Muñoz, A.


    The present study determined the average Mercury bioaccumulation in the muscle tissue of four shark species (Carcharhinus falciformis, Prionace glauca, Sphyrna zygaena and Isurus oxyrinchus) captured in the Baja California Peninsula. We also evaluated biomagnification of some prey consumed by sharks. All sharks’ species had mercury levels over the limit specified by the Mexican government for human consumption. Blue shark (P. glauca) presented highest mercury values (1.96 ± 1.48 lg/g Hg d.w.)...

  4. Palynological characteristics of Upper Cretaceous and Paleogene deposits on the west of the Sambian Peninsula (Kaliningrad region), Part 2 (United States)

    Aleksandrova, G. N.; Zaporozhets, N. I.


    The results of studying dinocysts in the Upper Cretaceous-Lower Paleogene succession of the Kaliningrad region are considered. Distinguished in the succession are seven biostratigraphic units in the rank of the Palaeohystrichophora infusorioides, Chatangiella vnigrii, Cerodinium diebelii, Alisocysta margarita, Deflandrea oebisfeldensis, Areosphaeridium diktyoplokum, and Rhombodinium perforatum beds and one Charlesdowniea clathrata angulosa Zone. The Lyubavas Formation has not been distinguished on the west of the Sambian Peninsula. Ages of the Sambia, Alka, and Prussian formations are verified.

  5. Morphological variation in a secondary contact between divergent lineages of brown trout (Salmo trutta) from the Iberian Peninsula


    Miguel Hermida; Eduardo San Miguel; Carmen Bouza; Jaime Castro; Paulino Martínez


    The aim of this study was to analyze the morphological variation of brown trout (Salmo trutta) in the Duero basin, an Atlantic river basin in the Iberian Peninsula, where a spatial segregation of two divergent lineages was previously reported, based on isozyme, microsatellite and mtDNA data. In these studies, two divergent pure regions (Pisuerga and Lower-course) and several hybrid populations between them were identified. Morphological variation was evaluated in 11 populations representative...

  6. Isoenzyme characterization of Leishmania isolated from human cases with localized cutaneous leishmaniasis from the State of Campeche, Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. (United States)

    Canto-Lara, S B; Cardenas-Maruffo, M F; Vargas-Gonzalez, A; Andrade-Narvaez, F


    Seventy-five isolates from the State of Campeche, Mexico, an area endemic for localized cutaneous leishmaniasis (LCL), were characterized by isoenzyme markers (glucose phosphate isomerase, mannose phospate isomerase, nucleoside hydrolase, phosphoglucomutase, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase). Seventy (93.3%) were identified as Leishmania (Leishmania) mexicana and 5 (6.7%) as L. (Viannia) braziliensis. This is the first report of authochthonus human LCL caused by L. (V.) braziliensis in the State of Campeche, Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico.

  7. Late Quaternary uplift rate inferred from marine terraces, Muroto Peninsula, southwest Japan: Forearc deformation in an oblique subduction zone (United States)

    Matsu'ura, Tabito


    Tectonic uplift rates across the Muroto Peninsula, in the southwest Japan forearc (the overriding plate in the southwest Japan oblique subduction zone), were estimated by mapping the elevations of the inner edges of marine terrace surfaces. The uplift rates inferred from marine terraces M1 and M2, which were correlated by tephrochronology with marine isotope stages (MIS) 5e and 5c, respectively, include some vertical offset by local faults but generally decrease northwestward from 1.2-1.6 m ky- 1 on Cape Muroto to 0.3-0.7 m ky- 1 in the Kochi Plain. The vertical deformation of the Muroto Peninsula since MIS 5e and 5c was interpreted as a combination of regional uplift and folding related to the arc-normal offshore Muroto-Misaki fault. A regional uplift rate of 0.46 m ky- 1 was estimated from terraces on the Muroto Peninsula, and the residual deformation of these terraces was attributed to fault-related folding. A mass-balance calculation yielded a shortening rate of 0.71-0.77 m ky- 1 for the Muroto Peninsula, with the Muroto-Misaki fault accounting for 0.60-0.71 m ky- 1, but these rates may be overestimated by as much as 10% given variations of several meters in the elevation difference between the buried shoreline angles and terrace inner edges in the study area. A thrust fault model with flat (5-10° dip) and ramp (60° dip) components is proposed to explain the shortening rate and uplift rate of the Muroto-Misaki fault since MIS 5e. Bedrock deformation also indicates that the northern extension of this fault corresponds to the older Muroto Flexure.

  8. Latest Early Pleistocene remains of Lynx pardinus (Carnivora, Felidae) from the Iberian Peninsula: Taxonomy and evolutionary implications (United States)

    Boscaini, Alberto; Alba, David M.; Beltrán, Juan F.; Moyà-Solà, Salvador; Madurell-Malapeira, Joan


    The Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus) is a critically endangered felid that, during the last fifty years, has been subject to an intensive conservation program in an attempt to save it from extinction. This species is first recorded at ca. 1.7-1.6 Ma (late Villafranchian, late Early Pleistocene) in NE Iberian Peninsula, roughly coinciding with the large faunal turnover that occurred around the middle to late Villafranchian boundary. Here we describe the largest collection of L. pardinus remains available to date from the Iberian late Early Pleistocene (Epivillafranchian), including localities from the Vallparadís Section (Vallès-Penedès Basin, NE Iberian Peninsula) and Cueva Victoria (Cartagena, SE Iberian Peninsula). The morphology and biometry of the studied material attests to the widespread occurrence of L. pardinus in the Mediterranean coast of the Iberian Peninsula since the latest Early Pleistocene, i.e., about 0.5 million years earlier than it was generally accepted (i.e., at the beginning of the Middle Pleistocene). Based on the features observed in the large sample studied in this paper, we conclude that Lynx spelaeus is a junior synonym of L. pardinus and further propose to assign all the Epivillafranchian and younger fossil lynxes from SW Europe to the extant species L. pardinus. Due to the arrival of the Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) into Europe at the beginning of the Late Pleistocene, the attribution of specimens younger than MIS 5e to either this species or L. pardinus solely on morphological grounds has proven equivocal. Here we discuss the main diagnostic features of both species of European lynxes and further review their evolutionary history and paleobiogeography throughout the Pleistocene.

  9. Formation of metamorphic core complexes in non-over-thickened continental crust: A case study of Liaodong Peninsula (East Asia)


    Wang, Kun; Burov, Evgueni; Gumiaux, Charles; Chen, Yan; Lu, Gang; Mezri, Leila; Zhao, Liang


    International audience; Pre-thickened hot orogenic crust is often considered a necessary condition for the formation of continental metamorphic core complexes (MCCs). However, the discovery of MCCs in the Liaodong Peninsula, where the crust has a normal thickness (~ 35 km), challenges the universality of this scenario. Therefore, we implement a series of 2-D numerical thermo-mechanical modeling experiments in which we investigate the conditions of MCC formation in normal crusts, as well as th...

  10. High resolution stalagmite climate record from the Yucatán Peninsula spanning the Maya terminal classic period (United States)

    Medina-Elizalde, Martín; Burns, Stephen J.; Lea, David W.; Asmerom, Yemane; von Gunten, Lucien; Polyak, Victor; Vuille, Mathias; Karmalkar, Ambarish


    The decline of the Classic Maya civilization was complex and geographically variable, and occurred over a ~ 150-year interval, known as the Terminal Classic Period (TCP, C.E. 800-950). Paleoclimate studies based on lake sediments from the Yucatán Peninsula lowlands suggested that drought prevailed during the TCP and was likely an important factor in the disintegration of the Classic Maya civilization. The lacustrine evidence for decades of severe drought in the Yucatán Peninsula, however, does not readily explain the long 150-year socio-political decline of the Classic Maya civilization. Here we present a new, absolute-dated, high-resolution stalagmite δ18O record from the northwest Yucatán Peninsula that provides a much more detailed picture of climate variability during the last 1500 years. Direct calibration between stalagmite δ18O and rainfall amount offers the first quantitative estimation of rainfall variability during the Terminal Classic Period. Our results show that eight severe droughts, lasting from 3 to 18 years, occurred during major depopulation events of Classic Maya city-states. During these droughts, rainfall was reduced by 52% to 36%. The number and short duration of the dry intervals help explain why the TCP collapse of the Mayan civilization occurred over 150 years.

  11. Quantification of subaerial and episodic subglacial erosion rates on high latitude upland plateaus: Cumberland Peninsula, Baffin Island, Arctic Canada (United States)

    Margreth, Annina; Gosse, John C.; Dyke, Arthur S.


    Long-term rates of subaerial and episodic subglacial erosion by predominately cold-based ice cover are determined for tors on weathered plateaus on Cumberland Peninsula. By measuring terrestrial cosmogenic nuclide concentrations in differentially weathered surfaces on a given tor, we reconstruct the complex exposure and erosion history involving recurring cold-based ice cover. The style and rate of subaerial and subglacial erosion at multiple tor sites on Cumberland Peninsula are assessed with a Monte Carlo approach that computes plausible exposure histories based on a proxy record of global ice volume. Constant subaerial erosion rates by weathering are low (tors located on coastal ridge crests that have likely never been glaciated. Summit plateaus intermittently covered by cold-based ice throughout the Quaternary have experienced episodic subglacial erosion by plucking of fractured bedrock with rates between 1 and 16 mm ka-1. Variation of episodic erosion rates is associated with topographic position of the sampled tors and bedrock fracture density. Most of the tors were last glacially plucked in pre-ultimate glaciations, not during the Wisconsinan glaciation. Furthermore, the new approach provides evidence for the extent of ice coverage during the late Wisconsinan, which is significant if no erratics are available for exposure dating. Despite late Pleistocene intervals of ice cover and glacial plucking, tor-studded landscapes of Cumberland Peninsula are of considerable antiquity.

  12. Widespread secondary contact and new glacial refugia in the halophilic rotifer Brachionus plicatilis in the Iberian Peninsula.

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    Sergi Campillo

    Full Text Available Small aquatic organisms harbour deep phylogeographic patterns and highly structured populations even at local scales. These patterns indicate restricted gene flow, despite these organisms' high dispersal abilities, and have been explained by a combination of (1 strong founder effects due to rapidly growing populations and very large population sizes, and (2 the development of diapausing egg banks and local adaptation, resulting in low effective gene flow, what is known as the Monopolization hypothesis. In this study, we build up on our understanding of the mitochondrial phylogeography of the halophilic rotifer Brachionus plicatilis in the Iberian Peninsula by both increasing the number of sampled ponds in areas where secondary contact is likely and doubling sample sizes. We analyzed partial mitochondrial sequences of 252 individuals. We found two deep mitochondrial DNA lineages differing in both their genetic diversity and the complexity of their phylogeographic structure. Our analyses suggest that several events of secondary contact between clades occurred after their expansion from glacial refugia. We found a pattern of isolation-by-distance, which we interpret as being the result of historical colonization events. We propose the existence of at least one glacial refugium in the SE of the Iberian Peninsula. Our findings challenge predictions of the Monopolization hypothesis, since coexistence (i.e., secondary contact of divergent lineages in some ponds in the Iberian Peninsula is common. Our results indicate that phylogeographic structures in small organisms can be very complex and that gene flow between diverse lineages after population establishment can indeed occur.

  13. Geomagnetic changes correlated with crustal movement in the north-eastern part of the Izu Peninsula, Japan

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    Y. Tanaka


    Full Text Available After the 1989 sea-floor eruption off the east coast of Ito city, no remarkable activities of earthquake swarms were observed in the eastern part of the Izu Peninsula, Central Japan during the period from 1990 to 1992. However, a small swarm activity was again observed in January, 1993 and a remarkable one took place again in May-June 1993. Several months after the subsidence of the swarm activity, abrupt changes in the crustal movement in the inland of the peninsula were observed during the period from September 1993 to February 1994. At some continuous observation sites, well correlated changes in the geomagnetic total intensity were observed almost during the same period when the anomalous changes in the crustal movement were seen in the eastern part of the peninsula. The spatial patterns of negative changes of the total intensity in the northern half and positive ones in the south were seen in the north-eastern edge of the domed distribution of the upheaval. The changes in crustal movement and the geomagnetic field terminated when a small swarm activity occurred at the end of February 1994.

  14. Seroprevalence of antibodies against the excreted antigen superoxide dismutase by Trypanosoma cruzi in dogs from the Yucatan Peninsula (Mexico). (United States)

    López-Cespedes, A; Longoni, S S; Sauri-Arceo, C H; Rodríguez-Vivas, R I; Villegas, N; Escobedo-Ortegón, J; Barrera-Pérez, M A; Sánchez-Moreno, M; Bolio González, M E; Marín, C


    Numerous studies have shown the role of dogs as a reservoir for the American trypanosomiasis, as the bridge connecting sylvatic and peridomestic cycles. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of American trypanosomiasis in the dog population (630 sera) from seven localities in the Yucatan Peninsula (city of Mérida and the towns of Molas, Playa del Carmen, Akumal, Xcalacoop, Xcalac and Xahuachol). These data are key for developing control measures for the disease. The sera were analysed to detect antibodies against Trypanosoma cruzi, using Fe-SOD excreted as the antigenic fraction by ELISA and Western blot as confirmation. The total prevalence found in the Yucatan Peninsula was some 14.76%, with 10.74% in the state of Yucatan (city of Mérida, towns of Molas and Xcalacoop) and 21.34% in the state of Quintana Roo (towns of Playa del Carmen, Akumal, Xcalac and Xahuachol). However, a more thorough epidemiological study of the dog population, both wild and urban, in the Yucatan Peninsula will be required to design a control strategy for these diseases, paying particular attention to the population affected and even broadening the study to other Mexican states as well as neighbouring countries. These results again confirm that iron-superoxide dismutase excreted by T. cruzi constitutes a good source of antigen for serodiagnosis in epidemiological studies.

  15. New Neanderthal remains from Mani peninsula, Southern Greece: the Kalamakia Middle Paleolithic cave site. (United States)

    Harvati, Katerina; Darlas, Andreas; Bailey, Shara E; Rein, Thomas R; El Zaatari, Sireen; Fiorenza, Luca; Kullmer, Ottmar; Psathi, Eleni


    The Kalamakia cave, a Middle Paleolithic site on the western coast of the Mani peninsula, Greece, was excavated in 1993-2006 by an interdisciplinary team from the Ephoreia of Paleoanthropology and Speleology (Greek Ministry of Culture) and the Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle (Paris). The site is dated to between ca. 100,000 and >39,000 years BP (Before Present) and has yielded Mousterian lithics, a rich fauna, and human remains from several layers. The latter include 10 isolated teeth, a cranial fragment and three postcranial elements. The remains represent at least eight individuals, two of them subadults, and show both carnivore and anthropogenic modifications. They can be identified as Neanderthal on the basis of diagnostic morphology on most specimens. A diet similar to that of Neanderthals from mixed habitat is suggested by our analysis of dental wear (occlusal fingerprint analysis) and microwear (occlusal texture microwear analysis), in agreement with the faunal and palynological analyses of the site. These new fossils significantly expand the Neanderthal sample known from Greece. Together with the human specimens from Lakonis and Apidima, the Kalamakia human remains add to the growing evidence of a strong Neanderthal presence in the Mani region during the Late Pleistocene.

  16. Epidemiological Characterization of Caseous Lymphadenitis in Goat Herds in the Paraguaná Peninsula, Venezuela

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    Alexander Delgado Duno


    Full Text Available Caseous lymphadenitis (CL is a chronic infectious disease caused by Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis; it affects small ruminants and generates economic loss due to a reduction in weight, reproductive performance, milk and wool production forfeiture, and depreciation of skins. Given the socio-economic importance of goat production in the Falcón state (Venezuela, this research aimed to epidemiologically characterize the disease in herds in the Paraguaná peninsula. The research is descriptive. Field work lasted six weeks, during which superficial lymph nodes were inspected, and 71 samples of purulent discharge were obtained from animals suspected to suffer from CL, according to their clinical manifestations. Back in the laboratory, specimens were bacteriologically analyzed; C. pseudotuberculosis isolates were compared with the reference strain ATCC 19410. The only risk factor detected for CL (p < 0.05 was the origin of goats by production units; those with the highest prevalence were located in the municipality of Falcón. Injuries in subscapular lymph nodes were the most frequent (p < 0.05 among the diagnosed animals. Penicillin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and novobiocin-resistant strains were identified. These results are important to raise awareness among producers, given that this activity is of vital importance for the region and in many cases ignorance on the subject was evidenced.

  17. Mixing and phytoplankton dynamics in a submarine canyon in the West Antarctic Peninsula (United States)

    Carvalho, Filipa; Kohut, Josh; Oliver, Matthew J.; Sherrell, Robert M.; Schofield, Oscar


    Bathymetric depressions (canyons) exist along the West Antarctic Peninsula shelf and have been linked with increased phytoplankton biomass and sustained penguin colonies. However, the physical mechanisms driving this enhanced biomass are not well understood. Using a Slocum glider data set with over 25,000 water column profiles, we evaluate the relationship between mixed layer depth (MLD, estimated using the depth of maximum buoyancy frequency) and phytoplankton vertical distribution. We use the glider deployments in the Palmer Deep region to examine seasonal and across canyon variability. Throughout the season, the ML becomes warmer and saltier, as a result of vertical mixing and advection. Shallow ML and increased stratification due to sea ice melt are linked to higher chlorophyll concentrations. Deeper mixed layers, resulting from increased wind forcing, show decreased chlorophyll, suggesting the importance of light in regulating phytoplankton productivity. Spatial variations were found in the canyon head region where local physical water column properties were associated with different biological responses, reinforcing the importance of local canyon circulation in regulating phytoplankton distribution in the region. While the mechanism initially hypothesized to produce the observed increases in phytoplankton over the canyons was the intrusion of warm, nutrient enriched modified Upper Circumpolar Deep Water (mUCDW), our analysis suggests that ML dynamics are key to increased primary production over submarine canyons in the WAP.

  18. Locomotor adaptations in Plio-Pleistocene large carnivores from the Italian Peninsula: Palaeoecological implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Carlo MELORO


    Mammalian carnivores are rarely considered for environmental reconstructions because they are extremely adaptable and their geographic range is usually large. However, the functional morphology of carnivore long bones can be indicative of locomotor behaviour as well as adaptation to specific kind of habitats. Here, different long bone ratios belonging to a subsample of extant large carnivores are used to infer palaeoecology of a comparative sample of Plio-Pleistocene fossils belonging to Italian paleo-communities. A multivariate long bone shape space reveals similarities between extant and fossil carnivores and multiple logistic regression models suggest that specific indices (the brachial and the Mt/F) can be applied to predict adaptations to grassland and tropical biomes. These functional indices exhibit also a phylogenetic signal to different degree. The brachial index is a significant predictor of adaptations to tropical biomes when phylogeny is taken into account, while Mt/F is not correlated anymore to habitat adaptations. However, the proportion of grassland-adapted carnivores in Italian paleo-communities exhibits a negative relationship with mean oxygen isotopic values, which are indicative of past climatic oscillations. As climate became more unstable during the Ice Ages, large carnivore guilds from the Italian peninsula were invaded by tropical/closed-adapted species. These species take advantage of the temperate forest cover that was more spread after 1.0 Ma than in the initial phase of the Quaternary (2.0 Ma) when the climate was more arid.

  19. A regional climate simulation over the Iberian Peninsula for the last millennium

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    J. J. Gómez-Navarro


    Full Text Available In this study we present a regional paleoclimate simulation which covers the last millennium over the Iberian Peninsula (IP with an unprecedented resolution of 30 km. The simulation was performed with a climate version of the mesoscale model MM5 coupled to the global model ECHO-G. Both experiments were driven by the same reconstructions of several external factors. The high spatial resolution of the regional model allows to simulate realistically many aspects of the climate in the IP when comparing the simulation to an observational data set in a reference period (1961–1990. Although the regional model is strongly driven by the boundary conditions, it is able to develop a different realisation of the past climate, which has a strong impact in those exercises comparing the results of climate simulations versus proxy reconstructions. A preliminary comparison of the simulation results with reconstructions of temperature and precipitation over the IP allows to recognise several aspects where both approaches agree, as well as identify the disagreements and try to point out the possible causes.

  20. Dust optical properties over North Africa and Arabian Peninsula derived from the AERONET dataset

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    D. Kim


    Full Text Available Dust optical properties over North Africa and the Arabian Peninsula are extracted from the quality assured multi-year datasets obtained at 14 sites of the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET. We select the data with (a large aerosol optical depth (AOD ≥ 0.4 at 440 nm and (b small Ångström exponent (Åext ≤ 0.2 for retaining high accuracy and reducing interference of non-dust aerosols. The result indicates that the major fraction of high aerosol optical depth days are dominated by dust over these sites even though it varies depending on location and time. We have found that the annual mean and standard deviation of single scattering albedo, asymmetry parameter, real refractive index, and imaginary refractive index for Saharan and Arabian desert dust is 0.946 ± 0.005, 0.752 ± 0.014, 1.498 ± 0.032, and 0.0025 ± 0.0036 at 550 nm wavelength, respectively. Dust aerosol selected by this method is less absorbing than the previously reported values over these sites. The weaker absorption of dust from this study is consistent with the previously studies using remote sensing techniques. These results can help to constrain uncertainties in estimating global dust shortwave radiative forcing.

  1. Record-keeping, management decisions and productivity of extensive reindeer herding on the Seward Peninsula, Alaska

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    Lyle A. Renecker


    Full Text Available Alaska's reindeer (Rangifer tarandus industry has been faced with the competitive need to increase productivity but cautioned to avoid range degradation as a result of high stocking rates. Consumer demand for lean, healthy, high quality meat has increased throughout the world and has surpassed production. For herders to tap these new domestic and off-shore markets, there will be the need for higher herd numbers and animal productivity, consistent slaughter protocol, and a focused marketing plan. In this paper, we illustrate how record-keeping can benefit reindeer herders in husbandry and management decisions that are necessary to increase animal productivity and, eventually, product quality and profits. These biological parameters were tested in a Lotus® spreadsheet model designed to predict herd growth and economics. Records of three reindeer herds on the Seward Peninsula have shown that calf production for adults has ranged from 35 to 98%. Sensitivity analysis predicted that in some herds, the model was sensitive to small changes in calf survival which could result in insufficient recruitment to maintain long-term harvest. Productivity may be ultimately related to management decisions that cull animals before productivity begins to decline.

  2. Natural radioactivity in groundwater from the south-eastern Arabian Peninsula and environmental implications. (United States)

    Murad, A; Zhou, X D; Yi, P; Alshamsi, D; Aldahan, A; Hou, X L; Yu, Z B


    Groundwater is the most valuable resource in arid regions, and recognizing radiological criteria among other water quality parameters is essential for sustainable use. In the investigation presented here, gross-α and gross-β were measured in groundwater samples collected in the south-eastern Arabian Peninsula, 67 wells in Unite Arab Emirates (UAE), as well as two wells and one spring in Oman. The results show a wide gross-α and gross-β activities range in the groundwater samples that vary at 0.01∼19.5 Bq/l and 0.13∼6.6 Bq/l, respectively. The data show gross-β and gross-α values below the WHO permissible limits for drinking water in the majority of the investigated samples except those in region 4 (Jabel Hafit and surroundings). No correlation between groundwater pH and the gross-α and gross-β, while high temperatures probably enhance leaching of radionuclides from the aquifer body and thereby increase the radioactivity in the groundwater. This conclusion is also supported by the positive correlation between radioactivity and amount of total dissolved solid. Particular water purification technology and environmental impact assessments are essential for sustainable and secure use of the groundwater in regions that show radioactivity values far above the WHO permissible limit for drinking water.

  3. On the Analysis of the Climatology of Cloudiness of the Arabian Peninsula (United States)

    Yousef, L. A.; Temimi, M.


    This study aims to determine the climatology of cloudiness over the Arabian Peninsula. The determined climatology will assist solar energy resource assessment in the region. The seasonality of cloudiness and its spatial variability will also help guide several cloud seeding operational experiments in the region. Cloud properties from the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) database covering the time period from 1983 through 2009 are analyzed. Time series of low, medium, high, and total cloud amounts are investigated, in addition to cloud optical depth and total column water vapor. Initial results show significant decreasing trends in the total and middle cloud amounts, both annually and seasonally, at a 95% confidence interval. The relationship between cloud amounts and climate oscillations known to affect the region is explored. Climate indices exhibiting significant correlations with the total cloud amounts include the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) index. The study also includes a focus on the United Arab Emirates (UAE), comparing the inferred cloudiness data to in situ rainfall measurements taken from rain gauges across the UAE. To assess the impact of cloudiness on solar power resources in the country, time series of cloud amounts and Direct Normal Irradiance (DNI), obtained from the UAE Solar Atlas, are compared.

  4. Seasonal and annual heat budgets offshore the Hanko Peninsula, Gulf of Finland

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    Merkouriadi, I.; Lepparanta, M. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Physics], Email:; Shirasawa, K. [Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan). Pan-Okhotsk Research Center, Inst. of Low Temperature Science


    A joint Finnish-Japanese sea-ice experiment 'Hanko-9012' carried out offshore the Hanko Peninsula included seasonal monitoring and intensive field campaigns. Ice, oceanographic and meteorological data were collected to examine the structure and properties of the Baltic Sea brackish ice, heat budget and solar radiation transfer through the ice cover. Here, the data from two years (2000 and 2001) are used for the estimation of the seasonal and annual heat budgets. Results present the surface heat balance, and the heat budget of the ice sheet and the waterbody. The ice cover acted as a good control measure of the net surface heat exchange. Solar radiation had a strong seasonal cycle with a monthly maximum at 160 and a minimum below 10 W m{sup -2}, while net terrestrial radiation was mostly between -40 and -60 W m{sup -2}. Latent heat exchange was much more important than sensible heat exchange, similar the net terrestrial radiation values in summer and autumn. A comparison between the latent heat flux released or absorbed by the ice and the net surface heat fluxes showed similar patterns, with a clearly better fit in 2001. The differences can be partly explained by the oceanic heat flux to the lower ice boundary. (orig.)

  5. Sky luminance distribution in the North of Iberian Peninsula during winter (United States)

    Torres, J. L.; de Blas, M.; García, A.; Gracia, A.; de Francisco, A.


    This work is based on the study of outdoor daylight conditions during the winter period in Pamplona (the Iberian Peninsula). The 15 standard sky types proposed by the Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage (CIE) are used. The selected sky type in each moment is the one exhibiting the lowest root mean standard deviation (RMSD) when the theoretical and experimental luminance distributions in the sky hemisphere are compared. The selection was derived from luminance distribution data from 145 patches of the sky hemisphere and registered every 10 min from October to March from 2007 and 2008.The most frequent sky type observed in winter in Pamplona is V.5 (cloudless polluted with a broad solar corona), with a frequency of occurrence of 21%. Notwithstanding, the group of overcast skies exhibits a slightly higher frequency (40%) than the clear skies (37%). Seven out of the 15 standard sky types, i.e.V.5, I.1, III.4, II.1, IV.4, II.2 and III.3, are practically 80% of those under study. In order to provide a possible application in daylight climates studies, the frequency of occurrence of the 15 sky types is included in eleven intervals of solar elevation on the threshold corresponding to the time period and the location considered.

  6. Carcinogenic and mutagenic potencies for different PAHs sources in coastal sediments of Shandong Peninsula. (United States)

    Li, Guo-liang; Lang, Yin-hai; Gao, Mao-sheng; Yang, Wei; Peng, Peng; Wang, Xiao-mei


    In this study, sources of PAHs in coastal sediments of Shandong Peninsula were apportioned using the chemical mass balance (CMB) model, and source apportionment of carcinogenic and mutagenic potencies was conducted combining CMB with the formula of benzo(a)pyrene carcinogenic equivalent (BaPTEQ) and BaP mutagenic equivalent (BaPMEQ) concentration. Total concentrations of sixteen PAHs in sediment ranged from 181.2 ng g(-1) to 303.6 ng g(-1), and concentrations of eight carcinogenic PAHs (cPAHs) varied from 98.8 ng g(-1) to 141.1 ng g(-1). The BaP played a dominant role for carcinogenic and mutagenic potencies of PAHs, although the IND showed the highest concentration level. The vehicular sources made the highest contribution to BaPTEQ (57.7%) and BaPMEQ (55.5%), while petrogenic source, the highest contributor for PAHs (39.4%), provided the lowest contribution to BaPTEQ (1.1%) and BaPMEQ (1.5%). Besides, the ecotoxicological evaluation, based on Sediment Quality Guidelines (SQGs), showed low ecological risks generally.

  7. Effect of alteration zones on water quality: a case study from Biga Peninsula, Turkey. (United States)

    Baba, Alper; Gunduz, Orhan


    Widespread and intense zones of silicified, propylitic, and argillic alteration can be found in the Can volcanics of Biga Peninsula, northwest Turkey. Most of the springs in the study area surface out from the boundary between fractured aquifer (silicified zone) and impervious boundary (argillic zone). This study focuses on two such springs in Kirazli area (Kirazli and Balaban springs) with a distinct quality pattern. Accordingly, field parameters (temperature, pH, and electrical conductivity), major anion and cation (sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, chloride, bicarbonate, and sulfate), heavy metals (aluminum, arsenic, barium, chromium, cobalt, cupper, iron, lithium, manganese, nickel, lead, and zinc), and isotopes (oxygen-18, deuterium, and tritium) were determined in water samples taken from these springs during 2005 through 2007. The chemical analyses showed that aluminum concentrations were found to be two orders of magnitude greater in Kirazli waters (mean value 13813.25 microg/L). The levels of this element exceeded the maximum allowable limits given in national and international standards for drinking-water quality. In addition, Balaban and Kirazli springs are >55 years old according to their tritium levels; Kirazli spring is older than Balaban spring. Kirazli spring is also more enriched than Balaban spring based in oxygen-18 and deuterium values. Furthermore, Kirazli spring water has been in contact with altered rocks longer than Balaban spring water, according to its relatively high chloride and electrical conductivity values.

  8. Holocene glacier fluctuations inferred from lacustrine sediment, Emerald Lake, Kenai Peninsula, Alaska (United States)

    LaBrecque, Taylor S.; Kaufman, Darrell S.


    Physical and biological characteristics of lacustrine sediment from Emerald Lake were used to reconstruct the Holocene glacier history of Grewingk Glacier, southern Alaska. Emerald Lake is an ice-marginal threshold lake, receiving glaciofluvial sediment when Grewingk Glacier overtops the topographic divide that separates it from the lake. Sub-bottom acoustical profiles were used to locate core sites to maximize both the length and resolution of the sedimentary sequence recovered in the 4-m-long cores. The age model for the composite sequence is based on 13 14C ages and a 210Pb profile. A sharp transition from the basal inorganic mud to organic-rich mud at 11.4 ± 0.2 ka marks the initial retreat of Grewingk Glacier below the divide of Emerald Lake. The overlaying organic-rich mud is interrupted by stony mud that records a re-advance between 10.7 ± 0.2 and 9.8 ± 0.2 ka. The glacier did not spill meltwater into the lake again until the Little Ice Age, consistent with previously documented Little Ice Ages advances on the Kenai Peninsula. The retreat of Grewingk Glacier at 11.4 ka took place as temperature increased following the Younger Dryas, and the subsequent re-advance corresponds with a climate reversal beginning around 11 ka across southern Alaska.

  9. Bioenergy crops grown for hyperaccumulation of phosphorous in the Delmarva Peninsula and their biofuels potential. (United States)

    Boateng, Akwasi A; Serapiglia, Michelle J; Mullen, Charles A; Dien, Bruce S; Hashem, Fawzy M; Dadson, Robert B


    Herbaceous bioenergy crops, including sorghum, switchgrass, and miscanthus, were evaluated for their potential as phytoremediators for the uptake of phosphorus in the Delmarva Peninsula and their subsequent conversion to biofuel intermediates (bio-oil) by fast pyrolysis using pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy. Four cultivars of sorghum, five cultivars of switchgrass and one miscanthus (Miscanthus × giganteus) were grown in soils with two different levels of poultry manure (PM) applications. Little variation was seen in phosphorus uptake in the two different soils indicating that the levels of available phosphorus in the soil already saturated the uptake ability of the plants. However, all plants regardless of trial took up more phosphorus than that measured for the non- PM treated control. Sorghum accumulated greater levels of nutrients including phosphorus and potassium compared to switchgrass and miscanthus. The levels of these nutrients in the biomass did not have an effect on carbohydrate contents. However, the potential yield and composition of bio-oil from fast pyrolysis were affected by both agronomics and differences in mineral concentrations.

  10. Serologic Evidence of Flavivirus Infection in Bats in the Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico (United States)

    Machain-Williams, Carlos; López-Uribe, Mildred; Talavera-Aguilar, Lourdes; Carrillo-Navarrete, Jaquelin; Vera-Escalante, Luis; Puerto-Manzano, Fernando; Ulloa, Armando; Farfán-Ale, José Arturo; Garcia-Rejon, Julián; Blitvich, Bradley J.; Loroño-Pino, María Alba


    We captured 140 bats of seven species in Merida City in the Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico in 2010. Serum was collected from each bat and assayed by plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) using six flaviviruses: West Nile virus, St. Louis encephalitis virus, and dengue viruses 1–4. Flavivirus-specific antibodies were detected in 26 bats (19%). The antibody-positive bats belonged to three species: the Pallas's long-tongued bat (Glossophaga soricina), Jamaican fruit bat (Artibeus jamaicensis), and great fruit-eating bat (Artibeus lituratus), and their flavivirus antibody prevalences were 33%, 24%, and 9%, respectively. The PRNT titers were usually highest for dengue virus 2 or dengue virus 4, but none of the titers exceeded 80. These data could indicate that most of the antibody-positive bats had been infected with dengue virus. However, because all titers were low, it is possible that the bats had been infected with another (perhaps unrecognized) flavivirus not included in the PRNT analysis, possibly a virus more closely related to dengue virus than to other flaviviruses. Each serum sample was assayed for flavivirus RNA by reverse transcription PCR, but all were negative. PMID:23778622

  11. Assessing changes in precipitation and temperature over the Iberian Peninsula during the 21st century (United States)

    Bernardino, Mariana; Pimpão Silva, Álvaro; Espírito Santo, Fátima; Pinto, Armando


    Climate is a major factor driving the spatio-temporal distribution of most ecological systems and human activities, due to their vulnerability to inter-annual climate variability and to climate change. These systems are very sensitive to changes in traditional patterns of regional climate but also to the frequency and magnitude of extreme events. Changes in surface air temperature extremes and precipitation over the Iberian Peninsula were investigated using one of the high resolution climate simulations produced by the Euro-Cordex consortium. Two sets of simulations forced with the new IPCC AR5 emission scenarios RCP4.5 and RCP8.5, with a horizontal resolution of 12.5 km were used to compute climate indices defined by the European Climate Assessment (ECA) project, for present (1970-2010) and for the 21st century climates. Changes in magnitude and in the spatial patterns of these indices were evaluated and once the expected impacts in different sectors are related with these changes, the results provide information to be used in sectoral adaption measures, namely in tourism, water, agriculture, human health, energy and infrastructures.

  12. A 2500-year sea level change record in Fildes Peninsula, Antarctica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Ye


    A detailed record of sea level changes during the last 2500 years is preserved in the northernwest coast of Fildes Peninsula in Antarctica. Fourteen marine alga layers were deposited in the beach with an altitude of 2.80 m, and one diatom layer deposited in the ancient lake on the terrace with an altitude of 6.84 m. A radiocarbon age of 695±70 aBP was obtained for the modern marine alga, and the age was used in correction for the carbon reservoir effect of the marine alga. Sea level fell 4.98 m from the 4th century B.C. to the early 13th century, at an average of -0.31 cm/a, then rose about 0.78 m during the early 13th to the middle 18th century, at an average of 0.14 cm/a. It has risen about 0.16 m since the middle 18th century, at an average of 0.07 cm/a.

  13. Landwater variation in four major river basins of the Indochina peninsula as revealed by GRACE (United States)

    Yamamoto, K.; Fukuda, Y.; Nakaegawa, T.; Nishijima, J.


    We estimated mass variations in four major river basins the Mekong, Irrawaddy, Salween and Chao Phraya river basins of the Indochina Peninsula using the newly released GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) monthly gravity field solutions of UTCSR RL02 (University of Texas at Austin, Center for Space Research Release 02), JPL RL02 (Jet Propulsion Laboratory Release 02) and GFZ RL03 (GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam Release 03). The estimated variations were compared with that calculated from a numerical model. The results show that there is a good agreement between the GRACE estimations and the model calculation for the Mekong and Irrawaddy basins, while the aggreement for the Salween and Chao Phraya basins is poor, mainly due to the spatial scale of the areas concerned. The comparison over the combined area of the four river basins shows fairly good agreement, although there are small quantitative discrepancies. The amplitudes of the annual signals of the GRACE solutions are 0.9- to 1.4-fold larger than that of the hydrological model, and the phases are delayed about 1 month compared with the model signal. The phase differences are probably due to improper treatments of the groundwater storage process in the hydrological model, suggesting that the GRACE data possibly provide constraints to the model parameters.

  14. Consumers' Attitudes towards Edible Wild Plants: A Case Study of Noto Peninsula, Ishikawa Prefecture, Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bixia Chen


    Full Text Available This study explored the rural revitalizing strategy in FAO's Globally Important Agricultural Heritage System (GIAHS site in Noto Peninsula, Ishikawa Prefecture of Japan, using a case study of edible wild plants. This study assessed the current and possible future utilization of edible wild plants as one important NTFP by clarifying the attitudes of consumers and exploring the challenges of harvesting edible wild plants. Traditional ecological knowledge associated with edible wild plants and the related attitudes of consumers towards wild plants was documented. A questionnaire survey found that a majority of the respondents held positive attitude towards edible wild plants as being healthy, safe food, part of traditional dietary culture. Increasing demand of edible wild plants from urban residents aroused conflicts with local residents’ interest given that around 86% of the forested hills are private in Noto Region. Non timber forest products (NTFP extraction can be seen as a tool for creating socioeconomic relationships that are dependent on healthy, biodiverse ecosystems. It was suggested that Japanese Agricultural Cooperatives (JA and Forestry Cooperatives (FCA could be involved with GIAHS process. As important traditional dietary and ecological system, edible wild plants should be a part of GIAHS project for rural revitalization.

  15. A weather analysis system for the Baja California peninsula: tropical cyclone season of 2007 (United States)

    Farfan, L. M.; Cosio, M. A.


    General characteristics of tropical weather systems were documented on a real-time basis. The geographical area of interest is the Baja California peninsula, located in northwestern Mexico. This study covers the warm season of 2007, from May through October, and includes observations derived from radar and satellite imagery as well as reports from a network of rain gauges. A set of graphical products were generated and they were available to the public through the internet. The analysis system has been in operation since the summer of 2005 and it is focused to document the development of tropical cyclones in eastern Pacific Ocean. During the season of 2007, this basin had a total of 11 tropical storms and four of them were within 800 km from the west coast of Mexico (Dalila, Ivo, Juliette and Kiko). Only one system made landfall in the area of interest: Hurricane Henriette which moved across Baja California, the Gulf of California and a portion of the state of Sonora. This presentation provides an overview of the graphical products along with lessons learned from the season studied, collaborations with local emergency managers and plans for the upcoming season of 2008.

  16. Population genetics of four heavily exploited shark species around the Arabian Peninsula

    KAUST Repository

    Spaet, Julia L. Y.


    The northwestern Indian Ocean harbors a number of larger marine vertebrate taxa that warrant the investigation of genetic population structure given remarkable spatial heterogeneity in biological characteristics such as distribution, behavior, and morphology. Here, we investigate the genetic population structure of four commercially exploited shark species with different biological characteristics (Carcharhinus limbatus, Carcharhinus sorrah, Rhizoprionodon acutus, and Sphyrna lewini) between the Red Sea and all other water bodies surrounding the Arabian Peninsula. To assess intraspecific patterns of connectivity, we constructed statistical parsimony networks among haplotypes and estimated (1) population structure; and (2) time of most recent population expansion, based on mitochondrial control region DNA and a total of 20 microsatellites. Our analysis indicates that, even in smaller, less vagile shark species, there are no contemporary barriers to gene flow across the study region, while historical events, for example, Pleistocene glacial cycles, may have affected connectivity in C. sorrah and R. acutus. A parsimony network analysis provided evidence that Arabian S. lewini may represent a population segment that is distinct from other known stocks in the Indian Ocean, raising a new layer of conservation concern. Our results call for urgent regional cooperation to ensure the sustainable exploitation of sharks in the Arabian region.

  17. The evolution of temperature extremes in the Gaspé Peninsula, Quebec, Canada (1974-2013) (United States)

    Fortin, Guillaume; Acquaotta, Fiorella; Fratianni, Simona


    The majority of natural hazards that affect Canadian territory are the result of extreme climate and weather conditions. Among these weather hazards, some can be calculated from the application of thresholds for minimum and maximum temperatures at a daily or monthly timescale. These thermal indices allowed the prediction of extreme conditions that may have an impact on the human population by affecting, for example, health, agriculture, and water resources. In this article, we discuss the methods used (RHtestsV4, SPLIDHOM, ClimPACT) then describe the steps followed to calculate the indices, including how we dealt with the problem of missing data and the necessity to identify a common methodology to analyze the time series. We also present possible solutions for ensuring the quality of meteorological data. We then present an overview of the results, namely the main trends and variability of extreme temperature for seven stations located in the Gaspé Peninsula from 1974 to 2013. Our results indicate some break points in time series and positive trends for most indices related to the rise of the temperatures but indicate a negative trend for the indices related to low temperatures for most stations during the study period.

  18. Site-sensitive hazards of potential airborne radioactive release from sources on the Kola peninsula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergman, R.; Thaning, L. [Defence Research Establishment, Umeaa (Sweden). Div. of NBC Defence; Baklanov, A. [Russian Science Academy, Apatity (Russian Federation). Kola Science Centre


    In this work we focus on cases of airborne releases from some of the sources on the Kola Peninsula - primarily nuclear reactors on submarines and the Kola Nuclear Power Plant (KNPP). The purpose of our study is to illustrate, and discuss some features - dependent on site and release characteristics - of the deposition patterns resulting from assumed unit radioactive releases to the atmosphere from a location at a fjord and from the KNPP in Polyarnye Zori. Using meteorological data for one real weather situation, the analysis is based on simulating the transport in air of assumed radioactive releases and estimating the deposition pattern on local, meso- and regional scales. By allowing unit releases to occur simultaneously from the site at the fjord and from the power plant (and with the same release profile in time) comparisons are made of differences in deposition patterns in and outside the Kola region. In this case study a set of assumed release heights, durations of the release, and particle size distributions are applied to indicate the dependence for the resulting deposition pattern on these parameters

  19. Geographic distribution of the chytrid pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis among mountain amphibians along the Italian peninsula. (United States)

    Zampiglia, Mauro; Canestrelli, Daniele; Chiocchio, Andrea; Nascetti, Giuseppe


    The amphibian chytrid pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) is considered a major cause of amphibian population declines, particularly in montane areas. Here, we investigated the presence and distribution of Bd among populations of 3 mid- to high-altitude species spanning the entire Italian peninsula (486 individuals from 39 sites overall): the stream frog Rana italica, the fire salamander Salamandra salamandra gigliolii, and the alpine newt Mesotriton alpestris apuanus. We found Bd in all of the analyzed species. Despite the widespread distribution of the pathogen, its overall prevalence (6, 9 and 19%, respectively) was lower than previously reported for the endangered Apennine yellow-bellied toad Bombina pachypus (62.5%). Moreover, several populations of the species studied here were not infected, even at sites where Bd has been detected in other host species. When coupled with the lack of evidence for Bd-related mortalities in these species in peninsular Italy, these results suggest that mechanisms of resistance and/or tolerance are protecting populations of these species from the pathogenic activity of Bd. Nevertheless, in light of the dynamic pattern of Bd-host interactions reported in other studies, of Bd-related mortalities in at least 1 study species (S. s. salamandra) in other areas, and the ongoing climate changes in montane environments, we suggest that the occurrence of Bd should be considered a potential threat to the long-term persistence of these species, and urge the implementation of monitoring and conservation plans.

  20. Rock weathering Tendency at Different Stages of Soil—Forming Processes in Fildes Peninsula,Antarctic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    From the view of energy state of material,this paper introduces a concept a concept of weathering potential in carrying out quantitative calculation of the relevant products at different stages of rock-weathering and primary soil-forming processes,elaborates respectively on weathering degree in the bio-weathering layer of rocks and during the formation of soil material and clay,and evaluats the further tendency of weathering in the above-mentioned stages.The authors have discovered that the scales of weathering potential of the materials increase successively in the three stages,which indicates that the products in the above-mentioned three stages must have undergone stronger and stronger weathering in the primitive forming process of soil in Fildes Peninsula,Antarctic.But,Because of relatively weak chemical weathering,it is reasonable that there are much more skeleton grains and little clay in priamry soils in this region.Meanwhile the authors have also verified that the weathering potential of crde rock determines to some extent decrease in the products' weathering potential in the different stages in primary soil-forming,thereby plays an important role in the genesis and development of the primary soil in the studied area.

  1. Holocene evolution of Dahab coastline - Gulf of Aqaba, Sinai Peninsula, Egypt (United States)

    Magdy, Torab


    Dahab was a little Bedouin-village in Sinai Peninsula at the mid-western coast of Gulf of Aqaba approx. 90 km north of Sharm-el-Sheikh City and it means "gold" in Arabic language. But in the past 20 years ago it becomes one of the most tourist sites in Egypt. The basement complex is composed mostly of biotiteaplite-granite, mica-aplitegranite, granodiorite, quartzdiorite, alaskite, and diorite. Based on correlation with similar igneous in the most southern part of Sinai and the Red Sea area. Wadi Dahab composed of igneous and metamorphic rocks and the coastline is formed of the fragments of its rocks, mixed with fragments of coral reef and fluvial deposits of Wadi Dahab. The morphology of Dahab coastline is characterized by hooked marine spit, which composed of fluvial sediments carried by marine current from wadi Dahab mouth, this spit encloses shallow lagoon, but the active deposition on the lagoon bottom will evaluate it into saline marsh. This paper dealing with the evolution of Dahab spit and lagoon during the Holocene in addition to the recent time for last 100 years, and it impacts of the future management of the coast area. The coastline mapping during the period of study depends upon GIS technique for data were collected during field measuring by using total station, aerial photo and satellite image interpretation as well as soil sample dating. Suggested geomorphological evolution of Dahab area during the Holocene depending upon geomorphic investigation of the sedimentological process into 6 stages.

  2. Epiphytic bryophytes of Quercus forests in Central and North inland Iberian Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagore García Medina


    Full Text Available Diversity patterns are governed by a complex network of interacting factors. Studies directed to disentangle the most important factors affecting diversity have frequently shown divergent results, which has encouraged a rewarding debate about the relative importance of each factor. Scale dependency has been identified as a direct cause of at least part of such divergences. However, studies with spatially-explicit measurements at different scales are costly and therefore they are relatively scarce despite their importance. Here, we present a database to disentangle the cross-scale variation in the importance of factors affecting the diversity of epiphytic bryophyte communities in Quercus dominated forests (Quercus ilex L., Quercus pyrenaica Willd. and Quercus faginea Lam. in the North-western region of the Iberian Peninsula. We provide species-per-site abundance information with more than 9000 entries and an environmental table containing 20 in situ measured variables at three different scales (forest, stand, and sample. The database will help to advance the research of cross-scale effects of diversity patterns while at the same time providing valuable information on the distribution of a poorly known group of organisms. 

  3. Biodiversity of the benthic shellfish in the intertidal zone of the Liusha Bay, Leizhou Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng Ke


    Full Text Available An analysis was conducted of species composition, spatial-temporal distribution and biodiversity of benthic shellfish in the intertidal zone of the Liusha Bay, Leizhou Peninsula, where shellfish are intensively framed. Areas sampled in 2008 and 2009 included seagrass beds (SGB, cultured shellfish areas (CSA and non-cultured areas (NCA. We found (1 97 shellfish species, of which 58 occurred in the NCA and 49 in the SGB. Cerithidea cingulata and Batillaria zonalis were dominant species in all three areas. (2 In the SGB and NCA, biomass and abundance of shellfish reached highest values in September and lowest in May. In the SGB and CSA, highest biomass and abundance of shellfish occurred in the high-tidal zone, followed by the mid-tidal zone and low-tidal zone. (3 Highest Margalef richness index and Shannon-Wiener index values were estimated for the NCA while the highest Pielou evenness index values was obtained for the CSA. Based on an analysis of K-dominance curves, the CSA was most severely disturbed. In summary, an unstable community structure and reduced biodiversity of shellfish was evident in the intertidal zone of the SGB and CSA. Improvements to both community structure and biodiversity of benthic shellfish in these areas are likely to result from reducing the intensity of shellfish culturing and extending seagrass coverage and mix-typed sediment.

  4. CO and CO2 analysis in the diving gas of the fishermen of the Yucatan Peninsula. (United States)

    Chin, Walter; Huchim, Oswaldo; Wegrzyn, Grace H; Sprau, Susan E; Salas, Silvia; Markovitz, Gerald H


    It is reported that more than 75% of 400 artisanal fisherman divers working off the Yucatan Peninsula experience decompression sickness (DCS) each year, making DCS an epidemic in this region. These divers use primitive hookah diving support systems (HDSS). Breathing air is supplied from inadequately filtered and poorly maintained gasoline-powered air compressors. We hypothesized that air supplies could be contaminated. Air contamination could produce symptoms consistent with some presentations of DCS. This could confound and falsely elevate the true incidence of DCS. A cross-sectional study was undertaken in a fishing community. Ten fishermen from a single cohort participated. Fishermen were instructed not to drain volume tanks following their last dive of the day before their diving air was sampled. Dräger carbon monoxide (CO) 5/a-P and carbon dioxide (CO2) 100/a Short-term Tubes were used to measure 1.0 liters (L) of gas through a Visi-Float flow meter at 0.2 L/minute. Average CO value was 42 ppm (8-150 ppm). Average CO2 was 663 ppm (600-800). Measurements exceeded recommended diving norms for CO of 20 ppm. CO2 exceeded one diving organization recommendation of 500 ppm. Separation of engine exhaust from compressor intake could decrease CO values in HDSS to acceptable standards thus eliminating one possible confounder from this DCS epidemic.

  5. Richness and bioactivity of culturable soil fungi from the Fildes Peninsula, Antarctica. (United States)

    Ding, Zhuang; Li, Liyuan; Che, Qian; Li, Dehai; Gu, Qianqun; Zhu, Tianjiao


    Since the discovery of penicillin, fungi have been an important source of bioactive natural products. However, as a specific resource, the bioactive potentiality and specificity of fungal metabolites from the Antarctic region have had little attention. In this paper, we investigated the diversity patterns and biological activities of cultivable fungi isolated from soil samples in Fildes Peninsula, King George Island, Antarctica. Fungal communities showed low abundance and diversity; a total of 150 cultivable fungi were isolated from eight soil samples. After being dereplicated by morphological characteristics and chemical fingerprints, 47 fungal isolates were identified by ITS-rDNA sequencing. We confirmed that these isolates belonged to at least 11 different genera and clustered into nine groups corresponding to taxonomic orders in the phylogenetic analysis. Using two different fermentation conditions, 94 crude extracts acquired from the abovementioned different metabolite characteristic isolates were screened by bioactivity assay and 18 isolates produced biologically active compounds. Compared with HPLC-DAD-UV fingerprint analysis of culture extracts and standard compounds, two bioactive components secalonic acid and chetracins were identified. Our research suggests that the abundance and diversity of Antarctic cultivable fungal communities exhibit unique ecological characteristics and potential producers of novel natural bioactive products.

  6. Molecular organic geochemical peculiarities of lacustrine core sediments in Fildes Peninsula, King George Island,Antarctica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The peculiarities of lipids in lacustrine core sediments from Fildes Peninsula, King George Island, Antarctica, are reported. The origin of high-molecular-weight n-alkanes, alkenes,fatty acids, alcohols is supposed to be related to the abundant moss occurring in the sediments.Abundant iso-and anteiso-fatty acids that occur in the sediments indicate a relatively strong bacterial activity in non-ice-cover zone than in other regions in Antarctica. The C18:2 unsaturated fatty acids mainly originate from autochthonous algae in the sediment pool, and the C18:2/C18:0ratios in the profile are controlled more by paleotemperatures than source assemblies. Long-chain alkenones were identified in freshwater lacustrine sediment in Antarctica for the first time, of which Prymnesiophyceae is assumed to be the source organism. High relative abundance of C37:4honologue in long-chain alkenone well correlates to the severely cold climate in Antarctica.

  7. Late Glacial to Holocene paleoenvironmental change on the northwestern Pacific seaboard, Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia) (United States)

    Pendea, Ionel Florin; Ponomareva, Vera; Bourgeois, Joanne; Zubrow, Ezra B. W.; Portnyagin, Maxim; Ponkratova, Irina; Harmsen, Hans; Korosec, Gregory


    We used a new sedimentary record from a small kettle wetland to reconstruct the Late Glacial and Holocene vegetation and fire history of the Krutoberegovo-Ust Kamchatsk region in eastern Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia). Pollen and charcoal data suggest that the Late Glacial landscape was dominated by a relatively fire-prone Larix forest-tundra during the Greenland Interstadial complex (GI 1) and a subarctic steppe during the Younger Dryas (GS1). The onset of the Holocene is marked by the reappearance of trees (mainly Alnus incana) within a fern and shrub dominated landscape. The Holocene Thermal Maximum (HTM) features shifting vegetational communities dominated by Alnus shrubs, diverse forb species, and locally abundant aquatic plants. The HTM is further defined by the first appearance of stone birch forests (Betula ermanii) - Kamchatka's most abundant modern tree species. The Late Holocene is marked by shifts in forest dynamics and forest-graminoid ratio and the appearance of new non-arboreal taxa such as bayberry (Myrica) and meadow rue (Filipendula). Kamchatka is one of Earth's most active volcanic regions. During the Late Glacial and Holocene, Kamchatka's volcanoes spread large quantities of tephra over the study region. Thirty-four tephra falls have been identified at the site. The events represented by most of these tephra falls have not left evidence of major impacts on the vegetation although some of the thicker tephras caused expansion of grasses (Poaceae) and, at least in one case, forest die-out and increased fire activity.

  8. Geographical variation in inorganic arsenic in paddy field samples and commercial rice from the Iberian Peninsula. (United States)

    Signes-Pastor, Antonio J; Carey, Manus; Carbonell-Barrachina, Angel A; Moreno-Jiménez, Eduardo; Green, Andy J; Meharg, Andrew A


    This study investigated total arsenic and arsenic speciation in rice using ion chromatography with mass spectrometric detection (IC-ICP-MS), covering the main rice-growing regions of the Iberian Peninsula in Europe. The main arsenic species found were inorganic and dimethylarsinic acid. Samples surveyed were soil, shoots and field-collected rice grain. From this information soil to plant arsenic transfer was investigated plus the distribution of arsenic in rice across the geographical regions of Spain and Portugal. Commercial polished rice was also obtained from each region and tested for arsenic speciation, showing a positive correlation with field-obtained rice grain. Commercial polished rice had the lowest i-As content in Andalucia, Murcia and Valencia while Extremadura had the highest concentrations. About 26% of commercial rice samples exceeded the permissible concentration for infant food production as governed by the European Commission. Some cadmium data is also presented, available with ICP-MS analyses, and show low concentration in rice samples.

  9. Accounting for local meteorological effects in the ozone time-series of Lovozero (Kola Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Tarasova


    Full Text Available The relationship between local meteorological conditions and the surface ozone variability was studied by means of statistical modeling, using ozone and meteorological parameters measured at Lovozero (250 m a.s.l., 68.5°N, 35.0°E, Kola Peninsula for the period of 1999-2000. The regression model of daily mean ozone concentrations on such meteorological parameters as temperature, relative humidity and wind speed explains up to 70% of day-to-day ozone variability in terms of meteorological condition changes, if the seasonal cycle is also considered. A regression model was created for separated time scales of the variables. Short-term, synoptical and seasonal components are separated by means of Kolmogorov-Zurbenko filtering. The synoptical scale variations were chosen as the most informative from the point of their mutual relation with meteorological parameters. Almost 40% of surface ozone variations in time periods of 11-60 days can be explained by the regression model on separated scales that is 30% more efficient than ozone residuals usage. Quantitative and qualitative estimations of the relations between surface ozone and meteorological predictors let us preliminarily conclude that at the Lovozero site surface ozone variability is governed mainly by dynamical processes of various time scale rather than photochemistry, especially during the cold season.

  10. Reactions to define the biotite isograd in the Ryoke metamorphic belt, Kii Peninsula, Japan (United States)

    Wang, Ge-Fan; Banno, Shohei; Takeuchi, Keiji


    Two types of biotite isograd are defined in the low-grade metamorphism of the Wazuka area, a Ryoke metamorphic terrain in the Kii Peninsula, Japan. The first, BI1, is defined by the reaction of chlorite+K-feldspar= biotite+muscovite+quartz+H2O that took place in psammitic rocks, and the second, BI2, by the continuous reaction between muscovite, chlorite, biotite and quartz in pelitic rocks. The Fe/Mg ratios of the host rocks do not significantly affect the reactions. From the paragenesis of pelitic and psammitic metamorphic rocks, the following mineral zones were established for this low-pressure regional metamorphic terrain: chlorite, transitional, chlorite-biotite, biotite, and sillimanite. The celadonite content of muscovite solid solution in pelitic rocks decreases systematically with the grade of metamorphism from 38% in the chlorite zone to 11% in the biotite zone. Low pressure does not prohibit muscovite from showing the progressive change of composition, if only rocks with appropriate paragenesis are chosen. A qualitative phase diagram of the AKF system relevant to biotite formation suggests that the higher the pressure of metamorphism, the higher the celadonite content of muscovite at BI1, which is confirmed by comparing the muscovites from the Barrovian and Ryoke metamorphism.

  11. A new form in the protohistoric pottery from the Iberian Peninsula: clepsidra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira Sieso, Juan


    Full Text Available Traditionally considered by European Archaeology as water clocks, clepsydras have a use that is closer to etymological meaning: “water thieves”. In this paper we study and systematize clepsydras found in the Iberian Peninsula, whit the function of capturing and distributing liquids, both for domestic purposes of storing and cooking and in ceremonies at sanctuaries and burials.

    Tradicionalmente consideradas por la Arqueología Europea como relojes de agua, las clepsidras tienen también una funcionalidad que está directamente relacionada con su etimología: “ladrones de agua”. En el presente trabajo se realiza un estudio y sistematización de las distintas clepsidras documentadas en la Península Ibérica, con la funcionalidad de captar y distribuir líquidos, tanto en el ámbito doméstico para almacenaje o cocina, como en el ceremonial en santuarios y enterramientos.

  12. Diversity of Vibrio spp in Karstic Coastal Marshes in the Yucatan Peninsula.

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    Icela Ortiz-Carrillo

    Full Text Available Coastal bodies of water formed by the combination of seawater, underground rivers and rainwater comprise the systems with the greatest solar energy flow and biomass production on the planet. These characteristics make them reservoirs for a large number species, mainly microorganisms. Bacteria of the genus Vibrio are natural inhabitants of these environments and their presence is determined by variations in the nutrient, temperature and salinity cycles generated by the seasonal hydrologic behavior of these lagoon systems. This study determined the diversity of the genus Vibrio in 4 coastal bodies of water on the Yucatan Peninsula (Celestun Lagoon, Chelem Lagoon, Rosada Lagoon and Sabancuy Estuary. Using the molecular technique of 454 pyrosequencing, DNA extracted from water samples was analyzed and 32,807 reads were obtained belonging to over 20 culturable species of the genus Vibrio and related genera. OTU (operational taxonomic unit richness and Chao2 and Shannon Weaver diversity indices were obtained with the database from this technique. Physicochemical and environmental parameters were determined and correlated with Vibrio diversity measured in OTUs.

  13. Diversity of Vibrio spp in Karstic Coastal Marshes in the Yucatan Peninsula. (United States)

    Ortiz-Carrillo, Icela; Estrella-Gómez, Neyi Eloísa; Zamudio-Maya, Marcela; Rojas-Herrera, Rafael


    Coastal bodies of water formed by the combination of seawater, underground rivers and rainwater comprise the systems with the greatest solar energy flow and biomass production on the planet. These characteristics make them reservoirs for a large number species, mainly microorganisms. Bacteria of the genus Vibrio are natural inhabitants of these environments and their presence is determined by variations in the nutrient, temperature and salinity cycles generated by the seasonal hydrologic behavior of these lagoon systems. This study determined the diversity of the genus Vibrio in 4 coastal bodies of water on the Yucatan Peninsula (Celestun Lagoon, Chelem Lagoon, Rosada Lagoon and Sabancuy Estuary). Using the molecular technique of 454 pyrosequencing, DNA extracted from water samples was analyzed and 32,807 reads were obtained belonging to over 20 culturable species of the genus Vibrio and related genera. OTU (operational taxonomic unit) richness and Chao2 and Shannon Weaver diversity indices were obtained with the database from this technique. Physicochemical and environmental parameters were determined and correlated with Vibrio diversity measured in OTUs.

  14. Mapping the genetic and clinical characteristics of Gaucher disease in the Iberian Peninsula

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    Giraldo Pilar


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gaucher disease (GD is due to deficiency of the glucocerebrosidase enzyme. It is panethnic, but its presentation reveals ethnicity-specific characteristics. Methods We evaluated the distribution, and clinical and genetic characteristics of GD patients in the Iberian Peninsula (IP. We analysed geographical distribution, demographic, genetic and clinical data, age at diagnosis, type, and years of therapy in 436 GD patients from the IP. Results The prevalence of GD was 1/149,000 inhabitants; 88.3% were type 1, 6.7% type 2, and 5.0% type 3. The mean age at diagnosis in type 1 was 28.7 years. A total of 72.7% were classified as having mild forms, 25.5% moderate, and 1.7% severe. Anemia and thrombocytopenia were present in 56% and 55%, respectively. Bone disease and hepatomegaly were reported in 62% and 68%, respectively, and were more likely in asplenic than in non-splenectomized patients. Sixty-nine mutant alleles were identified, and five mutations accounted for 75% of the GBA alleles. Several patients described in our series had interesting phenotypes. A total of 58.7% of patients had received enzyme replacement therapy and 12.6% were treated with miglustat. Conclusions A broad spectrum of GBA mutations is present in the IP, with 98.2% of type 1 GD being mild and 23.0% never treated. These data highlight genetic and phenotypic heterogeneities among geographic populations.

  15. Distribution of metals and trace elements in adult and juvenile penguins from the Antarctic Peninsula area. (United States)

    Jerez, Silvia; Motas, Miguel; Benzal, Jesús; Diaz, Julia; Vidal, Virginia; D'Amico, Verónica; Barbosa, Andrés


    The presence of metals in the Antarctic environment is principally a natural phenomenon caused by geochemical characteristics of the region, although some anthropogenic activities can increase these natural levels. Antarctic penguins present several of the characteristics of useful sentinels of pollution in Antarctica such as they are long-lived species situated at the top of food web. The concentrations of Al, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Cd, and Pb were determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry in samples of liver, kidney, muscle, bone, feather, and stomach contents of gentoo, chinstrap, and Adélie penguin (12 adults, five juveniles) from carcasses of naturally dead individuals collected opportunistically in the Antarctic Peninsula area. The obtained results showed that accumulation and magnification of several elements can be occurring, so that Cd and Se reached levels potentially toxic in some specimens. The presence of human activities seems to be increasing the presence of toxic metals such as Mn, Cr, Ni, or Pb in penguins.

  16. Warming patterns in regional climate change projections over the Iberian Peninsula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-Navarro, J.J.; Montavez, J.P.; Jimenez-Guerrero, P.; Jerez, S. [Murcia Univ. (Spain). Dept. de Fisica; Garcia-Valero, J.A. [Murcia Univ. (Spain). Dept. de Fisica; Delegacion Territorial en Murcia (ES). Agencia Estatal de Meteorologia (AEMET); Gonzalez-Rouco, J.F. [Univ. Complutense, Madrid (Spain). Dept. de Astrofisica y CC. de la Atmosfera


    A set of four regional climate change projections over the Iberian Peninsula has been performed. Simulations were driven by two General Circulation Models (consisting of two versions of the same atmospheric model coupled to two different ocean models) under two different SRES scenario. The XXI century has been simulated following a full-transient approach with a climate version of the mesoscale model MM5. An Empirical Orthogonal Function analysis (EOF) is applied to the monthly mean series of daily maximum and minimum 2-metre temperature to extract the warming signal. The first EOF is able to capture the spatial structure of the warming. The obtained warming patterns are fairly dependent on the month, but hardly change with the tested scenarios and GCM versions. Their shapes are related to geographical parameters, such as distance to the sea and orography. The main differences among simulations mostly concern the temporal evolution of the warming. The temperature trend is stronger for maximum temperatures and depends on the scenario and the driving GCM. This asymmetry, as well as the different warming rates in summer and winter, leads to a continentalization of the climate over the IP. (orig.)

  17. Quaternary Volcanic Activities in Shandong Peninsula and Northern Parts of Jiangsu and Anhui Provinces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑洪汉; 高维明; 等


    Quaternary volcanic rocks often coexist with loess,as observed in the same geologic sections in the Shandong Peninsula and northern parts of Jiangsu and Anhui provinces.The development age of Shandong loess in close to that in the middle reaches of the Yellow River.Loess strata are of synchronous implication in the loess belt of North China.So the ages of volcanic activities can be es-timated approximately from the stratigraphic relations between loess layers and volcanic rocks.The re-sults of dating of the Quaternary volcanic rocks,baked layers and the TL dates of loess samples sug-gest that the Quaternary volcanic activity can be divided into 4 stages in the region studied,with the ages being 1.15-1.03,0.86-0.72,0.55-0.33 and 0.02 Ma B.P.respectively .The occurrence of tephra in the Shandong loess sections is possible due to multiple episodes of volcanism during the Quaternary time.

  18. Seismic hazards of the Iberian Peninsula – evaluation with kernel functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Crespo


    Full Text Available The seismic hazard of the Iberian Peninsula is analysed using a nonparametric methodology based on statistical kernel functions; the activity rate is derived from the catalogue data, both its spatial dependence (without a seismogenetic zonation and its magnitude dependence (without using Gutenberg–Richter's law. The catalogue is that of the Instituto Geográfico Nacional, supplemented with other catalogues around the periphery; the quantification of events has been homogenised and spatially or temporally interrelated events have been suppressed to assume a Poisson process. The activity rate is determined by the kernel function, the bandwidth and the effective periods. The resulting rate is compared with that produced using Gutenberg–Richter statistics and a zoned approach. Three attenuation laws have been employed, one for deep sources and two for shallower events, depending on whether their magnitude was above or below 5. The results are presented as seismic hazard maps for different spectral frequencies and for return periods of 475 and 2475 yr, which allows constructing uniform hazard spectra.

  19. Active deformation near the Nicoya Peninsula, northwestern Costa Rica, between 1996 and 2010: Interseismic megathrust coupling (United States)

    Feng, Lujia; Newman, Andrew V.; Protti, Marino; GonzáLez, VíCtor; Jiang, Yan; Dixon, Timothy H.


    We use campaign and continuous GPS measurements at 49 sites between 1996 and 2010 to describe the long-term active deformation in and near the Nicoya Peninsula, northwestern Costa Rica. The observed deformation reveals partial partitioning of the Cocos-Caribbean oblique convergence into trench-parallel forearc sliver motion and less oblique thrusting on the subduction interface. The northern Costa Rican forearc translates northwestward as a whole ridge block at 11 ± 1 mm/yr relative to the stable Caribbean. The transition from the forearc to the stable Caribbean occurs in a narrow deforming zone of ˜16 km wide. Subduction thrust earthquakes take 2/3 of the trench-parallel component of the plate convergence; however, surface deformation caused by interseismic megathrust coupling is primarily trench-normal. Two fully coupled patches, one located offshore Nicoya centered at ˜15 km depth and the other located inland centered at ˜24 km depth, are identified in Nicoya with the potential to generate an Mw 7.8 1950-type earthquake. Another fully coupled patch SE of Nicoya coincides with the rupture region of the 1990 Nicoya Gulf earthquake. Interface microearthquakes, non-volcanic tremor, low-frequency earthquakes, and transient slow-slip events generally occur in the intermediately to weakly coupled regions.

  20. Role of Lichens in Weathering and Soil—Forming Processes in Fildes Peninsula,Antarctic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Lichens play an unparalleledly vital role in weathering and soil-forming processes in Antarctic region,In this study some related chemical components and micromorphological analyses have been carried out on the samples of the weathered rocks and the lichens grown on them from Files Peninsula,Antarctic,The results indicatied that the major chemical components in the bioweathering surface layer of the sampled rocks have been obviously altered and the weathering potential in this layer has greatly decreased by and average range around 4.66 percent in 4 samples,In the weathering surface layer ferruginiztion of some minerals in varying degress was seen by means of microscopic examination through the thin section of the weathered rocks,and its products proved to be dominated by hematitie,limonite,goethite and free iron oxides Meanwhile,the study suggested that the dissolution and absorption of lichens by their secretion accelerated the process of calcitization of minerals in the bio-weathering suface layer,Eventually,the results also show that different species of lichens play different roles in weathering and soil-forming proesses.

  1. Phylogeography of Rift Valley Fever Virus in Africa and the Arabian Peninsula (United States)

    Peterson, A. Townsend; Hall, Matthew


    Rift Valley Fever is an acute zoonotic viral disease caused by Rift Valley Fever virus (RVFV) that affects ruminants and humans in Sub-Saharan Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. We used phylogenetic analyses to understand the demographic history of RVFV populations, using sequence data from the three minigenomic segments of the virus. We used phylogeographic approaches to infer RVFV historical movement patterns across its geographic range, and to reconstruct transitions among host species. Results revealed broad circulation of the virus in East Africa, with many lineages originating in Kenya. Arrival of RVFV in Madagascar resulted from three major waves of virus introduction: the first from Zimbabwe, and the second and third from Kenya. The two major outbreaks in Egypt since 1977 possibly resulted from a long-distance introduction from Zimbabwe during the 1970s, and a single introduction took RVFV from Kenya to Saudi Arabia. Movement of the virus between Kenya and Sudan, and CAR and Zimbabwe, was in both directions. Viral populations in West Africa appear to have resulted from a single introduction from Central African Republic. The overall picture of RVFV history is thus one of considerable mobility, and dynamic evolution and biogeography, emphasizing its invasive potential, potentially more broadly than its current distributional limits. PMID:28068340

  2. The impact of sea surface temperature on winter wheat in Iberian Peninsula (United States)

    Capa-Morocho, Mirian; Rodríguez-Fonseca, Belen; Ruiz-Ramos, Margarita


    Climate variability is the main driver of changes in crops yield, especially for rainfed production systems. This is also the case of Iberian Peninsula (IP) (Capa-Morocho et al., 2014), where wheat yields are strongly dependent on seasonal rainfall amount and temporal distribution of rainfall during the growing season. Previous works have shown that large-scale oceanic patterns have a significant impact on precipitation over IP (Rodriguez-Fonseca and de Castro, 2002; Rodríguez-Fonseca et al., 2006). The existence of some predictability of precipitation has encouraged us to analyze the possible predictability of the wheat yield in the IP using sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies as predictor. For this purpose, a crop model site specific calibrated for the Northeast of IP and several reanalysis climate datasets have been used to obtain long time series of attainable wheat yield and relate their variability with SST anomalies. The results show that wheat yield anomalies are associated with changes in the Tropical Pacific (El Niño) and Atlantic (TNA) SST. For these events, the regional associated atmospheric pattern resembles the NAO, which also influences directly on the maximum temperatures and precipitation experienced by the crop during flowering and grain filling. Results from this study could have important implications for predictability issues in agricultural planning and management, such as insurance coverage, changes in sowing dates and choice of species and varieties.

  3. Metallogenic epoch and genesis of the gold deposits in Jiaodong Peninsula, Eastern China: a regional review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Liqiang; DENG Jun; GE Liangsheng; WANG Qingfei; ZHANG Jing; GAO Bangfei; JIANG Shaoqing; XU Hao


    Gold deposits are characterized by multi-sources, superimposition, large scale and temporal-spatial concentration in Jiaodong Peninsula, Eastern China. In this paper, we review the history and the development of the study on metallogenic chronology and genesis of gold deposits, summarize the main features of superimposed metallogenesis, provide evidence of the Mesozoic complex metallogenic system, and point out some problems for further research of Jiaodong gold deposit cluster from a regional view. Although gold deposits are different in genetic types, ore-forming materials and geological settings, our research indicates that the accumulation and emplacement of the ore-forming materials are temporally-spatially concentrated on a large scale, and the main metallogenic epoch of Jiaodong gold deposits was concentrated in Mesozoic. Metallogenic chronology and geological-geochemical data indicate that there are two periods of gold mineralizations occurred in 130-110 Ma and 90-80 Ma respectively in Jiaodong ore cluster. The gold deposit cluster results from the superimposition of the polygenetic mineralization, and further study is needed to investigate the formation and evolution of the Mesozoic complex metallogenic system.

  4. Indication of a species in an extinction vortex: The ocellated turkey on the Yucatan peninsula, Mexico (United States)

    Kampichler, Christian; Calmé, Sophie; Weissenberger, Holger; Arriaga-Weiss, Stefan Louis


    The ocellated turkey Meleagris ocellata (OT) is a large, unmistakable endemic bird of the Yucatan peninsula. The species has suffered a considerable loss of distributional area as well as local abundance between 1980 and 2000 and is classified as endangered according to Mexican norms. We applied Classification Trees and Random Forests in order to determine the factors that most closely explain the observed patterns of distribution and abundance loss, and to develop hypotheses that may guide measures for the protection of the OT. Among the most important predictors of change were variables corresponding to aspects of forest cover and variables on human population and small settlements. OT abundance in 1980, however, was by far the most important predictor for OT abundance change. This is an indication that the OT dynamics are governed by internal rather than by external factors. Medium and low abundances in 1980 inevitably led to a further decrease during the following years, which gives rise to the conclusion that the OT might find itself in an extinction vortex. We suggest the following hypothetical scenario for OT decline: migrant people from other Mexican states colonise forested regions in Yucatan; they establish small settlements; bushmeat hunting is important for their survival; the naïve OT is easy prey; hunting—together with beginning deforestation—reaches a certain level, and local OT abundance falls below a critical threshold; OT continues declining regardless of current social and environmental changes except where there is total protection of both the species and its habitat.

  5. Dendrogeomorphic reconstruction of lahar activity and triggers: Shiveluch volcano, Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia (United States)

    Salaorni, E.; Stoffel, M.; Tutubalina, O.; Chernomorets, S.; Seynova, I.; Sorg, A.


    Lahars are highly concentrated, water-saturated volcanic hyperconcentrated flows or debris flows containing pyroclastic material and are a characteristic mass movement process on volcanic slopes. On Kamchatka Peninsula (Russian Federation), lahars are widespread and may affect remote settlements. Historical records of past lahar occurrences are generally sparse and mostly limited to events which damaged infrastructure on the slopes or at the foot of volcanoes. In this study, we present a tree-ring-based reconstruction of spatiotemporal patterns of past lahar activity at Shiveluch volcano. Using increment cores and cross sections from 126 Larix cajanderi trees, we document 34 events covering the period AD 1729-2012. Analyses of the seasonality of damage in trees reveal that 95% of all lahars occurred between October and May and thus point to the predominant role of the sudden melt of the snow cover by volcanic material. These observations suggest that most lahars were likely syn-eruptive and that lahar activity is largely restricted to periods of volcanic activity. By contrast, rainfall events do not seem to play a significant role in lahar triggering.

  6. Firn structure of Larsen C Ice Shelf, Antarctic Peninsula, from in-situ geophysical surveys (United States)

    Kulessa, B.; Brisbourne, A.; Kuipers Munneke, P.; Bevan, S. L.; Luckman, A. J.; Hubbard, B. P.; Ashmore, D.; Holland, P.; Jansen, D.; King, E. C.; O'Leary, M.; McGrath, D.


    Rising surface temperatures have been causing firn layers on Antarctic Peninsula ice shelves to compact, a process that is strongly implicated in ice shelf disintegration. Firn compaction is expected to warm the ice column and given sufficiently wet and compacted firn layers, to allow meltwater to penetrate into surface crevasses and thus enhance the potential for hydrofracture. On Larsen C Ice Shelf a compacting firn layer has previously been inferred from airborne radar and satellite data, with strongly reduced air contents in Larsen C's north and north-west. The hydrological processes governing firn compaction, and the detailed firn structures they produce, have so far remained uncertain however. Using integrated seismic refraction, MASW (Multi-Channel Analysis of Surface Waves), seismoelectric and ground-penetrating radar (GPR) data, we reveal vertical and horizontal changes in firn structure across Larsen C Ice Shelf. Particular attention is paid to the spatial prevalence of refrozen meltwaters within firn, such as the massive subsurface ice layer discovered recently by the NERC-funded MIDAS project in Cabinet Inlet in Larsen C's extreme northwest. Such ice layers or lenses are particularly dramatic manifestations of increased ice shelf densities and temperatures, and contrast sharply with the relatively uncompacted firn layers present in the ice shelf's southeast. We consider our observations in the context of a one-dimensional firn model for Larsen C Ice Shelf that includes melt percolation and refreezing, and discuss temporal changes in firn layer structures due to surface melt and ponding.

  7. Temporal Variability in MERIS Water Constituents Modeled by STL Decomposition in SW Iberian Peninsula: Sagres (United States)

    Icely, John; Cordeiro, Clara; Cristina, Sonia; Lavender, Samantha; Goela, Priscila; Newton, Alice


    The MERIS time series for chlorophyll a (Chla, from MERIS standard Algal Pigment Index 1 algorithm), total suspended matter (TSM) and yellow substances (YS) are investigated in this work. The study focuses on the temporal variability of the MERIS water constituents off Sagres, in Southwest Iberian Peninsula using, which has been used to decompose the MERIS time series into seasonal (St), trend (Tt), and irregular (It) components. This approach has the advantages of Seasonal-Trend decomposition procedure based on Loess (STL): it can identify seasonal components changing over time, it is responsive to nonlinear trends, and it is robust in the presence of outliers. is an automatic procedure that selects the best model based on the lowest error measure by varying the values of the smoothing parameters (s.window and t.window). One of the main outcomes of the decomposition of the time series is that MERIS water products have a strong seasonal component, with increasing dominance from inshore to offshore.

  8. A Quality Assessment of Tourist Information: the Case of Nautical Tourism at Shiretoko Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bart Neuts


    Full Text Available The success of tourism promotion in a destination partially depends on the extent to which it successfully links varied products catering to a heterogeneous group of visitors in a multi-client system. In contemporary destination marketing, communication between the service providers at the destination and the (prospective tourists has become increasingly important as a result of the rise in informal communication channels and social media. This paper focuses on the effect of using different information sources when booking a cruise tour in Shiretoko Peninsula (a natural World Heritage Site by employing a multi-group structural model. Our findings revealed that a mismatch between the expectation created by the visitors based on the information about the site and the satisfaction they experience when visiting the place can be a strong factor of dissatisfaction, with negative implications on the possible recommendations and loyalty. Additionally, it was possible to conclude that information available on the internet and via guidebooks seems to negatively affect satisfaction on certain elements and routes, while local information from tourist offices, hotels and local shops was found less problematic.

  9. Paleoclimatic changes and human cultural evolution in and around the Arabian Peninsula (United States)

    Anma, Ryo


    Recent studies of paleoenvironmental changes in and around the Arabian Peninsula have suggested that extremely wet periods occurred during the late Pleistocene and early Holocene; these periods started around the termination of glacial periods and continued during the initial rapid warming that followed. During these periods, flood waters transported enormous amounts of sediments from mountains to plains. Once the thermal maximum was reached and temperature stabilized at a high level, the water environment also stabilized and the climate became dryer. Although gradual changes in atmospheric temperature may have had only a minor direct influence on human activities, drastic changes in the water environment in responses to changes in the average atmospheric and surface water temperatures of just a few degrees had a stronger influence on human culture, possibly leading to the development of agriculture and civilizations. Domestication of animals started at the beginning of a wet period in the early Holocene, whereas the first cities were constructed during its latest stage. The need to control flooding may have led humans to build cities and, thus, to the development of early civilizations.

  10. Biomarkers in Tertiary mélange, western Olympic Peninsula, Washington, U.S.A. (United States)

    Kvenvolden, Keith A.; Hostettler, Frances D.; Rapp, John B.; Snavely, Parke D.


    Middle Eocene to middle Miocene mélange and broken formations are exposed in the coastal outcrops along the west side of the Olympic Peninsula, Washington. A petroleum geochemical assessment of these geologic units has included the investigation of biomarker compounds. A comparison was made of biomarkers in an oil sample from a middle Miocene reservoir penetrated in the Medina No. 1 well with biomarkers in extracts from two samples of middle Eocene Ozette mélange (one sample having a strong petroliferous odor, and the other sample lacking this characteristic odor). Distribution patterns of n-alkanes, tricyclic terpanes, pentacyclic triterpanes, steranes, and diasteranes are remarkably similar in the oil and rock extracts. Biomarker maturity parameters indicate higher maturity in the oil relative to the extracts. The presence of 17α(H)-23,28-bisnorlupane, 18α(H)- and 18β(H)-oleanane, and de-A-lupane and an odd-carbon-number dominance of the n-alkanes in the oil and extracts seems to tie the hydrocarbons to a common source that has a significant terrigenous component.

  11. Phylogenetic analysis and in vitro culture of mosses from the Antarctic Fildes Peninsula

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Shenghao; ZHANG Zhaohui; WANG Nengfei; CONG Bailin; ZHANG Pengying; LIN Xuezheng; HUANG Xiaohang


    Molecular genetic techniques have proven very useful for initial analysis of the extent of genetic variation and dispersal in several Antarctic moss species. In the present study, the small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rDNA) and internal transcribed spacers of the nuclear ribosomal DNA (ITS rDNA) were sequenced in nine individuals of different mosses from the Fildes Peninsula of Antarctica. Sequence alignment showed that the extreme environment tended to increase the genetic diversity of Antarctic mosses. In addition, in our phylogenetic analysis, one previously unidentiifed Antarctic moss species was characterized by comparison with SSU and ITS rDNA sequences of known moss species. Moreover, the optimal culture medium and conditions for surface explant sterilization and protonemata induction in tissue culture of Pohlia nutans were investigated. The successful establishment of a tissue culture protocol together with the phylogenetic analysis of Antarctic mosses will provide technological support to establish an effective resource regeneration method for discovering new functional genes and gaining novel insights into the mechanisms of stress acclimation.

  12. Earthquake prediction in seismogenic areas of the Iberian Peninsula based on computational intelligence (United States)

    Morales-Esteban, A.; Martínez-Álvarez, F.; Reyes, J.


    A method to predict earthquakes in two of the seismogenic areas of the Iberian Peninsula, based on Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs), is presented in this paper. ANNs have been widely used in many fields but only very few and very recent studies have been conducted on earthquake prediction. Two kinds of predictions are provided in this study: a) the probability of an earthquake, of magnitude equal or larger than a preset threshold magnitude, within the next 7 days, to happen; b) the probability of an earthquake of a limited magnitude interval to happen, during the next 7 days. First, the physical fundamentals related to earthquake occurrence are explained. Second, the mathematical model underlying ANNs is explained and the configuration chosen is justified. Then, the ANNs have been trained in both areas: The Alborán Sea and the Western Azores-Gibraltar fault. Later, the ANNs have been tested in both areas for a period of time immediately subsequent to the training period. Statistical tests are provided showing meaningful results. Finally, ANNs were compared to other well known classifiers showing quantitatively and qualitatively better results. The authors expect that the results obtained will encourage researchers to conduct further research on this topic. Development of a system capable of predicting earthquakes for the next seven days Application of ANN is particularly reliable to earthquake prediction. Use of geophysical information modeling the soil behavior as ANN's input data Successful analysis of one region with large seismic activity

  13. Influence of wind on daily airborne pollen counts in Catalonia (NE Iberian Peninsula) (United States)

    tareq Majeed, Husam; Periago, Cristina; Alarcón, Marta; De Linares, Concepción; Belmonte, Jordina


    The aim of this study is to analize the influence of wind (speed and direction) on the daily airborne pollen counts recorded in Catalonia (NE Iberian Peninsula) of 21 pollen taxa recorded at 6 aerobiological stations: Barcelona, Bellaterra, Girona, Lleida Manresa, and Tarragona for the period 2004-2014. The taxa studied are Alnus, Betula, Castanea, Cupressaceae, Fagus, Fraxinus, Olea, Pinus, Platanus, total Quercus, Quercus deciduous type, Quercus evergreen type, Ulmus, Corylus, Pistacia, Artemisia, Chenopodiaceae/Amaranthaceae, Plantago, Poaceae, Polygonaceae, and Urticaceae. The mean daily wind direction was divided into 8 sectors: N, NE, E, SE, S, SW, W and NW. For each sector, the correlation between the daily pollen concentrations and wind speed using Spearman's rank correlation coefficient was computed and compared with the wind rose charts. The results showed that Tarragona was the station with more significant correlations followed by Bellaterra, Lleida and Manresa. On the other hand, Artemisia was the most correlated taxon with mainly negative values, and Fagus was the least. The W wind direction showed the largest number of significant correlations, mostly positive, while the N direction was the least and negatively correlated.

  14. Population genetics of four heavily exploited shark species around the Arabian Peninsula. (United States)

    Spaet, Julia L Y; Jabado, Rima W; Henderson, Aaron C; Moore, Alec B M; Berumen, Michael L


    The northwestern Indian Ocean harbors a number of larger marine vertebrate taxa that warrant the investigation of genetic population structure given remarkable spatial heterogeneity in biological characteristics such as distribution, behavior, and morphology. Here, we investigate the genetic population structure of four commercially exploited shark species with different biological characteristics (Carcharhinus limbatus, Carcharhinus sorrah, Rhizoprionodon acutus, and Sphyrna lewini) between the Red Sea and all other water bodies surrounding the Arabian Peninsula. To assess intraspecific patterns of connectivity, we constructed statistical parsimony networks among haplotypes and estimated (1) population structure; and (2) time of most recent population expansion, based on mitochondrial control region DNA and a total of 20 microsatellites. Our analysis indicates that, even in smaller, less vagile shark species, there are no contemporary barriers to gene flow across the study region, while historical events, for example, Pleistocene glacial cycles, may have affected connectivity in C. sorrah and R. acutus. A parsimony network analysis provided evidence that Arabian S. lewini may represent a population segment that is distinct from other known stocks in the Indian Ocean, raising a new layer of conservation concern. Our results call for urgent regional cooperation to ensure the sustainable exploitation of sharks in the Arabian region.

  15. A bridge too far: dispersal barriers and cryptic speciation in an Arabian Peninsula grouper (Cephalopholis hemistiktos)

    KAUST Repository

    Priest, Mark


    Aim: We use genetic and age-based analyses to assess the evidence for a biogeographical barrier to larval dispersal in the yellowfin hind, Cephalopholis hemistiktos, a commercially important species found across the Arabian Peninsula. Location: Red Sea, Gulf of Aden, Gulf of Oman and Arabian Gulf. Methods: Mitochondrial DNA cytochrome-c oxidase subunit-I and nuclear DNA (S7) sequences were obtained for C. hemistiktos sampled throughout its distributional range. Phylogeographical and population-level analyses were used to assess patterns of genetic structure and to identify barriers to dispersal. Concurrently, age-based demographic analyses using otoliths determined differences in growth and longevity between regions. Results: Our analyses revealed significant genetic structure congruent with growth parameter differences observed across sampling sites, suggesting cryptic speciation between populations in the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden versus the Gulf of Oman and Arabian Gulf. Coalescence analyses indicated these two regions have been isolated for > 800,000 years. Main conclusions: Our results indicate historical disruption to gene flow and a contemporary dispersal barrier in the Arabian Sea, which C. hemistiktos larvae are unable to effectively traverse. This provides yet another example of a (cryptic) species with high dispersive potential whose range is delimited by a lack of suitable habitat between locations or an inability to successfully recruit at the range edge. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Genetic heterogeneity in regional populations of Quebec--parental lineages in the Gaspe Peninsula. (United States)

    Moreau, Claudia; Vézina, Hélène; Yotova, Vania; Hamon, Robert; de Knijff, Peter; Sinnett, Daniel; Labuda, Damian


    Stable colonization of the Gaspe Peninsula by Europeans started in the middle of the 18th century at the time of the British conquest of New France. The earliest settlers were Acadians, escaping British deportation policies, followed by Loyalists from the US, who preferred to remain under British rule after the Declaration of Independence. In the 19th century, the developing fishing industry attracted French Canadians from the St. Lawrence Valley and newcomers from Europe including Channel Islanders from Jersey and Guernsey. We analyzed parental lineages of the self-declared descendants of these four groups of settlers by mtDNA D-loop sequencing and Y-chromosome genotyping and compared them with French, British, and Irish samples. Their representation in terms of haplotype frequency classes reveals different signatures of founder effects, such as a loss of rare haplotypes, modification of intermediate frequency haplotypes, reduction in genetic diversity (seen in Acadians), but also enrichment by admixture. Parental lineages correlate with group identity. Descendants of early settlers, Acadians and Loyalists, preserved their identity more than those of French Canadian and Channel Islander "latecomers." Although overall genetic diversity among Gaspesians is comparable with their European source populations, F(ST) analysis indicated their greater differentiation. Distinct settlement history, a limited number of founders and relative genetic isolation contributed to the regionalization of the Quebec gene pool that appears less homogenous than usually anticipated.

  17. Diversity of introduced terrestrial flatworms in the Iberian Peninsula: a cautionary tale. (United States)

    Alvarez-Presas, Marta; Mateos, Eduardo; Tudó, Angels; Jones, Hugh; Riutort, Marta


    Many tropical terrestrial planarians (Platyhelminthes, Geoplanidae) have been introduced around the globe. One of these species is known to cause significant decline in earthworm populations, resulting in a reduction of ecological functions that earthworms provide. Flatworms, additionally, are a potential risk to other species that have the same dietary needs. Hence, the planarian invasion might cause significant economic losses in agriculture and damage to the ecosystem. In the Iberian Peninsula only Bipalium kewense Moseley, 1878 had been cited till 2007. From that year on, four more species have been cited, and several reports of the presence of these animals in particular gardens have been received. In the present study we have: (1) analyzed the animals sent by non-specialists and also the presence of terrestrial planarians in plant nurseries and garden centers; (2) identified their species through morphological and phylogenetic molecular analyses, including representatives of their areas of origin; (3) revised their dietary sources and (4) used Species Distribution Modeling (SDM) for one species to evaluate the risk of its introduction to natural areas. The results have shown the presence of at least ten species of alien terrestrial planarians, from all its phylogenetic range. International plant trade is the source of these animals, and many garden centers are acting as reservoirs. Also, landscape restoration to reintroduce autochthonous plants has facilitated their introduction close to natural forests and agricultural fields. In conclusion, there is a need to take measures on plant trade and to have special care in the treatment of restored habitats.

  18. Dolomitized bryozoan bioherms from the Lower Silurian Manitoulin Formation, Bruce Peninsula, Ontario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anastas, A.S.; Coniglo, M. (Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada))


    Several small, previously undescribed bioherms are present in the shallow shelf dolostones of the Manitoulin Formation at the Cabot Head and Wingfield Basin localities in the northernmost portion of the Bruce Peninsula region of southern Ontario. The bioherms, commonly associated with carbonate tempestites, range from 0.3 to 1.0 m in height and 0.9 to 2.5 m in width and are composed of bafflestones-floatstones and minor bindstones. The chief components of the bioherms are dolomitized lime mud and branching bryozoans. Bioherm building by bryozoans, although common in the ancient record, represents a great divergence from the mostly accessory frame encrusting role of bryozoans in modern environments. Minor skeletal components of the bioherms include echinoderms, rugose and tabulate corals and brachiopods. Laminar encrusting bryozoans exist in the top 10 cm of one of the bioherms. Some of the bioherms show evidence of water agitation that may be the result of current action induced by storm or tidal processes. The occurrence of the bioherms stretches the already known Llandoverian reef complex on Manitoulin Island further to the south. The reason why these bioherms did not reach sizes comparable to large Llandoverian or Wenlockian reefs and did not make the shift to coral-stromaporoid community is probably related to a complex interaction of factors such as community development, bathymetry, clasticity and salinity. 41 refs., 4 figs.

  19. Anatomy of the Chesapeake Bay impact structure revealed by seismic imaging, Delmarva Peninsula, Virginia, USA (United States)

    Catchings, R.D.; Powars, D.S.; Gohn, G.S.; Horton, J.W.; Goldman, M.R.; Hole, J.A.


    A 30-km-long, radial seismic reflection and refraction survey completed across the northern part of the late Eocene Chesapeake Bay impact structure (CBIS) on the Delmarva Peninsula, Virginia, USA, confirms that the CBIS is a complex central-peak crater. We used a tomographic P wave velocity model and low-fold reflection images, constrained by data from two deep boreholes located on the profile, to interpret the structure and composition of the upper 5 km of crust. The seismic images exhibit well-defined structural features, including (with increasing radial distance) a collapsed central uplift, a breccia-filled moat, and a collapsed transient-crater margin (which collectively constitute a ???40-km-wide collapsed transient crater), and a shallowly deformed annular trough. These seismic images are the first to resolve the deep structure of the crater (>1 km) and the boundaries between the central uplift, moat, and annular trough. Several distinct seismic signatures distinguish breccia units from each other and from more coherent crystalline rocks below the central uplift, moat, and annular trough. Within the moat, breccia extends to a minimum depth of 1.5 km or a maximum of 3.5 km, depending upon the interpretation of the deepest layered materials. The images show ???350 to 500 m of postimpact sediments above the impactites. The imaged structure of the CBIS indicates a complex sequence of event during the cratering process that will provide new constraints for numerical modeling. Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.

  20. Capture zone of a multi-well system in bounded peninsula-shaped aquifers. (United States)

    Zarei-Doudeji, Somayeh; Samani, Nozar


    In this paper we present the equation of capture zone for multi-well system in peninsula-shaped confined and unconfined aquifers. The aquifer is rectangular in plan view, bounded along three sides, and extends to infinity at the fourth side. The bounding boundaries are either no-flow (impervious) or in-flow (constant head) so that aquifers with six possible boundary configurations are formed. The well system is consisted of any number of extraction or injection wells or combination of both with any flow rates. The complex velocity potential equations for such a well-aquifer system are derived to delineate the capture envelop. Solutions are provided for the aquifers with and without a uniform regional flow of any directions. The presented equations are of general character and have no limitations in terms of well numbers, positions and types, extraction/injection rate, and regional flow rate and direction. These solutions are presented in form of capture type curves which are useful tools in hands of practitioners to design in-situ groundwater remediation systems, to contain contaminant plumes, to evaluate the surface-subsurface water interaction and to verify numerical models.