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Sample records for altitude sickness

  1. [Mountaineering and altitude sickness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggiorini, M

    2001-06-01

    Almost every second trekker or climber develops two to three symptoms of the high altitude illness after a rapid ascent (> 300 m/day) to an altitude above 4000 m. We distinguish two forms of high altitude illness, a cerebral form called acute mountain sickness and a pulmonary form called high altitude pulmonary edema. Essentially, acute mountain sickness is self-limiting and benign. Its symptoms are mild to moderate headache, loss of appetite, nausea, dizziness and insomnia. Nausea rarely progresses to vomiting, but if it does, this may anticipate a progression of the disease into the severe form of acute mountain sickness, called high altitude cerebral edema. Symptoms and signs of high altitude cerebral edema are severe headache, which is not relieved by acetaminophen, loss of movement coordination, ataxia and mental deterioration ending in coma. The mechanisms leading to acute mountain sickness are not very well understood; the loss of cerebral autoregulation and a vasogenic type of cerebral edema are being discussed. High altitude pulmonary edema presents in roughly twenty percent of the cases with mild symptoms of acute mountain sickness or even without any symptoms at all. Symptoms associated with high altitude pulmonary edema are incapacitating fatigue, chest tightness, dyspnoe at the minimal effort that advances to dyspnoe at rest and orthopnoe, and a dry non-productive cough that progresses to cough with pink frothy sputum due to hemoptysis. The hallmark of high altitude pulmonary edema is an exaggerated hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction. Successful prophylaxis and treatment of high altitude pulmonary edema using nifedipine, a pulmonary vasodilator, indicates that pulmonary hypertension is crucial for the development of high altitude pulmonary edema. The primary treatment of high altitude illness consists in improving hypoxemia and acclimatization. For prophylaxis a slow ascent at a rate of 300 m/day is recommended, if symptoms persist, acetazolamide at a

  2. Altitude, Acute Mountain Sickness and Headache

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Follow us on Instagram DONATE TODAY Altitude, Acute Mountain Sickness and Headache Abuse, Maltreatment, and PTSD and Their Relationship to Migraine Altitude, Acute Mountain Sickness and Headache Alcohol and Migraine Anxiety and ...

  3. Pathophysiology of acute mountain sickness and high altitude pulmonary oedema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sutton, J R; Lassen, N

    1979-01-01

    We review the evidence that acute mountain sickness (AMS) and high altitude pulmonary oedema (HAPO) occur together more often than is realized. We hypothesize that AMS and HAPO have a common pathophysiological basis: both are due to increased pressure and flow in the microcirculation, causing...

  4. Ambulation Increases Decompression Sickness in Altitude Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conkin, Johnny; Pollock, N. W.; Natoli, M. J.; Wessel, J. H., III; Gernhardt, M. L.

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION - Exercise accelerates inert gas elimination during oxygen breathing prior to decompression (prebreathe), but may also promote bubble formation and increase the risk of decompression sickness (DCS). The timing, pattern and intensity of exercise are likely critical to the net effect. The NASA Prebreathe Reduction Program (PRP) combined oxygen prebreathe and exercise preceding a 4.3 psi exposure in non-ambulatory subjects (a microgravity analog) to produce two protocols now used by astronauts preparing for extravehicular activity (CEVIS and ISLE). Additional work is required to investigate whether exercise normal to 1 G environments increases the risk of DCS over microgravity simulation. METHODS - The CEVIS protocol was replicated with one exception. Our subjects completed controlled ambulation (walking in place with fixed cadence and step height) during both preflight and at 4.3 psi instead of remaining non-ambulatory throughout. Decompression stress was graded with aural Doppler (Spencer 0-IV scale). Two-dimensional echocardiographic imaging was used to look for left heart gas emboli (the presence of which prompted test termination). Venous blood was collected at three points to correlate Doppler measures of decompression stress with microparticle (cell fragment) accumulation. Fisher Exact Tests compared test and control groups. Trial suspension would occur when DCS risk >15% or grade IV venous gas emboli (VGE) risk >20% (at 70% confidence). RESULTS - Eleven person-trials were completed (9 male, 2 female) when DCS prompted suspension. DCS was greater than in CEVIS trials (3/11 [27%] vs. 0/45 [0%], respectively, p=0.03). Statistical significance was not reached for peak grade IV VGE (2/11 [18%] vs. 3/45 [7%], p=0.149) or cumulative grade IV VGE observations per subject-trial (8/128 [6%] vs. 26/630 [4%], p=0.151). Microparticle data were collected for 5/11 trials (3 with DCS outcomes), with widely varying patterns that could not be resolved statistically

  5. Can migraine prophylaxis prevent acute mountain sickness at high altitude?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, M W; Kim, M

    2011-11-01

    Acute mountain sickness (AMS) develops in people trekking at high altitude. The underlying mechanism is vasodilation due to low pressure of oxygen. However, individual susceptibility for AMS is unknown, thus, one cannot predict when or to whom it happens. Because AMS usually begins with headache, and because migraineurs are more vulnerable to AMS, we studied by the literatures review on the mechanism and clinical features in common, and assessed the treatment modalities for both disorders. This led to us the following hypothesis that, migraine prophylaxis may prevent or delay the onset of AMS at high altitude. Clinical features of AMS include nausea or vomiting when it progresses. Hypobaric hypoxia, dehydration or increased physical exertion trigger or aggravate both disorders. In migraine, cerebral vasodilation can happen following alteration of neuronal activity, whereas the AMS is associated with peripheral vessel dilation. Medications that dilate the vessels worsen both conditions. Acute treatment strategies for migraine overlap with to those of AMS, including drugs such as vasoconstrictors, or other analgesics. To prevent AMS, adaptation to high altitude or pharmacological prophylaxis, i.e., acetazolamide has been recommended. This carbonic anhydrase inhibitor lowers serum potassium level, and thus stabilizes membrane excitability. Acetazolamide is also effective on specific forms of migraine. Taken together, these evidences implicate that migraine prophylaxis may prevent or delay the onset of AMS by elevating the threshold for high altitude. PMID:21856088

  6. Ataxia, acute mountain sickness, and high altitude cerebral edema

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Tianyi; Ma Siqing; Bian Huiping; Zhang Minming

    2013-01-01

    Previous investigations suggest that ataxia is common and often one of the most reliable warning signs of high altitude cerebral edema(HACE).The aim of this study was to investigate the diagnostic role of ataxia in acute mountain sickness (AMS) and HACE among mountain rescuers on the quake areas,and in approaching the relation between AMS and HACE.After the earthquake on April 14,2010,approximately 24080 lowland rescuers were rapidly transported from sea level or lowlands to the mountainous rescue sites at 3750 ~ 4568 m,and extremely hardly worked for an emergency treatment after arrival.Assessments of acute altitude illness on the quake areas were using the Lake Louise Scoring System.73 % of the rescuers were found to be developed AMS.The incidence of high altitude pulmonary edema(HAPE) and HACE was 0.73 % and 0.26 %,respectively,on the second to third day at altitude.Ataxia sign was measured by simple tests of coordination including a modified Romberg test.The clinical features of 62 patients with HACE were analyzed.It was found that the most frequent,serious neurological symptoms and signs were altered mental status(50/62,80.6 %)and truncal ataxia (47/62,75.8 %).Mental status change was rated slightly higher than ataxia,but ataxia occurred earlier than mental status change and other symptoms.The earliest sign of ataxia was a vague unsteadiness of gait,which may be present alone in association with or without AMS.Advanced ataxia was correlated with the AMS scores,but mild ataxia did not correlate with AMS scores at altitudes of 3750~4568 m.Of them,14 patients were further examined by computerized tomographic scanning of the brain and cerebral magnetic resonance imagines were examined in another 15 cases.These imaging studies indicated that the presence of the cerebral edema was in 97 % of cases who were clinically diagnosed as HACE (28/29).Ataxia seems to be a reliable sign of advanced AMS or HACE,so does altered mental status.

  7. General introduction to altitude adaptation and mountain sickness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartsch, P.; Saltin, B.

    2008-01-01

    over 24-48 h to improve the oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood, and is further improved during a prolonged sojourn at altitude through an enhanced erythropoiesis and larger Hb mass, allowing for a partial or full restoration of the blood volume and arterial oxygen content. Most of these adaptations......-30% of subjects at altitudes between 2500 and 3000 m a.s.l. Pulmonary edema is rarely seen below 3000 m a.s.l. and brain edema is not seen below 4000 m a.s.l. It is possible to travel to altitudes of 2500-3000 m a.s.l., wait for 2 days, and then gradually start to train. At higher altitudes, one should...... modalities using hypoxia and altitude for improvement of performance Udgivelsesdato: 2008/8...

  8. Non-high altitude methods for rapid screening of susceptibility to acute mountain sickness

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Han; Ke, Tao; Luo, Wen-Jing; Chen, Jing-Yuan

    2013-01-01

    Background Acute mountain sickness (AMS) refers to the cerebral abnormalities typically triggered by exposure to hypobaric hypoxia at high altitude. Although AMS is not often life threatening, it can seriously impact health quality and decrease productivity. Thus, detection of potential susceptibility to AMS has become important for people arriving at high-altitude plateaus for the first time, including laborers and military staff. The aim of this review was to examine techniques which effici...

  9. Acute mountain sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    High altitude cerebral edema; Altitude anoxia; Altitude sickness; Mountain sickness; High altitude pulmonary edema ... Acute mountain sickness is caused by reduced air pressure and lower oxygen levels at high altitudes. The faster you ...

  10. Novel drugs in the management of acute mountain sickness and high altitude pulmonary edema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sikri G

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Gaurav Sikri, Anirban Bhattacharya Department of Physiology, Armed Forces Medical College, Wanowarie, Pune, IndiaWe read with great interest the review article titled “Wilderness medicine at high altitude: recent developments in the field” by Shah et al.1 The authors have comprehensively summarized the recent advances in the field of high altitude medicine relevant to sports and travel medicine. However, Shah et al have described potential drugs for management of high-altitude illnesses, such as acute mountain sickness (AMS, high altitude cerebral edema, and high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE as one group under the section “Novel drug treatment for AMS”. The pathophysiologies of these two sets of diseases (AMS/high altitude cerebral edema as one and HAPE as another set are different2 and hence it would have been nice to have had the novel drugs described separately to elucidate the therapeutic approach for the two different classes of diseases.View original paper by Shah et al.

  11. A survey of anxiety and depression in servicemen stationed at high altitude and their relation to chronic mountain sickness

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Lin-Lin; Liu, Chun; Chen, Yu; Ming-chun CAI; Huang, Qing-Yuan; Yu-qi GAO

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the occurrence of anxiety and depression in officers and soldiers stationed at high altitude, and explore their relation to chronic mountain sickness (CMS). Methods Nine hundred and fifty-six male servicemen stationed at high altitude longer than 6 months (highland group) and 587 male servicemen who never stationed at high altitude (control group) were randomly selected from a certain military area command, and then self-rating anxiety scale (SAS), self-rating depress...

  12. Quantification of Optic Disc Edema during Exposure to High Altitude Shows No Correlation to Acute Mountain Sickness

    OpenAIRE

    Willmann, Gabriel, 1977-; Fischer, M. Dominik; Schatz, Andreas; Schommer, Kai; Messias, Andre; Zrenner, Eberhart; Bartz-Schmidt, Karl U.; Gekeler, Florian

    2011-01-01

    Background The study aimed to quantify changes of the optic nerve head (ONH) during exposure to high altitude and to assess a correlation with acute mountain sickness (AMS). This work is related to the Tuebingen High Altitude Ophthalmology (THAO) study. Methodology/Principal Findings A confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope (cSLO, Heidelberg Retina Tomograph, HRT3®) was used to quantify changes at the ONH in 18 healthy participants before, during and after rapid ascent to high altitude (4559 ...

  13. The denitrogenation by breathing oxygen-rich gas to prevent altitude decompression sickness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua-jun XIAO; Xiao-peng LIU; Bin ZANG; Gui-you WANG; Zhao GU

    2012-01-01

    Objective While the technology of the molecular sieve oxygen generation system(MSOGS) onboard was used,pilots could not breathe pure oxygen to eliminate nitrogen during a high altitude flight.There is no report whether it is a threat to altitude decompression sickness(ADS) or not in that condition.This experiment was intended to observe the effects of breathing different oxygen-rich gases of MSOGS on denitrogenation,so that we could make the medical physiological requirements for MSOGS on-board and provide experimental basis for aeromedical supply.Method Eight healthy males were breathed oxygenrich gases (60%,70%,80%,90%and 99.6%) in turn for 60 min,and the concentration of nitrogen,oxygen,carbon dioxide and argon at the end of expiration interval in the oxygen mask were continuously measured by a flight mass spectrometer through the oxygen mask.According to the variety of the denitrogenation rate by breathing different oxygen-rich gases,its change law was analyzed.Results There were significant differences (P<0.05) about denitrogenation rate in different oxygen-rich gases due to different oxygen concentration and breathing time.The denitrogenation rate of pure oxygen was higher than that of the others.It was indicated that the concentration of nitrogen in lung would decrease along with the increase in oxygen concentration of oxygen-rich gases,and the nitrogen concentration in the lung almost decreased by 50% or even more if people were breathed 60%~90% oxygen-rich gas longer than 60 s.Conclusion The man-made respiration environment of low nitrogen can be provided by breathing oxygen-rich gases,although the denitrogenation velocity of breathing oxygen-rich gases is lower than that of breathing pure oxygen.So it can be used as a measure to eliminate and lower the nitrogen in the body to prevent from ADS.

  14. Heart rate variability changes at 2400 m altitude predicts acute mountain sickness on further ascent at 3000-4300 m altitudes

    OpenAIRE

    HeikkiMikaelKarinen; HenriVähä-Ypyä; MikaKähönen; JariViik; PhyllisKravetStein

    2012-01-01

    Objective If the body fails to acclimatize at high altitude, acute mountain sickness (AMS) may result. For the early detection of AMS, changes in cardiac autonomic function measured by heart rate variability (HRV) may be more sensitive than clinical symptoms alone. The purpose of this study was to ascertain if the changes in HRV during ascent are related to AMS. Methods We followed Lake Louise Score (LLS), arterial oxygen saturation at rest (R-SpO2) and exercise (Ex-SpO2) and HRV pa...

  15. Heart rate variability changes at 2400 m altitude predicts acute mountain sickness on further ascent at 3000–4300 m altitudes

    OpenAIRE

    Karinen, Heikki M.; Uusitalo, Arja; Vähä-Ypyä, Henri; Kähönen, Mika; Peltonen, Juha E.; Stein, Phyllis K.; Viik, Jari; Tikkanen, Heikki O.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: If the body fails to acclimatize at high altitude, acute mountain sickness (AMS) may result. For the early detection of AMS, changes in cardiac autonomic function measured by heart rate variability (HRV) may be more sensitive than clinical symptoms alone. The purpose of this study was to ascertain if the changes in HRV during ascent are related to AMS. Methods: We followed Lake Louise Score (LLS), arterial oxygen saturation at rest (R-SpO2) and exercise (Ex-SpO2) and HRV parameters...

  16. Reproduction of a rat model of acute high-altitude sickness and evaluation of its related indexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi WANG

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective To reproduce a rat model of acute mountain sickness by using a hypobaric chamber to simulate the plateau environment, and to study the related physiological parameters. Methods A total of 70 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into normal control (NC group, and 6 hypobaric hypoxia groups (10 each in which rats were housed in a hypobaric chamber and exposed to the enviroment simulating high altitude of 5000m and 6000m for 12h, 24h and 48h respectively. Memory Morris water maze test was conducted to evaluate the changes in working memory of rats in space. Histological changes in lung and brain tissue were observed. Blood from abdominal aorta was collected to analyze the parameters of blood gas. The histopathological changes in lung and cerebrum were observed, and their wet/dry ratios were calculated. Results Reduction in activity or even death was found in hypobaric hypoxia groups, and arterial PaO2 was significantly decreased in all rats of hypobaric hypoxia groups. Compared with NC group, rats exposed to a simulated altitude of 5000m for longer than 24h and 6000m for longer than 12h exhibited longer latency period in finding the hidden platform, shorter expedition time for target quadrant, and less frequency of platform crossing in the Morris water maze test (P<0.05. After exposure to simulated altitudes of both 5000m and 6000m for 48h, pathological changes were observed in lung and cerebrum, and wet/dry ratio of lung and brain was significantly increased compared with that of NC group. Conclusion Indexes of rat model of acute mountain sickness by using a hypobaric chamber show different changes at respective time points. Therefore the changes in multiple physiological indexes of mountain sickness can be assessed by using this animal model. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2015.09.06

  17. Novel drugs in the management of acute mountain sickness and high altitude pulmonary edema

    OpenAIRE

    Sikri G; Bhattacharya A

    2015-01-01

    Gaurav Sikri, Anirban Bhattacharya Department of Physiology, Armed Forces Medical College, Wanowarie, Pune, IndiaWe read with great interest the review article titled “Wilderness medicine at high altitude: recent developments in the field” by Shah et al.1 The authors have comprehensively summarized the recent advances in the field of high altitude medicine relevant to sports and travel medicine. However, Shah et al have described potential drugs for management of high-altitude ill...

  18. A survey of anxiety and depression in servicemen stationed at high altitude and their relation to chronic mountain sickness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin-lin ZHOU

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the occurrence of anxiety and depression in officers and soldiers stationed at high altitude, and explore their relation to chronic mountain sickness (CMS. Methods Nine hundred and fifty-six male servicemen stationed at high altitude longer than 6 months (highland group and 587 male servicemen who never stationed at high altitude (control group were randomly selected from a certain military area command, and then self-rating anxiety scale (SAS, self-rating depression scale (SDS and CMS diagnoses were surveyed by the use of questionnaire. The results were analyzed statistically. Results A total of 858 and 538 questionnaires in the highland group and control group, respectively, entered the statistical analysis according to the response rate and validity. The scores of anxiety and depression in the highland group were higher than those in the control group and Chinese norm (P<0.05. The results of SAS and SDS questionnaires showed that the anxiety rate and depression rate in the highland group were 46.62% and 75.87% respectively, which were significantly higher than those in the control group (1.11% and 3.34%, P<0.05. The correlation analysis showed that the SAS and SDS scores were significantly correlated with CMS score, systolic pressure and heart rate (P<0.05. Conclusions The incidence of anxiety and depression in army men stationed at high altitude is extremely high, which correlates not only with working and living environment in highland, but also with CMS. It is necessary to prevent and control CMS in order to carry out intervention against anxiety and depression for servicemen stationed at high altitude. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2014.07.13

  19. Novel drugs in the management of acute mountain sickness and high altitude pulmonary edema

    OpenAIRE

    Gaurav Sikri, Gaurav

    2015-01-01

    Gaurav Sikri, Anirban Bhattacharya Department of Physiology, Armed Forces Medical College, Wanowarie, Pune, IndiaWe read with great interest the review article titled “Wilderness medicine at high altitude: recent developments in the field” by Shah et al.1 The authors have comprehensively summarized the recent advances in the field of high altitude medicine relevant to sports and travel medicine. However, Shah et al have described potential drugs for management of high-alti...

  20. Correlation analysis of the changes in arterial blood pressure in people with acute mountain sickness when exposed to high altitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang LIU

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives  To investigate the changes in arterial blood pressure in the healthy lowlanders when they were exposed to different altitudes and duration, and the relationship of the exposure with the prevalence and susceptibility of acute mountain sickness (AMS, in order to evaluate the significance of arterial blood pressure changes in the diagnosis of AMS and its clinical risk. Methods  Demographic data and blood pressure parameters [systolic blood pressure (SBP, diastolic blood pressure (DBP, mean arterial BP (MABP] of healthy lowlanders (inhabitants in ≤500m were collected after being exposed to 3700m on day 1, 3, 5 and 7, and also after being exposed to 4400m on day 5, while healthy young men living at low altitude were randomly selected as the control group. Simultaneously the AMS symptoms Questionnaire was filled. The Lake Louise acute mountain sickness scoring system (LLS was used to diagnose AMS. The changes in arterial blood pressure in people above and its correlation with AMS were analyzed. Results  After acute exposure to 3700m (day 1, SBP, DBP and MABP rose obviously, and then descended moderately after adaptation for about a week, but still higher than that of LA level (P<0.05. And then SBP, DBP and MABP rose again at high-altitude of 4400m, but lower than the levels of day 1 at 3700m. MABP at 3700m and 4400m were related to LLS (r=0.138, P=0.048; r=0.145, P=0.045, respectively. MABP levels for diagnosis of AMS at 3700m showed an cut-off point of 98.5mmHg with sensitivity of 32.8% and specificity of 73.7% (P<0.05, and MABP levels for diagnosis of AMS at 4400m showed an cut-off point of 97.8mmHg with sensitivity of 42.4% and specificity of 75.5% (P<0.05. Conclusions  After exposure to acute hypoxia, MABP may serve as a predictive parameter for diagnosis of AMS. However, the clinical application of MABP as a diagnostic criterion is limited because of its poor specificity or sensitivity. The use of MABP as a diagnostic

  1. Sleep quality changes in insomniacs and non-insomniacs after acute altitude exposure and its relationship with acute mountain sickness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang XG

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Xu-gang Tang,1 Ji-hang Zhang,1 Xu-bin Gao,1 Qian-ning Li,2 Jia-bei Li,1 Jie Yu1 Jun Qin,1 Lan Huang11Institute of Cardiovascular Diseases, 2Department of Neurology, Xinqiao Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, People’s Republic of ChinaObjective: We aimed to observe the changes in subjective sleep quality among insomniacs and non-insomniacs after acute ascending to 3,700 m and its possible relationship with acute mountain sickness (AMS. Methods: A total of 600 adult men were recruited. Subjects’ subjective sleep quality was evaluated by the Athens Insomnia Scale. AMS was assessed using the Lake Louise scoring system. Arterial oxygen saturation was measured. Results: Despite insomnia resolution in only a few subjects, the prevalence of insomnia among insomniacs remained stable at 90% after rapid ascent to 3,700 m. However, among non-insomniacs, the prevalence of insomnia sharply increased to 32.13% in the first day of altitude exposure and progressively reduced to 4.26% by the 60th day of altitude stay. Moreover, the prevalences of insomnia symptoms decreased more markedly from day 1 to day 60 at 3,700 m among non-insomniacs than among insomniacs. At 3,700 m, the prevalence of AMS among insomniacs was 79.01%, 60.49%, and 32.10% on the first, third, and seventh days, respectively, which was significantly higher than that among non-insomniacs. Multivariate regression revealed that elevated Athens Insomnia Scale scores are an independent risk factor for AMS (adjusted odds ratio 1.388, 95% confidence interval: 1.314–1.464, P<0.001, whereas high arterial oxygen saturation and long duration of altitude exposure are protective factors against AMS. Conclusion: Our results suggest that the effect of high-altitude exposure on subjective sleep quality is more marked, but disappears more quickly, among non-insomniacs than among insomniacs, whereas AMS is especially common among insomniacs. Moreover, poor subjective sleep

  2. 西藏导游人员高原病知识培训效果分析%Analysis of training effect of altitude sickness knowledge among tour guides in Tibet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯娟; 拥巴; 常春; 卓玛; 曾维艳; 达拉; 邱红; 罗布; 布琼

    2013-01-01

    [Objective]To understand the effect of training on improving the plateau relevant knowledge of tour guides via carrying out those trainings,and provide a theoretical basis for developing the training of altitude sickness knowledge,reducing the plateau response caused by lack of the knowledge about altitude sickness,as well as improving the capability of response to altitude sickness among tour guides.[Methods] The self-designed questionnaire about altitude sickness knowledge was adopted to survey the tour guides twice before and after training on March 7 and 8,2011.The results were statistically analyzed.[Results] 65.7% of tour guides accepted the training of altitude sickness knowledge for the first time.The awareness rate of altitude sickness increased from 66.7% before training to 82.8% after training,with significant difference (x2 =6.709,P <0.01).In addition,after the training,the proportion of tour guides who was active to inform travelers the knowledge about altitude sickness increased from 77.1% to 88.2%.The awareness rate of sickness symptom,measures to deal with acute altitude sickness and self-monitoring indicators after entering Tibet were all significantly increased.[Conclusion] The training can improve the awareness of tour guides towards altitude sickness.Therefore,it is necessary to strengthen the training of altitude sickness among tour guides and travelers.%目的 通过对导游人员进行高原病知识培训,了解培训对导游人员高原相关知识的提高效果,为通过开展高原病知识培训,减少由于高原病知识的缺乏引发的高原反应,提高导游人员对高原病发生后的处理能力提供理论依据.方法 采用自编的高原病知识问卷,2011年3月7和8日,让高原旅行导游人员在培训前、培训后2次填写问卷,根据填写结果进行统计学分析.结果 有65.7%的高原导游人员是首次接受高原病知识培训.培训后对高原病的知晓率从66.7%提高到82.8

  3. Benzolamide improves oxygenation and reduces acute mountain sickness during a high-altitude trek and has fewer side effects than acetazolamide at sea level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, David J; Wolff, Chris B; Hedges, Anne-Marie; Nathan, John; Flower, Rod J; Milledge, James S; Swenson, Erik R

    2016-06-01

    Acetazolamide is the standard carbonic anhydrase (CA) inhibitor used for acute mountain sickness (AMS), however some of its undesirable effects are related to intracellular penetrance into many tissues, including across the blood-brain barrier. Benzolamide is a much more hydrophilic inhibitor, which nonetheless retains a strong renal action to engender a metabolic acidosis and ventilatory stimulus that improves oxygenation at high altitude and reduces AMS. We tested the effectiveness of benzolamide versus placebo in a first field study of the drug as prophylaxis for AMS during an ascent to the Everest Base Camp (5340 m). In two other studies performed at sea level to test side effect differences between acetazolamide and benzolamide, we assessed physiological actions and psychomotor side effects of two doses of acetazolamide (250 and 1000 mg) in one group of healthy subjects and in another group compared acetazolamide (500 mg), benzolamide (200 mg) and lorazepam (2 mg) as an active comparator for central nervous system (CNS) effects. At high altitude, benzolamide-treated subjects maintained better arterial oxygenation at all altitudes (3-6% higher at all altitudes above 4200 m) than placebo-treated subjects and reduced AMS severity by roughly 50%. We found benzolamide had fewer side effects, some of which are symptoms of AMS, than any of the acetazolamide doses in Studies 1 and 2, but equal physiological effects on renal function. The psychomotor side effects of acetazolamide were dose dependent. We conclude that benzolamide is very effective for AMS prophylaxis. With its lesser CNS effects, benzolamide may be superior to acetazolamide, in part, because some of the side effects of acetazolamide may contribute to and be mistaken for AMS. PMID:27433337

  4. Sleep quality changes in insomniacs and non-insomniacs after acute altitude exposure and its relationship with acute mountain sickness

    OpenAIRE

    Tang XG; Zhang JH; Gao XB; Li QN; Li JB; Yu J; Qin J; Huang L

    2014-01-01

    Xu-gang Tang,1 Ji-hang Zhang,1 Xu-bin Gao,1 Qian-ning Li,2 Jia-bei Li,1 Jie Yu1 Jun Qin,1 Lan Huang11Institute of Cardiovascular Diseases, 2Department of Neurology, Xinqiao Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, People’s Republic of ChinaObjective: We aimed to observe the changes in subjective sleep quality among insomniacs and non-insomniacs after acute ascending to 3,700 m and its possible relationship with acute mountain sickness (A...

  5. Morning Sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... these methods to relieve or prevent morning sickness: Acupressure wristbands. Wearing these wristbands may help with morning ... these methods to relieve or prevent morning sickness: Acupressure wristbands. Wearing these wristbands may help with morning ...

  6. Sleeping sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001362.htm Sleeping sickness To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Sleeping sickness is an infection caused by germs carried ...

  7. Car Sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in Action Medical Editor & Editorial Advisory Board Sponsors Sponsorship Opporunities Spread the Word Shop AAP Find a ... Share Car Sickness Page Content Article Body My child gets sick in the car quite often. How ...

  8. Diagnosis and treatment of 30 cases of high altitude sickness combined with urinary retention%高原反应合并尿潴留30例报告

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董永超; 张俊; 徐越斌; 张斌; 马巍; 侯晓斌; 王养民

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the diagnosis and treatment of altitude sickness combined with urinary retention. Methods 30 cases of altitude sickness combined with urinary retention were treated from April 16th to 26th,2010.They were all male,The average age of them was 24 years (range,19 -38).All were the first time entering the high altitude area (3600 -5000 m) from low altitude area (600 - 1800 m ).The urinary frequency of 25 patients reduced from 8 to 10 times/d to 2 to 4 times/d,the urine output reduced from the 1500- 2400 ml/d to 600- 800 ml/d; the other 5 patients had no urine in 12 -18 h,even had no sense to urinate.26 patients also combined with altitude pulmonary edema and 4 combined with altitude cerebral edema.30 patients had double renal columns enlarged,21 cases had urinary protein ( + ~ ++ ). Results 30 patients were exported urine 300 -600 ml within 10 min,leaded to urine 1800 -2300ml in 12 h,returned to normal voiding after catheter removal in 18 -24 h. After comprehensive treatment such as oxygen,dehydration,diuretic,sedative,antispasmodic and anti-infection,22 cases who with chest tightness,shortness of breath,dyspnea,hemoptysis foam sputum,headache,vomiting and other symptoms of jet-like improved apparently after hospital admission within 1 hour.Their heart rate downed from 90 - 145beats/min to 68 -92 beats/min,respiration from 28 -45 times/min to 18 - 28 times/min,oxygen saturation from 48% - 84% to 92% - 100% ; 8 cases who with shortness of breath,palpitation and headache improved not obviously.After the antihypertensive treatment,their blood pressure was still high (systolic blood pressure 150 - 180 mm Hg,diastolic blood pressure 90 -110 mm Hg),oxygen saturation between 78% to 87%,so they were carried to rear area for further treatment.30 cases were all cured no death. Conclusions The high altitude urinary retention is reversible disease,which is often associated with high altitude pulmonary edema,altitude cerebral edema

  9. Radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The frequency of radiation sickness in 1,060 patients treated at our Department was 12.8 percent. It was frequent in patients with brain cancer (12 percent), whole spine cancer (47 percent), uterus cancer (28 percent), lung cancer (22 percent) and esophagus cancer (12 percent). Radiation sickness following X-irradiation was studied in its relation to patient's age, size of radiation fields, dosis and white blood cell count. However, we could not find any definite clinical feature relevant to occurrence. There are many theories published concerning the mechanism of radiation sickness. Clinical experiences have shown that radiation sickness cannot be explained by one theory alone but by several theories such as those based on psychology, stress or histamine. (author)

  10. High Altitude and Heart

    OpenAIRE

    Murat Yalcin; Ejder Kardesoglu; Zafer Isilak

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays, situations associated with high altitude such as mountaineering, aviation increasingly draw the attention of people. Gas pressure decreases and hypoxia is encountered when climbing higher. Physiological and pathological responses of human body to different heights are different. Therefore, physiological and pathological changes that may occur together with height and to know the clinical outcomes of these are important . Acute mountain sickness caused by high altitude and high altit...

  11. Sickness insurance

    OpenAIRE

    Mráčková, Věra

    2011-01-01

    "Sickness insurance" was selected as a theme of this bachelor work. The first part of this work focuses on the general conditions of the health insurance in the Czech Republic, including the current legislation and the identification of the institutions such as Czech Social Security Administration. In addition it focuses on the range of insured persons and of the detailed description of health insurance benefits, sick-benefits, nursing care, maternity benefits and compensatory allowance durin...

  12. HIGH-ALTITUDE ILLNESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwitya Elvira

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakHigh-altitude illness (HAI merupakan sekumpulan gejala paru dan otak yang terjadi pada orang yang baru pertama kali mendaki ke ketinggian. HAI terdiri dari acute mountain sickness (AMS, high-altitude cerebral edema (HACE dan high-altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE. Tujuan tinjauan pustaka ini adalah agar dokter dan wisatawan memahami risiko, tanda, gejala, dan pengobatan high-altitude illness. Perhatian banyak diberikan terhadap penyakit ini seiring dengan meningkatnya popularitas olahraga ekstrim (mendaki gunung tinggi, ski dan snowboarding dan adanya kemudahan serta ketersediaan perjalanan sehingga jutaan orang dapat terpapar bahaya HAI. Di Pherice, Nepal (ketinggian 4343 m, 43% pendaki mengalami gejala AMS. Pada studi yang dilakukan pada tempat wisata di resort ski Colorado, Honigman menggambarkan kejadian AMS 22% pada ketinggian 1850 m sampai 2750 m, sementara Dean menunjukkan 42% memiliki gejala pada ketinggian 3000 m. Aklimatisasi merupakan salah satu tindakan pencegahan yang dapat dilakukan sebelum pendakian, selain beberapa pengobatan seperti asetazolamid, dexamethasone, phosopodiestrase inhibitor, dan ginko biloba.Kata kunci: high-altitude illness, acute mountain sickness, edema cerebral, pulmonary edema AbstractHigh-altitude illness (HAI is symptoms of lung and brain that occurs in people who first climb to altitude. HAI includes acute mountain sickness (AMS, high-altitude cerebral edema (HACE and high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE. The objective of this review was to understand the risks, signs, symptoms, and treatment of high-altitude illness. The attention was given to this disease due to the rising popularity of extreme sports (high mountain climbing, skiing and snowboarding and the ease and availability of the current travelling, almost each year, millions of people could be exposed to the danger of HAI. In Pherice, Nepal (altitude 4343 m, 43% of climbers have symptoms of AMS. Furthermore, in a study conducted at sites in

  13. The Genetic Basis of Chronic Mountain Sickness

    OpenAIRE

    Ronen, Roy; Zhou, Dan; Bafna, Vineet; Haddad, Gabriel G.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic mountain sickness (CMS) is a disease that affects many high-altitude dwellers, particularly in the Andean Mountains in South America. The hallmark symptom of CMS is polycythemia, which causes increased risk of pulmonary hypertension and stroke (among other symptoms). A prevailing hypothesis in high-altitude medicine is that CMS results from a population-specific “maladaptation” to the hypoxic conditions at high altitude. In contrast, the prevalence of CMS is very low in other high-alt...

  14. Sick sinus syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... chambers is a common cause of sick sinus syndrome. Coronary artery disease , high blood pressure, and aortic and ... pressure may be normal or low. Sick sinus syndrome may cause symptoms of heart failure to start or get worse. Sick sinus ...

  15. High-altitude medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paralikar Swapnil

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Sojourns to high altitude have become common for recreation and adventure purposes. In most individuals, gradual ascent to a high altitude leads to a series of adaptive changes in the body, termed as acclimatization. These include changes in the respiratory, cardiovascular, hematologic systems and cellular adaptations that enhance oxygen delivery to the tissues and augment oxygen uptake. Thus there is an increase in pulmonary ventilation, increase in diffusing capacity in the lung, an increase in the cardiac output and increase in the red blood cell count due to an increase in erythropoietin secretion by the kidney, all of which enhance oxygen delivery to the cells. Cellular changes like increase in the number of mitochondria and augmentation of cytochrome oxidase systems take months or years to develop. Too rapid an ascent or inability to acclimatize leads to high-altitude illnesses. These include acute mountain sickness (AMS, high-altitude cerebral edema (HACE and high-altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE. Acute mountain sickness is self limiting if recognized early. Both HACE and HAPE are life threatening and need to be treated aggressively. The key to treatment of these illnesses is early recognition; administration of supplemental oxygen; and descent if required. Drugs like acetazolamide, dexamethasone, nifedipine may be administered as recommended.

  16. Acute high-altitude illness: a clinically orientated review

    OpenAIRE

    Smedley, Tom; Grocott, Michael PW

    2013-01-01

    Acute high-altitude illness is an encompassing term for the range of pathology that the unacclimatised individual can develop at increased altitude. This includes acute mountain sickness, high-altitude cerebral oedema and high-altitude pulmonary oedema. These conditions represent an increasing clinical problem as more individuals are exposed to the hypobaric hypoxic environment of high altitude for both work and leisure. In this review of acute high-altitude illness, the epidemiology, risk fa...

  17. High Altitude and Heart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Yalcin

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, situations associated with high altitude such as mountaineering, aviation increasingly draw the attention of people. Gas pressure decreases and hypoxia is encountered when climbing higher. Physiological and pathological responses of human body to different heights are different. Therefore, physiological and pathological changes that may occur together with height and to know the clinical outcomes of these are important . Acute mountain sickness caused by high altitude and high altitude cerebral edema are preventable diseases with appropriate precautions. Atmospheric oxygen decreasing with height, initiates many adaptive mechanisms. These adaptation mechanisms and acclimatization vary widely among individuals because of reasons such as environmental factors, exercise and cold. High altitude causes different changes in the cardiovascular system with various mechanisms. Although normal individuals easily adapt to these changes, this situation can lead to undesirable results in people with heart disease. For this reason, it should be known the effective evaluation of the people with known heart disease before traveling to high altitude and the complications due to the changes with height and the recommendations can be made to these patients. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(2.000: 211-222

  18. Sleep and Breathing at High Altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickramasinghe, Himanshu; Anholm, James D.

    1999-01-01

    Sleep at high altitude is characterized by poor subjective quality, increased awakenings, frequent brief arousals, marked nocturnal hypoxemia, and periodic breathing. A change in sleep architecture with an increase in light sleep and decreasing slow-wave and REM sleep have been demonstrated. Periodic breathing with central apnea is almost universally seen amongst sojourners to high altitude, although it is far less common in long-standing high altitude dwellers. Hypobaric hypoxia in concert with periodic breathing appears to be the principal cause of sleep disruption at altitude. Increased sleep fragmentation accounts for the poor sleep quality and may account for some of the worsened daytime performance at high altitude. Hypoxic sleep disruption contributes to the symptoms of acute mountain sickness. Hypoxemia at high altitude is most severe during sleep. Acetazolamide improves sleep, AMS symptoms, and hypoxemia at high altitude. Low doses of a short acting benzodiazepine (temazepam) may also be useful in improving sleep in high altitude. PMID:11898114

  19. Blood Coagulation Changes at High Altitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. S. Chohan

    1984-10-01

    Full Text Available The current concepts of blood coagulation changes in the pathogenesis of acute mountain sickness (AMS, high altitude pulmonary oedema (HAPO, high altitude pulmonary hypertension (HAPH and chronic mountain sickness(CMS which afflict the inductees and residents at high altitude have been reviewed. Hypercoagulable state which is more marked during the first few days of exposure is countered by enhanced fibrinolytic activity and accelerated cell mediated immunity. Magnesium levels are increased in normal residents at high altitudes and may be responsible for enhancing fibrinolytic activity and accelerating immune responses. Magnesium levels are significantly reduced in HAPO patients. Judicious use of furosemide in lower dosage is still the mainstay of treatment of HAPO and AMS.

  20. Pupillary Light Reaction during High Altitude Exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Schultheiss, Maximilian; Schommer, Kai; Schatz, Andreas; Wilhelm, Barbara; Peters, Tobias; Fischer, M. Dominik; Zrenner, Eberhart; Bartz-Schmidt, Karl U.; Gekeler, Florian; Willmann, Gabriel, 1977-

    2014-01-01

    Purpose This study aimed to quantify the pupillary light reaction during high altitude exposure using the state of the art Compact Integrated Pupillograph (CIP) and to investigate a potential correlation of altered pupil reaction with severity of acute mountain sickness (AMS). This work is related to the Tübingen High Altitude Ophthalmology (THAO) study. Methods Parameters of pupil dynamics (initial diameter, amplitude, relative amplitude, latency, constriction velocity) were quantified in 14...

  1. Presenteeism among sick workers

    OpenAIRE

    Houtman, I.L.D.

    2003-01-01

    Much attention has been focused on absenteeism. However, ‘presenteeism’ is also an issue, i.e. staying at work even when feeling sick. Analyses have shown that, the greater the work pressure, the higher the percentage of people who keep working when feeling sick.

  2. Munchausen syndrome: Playing sick or sick player.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Jyoti; Das, R C; Srivastava, K; Patra, P; Khan, S A; Shashikumar, R

    2014-01-01

    Munchausen syndrome is rare factitious disorder which entails frequent hospitalization, pathological lying and intentional production of symptoms for sick role. Management requires collateral history taking, sound clinical approach, exclusion of organicity and addressing psychological issues. A case which presented with unusual symptoms of similar dimension is discussed here. The case brings out finer nuances in evaluation and management of this entity. PMID:25535450

  3. Munchausen syndrome: Playing sick or sick player

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti Prakash

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Munchausen syndrome is rare factitious disorder which entails frequent hospitalization, pathological lying and intentional production of symptoms for sick role. Management requires collateral history taking, sound clinical approach, exclusion of organicity and addressing psychological issues. A case which presented with unusual symptoms of similar dimension is discussed here. The case brings out finer nuances in evaluation and management of this entity .

  4. Sickness Absence and Business Cycles

    OpenAIRE

    Jan Erik Askildsen; Espen Bratberg; Oivind Anti Nilsen

    2000-01-01

    Absenteeism is affected by the sickness benefit system. Countries with generous compensation during sick leaves also experience high numbers of sick leave. Sick leaves may vary over the business cycle due to unemployment disciplining effects or changes in labour force composition. The latter hypothesis maintains that sickness may be pro-cyclical due to employment of `marginal' workers with poorer health when demand increases. Using individual records of labour force participants in Norway, we...

  5. Got a Sick Fish?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Welfare Veterinary Careers Public Health Got a sick fish? Fish with disease can show a variety of signs. If you notice your pet fish having any unusual disease signs, contact your veterinarian ...

  6. Travelers' Health: Motion Sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Visiting Friends and Family in Areas with Chikungunya, Dengue, or Zika Travel to the Olympics Infographic: Olympic ... ibandronate sodium, risedronate sodium TREATMENT Nonpharmacologic treatments for preventing and treating motion sickness can be effective with ...

  7. High-Altitude Illnesses: Physiology, Risk Factors, Prevention, and Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, Andrew T.

    2011-01-01

    High-altitude illnesses encompass the pulmonary and cerebral syndromes that occur in non-acclimatized individuals after rapid ascent to high altitude. The most common syndrome is acute mountain sickness (AMS) which usually begins within a few hours of ascent and typically consists of headache variably accompanied by loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, disturbed sleep, fatigue, and dizziness. With millions of travelers journeying to high altitudes every year and sleeping above 2,500 m, acute m...

  8. An oxygen enrichment device for lowlanders ascending to high altitude

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, Guanghao; Wu, Xiaoming; Tang, Chi; Yan, Yili; LIU, JUAN; Guo, Wei; Jing, Da; Lei, Tao; Tian, Yue; Xie, Kangning; Luo, Erping; Zhang, Jianbao

    2013-01-01

    Background When ascending to the high altitude, people living in low altitude areas will suffer from acute mountain sickness. The aim of this study is to test the hypothesis that whether an oxygen concentration membrane can be made and used to construct a new portable oxygen enrichment device for individuals in acute exposure to the high altitude. Methods The membrane was fabricated using vinylsiloxane rubber, polyphenylene oxide hydrogen silicone polymers, chloroplatinic acid and isopropyl a...

  9. Sick of Taxes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljunge, Jan Martin

    I estimate a price elasticity of sickness absence. Sick leave is an intensive margin of labor supply where individuals are free to adjust. I exploit variation in tax rates over two decades, which provide thousands of differential incentives across time and space, to estimate the price responsiven......I estimate a price elasticity of sickness absence. Sick leave is an intensive margin of labor supply where individuals are free to adjust. I exploit variation in tax rates over two decades, which provide thousands of differential incentives across time and space, to estimate the price...... responsiveness. High taxes provide an incentive to take more sick leave, as less after tax income is lost when taxes are high. The panel data, which is representative of the Swedish population, allow for extensive controls including unobserved individual characteristics. I find a substantial price elasticity of...... sick leave, -0.7, with respect to the net of tax rate. Though large relative to traditional labor supply elasticities, Swedes are half as price elastic as bike messengers, and just as elastic as stadium vendors on the margin which they can adjust freely....

  10. The genetic basis of chronic mountain sickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronen, Roy; Zhou, Dan; Bafna, Vineet; Haddad, Gabriel G

    2014-11-01

    Chronic mountain sickness (CMS) is a disease that affects many high-altitude dwellers, particularly in the Andean Mountains in South America. The hallmark symptom of CMS is polycythemia, which causes increased risk of pulmonary hypertension and stroke (among other symptoms). A prevailing hypothesis in high-altitude medicine is that CMS results from a population-specific "maladaptation" to the hypoxic conditions at high altitude. In contrast, the prevalence of CMS is very low in other high-altitude populations (e.g., Tibetans and Ethiopians), which are seemingly well adapted to hypoxia. In recent years, concurrent with the advent of genomic technologies, several studies have investigated the genetic basis of adaptation to altitude. These studies have identified several candidate genes that may underlie the adaptation, or maladaptation. Interestingly, some of these genes are targeted by known drugs, raising the possibility of new treatments for CMS and other ischemic diseases. We review recent discoveries, alongside the methodologies used to obtain them, and outline some of the challenges remaining in the field. PMID:25362634

  11. Sick building syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tjandra Y. Aditama

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Sick building syndrome describes a number of mostly unspesific complaints of some occupants of the building. The exact pathophysiological mechanism remains elusive. It is a multi factorial event which may include physical, chemical, biological as well as psycological factors. In many cases it is due to insufficient maintenance of the HVAC (heating, ventilation, air conditioning system in the building. Sign and symptoms can be uncomfortable and even disabling, which may include mucus membrane irritation, neurotoxic symptoms, asthma like symptoms, skin complaints, gastrointestinal symptoms and other related symptoms. There are various investigation methods to diagnose sick building syndrome, and on site assessment of the building is extremely useful. Prevention through a proactive air quality monitoring program is far more desirable than dealing with an actual sick building. Indoor air and the sick building symdrome serves as a paradigm of modern occupational and environmental medicine. (Med J Indones 2002; 11:124-31Keywords: indoor air pollution, sick building syndrome, building related illness

  12. Sickness and love: an introduction

    OpenAIRE

    Geest, der; Vandamme, S.

    2008-01-01

    Love is a neglected topic in anthropology, for good reasons: it has always resisted scientific definition and analysis. By associating love with sickness seven authors attempt to capture various meanings and experiences of love. Two broad concepts arise: love as sickness and love in response to sickness; the former refers mainly to 'romantic love', the latter to love as care and doing / testing love.

  13. Sickness and love: an introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. van der Geest; S. Vandamme

    2008-01-01

    Love is a neglected topic in anthropology, for good reasons: it has always resisted scientific definition and analysis. By associating love with sickness seven authors attempt to capture various meanings and experiences of love. Two broad concepts arise: love as sickness and love in response to sick

  14. Prescriptions for Sick Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ornstein, Allan C.

    1993-01-01

    Increasing insulation in schools as an energy-saving measure has given rise to the Sick Building Syndrome (SBS), which afflicts roughly one-third of the nation's schools. This article examines asbestos, radon, electromagnetic radiation, and chemical pollutants and describes steps to make schools environmentally safe for students. School officials…

  15. Coping and sickness absence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rhenen, W. van; Schaufeli, W.B.; Dijk, F.J.H. van; Blonk, R.W.B.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study is to examine the role of coping styles in sickness absence. In line with findings that contrast the reactive-passive focused strategies, problem-solving strategies are generally associated with positive results in terms of well-being and overall health outcomes; ou

  16. The role of oxygen-increased respirator in humans ascending to high altitude

    OpenAIRE

    Shen Guanghao; Xie Kangning; Yan Yili; Jing Da; Tang Chi; Wu Xiaoming; Liu Juan; Sun Tao; Zhang Jianbao; Luo Erping

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Acute mountain sickness (AMS) is common for people who live in low altitude areas ascending to the high altitude. Many instruments have been developed to treat mild cases of AMS. However, long-lasting and portable anti-hypoxia equipment for individual is not yet available. Methods Oxygen-increased respirator (OIR) has been designed to reduce the risk of acute mountain sickness in acute exposure to low air pressure. It can increase the density of oxygen by increasing total ...

  17. Cardiovascular Response to High Altitude Hypoxia

    OpenAIRE

    Manchanda, S C

    1984-01-01

    Normal and abnormal cardiovascular response to high altitude (HA) hypoxia were studied in 98 healthy subjects and in 15 patients with HA pulmonary oedema (HAPO) and acute mountain sickness (AMS) at an altitudeof 3,658 m. The healthy sea level (SL) residents showed marked blood volume changes during the first week with pulmonary hypotension and depression of left ventricular (LV) performance and physical work capacity (PWC). The HA natives, however, had better LV performance and PWC indicating...

  18. What role does the blood brain barrier play in acute mountain sickness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baneke, Alex

    2010-07-01

    As high altitude travel increases, acute mountain sickness (AMS) and life threatening high altitude cerebral oedema (HACE) are becoming more prevalent. Acute mountain sickness occurs in 45% of lowlanders above 4250 m. Predisposing factors are still unknown and its development is more complex than the original "tight fit" hypothesis. This review examines evidence relating to a possible role of the blood brain barrier in AMS as suggested by MRI studies. Underlying mechanisms may involve vascular endothelial growth factor and free radicals in addition to increases in hydrostatic pressure. An increased understanding is important in advising patients planning high altitude adventures. Current studies have linked increased blood brain barrier permeability to high altitude cerebral oedema, but the role of the blood brain barrier in acute mountain sickness is less clear; varied symptoms include headache. MRI shows vasogenic oedema occurs in high altitude cerebral oedema, suggesting blood brain barrier permeability increases, and acute mountain sickness typically precedes high altitude cerebral oedema. Hypoxia leads to increased hydrostatic pressure, and blood brain barrier permeability has been shown to increase in stroke patients. Vascular endothelial growth factor is upregulated in hypoxia, and may increase blood brain barrier permeability. PMID:20952272

  19. Acute mountain sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... works best when taken before reaching a high altitude. If you have fluid in your lungs (pulmonary edema), treatment may include: Oxygen A high blood pressure medicine called nifedipine Beta agonist inhalers to ...

  20. High altitude pulmonary edema among "Amarnath Yatris"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvaiz A Koul

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Annual pilgrimage (Yatra to the cave shrine of Shri Amarnath Ji′ is a holy ritual among the Hindu devotees of Lord Shiva. Located in the Himalayan Mountain Range (altitude 13,000 ft in south Kashmir, the shrine is visited by thousands of devotees and altitude sickness is reportedly common. Materials and Methods: More than 600,000 pilgrims visited the cave shrine in 2011 and 2012 with 239 recorded deaths. Thirty one patients with suspected altitude sickness were referred from medical centers en-route the cave to Sher-i-Kashmir Institute of Medical Sciences, a tertiary-care center in capital Srinagar (5,000 ft. The clinical features and the response to treatment were recorded. Results: Thirty-one patients (all lowlanders, 19 male; age 18-60 years, median 41 had presented with acute onset breathlessness of 1-4 days (median 1.9 d starting within 12-24 h of a rapid ascent; accompanied by cough (68%, headache (8%, dizziness and nausea (65%. Sixteen patients had associated encephalopathy. Clinical features on admission included tachypnea ( n = 31, tachycardia ( n = 23, bilateral chest rales ( n = 29, cyanosis ( n = 22 and grade 2-4 encephalopathy. Hypoxemia was demonstrable in 24 cases and bilateral infiltrates on radiologic imaging in 29. Ten patients had evidence of high-altitude cerebral edema. All patients were managed with oxygen, steroids, nifedipine, sildenafil and other supportive measures including invasive ventilation ( n = 3. Three patients died due to multiorgan dysfunction. Conclusions: Altitude sickness is common among Amaranath Yatris from the plains and appropriate educational strategies should be invoked for prevention and prompt treatment.

  1. Altitude-related deaths in seven trekkers in the Himalayas.

    OpenAIRE

    Dickinson, J; Heath, D.; Gosney, J.; Williams, D

    1983-01-01

    The clinical features and necropsy findings are described for seven trekkers in the Himalayas whose deaths were related to high altitude. The fatal outcome was due to serious pulmonary and cerebral disease. Oedema of the lungs and brain was prominent but so was thrombosis and haemorrhage, features of acute mountain sickness that have received insufficient recognition in the past. Most of the men were middle aged. Some began their trekking soon after flying to high altitude before becoming acc...

  2. Acetazolamide improves cerebral oxygenation during exercise at high altitude

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vuyk, J.; Bos, J. van den; Terhell, K.; Bos, R. de; Vletter, A.; Valk, P.; Beuzekom, M. van; Kleef, J. van; Dahan, A.

    2006-01-01

    Acute mountain sickness is thought to be triggered by cerebral hypoxemia and be prevented by acetazolamide (Actz). The effect of Actz on cerebral oxygenation at altitude remains unknown. In 16 members of the 2005 Dutch Cho Oyu (8201 m, Tibet) expedition, the influence of Actz and exercise (750 mg PO

  3. Genetics Home Reference: sick sinus syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetics Home Health Conditions sick sinus syndrome sick sinus syndrome Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse ... Print All Open All Close All Description Sick sinus syndrome (also known as sinus node dysfunction) is ...

  4. Morning Sickness: Nausea and Vomiting of Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About ACOG Morning Sickness: Nausea and Vomiting of Pregnancy Home For Patients Search FAQs Morning Sickness: Nausea ... PDF Format Morning Sickness: Nausea and Vomiting of Pregnancy Pregnancy How common is nausea and vomiting of ...

  5. Sick as a Dog

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    当形容一个人病得很重时,英语中有这样的说法:Sick as a dog,为什么人们会用"狗"来表示"生病"的意思呢?原来,英语中dog一词有时含有贬义,比如:俚语going to the dogs,表示"糟糕透顶";dog in the manger,表示"犬占马槽、自私自利"的意思。

  6. Responses of the autonomic nervous system in altitude adapted and high altitude pulmonary oedema subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Lazar; Purkayastha, S. S.; Jayashankar, A.; Radhakrishnan, U.; Sen Gupta, J.; Nayar, H. S.

    1985-06-01

    Studies were carried out to ascertain the role of sympatho-parasympathetic responses in the process of adaptation to altitude. The assessment of status of autonomic balance was carried out in a group of 20 young male subjects by recording their resting heart rate, blood pressure, oral temperature, mean skin temperature, extremity temperatures, pupillary diameter, cold pressor response, oxygen consumption, cardioacceleration during orthostasis and urinary excretion of catecholamines; in a thermoneutral laboratory. The same parameters were repeated on day 3 and at weekly intervals for a period of 3 weeks, after exposing them to 3,500 m; and also after return to sea level. At altitude, similar studies were carried out in a group of 10 acclimatized lowlanders, 10 high altitude natives and 6 patients who had recently recovered from high altitude pulmonary oedema. In another phase, similar studies were done in two groups of subjects, one representing 15 subjects who had stayed at altitude (3,500 4,000 m) without any ill effects and the other comprising of 10 subjects who had either suffered from high altitude pulmonary oedema (HAPO) or acute mountain sickness (AMS). The results revealed sympathetic overactivity on acute induction to altitude which showed gradual recovery on prolonged stay, the high altitude natives had preponderance to parasympathetic system. Sympathetic preponderance may not be an essential etiological factor for the causation of maladaptation syndromes.

  7. Dust and the Sick Building Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyntelberg, Finn; Suadicani, Poul; Wohlfahrt Nielsen, Jan; Skov, Peder; Valbjørn, Ole; Nielsen, Peter A.; Schneider, Thomas; Jørgensen, Ole; Wolkoff, Peder; Wilkins, C. K.; Gravesen, Suzanne; Norn, Svend

    Farmakologi, bacteria, dust, histamine, disease, gram-negative, indoor climate, sick building syndrome......Farmakologi, bacteria, dust, histamine, disease, gram-negative, indoor climate, sick building syndrome...

  8. Cinerama sickness and postural instability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, J.E.; Ledegang, W.D.; Lubeck, A.J.A.; Stins, J.F.

    2013-01-01

    Motion sickness symptoms and increased postural instability induced by motion pictures have been reported in a laboratory, but not in a real cinema. We, therefore, carried out an observational study recording sickness severity and postural instability in 19 subjects before, immediately and 45 min af

  9. Sleep-disordered breathing and oxidative stress in preclinical chronic mountain sickness (excessive erythrocytosis)

    OpenAIRE

    Julian, Colleen Glyde; Vargas, Enrique; Gonzales, Marcelino; Dávila, R. Daniela; Ladenburger, Anne; Reardon, Lindsay; Schoo, Caroline; Powers, Robert W.; Lee-Chiong, Teofilo; Moore, Lorna G.

    2013-01-01

    Chronic mountain sickness (CMS) is considered to be a loss of ventilatory acclimatization to high altitude (>2500 m) resulting in marked arterial hypoxemia and polycythemia. This case-control study explores the possibility that sleep-disordered breathing (SBD) and associated oxidative stress contribute to the etiology of CMS. Nocturnal respiratory and SaO2 patterns were measured using standard polysomnography techniques and compared between male high-altitude residents (aged 18–25) with precl...

  10. [Epidemiology of "sick buildings"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterling, T D; Collett, C; Rumel, D

    1991-02-01

    The indoor environment of modern buildings, especially those designed for commercial and administrative purposes, constitutes a unique ecological niche with its own biochemical environment, fauna and flora. Sophisticated construction methods and the new materials and machinery required to maintain the indoor environment of these enclosed structures produce a large number of chemical by-products and permit the growth of many different microorganisms. Because modern office buildings are sealed, the regulation of humidification and temperature of ducted air presents a dilemma, since difference species of microorganisms flourish at different combinations of humidity and temperature. If the indoor environment of modern office buildings is not properly maintained, the environment may become harmful to its occupants' health. Such buildings are classified as "Sick Buildings". A review of the epidemiology of building illness is presented. The etiology of occupant illnesses, sources of toxic substances, and possible methods of maintaining a safe indoor environment are described. PMID:1784964

  11. Social inequalities in 'sickness'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wel, Kjetil A. van der; Dahl, Espen; Thielen, Karsten

    2011-01-01

    inequalities in health by studying the often overlooked ‘sickness’-dimension of health, namely employment behaviour among people with illnesses. We use European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC) data from 2005 covering 26 European countries linked to country characteristics derived...... from Eurostat and OECD that include spending on active labour market policies, benefit generosity, income inequality, and employment protection. Using multilevel techniques we find that comprehensive welfare states have lower absolute and relative social inequalities in sickness, as well as more......The aim of this paper is to examine educational inequalities in the risk of non-employment among people with illnesses and how they vary between European countries with different welfare state characteristics. In doing so, the paper adds to the growing literature on welfare states and social...

  12. When You're Sick

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... dehydrated. These are liquids like water and diet soft drinks. It's easy to run low on fluids when ... sick-day plan may include regular (not diet) soft drinks. Other high-carbohydrate liquids and almost-liquids are ...

  13. Sleeping Sickness and Nagana Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Steverding, Dietmar

    2016-01-01

    The hemoflagellate Trypanosoma brucei is the causative agent of human and animal African trypanosomiasis, also known as sleeping sickness and nagana disease, respectively. The infec-tious disease is transmitted by the bite of infected tsetse flies and afflicts mainly rural popula-tions in sub-Saharan Africa. The subspecies T. b. gambiense and T. b. rhodesiense are responsi-ble for the two forms of human African trypanosomiasis, the West and East African sleeping sickness, respectively. A thir...

  14. Sick Leave and Subjective Health Complaints

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    The aims of this thesis were to identify risk factors for high levels of sick leave and investigate what – if anything – can be done to reduce sick leave. What is the role of “subjective health complaints”, coping, and psychosocial work factors in relation to sick leave, and to what extent do these factors and the sick leave relate to quality of life? Are there any interventions with a documented effect on sick leave in the literature? Is it possible to influence sick leave thr...

  15. High altitude subhyaloid hemorrhage

    OpenAIRE

    Abdul Hanifudin; Lik Thai Lim; Elliott Yann Ah-Kee; Tarek El-Khashab

    2015-01-01

    Subhyaloid hemorrhages can occur as a result of exposure to high altitude. We hereby report a clinical picture of subhyaloid hemorrhage associated with high altitude. The case demonstrates optical coherence tomography findings that aid diagnosis of subhyaloid hemorrhage.

  16. Fulminant high altitude blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashkovskiy, Evgeny; Szawarski, Piotr; Ryzhkov, Pavel; Goslar, Tomaz; Mrak, Irena

    2016-06-01

    Prolonged altitude exposure even with acclimatization continues to present a physiological challenge to all organ systems including the central nervous system. We describe a case of a 41-year-old Caucasian female climber who suffered severe visual loss that was due to possible optic nerve pathology occurring during a high altitude expedition in the Himalayas. This case is atypical of classic high altitude cerebral oedema and highlights yet another danger of prolonged sojourn at extreme altitudes. PMID:27601532

  17. The cerebral effects of ascent to high altitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Mark H; Newman, Stanton; Imray, Chris H

    2009-02-01

    Cellular hypoxia is the common final pathway of brain injury that occurs not just after asphyxia, but also when cerebral perfusion is impaired directly (eg, embolic stroke) or indirectly (eg, raised intracranial pressure after head injury). We Review recent advances in the understanding of neurological clinical syndromes that occur on exposure to high altitudes, including high altitude headache (HAH), acute mountain sickness (AMS), and high altitude cerebral oedema (HACE), and the genetics, molecular mechanisms, and physiology that underpin them. We also present the vasogenic and cytotoxic bases for HACE and explore venous hypertension as a possible contributory factor. Although the factors that control susceptibility to HACE are poorly understood, the effects of exposure to altitude (and thus hypobaric hypoxia) might provide a reproducible model for the study of cerebral cellular hypoxia in healthy individuals. The effects of hypobaric hypoxia might also provide new insights into the understanding of hypoxia in the clinical setting. PMID:19161909

  18. Work at high altitude and oxidative stress: antioxidant nutrients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askew, E W

    2002-11-15

    A significant portion of the world's geography lies above 10,000 feet elevation, an arbitrary designation that separates moderate and high altitude. Although the number of indigenous people living at these elevations is relatively small, many people travel to high altitude for work or recreation, exposing themselves to chronic or intermittent hypoxia and the associated risk of acute mountain sickness (AMS) and less frequently, high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE) and high altitude cerebral edema (HACE). The symptoms of AMS (headache, nausea, anorexia, fatigue, lassitude) occur in those who travel too high, too fast. Some investigators have linked the development of these symptoms with the condition of altered blood-brain barrier permeability, possibly related to hypoxia induced free radical formation. The burden of oxidative stress increases during the time spent at altitude and may even persist for some time upon return to sea level. The physiological and medical consequences of increased oxidative stress engendered by altitude is unclear; indeed, hypoxia is believed to be the trigger for the cascade of signaling events that ultimately leads to adaptation to altitude. These signaling events include the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that may elicit important adaptive responses. If produced in excess, however, these ROS may contribute to impaired muscle function and reduced capillary perfusion at altitude or may even play a role in precipitating more serious neurological and pulmonary crisis. Oxidative stress can be observed at altitude without strenuous physical exertion; however, environmental factors other than hypoxia, such as exercise, UV light exposure and cold exposure, can also contribute to the burden. Providing antioxidant nutrients via the diet or supplements to the diet can reduce oxidative stress secondary to altitude exposure. In summary, the significant unanswered question concerning altitude exposure and antioxidant supplementation is

  19. Reporting Sick: Are Sporting Events Contagious?

    OpenAIRE

    Skogman Thoursie, Peter

    2002-01-01

    Moral hazard is easy to justify theoretically but difficult to detect empirically. Individuals may report sick due to illness as well as for moral hazard reasons. Potential abuse of the sickness insurance system in Sweden is estimated by comparing the change between the number of men and women who report sick during a popular sporting event and a preceding time period. Difference-in- difference estimates provide clear evidence that the number of men who reported sick increased in order to wat...

  20. Adaptation to High Altitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. S. Nayar

    1984-10-01

    Full Text Available Hypoxia is inconsequential for physiologically fit persons below an effective altitude of 2640 metres. At higher altitudes, the adaptation is brought about by four main factors, viz., hyperventilation, increased diffusion of oxygen across alveolar membrane, erythrocythemia and maintenance of body hydration. Carbon dioxide sensitivity is markedly elevated at high altitude, both in sojourners and acclimatized low-landers. The greater pulmonary diffusing capacity observed in high altitude natives is well documented. RBC count, haemoglobin and haematocrit increase whereas arterial oxyhaemoglobin saturation percentage decreases at high altitude. Diuretics (Furosemide have no role in adaptation to high altitude and adequate body hydration must be maintained.The ultimate adaptive mechanisms occur at tissue level which facilitate the diffusion of oxygen from blood to tissue and its utilization. The work capacity decreases at high altitude and a relationship between load carried and speed of marching has been determined at various altitudes. Although altitude has an adverse effect on process of cold acclimatization, yet it is possible to induce cold acclimatization by exposing subjects to a temperature of 0° to -5°C for a period of three hours daily for three weeks. The caloric requirements increase at high altitudes and are 4,286 K Cal and 4,380 K Cal at 13000 feet (3950 m and 17000 feet (5170 m, respectively.

  1. THE OLFACTORY SYSTEM REGULATES ACUTE MOUNTAIN SICKNESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savitha Nagabhushan

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE:Hyperventilation is the first response to hypoxia in high altitude (HA. Our study on rats was designed to establish an integrated hypothesis to include hyperventilation, increased activity of hypothalamicpituitary-adrenocortical axis (HPA in response to initial exposure to hypoxia and failure of adaptation to stress in olfactory bulbectomised rats. .METHODS:Albino rats whose olfactory lobes were removed were subjected to hypoxia and hypothermic conditions. Blood and urine samples were collected at various stages to measure biochemical parameters. Rats whose olfactory systems were intact were used as controls.RESULTS:The results suggested that the olfactory system regulated pituitary function and that in rats whose olfactory lobes were removed failed to adapt to the stress created by hypoxia and hypothermia.CONCLUSIONS:Acute Mountain Sickness (AMS is a type of stress. Normal rats when subjected to stress such as AMSare able to adapt. This adaptation is lost when the olfactory bulbs are removed. It is postulated that serotonin receptors in the hypothalamus, through the splanchnic pathway regulate stress. This mechanism is independent of ACTH – Cortisol feed back system. Perhaps irregular and rapid respiratory rhythm simulates physiological Olfactory Bulbectomy during rapid climbing and AMS manifests as a failure of stress adaptation.

  2. Parenthood, gender and sickness absence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastekaasa, A

    2000-06-01

    It is well documented that women have generally higher morbidity rates than men. In line with this women are also more absent from work due to sickness. This paper considers one popular explanation of the morbidity difference in general and of the difference in sickness absence in particular, viz. that women to a greater extent than men are exposed to the 'double burden' of combining paid work with family obligations. We discuss theories of role overload and role conflict, which both assume that the combination of multiple roles may have negative health effects, as well theories of role enhancement, which assume positive health effects of multiple roles. Using two large Norwegian data sets, the relationship between the number of and the age of children on the one hand and sickness absence on the other is examined separately for men and women and for a number of theoretically interesting subpopulations of women defined in terms of marital status (also taking account of unmarried cohabitation), level of education, and working hours. Generally speaking the association between children and sickness absence is weak, particularly for married people of both genders. To the extent that married persons with children are more absent than married persons without children, this is largely due to respiratory conditions. The relationship between children and sickness absence is somewhat stronger for single, never married mothers, but not for single mothers who have been previously married or for women living in unmarried cohabitation. The findings thus provide little support for either role overload/conflict or role enhancement theories. The possibility that these effects are both present and counterbalancing each other or that they are confounded with uncontrolled selection effects can not, however, be ruled out. PMID:10798335

  3. Network analysis reveals distinct clinical syndromes underlying acute mountain sickness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David P Hall

    Full Text Available Acute mountain sickness (AMS is a common problem among visitors at high altitude, and may progress to life-threatening pulmonary and cerebral oedema in a minority of cases. International consensus defines AMS as a constellation of subjective, non-specific symptoms. Specifically, headache, sleep disturbance, fatigue and dizziness are given equal diagnostic weighting. Different pathophysiological mechanisms are now thought to underlie headache and sleep disturbance during acute exposure to high altitude. Hence, these symptoms may not belong together as a single syndrome. Using a novel visual analogue scale (VAS, we sought to undertake a systematic exploration of the symptomatology of AMS using an unbiased, data-driven approach originally designed for analysis of gene expression. Symptom scores were collected from 292 subjects during 1110 subject-days at altitudes between 3650 m and 5200 m on Apex expeditions to Bolivia and Kilimanjaro. Three distinct patterns of symptoms were consistently identified. Although fatigue is a ubiquitous finding, sleep disturbance and headache are each commonly reported without the other. The commonest pattern of symptoms was sleep disturbance and fatigue, with little or no headache. In subjects reporting severe headache, 40% did not report sleep disturbance. Sleep disturbance correlates poorly with other symptoms of AMS (Mean Spearman correlation 0.25. These results challenge the accepted paradigm that AMS is a single disease process and describe at least two distinct syndromes following acute ascent to high altitude. This approach to analysing symptom patterns has potential utility in other clinical syndromes.

  4. Acetazolamide pre-treatment before ascending to high altitudes: when to start?

    OpenAIRE

    Burtscher, Martin; Gatterer, Hannes; Faulhaber, Martin; Burtscher, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    Hypoxia is the main responsible factor initiating the symptoms of acute mountain sickness (AMS) in susceptible individuals. Measures that improve oxygenation and/or hasten acclimatization like pre-treatment with acetazolamide will prevent the development of AMS. We hypothesized that pre-treatment with acetazolamide the day before arrival at high altitude would elicit improved oxygenation compared to placebo not until the second day of high-altitude exposure. Fifteen study participants were ra...

  5. Transcerebral exchange kinetics of nitrite and calcitonin gene-related peptide in acute mountain sickness: evidence against trigeminovascular activation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bailey, Damian M; Taudorf, Sarah; Berg, Ronan M G; Jensen, Lars T; Lundby, Carsten; Evans, Kevin A; James, Philip E; Pedersen, Bente K; Moller, Kirsten

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: High-altitude headache is the primary symptom associated with acute mountain sickness, which may be caused by nitric oxide-mediated activation of the trigeminovascular system. Therefore, the present study examined the effects of inspiratory hypoxia on the transcerebral...

  6. Sick, the spectroscopic inference crank

    CERN Document Server

    Casey, Andrew R

    2016-01-01

    There exists an inordinate amount of spectral data in both public and private astronomical archives which remain severely under-utilised. The lack of reliable open-source tools for analysing large volumes of spectra contributes to this situation, which is poised to worsen as large surveys successively release orders of magnitude more spectra. In this Article I introduce sick, the spectroscopic inference crank, a flexible and fast Bayesian tool for inferring astrophysical parameters from spectra. sick can be used to provide a nearest-neighbour estimate of model parameters, a numerically optimised point estimate, or full Markov Chain Monte Carlo sampling of the posterior probability distributions. This generality empowers any astronomer to capitalise on the plethora of published synthetic and observed spectra, and make precise inferences for a host of astrophysical (and nuisance) quantities. Model intensities can be reliably approximated from existing grids of synthetic or observed spectra using linear multi-di...

  7. Bone scintigraphy of decompression sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Value of bone scintigraphy in decompression sickness of 42 patients was retrospectively evaluated. Bone scintigraphy was positive in 30 of 42 patients (83 lesions), while radiography and symptoms were positive in 23 patients (48 lesions), and in 29 patients (44 lesions) respectively. Bone scintigraphy was positive in many lesions with negative radiography or symptoms. However, approximately half of the lesions in which either radiography or symptoms was positive could not be detected by bone scintigraphy. These cases mostly showed radiographic abnormalities such as irregular calcified areas and ''bone island'' in the cervical regions of the humerus, femur and tibia. Both bone scintigraphy and radiography were positive in most of the patients with symptoms of the bends and there seems to be a close relationship between the bends symptoms and bone lesion. We concluded that bone scintigraphy is useful for the evaluation of decompression sickness, but it must be complemented by bone radiography to avoid a significant number of false negative cases. (author)

  8. Spacelab experiments on space motion sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oman, Charles M.

    Recent research results from ground and flight experiments on motion sickness and space sickness conducted by the Man Vehicle Laboratory are reviewed. New tools developed include a mathematical model for motion sickness, a method for quantitative measurement of skin pallor and blush in ambulatory subjects, and a magnitude estimation technique for ratio scaling of nausea or discomfort. These have been used to experimentally study the time course of skin pallor and subjective symptoms in laboratory motion sickness. In prolonged sickness, subjects become hypersensitive to nauseogenic stimuli. Results of a Spacelab-1 flight experiment are described in which four observers documented the stimulus factors for and the symptoms/signs of space sickness. The clinical character of space sickness differs somewhat from acute laboratory motion sickness. However SL-1 findings support the view that space sickness is fundamentally a motion sickness. Symptoms were subjectively alleviated by head movement restriction, maintenance of a familiar orientation with respect to the visual environment, and wedging between or strapping onto surfaces which provided broad contact cues confirming the absence of body motion.

  9. Spaceflight Decompression Sickness Contingency Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dervay, Joseph P.

    2007-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on the Decompression Sickness (DCS) Contingency Plan for manned spaceflight is shown. The topics include: 1) Approach; 2) DCS Contingency Plan Overview; 3) Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Cuff Classifications; 4) On-orbit Treatment Philosophy; 5) Long Form Malfunction Procedure (MAL); 6) Medical Checklist; 7) Flight Rules; 8) Crew Training; 9) Flight Surgeon / Biomedical Engineer (BME) Training; and 10) DCS Emergency Landing Site.

  10. Effets cardiovasculaires d'un bloqueur calcique en hypoxie d'altitude

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dugas, L; Dubray, C; Herry, J P; Olsen, Niels Vidiendal; Court-Payen, M; Hansen, J M; Robach, P; Ter-Minassian, A; Richalet, J P

    1995-01-01

    High altitude pulmonary oedema can be successfully treated and prevented by calcium channel blockers. Moreover, calcium entering in the cells could explain the congestive phenomena of acute mountain sickness (AMS). These findings led us to study the action of a calcium channel blocker, isradipine...

  11. Sickness Behavior in Honey Bees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazlauskas, Nadia; Klappenbach, Martín; Depino, Amaicha M.; Locatelli, Fernando F.

    2016-01-01

    During an infection, animals suffer several changes in their normal physiology and behavior which may include lethargy, appetite loss, and reduction in grooming and general movements. This set of alterations is known as sickness behavior and although it has been extensively believed to be orchestrated primarily by the immune system, a relevant role for the central nervous system has also been established. The aim of the present work is to develop a simple animal model to allow studying how the immune and the nervous systems interact coordinately during an infection. We administered a bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) into the thorax of honey bees to mimic a bacterial infection, and then we evaluated a set of stereotyped behaviors of the animals that might be indicative of sickness behavior. First, we show that this immune challenge reduces the locomotor activity of the animals in a narrow time window after LPS injection. Furthermore, bees exhibit a loss of appetite 60 and 90 min after injection, but not 15 h later. We also demonstrate that LPS injection reduces spontaneous antennal movements in harnessed animals, which suggests a reduction in the motivational state of the bees. Finally, we show that the LPS injection diminishes the interaction between animals, a crucial behavior in social insects. To our knowledge these results represent the first systematic description of sickness behavior in honey bees and provide important groundwork for the study of the interaction between the immune and the neural systems in an insect model. PMID:27445851

  12. Acute Mountain Sickness among overnight hotel guests: prevalence, symptoms and signs

    OpenAIRE

    Halabchi F "; Mazaheri R

    2008-01-01

    "nBackground: Altitude diseases, the most frequent of which is acute mountain sickness (AMS), are among the most common and serious problems that recreational and professional mountain athletes may encounter. If left undiagnosed, they may lead to lethal consequences. In a cross sectional study, we investigate the prevalence of AMS disorder among the overnight guests of a mountain resort hotel. "nMethods: Overnight guests staying at Hotel Tochal (elevation 3545 m), near Tehran, Iran,...

  13. Oral zolpidem prevents acute mountain sickness: a randomized double-blind placebo controlled study

    OpenAIRE

    Yong-tao HUANG; Qin, Jun; Xu-bin GAO; Chen, Guo-Zhu; Zheng, Cheng-Rong; Yang, Jie; Huang, Lan

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study the prophylactic effect of zolpidem on acute mountain sickness (AMS) after acute high-altitude exposure. Methods A randomized double-blind placebo controlled trial was performed on the plateau. Forty subjects were randomly divided into zolpidem group and placebo group. The general clinical data, heart rate, blood pressure, oxygen saturation, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) scores, AMS scores and physical fitness test of the both groups were collected and assessed ...

  14. [Treating sleeping sickness, Takalafiya, c.1940

    OpenAIRE

    Unknown

    2003-01-01

    Showing a woman being given an injection. The photograph is part of a series of British Official photographs (Crown Copyright Reserved) issued under the general title 'Sleeping sickness experiment is pattern for progress in rural Africa'. It has two typewritten captions on the reverse. The first reads: 'At the Takalafiya dispensary this woman victim of sleeping sickness is given intravenous injections of tryparsimide by the sleeping sickness service attendant'. The second reads: 'The Br...

  15. Wilderness medicine at high altitude: recent developments in the field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah NM

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Neeraj M Shah,1 Sidra Hussain,2 Mark Cooke,3 John P O’Hara,3 Adrian Mellor3,4 1Division of Asthma, Allergy and Lung Biology, King’s College London, UK; 2School of Medicine, University College London, London, UK; 3Research Institute for Sport, Physical Activity and Leisure, Leeds Beckett University, Leeds, UK; 4Academic Department of Military Anaesthesia and Critical Care, Royal Centre for Defence Medicine, Birmingham, UK Abstract: Travel to high altitude is increasingly popular. With this comes an increased incidence of high-altitude illness and therefore an increased need to improve our strategies to prevent and accurately diagnose these. In this review, we provide a summary of recent advances of relevance to practitioners who may be advising travelers to altitude. Although the Lake Louise Score is now widely used as a diagnostic tool for acute mountain sickness (AMS, increasing evidence questions the validity of doing so, and of considering AMS as a single condition. Biomarkers, such as brain natriuretic peptide, are likely correlating with pulmonary artery systolic pressure, thus potential markers of the development of altitude illness. Established drug treatments include acetazolamide, nifedipine, and dexamethasone. Drugs with a potential to reduce the risk of developing AMS include nitrate supplements, propagators of nitric oxide, and supplemental iron. The role of exercise in the development of altitude illness remains hotly debated, and it appears that the intensity of exercise is more important than the exercise itself. Finally, despite copious studies demonstrating the value of preacclimatization in reducing the risk of altitude illness and improving performance, an optimal protocol to preacclimatize an individual remains elusive. Keywords: hypoxia, acute mountain sickness, acclimatization, biomarkers, preacclimatization

  16. Cardiovascular Response to High Altitude Hypoxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. C. Manchanda

    1984-10-01

    Full Text Available Normal and abnormal cardiovascular response to high altitude (HA hypoxia were studied in 98 healthy subjects and in 15 patients with HA pulmonary oedema (HAPO and acute mountain sickness (AMS at an altitudeof 3,658 m. The healthy sea level (SL residents showed marked blood volume changes during the first week with pulmonary hypotension and depression of left ventricular (LV performance and physical work capacity (PWC. The HA natives, however, had better LV performance and PWC indicating a better adaptation to HA hypoxia. HAPO subjects showed evidence of severe pulmonary hypertension with normal left atrial pressures but the exact mechanism of this condition is still not clear. AMS subjects showed no circulatory abnormalities 'but had relative hypercapnia and severe hypoxemia suggesting that AMS may be causcd by relative hyposensitiveness of the respiratory centre to hypoxia or hypercapnia.

  17. Animal models in motion sickness research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daunton, Nancy G.

    1990-01-01

    Practical information on candidate animal models for motion sickness research and on methods used to elicit and detect motion sickness in these models is provided. Four good potential models for use in motion sickness experiments include the dog, cat, squirrel monkey, and rat. It is concluded that the appropriate use of the animal models, combined with exploitation of state-of-the-art biomedical techniques, should generate a great step forward in the understanding of motion sickness mechanisms and in the development of efficient and effective approaches to its prevention and treatment in humans.

  18. Ear - blocked at high altitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    High altitudes and blocked ears; Flying and blocked ears; Eustachian tube dysfunction - high altitude ... you are going up or coming down from high altitudes. Chewing gum the entire time you are changing ...

  19. Endurance training at altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Philo U; Pyne, David B; Gore, Christopher J

    2009-01-01

    Since the 1968 Olympic Games when the effects of altitude on endurance performance became evident, moderate altitude training ( approximately 2000 to 3000 m) has become popular to improve competition performance both at altitude and sea level. When endurance athletes are exposed acutely to moderate altitude, a number of physiological responses occur that can comprise performance at altitude; these include increased ventilation, increased heart rate, decreased stroke volume, reduced plasma volume, and lower maximal aerobic power ((.)Vo(2max)) by approximately 15% to 20%. Over a period of several weeks, one primary acclimatization response is an increase in the volume of red blood cells and consequently of (.)Vo(2max). Altitudes > approximately 2000 m for >3 weeks and adequate iron stores are required to elicit these responses. However, the primacy of more red blood cells for superior sea-level performance is not clear-cut since the best endurance athletes in the world, from Ethiopia (approximately 2000 to 3000 m), have only marginally elevated hemoglobin concentrations. The substantial reduction in (.)Vo(2max) of athletes at moderate altitude implies that their training should include adequate short-duration (approximately 1 to 2 min), high-intensity efforts with long recoveries to avoid a reduction in race-specific fitness. At the elite level, athlete performance is not dependent solely on (.)Vo(2max), and the "smallest worthwhile change" in performance for improving race results is as little as 0.5%. Consequently, contemporary statistical approaches that utilize the concept of the smallest worthwhile change are likely to be more appropriate than conventional statistical methods when attempting to understand the potential benefits and mechanisms of altitude training. PMID:19519223

  20. Altitude Modulates Concussion Incidence

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, David W.; Myer, Gregory D; Currie, Dustin W.; Comstock, R Dawn; Clark, Joseph F.; Bailes, Julian E.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Recent research indicates that the volume and/or pressure of intracranial fluid, a physiology affected by one’s altitude (ie, elevation above sea level), may be associated with the likelihood and/or severity of a concussion. The objective was to employ an epidemiological field investigation to evaluate the relationship between altitude and concussion rate in high school sports. Hypothesis: Because of the physiologies that occur during acclimatization, including a decline in intrac...

  1. sick: The Spectroscopic Inference Crank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Andrew R.

    2016-03-01

    There exists an inordinate amount of spectral data in both public and private astronomical archives that remain severely under-utilized. The lack of reliable open-source tools for analyzing large volumes of spectra contributes to this situation, which is poised to worsen as large surveys successively release orders of magnitude more spectra. In this article I introduce sick, the spectroscopic inference crank, a flexible and fast Bayesian tool for inferring astrophysical parameters from spectra. sick is agnostic to the wavelength coverage, resolving power, or general data format, allowing any user to easily construct a generative model for their data, regardless of its source. sick can be used to provide a nearest-neighbor estimate of model parameters, a numerically optimized point estimate, or full Markov Chain Monte Carlo sampling of the posterior probability distributions. This generality empowers any astronomer to capitalize on the plethora of published synthetic and observed spectra, and make precise inferences for a host of astrophysical (and nuisance) quantities. Model intensities can be reliably approximated from existing grids of synthetic or observed spectra using linear multi-dimensional interpolation, or a Cannon-based model. Additional phenomena that transform the data (e.g., redshift, rotational broadening, continuum, spectral resolution) are incorporated as free parameters and can be marginalized away. Outlier pixels (e.g., cosmic rays or poorly modeled regimes) can be treated with a Gaussian mixture model, and a noise model is included to account for systematically underestimated variance. Combining these phenomena into a scalar-justified, quantitative model permits precise inferences with credible uncertainties on noisy data. I describe the common model features, the implementation details, and the default behavior, which is balanced to be suitable for most astronomical applications. Using a forward model on low-resolution, high signal

  2. Exercise capacity, arterial oxygen saturation, hemoglobin concentration, and physical activity : A cross-sectional study of selected factors associated with the adaptation to high altitude, a comparison of 9-10 year old native Tibetan and Chinese immigrants in Lhasa, Tibet

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Aim: It is well known that capacity for exercise performance is progressively limited with increasing altitude. Furthermore, the maximal exercise capacity is an indicator of the capacity of humans to adapt and acclimatize to high altitude. Chronic Mountain Sickness (CMS) is associated with inadequate adaptation or acclimatization abilities to high altitude. CMS is more common among immigrants who have immigrated from areas of low altitude to high altitude areas than among native highlanders....

  3. Indoor air pollution and sick building syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The topics discussed in this paper are accept that SBS (Sick building syndrome) is a reality ; understand the dimensions of the problem ; differentiate between sick building syndrome and building related illness ; introduce standards ; understanding the economics ; act pro-actively not re-actively

  4. Predicting motion sickness during parabolic flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harm, Deborah L.; Schlegel, Todd T.

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There are large individual differences in susceptibility to motion sickness. Attempts to predict who will become motion sick have had limited success. In the present study, we examined gender differences in resting levels of salivary amylase and total protein, cardiac interbeat intervals (R-R intervals), and a sympathovagal index and evaluated their potential to correctly classify individuals into two motion sickness severity groups. METHODS: Sixteen subjects (10 men and 6 women) flew four sets of 10 parabolas aboard NASA's KC-135 aircraft. Saliva samples for amylase and total protein were collected preflight on the day of the flight and motion sickness symptoms were recorded during each parabola. Cardiovascular parameters were collected in the supine position 1-5 days before the flight. RESULTS: There were no significant gender differences in sickness severity or any of the other variables mentioned above. Discriminant analysis using salivary amylase, R-R intervals and the sympathovagal index produced a significant Wilks' lambda coefficient of 0.36, p=0.006. The analysis correctly classified 87% of the subjects into the none-mild sickness or the moderate-severe sickness group. CONCLUSIONS: The linear combination of resting levels of salivary amylase, high-frequency R-R interval levels, and a sympathovagal index may be useful in predicting motion sickness severity.

  5. Genetic aspects of sick sinus syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chernova A.A.

    2013-03-01

    consistent with that of the genotypes of the above genes in the general population of primary sick sinus syndrome patients. The allelic variants of the above genes were not found to be associated with ompensated sick sinus syndrome. Conclusion. The genetic predictors of idiopathic sick sinus syndrome are heterozygous genotypes 44 GA and 4a/4b genes Cx 40 and NOS3 as well as homozygous genotypes in rare allele DD and GG genes ADRA2B and SCN5A. Polymorphic allelic variant 2161C > T (Arg721Trp of MYH6 gene was not revealed in the examined cohort of Krasnoyarsk population. The distribution of the genotypes of the investigated genes in latent sick sinus syndrome patients was found to be consistent with that of the genotypes in the general population of primary sick sinus syndrome patients.

  6. Archives, libraries and museums: containers often sick, sometimes seriously sick

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Nicolucci

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available As far as the feeling of quietness and peace that they often convey, archives, museums and libraries also hide dangers that you may not imagine, either for visitors or especially for the members of the staff. Indeed the poor microclimatic conditions – often the consequences of materials and construction or building technologies that appear definitely obsolete – often arouse suspicion and worry among the staff. Wrong Thermo hygrometric parameters, the presence of volatile organic elements, mineral fibers, biocides, radon gas, aerial dispersive molecules, are among others some of the chemical physical polluters of major influence that may contribute to giving life to the so-called Sick Building Syndrome. But such spaces also bear biological polluters that can provoke pathologies of various types and importance, among which the feared Illness of Legionnaire. The presence of electromagnetic fields, but above all wrong lighting and wrong ergonomic working positions represent some risk factors for members of staff and visitors.

  7. Anatomical and hemodynamic evaluations of the heart and pulmonary arterial pressure in healthy children residing at high altitude in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-Ying Qi

    2015-06-01

    Conclusions: Children living at high altitude in China have significantly higher mPAP, dilated right heart and slower regression of right ventricular hypertrophy in the first 14 years of life. Systolic and diastolic functions of both ventricles were reduced with a paradoxically higher CI. There was no significant difference in these features between the Hans and the Tibetans. These values provide references for the care of healthy children and the sick ones with cardiopulmonary diseases at high altitude.

  8. Workplace bullying and sickness presenteeism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conway, Paul Maurice; Clausen, Thomas; Hansen, Åse Marie;

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study is to investigate exposure to workplace bullying as a potential risk factor for sickness presenteeism (SP), i.e., working while ill. Methods: This study is based on data collected through self-reported questionnaires in a 2-year prospective study on employees in...... missing values, the final samples were composed of 2,865 and 1,331participants in the cross-sectional and prospective analyses, respectively. Results: Modified poisson regression analyses showed that frequent (i.e., daily or weekly) exposure to workplace bullying was associated with reporting 8 or more...... indications of a significant relationship between exposure to frequent workplace bullying and SP, although causal connections could not be established. Methodological and theoretical considerations about study findings are provided, which could be of benefit to future studies examining the impact of being a...

  9. Blood lactate changes during exercise at high altitude.

    OpenAIRE

    Binns, N.; Wright, A. D.; Singh, B. M.; Coote, J.H.; Bradwell, A R

    1987-01-01

    Blood lactate concentrations were measured in 18 normal subjects at the end of an exercise test designed to maintain heart rate at 85% of maximum for 15 minutes. Blood lactate concentrations were reduced at high altitude (4846 m) and correlated positively with basal pH and negatively with basal Pa,O2 levels. Blood lactate concentrations tended to be lower in those subjects on acetazolamide but were not correlated with the severity of acute mountain sickness or with the workload of the exercis...

  10. The treatment of Uygur medicine Dracocephalum moldavica L on chronic mountain sickness rat model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilinuer Maimaitiyiming

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Dracocephalum moldavica L, a traditional Uygur medicine, possesses some key cardiac activities. However, till date, no reports are available on the use of D. moldavica against chronic mountain sickness (CMS, which is a medical condition that affects the residents of high altitude. The present study was designed to explore the treatment efficacy of D. moldavica on CMS. Materials and Methods: 80 of the 100 Sprague Dawley rats enrolled were bred in simulated high altitude environment and the remaining 20 rats were kept in the plains. Water and alcohol extracts of D. moldavica were prepared. CMS rat model was prepared, and the rat hearts were removed for histopathological analysis. Blood samples were taken for hematological and biochemical analyses. Rat pulmonary artery pressure was determined to study the treatment efficacy. Results: In the CMS model group, the levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6, C-reactive protein (CRP, and malondialdehyde (MDA were found to be significantly higher than the control group; while the concentrations of SOD and GSH-Px decreased. D. moldavica could improve these levels, decrease pulmonary artery pressure, and improve the cardiac pathological state. Conclusions: The study results show that IL-6, CRP, MDA, SOD and GSH-Px participate and mediate the formation of CMS and D. moldavica is found to possess noticeable effects on CMS. The present study explored the basics of high altitude sickness and laid the foundation for further progress of Uygur medicines on the treatment of altitude sickness. Further preclinical and clinical studies with more sample size are recommended.

  11. Acute mountain sickness in athletes with neurological impairments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepan C. Kamaraj, MD

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Acute mountain sickness (AMS is a symptom complex noticed commonly among high altitude travelers. The occurrence of AMS depends on multiple factors that have been studied extensively. However, AMS in individuals with neurological impairments has not been considered in detail. A total of 168 subjects, including active controls, inactive controls, and those with spinal cord injury (SCI, multiple sclerosis, and traumatic brain injury (TBI, were studied at the National Veterans Winter Sports Clinic in Snowmass, Colorado, from 2007 to 2009 for the occurrence of AMS. Lake Louise Score was used to quantify symptoms. A higher than anticipated occurrence of AMS (42.85% among the study population was noted, with significantly higher Lake Louis Scores among athletes with neurological impairments. Disability group, prior history of AMS, and prior occurrence of headache at high altitude could be used as predictors for the development of AMS symptoms. More research is warranted specifically targeting the interaction between factors affecting AMS and the pathophysiology of neurological impairments like SCI and TBI to further our understanding about prophylactic medications and treatments for AMS, especially because many military personnel with neurological impairments continue on Active Duty.

  12. A Start Toward Micronucleus-Based Decompression Models; Altitude Decompression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Liew, H. D.; Conkin, Johnny

    2007-01-01

    Do gaseous micronuclei trigger the formation of bubbles in decompression sickness (DCS)? Most previous instructions for DCS prevention have been oriented toward supersaturated gas in tissue. We are developing a mathematical model that is oriented toward the expected behavior of micronuclei. The issue is simplified in altitude decompressions because the aviator or astronaut is exposed only to decompression, whereas in diving there is a compression before the decompression. The model deals with four variables: duration of breathing of 100% oxygen before going to altitude (O2 prebreathing), altitude of the exposure, exposure duration, and rate of ascent. Assumptions: a) there is a population of micronuclei of various sizes having a range of characteristics, b) micronuclei are stable until they grow to a certain critical nucleation radius, c) it takes time for gas to diffuse in or out of micronuclei, and d) all other variables being equal, growth of micronuclei upon decompression is more rapid at high altitude because of the rarified gas in the micronuclei. To estimate parameters, we use a dataset of 4,756 men in altitude chambers exposed to various combinations of the model s variables. The model predicts occurrence of DCS symptoms quite well. It is notable that both the altitude chamber data and the model show little effect of O2 prebreathing until it lasts more than 60 minutes; this is in contrast to a conventional idea that the benefit of prebreathing is directly due to exponential washout of tissue nitrogen. The delay in response to O2 prebreathing can be interpreted as time required for outward diffusion of nitrogen; when the micronuclei become small enough, they are disabled, either by crushing or because they cannot expand to a critical nucleation size when the subject ascends to altitude.

  13. Evidence Report: Risk of Decompression Sickness (DCS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conkin, Johnny; Norcross, Jason R.; Wessel, James H., III; Klein, Jill S.; Dervay, Joseph P.; Gernhardt, Michael L.

    2016-01-01

    Given that tissue inert gas partial pressure is often greater than ambient pressure during phases of a mission, primarily during extravehicular activity (EVA), there is a possibility of decompression sickness (DCS).

  14. Occupational exposures and sick leave during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mette Lausten; Thulstrup, Ane Marie; Juhl, Mette; Kristensen, Jette Kolding; Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia Høst

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate associations between work postures, lifting at work, shift work, work hours, and job strain and the risk of sick leave during pregnancy from 10-29 completed pregnancy weeks in a large cohort of Danish pregnant women. METHODS: Data from 51 874 pregnancies...... time of first episode of sick leave as the primary outcome. RESULTS: We found statistically significant associations between all the predictors and risk of sick leave; for non-sitting work postures (HRrange 1.55-2.79), cumulative lifting HRtrend 1.29, 95% CI 1.26-1.31, shift work (HRevening 1.90, 95......: Our results support previous findings and suggest that initiatives to prevent sick leave during pregnancy could be based on work conditions. Preventive measures may have important implications for pregnant women and workplaces....

  15. Metals: In Sickness and in Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... View All Articles | Inside Life Science Home Page Metals: In Sickness and in Health By Stephanie Dutchen ... 2012 We're not quite Iron Man, but metals are intricately entwined with our bodies. They make ...

  16. Ascent schedules, acute altitude illness, and altitude acclimatization: Observations on the Yushu Earthquake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Tianyi; Hou Shike; Li Shuzhi; Li Wenxiang; Gen Deng

    2013-01-01

    During the Yushu Earthquake on April 14,2010,a large number of rescuers from sea level or lowlands ascended to the quake areas very rapidly or rapidly less than 24 h.However,Yushu Earthquake is the highest quake in the world at altitudes between 3750 m and 4878 m where is a serious hypoxic environment.A high incidence of acute altitude illness was found in the unacclimatized rescuers; the mountain rescue operation changed as "rescue the rescuers".Lesson from the Yushu Earthquake is that the occurrence of acute altitude illness may be closely related to the ascent schedules.This prompted us to study the relationship between ascent rate and the incidence and severity of acute altitude illness; five different groups were compared.The first group was 42 sea level male young soldiers who ascended to quake area very rapidly within 8 h at 4000 m; the second group was 48 sea level male young soldiers who ascended to 4000 m rapidly less than 18 h; the third group was 66 acclimatized medical workers from 2261 m who ascended to 4000 m rapidly within 12 h; the fourth group was 56 Tibetan medical workers from 2800 m who ascended to 4000 m rapidly within 8 h; the fifth group was 50 male sea level workers who ascended to 4000 m gradually over a period of 4 d.The results showed that the sea level rescuers ascended to 4000 m very rapidly or rapidly had the highest incidence of acute mountain sickness (AMS) with the greatest AMS scores and the lowest arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2) ; the sea level workers ascended to 4000 m gradually had moderate incidence of AMS with moderate AMS scores and SaO2 values; whereas the acclimatized and adapted rescuers had the lowest incidence of AMS,lowest AMS scores and higher SaO2; especially none AMS occurred in Tibetan rescuers.AMS score is inversely related to the ascent rate (r=-0.24,p<0.001).Additionally,acute altitude illness is significantly influenced by altitude acclimatization.The ascent rate is inversely related to

  17. The illness flexibility model and sickness absence

    OpenAIRE

    Johansson, Gun

    2007-01-01

    Research on sickness absence has repeatedly been described as theoretically undeveloped. In this thesis the model of illness flexibility is introduced. In this model, sickness absence is assumed to be caused by people’s ability and motivation to work. Ability and motivation will in turn be affected by conditions met in and outside work. In the model, five basic components are discerned describing such conditions. Adjustment latitude describes opportunities to adjust work to ...

  18. Fever and sickness behavior: Friend or foe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, L M; Kent, S; Pittman, Q J; Roth, J

    2015-11-01

    Fever has been recognized as an important symptom of disease since ancient times. For many years, fever was treated as a putative life-threatening phenomenon. More recently, it has been recognized as an important part of the body's defense mechanisms; indeed at times it has even been used as a therapeutic agent. The knowledge of the functional role of the central nervous system in the genesis of fever has greatly improved over the last decade. It is clear that the febrile process, which develops in the sick individual, is just one of many brain-controlled sickness symptoms. Not only will the sick individual appear "feverish" but they may also display a range of behavioral changes, such as anorexia, fatigue, loss of interest in usual daily activities, social withdrawal, listlessness or malaise, hyperalgesia, sleep disturbances and cognitive dysfunction, collectively termed "sickness behavior". In this review we consider the issue of whether fever and sickness behaviors are friend or foe during: a critical illness, the common cold or influenza, in pregnancy and in the newborn. Deciding whether these sickness responses are beneficial or harmful will very much shape our approach to the use of antipyretics during illness. PMID:26187566

  19. Decompression sickness and venous gas emboli at 8.3 psia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smead, Kenneth W.; Dixon, Gene A.; Webb, James T.; Krutz, Robert W., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    This study sought to determine the bends risk on decompression from sea level to 8.3 psia. On the basis of several prior studies by NASA and the Air Force, this differential was expected to result in a minimal (about 5 percent) incidence of mild decompression sickness, and may be the pressure of choice for the next-generation NASA extravehicular activity (EVA) pressure suit. Thirty-one volunteer subjects, performing light work characteristic of EVA, were exposed to 8.3 psia pressure altitude for six hours. Limb bends incidence was 3.2 percent, and 25.8 percent of the subjects demonstrated significant intravascular bubbling. Those who bubbled were significantly older than the bubble-free group, but differed in no other aspect. An 8.3 psia advanced pressure suit design was considered insufficient to totally preclude the risk of decompression sickness.

  20. Vascular endothelial growth factor and acute mountain sickness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilles Eric

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Study Objective: Despite causing significant morbidity throughout the mountainous regions of the world, the pathophysiology of acute mountain sickness (AMS remains poorly understood. This study aims to improve the understanding of altitude illness by determining if vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF plays a role in the development of AMS. The purpose of this study was to determine if elevated plasma VEGF correlates with increased symptoms of AMS at high altitude. Patients and Methods: This is a prospective study of a cohort of healthy climbers on Denali (Mount McKinley in Alaska at 14, 200 feet. Baseline demographics, medications, rates of ascent, and AMS scores were recorded. Pulse oximetry measurements and venous blood samples were obtained. Comparisons were made between mountaineers with and without AMS. Results: Seventy-two climbers were approached for participation in the study; 21 (29% refused. Of the 51 climbers participating in the study, 14 subjects (27.5% had symptoms of AMS and 37 subjects (72.5% were free of symptoms of AMS. Plasma VEGF levels were 79.14 pg/dl (SD: 121.44 and 57.57pg/dl (SD: 102.71 in the AMS and non-AMS groups, respectively. These results were nonsignificant. Similarly, comparison of sex, age, rate of ascent, pulse oximetry values, or history of altitude illness did not reveal significant differences between the AMS and non-AMS groups. Conclusion: This study does not provide evidence in support of the theory that plasma VEGF correlates with symptoms of AMS.

  1. Sleep patterns at an altitude of 3500 metres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvamurthy, W.; Raju, V. R. K.; Ranganathan, S.; Hegde, K. S.; Ray, U. S.

    1986-06-01

    Alterations in sleep pattern during acclimatisation at an altitude of 3500 m were studied on 27 healthy men (20 30 years of age). Of these, 15 were sojourners (SJ), 6 were acclimatised lowlanders (AL) and 6 were high altitude natives (HAN). Baseline sleep profile of SJ was electrophysiologically monitored, initially at Delhi (260 m) and later at 3500 m altitude in Western Himalayas for 2 weeks. At high altitude (HA) the sleep patterns of AL and HAN were also monitored for comparison. There were 4 cases of acute mountain sickness (AMS) among SJ, whose sleep profiles were also recorded. The state of autonomic arousal was assessed by a battery of indices, while the psychological arousal was measured by the anxiety scales. On completion of studies at HA, the SJ were flown back to the plains and re-tested within one week of return. SJ showed curtailment of slow wave sleep (SWS) and frequent short episodes of arousal during sleep at HA. AL and HAN also had lesser amounts of SWS; however, the arousals and awakenings during sleep were less frequent. Subjects who experienced AMS had normal amounts of SWS at HA. There was sympathetic hyperactivity and slight increase in anxiety level in SJ, while HAN and AL had relatively reduced level of sympathetic activity. The curtailment of SWS and frequent arousals observed in SJ during the initial phase of acclimatisation at HA, appear to be adaptive features to prevent the accentuation of arterial hypoxemia due to sleep hypoventilation.

  2. Subclinical high altitude pulmonary edema:A clinical observation of 12 cases in Yushu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Shuzhi; Zheng Bihai; Wu Tianyi; Chen Huixing; Zhang Ming

    2013-01-01

    During the Yushu Earthquake on April 14,2010,a high incidence of acute high altitude illness was observed in the mountain rescuers,and 0.73 % of these patients suffered from high altitude pulmonary edema,of which 12 patients developed subclinical pulmonary edema and concomitantly contracted acute mountain sickness.Symptoms and signs were atypically high heart rate with high respiratory rate,striking cyanosis,and significantly low oxygen saturation,whereas no moist rates were heard on auscultation,and Chest X-ray showed peripheral with a patchy distribution of mottled infiltrations in one or both lung fields.We believe that subclinical high altitude pulmonary edema is an earliest stage of pulmonary edema at high altitude.The possible pathogenesis and the diagnosis were discussed.

  3. Cerebrovascular stroke at high altitude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To asses the high altitude as a risk factor for cerebrovascular stroke in people residing at a height greater than 15,000 feet above sea level. Results: Ten patients suffered from stroke at high altitude while just one case had stroke in indexed age group at lower heights (p-value<0.05). Relative risk was 10 times greater at high altitude. Conclusion: High altitude is a risk factor for stroke in persons residing at altitudes of over 15, 000 ft. (author)

  4. Effect of oxygen and heliox breathing on air bubbles in adipose tissue during 25-kPa altitude exposures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Randsoe, T.; Kvist, T.M.; Hyldegaard, O.

    2008-01-01

    .7) after which they started shrinking or remained stable throughout the observation period. Bubble growth time was significantly longer during oxygen breathing compared with heliox breathing and preoxygenated animals. Significantly more bubbles disappeared in preoxygenated animals compared with oxygen and......At altitude, bubbles are known to form and grow in blood and tissues causing altitude decompression sickness. Previous reports indicate that treatment of decompression sickness by means of oxygen breathing at altitude may cause unwanted bubble growth. In this report we visually followed the in vivo...... changes of micro air bubbles injected into adipose tissue of anesthetized rats at 101.3 kPa (sea level) after which they were decompressed from 101.3 kPa to and held at 25 kPa (10,350 m), during breathing of oxygen or a heliox(34:66) mixture (34% helium and 66% oxygen). Furthermore, bubbles were studied...

  5. Neonatal oxygenation, pulmonary hypertension, and evolutionary adaptation to high altitude (2013 Grover Conference series)

    OpenAIRE

    Niermeyer, Susan; Andrade-M, Mario Patricio; Vargas, Enrique; Moore, Lorna G.

    2015-01-01

    Andeans and Tibetans have less altitude reduction in birth weight than do shorter-resident groups, but only Tibetans are protected from pulmonary hypertension and chronic mountain sickness (CMS). We hypothesized that differences in neonatal oxygenation were involved, with arterial O2 saturation (SaO2) being highest in Tibetans, intermediate in Andeans, and lowest in Han or Europeans, and that improved oxygenation in Andeans relative to Europeans was accompanied by a greater postnatal decline ...

  6. Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin: Its Response to Hypoxia and Association with Acute Mountain Sickness

    OpenAIRE

    Adrian Mellor; Christopher Boos; Mike Stacey; Tim Hooper; Chris Smith; Joe Begley; Jo Yarker; Rick Piper; John O'Hara; Rod King; Steve Turner; Woods, David R.

    2013-01-01

    Acute Mountain Sickness (AMS) is a common clinical challenge at high altitude (HA). A point-of-care biochemical marker for AMS could have widespread utility. Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) rises in response to renal injury, inflammation and oxidative stress. We investigated whether NGAL rises with HA and if this rise was related to AMS, hypoxia or exercise. NGAL was assayed in a cohort (n = 22) undertaking 6 hours exercise at near sea-level (SL); a cohort (n = 14) during 3 ...

  7. Predicting sickness during a 2-week soccer camp at 3600 m (ISA3600)

    OpenAIRE

    Buchheit, Martin; Simpson, Ben M; Schmidt, Walter F; Aughey, Robert J; Soria, Rudy; Hunt, Robert A; Garvican-Lewis, Laura A; Pyne, David B; Gore, Christopher J; Bourdon, Pitre C

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To examine the time course of changes in wellness and health status markers before and after episodes of sickness in young soccer players during a high-altitude training camp (La Paz, 3600 m). Methods Wellness and fatigue were assessed daily on awakening using specifically-designed questionnaires and resting measures of heart rate and heart rate variability. The rating of perceived exertion and heart rate responses to a submaximal run (9 km/h) were also collected during each traini...

  8. Do lower vertebrates suffer from motion sickness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lychakov, Dmitri

    The poster presents literature data and results of the author’s studies with the goal to find out whether the lower animals are susceptible to motion sickness (Lychakov, 2012). In our studies, fish and amphibians were tested for 2 h and more by using a rotating device (f = 0.24 Hz, a _{centrifugal} = 0.144 g) and a parallel swing (f = 0.2 Hz, a _{horizontal} = 0.059 g). The performed studies did not revealed in 4 fish species and in toads any characteristic reactions of the motion sickness (sopite syndrome, prodromal preparatory behavior, vomiting). At the same time, in toads there appeared characteristic stress reactions (escape response, an increase of the number of urinations, inhibition of appetite), as well as some other reactions not associated with motion sickness (regular head movements, eye retractions). In trout fry the used stimulation promoted division of the individuals into the groups differing by locomotor reaction to stress, as well as the individuals with the well-expressed compensatory reaction that we called the otolithotropic reaction. Analysis of results obtained by other authors confirms our conclusions. Thus, the lower vertebrates, unlike mammals, are immune to motion sickness either under the land conditions or under conditions of weightlessness. On the basis of available experimental data and theoretical concepts of mechanisms of development the motion sickness, formulated in several hypotheses (mismatch hypothesis, Traisman‘ s hypothesis, resonance hypothesis), there presented the synthetic hypothesis of motion sickness that has the conceptual significance. According to the hypothesis, the unusual stimulation producing sensor-motor or sensor-sensor conflict or an action of vestibular and visual stimuli of frequency of about 0.2 Hz is perceived by CNS as poisoning and causes the corresponding reactions. The motion sickness actually is a byproduct of technical evolution. It is suggested that in the lower vertebrates, unlike mammals

  9. Increase the Great Sports Events Sick Leave?

    OpenAIRE

    Štefánik, Adam

    2012-01-01

    In case that watching sports yields more benefits than costs of the activity, employees are tempted to find a way to avoid work and watch sports. The thesis looks into influence of the most watched sport events on amount of sickness rate among employees in the Czech Republic using daily data from 2004 to 2010. Gender-specific regression analysis proved relevant impact of summer Olympic Games 2004 and 2008 on rising of men and women sickness rate. During these Olympic Games by more than 16 per...

  10. Trends in sickness absence in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Kristina; Bihrmann, Kristine; Mikkelsen, Sigurd; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2009-01-01

    linear regression analysis to analyze time trends in sickness absence based on datasets from the Danish Employers Confederation, the State Employer's Authority, the Labour Force Survey, and Statistics Denmark. RESULTS: The findings from the Confederation of Danish Employers, the State Employer......'s Authority, and the Labor Force Survey indicated a stable and largely unaltered pattern of sickness absence during the last 20 years. Findings from Statistics Denmark showed an increase in the cumulative incidence proportion from 6.6 to 7.5% among employed people between 2000 and 2007. CONCLUSION: Our data...

  11. ALMA to Help Solving Acute Mountain Sickness Mystery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-04-01

    , family and social isolation, commuting, intermittent high altitude exposure and other environmental challenges such as low temperatures. "An adequate acclimatisation to 2500m altitude requires around two weeks, and we can thus speculate that going to 5000m would require more than one month to achieve complete acclimatisation," said Professor Juan Silva Urra, from the University of Antofagasta. However, short and long term effects of regular commuting between sea level and high altitude have scarcely been studied in biomedical terms. Scientifically based guidelines for appropriate preventive handling and care under these conditions are lacking and the new study will help bridging this gap. Among the studies to be done, some involve continuous monitoring of the human body through portable devices, including measurements of hormone levels and application of psychometric tests. All measurements at 5000m will be carried out on a voluntary basis, under strict safety protocols, with the presence of a doctor from the investigation team, paramedic personnel form ALMA and an ambulance. The symptoms of Acute Mountain Sickness are headache, sicknesses, gastrointestinal inconveniences, fatigue and insomnia that, depending on their intensities, decrease the capacity to carry out the most routine activities. The valuable data collected will enhance our knowledge of human physiology in extreme environments, generating recommendations that will improve wellbeing and health not only in high-altitude observatories, but also in mining and Antarctic personnel. "We are pleased that ALMA is contributing to other disciplines, like medicine, even before the antennas begin to explore the universe," said Felix Mirabel, ESO's representative in Chile. "This outstanding long-term research that will provide crucial information of human physiology to experts worldwide, has been made possible thanks to the combined effort of Chilean and European universities, in collaboration with ALMA". The Atacama

  12. High Altitude Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulzan, Dan

    2007-01-01

    An overview of emissions related research being conducted as part of the Fundamental Aeronautics Supersonics Project is presented. The overview includes project objectives, milestones, and descriptions of major research areas. The overview also includes information on the emissions research being conducted under NASA Research Announcements. Technical challenges include: 1) Environmental impact of supersonic cruise emissions is greater due to higher flight altitudes which makes emissions reduction increasingly important. 2) Accurate prediction tools to enable combustor designs that reduce emissions at supersonic cruise are needed as well as intelligent systems to minimize emissions. 3) Combustor operating conditions at supersonic cruise are different than at subsonic cruise since inlet fuel and air temperatures are considerably increased.

  13. Acetazolamide pre-treatment before ascending to high altitudes: when to start?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burtscher, Martin; Gatterer, Hannes; Faulhaber, Martin; Burtscher, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    Hypoxia is the main responsible factor initiating the symptoms of acute mountain sickness (AMS) in susceptible individuals. Measures that improve oxygenation and/or hasten acclimatization like pre-treatment with acetazolamide will prevent the development of AMS. We hypothesized that pre-treatment with acetazolamide the day before arrival at high altitude would elicit improved oxygenation compared to placebo not until the second day of high-altitude exposure. Fifteen study participants were randomly assigned in a double blind fashion to receive placebo or acetazolamide (2 × 125 mg) before (10 hours and 1 hour) exposure to high altitude (Monte Rosa plateau, 3480 m). Beside AMS scoring, heart rate, minute ventilation, and blood gas analyses were performed during rest and submaximal exercise at low altitude and on day 1, 2 and 3 at high altitude. From low altitude to day 1 at high altitude changes of pH (7.41 ± 0.01 vs. 7.48 ± 0.04) and HCO3 (24.0 ± 0.46 vs. 24.6 ± 2.6 mmol/L) within the placebo group differed significantly from those within the acetazolamide group (7.41 ± 0.01 vs. 7.41 ± 0.02; 23.6 ± 0.38 vs. 20.7 ± 1.8 mmol/L) (P effect on AMS development. PMID:25550957

  14. Regional differences in the cerebral blood flow velocity response to hypobaric hypoxia at high altitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feddersen, Berend; Neupane, Pritam; Thanbichler, Florian; Hadolt, Irmgard; Sattelmeyer, Vera; Pfefferkorn, Thomas; Waanders, Robb; Noachtar, Soheyl; Ausserer, Harald

    2015-11-01

    Symptoms of acute mountain sickness (AMS) may appear above 2,500 m altitude, if the time allowed for acclimatization is insufficient. As the mechanisms underlying brain adaptation to the hypobaric hypoxic environment are not fully understood, a prospective study was performed investigating neurophysiological changes by means of near infrared spectroscopy, electroencephalograpy (EEG), and transcranial doppler sonography at 100, 3,440 and 5,050 m above sea level in the Khumbu Himal, Nepal. Fourteen of the 26 mountaineers reaching 5,050 m altitude developed symptoms of AMS between 3,440 and 5,050 m altitude (Lake-Louise Score ⩾3). Their EEG frontal beta activity and occipital alpha activity increased between 100 and 3,440 m altitude, i.e., before symptoms appeared. Cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV) in the anterior and middle cerebral arteries (MCAs) increased in all mountaineers between 100 and 3,440 m altitude. During further ascent to 5,050 altitude, mountaineers with AMS developed a further increase in CBFV in the MCA, whereas in all mountaineers CBFV decreased continuously with increasing altitude in the posterior cerebral arteries. These results indicate that hypobaric hypoxia causes different regional changes in CBFV despite similar electrophysiological changes. PMID:26082017

  15. Barcroft's bold assertion: All dwellers at high altitudes are persons of impaired physical and mental powers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, John B

    2016-03-01

    Barcroft's bold assertion that everyone at high altitude has physical and mental impairment compared with sea level was very provocative. It was a result of the expedition that he led to Cerro de Pasco in Peru, altitude 4300 m. Although it is clear that newcomers to high altitude have reduced physical powers, some people believe that this does not apply to permanent residents who have been at high altitude for generations. The best evidence supports Barcroft's contention, although permanent residents often perform better than acclimatized lowlanders. Turning to neuropsychological function, newcomers to high altitude certainly have some impairment, and there is evidence that the same applies to highlanders. However the notion that permanent residents are impaired is anathema to many people. For example the eminent Peruvian physician Carlos Monge took great exception to Barcroft's remark and even attributed it to the fact that Barcroft was suffering from acute mountain sickness when he made it! Monge referred to 'climatic aggression', by which he meant the negative consequences of the inevitable hypoxia of high altitude. Recent technological advances such as oxygen enrichment of room air can overcome this 'aggression'. This might be useful in some settings at high altitude such as a nursery where newborn babies are cared for, and possibly operating rooms where the surgeon's dexterity may be enhanced. Other situations might be dormitories, conference rooms, and perhaps some school rooms. These constitute possible ways by which the effects of Barcroft's assertion might be countered. PMID:25962370

  16. Sickness absence due to depressive symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, P. C.; Roelen, C. A. M.; Groothoff, J. W.

    2008-01-01

    Objective There is no information on the duration of absence of depressed Dutch workers. The aim of this study was to determine the duration of sickness absence due to depressive symptoms in the working population. Methods In this observational study of 15% of the Dutch working population, all absen

  17. Sensory neurobiology: demystifying the sick sense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozza, Thomas

    2015-02-16

    The vomeronasal organ, a sensory structure within the olfactory system, detects chemical signals that affect social and sexual behaviors and that elicit responses to predator odors. A recent study demonstrates that innate avoidance of sick conspecifics requires an intact vomeronasal organ, expanding the repertoire of biological functions known to be mediated by this olfactory subsystem. PMID:25689911

  18. [23andMe and motion sickness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Bertrand

    2016-05-01

    A Genome Wide Association Study on propensity to motion sickness published by 23andMe gives interesting results, shows validity for self-reported phenotypic information and underlines the value of the model developed by the company for customer participation in genetic studies. PMID:27225928

  19. Cerebral blood flow in acute mountain sickness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J B; Wright, Anne; Lassen, N A;

    1990-01-01

    Changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF) were measured using the radioactive xenon technique and were related to the development of acute mountain sickness (AMS). In 12 subjects, ascending from 150 to 3,475 m, CBF was 24% increased at 24 h [45.1 to 55.9 initial slope index (ISI) units] and 4% increased...

  20. Stroboscopic Goggles for Reduction of Motion Sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reschke, M. F.; Somers, Jeffrey T.

    2005-01-01

    A device built around a pair of electronic shutters has been demonstrated to be effective as a prototype of stroboscopic goggles or eyeglasses for preventing or reducing motion sickness. The momentary opening of the shutters helps to suppress a phenomenon that is known in the art as retinal slip and is described more fully below. While a number of different environmental factors can induce motion sickness, a common factor associated with every known motion environment is sensory confusion or sensory mismatch. Motion sickness is a product of misinformation arriving at a central point in the nervous system from the senses from which one determines one s spatial orientation. When information from the eyes, ears, joints, and pressure receptors are all in agreement as to one s orientation, there is no motion sickness. When one or more sensory input(s) to the brain is not expected, or conflicts with what is anticipated, the end product is motion sickness. Normally, an observer s eye moves, compensating for the anticipated effect of motion, in such a manner that the image of an object moving relatively to an observer is held stationary on the retina. In almost every known environment that induces motion sickness, a change in the gain (in the signal-processing sense of gain ) of the vestibular system causes the motion of the eye to fail to hold images stationary on the retina, and the resulting motion of the images is termed retinal slip. The present concept of stroboscopic goggles or eyeglasses (see figure) is based on the proposition that prevention of retinal slip, and hence, the prevention of sensory mismatch, can be expected to reduce the tendency toward motion sickness. A device according to this concept helps to prevent retinal slip by providing snapshots of the visual environment through electronic shutters that are brief enough that each snapshot freezes the image on each retina. The exposure time for each snapshot is less than 5 ms. In the event that a higher

  1. RESPIRATORY STUDIES IN CHRONIC MOUNTAIN SICKNESS:THE PERUVIAN EXPERIENCE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fabiola León-Velarde

    2005-01-01

    @@ Chronic Mountain Sickness (CMS) is a multifactorial disease caused by a limited capacity to achieve complete adaptation to life under chronic hypoxic conditions. It is accompanied by excessive erythrocitosis (levels of erythrocytes above the normal value set for each altitude), and in advances cases also by pulmonary hypertension. The hypoxemia, caused by central or peripheral respiratory disorders and/or associated to diverse risk factors, produces the excessive erythrocytosis. The most common symptoms are headaches, dizziness, breathlessness, sleep disturbances, tinnitus, physical and mental fatigue, anorexia, and bone and muscle pain. The most common signs are an intermittent or permanent cyanosis, hyperemia and venous dilatation in hands or feet (Monge-M et al., 1928; Winslow and Monge-C, 1987). Aging, respiratory diseases, sleep, menopause, and overweight has proved to be additional risk factors in the development of CMS (Kryger et al., 1978; León-Velarde et al., 1993; Sime et al., 1975; León-Velarde et al., 1997; León-Velarde et al., 2001; Monge-C et al., 1992; Normand et al., 1992)

  2. Threshold altitude for bubble decay and stabilization in rat adipose tissue at hypobaric exposures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Randsoe, Thomas; Larsen, Ole Hyldegaard

    2013-01-01

    Bubble formation during altitude exposures, causing altitude decompression sickness (aDCS), has been referred to in theoretical models as venous gas embolisms (VGE). This has also been demonstrated by intravascular gas formation. Previous reports indicate that the formation of VGE and aDCS incide......Bubble formation during altitude exposures, causing altitude decompression sickness (aDCS), has been referred to in theoretical models as venous gas embolisms (VGE). This has also been demonstrated by intravascular gas formation. Previous reports indicate that the formation of VGE and a......DCS incidence increase abruptly for exposures exceeding 40-44 kPa ambient pressures. Further, extravascular micro air bubbles injected into adipose tissue grow transiently, then shrink and disappear while breathing oxygen (F1O2 = 1.0) at 71 kPa. At 25 kPa similar air bubbles will grow and stabilize during...... oxygen breathing without disappearing. We hypothesize that an ambient pressure threshold for either extravascular bubble stabilization or disappearance may be identified between 71 and 25 kPa. Whether extravascular bubbles will stabilize above a certain threshold has not been demonstrated before....

  3. The role of oxygen-increased respirator in humans ascending to high altitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen Guanghao

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute mountain sickness (AMS is common for people who live in low altitude areas ascending to the high altitude. Many instruments have been developed to treat mild cases of AMS. However, long-lasting and portable anti-hypoxia equipment for individual is not yet available. Methods Oxygen-increased respirator (OIR has been designed to reduce the risk of acute mountain sickness in acute exposure to low air pressure. It can increase the density of oxygen by increasing total atmospheric pressure in a mask. Male subjects were screened, and eighty-eight were qualified to perform the experiments. The subjects were divided into 5 groups and were involved in some of the tests at 4 different altitudes (Group 1, 2: 3700 m; Group 3,4,5: 4000 m, 4700 m, 5380 m with and without OIR. These tests include heart rate, saturation of peripheral oxygen (SpO2, malondialdehyde (MDA, superoxide dismutase (SOD, blood lactate (BLA and PWC (physical work capacity -170. Results The results showed that higher SpO2, lower heart rate (except during exercise and better recovery of heart rate were observed from all the subjects ’with OIR’ compared with ’without OIR’ (P Conclusions We suggested that OIR may play a useful role in protecting people ascending to high altitude before acclimatization.

  4. Acclimatisation in trekkers with and without recent exposure to high altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacNutt, Meaghan J; Laursen, Paul B; Kedia, Shiksha; Neupane, Maniraj; Parajuli, Parash; Pokharel, Jhapindra; Sheel, A William

    2012-09-01

    In mountaineers, recent altitude exposure has been shown to improve climbing performance and clinical outcomes during re-exposure to high altitude. However, the timing of previous altitude exposure has not been clearly reported and previous findings might be driven by individuals who were still acclimatised at the time of re-exposure. Our goal was to determine whether recent altitude exposure would confer an advantage even in individuals who had de-acclimatised for ≥ 1 week before being re-exposure. Low-altitude natives kept a daily trekking log throughout 7- to 8-day trek from Lukla (2,840 m) to Gokyo Ri (5,360 m). Trekkers with recent altitude exposure (re-acclimatisers, RA; n = 20) walked 20% faster (p < 0.01), reported lower acute mountain sickness scores (9 ± 8 vs. 15 ± 13; p = 0.02), and used less medication to treat headache (p < 0.05) compared to trekkers with no recent altitude exposure (initial acclimatisers, IA; n = 30). On Gokyo Ri, S(p)O(2) was significantly higher in RA than IA trekkers (85 ± 6 vs. 78 ± 6; p = 0.01). These data indicate improved functional outcomes and physiological compensation for hypoxia in RA. However, even after de-acclimatisation for 7-30 days, it is possible that RA trekkers began the trek in a more acclimatised state than IA trekkers. RA trekkers might represent a self-selected group that has previously tolerated altitude well and has therefore opted to return. Some findings might also reflect improved psychological altitude tolerance in RA. A direct comparison of the functional and physiological responses to hypoxia throughout an initial and re-acclimatisation to high altitude is needed. PMID:22252248

  5. Towards Probablistic Assessment of Hypobaric Decompression Sickness Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conkin, J.; Abercromby, A. F.; Feiveson, A. H.; Gernhardt, M. L.; Norcross, J. R.; Ploutz-Snyder, R.; Wessel, J. H., III

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Pressure, oxygen (O2), and time are the pillars to effective treatment of decompression sickness (DCS). The NASA DCS Treatment Model links a decrease in computed bubble volume to the resolution of a symptom. The decrease in volume is realized in two stages: a) during the Boyle's Law compression and b) during subsequent dissolution of the gas phase by the O2 window. METHODS: The cumulative distribution of 154 symptoms that resolved during repressurization was described with a log-logistic density function of pressure difference (deltaP as psid) associated with symptom resolution and two other explanatory variables. The 154 symptoms originated from 119 cases of DCS during 969 exposures in 47 different altitude tests. RESULTS: The probability of symptom resolution [P(symptom resolution)] = 1 / (1+exp(- (ln(deltaP) - 1.682 + 1.089×AMB - 0.00395×SYMPTOM TIME) / 0.633)), where AMB is 1 when the subject ambulated as part of the altitude exposure or else 0 and SYMPTOM TIME is the elapsed time in min from start of the altitude exposure to recognition of a DCS symptom. The P(symptom resolution) was estimated from computed deltaP from the Tissue Bubble Dynamics Model based on the "effective" Boyle's Law change: P2 - P1 (deltaP, psid) = P1×V1/V2 - P1, where V1 is the computed volume of a spherical bubble in a unit volume of tissue at low pressure P1 and V2 is computed volume after a change to a higher pressure P2. V2 continues to decrease through time at P2, at a faster rate if 100% ground level O2 was breathed. The computed deltaP is the effective treatment pressure at any point in time as if the entire ?deltaP was just from Boyle's Law compression. DISCUSSION: Given the low probability of DCS during extravehicular activity and the prompt treatment of a symptom with options through the model it is likely that the symptom and gas phase will resolve with minimum resources and minimal impact on astronaut health, safety, and productivity.

  6. Subtle Cognitive Dysfunction in Resolving High Altitude Cerebral Edema Revealed by a Clock Drawing Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quigley, Ian; Zafren, Ken

    2016-06-01

    High altitude cerebral edema (HACE) is a life-threatening condition that can affect people who ascend to altitudes above 2500 m. Altered mental status and the presence of ataxia distinguishes HACE from acute mountain sickness (AMS). We describe a patient with subtle cognitive dysfunction, likely due to HACE that had not fully resolved. When he initially presented, the patient appeared to have normal mental status and was not ataxic. The diagnosis of HACE was missed initially but was made when further history became available. Cognitive dysfunction was then diagnosed based on abnormal performance of a clock drawing test. A formal mental status examination, using a clock drawing test, may be helpful in assessing whether a patient at high altitude with apparently normal mental status and with normal gait has HACE. PMID:26874815

  7. Early risk assessment of long-term sick leave among patients in primary health care : risk factors, assessment tools, multidisciplinary intervention, and patients’ views on sick leave conclusion

    OpenAIRE

    von Celsing, Anna-Sophia

    2016-01-01

    Background. Long-term sick leave is one of the main risk factors for permanent exit out of the labour market. The longer the duration of sickness absence, the less likely sick leave conclusion. Objectives and Methods. The aims were to analyse possible determinants of sick leave conclusion and their relative impacts, to analyse the properties of two models for the assessment of sick leave conclusion, to study the impact of a multidisciplinary vocational intervention for sick leave conclusion i...

  8. [Human life at high altitudes: myths and realities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, E; Villena, M

    1989-01-01

    Life at high altitude presents very interesting biological and medical aspects. For countries such as the Andeans, it also has socio-economical implications. The most important towns of Bolivia are situated between 3,000 and 4,850 m. It's to say that a great percentage of the population is permanently staying there. Moreover owing to the improvement of the roads and transport, an extensive migration (professional life, business, tourism, sport) developed some years ago. At 3,000 to 4,850 m, an oxygen arterial pressure (PaO2) between 40 and 70 mm Hg is resulting from the environmental hypoxia. The adaptation to hypoxia takes place in two phases: --that incomplete, observed at short time in people who recently arrived, --that at very long time, observed in the native. The rapid arrival at more than 3,000 m, exposes the traveller to an hypoxic ventilatory stimulus which produces a hyperventilation response to increased PaO2. This hyperventilation brings out a decreasing of carbon dioxide arterial pressure (PaCO2) and alkalosis of the blood. This respiratory alkalosis seems to be responsible for most troubles which are present in the Acute Mountain Sickness linked to the CO2 role in cerebral blood circulation. At the same time but more slowly the classical high altitude polycythemia develops which permits compensate partially the hypoxic effect in 3 to 4 weeks. In the native the adaptation implies physiological variations of some parameters concerning the individual development. The principal studies showed that the native present a notable hyposensitivity to hypoxia and also to the stimulus CO2-H+. The Chronic Mountain Sickness patients have a less sensitivity to the same stimuli than the natives. PMID:2699275

  9. Diagnosis of moderate acute radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forty patients with malignant lymphoma were given 60Co TLI. 21 cases received 6 Gy and 19 received 8 Gy. It was estimated that a single TLI of 6 and 8 Gy would correspond to TBI of 3.55 Gy and 4.25 Gy (average values) by analysing peripheral blood cell chromosome aberrations and 1.85-2.37 Gy by measuring red bone marrow stem cells clinically. Moderate acute radiation sickness with digestive tract reaction and hemopoietic and immunologic depression was observed. WBC and platelets decreased rapidly. Lymphocytes showed quantitative and qualitative changes even at early stage. All these indexes are significant for diagnosis. Besides, the degree of labial stimulation response, levels of C-reactive protein, corticoid, and urinal nucleoside and alkaloid base presented great changes both pre-and post-irradiation. Early diagnosis of moderate acute radiation sickness could be made in cancer patients subjected to 6-8 Gy TLI

  10. Remote ischemic preconditioning for prevention of high-altitude diseases: fact or fiction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Marc Moritz; Macholz, Franziska; Mairbäurl, Heimo; Bärtsch, Peter

    2015-11-15

    Preconditioning refers to exposure to brief episodes of potentially adverse stimuli and protects against injury during subsequent exposures. This was first described in the heart, where episodes of ischemia/reperfusion render the myocardium resistant to subsequent ischemic injury, which is likely caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS) and proinflammatory processes. Protection of the heart was also found when preconditioning was performed in an organ different from the target, which is called remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC). The mechanisms causing protection seem to include stimulation of nitric oxide (NO) synthase, increase in antioxidant enzymes, and downregulation of proinflammatory cytokines. These pathways are also thought to play a role in high-altitude diseases: high-altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE) is associated with decreased bioavailability of NO and increased generation of ROS, whereas mechanisms causing acute mountain sickness (AMS) and high-altitude cerebral edema (HACE) seem to involve cytotoxic effects by ROS and inflammation. Based on these apparent similarities between ischemic damage and AMS, HACE, and HAPE, it is reasonable to assume that RIPC might be protective and improve altitude tolerance. In studies addressing high-altitude/hypoxia tolerance, RIPC has been shown to decrease pulmonary arterial systolic pressure in normobaric hypoxia (13% O2) and at high altitude (4,342 m). Our own results indicate that RIPC transiently decreases the severity of AMS at 12% O2. Thus preliminary studies show some benefit, but clearly, further experiments to establish the efficacy and potential mechanism of RIPC are needed. PMID:26089545

  11. Psychological climate, sickness absence and gender

    OpenAIRE

    González-Romá, V.; Väänänen, A.; Ripoll, P; Caballer, A.; Peiró, J.M.; Kivimäki, M

    2005-01-01

    We examined whether the relationship between psychological climate and sickness absence is moderated by gender. We expected that this relationship would be stronger among men than among women. We tested this general hypothesis using two samples of men and women nurses (made up of 114 and 189 subjects, respectively). The results obtained supported our expectation. The three climate facets considered (support, goals orientation and rules orientation) showed a significant relationship with sickn...

  12. Association between body water status and acute mountain sickness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannes Gatterer

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The present study determined the association between body fluid variation and the development of acute mountain sickness (AMS in adults. METHODS: Forty-three healthy participants (26 males and 17 females, age: 26 ± 6 yr, height: 174 ± 9 cm, weight: 68 ± 12 kg were passively exposed at a FiO2 of 12.6% (simulated altitude hypoxia of 4500 m, PiO2 = 83.9 mmHg for 12-h. AMS severity was assessed using the Lake Louise Score (LLS. Food and drink intakes were consumed ad libitum and measured; all urine was collected. Before and after the 12-h exposure, body weight and plasma osmolality were measured and whole-body bioimpedance analysis was performed. RESULTS: The overall AMS incidence was 43% (38% males, 50% females. Participants who developed AMS showed lower fluid losses (3.0 ± 0.9 vs. 4.5 ± 2.0 ml/kg/h, p = 0.002, a higher fluid retention (1.9 ± 1.5 vs. 0.6 ± 0.8 ml/kg/h, p = 0.022, greater plasma osmolality decreases (-7 ± 7 vs. -2 ± 5 mOsm/kg, p = 0.028 and a larger plasma volume expansion (11 ± 10 vs. 1 ± 15%, p = 0.041 compared to participants not developing AMS. Net water balance (fluid intake--fluid loss and the amount of fluid loss were strong predictors whether getting sick or not (Nagelkerkes r(2 = 0.532. The LLS score was related to net water balance (r = 0.358, p = 0.018, changes in plasma osmolality (r = -0.325, p = 0.033 and sodium concentration (r = -0.305, p = 0.047. Changes in the impedance vector length were related to weight changes (r = -0.550, p<0.001, fluid intake (r = -0.533, p<0.001 and net water balance (r = -0.590, p<0.001. CONCLUSIONS: Participants developing AMS within 12 hours showed a positive net water balance due to low fluid loss. Thus measures to avoid excess fluid retention are likely to reduce AMS symptoms.

  13. Visfatin induces sickness responses in the brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byong Seo Park

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Visfatin, also known as nicotiamide phosphoribosyltransferase or pre-B cell colony enhancing factor, is a pro-inflammatory cytokine whose serum level is increased in sepsis and cancer as well as in obesity. Here we report a pro-inflammatory role of visfatin in the brain, to mediate sickness responses including anorexia, hyperthermia and hypoactivity. METHODOLOGY: Rats were intracerebroventricularly (ICV injected with visfatin, and changes in food intake, body weight, body temperature and locomotor activity were monitored. Real-time PCR was applied to determine the expressions of pro-inflammatory cytokines, proopiomelanocortin (POMC and prostaglandin-synthesizing enzymes in their brain. To determine the roles of cyclooxygenase (COX and melanocortin in the visfatin action, rats were ICV-injected with visfatin with or without SHU9119, a melanocortin receptor antagonist, or indomethacin, a COX inhibitor, and their sickness behaviors were evaluated. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Administration of visfatin decreased food intake, body weight and locomotor activity and increased body temperature. Visfatin evoked significant increases in the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, prostaglandin-synthesizing enzymes and POMC, an anorexigenic neuropeptide. Indomethacin attenuated the effects of visfatin on hyperthermia and hypoactivity, but not anorexia. Further, SHU9119 blocked visfatin-induced anorexia but did not affect hyperthermia or hypoactivity. CONCLUSIONS: Visfatin induced sickness responses via regulation of COX and the melanocortin pathway in the brain.

  14. Serum sickness secondary to ciprofloxacin use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guharoy, S R

    1994-12-01

    Although serum sickness-like reactions are uncommon, various drugs have recently been implicated to manifest the reaction. The following case report is of a possible serum sickness-like reaction secondary to ciprofloxacin use, a commonly prescribed antibiotic in the US. A 62-y-old female developed polyarthralgias, myalgia and a generalized urticarial rash following 5 d use of ciprofloxacin. On admission to the hospital, patient was placed on cefazolin and gentamicin for suspected bacteremia. However, the regimen was discontinued after 72 h because of worsening clinical condition. Patient was placed on iv methylprednisolone therapy, and within 18 h a significant improvement was noted in her myalgias and rash. Over the next 72 h the steroid therapy was changed to a po regimen and the patient became asymptomatic 5 d after the initiation of steroid therapy. Patient was discharged on day 9 of hospital admission. Though serum sickness-like reactions have been reported with various drugs, only 1 case has been reported implicating ciprofloxacin. Clinicians should be aware of this potential adverse event secondary to ciprofloxacin use. PMID:7900274

  15. Venus Altitude Cycling Balloon Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The ISTAR Group ( IG) and team mate Thin Red Line Aerospace (TRLA) propose a Venus altitude cycling balloon (Venus ACB), an innovative superpressure balloon...

  16. Coronary heart disease at altitude.

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander, J K

    1994-01-01

    In the past, it has been assumed that some basic physiologic responses to altitude, exposure in coronary patients are comparable to those in normal young subjects. In fact there are similar changes in sympathetic activation, heart rate, and blood pressure early after ascent, with decrements in plasma volume, cardiac output, and stroke volume as acclimatization proceeds. These responses are described, and experience with coronary patients is reviewed. During the 1st 2 to 3 days at altitude, co...

  17. High-altitude pulmonary hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    X-Q. Xu; Z-C. Jing

    2009-01-01

    High-altitude pulmonary hypertension (HAPH) is a specific disease affecting populations that live at high elevations. The prevalence of HAPH among those residing at high altitudes needs to be further defined. Whereas reduction in nitric oxide production may be one mechanism for the development of HAPH, the roles of endothelin-1 and prostaglandin I2 pathways in the pathogenesis of HAPH deserve further study. Although some studies have suggested that genetic factors contribute to the pathogenes...

  18. Effect of Acetazolamide and Gingko Biloba on the Human Pulmonary Vascular Response to an Acute Altitude Ascent

    OpenAIRE

    Ke, Tao; Wang, Jiye; Swenson, Erik R; Zhang, Xiangnan; Hu, Yunlong; Chen, Yaoming; Liu, Mingchao; Zhang, Wenbin; Zhao, Feng; Shen, Xuefeng; Yang, Qun; Chen, Jingyuan; Luo, Wenjing

    2013-01-01

    Ke, Tao, Jiye Wang, Erik R. Swenson, Xiangnan Zhang, Yunlong Hu, Yaoming Chen, Mingchao Liu, Wenbin Zhang, Feng Zhao, Xuefeng Shen, Qun Yang, Jingyuan Chen, and Wenjing Luo. Effect of acetazolamide and gingko biloba on the human pulmonary vascular response to an acute altitude ascent. High Alt Med Biol 14:162–167, 2013.—Acetazolamide and gingko biloba are the two most investigated drugs for the prevention of acute mountain sickness (AMS). Evidence suggests that they may also reduce pulmonary ...

  19. Ambulation Increases Decompression Sickness in Spacewalk Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, N. W.; Natoli, M. J.; Conkin, J.; Wessel, J. H., III; Gernhardt, M. L.

    2014-01-01

    Musculoskeletal activity has the potential to both improve and compromise decompression safety. Exercise enhances inert gas elimination during oxygen breathing prior to decompression (prebreathe), but it may also promote bubble nuclei formation (nucleation), which can lead to gas phase separation and bubble growth and increase the risk of decompression sickness (DCS). The timing, pattern and intensity of musculoskeletal activity and the level of tissue supersaturation may be critical to the net effect. Understanding the relationships is important to evaluate exercise prebreathe protocols and quantify decompression risk in gravity and microgravity environments. Data gathered during NASA's Prebreathe Reduction Program (PRP) studies combined oxygen prebreathe and exercise followed by low pressure (4.3 psi; altitude equivalent of 30,300 ft [9,235 m]) microgravity simulation to produce two protocols used by astronauts preparing for extravehicular activity. Both the Phase II/CEVIS (cycle ergometer vibration isolation system) and ISLE (in-suit light exercise) trials eliminated ambulation to more closely simulate the microgravity environment. The CEVIS results (35 male, 10 female) serve as control data for this NASA/Duke study to investigate the influence of ambulation exercise on bubble formation and the subsequent risk of DCS. METHODS Four experiments will replicate the CEVIS exercise-enhanced oxygen prebreathe protocol, each with a different exception. The first of these is currently underway. Experiment 1 - Subjects complete controlled ambulation (walking in place with fixed cadence and step height) during both preflight and at 4.3 psi instead of remaining nonambulatory throughout. Experiment 2 - Subjects remain non-ambulatory during the preflight period and ambulatory at 4.3 psi. Experiment 3 - Subjects ambulate during the preflight period and remain non-ambulatory at 4.3 psi. Experiment 4 - The order of heavy and light exercise employed in the CEVIS protocol is

  20. Deep Vein Thrombosis and Pulmonary Embolism in a Mountain Guide: Awareness, Diagnostic Challenges, and Management Considerations at Altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Claire M; Rajendran, Dévan; Fernandez Barnes, Arturo

    2016-03-01

    High intensity exercise is associated with several potentially thrombogenic risk factors, including dehydration and hemoconcentration, vascular trauma, musculoskeletal injuries, inflammation, long-distance travel, and contraceptive usage. These are well documented in case reports of venous thrombosis in track and field athletes. For mountaineers and those working at high altitude, additional risks exist. However, despite there being a high degree of vigilance for "classic" conditions encountered at altitude (eg, acute mountain sickness, high altitude pulmonary edema, and high altitude cerebral edema), mainstream awareness regarding thrombotic conditions and their complications in mountain athletes is relatively low. This is significant because thromboembolic events (including deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, and cerebral vascular thrombosis) are not uncommon at altitude. We describe a case of deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism in a male mountain guide and discuss the diagnostic issues encountered by his medical practitioners. Potential risk factors affecting blood circulation (eg, seated car travel and compression of popliteal vein) and blood hypercoagulability (eg, hypoxia, environmental and psychological stressors [avalanche risk, extreme cold]) relevant to the subject of this report and mountain athletes in general are identified. Considerations for mitigating and managing thrombosis in addition to personalized care planning at altitude are discussed. The prevalence of thrombosis in mountain athletes is uncharted, but lowlanders increasingly go to high altitude to trek, ski, or climb. Blood clots can and do occur in physically active people, and thrombosis prevention and recognition will demand heightened awareness among participants, healthcare practitioners, and the altitude sport/leisure industry at large. PMID:26723546

  1. Prediction of Sickness Absenteeism, Disability Pension and Sickness Presenteeism Among Employees with Back Pain

    OpenAIRE

    Bergström, Gunnar; Hagberg, Jan; Busch, Hillevi; Jensen, Irene; Björklund, Christina

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the predictive ability of the Örebro Musculoskeletal Pain Screening Questionnaire (ÖMPSQ) concerning long-term sick leave, sickness presenteeism and disability pension during a follow-up period of 2 years. Methods The study group consisted of 195 employees visiting the occupational health service (OHS) due to back pain. Results Using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves, the area under the curve (AUC) varied from 0.67 to 0.93, wh...

  2. The effect of working conditions on teachers'sickness absence

    OpenAIRE

    Rønning, Marte

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of working conditions on the amount of teachers’sickness absence in Norway. Exploiting intertemporal variation within teachers who have not changed schools, the findings indicate that teachers lower their amount of sickness absence if the school’s resource use increases. Increased workload and permanent employment contract are associated with higher sickness absence. When stratifying on teachers’age, increased workload appears to have a larger ...

  3. Cytokines: how important are they in mediating sickness?

    OpenAIRE

    Ho, YS; Poon, DCH; Chang, RCC; Chiu, K.

    2013-01-01

    Sickness refers to a set of coordinated physiological and behavioral changes in response to systemic inflammation. It is characterized by fever, malaise, social withdrawal, fatigue, and anorexia. While these responses collectively represent a protective mechanism against infection and injury, increasing lines of evidence indicate that over-exaggerated or persistent sickness can damage the brain, and could possibly raise the risk to developing delirium. Therefore, a clear understanding in sick...

  4. Return to work following sickness absence due to infectious mononucleosis

    OpenAIRE

    Koopmans, P. C.; Bakhtali, R.; Katan, A.A.; Groothoff, J. W.; Roelen, C.A.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Epstein-Barr virus infectious mononucleosis among adults is notorious because of the prolonged incapacitating fatigue it causes. AIMS: To investigate the duration of sickness absence and return to work following infectious mononucleosis. METHODS: Episodes of sickness absence due to infectious mononucleosis were selected from an occupational health services register. The duration of sickness absence and return to work was assessed with Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. RESULTS: Two t...

  5. Motion sickness: advances in pathogenesis, prediction, prevention, and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shupak, Avi; Gordon, Carlos R

    2006-12-01

    Motion sickness has a major influence on modern traveling activities and the rapidly spreading engagement in virtual reality immersion. Recent evidence emphasizes the role of the otoliths in the pathogenesis of motion sickness, and several new theories may help explain its occurrence beyond the traditional sensory conflict theory. A promising new direction is the recently reported association of genetic polymorphism of the alpha2-adrenergic receptor with increased autonomic response to stress and motion sickness. Various physiological measures for the evaluation and prediction of motion sickness have been tested. However, no single parameter has yet been found to be of high enough sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis or prediction of individual motion sickness susceptibility. A number of pharmacological and non-pharmacological countermeasures are used for the prevention and treatment of motion sickness. The non-pharmacological options include all procedures that reduce conflicting sensory input, accelerate the process of multi-sensory adaptation, and promote psychological factors which enable the subject to cope with his/her condition. The most effective anti-motion sickness drugs are central acting anticholinergics and H1 antihistamines; however, adverse effects on psychomotor performance may limit their use in drivers, pilots, and naval crewmembers. Recent studies may be relevant to our understanding of the link between motion sickness, migraine, vertigo, and anxiety. Based on these findings and on recent neurochemical data, the development of new anti-motion sickness agents is a promising field of investigation. PMID:17183916

  6. MR Imaging of Subclinical Cerebral Decompression Sickness. A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diving accidents related to barotrauma constitute a unique subset of ischemic insults to the central nervous system. Victims may demonstrate components of arterial gas embolism, which has a propensity for cerebral involvement, and/or decompression sickness, with primarily spinal cord involvement. Decompression sickness-related radiology literature is very limited. We present our MR findings including FLAIR images in a decompression sickness patient with atypical presentation and review the related literature. We believe MR can be useful in follow-up studies and in early diagnosis of decompression sickness when symptoms do not fit the classic picture or loss of consciousness in surfacing

  7. Exploiting Aerobic Fitness to Reduce Risk of Hypobaric Decompression Sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conkin, J.; Gernhardt, M. L.; Wessel, J. H.

    2007-01-01

    Decompression sickness (DCS) is multivariable. But we hypothesize an aerobically fit person is less likely to experience hypobaric DCS than an unfit person given that fitness is exploited as part of the denitrogenation (prebreathe, PB) process prior to an altitude exposure. Aerobic fitness is peak oxygen uptake (VO2pk, ml/kg/min). Treadmill or cycle protocols were used over 15 years to determine VO2pks. We evaluated dichotomous DCS outcome and venous gas emboli (VGE) outcome detected in the pulmonary artery with Doppler ultrasound associated with VO2pk for two classes of experiments: 1) those with no PB or PB under resting conditions prior to ascent in an altitude chamber, and 2) PB that included exercise for some part of the PB. There were 165 exposures (mean VO2pk 40.5 plus or minus 7.6 SD) with 25 cases of DCS in the first protocol class and 172 exposures (mean VO2pk 41.4 plus or minus 7.2 SD) with 25 cases of DCS in the second. Similar incidence of the DCS (15.2% vs. 14.5%) and VGE (45.5% vs. 44.8%) between the two classes indicates that decompression stress was similar. The strength of association between outcome and VO2pk was evaluated using univariate logistic regression. An inverse relationship between the DCS outcome and VO2pk was evident, but the relationship was strongest when exercise was done as part of the PB (exercise PB, coef. = -0.058, p = 0.07; rest or no PB, coef. = -0.005, p = 0.86). There was no relationship between VGE outcome and VO2pk (exercise PB, coef. = -0.003, p = 0.89; rest or no PB, coef. = 0.014, p = 0.50). A significant change in probability of DCS was associated with fitness only when exercise was included in the denitrogenation process. We believe a fit person that exercises during PB efficiently eliminates dissolved nitrogen from tissues.

  8. Peripheral blood mononuclear cell gene expression in healthy adults rapidly transported to high altitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herman NM

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Nicole M Herman,1 Diane E Grill,2 Paul J Anderson,1 Andrew D Miller,1 Jacob B Johnson,1 Kathy A O’Malley,1 Maile L Ceridon Richert,1 Bruce D Johnson1 1Department of Cardiovascular Diseases, 2Department of Biostatistics, Mayo Clinic Rochester, MN, USA Abstract: Although mechanisms of high altitude illness have been studied extensively, the processes behind the development of these conditions are still unclear. Few genome-wide studies on rapid exposure to high altitude have been performed. Each year, scientists and support workers are transferred by plane from McMurdo Station in Antarctica (sea level to the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station at 2,835 meters. This uniform and rapid transfer to altitude provides a unique opportunity to study the effects of hypobaric hypoxia on gene expression that may help illustrate the body's adaptations to these conditions. We hypothesized that an extensive number of genes would change with rapid exposure to altitude and further expected that these genes would correspond to inflammatory pathways proposed as a mechanism in development of acute mountain sickness. Peripheral venous blood samples were drawn from 98 healthy subjects at sea level and again on day two at altitude. Microarray analysis was performed on these samples. In total, 1,118 probe sets with significant P-values and fold changes (90% upregulated were identified and entered into MetaCore™ software. Several pathways, including oxidative phosphorylation, cytoskeleton remodeling, and platelet aggregation, were significantly represented by the data set and all were upregulated. Many genes changed expression, and the vast majority of these increased. Increased metabolism in peripheral blood mononuclear cells suggests increased inflammatory activity. Keywords: peripheral blood mononuclear cells, microarray, gene expression, acute mountain sickness

  9. High-altitude pulmonary hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X-Q. Xu

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available High-altitude pulmonary hypertension (HAPH is a specific disease affecting populations that live at high elevations. The prevalence of HAPH among those residing at high altitudes needs to be further defined. Whereas reduction in nitric oxide production may be one mechanism for the development of HAPH, the roles of endothelin-1 and prostaglandin I2 pathways in the pathogenesis of HAPH deserve further study. Although some studies have suggested that genetic factors contribute to the pathogenesis of HAPH, data published to date are insufficient for the identification of a significant number of gene polymorphims in HAPH. The clinical presentation of HAPH is nonspecific. Exertional dyspnoea is the most common symptom and signs related to right heart failure are common in late stages of HAPH. Echocardiography is the most useful screening tool and right heart catheterisation is the gold standard for the diagnosis of HAPH. The ideal management for HAPH is migration to lower altitudes. Phosphodiesterase 5 is an attractive drug target for the treatment of HAPH. In addition, acetazolamide is a promising therapeutic agent for high-altitude pulmonary hypertension. To date, no evidence has confirmed whether endothelin-receptor antagonists have efficacy in the treatment of high-altitude pulmonary hypertension.

  10. Renin and aldosterone at high altitude in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keynes, R J; Smith, G W; Slater, J D; Brown, M M; Brown, S E; Payne, N N; Jowett, T P; Monge, C C

    1982-01-01

    Measurements have been made of hormonal changes relevant to salt and water balance during prolonged exposure to hypoxia to improve our understanding of the syndrome of acute mountain sickness. We have attempted to delineate the detailed inter-relationships between the renin-aldosterone and the vasopressin systems by a metabolically controlled study, involving an orthostatic stress (45 degrees head-up tilt) and an injection of a standard dose of ACTH to test adrenal responsiveness. Three Caucasian medical students underwent a 7-day equilibration at 150 m (Lima, Peru), followed by a 6-day sojourn at 4350 m (Cerro de Pasco, Peru) and a final 7 days at 150 m. Measurements were made of sodium and potassium balance, body weight and the 24-h renal excretion of vasopressin, cortisol and aldosterone 18-glucuronide. These variables showed little change, except for that of aldosterone 18-glucuronide, which fell sharply at altitude and rebounded even more sharply on return to sea level. At altitude, basal plasma levels of renin activity and aldosterone fell, and the response to orthostasis was attenuated, but the fall of plasma renin activity, as compared to plasma aldosterone, was delayed; on return to sea level this dissociation was exacerbated with the return of normal renin responsiveness lagging behind that of aldosterone. We suggest that unknown factors which dissociate the orthodox renin-aldosterone relationship, other than the activity of the angiotensin I-converting enzyme, are operative on exposure to hypoxia. PMID:7057120

  11. Controlling sickness absence: a study of changes in the Danish sickness absence legislation since 1973

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Kristina; Andersen, John Sahl; Mikkelsen, Sigurd; Pass, Ole; Raffnsøe, Sverre; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2007-01-01

    amendments to the act. RESULTS: Entitlement to sickness benefit in Denmark has undergone considerable changes during the past 30 years. The guiding principles of the reforms have been financial savings in combination with an assumption that human behaviour can be controlled through bureaucratic...

  12. Continuity of nursing and the time of sickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elstad, Ingunn; Torjuul, Kirsti

    2009-04-01

    This paper explores the relationship between temporal continuity in nursing and temporal features of sickness. It is based on phenomenological and hermeneutical philosophy, empirical studies of sickness time, and the nursing theories of Nightingale, of Benner and of Benner and Wrubel. In the first part, temporal continuity is defined as distinct from interpersonal continuity. Tensions between temporal continuity and discontinuity are discussed in the contexts of care management, of conceptualisations of disease and of time itself. Temporal limitations to the methodological concept of situation are discussed. The main part of this paper explores nurses' possibilities to relate to their patients' time, and how temporal features of sickness may warrant temporal continuity of nursing. Three temporal characteristics of sickness are discussed: the immediacy of patients' suffering, the basic continuity of life through sickness and health care, and the indeterminism and precariousness of sickness. The timing of nursing acts is discussed. The paper explores how sickness is both part of the continuity of life, and threatens this continuity. It concludes that this tension is implicitly recognised in the temporal continuity of nursing, which allows for discontinuous and continuous aspects of sickness time. Nurses accordingly perceive the sick person's time at several levels of temporality, and distinguish highly complex temporal processes in their patients' trajectory. Temporal continuity provides the time, flexibility, and closeness for nurses to perceive and act into time dimensions of individual sickness. The paper shows that temporal continuity of nursing is grounded in temporal characteristics of severe sickness. It suggests that temporal continuity is an important theoretical concept in nursing. PMID:19291197

  13. Hormonal Changes Under Altitude Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.D Brahmachari

    1977-04-01

    Full Text Available The separate effects of exposure for six hours to cold (8 degree Celsius, hypoxia (4267 m. and simulated altitude (8 degree Celsius at 4267 m.have been studied on ten human subjects in a decompression chamber, with respect to the changes in blood cortisol, ADH and urinary catecholamines. Changes in blood cortisol, PBI, ADH urinary excretion of 17-keto steroids and urine volume have been recorded on another ten subjects on acute exposure to high altitude (3505 m.. Changes in the same parameters alongwith urinary testosterone level, have been recorded on another 20 subjects on prolonged exposure for two years to high altitude (3505 m.. The results have been discussed.

  14. Diabetes, trekking and high altitude: recognizing and preparing for the risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohajeri, S; Perkins, B A; Brubaker, P L; Riddell, M C

    2015-11-01

    Although regular physical activity is encouraged for individuals with diabetes, exercise at high altitude increases risk for a number of potential complications. This review highlights our current understanding of the key physiological and clinical issues that accompany high-altitude travel and proposes basic clinical strategies to help overcome obstacles faced by trekkers with Type 1 or Type 2 diabetes. Although individuals with diabetes have adaptations to the hypoxia of high altitude (increased ventilation, heart rate, blood pressure and hormonal responses), elevated counter-regulatory hormones can impair glycaemic control, particularly if mountain sickness occurs. Moreover, high-altitude-induced anorexia and increased energy expenditure can predispose individuals to dysglycaemia unless careful adjustments in medication are performed. Frequent blood glucose monitoring is imperative, and results must be interpreted with caution because capillary blood glucose meter results may be less accurate at high elevations and low temperatures. It is also important to undergo pre-travel screening to rule out possible contraindications owing to chronic diabetes complications and make well-informed decisions about risks. Despite the risks, healthy, physically fit and well-prepared individuals with Type 1 or Type 2 diabetes who are capable of advanced self-management can be encouraged to participate in these activities and attain their summit goals. Moreover, trekking at high altitude can serve as an effective means to engage in physical activity and to increase confidence with fundamental diabetes self-management skills. PMID:25962798

  15. Altitude precipitation gradient in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živković Nenad M.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Using average annual precipitations data for period 1961-90. from all rain gauges in Serbia, southern of Sava and Danube rivers, the map of altitude precipitations gradient is constructed. 59 regions homogeneous for relation X=f(H are obtained by regression analysis method (two-dimensional type, X precipitation height and H - altitude. Some new method are applied, some limitations are shown, some regularities are found in disposition of precipitation growth and it is indicated on practical application of this method in physico-geographical research.

  16. Learning by Doing, Knowledge Spillovers, and Technological and Organizational Change in High-Altitude Mountaineering

    OpenAIRE

    John R. Boyce; Diane P. Bischak

    2010-01-01

    We present an analysis of microlevel data from mountaineering on the 14 peaks over 8,000 m in height during the period 1895-1998. Prior to 1950, no expedition was successful in making an ascent and almost half of expeditions experienced a death, frostbite, or altitude sickness. By the 1990s, however, over half of the expeditions would successfully make an ascent and only about one in seven would experience an adverse outcome. Our objective is to distinguish between the effects of learning by ...

  17. Understanding of Altitude Illness and Use of Pharmacotherapy Among Trekkers and Porters in the Annapurna Region of Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havryliuk, Tatiana; Acharya, Bhuwan; Caruso, Emily; Cushing, Tracy

    2015-09-01

    We surveyed Nepali porters and guides as well as English- and non-English-speaking trekkers on their knowledge of altitude illness and its treatment during trekking expeditions to the Annapurna region of Nepal. From March 15 to April 15, 2014, Nepali porters and visiting trekkers were surveyed regarding their ability to recognize and treat altitude illness in Manang, Nepal (3540 m). Their personal use of medications and home remedies and presence of acute mountain sickness (AMS) symptoms were also assessed. 504 subjects were surveyed, including 108 Nepalis. Overall incidence of AMS symptoms was 16%, 5% among Nepalis, and 21% among trekkers. Subjects recognized that headache (88%) was one of the symptoms of AMS, however many reported not knowing the symptoms of high altitude pulmonary edema (40%) or high altitude cerebral edema (42%). 58% of subjects reported carrying and 16% reported taking acetazolamide, while only 2 (0.4%) respondents took dexamethasone. The majority of subjects reported that they would be able to recognize (67%) and treat (62%) altitude illness. Trekkers reported a higher incidence of AMS symptoms than Nepalis. Although most respondents recognized symptoms of AMS, both Nepalis and trekkers lacked knowledge regarding more serious presentations of altitude illness, thus both groups were overconfident in their ability to recognize and treat altitude illness. PMID:26244262

  18. Identifying employees at risk for job loss during sick leave

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flach, Peter A.; Groothoff, Johan W.; Bultmann, Ute

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the associations between medical, work-related, organizational and sociodemographic factors and job loss during sick leave in a Dutch population of 4132 employees on sick leave. Methods: Data were assessed by occupational health physicians (OHPs) on sociodemographic, medical, wor

  19. Reliability of provocative tests of motion sickness susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calkins, D. S.; Reschke, M. F.; Kennedy, R. S.; Dunlop, W. P.

    1987-01-01

    Test-retest reliability values were derived from motion sickness susceptibility scores obtained from two successive exposures to each of three tests: (1) Coriolis sickness sensitivity test; (2) staircase velocity movement test; and (3) parabolic flight static chair test. The reliability of the three tests ranged from 0.70 to 0.88. Normalizing values from predictors with skewed distributions improved the reliability.

  20. Return to work following sickness absence due to infectious mononucleosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, P.C.; Bakhtali, R.; Katan, A.A.; Groothoff, J.W.; Roelen, C.A.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Epstein-Barr virus infectious mononucleosis among adults is notorious because of the prolonged incapacitating fatigue it causes. AIMS: To investigate the duration of sickness absence and return to work following infectious mononucleosis. METHODS: Episodes of sickness absence due to infec

  1. The Role of Work Group in Individual Sickness Absence Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaananen, Ari; Tordera, Nuria; Kivimaki, Mika; Kouvonen, Anne; Pentti, Jaana; Linna, Anne; Vahtera, Jussi

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of our two-year follow-up study was to examine the effect of the social components of the work group, such as group absence norms and cohesion, on sickness absence behavior among individuals with varying attitudes toward work attendance. The social components were measured using a questionnaire survey, and data on sickness absence…

  2. Sickness absence frequency among women working in hospital care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelen, Corne A. M.; Schreuder, Jolanda A. H.; Koopmans, Petra C.; Moen, Bente E.; Groothoff, Johan W.

    2009-01-01

    Background Frequent short sickness absences result in understaffing and interfere with work processes. We need more knowledge about factors associated with this type of absence. Aims To investigate associations between the frequency of previous sickness absence and self-reported perceptions of healt

  3. Does muscle strength predict future musculoskeletal disorders and sickness absence?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, A; Sell, L; Hansen, J V;

    2012-01-01

    High muscle strength is considered relevant for preventing musculoskeletal disorders and long-term sickness absence. However, prospective studies on the association between muscle strength and future musculoskeletal disorders and long-term sickness absence are few and show contrasting results....

  4. Late stage infection in sleeping sickness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hartwig Wolburg

    Full Text Available At the turn of the 19(th century, trypanosomes were identified as the causative agent of sleeping sickness and their presence within the cerebrospinal fluid of late stage sleeping sickness patients was described. However, no definitive proof of how the parasites reach the brain has been presented so far. Analyzing electron micrographs prepared from rodent brains more than 20 days after infection, we present here conclusive evidence that the parasites first enter the brain via the choroid plexus from where they penetrate the epithelial cell layer to reach the ventricular system. Adversely, no trypanosomes were observed within the parenchyma outside blood vessels. We also show that brain infection depends on the formation of long slender trypanosomes and that the cerebrospinal fluid as well as the stroma of the choroid plexus is a hostile environment for the survival of trypanosomes, which enter the pial space including the Virchow-Robin space via the subarachnoid space to escape degradation. Our data suggest that trypanosomes do not intend to colonize the brain but reside near or within the glia limitans, from where they can re-populate blood vessels and disrupt the sleep wake cycles.

  5. The pathologic anatomy of radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The monograph considers pathologic anatomy and some problems of injury pathogenesis from external and incorporated radiation sources. The book is based on the generalized results of perennial authors investigations and literary data. The general characteristic of existing knowledge of the material substrate of different forms and types of radiation injuries, as well as of the dependence of structural changes on the nature and type of radiation, is given. Pathomorphology of organic manifestations of acute radiation sickness is thoroughly studied. The dynamics of structural alterations in blood ressels and their role in delayed trophic derangements due to radiation sickness are considered in detail; the peculiarities of infections and noninfections inflammatory changes in an irradiated organism and in the case of injuries due to the effect of incorporated radioactive substances, are described. Special attention is paid to the nonuniform external irradiation. Structural violations due to injuries caused by various radioactive substances and the peculiarities of their microdistribution in the case of different ways of administration into the organism, are described. Spectral attention is paid to delayed consequences of the organism injury by incorporated radioactive substances. The concluding chapter of the book presents the problems of differential pathoanatomical diagnostics of radiation injuries and their delayed effect due to generally spread nosologic forms of disease

  6. Acute Mountain Sickness, Hypoxia, Hypobaria and Exercise Duration each Affect Heart Rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiPasquale, D M; Strangman, G E; Harris, N S; Muza, S R

    2015-07-01

    In this study, we quantified the changes in post-exercise resting heart rate (HRrst) associated with acute mountain sickness (AMS), and compared the effects of hypobaric hypoxia (HH) and normobaric hypoxia (NH) on HRrst. We also examined the modulating roles of exercise duration and exposure time on HRrst. Each subject participated in 2 of 6 conditions: normobaric normoxia (NN), NH, or HH (4 400 m altitude equivalent) combined with either 10 or 60 min of moderate cycling at the beginning of an 8-h exposure. AMS was associated with a 2 bpm higher HRrst than when not sick, after taking into account the ambient environment, exercise duration, and SpO2. In addition, HRrst was elevated in both NH and HH compared to NN with HRrst being 50% higher in HH than in NH. Participating in long duration exercise led to elevated resting HRs (0.8-1.4 bpm higher) compared with short exercise, while short exercise caused a progressive increase in HRrst over the exposure period in both NH and HH (0.77-1.2 bpm/h of exposure). This data suggests that AMS, NH, HH, exercise duration, time of exposure, and SpO2 have independent effects on HRrst. It further suggests that hypobaria exerts its own effect on HRrst in hypoxia. Thus NH and HH may not be interchangeable environments. PMID:25837245

  7. Explanation of diagnosis criteria for radiation sickness from internal exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A revised edition of the Diagnostic Criteria for Radiation Sickness from Internal Exposure has been approved and issued by the Ministry of Health. It is necessary to research the internal radiation sickness to adapt to the current serious anti-terrorism situation. This standard was enacted based on the extensive research of related literature, from which 12 cases with internal radiation sickness and screened out were involving 7 types of radionuclide. The Development of Emergency Response Standard Extension Framework: Midterm Evaluation Report is the main reference which approved by the International Atomic Energy Agency and World Health Organization. This amendment contains many new provisions such as internal radiation sickness effects models and threshold dose, and the appendix added threshold dose of serious deterministic effects induced by radionuclide intake and radiotoxicology parameters of some radionuclides. In order to understand and implement this standard, and to diagnose and treat the internal radiation sickness correctly, the contents of this standard were interpreted in this article. (authors)

  8. Analyzing sickness absence with statistical models for survival data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Karl Bang; Andersen, Per Kragh; Smith-Hansen, Lars; Nielsen, Martin L; Kristensen, Tage S

    2007-01-01

    absence data deal with events occurring over time, the use of statistical models for survival data has been reviewed, and the use of frailty models has been proposed for the analysis of such data. METHODS: Three methods for analyzing data on sickness absences were compared using a simulation study......OBJECTIVES: Sickness absence is the outcome in many epidemiologic studies and is often based on summary measures such as the number of sickness absences per year. In this study the use of modern statistical methods was examined by making better use of the available information. Since sickness...... involving the following: (i) Poisson regression using a single outcome variable (number of sickness absences), (ii) analysis of time to first event using the Cox proportional hazards model, and (iii) frailty models, which are random effects proportional hazards models. Data from a study of the relation...

  9. Stroboscopic Vision as a Treatment for Space Motion Sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reschke, Millard F.; Somers, Jeffrey T.; Ford, George; Krnavek, Jody M.

    2007-01-01

    Results obtained from space flight indicate that most space crews will experience some symptoms of motion sickness causing significant impact on the operational objectives that must be accomplished to assure mission success. Based on the initial work of Melvill Jones we have evaluated stroboscopic vision as a method of preventing motion sickness. Given that the data presented by professor Melvill Jones were primarily post hoc results following a study not designed to investigate motion sickness, it is unclear how motion sickness results were actually determined. Building on these original results, we undertook a three part study that was designed to investigate the effect of stroboscopic vision (either with a strobe light or LCD shutter glasses) on motion sickness using: (1) visual field reversal, (2) Reading while riding in a car (with or without external vision present), and (3) making large pitch head movements during parabolic flight.

  10. Description of the NASA Hypobaric Decompression Sickness Database (1982-1998)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessel, J. H., III; Conkin, J.

    2008-01-01

    The availability of high-speed computers, data analysis software, and internet communication are compelling reasons to describe and make available computer databases from many disciplines. Methods: Human research using hypobaric chambers to understand and then prevent decompression sickness (DCS) during space walks has been conducted at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) from 1982 to 1998. The data are archived in the NASA Hypobaric Decompression Sickness Database, within an Access 2003 Relational Database. Results: There are 548 records from 237 individuals that participated in 31 unique tests. Each record includes physical characteristics, the denitrogenation procedure that was tested, and the outcome of the test, such as the report of a DCS symptom and the intensity of venous gas emboli (VGE) detected with an ultrasound Doppler bubble detector as they travel in the venous blood along the pulmonary artery on the way to the lungs. We documented 84 cases of DCS and 226 cases where VGE were detected. The test altitudes were 10.2, 10.1, 6.5, 6.0, and 4.3 pounds per square inch absolute (psia). 346 records are from tests conducted at 4.3 psia, the operating pressure of the current U.S. space suit. 169 records evaluate the Staged 10.2 psia Decompression Protocol used by the Space Shuttle Program. The mean exposure time at altitude was 242.3 minutes (SD = 80.6), with a range from 120 to 360 minutes. Among our test subjects, 96 records of exposures are females. The mean age of all test subjects was 31.8 years (SD = 7.17), with a range from 20 to 54 years. Discussion: These data combined with other published databases and evaluated with metaanalysis techniques would extend our understanding about DCS. A better understanding about the cause and prevention of DCS would benefit astronauts, aviators, and divers.

  11. Tolerance of Organ Transplant Recipients to Physical Activity during a High-Altitude Expedition: Climbing Mount Kilimanjaro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin J van Adrichem

    Full Text Available It is generally unknown to what extent organ transplant recipients can be physically challenged. During an expedition to Mount Kilimanjaro, the tolerance for strenuous physical activity and high-altitude of organ transplant recipients after various types of transplantation was compared to non-transplanted controls.Twelve organ transplant recipients were selected to participate (2 heart-, 2 lung-, 2 kidney-, 4 liver-, 1 allogeneic stem cell- and 1 small bowel-transplantation. Controls comprised the members of the medical team and accompanying family members (n = 14. During the climb, cardiopulmonary parameters and symptoms of acute mountain sickness were recorded twice daily. Capillary blood analyses were performed three times during the climb and once following return.Eleven of the transplant participants and all controls began the final ascent from 4700 meters and reached over 5000 meters. Eight transplant participants (73% and thirteen controls (93% reached the summit (5895m. Cardiopulmonary parameters and altitude sickness scores demonstrated no differences between transplant participants and controls. Signs of hyperventilation were more pronounced in transplant participants and adaptation to high-altitude was less effective, which was related to a decreased renal function. This resulted in reduced metabolic compensation.Overall, tolerance to strenuous physical activity and feasibility of a high-altitude expedition in carefully selected organ transplant recipients is comparable to non-transplanted controls.

  12. 0144 Sick leave patterns as predictors of disability pension or long-term sick leave

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stapelfeldt, Christina; Vinther Nielsen, Claus; Trolle Andersen, Niels;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The public health care sector is challenged by high sick leave rates among home-care personnel. This group also has a high probability of being granted a disability pension. We studied whether a workplace-registered frequent short-term sick leave spell pattern was an early indicator of...... future disability pension or future long-term sick leave among eldercare workers. METHOD: 2774 employees' sick leave days were categorised: 0-2 and 3-17 short (1-7 days) spells, 2-13 mixed short and long (8+ days) spells, and long spells only. Disability pension and long-term sick leave were subsequently...... pattern was not associated with a significantly increased RR compared with a non-frequent short-term pattern. The risk of long-term sick leave was significantly increased (1.35-1.64 (95% CI: 1.12-2.03) for all sick leave patterns beyond 0-2 short spells. CONCLUSIONS: Sick leave length was a better...

  13. THE CHANGES OF IL-1β AND IL-6 LEVEL AT DIFFERENT ALTITUDE AND THEIR SIGNIFICANCE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia Mian; Geng Paili; Zhu Haihong; Wu Hongfu

    2006-01-01

    Objective To investigate the changes of the concentration of interkeukine β 1(IL-1β) and Interleukine 6(IL-6) in the serum of the people who live in the different altitude, and try to find the relation between the cytokines (CK) and the hypoxia adaptation and some diseases caused by hypoxia. Methods Using enzyme linked immunoabsorbent assay (ELISA) to detect the level of the concentration of IL-1β and IL-6 in the serum. Results The concentration of IL-1β showed significant increase in values (P<0.05) at 4050m. IL-6 in same altitude showed obvious changes as well (P<0.05). Conclusion The results showed that the concentration of IL-1β and IL-6 have significant changes in the serum. This means that they may be involved in the process of the adaptation and some sickness because of hypoxia.

  14. The effect on length of sickness absence by recognition of undetected psychiatric disorder in long-term sickness absence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Hans Jørgen; Bech, Per

    2009-01-01

    the rate of return to work. RESULTS: The rate of return to work was non-significantly lower for the intervention group than for the control group, except for persons without a psychiatric sick-leave diagnosis who were sick-listed from full time work, who showed a significantly higher rate of return to......BACKGROUND: The burden caused by psychiatric disorders on the individual and society has resulted in more studies examining interventions aimed at reducing sickness absence. AIMS: To examine if detection of undetected psychiatric disorders in long-term sickness absence (LSA) would improve the rate...... of return to work. METHODS: Over one year all 2,414 incident persons on LSA in a well-defined population were within one week after eight weeks of continuous sickness absence posted the Common Mental Disorders Screening Questionnaire (CMD-SQ) to screen for mental disorders. In a randomized controlled...

  15. Mal agudo de montaña a 3.500 y 4.250 m: Un estudio de la incidencia y severidad de la sintomatología Acute mountain sickness at 3500 and 4250 m: A study of symptom Incidence and severity

    OpenAIRE

    Manuel Vargas D; Jorge Osorio F; Daniel Jiménez E; Fernando Moraga C; Margarita Sepúlveda D; José Del Solar H; Cristián Hudson M; Guillermo Cortés M; Angélica León L

    2001-01-01

    Background: Acute Mountain Sickness (AMS) refers to signs and symptoms associated with hypobaric hypoxia. Its reported incidence is highly variable. Aim: To determine the incidence of AMS symptoms and severity at 3,500 and 4,250 m above sea level. Subjects and methods: A population of 362 soldiers without former exposure to altitude was studied. AMS symptoms, were assessed by an extensively used standard questionnaire (Lake Louise), applied 36-72 hours after exposure to high altitude. Results...

  16. Cerebral spinal fluid dynamics: effect of hypoxia and implications for high-altitude illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawley, Justin S; Levine, Benjamin D; Williams, Michael A; Malm, Jon; Eklund, Anders; Polaner, David M; Subudhi, Andrew W; Hackett, Peter H; Roach, Robert C

    2016-01-15

    The pathophysiology of acute mountain sickness and high-altitude cerebral edema, the cerebral forms of high-altitude illness, remain uncertain and controversial. Persistently elevated or pathological fluctuations in intracranial pressure are thought to cause symptoms similar to those reported by individuals suffering cerebral forms of high-altitude illness. This review first focuses on the basic physiology of the craniospinal system, including a detailed discussion of the long-term and dynamic regulation of intracranial pressure. Thereafter, we critically examine the available literature, based primarily on invasive pressure monitoring, that suggests intracranial pressure is acutely elevated at altitude due to brain swelling and/or elevated sagittal sinus pressure, but normalizes over time. We hypothesize that fluctuations in intracranial pressure occur around a slightly elevated or normal mean intracranial pressure, in conjunction with oscillations in arterial Po2 and arterial blood pressure. Then these modest fluctuations in intracranial pressure, in concert with direct vascular stretch due to dilatation and/or increased blood pressure transmission, activate the trigeminal vascular system and cause symptoms of acute mountain sickness. Elevated brain water (vasogenic edema) may be due to breakdown of the blood-brain barrier. However, new information suggests cerebral spinal fluid flux into the brain may be an important factor. Regardless of the source (or mechanisms responsible) for the excess brain water, brain swelling occurs, and a "tight fit" brain would be a major risk factor to produce symptoms; activities that produce large changes in brain volume and cause fluctuations in blood pressure are likely contributing factors. PMID:26494441

  17. The Person in a State of Sickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Árnason, Vilhjálmur; Hjörleifsson, Stefán

    2016-04-01

    In this article, we discuss the ideas of Eric J. Cassell about the patient-professional relationship. We argue that his approach combines in an interesting way features from the literature on patient autonomy and paternalistic practices. We suggest that these seemingly paternalistic features of practicing medicine, which are widely either ignored or condemned in bioethical discussion, are of vital significance in medical practice. In the first sections of the article, we describe the main features of Cassell's understanding of the sick person and his version of personalized medicine. We pay particular attention to his notion of information control and compare his ideas about conversation with patients to Hans-Georg Gadamer's analysis of patient-professional dialogue. In the latter part of the article, we explore through a couple of examples the implications these ideas have for medical practice. PMID:26957446

  18. Vasopressin and motion sickness in cats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, R. A.; Keil, L. C.; Daunton, N. G.; Crampton, G. H.; Lucot, J.

    1987-01-01

    Levels of arginine vasopressin (AVP) in blood plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were measured in cats under several motion-sickness-inducing conditions. Plasma AVP increased significantly in both susceptible and resistant animals exposed to motion. When vomiting occurred, levels of plasma AVP were drmatically elevated (up to 27 times resting levels). There was no difference in resting levels of AVP of susceptible and resistant cats. Levels of CSF-AVP were not elevated immediately after vomiting, but the testing levels of CSF-AVP were lower in animals that vomited during motion than in those animals which did not vomit during motion. The results of these experiments show that changes in systemic AVP are directly related to vomiting induced by motion, however, CSF-AVP apparently does not change in association with vomiting. CSF-AVP does appear to be lower in animals that reach frank vomiting during motion stimulation than in animals which do not vomit.

  19. Habituation of motion sickness in the cat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crampton, George H.; Lucot, James B.

    1991-01-01

    Thirty femal cats were subjected to a motion sickness stimulus in three series of tests. A series consisted of five tests given biweekly, weekly, or daily. Each test consisted of 30 min of stimulation followed by 1 min of rest, and series were separated by a period of not less than 14 d. Retching was the dependent variable. No habituation (reduction in the incidence of retching) was found with biweekly testing but pronounced habituation was observed with weekly and daily testing. The 30 cats were divided evenly into high and low susceptibility groups based on the results of the biweekly tests. The rate of habituation was the same for the two susceptibility groups in both the weekly and daily series.

  20. Effect of acetazolamide on cytokines in rats exposed to high altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chang; Wang, Rong; Xie, Hua; Sun, Yuhuan; Tao, Rui; Liu, Wenqing; Li, Wenbin; Lu, Hui; Jia, Zhengping

    2016-07-01

    Acute mountain sickness (AMS) is a dangerous hypoxic illness that can affect humans who rapidly reach a high altitude above 2500m. In the study, we investigated the changes of cytokines induced by plateau, and the acetazolamide (ACZ) influenced the cytokines in rats exposed to high altitude. Wistar rats were divided into low altitude (Control), high altitude (HA), and high altitude+ACZ (22.33mg/kg, Bid) (HA+ACZ) group. The rats were acute exposed to high altitude at 4300m for 3days. The HA+ACZ group were given ACZ by intragastric administration. The placebo was equal volume saline. The results showed that hypoxia caused the heart, liver and lung damage, compared with the control group. Supplementation with ACZ significantly alleviated hypoxia-caused damage to the main organs. Compared with the HA group, the biochemical and blood gas indicators of the HA+ACZ group showed no difference, while some cytokines have significantly changed, such as activin A, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1, CD54), interleukin-1α,2 (IL-1α,2), l-selectin, monocyte chemotactic factor (MCP-1), CC chemokines (MIP-3α) and tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP-1). Then, the significant difference pro-inflammatory cytokines in protein array were chosen for further research. The protein and mRNA content of pro-inflammatory cytokines MCP-1, interleukin-1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), interferon-γ (IFN-γ) in rat lung were detected. The results demonstrated that the high altitude affected the body's physiological and biochemical parameters, but, ACZ did not change those parameters of the hypoxia rats. This study found that ACZ could decrease the content of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as MCP-1, IL-1β, TNF-α and IFN-γ in rat lungs, and, the lung injury in the HA+ACZ group reduced. The mechanism that ACZ protected hypoxia rats might be related to changes in cytokine content. The reducing of the pro-inflammatory cytokines in rat lung might be other

  1. Low back pain predict sickness absence among power plant workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murtezani, Ardiana; Hundozi, Hajrije; Orovcanec, Nikola; Berisha, Merita; Meka, Vjollca

    2010-01-01

    Background: Low back pain (LBP) remains the predominant occupational health problem in most industrialized countries and low-income countries. Both work characteristics and individual factors have been identified as risk factors. More knowledge about the predictors of sickness absence from LBP in the industry will be valuable in determining strategies for prevention. Objectives: The aim of this longitudinal study was to investigate whether individual, work-related physical risk factors were involved in the occurrence of LBP sickness absence. Methods: A follow-up study was conducted among 489 workers, aged 18–65 years, at Kosovo Energetic Corporation in Kosovo. This cross-sectional study used a self-administered questionnaire to collect data on individual and work-related risk factors and the occurrence of LBP sickness absence. Logistic regression models were used to determine associations between risk factors and the occurrence of sickness absence due to LBP. Results: Individual factors did not influence sickness absence, whereas work-related physical factors showed strong associations with sickness absence. The main risk factors for sickness absence due to LBP among production workers were extreme trunk flexion (OR = 1.71, 95% CI = 1.05–2.78) as well as very extreme trunk flexion (OR = 6.04, 95% CI = 1.12–32.49) and exposure to whole-body vibration (OR = 1.75, 95% CI = 1.04–2.95). Conclusion: Reducing sickness absence from LBP among power plant workers requires focusing on the working conditions of blue-collar workers and risk factors for LBP. Increasing social support in the work environment may have effects in reducing sickness absence from LBP. PMID:21120081

  2. Low back pain predict sickness absence among power plant workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murtezani Ardiana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Low back pain (LBP remains the predominant occupational health problem in most industrialized countries and low-income countries. Both work characteristics and individual factors have been identified as risk factors. More knowledge about the predictors of sickness absence from LBP in the industry will be valuable in determining strategies for prevention. Objectives: The aim of this longitudinal study was to investigate whether individual, work-related physical risk factors were involved in the occurrence of LBP sickness absence. Methods: A follow-up study was conducted among 489 workers, aged 18-65 years, at Kosovo Energetic Corporation in Kosovo. This cross-sectional study used a self-administered questionnaire to collect data on individual and work-related risk factors and the occurrence of LBP sickness absence. Logistic regression models were used to determine associations between risk factors and the occurrence of sickness absence due to LBP. Results: Individual factors did not influence sickness absence, whereas work-related physical factors showed strong associations with sickness absence. The main risk factors for sickness absence due to LBP among production workers were extreme trunk flexion (OR = 1.71, 95% CI = 1.05-2.78 as well as very extreme trunk flexion (OR = 6.04, 95% CI = 1.12-32.49 and exposure to whole-body vibration (OR = 1.75, 95% CI = 1.04-2.95. Conclusion: Reducing sickness absence from LBP among power plant workers requires focusing on the working conditions of blue-collar workers and risk factors for LBP. Increasing social support in the work environment may have effects in reducing sickness absence from LBP.

  3. Cold Stress at High Altitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. C. Majumdar

    1983-04-01

    Full Text Available The problem of cold at high altitudes has been analysed from a purely physical standpoint. It has been shown that Siple's Wind-Chill Index is not reliable because (i it does not make use of the well established principles governing the physical processes of heat transfer by convection and radiation, and (ii it assumes that the mean radiant temperature of the surroundings is the same as the ambient dry bulb temperature. A Cold Stress Index has been proposed which is likely to be a more reliable guide for assessing the climatic hazards of high altitude environments. The Index can be quickly estimated with the help of two nomograms devised for the purpose.

  4. Altitude Control Feasibility for a Seaweed Harvester

    OpenAIRE

    Gallieri, Marco; Ringwood, John

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, the feasibility of the altitude control of a seaweed harvester is examined. The harvesting system consists of a vessel and a suspended harvester device, the altitude of which is controlled by a winch. The goal of the control action is to maintain the harvester at a constant altitude with respect to the seabed profile. A control strategy is proposed, including a vessel motion feed-forward action, using a motion reference unit (MRU), and an altitude feedback ...

  5. Pharmacological and neurophysiological aspects of space/motion sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucot, James B.; Crampton, George H.

    1991-01-01

    A motorized motion testing device modeled after a Ferris wheel was constructed to perform motion sickness tests on cats. Details of the testing are presented, and some of the topics covered include the following: xylazine-induced emesis; analysis of the constituents of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) during motion sickness; evaluation of serotonin-1A (5-HT sub 1A) agonists; other 5HT receptors; antimuscarinic mechanisms; and antihistaminergic mechanisms. The ability of the following drugs to reduce motion sickness in the cats was examined: amphetamines, adenosinergic drugs, opioid antagonists, peptides, cannabinoids, cognitive enhancers (nootropics), dextromethorphan/sigma ligands, scopolamine, and diphenhydramine.

  6. Psychosocial work conditions associated with sickness absence among hospital employees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suadicani, P; Olesen, K; Bonde, J P;

    2014-01-01

    essential covariates of sickness absence. METHODS: A cross-sectional questionnaire study of hospital employees which sought information on elements of the psychosocial work environment, general health status, life style, age, gender and profession. Data on sickness absence were obtained from the employer......'s salary database. RESULTS: A total of 1809 hospital employees took part with a response rate of 65%. The mean age was 43 (range: 20-69) and 75% were female. Totally, 363 study participants (20%) had at least 14 days sickness absence (defined as high absence) during the preceding year. Associations between...

  7. Short-term cardiorespiratory adaptation to high altitude in children compared with adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriemler, S; Radtke, T; Bürgi, F; Lambrecht, J; Zehnder, M; Brunner-La Rocca, H P

    2016-02-01

    As short-term cardiorespiratory adaptation to high altitude (HA) exposure has not yet been studied in children, we assessed acute mountain sickness (AMS), hypoxic ventilatory response (HVR) at rest and maximal exercise capacity (CPET) at low altitude (LA) and HA in pre-pubertal children and their fathers. Twenty father-child pairs (11 ± 1 years and 44 ± 4 years) were tested at LA (450 m) and HA (3450 m) at days 1, 2, and 3 after fast ascent (HA1/2/3). HVR was measured at rest and CPET was performed on a cycle ergometer. AMS severity was mild to moderate with no differences between generations. HVR was higher in children than adults at LA and increased at HA similarly in both groups. Peak oxygen uptake (VO2 peak) relative to body weight was similar in children and adults at LA and decreased significantly by 20% in both groups at HA; maximal heart rate did not change at HA in children while it decreased by 16% in adults (P altitude seems to be at least partly hereditary. Even though children and their fathers lose similar fractions of aerobic capacity going to high altitude, the mechanisms might be different. PMID:25648726

  8. Epidemiology of acute mountain sickness on Jade Mountain, Taiwan: an annual prospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shih-Hao; Chen, Yu-Cheng; Kao, Wei-Fong; Lin, Yu-Jr; Chen, Jih-Chang; Chiu, Te-Fa; Hsu, Tai-Yi; Chen, Hang-Cheng; Liu, Shih-Wei

    2010-01-01

    Acute mountain sickness (AMS) is a pathophysiological symptom complex that occurs in high altitude areas. The AMS prevalence is reportedly 28% on Jade Mountain, the highest mountain (3952 m) in Taiwan. We conducted this study owing to the lack of annual epidemiological data on AMS in Taiwan. Between April 2007 and March 2008, 1066 questionnaires were completed by trekkers visiting Paiyun Lodge on Jade Mountain. Information in the questionnaire included demographic data, mountaineering experience, AMS history, and trekking schedule. Weather data were obtained from the Central Weather Bureau of Taiwan. The Lake Louise AMS score was used to record symptoms and diagnose AMS. The chi-square test or the Student t test was used to evaluate associations between variables and AMS. In our study, the AMS prevalence was 36%. It increased significantly at different rates at different locations on the Jade Mountain trail and varied significantly in different months. Rainy weather tended to slightly increase the incidence of AMS. A lower incidence of AMS was correlated with hig-altitude trekking experience or preexposure (p trekking experience, preexposure, and a prior history of AMS. The overall presentation of AMS was similar to that on other major world mountains. PMID:20367488

  9. Acute Mountain Sickness among overnight hotel guests: prevalence, symptoms and signs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halabchi F

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Altitude diseases, the most frequent of which is acute mountain sickness (AMS, are among the most common and serious problems that recreational and professional mountain athletes may encounter. If left undiagnosed, they may lead to lethal consequences. In a cross sectional study, we investigate the prevalence of AMS disorder among the overnight guests of a mountain resort hotel. "nMethods: Overnight guests staying at Hotel Tochal (elevation 3545 m, near Tehran, Iran, in the winter of 2006 constituted the study participants. A questionnaire, including demographic data, proposed risk factors and Lake Louise score, was completed by a physician for all who had headache or other symptoms of AMS. Data from daily hotel reception records were also collected. "nResults: Overall, 328 persons stayed at this hotel for at least one night during the study period. Among these, 47 persons (14.3% were admitted to the clinic for headache. According to the physician's diagnoses, only 34 guests (10.4%; 95% CI: 7.1-13.7% were affected by AMS. The concurrent symptoms of headache and vertigo or insomnia had the highest predictive value for AMS diagnosis. Ambiguous headache had a higher predictive value than other types of headache. "nConclusions: Despite the height of Tochal peak and the frequent use of high speed telecabin, it seems that the frequency of AMS is lower than that found in other studies on similar altitudes. However, more research should be done in this regard.

  10. Sickness absence, moral hazard, and the business cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichler, Stefan

    2015-06-01

    The procyclical nature of sickness absence has been documented by many scholars in literature. So far, explanations have been based on labor force composition and reduced moral hazard caused by fear of job loss during recessions. In this paper, we propose and test a third mechanism caused by reduced moral hazard during booms and infections. We suggest that the workload is higher during economic booms and thus employees have to go to work despite being sick. In a theoretical model focusing on infectious diseases, we show that this will provoke infections of coworkers leading to overall higher sickness absence during economic upturns. Using state-level aggregated data from 112 German public health insurance funds (out of 145 in total), we find that sickness absence due to infectious diseases shows the largest procyclical pattern, as predicted by our theoretical model. PMID:24737552

  11. Gut Feelings About Gastritis: When Your Stomach's Sick

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disclaimer . Subscribe Gut Feelings About Gastritis When Your Stomach’s Sick Your stomach lining has an important job. It makes acid ... pain or an uncomfortable feeling in their upper stomach. But many other conditions can cause these symptoms. ...

  12. Explanation of nurse standard of external exposure acute radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    National occupational health standard-Nurse Standard of External Exposure Acute Radiation Sickness has been approved and issued by the Ministry of Health. Based on the extensive research of literature, collection of the previous nuclear and radiation accidents excessive exposed personnel data and specific situations in China, this standard was enacted according to the current national laws, regulations, and the opinions of peer experts. It is mainly used for care of patients with acute radiation sickness, and also has directive significance for care of patients with iatrogenic acute radiation sickness which due to the hematopoietic stem cell transplantation pretreatment. To correctly carry out this standard and to reasonably implement nursing measures for patients with acute radiation sickness, the contents of this standard were interpreted in this article. (authors)

  13. Stress of Caring for Sick Spouse May Raise Stroke Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_157606.html Stress of Caring for Sick Spouse May Raise Stroke ... University of California, San Francisco (UCSF), said chronic stress boosts blood levels of the hormone cortisol and ...

  14. Junior MARSIPAN (Management of Really Sick Patients with Anorexia Nervosa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marikar, Dilshad; Reynolds, Sarah; Moghraby, Omer S

    2016-06-01

    We present a review of the Junior MARSIPAN (Management of Really Sick Patients with Anorexia Nervosa) guideline, which provides paediatricians with a framework for managing Anorexia Nervosa in the inpatient setting. PMID:26407730

  15. Braid My Hair - Randy Owen sings out for sick children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Braid My Hair - Randy Owen sings out for sick children Past ... debut performance of his latest song, "Braid My Hair," was the highlight during this year's Songwriter's Dinner ...

  16. Acute Mountain Sickness and Hemoconcentration in Next Generation Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conkin, Johnny

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the threat astronauts face from acute mountain sickness (AMS). It includes information about the symptoms of AMS, the potential threat to astronauts, and future efforts to mitigate the AMS threat.

  17. Undetected common mental disorders in long-term sickness absence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Hans Jørgen

    2012-01-01

    Background. Undetected Common Mental Disorders (CMDs) amongst people on sick leave complicate rehabilitation and return to work because appropriate treatments are not initiated. Aims. The aim of this study is to estimate (1) the frequencies of CMD, (2) the predictors of undetected CMD, and (3) the...... individuals registered on LSA who were sick-listed without a psychiatric sick leave diagnosis. In this respect, Phase 1 included 831 individuals, who were screened for mental disorders. In Phase 2, following the screening of Phase 1, 227 individuals were thoroughly examined by a psychiatrist applying Present...... State Examination. The analyses of the study were carried out based on the 227 individuals from Phase 2 and, subsequently, weighted to be representative of the 831 individuals in Phase 1. Results. The frequencies of undetected mental disorders among all sick-listed individuals were for any psychiatric...

  18. SICK EUTHYROID SYNDROME IN CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jigar

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sick euthyroid syndrome is an undermined entity seen in many chronic illness. CKD is one of the forerunners in terms of magnitude in the list of chronic illnesses. Also there is evidence of abnormal thyroid metabolism at several levels in uremia. Hence the need to evaluate thyroid function in CKD patients exists, as revealed by recent studies. AIMS: To study thyroid function test in patients of chronic renal failure. Also, to study the correlation between thyroid function test and severity of renal failure, defined by creatinine clearance. MATERIALS & METHODS : In a cross sectional observational case control study, 50 patients of chronic renal failure either on conservative management or on maintenance haemodialysis and 50 normal healthy subjects as control were enrolled. Creatinine clearance was calculated by Cockcroft – Gault Equation. Thyroid function tests were done by C.L.I.A (Chemiluminescence Immunoassay. RESULTS : Of the 50 patients (M:F – 58:42%, with a mean age 40.58 ± 12.65 years, 28 (56% were on conservative management, 22 (44% were on hemodialysis for a minimum period of three months. All patients were clinically euthyroid. Thyroid function tests were normal (all parameters within normal range in 13 (26% patien ts. However 37 (74% out of 50 patients of CKD had deranged thyroid function test (sick euthyroid syndrome. Mean Total T3 in patients of CKD and controls were 71.52 ± 27.88ng/dl and 95.34 ± 16.31ng/dl respectively (p < 0.005. Mean Free T3 in patients of CKD and controls were 2.19 ± 0.70pg/ml and 3.23 ± 0.79pg/ml respectively (p < 0.005. Mean Total T4 in patients of CKD and controls were 6.03 ± 1.60μg/dl and 6.88 ± 1.06μg/dl respectively (p < 0.005. Mean Free T4 in patients of CKD and controls were 1. 18 ± 0.55ng/ml and 1.29 ± 0.24ng/dl respectively (no statistically significant difference. Mean TSH in patients of CKD and controls were 2.90 ± 1.39 vs. 2.81 ± 0.99μIU/ml respectively (no

  19. Cutaneous Finding in Anti Thymocyte Globulin Induced Serum Sickness

    OpenAIRE

    Seyed Hesamedin Nabavizadeh; Mehran Karimi; Reza Amin

    2006-01-01

    Polyclonal anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG) is used as an immunosuppressive agent in the treatment of aplastic anemia (AA). Serum sickness is a recognized side effect of ATG. We observed abnormal skin manifestation in patient with aplastic anemia who had been treated with ATG. We conclude that abnormal immune function caused by aplastic anemia and ATG and corticosteroids may aggravate the signs of serum sickness.

  20. Neural Circuitry Engaged by Prostaglandins during the Sickness Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Saper, Clifford B.; Andrej A Romanovsky; Scammell, Thomas E.

    2012-01-01

    During illnesses caused by infectious disease or other sources of inflammation, a suite of brain-mediated responses called the “sickness syndrome” occurs, including fever, anorexia, sleepiness, hyperalgesia, and elevated corticosteroid secretion. Much of the sickness syndrome is mediated by prostaglandins acting on the brain, and can be prevented by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, such as aspirin or ibuprofen, that block prostaglandin synthesis. By examining which prostaglandins are pr...

  1. Management of Sick Leave due to Musculoskeletal Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Faber, Elske

    2007-01-01

    textabstractMusculoskeletal disorders are a common problem that may lead to func-Ational limitations and (work) disability. It is not clear yet how improvement in Apain or functional limitations is related to return to work after an episode of sick Aleave. Furthermore, several physicians are involved in the treatment and man-Aagement of a patient is on sick leave. In the Netherlands a strict separation be-Atween treating physicians and occupational physicians exists, whereby the treating Aphy...

  2. Legitimacy Work : Managing Sick Leave Legitimacy in Interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Flinkfeldt, Marie

    2016-01-01

    This thesis studies how sick leave legitimacy is managed in interaction and develops an empirically driven conceptualization of ‘legitimacy work’. The thesis applies an ethnomethodological framework that draws on conversation analysis, discursive psychology, and membership categorization analysis. Naturally occurring interaction is examined in two settings: (1) multi-party meetings at the Swedish Social Insurance Agency, in which participants assess and discuss the ‘status’ of the sick leave ...

  3. GPs’ negotiation strategies regarding sick leave for subjective health complaints

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsen, Stein; Malterud, Kirsti; Werner, Erik L.; Maeland, Silje; Magnussen, Liv Heide

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objectives. To explore general practitioners’ (GPs’) specific negotiation strategies regarding sick-leave issues with patients suffering from subjective health complaints. Design. Focus-group study. Setting. Nine focus-group interviews in three cities in different regions of Norway. Participants. 48 GPs (31 men, 17 women; age 32–65), participating in a course dealing with diagnostic practice and assessment of sickness certificates related to patients with subjective health complaints...

  4. Space Motion Sickness and Stress Training Simulator using Electrophysiological Biofeedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudeau, C.; Golding, J. F.; Thevot, F.; Lucas, Y.; Bobola, P.; Thouvenot, J.

    2005-06-01

    An important problem in manned spaceflight is the nausea that typically appears during the first 3 days and then disappears after 5 days. Methods of detecting changes in electrophysiological signals are being studied in order to reduce susceptibility to space motion sickness through biofeedback training, and for the early detection of nausea during EVA. A simulator would allow subjects to control their body functions and to use biofeedback to control space motion sickness and stress.

  5. A New Measure of Decompression Sickness in the Rat

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Buzzacott; Aleksandra Mazur; Qiong Wang; Kate Lambrechts; Michael Theron; Jacques Mansourati; François Guerrero

    2014-01-01

    In this study we assessed the reliability of a tilting-board grip score as a measure of decompression sickness in rats. In experiments using a hyperbaric compression/decompression protocol, rats were observed for signs of decompression sickness and their grip strength measured on a tilting particle board hinged to a metal frame. Angles at which rats lost grip were converted to gravitational vectors. Decreased mean grip scores following decompression were fitted to a logistic regression model ...

  6. Less sickness with more motion and/or mental distraction

    OpenAIRE

    Bos, J.E.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Motion sickness may reduce passenger comfort and crew performance. Countermeasures are dominated by medication with specific and often undesirable side effects. OBJECTIVE: To shown that sickness due to motion can be reduced by adding an inherent non-sickening vibration and by mental distraction. METHODS: Eighteen blindfolded subjects were exposed to 20 minutes of off-vertical axis rotation (OVAR). Vibration was added by means of a head rest. Effects of OVAR and vibration were test...

  7. Focus Group Study Exploring Factors Related to Frequent Sickness Absence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annette Notenbomer

    Full Text Available Research investigating frequent sickness absence (3 or more episodes per year is scarce and qualitative research from the perspective of frequent absentees themselves is lacking. The aim of the current study is to explore awareness, determinants of and solutions to frequent sickness absence from the perspective of frequent absentees themselves.We performed a qualitative study of 3 focus group discussions involving a total of 15 frequent absentees. Focus group discussions were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim. Results were analyzed with the Graneheim method using the Job Demands Resources (JD-R model as theoretical framework.Many participants were not aware of their frequent sickness absence and the risk of future long-term sickness absence. As determinants, participants mentioned job demands, job resources, home demands, poor health, chronic illness, unhealthy lifestyles, and diminished feeling of responsibility to attend work in cases of low job resources. Managing these factors and improving communication (skills were regarded as solutions to reduce frequent sickness absence.The JD-R model provided a framework for determinants of and solutions to frequent sickness absence. Additional determinants were poor health, chronic illness, unhealthy lifestyles, and diminished feeling of responsibility to attend work in cases of low job resources. Frequent sickness absence should be regarded as a signal that something is wrong. Managers, supervisors, and occupational health care providers should advise and support frequent absentees to accommodate job demands, increase both job and personal resources, and improve health rather than express disapproval of frequent sickness absence and apply pressure regarding work attendance.

  8. Focus Group Study Exploring Factors Related to Frequent Sickness Absence

    OpenAIRE

    Annette Notenbomer; Roelen, Corné A. M.; Willem van Rhenen; Groothoff, Johan W.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Research investigating frequent sickness absence (3 or more episodes per year) is scarce and qualitative research from the perspective of frequent absentees themselves is lacking. The aim of the current study is to explore awareness, determinants of and solutions to frequent sickness absence from the perspective of frequent absentees themselves. Methods We performed a qualitative study of 3 focus group discussions involving a total of 15 frequent absentees. Focus group discussion...

  9. Is Physics Sick? [In Praise of Classical Physics

    OpenAIRE

    Ghassib, Hisham

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, it is argued that theoretical physics is more akin to an organism than to a rigid structure.It is in this sense that the epithet, "sick", applies to it. It is argued that classical physics is a model of a healthy science, and the degree of sickness of modern physics is measured accordingly. The malady is located in the relationship between mathematics and physical meaning in physical theory.

  10. Preparation for high altitude expedition and changes in cardiopulmonary and biochemical laboratory parameters with ascent to high altitude in transplant patients and live donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Kyung-Suk; Kim, Taehoon; Yi, Nam-Joon; Hong, Geun

    2015-11-01

    High-altitude climbing has many risks, and transplant recipients should discuss the associated risks and means of preparation with their physicians. This study aimed to help prepare athletic transplant donors and recipients for mountain climbing and was designed to evaluate physical performance and changes in cardiopulmonary and biochemical laboratory parameters of transplant recipients and donors in extreme conditions of high altitude. Ten subjects-six liver transplant recipients, two liver donors, and one kidney transplant recipient and his donor-were selected for this expedition to Island Peak, Himalayas, Nepal. Six healthy subjects joined the group for comparison. Blood samplings, vital signs, and oxygen saturation were evaluated, as was the Lake Louise acute mountain sickness score. All transplant subjects and donors reached the base camp (5150 m), and two liver transplant recipients and a liver donor reached the summit (6189 m). The blood levels of immunosuppressants were well maintained. The serum erythropoietin level was significantly higher in transplant recipients taking tacrolimus. With proper preparation, certain liver transplant patients and donors can tolerate strenuous physical activity and can tolerate high altitude similarly to normal healthy control subjects without significant biochemical laboratory changes in liver and renal function. PMID:26331794

  11. Probabilistic Assessment of Hypobaric Decompression Sickness Treatment Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conkin, Johnny; Abercromby, Andrew F. J.; Dervay, Joseph P.; Feiveson, Alan H.; Gernhardt, Michael L.; Norcross, Jason R.; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert; Wessel, James H., III

    2014-01-01

    The Hypobaric Decompression Sickness (DCS) Treatment Model links a decrease in computed bubble volume from increased pressure (DeltaP), increased oxygen (O2) partial pressure, and passage of time during treatment to the probability of symptom resolution [P(symptom resolution)]. The decrease in offending volume is realized in 2 stages: a) during compression via Boyle's Law and b) during subsequent dissolution of the gas phase via the O2 window. We established an empirical model for the P(symptom resolution) while accounting for multiple symptoms within subjects. The data consisted of 154 cases of hypobaric DCS symptoms along with ancillary information from tests on 56 men and 18 women. Our best estimated model is P(symptom resolution) = 1 / (1+exp(-(ln(Delta P) - 1.510 + 0.795×AMB - 0.00308×Ts) / 0.478)), where (DeltaP) is pressure difference (psid), AMB = 1 if ambulation took place during part of the altitude exposure, otherwise AMB = 0; and where Ts is the elapsed time in mins from start of the altitude exposure to recognition of a DCS symptom. To apply this model in future scenarios, values of DeltaP as inputs to the model would be calculated from the Tissue Bubble Dynamics Model based on the effective treatment pressure: (DeltaP) = P2 - P1 | = P1×V1/V2 - P1, where V1 is the computed volume of a spherical bubble in a unit volume of tissue at low pressure P1 and V2 is computed volume after a change to a higher pressure P2. If 100% ground level O2 (GLO) was breathed in place of air, then V2 continues to decrease through time at P2 at a faster rate. This calculated value of (DeltaP then represents the effective treatment pressure at any point in time. Simulation of a "pain-only" symptom at 203 min into an ambulatory extravehicular activity (EVA) at 4.3 psia on Mars resulted in a P(symptom resolution) of 0.49 (0.36 to 0.62 95% confidence intervals) on immediate return to 8.2 psia in the Multi-Mission Space Exploration Vehicle. The P(symptom resolution) increased

  12. Human heart rate variability relation is unchanged during motion sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullen, T. J.; Berger, R. D.; Oman, C. M.; Cohen, R. J.

    1998-01-01

    In a study of 18 human subjects, we applied a new technique, estimation of the transfer function between instantaneous lung volume (ILV) and instantaneous heart rate (HR), to assess autonomic activity during motion sickness. Two control recordings of ILV and electrocardiogram (ECG) were made prior to the development of motion sickness. During the first, subjects were seated motionless, and during the second they were seated rotating sinusoidally about an earth vertical axis. Subjects then wore prism goggles that reverse the left-right visual field and performed manual tasks until they developed moderate motion sickness. Finally, ILV and ECG were recorded while subjects maintained a relatively constant level of sickness by intermittent eye closure during rotation with the goggles. Based on analyses of ILV to HR transfer functions from the three conditions, we were unable to demonstrate a change in autonomic control of heart rate due to rotation alone or due to motion sickness. These findings do not support the notion that moderate motion sickness is manifested as a generalized autonomic response.

  13. A New Measure of Decompression Sickness in the Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Buzzacott

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study we assessed the reliability of a tilting-board grip score as a measure of decompression sickness in rats. In experiments using a hyperbaric compression/decompression protocol, rats were observed for signs of decompression sickness and their grip strength measured on a tilting particle board hinged to a metal frame. Angles at which rats lost grip were converted to gravitational vectors. Decreased mean grip scores following decompression were fitted to a logistic regression model with strain, age, and weight. Decrease in grip score was significantly associated with observed decompression sickness (P=0.0036. The log odds ratio for decompression sickness = 1.40 (decrease in grip score. In rats with no decrease in mean grip score there was a 50% probability of decompression sickness (pDCS. This increased steadily with decreases in mean grip score. A decrease of 0.3 had a 60% pDCS, a decrease of 0.6 had a 70% pDCS, and a decrease of 2.1 had a 95% pDCS. The tilting board grip score is a reliable measure of the probability of decompression sickness.

  14. Oral zolpidem prevents acute mountain sickness: a randomized double-blind placebo controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-tao HUANG

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective To study the prophylactic effect of zolpidem on acute mountain sickness (AMS after acute high-altitude exposure. Methods A randomized double-blind placebo controlled trial was performed on the plateau. Forty subjects were randomly divided into zolpidem group and placebo group. The general clinical data, heart rate, blood pressure, oxygen saturation, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI scores, AMS scores and physical fitness test of the both groups were collected and assessed on plain and plateau, respectively. Results The PSQI scores were obviously lower and the six-minute walk distance was significantly longer in zolpidem group than those in placebo group (P=0.047 and P=0.009, respectively after acute high-altitude exposure. AMS incidence was significantly lower in zolpidem group than in placebo group at different time points (P=0.019, 0.014, 0.025 and 0.026, respectively, and the incidence of severe AMS was also significantly lower in zolpidem group than in placebo group at different time points (P=0.047, 0.044, 0.031 and 0.020, respectively. The symptoms of dizziness, weakness and fatigue were significantly lighter in zolpidem group than in placebo group after acute exposure to high-altitude exposure for 20 hours (P0.05. Conclusion Zolpidem may alleviate AMS symptoms and reduce the incidence of AMS, so it may be promising as a new choice for the prevention of AMS. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2015.09.09

  15. Changes in sickness absenteeism following the introduction of a qualifying day for sickness benefit--findings from Sweden Post

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voss, M; Floderus, B; Diderichsen, F

    2001-01-01

    AIMS: In 1993, a qualifying day without sickness benefit was introduced to the Swedish sickness benefit system. The aim of the present study is to investigate sickness absenteeism before and after the introduction of the qualifying day, in the light of conditions inside and outside working life...... observed. Men with heavy lifting at work more often showed an increase in incidence compared to men without heavy lifting, and the same tendency was found for women. CONCLUSION: The reduction in sickness incidence following the introduction of the qualifying day was fairly independent of different work......-related and non-work-related factors. The impact of the qualifying day differed depending on health status and the physical workload....

  16. Submarine tower escape decompression sickness risk estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loveman, G A M; Seddon, E M; Thacker, J C; Stansfield, M R; Jurd, K M

    2014-01-01

    Actions to enhance survival in a distressed submarine (DISSUB) scenario may be guided in part by knowledge of the likely risk of decompression sickness (DCS) should the crew attempt tower escape. A mathematical model for DCS risk estimation has been calibrated against DCS outcome data from 3,738 exposures of either men or goats to raised pressure. Body mass was used to scale DCS risk. The calibration data included more than 1,000 actual or simulated submarine escape exposures and no exposures with substantial staged decompression. Cases of pulmonary barotrauma were removed from the calibration data. The calibrated model was used to estimate the likelihood of DCS occurrence following submarine escape from the United Kingdom Royal Navy tower escape system. Where internal DISSUB pressure remains at - 0.1 MPa, escape from DISSUB depths 60% DCS risk predicted for a 200-meter escape from saturation at 0.21 MPa. Using the calibrated model to predict DCS for direct ascent from saturation gives similar risk estimates to other published models. PMID:25109085

  17. Colonic Fermentation Promotes Decompression sickness in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Maistre, Sébastien; Vallée, Nicolas; Gempp, Emmanuel; Lambrechts, Kate; Louge, Pierre; Duchamp, Claude; Blatteau, Jean-Eric

    2016-01-01

    Massive bubble formation after diving can lead to decompression sickness (DCS). During dives with hydrogen as a diluent for oxygen, decreasing the body's H2 burden by inoculating hydrogen-metabolizing microbes into the gut reduces the risk of DCS. So we set out to investigate if colonic fermentation leading to endogenous hydrogen production promotes DCS in fasting rats. Four hours before an experimental dive, 93 fasting rats were force-fed, half of them with mannitol and the other half with water. Exhaled hydrogen was measured before and after force-feeding. Following the hyperbaric exposure, we looked for signs of DCS. A higher incidence of DCS was found in rats force-fed with mannitol than in those force-fed with water (80%, [95%CI 56, 94] versus 40%, [95%CI 19, 64], p < 0.01). In rats force-fed with mannitol, metronidazole pretreatment reduced the incidence of DCS (33%, [95%CI 15, 57], p = 0.005) at the same time as it inhibited colonic fermentation (14 ± 35 ppm versus 118 ± 90 ppm, p = 0.0001). Pre-diveingestion of mannitol increased the incidence of DCS in fasting rats when colonic fermentation peaked during the decompression phase. More generally, colonic fermentation in rats on a normal diet could promote DCS through endogenous hydrogen production. PMID:26853722

  18. [Saints as protectors against falling sickness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moog, Ferdinand Peter; Karenberg, Axel

    2003-01-01

    In Christian Europe of the High Middle Ages, saints played a central role in the everyday life of the ailing. Alongside healing attempts which involved magic and/or scientifically-based medicine, the invocation of specific patron saints for protection against evils or for the curing of ailments was a widespread practise. A large choice of patron saints was "ävailable" for a wide range of diseases, especially those nowadays classified as neurologic or psychiatric. For the falling sickness alone, e.g., there is evidence of some twenty patron saints reputed to have a particular involvement. Surprisingly, there is no evidence of a comparable devotion to patrons for apoplectics. This "negative result"is confirmed by a thorough examination of medieval sources. St. Wolfgang and St. Andreas Avellino are the only two proven stroke patrons. Both, however, were only known within their respective locations. The absence of a specific supportive Christian figure for stroke victims deserves particular analysis: The high fatality rate of apoplexy and the lack of commercial interest on the part of the Christian places of pilgrimage may serve as possible explanations. PMID:15043049

  19. MRI in spinal cord decompression sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spinal cord decompression sickness (DCS) is a rare condition that can lead to spinal cord infarction. Despite the low incidence of diving-related DCS, we have managed to collect the data and MRI findings of seven patients who have been diagnosed with and treated for DCS in our local hyperbaric facility. This study describes the clinical presentation, MRI spinal cord findings, treatment administered and outcome of these patients. The patient medical records, from 1997 to 2007, were retrospectively reviewed. All patients with a final diagnosis of DCS and who underwent examination were included. The images were independently reviewed by two radiologists who recorded the location and number of lesions within the spinal cord. The Frankel grading was used to assess the initial and clinical outcome response. Patchy-increased T2W changes affecting several levels at the same time were found. Contrary to the popular notion that venous infarction is the leading cause of DCS, most of our patients also demonstrated affliction of grey matter, which is typically seen in an arterial pattern of infarction. Initial involvement of multiple (>6) spinal cord levels was associated with a poor outcome. Patients who continued to have multiple neurological sequelae with less than 50% resolution of symptoms despite recompression treatment were also those who had onset of symptoms within 30 min of resurfacing. DCS is probably a combination of both arterial and venous infarction. Short latency to the onset of neurological symptoms and multilevel cord involvement may be associated with a poorer outcome.

  20. Rocket Engine Altitude Simulation Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Jody L.; Lansaw, John

    2010-01-01

    John C. Stennis Space Center is embarking on a very ambitious era in its rocket engine propulsion test history. The first new large rocket engine test stand to be built at Stennis Space Center in over 40 years is under construction. The new A3 Test Stand is designed to test very large (294,000 Ibf thrust) cryogenic propellant rocket engines at a simulated altitude of 100,000 feet. A3 Test Stand will have an engine testing chamber where the engine will be fired after the air in the chamber has been evacuated to a pressure at the simulated altitude of less than 0.16 PSIA. This will result in a very unique environment with extremely low pressures inside a very large chamber and ambient pressures outside this chamber. The test chamber is evacuated of air using a 2-stage diffuser / ejector system powered by 5000 lb/sec of steam produced by 27 chemical steam generators. This large amount of power and flow during an engine test will result in a significant acoustic and vibrational environment in and around A3 Test Stand.

  1. Nutrição para os praticantes de exercício em grandes altitudes Nutritional strategy for exercising in high altitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Buss

    2006-02-01

    symptoms of Acute Mountain Sickness which may occur in the first days of high altitude sojourn. An adequate nutritional strategy is essential to protect the body from any additional stress. The aim of this paper was to present the main effects of altitude on the human body and physical performance; to discuss and/or suggest nutritional recommendations for this situation; and, if possible, to present practical nutritional guidelines for athletes in high altitudes. Some of the main conclusions found were: energy intake must be increased; it is essential to monitor fluid intake and to choose palatable energy and nutrient-dense foods. It is recommended to work with a sports dietitian in advance, so that an individual nutrition plan can be made and put into practice even before being exposed to high altitudes.

  2. Testosterone treatment diminishes sickness behavior in male songbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashley, Noah T; Hays, Quentin R; Bentley, George E; Wingfield, John C

    2009-06-01

    Males of many vertebrate species are typically more prone to disease and infection than female conspecifics, and this sexual difference is partially influenced by the immunosuppressive properties of testosterone (T) in males. T-induced immunosuppression has traditionally been viewed as a pleiotropic handicap, rather than an adaptation. Recently, it has been hypothesized that suppression of sickness behavior, or the symptoms of infection, may have adaptive value if sickness interferes with the expression of T-mediated behaviors important for male reproductive success. We conduct a classic hormone replacement experiment to examine if T suppresses sickness behavior in a seasonally-breeding songbird, Gambel's white-crowned sparrow (Zonotrichia leucophrys gambelii). Triggered experimentally by bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), sickness behavior includes decreased activity, anorexia, and weight loss. Gonadectomized (GDX) males that were treated with silastic implants filled with T exhibited suppression of behavioral and physiological responses to LPS compared to GDX and sham-GDX controls given empty implants. Sickness responses of control groups were statistically indistinguishable. T-implanted birds had significantly higher plasma T than control groups and levels were within the range associated with aggressive interactions during male-to-male contests. These findings imply that suppression of sickness behavior could occur when T is elevated to socially-modulated levels. Alternatively, it is possible that this suppressive effect is mediated through a stress-induced mechanism, as corticosterone levels were elevated in T-implanted subjects compared to controls. We propose that males wounded and infected during contests may gain a brief selective advantage by suppressing sickness responses that would otherwise impair competitive performance. The cost of immunosuppression would be manifested in males through an increased susceptibility to disease, which is presumably

  3. High-altitude cerebral oedema mimicking stroke

    OpenAIRE

    Yanamandra, Uday; Gupta, Amul; Patyal, Sagarika; Varma, Prem Prakash

    2014-01-01

    High-altitude cerebral oedema (HACO) is the most fatal high-altitude illness seen by rural physicians practising in high-altitude areas. HACO presents clinically with cerebellar ataxia, features of raised intracranial pressure (ICP) and coma. Early identification is important as delay in diagnosis can be fatal. We present two cases of HACO presenting with focal deficits mimicking stroke. The first patient presented with left-sided hemiplegia associated with the rapid deterioration in the sens...

  4. Decompression sickness following breath-hold diving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schipke, J D; Gams, E; Kallweit, Oliver

    2006-01-01

    Despite convincing evidence of a relationship between breath-hold diving and decompression sickness (DCS), the causal connection is only slowly being accepted. Only the more recent textbooks have acknowledged the risks of repetitive breath-hold diving. We compare four groups of breath-hold divers: (1) Japanese and Korean amas and other divers from the Pacific area, (2) instructors at naval training facilities, (3) spear fishers, and (4) free-dive athletes. While the number of amas is likely decreasing, and Scandinavian Navy training facilities recorded only a few accidents, the number of spear fishers suffering accidents is on the rise, in particular during championships or using scooters. Finally, national and international associations (e.g., International Association of Free Drives [IAFD] or Association Internationale pour Le Developpment De L'Apnee [AIDA]) promote free-diving championships including deep diving categories such as constant weight, variable weight, and no limit. A number of free-diving athletes, training for or participating in competitions, are increasingly accident prone as the world record is presently set at a depth of 171 m. This review presents data found after searching Medline and ISI Web of Science and using appropriate Internet search engines (e.g., Google). We report some 90 cases in which DCS occurred after repetitive breath-hold dives. Even today, the risk of suffering from DCS after repetitive breath-hold diving is often not acknowledged. We strongly suggest that breath-hold divers and their advisors and physicians be made aware of the possibility of DCS and of the appropriate therapeutic measures to be taken when DCS is suspected. Because the risk of suffering from DCS increases depending on depth, bottom time, rate of ascent, and duration of surface intervals, some approaches to assess the risks are presented. Regrettably, none of these approaches is widely accepted. We propose therefore the development of easily manageable

  5. Aspirated Compressors for High Altitude Engines Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Aurora Flight Sciences proposes to incorporate aspirated compressor technology into a high altitude, long endurance (HALE) concept engine. Aspiration has been...

  6. Fire Fighting from High Altitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobleigh, Brent; Ambrosia, Vince

    2007-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on high altitude fire fighting is shown. The topics include: 1) Yellowstone Fire - 1988; 2) 2006 Western States Fire Mission Over-View; 3) AMS-Wildfire Scanner; 4) October 24-25 Mission: Yosemite NP and NF; 5) October 24-25 Mission MODIS Overpass; 6) October 24-25 Mission Highlights; 7) October 28-29 Mission Esperanza Fire, California; 8) Response to the Esperanza Fire in Southern California -- Timeline Oct 27-29 2006; 9) October 28-29 Mission Esperanza Fire Altair Flight Routing; 10) October 28-29 Mission Esperanza Fire Altair Over-Flights; 11) October 28-29 Mission Highlights; 12) Results from the Esperanza Fire Response; 13) 2007 Western States Fire Mission; and 14) Western States UAS Fire Mission 2007

  7. Age as a risk factor for acute mountain sickness upon rapid ascent to 3,700 m among young adult Chinese men

    OpenAIRE

    Tang XG; Zhang JH; Qin J; Gao XB; Li QN; Yu J; Ding XH; Huang L

    2014-01-01

    Xu-gang Tang,1 Ji-hang Zhang,1 Jun Qin,1 Xu-bin Gao,1 Qian-ning Li,2 Jie Yu,1 Xiao-han Ding,1 Lan Huang1 1Institute of Cardiovascular Diseases, 2Department of Neurology, Xinqiao Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, People’s Republic of China Background: The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between age and acute mountain sickness (AMS) when subjects are exposed suddenly to high altitude.Methods: A total of 856 young adult men were recruited. Before a...

  8. Ambulatory and central haemodynamics during progressive ascent to high-altitude and associated hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, M G; Climie, R E D; Sharman, J E

    2014-12-01

    High-altitude hypoxia causes major cardiovascular changes, which may result in raised resting brachial blood pressure (BP). However, the effect of high-altitude hypoxia on more sensitive measures of BP control (such as 24 h ambulatory BP and resting central BP) is largely unknown. This study aimed to assess this and compare high-altitude responses to resting brachial BP, as well as determine the haemodynamic correlates of acute mountain sickness (AMS) during a progressive trekking ascent to high-altitude. Measures of oxygen saturation (pulse oximetry), 24 h ambulatory BP, resting brachial and central BP (Pulsecor) were recorded in 10 adults (aged 27±4, 30% male) during a 9-day trek to Mount Everest base camp, Nepal. Data were recorded at sea level (stage 1; <450 m above sea level (ASL)) and at progressive ascension to 3440 m ASL (stage 2), 4350 m ASL (stage 3) and 5164 m ASL (stage 4). The Lake Louise score (LLS) was used to quantify AMS symptoms. Total LLS increased stepwise from sea level to stage 4 (0.3±0.7 vs 4.4±2.0, P=0.012), whereas oxygen saturation decreased to 77±9% (P=0.001). The highest recordings of 24 h ambulatory, daytime, night time, brachial and central systolic BP and diastolic BP were achieved at stage 3, which were significantly greater than at sea level (P<0.005 for all). Twenty-four-hour ambulatory heart rate (HR) and night HR correlated with oxygen saturation (r=-0.741 and -0.608, both P<0.001) and total LLS (r=0.648 and r=0.493, both P<0.001). We conclude that 24 h ambulatory BP, central BP and HR are elevated during high-altitude hypoxia, but AMS symptoms are only related to tachycardia. PMID:24621622

  9. Neurochemical background and approaches in the understanding of motion sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohl, R. L.

    1982-01-01

    The problems and nature of space motion sickness were defined. The neurochemical and neurophysiological bases of vestibular system function and of the expression of motion sickness wre reviewed. Emphasis was given to the elucidation of the neuropharmacological mechanisms underlying the effects of scopolamine and amphetamine on motion sickness. Characterization of the ascending reticular activating system and the limbic system provided clues to the etiology of the side effects of scopolamine. The interrelationship between central cholinergic pathways and the peripheral (autonomic) expression of motion sickness was described. A correlation between the stress of excessive motion and a variety of hormonal responses to that stress was also detailed. The cholinergic system is involved in the efferent modulation of the vestibular hair cells, as an afferent modulator of the vestibular nuclei, in the activation of cortical and limbic structures, in the expression of motion sickness symptoms and most likely underscores a number of the hormonal changes that occur in stressful motion environments. The role of lecithin in the regulation of the levels of neurotransmitters was characterized as a possible means by which cholinergic neurochemistry can be modulated.

  10. Sensory conflict in motion sickness: An observer theory approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oman, Charles M.

    1989-01-01

    Motion sickness is the general term describing a group of common nausea syndromes originally attributed to motion-induced cerebral ischemia, stimulation of abdominal organ afferent, or overstimulation of the vestibular organs of the inner ear. Sea-, car-, and airsicknesses are the most commonly experienced examples. However, the discovery of other variants such as Cinerama-, flight simulator-, spectacle-, and space sickness in which the physical motion of the head and body is normal or absent has led to a succession of sensory conflict theories which offer a more comprehensive etiologic perspective. Implicit in the conflict theory is the hypothesis that neutral and/or humoral signals originate in regions of the brain subversing spatial orientation, and that these signals somehow traverse to other centers mediating sickness symptoms. Unfortunately, the present understanding of the neurophysiological basis of motion sickness is far from complete. No sensory conflict neuron or process has yet been physiologically identified. To what extent can the existing theory be reconciled with current knowledge of the physiology and pharmacology of nausea and vomiting. The stimuli which causes sickness, synthesizes a contemporary Observer Theory view of the Sensory Conflict hypothesis are reviewed, and a revised model for the dynamic coupling between the putative conflict signals and nausea magnitude estimates is presented. The use of quantitative models for sensory conflict offers a possible new approach to improving the design of visual and motion systems for flight simulators and other virtual environment display systems.

  11. Sickness absence at a young age and later sickness absence, disability pension, death, unemployment and income in native Swedes and immigrants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Bo; Nordqvist, Tobias; Lundberg, Ingvar; Vingård, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Background: Sickness absence with cash benefits from the sickness insurance gives an opportunity to be relieved from work without losing financial security. There are, however, downsides to taking sickness absence. Periods of sickness absence, even short ones, can increase the risk for future spells of sickness absence and unemployment. The sickness period may in itself have a detrimental effect on health. The aim of the study was to investigate if there is an association between exposure to sickness absence at a young age and later sickness absence, disability pension, death, unemployment and income from work. Methods: Our cohort consisted of all immigrants aged 21–25 years in Sweden in 1993 (N = 38 207) and a control group of native Swedes in the same age group (N = 225 977). We measured exposure to sickness absence in 1993 with a follow-up period of 15 years. We conducted separate analyses for men and women, and for immigrants and native Swedes. Results: Exposure to ≥60 days of sickness absence in 1993 increased the risk of sickness absence [hazard ratio (HR) 1.6–11.4], unemployment (HR 1.1–1.2), disability pension (HR 1.2–5.3) and death (HR 1.2–3.5). The income from work, during the follow-up period, among individuals with spells of sick leave for ≥60 days in 1993 was around two-thirds of that of the working population who did not take sick leave. Conclusions: Individuals on sickness absence had an increased risk for work absence, death and lower future income. PMID:25634955

  12. Physiological aspects of altitude training and the use of altitude simulators

    OpenAIRE

    Ranković Goran; Radovanović Dragan

    2005-01-01

    Altitude training in various forms is widely practiced by athletes and coaches in an attempt to improve sea level endurance. Training at high altitude may improve performance at sea level through altitude acclimatization, which improves oxygen transport and/or utilization, or through hypoxia, which intensifies the training stimulus. This basic physiological aspect allows three training modalities: live high and train high (classic high-altitude training), live low and train high (training thr...

  13. Altitude as handicap in rank-order football tournaments

    OpenAIRE

    Fawaz, Yarine; Casas, Agustin

    2013-01-01

    In 2007, based on medical reports, FIFA ruled that no international football competition could be played in stadiums with an altitude higher than 2500 meters. We provide stark evidence which supports the claim that playing in high altitude benefits the home team through two channels. First, in these scenarios, high altitude teams (HAT) do better against low altitude teams than against other high altitude teams. Second, every time that low altitude teams visit other high altitude teams they ge...

  14. [Interaction of hypoxia and haemostasis--hypoxia as a prothrombotic factor at high altitude?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schobersberger, Wolfgang; Hoffmann, Georg; Gunga, Hanns-Christian

    2005-04-01

    For an extended period of time various research projects have been conducted on the relationship of hypoxia and haemostasis. The enclosed article contains the conclusion to which extent lack of oxygen can activate the coagulation system and induce a prothrombotic state. The majority of studies proved a shortening of coagulation times during acute exposure to hypoxia, whereas activated parameters of coagulation and fibrinolysis like prothrombin fragment F1+2 as well as thrombin-antithrombin III complexes and D-dimer remained mostly unmodified. It is suggested that a prolonged sojourn at high altitudes could lead to activation of the coagulation system through an increase of haematocrit and blood viscosity. Recently it was proven that people living at high altitudes show an enhanced risk of stroke incidents. The significance of the change in haemostasis on that outcome has not yet been part of the research. However, it has been proven that the activity of the coagulation system does not play a pathophysiological part in the development of acute mountain sickness and high altitude pulmonary edema. Recent studies also demonstrated that moderate hypoxia during long haul flights may not be the main trigger in inducing deep vein thrombosis in passengers. PMID:15966261

  15. MR findings of spinal cord in decompression sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the MR imaging findings of spinal cord decompression sickness. We retrospectively analysed the spinal MR images of eight patients (M : 6, F : 2) with decompression sickness affecting the cervical spine (n=1) or thoracic spine (n=7). The observed extent, location, continuity, signal intensity and contrast enhancement pattern of spinal cord lesions were analysed. The chief MR finding was continuous (n=2) or non-continuous (n=3) high signal intensity on T2-weighted images in the posterior paramedian spinal cord. In three cases, additional T2 signal abnormality in the ventral horn of the gray matter was observed. There was no signal intensity abnormality on T1-weighted images or abnormal enhancement of post-Gadolinium T1-weighted images. In one case, cord swelling in addition to T2 signal abnormality was observed. MR imaging is useful for evaluating spinal cord lesions in patients with decompression sickness

  16. MRI diagnosis of acute spinal cord decompression sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To describe MRI findings of acute spinal cord decompression sickness. Methods: MRI findings of 5 cases with clinical definite acute spinal cord decompression sickness were retrospectively analyzed. The main clinical informations included underwater performance history against regulations, short-term complete or incomplete spinal cord injury symptoms after fast going out of water, sensory disability and urinary and fecal incontinence, etc. Results: Spinal cord vacuole sign was found in all 5 cases. Iso-signal intensity (n=3), high signal intensity (n=1), and low signal intensity (n=1) was demonstrated on T1WI, and high signal intensity (n=5) was found on T2WI. Owl eye sign was detected in 3 cases, and lacune foci were seen in 2 cases. Conclusion: MRI findings of acute spinal cord decompression sickness had some characteristics, and it was easy to diagnose by combining diving history with clinical manifestations. (authors)

  17. Population level determinants of acute mountain sickness among young men: a retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You Haiyan

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many visitors, including military troops, who enter highland regions from low altitude areas may suffer from acute mountain sickness (AMS, which negatively impacts workable man-hours and increases healthcare costs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the population level risk factors and build a multivariate model, which might be applicable to reduce the effects of AMS on Chinese young men traveling to this region. Methods Chinese highland military medical records were used to obtain data of young men (n = 3727 who entered the Tibet plateau between the years of 2006-2009. The relationship between AMS and travel profile, demographic characteristics, and health behaviors were evaluated by logistic regression. Univariate logistic models estimated the crude odds ratio. The variables that showed significance in the univariate model were included in a multivariate model to derive adjusted odds ratios and build the final model. Data corresponding to odd and even years (2 subsets were analyzed separately and used in a simple cross-validation. Results Univariate analysis indicated that travel profile, prophylactic use, ethnicity, and province of birth were all associated with AMS in both subsets. In multivariate analysis, young men who traveled from lower altitude (600-800 m vs. 1300-1500 m, adjusted odds ratio (AOR = 1.32-1.44 to higher altitudes (4100-4300 m vs. 2900-3100 m, AOR = 3.94-4.12; 3600-3700 m vs. 2900-3100 m, AOR = 2.71-2.74 by air or rapid land transport for emergency mission deployment (emergency land deployment vs. normal land deployment, AOR = 2.08-2.11; normal air deployment vs. normal land deployment, AOR = 2.00-2.20; emergency air deployment vs. normal land deployment, AOR = 2.40-3.34 during the cold season (cold vs. warm, AOR = 1.25-1.28 are at great risk for developing AMS. Non-Tibetan male soldiers (Tibetan vs. Han, AOR = 0.03-0.08, born and raised in lower provinces (eastern vs. northwestern, AOR = 1

  18. Jupiter's High-Altitude Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    The New Horizons Multispectral Visible Imaging Camera (MVIC) snapped this incredibly detailed picture of Jupiter's high-altitude clouds starting at 06:00 Universal Time on February 28, 2007, when the spacecraft was only 2.3 million kilometers (1.4 million miles) from the solar system's largest planet. Features as small as 50 kilometers (30 miles) are visible. The image was taken through a narrow filter centered on a methane absorption band near 890 nanometers, a considerably redder wavelength than what the eye can see. Images taken through this filter preferentially pick out clouds that are relatively high in the sky of this gas giant planet because sunlight at the wavelengths transmitted by the filter is completely absorbed by the methane gas that permeates Jupiter's atmosphere before it can reach the lower clouds. The image reveals a range of diverse features. The south pole is capped with a haze of small particles probably created by the precipitation of charged particles into the polar regions during auroral activity. Just north of the cap is a well-formed anticyclonic vortex with rising white thunderheads at its core. Slightly north of the vortex are the tendrils of some rather disorganized storms and more pinpoint-like thunderheads. The dark 'measles' that appear a bit farther north are actually cloud-free regions where light is completely absorbed by the methane gas and essentially disappears from view. The wind action considerably picks up in the equatorial regions where giant plumes are stretched into a long wave pattern. Proceeding north of the equator, cirrus-like clouds are shredded by winds reaching speeds of up to 400 miles per hour, and more pinpoint-like thunderheads are visible. Although some of the famous belt and zone structure of Jupiter's atmosphere is washed out when viewed at this wavelength, the relatively thin North Temperate Belt shows up quite nicely, as does a series of waves just north of the belt. The north polar region of Jupiter in

  19. Workplace bullying and sickness absence in hospital staff

    OpenAIRE

    Kivimäki, M; Elovainio, M; Vahtera, J

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—In the past, evidence on the negative consequences of workplace bullying has been limited to cross sectional studies of self reported bullying. In this study, these consequences were examined prospectively by focusing on sickness absence in hospital staff.
METHODS—The Poisson regression analyses of medically certified spells (⩾4 days) and self certified spells (1-3 days) of sickness absence, relating to bullying and other predictors of health, were based on a cohort of 674 male and...

  20. Early modern green sickness and pre-Freudian hysteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleiner, Winfried

    2009-01-01

    In early modern medicine, both green sickness (or chlorosis) and hysteria were understood to be gendered diseases, diseases of women. Green sickness, a disease of young women, was considered so serious that John Graunt, the father of English statistics, thought that in his time dozens of women died of it in London every year. One of the symptoms of hysteria was that women fell unconscious. The force of etymology and medical tradition was so strong that in one instance the gender of the patient seems to have been changed by the recorder to make the case fit medical theory. PMID:20027761

  1. A prospective epidemiological study of acute mountain sickness in Nepalese pilgrims ascending to high altitude (4380 m.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin J MacInnis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Each year, thousands of pilgrims travel to the Janai Purnima festival in Gosainkunda, Nepal (4380 m, ascending rapidly and often without the aid of pharmaceutical prophylaxis. METHODS: During the 2012 Janai Purnima festival, 538 subjects were recruited in Dhunche (1950 m before ascending to Gosainkunda. Through interviews, subjects provided demographic information, ratings of AMS symptoms (Lake Louise Scores; LLS, ascent profiles, and strategies for prophylaxis. RESULTS: In the 491 subjects (91% follow-up rate who were assessed upon arrival at Gosainkunda, the incidence of AMS was 34.0%. AMS was more common in females than in males (RR = 1.57; 95% CI = 1.23, 2.00, and the AMS incidence was greater in subjects >35 years compared to subjects ≤35 years (RR = 1.63; 95% CI = 1.36, 1.95. There was a greater incidence of AMS in subjects who chose to use garlic as a prophylactic compared to those who did not (RR = 1.69; 95% CI = 1.26, 2.28. Although the LLS of brothers had a moderate correlation (intraclass correlation = 0.40, p = 0.023, sibling AMS status was a weak predictor of AMS. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of AMS upon reaching 4380 m was 34% in a large population of Nepalese pilgrims. Sex, age, and ascent rate were significant factors in the development of AMS, and traditional Nepalese remedies were ineffective in the prevention of AMS.

  2. Delayed appearance of high altitude retinal hemorrhages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Barthelmes

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Retinal hemorrhages have been described as a component of high altitude retinopathy (HAR in association with altitude illness. In this prospective high altitude study, we aimed to gain new insights into the pathophysiology of HAR and explored whether HAR could be a valid early indicator of altitude illness. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: 28 mountaineers were randomly assigned to two ascent profiles during a research expedition to Mt. Muztagh Ata (7546 m/24,751 ft. Digital fundus photographs were taken prior to expedition at 490 m (1,607 ft, during expedition at 4497 m (14,750 ft = base camp, 5533 m (18,148 ft, 6265 m (20,549 ft, 6865 m (22,517 ft and 4.5 months thereafter at 490 m. Number, size and time of occurrence of hemorrhages were recorded. Oxygen saturation (SpO₂ and hematocrit were also assessed. 79% of all climbers exhibited retinal hemorrhages during the expedition. Number and area of retinal bleeding increased moderately to medium altitudes (6265 m. Most retinal hemorrhages were detected after return to base camp from a high altitude. No post-expeditional ophthalmic sequelae were detected. Significant negative (SpO₂ Beta: -0.4, p<0.001 and positive (hematocrit Beta: 0.2, p = 0.002, time at altitude Beta: 0.33, p = 0.003 correlations with hemorrhages were found. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: When closely examined, a very large amount of climbers exhibit retinal hemorrhages during exposure to high altitudes. The incidence of retinal hemorrhages may be greater than previously appreciated as a definite time lag was observed between highest altitude reached and development of retinal bleeding. Retinal hemorrhages should not be considered warning signs of impending severe altitude illness due to their delayed appearance.

  3. The effect of exercise on venous gas emboli and decompression sickness in human subjects at 4.3 psia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conkin, Johnny; Waligora, James M.; Horrigan, David J., Jr.; Hadley, Arthur T., III

    1987-01-01

    The contribution of upper body exercise to altitude decompression sickness while at 4.3 psia after 3.5 or 4.0 hours of 100% oxygen prebreathing at 14.7 psia was determined by comparing the incidence and patterns of venous gas emboli (VGE), and the incidence of Type 1 decompression sickness (DCS) in 43 exercising male subjects and 9 less active male Doppler Technicians (DT's). Each subject exercised for 4 minutes at each of 3 exercise stations while at 4.3 psia. An additional 4 minutes were spent monitoring for VGE by the DT while the subject was supine on an examination cot. In the combined 3.5 and 4.0 hour oxygen prebreathe data, 13 subjects complained of Type 1 DCS compared to 9 complaints from DT's. VGE were detected in 28 subjects compared to 14 detections from DT's. A chi-square analysis of proportions showed no statistically significantly difference in the incidence of Type 1 DCS or VGE between the two groups; however, the average time to detect VGE and to report Tyep 1 DCS symptoms were statistically different. It was concluded that 4 to 6 hours of upper body exercise at metabolic rates simulating EVA metabolic rates hastens the initial detection of VGE and the time to report Type 1 DCS symptoms as compared to DT's.

  4. Prediction of future labour market outcome in a cohort of long-term sick- listed Danes

    OpenAIRE

    Pedersen, Jacob; Gerds, Thomas Alexander; Bjorner, Jakob Bue; Christensen, Karl Bang

    2014-01-01

    Background Targeted interventions for the long-term sick-listed may prevent permanent exclusion from the labour force. We aimed to develop a prediction method for identifying high risk groups for continued or recurrent long-term sickness absence, unemployment, or disability among persons on long-term sick leave. Methods We obtained individual characteristics and follow-up data from the Danish Register of Sickness Absence Compensation Benefits and Social Transfer Payments (RSS) during 2004 to ...

  5. Body mass affects seasonal variation in sickness intensity in a seasonally breeding rodent

    OpenAIRE

    Carlton, Elizabeth D.; Demas, Gregory E

    2015-01-01

    Species that display seasonal variation in sickness intensity show the most intense response in the season during which they have the highest body mass, suggesting that sickness intensity may be limited by an animal's energy stores. Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus) display lower body masses and less intense sickness when housed in short, winter-like days as opposed to long, summer-like days. To determine whether reduced sickness intensity displayed by short-day hamsters is a product of s...

  6. Some determinants of sick leave for respiratory disease : Occupation, asthma, obesity, smoking and rehabilitation

    OpenAIRE

    Nathell, Lennart

    2002-01-01

    The cost to society of sick leave and disability pensions is currently the most urgent economic problem in Sweden. The availability of a large sick-listing database, Collective Group Health Insurance, AGS (in Swedish: Avtalsgruppsjukförsäkring) provides a rare opportunity to study sick leave in Sweden. Periods of sick leave exceeding 14 days are recorded together with a mandatory diagnosis by a physician, gender, age, residential area, name of the employer, and occupation. ...

  7. Long-term sickness absence : Aspects of society, work, and family

    OpenAIRE

    Lidwall, Ulrik

    2010-01-01

    Sickness absence has varied considerably in Sweden over time and increased substantially between 1997 and 2002, especially among women. The composition of such absence has also changed in that there have been increases in sick leave due to mental illness, prolongation of sickness absence periods, and a larger proportion of women than men on long-term sick leave. The general aim of the research presented in this thesis was to identify societal and work- and health-related...

  8. High altitude aircraft flight tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmken, Henry; Emmons, Peter; Homeyer, David

    1996-03-01

    In order to make low earth orbit L-band propagation measurements and test new voice communication concepts, a payload was proposed and accepted for flight aboard the COMET (now METEOR) spacecraft. This Low Earth Orbiting EXperiment payload (LEOEX) was designed and developed by Motorola Inc. and sponsored by the Space Communications Technology Center (SCTC), a NASA Center for the Commercial Development of Space (CCDS) located at Florida Atlantic University. In order to verify the LEOEX payload for satellite operation and obtain some preliminary propagation data, a series of 9 high altitude aircraft (SR-71 and ER-2) flight tests were conducted. These flights took place during a period of 7 months, from October 1993 to April 1994. This paper will summarize the operation of the LEOEX payload and the particular configuration used for these flights. The series of flyby tests were very successful and demonstrated how bi-directional, Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) voice communication will work in space-to-ground L-band channels. The flight tests also acquired propagation data which will be representative of L-band Low Earth Orbiting (LEO) communication systems. In addition to verifying the LEOEX system operation, it also uncovered and ultimately aided the resolution of several key technical issues associated with the payload.

  9. Age as a risk factor for acute mountain sickness upon rapid ascent to 3,700 m among young adult Chinese men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang XG

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Xu-gang Tang,1 Ji-hang Zhang,1 Jun Qin,1 Xu-bin Gao,1 Qian-ning Li,2 Jie Yu,1 Xiao-han Ding,1 Lan Huang1 1Institute of Cardiovascular Diseases, 2Department of Neurology, Xinqiao Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, People’s Republic of China Background: The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between age and acute mountain sickness (AMS when subjects are exposed suddenly to high altitude.Methods: A total of 856 young adult men were recruited. Before and after acute altitude exposure, the Athens Insomnia Scale score (AISS was used to evaluate the subjective sleep quality of subjects. AMS was assessed using the Lake Louise scoring system. Heart rate (HR and arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2 were measured.Results: Results showed that, at 500 m, AISS and insomnia prevalence were higher in older individuals. After acute exposure to altitude, the HR, AISS, and insomnia prevalence increased sharply, and the increase in older individuals was more marked. The opposite trend was observed for SaO2. At 3,700 m, the prevalence of AMS increased with age, as did severe AMS, and AMS symptoms (except gastrointestinal symptoms. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that age was a risk factor for AMS (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1.07, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01–1.13, P<0.05, as well as AISS (adjusted OR 1.39, 95% CI 1.28–1.51, P<0.001.Conclusion: The present study is the first to demonstrate that older age is an independent risk factor for AMS upon rapid ascent to high altitude among young adult Chinese men, and pre-existing poor subjective sleep quality may be a contributor to increased AMS prevalence in older subjects. Keywords: acute mountain sickness, age, Athens Insomnia Scale, rapid ascent, sleep

  10. Effect of oxygen breathing on micro oxygen bubbles in nitrogen-depleted rat adipose tissue at sea level and 25 kPa altitude exposures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Randsoe, Thomas; Hyldegaard, Ole

    2012-01-01

    The standard treatment of altitude decompression sickness (aDCS) caused by nitrogen bubble formation is oxygen breathing and recompression. However, micro air bubbles (containing 79% nitrogen), injected into adipose tissue, grow and stabilize at 25 kPa regardless of continued oxygen breathing...... at 101.3 kPa (sea level) or at 25 kPa altitude exposures during continued oxygen breathing. In keeping with previous observations and bubble kinetic models, we hypothesize that oxygen breathing may contribute to oxygen bubble growth at altitude. Anesthetized rats were exposed to 3 h of oxygen...... prebreathing at 101.3 kPa (sea level). Micro oxygen bubbles of 500-800 nl were then injected into the exposed abdominal adipose tissue. The oxygen bubbles were studied for up to 3.5 h during continued oxygen breathing at either 101.3 or 25 kPa ambient pressures. At 101.3 kPa, all bubbles shrank consistently...

  11. Haematological Studies in High Altitude Natives at Plains and on Return to High Altitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. C. Jain

    1988-04-01

    Full Text Available Haematologic studies were carried out in 20 high altitude natives during two months stay at plains (200 m and on their return to an altitude of 3,500 m. Haemoglobin, erythrocyte count, haematocrit and reticulocyte count decreased rapidly on arrival to plains and attained minimum level by the end of fourth week. All these parameters increased rapidly on return to high altitude and were found to attain maximum values by 23rd day on return to high altitude. Mean cell volume and mean cell haemoglobin showed significant increase at altitude. Blood volume and red cell mass increased significantly at altitude. It is concluded that the high altitude natives of Ladakh were well adapted to hypoxic environment due to normocythaemic hypervolemia.

  12. 20 CFR 323.2 - Definition of nongovernmental plan for unemployment or sickness insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... unemployment or sickness insurance. 323.2 Section 323.2 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT NONGOVERNMENTAL PLANS FOR UNEMPLOYMENT OR SICKNESS INSURANCE § 323.2 Definition of nongovernmental plan for unemployment or sickness insurance....

  13. Care for Sick Children as a Proxy for Gender Equality in the Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Rickard; Nermo, Magnus

    2010-01-01

    Swedish parents are entitled to government paid benefits to take care of sick children. In this paper we show that the gender distribution of paid care for sick children is a good proxy for the gender division of household work. Using two examples we show that registry data on care for sick children is a useful data source for studies on gender…

  14. Sickness certification for mental health problems: an analysis of a general practice consultation database

    OpenAIRE

    Mallen, CD; Wynne-Jones, G.; Dunn, KM

    2011-01-01

    Although mental illness remains the leading cause of both sickness absence and incapacity benefit in most high-income countries, little is known about how frequently patients with mental ill-health receive sickness certificates and what conditions are most commonly certified for. This study aims to use general practice consultation data to determine the rate of sickness certification for common mental health problems.

  15. Sickness absence in workplaces: Does it reflect a healthy hire effect?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Nordström

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Sickness absence in workplaces may reflect working conditions. It may also reflect a “healthy hire effect,” i.e., that workplaces recruit individuals with experience of sickness absence differently. The purpose of the study was to determine if a history of sickness absence among recruits is associated with the average level of sickness absence in workplaces. Material and Methods: In a register-based follow-up study, Swedish workplaces with at least 5 employees in 2006 were selected (approximately 127 000 workplaces with 3.9 million employees. The workplaces were categorized according to the average workplace sickness absence in 2006 and the recruits were categorized according to the individual sickness absence in 2005. The workplaces with a high average level of sickness absence were more likely than those with a low level to hire employees with high sickness absence in the year preceding employment: men – odds ratio (OR = 7.2, 95% confidence interval (CI: 6.6–7.8, women – OR = 7.5, 95% CI: 6.9–8.1. Results: The results show that there is a greater likelihood of employing individuals with high levels of sickness absence in the workplaces with many days of the average sickness absence than in the workplaces with few days of the average sickness absence. Conclusions: The results suggest that sickness absence in workplaces may reflect a healthy hire effect.

  16. Burden of disease resulting from chronic mountain sickness among young Chinese male immigrants in Tibet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei Tao

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In young Chinese men of the highland immigrant population, chronic mountain sickness (CMS is a major public health problem. The aim of this study was to measure the disease burden of CMS in this population. Methods We used disability-adjusted life years (DALYs to estimate the disease burden of CMS. Disability weights were derived using the person trade-off methodology. CMS diagnoses, symptom severity, and individual characteristics were obtained from surveys collected in Tibet in 2009 and 2010. The DALYs of individual patients and the DALYs/1,000 were calculated. Results Disability weights were obtained for 21 CMS health stages. The results of the analyses of the two surveys were consistent with each other. At different altitudes, the CMS rates ranged from 2.1-37.4%; the individual DALYs of patients ranged from 0.13-0.33, and the DALYs/1,000 ranged from 3.60-52.78. The age, highland service years, blood pressure, heart rate, smoking rate, and proportion of the sample working in engineering or construction were significantly higher in the CMS group than in the non-CMS group (p p  Conclusion The results show that CMS imposes a considerable burden on Chinese immigrants to Tibet. Immigrants with characteristics such as a higher residential altitude, more advanced age, longer highland service years, being a smoker, and working in engineering or construction were more likely to develop CMS and to increase the disease burden. Higher blood pressure and heart rate as a result of CMS were also positively associated with the disease burden. The authorities should pay attention to the highland disease burden and support the development and application of DALYs studies of CMS and other highland diseases.

  17. [Sildenafil and exercise performance at altitude].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peidro, Roberto M

    2015-01-01

    Barometric pressure and partial oxygen pressure decrease with increasing altitude. Hypobaric hypoxia produced is responsible for altitude-related diseases and it can cause severe decrements in exercise performance. The physiological adaptations to the altitude are multiple and they contribute to alter different athletic qualities. The VO2 worsening could be associated to increased pulmonary vascular resistance and nitric oxide diffusion alteration. Performance impairments at altitude can also be accentuated by hypoxia-induced elevations in pulmonary arterial pressure. Clinical studies have demonstrated the beneficial effects of sildenafil on the treatment of pulmonary hypertension. These effects have led to suggest that its indication for competitions at altitude might improve athletic performance. The investigations demonstrate different results depending on the altitude level and times and intensities of exercise. Some studies show performance improvements, although not in all participants. Individual responses vary widely between different athletes. This presentation examines the effects of altitude on exercise capacity and shows studies about the use of sildenafil to improve sport performance. This text also discusses the possible side effects and implications for the use of sildenafil in athletes, indication that is not the basic one of the drug. The physicians must know in each athlete the individual sildenafil side effects that could arise and that would influence negatively on health and performance. PMID:26339884

  18. High-Altitude Hydration System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parazynski, Scott E.; Orndoff, Evelyne; Bue, Grant C.; Schaefbauer, Mark E.; Urban, Kase

    2010-01-01

    Three methods are being developed for keeping water from freezing during high-altitude climbs so that mountaineers can remain hydrated. Three strategies have been developed. At the time of this reporting two needed to be tested in the field and one was conceptual. The first method is Passive Thermal Control Using Aerogels. This involves mounting the fluid reservoir of the climber s canteen to an inner layer of clothing for better heat retention. For the field test, bottles were mounted to the inner fleece layer of clothing, and then aerogel insulation was placed on the outside of the bottle, and circumferentially around the drink straw. When climbers need to drink, they can pull up the insulated straw from underneath the down suit, take a sip, and then put it back into the relative warmth of the suit. For the field test, a data logger assessed the temperatures of the water reservoir, as well as near the tip of the drink straw. The second method is Passive Thermal Control with Copper-Shielded Drink Straw and Aerogels, also mounted to inner layers of clothing for better heat retention. Braided wire emanates from the inside of the fleece jacket layer, and continues up and around the drink straw in order to use body heat to keep the system-critical drink straw warm enough to keep water in the liquid state. For the field test, a data logger will be used to compare this with the above concept. The third, and still conceptual, method is Active Thermal Control with Microcontroller. If the above methods do not work, microcontrollers and tape heaters have been identified that could keep the drink straw warm even under extremely cold conditions. Power requirements are not yet determined because the thermal environment inside the down suit relative to the external environment has not been established. A data logger will be used to track both the external and internal temperatures of the suit on a summit day.

  19. Left ventricular hemodynamics in patients with sick sinus syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The left ventricular (LV) systolic and diastolic functions in 31 patients with sick sinus syndrome (types I and II) were analyzed using LV time activity curves obtained by a 99mTc-RBC cardiac pool scintigraphy-forward and backward multiple gated study (FBMG) and compared with those in controls. On A-V sequential pacing (rate, 70 bpm; A-V delay, 150 msec), LV-peak ejection rate (PER) and peak filling rate (PFR) were significantly decreased compared to those in normal controls. As pacing rate was increased, PFR decreased significantly in patients in whom PER was decreased. The etiology of disturbed LV systolic and diastolic functions in patients with sick sinus syndrome remains unknown. No patient had significant organic coronary artery disease or other cardiac disorder. On the other hand, the frequency of vasospastic angina was higher in this group than in the controls. We suspect that sick sinus syndrome and vasospastic angina probably share a common pathophysiology. In patients with sick sinus syndrome, LV systolic and diastolic functions are impaired at rest and during A-V sequential pacing. (author)

  20. Common Mental Disorders in Longterm-Sickness Absence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Hans Jørgen

    Common Mental Disorders (CMD) such as depression, anxiety, and somatoform disorders impose heavy burdens on individuals and on society in the form of sickness absence. CMD are frequently undetected in primary care which postpone the initiation of proper treatment. This seriously worsens return...

  1. Reliability of psychophysiological responses across multiple motion sickness stimulation tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stout, C. S.; Toscano, W. B.; Cowings, P. S.

    1995-01-01

    Although there is general agreement that a high degree of variability exists between subjects in their autonomic nervous system responses to motion sickness stimulation, very little evidence exists that examines the reproducibility of autonomic responses within subjects during motion sickness stimulation. Our objectives were to examine the reliability of autonomic responses and symptom levels across five testing occasions using the (1) final minute of testing, (2) change in autonomic response and the change in symptom level, and (3) strength of the relationship between the change in symptom level and the change in autonomic responses across the entire motion sickness test. The results indicate that, based on the final minute of testing, the autonomic responses of heart rate, blood volume pulse, and respiration rate are moderately stable across multiple tests. Changes in heart rate, blood volume pulse, respiration rate, and symptoms throughout the test duration are less stable across the tests. Finally, autonomic responses and symptom levels are significantly related across the entire motion sickness test.

  2. GPs' negotiation strategies regarding sick leave for subjective health complaints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsen, Stein; Malterud, Kirsti; Werner, Erik L; Maeland, Silje; Magnussen, Liv Heide

    2015-01-01

    main goal: motivating the patient for a rapid return to work by pointing out the positive effects of staying at work, making legal and moral arguments, and warning against long-term sick leave. Additional solutions might also be applied, such as involving other stakeholders in this process to provide...

  3. Development of a neural net paradigm that predicts simulator sickness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allgood, G.O.

    1993-03-01

    A disease exists that affects pilots and aircrew members who use Navy Operational Flight Training Systems. This malady, commonly referred to as simulator sickness and whose symptomatology closely aligns with that of motion sickness, can compromise the use of these systems because of a reduced utilization factor, negative transfer of training, and reduction in combat readiness. A report is submitted that develops an artificial neural network (ANN) and behavioral model that predicts the onset and level of simulator sickness in the pilots and aircrews who sue these systems. It is proposed that the paradigm could be implemented in real time as a biofeedback monitor to reduce the risk to users of these systems. The model captures the neurophysiological impact of use (human-machine interaction) by developing a structure that maps the associative and nonassociative behavioral patterns (learned expectations) and vestibular (otolith and semicircular canals of the inner ear) and tactile interaction, derived from system acceleration profiles, onto an abstract space that predicts simulator sickness for a given training flight.

  4. Quantitative relationship of sick building syndrome symptoms with ventilation rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Data from published studies were combined and analyzed to develop best-fit equations and curves quantifying the change in sick building syndrome (SBS) symptom prevalence in office workers with ventilation rate. For each study, slopes were calculated, representing the fractional...

  5. What bothers the sick-listed employee with severe MUPS?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoedeman, R.; Blankenstein, A. H.; Koopmans, P. C.; Groothoff, J. W.

    2013-01-01

    Aims: The aim of this study was to explore what employees with severe medically unexplained physical symptoms (MUPS) experience as causes of distress with regard to employees with mild or no MUPS. Methods: This study is an additional analysis of a cross-sectional study in which 486 sick-listed emplo

  6. Respiratory impact on motion sickness induced by linear motion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mert, A.; Klöpping-Ketelaars, I.; Bles, W.

    2009-01-01

    Motion sickness incidence (MSI) for vertical sinusoidal motion reaches a maximum at 0.167 Hz. Normal breathing frequency is close to this frequency. There is some evidence for synchronization of breathing with this stimulus frequency. If this enforced breathing takes place over a larger frequency ra

  7. Mood and simulator sickness after truck simulator exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Biernacki

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Studies involving simulators are increasingly popular. We examined to what extent exposure to a variety of test conditions on the simulator affects the level of mood and severity of simulator sickness. In addition, we were interested in finding out to what degree the changes in mood are associated with the severity of the symptoms of simulator sickness. Material and Methods: Twelve men (aged M: 29.8, SD: 4.26 participated in the study, performing two 30-minute tasks in a driving simulator truck (fixed-base and mobile platform. For measuring mood, the UMACL questionnaire was used, and to assess the severity of the symptoms of simulator sickness, the SSQ questionnaire was used. Mood and the severity of simulator sickness symptoms were measured 3 times during the study (pretest, 2 min and 0.5 h after the test. Results: Symptoms of nausea and disorientation occurred after the tests on both simulators. In the case of the mobile platform, exacerbation of the symptoms associated with oculomotor disturbances was observed. These symptoms were particularly severe 2 min after completion of the test on the simulator, and they persisted for at least 0.5 h after the end of the test. The correlations between simulator sickness and mood explained from 35% to 65% of the variance of these variables. In particular, a strong association was observed between the oculomotor disturbances and a decrease in energetic arousal. This refers both to the effect level and the duration of these symptoms. Conclusions: Simulator sickness is a major problem in the use of simulators in both the research and the training of operators. In the conditions involving the mobile platform, not only was a higher severity of the symptoms of simulator sickness observed, but also a decrease in energetic arousal. Therefore, the implementation of the mobile platform can provide an additional source of conflict at the level of incoming stimuli and changes in mood may increase this

  8. Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin: its response to hypoxia and association with acute mountain sickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellor, Adrian; Boos, Christopher; Stacey, Mike; Hooper, Tim; Smith, Chris; Begley, Joe; Yarker, Jo; Piper, Rick; O'Hara, John; King, Rod; Turner, Steve; Woods, David R

    2013-01-01

    Acute Mountain Sickness (AMS) is a common clinical challenge at high altitude (HA). A point-of-care biochemical marker for AMS could have widespread utility. Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) rises in response to renal injury, inflammation and oxidative stress. We investigated whether NGAL rises with HA and if this rise was related to AMS, hypoxia or exercise. NGAL was assayed in a cohort (n = 22) undertaking 6 hours exercise at near sea-level (SL); a cohort (n = 14) during 3 hours of normobaric hypoxia (FiO2 11.6%) and on two trekking expeditions (n = 52) to over 5000 m. NGAL did not change with exercise at SL or following normobaric hypoxia. During the trekking expeditions NGAL levels (ng/ml, mean ± sd, range) rose significantly (P < 0.001) from 68 ± 14 (60-102) at 1300 m to 183 ± 107 (65-519); 143 ± 66 (60-315) and 150 ± 71 (60-357) at 3400 m, 4270 m and 5150 m respectively. At 5150 m there was a significant difference in NGAL between those with severe AMS (n = 7), mild AMS (n = 16) or no AMS (n = 23): 201 ± 34 versus 171 ± 19 versus 124 ± 12 respectively (P = 0.009 for severe versus no AMS; P = 0.026 for mild versus no AMS). In summary, NGAL rises in response to prolonged hypobaric hypoxia and demonstrates a relationship to the presence and severity of AMS. PMID:24227892

  9. Ventilation in day-care centres and sick leave among nursery children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolarik, Barbara; Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic; Ibfelt, Tobias; Engelund, Eva Hoy; Møller, Eva; Bräuner, Elvira Vaclavik

    2016-01-01

    ventilation in DCCs and sick leave among nursery children. Data on child sick leave within an 11 week period was obtained for 635 children attending 20 DCCs. Ventilation measurements included three proxies of ventilation: air exchange rate (ACR) measured with the decay method, ACR measured by the...... inverse relationship between the number of sick days and ACR measured with the decay method was found for crude and adjusted analysis, with a 12% decrease in number of sick days per 1 h(-1) increase in ACR measured with the decay method. This study suggests a relationship between sick leave among nursery...

  10. Does self-efficacy predict return-to-work after sickness absence? A prospective study among 930 employees with sickness absence for three weeks or more

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Labriola, Merete; Lund, Thomas; Christensen, Karl B;

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To compare levels of self-efficacy among the general working population and employees with sickness absence from work, and to examine if general self-efficacy measured before occurrence of sickness absence predicted subsequent onset of sickness absence and Return-to-Work. METHODS: The study ...... labor market status; this will help to focus Return-to-Work interventions where planning has to be attentive towards the change in self-efficacy that can occur after onset of disease and sickness absence....

  11. Head movements in non-terrestrial force environments elicit motion sickness - Implications for the etiology of space motion sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lackner, J. R.; Graybiel, A.

    1986-01-01

    Space motion sickness has become an operational concern in manned space flight. Considerable evidence exists that head movements in free fall, especially pitch movements, are provocative until adaptation occurs. The question arises whether space motion sickness is an unique nosological entity or is due to body movements in a nonterrestrial force environment, a force environment for which the body's dynamic sensory-motor adaptions to 1 G are no longer appropriate. To evaluate this issue, subjects were asked to make controlled head movements during exposure to high gravitoinertial force levels, 1.8-2.0 G, in parabolic flight maneuvers. Head movements in pitch with eyes open were most evocative of motion sickness, yaw movements with eyes covered were least provocative. This pattern is identical to that which occurs when the same types of head movements are made in the free fall phase of parabolic maneuvers. It appears that space motion sickness is the consequence of prolonged exposure to a nonterrestrial force background rather than of exposure to free fall per se.

  12. High Altitude Clear Air Turbulence Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Air Force Flight Dynamics Laboratory conducted the High Altitude Clear Air Turbulence Project in the mid 1960s with the intention of better understanding air...

  13. Cosmic rays and dosimetry at aviation altitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent concerns regarding the effects of the cosmic radiation field at aircraft altitudes on aircrew have resulted in a renewed interest in detailed measurements of the neutral and charged particle components in the atmosphere. CR-39 nuclear track detectors have been employed on a number of subsonic and supersonic aircraft to measure charge spectra and LET spectra at aircraft altitudes. These detectors are ideal for long term exposures required for these studies and their passive nature makes them suitable for an environment where interference with flight instrumentation could be a problem. We report here on measurements and analysis of short range tracks which were produced by high LET particles generated mainly by neutron interactions at aviation altitudes. In order to test the overall validity of the technique measurements were also carried out at the CERN-CEC field which simulates the radiation field at aviation altitudes and good agreement was found with dose values obtained using mainly heavy ion calibration

  14. High-altitude cerebral oedema mimicking stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanamandra, Uday; Gupta, Amul; Patyal, Sagarika; Varma, Prem Prakash

    2014-01-01

    High-altitude cerebral oedema (HACO) is the most fatal high-altitude illness seen by rural physicians practising in high-altitude areas. HACO presents clinically with cerebellar ataxia, features of raised intracranial pressure (ICP) and coma. Early identification is important as delay in diagnosis can be fatal. We present two cases of HACO presenting with focal deficits mimicking stroke. The first patient presented with left-sided hemiplegia associated with the rapid deterioration in the sensorium. Neuroimaging revealed features suggestive of vasogenic oedema. The second patient presented with monoplegia of the lower limb. Neuroimaging revealed perfusion deficit in anterior cerebral artery territory. Both patients were managed with dexamethasone and they improved dramatically. Clinical picture and neuroimaging closely resembled acute ischaemic stroke in both cases. Thrombolysis in these patients would have been disastrous. Recent travel to high altitude, young age, absence of atherosclerotic risk factors and features of raised ICP concomitantly directed the diagnosis to HACO. PMID:24671373

  15. Python Engine Installed in Altitude Wind Tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    1949-01-01

    An engine mechanic checks instrumentation prior to an investigation of engine operating characteristics and thrust control of a large turboprop engine with counter-rotating propellers under high-altitude flight conditions in the 20-foot-dianieter test section of the Altitude Wind Tunnel at the Lewis Flight Propulsion Laboratory of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, Cleveland, Ohio, now known as the John H. Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field.

  16. Child health and living at high altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niermeyer, S; Andrade Mollinedo, P; Huicho, L

    2009-10-01

    The health of children born and living at high altitude is shaped not only by the low-oxygen environment, but also by population ancestry and sociocultural determinants. High altitude and the corresponding reduction in oxygen delivery during pregnancy result in lower birth weight with higher elevation. Children living at high elevations are at special risk for hypoxaemia during infancy and during acute lower respiratory infection, symptomatic high-altitude pulmonary hypertension, persistence of fetal vascular connections, and re-entry high-altitude pulmonary oedema. However, child health varies from one population group to another due to genetic adaptation as well as factors such as nutrition, intercurrent infection, exposure to pollutants and toxins, socioeconomic status, and access to medical care. Awareness of the risks uniquely associated with living at high altitude and monitoring of key health indicators can help protect the health of children at high altitude. These considerations should be incorporated into the scaling-up of effective interventions for improving global child health and survival. PMID:19066173

  17. The genetics of adaptation of cattle to high altitude environment: The case of brisket disease in northwestern Ethiopia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High altitude or brisket disease of cattle is common at high altitude areas. It is characterized by right ventricular hypertrophy and edema of the chest and brisket, because of reduced blood oxygen saturation at high elevation. It is similar to altitude sickness in humans and frequently ends with the death of the affected animal unless transferred to lower altitude. The incidence and severity of the disease increase with altitude. Pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) is an indicator of proneness to the disease. High values (>50 mm HG) indicate high risk and low values (<35 mmHG) indicate resistance to the disease. Analyses of heritability of PAP, mostly performed on Angus cattle in the Rocky Mountains at altitudes of 2000-3800 m indicate a relatively high heritability, in the range of 0.30-0.50. This provides options for selection, which is performed routinely in the Rocky Mountains. The Semien Mountains are the highest mountain range of Ethiopia, peaking at the Ras Dashen (4620 m). Cattle are kept at altitudes of up to almost 4000 m. Along the western side of the mountain range, there is a rather continuous drop in altitude down to about 600 m, over a rather short distance (250 km). The cattle in the region are partly of different type (Zebu, Sanga) and partly a mixture (Zenga = Zebu x Sanga). The phenotypic differentiation in terms of body size along levels of altitude is strong. A study was conducted to assess the prevalence rate of high altitude disease and as well as to compare adaptive characteristics of indigenous cattle populations and their crosses with European types towards altitude, in particular, to high altitude disease. In January 2007, 218 animals situated within an altitude range of 1730 - 3500 m were tested for PAP by an experienced veterinarian from Colorado State University. Local breeds and crosses with Holstein Friesian and Jersey were measured. The results in Table I indicate that no sign of brisket disease is observed among the studied

  18. Physiological aspects of altitude training and the use of altitude simulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranković Goran

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Altitude training in various forms is widely practiced by athletes and coaches in an attempt to improve sea level endurance. Training at high altitude may improve performance at sea level through altitude acclimatization, which improves oxygen transport and/or utilization, or through hypoxia, which intensifies the training stimulus. This basic physiological aspect allows three training modalities: live high and train high (classic high-altitude training, live low and train high (training through hypoxia, and live high and train low (the new trend. In an effort to reduce the financial and logistical challenges of traveling to high-altitude training sites, scientists and manufactures have developed artificial high-altitude environments, which simulate the hypoxic conditions of moderate altitude (2000-3000 meters. Endurance athletes from many sports have recently started using nitrogen environments, or hypoxic rooms and tents as part of their altitude training programmes. The results of controlled studies on these modalities of high-altitude training, their practical approach, and ethics are summarized.

  19. Haematological Studies in High Altitude Natives at Plains and on Return to High Altitude

    OpenAIRE

    Jain, S C; H. M. Divekar; Jaya Bardhan; R S Sharma; Swamy, Y. V.

    1988-01-01

    Haematologic studies were carried out in 20 high altitude natives during two months stay at plains (200 m) and on their return to an altitude of 3,500 m. Haemoglobin, erythrocyte count, haematocrit and reticulocyte count decreased rapidly on arrival to plains and attained minimum level by the end of fourth week. All these parameters increased rapidly on return to high altitude and were found to attain maximum values by 23rd day on return to high altitude. Mean cell volume and mean cell haemog...

  20. Neutral Wind Observations below 200 km altitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, S.; Abe, T.; Habu, H.; Kakinami, Y.; Larsen, M. F.; Pfaff, R. F., Jr.; Yamamoto, M.

    2015-12-01

    Neutral Wind Observations below 200 km altitudesS. Watanabe1, T. Abe2, H. Habu2, Y. Kakinami3, M. Larsen4, R. Pfaff5, M. Yamamoto6, M-Y. Yamamoto31Hokkaido University/Hokkaido Information University, 2JAXA/ISAS, 3Kochi University of Technology, 4Clemson University, 5NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, 6Kyoto University, Neutral wind in the thermosphere is one of the key parameters to understand the ionosphere-thermosphere coupling process. JAXA/ISAS successfully launched sounding rockets from Uchinoura Space Center (USC) on September 2, 2007, January 12, 2012, and July 20, 2013, and NASA launched sounding rockets from Kwajalein on May 7, 2013 and from Wallops on July 4, 2013. The rockets installed Lithium and/or TMA canisters as well as instruments for plasma and electric and magnetic fields. The atomic Lithium gases were released at altitudes between 150 km and 300 km in the evening on September 2, 2007, at altitude of ~100 km in the morning on January 12, 2012, at altitude of ~120km in the midnight on July 20, 2013, at altitude between 150 km and 300 km in the evening on May 7, 2013 and at altitude of ~150 km in the noon on July 4, 2013. The Lithium atoms were scattering sunlight by resonance scattering with wavelength of 670nm. However, the Lithium atoms scattered moon light on July 20, 2013. The moon light scattering is the first time to use for thermospheric wind measurement in the midnight. The Lithium clouds/trails and TMA trails showed clearly the neutral wind shears and atmospheric waves at ~150 km altitude in the lower thermosphere for all local time.

  1. [Reducing problematic sickness absence: of importance to every general practitioner].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wind, H; Opstelten, W; Hendriks, A C

    2016-01-01

    Problematic sickness absence is an issue that concerns not only occupational health physicians, but all physicians. More collaboration between occupational health and treating physicians, plus improved alignment of symptom treatment and reintegration counselling, can help avoid long-term sickness absence of employees. Achieving this goal presupposes mutual knowledge of each other's professions. Medical practice guidelines are a tool par excellence to share knowledge and bring this into practice. Treating physicians should not refrain from posing work-related and return-to-work questions, even if the overall responsibility lies with the occupational health physicians in terms of reintegration efforts. The patient's interest should be the leading principle for all physicians involved. This means not only provision of good care, aimed at patient recovery, but also adequate reintegration in the labour market. Occupational health physicians, general practitioners and consultant specialists should share this common goal. PMID:27299497

  2. Multidimensional intervention and sickness absence in assistant nursing students

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Annemarie Lyng; Strøyer, Jesper; Ebbehøj, Niels Erik;

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: When handling patients, nursing assistant (NA) students and nurse students are frequently exposed to risk factors for low back pain (LBP) including sudden loads and twisting and bending of the spine. Furthermore, LBP is a major cause of sickness absence. AIMS: To ascertain...... at two schools of health and social care in Copenhagen, Denmark. The participants completed a comprehensive questionnaire regarding sickness absence, LBP and psychosocial factors on commencement and after completion of the study. RESULTS: Of 766 female NA students, 668 (87%) completed the baseline...... of general health perception, energy/fatigue or psychological well-being at follow-up, while the control group reported a decline on those scales. There were no significant differences in the prevalence of LBP at follow-up between the intervention and control group. CONCLUSIONS: Compared to the control group...

  3. Pharmacology in space. Part 2. Controlling motion sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lathers, C. M.; Charles, J. B.; Bungo, M. W.

    1989-01-01

    In this second article in the two-part series on pharmacology in space, Claire Lathers and colleagues discuss the pharmacology of drugs used to control motion sickness in space and note that the pharmacology of the 'ideal' agent has yet to be worked out. That motion sickness may impair the pharmacological action of a drug by interfering with its absorption and distribution because of alteration of physiology is a problem unique to pharmacology in space. The authors comment on the problem of designing suitable ground-based studies to evaluate the pharmacological effect of drugs to be used in space and discuss the use of salivary samples collected during space flight to allow pharmacokinetic evaluations necessary for non-invasive clinical drug monitoring.

  4. Differences in predictors of return to work among long-term sick-listed employees with different self-reported reasons for sick leave

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijs, J.J.J.M.; Koppes, L.L.J.; Taris, T.W.; Blonk, R.W.B.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The present study aimed to gain insight in the predictors of full return to work (RTW) among employees on long-term sick leave due to three different self-reported reasons for sick leave: physical, mental or comorbid physical and mental problems. This knowledge can be used to develop di

  5. The Impact of Altitude on Infant Health in South America

    OpenAIRE

    Wehby, George L; Eduardo E. Castilla; Lopez-Camelo, Jorge

    2010-01-01

    Previous Studies have reported that altitude reduces birth weight in South America. However, much remains unknown about the heterogeneities in altitude effects by fetal health endowments and about the effects in various ranges of altitude. This study estimates the effects of altitude on the means and quantiles of birth weight and gestational age separately for two large samples o...

  6. HIGH ALTITUDE TESTING OF RESIDENTIAL WOOD-FIRED COMBUSTION EQUIPMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    To determine whether emissions from operating a wood stove at high altitude differ from those at low altitude, a high altitude sampling program was conducted which was compared to previously collected low altitude data. Emission tests were conducted in the identical model stove u...

  7. Sick Building Syndrome by Indoor Air Pollution in Dalian, China

    OpenAIRE

    Fumihiko Kitamura; Tamie Nakajima; Michihiro Kamijima; Md Khalequzzaman; Kiyoshi Sakai; Kazuhito Yokoyama; Fengyuan Piao; Peng Guo

    2013-01-01

    This study assessed subjective symptoms related to indoor concentrations of chemicals among residents in a housing estate in Dalian, China, where indoor air pollution by interior decoration materials has recently become a major health problem. Fifty-nine males and 50 females were surveyed for their symptoms related to sick building syndrome. Formaldehyde (HCHO), NO2, and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in their dwellings were collected using a diffusion sampler and measured by GC/MS. For re...

  8. Perceived Motion Sickness and Effects on Performance Following Naval Transportation

    OpenAIRE

    Dahlman, Joakim; Falkmer, Torbjörn; Forsman, Fredrik

    2012-01-01

    The present study focused on the relationship between previous experiences of, and rated susceptibility to, motion sickness and its correlation to subjective measurements and actual performance. Performance was measured in terms of shooting precision among 23 participants from the Swedish amphibious corps after transportation in a small amphibious boat, while sealed off with no reference to the outside world. Self-rating questionnaires were collected regarding perceived performance and presen...

  9. Sickness behavior : immune system influences on brain and behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Karshikoff, Bianka

    2015-01-01

    Sickness behavior is a motivational state that redirects the needs and priorities of the organism during infection to aid recovery. The behavioral changes include fatigue, lowered mood and aches. Peripheral cytokines signal to the brain via autonomic nerves and the bloodbrain interface and change the inflammatory status of the brain, a mechanism that in recent years has been implied in complex syndromes like long-term pain, depression, fatigue and overall poor well-being. Epidemio...

  10. [Evaluation of Motion Sickness Induced by 3D Video Clips].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, Yasuyuki; Takada, Hiroki

    2016-01-01

    The use of stereoscopic images has been spreading rapidly. Nowadays, stereoscopic movies are nothing new to people. Stereoscopic systems date back to 280 A.D. when Euclid first recognized the concept of depth perception by humans. Despite the increase in the production of three-dimensional (3D) display products and many studies on stereoscopic vision, the effect of stereoscopic vision on the human body has been insufficiently understood. However, symptoms such as eye fatigue and 3D sickness have been the concerns when viewing 3D films for a prolonged period of time; therefore, it is important to consider the safety of viewing virtual 3D contents as a contribution to society. It is generally explained to the public that accommodation and convergence are mismatched during stereoscopic vision and that this is the main reason for the visual fatigue and visually induced motion sickness (VIMS) during 3D viewing. We have devised a method to simultaneously measure lens accommodation and convergence. We used this simultaneous measurement device to characterize 3D vision. Fixation distance was compared between accommodation and convergence during the viewing of 3D films with repeated measurements. Time courses of these fixation distances and their distributions were compared in subjects who viewed 2D and 3D video clips. The results indicated that after 90 s of continuously viewing 3D images, the accommodative power does not correspond to the distance of convergence. In this paper, remarks on methods to measure the severity of motion sickness induced by viewing 3D films are also given. From the epidemiological viewpoint, it is useful to obtain novel knowledge for reduction and/or prevention of VIMS. We should accumulate empirical data on motion sickness, which may contribute to the development of relevant fields in science and technology. PMID:26832611

  11. Vascularization of bone regeneration products in acute radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 119 rabbits with acute radiation sickness the vascularization process in bone regeneration products was studied by microangiography. The formation of arteries and of bone structures was retarded in irradiated animals. The deficient formation of veins and capillaries did not cause conditions for venous blood circulation and resulted in a slow resorption of newly formed bone structures and gristle. That is one of the reasons for an extended healing process of fractures and for formation of false articulations in irradiated animals. (author)

  12. Quantitative relationship of sick building syndrome symptoms with ventilation rates

    OpenAIRE

    Fisk, William J.

    2009-01-01

    Data from published studies were combined and analyzed to develop best-fit equations and curves quantifying the change in sick building syndrome (SBS) symptom prevalence in office workers with ventilation rate. For each study, slopes were calculated, representing the fractional change in SBS symptom prevalence per unit change in ventilation rate per person. Values of ventilation rate, associated with each value of slope, were also calculated. Linear regression equations were fitted to the res...

  13. Effect of carbon dioxide in acute mountain sickness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harvey, T C; Raichle, M E; Winterborn, M H;

    1988-01-01

    The effect of adding CO2 to inhaled air in six subjects with acute mountain sickness was investigated during a medical expedition to 5400 m.3% CO2 in ambient air increased ventilation and resulted in a rise in PaO2 of between 24% and 40%. There was a 9-28% increase in PaCO2 and a reduction of the...

  14. EEG-based learning system for online motion sickness level estimation in a dynamic vehicle environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chin-Teng; Tsai, Shu-Fang; Ko, Li-Wei

    2013-10-01

    Motion sickness is a common experience for many people. Several previous researches indicated that motion sickness has a negative effect on driving performance and sometimes leads to serious traffic accidents because of a decline in a person's ability to maintain self-control. This safety issue has motivated us to find a way to prevent vehicle accidents. Our target was to determine a set of valid motion sickness indicators that would predict the occurrence of a person's motion sickness as soon as possible. A successful method for the early detection of motion sickness will help us to construct a cognitive monitoring system. Such a monitoring system can alert people before they become sick and prevent them from being distracted by various motion sickness symptoms while driving or riding in a car. In our past researches, we investigated the physiological changes that occur during the transition of a passenger's cognitive state using electroencephalography (EEG) power spectrum analysis, and we found that the EEG power responses in the left and right motors, parietal, lateral occipital, and occipital midline brain areas were more highly correlated to subjective sickness levels than other brain areas. In this paper, we propose the use of a self-organizing neural fuzzy inference network (SONFIN) to estimate a driver's/passenger's sickness level based on EEG features that have been extracted online from five motion sickness-related brain areas, while either in real or virtual vehicle environments. The results show that our proposed learning system is capable of extracting a set of valid motion sickness indicators that originated from EEG dynamics, and through SONFIN, a neuro-fuzzy prediction model, we successfully translated the set of motion sickness indicators into motion sickness levels. The overall performance of this proposed EEG-based learning system can achieve an average prediction accuracy of ~82%. PMID:24808604

  15. High altitude pulmonary edema in mountain climbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korzeniewski, Krzysztof; Nitsch-Osuch, Aneta; Guzek, Aneta; Juszczak, Dariusz

    2015-04-01

    Every year thousands of ski, trekking or climbing fans travel to the mountains where they stay at the altitude of more than 2500-3000m above sea level or climb mountain peaks, often exceeding 7000-8000m. High mountain climbers are at a serious risk from the effects of adverse environmental conditions prevailing at higher elevations. They may experience health problems resulting from hypotension, hypoxia or exposure to low temperatures; the severity of those conditions is largely dependent on elevation, time of exposure as well as the rate of ascent and descent. A disease which poses a direct threat to the lives of mountain climbers is high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE). It is a non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema which typically occurs in rapidly climbing unacclimatized lowlanders usually within 2-4 days of ascent above 2500-3000m. It is the most common cause of death resulting from the exposure to high altitude. The risk of HAPE rises with increased altitude and faster ascent. HAPE incidence ranges from an estimated 0.01% to 15.5%. Climbers with a previous history of HAPE, who ascent rapidly above 4500m have a 60% chance of illness recurrence. The aim of this article was to present the relevant details concerning epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical symptoms, prevention, and treatment of high altitude pulmonary edema among climbers in the mountain environment. PMID:25291181

  16. Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea at Altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch, Konrad E; Latshang, Tsogyal D; Ulrich, Silvia

    2015-06-01

    Bloch, Konrad E., Tsogyal D. Latshang, and Silvia Ulrich. Patients with obstructive sleep apnea at altitude. High Alt Med Biol 16:110-116, 2015.--Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is highly prevalent in the general population, in particular in men and women of older age. In OSA patients sleeping near sea level, the apneas/hypopneas associated with intermittent hypoxemia are predominantly due to upper airway collapse. When OSA patients stay at altitudes above 1600 m, corresponding to that of many tourist destinations, hypobaric hypoxia promotes frequent central apneas in addition to obstructive events, resulting in combined intermittent and sustained hypoxia. This induces strong sympathetic activation with elevated heart rate, cardiac arrhythmia, and systemic hypertension. There are concerns that these changes expose susceptible OSA patients, in particular those with advanced age and co-morbidities, to an excessive risk of cardiovascular and other adverse events during a stay at altitude. Based on data from randomized trials, it seems advisable for OSA patients to use continuous positive airway pressure treatment with computer controlled mask pressure adjustment (autoCPAP) in combination with acetazolamide during an altitude sojourn. If CPAP therapy is not feasible, acetazolamide alone is better than no treatment at all, as it improves oxygenation and sleep apnea and prevents excessive blood pressure rises of OSA patients at altitude. PMID:25973669

  17. Serum testosterone levels and excessive erythrocytosis during the process of adaptation to high altitudes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gustavo F Gonzales

    2013-01-01

    Populations living at high altitudes (HAs),particularly in the Peruvian Andes,are characterized by a mixture of subjects with erythrocytosis (16 g dl-1<haemoglobin (Hb)≤ 21 gdl-1) and others with excessive erythrocytosis (EE) (Hb>21 g dl-1).Elevated haemoglobin values (EE) are associated with chronic mountain sickness,a condition reflecting the lack of adaptation to HA.According to current data,native men from regions of HA are not adequately adapted to live at such altitudes if they have elevated serum testosterone levels.This seems to be due to an increased conversion of dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS) to testosterone.Men with erythrocytosis at HAs show higher serum androstenedione levels and a lower testosterone/androstenedione ratio than men with EE,suggesting reduced 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17beta-HSD) activity.Lower 17beta-HSD activity via △4-steroid production in men with erythrocytosis at HA may protect against elevated serum testosterone levels,thus preventing EE.The higher conversion of DHEAS to testosterone in subjects with EE indicates increased 17beta-HSD activity viathe △5-pathway.Currently,there are various situations in which people live (human biodiversity) with low or high haemoglobin levels at HA.Antiquity could be an important adaptation component for life at HA,and testosterone seems to participate in this process.

  18. SICK BUILDING SYNDROME CASES BEHIND THE UNKNOWN SYMPTOMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oguz OZYARAL

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, several mycological analyses made in the houses of the sick people whose sensitivity against allergens was examined in line with the people and their histories who applied to Istanbul University, Istanbul Medical Faculty Department of Pulmonery Disease. Clinically, in the blood serums of three housewives, who have complaints about respiration difficulties, specific lgG antibody against several mold, thermophylic actinomycetes and bird antigens were examined. As a result of the analysis it is found out that there is a 75% direct relation between in-house molds flora and the molds that the sick person gained sensitivity. Findings appeared in housewives who are living in houses surrounded by molds are regarded as “sick building syndrome”. In this particular work, knowledge is given about real agents that are hidden behind some general symptoms of anemnesia and examination of patients with chronic complaints. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2006; 5(5.000: 352-363

  19. Motion sickness and proprioceptive aftereffects following virtual environment exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanney, K. M.; Kennedy, R. S.; Drexler, J. M.; Harm, D. L.

    1999-01-01

    To study the potential aftereffects of virtual environments (VE), tests of visually guided behavior and felt limb position (pointing with eyes open and closed) along with self-reports of motion sickness-like discomfort were administered before and after 30 min exposure of 34 subjects. When post- discomfort was compared to a pre-baseline, the participants reported more sickness afterward (p < 0.03). The change in felt limb position resulted in subjects pointing higher (p < 0.038) and slightly to the left, although the latter difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.08). When findings from a second study using a different VE system were compared, they essentially replicated the results of the first study with higher sickness afterward (p < 0.001) and post- pointing errors were also up (p < 0.001) and to the left (p < 0.001). While alternative explanations (e.g. learning, fatigue, boredom, habituation, etc.) of these outcomes cannot be ruled out, the consistency of the post- effects on felt limb position changes in the two VE implies that these recalibrations may linger once interaction with the VE has concluded, rendering users potentially physiologically maladapted for the real world when they return. This suggests there may be safety concerns following VE exposures until pre-exposure functioning has been regained. The results of this study emphasize the need for developing and using objective measures of post-VE exposure aftereffects in order to systematically determine under what conditions these effects may occur.

  20. Effects of Ascent to High Altitude on Human Antimycobacterial Immunity

    OpenAIRE

    Eisen, S; Pealing, L.; Aldridge, RW; Siedner, MJ; Necochea, A.; Leybell, I.; Valencia, T; Herrera, B.; Wiles, S; Friedland, JS; Gilman, RH; Evans, CA

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis infection, disease and mortality are all less common at high than low altitude and ascent to high altitude was historically recommended for treatment. The immunological and mycobacterial mechanisms underlying the association between altitude and tuberculosis are unclear. We studied the effects of altitude on mycobacteria and antimycobacterial immunity. METHODS: Antimycobacterial immunity was assayed in 15 healthy adults residing at low altitude before and after they a...

  1. Sonic Thermometer for High-Altitude Balloons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bognar, John

    2012-01-01

    The sonic thermometer is a specialized application of well-known sonic anemometer technology. Adaptations have been made to the circuit, including the addition of supporting sensors, which enable its use in the high-altitude environment and in non-air gas mixtures. There is a need to measure gas temperatures inside and outside of superpressure balloons that are flown at high altitudes. These measurements will allow the performance of the balloon to be modeled more accurately, leading to better flight performance. Small thermistors (solid-state temperature sensors) have been used for this general purpose, and for temperature measurements on radiosondes. A disadvantage to thermistors and other physical (as distinct from sonic) temperature sensors is that they are subject to solar heating errors when they are exposed to the Sun, and this leads to issues with their use in a very high-altitude environment

  2. Sick and still at school: an empirical study of sickness presence among students in Norwegian secondary school

    OpenAIRE

    Johansen, Vegard

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: This paper investigates sickness presence (SP) among students. The research questions asked are: What is the distribution of SP among students in Norwegian secondary school? What characterises students with high SP in Norwegian secondary schools? Design: A cross-sectional survey conducted in 10th grade in lower secondary school (LSS) and level 2 in upper secondary school (USS). The study was conducted using multivariate binomial logistic regression analysis. Participan...

  3. Evaluation of the sickness rate for acute myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardiovascular diseases seem to be the main cause of people's death in industrial developed countries. That is why the active study of factors and conditions affecting the sickness and death rate for this group of diseases is being continued at present. Apart from the well-known risk factors, there is a group of technogenic factors the contribution of which to genesis of the examined group of diseases is not clear enough and requires a detailed study. One of such factors appears to be ionizing radiaiton, especially in case of a prolonged effect with the so-called small doses. The sickness rate due to acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in the period 1999-2001 has been studied in the closed population ZATO Seversk. To conduct examinations there was created the towns AMI register to be a structural component of the regional medico-dosimetric register (RMDR) of the Siberian Group of Chemical Enterprises (SGCE) personnel and population of ZATO Seversk. Information on coronary disasters among adult population above 20 is being collected according to the program AMI Register created by WHO in 1968 with our additional results of modern methods of examining patients with ischemic heart disease and prospective observation. The analysis of data obtained testifies to the tendency towards the sickness rate increase in the period under study both among residents of the town (2,011-2,014-2,238 per 1000 people in 1999, 2000 and 2001, respectively) and among SGCE workers (4,354-4,572-5,006 per 1000) that corresponds to general tendencies of AMI sickness rate on the territory of Russian Federation. it is noted that in the group of workers at the main production the AMI sickness rate exceeds similar indices by the plant as a whole (6,205-7, 176-6,518 per 1000). Great prevalence of this AMI form among workers of a large industrial enterprise can be conditioned by a predominance of male contingent high emotional mental load (shift work on complex technological equipment with

  4. Atmospheric electron flux at airplane altitude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have developed a new detector to systematically measure the cosmic-ray electron flux at airplane altitudes. We loaded a lead-glass-based electron telescope onto a commercial cargo airplane. The first experiment was carried out using the air route between Narita (Japan) and Sydney (Australia); during this flight we measured the electron flux at various altitudes and latitudes. The thresholds of the electron energies were 1, 2, and 4 GeV. The results agree with a simple estimation using one-dimensional shower theory. A comparison with a Monte Carlo calculation was made

  5. Does Perceived Stress Mediate the Association Between Workplace Bullying and Long-Term Sickness Absence?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grynderup, Matias Brdsgaard; Nabe-Nielsen, Kirsten; Lange, Theis;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine if perceived stress mediated the association between workplace bullying and subsequent long-term sickness absence. METHODS: The PRISME cohort was established in 2007 and re-examined in 2009. Questionnaire data about workplace bullying and perceived stress were obtained from...... 4114 individuals. Participants were followed in registers on long-term sickness absence (≥30 consecutive days of sickness absence). RESULTS: Workplace bullying was associated with subsequent sickness absence (odds ratio [OR] = 2.05; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.57 to 2.65) and concurrent high...... perceived stress levels (OR = 2.34; 95% CI: 1.86 to 2.96). A high perceived stress level was also associated with subsequent sickness absence (OR = 1.33; 95% CI: 1.13 to 1.56). Perceived stress explained 13% (95% CI: 6 to 23%) of the total association between bullying and sickness absence. CONCLUSIONS: The...

  6. Factors associated with work disability in employed cancer survivors at 24-month sick leave

    OpenAIRE

    van Muijen, Peter; Duijts, Saskia FA; Bonefaas-Groenewoud, Karin; van der Beek, Allard J; Anema, Johannes R

    2014-01-01

    Background Identification of factors associated with work disability in cancer survivors on long term sick leave may support these survivors in choosing effective measures to facilitate vocational rehabilitation and return to work. Therefore, this study aims to disclose factors associated with work disability in cancer survivors at 24 months of sick leave. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted. The study population consisted of employed sick-listed cancer survivors, aged between 18 an...

  7. Depression and sickness behavior are Janus-faced responses to shared inflammatory pathways

    OpenAIRE

    Maes Michael; Berk Michael; Goehler Lisa; Song Cai; Anderson George; Gałecki Piotr; Leonard Brian

    2012-01-01

    Abstract It is of considerable translational importance whether depression is a form or a consequence of sickness behavior. Sickness behavior is a behavioral complex induced by infections and immune trauma and mediated by pro-inflammatory cytokines. It is an adaptive response that enhances recovery by conserving energy to combat acute inflammation. There are considerable phenomenological similarities between sickness behavior and depression, for example, behavioral inhibition, anorexia and we...

  8. Health problems and disability in long-term sickness absence: ICF coding of medical certificates

    OpenAIRE

    Morgell Roland; Backlund Lars G; Arrelöv Britt; Strender Lars-Erik; Nilsson Gunnar H

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility of International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) and to explore the distribution, including gender differences, of health problems and disabilities as reflected in long-term sickness absence certificates. Methods A total of 433 patients with long sick-listing periods, 267 women and 166 men, were included in the study. All certificates exceeding 28 days of sick-listing sent to the local office ...

  9. General practitioners' experiences with sickness certification: a comparison of survey data from Sweden and Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Winde Lee D; Alexanderson Kristina; Carlsen Benedicte; Kjeldgård Linnea; Wilteus Anna; Gjesdal Sturla

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background In most countries with sickness insurance systems, general practitioners (GPs) play a key role in the sickness-absence process. Previous studies have indicated that GPs experience several tasks and situations related to sickness certification consultations as problematic. The fact that the organization of primary health care and social insurance systems differ between countries may influence both GPs' experiences and certification. The aim of the present study was to gain ...

  10. A geographical approach to identify sleeping sickness risk factors in a mangrove ecosystem

    OpenAIRE

    Courtin, Fabrice; Jamonneau, Vincent; Camara, M; Camara, O.; Coulibaly, B.; Diarra, A.; Solano, Philippe; Bucheton, Bruno

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To provide a better understanding of sleeping sickness transmission and spread in mangrove areas to optimize its control. METHODS In the Forecariah mangrove area, Guinea, 19 sleeping sickness cases and 19 matched controls were followed up in their living areas (at home, in fields and at water points). All occupational sites and pathways were mapped and then placed in their environmental context. RESULTS The sleeping sickness cases displayed a significantly broader and more diverse ...

  11. Promoting return to work : lay experiences after sickness absence with musculoskeletal diagnoses

    OpenAIRE

    Östlund, Gunnel

    2002-01-01

    Introduction: Musculoskeletal disorders constitute the greatest cause of sickness absence from work. Despite research and efforts at rehabilitation, sickness absence due to these disorders has not decreased, but has instead increased, particularly in women. Clients’ perceptions of care and rehabilitation, i.e. knowledge generated from a lay perspective, is a neglected area of research. This thesis deals with lay experiences of rehabilitation following sickness absence due to back, neck or sho...

  12. Views on sick-listing practice among Swedish General Practitioners – a phenomenographic study

    OpenAIRE

    Peterson Stefan; Swartling Malin; Wahlström Rolf

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background The number of people on sick-leave started to increase in Sweden and several other European countries towards the end of the 20th century. Physicians play an important role in the sickness insurance system by acting as gate-keepers. Our aim was to explore how General Practitioners (GPs) view their sick-listing commission and sick-listing practice. Methods Semi-structured interviews with 19 GPs in 17 Primary Health Care settings in four mid-Sweden counties. Interview transc...

  13. Predictors of return to work in employees sick-listed with mental health problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D.Nielsen, Maj Britt; Madsen, Ida E.H.; Bültmann, Ute;

    2011-01-01

    Sickness absence due to mental health problems (MHPs) is increasing in several European countries. However, little is known about return to work (RTW) for employees with MHPs. This prospective study aimed to identify predictors for RTW in employees sick-listed with MHPs.......Sickness absence due to mental health problems (MHPs) is increasing in several European countries. However, little is known about return to work (RTW) for employees with MHPs. This prospective study aimed to identify predictors for RTW in employees sick-listed with MHPs....

  14. Sextant measures spacecraft altitude without gravitational reference

    Science.gov (United States)

    1966-01-01

    Horizon-sensing sextant measures the altitude of an orbiting spacecraft without gravitational reference by optically measuring the dip angle to the horizon along a line of sight in each of two planes. The sextant scans over a relatively limited field of view.

  15. High-altitude physiology: lessons from Tibet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Peter D.; Simonson, Tatum S.; Wei, Guan; Wagner, Harrieth; Wuren, Tanna; Yan, Ma; Qin, Ga; Ge, Rili

    2013-05-01

    Polycythemia is a universal lowlander response to altitude; healthy Andean high-altitude natives also have elevated [Hb]. While this may enhance O2 transport to tissues, studies have shown that acute isovolumic changes in [Hb] do not affect exercise capacity. Many high-altitude Tibetans have evolved sea-level values of [Hb], providing a natural opportunity to study this issue. In 21 young healthy male Tibetans with [Hb] between 15 and 23 g/dl, we measured VO2MAX and O2 transport capacity at 4200m. VO2MAX was higher when [Hb] was lower (Phigh altitude natives remain polycythemic with larger lungs and higher lung diffusing capacity, a smaller exercising AaPO2, and lower ventilation. The challenges now are (1) to understand the different adaptive pathways used by Andeans and Tibetans, and (2) to determine in Tibetans whether, during evolution, reduced [Hb] appeared first, causing compensatory cardiac and muscle adaptations, or if enhanced cardiac function and muscle O2 transport capacity appeared first, permitting secondary reduction in [Hb]. For (2), further research is necessary to determine the basis of enhanced cardiac function and muscle O2 transport, and identify molecular targets of evolution in heart and muscle. Putative mutations can then be timed and compared to appearance of those affecting [Hb].

  16. Dietary Recommendations for Cyclists during Altitude Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Michalczyk

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The concept of altitude or hypoxic training is a common practice in cycling. However, several strategies for training regimens have been proposed, like “live high, train high” (LH-TH, “live high, train low” (LH-TL or “intermittent hypoxic training” (IHT. Each of them combines the effect of acclimatization and different training protocols that require specific nutrition. An appropriate nutrition strategy and adequate hydration can help athletes achieve their fitness and performance goals in this unfriendly environment. In this review, the physiological stress of altitude exposure and training will be discussed, with specific nutrition recommendations for athletes training under such conditions. However, there is little research about the nutrition demands of athletes who train at moderate altitude. Our review considers energetic demands and body mass or body composition changes due to altitude training, including respiratory and urinary water loss under these conditions. Carbohydrate intake recommendations and hydration status are discussed in detail, while iron storage and metabolism is also considered. Last, but not least the risk of increased oxidative stress under hypoxic conditions and antioxidant supplementation suggestions are presented.

  17. Dietary Recommendations for Cyclists during Altitude Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalczyk, Małgorzata; Czuba, Miłosz; Zydek, Grzegorz; Zając, Adam; Langfort, Józef

    2016-01-01

    The concept of altitude or hypoxic training is a common practice in cycling. However, several strategies for training regimens have been proposed, like "live high, train high" (LH-TH), "live high, train low" (LH-TL) or "intermittent hypoxic training" (IHT). Each of them combines the effect of acclimatization and different training protocols that require specific nutrition. An appropriate nutrition strategy and adequate hydration can help athletes achieve their fitness and performance goals in this unfriendly environment. In this review, the physiological stress of altitude exposure and training will be discussed, with specific nutrition recommendations for athletes training under such conditions. However, there is little research about the nutrition demands of athletes who train at moderate altitude. Our review considers energetic demands and body mass or body composition changes due to altitude training, including respiratory and urinary water loss under these conditions. Carbohydrate intake recommendations and hydration status are discussed in detail, while iron storage and metabolism is also considered. Last, but not least the risk of increased oxidative stress under hypoxic conditions and antioxidant supplementation suggestions are presented. PMID:27322318

  18. Estimation of high altitude Martian dust parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabari, Jayesh; Bhalodi, Pinali

    2016-07-01

    Dust devils are known to occur near the Martian surface mostly during the mid of Southern hemisphere summer and they play vital role in deciding background dust opacity in the atmosphere. The second source of high altitude Martian dust could be due to the secondary ejecta caused by impacts on Martian Moons, Phobos and Deimos. Also, the surfaces of the Moons are charged positively due to ultraviolet rays from the Sun and negatively due to space plasma currents. Such surface charging may cause fine grains to be levitated, which can easily escape the Moons. It is expected that the escaping dust form dust rings within the orbits of the Moons and therefore also around the Mars. One more possible source of high altitude Martian dust is interplanetary in nature. Due to continuous supply of the dust from various sources and also due to a kind of feedback mechanism existing between the ring or tori and the sources, the dust rings or tori can sustain over a period of time. Recently, very high altitude dust at about 1000 km has been found by MAVEN mission and it is expected that the dust may be concentrated at about 150 to 500 km. However, it is mystery how dust has reached to such high altitudes. Estimation of dust parameters before-hand is necessary to design an instrument for the detection of high altitude Martian dust from a future orbiter. In this work, we have studied the dust supply rate responsible primarily for the formation of dust ring or tori, the life time of dust particles around the Mars, the dust number density as well as the effect of solar radiation pressure and Martian oblateness on dust dynamics. The results presented in this paper may be useful to space scientists for understanding the scenario and designing an orbiter based instrument to measure the dust surrounding the Mars for solving the mystery. The further work is underway.

  19. Pathology of high altitude pulmonary oedema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To describe autopsy findings in fatal cases of high altitude pulmonary oedema. Study Design: Descriptive study. Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out between 1999 and 2002 at an army field medical unit in Baltistan, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Rawalpindi and Army Medical College, Rawalpindi, Pakistan. Patients and Methods:Autopsies were performed in 17 fatal cases of High Altitude Pulmonary Edema (HAPE) occurring among soldiers serving in Siachen. Results:All cases were males with a mean age of 26.8 years (19-35). The mean altitude at which HAPE occurred was 5192 meters (2895-6492), and the mean duration of stay at these altitudes was 15.3 days (1-30). Eleven individuals had undergone proper acclimatization. The commonest clinical findings were cough (70%), dyspnoea (53%), nausea (47%), headache (41%), vomiting (35%), chest pain (35%) and tightness in chest (24%). Cyanosis and frothy secretions in the nostrils and mouth were present in all but one case. Mean combined weight of lungs was 1470 grams (1070-1810). There was marked congestion of outer and cut surfaces. Interstitial oedema was present in all cases. RBCs and leukocyte infiltrates were seen in 13 and alveolar hyaline membranes in 9 cases. Thrombi were seen in 2 cases. Cerebral oedema was present in 9 cases. Conclusion:HAPE can occur after more than two weeks of stay at high altitudes despite proper acclimatization. Concomitant cerebral oedema is frequently present. Our autopsy findings are consistent with what has been reported previously. (author)

  20. The effect of cinnarizine and cocculus indicus on simulator sickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucertini, Marco; Mirante, Nadia; Casagrande, Maria; Trivelloni, Pierandrea; Lugli, Vittoria

    2007-05-16

    Pensacola Simulator Sickness Questionnaire (SSQ) is a valuable method to analyse symptoms evoked by exposure to a flight simulator environment that can also be adopted to evaluate the effectiveness of preventive tools, aiming at reducing simulator sickness (SS). In this study we analysed SSQ data in subjects undergoing a standard ground based spatial disorientation training inside a flight simulator, in order to evaluate the SS prevention obtained with two different pharmacological tools. Twelve males volunteers participated to an experimental design based on a double-blind, balanced administration of either 30 mg cinnarizine (CIN), or Cocculus Indicus 6CH (COC), or placebo (PLC) before one trial of about one hour spent inside a spatial disorientation trainer. All subjects underwent the three different conditions (CIN, COC, PLC) during 3 non-consecutive days separated by at least 2 weeks. During each experimental day, all subjects filled in SSQ. In addition, both postural instability (with the use of a static stabilometric platform), and sleepiness symptoms were evaluated. All the tests were performed before and after the simulated flight, at different times, in one-and-half-hour intervals. Results indicated a strong increase of sickness after flight simulation that linearly decreased, showing pre-simulator scores after 1.30 hours. In contrast to both PLC and COC, CIN showed significant side effects immediately following flight simulation, with no benefit at the simultaneous SSQ scores. Globally, no highly significant differences between COC and PLC were observed, although a minor degree of postural instability could be detected after COC administration. As far as the present exposure to a simulator environment is concerned, none of the pharmacological tools administered in this study resulted effective in reducing SS symptoms as detected by the SSQ. Moreover, CIN significantly increased sleepiness and postural instability in most subjects. PMID:17434541

  1. Motion sickness susceptibility related to ACTH, ADH and TSH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohl, R. L.; Leach, C.; Homick, J. L.; Larochelle, F. T.

    1983-01-01

    The hypothesis that endogenous levels of certain hormones might be indicative of an individual's susceptibility to stressful motion is tested in a comparison of subjects classified as less prone to motion sickness with those of higher susceptibility. The levels of ACTH and vasopressin measured before exposure to stressful motion were twice as high in the less-suceptible group. No significant differences were noted in the levels of angiotensin, aldosterone, or TSH. The differences between the two groups were greater for a given hormone than for any of the changes induced by exposure to stressful motion.

  2. Intimate Partner Violence Among Mothers of Sick Newborns in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spangenberg, Kathryn; Wobil, Priscilla; Betts, Cassandra L; Wiesner, Theodore F; Gold, Katherine J

    2016-05-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a major public health problem estimated to affect 15%-71% of women worldwide. We sought to elicit IPV risks among mothers of sick newborns in Ghana. As part of a broader study on postpartum depression, we conducted semistructured surveys of 153 women in a mother-baby unit, assessing demographics, depression, social support, and IPV with the present partner. Forty-six percent of mothers reported some form of violence, mostly emotional (34%), followed by physical (17%), and sexual (15%). The study highlights the frequency of perinatal IPV and the associated risk factors of depression and poor social support. PMID:25864483

  3. From sick role to narrative subject: An analytic memoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Arthur W

    2016-01-01

    Questions of illness experience and identity are discussed, based on the analysis of a story told by the breast-cancer activist Audre Lorde. Displacing Parsons' conceptualization of illness as a sick role, I understand the ill person as a narrative subject, defined by discursive possibilities. Three discourses of illness are proposed: the medical institutional discourse, the discourse of illness experience, and the pink-ribbon discourse. Each has its preferred narratives. These discourses overlap and mutually affect each other. Problems with the Foucauldian conceptualization of the subject are considered, and a dialogical imagination of relations of governmentality is proposed. PMID:26582351

  4. Why Are High-Altitude Natives So Strong at Altitude? Maximal Oxygen Transport to the Muscle Cell in Altitude Natives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundby, Carsten; Calbet, Jose A L

    2016-01-01

    In hypoxia aerobic exercise performance of high-altitude natives is suggested to be superior to that of lowlanders; i.e., for a given altitude natives are reported to have higher maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max). The likely basis for this is a higher pulmonary diffusion capacity, which in turn ensures higher arterial O2 saturation (SaO2) and therefore also potentially a higher delivery of O2 to the exercising muscles. This review focuses on O2 transport in high-altitude Aymara. We have quantified femoral artery O2 delivery, arterial O2 extraction and calculated leg VO2 in Aymara, and compared their values with that of acclimatizing Danish lowlanders. All subjects were studied at 4100 m. At maximal exercise SaO2 dropped tremendously in the lowlanders, but did not change in the Aymara. Therefore arterial O2 content was also higher in the Aymara. At maximal exercise however, fractional O2 extraction was lower in the Aymara, and the a-vO2 difference was similar in both populations. The lower extraction levels in the Aymara were associated with lower muscle O2 conductance (a measure of muscle diffusion capacity). At any given submaximal exercise intensity, leg VO2 was always of similar magnitude in both groups, but at maximal exercise the lowlanders had higher leg blood flow, and hence also higher maximum leg VO2. With the induction of acute normoxia fractional arterial O2 extraction fell in the highlanders, but remained unchanged in the lowlanders. Hence high-altitude natives seem to be more diffusion limited at the muscle level as compared to lowlanders. In conclusion Aymara preserve very high SaO2 during hypoxic exercise (likely due to a higher lung diffusion capacity), but the effect on VO2max is reduced by a lower ability to extract O2 at the muscle level. PMID:27343089

  5. Effect of metabolic gases and water vapor, perfluorocarbon emulsions, and nitric oxide on tissue bubbles during decompression sickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randsøe, Thomas

    2016-05-01

    In aviation and diving, fast decrease in ambient pressure, such as during accidental loss of cabin pressure or when a diver decompresses too fast to sea level, may cause nitrogen (N2) bubble formation in blood and tissue resulting in decompression sickness (DCS). Conventional treatment of DCS is oxygen (O2) breathing combined with recompression.  However, bubble kinetic models suggest, that metabolic gases, i.e. O2 and carbon dioxide (CO2), and water vapor contribute significantly to DCS bubble volume and growth at hypobaric altitude exposures. Further, perfluorocarbon emulsions (PFC) and nitric oxide (NO) donors have, on an experimental basis, demonstrated therapeutic properties both as treatment and prophylactic intervention against DCS. The effect was ascribed to solubility of respiratory gases in PFC, plausible NO elicited nuclei demise and/or N2 washout through enhanced blood flow rate. Accordingly, by means of monitoring injected bubbles in exposed adipose tissue or measurements of spinal evoked potentials (SEPs) in anaesthetized rats, the aim of this study was to: 1) evaluate the contribution of metabolic gases and water vapor to bubble volume at different barometrical altitude exposures, 2) clarify the O2 contribution and N2 solubility from bubbles during administration of PFC at normo- and hypobaric conditions and, 3) test the effect of different NO donors on SEPs during DCS upon a hyperbaric air dive and, to study the influence of  NO on tissue bubbles at high altitude exposures. The results support the bubble kinetic models and indicate that metabolic gases and water vapor contribute significantly to bubble volume at 25 kPa (~10,376 m above sea level) and constitute a threshold for bubble stabilization or decay at the interval of 47-36 kPa (~6,036 and ~7,920 m above sea level). The effect of the metabolic gases and water vapor seemed to compromise the therapeutic properties of both PFC and NO at altitude, while PFC significantly increased bubble

  6. Sickness presenteeism predicts suboptimal self-rated health and sickness absence: a nationally representative study of the Swedish working population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Taloyan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Earlier studies have suggested that sickness presenteeism (SP may be a risk factor for future health problems. The purpose of the present study was to test this in a nationally representative prospective study of Swedish workers. METHODS: Prospective cohort with a representative sample of the Swedish working population surveyed in 2008 and 2010. Odds ratios (OR with 95% confidence intervals (CI were calculated using logistic regression. RESULTS: Those who reported more than 7 days of SP had higher risk of suboptimal SRH compared to those who reported no SP (OR = 5.95; 95% CI 4.98-7.12, also after adjustment for confounders (OR = 1.64; 95% CI 1.30-2.06. Those who reported 1-7 days of SP also had an increased risk before and after adjustments. Inclusion of self-rated physical and psychological work capacity did not attenuate the associations, whereas of emotional exhaustion attenuated the ORs to non-significance for both outcomes, indicating that the health consequences associated with SP are largely related to mental health. CONCLUSION: The results strengthen earlier findings suggesting that SP can be a risk factor for future suboptimal general health and sickness absence, particularly through mental health problems. This indicates that asking about SP could yield important information for employers, occupational health practitioners and GPs, possibly leading to more timely intervention that could decrease the risk of future sickness absence and more serious health problems, especially in the mental domain. Further studies of the possible causal pathways between SP and future health development are also warranted, especially since going to work is often seen as desirable also for those with poor health.

  7. Pulmonary Function Parameters Changes at Different Altitudes in Healthy Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Ziaee

    2008-06-01

    It could be concluded that changes in some pulmonary ventilatory parameters were proportional to the magnitude of change in altitude during a high-altitude trek. These changes are significant at the beginning of ascending.

  8. Correlating the anatomical site of injury and work-related factors with sick leave duration following minor musculoskeletal injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshameeri, Zeiad; Mohammed, Mustafa; Malkan, Dilip

    2011-01-01

    Many factors are associated with long sick leaves and therefore, reliance solely on disease-related factors can potentially underestimate sick leave durations. Here, we wanted to assess the association between the injury sites, work-related factors, and the length of sick leaves. Comprehensive medical legal reports of workers with pure minor musculoskeletal injuries were reviewed. 2029 reports of workers were included. 32.8% had sick leaves of less than a week in duration. Lower limb injuries were associated with longer sick leaves only in patients performing strenuous jobs. Public sector workers sustaining an injury at work and performing strenuous jobs were associated with longer sick leaves. Senior workers returned earlier to work, but age and gender were not strongly correlated with long sick leaves. There was a weak but significant association between sick leave duration and the period spent refraining from hobby activities, and almost all patients returned to their work before their hobbies. PMID:21337182

  9. Managing Radiation Therapy Side Effects: What to Do about Feeling Sick to Your Stomach and Throwing Up (Nausea and ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Radiation Therapy Side Effects What To Do About Feeling Sick to Your Stomach and Throwing Up (Nausea ... you eat it. Managing Radiation Therapy Side Effects: Feeling Sick to Your Stomach and Throwing Up (Nausea ...

  10. Stress-related mental disorders with sick leave: a minimal intervention in general practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, I.M.

    2007-01-01

    1. Introduction As stated in chapter 1, this study is carried out because patients and their care-givers have much to gain by the development and implementation of effective care for patients on sick leave having stress-related mental disorders (SMDs). Most people having SMDs with sick leave consult

  11. Transitions between sickness absence, work, unemployment, and disability in Denmark 2004-2008

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jacob; Bjørner, Jakob; Burr, Hermann;

    2012-01-01

    Studies of labor market outcomes like sickness absence are usually restricted to a single outcome. This paper investigates the use of multi-state models for studying multiple transitions between sick-listing, work, unemployment, and disability pension by analyzing longitudinal register data. Every...

  12. Predicting long-term sickness absence and early retirement pension from self-reported work ability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sell, Lea; Bültmann, Ute; Rugulies, Reiner Ernst;

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine the relationship between self-reported work ability and long-term term of sickness absence or early retirement from the labour market.......The aim of this paper is to examine the relationship between self-reported work ability and long-term term of sickness absence or early retirement from the labour market....

  13. Sleep disturbances and fatigue : independent predictors of sickness absence? A prospective study among 6538 employees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bultmann, Ute; Nielsen, Maj Britt D.; Madsen, Ida E. H.; Burr, Hermann; Rugulies, Reiner

    2013-01-01

    Background: Although sleep disturbances and fatigue are common conditions, frequently shown to be associated with sickness absence, only a few studies have prospectively investigated their independent effects on sickness absence, while adjusting for depressive symptoms. This study aims (i) to examin

  14. Long Sick Leave after Orthopaedic Inpatient Rehabilitation: Treatment Failure or Relapse?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangels, Marija; Schwarz, Susanne; Worringen, Ulrike; Holme, Martin; Rief, Winfried

    2011-01-01

    We investigated whether short-term versus long-term sick leave after orthopaedic inpatient rehabilitation can be predicted by initial assessment information, the clinical status at discharge, or whether the follow-up interval is crucial for later sick leave. We examined 214 patients from an orthopaedic rehabilitation hospital at admission,…

  15. Does computer use pose a hazard for future long-term sickness absence?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, JH; Mikkelsen, Sigurd

    2010-01-01

    . The hazard ratio for sickness absence with weekly increase of one hour in computer use was 0.99 (95% CI: 0.99 to 1.00). Low satisfaction with work place arrangements and female gender both doubled the risk of sickness absence.We have earlier found that computer use did not predict persistent pain in the neck...

  16. Employees Sick-Listed with Mental Disorders : Who Returns to Work and When?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelen, C. A. M.; Norder, G.; Koopmans, P. C.; van Rhenen, W.; van der Klink, J. J. L.; Bultmann, U.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To investigate return to work (RTW) in employees sick-listed with mental disorders classified according to the International Classification of Diseases (ICD). Methods Sickness absences (SA) medically certified as emotional disturbance (ICD-10 R45) or mental and behavioral disorders (ICD-10 F

  17. Sickness benefit claims due to mental disorders in Brazil : associations in a population-based study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barbosa-Branco, Anadergh; Bultmann, Ute; Steenstra, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to determine the prevalence and duration of sickness benefit claims due to mental disorders and their association with economic activity, sex, age, work-relatedness and income replacement using a population-based study of sickness benefit claims (> 15 days) due to mental disorders in

  18. Employees sick-listed with mental disorders : Who returns to work and when?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelen, C.A.M.; Norder, G.; Koopmans, P.C.; Rhenen, van W.; et al.,

    2012-01-01

    To investigate return to work (RTW) in employees sick-listed with mental disorders classified according to the International Classification of Diseases (ICD). Methods: Sickness absences (SA) medically certified as emotional disturbance (ICD-10 R45) or mental and behavioral disorders (ICD-10 F00–F99)

  19. Does hospital discharge policy influence sick-leave patterns in the case of female breast cancer?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindqvist, Rikard; Stenbeck, Magnus; Diderichsen, Finn

    2005-01-01

    practice affected the length of sick-leave. The main output measure was the number of sick-leave days after discharge during the year following surgery. The confounders used included age, type of primary surgical treatment, whether or not lymph node dissection was performed, labour-market status, county...

  20. Impact of alignment to gravito-inertial force on motion sickness and cardiopulmonary variables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mert, A.; Bles, W.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: In tilting trains partial alignment to the gravito-inertial force (GIF) in the curves seems to be the best tilt compensation to reduce the incidence of motion sickness. We investigated the effect of alignment to the GIF on the development of motion sickness during low-frequency horizon

  1. Leadership styles of nurse managers and registered sickness absence among their nursing staff

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, Jolanda A. H.; Roelen, Corne A. M.; van Zweeden, Nely F.; Jongsma, Dianne; van der Klink, Jac J. L.; Groothoff, Johan W.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Sickness absence leads to understaffing and interferes with nursing efficiency and quality. It has been reported in literature that managerial leadership is associated with self-reported sickness absence in the working population. Purposes: This study investigated the relationship betwee

  2. Leadership effectiveness and recorded sickness absence among nursing staff : a cross-sectional pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, Jolanda A. H.; Roelen, Corne A. M.; Van Zweeden, Nely F.; Jongsma, Dianne; Van der Klink, Jac J. L.; Groothoff, Johan W.

    2011-01-01

    Aim To investigate nurse managers' leadership behaviour in relation to the sickness absence records of nursing staff. Background Sickness absence is high in healthcare and interferes with nursing efficiency and quality. Nurse managers' leadership behaviour may be associated with nursing staff sickne

  3. Work-related determinants of return to work of employees on long-term sickness absence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Post, M; Krol, B; Groothoff, JW

    2005-01-01

    Purpose. The aim of the study is to identify work-related determinants of return to work (RTW) of employees who are on long-term sickness absence. Method. The study was based on a sample of 926 employees on sickness absence ( maximum duration of 12 weeks). The employees filled out a baseline questio

  4. The impact of effort-reward imbalance and learning motivation on teachers' sickness absence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derycke, Hanne; Vlerick, Peter; Van de Ven, Bart; Rots, Isabel; Clays, Els

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the impact of the effort-reward imbalance and learning motivation on sickness absence duration and sickness absence frequency among beginning teachers in Flanders (Belgium). A total of 603 teachers, who recently graduated, participated in this study. Effort-reward imbalance and learning motivation were assessed by means of self-administered questionnaires. Prospective data of registered sickness absence during 12 months follow-up were collected. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed. An imbalance between high efforts and low rewards (extrinsic hypothesis) was associated with longer sickness absence duration and more frequent absences. A low level of learning motivation (intrinsic hypothesis) was not associated with longer sickness absence duration but was significantly positively associated with sickness absence frequency. No significant results were obtained for the interaction hypothesis between imbalance and learning motivation. Further research is needed to deepen our understanding of the impact of psychosocial work conditions and personal resources on both sickness absence duration and frequency. Specifically, attention could be given to optimizing or reducing efforts spent at work, increasing rewards and stimulating learning motivation to influence sickness absence. PMID:22337584

  5. A pilot study of rizatriptan and visually-induced motion sickness in migraineurs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph M. Furman, Dawn A. Marcus

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Limited evidence suggests that rizatriptan given before vestibular stimulation reduces motion sickness in persons with migraine-related dizziness. The present study was designed to test whether rizatriptan is also effective in protecting against visually-induced motion sickness and to test whether rizatriptan blocks the augmentation of motion sickness by head pain. Material and Methods: Using randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled methodology, 10 females, 6 with migrainous vertigo (V+ and four without vertigo (V- received 10 mg rizatriptan or placebo two hours prior to being stimulated by optokinetic stripes. Visual stimulation was coupled with three pain conditions: no pain (N, thermally-induced hand pain (H and temple pain (T. Motion sickness and subjective discomfort were measured. Results: Motion sickness was less after pre-treatment with rizatriptan for 4 of 10 subjects and more for 5 of 10 subjects. Augmentation of motion sickness by head pain was seen in 6 of 10 subjects; this effect was blunted by rizatriptan in 4 of these 6 subjects. Subjective discomfort was significantly more noticeable in V+ subjects as compared with V- subjects. Conclusions: These pilot data suggest that rizatriptan does not consistently reduce visually-induced motion sickness in migraineurs. Rizatriptan may diminish motion sickness potentiation by cranial pain.

  6. 20 CFR 335.3 - Execution of statement of sickness and supplemental doctor's statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...-abuse professional as defined in 49 CFR part 40.3, if the infirmity involves alcohol or controlled... supplemental doctor's statement. 335.3 Section 335.3 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS... sickness and supplemental doctor's statement. (a) Who may execute. A statement of sickness and any...

  7. Dust observations at orbital altitudes surrounding Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, L.; Weber, T. D.; Malaspina, D.; Crary, F.; Ergun, R. E.; Delory, G. T.; Fowler, C. M.; Morooka, M. W.; McEnulty, T.; Eriksson, A. I.; Andrews, D. J.; Horanyi, M.; Collette, A.; Yelle, R.; Jakosky, B. M.

    2015-11-01

    Dust is common close to the martian surface, but no known process can lift appreciable concentrations of particles to altitudes above ~150 kilometers. We present observations of dust at altitudes ranging from 150 to above 1000 kilometers by the Langmuir Probe and Wave instrument on the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution spacecraft. Based on its distribution, we interpret this dust to be interplanetary in origin. A comparison with laboratory measurements indicates that the dust grain size ranges from 1 to 12 micrometers, assuming a typical grain velocity of ~18 kilometers per second. These direct observations of dust entering the martian atmosphere improve our understanding of the sources, sinks, and transport of interplanetary dust throughout the inner solar system and the associated impacts on Mars’s atmosphere.

  8. The visual control of simulated altitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Walter W.; Bennett, C. Thomas; Tsang, Pamela S.; Phatak, Anil V.

    1987-01-01

    The ability of a subject flying an experimental flight to use the different sources of visual information by looking at the vertical tracking error was investigated using a 3 (altitude) x 3 (texture) x 2 (replication) factorial design. Each subject flew these 18 flights in the same partially counterbalanced order, constructed such that there was one flight at each of the three altitudes, and over each of the three surface textures within each successive set of three flights. The three ground-surface textures used consisted of meridian, latitudinal, and square textures described by Wolpert et al. (1983). The results showed that, in displays where only splay information was available, the subjects tended to confuse lateral motion with vertical.

  9. CT diagnosis of high altitude pulmonary edema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To explore the value of CT diagnosis of high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE). Methods: The CT findings in 16 patients unfit to high altitude were analyzed. Results: The findings on CT were as follows: (1) The early stage of HAPE showed ground glass opacity, most of which located at the superior segment and posterior basis segment of inferior lobes, with the right lung to occur earlier than that of the left lung. (2) The advanced stage showed shaggy opacity. (3) The late stage lesions developed to posterior and apical segment of the superior lobes, air bronchus sign could be seen on involved segments. (4) Right lung was more serious than left lung. Conclusion: CT was an ideal method to find HAPE. The accuracy of CT diagnosis in HAPE was 100%

  10. Dust observations at orbital altitudes surrounding Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, L; Weber, T D; Malaspina, D; Crary, F; Ergun, R E; Delory, G T; Fowler, C M; Morooka, M W; McEnulty, T; Eriksson, A I; Andrews, D J; Horanyi, M; Collette, A; Yelle, R; Jakosky, B M

    2015-11-01

    Dust is common close to the martian surface, but no known process can lift appreciable concentrations of particles to altitudes above ~150 kilometers. We present observations of dust at altitudes ranging from 150 to above 1000 kilometers by the Langmuir Probe and Wave instrument on the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution spacecraft. Based on its distribution, we interpret this dust to be interplanetary in origin. A comparison with laboratory measurements indicates that the dust grain size ranges from 1 to 12 micrometers, assuming a typical grain velocity of ~18 kilometers per second. These direct observations of dust entering the martian atmosphere improve our understanding of the sources, sinks, and transport of interplanetary dust throughout the inner solar system and the associated impacts on Mars's atmosphere. PMID:26542578

  11. HAWC - The High Altitude Water Cherenkov Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tepe, Andreas; HAWC Collaboration

    2012-07-01

    The high altitude water Cherenkov observatory (HAWC) is an instrument for the detection of high energy cosmic gamma-rays. Its predecessor Milagro has successfully proven that the water Cherenkov technology for gamma-ray astronomy is a useful technique. HAWC is currently under construction at Sierra Negra in Mexico at an altitude of 4100 m and will include several improvements compared to Milagro. Two complementary DAQ systems of the HAWC detector allow for the observation of a large fraction of the sky with a very high duty cycle and independent of environmental conditions. HAWC will observe the gamma-ray sky from about 100 GeV up to 100 TeV. Also the cosmic ray flux anisotropy on different angular length scales is object of HAWC science. Because of HAWC's large effective area and field of view, we describe its prospects to observe gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) as an example for transient sources.

  12. Multifocal atherosclerosis in patient after acute first degree radiation sickness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metlyaeva N.A.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: assessment the heavy psychosomatic and all-somatic cardiovascular and cerebrovascular pathology of patient, transferred an acute I degree radiation sickness, from the general evenly gamma-beta radiation. Conclusions. The subdepressive and disturbing-depressive syndrome of patient, transferred an acute radiation sickness (ARS of I degree, from the general evenly gamma-beta radiation, was independent risk factor of development of multifocal atherosclerosis; Features of development of all-somatic and psychosomatic pathology of patient are based on a combination of genetic prerequisites, environment influences (the stress caused by accident on the ChNPP and social factors, influencing on him during a course of life, especially during early socialization. Thus at development of psychosomatic frustration the combination of feature of the mental reaction connected with the personal characteristic and special relationship between mental (stress and physiological (somatic by aspects of reaction which led to metabolism violation, to aging, decrease in adaptation opportunities of an organism and development age — dependent pathology took place.

  13. Decompression sickness among Moroami diving fishermen in Jakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chichi Wahab

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia is an archipelago with many traditional divers, however research on decompression sickness (DCS has not yet elaborated. The aim of the study was to identify the prevalence of DCS and factors related to it. The study was conducted on October-November 2007 among fisherman moroami divers in Seribu Island Jakarta. Anamnesis and physical examination was taken before and three times after diving. Subject was diagnosed as having DCS if experienced one of these symptom or sign: myalgia, muscle pain, skin rash, ankle weakness, bowel movement & bladder dysfunction, visual disturbances, headache, vertigo, dyspnoe, chest pain, convulsion, unconsciousness, nausea and vomiting. Among 123 potential divers, five were having upper respiratory infection, so only 117 divers participated in this study. Final model analysis showed that regulator, valsava when having ear pain, ascending speed to surface, and lack of training were risk factors to obtain DCS. Divers whose ascending speed more than 9 m per minutes had two times risk to get DCS [adjusted ratio = 2.2; 95% confidence interval (CI= 1.11 – 3.56]. Having DCS before diving, increased risk 20% (RRa = 1.20; 95% CI = 0.86-1.68; P=0,285. Beside knowledge to use regulator correctly and valsava, fisherman Moroami divers need to be trained to ascend speed to sea level surface less than 9 m per minute. (Med J Indones 2008; 17: 197-202Keywords: decompression sickness, ascending speed, regulator, valsava

  14. ["Sickness behavior"--mechanisms of origin and significance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soszyński, Dariusz

    2004-03-01

    Psychoneuroimmunology, a combination of immunology and neurobiology, is a new field that has emerged over the past 20 years. There is now overwhelming evidence suggesting that the central nervous system is capable of regulating the immune response via two pathways--the autonomic and the neuroendocrine. It is also well documented that the immune system can influence the central nervous system by regulatory molecules or cytokines produced by activated immune cells. In this way, there is a bi-directional communication pathway between the two systems. Sickness behavior seems to present excellent evidence for the existence of immune-system-brain communication. Nonspecific symptoms of infection and inflammation include not only profound physiological but also behavioral changes. Behavioral changes can include anorexia, adipsia, increased sleepiness and depression in social, sexual exploration and general activity. These behavioral changes triggered by pro-inflammatory cytokines are thought to have evolved to conserve the energy necessary to fight infection. They may also minimize infection of conspecifics and reduce susceptibility to predation. Taken together, sickness behavior represents a behavioral reorganization highly motivated to promote survival and recovery. Knowing the mechanisms of neuroimmunomodulation allow us to better understand both the behavioral changes associated with immunotherapy and the changes in immune activation in major depression and other mental disorders. PMID:15069379

  15. 2014 Decompression Sickness/Extravehicular Activity Risks Standing Review Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Susan

    2015-01-01

    The 2014 Decompression Sickness (DCS)/Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Risks Standing Review Panel (from here on referred to as the SRP) met for a site visit in Houston, TX on November 4 - 5, 2014. The SRP reviewed the updated Evidence Reports for The Risk of Decompression Sickness (from here on referred to as the 2014 DCS Evidence Report) and the Risk of Injury and Compromised Performance due to EVA Operations (from here on referred to as the 2014 EVA Evidence Report), as well as the Research Plans for these Risks. The SRP appreciated the time and effort that the DCS and EVA disciplines put into their review documents and presentations. The SRP felt that the 2014 DCS Evidence Report and the 2014 EVA Evidence Reports were very thorough and addressed the majority of the known DCS and EVA issues. The researchers at NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) have the knowledge base to deal with the DCS and EVA issues. Overall, the SRP thinks the DCS and EVA research teams have compiled excellent reports which address the majority of the literature and background information.

  16. Anti-infection treatment of iatrogenic acute radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To occumulatle experience of anti-infection treatment in acute radiation sickness (ARS) induced by medical treatment in order to provide beneficial help for victims of accidental of acute radiation sickness. Methods: The changes of peripheral blood indices, body temperature and clinical symptoms of 17 cases who were clinically irradiated with 6.0-7.2 Gy X-rays were observed both before peripheral blood stem cell transplantation(PBSCT) and after anti-infection treatment. Results: WBC count began to decrease to below 1 x 109/L from the 8th to 10th days after irradiation and maintained at row level for 4 days or for 13.3 days if the patients had not received rhG-CSF treatment. In 29.4% of patients the body temperature was higher than 38.5 degree C. After comprehensive enviromental protection and anti-infection treatment, all patients could successfully tide over the period of bone marrow depression without appearance of the typical critical phase of ARS. Conclusion: PBSCT and rhG-CSF treatment can reduce the time span for reconstruction of bone marrow. Comprehensive enviromental protection and combined anti-infection treatment are key points fm successful treatment. (authors)

  17. Predator foraging altitudes reveal the structure of aerial insect communities

    OpenAIRE

    Helms, Jackson A.; Aaron P. Godfrey; Tayna Ames; Bridge, Eli S.

    2016-01-01

    The atmosphere is populated by a diverse array of dispersing insects and their predators. We studied aerial insect communities by tracking the foraging altitudes of an avian insectivore, the Purple Martin (Progne subis). By attaching altitude loggers to nesting Purple Martins and collecting prey delivered to their nestlings, we determined the flight altitudes of ants and other insects. We then tested hypotheses relating ant body size and reproductive ecology to flight altitude. Purple Martins...

  18. The yak genome and adaptation to life at high altitude

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qiu, Qiang; Zhang, Guojie; Ma, Tao; Qian, Wubin; Wang, Junyi; Ye, Zhiqiang; Cao, Changchang; Hu, Quanjun; Kim, Jaebum; Larkin, Denis M; Auvil, Loretta; Capitanu, Boris; Ma, Jian; Lewin, Harris A; Qian, Xiaoju; Lang, Yongshan; Zhou, Ran; Wang, Lizhong; Wang, Kun; Xia, Jinquan; Liao, Shengguang; Pan, Shengkai; Lu, Xu; Hou, Haolong; Wang, Yan; Zang, Xuetao; Yin, Ye; Ma, Hui; Zhang, Jian; Wang, Zhaofeng; Zhang, Yingmei; Zhang, Dawei; Yonezawa, Takahiro; Hasegawa, Masami; Zhong, Yang; Liu, Wenbin; Zhang, Yan; Huang, Zhiyong; Zhang, Shengxiang; Long, Ruijun; Yang, Huanming; Lenstra, Johannes A; Cooper, David N; Wu, Yi; Wang, Jun; Shi, Peng; Wang, Jian; Liu, Jianquan

    2012-01-01

    Domestic yaks (Bos grunniens) provide meat and other necessities for Tibetans living at high altitude on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau and in adjacent regions. Comparison between yak and the closely related low-altitude cattle (Bos taurus) is informative in studying animal adaptation to high altitude...... important implications for understanding adaptation to high altitude in other animal species and for hypoxia-related diseases in humans....

  19. Is High Altitude Pulmonary Edema Relevant to Hawai‘i?

    OpenAIRE

    Cornell, Seth Lewis

    2014-01-01

    High altitude clinical syndromes have been described in the medical literature but may be under recognized in the state of Hawai‘i. As tourism increases, high altitude injuries may follow given the easy access to high altitude attractions. Visitors and clinicians should be aware of the dangers associated with the rapid ascent to high altitudes in the perceived comfort of a vehicle. This paper will review the basic pathophysiology, prevention, and treatment of the most serious of the high alti...

  20. Pulmonary embolism in young natives of high altitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Singhal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Thrombotic events are relatively common in high altitude areas and known to occur in young soldiers working at high altitude without usual risk factors associated with thrombosis at sea-level. However, till now, cases with thrombotic events were reported only in lowlanders staying at high altitude. These two cases of pulmonary embolism demonstrate that thrombotic events can occur in highlanders after a prolonged stay at the extreme altitude.

  1. Pulse oximetry reference values at high altitude.

    OpenAIRE

    Lozano, J.M.; Duque, O R; Buitrago, T; Behaine, S

    1992-01-01

    Pulse oximetry is becoming popular for measuring oxygen saturation of haemoglobin in paediatric patients. There are no reference values for children living at high altitudes, and the aim of this study was to determine the values of oxygen saturation of haemoglobin in healthy children in Bogota (2640 m above sea level). The saturation was determined in 189 children aged 5 days to 24 months with a Nellcor N10 oximeter. Mean values and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. Analysis of v...

  2. Magion-4 High-Altitude Cusp Study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Merka, J.; Šafránková, J.; Němeček, Z.; Šimůnek, Jiří

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 1-3 (2005), s. 57-69. ISSN 0169-3298 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA205/02/0947 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : cusp-like plasma * dipole tilt angle * high - altitude cusp * magnetopause * magnetopause * reconnection Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 0.975, year: 2005

  3. Is high-altitude mountaineering Russian roulette?

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng Edward K.

    2013-01-01

    Whether the nature of the risks associated with climbing high-altitude (8000 m) peaks is in some sense “controllable” is a longstanding debate in the mountaineering community. Well-known mountaineers David Roberts and Ed Viesturs explore this issue in their recent memoirs. Roberts views the primary risks as “objective” or uncontrollable, whereas Viesturs maintains that experience and attention to safety can make a significant difference. This study sheds light on the Roberts-Viesturs debate u...

  4. The High Altitude Water Cherenkov Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafa, Miguel; HAWC Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    The High Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) Observatory is a continuously operated, wide field of view experiment comprised of an array of 300 water Cherenkov detectors (WCDs) to study transient and steady emission of TeV gamma and cosmic rays. Each 200000 l WCD is instrumented with 4 PMTs providing charge and timing information. The array covers ~22000 m2 at an altitude of 4100 m a.s.l. inside the Pico de Orizaba national park in Mexico. The high altitude, large active area, and optical isolation of the PMTs allows us to reliably estimate the energy and determine the arrival direction of gamma and cosmic rays with significant sensitivity over energies from several hundred GeV to a hundred TeV. Continuously observing 2 / 3 of the sky every 24 h, HAWC plays a significant role as a survey instrument for multi-wavelength studies. The performance of HAWC makes possible the detection of both transient and steady emissions, the study of diffuse emission and the measurement of the spectra of gamma-ray sources at TeV energies. HAWC is also sensitive to the emission from GRBs above 100 GeV. I will highlight the results from the first year of operation of the full HAWC array, and describe the ongoing site work to expand the array by a factor of 4 to explore the high energy range.

  5. Improved work ability and return to work following vocational multidisciplinary rehabilitation of subjects on long-term sick leave

    OpenAIRE

    Braathen, Tore; Veiersted, Kaj Bo; Heggenes, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate a vocational multidisciplinary rehabilitation programme for patients on long-term sick leave with respect to their work ability and return to work. Methods: A multidisciplinary rehabilitation programme was administered to an intervention group of 183 patients on long-term sick leave (mean 12.2 months). Effects of the treatment were compared with a control group (n = 96) recruited from the national sickness insurance record of patients on sick lea...

  6. Motion sickness and otolith sensitivity - A pilot study of habituation to linear acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potvin, A. R.; Sadoff, M.; Billingham, J.

    1977-01-01

    Astronauts, particularly in Skylab flights, experienced varying degrees of motion sickness lasting 3-5 days. One possible mechanism for this motion sickness adaptation is believed to be a reduction in otolith sensitivity with an attendant reduction in sensory conflict. In an attempt to determine if this hypothesis is valid, a ground-based pilot study was conducted on a vertical linear accelerator. The extent of habituation to accelerations which initially produced motion sickness was evaluated, along with the possible value of habituation training to minimize the space motion sickness problem. Results showed that habituation occurred for 6 of the 8 subjects tested. However, in tests designed to measure dynamic and static otolith function, no significant differences between pre- and post-habituation tests were observed. Cross habituation effects to a standard Coriolis acceleration test were not significant. It is unlikely that ground-based pre-habituation to linear accelerations of the type examined would alter susceptibility to space motion sickness.

  7. The effect of altitude hypoxia on glucose homeostasis in men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, J J; Hansen, J M; Olsen, Niels Vidiendal;

    1997-01-01

    1. Exposure to altitude hypoxia elicits changes in glucose homeostasis with increases in glucose and insulin concentrations within the first few days at altitude. Both increased and unchanged hepatic glucose production (HGP) have previously been reported in response to acute altitude hypoxia...

  8. Nutritional Aspects of High Altitude and Snow Bound Areas

    OpenAIRE

    K. Sridharan; R. M. Rai

    1984-01-01

    The precise nutritional requirement of humans at high altitude area is not well defined. Further there are many conflicting reports on the effects of hypoxia on digestion, absorption and utilization of food at high altitude. In this review the nutritional requirements at high altitude and the effects of hypoxia on humans in relation to nutrition have been discussed.

  9. Nutritional Aspects of High Altitude and Snow Bound Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Sridharan

    1984-10-01

    Full Text Available The precise nutritional requirement of humans at high altitude area is not well defined. Further there are many conflicting reports on the effects of hypoxia on digestion, absorption and utilization of food at high altitude. In this review the nutritional requirements at high altitude and the effects of hypoxia on humans in relation to nutrition have been discussed.

  10. Determinants for return to work among sickness certified patients in general practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    von Celsing Anna-Sophia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Long-term sickness absence is one of the main risk factors for permanent exit out of the labour market. Early identification of the condition is essential to facilitate return to work. The aim of this study was to analyse possible determinants of return to work and their relative impact. Methods All 943 subjects aged 18 to 63 years, sickness certified at a Primary Health Care Centre in Sweden from 1 January until 31 August 2004, were followed up for three years. Baseline information on sex, age, sick leave diagnosis, employment status, extent of sick leave, and sickness absence during the year before baseline was obtained, as was information on all compensated days of sick leave, disability pension and death during follow-up. Results Slightly more than half the subjects were women, mean age was 39 years. Half of the study population returned to work within 14 days after baseline, and after three years only 15 subjects were still on sick leave. In multivariate proportional hazards regression analysis the extent of previous sick leave, age, being on part-time sick leave, and having a psychiatric, musculoskeletal, cardiovascular, nervous disease, digestive system, or injury or poisoning diagnosis decreased the return to work rate, while being employed increased it. Marital status, sex, being born in Sweden, citizenship, and annual salary had no influence. In logistic regression analyses across follow-up time these variables altogether explained 88-90% of return to work variation. Conclusions Return to work was positively or negatively associated by a number of variables easily accessible in the GP’s office. Track record data in the form of previous sick leave was the most influential variable.

  11. How primary health care physicians make sick listing decisions: The impact of medical factors and functioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svärdsudd Kurt

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The decision to issue sickness certification in Sweden for a patient should be based on the physician's assessment of the reduction of the patient's work capacity due to a disease or injury, not on psychosocial factors, in spite of the fact that they are known as risk factors for sickness absence. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of medical factors and functioning on sick listing probability. Methods Four hundred and seventy-four patient-physician consultations, where sick listing could be an option, in general practice in Örebro county, central Sweden, were documented using physician and patient questionnaires. Information sought was the physicians' assessments of causes and consequences of the patients' complaints, potential to recover, diagnoses and prescriptions on sick leave, and the patients' view of their family and work situation and functioning as well as data on the patients' former and present health situation. The outcome measure was whether or not a sickness certificate was issued. Multivariate analyses were performed. Results Complaints entirely or mainly somatic as assessed by the physician decreased the risk of sick listing, and complaints resulting in severe limitation of occupational work capacity, as assessed by the patient as well as the physician, increased the risk of sick listing, as did appointments for locomotor complaints. The results for patients with infectious diseases or musculoskeletal diseases were partly similar to those for all diseases. Conclusion The strongest predictors for sickness certification were patient's and GP's assessment of reduced work capacity, with a striking concordance between physician and patient on this assessment. When patient's complaints were judged to be non-somatic the risk of sickness certification was enhanced.

  12. Process evaluation of a problem solving intervention to prevent recurrent sickness absence in workers with common mental disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arends, Iris; Bultmann, Ute; Nielsen, Karina; van Rhenen, Willem; de Boer, Michiel R.; van der Klink, Jac J. L.

    2014-01-01

    Common mental disorders (CMOs) are a major cause of sickness absence. Twenty to 30% of the workers who return to work after sickness absence due to CMOs experience recurrent sickness absence. We developed the Stimulating Healthy participation And Relapse Prevention (SHARP)-at work intervention, a pr

  13. Predictors of repeated sick leave in the workplace because of mental disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sado M

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mitsuhiro Sado,1 Joichiro Shirahase,1 Kimio Yoshimura,2 Yuki Miura,1 Kazuhiro Yamamoto,1 Hajime Tabuchi,1 Motoichiro Kato,1 Masaru Mimura1 1Department of Neuropsychiatry, Keio University School of Medicine, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, Japan; 2Department of Health Policy and Management, Keio University School of Medicine, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, Japan Introduction: Mental disorders create a considerable burden to society. Previous studies have shown that productivity loss constitutes the largest proportion of the total societal burden. For depression and anxiety disorders, in particular, more than half of the associated productivity loss occurs in the workplace. Many previous studies have clarified the risk factors for the relapse/recurrence of mental disorders in health care settings. However, the risk factors for repeated sick leave among mental disorders prevalent in the workplace have not yet been adequately evaluated. Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate which variables could predict repeated sick leave for workers with a history of sick leave because of mental disorders. Methods: Data regarding 194 subjects employed at a manufacturing company were obtained. Mental disorders were defined as disorders listed in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition (DSM-IV. The duration between the return to work (RTW and the repeated sick leave was regarded as a dependent variable. The subjects' age at the RTW, sex, age at the time of employment, job tenure, diagnosis, number of previous sick leave days, duration of most recent sick leave, and employee rank were examined as explanatory variables. Univariate analyses using a log-rank test and a multivariate analysis using the Cox proportional hazard model were conducted. Results: The results of the univariate analyses showed that the number of previous sick-leave episodes was a significant predictor of repeated sick leave. A multivariate analysis revealed that age

  14. Effectiveness of early part-time sick leave in musculoskeletal disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karppinen Jaro

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The importance of staying active instead of bed rest has been acknowledged in the management of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs. This emphasizes the potential benefits of adjusting work to fit the employee's remaining work ability. Despite part-time sick leave being an official option in many countries, its effectiveness has not been studied yet. We have designed a randomized controlled study to assess the health effects of early part-time sick leave compared to conventional full-day sick leave. Our hypothesis is that if work time is temporarily reduced and work load adjusted at the early stages of disability, employees with MSDs will have less disability days and faster return to regular work duties than employees on a conventional sick leave. Methods/Design The study population will consist of 600 employees, who seek medical advice from an occupational physician due to musculoskeletal pain. The inclusion requires that they have not been on a sick leave for longer than 14 days prior to the visit. Based on the physician's judgement, the severity of the symptoms must indicate a need for conventional sick leave, but the employee is considered to be able to work part-time without any additional risk. Half of the employees are randomly allocated to part-time sick leave group and their work time is reduced by 40–60%, whereas in the control group work load is totally eliminated with conventional sick leave. The main outcomes are the number of days from the initial visit to return to regular work activities, and the total number of sick leave days during 12 and 24 months of follow-up. The costs and benefits as well as the feasibility of early part-time sick leave will also be evaluated. Conclusion This is the first randomised trial to our knowledge on the effectiveness of early part-time sick leave compared to conventional full-time sick leave in the management of MSDs. The data collection continues until 2011, but preliminary

  15. Views on sick-listing practice among Swedish General Practitioners – a phenomenographic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peterson Stefan

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The number of people on sick-leave started to increase in Sweden and several other European countries towards the end of the 20th century. Physicians play an important role in the sickness insurance system by acting as gate-keepers. Our aim was to explore how General Practitioners (GPs view their sick-listing commission and sick-listing practice. Methods Semi-structured interviews with 19 GPs in 17 Primary Health Care settings in four mid-Sweden counties. Interview transcripts were analysed with phenomenographic approach aiming to uncover the variation in existing views regarding the respondents' sick-listing commission and practice. Results We found large qualitative differences in the GPs' views on sick-listing. The sick-listing commission was experienced to come either from society or from patients, with no responsibility for societal interests, or as an integration of these two views. All the GPs were aware of a possible conflict between the interests of society and patients. While some expressed feelings of strong conflict, others seemed to have solved the conflict, at least partly, between these two loyalties. Some GPs experienced carrying the full responsibility to decide whether a patient would get monetary sick-leave benefits or not and they were not comfortable with this situation. Views on the physician's and the patient's responsibility in sick-listing and rehabilitation varied from a passive to an empowering role of the physician. GPs expressing a combination of less inclusive views of the different aspects of sick-listing experienced strong conflict and appeared to feel distressed in their sick-listing role. Some GPs described how they had changed from less to more inclusive views. Conclusion The clearer understanding of the different views on sick-listing generated in this study can be used in educational efforts to improve physicians' sick-listing practices, benefiting GPs' work situation as well as their

  16. General practitioners' experiences with sickness certification: a comparison of survey data from Sweden and Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winde Lee D

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In most countries with sickness insurance systems, general practitioners (GPs play a key role in the sickness-absence process. Previous studies have indicated that GPs experience several tasks and situations related to sickness certification consultations as problematic. The fact that the organization of primary health care and social insurance systems differ between countries may influence both GPs' experiences and certification. The aim of the present study was to gain more knowledge of GPs' experiences of sickness certification, by comparing data from Sweden and Norway, regarding frequencies and aspects of sickness certification found to be problematic. Methods Statistical analyses of cross-sectional survey data of sickness certification by GPs in Sweden and Norway. In Sweden, all GPs were included, with 3949 (60.6% responding. In Norway, a representative sample of GPs was included, with 221 (66.5% responding. Results Most GPs reported having consultations involving sickness certification at least once a week; 95% of the GPs in Sweden and 99% of the GPs in Norway. A majority found such tasks problematic; 60% of the GPs in Sweden and 53% in Norway. In a logistic regression, having a higher frequency of sickness certification consultations was associated with a higher risk of experiencing them as problematic, in both countries. A higher rate of GPs in Sweden than in Norway reported meeting patients wanting a sickness certification without a medical reason. GPs in Sweden found it more problematic to discuss the advantages and disadvantages of sick leave with patients and to issue a prolongation of a sick-leave period initiated by another physician. GPs in Norway more often worried that patients would go to another physician if they did not issue a certificate, and a higher proportion of Norwegian GPs found it problematic to handle situations where they and their patient disagreed on the need for sick leave. Conclusions The

  17. Dose-response of altitude training: how much altitude is enough?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Benjamin D; Stray-Gundersen, James

    2006-01-01

    Altitude training continues to be a key adjunctive aid for the training of competitive athletes throughout the world. Over the past decade, evidence has accumulated from many groups of investigators that the "living high--training low" approach to altitude training provides the most robust and reliable performance enhancements. The success of this strategy depends on two key features: 1) living high enough, for enough hours per day, for a long enough period of time, to initiate and sustain an erythropoietic effect of high altitude; and 2) training low enough to allow maximal quality of high intensity workouts, requiring high rates of sustained oxidative flux. Because of the relatively limited access to environments where such a strategy can be practically applied, numerous devices have been developed to "bring the mountain to the athlete," which has raised the key issue of the appropriate "dose" of altitude required to stimulate an acclimatization response and performance enhancement. These include devices using molecular sieve technology to provide a normobaric hypoxic living or sleeping environment, approaches using very high altitudes (5,500m) for shorter periods of time during the day, and "intermittent hypoxic training" involving breathing very hypoxic gas mixtures for alternating 5 minutes periods over the course of 60-90 minutes. Unfortunately, objective testing of the strategies employing short term (less than 4 hours) normobaric or hypobaric hypoxia has failed to demonstrate an advantage of these techniques. Moreover individual variability of the response to even the best of living high--training low strategies has been great, and the mechanisms behind this variability remain obscure. Future research efforts will need to focus on defining the optimal dosing strategy for these devices, and determining the underlying mechanisms of the individual variability so as to enable the individualized "prescription" of altitude exposure to optimize the performance of

  18. Pyrimetin therapy of early symptoms of radiation sickness in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The antiemetic effect of Pyrimetin in dogs whole-body irradiated with gamma rays at a dose of 500 R, administered per os, intramuscularly, and subcutaneously, immediately before the exposure and after it in the course of the initial symptoms of radiation sickness was studied. A decreased emesis occurred after per os administration of Pyrimetin immediately before whole-body irradiation of the dogs. After the intramuscular application before whole-body irradiation two dogs vomitted, and in the case of the intramuscular administration after whole-body irradiation one dog vomitted. The subcutaneous application of Pyrimetin to dogs before whole-body irradiation and also after it produced only a 30% therapeutic effect. (author)

  19. Glutamine supplementation in sick children: is it beneficial?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mok, Elise; Hankard, Régis

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to provide a critical appraisal of the literature on Glutamine (Gln) supplementation in various conditions or illnesses that affect children, from neonates to adolescents. First, a general overview of the proposed mechanisms for the beneficial effects of Gln is provided, and subsequently clinical studies are discussed. Despite safety, studies are conflicting, partly due to different effects of enteral and parenteral Gln supplementation. Further insufficient evidence is available on the benefits of Gln supplementation in pediatric patients. This includes premature infants, infants with gastrointestinal disease, children with Crohn's disease, short bowel syndrome, malnutrition/diarrhea, cancer, severe burns/trauma, Duchenne muscular dystrophy, sickle cell anemia, cystic fibrosis, and type 1 diabetes. Moreover, methodological issues have been noted in some studies. Further mechanistic data is needed along with large randomized controlled trials in select populations of sick children, who may eventually benefit from supplemental Gln. PMID:22175008

  20. Autophagy-A free meal in sickness-associated anorexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Niekerk, Gustav; Loos, Ben; Nell, Theo; Engelbrecht, Anna-Mart

    2016-04-01

    Activation of the immune system is metabolically costly, yet a hallmark of an infection is a reduction in appetite with a subsequent reduction in metabolite provision. What is the functional value of decreasing nutrient intake when an infection imposes large demands on metabolic parameters? Here, we propose that sickness-associated anorexia (SAA) upregulates the ancient process of autophagy systemically, thereby profoundly controlling not only immune- but also nonimmune-competent cells. This allows an advanced impact on the resolution of an infection through direct pathogen killing, enhancement of epitope presentation and the contribution toward the clearance of noxious factors. By rendering a 'free meal,' autophagy is thus most fundamentally harnessed during an anorexic response in order to promote both host tolerance and resistance. These findings strongly suggest a reassessment of numerous SAA-related clinical applications and a re-evaluation of current efforts in patient care. PMID:27050464

  1. Glutamine Supplementation in Sick Children: Is It Beneficial?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elise Mok

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this review is to provide a critical appraisal of the literature on Glutamine (Gln supplementation in various conditions or illnesses that affect children, from neonates to adolescents. First, a general overview of the proposed mechanisms for the beneficial effects of Gln is provided, and subsequently clinical studies are discussed. Despite safety, studies are conflicting, partly due to different effects of enteral and parenteral Gln supplementation. Further insufficient evidence is available on the benefits of Gln supplementation in pediatric patients. This includes premature infants, infants with gastrointestinal disease, children with Crohn's disease, short bowel syndrome, malnutrition/diarrhea, cancer, severe burns/trauma, Duchenne muscular dystrophy, sickle cell anemia, cystic fibrosis, and type 1 diabetes. Moreover, methodological issues have been noted in some studies. Further mechanistic data is needed along with large randomized controlled trials in select populations of sick children, who may eventually benefit from supplemental Gln.

  2. Sickness behavior in dairy cows during Escherichia coli mastitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fogsgaard, Katrine Kop; Røntved, Christine Maria; Sørensen, Peter;

    2012-01-01

    -recorded on 5 consecutive days, d −2 to +2 after challenge when the cows were not disturbed by humans. The behavior of the animals was compared among all days. Infection with E. coli altered the behavior of the dairy cows. Time spent feeding was lower in the initial 24 h after infection compared with that on......The consequences of mastitis in terms of dairy cow behavior are relatively unknown. Future assessment of dairy cow welfare during mastitis will be facilitated by knowledge about the potential of mastitis to induce sickness behavior. Our aim was to examine behavior of dairy cows in the period from 2...... d before (d −2 and −1) to 3 d (d 0, 1, and 2) after experimental intramammary challenge with Escherichia coli. Effects of experimentally induced mastitis on behavior were examined in 20 primiparous Danish Holstein-Friesian cows, all 3 to 6 wk after calving and kept in tie stalls. After evening...

  3. Dexamethasone mimicks the antimotion sickness effects of amphetamine and scopolamine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohl, Randall Lee

    Based on preliminary suggestions that individual differences in susceptibility to stressful motion might be related to physiological differences in responses of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, we tested the efficacy of dexamethasone and metyrapone in subjects exposed to cross-coupled accelerative semicircular canal stimulation on a rotating chair. Subjects given 0.5 mg of dexamethasone every 6 h for 48 h could endure 80% more stressful motion ( P = 0.03) in a within-subjects design study, whereas, no improvement followed treatment with 750 mg of metryapone every 4 h for 24 h. The efficacy of dexamethasone might be explained in terms of its neurochemical actions on several neurotransmitter systems which are also modulated by such classical antimotion sickness drugs as amphetamine and scopolamine. Because dexamethasone induces adaptive changes within the central nervous system it may prove superior to scopolamine and amphetamine which possess significant side effects, are short acting, and rapidly tolerated.

  4. Perinatal hypoxia increases susceptibility to high-altitude polycythemia and attendant pulmonary vascular dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julian, Colleen Glyde; Gonzales, Marcelino; Rodriguez, Armando; Bellido, Diva; Salmon, Carlos Salinas; Ladenburger, Anne; Reardon, Lindsay; Vargas, Enrique; Moore, Lorna G

    2015-08-15

    Perinatal exposures exert a profound influence on physiological function, including developmental processes vital for efficient pulmonary gas transfer throughout the lifespan. We extend the concept of developmental programming to chronic mountain sickness (CMS), a debilitating syndrome marked by polycythemia, ventilatory impairment, and pulmonary hypertension that affects ∼10% of male high-altitude residents. We hypothesized that adverse perinatal oxygenation caused abnormalities of ventilatory and/or pulmonary vascular function that increased susceptibility to CMS in adulthood. Subjects were 67 male high-altitude (3,600-4,100 m) residents aged 18-25 yr with excessive erythrocytosis (EE, Hb concentration ≥18.3 g/dl), a preclinical form of CMS, and 66 controls identified from a community-based survey (n = 981). EE subjects not only had higher Hb concentrations and erythrocyte counts, but also lower alveolar ventilation, impaired pulmonary diffusion capacity, higher systolic pulmonary artery pressure, lower pulmonary artery acceleration time, and more frequent right ventricular hypertrophy, than controls. Compared with controls, EE subjects were more often born to mothers experiencing hypertensive complications of pregnancy and hypoxia during the perinatal period, with each increasing the risk of developing EE (odds ratio = 5.25, P = 0.05 and odds ratio = 6.44, P = 0.04, respectively) after other factors known to influence EE status were taken into account. Adverse perinatal oxygenation is associated with increased susceptibility to EE accompanied by modest abnormalities of the pulmonary circulation that are independent of increased blood viscosity. The association between perinatal hypoxia and EE may be due to disrupted alveolarization and microvascular development, leading to impaired gas exchange and/or pulmonary hypertension. PMID:26092986

  5. Motion control, motion sickness, and the postural dynamics of mobile devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoffregen, Thomas A; Chen, Yi-Chou; Koslucher, Frank C

    2014-04-01

    Drivers are less likely than passengers to experience motion sickness, an effect that is important for any theoretical account of motion sickness etiology. We asked whether different types of control would affect the incidence of motion sickness, and whether any such effects would be related to participants' control of their own bodies. Participants played a video game on a tablet computer. In the Touch condition, the device was stationary and participants controlled the game exclusively through fingertip inputs via the device's touch screen. In the Tilt condition, participants held the device in their hands and moved the device to control some game functions. Results revealed that the incidence of motion sickness was greater in the Touch condition than in the Tilt condition. During game play, movement of the head and torso differed as a function of the type of game control. Before the onset of subjective symptoms of motion sickness, movement of the head and torso differed between participants who later reported motion sickness and those that did not. We discuss implications of these results for theories of motion sickness etiology. PMID:24504199

  6. The dispersal ecology of Rhodesian sleeping sickness following its introduction to a new area.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola A Wardrop

    Full Text Available Tsetse-transmitted human and animal trypanosomiasis are constraints to both human and animal health in sub-Saharan Africa, and although these diseases have been known for over a century, there is little recent evidence demonstrating how the parasites circulate in natural hosts and ecosystems. The spread of Rhodesian sleeping sickness (caused by Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense within Uganda over the past 15 years has been linked to the movement of infected, untreated livestock (the predominant reservoir from endemic areas. However, despite an understanding of the environmental dependencies of sleeping sickness, little research has focused on the environmental factors controlling transmission establishment or the spatially heterogeneous dispersal of disease following a new introduction. In the current study, an annually stratified case-control study of Rhodesian sleeping sickness cases from Serere District, Uganda was used to allow the temporal assessment of correlations between the spatial distribution of sleeping sickness and landscape factors. Significant relationships were detected between Rhodesian sleeping sickness and selected factors, including elevation and the proportion of land which was "seasonally flooding grassland" or "woodlands and dense savannah." Temporal trends in these relationships were detected, illustrating the dispersal of Rhodesian sleeping sickness into more 'suitable' areas over time, with diminishing dependence on the point of introduction in concurrence with an increasing dependence on environmental and landscape factors. These results provide a novel insight into the ecology of Rhodesian sleeping sickness dispersal and may contribute towards the implementation of evidence-based control measures to prevent its further spread.

  7. Sick building syndrome: A disease of modern age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikić Dragana

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Sick building syndrome (SBS is a term used to describe situation in building when more than 30% of occupants suffer from various symptoms which tend to increase by severity during the time people spend in "sick" building and disappear when they leave the building. Typical cases of SBS report vague symptoms, which cannot be objectively measured, and sufferers usually show no clinical signs of illness. Symptom heterogeneity suggests that they do not represent a single disorder. The objective of our study was to establish if SBS is present in our town because new buildings have been built lately producing the artificial environment - exclusively artificial lightning and mechanical ventilation. A total of 812 subjects were included in our study. The investigation of SBS was performed by standardized questionnaires to determine the prevalence of symptoms and complaints. Questionnaires were used to collect data on perception of environment conditions and health during the period they work in this building. The subjects were divided in three groups according to sex, level of education and ownership. Our data suggested that the incidence of symptoms was higher in employers than in owners of the offices. Moreover, the prevalence of SBS was very high - up to 74.76%. It is obvious that certain physical, psychological and organizational factors are involved in the incidence of symptoms, but our investigation suggests that physical factor has a dominant role in development of symptoms, particularly low humidity and low air flow. In addition, our judgment is that SBS exists in our city, probably in the whole country and, therefore, it must be investigated properly.

  8. High-altitude adaptations in vertebrate hemoglobins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weber, Roy E.

    2007-01-01

    ’s intrinsic O2-affinity and its allosteric interaction with cellular effectors (organic phosphates, protons and chloride). Whereas short-term altitudinal adaptations predominantly involve adjustments in allosteric interactions, long-term, genetically-coded adaptations typically involve changes in the....... Molecular heterogeneity (multiple isoHbs with differentiated oxygenation properties) can further broaden the range of physico-chemical conditions where Hb functions under altitudinal hypoxia. This treatise reviews the molecular and cellular mechanisms that adapt haemoglobin-oxygen affinities in mammals......, birds and ectothermic vertebrates at high altitude....

  9. Regression of altitude-produced cardiac hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sizemore, D. A.; Mcintyre, T. W.; Van Liere, E. J.; Wilson , M. F.

    1973-01-01

    The rate of regression of cardiac hypertrophy with time has been determined in adult male albino rats. The hypertrophy was induced by intermittent exposure to simulated high altitude. The percentage hypertrophy was much greater (46%) in the right ventricle than in the left (16%). The regression could be adequately fitted to a single exponential function with a half-time of 6.73 plus or minus 0.71 days (90% CI). There was no significant difference in the rates of regression for the two ventricles.

  10. High altitude balloon experiments at IIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Akshata; Sreejith, A. G.; Safonova, Margarita; Murthy, Jayant

    Recent advances in balloon experiments as well as in electronics have made it possible to fly scientific payloads at costs accessible to university departments. We have begun a program of high altitude ballooning at the Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Bengaluru. The primary purpose of this activity is to test low-cost ultraviolet (UV) payloads for eventual space flight, but we will also try scientific exploration of the phenomena occurring in the upper atmosphere, including sprites and meteorite impacts. We present the results of the initial experiments carried out at the CREST campus of IIA, Hosakote, and describe our plans for the future.

  11. Ion gun operations at high altitudes

    OpenAIRE

    Werner, Paul W.

    1988-01-01

    Experiments in charge control were conducted on the P78-2 (SCATHA) satellite as part of a program on spacecraft charging at high altitudes. Experiments with the SCATHA ion gun were monitored by charged particle detectors and the electric field experiment. It was found that the electric field experiment could be used to measure satellite potential during ion beam emission in sunlight and eclipse. Unneutralized ion beam emission in high energy (1-2 KeV) and high current (1-2 mA) modes resulted ...

  12. Autogenic-feedback training exercise is superior to promethazine for control of motion sickness symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowings, P. S.; Toscano, W. B.

    2000-01-01

    Motion sickness symptoms affect approximately 50% of the crew during space travel and are commonly treated with intramuscular injections of promethazine. The purpose of this paper is to compare the effectiveness of three treatments for motion sickness: intramuscular injections (i.m.) of promethazine, a physiological training method (autogenic-feedback training exercise [AFTE]), and a no-treatment control. An earlier study tested the effects of promethazine on cognitive and psychomotor performance and motion sickness tolerance in a rotating chair. For the present paper, motion sickness tolerance, symptom reports, and physiological responses of these subjects were compared to matched subjects selected from an existing database who received either AFTE or no treatment. Three groups of 11 men, between the ages of 33 and 40 years, were matched on the number of rotations tolerated during their initial rotating-chair motion sickness test. The motion sickness test procedures and the 7-day interval between tests were the same for all subjects. The drug group was tested under four treatment conditions: baseline (no injections), a 25 mg dose of promethazine, a 50 mg dose of promethazine, and a placebo of sterile saline. AFTE subjects were given four 30-minute AFTE sessions before their second, third, and fourth motion sickness tests (6 hours total). The no-treatment control subjects were only given the four rotating-chair tests. Motion sickness tolerance was significantly increased after 4 hours of AFTE when compared to either 25 mg (p effect of promethazine was an inhibition of skin conductance level. The AFTE group showed significantly less heart rate and skin conductance variability during motion sickness tests administered after training.

  13. The immune system of brucellosis sicks living in district of Semipalatinsk test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of work is study of immune system of the brucellosis sicks protracted living in the district of Semipalatinsk test site. The 303 sicks with acute (81), subacute (107) and chronic (115) brucellosis have been examined. By complex immune investigation the expressed changes of indexes of sell section of immunity of the sicks living in the different zones of radiation risk were fixed. The strongly expressed quantitative deficit of T-lymphocytes, T-suppressors has been observed of personnel, living in the zone of high radiation risk

  14. A rare variant in MYH6 is associated with high risk of sick sinus syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Hilma; Gudbjartsson, Daniel F; Sulem, Patrick; Masson, Gisli; Helgadottir, Hafdis Th; Zanon, Carlo; Magnusson, Olafur Th; Helgason, Agnar; Saemundsdottir, Jona; Gylfason, Arnaldur; Stefansdottir, Hrafnhildur; Gretarsdottir, Solveig; Matthiasson, Stefan E; Thorgeirsson, Gu Mundur; Jonasdottir, Aslaug; Sigurdsson, Asgeir; Stefansson, Hreinn; Werge, Thomas; Rafnar, Thorunn; Kiemeney, Lambertus A; Parvez, Babar; Muhammad, Raafia; Roden, Dan M; Darbar, Dawood; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Walters, G Bragi; Kong, Augustine; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Arnar, David O; Stefansson, Kari

    2011-01-01

    Through complementary application of SNP genotyping, whole-genome sequencing and imputation in 38,384 Icelanders, we have discovered a previously unidentified sick sinus syndrome susceptibility gene, MYH6, encoding the alpha heavy chain subunit of cardiac myosin. A missense variant in this gene, c.......2161C>T, results in the conceptual amino acid substitution p.Arg721Trp, has an allelic frequency of 0.38% in Icelanders and associates with sick sinus syndrome with an odds ratio = 12.53 and P = 1.5 × 10(-29). We show that the lifetime risk of being diagnosed with sick sinus syndrome is around 6% for...

  15. Sickness absence in hospital physicians: 2 year follow up study on determinants

    OpenAIRE

    Kivimaki, M.; Sutinen, R; Elovainio, M; Vahtera, J; Rasanen, K.; Toyry, S; Ferrie, J. E.; Firth-Cozens, J

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To identify determinants of sickness absence in hospital physicians.
METHODS—The Poisson regression analyses of short (1-3 days) and long (>3 days) recorded spells of sickness absence relating to potential determinants of sickness absence were based on a 2 year follow up period and cohorts of 447 (251 male and 196 female) physicians and 466 controls (female head nurses and ward sisters).
RESULTS—There were no differences in health outcomes, self rated health status, prevalence of c...

  16. Space motion sickness: The sensory motor controls and cardiovascular correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souvestre, Philippe A.; Blaber, Andrew P.; Landrock, Clinton K.

    Background and PurposeSpace motion sickness (SMS) and related symptoms remain a major limiting factor in Space operations. A recent comprehensive literature review [J.R. Lackner, Z. DiZio, Space motion sickness, Experimental Brain Research 175 (2006) 377-399, doi 10.1007/s00221-006-0697-y] concluded that SMS does not represent a unique diagnostic entity, and there is no adequate predictor of SMS' susceptibility and severity. No countermeasure has been found reliable to prevent or treat SMS symptoms onset. Recent neurophysiological findings on sensory-motor controls monitoring [P.A. Souvestre, C. Landrock, Biomedical-performance monitoring and assessment of astronauts by means of an ocular vestibular monitoring system, Acta Astronautica, 60 (4-7) (2007) 313-321, doi:10.1016/j.actaastro.2006.08.013] and heart-rate variability (HRV) measurements relationship could explain post-flight orthostatic intolerance (PFOI) in astronauts [A.P. Blaber, R.L. Bondar, M.S. Kassam, Heart rate variability and short duration space flight: relationship to post-flight orthostatic intolerance, BMC Physiology 4 (2004) 6]. These two methodologies are generally overlooked in SMS' analysis. In this paper we present the case for a strong relationship between sensory-motor controls related symptoms, including orthostatic intolerance (OI) and SMS symptoms. MethodsThis paper expands on several previously published papers [J.R. Lackner, Z. DiZio, Space motion sickness, Experimental Brain Research 175 (2006) 377-399, doi 10.1007/s00221-006-0697-y; P.A. Souvestre, C. Landrock, Biomedical-performance monitoring and assessment of astronauts by means of an ocular vestibular monitoring system, Acta Astronautica, 60 (4-7) (2007) 313-321, doi:10.1016/j.actaastro.2006.08.013] along with an updated literature review. An analysis of a 10-year period clinical data from trauma patients experiencing postural deficiency syndrome (PDS) show assessment and monitoring techniques which successfully identify trauma

  17. Bronchial asthma: advice for patients traveling to high altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogo, Annalisa; Fiorenzano, Giuseppe

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the possibility of traveling to altitude for patients suffering from bronchial asthma. The mountain environment, the adaptations of the respiratory system to high altitude, the underlying patho-physiologies of asthma, and the recommendations for patients, according to altitude, are discussed. In summary, staying at low altitude has a significant beneficial effect for asthmatic patients, due to the reduction of airway inflammation and the lower response to bronchoconstrictor stimuli; for staying at moderate altitude, there is conflicting information and no clinical data; at high altitude, the environment seems beneficial for well-controlled asthmatics, but intense exercise and upper airway infections (frequent during trekking) can be additional risks and should be avoided. Further, in remote areas health facilities are often difficult to reach. PMID:19519226

  18. Association between Sick Leave Prescribing Practices and Physician Burnout and Empathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oriol Yuguero Torres

    Full Text Available To investigate the association between sick leave prescription and physician burnout and empathy in a primary care health district in Lleida, Spain.This descriptive study included 108 primary care doctors from 22 primary care centers in Lleida in 2014 (183,600 patients. Burnout was measured with the Maslach Burnout Inventory and empathy with the Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy. The reliability of the instruments was measured by calculating Cronbach's alpha and normal distribution was analyzed using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov-Lilliefors and χ2 tests. Burnout and empathy scores were analyzed by age, sex, and place of work (urban vs rural. Sick leave data were obtained from the Catalan Health Institute.High empathy was significantly associated with low burnout. Neither empathy nor burnout were significantly associated with sick leave prescription.Sick leave prescription by physicians is not associated with physicians' empathy or burnout and may mostly depend on prescribing guidelines.

  19. Differences in sickness absence in Sweden and Denmark: the cross national HAKNAK study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Thomas; Christensen, Karl Bang; Vaez, Marjan; Labriola, Merete; Josephson, Malin; Villadsen, Ebbe; Voss, Margaretha

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To investigate potential differences in sickness absence among public sector employees in Sweden and Denmark, and to what extent a difference was associated with age, gender, physical and psychosocial work environment exposures, lifestyle factors, self-rated health or work ability. METHODS: In...... 2000, two cross-sectional samples of 8562 public sector employees in Sweden and Denmark were surveyed. The study outcome, self-reported number of sick-leave days the year preceding interview, was dichotomized into 7 days or less, and more than 7 days. Chi square test was used to analyse distribution of......: More subjects from the Swedish study population reported more than 7 days of sickness absence. Factors associated with sickness absence were largely similar in the two countries. The difference in absence level between Sweden and Denmark was not associated with differences in age, gender, skill level...

  20. Workplace levels of psychosocial factors as prospective predictors of registered sickness absence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Karl Bang; Nielsen, Martin L; Rugulies, Reiner; Smith-Hansen, Lars; Kristensen, Tage S

    2005-01-01

    absence in the technical services (rate ratio = 0.66, 95% confidence interval = 0.51-0.86) and high workplace levels of skill discretion predicted low sickness absence in the pharmaceutical company (rate ratio = 0.74, 95% confidence interval = 0.62-0.88) after control for relevant confounders. Workplaces......OBJECTIVE: We sought to investigate whether workplace levels of psychosocial work environment factors predict individual sickness absence. METHODS: Data were collected in a prospective study in 52 Danish workplaces in three organizations: municipal care, technical services, and a pharmaceutical...... company. Psychosocial factors were aggregated as workplace means. We used multilevel Poisson regression models with psychosocial factors as predictors and individual level sickness absence from absence registries as outcome. RESULTS: High workplace levels of decision authority predicted low sickness...

  1. The Effect of Mild Motion Sickness and Sopite Syndrome on Multitasking Cognitive Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Matsangas, P.; McCauley, Michael E.

    2012-01-01

    MOVES Research & Education Systems Seminar: Presentation; Session 3a: Human Systems and Training (Performance Evaluation); The Effect of Mild Motion Sickness and Sopite Syndrome on Multitasking Cognitive Performance; speakers: Panagiotis Matsangas & Mike McCauley

  2. SICK BUILDING SYNDROME: POSSIBLE ASSOCIATIONS WITH EXPOSURE TO MYCOTOXINS FROM INDOOR AIR FUNGI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction. Chronic human illness associated with residential or occupational buildings, commonly referred to as sick building syndrome (SBS), may be a multifactorial condition, involving in some cases volatile organic compounds, CO or CO2, pesticides, biologic agents, temperat...

  3. Introducing waiting times for health care in a labor supply model for sickness absence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Andrén

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the association between waiting times for different health care services and the duration of sick leave, using a Swedish register database supplemented with information from questionnaires for 3,653 employees. The duration of sick leave is positively associated with waiting two weeks or more for primary care, technical investigations and specialists, compared to waiting one week or less. Except for waiting for a specialist, there is no indication that waiting four weeks or more is associated with longer durations of sick leave than waiting two to three weeks. Long waiting times for surgery is negatively associated with the duration of sick leave, which might be explained by prioritizing where patients with longer waiting times are those with less severe conditions. Including these waiting time variables did not induce substantial changes on the impact of traditional labor supply variables, which suggests that the parameter estimates of traditional variables are relatively robust.

  4. Economizer system cost effectiveness: Accounting for the influence of ventilation rate on sick leave

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisk, William J.; Seppanen, Olli; Faulkner, David; Huang, Joe

    2003-06-01

    This study estimated the health, energy, and economic benefits of an economizer ventilation control system that increases outside air supply during mild weather to save energy. A model of the influence of ventilation rate on airborne transmission of respiratory illnesses was used to extend the limited data relating ventilation rate with illness and sick leave. An energy simulation model calculated ventilation rates and energy use versus time for an office building in Washington, DC with fixed minimum outdoor air supply rates, with and without an economizer. Sick leave rates were estimated with the disease transmission model. In the modeled 72-person office building, our analyses indicate that the economizer reduces energy costs by approximately $2000 and, in addition, reduces sick leave. The financial benefit of the decrease in sick leave is estimated to be between $6,000 and $16,000. This modelling suggests that economizers are much more cost effective than currently recognized.

  5. Economic benefits of an economizer system: Energy savings and reduced sick leave

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisk, William J.; Seppanen, Olli; Faulkner, David; Huang, Joe

    2004-02-01

    This study estimated the health, energy, and economic benefits of an economizer ventilation control system that increases outside air supply during mild weather to save energy. A model of the influence of ventilation rate on airborne transmission of respiratory illnesses was used to extend the limited data relating ventilation rate with illness and sick leave. An energy simulation model calculated ventilation rates and energy use versus time for an office building in Washington, D.C. with fixed minimum outdoor air supply rates, with and without an economizer. Sick leave rates were estimated with the disease transmission model. In the modeled 72-person office building, our analyses indicate that the economizer reduces energy costs by approximately $2000 and, in addition, reduces sick leave. The annual financial benefit of the decrease in sick leave is estimated to be between $6,000 and $16,000. This modeling suggests that economizers are much more cost effective than currently recognized.

  6. The physiology and biomechanics of avian flight at high altitude

    OpenAIRE

    Altshuler, Douglas L.; Dudley, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Many birds fly at high altitude, either during long-distance flights or by virtue of residence in high-elevation habitats. Among the many environmental features that vary systematically with altitude, five have significant consequences for avian flight performance: ambient wind speeds, air temperature, humidity, oxygen availability, and air density. During migratory flights, birds select flight altitudes that minimize energy expenditure via selection of advantageous tail- and cross-winds. Oxy...

  7. Altitude, Immigration and Suicide Rates: A Study from Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Selek, Salih

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the altitude, immigration and suicide rates association in Turkey. Methods Suicide and immigration rates of 81 provinces and their elevation data were obtained. Results There were not significant correlations between country elevation, immigration and mean suicide rate. Conclusion The findings of this study points out that altitude related hypoxia and suicide association may not be generalized and further research will be needed to clarify the effects of altitude on s...

  8. Genomic insights into adaptation to high-altitude environments

    OpenAIRE

    Cheviron, Z A; Brumfield, R. T.

    2011-01-01

    Elucidating the molecular genetic basis of adaptive traits is a central goal of evolutionary genetics. The cold, hypoxic conditions of high-altitude habitats impose severe metabolic demands on endothermic vertebrates, and understanding how high-altitude endotherms cope with the combined effects of hypoxia and cold can provide important insights into the process of adaptive evolution. The physiological responses to high-altitude stress have been the subject of over a century of research, and r...

  9. The effect of acetazolamide on breath holding at high altitude.

    OpenAIRE

    Morrissey, S. C.; Keohane, K.; Coote, J.H.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of altitude and acetazolamide on breath holding was studied in 20 individuals. Breath holding time was reduced progressively during ascent. There was an additional reduction in the acetazolamide group at low but not at high altitude. The initial difference between the two groups may have been related to a lower CSF pH when on acetazolamide. At high altitude the finding of similar breath holding times in the two groups may have been due to acclimatization in the placebo group.

  10. Plasticity of the muscle proteome to exercise at altitude

    OpenAIRE

    Flueck, Martin

    2009-01-01

    The ascent of humans to the summits of the highest peaks on Earth initiated a spurt of explorations into the physiological consequences of physical activity at altitude. The past three decades have demonstrated that the resetting of respiratory and cardiovascular control with chronic exposure to altitudes above 4000 m is accompanied by important structural-functional adjustments of skeletal muscle. The fully altitude-adapted phenotype preserves energy charge at reduced aerobic capacity throug...

  11. Respiratory Function of University Students Living at High Altitude

    OpenAIRE

    Roh, HyoLyun; Lee, Daehee

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] This study compared the respiratory function and oxygen saturation levels of university students living at high altitude, to present a new approach for improving respiratory function using high altitudes above sea level. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 100 female students attending a university located approximately 850 m above sea level and 104 female students attending a university located at low altitude. Oxygen saturation, heart rate (HR), and respiratory function level...

  12. Genetic and phenotypic differentiation of an Andean intermediate altitude population

    OpenAIRE

    Eichstaedt, Christina A; Antão, Tiago; Cardona, Alexia; Pagani, Luca; Kivisild, Toomas; Mormina, Maru

    2015-01-01

    Highland populations living permanently under hypobaric hypoxia have been subject of extensive research because of the relevance of their physiological adaptations for the understanding of human health and disease. In this context, what is considered high altitude is a matter of interpretation and while the adaptive processes at high altitude (above 3000 m) are well documented, the effects of moderate altitude (below 3000 m) on the phenotype are less well established. In this study, we compar...

  13. Common High Altitudes Illnesses a Primer for Healthcare Provider

    OpenAIRE

    Mohsenin, Vahid

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to high altitude imposes significant strain on cardiopulmonary system and the brain. As a consequence, sojourners to high altitude frequently experience sleep disturbances, often reporting restless and sleepless nights. At altitudes above 3,000 meters (9,800 ft) almost all healthy subjects develop periodic breathing especially during NREM sleep. Sleep architecture gradually improves with increased NREM and REM sleep despite persistence of periodic breathing. The primary reason for pe...

  14. A prediction rule for shoulder pain related sick leave: a prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van der Heijden Geert JMG

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Shoulder pain is common in primary care, and has an unfavourable outcome in many patients. Information about predictors of shoulder pain related sick leave in workers is scarce and inconsistent. The objective was to develop a clinical prediction rule for calculating the risk of shoulder pain related sick leave for individual workers, during the 6 months following first consultation in general practice. Methods A prospective cohort study with 6 months follow-up was conducted among 350 workers with a new episode of shoulder pain. Potential predictors included the results of a physical examination, sociodemographic variables, disease characteristics (duration of symptoms, sick leave in the 2 months prior to consultation, pain intensity, disability, comorbidity, physical activity, physical work load, psychological factors, and the psychosocial work environment. The main outcome measure was sick leave during 6 months following first consultation in general practice. Results Response rate to the follow-up questionnaire at 6 months was 85%. During the 6 months after first consultation 30% (89/298 of the workers reported sick leave. 16% (47 reported 10 days sick leave or more. Sick leave during this period was predicted in a multivariable model by a longer duration of sick leave prior to consultation, more shoulder pain, a perceived cause of strain or overuse during regular activities, and co-existing psychological complaints. The discriminative ability of the prediction model was satisfactory with an area under the curve of 0.70 (95% CI 0.64–0.76. Conclusion Although 30% of all workers with shoulder pain reported sick leave during follow-up, the duration of sick leave was limited to a few days in most workers. We developed a prediction rule and a score chart that can be used by general practitioners and occupational health care providers to calculate the absolute risk of sick leave in individual workers with shoulder pain, which

  15. Prediction and quantification of individual differences in susceptibility to simulator sickness in fixed-base simulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Young H.

    Simulator sickness in a fixed-base simulator is a form of visually-induced motion sickness. Visual-vestibular interaction on spatial orientation and postural control predicts that vection information in the visual stimuli triggers compensatory head sways to stabilize body orientation to perceived visual motion. Simulator sickness might result from perceptual conflicts caused by the visual-vestibular interaction in unusual environments (i.e., fixed-base simulators). Relationship between simulator sickness, vection, and compensatory head sways to perceived vection might help to quantify and predict presence and magnitude of simulator sickness in simulated environments. It was hypothesized that there was significant and positive relationship between sickness, vection, and compensatory head sways. Existence of individual differences was also possible, depending on individual sensitivity to vection. It was also hypothesized that females would experience more intense vection than males because females have wider periphery and shorter vection latencies. Correlations and the multiple linear regression analyses were performed to test the linear relationship between simulator sickness, vection, head sway, gender, and age. There was significant linear relationship between variables. It was concluded that vection and Y-velocity are significant predictors by itself and in interaction forms. Interaction between gender and vection, Y-velocity, and age in the regression function implied that gender difference is significant and gender is also a significant predictor of simulator sickness. Therefore, it was also concluded that there was significant gender difference in susceptibility to simulator sickness between males and females. General linear model also indicates that mean difference in magnitudes of vection, and Y-velocity and difference in gender and age have effects on the magnitude of simulator sickness. Time-course of vection implies that magnitude of vection increases as

  16. Sick leave certification: a unique perspective on frequency and duration of episodes - a complete record of sickness certification in a defined population of employees in Malta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soler Jean

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Malta, sickness certificates are needed from the first day of illness, and are issued by family physicians (FPs either employed by the government primary health care system, self-employed in private practice, or employed by an employer for this purpose alone. The latter system, when applied by the employer, is compulsory. In order to contribute to the debate on the role of the FP in this context, electronic data collected by a group of company-employed FPs was used to study the phenomenon of sickness certification. This database is a complete record of the selected employees' sick leave certification during the study period. Methods Data collected by company-employed FPs from a defined population was used: all employees of selected Maltese companies served by a group of FPs. The database included episode-based data from home visits over three years (01/01/1997 – 31/12/1999, by 9 company-appointed FPs regarding 421 employees of five companies. Results 3015 episodes of sickness absenteeism, with an average duration of 2.9 days, were documented. Employees who did intensive manual work had relatively higher rates. Furthermore, a relatively higher incidence of work injury, sprains and strains, anxiety and depression and low back pain as found in manual workers, and in male workers. This trend was shown to be statistically significant. Conclusions The frequency of sick-leave certification in Malta is comparable to that in other European countries, but the average duration of certificates is much less than reported in other studies that generally did not include data on short-term illness and certification. This has important implications on future research in the field. A number of common disorders were found to be significantly more prevalent causes of sickness certification in manual workers, amongst them anxiety and depression.

  17. Teachers' Sickness Absence in Primary Schools: A Panel Data Multilevel Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Bratberg, Espen; Holmås, Tor Helge; Islam, M. Kamrul; Vaage, Kjell

    2010-01-01

    This paper uses longitudinal employer–employee data and multilevel models to examine both observed and unobserved variation of the probability and length of certified and self-certified sickness absence for Norwegian primary school teachers. We argue that self-certified absences are particularly prone to moral hazard. We find that most of the observed teacher, school and municipality characteristics are significantly associated with the probability and the length of sickness absence. However,...

  18. Sickness absence in gender-equal companies A register study at organizational level

    OpenAIRE

    Öhman Ann; Sörlin Ann; Lindholm Lars

    2011-01-01

    Background: The differences in sickness absence between men and women in Sweden have attracted a great deal of interest nationally in the media and among policymakers over a long period. The fact that women have much higher levels of sickness absence has been explained in various ways. These explanations are contextual and one of the theories points to the lack of gender equality as an explanation. In this study, we evaluate the impact of gender equality on health at organizational level. Gen...

  19. Prognostic factors for musculoskeletal sickness absence and return to work among welders and metal workers

    OpenAIRE

    Burdorf, Alex; Naaktgeboren, B.; Post, Wendel

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To analyse factors that determine the occurrence of sickness absence due to musculoskeletal problems and the time it takes to return to work. METHODS: A longitudinal study with two year follow up was conducted among 283 male welders and metal workers. The survey started with a standardised interview on the occurrence of musculoskeletal complaints. 61 (22%) workers were lost to follow up. Data on sickness absence among 222 workers during the follow up were collected from abse...

  20. Workplace-Based Sick Leave Prevention and Return to Work. Exploratory Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Aas, Randi Wågö

    2011-01-01

    Background: Earlier research have revealed risk factors for sick leave in the workplace, and thus the workplace has become an important arena for sick leave prevention and return to work (RTW). Despite that, some of these aspects have received little attention in exploratory studies. Simultaneously, there is a need to translate and implement the growing knowledge base in this field in order to develop evidence-based practice (EBP). Aim: The aim of the present research was to e...

  1. Implications of immune-to-brain communication for sickness and pain

    OpenAIRE

    Watkins, Linda R; Maier, Steven F.

    1999-01-01

    This review presents a view of hyperalgesia and allodynia not typical of the field as a whole. That is, exaggerated pain is presented as one of many natural consequences of peripheral infection and injury. The constellation of changes that results from such immune challenges is called the sickness response. This sickness response results from immune-to-brain communication initiated by proinflammatory cytokines released by activated immune cells. In response to signals ...

  2. Psychosocial factors and work related sickness absence among permanent and non-permanent employees

    OpenAIRE

    Gimeno, D.; Benavides, F. G.; Amick, B.C.; Benach, J.; Martinez, J M

    2004-01-01

    Study objective: To examine the association between psychosocial work factors and work related sickness absence among permanent and non-permanent employees by sex.Design: A cross sectional survey conducted in 2000 of a representative sample of the European Union total active population, aged 15 years and older. The independent variables were psychological job demands and job control as measures of psychosocial work environment, and work related sickness absence as the main outcome. Poisson re...

  3. Subjective memory complaints among patients on sick leave are associated with symptoms of fatigue and anxiety

    OpenAIRE

    Aasvik, Julie K.; Woodhouse, Astrid; Jacobsen, Henrik B.; Borchgrevink, Petter C.; Stiles, Tore C; Landrø, Nils I

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to identify symptoms associated with subjective memory complaints (SMCs) among subjects who are currently on sick leave due to symptoms of chronic pain, fatigue, depression, anxiety, and insomnia. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study, subjects (n = 167) who were currently on sick leave were asked to complete an extensive survey consisting of the following: items addressing their sociodemographics, one item from the SF-8 health survey measuring pain...

  4. Penatalaksanaan Anestesi pada Pasien dengan Sick Sinus Syndrome yang Menjalani Laparotomi Ec Perforasi Gaster

    OpenAIRE

    Radian Ahmad Halimi; Doddy Tavianto

    2013-01-01

    SA node dysfunction, or known as Sick Sinus Syndrome is the common cause of disrythmia and can be caused by intrinsic and extrinsic factors of the SA node. The diagnose performed by the occurrence of bradi- takhikardia episode and the clinical symptoms, could be syncope, palpitation, or maybe asymptomatic. Some of the literature defined that the perioperative management of sick sinus syndrome is preoperative insertion of pacemaker (transcutaneal or transvenous pacing). A 75 years old man un...

  5. Medically certified sickness absence with insurance benefits in women with and without children

    OpenAIRE

    Floderus, Birgitta; Hagman, Maud; Aronsson, Gunnar; Marklund, Staffan; Wikman, Anders

    2011-01-01

    Background: Sickness absence in Sweden is high, particularly in young women and the reasons are unclear. Many Swedish women combine parenthood and work and are facing demands that may contribute to impaired health and well-being. We compared mothers and women without children under different conditions, assuming increased sickness absence in mothers, due to time-based stress and psychological strain. Methods: All women born in 1960–79 (1.2 million) were followed from 1993 to 2003. Information...

  6. Civil conflict and sleeping sickness in Africa in general and Uganda in particular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berrang Ford Lea

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Conflict and war have long been recognized as determinants of infectious disease risk. Re-emergence of epidemic sleeping sickness in sub-Saharan Africa since the 1970s has coincided with extensive civil conflict in affected regions. Sleeping sickness incidence has placed increasing pressure on the health resources of countries already burdened by malaria, HIV/AIDS, and tuberculosis. In areas of Sudan, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, and Angola, sleeping sickness occurs in epidemic proportions, and is the first or second greatest cause of mortality in some areas, ahead of HIV/AIDS. In Uganda, there is evidence of increasing spread and establishment of new foci in central districts. Conflict is an important determinant of sleeping sickness outbreaks, and has contributed to disease resurgence. This paper presents a review and characterization of the processes by which conflict has contributed to the occurrence of sleeping sickness in Africa. Conflict contributes to disease risk by affecting the transmission potential of sleeping sickness via economic impacts, degradation of health systems and services, internal displacement of populations, regional insecurity, and reduced access for humanitarian support. Particular focus is given to the case of sleeping sickness in south-eastern Uganda, where incidence increase is expected to continue. Disease intervention is constrained in regions with high insecurity; in these areas, political stabilization, localized deployment of health resources, increased administrative integration and national capacity are required to mitigate incidence. Conflict-related variables should be explicitly integrated into risk mapping and prioritization of targeted sleeping sickness research and mitigation initiatives.

  7. Fear of the brown envelope : exploring welfare reform with long-term sickness benefits recipients.

    OpenAIRE

    Garthwaite, K.

    2014-01-01

    This article presents qualitative data taken from in-depth interviews with 25 long-term sickness benefits recipients in the north east of England, UK. A key theme emerging from the research is the importance of listening to the narratives of long-term sick and disabled benefits recipients, particularly in relation to the formation of policy responses and in terms of practice. The findings also illustrate how stigma associated with claiming benefits can deter people from accessing the support ...

  8. Potential for a pluripotent adult stem cell treatment for acute radiation sickness

    OpenAIRE

    Rodgerson, Denis O.; Reidenberg, Bruce E; Harris, Alan G; Pecora, Andrew L.

    2012-01-01

    Accidental radiation exposure and the threat of deliberate radiation exposure have been in the news and are a public health concern. Experience with acute radiation sickness has been gathered from atomic blast survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki and from civilian nuclear accidents as well as experience gained during the development of radiation therapy for cancer. This paper reviews the medical treatment reports relevant to acute radiation sickness among the survivors of atomic weapons at Hir...

  9. Longitudinal relationships between organizational justice, productivity, loss and sickness absence older employees

    OpenAIRE

    Ybema, J.F.; Meer, L. van der; Leijten, F.R.M

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to assess whether organizational justice lowers productivity loss and sickness absence, and whether there are reverse effects of productivity loss and sickness absence on organizational justice.Method A longitudinal study with 2 years of follow-up was conducted among employed persons aged 45–64 years from the Study on Transitions in Employment, Ability and Motivation (STREAM). Participants (N = 7011) yearly filled out an online questionnaire. Structural equat...

  10. Hearing difficulties, ear-related diagnoses and sickness absence or disability pension - a systematic literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Friberg Emilie; Gustafsson Klas; Alexanderson Kristina

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Hearing difficulties is a large public health problem, prognosticated to be the ninth leading burden of disease in 2030, and may also involve large consequences for work capacity. However, research regarding sickness absence and disability pension in relation to hearing difficulties is scarce. The aim was to gain knowledge about hearing difficulties or other ear-related diagnoses and sickness absence and disability pension through conducting a systematic literature review ...

  11. The structure and sickness rate of eye and adnexa diseases in children in Ukraine.

    OpenAIRE

    Vіtovska O.P.; Savіna O.M.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the work is to estimate sickness rate and patterns of eye and adnexa diseases. The data of departmental statistical reports of Ministry of Health of Ukraine (form 12) for 2005-2014 years, period were used. The specific weight, prevalence and sickness rate were determined for the following diseases: conjunctivitis and other diseases of the conjunctiva, cataract, myopia - among children aged 0-17 years; strabismus - among children aged 0-14 years; glaucoma and optic nerve atrophy...

  12. Predictors of short- and long-term sickness absence in female post office workers in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Zuzanna Szubert; Teresa Makowiec-Dąbrowska; Dorota Merecz; Wojciech Sobala

    2016-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to highlight major predictors of the frequency of sickness absence in a group of workers directly involved in customer service. Material and Methods: The study was carried out on a random sample of 229 women employed as assistants and clerks in post offices. The survey was based on the Subjective Work, Health Status and Life Style Characteristics Questionnaire, and sickness absence data for the years 2004–2006. Results: The negative binominal regression m...

  13. Prediction of sickness absence in patients with chronic low back pain: A systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Kuijer, Wietske; Groothoff, Johan W.; Brouwer, Sandra; Geertzen, Jan H. B.; Dijkstra, Pieter U.

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: To provide evidence of predictors for sickness absence in patients with non-specific chronic low back pain (CLBP), distinguishing predictors aimed at the decision to report sick (absence threshold) and decision to return to work (return to work threshold). Methods: Medical and psychological databases were searched, as well as citations from relevant reviews. In- and exclusion criteria were applied. Two reviewers assessed the methodological quality of the papers independently. Resu...

  14. Neurophysiological Problems in Snow Bound High Altitude Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Selvamurthy

    1984-10-01

    Full Text Available A series of studies have been conducted to evaluate the neurophysiological responses in young healthy soldiers during acclimatization at 3,500m altitude in Western Himalayas. The responses of autonomic nervous system, electroencephalogram hypothalamic thermoregulatory efficiency, orthostatic tolerance, sleep profile and effects of sleep deprivation have been studied in fresh inductees during three to five weeks of acclimatization at high altitude and compared with those of one year acclimatized lowlanders and high altitude natives. Physiological significance of these neurophysiological responses in the process of altitude adaptation is discussed in the light of current knowledge in the field.

  15. Aviation fuel property effects on altitude relight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkataramani, K.

    1987-01-01

    The major objective of this experimental program was to investigate the effects of fuel property variation on altitude relight characteristics. Four fuels with widely varying volatility properties (JP-4, Jet A, a blend of Jet A and 2040 Solvent, and Diesel 2) were tested in a five-swirl-cup-sector combustor at inlet temperatures and flows representative of windmilling conditions of turbofan engines. The effects of fuel physical properties on atomization were eliminated by using four sets of pressure-atomizing nozzles designed to give the same spray Sauter mean diameter (50 + or - 10 micron) for each fuel at the same design fuel flow. A second series of tests was run with a set of air-blast nozzles. With comparable atomization levels, fuel volatility assumes only a secondary role for first-swirl-cup lightoff and complete blowout. Full propagation first-cup blowout were independent of fuel volatility and depended only on the combustor operating conditions.

  16. Anticoagulation Considerations for Travel to High Altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLoughery, Thomas G

    2015-09-01

    DeLoughery, Thomas G. Anticoagulation considerations for travel to high altitude. High Alt Med Biol 16:181-185, 2015.-An increasing percentage of the population are on anticoagulation medicine for clinical reasons ranging from stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation to long term prevention of deep venous thrombosis. In recent years, several new direct oral anticoagulants have entered the market. The key questions that should be kept in mind when approaching a potential traveler on anticoagulation are: 1) why is the patient on anticoagulation? 2) do they need to stay on anticoagulation? 3) what are the choices for their anticoagulation? 4) will there be any drug interactions with medications needed for travel? and 5) how will they monitor their anticoagulation while traveling? Knowing the answers to these questions then can allow for proper counseling and planning for the anticoagulated traveler's trip. PMID:26186419

  17. Disability, sickness, and unemployment benefits among long-term sickness absentees five years before, during, and after a multidisciplinary medical assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pia Svedberg

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Klas Gustafsson1, Göran Lundh1, Pia Svedberg1, Jürgen Linder2, Kristina Alexanderson1, Staffan Marklund11Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Division of Insurance Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; 2Diagnostic Centre, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, SwedenAim: The aim was to describe how a multidisciplinary medical assessment changed the distribution of long-term sickness absentees between three different forms of social security support during a period of eleven years.Methods: The study group (n = 1002 consisted of persons on long-term sickness absence who were referred to a multidisciplinary medical assessment by the Social Insurance Office in Stockholm, Sweden between 1998 and 2007. Register data from the years 1993–2008 were linked to the study group. A calculation was provided for the number of days per person and year on unemployment benefits, sickness benefits, and disability pension, five years before, during, and five years after the assessment. Also, differences in the average number of days per person and year were calculated with one-way analysis of variance.Results: The number of days on sickness benefits increased up to the time of multidisciplinary medical assessment, from 69 to 218 days on average. After the assessment there was a decrease in the average number of days on sickness benefits, from 218 to 16 days. Before the assessment the number of days on disability pension was 21, but this increased after the assessment from 104 days to an average of 272 days five years after the assessment. There were age differences regarding number of compensated days, and these were particularly pronounced for disability days after the assessment. Further, there were significant differences between types of diagnosis in relation to average days on disability pension after the assessment.Conclusion: The study shows that after a multidisciplinary medical assessment there is a rapid increase in disability pension

  18. High Altitude Supersonic Decelerator Test Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Brant T.; Blando, Guillermo; Kennett, Andrew; Von Der Heydt, Max; Wolff, John Luke; Yerdon, Mark

    2013-01-01

    The Low Density Supersonic Decelerator (LDSD) project is tasked by NASA's Office of the Chief Technologist (OCT) to advance the state of the art in Mars entry and descent technology in order to allow for larger payloads to be delivered to Mars at higher altitudes with better accuracy. The project will develop a 33.5 m Do Supersonic Ringsail (SSRS) parachute, 6m attached torus, robotic class Supersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator (SIAD-R), and an 8 m attached isotensoid, exploration class Supersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator (SIAD-E). The SSRS and SIAD-R should be brought to TRL-6, while the SIAD-E should be brought to TRL-5. As part of the qualification and development program, LDSD must perform a Mach-scaled Supersonic Flight Dynamics Test (SFDT) in order to demonstrate successful free flight dynamic deployments at Mars equivalent altitude, of all three technologies. In order to perform these tests, LDSD must design and build a test vehicle to deliver all technologies to approximately 180,000 ft and Mach 4, deploy a SIAD, free fly to approximately Mach 2, deploy the SSRS, record high-speed and high-resolution imagery of both deployments, as well as record data from an instrumentation suite capable of characterizing the technology induced vehicle dynamics. The vehicle must also be recoverable after splashdown into the ocean under a nominal flight, while guaranteeing forensic data protection in an off nominal catastrophic failure of a test article that could result in a terminal velocity, tumbling water impact.

  19. Reliability of Autonomic Responses and Malaise Across Multiple Motion Sickness Stimulation Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stout, Cynthia S.; Toscano, William B.; Cowings, Patricia S.

    1993-01-01

    There is general agreement that a high degree of variability exists between subjects in their autonomic nervous system responses to motion sickness stimulation. Additionally, a paucity of data exists that examines the variability within an individual across repeated motion sickness tests. Investigators have also examined the relationship of autonomic responses to motion sickness development. These investigations have used analyses at discrete points in time to describe this relationship. This approach fails to address the time course of autonomic responses and malaise development throughout the motion sickness test. Our objectives were to examine the reliability of autonomic responses and malaise using the final minute of the motion sickness test across five testing occasions, to examine the reliability of the change in autonomic responses and the change in malaise across five testing occasions, and to examine the relationship between changes in autonomic responses and changes in malaise level across the entire motion sickness test. Our results indicate that, based on the final minute of testing, the autonomic responses of heart rate, blood volume pulse, and respiration rate are moderately stable across multiple tests. Changes in heart rate, blood volume pulse, respiration rate, and malaise throughout the test duration were less stable across the tests. We attribute this instability to variations in individual susceptibility and the error associated with estimating a measure of autonomic gain.

  20. Sickness behaviour in the cricket Gryllus texensis: Comparison with animals across phyla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Ken; Fairn, Evan; Adamo, Shelley A

    2016-07-01

    Immune activation alters behaviour (i.e. sickness behaviour) in animals across phyla and is thought to aid recovery from infection. Hypotheses regarding the adaptive function of different sickness behaviours (e.g. decreased movement and appetite) include the energy conservation and predator avoidance hypotheses. These hypotheses were originally developed for mammals (e.g. Hart, 1988), however similar sickness behaviours are also observed in insects (e.g., crickets). We predicted that immune-challenged crickets (Gryllus texensis) would reduce feeding, grooming, and locomotion as well as increase shelter use, consistent with the energy conservation and predator avoidance hypotheses. We found evidence of illness-induced anorexia in adult and juvenile crickets, consistent with previous research (Adamo et al., 2010), but contrary to expectations, we found an increase in grooming, and no evidence that crickets decreased locomotion or increased shelter use in response to immune challenge. Therefore, our results do not support the energy conservation or predator avoidance hypotheses. The difference in sickness behaviour between insects and mammals is probably due, in part, to the lack of physiological fever in insects. We hypothesize that the lack of physiological fever reduces the need for energy conservation, decreasing the benefits of some sickness behaviours such as increased shelter use. These results, taken together with others in the literature, suggest that ectotherms and endotherms may differ significantly in the selective forces leading to the evolution of most sickness behaviours. PMID:27189926

  1. Physical, psychosocial, and organisational factors relative to sickness absence: a study based on Sweden Post

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voss, M; Floderus, B; Diderichsen, F

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyse incidence of sickness for women and men relative to potential aetiological factors at work-physical, psychosocial, and organisational. METHODS: The study group comprised 1557 female and 1913 male employees of Sweden Post. Sickness absence was measured by incidence of sickness...... (sick leave events and person-days at risk). Information on explanatory factors was obtained by a postal questionnaire, and incidence of sickness was based on administrative files of the company. RESULTS: Complaints about heavy lifting and monotonous movements were associated with increased risk of high...... incidence of sickness among both women and men. For heavy lifting, an odds ratio (OR) of 1.70 (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.22 to 2.39) among women, and OR 1.70 (1.20 to 2.41) among men was found. For monotonous movements the risk estimates were OR 1.42 (1.03 to 1.97) and OR 1.45 (1.08 to 1.95) for...

  2. Leading during change: the effects of leader behavior on sickness absence in a Norwegian health trust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernstrøm Vilde Hoff

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Organizational change often leads to negative employee outcomes such as increased absence. Because change is also often inevitable, it is important to know how these negative outcomes could be reduced. This study investigates how the line manager’s behavior relates to sickness absence in a Norwegian health trust during major restructuring. Methods Leader behavior was measured by questionnaire, where employees assessed their line manager’s behavior (N = 1008; response rate 40%. Data on sickness absence were provided at department level (N = 35 and were measured at two times. Analyses were primarily conducted using linear regression; leader behavior was aggregated and weighted by department size. Results The results show a relationship between several leader behaviors and sickness absence. The line managers’ display of loyalty to their superiors was related to higher sickness absence; whereas task monitoring was related to lower absence. Social support was related to higher sickness absence. However, the effect of social support was no longer significant when the line manager also displayed high levels of problem confrontation. Conclusions The findings clearly support the line manager’s importance for employee sickness absence during organizational change. We conclude that more awareness concerning the manager’s role in change processes is needed.

  3. Sickness and healing and the evolutionary foundations of mind and minding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrega Jr Horacio

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Disease represents a principal tentacle of natural selection and a staple theme of evolutionary medicine. However, it is through a small portal of entry and a very long lineage that disease as sickness entered behavioural spaces and human consciousness. This has a long evolutionary history. Anyone interested in the origins of medicine and psychiatry as social institution has to start with analysis of how mind and body were conceptualised and played out behaviourally following the pongid/hominin split and thereafter. The early evolution of medicine provides a template for clarifying elemental characteristics of mind and minding. Sickness and healing in chimpanzees represents an early manifestation of (ethno medicine, termed a behavioural tradition, which is found played out in routines of helping, caring, and healing as well as other social behaviours. Chimpanzees seem to know they are sick since they resort to self-medication when exhibiting signs and symptoms of disease. Also, they help those exhibiting physical and cognitive disability. Among hominins, awareness of consequences and implications of sickness and coping with them represented an important feature of human consciousness and a major factor in the origins of vaunted human abilities involving language, cognition, and culture as we know them. A philosophical examination of the early evolution of sickness and healing provides a window into an understanding of evolving human capacities such as self-awareness, awareness and implications of suffering, theory of mind, altruism, conceptual grasp of sickness and healing and morality.

  4. Sickness and healing and the evolutionary foundations of mind and minding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horacio Fabrega Jr

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Disease represents a principal tentacle of natural selection and a staple theme of evolutionary medicine. However, it is through a small portal of entry and a very long lineage that disease as sickness entered behavioural spaces and human consciousness. This has a long evolutionary history. Anyone interested in the origins of medicine and psychiatry as social institution has to start with analysis of how mind and body were conceptualised and played out behaviourally following the pongid/hominin split and thereafter. The early evolution of medicine provides a template for clarifying elemental characteristics of mind and minding. Sickness and healing in chimpanzees represents an early manifestation of (ethno medicine, termed a behavioural tradition, which is found played out in routines of helping, caring, and healing as well as other social behaviours. Chimpanzees seem to know they are sick since they resort to self-medication when exhibiting signs and symptoms of disease. Also, they help those exhibiting physical and cognitive disability. Among hominins, awareness of consequences and implications of sickness and coping with them represented an important feature of human consciousness and a major factor in the origins of vaunted human abilities involving language, cognition, and culture as we know them. A philosophical examination of the early evolution of sickness and healing provides a window into an understanding of evolving human capacities such as self-awareness, awareness and implications of suffering, theory of mind, altruism, conceptual grasp of sickness and healing and morality.

  5. Mechanisms of Altitude-Related Cough/Mécanismes de la Toux Liée à l’Altitude

    OpenAIRE

    Mason, Nicholas

    2012-01-01

    The original work presented in this thesis investigates some of the mechanisms that may be responsible for the aetiology of altitude-related cough. Particular attention is paid to its relationship to the long recognised, but poorly understood, changes in lung volumes that occur on ascent to altitude. The literature relevant to this thesis is reviewed in Chapter 1. Widespread reports have long existed of a debilitating cough affecting visitors to high altitude that can incapacitate the suff...

  6. Hormonal status and fluid electrolyte metabolism in motion sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the first experimental series, 10 healthy male test subjects with a high susceptibility to motion sickness showed a significant increase of ACTH, cortisol, STH, prolactin, ADH, aldosterone concentrations, and plasma renin activity after vestibular tests. The 10 subjects with a moderate susceptibility exhibited a still higher increase of the hormones, except plasma renin. The 8 test subjects with a low susceptibility displayed a considerable increase in ACTH, cortisol, and STH after vestibular stimulation. In the second experimental series, the increase of STH, cortisol, ADH, aldosterone and renin occurred immediately after rotation in the moderate susceptibility subjects and an hour after exposure in the high susceptibility subjects. This may be indicative of specific immediate adaptation mechanisms or excitation transfer in the CNS in high susceptibility persons. In the third experimental animal series, the permeability of the blood-brain barrier for 125I and IgG increased after rotation. Greater concentrations of potassium, chloride, and urea in CSF are suggestive of an inhibition process activation in the CNS and, probably, of an active urea transport by the vascular plexus epithelium which maintains constant osmotic pressure of cerebral extracellular fluid and prevents hyper-hydration of CNS neurons

  7. Protective effects of fluoxetine on decompression sickness in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Eric Blatteau

    Full Text Available Massive bubble formation after diving can lead to decompression sickness (DCS that can result in central nervous system disorders or even death. Bubbles alter the vascular endothelium and activate blood cells and inflammatory pathways, leading to a systemic pathophysiological process that promotes ischemic damage. Fluoxetine, a well-known antidepressant, is recognized as having anti-inflammatory properties at the systemic level, as well as in the setting of cerebral ischemia. We report a beneficial clinical effect associated with fluoxetine in experimental DCS. 91 mice were subjected to a simulated dive at 90 msw for 45 min before rapid decompression. The experimental group received 50 mg/kg of fluoxetine 18 hours before hyperbaric exposure (n = 46 while controls were not treated (n = 45. Clinical assessment took place over a period of 30 min after surfacing. At the end, blood samples were collected for blood cells counts and cytokine IL-6 detection. There were significantly fewer manifestations of DCS in the fluoxetine group than in the controls (43.5% versus 75.5%, respectively; p = 0.004. Survivors showed a better and significant neurological recovery with fluoxetine. Platelets and red cells were significantly decreased after decompression in controls but not in the treated mice. Fluoxetine reduced circulating IL-6, a relevant marker of systemic inflammation in DCS. We concluded that fluoxetine decreased the incidence of DCS and improved motor recovery, by limiting inflammation processes.

  8. Characteristics of long-term consequences of acute radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In persons who suffered from acute radiation sickness (ARS) as a result of the Chernobyl accident in course of time there are revealed the stochastic and non-stochastic effects of irradiation both in 'critical' and 'non-critical' organism systems. It is connected with maintenance of somatic mutation high level and steady changes in membranes subcellular structures, biomolecules as well as metabolic disturbances. Stable changes of hemopoietic and immune system indexes have to be considered as pre-pathological status with high hazard of stochastic effects development. Frequency rate of typical radiation cataracts (posterior subcapsular) is correlated with ARS severity degree; fundus oculi vessel pathology have essential weight in total eye pathology. Chronic radiation dermatitis is an important clinical problem being a long-term consequence of irradiation. It demands a constant attention in order to prevent trophic secondary skin lesions. Radiation damage of eye and skin as well as high frequency of chronic somatic diseases and neuropsychiatric disorders conditioned the high level of disablement in ARS-patients

  9. Quantitative relationship of sick building syndrome symptoms with ventilation rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisk, William J.; Mirer, Anna G.; Mendell, Mark J.

    2009-01-01

    Data from published studies were combined and analyzed to develop best-fit equations and curves quantifying the change in sick building syndrome (SBS) symptom prevalence in office workers with ventilation rate. For each study, slopes were calculated, representing the fractional change in SBS symptom prevalence per unit change in ventilation rate per person. Values of ventilation rate, associated with each value of slope, were also calculated. Linear regression equations were fitted to the resulting data points, after weighting by study size. Integration of the slope-ventilation rate equations yielded curves of relative SBS symptom prevalence versus ventilation rate. Based on these analyses, as the ventilation rate drops from 10 to 5 L/s-person, relative SBS symptom prevalence increases approximately 23percent (12percent to 32percent), and as ventilation rate increases from 10 to 25 L/s-person, relative prevalence decreases approximately 29percent (15percent to 42percent). Variations in SBS symptom types, building features, and outdoor air quality may cause the relationship ofSBS symptom prevalence with ventilation rate in specific situations to differ from the average relationship predicted in this paper.

  10. Getting into hot water: sick guppies frequent warmer thermal conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Ryan S; Reynolds, Michael; James, Joanna; Williams, Chris; Mohammed, Azad; Ramsubhag, Adesh; van Oosterhout, Cock; Cable, Jo

    2016-07-01

    Ectotherms depend on the environmental temperature for thermoregulation and exploit thermal regimes that optimise physiological functioning. They may also frequent warmer conditions to up-regulate their immune response against parasite infection and/or impede parasite development. This adaptive response, known as 'behavioural fever', has been documented in various taxa including insects, reptiles and fish, but only in response to endoparasite infections. Here, a choice chamber experiment was used to investigate the thermal preferences of a tropical freshwater fish, the Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata), when infected with a common helminth ectoparasite Gyrodactylus turnbulli, in female-only and mixed-sex shoals. The temperature tolerance of G. turnbulli was also investigated by monitoring parasite population trajectories on guppies maintained at a continuous 18, 24 or 32 °C. Regardless of shoal composition, infected fish frequented the 32 °C choice chamber more often than when uninfected, significantly increasing their mean temperature preference. Parasites maintained continuously at 32 °C decreased to extinction within 3 days, whereas mean parasite abundance increased on hosts incubated at 18 and 24 °C. We show for the first time that gyrodactylid-infected fish have a preference for warmer waters and speculate that sick fish exploit the upper thermal tolerances of their parasites to self medicate. PMID:26965895

  11. Workloads, strain processes and sickness absenteeism in nursing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian Aline Mininel

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to analyze the workloads, strain processes and sickness absenteeism among nursing workers from a teaching hospital in the Brazilian Central-West. METHOD: a descriptive and cross-sectional study was developed with a quantitative approach, based on the theoretical framework of the social determination of the health-disease process. Data were collected between January and December 2009, based on records of complaints related to occupational exposure among nursing professionals, filed in the software Monitoring System of Nursing Workers' Health. For the sake of statistical analysis, relative and absolute frequencies of the variables and the risk coefficient were considered. RESULTS: 144 notifications of occupational exposure were registered across the analysis period, which represented 25% of the total nursing population at the hospital. The physiological and psychic workloads were the most representative, corresponding to 37% and 36%, respectively. These notifications culminated in 1567 days of absenteeism for disease treatment. CONCLUSIONS: the findings evidence the impact of occupational illnesses on the absenteeism of nursing workers, and can be used to demonstrate the importance of institutional investments in occupational health surveillance.

  12. Combating the 'Sick Building Syndrome' by Improving Indoor Air Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pongchai Nimcharoenwon

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Research indicates that many of symptoms attributed to the Sick Building Syndrome in air-conditioned office buildings are a result of considerably reduced negative ions in the internal atmosphere and that replacing the depleted negative ions can improve indoor air quality. This paper describes a method used to develop a formula (DOF-NIL formula for calculating the amount of negative ions to be added to air-conditioned buildings, to improve air quality. The formula enables estimates to be made based on how negative ions in the air are reduced by three main factors namely, Video Display Terminals (VDT; heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC and Building Contents (BC. Calculations for a typical air-conditioned office, are compared with an Air Ion Counter instrument. The results show that the formula, when applied to a typical air-conditioned office, provides an accurate estimate for design purposes. The typical rate of additional negative-ions (ion-generating for a negative ion condition is found to be approximately 12.0 billion ions/hr for at least 4 hour ion-generating.

  13. Effects of stereoscopic presentation on visually induced motion sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ujike, Hiroyasu; Watanabe, Hiroshi

    2011-03-01

    The present study investigates whether VIMS, which can be induced in 2D images, is affected by stereoscopic presentation. To do this, we conducted an experiment to measure the effects psychologically and physiologically. Visual stimulus was computer graphics that simulates traveling along streets with additional pitch and roll motion for 10 minutes. The stimulus were presented as either stereoscopic, "3D", images or "2D" images. Before/after and during each trial, psychological and physiological measurements for biomedical effects were conducted. As results, psychological measurements indicate effects of stereoscopic presentations on VIMS. First, subjective score of comfort level measured every one minute significantly decreased to uncomfortable level in the 3D than in the 2D condition. Second, subscore of "Nausea" of Simulator Sickness Questionnaire significantly higher in the 3D than in the 2D condition, while the other subscores and the total score also showed the similar tendency. Moreover, physiological measurements also indicate effects of 3D presentations on VIMS. The LF/HF ratio, which is the index of sympathetic nerve activity, clearly increased more in the 3D than in the 2D condition. We conclude that stereoscopic presentation enhances biomedical effects of VIMS. We speculate that stereoscopic images can be efficient reference of spatial orientation.

  14. Sickness-Associated Anorexia: Mother Nature's Idea of Immunonutrition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaacs, Ashwin W.

    2016-01-01

    During an infection, expansion of immune cells, assembly of antibodies, and the induction of a febrile response collectively place continual metabolic strain on the host. These considerations also provide a rationale for nutritional support in critically ill patients. Yet, results from clinical and preclinical studies indicate that aggressive nutritional support does not always benefit patients and may occasionally be detrimental. Moreover, both vertebrates and invertebrates exhibit a decrease in appetite during an infection, indicating that such sickness-associated anorexia (SAA) is evolutionarily conserved. It also suggests that SAA performs a vital function during an infection. We review evidence signifying that SAA may present a mechanism by which autophagic flux is upregulated systemically. A decrease in serum amino acids during an infection promotes autophagy not only in immune cells, but also in nonimmune cells. Similarly, bile acids reabsorbed postprandially inhibit hepatic autophagy by binding to farnesoid X receptors, indicating that SAA may be an attempt to conserve autophagy. In addition, augmented autophagic responses may play a critical role in clearing pathogens (xenophagy), in the presentation of epitopes in nonprovisional antigen presenting cells and the removal of damaged proteins and organelles. Collectively, these observations suggest that some patients might benefit from permissive underfeeding. PMID:27445441

  15. The effect of antimotion sickness drugs on habituation to motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, C. D.; Manno, J. E.; Manno, B. R.; Odenheimer, R. C.; Bairnsfather, L. E.

    1986-01-01

    The mechanism which allows for increased exposure to motion and accelerates habituation is investigated. The responses of 12 male and female subjects between 18-30 years rotated once a day for 5 days on the Contraves Goerz rotating chair after receiving placebo, 10 mg d-amphetamine, 0.6 mg scopolamine with 5 mg d-amphetamine, and 1.0 mg scopolamine are studied. It is observed that with placebo the subjects performed 48 more head movements than untreated subjects, 118 more movements with d-amphetamine, 176 more with 0.6 mg scopolamine with d-amphetamine, and 186 more with 1.0 scopolamine. The data reveal that exposure to rotation increases tolerance from 88 head movements on day 2 to 159 on day 4 at 17.4 rpm and with placebo; 96 to 186 at 19.9 rpm with 10 mg d-amphetamine; 111 to 273 at 20.2 rpm with scopolamine with d-amphetamine, and 141 to 279 at 22.4 rpm with 1.0 mg scopolamine. It is noted that a combination of cholinergic blocking and norepinephrine activation action is most effective in preventing the development of motion sickness and habituation is due to the greater exposure to vestibular simulation permitted by the drugs.

  16. Pharmacology of acute mountain sickness: old drugs and newer thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swenson, Erik R

    2016-01-15

    Pharmacotherapy in acute mountain sickness (AMS) for the past half century has largely rested on the use of carbonic anhydrase (CA) inhibitors, such as acetazolamide, and corticosteroids, such as dexamethasone. The benefits of CA inhibitors are thought to arise from their known ventilatory stimulation and resultant greater arterial oxygenation from inhibition of renal CA and generation of a mild metabolic acidosis. The benefits of corticosteroids include their broad-based anti-inflammatory and anti-edemagenic effects. What has emerged from more recent work is the strong likelihood that drugs in both classes act on other pathways and signaling beyond their classical actions to prevent and treat AMS. For the CA inhibitors, these include reduction in aquaporin-mediated transmembrane water transport, anti-oxidant actions, vasodilation, and anti-inflammatory effects. In the case of corticosteroids, these include protection against increases in vascular endothelial and blood-brain barrier permeability, suppression of inflammatory cytokines and reactive oxygen species production, and sympatholysis. The loci of action of both classes of drug include the brain, but may also involve the lung as revealed by benefits that arise with selective administration to the lungs by inhalation. Greater understanding of their pluripotent actions and sites of action in AMS may help guide development of better drugs with more selective action and fewer side effects. PMID:26294748

  17. Sleeping sickness surveillance: an essential step towards elimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattand, P; Jannin, J; Lucas, P

    2001-05-01

    In the last decades, with little or no surveillance sleeping sickness has returned to alarming levels comparable to the early twentieth century. Sixty million people are considered at risk but only 3-4 million are under surveillance, yielding some 45 000 new cases annually. It is estimated that at least 300 000-500 000 people are presently infected. Despite the almost universal presence of the vector in sub-Saharan Africa and the existence of an animal parasite reservoir, it is technically feasible to control and eliminate the disease as a public health problem. The authors describe, step-by-step, a surveillance method based on the epidemiological status of the village and using several approaches ranging from passive to active surveillance. Co-ordinated by the WHO, such surveillance has been incepted in several countries. Epidemiological data is spatially linked to the village, whose geographical co-ordinates are collected using a Global Positioning Systems (GPS). Information is transmitted to WHO through internet. Data analysis and mapping is carried out using Geographical Information System (GIS) software and thematic maps are generated to illustrate epidemiological status. Examples from Central African Republic (CAR), Cameroon and Gabon illustrate the process and mapping. PMID:11348530

  18. Effects of ascent to high altitude on human antimycobacterial immunity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Eisen

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis infection, disease and mortality are all less common at high than low altitude and ascent to high altitude was historically recommended for treatment. The immunological and mycobacterial mechanisms underlying the association between altitude and tuberculosis are unclear. We studied the effects of altitude on mycobacteria and antimycobacterial immunity.Antimycobacterial immunity was assayed in 15 healthy adults residing at low altitude before and after they ascended to 3400 meters; and in 47 long-term high-altitude residents. Antimycobacterial immunity was assessed as the extent to which participants' whole blood supported or restricted growth of genetically modified luminescent Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG mycobacteria during 96 hours incubation. We developed a simplified whole blood assay that could be used by a technician in a low-technology setting. We used this to compare mycobacterial growth in participants' whole blood versus positive-control culture broth and versus negative-control plasma.Measurements of mycobacterial luminescence predicted the number of mycobacterial colonies cultured six weeks later. At low altitude, mycobacteria grew in blood at similar rates to positive-control culture broth whereas ascent to high altitude was associated with restriction (p ≤ 0.002 of mycobacterial growth to be 4-times less than in culture broth. At low altitude, mycobacteria grew in blood 25-times more than negative-control plasma whereas ascent to high altitude was associated with restriction (p ≤ 0.01 of mycobacterial growth to be only 6-times more than in plasma. There was no evidence of differences in antimycobacterial immunity at high altitude between people who had recently ascended to high altitude versus long-term high-altitude residents.An assay of luminescent mycobacterial growth in whole blood was adapted and found to be feasible in low-resource settings. This demonstrated that ascent to or residence at high altitude was

  19. Sickness certificates in Sweden: did the new guidelines improve their quality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilsing Emma

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Long-term sickness absence is high in many Western countries. In Sweden and many other countries, decisions on entitlement to sickness benefits and return to work measures are based on information provided by physicians in sickness certificates. The quality demands, as stressed by the Swedish sick leave guidelines from 2008, included accurate sickness certificates with assessment of functioning clearly documented. This study aims to compare quality of sickness certificates between 2007 and 2009 in Östergötland County, Sweden. Quality is defined in terms of descriptions of functioning with the use of activity and participation according to WHO’s International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF, and in prescriptions of early rehabilitation. Methods During two weeks in 2007 and four weeks in 2009, all certificates had been collected upon arrival to the social insurance office in Östergötland County, Sweden. Four hundred seventy-five new certificates were included in 2007 and 501 in 2009. Prolongations of sick leave were included until the last date of sick listing. Free text on functioning was analysed deductively using the ICF framework, and placed into categories (body functions/structures, activity, participation, no description for statistical analysis. Results The majority of the certificates were issued for musculoskeletal diseases or mental disorders. Text on functioning could be classified into the components of ICF in 65% and 78% of sickness certificates issued in 2007 and 2009, respectively. Descriptions according to body components such as “sensations of pain” or “emotional functions” were given in 58% of the certificates from 2007 and in 65% from 2009. The activity component, for example “walking” or “handling stress”, was more frequent in certificates issued in 2009 compared with 2007 (33% versus 26%. Prescriptions of early rehabilitation increased from 27% in 2007 to 35

  20. Visual-Motion Cueing in Altitude and Yaw Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Walter W.; Schroeder, Jeffery; Statler, Irving C. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Research conducted using the Vertical Motion Simulator at the NASA Ames Research Center examined the contributions of platform motion and visual level-of-detail (LOD) cueing to tasks that required altitude and/or yaw control in a simulated AH-64 Apache helicopter. Within the altitude control tasks the LOD manipulation caused optical density to change across altitudes by a small, moderate, or large amount; while platform motion was either present or absent. The results from these tasks showed that both constant optical density and platform motion improved altitude awareness in an altitude repositioning task, while the presence of platform motion also led to improved performance in a vertical rate control task. The yaw control tasks had pilots'sit 4.5 ft in front of the center of rotation, thus subjecting them to both rotational and lateral motions during a yaw. The pilots were required to regulate their yaw, while the platform motion was manipulated in order to present all combinations of the resulting rotational and lateral motion components. Ratings of simulation fidelity and sensed platform motion showed that the pilots were relatively insensitive to the rotational component, but highly aware of the lateral component. Together these findings show that: 1) platform motion cues are important when speed regulation is required during altitude change; 2) platform motion contributes to the perception of movement amplitude; 3) lateral, but not rotational, motion cues are essential to the perception of vehicle yaw; and 4) LOD management yielding constant optical density across altitudes improves altitude awareness.

  1. 14 CFR 121.661 - Initial approach altitude: Flag operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Initial approach altitude: Flag operations... OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Dispatching and Flight Release Rules § 121.661 Initial approach altitude: Flag operations. When making an initial approach to a...

  2. 14 CFR 91.177 - Minimum altitudes for IFR operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum altitudes for IFR operations. 91.177 Section 91.177 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Instrument Flight Rules § 91.177 Minimum altitudes for IFR operations. (a) Operation of aircraft at...

  3. Sequencing of 50 human exomes reveals adaptation to high altitude

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yi, Xin; Liang, Yu; Huerta-Sanchez, Emilia;

    2010-01-01

    Residents of the Tibetan Plateau show heritable adaptations to extreme altitude. We sequenced 50 exomes of ethnic Tibetans, encompassing coding sequences of 92% of human genes, with an average coverage of 18x per individual. Genes showing population-specific allele frequency changes, which repres...... in genetic adaptation to high altitude....

  4. Altitude acclimatization. Citations from the International Aerospace Abstracts data base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauk, S. C.

    1980-01-01

    This bibliography of citations to the international literature covers aspects of altitude acclimatization. Included are articles concerning high altitude environments, hypoxia, heart function and hemodynamic responses, physical exercise, human tolerances and reactions, physiological responses, and oxygen consumption. This updated bibliography contains 164 citations, 35 of which are new entries to the previous edition.

  5. Exercise and Training at Altitudes: Physiological Effects and Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Cecilia Vargas Pinilla

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An increase in altitude leads to a proportional fall in the barometric pressure, and a decrease in atmospheric oxygen pressure, producing hypobaric hypoxia that affects, in different degrees, all body organs, systems and functions. The chronically reduced partial pressure of oxygen causes that individuals adapt and adjust to physiological stress. These adaptations are modulated by many factors, including the degree of hypoxia related to altitude, time of exposure, exercise intensity and individual conditions. It has been established that exposure to high altitude is an environmental stressor that elicits a response that contributes to many adjustments and adaptations that influence exercise capacity and endurance performance. These adaptations include in crease in hemoglobin concentration, ventilation, capillary density and tissue myoglobin concentration. However, a negative effect in strength and power is related to a decrease in muscle fiber size and body mass due to the decrease in the training intensity. Many researches aim at establishing how training or living at high altitudes affects performance in athletes. Training methods, such as living in high altitudes training low, and training high-living in low altitudes have been used to research the changes in the physical condition in athletes and how the physiological adaptations to hypoxia can enhanceperformance at sea level. This review analyzes the literature related to altitude training focused on how physiological adaptations to hypoxic environments influence performance, and which protocols are most frequently used to train in high altitudes.

  6. Increased resting bronchial tone in normal subjects acclimatised to altitude

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, C.; Bakewell, S; M. Miller; Hart, N; McMorrow, R; BARRY, P.; Collier, D; Watt, S; Pollard, A.

    2002-01-01

    Background: Normal subjects frequently experience troublesome respiratory symptoms when acclimatised to altitude. Bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) and full and partial flow-volume loops were measured before and after ascent to 5000 m altitude to determine if there are changes in resting bronchial tone and BHR that might explain the symptoms.

  7. Exposure to exhaled air from a sick occupant in a two-bed hospital room with mixing ventilation: effect of distance from sick occupant and air change rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolashikov, Zhecho Dimitrov; Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Georgiev, Emanuil

    2011-01-01

    Full-scale measurements were performed in a climate chamber set as a two-bed hospital room, ventilated at 3, 6 and 12 h-1. Air temperature was kept constant at 22 °C. Two breathing thermal manikins were used: a sick patient lying on one side in one bed and a doctor. A thermal dummy mimicked...... an exposed patient lying in the second bed. The doctor stood 0.55 m or 1.1 m facing the sick patient. The breathing mode of the “sick patient” was: exhalation mouth/inhalation nose. Tracer gas (R-134a) was mixed with the exhaled air. Important finding of this study is that airflow distribution...... and interaction in rooms, distance between the source and recipient, etc. may play more important role for the exposure to the air exhaled by the sick patient than the ventilation rate. Increase in ventilation may affect adversely the exposure to exhaled air and thus enhance the risk from airborne cross infection....

  8. The 2011 outbreak of African horse sickness in the African horse sickness controlled area in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John D. Grewar

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available African horse sickness (AHS is a controlled animal disease in South Africa, and as a result of the high mortality rates experienced, outbreaks in the AHS controlled area in the Western Cape Province have a significant impact on affected properties as well as on the exportation of live horses from the AHS free zone in metropolitan Cape Town. An outbreak of AHS serotype 1 occurred in the surveillance zone of the AHS controlled area of the Western Cape during the summer of 2011. The epicentre of the outbreak was the town of Mamre in the magisterial district of Malmesbury and the outbreak was confined to a defined containment zone within this area by movement control of all equids and a blanket vaccination campaign. A total of 73 cases of AHS were confirmed during this outbreak, which included four confirmed subclinical cases. The morbidity rate for the outbreak was 16%with a mortality rate of 14%and a case fatality rate of 88%. Outbreak disease surveillance relied on agent identification using polymerase chain reaction (PCR-based assays, which is novel for an AHS outbreak in South Africa. The source of this outbreak was never confirmed although it is believed to be associated with the illegal movement of an infected animal into the Mamre area. This detailed description of the outbreak provides a sound scientific basis to assist decision making in future AHS outbreaks in the AHS controlled area of South Africa and in countries where AHS is an exotic or emerging disease.

  9. Microgravity combustion experiment using high altitude balloon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Yuji

    In JAXA, microgravity experiment system using a high altitude balloon was developed , for good microgravity environment and short turn-around time. In this publication, I give an account of themicrogravity experiment system and a combustion experiment to utilize the system. The balloon operated vehicle (BOV) as a microgravity experiment system was developed from 2004 to 2009. Features of the BOV are (1) BOV has double capsule structure. Outside-capsule and inside-capsule are kept the non-contact state by 3-axis drag-free control. (2) The payload is spherical shape and itsdiameter is about 300 mm. (3) Keep 10-4 G level microgravity environment for about 30 seconds However, BOV’s payload was small, and could not mount large experiment module. In this study, inherits the results of past, we established a new experimental system called “iBOV” in order toaccommodate larger payload. Features of the iBOV are (1) Drag-free control use for only vertical direction. (2) The payload is a cylindrical shape and its size is about 300 mm in diameter and 700 mm in height. (3) Keep 10-3-10-4 G level microgravity environment for about 30 seconds We have "Observation experiment of flame propagation behavior of the droplets column" as experiment using iBOV. This experiment is a theme that was selected first for technical demonstration of iBOV. We are conducting the flame propagation mechanism elucidation study of fuel droplets array was placed at regular intervals. We conducted a microgravity experiments using TEXUS rocket ESA and drop tower. For this microgravity combustion experiment using high altitude balloon, we use the Engineering Model (EM) for TEXUS rocket experiment. The EM (This payload) consists of combustion vessel, droplets supporter, droplets generator, fuel syringe, igniter, digital camera, high-speed camera. And, This payload was improved from the EM as follows. (1) Add a control unit. (2) Add inside batteries for control unit and heater of combustion

  10. Indications of a Scarring Effect of Sickness Absence Periods in a Cohort of Higher Educated Self-Employed.

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    Liesbeth E C Wijnvoord

    Full Text Available Little is known regarding incidence and recurrence of sickness absence in self-employed. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of the number of prior episodes of sickness absence on the risk of subsequent periods of sickness absence in higher educated self-employed.In a historic register study based on the files of a Dutch private disability insurance company all sickness absence periods of 30 days or more were analysed.A total of 15,868 insured persons contributed 141,188 person years to the study. In total, 5608 periods of sickness absence occurred during follow-up. The hazard of experiencing a new period of sickness absence increased with every previous period, ranging from a hazard ratio of 2.83 in case of one previous period of sickness absence to a hazard ratio of 6.72 in case of four previous periods. This effect was found for both men and women and for all diagnostic categories of the first period of sickness absence.Our study shows that for all diagnostic categories the hazard of experiencing a recurrence of sickness absence is appreciably higher than for experiencing a first episode. This suggests that this increased hazard may be related to the occurrence of sickness absence itself rather than related to characteristics of the insured person or of the medical condition. These findings could indicate that sickness absence periods may have a scarring effect on the self-employed person experiencing the sickness absence.

  11. Harmful alcohol habits did not explain the social gradient of sickness absence in Swedish women and men

    OpenAIRE

    Ann-Charlotte M Mardby; Kristina EM Holmgren; Gunnel KE Hensing

    2013-01-01

    Background: the aim of this study was to examine the prevalence and socioeconomic distribution of harmful alcohol habits in sick-listed women and men, and whether the social gradient in sickness absence could be explained by the socioeconomic distribution of harmful alcohol habits.Methods: this cross-sectional questionnaire study included newly sick-listed individuals (n=2 798, 19-64 years, 66% women) from Sweden. The outcome variable, self-reported harmful alcohol habits, was measured with t...

  12. Sickness absence and concurrent low back and neck–shoulder pain: results from the MUSIC-Norrtälje study

    OpenAIRE

    Nyman, Teresia; Grooten, Wilhelmus Johannes Andreas; Wiktorin, Christina; Liwing, Johan; Norrman, Linda

    2006-01-01

    In Sweden, musculoskeletal disorders, in particular low back disorders (LBD) and neck–shoulder disorders (NSD) constitute by far the most common disorders, causing sick leave and early retirement. Studies that compare sickness absence in individuals with LBD and individuals with NSD are lacking. Moreover, it is likely that having concurrent complaints from the low back region and the neck–shoulder region could influence sickness absence. The purpose of the present study was to explore potenti...

  13. M.I.T./Canadian vestibular experiments on the Spacelab-1 mission. IV - Space motion sickness: Symptoms, stimuli, and predictability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oman, C. M.; Lichtenberg, B. K.; Mccoy, R. K.; Money, K. E.

    1986-01-01

    Three cases of motion sickness that occurred on Spacelab-1 are described. The relation between head movements and symptom intensity is examined. The effects of visual, tactile, and proprioceptive orientation cues on motion sickness are studied. The effectiveness of the drugs used is evaluated and it is observed that the drugs reduce the frequency of vomiting and overall discomfort. Preflight and postflight motion sickness susceptibility data are presented.

  14. Sickness absence due to otoaudiological diagnoses and risk of disability pension: a nationwide Swedish prospective cohort study.

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    Emilie Friberg

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hearing difficulties are a large public health problem. Knowledge is scarce regarding risk of disability pension among people who have been sickness absent due to these difficulties. METHODS: A cohort including all 4,687,756 individuals living in Sweden in 2005, aged 20-64, and not on disability or old-age pension, was followed through 2009. Incidence rate ratios (RR of disability pension with 95% confidence intervals (CI were estimated using Cox proportional hazard models. RESULTS: In multivariable models, individuals who had a sick-leave spell due to otoaudiological diagnoses in 2005 had a 1.52-fold (95% CI: 1.43-1.62 increased risk of being granted a disability pension compared to individuals on sick leave due to other diagnoses. Hearing and tinnitus sick-leave diagnoses were associated with risk of disability pension: RR 3.38, 95% CI: 3.04-3.75, and 3.30, 95% CI: 2.95-3.68, respectively. No association was observed between sick leave due to vertigo diagnoses and disability pension whereas otological diagnoses and no sick leave were inversely associated with risk of disability pension compared to non-otoaudiological sick-leave diagnoses. Sick leave due to otoaudiological diagnoses was positively associated with risk of disability pension due to otoaudiological diagnoses and sick leave due to a tinnitus diagnosis was also associated with risk of disability pension due to mental diagnoses. The risk of disability pension among individuals with hearing or tinnitus sick-leave diagnoses was highest in the age group 35-44. Moreover, men had a slightly higher risk. CONCLUSION: This large cohort study suggests an increased risk of disability pension among those with sickness absence due to otoaudiological diagnoses, particularly hearing and tinnitus diagnoses, compared to those with sickness absence due to non-otoaudiological diagnoses.

  15. Sickness absence in gender-equal companies A register study at organizational level

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    Öhman Ann

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The differences in sickness absence between men and women in Sweden have attracted a great deal of interest nationally in the media and among policymakers over a long period. The fact that women have much higher levels of sickness absence has been explained in various ways. These explanations are contextual and one of the theories points to the lack of gender equality as an explanation. In this study, we evaluate the impact of gender equality on health at organizational level. Gender equality is measured by an index ranking companies at organizational level; health is measured as days on sickness benefit. Methods Gender equality was measured using the Organizational Gender Gap Index or OGGI, which is constructed on the basis of six variables accessible in Swedish official registers. Each variable corresponds to a key word illustrating the interim objectives of the "National Plan for Gender Equality", implemented by the Swedish Parliament in 2006. Health is measured by a variable, days on sickness benefit, also accessible in the same registers. Results We found significant associations between company gender equality and days on sickness benefit. In gender-equal companies, the risk for days on sickness benefit was 1.7 (95% CI 1.6-1.8 higher than in gender-unequal companies. The differences were greater for men than for women: OR 1.8 (95% CI 1.7-2.0 compared to OR 1.4 (95% CI 1.3-1.5. Conclusions Even though employees at gender-equal companies had more days on sickness benefit, the differences between men and women in this measure were smaller in gender-equal companies. Gender equality appears to alter health patterns, converging the differences between men and women.

  16. Waterborne outbreak of gastroenteritis: effects on sick leaves and cost of lost workdays.

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    Jaana I Halonen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In 2007, part of a drinking water distribution system was accidentally contaminated with waste water effluent causing a gastroenteritis outbreak in a Finnish town. We examined the acute and cumulative effects of this incidence on sick leaves among public sector employees residing in the clean and contaminated areas, and the additional costs of lost workdays due to the incidence. METHODS: Daily information on sick leaves of 1789 Finnish Public Sector Study participants was obtained from employers' registers. Global Positioning System-coordinates were used for linking participants to the clean and contaminated areas. Prevalence ratios (PR for weekly sickness absences were calculated using binomial regression analysis. Calculations for the costs were based on prior studies. RESULTS: Among those living in the contaminated areas, the prevalence of participants on sick leave was 3.54 (95% confidence interval (CI 2.97-4.22 times higher on the week following the incidence compared to the reference period. Those living and working in the clean area were basically not affected, the corresponding PR for sick leaves was 1.12, 95% CI 0.73-1.73. No cumulative effects on sick leaves were observed among the exposed. The estimated additional costs of lost workdays due to the incidence were 1.8-2.1 million euros. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of sickness absences among public sector employees residing in affected areas increased shortly after drinking water distribution system was contaminated, but no long-term effects were observed. The estimated costs of lost workdays were remarkable, thus, the cost-benefits of better monitoring systems for the water distribution systems should be evaluated.

  17. Zinc prevents sickness behavior induced by lipopolysaccharides after a stress challenge in rats.

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    Thiago B Kirsten

    Full Text Available Sickness behavior is considered part of the specific beneficial adaptive behavioral and neuroimmune changes that occur in individuals in response to infectious/inflammatory processes. However, in dangerous and stressful situations, sickness behavior should be momentarily abrogated to prioritize survival behaviors, such as fight or flight. Taking this assumption into account, we experimentally induced sickness behavior in rats using lipopolysaccharides (LPS, an endotoxin that mimics infection by gram-negative bacteria, and then exposed these rats to a restraint stress challenge. Zinc has been shown to play a regulatory role in the immune and nervous systems. Therefore, the objective of this study was to examine the effects of zinc treatment on the sickness response of stress-challenged rats. We evaluated 22-kHz ultrasonic vocalizations, open-field behavior, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α, corticosterone, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF plasma levels. LPS administration induced sickness behavior in rats compared to controls, i.e., decreases in the distance traveled, average velocity, rearing frequency, self-grooming, and number of vocalizations, as well as an increase in the plasma levels of TNF-α, compared with controls after a stressor challenge. LPS also decreased BDNF expression but did not influence anxiety parameters. Zinc treatment was able to prevent sickness behavior in LPS-exposed rats after the stress challenge, restoring exploratory/motor behaviors, communication, and TNF-α levels similar to those of the control group. Thus, zinc treatment appears to be beneficial for sick animals when they are facing risky/stressful situations.

  18. School environment as predictor of teacher sick leave: data-linked prospective cohort study

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    Ervasti Jenni

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Poor indoor air quality (IAQ and psychosocial problems are common in schools worldwide, yet longitudinal research on the issue is scarce. We examined whether the level of or a change in pupil-reported school environment (IAQ, school satisfaction, and bullying predicts recorded sick leaves among teachers. Methods Changes in the school environment were assessed using pupil surveys at two time points (2001/02 and 2004/05 in 92 secondary schools in Finland. Variables indicating change were based on median values at baseline. We linked these data to individual-level records of teachers’ (n = 1678 sick leaves in 2001–02 and in 2004–05. Results Multilevel multinomial logistic regression models adjusted for baseline sick leave and covariates showed a decreased risk for short-term (one to three days sick leaves among teachers working in schools with good perceived IAQ at both times (OR = 0.6, 95% CI: 0.5-0.9, and for those with a positive change in IAQ (OR = 0.6, 95% CI: 0.4-0.9, compared to teachers in schools where IAQ was constantly poor. Negative changes in pupil school satisfaction (OR = 1.8, 95% CI: 1.1-2.8 and bullying (OR = 1.5, 95% CI: 1.0-2.3 increased the risk for short-term leaves among teachers when compared to teachers in schools where the level of satisfaction and bullying had remained stable. School environment factors were not associated with long-term sick leaves. Conclusions Good and improved IAQ are associated with decreased teacher absenteeism. While pupil-related psychosocial factors also contribute to sick leaves, no effect modification or mediation of psychosocial factors on the association between IAQ and sick leave was observed.

  19. Impact of Altitude on Power Output during Cycling Stage Racing.

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    Laura A Garvican-Lewis

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to quantify the effects of moderate-high altitude on power output, cadence, speed and heart rate during a multi-day cycling tour.Power output, heart rate, speed and cadence were collected from elite male road cyclists during maximal efforts of 5, 15, 30, 60, 240 and 600 s. The efforts were completed in a laboratory power-profile assessment, and spontaneously during a cycling race simulation near sea-level and an international cycling race at moderate-high altitude. Matched data from the laboratory power-profile and the highest maximal mean power output (MMP and corresponding speed and heart rate recorded during the cycling race simulation and cycling race at moderate-high altitude were compared using paired t-tests. Additionally, all MMP and corresponding speeds and heart rates were binned per 1000 m (3000 m according to the average altitude of each ride. Mixed linear modelling was used to compare cycling performance data from each altitude bin.Power output was similar between the laboratory power-profile and the race simulation, however MMPs for 5-600 s and 15, 60, 240 and 600 s were lower (p ≤ 0.005 during the race at altitude compared with the laboratory power-profile and race simulation, respectively. Furthermore, peak power output and all MMPs were lower (≥ 11.7%, p ≤ 0.001 while racing >3000 m compared with rides completed near sea-level. However, speed associated with MMP 60 and 240 s was greater (p < 0.001 during racing at moderate-high altitude compared with the race simulation near sea-level.A reduction in oxygen availability as altitude increases leads to attenuation of cycling power output during competition. Decrement in cycling power output at altitude does not seem to affect speed which tended to be greater at higher altitudes.

  20. Accuracy of handheld blood glucose meters at high altitude.

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    Pieter de Mol

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Due to increasing numbers of people with diabetes taking part in extreme sports (e.g., high-altitude trekking, reliable handheld blood glucose meters (BGMs are necessary. Accurate blood glucose measurement under extreme conditions is paramount for safe recreation at altitude. Prior studies reported bias in blood glucose measurements using different BGMs at high altitude. We hypothesized that glucose-oxidase based BGMs are more influenced by the lower atmospheric oxygen pressure at altitude than glucose dehydrogenase based BGMs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Glucose measurements at simulated altitude of nine BGMs (six glucose dehydrogenase and three glucose oxidase BGMs were compared to glucose measurement on a similar BGM at sea level and to a laboratory glucose reference method. Venous blood samples of four different glucose levels were used. Moreover, two glucose oxidase and two glucose dehydrogenase based BGMs were evaluated at different altitudes on Mount Kilimanjaro. Accuracy criteria were set at a bias 6.5 mmol/L and <1 mmol/L from reference glucose (when <6.5 mmol/L. No significant difference was observed between measurements at simulated altitude and sea level for either glucose oxidase based BGMs or glucose dehydrogenase based BGMs as a group phenomenon. Two GDH based BGMs did not meet set performance criteria. Most BGMs are generally overestimating true glucose concentration at high altitude. CONCLUSION: At simulated high altitude all tested BGMs, including glucose oxidase based BGMs, did not show influence of low atmospheric oxygen pressure. All BGMs, except for two GDH based BGMs, performed within predefined criteria. At true high altitude one GDH based BGM had best precision and accuracy.