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Sample records for altitude saline wetland

  1. Molecular analysis of enrichment cultures of ammonia oxidizers from the Salar de Huasco, a high altitude saline wetland in northern Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorador, Cristina; Busekow, Annika; Vila, Irma; Imhoff, Johannes F; Witzel, Karl-Paul

    2008-05-01

    We analyzed enrichment cultures of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) collected from different areas of Salar de Huasco, a high altitude, saline, pH-neutral water body in the Chilean Altiplano. Samples were inoculated into mineral media with 10 mM NH4+ at five different salt concentrations (10, 200, 400, 800 and 1,400 mM NaCl). Low diversity (up to three phylotypes per enrichment) of beta-AOB was detected using 16S rDNA and amoA clone libraries. Growth of beta-AOB was only recorded in a few enrichment cultures and varied according to site or media salinity. In total, five 16S rDNA and amoA phylotypes were found which were related to Nitrosomonas europaea/Nitrosococcus mobilis, N. marina and N. communis clusters. Phylotype 1-16S was 97% similar with N. halophila, previously isolated from Mongolian soda lakes, and phylotypes from amoA sequences were similar with yet uncultured beta-AOB from different biofilms. Sequences related to N. halophila were frequently found at all salinities. Neither gamma-AOB nor ammonia-oxidizing Archaea were recorded in these enrichment cultures. PMID:18305895

  2. Hurricane-induced failure of low salinity wetlands

    OpenAIRE

    Howes, Nick C.; FitzGerald, Duncan M.; Hughes, Zoe J.; Georgiou, Ioannis Y.; Kulp, Mark A.; Miner, Michael D.; Smith, Jane M.; Barras, John A.

    2010-01-01

    During the 2005 hurricane season, the storm surge and wave field associated with Hurricanes Katrina and Rita eroded 527 km2 of wetlands within the Louisiana coastal plain. Low salinity wetlands were preferentially eroded, while higher salinity wetlands remained robust and largely unchanged. Here we highlight geotechnical differences between the soil profiles of high and low salinity regimes, which are controlled by vegetation and result in differential erosion. In low salinity wetlands, a wea...

  3. Halophyte filters as saline treatment wetlands; Applicators and constraints

    OpenAIRE

    Gaag, J.J.; Paulissen, M. P. C. P.; Slim, P.A.

    2010-01-01

    Purification of wastewater rich in nutrients and organic pollutants is essential for the protection of receiving waters and to enable water reuse. This report investigates the possibilities and constraints of constructed wetlands for treatment of slightly saline wastewater from aquaculture systems. As the body of literature for saline treatment wetlands is relatively small, the reports starts with a summary of processes in freshwater systems. It is then explained that these processes are also...

  4. Halophyte filters as saline treatment wetlands; Applicators and constraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaag, J.J.; Paulissen, M.P.C.P.; Slim, P.A.

    2010-01-01

    Purification of wastewater rich in nutrients and organic pollutants is essential for the protection of receiving waters and to enable water reuse. This report investigates the possibilities and constraints of constructed wetlands for treatment of slightly saline wastewater from aquaculture systems.

  5. Biodiversity impacts from salinity increase in a coastal wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amores, Maria José; Verones, Francesca; Raptis, Catherine; Juraske, Ronnie; Pfister, Stephan; Stoessel, Franziska; Antón, Assumpció; Castells, Francesc; Hellweg, Stefanie

    2013-06-18

    A Life Cycle Impact Assessment method was developed to evaluate the environmental impact associated with salinity on biodiversity in a Spanish coastal wetland. The developed characterization factor consists of a fate and an effect factor and equals 3.16 × 10(-1) ± 1.84 × 10(-1) PAF · m(3) · yr · m(-3) (PAF: Potentially Affected Fraction of species) indicating a "potential loss of 0.32 m(3) ecosystem" for a water consumption rate of 1 m(3) · yr(-1). As a result of groundwater consumption with a rate of 1 m(3) · yr(-1), the PAF in the lost cubic meter of ecosystem equals 0.05, which has been proposed as the maximum tolerable effect to keep the ecosystem intact. The fate factor was calculated from seasonal water balances of the wetland Albufera de Adra. The effect factor was obtained from the fitted curve of the potentially affected fraction of native wetland species due to salinity and can be applied to other wetlands with similar species composition. In order to test the applicability of the characterization factor, an assessment of water consumption of greenhouse crops in the area was conducted as a case study. Results converted into ecosystem quality damage using the ReCiPe method were compared to other categories. While tomatoes are responsible for up to 30% of the impact of increased salinity due to water consumption on ecosystem quality in the studied area, melons have the largest impact per tonne produced. PMID:23597228

  6. [Treatment characteristics of saline domestic wastewater by constructed wetland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Feng; Yang, Zhao-Hui; Li, Chen; Jin, Wei-Hong; Deng, Yi-Bing

    2012-11-01

    A series of experiments were conducted to evaluate the feasibility of using constructed wetland (CW) to remove pollutants from saline domestic sewage. The experimental results indicated that the effects of salinity on the contaminant removal were insignificant when the influent salinities of the CWs were less than or equal to 1.5%. For the influent salinity of 0%, 0.5%, 1.0% and 1.5%, the average removal rates of the CWs were found to be above 68.3% for COD and above 66.1% for NH4(+) -N. When the influent salinity was increased to 2.0%, the individual numbers of microorganisms in the CW reduced obviously. It was similar to the change of the soil enzyme activity in the CW. Then the removal efficiency of the CW also dropped significantly. The average removal rate of COD and NH4(+) -N dropped to 52.9% and 50.3%, respectively. The effects of HRT on the treatment performance of CW under the saline condition of 1.5% were also investigated in this study. And the results showed that nitrogen removal was more greatly affected by HRT than organic matter removal. The NH4(+) -N removal efficiency in CW decreased from 65.1% -78.2% to 47.1% when the HRT of the CW varied from 3-5 d to 2 d. PMID:23323411

  7. Measuring the Condition of Saline Wetlands Threatened by Agricultural Intensification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The saline wetlands,or "saladas",of Monegros Desert,NE Spain,contain biodiversity that depends on the establishment of a prognostic monitoring system that can warn of approaching irreversible damage.In the context of a lack of existing biodiversity inventories for the saladas,we determined their state of conservation and vulnerability using seven physical indicators:escarpment continuity,cropping,stone dumping,size,water occurrence,distance to roads,and proximity to irrigated areas.These features were combined into three meaningful indexes,i.e.,conservation,current vulnerability,and future vulnerability,thus creating an assessment of the preservation or degradation of saladas in the context of encroaching agricultural irrigation projects.The proposed indexes produced consistent results and showed that a great number of the Monegros wetlands were threatened,regardless of their size or frequency of water occurrence.Only 20% of the saladas studied were classified as being in a good or very good conservation,whereas 50% were in bad or very bad shape.A high current vulnerability was found for 60% of the saiadas.For saladas located in land to be irrigated,we predicted that 73% would have a high or very high future vulnerability.Currently,58% of the saladas were in bad or very bad condition and fully 65% of the saladas,variable in size,presented a bad or very bad prognosis.Our approach provides a monitoring strategy for the conservation of saline wetlands threatened by agricultural intensification,especially irrigation.

  8. Distribution, morphology and habitats of saline wetlands: a case study from Monegros, Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Castañeda del Álamo, Carmen; Herrero Isern, Juan; Conesa, J.A.

    2013-01-01

    Wetlands in semiarid regions have received less attention than wetlands in humid-temperate areas, and the limited amount of information has resulted in little regulatory recognition. A comprehensive map of the saline wetlands that occur in karstic depressions in the semiarid region of Monegros, NE Spain, was developed from historical data, topography, and surveys of vascular flora. Playa-lakes and other saline depressions are expressions of solution dolines largely founded on grou...

  9. Bacteria isolated from pristine high altitude environments in the Argentinean Andean wetlands: plasmid profile and multiple antibiotic resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Andean wetlands, placed in the North-Western Argentine at 4,600 m altitude, are attractive for both, environmental and biotechnology studies. Most of these wetlands are completely remote and inaccessible, having a high salinity and metal contents, a wide range of daily temperature changes, and an important intensity of solar UV-B radiation. Bacteria isolated from these environments were identified by 16SrDNA sequence and resulted in Gram-positive colored bacteria. Interesting features, to our knowledge never reported so far from bacteria isolates from these pristine high altitude lake-environments, such as similar plasmids profiles and multiple antibiotic resistances are the focus of this work. At least two plasmids were found in all isolates studied by using modifications of the alkaline Iysis method. Their preliminary characterization in this work includes size, incompatibility group through PCR, genetic transference to suitable hosts by transformation and conjugation, and studies of possible relationships of them with antibiotic resistances. (author)

  10. Texture classification of vegetation cover in high altitude wetlands zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to investigate the utility of datasets composed of texture measures and other features for the classification of vegetation cover, specifically wetlands. QUEST decision tree classifier was applied to a SPOT-5 image sub-scene covering the typical wetlands area in Three River Sources region in Qinghai province, China. The dataset used for the classification comprised of: (1) spectral data and the components of principal component analysis; (2) texture measures derived from pixel basis; (3) DEM and other ancillary data covering the research area. Image textures is an important characteristic of remote sensing images; it can represent spatial variations with spectral brightness in digital numbers. When the spectral information is not enough to separate the different land covers, the texture information can be used to increase the classification accuracy. The texture measures used in this study were calculated from GLCM (Gray level Co-occurrence Matrix); eight frequently used measures were chosen to conduct the classification procedure. The results showed that variance, mean and entropy calculated by GLCM with a 9*9 size window were effective in distinguishing different vegetation types in wetlands zone. The overall accuracy of this method was 84.19% and the Kappa coefficient was 0.8261. The result indicated that the introduction of texture measures can improve the overall accuracy by 12.05% and the overall kappa coefficient by 0.1407 compared with the result using spectral and ancillary data

  11. Wetland Flow and Salinity Budgets and Elements of a Decision Support System toward Implementation of Real-Time Seasonal Wetland Salinity Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinn, N.W.T.; Ortega, R.; Rahilly, P.; Johnson, C.B.

    2011-12-17

    The project has provided science-based tools for the long-term management of salinity in drainage discharges from wetlands to the San Joaquin River. The results of the project are being used to develop best management practices (BMP) and a decision support system to assist wetland managers adjust the timing of salt loads delivered to the San Joaquin River during spring drawdown. Adaptive drainage management scheduling has the potential to improve environmental compliance with salinity objectives in the Lower San Joaquin River by reducing the frequency of violation of Vernalis salinity standards, especially in dry and critically dry years. The paired approach to project implementation whereby adaptively managed and traditional practices were monitored in a side-by-side fashion has provided a quantitative measure of the impacts of the project on the timing of salt loading to the San Joaquin River. The most significant accomplishments of the project has been the technology transfer to wetland biologists, ditch tenders and water managers within the Grasslands Ecological Area. This “learning by doing” has build local community capacity within the Grassland Water District and California Department of Fish and Game providing these institutions with new capability to assess and effectively manage salinity within their wetlands while simultaneously providing benefits to salinity management of the San Joaquin River.

  12. Inter-specific variation in salinity effects on germination in Pacific Northwest tidal wetland plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental stressors such as salinity may affect plant germination and early growth, eventually impacting the distribution and abundance of more mature individuals. In a lab study we evaluated germination sensitivity to salinity in 13 tidal wetland species found in the Pacific...

  13. Wetland Plant Guide for Assessing Habitat Impacts of Real-Time Salinity Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinn, Nigel W.T.; Feldmann, Sara A.

    2004-10-15

    This wetland plant guide was developed to aid moist soil plant identification and to assist in the mapping of waterfowl and shorebird habitat in the Grassland Water District and surrounding wetland areas. The motivation for this habitat mapping project was a concern that real-time salinity management of wetland drainage might have long-term consequences for wildfowl habitat health--changes in wetland drawdown schedules might, over the long term, lead to increased soil salinity and other conditions unfavorable to propagation of the most desirable moist soil plants. Hence, the implementation of a program to monitor annual changes in the most common moist soil plants might serve as an index of habitat health and sustainability. Our review of the current scientific and popular literature failed to identify a good, comprehensive field guide that could be used to calibrate and verify high resolution remote sensing imagery, that we had started to use to develop maps of wetland moist soil plants in the Grassland Water District. Since completing the guide it has been used to conduct ground truthing field surveys using the California Native Plant Society methodology in 2004. Results of this survey and a previous wetland plant survey in 2003 are published in a companion LBNL publication summarizing 4 years of fieldwork to advance the science of real-time wetland salinity management.

  14. Estimates of Carbon Reservoirs in High-Altitude Wetlands in the Colombian Andes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Javier Peña

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The observed increase in emission of greenhouse gases, with attendant effects on global warming, have raised interests in identifying sources and sinks of carbon in the environment. Terrestrial carbon (C sequestration involves capture of atmospheric C through photosynthesis and storage in biota, soil and wetlands. Particularly, wetland systems function primarily as long-term reservoirs for atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2 and as sources of atmospheric methane (CH4. The objective of this study was to evaluate the patterns of carbon reservoirs in two high-altitude wetlands in the central Andean mountain of Colombia. Carbon cycle in both systems is related mainly with the plant biomass dynamics from the littoral zone. Thus, total organic carbon concentrate an average up to 329 kg of N ha-1 and 125 kg of P ha-1 every year vs only 17 kg N ha-1 and 6 kg P ha-1 in the water column of the limnetic zone in the wetland, evidencing spatial differences in carbon concentrations for these types of ecosystems. Results revealed that these systems participate in the balance and sequestration of carbon in the Colombian Andes.

  15. Hydrological differentiation and spatial distribution of high altitude wetlands in a semi-arid Andean region derived from satellite data

    OpenAIRE

    Otto, M.; Scherer, D.; J. Richters

    2011-01-01

    High Altitude Wetlands of the Andes (HAWA) belong to a unique type of wetland within the semi-arid high Andean region. Knowledge about HAWA has been derived mainly from studies at single sites within different parts of the Andes at only small time scales. On the one hand, HAWA depend on water provided by glacier streams, snow melt or precipitation. On the other hand, they are suspected to influence hydrology through water retention and vegetation growth altering stream flow velocity. W...

  16. Hydrological differentiation and spatial distribution of high altitude wetlands in a semi-arid Andean region derived from satellite data

    OpenAIRE

    Otto, M.; Scherer, D.; J. Richters

    2011-01-01

    High Altitude Wetlands of the Andes (HAWA) belong to a unique type of wetland within the semi-arid high Andean region. Knowledge about HAWA has been derived mainly from studies at single sites within different parts of the Andes at only small time scales. On the one hand, HAWA depend on water provided by glacier streams, snow melt or precipitation. On the other hand, they are suspected to influence hydrology through water retention and veg...

  17. Hydrological differentiation and spatial distribution of high altitude wetlands in a semi-arid Andean region derived from satellite data

    OpenAIRE

    Otto, M.; Scherer, D.; J. Richters

    2011-01-01

    High Altitude Wetlands of the Andes (HAWA) are unique types of wetlands within the semi-arid high Andean region. Knowledge about HAWA has been derived mainly from studies at single sites within different parts of the Andes at only small time scales. On the one hand HAWA depend on water provided by glacier streams, snow melt or precipitation. On the other hand, they are suspected to influence hydrology through water retention and vegetation growth altering stream flow velocity. We derive...

  18. Evolutionary history influences the salinity preference of bacterial taxa in wetland soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ember M Morrissey

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Salinity is a major driver of bacterial community composition across the globe. Despite growing recognition that different bacterial species are present or active at different salinities, the mechanisms by which salinity structures community composition remain unclear. We tested the hypothesis that these patterns reflect ecological coherence in the salinity preferences of phylogenetic groups using a reciprocal transplant experiment of fresh- and saltwater wetlands soils. The salinity of both the origin and host environments affected community composition (16S rRNA gene sequences and activity (e.g., extracellular enzyme activity, CO2, and CH4 production. These changes in community composition and activity rates were strongly correlated, which suggests the effect of environment on function could be mediated, at least in part, by microbial community composition. Based on their distribution across treatments, each phylotype was categorized as having a salinity preference (freshwater, saltwater, or none and phylogenetic analyses revealed a significant influence of evolutionary history on these groupings. This finding was corroborated by examining the salinity preferences of high-level taxonomic groups. For instance, we found that the majority of alpha- and gamma-proteobacteria preferred saltwater, while many beta-proteobacteria prefer freshwater. Overall, our results indicate the effect of salinity on bacterial community composition results from phylogenetically-clustered salinity preferences.

  19. Hydrological regime and salinity alter the bioavailability of Cu and Zn in wetlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Speelmans, M. [Laboratory of Environmental Toxicology and Aquatic Ecology, Ghent University, J. Plateaustraat 22, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Lock, K., E-mail: koen.lock@UGent.b [Laboratory of Environmental Toxicology and Aquatic Ecology, Ghent University, J. Plateaustraat 22, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Vanthuyne, D.R.J. [Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry and Applied Ecochemistry, Ghent University, Coupure Links 653, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Hendrickx, F. [Terrestrial Ecology Unit (TEREC), Ghent University, K.L. Ledeganckstraat 35, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Du Laing, G.; Tack, F.M.G. [Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry and Applied Ecochemistry, Ghent University, Coupure Links 653, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Janssen, C.R. [Laboratory of Environmental Toxicology and Aquatic Ecology, Ghent University, J. Plateaustraat 22, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium)

    2010-05-15

    In the context of the European Water Framework Directive, controlled flooding of lowlands is considered as a potential water management strategy to minimise the risk of flooding of inhabited areas. However, due to historical pollution and overbank sedimentation, metal levels are elevated in most wetlands, which can cause adverse effects on the ecosystem's dynamics. Additionally, salinity affects the bioavailability of metals present or imported into these systems. The effect of different flooding regimes and salinity exposure scenarios (fresh- and brackish water conditions) on Cu and Zn accumulation in the oligochaete Tubifex tubifex (Mueller, 1774) was examined. Metal mobility was closely linked to redox potential, which is directly related to the prevalent hydrological regime. Flooded, and thus more reduced, conditions minimized the availability of metals, while oxidation of the substrates during a drier period was associated with a rapid increase of metal availability and accumulation in the oligochaetes. - Metal bioavailability in wetlands.

  20. Hydrological regime and salinity alter the bioavailability of Cu and Zn in wetlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the context of the European Water Framework Directive, controlled flooding of lowlands is considered as a potential water management strategy to minimise the risk of flooding of inhabited areas. However, due to historical pollution and overbank sedimentation, metal levels are elevated in most wetlands, which can cause adverse effects on the ecosystem's dynamics. Additionally, salinity affects the bioavailability of metals present or imported into these systems. The effect of different flooding regimes and salinity exposure scenarios (fresh- and brackish water conditions) on Cu and Zn accumulation in the oligochaete Tubifex tubifex (Mueller, 1774) was examined. Metal mobility was closely linked to redox potential, which is directly related to the prevalent hydrological regime. Flooded, and thus more reduced, conditions minimized the availability of metals, while oxidation of the substrates during a drier period was associated with a rapid increase of metal availability and accumulation in the oligochaetes. - Metal bioavailability in wetlands.

  1. Succession of Denitrifying Community Composition in Coastal Wetland Soils Along a Salinity Gradient

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PIAO Zhe; ZHANG Wen-Wen; MA Shuai; LI Yu-Min; YIN Shi-Xue

    2012-01-01

    To better understand the effect of salinity on denitrification communities,soils along a salinity gradient (ranging from 7.32 to 1.70 mS cm-1) in a wetland along the Yellow Sea coastline in Jiangsu Province,China,were studied using both culture-dependent and -independent methods.Culture efforts yielded 82 isolates in total,81.7% of which were close relatives of Bacillus sp.based on partial sequences of their 16S rRNA genes.Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis based on 16S rRNA sequences suggested possible existence of bacterial community succession along the salinity gradient.Clone library analysis based on nosZ gene sequences (coding nitrous oxide reductase) showed that operational taxonomic units (OTUs) associated with α-proteobacteria dominated in all three soils,whereas those associated with β-and γ-subdivisions showed a clear succession.In the high salinity soil,only the OTUs associated with α-subdivision were found.In the medium salinity soil,small proportions ofβ- (6.5%) and γ-associated (19.6%) OTUs were found.In the low salinity soil,the proportions were further increased to 33% and 25% for β- and γ-Proteobacteria,respectively.Statistic analysis using Unifrac P test showed that nosZ-communities in different saline soils were significantly different from each other.It could be concluded that α-subdivision of nosZ-community tended to be sustained in high salinity environments whereas β- and γ-subdivisions,especially the former,tended to be sustained in low salinity environments.Salinity was the key determinant of nosZ-community composition in the environment.

  2. Tidal saline wetland regeneration of sentinel vegetation types in the Northern Gulf of Mexico: An overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Scott F.; Stagg, Camille L.; Krauss, Ken W.; Hester, Mark W.

    2016-06-01

    Tidal saline wetlands in the Northern Gulf of Mexico (NGoM) are dynamic and frequently disturbed systems that provide myriad ecosystem services. For these services to be sustained, dominant macrophytes must continuously recolonize and establish after disturbance. Macrophytes accomplish this regeneration through combinations of vegetative propagation and sexual reproduction, the relative importance of which varies by species. Concurrently, tidal saline wetland systems experience both anthropogenic and natural hydrologic alterations, such as levee construction, sea-level rise, storm impacts, and restoration activities. These hydrologic alterations can affect the success of plant regeneration, leading to large-scale, variable changes in ecosystem structure and function. This review describes the specific regeneration requirements of four dominant coastal wetland macrophytes along the NGoM (Spartina alterniflora, Avicennia germinans, Juncus roemerianus, and Batis maritima) and compares them with current hydrologic alterations to provide insights into potential future changes in dominant ecosystem structure and function and to highlight knowledge gaps in the current literature that need to be addressed.

  3. Hydrological regime and salinity alter the bioavailability of Cu and Zn in wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speelmans, M; Lock, K; Vanthuyne, D R J; Hendrickx, F; Du Laing, G; Tack, F M G; Janssen, C R

    2010-05-01

    In the context of the European Water Framework Directive, controlled flooding of lowlands is considered as a potential water management strategy to minimise the risk of flooding of inhabited areas. However, due to historical pollution and overbank sedimentation, metal levels are elevated in most wetlands, which can cause adverse effects on the ecosystem's dynamics. Additionally, salinity affects the bioavailability of metals present or imported into these systems. The effect of different flooding regimes and salinity exposure scenarios (fresh- and brackish water conditions) on Cu and Zn accumulation in the oligochaete Tubifex tubifex (Müller, 1774) was examined. Metal mobility was closely linked to redox potential, which is directly related to the prevalent hydrological regime. Flooded, and thus more reduced, conditions minimized the availability of metals, while oxidation of the substrates during a drier period was associated with a rapid increase of metal availability and accumulation in the oligochaetes. PMID:19913966

  4. A compositional analysis approach to phytoplankton composition in coastal Mediterranean wetlands: Influence of salinity and nutrient availability

    OpenAIRE

    LÓPEZ-FLORES Rocio; Quintana, Xavier D.; Romami, Anna M.; Bañeras, Lluís; Ruiz-Rueda, Olaya; Compte, Jordi; Green, Andy J.; Egozcue, Juan J.

    2014-01-01

    Mediterranean wetland communities are strongly constrained by hydrological perturbations and the water flow regime. Salinity and nutrient availability have often been considered the most important variables determining changes in the phytoplankton community of coastal wetlands. Ratios between the main environmental variables often have more relevance than the absolute values of each variable; however, in most cases ratios are not suitable for use in multivariate models commonly used by limnol...

  5. Bottom-up, decision support system development : a wetland salinity management application in California's San Joaquin Valley

    OpenAIRE

    Quinn, Nigel W. T.

    2006-01-01

    Seasonally managed wetlands in the Grasslands Basin of California's San Joaquin Valley provide food and shelter for migratory wildfowl during winter months and sport for waterfowl hunters during the annual duck season. Surface water supply to these wetland contain salt which, when drained to the San Joaquin River during the annual drawdown period, negatively impacts downstream agricultural riparian water diverters. Recent environmental regulation, limiting discharges salinity to the San ...

  6. A new species of Cletocamptus Schmankewitsch, 1875 (Crustacea, Copepoda, Harpacticoida) from a high altitude saline lake in Central Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo Suarez Morales; Omar Barrera-Moreno; Jorge Ciros-Pérez

    2013-01-01

    During the analysis of littoral samples collected from a high-altitude saline crater lake in Central Mexico, several female and male specimens of harpacticoid copepods were recovered and taxonomically examined. They were found to represent an undescribed species of the canthocamptid genus Cletocamptus Schmankewitsch, 1875. The new species, C. gomezi n. sp. is described herein based on specimens of both sexes. It resembles C. stimpsoni Gómez, Fleeger, Rocha-Olivares and Foltz, 2004 from Louisi...

  7. Early life history responses of tidal wetland plants to sea-level rise and salinization in the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climate change is likely to alter the spatial distribution of abiotic gradients in estuaries, potentially increasing stress in tidal wetland plants. Using field and lab manipulations, we examined inter-specific variation in responses to elevated salinity and inundation in the Ore...

  8. Salinity influence on soil microbial respiration rate of wetland in the Yangtze River estuary through changing microbial community

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue Fei Xi; Lei Wang; Jia Jun Hu; Yu Shu Tang; Yu Hu; Xiao Hua Fu; Ying Sun

    2014-01-01

    Estuarine wetland,where freshwater mixes with salt water,comprises different regions (rivers and marine ecosystems) with significantly varying tidal salinities.Two sampling areas,ZXS and JS,were selected to investigate the effect of tidal salinity on soil respiration (SR).ZXS and JS were located in Zhongxia Shoal and Jiangyanan Shoal of Jiuduansha Wetland respectively,with similar elevation and plant species,but significantly different in salinity.The results showed that with almost identical plant biomass,the SR and soil microbial respiration (SMR) of the tidal wetland with lower salinity (JS) were significantly higher than those of the tidal wetland with higher salinity (ZXS) (p < 0.05).However,unlike SMR and SR,the difference in the soil microbial biomass (SMB) was not significant (p > 0.05) with the SMB of ZXS a little higher than that of JS.The higher SMR and SR of JS may be closely connected to the soil microbial community structures and amount of dominant bacteria.Abundant β-and γ-Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria in JS soil,which have strong heterotrophic metabolic capabilities,could be the main reason for higher SMR and SR,whereas a high number of ε-Proteobacteria in ZXS,some of which have carbon fixation ability,could be responsible for relatively lower carbon output.Path analysis indicated that soil salinity had the maximum negative total influencing coefficient with SMR among the various soil physical and chemical factors,suggesting that higher soil salinity,restricting highly heterotrophic bacteria,is the principle reason for lower SMR and SR in the ZXS.

  9. Microalgae community of the Huaytire wetland, an Andean high-altitude wetland in Peru Comunidade de microalgas do wetland Huaytire, uma área alagada de alta altitude nos Andes peruanos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gian Salazar-Torres

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available AIM: The diversity and distribution of microalgae communities in a high-altitude (3,000 to 4,500 m a.s.l Andean wetland, regionally known as bofedal, were examined to assess seasonal and spatial patterns. METHODS: Samples were taken monthly from June to December, 2008 at 13 stations in the Huaytire wetland (16° 54’ S and 70° 20’ W, covering three areas (impacted by urban land use, impacted by camelid pasture, and non-impacted and three climatologically induced periods (ice-covered, ice-melt and ice-free. RESULTS: A total of 52 genera of algae were recorded. Diatoms were the predominant group in abundance and richness. We found a significantly higher abundance during the ice-melting period, when light exposure and runoff were intermediate, in comparison to the ice-covered (low light and flushing and ice-free (high light and low runoff periods. Microalgae abundance was significantly lower in the non-impacted area compared to the sites close to the urban area and to the camelid pastures. Alpha diversity ranged from 8 to 29 genera per sample. High genera exchange was observed throughout the wetland, showing a similar floristic composition (beta diversity = 4%. CONCLUSIONS: We found that diatoms were dominant and adapted to the extreme conditions of the Andean wetland, showing higher abundance during the ice-melt period and in the livestock area. Also, taxa richness was higher in the ice-melt period and in the most-impacted areas.OBJETIVO: A diversidade e distribuição da comunidade de microalgas em uma área alagada nos Andes (3.000 a 4.500 m de altitude, regionalmente conhecido como bofedal, foram examinadas para avaliar seus padrões sazonais e espaciais. MÉTODOS: As amostras foram coletadas, mensalmente, de junho a dezembro de 2008, em 13 estações no bofedal Huaytire (16° 54’ S e 70° 20’ W, abrangendo três áreas (impactada por ação urbana, impactada por pastagem de gado camelídeo e área não impactada e três per

  10. Microalgae community of the Huaytire wetland, an Andean high-altitude wetland in Peru Comunidade de microalgas do wetland Huaytire, uma área alagada de alta altitude nos Andes peruanos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gian Salazar-Torres

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM: The diversity and distribution of microalgae communities in a high-altitude (3,000 to 4,500 m a.s.l Andean wetland, regionally known as bofedal, were examined to assess seasonal and spatial patterns. METHODS: Samples were taken monthly from June to December, 2008 at 13 stations in the Huaytire wetland (16° 54’ S and 70° 20’ W, covering three areas (impacted by urban land use, impacted by camelid pasture, and non-impacted and three climatologically induced periods (ice-covered, ice-melt and ice-free. RESULTS: A total of 52 genera of algae were recorded. Diatoms were the predominant group in abundance and richness. We found a significantly higher abundance during the ice-melting period, when light exposure and runoff were intermediate, in comparison to the ice-covered (low light and flushing and ice-free (high light and low runoff periods. Microalgae abundance was significantly lower in the non-impacted area compared to the sites close to the urban area and to the camelid pastures. Alpha diversity ranged from 8 to 29 genera per sample. High genera exchange was observed throughout the wetland, showing a similar floristic composition (beta diversity = 4%. CONCLUSIONS: We found that diatoms were dominant and adapted to the extreme conditions of the Andean wetland, showing higher abundance during the ice-melt period and in the livestock area. Also, taxa richness was higher in the ice-melt period and in the most-impacted areas.OBJETIVO: A diversidade e distribuição da comunidade de microalgas em uma área alagada nos Andes (3.000 a 4.500 m de altitude, regionalmente conhecido como bofedal, foram examinadas para avaliar seus padrões sazonais e espaciais. MÉTODOS: As amostras foram coletadas, mensalmente, de junho a dezembro de 2008, em 13 estações no bofedal Huaytire (16° 54’ S e 70° 20’ W, abrangendo três áreas (impactada por ação urbana, impactada por pastagem de gado camelídeo e área não impactada e três per

  11. Evapotranspiration and water balance of an anthropogenic coastal desert wetland: responses to fire, inflows and salinities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Edward P.; Mexicano, Lourdes; Garcia-Hernandez, Jaqueline; Nagler, Pamela L.; Gomez-Sapiens, Martha M.; Tang, Dawei; Lomeli, Marcelo A.; Ramirez-Hernandez, Jorge; Zamora-Arroyo, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    Evapotranspiration (ET) and other water balance components were estimated for Cienega de Santa Clara, an anthropogenic brackish wetland in the delta of the Colorado River in Mexico. The marsh is in the Biosphere Reserve of the Upper Gulf of California and Delta of the Colorado River, and supports a high abundance and diversity of wildlife. Over 95% of its water supply originates as agricultural drain water from the USA, sent for disposal in Mexico. This study was conducted from 2009 to 2011, before, during and after a trial run of the Yuma Desalting Plant in the USA, which will divert water from the wetland and replace it with brine from the desalting operation. The goal was to estimate the main components in the water budget to be used in creating management scenarios for this marsh. We used a remote sensing algorithm to estimate ET from meteorological data and Enhanced Vegetation Index values from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) sensors on the Terra satellite. ET estimates from the MODIS method were then compared to results from a mass balance of water and salt inflows and outflows over the study period. By both methods, mean annual ET estimates ranged from 2.6 to 3.0 mm d−1, or 50 to 60% of reference ET (ETo). Water entered at a mean salinity of 2.6 g L−1 TDS and mean salinity in the wetland was 3.73 g L−1 TDS over the 33 month study period. Over an annual cycle, 54% of inflows supported ET while the rest exited the marsh as outflows; however, in winter when ET was low, up to 90% of the inflows exited the marsh. An analysis of ET estimates over the years 2000–2011 showed that annual ET was proportional to the volume of inflows, but was also markedly stimulated by fires. Spring fires in 2006 and 2011 burned off accumulated thatch, resulting in vigorous growth of new leaves and a 30% increase in peak summer ET compared to non-fire years. Following fires, peak summer ET estimates were equal to ETo, while in non-fire years peak ET was

  12. Estimates of Carbon Reservoirs in High-Altitude Wetlands in the Colombian Andes

    OpenAIRE

    Enrique Javier Peña; Harrison Sandoval; Orlando Zuñiga; Alba Marina Torres

    2009-01-01

    The observed increase in emission of greenhouse gases, with attendant effects on global warming, have raised interests in identifying sources and sinks of carbon in the environment. Terrestrial carbon (C) sequestration involves capture of atmospheric C through photosynthesis and storage in biota, soil and wetlands. Particularly, wetland systems function primarily as long-term reservoirs for atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) and as sources of atmospheric methane (CH4). The objective of this stu...

  13. Restoration and Rational Use of Degraded Saline Reed Wetlands:A Case Study in Western Songnen Plain, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEN Bolong; LIU Xingtu; LI Xiujun; YANG Fuyi; LI Xiaoyu

    2012-01-01

    The protection,restoration and sustainable use are key issues of all the wetlands worldwide.Ecological,agronomic,and engineering techniques have been integrated in the development of a structurally sound,ecologically beneficial engineering restoration method for restoring and utilizing a degraded saline wetland in the western Songnen Plain of China.Hydrological restoration was performed by developing a system of biannual irrigation and drainage using civil engineering measures to bring wetlands into contact with river water and improve the irrigation and drainage system in the wetlands.Agronomic measures such as plowing the reed fields,reed rhizome transplantation,and fertilization were used to restore the reed vegetation.Biological measures,including the release of crab and fish fry and natural proliferation,were used to restore the aquatic communities.The results of the restoration were clear and positive.By the year 2009,the reed yield had increased by 20.9 times.Remarkable ecological benefits occurred simultaneously.Vegetation primary-production capacity increased,local climate regulation and water purification enhanced,and biodiversity increased.This demonstration of engineering techniques illustrates the basic route for the restoration of degraded wetlands,that the biodiversity should be reconstructed by the comprehensive application of engineering,biological,and agronomic measures based on habitat restoration under the guidance of process-oriented strategies.The complex ecological system including reeds,fish and crabs is based on the biological principles of coexistence and material recycling and provides a reasonable ecological engineering model suitable for the sustainable utilization of degraded saline reed wetlands.

  14. Toxicity of high salinity tannery wastewater and effects on constructed wetland plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calheiros, Cristina S C; Silva, Gabriela; Quitério, Paula V B; Crispim, Luís F C; Brix, Hans; Moura, Sandra C; Castro, Paula M L

    2012-08-01

    The toxicity of high salinity tannery wastewater produced after an activated sludge secondary treatment on the germination and seedling growth of Trifolium pratense, a species used as indicator in toxicity tests, was evaluated. Growth was inhibited by wastewater concentrations >25% and undiluted effluent caused a complete germination inhibition. Constructed wetlands (CWs) with Arundo donax or Sarcocornia fruticosa were envisaged to further polish this wastewater. Selection of plant species to use in CWs for industrial wastewater treatment is an important issue, since for a successful establishment they have to tolerate the often harsh wastewater composition. For that, the effects of this wastewater on the growth of Arundo and Sarcocornia were assessed in pot assays. Plants were subject to different wastewater contents (0/50/100%), and both were resilient to the imposed conditions. Arundo had higher growth rates and biomass than Sarcocornia and may therefore be the preferred species for use in CWs treating tannery wastewater. CWs planted with the above mentioned plants significantly decreased the toxicity of the wastewater, as effluent from the CWs outlet stimulated the growth of Trifolium at concentrations effluent. PMID:22908635

  15. The effect of increasing salinity and forest mortality on soil nitrogen and phosphorus mineralization in tidal freshwater forested wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noe, Gregory B.; Krauss, Ken W.; Lockaby, B. Graeme; Conner, William H.; Hupp, Cliff R.

    2013-01-01

    Tidal freshwater wetlands are sensitive to sea level rise and increased salinity, although little information is known about the impact of salinification on nutrient biogeochemistry in tidal freshwater forested wetlands. We quantified soil nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) mineralization using seasonal in situ incubations of modified resin cores along spatial gradients of chronic salinification (from continuously freshwater tidal forest to salt impacted tidal forest to oligohaline marsh) and in hummocks and hollows of the continuously freshwater tidal forest along the blackwater Waccamaw River and alluvial Savannah River. Salinification increased rates of net N and P mineralization fluxes and turnover in tidal freshwater forested wetland soils, most likely through tree stress and senescence (for N) and conversion to oligohaline marsh (for P). Stimulation of N and P mineralization by chronic salinification was apparently unrelated to inputs of sulfate (for N and P) or direct effects of increased soil conductivity (for N). In addition, the tidal wetland soils of the alluvial river mineralized more P relative to N than the blackwater river. Finally, hummocks had much greater nitrification fluxes than hollows at the continuously freshwater tidal forested wetland sites. These findings add to knowledge of the responses of tidal freshwater ecosystems to sea level rise and salinification that is necessary to predict the consequences of state changes in coastal ecosystem structure and function due to global change, including potential impacts on estuarine eutrophication.

  16. A new species of Cletocamptus Schmankewitsch, 1875 (Crustacea, Copepoda, Harpacticoida from a high altitude saline lake in Central Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Suarez Morales

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available During the analysis of littoral samples collected from a high-altitude saline crater lake in Central Mexico, several female and male specimens of harpacticoid copepods were recovered and taxonomically examined. They were found to represent an undescribed species of the canthocamptid genus Cletocamptus Schmankewitsch, 1875. The new species, C. gomezi n. sp. is described herein based on specimens of both sexes. It resembles C. stimpsoni Gómez, Fleeger, Rocha-Olivares and Foltz, 2004 from Louisiana but also C. trichotus Kiefer, 1929. The new species differs from C. stimpsoni and from other congeners by details of the maxillular armature, the setation of the endopodal segments of legs 2 and 3, and the armature of the third exopodal segment of legs 3 and 4. Also, the dorsal (VII and the outer (IV caudal setae are both relatively shorter than in C. stimpsoni. This is the second species of the genus known to be distributed in Mexico. The occurrence of the new species in a high-altitude saline lake, the isolation of the type locality, and its absence from adjacent freshwater lakes suggest that this species is endemic to this site.

  17. Preliminary characterization of microbial communities in high altitude wetlands of northwestern Argentina by determining terminal restriction fragment length polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrero, Marcela; Farías, María E; Siñeriz, Faustino

    2004-01-01

    Laguna de Pozuelos is an extensive wetland in Morthwestern Argentina at 3,600 m above sea level in the Argentinean Andes. The principal lake, placed in the central depression of endorheic basin, is rich in minerals like Cu, As, Fe, etc. It collects water from underground courses and from two main tributaries, namely Santa Catalina River to the north and Cincel River to the south. Following the dry and rainy seasons, the surface of the lake is subject to an annual contraction-expansion cycle, with increasing of salinity during evaporation period. Prokaryotes inhabitants these particular environments have been not described and a few of such places have been surveyed for microbial diversity studies. To systematically explore the underlying communities of Bacteria from the water lake of Laguna de Pozuelos wetland and Cincel River, bacterial 16S rRNA genes (rDNAs) were PCR amplified and analyzed by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis. Analysis of the microbial community with T-RFLP identified a minimum of 19 operational taxonomic units (OTU). T-RF patterns derived from multiple-enzyme digestion with RsaI, HaeIII and HhaI were analyzed in order to provide a preliminary picture of the relative diversity of this complex microbial community. By the combined use of the three restriction endonucleases bacterial populations of this particular place were identified. PMID:17061526

  18. Spatial patterns in soil biogeochemical process rates along a Louisiana wetland salinity gradient in the Barataria Bay estuarine system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, B. J.; Rich, M. W.; Sullivan, H. L.; Bledsoe, R.; Dawson, M.; Donnelly, B.; Marton, J. M.

    2014-12-01

    Louisiana has the highest rates of coastal wetland loss in the United States. In addition to being lost, Louisiana wetlands experience numerous other environmental stressors including changes in salinity regime (both increases from salt water intrusion and decreases from the creation of river diversions) and climate change induced changes in vegetation (e.g. the northward expansion of Avicennia germinans (black mangrove) into salt marshes). In this study, we examined how these changes might influence biogeochemical process rates important in regulating carbon balance and the cycling, retention, and removal of nutrients in Louisiana wetlands. Specifically, we measured net soil greenhouse gas fluxes and collected cores for the determination of rates of greenhouse gas production, denitrification potential, nitrification potential, iron reduction, and phosphorus sorption from surface (0-5cm) and subsurface (10-15cm) depths for three plots in each of 4 sites along the salinity gradient: a freshwater marsh site, a brackish (7 ppt) marsh site, a salt marsh (17 ppt), and a Avicennia germinans stand (17 ppt; adjacent to salt marsh site) in the Barataria Bay estuarine system. Most biogeochemical processes displayed similar spatial patterns with salt marsh rates being lower than rates in freshwater and/or brackish marsh sites and not having significantly different rates than in Avicennia germinans stands. Rates in surface soils were generally higher than in subsurface soils. These patterns were generally consistent with spatial patterns in soil properties with soil water content, organic matter quantity and quality, and extractable nutrients generally being higher in freshwater and brackish marsh sites than salt marsh and Avicennia germinans sites, especially in surface soils. These spatial patterns suggest that the ability of coastal wetlands to retain and remove nutrients might change significantly in response to future climate changes in the region and that these

  19. A compositional analysis approach to phytoplankton composition in coastal Mediterranean wetlands: Influence of salinity and nutrient availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Flores, Rocío; Quintana, Xavier D.; Romaní, Anna M.; Bañeras, Lluís; Ruiz-Rueda, Olaya; Compte, Jordi; Green, Andy J.; Egozcue, Juan J.

    2014-01-01

    Mediterranean wetland communities are strongly constrained by hydrological perturbations and the water flow regime. Salinity and nutrient availability have often been considered the most important variables determining changes in the phytoplankton community of coastal wetlands. Ratios between the main environmental variables often have more relevance than the absolute values of each variable; however, in most cases ratios are not suitable for use in multivariate models commonly used by limnologists. The main objective of the present work was to identify the main variables or variable ratios that are the driving forces of the major phytoplankton taxonomic groups in Mediterranean coastal wetlands, using compositional data analysis techniques (CoDa). With this aim, eleven shallow wetlands (6 in Empordà, 5 in Doñana, NE and SW of Spain respectively) were sampled in winter and spring 2007. Two approaches were used: the first one using raw data and the second one using CoDa techniques to transform data. Our results show that differences in hydrological patterns led to three main community assemblages, ranging from communities dominated by typical marine taxa (diatoms and dinoflagellates) when the marine influence was high, to communities dominated by cyanobacteria during confinement and when inorganic nitrogen was scarce. In freshwaters with a high turnover rate, the community was dominated by opportunistic chlorophytes and cryptophytes that need inorganic nitrogen availability. When the raw data and CoDa approaches were compared, the CoDa approach permitted a better ecological interpretation of the phytoplankton community and the main ecological processes. Salinity was the main environmental determinant with both approaches, while the second CoDa RDA axis was related with the balance between the peptidase and phosphatase enzyme activities, confirming the relevance of nutrient retrieval processes in determining phytoplankton composition. We recommend the use of Co

  20. Diversity of Bacteroidetes in high-altitude saline evaporitic basins in northern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorador, Cristina; Meneses, Daniela; Urtuvia, Viviana; Demergasso, Cecilia; Vila, Irma; Witzel, Karl-Paul; Imhoff, Johannes F.

    2009-06-01

    The phylum Bacteroidetes represents one of the most abundant bacterial groups of marine and freshwater bacterioplankton. We investigated the diversity of Bacteroidetes in water and sediment samples from three evaporitic basins located in the highlands of northern Chile. We used both 16S rRNA gene clone libraries created with targeted Bacteroidetes-specific primers and separation of specifically amplified gene fragments by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). DGGE analysis revealed a reduced richness of these organisms in samples from Salar de Huasco (two to four DGGE bands) increasing in Salar de Ascotán (two to seven DGGE bands) and Laguna Tebenquiche at Salar de Atacama (four to eight DGGE bands). Cluster analysis (WPGMA) of DGGE bands showed that bands from Salar de Huasco and Salar de Ascotán grouped together and samples from Salar de Atacama formed separate clusters in water and sediment samples, reflecting different Bacteroidetes communities between sites. Most of the sequences analyzed belonged to the family Flavobacteriaceae and clustered with the genera Psychroflexus, Gillisia, Maribacter, Muricauda, Flavobacterium, and Salegentibacter. The most abundant phylotype was highly related to Psychroflexus spp. and was recovered from all three study sites. The similarity of the analyzed sequences with their closest relatives in GenBank was typically Culture efforts will be necessary to get a better description of the diversity of this group in saline evaporitic basins of northern Chile.

  1. Stable isotopes as indicators of water and salinity sources in a southeast Australian coastal wetland: identifying relict marine water, and implications for future change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currell, Matthew J.; Dahlhaus, Peter; , Hiroyuki, Ii

    2015-03-01

    The Lake Connewarre Complex is an internationally protected wetland in southeast Australia, undergoing increasing environmental change due to urbanisation. Stable isotopes of water (δ18O and δ2H) and other geochemical indicators were used to assess sources of water and salinity in the shallow groundwater and surface-water systems, and to better understand groundwater/surface-water interactions. While much of the shallow groundwater is saline (from 1.27 to 50.3 g/L TDS) with overlapping salinities across water groups, stable isotopes allow clear delineation of two distinct sources of water and salinity: marine water with δ18O between -1.4 and +1.3 ‰ and ion ratios characteristic of seawater; and meteoric water with δ18O between -6.1 and -3.6 ‰ containing cyclic salts, probably concentrated by plant transpiration. Groundwater bodies in shallow sediments beneath the wetlands have salinities and stable isotopic compositions intermediate between fresh wetland surface water and a marine water end-member. This marine-type water is likely relict seawater emplaced when the wetlands were connected to the estuary, prior to modern river regulation. Freshwater input to underlying groundwater is a recent consequence of this regulation. Future predicted changes such as increased stormwater inflow, will increase rates of freshwater leakage to shallow groundwater, favouring the proliferation of exotic reed species.

  2. Hydrological differentiation and spatial distribution of high altitude wetlands in a semi-arid Andean region derived from satellite data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Otto

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available High Altitude Wetlands of the Andes (HAWA are unique types of wetlands within the semi-arid high Andean region. Knowledge about HAWA has been derived mainly from studies at single sites within different parts of the Andes at only small time scales. On the one hand HAWA depend on water provided by glacier streams, snow melt or precipitation. On the other hand, they are suspected to influence hydrology through water retention and vegetation growth altering stream flow velocity. We derived HAWA land cover from satellite data at regional scale and analysed changes in connection with precipitation over the last decade. Perennial and temporal HAWA subtypes can be distinguished by seasonal changes of photosynthetically active vegetation (PAV indicating the perennial or temporal availability of water during the year. HAWA have been delineated within a region of 11 000 km2 situated in the Northwest of Lake Titicaca. The multi temporal classification method used Normalized Differenced Vegetation Index (NDVI and Normalized Differenced Infrared Index (NDII data derived from two Landsat ETM+ scenes at the end of austral winter (September 2000 and at the end of austral summer (May 2001. The mapping result indicates an unexpected high abundance of HAWA covering about 800 km2 of the study region (6%. Annual HAWA mapping was computed using NDVI 16-day composites of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS. Analyses on the reletation between HAWA and precipitation was based on monthly precipitation data of the Tropical Rain Measurement Mission (TRMM 3B43 and MODIS Eight Day Maximum Snow Extent data (MOD10A2 from 2000 to 2010. We found HAWA subtype specific dependencies to precipitation conditions. Strong relation exists between perennial HAWA and snow fall (r2: 0.82 in dry austral winter months (June to August and between temporal HAWA and precipitation (r2: 0.75 during austral summer (March to

  3. Hydrological differentiation and spatial distribution of high altitude wetlands in a semi-arid Andean region derived from satellite data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Otto

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available High Altitude Wetlands of the Andes (HAWA belong to a unique type of wetland within the semi-arid high Andean region. Knowledge about HAWA has been derived mainly from studies at single sites within different parts of the Andes at only small time scales. On the one hand, HAWA depend on water provided by glacier streams, snow melt or precipitation. On the other hand, they are suspected to influence hydrology through water retention and vegetation growth altering stream flow velocity. We derived HAWA land cover from satellite data at regional scale and analysed changes in connection with precipitation over the last decade. Perennial and temporal HAWA subtypes can be distinguished by seasonal changes of photosynthetically active vegetation (PAV indicating the perennial or temporal availability of water during the year. HAWA have been delineated within a region of 12 800 km2 situated in the Northwest of Lake Titicaca. The multi-temporal classification method used Normalized Differenced Vegetation Index (NDVI and Normalized Differenced Infrared Index (NDII data derived from two Landsat ETM+ scenes at the end of austral winter (September 2000 and at the end of austral summer (May 2001. The mapping result indicates an unexpected high abundance of HAWA covering about 800 km2 of the study region (6 %. Annual HAWA mapping was computed using NDVI 16-day composites of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS. Analyses on the relation between HAWA and precipitation was based on monthly precipitation data of the Tropical Rain Measurement Mission (TRMM 3B43 and MODIS Eight Day Maximum Snow Extent data (MOD10A2 from 2000 to 2010. We found HAWA subtype specific dependencies on precipitation conditions. A strong relation exists between perennial HAWA and snow fall (r2: 0.82 in dry austral winter months (June to August and between temporal HAWA and precipitation (r2: 0.75 during austral summer

  4. Incorporating future change into current conservation planning: Evaluating tidal saline wetland migration along the U.S. Gulf of Mexico coast under alternative sea-level rise and urbanization scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enwright, Nicholas M.; Griffith, Kereen T.; Osland, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, quantified the potential for landward migration of tidal saline wetlands along the U.S. Gulf of Mexico coast under alternative future sea-level rise and urbanization scenarios. Our analyses focused exclusively on tidal saline wetlands (that is, mangrove forests, salt marshes, and salt flats), and we combined these diverse tidal saline wetland ecosystems into a single grouping, “tidal saline wetland.” Collectively, our approach and findings can provide useful information for scientists and environmental planners working to develop future-focused adaptation strategies for conserving coastal landscapes and the ecosystem goods and services provided by tidal saline wetlands. The primary product of this work is a public dataset that identifies locations where landward migration of tidal saline wetlands is expected to occur under alternative future sea-level rise and urbanization scenarios. In addition to identifying areas where landward migration of tidal saline wetlands is possible because of the absence of barriers, these data also identify locations where landward migration of these wetlands could be prevented by barriers associated with current urbanization, future urbanization, and levees.

  5. Analysis and Mapping of the Spectral Characteristics of Fractional Green Cover in Saline Wetlands (NE Spain Using Field and Remote Sensing Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Domínguez-Beisiegel

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Inland saline wetlands are complex systems undergoing continuous changes in moisture and salinity and are especially vulnerable to human pressures. Remote sensing is helpful to identify vegetation change in semi-arid wetlands and to assess wetland degradation. Remote sensing-based monitoring requires identification of the spectral characteristics of soils and vegetation and their correspondence with the vegetation cover and soil conditions. We studied the spectral characteristics of soils and vegetation of saline wetlands in Monegros, NE Spain, through field and satellite images. Radiometric and complementary field measurements in two field surveys in 2007 and 2008 were collected in selected sites deemed as representative of different soil moisture, soil color, type of vegetation, and density. Despite the high local variability, we identified good relationships between field spectral data and Quickbird images. A methodology was established for mapping the fraction of vegetation cover in Monegros and other semi-arid areas. Estimating vegetation cover in arid wetlands is conditioned by the soil background and by the occurrence of dry and senescent vegetation accompanying the green component of perennial salt-tolerant plants. Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI was appropriate to map the distribution of the vegetation cover if the green and yellow-green parts of the plants are considered.

  6. Constructed Wetlands for freshwater and saline aquaculture wastewater treatment: a microcosm experience

    OpenAIRE

    Jesus, J. M.; Borges, M. T.; Calheiros, Cristina S. C.; Castro, Paula M. L.

    2012-01-01

    Poster presentation published at page 185 The aquaculture industry discharges large volumes of nutrient rich wastewater, contributing to eutrophication events. Recent culture intensification methodologies such as recirculation (RAS) and shallow raceway (SRS) systems discharge wastewater with even higher nutrient concentrations, though at lower volumes (Rana et al., 2005). Hence, efluent treatment options are of vital importance. Constructed wetlands (CWs) are a possible but ...

  7. Recent Trends in Satellite Vegetation Index Observations Indicate Decreasing Vegetation Biomass in the Southeastern Saline Everglades Wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, D. O.

    2013-12-01

    We analyzed trends in time series of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) from multitemporal satellite imagery for 2001-2010 over the southeastern Everglades where major changes in vegetation structure and type have been associated with sea-level rise and reduced freshwater flow since the 1940s. Non-parametric trend analysis using the Theil-Sen slope revealed that 84.4% of statistically significant trends in NDVI were negative, mainly concentrated in scrub mangrove, sawgrass (Cladium jamaicense) and spike rush (Eleocharis cellulosa) communities within 5 km of the shoreline. Observed trends were consistent with trends in sawgrass biomass measurements made from 1999-2010 in three Long-term Ecological Research (LTER) sites within our study area. A map of significant trends overlaid on a RapidEye high-resolution satellite image showed large patches of negative trends parallel to the shoreline in and around the 'white zone,' which corresponds to a low-productivity band that has moved inland over the past 70 years. Significantly positive trends were observed mainly in the halophytic prairie community where highly salt tolerant species are typically found. Taken as a whole, the results suggest that increased saline intrusion associated with sea-level rise continues to reduce the photosynthetic biomass within freshwater and oligohaline marsh communities of the southeastern Everglades. Trends in 2001-2010 NDVI in southern saline Everglades wetlands of South Florida. a) slope values; b) areas of significant slope; c) location of the study area.

  8. Ecological, biogeochemical and salinity changes in coastal lakes and wetlands over the last 200 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Lucy; Holmes, Jonathan; Horne, David

    2016-04-01

    Shallow lakes provide extensive ecosystem services and are ecologically important aquatic resources supporting a diverse flora and fauna. In marginal-marine areas, where such lakes are subjected to the multiple pressures of coastal erosion, sea level rise, increasing sea surface temperature and increasing frequency and intensity of storm surges, environments are complex and unstable. They are characterised by physico-chemical variations due to climatic (precipitation/evaporation cycles) and dynamic factors (tides, currents, freshwater drainage and sea level changes). Combined with human activity in the catchment these processes can alter the salinity, habitat and ecology of coastal fresh- to brackish water ecosystems. In this study the chemical and biological stability of coastal lakes forming the Upper Thurne catchment in the NE of the Norfolk Broads, East Anglia, UK are seriously threatened by long-term changes in salinity resulting from storm surges, complex hydrogeology and anthropogenic activity in the catchment. Future management decisions depend on a sound understanding of the potential ecological impacts, but such understanding is limited by short-term observations and measurements. This research uses palaeolimnological approaches, which can be validated and calibrated with historical records, to reconstruct changes in the aquatic environment on a longer time scale than can be achieved by observations alone. Here, salinity is quantitatively reconstructed using the trace-element geochemistry (Sr/Ca and Mg/Ca) of low Mg-calcite shells of Ostracoda (microscopic bivalved crustaceans) and macrophyte and macroinvertebrate macrofossil remains are used as a proxy to assess ecological change in response to variations in salinity. δ13C values of Cladocera (which are potentially outcompeted by the mysid Neomysis integer with increasing salinity and eutrophication) can be used to reconstruct carbon cycling and energy pathways in lake food webs, which alongside

  9. Periodicity in stem growth and litterfall in tidal freshwater forested wetlands: influence of salinity and drought on nitrogen recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cormier, Nicole; Krauss, Ken W.; Conner, William H.

    2013-01-01

    Many tidally influenced freshwater forested wetlands (tidal swamps) along the south Atlantic coast of the USA are currently undergoing dieback and decline. Salinity often drives conversion of tidal swamps to marsh, especially under conditions of regional drought. During this change, alterations in nitrogen (N) uptake from dominant vegetation or timing of N recycling from the canopy during annual litter senescence may help to facilitate marsh encroachment by providing for greater bioavailable N with small increases in salinity. To monitor these changes along with shifts in stand productivity, we established sites along two tidal swamp landscape transects on the lower reaches of the Waccamaw River (South Carolina) and Savannah River (Georgia) representing freshwater (≤0.1 psu), low oligohaline (1.1–1.6 psu), and high oligohaline (2.6–4.1 psu) stands; the latter stands have active marsh encroachment. Aboveground tree productivity was monitored on all sites through monthly litterfall collection and dendrometer band measurements from 2005 to 2009. Litterfall samples were pooled by season and analyzed for total N and carbon (C). On average between the two rivers, freshwater, low oligohaline, and high oligohaline tidal swamps returned 8,126, 3,831, and 1,471 mg N m−2 year−1, respectively, to the forest floor through litterfall, with differences related to total litterfall volume rather than foliar N concentrations. High oligohaline sites were most inconsistent in patterns of foliar N concentrations and N loading from the canopy. Leaf N content generally decreased and foliar C/N generally increased with salinization (excepting one site), with all sites being fairly inefficient in resorbing N from leaves prior to senescence. Stands with higher salinity also had greater flood frequency and duration, lower basal area increments, lower tree densities, higher numbers of dead or dying trees, and much reduced leaf litter fall (103 vs. 624 g m−2 year−1) over the

  10. Toxicity of high salinity tannery wastewater and effects on constructed wetland plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calheirosa, C.S.C.; Silva, G.; Quitério, P.V.B.;

    2012-01-01

    The toxicity of high salinity tannery wastewater produced after an activated sludge secondary treatment on the germination and seedling growth of Trifolium pratense, a species used as indicator in toxicity tests, was evaluated. Growth was inhibited by wastewater concentrations >25% and undiluted ...

  11. ‘Halophyte filters’: the potential of constructed wetlands for application in saline aquaculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lange, de H.J.; Paulissen, M.P.C.P.; Slim, P.A.

    2013-01-01

    World consumption of seafood continues to rise, but the seas and oceans are already overexploited. Land-based (saline) aquaculture may offer a sustainable way to meet the growing demand for fish and shellfish. A major problem of aquaculture is nutrient waste, as most of the nutrients added through f

  12. Soil seed banks and their germination responses to cadmium and salinity stresses in coastal wetlands affected by reclamation and urbanization based on indoor and outdoor experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A higher germination rate of soil seed bank was observed in the indoor experiment. • The outdoor experiment showed larger number and destiny of germinated seedlings. • Urbanization had greater impacts on soil seed banks than wetland reclamation. • Soil seed banks for wetland restoration were more suitable in the reclaimed region. • Suitable salt or Cd levels could activate seedling emergence in the soil seed bank. - Abstract: Indoor and outdoor seedling emergence experiments were conducted to thoroughly investigate germination patterns as affected by reclamation and urbanization, the ecological characteristics of soil seed banks, and their relationships with environmental factors in both urbanized and reclaimed regions of the Pearl River Delta in coastal wetlands. The germination rate of the soil seed bank was higher in the indoor experiment compared with that in the outdoor experiment, whereas the number and destiny of the germinated seedlings were greater in the outdoor experiment. The species diversity and number, as well as the richness and evenness indices, were higher in the urbanized region compared with the reclaimed region. However, the dominance and Sørensen similarity indices were greater in the reclaimed region compared with those indices in the urbanized region. Higher salinity and Cadmium (Cd) levels could inhibit seed germination; however, their suitable ranges (i.e. [0–2000 mg kg−1] for salinity and [0–4.0 mg kg−1] for available Cd) can activate seedling emergence, and more seedlings germinated under the intersectional levels at 0.34 mg kg−1 available Cd and 778.6 mg kg−1 salinity. Seawater intrusion caused by the sea level rise will possibly result in the salt-tolerant community in this area due to increasing salinity

  13. Soil seed banks and their germination responses to cadmium and salinity stresses in coastal wetlands affected by reclamation and urbanization based on indoor and outdoor experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, Junhong, E-mail: junhongbai@163.com; Huang, Laibin, E-mail: seahuanglaibin@gmail.com; Gao, Zhaoqin; Lu, Qiongqiong; Wang, Junjing; Zhao, Qingqing

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • A higher germination rate of soil seed bank was observed in the indoor experiment. • The outdoor experiment showed larger number and destiny of germinated seedlings. • Urbanization had greater impacts on soil seed banks than wetland reclamation. • Soil seed banks for wetland restoration were more suitable in the reclaimed region. • Suitable salt or Cd levels could activate seedling emergence in the soil seed bank. - Abstract: Indoor and outdoor seedling emergence experiments were conducted to thoroughly investigate germination patterns as affected by reclamation and urbanization, the ecological characteristics of soil seed banks, and their relationships with environmental factors in both urbanized and reclaimed regions of the Pearl River Delta in coastal wetlands. The germination rate of the soil seed bank was higher in the indoor experiment compared with that in the outdoor experiment, whereas the number and destiny of the germinated seedlings were greater in the outdoor experiment. The species diversity and number, as well as the richness and evenness indices, were higher in the urbanized region compared with the reclaimed region. However, the dominance and Sørensen similarity indices were greater in the reclaimed region compared with those indices in the urbanized region. Higher salinity and Cadmium (Cd) levels could inhibit seed germination; however, their suitable ranges (i.e. [0–2000 mg kg{sup −1}] for salinity and [0–4.0 mg kg{sup −1}] for available Cd) can activate seedling emergence, and more seedlings germinated under the intersectional levels at 0.34 mg kg{sup −1} available Cd and 778.6 mg kg{sup −1} salinity. Seawater intrusion caused by the sea level rise will possibly result in the salt-tolerant community in this area due to increasing salinity.

  14. Groundwater dynamic, temperature and salinity response to the tide in Patagonian marshes: Observations on a coastal wetland in San José Gulf, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, María del Pilar; Carol, Eleonora; Hernández, Mario A.; Bouza, Pablo J.

    2015-10-01

    The processes regulating the relationship between tidal flows and shallow groundwater dynamics, temperature and salinity in a coastal wetland in an arid climate are analysed in a detailed field study carried out in the marsh located at Playa Fracasso (Argentina). The continuous records of groundwater level, temperature and electrical conductivity from a transect perpendicular to the coastline were studied during a period ranging from summer to winter, together with the information obtained in hydrogeomorphological field surveys and soil profiles. An assessment of the processes conditioning marsh hydrology was carried out contemplating seasonal (summer-winter) and periodical variations caused by tidal flows. The study showed that the dynamics of groundwater in relation to tidal flows depends almost exclusively on the infiltration of tidal water when the marsh is flooded during spring tides (syzygy), with an increase in the groundwater discharge level at the onset of syzygy. The differences in temperature between sea and continental water were very useful in defining the origin of the different contributions. Groundwater salinity is mainly associated with the leaching of the soil salts that enter with the sea water infiltrating during flood events. The presence of saline soils in the marsh is regulated by the evapotranspiration predominating in arid zones. The conceptual hydrological model suggested may help in the understanding of the hydrological processes in other similar marshes of Patagonia, as well as in coastal wetlands of arid zones worldwide.

  15. Salinity and nutrient contents of tidal water affects soil respiration and carbon sequestration of high and low tidal flats of Jiuduansha wetlands in different ways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yu; Wang, Lei; Fu, Xiaohua; Yan, Jianfang; Wu, Jihua; Tsang, Yiufai; Le, Yiquan; Sun, Ying

    2016-09-15

    Soils were collected from low tidal flats and high tidal flats of Shang shoal located upstream and Xia shoal located downstream with different tidal water qualities, in the Jiuduansha wetland of the Yangtze River estuary. Soil respiration (SR) in situ and soil abiotic and microbial characteristics were studied to clarify the respective differences in the effects of tidal water salinity and nutrient levels on SR and soil carbon sequestration in low and high tidal flats. In low tidal flats, higher total nitrogen (TN) and lower salinity in the tidal water of Shang shoal resulted in higher TN and lower salinity in its soils compared with Xia shoal. These would benefit β-Proteobacteria and Anaerolineae in Shang shoal soil, which might have higher heterotrophic microbial activities and thus soil microbial respiration and SR. In low tidal flats, where soil moisture was high and the major carbon input was active organic carbon from tidal water, increasing TN was a more important factor than salinity and obviously enhanced soil microbial heterotrophic activities, soil microbial respiration and SR. While, in high tidal flats, higher salinity in Xia shoal due to higher salinity in tidal water compared with Shang shoal benefited γ-Proteobacteria which might enhance autotrophic microbial activity, and was detrimental to β-Proteobacteria in Xia shoal soil. These might have led to lower soil microbial respiration and thus SR in Xia shoal compared with Shang shoal. In high tidal flats, where soil moisture was relatively lower and the major carbon input was plant biomass that was difficult to degrade, soil salinity was the major factor restraining microbial activities, soil microbial respiration and SR. PMID:27208721

  16. Restored Drill Cuttings for Wetlands Creation: Results of Mesocosm Approach to Emulate Field Conditions Under Varying Salinity and Hydrologic Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hester, Mark W.; Shaffer, Gary P.; Willis Jonathan M.; DesRoches, Dennis J.

    2001-02-21

    This study builds upon earlier research conducted by Southeastern Louisiana University concerning the efficacy of utilizing processed drill cuttings as an alternative substrate source for wetland rehabilitation (wetland creation and restoration). Previous research has indicated that processed drill cuttings exhibit a low degree of contaminant migration from the process drill cuttings to interstitial water and low toxicity, as tested by seven-day mysid shrimp chronic toxicity trials.

  17. Use of environmental sensors and sensor networks to develop water and salinity budgets for seasonal wetland real-time water quality management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinn, N.W.T.; Ortega, R.; Rahilly, P.J.A,; Royer, C.W.

    2009-10-01

    Successful management of river salt loads in complex and highly regulated river basins such as the San Joaquin of California presents significant challenges to Information Technology. Models are used as means of simulating major hydrologic processes in the basin which affect water quality and can be useful as tools for organizing basin information in a structured and readily accessible manner. Models can also be used to extrapolate the results of system monitoring since it is impossible to collect data for every point and non-point source of a pollutant in the Basin. Fundamental to every model is the concept of mass balance. This paper describes the use of state-of-the-art sensor technologies deployed in concert to obtain the first water and salinity budgets for a 60,000 hectare tract of seasonally managed wetlands in the San Joaquin Basin of California.

  18. Diatomeas (Bacillariophyceae de humedales de altura de la Provincia de Jujuy-Argentina Diatoms (Bacillariophyceae from high altitude wetlands of Jujuy province-Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Seeligmann

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la flora diatomológica perteneciente a 13 humedales de altura ubicados entre los 3500-4683 m s. n. m. de la Provincia de Jujuy (Argentina. Se identificaron, excluyendo las especies de Navicula sensu stricto, 51 géneros y 157 taxones infragenéricos, de los cuales tres son nuevas citas para Argentina y 43 se registran por primera vez para Jujuy. Se propone una nueva combinación: Craticula cuspidata var. gracilis. Muy interesante resultó el hallazgo de Cylindrotheca gracilis (Bréb. Grunow, nunca antes mencionado para este tipo de ambientes. Sólo Amphora veneta Kützing estuvo presente en más del 90 % de los cuerpos de agua estudiados mientras que Nitzschia hungarica Grunow, Craticula cuspidata (Kützing D. G. Mann var. cuspidata y Luticola cohnii (Hilse Lange-Bertalot fueron halladas en más del 60% de las muestras.A diatomological analysis of thirteen high altitude wetlands, between 3500-4683 m a. s. l. of Jujuy Province (Argentina was performed. Fifty one genera and one hundred and fifty seven infrageneric taxa, excluding Navicula sensu stricto species, were identified; three of them are new records for Argentina and 43 are new for Jujuy Province. A new combination is proposed: Craticula cuspidata var. gracilis. The finding of Cylindrotheca gracilis (Bréb. Grunow is important, since it has not been previously mentioned for this kind of environments. Amphora veneta Kützing var. veneta was recorded in more than 90 % of the studied waterbodies while Nitzschia hungarica Grunow, Craticula cuspidata (Kützing D. G. Mann var cuspidata and Luticola cohnii (Hilse Lange-Bertalot were found in more than 60% of the samples.

  19. Restored Drill Cuttings for Wetlands Creation: Results of Mesocosm Approach to Emulate Field Conditions Under Varying Salinity and Hydrologic Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hester, Mark W.; Shaffer, Gary P.; Willis, Jonathan M.; DesRoches, Dennis J.

    2002-06-03

    Both interstitial water and plant tissue associated with the DC-A substrate exhibited low metal concentrations. Also in agreement with the previous study, plant performance in the DC-A substrate was found to be comparable to plant performance in the dredge spoil and topsoil substrates. This was extremely important because it indicated that the drill cuttings themselves served as an excellent substrate for wetland plant growth, but that the processing and stabilization techniques and drilling fluid formulations required further refinement.

  20. Effects of salinity and particle concentration on sediment hydrodynamics and critical bed-shear-stress for erosion of fine grained sediments used in wetland restoration projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghose-Hajra, M.; McCorquodale, A.; Mattson, G.; Jerolleman, D.; Filostrat, J.

    2015-03-01

    Sea-level rise, the increasing number and intensity of storms, oil and groundwater extraction, and coastal land subsidence are putting people and property at risk along Louisiana's coast, with major implications for human safety and economic health of coastal areas. A major goal towards re-establishing a healthy and sustainable coastal ecosystem has been to rebuild Louisiana's disappearing wetlands with fine grained sediments that are dredged or diverted from nearby rivers, channels and lakes to build land in open water areas. A thorough geo-hydrodynamic characterization of the deposited sediments is important in the correct design and a more realistic outcome assessment of the long-term performance measures for ongoing coastal restoration projects. This paper evaluates the effects of salinity and solid particle concentration on the re-suspension characteristics of fine-grained dredged sediments obtained from multiple geographic locations along the Gulf coast. The critical bed-shear-stress for erosion has been evaluated as a function of sedimentation time. The sediment hydrodynamic properties obtained from the laboratory testing were used in a numerical coastal sediment distribution model to aid in evaluating sediment diversions from the Mississippi River into Breton Sound and Barataria Bay.

  1. Florida Bay salinity and Everglades wetlands hydrology circa 1900 CE: A compilation of paleoecology-based statistical modeling analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, F.E.; Wingard, G.L.

    2012-01-01

    Throughout the 20th century, the Greater Everglades Ecosystem of south Florida was greatly altered by human activities. Construction of water-control structures and facilities altered the natural hydrologic patterns of the south Florida region and consequently impacted the coastal ecosystem. Restoration of the Greater Everglades Ecosystem is guided by the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan (CERP), which is attempting to reverse some of the impacts of water management. In order to achieve this goal, it is essential to understand the predevelopment conditions (circa 1900 Common Era, CE) of the natural system, including the estuaries. The purpose of this report is to use empirical data derived from analyses of estuarine sediment cores and observations of modern hydrologic and salinity conditions to provide information on the natural system circa 1900 CE. A three-phase approach, developed in 2009, couples paleosalinity estimates derived from sediment cores to upstream hydrology using statistical models prepared from existing monitoring data. Results presented here update and improve previous analyses. A statistical method of estimating the paleosalinity from the core information improves the previous assemblage analyses, and the system of linear regression models was significantly upgraded and expanded.

  2. Environmental gradients across wetland vegetation groups in the arid slopes of Western Alborz Mountains, N. Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asghar Kamrani

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Mountain wetlands are unique ecosystems in the arid southern slopes of Alborz range, the second largest range in Iran. The spatial distribution characteristics of wetland vegetation in the arid region of the Alborz and the main factors affecting their distributional patterns were studied. A classification of vegetation and ecological characteristics were carried out using data extracted from 430 relevés in 90 wetland sites. The data were analyzed using Two Way Indicator Species Analysis (TWINSPAN and detrended correspondence analysis (DCA. The wetland vegetation of Alborz Mountain was classified into four large groups. The first vegetation group was calcareous rich vegetation, mainly distributed in the river banks and characterized by helophytes such as Bolboschoenus affinis as indicator species. The second group was saline transitional vegetation, distributed in the ecotone areas and dominated by Phragmites australis. The third vegetation group is wet meadow vegetation which mainly consists of geophytes, endemic and Irano-Turanian species, distributed in the higher altitudes. This vegetation is mainly characterized by indicator species such as Carex orbicularis, high level concentration of Fe2+ and percentage of organic matter in the soil. The fourth vegetation group is aquatic vegetation, distributed in the lakeshores. The aquatic group species are mainly hydrophytic such as Batrachium trichophyllum. The TWINSPAN vegetation groups could be also recognized in the DCA graphs and ecologically differentiated by ANOVA of studied variables. Four vegetation groups can be differentiated on two first axes of indirect ordination. There is a gradient of pH, EC and organic matter associated with altitude on the DCA diagram. Correlation analysis between the axes of DCA and environmental factors shows that altitude, soil texture and other dependant environmental variables (e.g. pH are the main environmental factors affecting the distribution of wetland

  3. National Wetlands Inventory - Wetlands

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This data set represents the extent, approximate location and type of wetlands and deepwater habitats in the United States and its Territories. These data delineate...

  4. Responses of Plant Diversity Changes in the Wetland of Lake Ebinur to Salinity Environment Gradient%艾比湖湿地植物群落变化对盐分环境梯度的响应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王盼盼; 李艳红; 张小萌

    2015-01-01

    wetland of Lake Ebinur from May to October in 2012. By means of cluster analysis, these samples are divided into three scopes according to salinity grades, including 0.03~0.73(S1), 0.81%~1.73%(S2)and 2.40%~3.12%(S3). According to the research on the samples and plant diversity index, the changes of these plants responses to the diversity are analyzed. The results are as follows:(1) Most sampling spots 15 km and 5 km away from the lake fall in the S1, belong to the mild salinization sampling spots at Bird Island Station, Duck Bay, Kuitun River, and another one 10 km away from the lake, all fall in S2 and the degree of salinity reach mid-severe level;sampling spots right neighboring the lakeside cover S1, S2 and S3. (2) Theee main vegation type on the salinity gradient is different:In S1 most plants found there are Haloxylon ammodendron, Tamarix ramosissima, Nitraria tangutorum Bobr and are in rich diversity of 37. In S2 most plants found there are Tamarix ramosissima and Haloenemum strobilaceum, relatively few of vegation species(11); In S3 most plants are Haloenemum strobilaceum, Salicornia europaea and Phragmites australis, few of vegation species(7), and the biotype structure of the plant community changes in accordance with the rising of the salinity grades, and plants of the grass family are decreasing, while shrubs and trees are increasing. (3) The Simposon diversity index, Shannon-Wiener diversity index, and Margalef species richness index are all rising at mid-grade salinity, and reach their maximum degree at 0.84, 2.28 and 3.82;(4) Pielow Index is falling with the rising of salinity grades, and reaches its maximum at 1.26;(5) Diversity Index falls at Grade S3 remarkably, which means that the soil salinity grade at 2.40%~3.12%exerts best influence on the wetland plant diversity in Lake Ebinur.

  5. Salinization and Saline Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vengosh, A.

    2003-12-01

    One of the most conspicuous phenomena of water-quality degradation, particularly in arid and semi-arid zones, is salinization of water and soil resources. Salinization is a long-term phenomenon, and during the last century many aquifers and river basins have become unsuitable for human consumption owing to high levels of salinity. Future exploitation of thousands of wells in the Middle East and in many other water-scarce regions in the world depends, to a large extent, on the degree and rate of salinization. Moreover, every year a large fraction of agricultural land is salinized and becomes unusable.Salinization is a global environmental phenomenon that affects many different aspects of our life (Williams, 2001a, b): changing the chemical composition of natural water resources (lakes, rivers, and groundwater), degrading the quality of water supply to the domestic and agriculture sectors, contribution to loss of biodiversity, taxonomic replacement by halotolerant species ( Williams, 2001a, b), loss of fertile soil, collapse of agricultural and fishery industries, changing of local climatic conditions, and creating severe health problems (e.g., the Aral Basin). The damage due to salinity in the Colorado River Basin alone, for example, ranges between 500 and 750 million per year and could exceed 1 billion per year if the salinity in the Imperial Dam increases from 700 mg L-1 to 900 mg L-1 (Bureau of Reclamation, 2003, USA). In Australia, accelerating soil salinization has become a massive environmental and economic disaster. Western Australia is "losing an area equal to one football oval an hour" due to spreading salinity ( Murphy, 1999). The annual cost for dryland salinity in Australia is estimated as AU700 million for lost land and AU$130 million for lost production ( Williams et al., 2002). In short, the salinization process has become pervasive.Salinity in water is usually defined by the chloride content (mg L-1) or total dissolved solids content (TDS, mg L-1or g

  6. The role of clonal plants in wetlands

    OpenAIRE

    Macek, Petr

    2008-01-01

    This thesis is focused on clonal growth traits and their response to changing environment in wetlands. Specifically, plant responses to both abiotic (e.g. waterlogging, salinity) and biotic (surrounding vegetation) stressors were evaluated in field and mesocosm experiments. Trait responses to additions of contrasting concentrations of nutrients and their implications for wetland heterogeneity were studied.

  7. Wetland Microbial Community Response to Restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theroux, S.; Hartman, W.; Tringe, S. G.

    2015-12-01

    Wetland restoration has been proposed as a potential long-term carbon storage solution, with a goal of engineering geochemical dynamics to accelerate peat accretion and encourage greenhouse gas (GHG) sequestration. However, wetland microbial community composition and metabolic rates are poorly understood and their predicted response to wetland restoration is a veritable unknown. In an effort to better understand the underlying factors that shape the balance of carbon flux in wetland soils, we targeted the microbial communities along a salinity gradient ranging from freshwater tidal marshes to hypersaline ponds in the San Francisco Bay-Delta region. Using 16S rRNA gene sequencing and shotgun metagenomics, coupled with greenhouse gas measurements, we sampled sixteen sites capturing a range in salinity and restoration status. Seawater delivers sulfate to wetland ecosystems, encouraging sulfate reduction and discouraging methane production. As expected, we observed the highest rates of methane production in the freshwater wetlands. Recently restored wetlands had significantly higher rates of methane production compared to their historic counterparts that could be attributed to variations in trace metal and organic carbon content in younger wetlands. In contrast, our sequencing results revealed an almost immediate return of the indigenous microbial communities following seasonal flooding and full tidal restoration in saline and hypersaline wetlands and managed ponds. Notably, we found elevated methane production rates in hypersaline ponds, the result of methylotrophic methane production confirmed by sequence data and lab incubations. Our study links belowground microbial communities and their aboveground greenhouse gas production and highlights the inherent complexity in predicting wetland microbial response in the face of both natural and unnatural disturbances.

  8. Freshwater Wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naturescope, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Provides descriptions about freshwater wetlands, such as marshes, swamps, and bogs. Contains three learning activities which deal with unusual wetland plants, the animals and plants in a typical marsh, and the effects of a draught on a swamp. Included are reproducible handouts and worksheets for two of the activities. (TW)

  9. National Wetlands Inventory Lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Linear wetland features (including selected streams, ditches, and narrow wetland bodies) mapped as part of the National Wetlands Inventory (NWI). The National...

  10. Restoring Wetlands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG HAIRONG

    2011-01-01

    Watching flocks of waterfowl taking off and landing in the large expanse of wetland near his home is a favorite pastime of Li Qiwen a middle-aged primary school teacher in Weichang Township,Luobei County in Heilongjiang Province.The wetland is home to hundreds of species of birds,including rare white storks and red-crowned cranes,as well as more common geese and ducks.

  11. Wetlands and Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Smardon

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This editorial provides an overview of the special issue “Wetlands and Sustainability”. In particular, the special issue contains a review of Paul Keddy’s book “Wetland Ecology” with specific reference to wetland sustainability. It also includes papers addressing wetland data acquisition via radar and remote sensing to better understand wetland system dynamics, hydrologic processes linked to wetland stress and restoration, coastal wetlands land use conflict/management, and wetland utilization for water quality treatment.

  12. Wetlands and Sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Richard Smardon

    2014-01-01

    This editorial provides an overview of the special issue “Wetlands and Sustainability”. In particular, the special issue contains a review of Paul Keddy’s book “Wetland Ecology” with specific reference to wetland sustainability. It also includes papers addressing wetland data acquisition via radar and remote sensing to better understand wetland system dynamics, hydrologic processes linked to wetland stress and restoration, coastal wetlands land use conflict/management, and wetland utilization...

  13. Forested wetlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lugo, A.E.; Brinson, M.; Brown, S. (eds.)

    1990-01-01

    Forested wetlands have important roles in global biogeochemical cycles, supporting freshwater and saltwater commercial fisheries, and in providing a place for wildlife of all kinds to flourish. Scientific attention towards these ecosystems has lagged with only a few comprehensive works on forested wetlands of the world. A major emphasis of this book is to develop unifying principles and data bases on the structure and function of forested wetlands, in order to stimulate scientific study of them. Wetlands are areas that are inundated or saturated by surface-water or ground-water, at such a frequency and duration that under natural conditions they support organisms adapted to poorly aerated and/or saturated soil. The strategy of classifying the conditions that control the structure and behavior of forested wetlands by assuming that the physiognomy and floristic composition of the system will reflect the total energy expenditure of the ecosystem; and the structural and functional characteristics of forested wetlands from different parts of the world are the major topics covered.

  14. What Makes a Wetland a Wetland?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naturescope, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Provides descriptions of and activities about various kinds of wetlands. Contains seven learning activities ranging from creating wetland scenes with picture cutouts to actually exploring a wetland. Includes reproducible handouts and worksheets for several of the activities. (TW)

  15. Virginia ESI: Wetlands (Wetland Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector polygons representing the coastal wetlands for Virginia, classified according to the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI)...

  16. Climate change and restoration factors affecting fecal pathogen dynamics in wetland systems

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Woutrina A.; Watson, Fred

    2011-01-01

    This project has three main hypotheses: 1) Increased water temperatures, decreased salinity, and increased flow rate will enhance transport of protozoal oocysts through wetland systems. 2) Larger vegetation, increased vegetation density, and increased wetland length will enhance retention of protozoal oocysts in wetland systems. 3) Factors found to maximize protozoal retention in the laboratory-based models will also significantly affect protozoal transport in a natural and constructed wetland.

  17. High altitude subhyaloid hemorrhage

    OpenAIRE

    Abdul Hanifudin; Lik Thai Lim; Elliott Yann Ah-Kee; Tarek El-Khashab

    2015-01-01

    Subhyaloid hemorrhages can occur as a result of exposure to high altitude. We hereby report a clinical picture of subhyaloid hemorrhage associated with high altitude. The case demonstrates optical coherence tomography findings that aid diagnosis of subhyaloid hemorrhage.

  18. Fulminant high altitude blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashkovskiy, Evgeny; Szawarski, Piotr; Ryzhkov, Pavel; Goslar, Tomaz; Mrak, Irena

    2016-06-01

    Prolonged altitude exposure even with acclimatization continues to present a physiological challenge to all organ systems including the central nervous system. We describe a case of a 41-year-old Caucasian female climber who suffered severe visual loss that was due to possible optic nerve pathology occurring during a high altitude expedition in the Himalayas. This case is atypical of classic high altitude cerebral oedema and highlights yet another danger of prolonged sojourn at extreme altitudes. PMID:27601532

  19. Urban wetlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Salm, N.; Bellmann, C.; Hoeijmakers, S.

    2014-01-01

    This "designers' manual" is made during the TIDO-course AR0533 Innovation & Sustainability. This is a manual meant for designers who are interested in water purifications within the boundaries of a project, presenting constructed wetlands. It is a guide to quickly provide you with project relevant

  20. Accumulation/dispersion of heavy metals in the saline soil of the Jianzhou Bay northeastern coastal wetland%胶州湾滨海湿地盐渍土壤中重金属的聚集与分散特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李学刚; 袁华茂; 许思思; 段丽琴; 李宁; 张默; 宋金明

    2011-01-01

    Soil salinization is a worldwide resource and ecological problem, and systemic study on saline soil is the foundation for its bioremediation. The accumulation/dispersion of heavy metals in the saline soils was discussed based on the research on the saline soils in the northeastern coastal wetland of Jiaozhou Bay. The variations of Cu and Zn concentrations in saline soils of the Jiaozhou Bay northeastern coast were great and their concentrations were higher than the soil background values; the concentrations of Pb, Cd and Cr had little difference between sample stations but were higher than the background values; the variations of As and Mo concentration were not prominence and their concentrations were lower than the background values; the distribution was similar to V ,Co and Ni, the concentrations of which in the northern part were somewhat higher than the soil background values whereas in the southern part were slight lower than the soil background values. Cu, Zn, Cr, Cd, Pb, and Ni were "elements accumulated by saline soil" and As, Co, V, Mo "elements dispersed by saline soil". As, Co, Ni, V, Mo, Cu, Zn and Pb of saline soils in the northeastern coast of the Jiaozhou Bay mainly came from soil parent materials and were not influenced by anthropogenic activities, whereas Cr and Cd mainly originated from industrial and agricultural inputs by Qingdao besides the parent materials. Pb and Zn in most of the saline soil were not polluted, but light polluted in some areas of the northeast coastal in the Jiaozhou Bay. Half of the studied stations had no pollution of Cu and Cr, but the other half stations were polluted slightly by Cu and Zn. However, there was mild to moderate pollution for Cd. The pollution severity of the heavy metals in the region followed the order of Cd〉〉Cu〉Cr〉〉Zn〉 Pb〉〉Ni〉V 〉Co〉As〉Mo. Beside the effect of material source, the concentrations of heavy metals in saline soils of the northeastern coast of the Jiaozhou Bay

  1. Mangrove wetland ecosystems in Ganges-Brahmaputra delta in Bangladesh

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shafi Noor ISLAM; Albrecht GNAUCK

    2008-01-01

    The Sundarbans is one of the productive man-grove wetland ecosystems in the Ganges-Brahmaputra delta in Bangladesh. The delta is undergoing rapid eco-logical changes due to human activity. In the present study, surface water salinity data from 13 rivers of the Sundarbans were collected in order to investigate the sal-ine water intrusion in the mangrove wetlands. Results demonstrate that saline water has penetrated the upstream area as river water salinity has increased signifi-cantly in 1976 compared to the year 1968. The soil and river water salinity data also shows that it has crossed the water salinity threshold line in most parts of the Sundarbans wetlands. These observations are due to the construction of Farakka Barrage in 1975, which reduced the water discharge of the Ganges River from 3700 m3/s in 1962 to 364 m3/s in 2006. The shortage of freshwater dis-charge to the deltaic area is trailing active ecosystems function, especially in the dry season in the south western region in Bangladesh. The objective of this study is to understand and analyze the present degraded mangrove wetland ecosystems and their negative impacts. The find-ings of this study would contribute to the formulation of the mangrove wetland ecosystems management plan inthe Ganges delta of Bangladesh.

  2. Butterflies of the high altitude Atacama Desert: habitat use and conservation

    OpenAIRE

    Emma eDespland

    2014-01-01

    The butterfly fauna of the high-altitude desert of Northern Chile, though depauperate, shows high endemism, is poorly known and is of considerable conservation concern. This study surveys butterflies along the Andean slope between 2400 and 500 m asl (prepuna, puna and Andean steppe habitats) as well as in high and low altitude wetlands and in the neoriparian vegetation of agricultural sites. We also include historical sightings from museum records. We compare abundances between altitudes, be...

  3. Butterflies of the high-altitude Atacama Desert: habitat use and conservation

    OpenAIRE

    Despland, Emma

    2014-01-01

    The butterfly fauna of the high-altitude desert of Northern Chile, though depauperate, shows high endemism, is poorly known and is of considerable conservation concern. This study surveys butterflies along the Andean slope between 2400 and 5000 m asl (prepuna, puna and Andean steppe habitats) as well as in high and low-altitude wetlands and in the neoriparian vegetation of agricultural sites. We also include historical sightings from museum records. We compare abundances between altitudes, be...

  4. The importance of water quality to wetland establishment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trites, M.; Bayley, S. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Biological Sciences

    2010-07-01

    Extracting oil from sands produces huge volumes of saline tailings. This presentation demonstrated that the ability to recreate boreal peatland communities after oil sands mining will be constrained by water quality. Typical boreal wetlands can be described along a bog to poor fen to rich fen gradient that correlates to increasing water pH and calcium concentration. There are major differences in vegetation communities along this gradient. Bogs and poor fens are characterized by slowly decomposing Sphagnum moss, while brown moss and productive herbaceous communities characterize rich fens. Post-mining wetlands generally have sodium concentrations above the tolerance limits of most freshwater peatland species. This study involved a survey of 25 boreal wetlands across a natural salinity gradient to determine a suite of potential native vegetation species to use for oils sand reclamation. Sixteen herbaceous vegetation communities that could be incorporated into oil sands wetlands were identified, but the diversity of communities decreased as salinity increased. Some of these wetlands had thick organic matter accumulations, despite having salinity equal to or higher than oil sands wetlands. Organic matter accumulation rates were also measured. If salinity is moderate and nutrient levels adequate, highly productive species like Carex aquatilis and Typha latifolia can accumulate organic matter quickly. Triglochin maritima can accumulate organic matter over the long term, even if salinity is high and nutrient levels are low. Although there is potential for peat to accumulate in future oil sands wetlands, the rates of peat accumulation will probably be slower than in undisturbed freshwater bogs and fens because of the elevated salinity. tabs., figs.

  5. The importance of water quality to wetland establishment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Extracting oil from sands produces huge volumes of saline tailings. This presentation demonstrated that the ability to recreate boreal peatland communities after oil sands mining will be constrained by water quality. Typical boreal wetlands can be described along a bog to poor fen to rich fen gradient that correlates to increasing water pH and calcium concentration. There are major differences in vegetation communities along this gradient. Bogs and poor fens are characterized by slowly decomposing Sphagnum moss, while brown moss and productive herbaceous communities characterize rich fens. Post-mining wetlands generally have sodium concentrations above the tolerance limits of most freshwater peatland species. This study involved a survey of 25 boreal wetlands across a natural salinity gradient to determine a suite of potential native vegetation species to use for oils sand reclamation. Sixteen herbaceous vegetation communities that could be incorporated into oil sands wetlands were identified, but the diversity of communities decreased as salinity increased. Some of these wetlands had thick organic matter accumulations, despite having salinity equal to or higher than oil sands wetlands. Organic matter accumulation rates were also measured. If salinity is moderate and nutrient levels adequate, highly productive species like Carex aquatilis and Typha latifolia can accumulate organic matter quickly. Triglochin maritima can accumulate organic matter over the long term, even if salinity is high and nutrient levels are low. Although there is potential for peat to accumulate in future oil sands wetlands, the rates of peat accumulation will probably be slower than in undisturbed freshwater bogs and fens because of the elevated salinity. tabs., figs.

  6. Hyperspectral reflectance response of freshwater macrophytes to salinity in a brackish subtropical marsh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilley, David R; Ahmed, Muneer; Son, Ji Ho; Badrinarayanan, Harish

    2007-01-01

    Coastal freshwater wetlands are threatened by increased salinity due to relative sea level rise and reduced freshwater inputs. Remote radiometric measurement of freshwater marsh canopies to detect small shifts in water column salinity would be useful for assessing salinity encroachment. We measured leaf hyperspectral (300-1100 nm) reflectance of freshwater macrophytes (cattail, Typha latifolia and sea oxeye, Borrichia frutescens) in a field study in a subtropical brackish (2.5-4.5 parts per thousand salinity, per thousand) marsh to determine salinity effects on visible and near-infrared spectral band reflectance and to identify reflectance indices sensitive to small (1 per thousand) changes in wetland salinity. For sea oxeye, floating-position water band index [fWBI = R(900)/minimum(R(930) - R(980)), where R(lambda) = reflectance at band lambda], normalized difference vegetation index [NDVI = (R(774) - R(681))/(R(774) + R(681))], and a proposed wetland salinity reflectance ratio (WSRR = R(990)/R(933)) were sensitive to salinity with R2 of 40, 35, and 65%, respectively (p wetland salinity, which would help with monitoring salinity effects on coastal wetlands. PMID:17412913

  7. Efficiency of three halophyte species in removing nutrients from saline water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lange, de H.J.; Paulissen, M.P.C.P.

    2016-01-01

    Saline wetlands may be well suited for purifying contaminated water from saline agriculture and aquaculture or from freshwater-based agriculture in areas subject to increased salinity. However, case studies on the nutrient removal efficiency of halophyte species are scarce, especially for tempera

  8. Riparian Wetlands: Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riparian wetlands are critical systems that perform functions and provide services disproportionate to their extent in the landscape. Mapping wetlands allows for better planning, management, and modeling, but riparian wetlands present several challenges to effective mapping due t...

  9. National Wetlands Inventory Points

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Wetland point features (typically wetlands that are too small to be as area features at the data scale) mapped as part of the National Wetlands Inventory (NWI). The...

  10. National Wetlands Inventory Polygons

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Wetland area features mapped as part of the National Wetlands Inventory (NWI). The National Wetlands Inventory is a national program sponsored by the US Fish and...

  11. Adaptation to High Altitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. S. Nayar

    1984-10-01

    Full Text Available Hypoxia is inconsequential for physiologically fit persons below an effective altitude of 2640 metres. At higher altitudes, the adaptation is brought about by four main factors, viz., hyperventilation, increased diffusion of oxygen across alveolar membrane, erythrocythemia and maintenance of body hydration. Carbon dioxide sensitivity is markedly elevated at high altitude, both in sojourners and acclimatized low-landers. The greater pulmonary diffusing capacity observed in high altitude natives is well documented. RBC count, haemoglobin and haematocrit increase whereas arterial oxyhaemoglobin saturation percentage decreases at high altitude. Diuretics (Furosemide have no role in adaptation to high altitude and adequate body hydration must be maintained.The ultimate adaptive mechanisms occur at tissue level which facilitate the diffusion of oxygen from blood to tissue and its utilization. The work capacity decreases at high altitude and a relationship between load carried and speed of marching has been determined at various altitudes. Although altitude has an adverse effect on process of cold acclimatization, yet it is possible to induce cold acclimatization by exposing subjects to a temperature of 0° to -5°C for a period of three hours daily for three weeks. The caloric requirements increase at high altitudes and are 4,286 K Cal and 4,380 K Cal at 13000 feet (3950 m and 17000 feet (5170 m, respectively.

  12. Kansas Playa Wetlands

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This digital dataset provides information about the distribution, areal extent, and morphometry of playa wetlands throughout western Kansas. Playa wetlands were...

  13. HIGH-ALTITUDE ILLNESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwitya Elvira

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakHigh-altitude illness (HAI merupakan sekumpulan gejala paru dan otak yang terjadi pada orang yang baru pertama kali mendaki ke ketinggian. HAI terdiri dari acute mountain sickness (AMS, high-altitude cerebral edema (HACE dan high-altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE. Tujuan tinjauan pustaka ini adalah agar dokter dan wisatawan memahami risiko, tanda, gejala, dan pengobatan high-altitude illness. Perhatian banyak diberikan terhadap penyakit ini seiring dengan meningkatnya popularitas olahraga ekstrim (mendaki gunung tinggi, ski dan snowboarding dan adanya kemudahan serta ketersediaan perjalanan sehingga jutaan orang dapat terpapar bahaya HAI. Di Pherice, Nepal (ketinggian 4343 m, 43% pendaki mengalami gejala AMS. Pada studi yang dilakukan pada tempat wisata di resort ski Colorado, Honigman menggambarkan kejadian AMS 22% pada ketinggian 1850 m sampai 2750 m, sementara Dean menunjukkan 42% memiliki gejala pada ketinggian 3000 m. Aklimatisasi merupakan salah satu tindakan pencegahan yang dapat dilakukan sebelum pendakian, selain beberapa pengobatan seperti asetazolamid, dexamethasone, phosopodiestrase inhibitor, dan ginko biloba.Kata kunci: high-altitude illness, acute mountain sickness, edema cerebral, pulmonary edema AbstractHigh-altitude illness (HAI is symptoms of lung and brain that occurs in people who first climb to altitude. HAI includes acute mountain sickness (AMS, high-altitude cerebral edema (HACE and high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE. The objective of this review was to understand the risks, signs, symptoms, and treatment of high-altitude illness. The attention was given to this disease due to the rising popularity of extreme sports (high mountain climbing, skiing and snowboarding and the ease and availability of the current travelling, almost each year, millions of people could be exposed to the danger of HAI. In Pherice, Nepal (altitude 4343 m, 43% of climbers have symptoms of AMS. Furthermore, in a study conducted at sites in

  14. The System Nobody Sees: Irrigated Wetland Management and Alpaca Herding in the Peruvian Andes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verzijl, A.; Guerrero Quispe, S.

    2013-01-01

    Increasingly, attention in regional, national, and international water governance arenas has focused on high-altitude wetlands. However, existing local water management practices in these wetlands are often overlooked. This article looks at the irrigation activities of alpaca herders in the communit

  15. Snapshot of methanogen sensitivity to temperature in Zoige wetland from Tibetan plateau

    OpenAIRE

    Fu, Li; Song, Tianze; Lu, Yahai

    2015-01-01

    Zoige wetland in Tibetan plateau represents a cold environment at high altitude where significant methane emission has been observed. However, it remains unknown how the production and emission of CH4 from Zoige wetland will respond to a warming climate. Here we investigated the temperature sensitivity of methanogen community in a Zoige wetland soil under the laboratory incubation conditions. One soil sample was collected and the temperature sensitivity of the methanogenic activity, the struc...

  16. The hydrological and geochemical isolation of a freshwater bog within a saline fen in north-eastern Alberta

    OpenAIRE

    S.J. Scarlett; J.S. Price

    2013-01-01

    In the oil sands development region near Fort McMurray, Alberta, wetlands cover ~62 % of the landscape, and ~95 % of these wetlands are peatlands. A saline fen was studied as a reference site for peatland reclamation. Despite highly saline conditions, a freshwater bog was observed in the path of local saline groundwater flow. The purpose of this study was to identify the hydrological controls that have allowed the development and persistence of a bog in this setting. The presence of bog veget...

  17. [Mountaineering and altitude sickness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggiorini, M

    2001-06-01

    Almost every second trekker or climber develops two to three symptoms of the high altitude illness after a rapid ascent (> 300 m/day) to an altitude above 4000 m. We distinguish two forms of high altitude illness, a cerebral form called acute mountain sickness and a pulmonary form called high altitude pulmonary edema. Essentially, acute mountain sickness is self-limiting and benign. Its symptoms are mild to moderate headache, loss of appetite, nausea, dizziness and insomnia. Nausea rarely progresses to vomiting, but if it does, this may anticipate a progression of the disease into the severe form of acute mountain sickness, called high altitude cerebral edema. Symptoms and signs of high altitude cerebral edema are severe headache, which is not relieved by acetaminophen, loss of movement coordination, ataxia and mental deterioration ending in coma. The mechanisms leading to acute mountain sickness are not very well understood; the loss of cerebral autoregulation and a vasogenic type of cerebral edema are being discussed. High altitude pulmonary edema presents in roughly twenty percent of the cases with mild symptoms of acute mountain sickness or even without any symptoms at all. Symptoms associated with high altitude pulmonary edema are incapacitating fatigue, chest tightness, dyspnoe at the minimal effort that advances to dyspnoe at rest and orthopnoe, and a dry non-productive cough that progresses to cough with pink frothy sputum due to hemoptysis. The hallmark of high altitude pulmonary edema is an exaggerated hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction. Successful prophylaxis and treatment of high altitude pulmonary edema using nifedipine, a pulmonary vasodilator, indicates that pulmonary hypertension is crucial for the development of high altitude pulmonary edema. The primary treatment of high altitude illness consists in improving hypoxemia and acclimatization. For prophylaxis a slow ascent at a rate of 300 m/day is recommended, if symptoms persist, acetazolamide at a

  18. "Wetlands: Water Living Filters?",

    OpenAIRE

    Dordio, Ana; Palace, A. J.; Pinto, Ana Paula

    2008-01-01

    Human societies have indirectly used natural wetlands as wastewater discharge sites for many centuries. Observations of the wastewater depuration capacity of natural wetlands have led to a greater understanding of the potential of these ecosystems for pollutant assimilation and have stimulated the development of artificial wetlands systems for treatment of wastewaters from a variety of sources. Constructed wetlands, in contrast to natural wetlands, are human-made systems that are designed, bu...

  19. Ear - blocked at high altitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    High altitudes and blocked ears; Flying and blocked ears; Eustachian tube dysfunction - high altitude ... you are going up or coming down from high altitudes. Chewing gum the entire time you are changing ...

  20. Vegetation community composition in wetlands created following oil sand mining in Alberta, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Marie-Claude; Foote, Lee; Ciborowski, Jan J H

    2016-05-01

    Reclaiming wetlands following open pit mining for industrial oil sand extraction is challenging due to the physical and chemical conditions of the post-mined landscape. The aim of our study was to examine and compare the influence of oil sands process water (OSPW) and material (fine fluid tails or FFT) on the plant community composition of created wetlands. Compared to created-unamended and natural wetlands, the created wetlands amended with OSPW and/or FFT (created-tailings wetlands) had significantly higher water salinity, conductivity, dissolved oxygen concentration and lower oxidative-reductive potential. Water chemistry parameters of created-unamended did not differ significantly from those of natural wetlands. The sediment of created wetlands had significantly less moisture, total nitrogen, and organic content than the natural wetlands. The application of OSPW/FFT in created wetlands will likely lead to initial vegetation composition atypical of natural regional wetlands. For the objective of reclaiming vegetation composition to the status of natural regional wetlands, unamended wetlands were the best reclamation option, based on the physical and chemical parameters measured. Despite being the favored reclamation option, created-unamended wetlands' physical and chemical characteristics remain atypical of natural wetlands. Most significantly, the basin morphometry of created wetlands was significantly different from that of naturally-formed wetlands in the region, and this appears to partly explain difference in vegetation composition. We also demonstrate that species richness alone is not a useful measure in wetland monitoring. Instead, plant community composition is a better indicator of wetland conditions. PMID:26921562

  1. High Altitude and Heart

    OpenAIRE

    Murat Yalcin; Ejder Kardesoglu; Zafer Isilak

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays, situations associated with high altitude such as mountaineering, aviation increasingly draw the attention of people. Gas pressure decreases and hypoxia is encountered when climbing higher. Physiological and pathological responses of human body to different heights are different. Therefore, physiological and pathological changes that may occur together with height and to know the clinical outcomes of these are important . Acute mountain sickness caused by high altitude and high altit...

  2. Endurance training at altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Philo U; Pyne, David B; Gore, Christopher J

    2009-01-01

    Since the 1968 Olympic Games when the effects of altitude on endurance performance became evident, moderate altitude training ( approximately 2000 to 3000 m) has become popular to improve competition performance both at altitude and sea level. When endurance athletes are exposed acutely to moderate altitude, a number of physiological responses occur that can comprise performance at altitude; these include increased ventilation, increased heart rate, decreased stroke volume, reduced plasma volume, and lower maximal aerobic power ((.)Vo(2max)) by approximately 15% to 20%. Over a period of several weeks, one primary acclimatization response is an increase in the volume of red blood cells and consequently of (.)Vo(2max). Altitudes > approximately 2000 m for >3 weeks and adequate iron stores are required to elicit these responses. However, the primacy of more red blood cells for superior sea-level performance is not clear-cut since the best endurance athletes in the world, from Ethiopia (approximately 2000 to 3000 m), have only marginally elevated hemoglobin concentrations. The substantial reduction in (.)Vo(2max) of athletes at moderate altitude implies that their training should include adequate short-duration (approximately 1 to 2 min), high-intensity efforts with long recoveries to avoid a reduction in race-specific fitness. At the elite level, athlete performance is not dependent solely on (.)Vo(2max), and the "smallest worthwhile change" in performance for improving race results is as little as 0.5%. Consequently, contemporary statistical approaches that utilize the concept of the smallest worthwhile change are likely to be more appropriate than conventional statistical methods when attempting to understand the potential benefits and mechanisms of altitude training. PMID:19519223

  3. Altitude Modulates Concussion Incidence

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, David W.; Myer, Gregory D; Currie, Dustin W.; Comstock, R Dawn; Clark, Joseph F.; Bailes, Julian E.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Recent research indicates that the volume and/or pressure of intracranial fluid, a physiology affected by one’s altitude (ie, elevation above sea level), may be associated with the likelihood and/or severity of a concussion. The objective was to employ an epidemiological field investigation to evaluate the relationship between altitude and concussion rate in high school sports. Hypothesis: Because of the physiologies that occur during acclimatization, including a decline in intrac...

  4. Wonderful Wetlands: An Environmental Education Curriculum Guide for Wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King County Parks Div., Redmond, WA.

    This curriculum guide was designed to give teachers, students, and society a better understanding of wetlands in the hope that they learn why wetlands should be valued and preserved. It explores what is meant by wetlands, functions and values of wetlands, wetland activities, and wetland offerings which benefit animal and plant life, recreation,…

  5. High Altitude and Heart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Yalcin

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, situations associated with high altitude such as mountaineering, aviation increasingly draw the attention of people. Gas pressure decreases and hypoxia is encountered when climbing higher. Physiological and pathological responses of human body to different heights are different. Therefore, physiological and pathological changes that may occur together with height and to know the clinical outcomes of these are important . Acute mountain sickness caused by high altitude and high altitude cerebral edema are preventable diseases with appropriate precautions. Atmospheric oxygen decreasing with height, initiates many adaptive mechanisms. These adaptation mechanisms and acclimatization vary widely among individuals because of reasons such as environmental factors, exercise and cold. High altitude causes different changes in the cardiovascular system with various mechanisms. Although normal individuals easily adapt to these changes, this situation can lead to undesirable results in people with heart disease. For this reason, it should be known the effective evaluation of the people with known heart disease before traveling to high altitude and the complications due to the changes with height and the recommendations can be made to these patients. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(2.000: 211-222

  6. High-altitude medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paralikar Swapnil

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Sojourns to high altitude have become common for recreation and adventure purposes. In most individuals, gradual ascent to a high altitude leads to a series of adaptive changes in the body, termed as acclimatization. These include changes in the respiratory, cardiovascular, hematologic systems and cellular adaptations that enhance oxygen delivery to the tissues and augment oxygen uptake. Thus there is an increase in pulmonary ventilation, increase in diffusing capacity in the lung, an increase in the cardiac output and increase in the red blood cell count due to an increase in erythropoietin secretion by the kidney, all of which enhance oxygen delivery to the cells. Cellular changes like increase in the number of mitochondria and augmentation of cytochrome oxidase systems take months or years to develop. Too rapid an ascent or inability to acclimatize leads to high-altitude illnesses. These include acute mountain sickness (AMS, high-altitude cerebral edema (HACE and high-altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE. Acute mountain sickness is self limiting if recognized early. Both HACE and HAPE are life threatening and need to be treated aggressively. The key to treatment of these illnesses is early recognition; administration of supplemental oxygen; and descent if required. Drugs like acetazolamide, dexamethasone, nifedipine may be administered as recommended.

  7. Artesian Wetlands Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Artesian Wetlands Survey includes data on the wetlands in the San Luis Valley in Colorado. Data recorded includes location, area of influence, area inundated,...

  8. Wetland Program Pilot Grants

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Wetland Grant Database (WGD) houses grant data for Wetland Program Development Grants (created by EPA in 1990 under the Clean Water Act Section 104(b)(3)...

  9. Percent Wetland Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Wetlands act as filters, removing or diminishing the amount of pollutants that enter surface water. Higher values for percent of wetland cover (WETLNDSPCT) may be...

  10. Percent Wetland Cover (Future)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Wetlands act as filters, removing or diminishing the amount of pollutants that enter surface water. Higher values for percent of wetland cover (WETLNDSPCT) may be...

  11. Effects of water level on three wetlands soil seed banks on the Tibetan Plateau.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miaojun Ma

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although the effect of water level on germination in soil seed banks has been documented in many ecosystems, the mechanism is not fully understood, and to date no empirical studies on this subject exist. Further, no work has been done on the effect of water level on seed banks of drying and saline-alkaline wetlands in alpine areas on the Tibetan Plateau. METHODOLOGY: We examined the effects of water level (0 cm, 5 cm and 10 cm on seed germination and seedling establishment from soil seed banks at 0-5 cm and 5-10 cm depths in typical, drying, and saline-alkaline wetlands. We also explore the potential role of soil seed bank in restoration of drying and saline-alkaline wetlands. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Species richness decreased with increase in water level, but there almost no change in seed density. A huge difference exists in species composition of the seed bank among different water levels in all three wetlands, especially between 0 cm and 5 cm and 0 cm and 10 cm. Similarity of species composition between seed bank and plant community was higher in 0 cm water level in drying wetland than in the other two wetlands. The similarity was much higher in 0 cm water level than in 5 cm and 10 cm water levels in all three wetlands. Species composition of the alpine wetland plant community changed significantly after drying and salinization, however, species composition of the seed bank was unchanged regardless of the environment change. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Water level greatly affects seed bank recruitment and plant community establishment. Further, different water levels in restored habitats are likely to determine its species composition of the plant community. The seed bank is important in restoration of degraded wetlands. Successful restoration of drying and salinization wetlands could depend on the seed bank.

  12. Wetlands in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Wetlands are shallow marine waters and wet areas in cluding rivers, lakes and marshes. According to scientists, even reservoirs and paddy fields fall into the category. Wetlands are classified into over 40 types but accounts for only 6% of the earth's total land area. Human beings inhabit by water and grass because wetlands provide us with water and wet soil.

  13. Good Wetland Agricultural Practices

    OpenAIRE

    Hengsdijk, H.; Zingstra, H.L.

    2009-01-01

    Within the Guiding Agriculture Wetland Interaction (GAWI) project the Driver!Pressure!State! Impact!Response (DPSIR) approach has been adopted to describe and analyse agriculture!wetland interactions. The DPSIR approach provides a consistent framework to analyse the complex causal chain among drivers, pressures, state and impacts, and facilitates the targeted identification of response strategies aimed at improving the sustainability of wetlands.

  14. Hypertonic saline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constable, P D

    1999-11-01

    A key feature in the successful resuscitation of dehydrated or endotoxemic ruminants is the total amount of sodium administered. Administration of small volumes of HS and HSD offer major advantages over large volumes of isotonic saline because HS and HSD do not require intravenous catheterization or periodic monitoring, and are therefore suitable for use in the field. Hypertonic saline and HSD exert their beneficial effect by rapidly increasing preload and transiently decreasing afterload. Contrary to early reports, HS and HSD decrease cardiac contractility and do not activate a pulmonary reflex. The osmolality of HS and HSD should be 2400 mOsm/L (7.2% NaCl solution, 8 times normal plasma osmolality). Use of HS and HSD solutions of different osmolality to 2400 mOsm/L should be avoided at all costs, as too low a tonicity removes the main advantages of HS (low cost, decreased infusion time), whereas too high a tonicity may cause rapid vasodilation and decreased cardiac contractility, resulting in death. Rapid administration (> 1 mL/kg-1/min-1) of HS (2400 mOsm/L) should be avoided, as the induced hypotension may be fatal when coupled with a transient decrease in cardiac contractility. For treating dehydrated adult ruminants, HS (2400 mOsm/L, 4-5 mL/kg i.v. over 4-5 minutes) should be administered through the jugular vein and the cow allowed to drink water. This means that 2 L of HS should be administered to adult cattle. HSD should be administered in conjunction with isotonic oral electrolyte solutions to all calves 8% or more dehydrated (eyes recessed > or = 4 mm into the orbit, cervical skin tent duration > 6 seconds) or calves with reduced cardiac output (fetlock temperature isotonic oral electrolyte solution. This means that 120-200 mL of HSD of HSD should be administered to a calf. HSD should be routinely administered to severely depressed or comatose calves, as HSD provides the fastest method of resuscitation while rapidly reversing the effects of hyperkalemia

  15. Microbial diversity and carbon cycling in San Francisco Bay wetlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theroux, Susanna [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Walnut Creek, CA (United States). Dept. of Energy Joint Genome Inst.; Hartman, Wyatt [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Walnut Creek, CA (United States). Dept. of Energy Joint Genome Inst.; He, Shaomei [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Walnut Creek, CA (United States). Dept. of Energy Joint Genome Inst.; Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Tringe, Susannah [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Walnut Creek, CA (United States). Dept. of Energy Joint Genome Inst.

    2014-03-21

    Wetland restoration efforts in San Francisco Bay aim to rebuild habitat for endangered species and provide an effective carbon storage solution, reversing land subsidence caused by a century of industrial and agricultural development. However, the benefits of carbon sequestration may be negated by increased methane production in newly constructed wetlands, making these wetlands net greenhouse gas (GHG) sources to the atmosphere. We investigated the effects of wetland restoration on below-ground microbial communities responsible for GHG cycling in a suite of historic and restored wetlands in SF Bay. Using DNA and RNA sequencing, coupled with real-time GHG monitoring, we profiled the diversity and metabolic potential of wetland soil microbial communities. The wetland soils harbor diverse communities of bacteria and archaea whose membership varies with sampling location, proximity to plant roots and sampling depth. Our results also highlight the dramatic differences in GHG production between historic and restored wetlands and allow us to link microbial community composition and GHG cycling with key environmental variables including salinity, soil carbon and plant species.

  16. Saline Sinus Rinse Recipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Allergy Library ▸ Saline Sinus Rinse Recipe Share | Saline Sinus Rinse Recipe Saline sinus rinses can bring relief to patients with chronic sinus or rhinitis problems without the use of medication. ...

  17. Background information on Nyando Wetland.

    OpenAIRE

    Raburu, P.O.; Khisa, P.; Masese, F.O.

    2012-01-01

    This chapter addresses the geological, geomorphological, climatic and hydrological conditions prevailing in the Nyando Wetland and the surrounding area. Nyando Wetland is part of the many papyrus dominated wetlands in the Lake Victoria Basin. The wetland is located at the mouth of Nyando River but it is contiguous with other lakeshore wetlands forming the second largest wetland (14,400ha) on the Kenyan side of the Lake Victoria Basin. Within it are a number of small wetlands whose major sourc...

  18. Freshwater Wetlands: A Citizen's Primer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catskill Center for Conservation and Development, Inc., Hobart, NY.

    The purpose of this "primer" for the general public is to describe the general characteristics of wetlands and how wetland alteration adversely affects the well-being of humans. Particular emphasis is placed on wetlands in New York State and the northeast. Topics discussed include wetland values, destruction of wetlands, the costs of wetland…

  19. Saline systems of the Great Plains of western Canada: an overview of the limnogeology and paleolimnology

    OpenAIRE

    Last, William M; Ginn, Fawn M

    2005-01-01

    In much of the northern Great Plains, saline and hypersaline lacustrine brines are the only surface waters present. As a group, the lakes of this region are unique: there is no other area in the world that can match the concentration and diversity of saline lake environments exhibited in the prairie region of Canada and northern United States. The immense number of individual salt lakes and saline wetlands in this region of North America is staggering. Estimates vary from about one million to...

  20. Colorado wetlands initiative : 1997-2000 : Protecting Colorado's wetlands resource

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Colorado Wetlands Initiative is an endeavor to protect wetlands and wetland-dependent wildlife through the use of voluntary, incentive-based mechanisms. It is a...

  1. Surficial and vertical distribution of heavy metals in different estuary wetlands in the Pearl river, South China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Honggang; Cui, Baoshan [State Key Joint Laboratory of Environmental Simulation and Pollution Control, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, Beijing (China); Zhang, Kejiang [Xinjiang Research Center of Water and Wastewater Treatment, Xinjiang Deland Co., LTD., Urumqi (China)

    2012-10-15

    A total of 87 soil profiles sampled from five types of wetlands in the Pearl River estuary were analyzed to investigate the surficial and vertical distributions of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn). The results show that wetlands directly connected with rivers (e.g., riparian wetlands, estuarine wetlands, and mangrove wetlands) has much higher metal concentrations than those indirectly connected with rivers (e.g., pond wetlands and reclaimed wetlands). The river water is the major pollution source for all investigated heavy metals. The vertical distribution of heavy metals can be classified into three patterns: (i) linear distribution pattern. The concentration of heavy metals gradually decreases with an increase in soil depth (for riparian and estuarine wetlands); (ii) irregular and stable pattern (for pond and reclaimed wetlands); and (iii) middle enrichment pattern (for mangrove wetlands). In addition to river-borne inputs, a variety of vegetation composition, hydraulic conditions, and human activities also contribute to the variation in distribution of heavy metals in different wetlands. Soil properties (e.g., particle size, pH, salinity, and SOM) also affect the distribution of trace metals in each soil layer. The major pollution source of heavy metals is industrial wastewater. Other sources include agriculture and domestic premises, and atmospheric deposition. This study provides a sound basis for the risk assessment of heavy metals in the studied wetlands and for wetland conservation in general. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  2. Artificial wetlands performance: nitrogen removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durán-de-Bazúa, Carmen; Guido-Zárate, Alejandro; Huanosta, Thalía; Padrón-López, Rosa Martha; Rodríguez-Monroy, Jesús

    2008-01-01

    Artificial wetlands (AW) are a promising option for wastewater treatment in small communities due to their high performance in nutrients removal and low operation and maintenance costs. Nitrogen can favour the growth of algae in water bodies causing eutrophication when present at high concentrations. Nitrogen can be removed through different mechanisms (e.g. nitrification-denitrification, adsorption and plant uptake). Environmental conditions such as temperature and relative humidity can play an important role in the performance of these systems by promoting the growth of macrophytes such as reeds and cattails (e.g. Phragmites australis, Typha latifolia respectively). In this paper, two AW systems were compared, one located in Mexico City, Mexico at an altitude higher than 2,000 m above the sea level, and the second one located in Villahermosa, Tabasco, Mexico at an a altitude near the sea level (27 m). Both systems comprised five reactors (147-L plastic boxes) filled with volcanic slag and gravel and intermittently fed with synthetic water. The removal nitrogen efficiency found for the system located in Mexico City was higher than that of the Tabasco system (90 and 80% as TKN respectively). The higher temperatures in the Tabasco system did not enhanced the nitrogen removal as expected. PMID:18957747

  3. High temperature and salinity enhance soil nitrogen mineralization in a tidal freshwater marsh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haifeng Gao

    Full Text Available Soil nitrogen (N mineralization in wetlands is sensitive to various environmental factors. To compare the effects of salinity and temperature on N mineralization, wetland soils from a tidal freshwater marsh locating in the Yellow River Delta was incubated over a 48-d anaerobic incubation period under four salinity concentrations (0, 10, 20 and 35‰ and four temperature levels (10, 20, 30 and 40°C. The results suggested that accumulated ammonium nitrogen (NH4+-N increased with increasing incubation time under all salinity concentrations. Higher temperatures and salinities significantly enhanced soil N mineralization except for a short-term (≈10 days inhibiting effect found under 35‰ salinity. The incubation time, temperature, salinity and their interactions exhibited significant effects on N mineralization (P0.05, while temperature exhibited the greatest effect (P<0.001. Meanwhile, N mineralization processes were simulated using both an effective accumulated temperature model and a one-pool model. Both models fit well with the simulation of soil N mineralization process in the coastal freshwater wetlands under a range of 30 to 40°C (R2 = 0.88-0.99, P<0.01. Our results indicated that an enhanced NH4+-N release with increasing temperature and salinity deriving from the projected global warming could have profound effects on nutrient cycling in coastal wetland ecosystems.

  4. Wetlands & Deepwater Habitats - Montana Wetland and Riparian Framework - Map Service

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — The Montana Wetland and Riparian Framework represents the extent, type, and approximate location of wetlands, riparian areas, and deepwater habitats in Montana....

  5. Pipeline corridors through wetlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmerman, R.E.; Wilkey, P.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Isaacson, H.R. [Gas Research Institute (United States)

    1992-12-01

    This paper presents preliminary findings from six vegetational surveys of gas pipeline rights-of-way (ROW) through wetlands and quantifies the impacts of a 20-year-old pipeline ROW through a boreal forest wetland. Six sites of various ages were surveyed in ecosystems ranging from coastal marsh to forested wetland. At all sites except one, both the number and the percentage of wetland species on the Row approximated or exceeded those in the adjacent natural area. The boreal forest study showed that (1) adjacent natural wetland areas were not altered in type; (2) water sheet flow restriction had been reversed by nature; (3) no nonnative plant species invaded the natural area; (4) three-quarters of the ROW area was a wetland, and (5) the ROW increased diversity.

  6. Pipeline corridors through wetlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents preliminary findings from six vegetational surveys of gas pipeline rights-of-way (ROW) through wetlands and quantifies the impacts of a 20-year-old pipeline ROW through a boreal forest wetland. Six sites of various ages were surveyed in ecosystems ranging from coastal marsh to forested wetland. At all sites except one, both the number and the percentage of wetland species on the Row approximated or exceeded those in the adjacent natural area. The boreal forest study showed that (1) adjacent natural wetland areas were not altered in type; (2) water sheet flow restriction had been reversed by nature; (3) no nonnative plant species invaded the natural area; (4) three-quarters of the ROW area was a wetland, and (5) the ROW increased diversity

  7. Pipeline corridors through wetlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmerman, R.E.; Wilkey, P.L. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Isaacson, H.R. (Gas Research Institute (United States))

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents preliminary findings from six vegetational surveys of gas pipeline rights-of-way (ROW) through wetlands and quantifies the impacts of a 20-year-old pipeline ROW through a boreal forest wetland. Six sites of various ages were surveyed in ecosystems ranging from coastal marsh to forested wetland. At all sites except one, both the number and the percentage of wetland species on the Row approximated or exceeded those in the adjacent natural area. The boreal forest study showed that (1) adjacent natural wetland areas were not altered in type; (2) water sheet flow restriction had been reversed by nature; (3) no nonnative plant species invaded the natural area; (4) three-quarters of the ROW area was a wetland, and (5) the ROW increased diversity.

  8. How wetlands affect floods

    OpenAIRE

    M. Acreman; J. Holden

    2013-01-01

    It is widely recognised that wetlands play an important role in the hydrological cycle, influencing groundwater recharge, low flows, evaporation and floods. This has led to policies being formulated world-wide to conserve and manage wetlands to deliver these key services, especially flood risk reduction. Generic statements have often been published about wetland hydrological services but the term “wetlands” covers many land types, including wet woodlands, reedbeds, peat bogs, fens, and salt m...

  9. Cerebrovascular stroke at high altitude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To asses the high altitude as a risk factor for cerebrovascular stroke in people residing at a height greater than 15,000 feet above sea level. Results: Ten patients suffered from stroke at high altitude while just one case had stroke in indexed age group at lower heights (p-value<0.05). Relative risk was 10 times greater at high altitude. Conclusion: High altitude is a risk factor for stroke in persons residing at altitudes of over 15, 000 ft. (author)

  10. High Altitude Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulzan, Dan

    2007-01-01

    An overview of emissions related research being conducted as part of the Fundamental Aeronautics Supersonics Project is presented. The overview includes project objectives, milestones, and descriptions of major research areas. The overview also includes information on the emissions research being conducted under NASA Research Announcements. Technical challenges include: 1) Environmental impact of supersonic cruise emissions is greater due to higher flight altitudes which makes emissions reduction increasingly important. 2) Accurate prediction tools to enable combustor designs that reduce emissions at supersonic cruise are needed as well as intelligent systems to minimize emissions. 3) Combustor operating conditions at supersonic cruise are different than at subsonic cruise since inlet fuel and air temperatures are considerably increased.

  11. Hydrologic and vegetative removal of Cryptosporidium parvum, Giardia lamblia, and Toxoplasma gondii Surrogate microspheres in coastal wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Jennifer N; Daniels, Miles E; Watson, Fred G; Oates, Stori C; Miller, Melissa A; Conrad, Patricia A; Shapiro, Karen; Hardin, Dane; Dominik, Clare; Melli, Ann; Jessup, David A; Miller, Woutrina A

    2013-03-01

    Constructed wetland systems are used to reduce pollutants and pathogens in wastewater effluent, but comparatively little is known about pathogen transport through natural wetland habitats. Fecal protozoans, including Cryptosporidium parvum, Giardia lamblia, and Toxoplasma gondii, are waterborne pathogens of humans and animals, which are carried by surface waters from land-based sources into coastal waters. This study evaluated key factors of coastal wetlands for the reduction of protozoal parasites in surface waters using settling column and recirculating mesocosm tank experiments. Settling column experiments evaluated the effects of salinity, temperature, and water type ("pure" versus "environmental") on the vertical settling velocities of C. parvum, G. lamblia, and T. gondii surrogates, with salinity and water type found to significantly affect settling of the parasites. The mesocosm tank experiments evaluated the effects of salinity, flow rate, and vegetation parameters on parasite and surrogate counts, with increased salinity and the presence of vegetation found to be significant factors for removal of parasites in a unidirectional transport wetland system. Overall, this study highlights the importance of water type, salinity, and vegetation parameters for pathogen transport within wetland systems, with implications for wetland management, restoration efforts, and coastal water quality. PMID:23315738

  12. Ecosystem attributes related to tidal wetland effects on water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findlay, S; Fischer, D

    2013-01-01

    Biogeochemical functioning of ecosystems is central to nutrient cycling, carbon balance, and several ecosystem services, yet it is not always clear why levels of function might vary among systems. Wetlands are widely recognized for their ability to alter concentrations of solutes and particles as water moves through them, but we have only general expectations for what attributes of wetlands are linked to variability in these processes. We examined changes in several water quality variables (dissolved oxygen, dissolved organic carbon, nutrients, and suspended particles) to ascertain which constituents are influenced during tidal exchange with a range of 17 tidal freshwater wetlands along the Hudson River, New York, USA. Many of the constituents showed significant differences among wetlands or between flooding and ebbing tidal concentrations, indicating wetland-mediated effects. For dissolved oxygen, the presence of even small proportional cover by submerged aquatic vegetation increased the concentration of dissolved oxygen in water returned to the main channel following a daytime tidal exchange. Nitrate concentrations showed consistent declines during ebbing tides, but the magnitude of decline varied greatly among sites. The proportional cover by graminoid-dominated high intertidal vegetation accounted for over 40% of the variation in nitrate decline. Knowing which water-quality alterations are associated with which attributes helps suggest underlying mechanisms and identifies what functions might be susceptible to change as sea level rise or salinity intrusion drives shifts in wetland vegetation cover. PMID:23600246

  13. Guidance manual for constructed wetlands.

    OpenAIRE

    Ellis, John Bryan; Shutes, R. Brian E.; Revitt, D. Mike

    2003-01-01

    This Guidance Manual was produced to provide up to date information on the design, costs, construction, operation and maintenance of constructed wetlands used for the treatment of highway runoff. Information is provided on the different types of wetlands and their mode of operation, the design and planting of a wetland system and the retrofitting of treatment structures, the performance and costs of wetlands and their operation and maintenance requirements. The benefits of wetlands in encoura...

  14. Wetland Loss and Research Orientation

    OpenAIRE

    Sullivan, Patrick J.; Ziyan Wang; Mark Bain; Xi Chen

    2012-01-01

    The literature analysis method used in this paper outlines variations in research topics. We tested whether research on wetlands is topic-centered, comparative of different wetland classes, or aimed at wetland loss. We analyzed research papers to identify clusters of research activity and interpreted these clusters relative to wetland function and type. Furthermore, a case study on 61 papers was conducted in order to find a critical path of wetland loss induced by different causes. From this ...

  15. Iowa Wetlands: Perceptions and Values

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher D. Azevedo; Joseph A. Herriges; Kling, Catherine L.

    2000-01-01

    Understanding how Iowans view the benefits and costs of wetlands preservation is key to making decisions about the future of wetlands in Iowa. To that end, the authors created "The Iowa Wetlands Survey." How the survey was designed and administered is described and the results are summarized. The survey reveals important information about how Iowans use wetlands, what they know about wetlands, and how much they value preserving them.

  16. Chemical diversity and spatial variability in myriad lakes in Nhecolandia in the Pantanal wetlands of Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Furian, S.; Martins, E. R. C.; Parizotto, T. M.; Rezende, A. T.; VICTORIA, R.L.; Barbiéro, Laurent

    2013-01-01

    Nearly 15,000 shallow, saline or freshwater lakes and ponds coexist in close proximity in the Nhecolandia, a 24,000 km(2) subregion of the Pantanal wetland in Brazil. This study aims to understand the origin of such diversity in surface water, which is a key aspect for the wetland services and biodiversity in the region. Both soil observations and water samples were collected at the regional or local scale and supplemented by previously published data sets. Statistical and geostatistical trea...

  17. Factors influencing CO2 and CH4 emissions from coastal wetlands in the Liaohe Delta, Northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, L.; Ye, S.; Yu, X.; Wei, M.; Krauss, K. W.; Brix, H.

    2015-08-01

    Many factors are known to influence greenhouse gas emissions from coastal wetlands, but it is still unclear which factors are most important under field conditions when they are all acting simultaneously. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of water table, salinity, soil temperature and vegetation on CH4 emissions and ecosystem respiration (Reco) from five coastal wetlands in the Liaohe Delta, Northeast China: two Phragmites australis (common reed) wetlands, two Suaeda salsa (sea blite) marshes and a rice (Oryza sativa) paddy. Throughout the growing season, the Suaeda wetlands were net CH4 sinks whereas the Phragmites wetlands and the rice paddy were net CH4 sources emitting 1.2-6.1 g CH4 m-2 yr-1. The Phragmites wetlands emitted the most CH4 per unit area and the most CH4 relative to CO2. The main controlling factors for the CH4 emissions were water table, temperature, soil organic carbon and salinity. The CH4 emission was accelerated at high and constant (or managed) water tables and decreased at water tables below the soil surface. High temperatures enhanced CH4 emissions, and emission rates were consistently low ( 18 ppt, the CH4 emission rates were always low (competed by sulphate-reducing bacteria. Saline Phragmites wetlands can, however, emit significant amounts of CH4 as CH4 produced in deep soil layers are transported through the air-space tissue of the plants to the atmosphere. The CH4 emission from coastal wetlands can be reduced by creating fluctuating water tables, including water tables below the soil surface, as well as by occasional flooding by high-salinity water. The effects of water management schemes on the biological communities in the wetlands must, however, be carefully studied prior to the management in order to avoid undesirable effects on the wetland communities.

  18. Numerical modelling to determine freshwater/saltwater interface configuration in a low-gradient coastal wetland aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, E.; Wolfert, M.

    2007-01-01

    A coupled hydrodynamic surface-water/groundwater model with salinity transport is used to examine the aquifer salinity interface in the coastal wetlands of Everglades National Park in Florida, USA. The hydrology differs from many other coastal areas in that inland water levels are often higher than land surface, the flow gradients are small, and, along parts of the coastline, the wetland is separated from the offshore waters by a natural embankment. Examining the model-simulated aquifer salinities along a transect that cuts the coastal embankment, a small zone of fresh groundwater is seen beneath the embankment, which varies seasonally in size and salinity. The simulated surface-water and groundwater levels suggest that this zone exists because of ponding of surface water at the coastal embankment, creating freshwater underflow to the offshore waters. The seasonal variability in the freshwater zone indicates that it is sensitive to the wetland flows and water levels. The small size of the zone in the simulation indicates that a model with a higher spatial resolution could probably depict the zone more accurately. The coastal ecology is strongly affected by the salinity of the shallow groundwater and the coastal freshwater zone is sensitive to wetland flows and levels. In this environment, predicting the aquifer salinity interface in coastal wetlands is important in examining the effects of changing water deliveries associated with ecosystem restoration efforts.

  19. Seasonal effect on ammonia nitrogen removal by constructed wetlands treating polluted river water in southern Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A pilot-scale constructed wetland (CW) system, combining a free water surface wetland and a subsurface wetland in series, was used to purify highly polluted river water. The concentrations of constituents varied seasonally. The effects of season-dependent parameters, such as temperature, mass loading rate and inflow salinity, on the removal of ammonia nitrogen (AN) in the wetland system were examined at a constant hydraulic loading rate, based on data from June 1998 to February 2000. AN removal of the CW varied cyclically with the seasons. The removal efficiency and the first-order volumetric removal rate constant (kV) increased exponentially with water temperature, yielding a high temperature coefficient (θ). However, the mass removal rate decreased exponentially as temperature increased. These contradictory results made the actual effect of temperature uncertain. The inhibition of high water salinity on AN removal was also unclear because kV (as well as kV20) and mass removal rate were inversely proportional to salinity. However, mass loading rate (MLR) predominantly affected both the removal efficiency and the mass removal rate of AN, both of which were factors that explicitly determined seasonality. A power equation, kV20' α MLR-n, was proposed to correct the variation of the mass loading rate in estimating kV and thus in designing a constructed wetland. - Seasonal variation of mass loading rate predominantly affected ammonia removal of constructed wetlands

  20. Ecohydrology of the coastal wetlands of Yucatan Peninsula are related with the submarine groundwater discharges?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera Silveira, J. A.; Morales-Ojeda, S. M.; Medina Gomez, I.; Kantun Manzano, C.; Caamal Sosa, J.; Marino-Tapia, I.; Adame, F.; Teutli Hernandez, C.

    2013-05-01

    Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) contributes significantly in the structure and function of coastal ecosystems favoring nutrients and salinity gradients, and with these spatial variability of wetland types and rates of primary production. However, the connectivity between SGD and coastal wetlands remains largely unexplored, especially in the tropics and karstic regions. On the other hand, coastal wetlands could represents exceptionally large carbon (C) stocks, whose protection and restoration can constitute an effective mitigation strategy for climate change. The Yucatán Peninsula is a low-relief carbonate platform and karst geology that permits fast rainfall infiltration, minimal surface flow, and high SGD., which is characterized by a continuum of freshwater wetland, mangroves, seagrasses meadows and coral reefs. Our studies around the Yucatan coastal wetlands related with the ecohydrology, suggest strong connectivity between SGD and mangrove and seagrasses structure and function. Some of the results indicate that SGD are the main source of nitrate and silicate favoring salinity gradient along the coastal lagoons and bays like estuaries. Mangrove forests show the best structural developments where a spring of groundwater is located, these types of mangroves are called locally "petenes" and show large C stocks. Respect to seagrasses, high shoots density has been observed at sites characterized by low salinity and peak nutrients concentration. Further research on groundwater flows among human activities on inland activities, coastal wetlands and marine ecosystems are required in order to develop management strategies for mitigation and adaptation to global climate change

  1. Will a rising sea sink some estuarine wetland ecosystems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenfell, S E; Callaway, R M; Grenfell, M C; Bertelli, C M; Mendzil, A F; Tew, I

    2016-06-01

    Sea-level rise associated with climate change presents a major challenge to plant diversity and ecosystem service provision in coastal wetlands. In this study, we investigate the effect of sea-level rise on benthos, vegetation, and ecosystem diversity in a tidal wetland in west Wales, the UK. Present relationships between plant communities and environmental variables were investigated through 50 plots at which vegetation (species and coverage), hydrological (surface or groundwater depth, conductivity) and soil (matrix chroma, presence or absence of mottles, organic content, particle size) data were collected. Benthic communities were sampled at intervals along a continuum from saline to freshwater. To ascertain future changes to the wetlands' hydrology, a GIS-based empirical model was developed. Using a LiDAR derived land surface, the relative effect of peat accumulation and rising sea levels were modelled over 200 years to determine how frequently portions of the wetland will be inundated by mean sea level, mean high water spring and mean high water neap conditions. The model takes into account changing extents of peat accumulation as hydrological conditions alter. Model results show that changes to the wetland hydrology will initially be slow. However, changes in frequency and extent of inundation reach a tipping point 125 to 175 years from 2010 due to the extremely low slope of the wetland. From then onwards, large portions of the wetland become flooded at every flood tide and saltwater intrusion becomes more common. This will result in a reduction in marsh biodiversity with plant communities switching toward less diverse and occasionally monospecific communities that are more salt tolerant. While the loss of tidal freshwater wetland is in line with global predictions, simulations suggest that in the Teifi marshes the loss will be slow at first, but then rapid. While there will be a decrease in biodiversity, the model indicated that at least for one ecosystem

  2. Wetlands; 1 : 1 000 000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most valuable swamps and other hydrophilic associations represent wetlands. In the years 1991 - 2000, 261 specialists carried out their inventory. Apart from these localities another 1,050 locally important wetlands were identified while more than 500 wetlands were identified geographically, i.e. without characterisation of flora and fauna, which prevented their categorisation. The source material used for mapping of wetlands was provided by the Centre for Wetland Mapping of the Slovak Union of Nature and Landscape Conservationists in Prievidza. Mapping of wetlands in Slovakia continues and its main aim is to: (1) cartographically process the yet not investigated territories, for instance, the districts of Humenne, Zlate Moravce, and other; (2) explore fauna and flora of more than 500 geographically identified wetlands; (3) update the state of biota of internationally and nationally important wetlands; (4) involve more specialists in inventory of wetlands. (authors)

  3. WaterWetlands_NWI

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — VCGI downloaded NWI quads from the US FWS web site and reprojected to VCS NAD83. NWI digital data files are records of wetlands location and classification as...

  4. Classics of Artifical Wetland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    By the construcfion of frraced fields over the past cenfuries,the Hani people created wetland in the ailao Mountains,an area where there originally was no such land ,which greatly improved the local ecosystem.

  5. Wetlands and infectious diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zimmerman Robert H.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a historical association between wetlands and infectious disease that has led to the modification of wetlands to prevent disease. At the same time there has been the development of water resources projects that increase the risk of disease. The demand for more water development projects and the increased pressure to make natural wetlands economically beneficial creates the need for an ecological approach to wetland management and health assessment. The environmental and health interactions are many. There is a need to take into account the landscape, spatial boundaries, and cross-boundary interactions in water development projects as well as alternative methods to provide water for human needs. The research challenges that need to be addressed are discussed.

  6. The conservation status of Moroccan wetlands with particular reference to waterbirds and to changes since 1978

    OpenAIRE

    Green, Andy J; El Hamzaoui, Mustapha; Aziz El Agbanic, Mohammed; Franchimont, Jacques

    2002-01-01

    Morgan made detailed descriptions of 24 major Moroccan wetlands visited in 1978, with a total area of 4529 ha (Morgan, N.C., 1982a. An ecological survey of standing waters in North West Africa: III. Site descriptions for Morocco. Biological Conservation, 24, 161–182.). We revisited these sites, and found that 25% of the wetland area had been destroyed by 1999. This loss was con- centrated in wetland types of low salinity ( < 5 g/l NaCl), with a 98% loss of seasonal mesohaline sites,...

  7. VEGETATION MAPPING IN WETLANDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. PEDROTTI

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The current work examines the main aspects of wetland vegetation mapping, which can be summarized as analysis of the ecological-vegetational (ecotone gradients; vegetation complexes; relationships between vegetation distribution and geomorphology; vegetation of the hydrographic basin lo which the wetland in question belongs; vegetation monitoring with help of four vegetation maps: phytosociological map of the real and potential vegetation, map of vegetation dynamical tendencies, map of vegetation series.

  8. Wetlands Reserve Program

    OpenAIRE

    US Government

    2007-01-01

    The Wetlands Reserve Program (WRP) is a voluntary program. It provides technical and financial assistance to eligible landowners to restore, enhance, and protect wetlands. Landowners have the option of enrolling eligible lands through permanent easements, 30-year easements, or restoration cost-share agreements. This program offers landowners an opportunity to establish, at minimal cost, long-term conservation and wildlife habitat enhancement practices and protection.

  9. Butterflies of the high altitude Atacama Desert: habitat use and conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma eDespland

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The butterfly fauna of the high-altitude desert of Northern Chile, though depauperate, shows high endemism, is poorly known and is of considerable conservation concern. This study surveys butterflies along the Andean slope between 2400 and 500 m asl (prepuna, puna and Andean steppe habitats as well as in high and low altitude wetlands and in the neoriparian vegetation of agricultural sites. We also include historical sightings from museum records. We compare abundances between altitudes, between natural and impacted sites, as well as between two sampling years with different precipitation regimes. The results confirm high altitudinal turnover and show greatest similarity between wetland and slope faunas at similar altitudes. Results also underscore vulnerability to weather fluctuations, particularly in the more arid low-altitude sites, where abundances were much lower in the low precipitation sampling season and several species were not observed at all. Finally, we show that some species have shifted to the neoriparian vegetation of the agricultural landscape, whereas others were only observed in less impacted habitats dominated by native plants. These results suggest that acclimation to novel habitats depends on larval host plant use. The traditional agricultural environment can provide habitat for many, but not all, native butterfly species, but an estimation of the value of these habitats requires better understanding of butterfly life-history strategies and relationships with host plants.

  10. Butterflies of the high-altitude Atacama Desert: habitat use and conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despland, Emma

    2014-01-01

    The butterfly fauna of the high-altitude desert of Northern Chile, though depauperate, shows high endemism, is poorly known and is of considerable conservation concern. This study surveys butterflies along the Andean slope between 2400 and 5000 m asl (prepuna, puna and Andean steppe habitats) as well as in high and low-altitude wetlands and in the neoriparian vegetation of agricultural sites. We also include historical sightings from museum records. We compare abundances between altitudes, between natural and impacted sites, as well as between two sampling years with different precipitation regimes. The results confirm high altitudinal turnover and show greatest similarity between wetland and slope faunas at similar altitudes. Results also underscore vulnerability to weather fluctuations, particularly in the more arid low-altitude sites, where abundances were much lower in the low precipitation sampling season and several species were not observed at all. Finally, we show that some species have shifted to the neoriparian vegetation of the agricultural landscape, whereas others were only observed in less impacted habitats dominated by native plants. These results suggest that acclimation to novel habitats depends on larval host plant use. The traditional agricultural environment can provide habitat for many, but not all, native butterfly species, but an estimation of the value of these habitats requires better understanding of butterfly life history strategies and relationships with host plants. PMID:25309583

  11. Metro Multnomah Wetlands - Multnomah Channel Wetland Restoration Monitoring Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Multnomah Channel Wetland Restoration Monitoring Project characterizes wetlands use by juvenile salmonids and other fishes in the Multnomah Channel Marsh...

  12. Wetlands & Deepwater Habitats - MO 2012 East West Gateway Wetlands (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Cowardin’s Classification of Wetlands and Deep Water Habitats of the United States (http://www.npwrc.usgs.gov/resource/wetlands/classwet/index.htm), together with...

  13. Venus Altitude Cycling Balloon Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The ISTAR Group ( IG) and team mate Thin Red Line Aerospace (TRLA) propose a Venus altitude cycling balloon (Venus ACB), an innovative superpressure balloon...

  14. Coronary heart disease at altitude.

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander, J K

    1994-01-01

    In the past, it has been assumed that some basic physiologic responses to altitude, exposure in coronary patients are comparable to those in normal young subjects. In fact there are similar changes in sympathetic activation, heart rate, and blood pressure early after ascent, with decrements in plasma volume, cardiac output, and stroke volume as acclimatization proceeds. These responses are described, and experience with coronary patients is reviewed. During the 1st 2 to 3 days at altitude, co...

  15. High-altitude pulmonary hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    X-Q. Xu; Z-C. Jing

    2009-01-01

    High-altitude pulmonary hypertension (HAPH) is a specific disease affecting populations that live at high elevations. The prevalence of HAPH among those residing at high altitudes needs to be further defined. Whereas reduction in nitric oxide production may be one mechanism for the development of HAPH, the roles of endothelin-1 and prostaglandin I2 pathways in the pathogenesis of HAPH deserve further study. Although some studies have suggested that genetic factors contribute to the pathogenes...

  16. Wetland Program Development Grants (WPDGs)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Wetland Grant Database (WGD) houses grant data for Wetland Program Development Grants (created by EPA in 1990 under the Clean Water Act Section 104(b)(3)...

  17. Salinity Management in Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Existing guidelines and standards for reclamation of saline soils and management to control salinity exist but have not been updated for over 25 years. In the past few years a looming water scarcity has resulted in questioning of the long term future of irrigation projects in arid and semi arid regi...

  18. Denitrification potential and its relation to organic carbon quality in three coastal wetland soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capacity of a wetland to remove nitrate through denitrification is controlled by its physico-chemical and biological characteristics. Understanding these characteristics will help better to guide beneficial use of wetlands in processing nitrate. This study was conducted to determine the relationship between soil organic carbon (SOC) quality and denitrification rate in Louisiana coastal wetlands. Composite soil samples of different depths were collected from three different wetlands along a salinity gradient, namely, bottomland forest swamp (FS), freshwater marsh (FM), and saline marsh (SM) located in the Barataria Basin estuary. Potential denitrification rate (PDR) was measured by acetylene inhibition method and distribution of carbon (C) moieties in organic C was determined by 13C solid-state NMR. Of the three wetlands, the FM soil profile exhibited the highest PDR on both unit weight and unit volume basis as compared to FS and SM. The FM also tended to yield higher amount of N2O as compared to the FS and SM especially at earlier stages of denitrification, suggesting incomplete reduction of NO3- at FM and potential for emission of N2O. Saline marsh soil profile had the lowest PDR on the unit volume basis. Increasing incubation concentration from 2 to 10 mg NO3--N L-1 increased PDR by 2 to 6 fold with the highest increase in the top horizons of FS and SM soils. Regression analysis showed that across these three wetland systems, organic C has significant effect in regulating PDR. Of the compositional C moieties, polysaccharides positively influenced denitrification rate whereas phenolics (likely phenolic adehydes and ketonics) negatively affected denitrification rate in these wetland soils. These results could have significant implication in integrated assessment and management of wetlands for treating nutrient-rich biosolids and wastewaters, non-point source agricultural runoff, and nitrate found in the diverted Mississippi River water used for coastal restoration

  19. Constructed Wetlands for Wastewater Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Jan Vymazal

    2010-01-01

    The first experiments using wetland macrophytes for wastewater treatment were carried out in Germany in the early 1950s. Since then, the constructed wetlands have evolved into a reliable wastewater treatment technology for various types of wastewater. The classification of constructed wetlands is based on: the vegetation type (emergent, submerged, floating leaved, free-floating); hydrology (free water surface and subsurface flow); and subsurface flow wetlands can be further classified accordi...

  20. Wetlands: The changing regulatory landscape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Protection of wetlands became a national issue in 1988 when President George Bush pledged no net loss of wetlands in the US under his open-quotes environmental presidency.close quotes As wetlands became a national issue, the job of protecting them became an obligation for many groups, including hydro-power developers. Now, when a site selected for development includes an area that may be classified as a wetland, the developer quickly discovers the importance of recognizing and protecting these natural habitats. Federal legislation severely limits development of wetland, and most states increase the restrictions with their own wetlands regulations. The difficulty of defining wetlands complicates federal and state enforcement. Land that appears to be dry may in fact be classified as a wetland. So, even if a site appears dry, potential hydro developers must confirm whether or not any jurisdictional wetlands are present. Regulated lands include much more than marshes and swamps. Further complicating the definition of wetlands, a recent court decision found that even artificially created wetlands, such as man-made ponds, may be subject to regulation. Hydro developers must be aware of current regulatory requirements before they consider development of any site that may contain wetlands. To be certain that a site is open-quotes buildableclose quotes from the standpoint of wetlands regulation, a developer must verify (with the help of state agencies) that the property does not contain any jurisdictional wetlands. If it does, the regulatory process before development becomes much more complicated. For the short term, uncertainty abounds and extreme caution is in order. Because the regulatory process has become so complex and an agreeable definition of wetlands so elusive, the trend among the Corps and collaborating agencies is to constrict nationwide permits in favor of narrowing the jurisdictional definition of wetlands

  1. IMPLICIT PRICES OF WETLAND EASEMENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Shultz, Steven D.; Taff, Steven J.

    2003-01-01

    Farmland prices were regressed against sale size, gross production values, surrounding land uses and wetlands, and perpetual wetland easements administered by United States Fish and Wildlife Service. Each additional wet wetland acre reduced average cropland values by $209 or 51% of average local cropland values while each additional wetland easement acre reduces average land values by $234 which corresponds to 57% of local cropland values.

  2. Threats to the Nyando Wetland.

    OpenAIRE

    Masese, F.O.; Raburu, P. O.; Kwena, F.

    2012-01-01

    All over the world, wetlands are hot spots of biodiversity and as a result they supply a plethora of goods and services to people living within them and in their adjoining areas. As a consequence, increased human pressure pose the greatest challenge to the well-being of wetlands, with Climate Change and nutrient pollution becoming increasingly important. Globally, the processes that impact on wetlands fall into five main categories that include the loss of wetland area, changes to the water r...

  3. Comprehensive Conservation Plan: Huron Wetland Management District, Madison Wetland Management District, Sand Lake Wetland Management District

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on Huron Wetland Management District, Madison Wetland Management District, and Sand Lake...

  4. Environmental hydrogeology of the southern sector of the Samborombon Bay wetland, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carol, Eleonora; Kruse, Eduardo; Pousa, Jorge

    2008-03-01

    The Samborombon Bay wetland is located on the west margin of the Rio de la Plata estuary, in the Province of Buenos Aires, Argentina. This paper analyses the geological, geomorphologic, soil and vegetation characteristics of the southernmost sector of this wetland and their influence on surface water and groundwater. The study area presents three hydrologic units: coastal dunes, sand sheets and coastal plain. Coastal dunes and sand sheets are recharge zones of high permeability with well-drained, non-saline soils, and a few surface water flows. Changes in the water table are related to rainfall. Groundwater in coastal dunes is Ca-Mg-HCO3 to Na-HCO3, and of low salinity (590 mg/l). Groundwater in sand sheets is mainly Na-HCO3 with a salinity of about 1,020 mg/l. The coastal plain exhibits medium to low permeability sediments, with submerged saline soils poorly drained. Groundwater is Na-Cl with a mean salinity of 16,502 mg/l. A surface hydrological network develops in the coastal plain. Surface water levels near the shoreline are affected by tidal fluctuations; far from the shoreline water accumulates because of poor drainage. Both sectors have Na-Cl water, but the former is more saline. Human intervention and sea level rise may affect the wetland severely.

  5. Surface water and groundwater characteristics in the wetlands of the Ajó River (Argentina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carol, E. S.; Dragani, W. C.; Kruse, E. E.; Pousa, J. L.

    2012-10-01

    Intertidal wetlands are complex hydrological environments in which surface water and groundwater interact periodically with tidal flows. This work analyzes how the tidal flow determines the hydrodynamics and salinity of surface water and groundwater at different depths in the intertidal wetland located in the marsh of the Ajó River. Water level and salinity measurements were obtained from the Ajó River, the channels discharging into the river and the phreatic aquifer. The results in the natural marsh indicate the presence of saline stratification and that the surface water-groundwater relationship varies with the tide. At low tide, the water table discharges into the surface watercourses, and when the high tide rises above the regional groundwater discharge level, the tidal flow contributes to the water table, which causes an increase in salinity in surface water and groundwater. When the high tide does not rise above the discharge level, the tidal flow only enters the groundwater at the mouth section and the salinity of the surface water and groundwater decreases from low tide to high tide. In the marsh areas excluded from the tidal cycle due to the presence of floodgates, the water table always discharges into the canals, and in the surface water and groundwater there is no presence of saline stratification. The results obtained make it possible to generate a conceptual model of hydrological behaviour which shows the hydrodynamic and hydrochemical complexity of intertidal wetlands.

  6. Impact of Climate Variability on the Hydrogeochemistry of Ecologically Important Prairie Wetlands and Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldhaber, M. B.; Mills, C. T.; Mushet, D. M.; Stricker, C. A.; Rover, J.

    2015-12-01

    The Prairie Pothole region encompasses 715,000 km2 of the north central US and south central Canada and contains millions of small wetlands and lakes. It sustains large populations of shore birds and migratory waterfowl. PPR ecology is influenced by wetland geochemistry, which can range dramatically over short distances (≤ 200m) from dilute Ca2+-HCO3- to saline Na+-Mg2+-SO42- compositions. These compositional differences result, in part, from long-term critical zone processes in upland areas coupled to groundwater inflow, but they are also influenced by climate. Climate impacts on the geochemistry of 167 wetlands/lakes from a 9700 km2 area of North Dakota (USA) were studied. The chemical composition of these wetlands was determined in the early 1970's during slightly dry climatic conditions and again in 2012-2013, a period of exceptional precipitation. Dilution dominated wetland geochemical trends. Concentrations of Cl-, Na+, K+, and Mg2+ generally decreased in 2012-2013 compared to earlier data. In contrast Ca2+ increased, and SO42- change was variable. The processes driving these modifications were evaluated using inverse (mass balance based) geochemical modeling. The decrease in the largely inert ion, Na+ by rainwater addition was used to approximate the net dilution factor of the wetlands which ranged to >9. This volume increase was associated with large expansions of wetland area determined from time-series Landsat data. Introducing dissolution of authigenic CaCO3, a known constituent of wetland sediments, matched the observed Ca2+ increase. Addition of SO42--enriched groundwater (composition determined from well analyses) was required to model wetlands with increased SO42-. Those wetlands with increased SO42- had more negative δ34SSO4 values, a result consistent with a previously established isotopically light marine pyrite source for groundwater SO42-. Understanding the evolution of wetland chemistry may aid in assessing future climatic impacts to the PPR.

  7. Wetlands for Wastewater Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yi; Martinez-Guerra, Edith; Gnaneswar Gude, Veera; Magbanua, Benjamin; Truax, Dennis D; Martin, James L

    2016-10-01

    An update on the current research and development of the treatment technologies, which utilize natural processes or passive components in wastewater treatment, is provided in this paper. The main focus is on wetland systems and their applications in wastewater treatment (as an advanced treatment unit or decentralized system), nutrient and pollutant removal (metals, industrial and emerging pollutants including pharmaceutical compounds). A summary of studies involving the effects of vegetation, wetland design and modeling, hybrid and innovative systems, storm water treatment and pathogen removal is also included. PMID:27620086

  8. Constructed Wetlands for Wastewater Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Vymazal

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The first experiments using wetland macrophytes for wastewater treatment were carried out in Germany in the early 1950s. Since then, the constructed wetlands have evolved into a reliable wastewater treatment technology for various types of wastewater. The classification of constructed wetlands is based on: the vegetation type (emergent, submerged, floating leaved, free-floating; hydrology (free water surface and subsurface flow; and subsurface flow wetlands can be further classified according to the flow direction (vertical or horizontal. In order to achieve better treatment performance, namely for nitrogen, various types of constructed wetlands could be combined into hybrid systems.

  9. High-altitude pulmonary hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X-Q. Xu

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available High-altitude pulmonary hypertension (HAPH is a specific disease affecting populations that live at high elevations. The prevalence of HAPH among those residing at high altitudes needs to be further defined. Whereas reduction in nitric oxide production may be one mechanism for the development of HAPH, the roles of endothelin-1 and prostaglandin I2 pathways in the pathogenesis of HAPH deserve further study. Although some studies have suggested that genetic factors contribute to the pathogenesis of HAPH, data published to date are insufficient for the identification of a significant number of gene polymorphims in HAPH. The clinical presentation of HAPH is nonspecific. Exertional dyspnoea is the most common symptom and signs related to right heart failure are common in late stages of HAPH. Echocardiography is the most useful screening tool and right heart catheterisation is the gold standard for the diagnosis of HAPH. The ideal management for HAPH is migration to lower altitudes. Phosphodiesterase 5 is an attractive drug target for the treatment of HAPH. In addition, acetazolamide is a promising therapeutic agent for high-altitude pulmonary hypertension. To date, no evidence has confirmed whether endothelin-receptor antagonists have efficacy in the treatment of high-altitude pulmonary hypertension.

  10. Differences in salinity tolerance of genetically distinct Phragmites australis clones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achenbach, Luciana; Eller, Franziska; Nguyen, Loc Xuan; Brix, Hans

    2013-01-01

    Different clones of the wetland grass Phragmites australis differ in their morphology and physiology, and hence in their ability to cope with environmental stress. We analysed the responses of 15 P. australis clones with distinct ploidy levels (PLs) (4n, 6n, 8n, 10n, 12n) and geographic origins (Romania, Russia, Japan, Czech Republic, Australia) to step-wise increased salinity (8, 16, 24, 32, 40, 56 and 72 ppt). Shoot elongation rate, photosynthesis and plant part-specific ion accumulation were studied in order to assess if traits associated with salinity tolerance can be related to the genetic background and the geographic origin of the clones. Salt stress affected all clones, but at different rates. The maximum height was reduced from 1860 mm in control plants to 660 mm at 40 ppt salinity. The shoot elongation rate of salt-exposed plants varied significantly between clones until 40 ppt salinity. The light-saturated photosynthesis rate (Pmax) was stimulated by a salinity of 8 ppt, but decreased significantly at higher salinities. The stomatal conductance (gs) and the transpiration rate (E) decreased with increasing salinity. Only three clones survived at 72 ppt salinity, although their rates of photosynthesis were strongly inhibited. The roots and basal leaves of the salt-exposed plants accumulated high concentrations of water-extractable Na+ (1646 and 1004 µmol g−1 dry mass (DM), respectively) and Cl− (1876 and 1400 µmol g−1 DM, respectively). The concentrations of water-extractable Mg2+ and Ca2+ were reduced in salt-exposed plants compared with controls. The variation of all the measured parameters was higher among clones than among PLs. We conclude that the salinity tolerance of distinct P. australis clones varies widely and can be partially attributed to their longitudinal geographic origin, but not to PL. Further investigation will help in improving the understanding of this species' salt tolerance mechanisms and their connection to genetic factors.

  11. Literature Review and Database of Relations Between Salinity and Aquatic Biota: Applications to Bowdoin National Wildlife Refuge, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleason, Robert A.; Tangen, Brian A.; Laubhan, Murray K.; Finocchiaro, Raymond G.; Stamm, John F.

    2009-01-01

    Long-term accumulation of salts in wetlands at Bowdoin National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), Mont., has raised concern among wetland managers that increasing salinity may threaten plant and invertebrate communities that provide important habitat and food resources for migratory waterfowl. Currently, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) is evaluating various water management strategies to help maintain suitable ranges of salinity to sustain plant and invertebrate resources of importance to wildlife. To support this evaluation, the USFWS requested that the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) provide information on salinity ranges of water and soil for common plants and invertebrates on Bowdoin NWR lands. To address this need, we conducted a search of the literature on occurrences of plants and invertebrates in relation to salinity and pH of the water and soil. The compiled literature was used to (1) provide a general overview of salinity concepts, (2) document published tolerances and adaptations of biota to salinity, (3) develop databases that the USFWS can use to summarize the range of reported salinity values associated with plant and invertebrate taxa, and (4) perform database summaries that describe reported salinity ranges associated with plants and invertebrates at Bowdoin NWR. The purpose of this report is to synthesize information to facilitate a better understanding of the ecological relations between salinity and flora and fauna when developing wetland management strategies. A primary focus of this report is to provide information to help evaluate and address salinity issues at Bowdoin NWR; however, the accompanying databases, as well as concepts and information discussed, are applicable to other areas or refuges. The accompanying databases include salinity values reported for 411 plant taxa and 330 invertebrate taxa. The databases are available in Microsoft Excel version 2007 (http://pubs.usgs.gov/sir/2009/5098/downloads/databases_21april2009.xls) and contain

  12. Hormonal Changes Under Altitude Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.D Brahmachari

    1977-04-01

    Full Text Available The separate effects of exposure for six hours to cold (8 degree Celsius, hypoxia (4267 m. and simulated altitude (8 degree Celsius at 4267 m.have been studied on ten human subjects in a decompression chamber, with respect to the changes in blood cortisol, ADH and urinary catecholamines. Changes in blood cortisol, PBI, ADH urinary excretion of 17-keto steroids and urine volume have been recorded on another ten subjects on acute exposure to high altitude (3505 m.. Changes in the same parameters alongwith urinary testosterone level, have been recorded on another 20 subjects on prolonged exposure for two years to high altitude (3505 m.. The results have been discussed.

  13. Lepidium latifolium reproductive potential and seed dispersal along salinity and moisture gradients

    OpenAIRE

    Leininger, Samuel P.; Foin, Theodore C.

    2009-01-01

    Lepidium latifolium is an aggressive plant species that is invading both wetlands and uplands across a wide range of salinities. This study examined how salinity and moisture gradients influence the potential for invasion by L. latifolium. Three sites in the San Francisco Bay Delta with varying salinity and moisture levels were chosen as research sites. These sites corresponded to a dry (18.32%) freshwater (3.88‰) site, a wet (40.53%) brackish (23.16‰) site, and a moderately wet (38.33%) sali...

  14. Altitude precipitation gradient in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živković Nenad M.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Using average annual precipitations data for period 1961-90. from all rain gauges in Serbia, southern of Sava and Danube rivers, the map of altitude precipitations gradient is constructed. 59 regions homogeneous for relation X=f(H are obtained by regression analysis method (two-dimensional type, X precipitation height and H - altitude. Some new method are applied, some limitations are shown, some regularities are found in disposition of precipitation growth and it is indicated on practical application of this method in physico-geographical research.

  15. Uganda Breweries Limited National Wetlands Program

    OpenAIRE

    Uganda Breweries Limited

    2007-01-01

    This is a borderline scheme that presents an interesting example of how the private sector recognises wetland services. Uganda Breweries is taking steps to reduce its pollution levels in order to reduce impact on wetlands, and is also supporting the National Wetland Programme. Cash payments to National Wetlands Programme (NWP) to aid in the management of the wetlands and funding environmental education programmes.

  16. A Wetland Camp for Upland Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soniat, Lyle; Duggan, Suzanne

    1995-01-01

    Discusses a workshop to provide an opportunity for north Louisiana teachers to learn firsthand about Louisiana's coastal wetlands. The multidisciplinary sessions focused on coastal wetland ecosystems, covering wetland productivity, the functions and value of wetlands, current wetland issues, water quality, botany, geology, fisheries management,…

  17. Groundwater salinity study in the Mekong Delta using isotope techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental isotopes D, 18O and chemical composition were used for study of recharge and salinization of groundwater in the are located between Bassac and Mekong Rivers. The results showed that: (a) Pleistocene aquifers are recharged through flood plains and outcrops located at the same altitude. The sanility of groundwater in these aquifers is mostly due to dissolution of the aquifer material, (b) Pliocene and Miocene aquifers receive recharge through outcrops located at the higher altitude on the northeast extension of the Delta and Cambodia. The salinity of groundwater in the coastal region of the aquifer is attributable to sea water intrusion. There appears to be significant retention of sea water in the coastal sediment during intrusion. (Author)

  18. User-Friendly Predictive Modeling of Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Fluxes and Carbon Storage in Tidal Wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishtiaq, K. S.; Abdul-Aziz, O. I.

    2015-12-01

    We developed user-friendly empirical models to predict instantaneous fluxes of CO2 and CH4 from coastal wetlands based on a small set of dominant hydro-climatic and environmental drivers (e.g., photosynthetically active radiation, soil temperature, water depth, and soil salinity). The dominant predictor variables were systematically identified by applying a robust data-analytics framework on a wide range of possible environmental variables driving wetland greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes. The method comprised of a multi-layered data-analytics framework, including Pearson correlation analysis, explanatory principal component and factor analyses, and partial least squares regression modeling. The identified dominant predictors were finally utilized to develop power-law based non-linear regression models to predict CO2 and CH4 fluxes under different climatic, land use (nitrogen gradient), tidal hydrology and salinity conditions. Four different tidal wetlands of Waquoit Bay, MA were considered as the case study sites to identify the dominant drivers and evaluate model performance. The study sites were dominated by native Spartina Alterniflora and characterized by frequent flooding and high saline conditions. The model estimated the potential net ecosystem carbon balance (NECB) both in gC/m2 and metric tonC/hectare by up-scaling the instantaneous predicted fluxes to the growing season and accounting for the lateral C flux exchanges between the wetlands and estuary. The entire model was presented in a single Excel spreadsheet as a user-friendly ecological engineering tool. The model can aid the development of appropriate GHG offset protocols for setting monitoring plans for tidal wetland restoration and maintenance projects. The model can also be used to estimate wetland GHG fluxes and potential carbon storage under various IPCC climate change and sea level rise scenarios; facilitating an appropriate management of carbon stocks in tidal wetlands and their incorporation into a

  19. Draft Comprehensive Conservation Plan and Environmental Assessment: Huron Wetland Management District, Madison Wetland Management District, Sand Lake Wetland Management District

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan CCP will guide management on Huron Wetland Management District, Madison Wetland Management District, and Sand Lake Wetland...

  20. Natural wetland emissions of methylated trace elements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vriens, B.; Lenz, M.; Charlet, L.; Berg, M.; Winkel, L.H.E.

    2014-01-01

    Natural wetlands are well known for their significant methane emissions. However, trace element emissions via biomethylation and subsequent volatilization from pristine wetlands are virtually unstudied, even though wetlands constitute large reservoirs for trace elements. Here we show that the averag

  1. Factors influencing CO2 and CH4 emissions from coastal wetlands in the Liaohe Delta, Northeast China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, L.; Ye, S.; Wei, M.;

    2015-01-01

    Many factors are known to influence greenhouse gas emissions from coastal wetlands, but it is still unclear which factors are most important under field conditions when they are all acting simultaneously. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of water table, salinity, soil...... temperature and vegetation on CH4 emissions and ecosystem respiration (Reco) from five coastal wetlands in the Liaohe Delta, northeast China: two Phragmites australis (common reed) wetlands, two Suaeda salsa (sea blite) marshes and a rice (Oryza sativa) paddy. Throughout the growing season, the Suaeda...... wetlands were net CH4 sinks whereas the Phragmites wetlands and the rice paddy were net CH4 sources emitting 1.2–6.1 g CH4 m−2 y−1. The Phragmites wetlands emitted the most CH4 per unit area and the most CH4 relative to CO2. The main controlling factors for the CH4 emissions were water table, temperature...

  2. Nyando Wetland in the Future.

    OpenAIRE

    Opaa, B.O.; Okotto-Okotto, J.; Nyandiga, C.O.; Masese, F.O.

    2012-01-01

    The future of Nyando Wetland seem to be at cross-roads between community livelihood support and biodiversity conservation. This important wetland ecosystem, currently threatened by pollution from both diffuse and point sources, Climate Change and variability, poverty manifesting itself as low income, knowledge and food insecurity portend serious and deleterious effects on the ecosystem integrity as well as the socioeconomic well-being of Nyando Wetland-dependent communities. The degradation o...

  3. Restoration of ailing wetlands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswald J Schmitz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available It is widely held that humankind's destructive tendencies when exploiting natural resources leads to irreparable harm to the environment. Yet, this thinking runs counter to evidence that many ecological systems damaged by severe natural environmental disturbances (e.g., hurricanes can restore themselves via processes of natural recovery. The emerging field of restoration ecology is capitalizing on the natural restorative tendencies of ecological systems to build a science of repairing the harm inflicted by humans on natural environment. Evidence for this, for example, comes from a new meta-analysis of 124 studies that synthesizes recovery of impacted wetlands worldwide. While it may take up to two human generations to see full recovery, there is promise, given human will, to restore many damaged wetlands worldwide.

  4. Sleep and Breathing at High Altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickramasinghe, Himanshu; Anholm, James D.

    1999-01-01

    Sleep at high altitude is characterized by poor subjective quality, increased awakenings, frequent brief arousals, marked nocturnal hypoxemia, and periodic breathing. A change in sleep architecture with an increase in light sleep and decreasing slow-wave and REM sleep have been demonstrated. Periodic breathing with central apnea is almost universally seen amongst sojourners to high altitude, although it is far less common in long-standing high altitude dwellers. Hypobaric hypoxia in concert with periodic breathing appears to be the principal cause of sleep disruption at altitude. Increased sleep fragmentation accounts for the poor sleep quality and may account for some of the worsened daytime performance at high altitude. Hypoxic sleep disruption contributes to the symptoms of acute mountain sickness. Hypoxemia at high altitude is most severe during sleep. Acetazolamide improves sleep, AMS symptoms, and hypoxemia at high altitude. Low doses of a short acting benzodiazepine (temazepam) may also be useful in improving sleep in high altitude. PMID:11898114

  5. Altitude, Acute Mountain Sickness and Headache

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Follow us on Instagram DONATE TODAY Altitude, Acute Mountain Sickness and Headache Abuse, Maltreatment, and PTSD and Their Relationship to Migraine Altitude, Acute Mountain Sickness and Headache Alcohol and Migraine Anxiety and ...

  6. Variability of soil organic carbon reservation capability between coastal salt marsh and riverside freshwater wetland in Chongming Dongtan and its microbial mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Hu; Yanli Li; Lei Wang; Yushu Tang; Jinhai Chen; Xiaohua Fu; Yiquan Le; Jihua Wu

    2012-01-01

    Two representative zones in Chongming Dongtan which faced the Yangtze River and East China Sea respectively were selected to study the variability of soil organic carbon (SOC) reservation capability between coastal wetland and riverside wetland in the Chongming Dongtan wetland as well as its mechanism by analyzing soil characteristics and plant biomass.The results showed the SOC content of riverside wetland was only 48.61% (P =0.000 < 0.05) that of coastal wetland.As the organic matter inputs from plant litter of the coastal wetland and riverside wetland were approximately the same,the higher soil microbial respiration (SMR) of riverside wetland led to its lower SOC reservation capability.In the riverside wetland,the high soil microbial biomass,higher proportion of β-Proteobacteria,which have strong carbon metabolism activity and the existence of some specific aerobic heterotrophic bacteria such as Bacilli and uncultured Lactococcus,were the important reasons for the higher SMR compared to the coastal wetland.There were additional differences in soil physical and chemical characteristics between the coastal wetland and riverside wetlands.Path analysis of predominant bacteria and microbial biomass showed that soil salinity influenced β-Proteobacteria and microbial biomass most negatively among these physical and chemical factors.Therefore the low salinity of the riverside area was suitable for the growth of microorganisms,especially β-Proteobacteria and some specific bacteria,which led to the high SMR and low SOC reservation capability when compared to the coastal area.

  7. Soil morphological control on saline and freshwater lake hydrogeochemistry in the Pantanal of Nhecolândia, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Barbiero, Laurent; Rezende Filho, A.,; Furquim, S.A.C.; Furian, S.; Sakamoto, Arnaldo; Vallès, Vincent; Graham, Robert; Fort, Monique; Ferreira, Rosely,; Queiroz Neto, José Pereira

    2008-01-01

    Joint pedological, geochemical, hydrological and geophysical investigations were performed to study the coexistence or saline and freshwater lakes in close proximity and similar climatic conditions in the Nhecolandia region, Pantanal wetlands in Brazil. The saline lakes are concentrically surrounded by green sandy loam horizons, which cause differential hydrological regimes. Mg-calcite, K-silicates, and amorphous silica precipitate in the soil cover, whereas Mg-silicates and more soluble Na-c...

  8. Cold Stress at High Altitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. C. Majumdar

    1983-04-01

    Full Text Available The problem of cold at high altitudes has been analysed from a purely physical standpoint. It has been shown that Siple's Wind-Chill Index is not reliable because (i it does not make use of the well established principles governing the physical processes of heat transfer by convection and radiation, and (ii it assumes that the mean radiant temperature of the surroundings is the same as the ambient dry bulb temperature. A Cold Stress Index has been proposed which is likely to be a more reliable guide for assessing the climatic hazards of high altitude environments. The Index can be quickly estimated with the help of two nomograms devised for the purpose.

  9. Estimating environmental conditions affecting protozoal pathogen removal in surface water wetland systems using a multi-scale, model-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Miles E; Hogan, Jennifer; Smith, Woutrina A; Oates, Stori C; Miller, Melissa A; Hardin, Dane; Shapiro, Karen; Los Huertos, Marc; Conrad, Patricia A; Dominik, Clare; Watson, Fred G R

    2014-09-15

    Cryptosporidium parvum, Giardia lamblia, and Toxoplasma gondii are waterborne protozoal pathogens distributed worldwide and empirical evidence suggests that wetlands reduce the concentrations of these pathogens under certain environmental conditions. The goal of this study was to evaluate how protozoal removal in surface water is affected by the water temperature, turbidity, salinity, and vegetation cover of wetlands in the Monterey Bay region of California. To examine how protozoal removal was affected by these environmental factors, we conducted observational experiments at three primary spatial scales: settling columns, recirculating wetland mesocosm tanks, and an experimental research wetland (Molera Wetland). Simultaneously, we developed a protozoal transport model for surface water to simulate the settling columns, the mesocosm tanks, and the Molera Wetland. With a high degree of uncertainty expected in the model predictions and field observations, we developed the model within a Bayesian statistical framework. We found protozoal removal increased when water flowed through vegetation, and with higher levels of turbidity, salinity, and temperature. Protozoal removal in surface water was maximized (~0.1 hour(-1)) when flowing through emergent vegetation at 2% cover, and with a vegetation contact time of ~30 minutes compared to the effects of temperature, salinity, and turbidity. Our studies revealed that an increase in vegetated wetland area, with water moving through vegetation, would likely improve regional water quality through the reduction of fecal protozoal pathogen loads. PMID:25016109

  10. Altitude Control Feasibility for a Seaweed Harvester

    OpenAIRE

    Gallieri, Marco; Ringwood, John

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, the feasibility of the altitude control of a seaweed harvester is examined. The harvesting system consists of a vessel and a suspended harvester device, the altitude of which is controlled by a winch. The goal of the control action is to maintain the harvester at a constant altitude with respect to the seabed profile. A control strategy is proposed, including a vessel motion feed-forward action, using a motion reference unit (MRU), and an altitude feedback ...

  11. Saline groundwater in crystalline bedrock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The State-of-art report describes research made on deep saline groundwaters and brines found in crystalline bedrock, mainly in site studies for nuclear waste disposal. The occurrence, definitions and classifications of saline groundwaters are reviewed with a special emphasis on the different theories concerning the origins of saline groundwaters. Studies of the saline groundwaters in Finland and Sweden have been reviewed more thoroughly. Also the mixing of different bodies of groundwaters, observations of the contact of saline groundwaters and permafrost, and the geochemical modelling of saline groundwaters as well as the future trends of research have been discussed. (orig.)

  12. Impact of municipal wastewater effluent on seed bank response and soils excavated from a wetland impoundment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finocchiaro, R.G.; Kremer, R.J.; Fredrickson, L.H.

    2009-01-01

    Intensive management of wetlands to improve wildlife habitat typically includes the manipulation of water depth, duration, and timing to promote desired vegetation communities. Increased societal, industrial, and agricultural demands for water may encourage the use of alternative sources such as wastewater effluents in managed wetlands. However, water quality is commonly overlooked as an influence on wetland soil seed banks and soils. In four separate greenhouse trials conducted over a 2-yr period, we examined the effects of municipal wastewater effluent (WWE) on vegetation of wetland seed banks and soils excavated from a wildlife management area in Missouri, USA. We used microcosms filled with one of two soil materials and irrigated with WWE, Missouri River water, or deionized water to simulate moist-soil conditions. Vegetation that germinated from the soil seed bank was allowed to grow in microcosms for approximately 100 d. Vegetative taxa richness, plant density, and biomass were significantly reduced in WWE-irrigated soil materials compared with other water sources. Salinity and sodicity rapidly increased in WWE-irrigated microcosms and probably was responsible for inhibiting germination or interfering with seedling development. Our results indicate that irrigation with WWE promoted saline-sodic soil conditions, which alters the vegetation community by inhibiting germination or seedling development. ?? 2009, The Society of Wetland Scientists.

  13. Predicted water quality of oil sands reclamation wetlands : impact of physical design and hydrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although engineered wetlands can be used as treatment systems in the reclamation of oil sands mines, a variety of factors must be considered to improve the biological functioning of many oil sands reclamation landscapes. Key factors in the control of concentrations of dissolved substances include area, depth, shape, surrounding landscape material and contributing water quality and quantity. Seasonal cycles of precipitation and ice cover also require consideration in the planning of wetlands ecosystems. This paper presented details of a model designed to predict constituent concentrations in planned wetlands based on probable inflow and processes. Input variables consisted of key substances and hydrological factors that may be encountered on reclaimed landscapes. The model was constructed to perform sensitivity analyses of wetlands with respect to total dissolved solids (TDS), major ions, and naphthenic acids concentrations. Inputs and assumptions drawn from previous environmental impact assessments completed for proposed and approved oil sands projects were used. Results suggested that wetlands volume is an important factor in the moderation of peak flows and substance decay. The predictions generated by the model suggested that wetlands size, tailings and sandcap placement schedules may be manipulated to achieve desired wetlands salinities. It was observed that the proportion of the watershed covered by specific land types can affect both initial and future concentrations. Long-term climate change that results in 15 per cent more or less runoff was predicted to have little effect on wetlands concentrations, although concentrations may rise during periodic droughts. It was concluded that site-specific modelling and careful planning is needed to achieve desired water quality for the creation of engineered wetlands. 18 refs., 3 tabs., 3 figs

  14. Relationships between Spatial Metrics and Plant Diversity in Constructed Freshwater Wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Erika C; Petersen, John E; Grossman, Jake J; Allen, George A; Benzing, David H

    2015-01-01

    The diversity of plant species and their distribution in space are both thought to have important effects on the function of wetland ecosystems. However, knowledge of the relationships between plant species and spatial diversity remains incomplete. In this study, we investigated relationships between spatial pattern and plant species diversity over a five year period following the initial restoration of experimental wetland ecosystems. In 2003, six identical and hydrologically-isolated 0.18 ha wetland "cells" were constructed in former farmland in northeast Ohio. The systems were subjected to planting treatments that resulted in different levels of vascular plant species diversity among cells. Plant species diversity was assessed through annual inventories. Plant spatial pattern was assessed by digitizing low-altitude aerial photographs taken at the same time as the inventories. Diversity metrics derived from the inventories were significantly related to certain spatial metrics derived from the photographs, including cover type diversity and contagion. We found that wetlands with high cover type diversity harbor higher plant species diversity than wetlands with fewer types of patches. We also found significant relationships between plant species diversity and spatial patterning of patch types, but the direction of the effect differed depending on the diversity metric used. Links between diversity and spatial pattern observed in this study suggest that high-resolution aerial imagery may provide wetland scientists with a useful tool for assessing plant diversity. PMID:26296205

  15. WASTEWATER TREATMENT BY ARTIFICIAL WETLANDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies of artificial wetlands at Santee, California demonstrated the capacity of wetlands systems for integrated secondary and advanced treatment of municipal wastewaters. When receiving a blend of primary and secondary wastewaters at a blend ratio of 1:2 (6 cm per day: 12 cm pe...

  16. Climate Change and Intertidal Wetlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline M. Ross

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Intertidal wetlands are recognised for the provision of a range of valued ecosystem services. The two major categories of intertidal wetlands discussed in this contribution are saltmarshes and mangrove forests. Intertidal wetlands are under threat from a range of anthropogenic causes, some site-specific, others acting globally. Globally acting factors include climate change and its driving cause—the increasing atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases. One direct consequence of climate change will be global sea level rise due to thermal expansion of the oceans, and, in the longer term, the melting of ice caps and glaciers. The relative sea level rise experienced at any one locality will be affected by a range of factors, as will the response of intertidal wetlands to the change in sea level. If relative sea level is rising and sedimentation within intertidal wetlands does not keep pace, then there will be loss of intertidal wetlands from the seaward edge, with survival of the ecosystems only possible if they can retreat inland. When retreat is not possible, the wetland area will decline in response to the “squeeze” experienced. Any changes to intertidal wetland vegetation, as a consequence of climate change, will have flow on effects to biota, while changes to biota will affect intertidal vegetation. Wetland biota may respond to climate change by shifting in distribution and abundance landward, evolving or becoming extinct. In addition, impacts from ocean acidification and warming are predicted to affect the fertilisation, larval development, growth and survival of intertidal wetland biota including macroinvertebrates, such as molluscs and crabs, and vertebrates such as fish and potentially birds. The capacity of organisms to move and adapt will depend on their life history characteristics, phenotypic plasticity, genetic variability, inheritability of adaptive characteristics, and the predicted rates of environmental change.

  17. Saline Systems highlights for 2006

    OpenAIRE

    DasSarma, Shiladitya

    2007-01-01

    Saline Systems is a journal devoted to both basic and applied studies of saline and hypersaline environments and their biodiversity. Here, I review the reports and commentaries published in the journal in 2006, including some exploring the geochemistry of saline estuaries, lakes, and ponds, others on the ecology and molecular biology of the indigenous halophilic organisms, and still others addressing the environmental challenges facing saline environments. Several studies are relevant to appl...

  18. Hydrology of Mid-Atlantic Freshwater Wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydrology is a key variable in the structure and function of a wetland; it is a primary determinant of wetland type, and it drives many of the functions a wetland performs and in turn the services it provides. However, wetland hydrology has been understudied. Efforts by Riparia s...

  19. EFFICIENCY OF NITROGEN REMOVAL IN CONSTRUCTED WETLAND:A SIMULATION STUDY IN THE WEST JINLIN,CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Hu-Cheng; YU Mu-Qing; TIAN Wei; YU Jian; FU You-Bao; WANG Xiao-Dong

    2004-01-01

    Plenty of inorganic nitrogen in wastewater can cause the eutrophication in water bodies, so it is an important task to remove nitrogen. Purification role was realized by absorption, filtration, depositon, evaporation, nitrification and denitrification of microbes. Although the studies of Phragmites austrilis bed in the constructed wetland are popular, the purification performances of constructed wetland filled by saline-alkali soil substrate are less reported. In the paper, the purification efficiency of nitrogen with Phragmites austrilis bed in the constructed wetland filled by saline-alkali soil substrate was discussed through a simulation study. Results to date indicated that the first order plug flow model was adequate to describe the nitrogen removal. The experiment showed that the diminishing concentration of TN, NO2-N, NO3-N, NH4-N were closely related to hydrological retention time (HRT), the correlation coefficient was Re = 0.98499, R2 = 0. 9911, R2 = 0. 89407 and R2 = 0. 95459, respectively. According to the data, the most suitable hydrological retention time (HRT) for this kind of constructed wetland should be determined to 4 days. In addition, the experiment showed the purification efficiency of nitrogen has very broad range and drastic vibration, TN( 17 % - 79%), NO2-N (33 % - 98 %), NO3-N( 13 % - 93 %), NH4-N (28 % - 64%). The study will promote wetland's design and operation procedures in large saline-alkaline soil areas.

  20. 77 FR 63326 - Huron Wetland Management District, Madison Wetland Management District, and Sand Lake Wetland...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-16

    ... in the Federal Register (76 FR 65525, October 21, 2011). Huron Wetland Management District was..., Madison, and Sand Lake Wetland Management Districts from October 21, 2011 to November 21, 2011 (76 FR... this process through a notice in the Federal Register (73 FR 53439, September 16, 2008). We...

  1. Responds of soil enzfyme activities of degraded coastal saline wetlands to irrigation with treated paper mill effluent%造纸废水灌溉对滨海退化盐碱湿地土壤酶活性的响应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏孟婧; 苗颖; 陆兆华; 谢国莉; 裴定宇

    2012-01-01

    经生物塘处理后的造纸废水矿化度低,有机物质含量高,可用来改善滨海盐碱土壤.研究了不同量(每次灌溉深度为5、10、15和20 cm)处理后的造纸废水灌溉对土壤脲酶、磷酸酶、蔗糖酶、脱氢酶和过氧化氢酶活性的影响,通过酶活性的变化来反映对土壤改良的效果并寻求最佳灌溉量.结果表明:5种土壤酶上层(0-10 cm)和中层土壤(10-20 cm)的活性大于下层土壤(20-30 cm),造纸废水灌溉没有改变土壤酶活性在不同土层的分布规律;灌溉造纸废水对土壤脲酶和磷酸酶活性的提高主要发生在表层土壤,而对蔗糖酶、脱氢酶以及过氧化氢酶活性的提高主要发生在上层和中层土壤;20 cm灌溉对下层土壤酶活性的提高最明显.5种酶活性均受温度降雨等因素影响,最大值出现在8月份.总体上,灌溉量的增加能提高酶活性的增加程度,最佳灌溉量为20 cm,土壤脲酶、磷酸酶、蔗糖酶和脱氢酶相对对照分别提高了70.0%、30.9%、56.2%、135.2%和20.84%.酶活性与土壤盐碱度和微生物代谢商(qCO2)显著负相关,与速效磷和微生物量碳显著正相关,与有机质和速效氮相关性不显著.%Yellow River Delta, which is surrounded by Bohai Sea to the north and Laizhou Bay to the east, is one of the three largest deltas in China. However, large amounts of water and salts that were brought by penetration of water in the Yellow River and encroachment of sea water resulted in the rise of groundwater level and salinization. Under the influence of strong evaporation, the soil degraded into saline soil. Currently, up to around 1670 km of land have turned into saline soil in the Yellow River Delta. Thus, it is urgent to ameliorate the saline soil for the assurance of ecological security and coordinated development of economy and ecology. Treated paper mill effluent was low in salinity and high in organic matter, and could be used to restore saline soil

  2. Treatment of industrial effluents in constructed wetlands: Challenges, operational strategies and overall performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application of constructed wetlands (CWs) has significantly expanded to treatment of various industrial effluents, but knowledge in this field is still insufficiently summarized. This review is accordingly necessary to better understand this state-of-the-art technology for further design development and new ideas. Full-scale cases of CWs for treating various industrial effluents are summarized, and challenges including high organic loading, salinity, extreme pH, and low biodegradability and color are evaluated. Even horizontal flow CWs are widely used because of their passive operation, tolerance to high organic loading, and decolorization capacity, free water surface flow CWs are effective for treating oil field/refinery and milking parlor/cheese making wastewater for settlement of total suspended solids, oil, and grease. Proper pretreatment, inflow dilutions through re-circulated effluent, pH adjustment, plant selection and intensifications in the wetland bed, such as aeration and bioaugmentation, are recommended according to the specific characteristics of industrial effluents. - Highlights: • Knowledge on use of wetlands treating various industrial effluents is insufficient. • Updated concept and functional mechanisms in wetlands were summarized. • Benefits and limitations of wetlands treating industrial effluents were evaluated. • Effluent recirculation and intensifications in the wetlands are recommended. - A comprehensive knowledge on application of CWs for treatment of various industrial effluents is reviewed in aspects of challenges, operational strategies and overall performance

  3. Reclamation design for a fen wetland on a tailings sand deposit in northern Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wytrykush, C. [Syncrude Canada Ltd., Edmonton, AB (Canada); McKenna, G.T.; Papini, A.G.; Scordo, E.B. [BGC Engineering Inc., Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This paper discussed the first attempt at designing and constructing a fen wetland and surrounding watershed on a soft tailings deposit in the Athabasca oil sands region. Among the main design components were upland hummocks, vegetated swales, a pond for water storage, a fen wetland, and 2 perched fens. For each component, reclamation prescriptions were developed using methods from Syncrude's regulatory approvals for upland forests, advice from technical experts on wetlands, and results from an analogous wetland research program. Prior to the reclamation, a long-term research program was started to appraise the response of wetland plants to different operation treatments, including placement depth, material type, compaction, and salinity. Operation techniques were developed to glean live in-situ peat material from the top layer of the boreal forest for use in wetland reclamation. Design topography and soil material types were taken into account in developing the prescriptions, which were used to test specific research hypotheses within the instrumented research watershed.

  4. Using Transcriptomics to Identify Differential Gene Expression in Response to Salinity among Australian Phragmites australis Clones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Gareth D.; Hall, Nathan E.; Gendall, Anthony R.; Boon, Paul I.; James, Elizabeth A.

    2016-01-01

    Common Reed (Phragmites australis) is a frequent component of inland and coastal wetlands in temperate zones worldwide. Ongoing environmental changes have resulted in the decline of this species in many areas and invasive expansion in others. In the Gippsland Lakes coastal waterway system in south-eastern Australia, increasing salinity is thought to have contributed to the loss of fringing P. australis reed beds leading to increased shoreline erosion. A major goal of restoration in this waterway is to address the effect of salinity by planting a genetically diverse range of salt-tolerant P. australis plants. This has prompted an interest in examining the variation in salinity tolerance among clones and the underlying basis of this variation. Transcriptomics is an approach for identifying variation in genes and their expression levels associated with the exposure of plants to environmental stressors. In this paper we present initial results of the first comparative culm transcriptome analysis of P. australis clones. After sampling plants from sites of varied surface water salinity across the Gippsland Lakes, replicates from three clones from highly saline sites (>18 g L-1 TDS) and three from low salinity sites (<6 g L-1) were grown in containers irrigated with either fresh (<0.1 g L-1) or saline water (16 g L-1). An RNA-Seq protocol was used to generate sequence data from culm tissues from the 12 samples allowing an analysis of differential gene expression. Among the key findings, we identified several genes uniquely up- or down-regulated in clones from highly saline sites when irrigated with saline water relative to clones from low salinity sites. These included the higher relative expression levels of genes associated with photosynthesis and lignan biosynthesis indicative of a greater ability of these clones to maintain growth under saline conditions. Combined with growth data from a parallel study, our data suggests local adaptation of certain clones to salinity

  5. Cold-humid effect of Baiyangdian wetland

    OpenAIRE

    Hui-yun LI; Xu, Shi-Guo; Ma, Tao

    2012-01-01

    Data support for wetland protection function evaluation can be provided by quantitatively analyzing the ability of regulating the regional climate of the wetland ecosystem. In this study, the cold-humid effect of the Baiyangdian wetland was analyzed by comparing the meteorological conditions of the Baiyangdian wetland and its surrounding areas. Meanwhile, the regulatory functions of the Baiyangdian wetland for the processes and magnitudes of temperature and relative humidity from August to Oc...

  6. Constructed Floodplain Wetland Effectiveness for Stormwater Management

    OpenAIRE

    Ludwig, Andrea Lorene

    2010-01-01

    A 0.2-hectare wetland was constructed in the floodplain of Opequon Creek in Northern Virginia as a best management practice (BMP) for stormwater management. The research goals were to 1) determine if wetland hydrology existed and quantify the role of groundwater exchange in the constructed wetland (CW) water budget, 2) estimate wetland hydraulic characteristics during overbank flows, and 3) quantify the event-scale nutrient assimilative capacity of the constructed wetland. CW water table ele...

  7. The economic cost of wetland destruction

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, Carmel Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    Wetlands are often refereed to as the ‘kidney of the river’, but what is the value of the water filtration they provide, and what is the cost of wetland destruction? This paper determines the economic value of wetlands for water filtration. It demonstrates that wetlands are of considerable economic value, even where the volume of water filtered is in excess of that required for domestic consumption. It argues that if legislation required those who destroy natural wetlands to replace the water...

  8. Factors influencing CO2 and CH4 emissions from coastal wetlands in the Liaohe Delta, northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, Linda; Ye, Siyuan; Yu, Xueyang; Wei, Mengjie; Krauss, Ken W.; Brix, Hans

    2015-01-01

    Many factors are known to influence greenhouse gas emissions from coastal wetlands, but it is still unclear which factors are most important under field conditions when they are all acting simultaneously. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of water table, salinity, soil temperature and vegetation on CH4 emissions and ecosystem respiration (Reco) from five coastal wetlands in the Liaohe Delta, northeast China: two Phragmites australis (common reed) wetlands, two Suaeda salsa (sea blite) marshes and a rice (Oryza sativa) paddy. Throughout the growing season, the Suaeda wetlands were net CH4 sinks whereas the Phragmites wetlands and the rice paddy were net CH4sources emitting 1.2–6.1 g CH4 m−2 y−1. The Phragmites wetlands emitted the most CH4 per unit area and the most CH4 relative to CO2. The main controlling factors for the CH4 emissions were water table, temperature and salinity. The CH4 emission was accelerated at high and constant (or managed) water tables and decreased at water tables below the soil surface. High temperatures enhanced CH4 emissions, and emission rates were consistently low ( 18 ppt, the CH4 emission rates were always low (< 1 mg CH4 m−2 h−1) probably because methanogens were outcompeted by sulphate reducing bacteria. Saline Phragmites wetlands can, however, emit significant amounts of CH4 as CH4 produced in deep soil layers are transported through the air-space tissue of the plants to the atmosphere. The CH4 emission from coastal wetlands can be reduced by creating fluctuating water tables, including water tables below the soil surface, as well as by occasional flooding by high-salinity water. The effects of water management schemes on the biological communities in the wetlands must, however, be carefully studied prior to the management in order to avoid undesirable effects on the wetland communities.

  9. Rocket Engine Altitude Simulation Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Jody L.; Lansaw, John

    2010-01-01

    John C. Stennis Space Center is embarking on a very ambitious era in its rocket engine propulsion test history. The first new large rocket engine test stand to be built at Stennis Space Center in over 40 years is under construction. The new A3 Test Stand is designed to test very large (294,000 Ibf thrust) cryogenic propellant rocket engines at a simulated altitude of 100,000 feet. A3 Test Stand will have an engine testing chamber where the engine will be fired after the air in the chamber has been evacuated to a pressure at the simulated altitude of less than 0.16 PSIA. This will result in a very unique environment with extremely low pressures inside a very large chamber and ambient pressures outside this chamber. The test chamber is evacuated of air using a 2-stage diffuser / ejector system powered by 5000 lb/sec of steam produced by 27 chemical steam generators. This large amount of power and flow during an engine test will result in a significant acoustic and vibrational environment in and around A3 Test Stand.

  10. Atrazine remediation in wetland microcosms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runes, H B; Bottomley, P J; Lerch, R N; Jenkins, J J

    2001-05-01

    Laboratory wetland microcosms were used to study treatment of atrazine in irrigation runoff by a field-scale-constructed wetland under controlled conditions. Three experiments, in which 1 ppm atrazine was added to the water column of three wetland, one soil control, and one water control microcosm, were conducted. Atrazine dissipation from the water column and degradate formation (deethylatrazine [DEA]; deisopropylatrazine [DIA]; and hydroxyatrazine [HA]) were monitored. Atrazine dissipation from the water column of wetland microcosms was biphasic. Less than 12% of the atrazine applied to wetland microcosms remained in the water column on day 56. Atrazine degradates were observed in water and sediment, with HA the predominant degradate. Analysis of day 56 sediment samples indicated that a significant portion of the initial application was detected as the parent compound and HA. Most probable number (MPN) assays demonstrated that atrazine degrader populations were small in wetland sediment. Wetland microcosms were able to reduce atrazine concentration in the water column via sorption and degradation. Based on results from this study, it is hypothesized that plant uptake contributed to atrazine dissipation from the water column. PMID:11337869

  11. The emergence of treatment wetlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Judging by the growing number of wetlands built for wastewater treatment around the world, this natural technology seems to have firmly established roots. After almost 30 years of use in wastewater treatment, constructed treatment wetlands now number over 500 in Europe and 600 in North America. Marsh-type surface flow systems are most common in North America, but subsurface flow wetlands, where wastewater flows beneath the surface of a gravel-rock bed, predominate in Europe. The inexpensive, low maintenance technology is in high demand in Central America, Eastern Europe, and Asia. New applications, from nitrate-contaminated ground water to effluent from high-intensity livestock operations, are also increasing. But in the United States, treatment-wetland technology has not yet gained national regulatory acceptance. Some states and EPA regions are eager to endorse them, but others are wary of this nontraditional method of treating wastewater. In part, this reluctance exists because the technology is not yet completely understood. Treatment wetlands also pose a potential threat to wildlife attracted to this new habitat -an ecosystem exposed to toxic compounds. New efforts are under way, however, to place the technology onto firmer scientific and regulatory ground. Long-term demonstration and monitoring field studies are currently probing the inner workings of wetlands and their water quality capabilities to provide better data on how to design more effective systems. A recent study of US policy and regulatory issues surrounding treatment wetlands has recommended that the federal government actively promote the technology and clear the regulatory roadblocks to enable wider use. Proponents argue that the net environmental benefits of constructed wetlands, such as restoring habitat and increasing wetlands inventory, should be considered. 8 refs., 6 photos

  12. Environmental impact of geopressure - geothermal cogeneration facility on wetland resources and socioeconomic characteristics in Louisiana Gulf Coast region. Final report, October 10, 1983-September 31, 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smalley, A.M.; Saleh, F.M.S.; Fontenot, M.

    1984-08-01

    Baseline data relevant to air quality are presented. The following are also included: geology and resource assessment, design well prospects in southwestern Louisiana, water quality monitoring, chemical analysis subsidence, microseismicity, geopressure-geothermal subsidence modeling, models of compaction and subsidence, sampling handling and preparation, brine chemistry, wetland resources, socioeconomic characteristics, impacts on wetlands, salinity, toxic metals, non-metal toxicants, temperature, subsidence, and socioeconomic impacts. (MHR)

  13. Methane Fluxes from Subtropical Wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLucia, N.; Gomez-Casanovas, N.; Bernacchi, C.

    2013-12-01

    It is well documented that green house gas concentrations have risen at unequivocal rates since the industrial revolution but the disparity between anthropogenic sources and natural sources is uncertain. Wetlands are one example of a natural ecosystem that can be a substantial source or sink for methane (CH4) depending on climate conditions. Due to strict anaerobic conditions required for CH4-generating microorganisms, natural wetlands are one of the main sources for biogenic CH4. Although wetlands occupy less than 5% of total land surface area, they contribute approximately 20% of total CH4 emissions to the atmosphere. The processes regulating CH4 emissions are sensitive to land use and management practices of areas surrounding wetlands. Variation in adjacent vegetation or grazing intensity by livestock can, for example, alter CH4 fluxes from wetland soils by altering nutrient balance, carbon inputs and hydrology. Therefore, understanding how these changes will affect wetland source strength is essential to understand the impact of wetland management practices on the global climate system. In this study we quantify wetland methane fluxes from subtropical wetlands on a working cattle ranch in central Florida near Okeechobee Lake (27o10'52.04'N, 81o21'8.56'W). To determine differences in CH4 fluxes associated with land use and management, a replicated (n = 4) full factorial experiment was designed for wetlands where the surrounding vegetation was (1) grazed or un-grazed and (2) composed of native vegetation or improved pasture. Net exchange of CH4 and CO2 between the land surface and the atmosphere were sampled with a LICOR Li-7700 open path CH4 analyzer and Li-7500A open path CO2/H20 analyzer mounted in a 1-m3 static gas-exchange chamber. Our results showed and verified that CH4 emissions from subtropical wetlands were larger when high soil moisture was coupled with high temperatures. The presence of cattle only amplified these results. These results help quantify

  14. Wetlands & Deepwater Habitats - MO 2015 Silver Wetland Complex (GDB)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — MoRAP produced and integrated data to map and rank wetlands for the Upper Silver Creek Watershed in Illinois. LiDAR elevation and vegetation height information and...

  15. Wetlands & Deepwater Habitats - MO 2015 Meramec Wetland Complex (GDB)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — MoRAP produced and integrated data to map and rank wetlands for the Meramec River bottomland in Missouri. LiDAR elevation and vegetation height information and air...

  16. Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands ESI: WETLANDS (Wetland Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector polygons representing the coastal wetland habitats for Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands classified according to the Environmental...

  17. Growth and nutrition of baldcypress families planted under varying salinity regimes in Louisiana, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, K.W.; Chambers, J.L.; Allen, J.A.; Soileau, D.M., Jr.; DeBosier, A.S.

    2000-01-01

    Saltwater intrusion from the Gulf of Mexico is one important factor in the destruction of baldcypress (Taxodium distichum (L.) Rich.) swamps along the Louisiana Gulf Coast, USA. Recent restoration efforts have focused on identification of baldcypress genotypes with greater tolerance to saline conditions than previously reported. To date, salt tolerance investigations have not been conducted under saline field conditions. In 1996, therefore, three plantations were established with 10 half-sib genotype collections of baldcypress in mesohaline wetlands. Tree survival and growth were measured at the end of two growing seasons, and foliar ion concentrations of Na, Cl, K, and Ca and available soil nutrients were measured during the 1996 growing season. In general, soil nutrient concentrations exceeded averages found in other baldcypress stands in the southeastern United States. Seedlings differed among sites in all parameters measured, with height, diameter, foliar biomass, and survival decreasing as site salinity increased. Average seedling height at the end of two years, for example, was 196.4 cm on the lowest salinity site and 121.6 cm on the highest. Several half-sib families maintained greater height growth increments (ranging from 25.5 to 54.5 cm on the highest salinity site), as well as lower foliar ion concentrations of K, Cl, and Ca. Results indicate that genotypic screening of baldcypress may improve growth and vigor of seedlings planted within wetlands impacted by saltwater intrusion.

  18. High-altitude cerebral oedema mimicking stroke

    OpenAIRE

    Yanamandra, Uday; Gupta, Amul; Patyal, Sagarika; Varma, Prem Prakash

    2014-01-01

    High-altitude cerebral oedema (HACO) is the most fatal high-altitude illness seen by rural physicians practising in high-altitude areas. HACO presents clinically with cerebellar ataxia, features of raised intracranial pressure (ICP) and coma. Early identification is important as delay in diagnosis can be fatal. We present two cases of HACO presenting with focal deficits mimicking stroke. The first patient presented with left-sided hemiplegia associated with the rapid deterioration in the sens...

  19. Freshwater availability and coastal wetland foundation species: ecological transitions along a rainfall gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osland, Michael; Enwright, Nicholas; Stagg, Camille La Fosse

    2014-01-01

    Climate gradient-focused ecological research can provide a foundation for better understanding critical ecological transition points and nonlinear climate-ecological relationships, which is information that can be used to better understand, predict, and manage ecological responses to climate change. In this study, we examined the influence of freshwater availability upon the coverage of foundation plant species in coastal wetlands along a northwestern Gulf of Mexico rainfall gradient. Our research addresses the following three questions: (1) what are the region-scale relationships between measures of freshwater availability (e.g., rainfall, aridity, freshwater inflow, salinity) and the relative abundance of foundation plant species in tidal wetlands; (2) How vulnerable are foundation plant species in tidal wetlands to future changes in freshwater availability; and (3) What is the potential future relative abundance of tidal wetland foundation plant species under alternative climate change scenarios? We developed simple freshwater availability-based models to predict the relative abundance (i.e., coverage) of tidal wetland foundation plant species using climate data (1970-2000), estuarine freshwater inflow-focused data, and coastal wetland habitat data. Our results identify regional ecological thresholds and nonlinear relationships between measures of freshwater availability and the relative abundance of foundation plant species in tidal wetlands. In drier coastal zones, relatively small changes in rainfall could produce comparatively large landscape-scale changes in foundation plant species abundance which would affect some ecosystem good and services. Whereas a drier future would result in a decrease in the coverage of foundation plant species, a wetter future would result in an increase in foundation plant species coverage. In many ways, the freshwater-dependent coastal wetland ecological transitions we observed are analogous to those present in dryland

  20. Performance of a constructed wetland in treating brackish wastewater from commercial recirculating and super-intensive shrimp growout systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yonghai; Zhang, Genyu; Liu, Jianzhong; Zhu, Yazhu; Xu, Jiabo

    2011-10-01

    A recirculating aquaculture system was developed for treating Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) production wastewater using an integrated vertical-flow (IVF) and five connected integrated horizontal flow (IHF) constructed wetlands as water treatment filters for mesohaline conditions (8.25‰-8.26‰ salinity). The constructed wetlands demonstrated the ability to reduce total nitrogen, total ammonia nitrogen, nitrite nitrogen, nitrate nitrogen, total phosphorous, chemical oxygen demand, and total suspended solids to levels significantly lower than those in effluents from culture tanks. Various water quality parameters in the culture tanks were deemed suitable for shrimp culture. The actual ratio of wetland area (A(w)) to culture tank area (A(t)) was 1.1439, and the estimated optimal ratio A(w)/A(t) was approximately 1. The IVF-IHF wetlands showed flexibility and reliability in consistently removing the main pollutants from commercial recirculating and super-intensive shrimp growout systems throughout the culture period. PMID:21852127

  1. Aspirated Compressors for High Altitude Engines Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Aurora Flight Sciences proposes to incorporate aspirated compressor technology into a high altitude, long endurance (HALE) concept engine. Aspiration has been...

  2. Salinity driven oceanographic upwelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, David H.

    1986-01-01

    The salinity driven oceanographic upwelling is maintained in a mariculture device that includes a long main duct in the general shape of a cylinder having perforated cover plates at each end. The mariculture device is suspended vertically in the ocean such that one end of the main duct is in surface water and the other end in relatively deep water that is cold, nutrient rich and relatively fresh in comparison to the surface water which is relatively warm, relatively nutrient deficient and relatively saline. A plurality of elongated flow segregating tubes are disposed in the main duct and extend from the upper cover plate beyond the lower cover plate into a lower manifold plate. The lower manifold plate is spaced from the lower cover plate to define a deep water fluid flow path to the interior space of the main duct. Spacer tubes extend from the upper cover plate and communicate with the interior space of the main duct. The spacer tubes are received in an upper manifold plate spaced from the upper cover plate to define a surface water fluid flow path into the flow segregating tubes. A surface water-deep water counterflow is thus established with deep water flowing upwardly through the main duct interior for discharge beyond the upper manifold plate while surface water flows downwardly through the flow segregating tubes for discharge below the lower manifold plate. During such counterflow heat is transferred from the downflowing warm water to the upflowing cold water. The flow is maintained by the difference in density between the deep water and the surface water due to their differences in salinity. The upwelling of nutrient rich deep water is used for marifarming by fertilizing the nutrient deficient surface water.

  3. Fire Fighting from High Altitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobleigh, Brent; Ambrosia, Vince

    2007-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on high altitude fire fighting is shown. The topics include: 1) Yellowstone Fire - 1988; 2) 2006 Western States Fire Mission Over-View; 3) AMS-Wildfire Scanner; 4) October 24-25 Mission: Yosemite NP and NF; 5) October 24-25 Mission MODIS Overpass; 6) October 24-25 Mission Highlights; 7) October 28-29 Mission Esperanza Fire, California; 8) Response to the Esperanza Fire in Southern California -- Timeline Oct 27-29 2006; 9) October 28-29 Mission Esperanza Fire Altair Flight Routing; 10) October 28-29 Mission Esperanza Fire Altair Over-Flights; 11) October 28-29 Mission Highlights; 12) Results from the Esperanza Fire Response; 13) 2007 Western States Fire Mission; and 14) Western States UAS Fire Mission 2007

  4. Wetland Habitats for Wildlife of the Chesapeake Bay

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report reviews wildlife that use these three general wetland habitats; shallow water wetlands, forested wetlands and emergent wetlands. Wildlife discussed are...

  5. ENGINEERING BULLETIN: CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS TREATMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constructed wetlands have been demonstrated effective in removing organic, metal, and nutrient elements including nitrogen and phosphorus from municipal wastewaters, mine drainage, industrial effluents, and agricultural runoff. The technology is waste stream-specific, requiring...

  6. 76 FR 22785 - Wetland Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-25

    ... 7 CFR Part 12 RIN 0578-AA58 Wetland Conservation AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, United States... concerning the Natural Resources Conservation Service's (NRCS) coordination responsibilities. DATES..., Director, Ecological Sciences Division, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources...

  7. Brackish Eutrophic Water Treatment by Iris pseudacorus L.-Planted Microcosms: Physiological Responses of Iris pseudacorus L. to Salinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Huilin; Wang, Fen; Ji, Min

    2015-01-01

    Iris pseudacorus L. has been widely used in aquatic ecosystem to remove nutrient and has achieved positive effects. However, little is known regarding the nutrient-removal performance and physiological responses of I. pseudacorus for brackish eutrophic water treatment due to high nutrients combined with certain salinity levels. In this study, I. pseudacorus-planted microcosms were established to evaluate the capacity of I. pseudacorus to remove excessive nutrients from fresh (salinity 0.05%) and brackish (salinity 0.5%) eutrophic waters. The degradation of total nitrogen and ammonia nitrogen were not affected by 0.5% salinity; 0.5% salinity promoted the degradation of nitrate nitrogen while severely inhibited the degradation of total phosphorus. Additionally, 0.5% salinity was found to induce stress responses quantified by measuring six physiological indexes. Compared to 0.05% salinity, 0.5% salinity resulted in significant decreases in the chlorophyll a, b and total chlorophyll contents of I. pseudacorus which closely related to photosynthesis (p < 0.05). Furthermore, the higher proline, malondialdehyde contents and antioxidant enzyme activities were detected in I. pseudacorus exposed to 0.5% salinity, which provided protection against reactive oxygen species. The results highlight that the cellular stress assays are efficient for monitoring the health of I. pseudacorus in salinity shock-associated constructed wetlands. PMID:25529785

  8. Barriers to and opportunities for landward migration of coastal wetlands with sea-level rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enwright, Nicholas M.; Griffith, Kereen T.; Osland, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    In the 21st century, accelerated sea-level rise and continued coastal development are expected to greatly alter coastal landscapes across the globe. Historically, many coastal ecosystems have responded to sea-level fluctuations via horizontal and vertical movement on the landscape. However, anthropogenic activities, including urbanization and the construction of flood-prevention infrastructure, can produce barriers that impede ecosystem migration. Here we show where tidal saline wetlands have the potential to migrate landward along the northern Gulf of Mexico coast, one of the most sea-level rise sensitive and wetland-rich regions of the world. Our findings can be used to identify migration corridors and develop sea-level rise adaptation strategies to help ensure the continued availability of wetland-associated ecosystem goods and services.

  9. Landform design for a fen wetland on a tailings sand deposit in northern Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKenna, G.T.; Papini, A.G.; Scordo, E.B. [BGC Engineering Inc., Vancouver, BC (Canada); Wytrykush, C. [Syncrude Canada Ltd., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This paper discussed one of the first fens to be established in a post-mining area of the Athabasca oil sands region. The entire watershed is specifically designed to support a wetland, and it will be constructed on a soft tailings deposit. A fen is a peat-accumulating wetland with a water table that is at, or close to, the surface consisting of mineral-saturated water coming from either groundwater or surface water. In order to monitor and adjust the fen design for field conditions, a full hydrological site investigation was launched together with parallel research programs involving the creation of a conservative landform design with controls over surface water and groundwater seepage inputs. Controlling the salinity of fen waters from tailings consolidation and seepage over time is a critical component to fen design. There are a limited number of documented examples of large-scale constructed fen wetlands.

  10. Radioiodine concentrated in a wetland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most subsurface environmental radioactivity contamination is expected to eventually resurface in riparian zones, or wetlands. There are a number of extremely sharp biogeochemical interfaces in wetlands that could alter radionuclide speciation and promote accumulation. The objective of this study was to determine if a wetland concentrated 129I emanating from a former waste disposal basin located on the Savannah River Site (SRS) in South Carolina, USA. Additionally, studies were conducted to evaluate the role of sediment organic matter in immobilizing the radioiodine. Groundwater samples were collected along a 0.7-km transect away from the seepage basin and in the downstream wetlands. The samples were analyzed for 129I speciation (iodide (I−), iodate (IO3−), and organo-I). Groundwater 129I concentrations in many locations in the wetlands (as high as 59.9 Bq L−1129I) were greatly elevated with respect to the source term (5.9 Bq L−1129I). 129I concentration profiles in sediment cores were closely correlated to organic matter concentrations (r2 = 0.992; n = 5). While the sediment organic matter promoted the uptake of 129I to the wetland sediment, it also promoted the formation of a soluble organic fraction: 74% of the wetland groundwater 129I could pass through a 1 kDa (<1 nm) membrane and only 26% of the 129I was colloidal. Of that fraction that could pass through a 1 kDa membrane, 39% of the 129I was organo-I. Therefore, while wetlands may be highly effective at immobilizing aqueous 129I, they may also promote the formation of a low-molecular-weight organic species that does not partition to sediments. This study provides a rare example of radioactivity concentrations increasing rather than decreasing as it migrates from a point source and brings into question assumptions in risk models regarding continuous dilution of released contaminants. - Highlights: • 129I emanating from a former waste disposal basin is concentrating in a wetland located ∼700 m

  11. Using Transcriptomics to Identify Differential Gene Expression in Response to Salinity among Australian Phragmites australis Clones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Gareth D; Hall, Nathan E; Gendall, Anthony R; Boon, Paul I; James, Elizabeth A

    2016-01-01

    Common Reed (Phragmites australis) is a frequent component of inland and coastal wetlands in temperate zones worldwide. Ongoing environmental changes have resulted in the decline of this species in many areas and invasive expansion in others. In the Gippsland Lakes coastal waterway system in south-eastern Australia, increasing salinity is thought to have contributed to the loss of fringing P. australis reed beds leading to increased shoreline erosion. A major goal of restoration in this waterway is to address the effect of salinity by planting a genetically diverse range of salt-tolerant P. australis plants. This has prompted an interest in examining the variation in salinity tolerance among clones and the underlying basis of this variation. Transcriptomics is an approach for identifying variation in genes and their expression levels associated with the exposure of plants to environmental stressors. In this paper we present initial results of the first comparative culm transcriptome analysis of P. australis clones. After sampling plants from sites of varied surface water salinity across the Gippsland Lakes, replicates from three clones from highly saline sites (>18 g L(-1) TDS) and three from low salinity sites (water (16 g L(-1)). An RNA-Seq protocol was used to generate sequence data from culm tissues from the 12 samples allowing an analysis of differential gene expression. Among the key findings, we identified several genes uniquely up- or down-regulated in clones from highly saline sites when irrigated with saline water relative to clones from low salinity sites. These included the higher relative expression levels of genes associated with photosynthesis and lignan biosynthesis indicative of a greater ability of these clones to maintain growth under saline conditions. Combined with growth data from a parallel study, our data suggests local adaptation of certain clones to salinity and provides a basis for more detailed studies. PMID:27148279

  12. Transformation processes in constructed wetlands

    OpenAIRE

    Dragounová, Eva

    2013-01-01

    In the recent years, constructed wetlands have become a very popular alternative for wastewater treatment, mainly because of its advantages such as long life of the systems, easy maintenance, low operating costs and mainly due to the wide range of substances that can be with the help of constructed wetlands removed from wastewater. The removal of nutrients and other substances from wastewater is influenced by a number of biological, chemical and physical processes. Of these processes are in t...

  13. Pollution of wetlands in Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Mkuula, S.

    1993-01-01

    Pollution of wetlands is becoming a serious concern, due mainly to the rapid increase ofhuman development activities. Although most extensive wetlands are in remote places where the human activities which lead to pollution of the environment are minimal, somehave become polluted by waste products related to development activities or humansurvival. In this paper, major types of pollution from human activities are considered, includingurbanisation, industrialisation, mining, agricultural act...

  14. WETLANDS AND ENVIRONMENTAL LEGISLATION ISSUES

    OpenAIRE

    Carriker, Roy R.

    1994-01-01

    The federal government program for wetlands regulation is administered by the United States Army Corps of Engineers pursuant to Section 404 of the Clean Water Act. Proposals for amending and/or reforming the Section 404 program are included in Congressional deliberations regarding Clean Water Act reauthorization. Specific issues of public policy include the definition of "waters of the United States", criteria for delineation of jurisdictional wetlands, definition of activities exempt from re...

  15. On Diagnostic Index and Method of Healthy Wetland Food Chain

    OpenAIRE

    Li-Juan Cui; Xin-sheng Zhao; Wei Li

    2013-01-01

    Wetland food chain is the channel of the matter and energy transfer or flow in the wetland ecosystem. From wetland food chain scission mechanism, the structure and functional characteristics of the wetland food chain scission were analyzed, while building a healthy wetland food chain diagnostic index system. Depending on wetland ecosystem health research results, this study brought forward the wetland food chain structure stability and functions of wetland energy measures and their quantitati...

  16. Using Halogens (Cl, Br, F, I) and Stable Isotopes of Water (δ18O, δ2H) to Trace Hydrological and Biogeochemical Processes in Prairie Wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Z. F.; Lu, Z.; Mills, C. T.; Goldhaber, M. B.; Rosenberry, D. O.; Mushet, D.; Siegel, D. I.; Fiorentino, A. J., II; Gade, M.; Spradlin, J.

    2014-12-01

    Prairie pothole wetlands are ubiquitous features of the Great Plains of North America, and important habitat for amphibians and migratory birds. The salinity of proximal wetlands varies highly due to groundwater-glacial till interactions, which influence wetland biota and associated ecosystem functions. Here we use halogens and stable isotopes of water to fingerprint hydrological and biogeochemical controls on salt cycling in a prairie wetland complex. We surveyed surface, well, and pore waters from a groundwater recharge wetland (T8) and more saline closed (P1) and open (P8) basin discharge wetlands in the Cottonwood Lake Study Area (ND) in August/October 2013 and May 2014. Halogen concentrations varied over a broad range throughout the study area (Cl = 2.2 to 170 mg/L, Br = 13 to 2000 μg/L, F = pond water (δ18O = -9.5 to -2.71 ‰) mixes with shallow groundwater in the top 0.6 m of fringing wetland soils and 1.2 m of the substrate in the center of P1. Our results suggest endogenous sources for Br and I within the prairie landscape that may be controlled by biological mechanisms or weathering of shale from glacial till.

  17. Physiological aspects of altitude training and the use of altitude simulators

    OpenAIRE

    Ranković Goran; Radovanović Dragan

    2005-01-01

    Altitude training in various forms is widely practiced by athletes and coaches in an attempt to improve sea level endurance. Training at high altitude may improve performance at sea level through altitude acclimatization, which improves oxygen transport and/or utilization, or through hypoxia, which intensifies the training stimulus. This basic physiological aspect allows three training modalities: live high and train high (classic high-altitude training), live low and train high (training thr...

  18. Groundwater salinity and environmental change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accumulation and release of salinity from near surface environments takes place naturally as a result of climatic cycles and environmental change. Salinity stratification, both in the saturated and unsaturated zones of aquifers, may be used in certain circumstances to record past recharge events and periods of drought. Chloride, in conjunction with the stable isotopes δ18O, δ2H and other chemical and stable or radioactive indicator parameters, enables the origins of salinity and the timing of these events to be determined. Salinity may be used as a practical tool in water resource investigation to estimate recharge and discharge, to investigate palaeohydrology and in the understanding and management of groundwater in coastal regions. Human impacts have severely disturbed the natural salinity balance, especially in the past 100 years, and examples of human intervention are presented relating to dryland salinity, irrigation effects and overexploitation. (author)

  19. Mine-associated wetlands as avian habitat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surveys for interior wetland birds at mine-associated emergent wetlands on coal surface mines in southern Illinois detected one state threatened and two state endangered species. Breeding by least bittern (Ixobrychus exilis) and common moorhen (Gallinula chloropus) was confirmed. Regional assessment of potential wetland bird habitat south of Illinois Interstate 64 identified a total of 8,109 ha of emergent stable water wetlands; 10% were associated with mining. Mine-associated wetlands with persistent hydrology and large expanses of emergent vegetation provide habitat that could potentially compensate for loss of natural wetlands in Illinois

  20. Interaction between groundwater and surface water in a coastal wetlands system in South Western Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Lake Warden wetlands system is located in Esperance, in South Western Australia and is formed within a basement rock depression. The wetlands system is connected to a certain extent to local and regional groundwater flow systems. As part of a larger investigation into the hydraulics of the wetlands system, temporal and spatial variations of the isotopic and chemical composition of water bodies within the system were investigated. Lake Warden is the largest surface water feature in the system, and is hypersaline In contrast, samples from Lake Warden itself are the most enriched in heavy isotopes. The data points representing the coastal plain and the inland groundwaters are close to the mean composition of the winter depleted precipitation and lie slightly below the LMWL. This may indicate that the groundwater is recharged by depleted winter precipitation which has been modified by some degree of evaporation during or prior to recharge. Seepage and creek water compositions show some enrichment with respect to inland groundwater, suggesting groundwater discharge into the creeks followed by evaporation. Winter lake samples evidence the highest degree of evaporation, with Lake Warden being the most enriched. The weekly isotopic results show that the enrichment in Lake Warden approaches a deuterium value before reversing as the salinity increases in the lake. The evaporation trend observed in the creeks and lakes is confirmed by the deuterium versus chloride relationship. The isotopic composition of groundwater beneath the wetland system has an intermediate composition between the inland and coastal groundwaters, lake and precipitation end members while the salinity is much higher. This suggests mixing between all endmembers accompanied with dissolution of salts. The preliminary findings demonstrate that the lakes in the wetland system are connected in some manner and dominated by groundwater discharge. These data also form the basis of a hydrologic budget of Lake

  1. Altitude as handicap in rank-order football tournaments

    OpenAIRE

    Fawaz, Yarine; Casas, Agustin

    2013-01-01

    In 2007, based on medical reports, FIFA ruled that no international football competition could be played in stadiums with an altitude higher than 2500 meters. We provide stark evidence which supports the claim that playing in high altitude benefits the home team through two channels. First, in these scenarios, high altitude teams (HAT) do better against low altitude teams than against other high altitude teams. Second, every time that low altitude teams visit other high altitude teams they ge...

  2. Physicochemical Characteristics of Pennar River, A Fresh Water Wetland in Kerala, India

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph, P. V.; Claramma Jacob

    2010-01-01

    Some physicochemical characteristics of a fresh water wetland were investigated. The analysis was carried out for a period of two years. Physical parameters such as colour, odour, temperature, electrical conductivity (EC) total suspended solids (TSS) total dissolved substances (TDS), total solids (TS), turbidity and chemical parameters such as pH, alkalinity, hardness, dissolved oxygen (DO), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), chloride, salinity, flouride, phosphate...

  3. Effects of Tamarisk shrub on physicochemical properties of soil in coastal wetland of the Bohai Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Xiuping; WANG Baodong; XIE Linping; XIN Ming; WANG Wei; WANG Zicheng; ZHANG Wenquan; WEI Qinsheng

    2016-01-01

    There are many different and even controversial results concerning the effects of Tamarisk on the physicochemical properties of soil. A year-round monitoring of soil salinity, pH and moisture is conducted beneath the Tamarisk shrub in a coastal wetland in the Bohai Sea in China, to ascertain the effects of Tamarisk on the physicochemical properties of soil in coastal wetland. Compared with the control area, the soil moisture content is lower around the area of the taproot when there is less precipitation in the growing season because of water consumption by Tamarisk shrub. However, the soil moisture content is higher around the taproot when there is more precipitation in the growing season or in the non-growing period because of water conservation by the rhizosphere. The absorption of salt by the Tamarisk shrub reduces the soil salinity temporarily, but eventually salt returns to the soil by the leaching of salt on leaves by rainfall or by fallen leaves. The annual average soil moisture content beneath the Tamarisk shrub is lower than the control area by only 6.4%, indicating that the Tamarisk shrub has little effect on drought or water conservation in soils in the temperate coastal wetland with moderate annual precipitation. The annual average salinity beneath the Tamarisk shrub is 18% greater than that of the control area, indicating that Tamarisk does have an effect of rising soil salinity around Tamarisk shrubs. The soil pH value is as low as 7.3 in summer and as high as 10.2 in winter. The pH of soil near the taproot of the Tamarisk shrubs is one pH unit lower than that in the control area during the growing season. The difference in pH is less different from the control area in the non-growing season, indicating that the Tamarisk shrub does have the effect of reducing the alkalinity of soil in coastal wetland.

  4. Organic carbon accumulation capability of two typical tidal wetland soils in Chongming Dongtan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shiping; Wang, Lei; Hu, Jiajun; Zhang, Wenquan; Fu, Xiaohua; Le, Yiquan; Jin, Fangming

    2011-01-01

    We measured organic carbon input and content of soil in two wetland areas of Chongming Dongtan (Yangtze River Estuary) to evaluate variability in organic carbon accumulation capability in different wetland soils. Observed differences were investigated based on the microbial activity and environmental factors of the soil at the two sites. Results showed that the organic carbon content of wetland soil vegetated with Phragmites australis (site A) was markedly lower than that with P. australis and Spartina alterniflora (site B). Sites differences were due to higher microbial activity at site A, which led to higher soil respiration intensity and greater carbon outputs. This indicated that the capability of organic carbon accumulation of the site B soils was greater than at site A. In addition, petroleum pollution and soil salinity were different in the two wetland soils. After bio-remediation, the soil petroleum pollution at site B was reduced to a similar level of site A. However, the culturable microbial biomass and enzyme activity in the remediated soils were also lower than at site A. These results indicated that greater petroleum pollution at site B did not markedly inhibit soil microbial activity. Therefore, differences in vegetation type and soil salinity were the primary factors responsible for the variation in microbial activity, organic carbon output and organic carbon accumulation capability between site A and site B. PMID:21476345

  5. Base of moderately saline ground water in San Juan County, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The base of moderately saline groundwater was delineated for San Juan County, Utah, based on water-quality data and formation-water resistivity determined from geophysical well logs using the resistivity-porosity, spontaneous-potential, and resistivity-ratio methods. These data and the contour map developed from them show that a thick layer of very saline to briny groundwater underlies the eastern two-thirds of San Juan County. The upper surface of this layer is affected by the geologic structure of the area, is affected by the geologic structure of the area, but it may be modified locally by recharge mounds of less saline water and by vertical leakage of water through transmissive faults and fractures. The highest altitude of the base of moderately saline water is west of the Abajo Mountains where it is more than 6,500 ft above sea level. The lowest altitude is in the western part of the county and is below sea level; depressions in the base of moderately saline water in recharge areas in the La Sal and Abajo Mountains also may be that low. The base of moderately saline water commonly is in the Permian Cutler Formation or the Pennsylvanian Honaker Trail Formation of the Hermosa Group, but locally may be as high stratigraphically as the Triassic and Jurassic Navajo Sandstone north of the Abajo Mountains and in the Jurassic Morrison Formation south of the mountains

  6. Dissolved organic matter dynamics in the oligo/meso-haline zone of wetland-influenced coastal rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maie, Nagamitsu; Sekiguchi, Satoshi; Watanabe, Akira; Tsutsuki, Kiyoshi; Yamashita, Youhei; Melling, Lulie; Cawley, Kaelin M.; Shima, Eikichi; Jaffé, Rudolf

    2014-08-01

    Wetlands are key components in the global carbon cycle and export significant amounts of terrestrial carbon to the coastal oceans in the form of dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Conservative behavior along the salinity gradient of DOC and chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) has often been observed in estuaries from their freshwater end-member (salinity = 0) to the ocean (salinity = 35). While the oligo/meso-haline (salinity mangrove fringe in Florida, USA, and the Judan River, a small, acidic, tropical rainforest river in Borneo, Malaysia. For the first two rivers, a clear decoupling between DOC and A254 was observed, while these parameters showed similar conservative behavior for the third. Three distinct EEM-PARAFAC models established for each of the rivers provided similar spectroscopic characteristics except for some unique fluorescence features observed for the Judan River. The distribution patterns of PARAFAC components suggested that the inputs from plankton and/or submerged aquatic vegetation can be important in the Bekanbeushi River. Further, DOM photo-products formed in the estuarine lake were also found to be transported upstream. In the Harney River, whereas upriver-derived terrestrial humic-like components were mostly distributed conservatively, some of these components were also derived from mangrove inputs in the oligo/meso-haline zone. Interestingly, fluorescence intensities of some terrestrial humic-like components increased with salinity for the Judan River possibly due to changes in the dissociation state of acidic functional groups and/or increase in the fluorescence quantum yield along the salinity gradient. The protein-like and microbial humic-like components were distributed differently between three wetland rivers, implying that interplay between loss to microbial degradation and inputs from diverse sources are different for the three wetland-influenced rivers. The results presented here indicate that upper estuarine oligo

  7. Partitioning of Total Dissolved Salts, Boron and Selenium in Pariette Wetland Water, Sediments and Benthic Organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, A. R.; Jones, C. P.; Vasudeva, P.; Powelson, D.; Grossl, P.

    2014-12-01

    The Pariette Wetlands located in the Uinta Basin, UT, were developed by the BLM in part to mitigate salinity associated with irrigation drainage and runoff from flowing to the Green River, a tributary of the Colorado River. The wetlands are fed by runoff from upstream agricultural irrigation, and natural subsurface and overland flow through the Uintah formation, which is seleniferous, and saline. Concentrations of Total Dissolved Salts (TDS), boron (B) and selenium (Se) in the wetlands exceed the total maximum daily loads developed to meet the US EPA's water quality planning and management regulations (40CFR 130). This is of concern because the wetlands are home to populations of migratory birds, waterfowl, raptors, and numerous small mammals. A mass balance of the Se concentrations of water flowing into and out of the wetlands indicates that 80% of the Se is stored or lost within the system. Additional data suggest that the majority of the Se is associated with the sediments. Little information is available regarding the TDS and B. Therefore we will determine the whether B and other salts are accumulating in the wetland systems, and if so where. We sampled water, sediment, benthic organisms, and wetland plants, in 4 of the 23 ponds from the flood control inlet to water flowing out to the Green River. Sediments were collected at 3 depths (0-2 cm, 2-7 cm, and 7+ cm) at 3-4 locations within each pond including the inlet, outlet and at least one site near a major wetland plant community. Benthic organisms were sampled from the 0-2 cm and 2-7 cm sediment layers. Sediment and organism samples were digested with HNO3 and HClO4 prior to analysis of total Se by HGAAS. Hot water extractable B and DPTA extractable B were analyzed by ICP-AES. TDS was estimated from EC in the sediment and organisms extracts and direct analysis in the water. Preliminary results found that Se in the sediments decreases with depth. Se concentrations in the benthic organisms is approximately 4

  8. Jupiter's High-Altitude Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    The New Horizons Multispectral Visible Imaging Camera (MVIC) snapped this incredibly detailed picture of Jupiter's high-altitude clouds starting at 06:00 Universal Time on February 28, 2007, when the spacecraft was only 2.3 million kilometers (1.4 million miles) from the solar system's largest planet. Features as small as 50 kilometers (30 miles) are visible. The image was taken through a narrow filter centered on a methane absorption band near 890 nanometers, a considerably redder wavelength than what the eye can see. Images taken through this filter preferentially pick out clouds that are relatively high in the sky of this gas giant planet because sunlight at the wavelengths transmitted by the filter is completely absorbed by the methane gas that permeates Jupiter's atmosphere before it can reach the lower clouds. The image reveals a range of diverse features. The south pole is capped with a haze of small particles probably created by the precipitation of charged particles into the polar regions during auroral activity. Just north of the cap is a well-formed anticyclonic vortex with rising white thunderheads at its core. Slightly north of the vortex are the tendrils of some rather disorganized storms and more pinpoint-like thunderheads. The dark 'measles' that appear a bit farther north are actually cloud-free regions where light is completely absorbed by the methane gas and essentially disappears from view. The wind action considerably picks up in the equatorial regions where giant plumes are stretched into a long wave pattern. Proceeding north of the equator, cirrus-like clouds are shredded by winds reaching speeds of up to 400 miles per hour, and more pinpoint-like thunderheads are visible. Although some of the famous belt and zone structure of Jupiter's atmosphere is washed out when viewed at this wavelength, the relatively thin North Temperate Belt shows up quite nicely, as does a series of waves just north of the belt. The north polar region of Jupiter in

  9. Hydrochemical variability at the Upper Paraguay Basin and Pantanal wetland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. T. Rezende Filho

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Compartmentalization is a prerequisite to understand large wetlands that receive water from several sources. However, it faces the heterogeneity in space and time, resulting from physical, chemical and biological processes that are specific to wetlands. The Pantanal is a vast seasonally flooded continental wetland located in the centre of South America. The chemical makeup of the waters that supply the Pantanal (70 rivers has been studied in order to establish a compartmentalization of the wetland based on soil-water interactions. A PCA-based EMMA (End-Members Mixing Analysis procedure shows that the chemistry of the rivers can be regarded as a mixture of 3 end-members, influenced by lithology and land use, and delimiting large regions. Although the chemical composition of the end-members changed between dry and wet seasons, their spatial distribution was maintained. The results were extended to the floodplain by simple tributary mixing calculation according to the hydrographical network and to the areas of influence for each river when in overflow conditions. The resulting document highlights areas of high geochemical contrast on either side of the river Cuiaba in the north, and of the rivers Aquidauana and Abobral located in the south. The PCA-based treatment on a sampling conducted in the Nhecolândia, a large sub region of the Pantanal floodplain, allowed for the identification and prioritization of the processes that control the geochemical variability of the surface waters. Despite an enormous variability in Electrical Conductivity and pH, all data collected were in agreement with an evaporation process of the Taquari River water, which supplies the region. Evaporation and associated saline precipitations (Mg-calcite, Mg-silicates K-silicates explained more than 77% of the total variability in the chemistry of the regional surface water sampling.

  10. THE INFLUENCE OF WETLAND TYPE AND WETLAND PROXIMITY ON RESIDENTIAL PROPERTY VALUES

    OpenAIRE

    Doss, Cheryl R.; Taff, Steven J.

    1996-01-01

    Using detailed residential housing and wetland location data, we determine relative preferences for proximity to four broad classes of wetlands, as expressed through housing values. Implicit prices for proximity to open-water and scrub-shrub wetlands are relatively higher than those for emergent-vegetation and forested wetlands.

  11. Michigan Wetlands: Yours To Protect. A Citizen's Guide to Local Involvement in Wetland Protection. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cwikiel, Wilfred

    This guidebook is designed to assist concerned Michigan citizens, local governments, conservation organizations, landowners, and others in their efforts to initiate wetlands protection activities. Chapter 1 focuses on wetland functions, values, losses, and the urgent need to protect wetland resources. Chapter 2 discusses wetland identification and…

  12. Delayed appearance of high altitude retinal hemorrhages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Barthelmes

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Retinal hemorrhages have been described as a component of high altitude retinopathy (HAR in association with altitude illness. In this prospective high altitude study, we aimed to gain new insights into the pathophysiology of HAR and explored whether HAR could be a valid early indicator of altitude illness. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: 28 mountaineers were randomly assigned to two ascent profiles during a research expedition to Mt. Muztagh Ata (7546 m/24,751 ft. Digital fundus photographs were taken prior to expedition at 490 m (1,607 ft, during expedition at 4497 m (14,750 ft = base camp, 5533 m (18,148 ft, 6265 m (20,549 ft, 6865 m (22,517 ft and 4.5 months thereafter at 490 m. Number, size and time of occurrence of hemorrhages were recorded. Oxygen saturation (SpO₂ and hematocrit were also assessed. 79% of all climbers exhibited retinal hemorrhages during the expedition. Number and area of retinal bleeding increased moderately to medium altitudes (6265 m. Most retinal hemorrhages were detected after return to base camp from a high altitude. No post-expeditional ophthalmic sequelae were detected. Significant negative (SpO₂ Beta: -0.4, p<0.001 and positive (hematocrit Beta: 0.2, p = 0.002, time at altitude Beta: 0.33, p = 0.003 correlations with hemorrhages were found. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: When closely examined, a very large amount of climbers exhibit retinal hemorrhages during exposure to high altitudes. The incidence of retinal hemorrhages may be greater than previously appreciated as a definite time lag was observed between highest altitude reached and development of retinal bleeding. Retinal hemorrhages should not be considered warning signs of impending severe altitude illness due to their delayed appearance.

  13. High altitude aircraft flight tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmken, Henry; Emmons, Peter; Homeyer, David

    1996-03-01

    In order to make low earth orbit L-band propagation measurements and test new voice communication concepts, a payload was proposed and accepted for flight aboard the COMET (now METEOR) spacecraft. This Low Earth Orbiting EXperiment payload (LEOEX) was designed and developed by Motorola Inc. and sponsored by the Space Communications Technology Center (SCTC), a NASA Center for the Commercial Development of Space (CCDS) located at Florida Atlantic University. In order to verify the LEOEX payload for satellite operation and obtain some preliminary propagation data, a series of 9 high altitude aircraft (SR-71 and ER-2) flight tests were conducted. These flights took place during a period of 7 months, from October 1993 to April 1994. This paper will summarize the operation of the LEOEX payload and the particular configuration used for these flights. The series of flyby tests were very successful and demonstrated how bi-directional, Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) voice communication will work in space-to-ground L-band channels. The flight tests also acquired propagation data which will be representative of L-band Low Earth Orbiting (LEO) communication systems. In addition to verifying the LEOEX system operation, it also uncovered and ultimately aided the resolution of several key technical issues associated with the payload.

  14. Industry and forest wetlands: Cooperative research initiatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1989 the forest products industry responded to a challenge of the National Wetlands Policy Forum to initiate a cooperative research program on forest wetlands management organized through the National Council of the Paper Industry for Air and Stream Improvement (NCASI). The objective is to determine how forest landowners can manage wetlands for timber production while protecting other wetland functions such as flood storage, water purification, and food chain/wildlife habitat support. Studies supported by the NCASI in 9 states are summarized. Technical support on wetland regulatory issues to member companies is part of the research program. Since guidelines for recognizing wetlands for regulatory proposed have changed frequently, the NCASI has recommend an explicit link between wetland delineation and a classification system that considers difference among wetland types in vegetation, soils, hydrology, appearance, landscape position, and other factors. 16 refs

  15. Designated Wetlands and Setback Distances in Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — This GIS layer depicts wetlands designated for protection in the state of Iowa. Designated wetland is defined in Iowa Code subsection 459.102(21) as follows: 21....

  16. National Wetlands Inventory (nwi_rway_plus)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — nwi_rway_plus is National Wetlands Inventory data that has been converted to ArcGIS shapefile format. NWI maps depict wetland point, line, and area features with...

  17. Haematological Studies in High Altitude Natives at Plains and on Return to High Altitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. C. Jain

    1988-04-01

    Full Text Available Haematologic studies were carried out in 20 high altitude natives during two months stay at plains (200 m and on their return to an altitude of 3,500 m. Haemoglobin, erythrocyte count, haematocrit and reticulocyte count decreased rapidly on arrival to plains and attained minimum level by the end of fourth week. All these parameters increased rapidly on return to high altitude and were found to attain maximum values by 23rd day on return to high altitude. Mean cell volume and mean cell haemoglobin showed significant increase at altitude. Blood volume and red cell mass increased significantly at altitude. It is concluded that the high altitude natives of Ladakh were well adapted to hypoxic environment due to normocythaemic hypervolemia.

  18. New Jersey (USA) wetlands past, present and future: using sediment archives to inform and guide wetland protection, restoration and resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Nicole; Clear, Jennifer; Horton, Benjamin; Nikitina, Daria; Enache, Mihaela; Potapova, Marina; Frizzera, Dorina; Procopio, Nicholas; Vane, Christopher; Shaw, Timothy; Walker, Jennifer

    2016-04-01

    Due to the rapid and pervasive loss of coastal wetland ecosystems and the enumerable services they provide, recent attention has been given to their protection and restoration. Knowledge gaps exist, however, that limit the efficacy of restoration efforts, particularly regarding response times of wetland ecosystems to natural (storms and sea-level rise) and anthropogenic impacts and the appropriate indices or metrics of ecosystem health to be incorporated in management practices to achieve restoration goals. Here we present results from monitoring studies and stratigraphic investigations from marshes across the New Jersey, USA shoreline from Delaware Bay to Raritan Bay (~210 km of coastline that vary in degree of urbanization and anthropogenic disturbances) that address these limitations. In Delaware Bay, we identify a series of abrupt contacts (mud-peat couplets) from a sequence spanning the past two thousand years that we infer result from erosive storm events. By dating the base of these contacts and the return to high salt marsh peat, we are able to estimate the recovery time of marshes under varying rates of sea-level rise. In marshes from Great Sound to Raritan Bay, we use microfossils (e.g., foraminifera, diatoms) as indices of ecosystem health. We monitor the response of microfossils to natural (e.g., changes in salinity or inundation frequency from sea-level rise) and anthropogenic (e.g., nutrient loading) influences and apply quantitative paleoenvironmental reconstruction techniques to sediment archives to understand the relative influence of these factors on New Jersey wetlands over the past two thousand years. These results can be used to inform future coastal wetland restoration targets and as a model to develop site-specific goals in other regions.

  19. Hydrodynamic design in coastal wetland restoration

    OpenAIRE

    Sanders, Brett F.; Arega, Feleke

    2002-01-01

    Coastal wetlands in California are critically positioned at the interface between increasingly developed watersheds and the coastal ocean. These wetlands provide habitat for fish and wildlife, provide nutrients to surrounding coastal waters, and create recreational opportunities (Mitsch and Gosselink 1986). This report describes a circulation and transport model that is designed for tidal wetland circulation and mixing studies. Given the importance of wetland restoration projects to offset th...

  20. Wetland Ecology Principles and Conservation, Second Edition

    OpenAIRE

    Richard Smardon

    2014-01-01

    This is a book review of Wetland Ecology Principles and Conservation, second edition, by Paul Keddy. This review focuses on the book’s content as it relates to wetland sustainability for both science and management. Besides overall comments, comparisons are made with the first edition of the book and then very specific chapter-by-chapter relationships to wetland sustainability are made to illustrate specific applications toward wetland sustainability.

  1. Saline agriculture in Mediterranean environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albino Maggio

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Salinization is increasingly affecting world's agricultural land causing serious yield loss and soil degradation. Understanding how we could improve crop productivity in salinized environments is therefore critical to meet the challenging goal of feeding 9.3 billion people by 2050. Our comprehension of fundamental physiological mechanisms in plant salt stress adaptation has greatly advanced over the last decades. However, many of these mechanisms have been linked to salt tolerance in simplified experimental systems whereas they have been rarely functionally proven in real agricultural contexts. In-depth analyses of specific crop-salinity interactions could reveal important aspects of plant salt stress adaptation as well as novel physiological/agronomic targets to improve salinity tolerance. These include the developmental role of root vs. shoot systems respect to water-ion homeostasis, morphological vs. metabolic contributions to stress adaptation, developmental processes vs. seasonal soil salinity evolution, residual effects of saline irrigation in non-irrigated crops, critical parameters of salt tolerance in soil-less systems and controlled environments, response to multiple stresses. Finally, beneficial effects of salinization on qualitative parameters such as stress-induced accumulation of high nutritional value secondary metabolites should be considered, also. In this short review we attempted to highlight the multifaceted nature of salinity in Mediterranean agricultural systems by summarizing most experimental activity carried out at the Department of Agricultural Engineering and Agronomy of University of Naples Federico II in the last few years.

  2. [Degradation characteristics, patterns, and processes of lakeside wetland in Napahai of northwest Yunnan Plateau, Southwest China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Wen; Yang, Yong-Xing

    2012-12-01

    Two-way indicator species analysis (TWINSPAN) and canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) were employed to analyze the degradation characteristics, patterns, and processes of lakeside wetland in Napahai of northwest Yunnan Plateau. The plant communities in the lakeside wetland could be classified into four associations, according to the TWINSPAN results. The succession patterns of the plant community were represented by aquatic plant community --> swamp plant community --> swamp meadow plant community --> meadow plant community. During the processes of succession, the plant community coverage, density, Shannon diversity index, species richness, and plant aboveground biomass increased, whereas the community height decreased. The succession of the plant hydro-ecotypes followed the sequence of aquatic --> helophyte --> hygrophyte --> mesophyte. With the succession of the plant community, the wetland water quality indices salinity, alkalinity, and hardness decreased but ammonium nitrogen and total phosphorus concentrations increased, while total nitrogen and nitrate nitrogen concentrations showed no significant changes. Meanwhile, the soil pH and soil organic matter and total nitrogen contents decreased gradually, soil total phosphorous and potassium contents were increasing, whereas soil available phosphorous and potassium contents decreased after an initial increase. The CCA showed that the community species composition and structure were mainly affected by the wetland water gradient. The soil pH and total phosphorus content and the water total nitrogen and ammonium nitrogen concentrations had significant effects on the wetland plant species distribution and plant community succession. PMID:23479864

  3. On Diagnostic Index and Method of Healthy Wetland Food Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Juan Cui

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Wetland food chain is the channel of the matter and energy transfer or flow in the wetland ecosystem. From wetland food chain scission mechanism, the structure and functional characteristics of the wetland food chain scission were analyzed, while building a healthy wetland food chain diagnostic index system. Depending on wetland ecosystem health research results, this study brought forward the wetland food chain structure stability and functions of wetland energy measures and their quantitative calculation formula and finally we gave the healthy wetland food chain diagnosis process in order to provide scientific basis for wetland food chain restoration.

  4. [Sildenafil and exercise performance at altitude].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peidro, Roberto M

    2015-01-01

    Barometric pressure and partial oxygen pressure decrease with increasing altitude. Hypobaric hypoxia produced is responsible for altitude-related diseases and it can cause severe decrements in exercise performance. The physiological adaptations to the altitude are multiple and they contribute to alter different athletic qualities. The VO2 worsening could be associated to increased pulmonary vascular resistance and nitric oxide diffusion alteration. Performance impairments at altitude can also be accentuated by hypoxia-induced elevations in pulmonary arterial pressure. Clinical studies have demonstrated the beneficial effects of sildenafil on the treatment of pulmonary hypertension. These effects have led to suggest that its indication for competitions at altitude might improve athletic performance. The investigations demonstrate different results depending on the altitude level and times and intensities of exercise. Some studies show performance improvements, although not in all participants. Individual responses vary widely between different athletes. This presentation examines the effects of altitude on exercise capacity and shows studies about the use of sildenafil to improve sport performance. This text also discusses the possible side effects and implications for the use of sildenafil in athletes, indication that is not the basic one of the drug. The physicians must know in each athlete the individual sildenafil side effects that could arise and that would influence negatively on health and performance. PMID:26339884

  5. Optimizing Commercial Wetlands in Rural Landscapes

    OpenAIRE

    Blaeij, de, A.T.; Linderhof, V.G.M.; Polman, N.B.P.; Reinhard, A.J.

    2009-01-01

    Commercial wetlands can contribute to different policy objectives simultaneously. The aim of this study is to investigate the opinion of the Dutch population with respect to commercial wetlands. The commercial wetland functions valued the most by the Dutch population are water treatment and water storage

  6. 40 CFR 257.9 - Wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... (b) For purposes of this section, wetlands means those areas that are defined in 40 CFR 232.2(r). ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Wetlands. 257.9 Section 257.9... Location Restrictions § 257.9 Wetlands. (a) Owners or operators of new units and lateral expansions...

  7. North Dakota Wetlands Discovery Guide. Photocopy Booklet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Nancy J., Ed.; And Others

    This booklet contains games and activities that can be photocopied for classroom use. Activities include Wetland Terminology, Putting on the Map, Erosional Forces, Water in...Water out, Who Lives Here?, Wetlands in Disguise, Dichotomous Plant Game, Algae Survey, Conducting an Algal Survey, Water Quality Indicators Guide, Farming Wetlands, Wetlands…

  8. High-Altitude Hydration System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parazynski, Scott E.; Orndoff, Evelyne; Bue, Grant C.; Schaefbauer, Mark E.; Urban, Kase

    2010-01-01

    Three methods are being developed for keeping water from freezing during high-altitude climbs so that mountaineers can remain hydrated. Three strategies have been developed. At the time of this reporting two needed to be tested in the field and one was conceptual. The first method is Passive Thermal Control Using Aerogels. This involves mounting the fluid reservoir of the climber s canteen to an inner layer of clothing for better heat retention. For the field test, bottles were mounted to the inner fleece layer of clothing, and then aerogel insulation was placed on the outside of the bottle, and circumferentially around the drink straw. When climbers need to drink, they can pull up the insulated straw from underneath the down suit, take a sip, and then put it back into the relative warmth of the suit. For the field test, a data logger assessed the temperatures of the water reservoir, as well as near the tip of the drink straw. The second method is Passive Thermal Control with Copper-Shielded Drink Straw and Aerogels, also mounted to inner layers of clothing for better heat retention. Braided wire emanates from the inside of the fleece jacket layer, and continues up and around the drink straw in order to use body heat to keep the system-critical drink straw warm enough to keep water in the liquid state. For the field test, a data logger will be used to compare this with the above concept. The third, and still conceptual, method is Active Thermal Control with Microcontroller. If the above methods do not work, microcontrollers and tape heaters have been identified that could keep the drink straw warm even under extremely cold conditions. Power requirements are not yet determined because the thermal environment inside the down suit relative to the external environment has not been established. A data logger will be used to track both the external and internal temperatures of the suit on a summit day.

  9. The effects of petroleum coke amendments in constructed oil-sands wetlands : trace metal concentrations in pore waters, macrophyte and invertebrate tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discussed the feasibility of using petroleum coke to stabilize clay-dominated mine tailings in constructed wetlands. This waste product is produced by oil sands operators in Fort McMurray as a by-product of oil sands mining. It contains high levels of sulphur and trace metals. In order to use petroleum coke for land reclamation, accurate information is needed about the fate of these metals in wetland food web compartments. Previous laboratory studies have demonstrated that water leached from petroleum coke contains potentially high levels of V, Ni, Cd, Z, and Mo. In this study, a field-based microcosm method was used to examine the in situ effects of petroleum coke as a sediment amendment in a constructed oil sands wetland. Coke amendments did not increase the concentration of measured trace metals substantially in the sediment pore waters, or associated wetland biota. These results may indicate the presence of several organic and inorganic constituents found in the wetland sediments and water, such as peat, naphthenic acids, other dissolved organic carbon species and elevated salinity. These constituents can compound with metals, making them biologically unavailable. Metal concentrations in this constructed wetland were found to be similar to a 30-year old, undisturbed wetland in the area. The naturally high trace metal concentrations in the sediment pore waters of this natural wetland were found to exceed levels expressed in the Canadian Water Quality Guidelines for the Protection of Aquatic Life

  10. The hydrogeologic connectivity of a low-flow saline-spring fen peatland within the Athabasca oil sands region, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Corey M.; Price, Jonathan S.

    2015-12-01

    Saline springs can provide clues as to the nature of groundwater flow, including how it relates to subsurface wastewater storage and the distribution of solutes in the landscape. A saline-spring peatland neighboring a proposed in-situ oil facility was examined near Fort McMurray, Alberta (Canada). The study area is situated just north of a saline groundwater discharge zone, which coincides with the erosional edge of the Cretaceous Grand Rapids Formation. Na+ (mean 6,949 mg L-1) and Cl- (mean 13,776 mg L-1) were the dominant salts within the peatland, which increased by an order of magnitude in the opposite direction to that of the local groundwater flow. Rivers and freshwater wetlands within the study area had anomalously high salinities, in some cases exceeding 10,000 mg L-1 total dissolved solids within deeper sediments. Saline-spring features were observed as far as 5 km from the study area. A low-permeability mineral layer underlying the peatland restricted vertical groundwater exchange (estimated to be less than several mm over the 4-month study period). Sand and gravel lenses underlying the fen's high-salinity zone may function as areas of enhanced discharge. High Cl/Br ratios point to halite as a potential source of salinity, while δ18O and δ2H signatures in groundwater were lower than modern-day precipitation or Quaternary aquifers. The complex connectivity of saline-spring wetlands within the landscape has implications for industry and land-use managers, and justifies incorporating them into monitoring networks to better gauge the magnitude and flow history of natural saline discharge in the oil sands region.

  11. Diversity of Bacteroidetes in high altitude saline evaporitic basins in northern Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Dorador, Cristina; Meneses, D.; Urtuvia, V.; Demergasso, C.; Vila, I; Witzel, K.-P.; Imhoff, Johannes F.

    2009-01-01

    The phylum Bacteroidetes represents one of the most abundant bacterial groups of marine and freshwater bacterioplankton. We investigated the diversity of Bacteroidetes in water and sediment samples from three evaporitic basins located in the highlands of northern Chile. We used both 16S rRNA gene clone libraries created with targeted Bacteroidetes-specific primers and separation of specifically amplified gene fragments by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). DGGE analysis revealed ...

  12. Ciliates and their picophytoplankton-feeding activity in a high altitude warm-monomictic saline lake

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Peštová, D.; Macek, Miroslav; Pérez, M. E. M.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 1 (2008), s. 13-25. ISSN 0932-4739 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60170517 Keywords : ciliates * autotrophic picoplankton * feeding rates Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.000, year: 2008

  13. Effects of erythrocyte infusion on VO2max at high altitude

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Young, Jette Feveile; Sawka, M N; Muza, S R;

    1996-01-01

    This study investigated whether autologous erythrocyte infusion would ameliorate the decrement in maximal O2 uptake (VO2max) experienced by lowlanders when they ascend to high altitude. VO2max was measured in 16 men (treadmill running) at sea level (SL) and on the 1st (HA1) and 9th (HA9) days...... of high-altitude (4,300 m) residence. After VO2max was measured at SL, subjects were divided into two matched groups (n = 8). Twenty-four hours before ascent to high altitude, the experimental group received a 700-ml infusion of autologous erythrocytes and saline (42% hematocrit), whereas the control...... group received only saline. The VO2max of erythrocyte-infused [54 +/- 1 (SE) ml.kg-1.min-1] and control subjects (52 +/- 2 ml.kg-1.min-1) did not differ at SL before infusion. The decrement in VO2max on HA1 did not differ between groups, averaging 26% overall, despite higher (P

  14. Acute high-altitude illness: a clinically orientated review

    OpenAIRE

    Smedley, Tom; Grocott, Michael PW

    2013-01-01

    Acute high-altitude illness is an encompassing term for the range of pathology that the unacclimatised individual can develop at increased altitude. This includes acute mountain sickness, high-altitude cerebral oedema and high-altitude pulmonary oedema. These conditions represent an increasing clinical problem as more individuals are exposed to the hypobaric hypoxic environment of high altitude for both work and leisure. In this review of acute high-altitude illness, the epidemiology, risk fa...

  15. The Mediterranean salinity crisis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsue, K.J.

    1988-08-01

    That the Mediterranean Sea underwent a salinity crisis during the Miocene (Messinian) is proven by the 1970 JOIDES deep sea drilling expedition. Subsequent work by ocean drilling and by studies on land have recorded the history of this crisis. Based upon the deep desiccated-basin model, the use of event-stratigraphy, calibrated by strontium-isotope dating and magnetostratigraphy, has enabled them to decipher the following events between 6.0 and 5.1 Ma: (1) deposition of marine diatom-rich sediments in a partially restricted basin, (2) first desiccation of the Mediterranean when Calcare di base was deposited at a time of isolation from the Atlantic because of a glacial eustatic drop of sea level, (3) influx of marine waters through southern Spanish basins to furnish brines for the deposition of the main salt, (4) Intra-Messinian desiccation, as evidenced by the erosional unconformity above the lower evaporite, (5) Intra-Messinian denudation, when reefs grew on Cyprus and marine sediments were deposited in basins, (6) frequency isolations due to oscillating sea level, when the upper evaporite was deposited, (7) Lago mare, formation of freshwater and brackish lakes due to influx of Paratethys water, (8) opening of the Gibraltar and Pliocene inundation of the Mediterranean.

  16. Predictive occurrence models for coastal wetland plant communities: Delineating hydrologic response surfaces with multinomial logistic regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snedden, Gregg A.; Steyer, Gregory D.

    2013-02-01

    Understanding plant community zonation along estuarine stress gradients is critical for effective conservation and restoration of coastal wetland ecosystems. We related the presence of plant community types to estuarine hydrology at 173 sites across coastal Louisiana. Percent relative cover by species was assessed at each site near the end of the growing season in 2008, and hourly water level and salinity were recorded at each site Oct 2007-Sep 2008. Nine plant community types were delineated with k-means clustering, and indicator species were identified for each of the community types with indicator species analysis. An inverse relation between salinity and species diversity was observed. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) effectively segregated the sites across ordination space by community type, and indicated that salinity and tidal amplitude were both important drivers of vegetation composition. Multinomial logistic regression (MLR) and Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC) were used to predict the probability of occurrence of the nine vegetation communities as a function of salinity and tidal amplitude, and probability surfaces obtained from the MLR model corroborated the CCA results. The weighted kappa statistic, calculated from the confusion matrix of predicted versus actual community types, was 0.7 and indicated good agreement between observed community types and model predictions. Our results suggest that models based on a few key hydrologic variables can be valuable tools for predicting vegetation community development when restoring and managing coastal wetlands.

  17. Predictive occurrence models for coastal wetland plant communities: delineating hydrologic response surfaces with multinomial logistic regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snedden, Gregg A.; Steyer, Gregory D.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding plant community zonation along estuarine stress gradients is critical for effective conservation and restoration of coastal wetland ecosystems. We related the presence of plant community types to estuarine hydrology at 173 sites across coastal Louisiana. Percent relative cover by species was assessed at each site near the end of the growing season in 2008, and hourly water level and salinity were recorded at each site Oct 2007–Sep 2008. Nine plant community types were delineated with k-means clustering, and indicator species were identified for each of the community types with indicator species analysis. An inverse relation between salinity and species diversity was observed. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) effectively segregated the sites across ordination space by community type, and indicated that salinity and tidal amplitude were both important drivers of vegetation composition. Multinomial logistic regression (MLR) and Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC) were used to predict the probability of occurrence of the nine vegetation communities as a function of salinity and tidal amplitude, and probability surfaces obtained from the MLR model corroborated the CCA results. The weighted kappa statistic, calculated from the confusion matrix of predicted versus actual community types, was 0.7 and indicated good agreement between observed community types and model predictions. Our results suggest that models based on a few key hydrologic variables can be valuable tools for predicting vegetation community development when restoring and managing coastal wetlands.

  18. Integrated wetlands for food production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ray Zhuangrui; Wong, Ming-Hung

    2016-07-01

    The widespread use of compound pelleted feeds and chemical fertilizers in modern food production contribute to a vast amount of residual nutrients into the production system and adjacent ecosystem are major factors causing eutrophication. Furthermore, the extensive development and application of chemical compounds (such as chemical pesticides, disinfectants and hormones used in enhancing productivity) in food production process are hazardous to the ecosystems, as well as human health. These unsustainable food production patterns cannot sustain human living in the long run. Wetlands are perceived as self-decontamination ecosystems with high productivities. This review gives an overview about wetlands which are being integrated with food production processes, focusing on aquaculture. PMID:27131797

  19. Methane flux from wetlands areas

    OpenAIRE

    BAKER-BLOCKER, ANITA; Donahue, Thomas M.; MANCY, KHALIL H.

    2011-01-01

    Ebullient gases from Michigan wetlands have been collected and analyzed to deduce in situ methane fluxes. Methane flux has been found to be a function of mean air temperature. This relationship has been utilized to extrapolate observed methane fluxes to estimates of fluxes from the Pripet marshes, Sudd, Everglades, and Ugandan swamps. These four wetlands together provide a yearly source of 6.8 × 1013 g of methane to the atmosphere.DOI: 10.1111/j.2153-3490.1977.tb00731.x

  20. Ecosystem level methane fluxes from tidal freshwater and brackish marshes of the Mississippi River Delta: Implications for coastal wetland carbon projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Guerry O.; Perez, Brian C.; McWhorter, David E.; Krauss, Ken W.; Johnson, Darren J.; Raynie, Richard C.; Killebrew, Charles J.

    2016-01-01

    Sulfate from seawater inhibits methane production in tidal wetlands, and by extension, salinity has been used as a general predictor of methane emissions. With the need to reduce methane flux uncertainties from tidal wetlands, eddy covariance (EC) techniques provide an integrated methane budget. The goals of this study were to: 1) establish methane emissions from natural, freshwater and brackish wetlands in Louisiana based on EC; and 2) determine if EC estimates conform to a methane-salinity relationship derived from temperate tidal wetlands with chamber sampling. Annual estimates of methane emissions from this study were 62.3 g CH4/m2/yr and 13.8 g CH4/m2/yr for the freshwater and brackish (8–10 psu) sites, respectively. If it is assumed that long-term, annual soil carbon sequestration rates of natural marshes are ~200 g C/m2/yr (7.3 tCO2e/ha/yr), healthy brackish marshes could be expected to act as a net radiative sink, equivalent to less than one-half the soil carbon accumulation rate after subtracting methane emissions (4.1 tCO2e/ha/yr). Carbon sequestration rates would need case-by-case assessment, but the EC methane emissions estimates in this study conformed well to an existing salinity-methane model that should serve as a basis for establishing emission factors for wetland carbon offset projects.

  1. High Altitude Clear Air Turbulence Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Air Force Flight Dynamics Laboratory conducted the High Altitude Clear Air Turbulence Project in the mid 1960s with the intention of better understanding air...

  2. Cosmic rays and dosimetry at aviation altitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent concerns regarding the effects of the cosmic radiation field at aircraft altitudes on aircrew have resulted in a renewed interest in detailed measurements of the neutral and charged particle components in the atmosphere. CR-39 nuclear track detectors have been employed on a number of subsonic and supersonic aircraft to measure charge spectra and LET spectra at aircraft altitudes. These detectors are ideal for long term exposures required for these studies and their passive nature makes them suitable for an environment where interference with flight instrumentation could be a problem. We report here on measurements and analysis of short range tracks which were produced by high LET particles generated mainly by neutron interactions at aviation altitudes. In order to test the overall validity of the technique measurements were also carried out at the CERN-CEC field which simulates the radiation field at aviation altitudes and good agreement was found with dose values obtained using mainly heavy ion calibration

  3. High-altitude cerebral oedema mimicking stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanamandra, Uday; Gupta, Amul; Patyal, Sagarika; Varma, Prem Prakash

    2014-01-01

    High-altitude cerebral oedema (HACO) is the most fatal high-altitude illness seen by rural physicians practising in high-altitude areas. HACO presents clinically with cerebellar ataxia, features of raised intracranial pressure (ICP) and coma. Early identification is important as delay in diagnosis can be fatal. We present two cases of HACO presenting with focal deficits mimicking stroke. The first patient presented with left-sided hemiplegia associated with the rapid deterioration in the sensorium. Neuroimaging revealed features suggestive of vasogenic oedema. The second patient presented with monoplegia of the lower limb. Neuroimaging revealed perfusion deficit in anterior cerebral artery territory. Both patients were managed with dexamethasone and they improved dramatically. Clinical picture and neuroimaging closely resembled acute ischaemic stroke in both cases. Thrombolysis in these patients would have been disastrous. Recent travel to high altitude, young age, absence of atherosclerotic risk factors and features of raised ICP concomitantly directed the diagnosis to HACO. PMID:24671373

  4. Blood Coagulation Changes at High Altitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. S. Chohan

    1984-10-01

    Full Text Available The current concepts of blood coagulation changes in the pathogenesis of acute mountain sickness (AMS, high altitude pulmonary oedema (HAPO, high altitude pulmonary hypertension (HAPH and chronic mountain sickness(CMS which afflict the inductees and residents at high altitude have been reviewed. Hypercoagulable state which is more marked during the first few days of exposure is countered by enhanced fibrinolytic activity and accelerated cell mediated immunity. Magnesium levels are increased in normal residents at high altitudes and may be responsible for enhancing fibrinolytic activity and accelerating immune responses. Magnesium levels are significantly reduced in HAPO patients. Judicious use of furosemide in lower dosage is still the mainstay of treatment of HAPO and AMS.

  5. Python Engine Installed in Altitude Wind Tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    1949-01-01

    An engine mechanic checks instrumentation prior to an investigation of engine operating characteristics and thrust control of a large turboprop engine with counter-rotating propellers under high-altitude flight conditions in the 20-foot-dianieter test section of the Altitude Wind Tunnel at the Lewis Flight Propulsion Laboratory of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, Cleveland, Ohio, now known as the John H. Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field.

  6. Pupillary Light Reaction during High Altitude Exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Schultheiss, Maximilian; Schommer, Kai; Schatz, Andreas; Wilhelm, Barbara; Peters, Tobias; Fischer, M. Dominik; Zrenner, Eberhart; Bartz-Schmidt, Karl U.; Gekeler, Florian; Willmann, Gabriel, 1977-

    2014-01-01

    Purpose This study aimed to quantify the pupillary light reaction during high altitude exposure using the state of the art Compact Integrated Pupillograph (CIP) and to investigate a potential correlation of altered pupil reaction with severity of acute mountain sickness (AMS). This work is related to the Tübingen High Altitude Ophthalmology (THAO) study. Methods Parameters of pupil dynamics (initial diameter, amplitude, relative amplitude, latency, constriction velocity) were quantified in 14...

  7. Factors affecting coastal wetland loss and restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahoon, D.R.

    2007-01-01

    Opening paragraph: Tidal and nontidal wetlands in the Chesapeake Bay watershed provide vital hydrologic, water-quality, and ecological functions. Situated at the interface of land and water, these valuable habitats are vulnerable to alteration and loss by human activities including direct conversion to non-wetland habitat by dredge-and-fill activities from land development, and to the effects of excessive nutrients, altered hydrology and runoff, contaminants, prescribed fire management, and invasive species. Processes such as sea-level rise and climate change also impact wetlands. Although local, State, and Federal regulations provide for protection of wetland resources, the conversion and loss of wetland habitats continue in the Bay watershed. Given the critical values of wetlands, the Chesapeake 2000 Agreement has a goal to achieve a net gain in wetlands by restoring 25,000 acres of tidal and nontidal wetlands by 2010. The USGS has synthesized findings on three topics: (1) sea-level rise and wetland loss, (2) wetland restoration, and (3) factors affecting wetland diversity.

  8. NOAA Average Annual Salinity (3-Zone)

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The 3-Zone Average Annual Salinity Digital Geography is a digital spatial framework developed using geographic information system (GIS) technology. These salinity...

  9. Child health and living at high altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niermeyer, S; Andrade Mollinedo, P; Huicho, L

    2009-10-01

    The health of children born and living at high altitude is shaped not only by the low-oxygen environment, but also by population ancestry and sociocultural determinants. High altitude and the corresponding reduction in oxygen delivery during pregnancy result in lower birth weight with higher elevation. Children living at high elevations are at special risk for hypoxaemia during infancy and during acute lower respiratory infection, symptomatic high-altitude pulmonary hypertension, persistence of fetal vascular connections, and re-entry high-altitude pulmonary oedema. However, child health varies from one population group to another due to genetic adaptation as well as factors such as nutrition, intercurrent infection, exposure to pollutants and toxins, socioeconomic status, and access to medical care. Awareness of the risks uniquely associated with living at high altitude and monitoring of key health indicators can help protect the health of children at high altitude. These considerations should be incorporated into the scaling-up of effective interventions for improving global child health and survival. PMID:19066173

  10. The nitrogen abatement cost in wetlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The costs of abating agricultural nitrogen pollution in wetlands are estimated. By linking costs for construction of wetlands to the denitrification capacity of wetlands, an abatement cost function can be formed. A construction-cost function and a denitrification function for wetlands is estimated empirically. This paper establishes a link between abatement costs and the nitrogen load on wetlands. Since abatement costs fluctuate with nitrogen load, ignoring this link results in incorrect estimates of abatement costs. The results demonstrate that wetlands have the capacity to provide low cost abatement of nitrogen compounds in runoff. For the Kattegatt region in Sweden, marginal abatement costs for wetlands are shown to be lower than costs of land use changing measures, such as extended land under fallow or cultivation of fuel woods, but higher than the marginal costs of reducing nitrogen fertilizer

  11. A Mechanistically Informed User-Friendly Model to Predict Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Fluxes and Carbon Storage from Coastal Wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Aziz, O. I.; Ishtiaq, K. S.

    2015-12-01

    We present a user-friendly modeling tool on MS Excel to predict the greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes and estimate potential carbon sequestration from the coastal wetlands. The dominant controls of wetland GHG fluxes and their relative mechanistic linkages with various hydro-climatic, sea level, biogeochemical and ecological drivers were first determined by employing a systematic data-analytics method, including Pearson correlation matrix, principal component and factor analyses, and exploratory partial least squares regressions. The mechanistic knowledge and understanding was then utilized to develop parsimonious non-linear (power-law) models to predict wetland carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) fluxes based on a sub-set of climatic, hydrologic and environmental drivers such as the photosynthetically active radiation, soil temperature, water depth, and soil salinity. The models were tested with field data for multiple sites and seasons (2012-13) collected from the Waquoit Bay, MA. The model estimated the annual wetland carbon storage by up-scaling the instantaneous predicted fluxes to an extended growing season (e.g., May-October) and by accounting for the net annual lateral carbon fluxes between the wetlands and estuary. The Excel Spreadsheet model is a simple ecological engineering tool for coastal carbon management and their incorporation into a potential carbon market under a changing climate, sea level and environment. Specifically, the model can help to determine appropriate GHG offset protocols and monitoring plans for projects that focus on tidal wetland restoration and maintenance.

  12. Using Hydrological Modeling to Explain Patterns of Habitat Use by Fishes and Crustaceans in Channelized Tidal Wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebs, J. M.; Hearn, C. J.; McIvor, C. C.; Brame, A. B.

    2006-12-01

    Wetland ditching for mosquito control and stormwater drainage has undoubtedly affected patterns of water flow in tidal wetlands throughout the United States. Ditches alter the hydrological regime by diverting water from natural channels and by concentrating discharge thereby reducing sheet flow from the marsh surface. Hydrological instruments can be used to measure parameters like water level, current velocity, and salinity for comparison of flow regime between natural and altered tidal channels. Surveys of fish habitat use can be used to quantify differences in species composition and abundance between natural and altered wetlands. By integrating both hydrology and ecology, models can be developed to better explain the processes that underlie physical and biological differences between natural and hydrologically altered tidal wetlands. Here we present some of our early work to describe hydrology and fish habitat use in a hydrologically altered mangrove wetland in Tampa Bay. We hope that the results of this study will provide a useful contrast to data collected following hydrological restoration of the wetland.

  13. Physiological aspects of altitude training and the use of altitude simulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranković Goran

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Altitude training in various forms is widely practiced by athletes and coaches in an attempt to improve sea level endurance. Training at high altitude may improve performance at sea level through altitude acclimatization, which improves oxygen transport and/or utilization, or through hypoxia, which intensifies the training stimulus. This basic physiological aspect allows three training modalities: live high and train high (classic high-altitude training, live low and train high (training through hypoxia, and live high and train low (the new trend. In an effort to reduce the financial and logistical challenges of traveling to high-altitude training sites, scientists and manufactures have developed artificial high-altitude environments, which simulate the hypoxic conditions of moderate altitude (2000-3000 meters. Endurance athletes from many sports have recently started using nitrogen environments, or hypoxic rooms and tents as part of their altitude training programmes. The results of controlled studies on these modalities of high-altitude training, their practical approach, and ethics are summarized.

  14. Haematological Studies in High Altitude Natives at Plains and on Return to High Altitude

    OpenAIRE

    Jain, S C; H. M. Divekar; Jaya Bardhan; R S Sharma; Swamy, Y. V.

    1988-01-01

    Haematologic studies were carried out in 20 high altitude natives during two months stay at plains (200 m) and on their return to an altitude of 3,500 m. Haemoglobin, erythrocyte count, haematocrit and reticulocyte count decreased rapidly on arrival to plains and attained minimum level by the end of fourth week. All these parameters increased rapidly on return to high altitude and were found to attain maximum values by 23rd day on return to high altitude. Mean cell volume and mean cell haemog...

  15. NOAA NOS SOS, EXPERIMENTAL - Salinity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA NOS SOS server is part of the IOOS DIF SOS Project. The stations in this dataset have salinity data. *These services are for testing and evaluation use...

  16. World Ocean Atlas 2005, Salinity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — World Ocean Atlas 2005 (WOA05) is a set of objectively analyzed (1° grid) climatological fields of in situ temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, Apparent Oxygen...

  17. Stochastic Modeling of Soil Salinity

    CERN Document Server

    Suweis, S; Van der Zee, S E A T M; Daly, E; Maritan, A; Porporato, A; 10.1029/2010GL042495

    2012-01-01

    A minimalist stochastic model of primary soil salinity is proposed, in which the rate of soil salinization is determined by the balance between dry and wet salt deposition and the intermittent leaching events caused by rainfall events. The long term probability density functions of salt mass and concentration are found by reducing the coupled soil moisture and salt mass balance equation to a single stochastic differential equation driven by multiplicative Poisson noise. The novel analytical solutions provide insight on the interplay of the main soil, plant and climate parameters responsible for long-term soil salinization. In particular, they show the existence of two distinct regimes, one where the mean salt mass remains nearly constant (or decreases) with increasing rainfall frequency, and another where mean salt content increases markedly with increasing rainfall frequency. As a result, relatively small reductions of rainfall in drier climates may entail dramatic shifts in long-term soil salinization trend...

  18. Nevada Test Site Wetlands Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. J. Hansen

    1997-05-01

    This report identifies 16 Nevada Test Site (NTS) natural water sources that may be classified by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) as jurisdictional wetlands and identifies eight water sources that may be classified as waters of the United States. These water sources are rare, localized habitats on the NTS that are important to regional wildlife and to isolated populations of water tolerant plants and aquatic organisms. No field investigations on the NTS have been conducted in the past to identify those natural water sources which would be protected as rare habitats and which may fall under regulatory authority of the Clean Water Act (CWA) of 1997. This report identifies and summarizes previous studies of NTS natural water sources, and identifies the current DOE management practices related to the protection of NTS wetlands. This report also presents management goals specific for NTS wetlands that incorporate the intent of existing wetlands legislation, the principles of ecosystem management, and the interests of regional land managers and other stakeholders.

  19. Irrigation of wetlands in Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Masija, E.H.

    1993-01-01

    Over 1,164,000 ha of wetland areas are listed as suitable for irrigation, mainly for cropproduction and livestock grazing. Existing and planned irrigation schemes are described forthe ,main river basins where large areas are devoted to rice and sugar cane. Emphasis' isplaced on the value of small scale, farmer-managed irrigation schemes and the rehabilitation of traditional systems.

  20. Magellanic Wetlands : More than Moor

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Filipová, L.; Hédl, Radim; Dančák, M.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 2 (2013), s. 163-188. ISSN 1211-9520 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/08/0389 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : wetland * vegetation * environment Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.612, year: 2013

  1. Social and cultural values of wetlands in Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Omari, C.K.

    1993-01-01

    The socio-economic aspects of wetland farming and fisheries' are discussed together with the cultural values of wetlands such as scenery, sources of traditional medicine, anddiseases. The socio-political features of wetland life are mentioned as well as theinternational considerations of wetland water needs. A plea is made for more research intoindigenous knowledge of wetland values and products.

  2. Defining restoration targets for water depth and salinity in wind-dominated Spartina patens (Ait.) Muhl. coastal marshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyman, J.A.; LaPeyre, Megan K.; Caldwell, Andral W.; Piazza, Sarai C.; Thom, C.; Winslow, C.

    2009-01-01

    Coastal wetlands provide valued ecosystem functions but the sustainability of those functions often is threatened by artificial hydrologic conditions. It is widely recognized that increased flooding and salinity can stress emergent plants, but there are few measurements to guide restoration, management, and mitigation. Marsh flooding can be estimated over large areas with few data where winds have little effect on water levels, but quantifying flooding requires hourly measurements over long time periods where tides are wind-dominated such as the northern Gulf of Mexico. Estimating salinity of flood water requires direct daily measurements because coastal marshes are characterized by dynamic salinity gradients. We analyzed 399,772 hourly observations of water depth and 521,561 hourly observations of water salinity from 14 sites in Louisiana coastal marshes dominated by Spartina patens (Ait.) Muhl. Unlike predicted water levels, observed water levels varied monthly and annually. We attributed those observed variations to variations in river runoff and winds. In stable marshes with slow wetland loss rates, we found that marsh elevation averaged 1 cm above mean high water, 15 cm above mean water, and 32 cm above mean low water levels. Water salinity averaged 3.7 ppt during April, May, and June, and 5.4 ppt during July, August, and September. The daily, seasonal, and annual variation in water levels and salinity that were evident would support the contention that such variation be retained when designing and operating coastal wetland management and restoration projects. Our findings might be of interest to scientists, engineers, and managers involved in restoration, management, and restoration in other regions where S. patens or similar species are common but local data are unavailable.

  3. Neutral Wind Observations below 200 km altitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, S.; Abe, T.; Habu, H.; Kakinami, Y.; Larsen, M. F.; Pfaff, R. F., Jr.; Yamamoto, M.

    2015-12-01

    Neutral Wind Observations below 200 km altitudesS. Watanabe1, T. Abe2, H. Habu2, Y. Kakinami3, M. Larsen4, R. Pfaff5, M. Yamamoto6, M-Y. Yamamoto31Hokkaido University/Hokkaido Information University, 2JAXA/ISAS, 3Kochi University of Technology, 4Clemson University, 5NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, 6Kyoto University, Neutral wind in the thermosphere is one of the key parameters to understand the ionosphere-thermosphere coupling process. JAXA/ISAS successfully launched sounding rockets from Uchinoura Space Center (USC) on September 2, 2007, January 12, 2012, and July 20, 2013, and NASA launched sounding rockets from Kwajalein on May 7, 2013 and from Wallops on July 4, 2013. The rockets installed Lithium and/or TMA canisters as well as instruments for plasma and electric and magnetic fields. The atomic Lithium gases were released at altitudes between 150 km and 300 km in the evening on September 2, 2007, at altitude of ~100 km in the morning on January 12, 2012, at altitude of ~120km in the midnight on July 20, 2013, at altitude between 150 km and 300 km in the evening on May 7, 2013 and at altitude of ~150 km in the noon on July 4, 2013. The Lithium atoms were scattering sunlight by resonance scattering with wavelength of 670nm. However, the Lithium atoms scattered moon light on July 20, 2013. The moon light scattering is the first time to use for thermospheric wind measurement in the midnight. The Lithium clouds/trails and TMA trails showed clearly the neutral wind shears and atmospheric waves at ~150 km altitude in the lower thermosphere for all local time.

  4. Engineered wetlands : an innovative environmental solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engineered wetlands are now considered as an emerging technology for the in situ remediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated soil and waters. Engineered wetlands incorporate a horizontal subsurface flow gravel bed reactor lined with impermeable liners, and are equipped with forced bed aeration systems in order to enhance oxygen delivery to the wetland's aerobic micro-organisms. The wetlands typically emphasize specific characteristics of wetland ecosystems to improve treatment capacities. This article discussed an engineered wetlands installed at a set of pipeline terminals as well as at a former British Petroleum (BP) refinery. The pipeline terminal generated contact wastewater containing BTEX and ammonia, and a subsurface engineered wetland was built in 1998. To date, the 16,0002 foot wetland has treated a flow-equalized input of approximately 1.5 m3 per day of contaminants. At the refinery, a wetland treatment system was designed to treat 6000 m3 of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (BTEX) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The treatment site consists of a golf course, river front trails, and a white water kayak course. A cascade aeration system was used for iron oxidation and air-stripping. A soil matrix biofilter was used for passive gas phase benzene removal, as well as for the removal of ferric hydroxide precipitates. It was concluded that engineered wetlands can offer long-term solutions to site remediation challenges. 1 fig

  5. USGS research on Florida's isolated freshwater wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Arturo E.; Haag, Kim H.; Lee, Terrie M.; Metz, Patricia A.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has studied wetland hydrology and its effects on wetland health and ecology in Florida since the 1990s. USGS wetland studies in Florida and other parts of the Nation provide resource managers with tools to assess current conditions and regional trends in wetland resources. Wetland hydrologists in the USGS Florida Water Science Center (FLWSC) have completed a number of interdisciplinary studies assessing the hydrology, ecology, and water quality of wetlands. These studies have expanded the understanding of wetland hydrology, ecology, and related processes including: (1) the effects of cyclical changes in rainfall and the influence of evapotranspiration; (2) surface-water flow, infiltration, groundwater movement, and groundwater and surfacewater interactions; (3) the effects of water quality and soil type; (4) the unique biogeochemical components of wetlands required to maintain ecosystem functions; (5) the effects of land use and other human activities; (6) the influences of algae, plants, and invertebrates on environmental processes; and (7) the effects of seasonal variations in animal communities that inhabit or visit Florida wetlands and how wetland function responds to changes in the plant community.

  6. A GIS semiautomatic tool for classifying and mapping wetland soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Ramón, Héctor; Marqués-Mateu, Angel; Ibáñez-Asensio, Sara

    2016-04-01

    Wetlands are one of the most productive and biodiverse ecosystems in the world. Water is the main resource and controls the relationships between agents and factors that determine the quality of the wetland. However, vegetation, wildlife and soils are also essential factors to understand these environments. It is possible that soils have been the least studied resource due to their sampling problems. This feature has caused that sometimes wetland soils have been classified broadly. The traditional methodology states that homogeneous soil units should be based on the five soil forming-factors. The problem can appear when the variation of one soil-forming factor is too small to differentiate a change in soil units, or in case that there is another factor, which is not taken into account (e.g. fluctuating water table). This is the case of Albufera of Valencia, a coastal wetland located in the middle east of the Iberian Peninsula (Spain). The saline water table fluctuates throughout the year and it generates differences in soils. To solve this problem, the objectives of this study were to establish a reliable methodology to avoid that problems, and develop a GIS tool that would allow us to define homogeneous soil units in wetlands. This step is essential for the soil scientist, who has to decide the number of soil profiles in a study. The research was conducted with data from 133 soil pits of a previous study in the wetland. In that study, soil parameters of 401 samples (organic carbon, salinity, carbonates, n-value, etc.) were analysed. In a first stage, GIS layers were generated according to depth. The method employed was Bayesian Maxim Entropy. Subsequently, it was designed a program in GIS environment that was based on the decision tree algorithms. The goal of this tool was to create a single layer, for each soil variable, according to the different diagnostic criteria of Soil Taxonomy (properties, horizons and diagnostic epipedons). At the end, the program

  7. Effects of Sediment on Water Quality in the Wetlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Montazami Vazifedoost

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Flowing water in a stream carries sediment which is considered a pollutant because it interferes with many uses of water. Other pollutants in the water may be attached to or greatly affected by the sediment.One of the causes of high concentrations of dissolved solids in rivers is soil erosion. There are different forms of water erosion in Haraz and Babolrood watersheds. They enter a lot of sediments into the Haraz and Babol rood rivers. These sediments with flows enter into the downstream watersheds of Haraz and Babolrood watersheds. Precipitation changes the water quality and increases the salinization and vegetation. In this study, water quality and vegetation in downstream of Haraz and Babolrood watersheds were compared in different places. The results show that in the vicinity of wetlands water does not have good quality due to upstream sediment accumulation and increased salt water and this has led to changes in vegetation.

  8. The Impact of Altitude on Infant Health in South America

    OpenAIRE

    Wehby, George L; Eduardo E. Castilla; Lopez-Camelo, Jorge

    2010-01-01

    Previous Studies have reported that altitude reduces birth weight in South America. However, much remains unknown about the heterogeneities in altitude effects by fetal health endowments and about the effects in various ranges of altitude. This study estimates the effects of altitude on the means and quantiles of birth weight and gestational age separately for two large samples o...

  9. HIGH ALTITUDE TESTING OF RESIDENTIAL WOOD-FIRED COMBUSTION EQUIPMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    To determine whether emissions from operating a wood stove at high altitude differ from those at low altitude, a high altitude sampling program was conducted which was compared to previously collected low altitude data. Emission tests were conducted in the identical model stove u...

  10. Field-scale simulation of methane emissions from coastal wetlands in China using an improved version of CH4MODwetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tingting; Xie, Baohua; Wang, Guocheng; Zhang, Wen; Zhang, Qing; Vesala, Timo; Raivonen, Maarit

    2016-07-15

    Coastal wetlands are important CH4 sources to the atmosphere. Coastal wetlands account for ~10% of the total area of natural wetlands in China, but the size of this potential CH4 source remains highly uncertain. We introduced the influence of salinity on CH4 production and CH4 diffusion into a biogeophysical model named CH4MODwetland so that it can be used in coastal wetlands. The improved model can generally simulate seasonal CH4 variations from tidal marshes dominated by Phragmites and Scirpus. However, the model underestimated winter CH4 fluxes from tidal marshes in the Yellow River Delta and YanCheng Estuary. It also failed to capture the accurate timing of the CH4 peaks in YanCheng Estuary and ChongMing Island in 2012. The improved model could generally simulate the difference between the annual mean CH4 fluxes from mangrove sites in GuangZhou and HaiKou city under different salinity and water table depth conditions, although fluxes were systematically underestimated in the mangrove site of HaiKou city. Using the improved model, the seasonal CH4 emissions simulated across all of the coastal wetlands ranged from 0.1 to 44.90gm(-2), with an average value of 7.89gm(-2), which is in good agreement with the observed values. The improved model significantly decreased the RMSE and RMD from 424% to 14% and 314% to -2%, respectively, and improved the EF from -18.30 to 0.99. Model sensitivity analysis showed that CH4 emissions were most sensitive to Pox in the tidal marshes and salinity in the mangroves. The results show that previous studies may have overestimated CH4 emissions on a regional or global scale by neglecting the influence of salinity. In general, the CH4MODwetland model can simulate seasonal CH4 emissions from different types of coastal wetlands under various conditions. Further improvements of CH4MODwetland should include the specific characteristics of CH4 processes in mangroves to decrease the uncertainty in estimating regional or global CH4 emissions

  11. High altitude pulmonary edema in mountain climbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korzeniewski, Krzysztof; Nitsch-Osuch, Aneta; Guzek, Aneta; Juszczak, Dariusz

    2015-04-01

    Every year thousands of ski, trekking or climbing fans travel to the mountains where they stay at the altitude of more than 2500-3000m above sea level or climb mountain peaks, often exceeding 7000-8000m. High mountain climbers are at a serious risk from the effects of adverse environmental conditions prevailing at higher elevations. They may experience health problems resulting from hypotension, hypoxia or exposure to low temperatures; the severity of those conditions is largely dependent on elevation, time of exposure as well as the rate of ascent and descent. A disease which poses a direct threat to the lives of mountain climbers is high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE). It is a non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema which typically occurs in rapidly climbing unacclimatized lowlanders usually within 2-4 days of ascent above 2500-3000m. It is the most common cause of death resulting from the exposure to high altitude. The risk of HAPE rises with increased altitude and faster ascent. HAPE incidence ranges from an estimated 0.01% to 15.5%. Climbers with a previous history of HAPE, who ascent rapidly above 4500m have a 60% chance of illness recurrence. The aim of this article was to present the relevant details concerning epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical symptoms, prevention, and treatment of high altitude pulmonary edema among climbers in the mountain environment. PMID:25291181

  12. Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea at Altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch, Konrad E; Latshang, Tsogyal D; Ulrich, Silvia

    2015-06-01

    Bloch, Konrad E., Tsogyal D. Latshang, and Silvia Ulrich. Patients with obstructive sleep apnea at altitude. High Alt Med Biol 16:110-116, 2015.--Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is highly prevalent in the general population, in particular in men and women of older age. In OSA patients sleeping near sea level, the apneas/hypopneas associated with intermittent hypoxemia are predominantly due to upper airway collapse. When OSA patients stay at altitudes above 1600 m, corresponding to that of many tourist destinations, hypobaric hypoxia promotes frequent central apneas in addition to obstructive events, resulting in combined intermittent and sustained hypoxia. This induces strong sympathetic activation with elevated heart rate, cardiac arrhythmia, and systemic hypertension. There are concerns that these changes expose susceptible OSA patients, in particular those with advanced age and co-morbidities, to an excessive risk of cardiovascular and other adverse events during a stay at altitude. Based on data from randomized trials, it seems advisable for OSA patients to use continuous positive airway pressure treatment with computer controlled mask pressure adjustment (autoCPAP) in combination with acetazolamide during an altitude sojourn. If CPAP therapy is not feasible, acetazolamide alone is better than no treatment at all, as it improves oxygenation and sleep apnea and prevents excessive blood pressure rises of OSA patients at altitude. PMID:25973669

  13. Responses of the autonomic nervous system in altitude adapted and high altitude pulmonary oedema subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Lazar; Purkayastha, S. S.; Jayashankar, A.; Radhakrishnan, U.; Sen Gupta, J.; Nayar, H. S.

    1985-06-01

    Studies were carried out to ascertain the role of sympatho-parasympathetic responses in the process of adaptation to altitude. The assessment of status of autonomic balance was carried out in a group of 20 young male subjects by recording their resting heart rate, blood pressure, oral temperature, mean skin temperature, extremity temperatures, pupillary diameter, cold pressor response, oxygen consumption, cardioacceleration during orthostasis and urinary excretion of catecholamines; in a thermoneutral laboratory. The same parameters were repeated on day 3 and at weekly intervals for a period of 3 weeks, after exposing them to 3,500 m; and also after return to sea level. At altitude, similar studies were carried out in a group of 10 acclimatized lowlanders, 10 high altitude natives and 6 patients who had recently recovered from high altitude pulmonary oedema. In another phase, similar studies were done in two groups of subjects, one representing 15 subjects who had stayed at altitude (3,500 4,000 m) without any ill effects and the other comprising of 10 subjects who had either suffered from high altitude pulmonary oedema (HAPO) or acute mountain sickness (AMS). The results revealed sympathetic overactivity on acute induction to altitude which showed gradual recovery on prolonged stay, the high altitude natives had preponderance to parasympathetic system. Sympathetic preponderance may not be an essential etiological factor for the causation of maladaptation syndromes.

  14. Performance of wetland forbs transplanted into marshes amended with oil sands processed water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollard, Federico P O; Roy, Marie-Claude; Foote, A Lee

    2015-03-01

    Companies mining oil sands in Alberta (Canada) face the challenge of reclaiming wetlands under water use restrictions. Wetland reclamation after mining will generate marshes characterized by elevated salinity and residual hydrocarbons. Oil sands wetlands are also impoverished in forbs, suggesting that their establishment may be constrained by water chemistry. We transplanted skullcap, mint, and smartweed plants into experimental trenches that simulated two possible reclamation scenarios: wetlands amended with on-site freshwater or with oil sands processed water (OSPW). The main scientific question was is OSPW a suitable water amendment as freshwater for reclaiming wetland forb habitat? As a surrogate of plant health, we studied plant ecophysiology (gas exchange, leaf fluorescence), leaf chemistry, and plant growth. Results showed that there were no differences in skullcap mineral contents under either treatment; however, mint and smartweed plants subjected to OSPW had a significantly higher Na content than those under freshwater. Smartweed dark-adapted leaf fluorescence showed a reduced photochemistry in OSPW relative to plants in freshwater. Mint leaves exhibited lower stomatal conductance in OSPW than in freshwater, a condition that negatively affected transpiration and carboxylation. Skullcap plants grown in OSPW had lower net CO2 assimilation rates than those in freshwater but did not show any other ecophysiological difference between treatments. Mint plants experienced growth reductions (i.e., shoot height) in OSPW. Our results show, for the first time in the literature, that plants photosynthetic capacity was negatively affected by OSPW. Conditions in OSPW proved to be suitable for establishment as transplanted forbs showed 100 % survival after the first growing season. However, impaired physiological functions in plants subjected to OSPW indicated that OSPW amendment created a less hospitable habitat for wetland forbs than freshwater. PMID:25697311

  15. Susceptibility of riparian wetland plants to perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudumbi, J B N; Ntwampe, S K O; Muganza, M; Okonkwo, J O

    2014-01-01

    As plants have been shown to accumulate organic compounds from contaminated sediments, there is a potential for long-lasting ecological impact as a result of contaminant accumulation in riparian areas of wetlands, particularly the accumulation of non-biodegradable contaminants such as perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA). In this study, commonly found riparian wetland plants including reeds, i.e., Xanthium strumarium, Phragmites australis, Schoenoplectus corymbosus, Ruppia maritime; Populus canescens, Polygonum salicifolium, Cyperus congestus; Persicaria amphibian, Ficus carica, Artemisia schmidtiana, Eichhornia crassipes, were studied to determine their susceptibility to PFOA accumulation from PFOA contaminated riparian sediment with a known PFOA concentration, using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). The bioconcentration factor (BCF) indicated that the plants affinity to PFOA accumulation was; E. crassipes, > P. sali-cifolium, > C. congestus, > P. x canescens, > P. amphibian, > F. carica, > A. schmidtiana, > X. strumarium,> P. australis, > R. maritime, > S. corymbosus. The concentration of PFOA in the plants and/or reeds was in the range 11.7 to 38 ng/g, with a BCF range of 0.05 to 0.37. The highest BCF was observed in sediment for which its core water had a high salinity, total organic carbon and a pH which was near neutral. As the studied plants had a higher affinity for PFOA, the resultant effect is that riparian plants such as E. crassipes, X. strumarium, and P. salicifolium, typified by a fibrous rooting system, which grow closer to the water edge, exacerbate the accumulation of PFOA in riparian wetlands. PMID:24933893

  16. Biological Diversity of Created Forested Wetlands in Comparison to Reference Forested Wetlands in the Bay Watershed

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals were surveyed at six created forested wetlands in central Maryland and at six adjacent reference forested wetlands during...

  17. Inventory of wetland birds occupying WPAs in the Devils Lake Wetland Management District

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The primary focus of this survey was the non-game bird species found in wetlands; game bird species found to be using the wetlands were also recorded. Both...

  18. Environmental filtering determines metacommunity structure in wetland microcrustaceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gascón, Stéphanie; Arranz, Ignasi; Cañedo-Argüelles, Miguel; Nebra, Alfonso; Ruhí, Albert; Rieradevall, Maria; Caiola, Nuno; Sala, Jordi; Ibàñez, Carles; Quintana, Xavier D; Boix, Dani

    2016-05-01

    Metacommunity approaches are becoming popular when analyzing factors driving species distribution at the regional scale. However, until the popularization of the variation partitioning technique it was difficult to assess the main drivers of the observed patterns (spatial or environmental). Here we propose a new framework linking the emergence of different metacommunity structures (e.g., nested, Gleasonian, Clementsian) to spatial and environmental filters. This is a novel approach that provides a more profound analysis of how both drivers could lead to similar metacommunity structures. We tested this framework on 110 sites covering a strong environmental gradient (i.e., microcrustacean assemblages organized along a salinity gradient, from freshwater to brackish water wetlands). First we identified the metacommunity structure that better fitted these microcrustacean assemblages. Then, we used hierarchical variation partitioning to quantify the relative influences of environmental filters and the distance among wetlands on the identified structure. Our results showed that under strong environmental filtering metacommunity structures were non-random. We also noted that even passive dispersers, that are supposed to be poorly spatially filtered, showed spatial signals at a large geographical scale. However, some difficulties arose when inferring biotic interactions at finer-scale spatial signals. Overall, our study shows the potential of elements of metacommunity structure combined with variation partition techniques to detect environmental drivers and broadscale patterns of metacommunity structure, and that some caution is needed when interpreting finer-scale spatial signals. PMID:26781303

  19. Vliv porostu a salinity na aktivitu a diverzitu mikroorganismů tropických mokřadů

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Černá, B.; Elhottová, Dana; Rejmánková, E.; Šantrůčková, H.

    Brno: Mendelova zemědělská a lesnická univerzita v Brně, 2007, s. 193-200. ISBN 978-80-7375-134-0. [Život v půdě /8./. Brno (CZ), 23.01.2007-24.01.2007] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Keywords : nutrient and salinity effect * microbial processes * tropical wetlands Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  20. Diversity and composition of sediment bacteria in subtropical coastal wetlands of North Stradbroke Island, Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuvochina, Maria; Sampayo, Eugenia; Welti, Nina; Hayes, Matthew; Lu, Yang; Lovelock, Catherine; Lockington, David

    2013-04-01

    Coastal wetlands provide a wide variety of important ecosystem services but continue to suffer disturbance, degradation and deforestation. Sediment bacteria are responsible for major nutrient transformation and recycling in these ecosystems. Insight into microbial community composition and the factors that determine them may improve our understanding of biogeochemical processes, food web dynamics, biodegradation processes and, thus, help to develop the management strategies for preserving the ecosystem health and services. Characterizing shifts in community taxa along environmental gradients has been shown to provide a useful tool for determining the major drivers affecting community structure and function. North Stradbroke Island (NSI) in Southern Queensland presents considerable habitat diversity including variety of groundwater dependent ecosystems such as lakes, swamps, sedge-like salt marshes and mangroves. Ecological responses of continuous groundwater extraction for municipal purposes and sand mining operations on NSI are still need to be assessed in order to protect its unique environment. Changes in coastal hydrology due to either climate change or human activity may directly affect microbial populations and, thus, biogeochemical cycles of nutrients. These may result in altering/losing some ecosystem services provided by coastal wetlands. In this study we examine microbial diversity and determine environmental controls on bacterial community structure along a natural transition from freshwater forested wetland (melaleuca woodland), sedge-like salt marsh and into mangroves located at NSI. The study area is characterized by significant groundwater flow, nutrient limitation and sharp transition from one ecosystem type to another. Sediment cores (0-5 cm and 20-25 cm depth) were collected from three representative sites of each zone (mangroves - salt marsh - freshwater wetland) along the salinity gradient in August 2012. Subsamples were set aside for use in

  1. THE USE OF WETLANDS FOR WATER POLLUTION CONTROL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetlands such as marshes, swamps and artificial wetlands, have been shown to remove selected pollutants from urban stormwater runoff and treated municipal wastewaters. Wetlands have produced reduction in BOD, pathogens, and some hydrocarbons, and excel in nitrogen removal. They h...

  2. EnviroAtlas - Potential Wetland Areas - Contiguous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The EnviroAtlas Potential Wetland Areas (PWA) dataset shows potential wetland areas at 30-meter resolution. Beginning two centuries ago, many wetlands were turned...

  3. Effects of flooding, salinity and herbivory on coastal plant communities, Louisiana, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gough, L.; Grace, J.B.

    1998-01-01

    Flooding and salinity stress are predicted to increase in coastal Louisiana as relative sea level rise (RSLR) continues in the Gulf of Mexico region. Although wetland plant species are adapted to these stressors, questions persist as to how marshes may respond to changed abiotic variables caused by RSLR, and how herbivory by native and non-native mammals may affect this response. The effects of altered flooding and salinity on coastal marsh communities were examined in two field experiments that simultaneously manipulated herbivore pressure. Marsh sods subjected to increased or decreased flooding (by lowering or raising sods, respectively), and increased or decreased salinity (by reciprocally transplanting sods between a brackish and fresh marsh), were monitored inside and outside mammalian herbivore exclosures for three growing seasons. Increased flooding stress reduced species numbers and biomass; alleviating flooding stress did not significantly alter species numbers while community biomass increased. Increased salinity reduced species numbers and biomass, more so if herbivores were present. Decreasing salinity had an unexpected effect: herbivores selectively consumed plants transplanted from the higher-salinity site. In plots protected from herbivory, decreased salinity had little effect on species numbers or biomass, but community composition changed. Overall, herbivore pressure further reduced species richness and biomass under conditions of increased flooding and increased salinity, supporting other findings that coastal marsh species can tolerate increasingly stressful conditions unless another factor, e.g., herbivory, is also present. Also, species dropped out of more stressful treatments much faster than they were added when stresses were alleviated, likely due to restrictions on dispersal. The rate at which plant communities will shift as a result of changed abiotic variables will determine if marshes remain viable when subjected to RSLR.

  4. Responses of estuarine circulation and salinity to the loss of intertidal flats - A modeling study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhaoqing; Wang, Taiping

    2015-12-01

    Intertidal flats in estuaries are coastal wetlands that provide critical marine habitats to support wide ranges of marine species. Over the last century many estuarine systems have experienced significant loss of intertidal flats due to anthropogenic impacts. This paper presents a modeling study conducted to investigate the responses of estuarine hydrodynamics to the loss of intertidal flats in Whidbey Basin of Puget Sound on the northwest coast of North America. Changes in salinity intrusion limits in the estuaries, salinity stratification, and circulation in intertidal flats and estuaries were evaluated by comparing model results under the existing baseline condition and the no-flat condition. Model results showed that loss of intertidal flats results in an increase in salinity intrusion, stronger mixing, and a phase shift in salinity and velocity fields in the bay front areas. Model results also indicated that loss of intertidal flats enhances two-layer circulation, especially the bottom water intrusion. Loss of intertidal flats increases the mean salinity but reduces the salinity range in the subtidal flats over a tidal cycle because of increased mixing. Salinity intrusion limits extend upstream in all three major rivers discharging into Whidbey Basin when no intertidal flats are present. Changes in salinity intrusion and estuarine circulation patterns due to loss of intertidal flats affect the nearshore habitat and water quality in estuaries and potentially increase risk of coastal hazards, such as storm surge and coastal flooding. Lastly, model results suggested the importance of including intertidal flats and the wetting-and-drying process in hydrodynamic simulations when intertidal flats are present in the model domain.

  5. Responses of Estuarine Circulation and Salinity to the Loss of Intertidal Flats – A Modeling Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Zhaoqing; Wang, Taiping

    2015-08-12

    Intertidal flats in estuaries are coastal wetlands that provide critical marine habitats to support wide ranges of marine species. Over the last century many estuarine systems have experienced significant loss of intertidal flats due to anthropogenic impacts. This paper presents a modeling study conducted to investigate the responses of estuarine hydrodynamics to the loss of intertidal flats caused by anthropogenic actions in Whidbey Basin of Puget Sound on the northwest coast of North America. Changes in salinity intrusion limits in the estuaries, salinity stratification, and circulation in intertidal flats and estuaries were evaluated by comparing model results under the existing baseline condition and the no-flat condition. Model results showed that loss of intertidal flats results in an increase in salinity intrusion, stronger mixing, and a phase shift in salinity and velocity fields in the bay front areas. Model results also indicated that loss of intertidal flats enhances two-layer circulation, especially the bottom water intrusion. Loss of intertidal flats increases the mean salinity but reduces the salinity range in the subtidal flats over a tidal cycle because of increased mixing. Salinity intrusion limits extend upstream in all three major rivers discharging into Whidbey Basin when no intertidal flats are present. Changes in salinity intrusion and estuarine circulation patterns due to loss of intertidal flats affect the nearshore habitat and water quality in estuaries and potentially increase risk of coastal hazards, such as storm surge and coastal flooding. Lastly, model results suggested the importance of including intertidal flats and the wetting-and-drying process in hydrodynamic simulations when intertidal flats are present in the model domain.

  6. Mitigating the Effects of Intensive Agriculture on Wetlands: The Case of Saiwa Wetlands, Kenya.

    OpenAIRE

    M. A. Mohamed

    2002-01-01

    The Saiwa wetlands are located in the Trans-Nzoia District in the Western part of Kenya. Part of these wetlands form Saiwa National Park (SNP), which is the smallest park in Kenya, with an area of 3.1 km2. The wetlands host important biodiversity, but are threatened by intensive agriculture carried out in the catchment area. Threats include inputs of agricultural chemicals transported by runoff from the adjoining farms, and encroachment by farmers neighbouring the wetlands. The major impacts ...

  7. Effects of Ascent to High Altitude on Human Antimycobacterial Immunity

    OpenAIRE

    Eisen, S; Pealing, L.; Aldridge, RW; Siedner, MJ; Necochea, A.; Leybell, I.; Valencia, T; Herrera, B.; Wiles, S; Friedland, JS; Gilman, RH; Evans, CA

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis infection, disease and mortality are all less common at high than low altitude and ascent to high altitude was historically recommended for treatment. The immunological and mycobacterial mechanisms underlying the association between altitude and tuberculosis are unclear. We studied the effects of altitude on mycobacteria and antimycobacterial immunity. METHODS: Antimycobacterial immunity was assayed in 15 healthy adults residing at low altitude before and after they a...

  8. Sonic Thermometer for High-Altitude Balloons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bognar, John

    2012-01-01

    The sonic thermometer is a specialized application of well-known sonic anemometer technology. Adaptations have been made to the circuit, including the addition of supporting sensors, which enable its use in the high-altitude environment and in non-air gas mixtures. There is a need to measure gas temperatures inside and outside of superpressure balloons that are flown at high altitudes. These measurements will allow the performance of the balloon to be modeled more accurately, leading to better flight performance. Small thermistors (solid-state temperature sensors) have been used for this general purpose, and for temperature measurements on radiosondes. A disadvantage to thermistors and other physical (as distinct from sonic) temperature sensors is that they are subject to solar heating errors when they are exposed to the Sun, and this leads to issues with their use in a very high-altitude environment

  9. Forested wetlands constructed for mitigation of destroyed natural wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, M.C.; Pugh, S.B.; Deller, A.S.

    1995-01-01

    Forested wetlands constructed for mitigation were evaluated at six sites in Maryland to determine the success of these areas for providing suitable wildlife habitat. Natural forested wetlands were used as reference sites. Initial mortality of planted woody shrubs and trees was high (avg. 55%) and mostly attributed to excessive moisture. The number of woody seedlings from natural regeneration was inversely proportional to the amount of grass cover on the site, which was planted for erosion control. The number of volunteer woody seedlings was also inversely proportional to the distance from adjacent natural forests. Preliminary data indicate that cost does not support use of transplants and that enhancement of soil with organic supplements, followed by widespread and heavy seeding of woody plants would be more efficient and effective. Wildlife use of areas measured by avian surveys and trapping of mammals, reptiles, and amphibians showed that in general wildlife species were more representative of open grassland areas than forested habitats. Natural succession of the sites probably will take at least 20-30 years before typical values and functions of forested wetlands are obtained.

  10. In situ determination of salinity by PGNAA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borsaru, M; Smith, C; Merritt, J; Aizawa, T; Rojc, A

    2006-05-01

    Salinity is a very important environmental issue all around the world. In many cases salinity was produced from human activities like farming and mining. Different soluble salts contribute to salinity, however, NaCl is the most common salt producing salinity. This work deals with the application of the prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) technique for in situ determination of salinity. The technique is based on the measurement of chlorine, a component of the common salt, by PGNAA. PMID:16448819

  11. In situ determination of salinity by PGNAA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borsaru, M. [CSIRO Exploration and Mining, P.O. Box 883, Kenmore, Qld. 4069 (Australia)]. E-mail: mihai.borsaru@csiro.au; Smith, C. [CSIRO Exploration and Mining, P.O. Box 883, Kenmore, Qld. 4069 (Australia); Merritt, J. [Anglo Coal (Capcoal Management) Pty. Ltd., PMB, Middlemount. Qld. 4746 (Australia); Aizawa, T. [Suncoh Consultants Co., Ltd, 1-8-9, Kameido, Koto-Ku, Tokyo, 136-8522 (Japan); Rojc, A. [CSIRO Exploration and Mining, P.O. Box 883, Kenmore, Qld. 4069 (Australia)

    2006-05-15

    Salinity is a very important environmental issue all around the world. In many cases salinity was produced from human activities like farming and mining. Different soluble salts contribute to salinity, however, NaCl is the most common salt producing salinity. This work deals with the application of the prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) technique for in situ determination of salinity. The technique is based on the measurement of chlorine, a component of the common salt, by PGNAA.

  12. In situ determination of salinity by PGNAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salinity is a very important environmental issue all around the world. In many cases salinity was produced from human activities like farming and mining. Different soluble salts contribute to salinity, however, NaCl is the most common salt producing salinity. This work deals with the application of the prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) technique for in situ determination of salinity. The technique is based on the measurement of chlorine, a component of the common salt, by PGNAA

  13. Construction and Protection of Qionghai Lake Wetland Ecosystems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kaiwei; CHEN

    2013-01-01

    Wetland is closely related to survival, reproduction and development of human beings. Due to population growth, industrialization, urbanization and agricultural modernization, wetland ecosystems are suffered from huge pressure of human society and the wetland ecological environment becomes extremely vulnerable. On the basis of analyzing current situations of Qionghai Lake wetland in Xichang City of Sichuan Province, this paper discussed the significance of Qionghai wetland construction and protection, and offered countermeasures and recommendations for solving existing problems in Qionghai wetland.

  14. Origin and geomorphology of the wetlands of Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Mwanukuzi, P. P. K.

    1993-01-01

    Wetlands are dynamic landforms which vary in both time and space. Tanzania's wetlands areclassified according to the physiography and the environment in which they exist. Coastalwetlands, Rift System wetlands and the wetlands of highland drainage basins are the majorgroups. Coastal wetlands are formed by wave action and tidal influence; beaches and lagoons exist because of wave action; mudflats, marshes, mangrove swamps, estuaries and deltas aretidal in origin. Rift System wetlands occur in t...

  15. COSTS OF WETLAND RESTRICTIONS TO KANSAS AGRICULTURAL PRODUCERS

    OpenAIRE

    Gelso, Brett R.; Fox, John A.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the cost of permanent and seasonal wetlands to Kansas Agricultural producers. The analysis was based on survey data collected from Kansas Farm Management Association members. Regression analysis indicated that wetlands are costly to agricultural producers. Permanent wetlands were found to be slightly more costly than seasonal wetlands. Importantly, the results suggested dispersed wetlands are more costly to Kansas farms compared to contiguous wetlands...

  16. Urban stormwater inputs to an adapted coastal wetland: role in water treatment and impacts on wetland biota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howitt, Julia A; Mondon, Julie; Mitchell, Bradley D; Kidd, Toby; Eshelman, Bruce

    2014-07-01

    The Lake Pertobe wetland system is a semi-natural wetland that has been modified primarily for recreational use. However, this lake system receives stormwater from much of the central business district of Warrnambool City (Victoria, Australia) and serves as a buffer zone between the stormwater system and the Merri River and Merri Marine Sanctuary. This work considers the impact of stormwater inputs on Lake Pertobe and the effectiveness of the lake in protecting the associated marine sanctuary. Sediment contaminants (including heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)) and water quality parameters within the lake, groundwater and stormwater system were measured. Water quality parameters were highly variable between stormwater drains and rain events. Suspended solids rapidly settled along open drains and shortly after entering the lake. Groundwater inputs increased both salinity and dissolved nitrogen in some stormwater drains. Some evidence of bioaccumulation of metals in the food chain was identified and sediment concentrations of several PAHs were very high. The lake acted as a sink for PAHs and some metals and reductions in Escherichia coli, biological oxygen demand and total phosphorus were observed, affording some protection to the associated marine sanctuary. Nutrient retention was inadequate overall and it was identified that managing the lake primarily as a recreational facility impacted on the effectiveness of stormwater treatment in the system. PMID:24747245

  17. 7 CFR 12.33 - Use of wetland and converted wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of wetland and converted wetland. 12.33 Section 12.33 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture HIGHLY ERODIBLE LAND AND WETLAND CONSERVATION... woody vegetation, and the history of use. In accordance with § 12.5(b)(1)(iii), participation in a...

  18. Atmospheric electron flux at airplane altitude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have developed a new detector to systematically measure the cosmic-ray electron flux at airplane altitudes. We loaded a lead-glass-based electron telescope onto a commercial cargo airplane. The first experiment was carried out using the air route between Narita (Japan) and Sydney (Australia); during this flight we measured the electron flux at various altitudes and latitudes. The thresholds of the electron energies were 1, 2, and 4 GeV. The results agree with a simple estimation using one-dimensional shower theory. A comparison with a Monte Carlo calculation was made

  19. Narrow and broad senses on salinity scale

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The narrow sense and applicable limit of Practical Salinity Scale 1978 (PSS78) and volumetric titration using silver nitrate to measure the salinity of non-conservative oceanwater are discussed.The salinity obtained by electrical conductivity method and chlorinity salinity method obviously deviates from the absolute salinity (SA). The Density Salinity Scale (DSS98) proposed by the writers can be extensively used in conservative and non-conservative water samples.The merits of the density salinity scale are as follows,(1) The Density Salinity Scale is only related to seawater mass and its buoyant effect, and is not influenced by the variation in seawater composition, and therefore, has high reliability, and repeatability for salinity determination.(2) The salinity values measured by the DSS98 have a conservative property. For oceanwater samples the salinity values are the same as those determined by the PSS78; for non-conservative water samples (e.g. samples from industrial sources), the salinity values are close to the absolute salinity values in comparison with those measured by the PSS78 and the Knudsen method.(3)For a solution with given solute mass, the solution concentration can be converted into the corresponding salinity by the Density Salinity Scale using the expansion coefficient of the solution and the calibration coefficient of the partial molar volume of the solute.

  20. Occurence of organic pollutants in constructed wetlands

    OpenAIRE

    TRSKOVÁ, Eliška

    2013-01-01

    Constructed wetlands are wetlands designed to improve the quality of water. In this work, four representatives of typical organic pollutants in Constructed wetlands are studied : DEET, cotinine, coprostanol and galaxolide as the representatives of insecticide, alkaloid,faecal sterol and musk compound respectively. Moreover three different types of extraction techniques : aqueous two phase extraction (ATPE), liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) and stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) - are investiga...

  1. Hydraulic Resistance due to Emergent Wetland Vegetation

    OpenAIRE

    Piercy, Candice Dawn

    2010-01-01

    Models to estimate hydraulic resistance due to vegetation in emergent wetlands are crucial to wetland design and management. Hydraulic models that consider vegetation rely on an accurate determination of a resistance parameter such as a friction factor or a bulk drag coefficient. At low Reynolds numbers typical of flows in wetlands, hydraulic resistance is orders of magnitude higher than fully turbulent flows and resistance parameters are functions of the flow regime as well as the vegetation...

  2. Water supply from wetlands in Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Mihayo, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    This paper gives a brief discussion on water supply from wetlands in Tanzania. The majordrainage basins in Tanzania are described and the status and role of the Division of WaterResearch in the monitoring of water resources and data collection from wetlands and watersources are highlighted. The role of wetlands in the hydrological cycle, and the utilisation ofwetlands as water supply sources are discussed. The need for conservation and protection ofwetlands and other water sources is outlined.

  3. Treatment of wastewater with the constructed wetland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constructed wetland is an environmental sound, actual and economic solution for the treatment of wastewater. The use of these constructed wetlands increased in the last few years, principally in developed countries. However there is not much information about the performance of these biological systems in tropical and subtropical climates. In these review the state of art of these technology is given, and also the advantage of the use of the constructed wetland for the wastewater treatment in our country

  4. A computer model to forecast wetland vegetation changes resulting from restoration and protection in coastal Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Jenneke M.; Duke-Sylvester, Scott M.; Carter, Jacoby; Broussard, Whitney P., III

    2013-01-01

    The coastal wetlands of Louisiana are a unique ecosystem that supports a diversity of wildlife as well as a diverse community of commercial interests of both local and national importance. The state of Louisiana has established a 5-year cycle of scientific investigation to provide up-to-date information to guide future legislation and regulation aimed at preserving this critical ecosystem. Here we report on a model that projects changes in plant community distribution and composition in response to environmental conditions. This model is linked to a suite of other models and requires input from those that simulate the hydrology and morphology of coastal Louisiana. Collectively, these models are used to assess how alternative management plans may affect the wetland ecosystem through explicit spatial modeling of the physical and biological processes affected by proposed modifications to the ecosystem. We have also taken the opportunity to advance the state-of-the-art in wetland plant community modeling by using a model that is more species-based in its description of plant communities instead of one based on aggregated community types such as brackish marsh and saline marsh. The resulting model provides an increased level of ecological detail about how wetland communities are expected to respond. In addition, the output from this model provides critical inputs for estimating the effects of management on higher trophic level species though a more complete description of the shifts in habitat.

  5. Refining soil organic carbon stock estimates for China’s palustrine wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Kun; Liu, Junguo; Zhang, Ying; Parry, Lauren E.; Holden, Joseph; Ciais, Philippe

    2015-12-01

    Palustrine wetlands (PWs) include all bogs, fens, swamps and marshes that are non-saline and which are not lakes or rivers. They therefore form a highly important group of wetlands which hold large carbon stocks. If these wetlands are not protected properly they could become a net carbon source in the future. Compilation of spatially explicit wetland databases, national inventory data and in situ measurement of soil organic carbon (SOC) could be useful to better quantify SOC and formulate long-term strategies for mitigating global climate change. In this study, a synergistic mapping approach was used to create a hybrid map for PWs for China and to estimate their SOC content. Total SOC storage in PWs was estimated to be 4.3 ± 1.4 Pg C, with a SOC density of 31.17 (±10.55) kg C m-2 in the upper 1 m of the soil layer. This carbon stock is concentrated in Northeast China (49%) and the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (41%). Given the large pool of carbon stored in PWs compared to other soil types, we suggest that urgent monitoring programmes on SOC should be established in regions with very few datasets, but where PWs appear to be common such as the Tibet region and Northwest China.

  6. Mineral oil biodegradation in wetlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Even in remote areas there has been a constant increase in the demands on the quality of wastewater treatment. Small decentralized purification plants with helophyte beds serving as the biological step may be regarded as an alternative to centralized large-scale treatment plants. Under certain circumstances these constructed wetlands may also be used for industrial wastewater. Pollutants are degraded by microorganisms finding favourable growth conditions in the root zone. Both hydraulic performance and the development of a stable ecosystem may be ensured by certain constructive features. An investigation was carried out on the constructed wetlands of a German steel plant operating since 1984. An analysis of the chemical and microbiological parameters revealed that there was microbial degradation of mineral oil hydrocarbons. (orig.)

  7. Golf courses and wetland fauna

    OpenAIRE

    Colding, Johan; Lundberg, Jakob; Lundberg, Stefan; Andersson, Erik

    2009-01-01

    Golf courses are often considered to be chemical-intensive ecosystems with negative impacts on fauna. Here we provide evidence that golf courses can contribute to the support and conservation of wetland fauna, i.e., amphibians and macroinvertebrates. Comparisons of amphibian occurrence, diversity of macroinvetebrates, and occurrence of species of conservation concern were made between permanent freshwater ponds surveyed on golf courses around Sweden's capital city, Stockholm, and off-course p...

  8. Artificial wetland for wastewater treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of constructed wetland technology for wastewater treatment has gone a long way and from an experimental and unknown empirical method, which was capable of handling wastewater a sound technology was developed. Thanks to research, and the work of many public and private companies that have gather valuable operation information, constructed wetland technology has evolved to be a relievable, versatile and effective way to treat wastewater, run off, handle sludge and even improve environmental quality and provide recreation sites, while maintaining low operation and maintenance costs, and at the same time, producing water of quality that can meet stringent regulations, while being and environmental friendly solution to treat waste-waters. Constructed wetlands can be established in many different ways and its characteristics can differ greatly, according to the user needs, the geographic site and even the climatic conditions of the area. The following article deals with the general characteristics of the technology and the physical and chemical phenomena that govern the pollution reduction with in the different available systems

  9. Productive use of saline lands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Water is essential for life, and not least for agricultural activity. It interacts with solar energy to determine the climate of the globe, and its interaction with carbon dioxide inside a plant results in photosynthesis on which depends survival of all life. Much of the water available to man is used for agriculture and yet its usage has not been well managed. One result has been the build up of soil salinity. The Department of Technical Co-operation is sponsoring a programme, with technical support from the Department of Research and Isotopes, to make more productive use of salt-affected land and to limit future build up of salinity. (IAEA)

  10. Impacts of Soil Organic Stability on Carbon Storage in Coastal Wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, E. K.; Rosenheim, B. E.

    2015-12-01

    Coastal wetlands store vast amounts of organic carbon, globally, and are becoming increasingly vulnerable to the effects of anthropogenic sea level rise. Recently, we used ramped pyrolysis/oxidation decomposition characteristics as proxies for soil organic carbon (SOC) stability to understand the fate of carbon storage in coastal wetlands (fresh, brackish, and salt marshes) comprising the Mississippi River deltaic plain, undergoing rapid rates of local sea level rise. At equivalent soil depths, we observed that fresh marsh SOC was more thermochemically stable than brackish and salt marsh SOC. The differences in stability imply stronger carbon sequestration potential of fresh marsh soil carbon, compared to that of salt and brackish marshes. Here, we expand upon these results of differential organic carbon stability/reactivity and model how projected changes in salinity due to sea-level rise and other environmental changes will impact carbon storage in this region with implications globally.

  11. Wise Use of Wetlands: Current State of Protection and Utilization of Chinese Wetlands and Recommendations for Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanxia; Yao, Yong; Ju, Meiting

    2008-06-01

    Wetland protection and utilization sometimes appear to be in conflict, but promoting the wise use of wetlands can solve this problem. All countries face the challenge of sustainable development of wetlands to a greater or lesser extent, but the problem is especially urgent in developing countries, such as China, that want to accelerate their economic development without excessive environmental cost. Chinese wetlands contribute greatly to economic development, but improper use of these natural resources has endangered their existence. It is thus necessary to provide scientific guidance to managers and users of wetlands. In this paper, we analyze the present status of Chinese wetland protection and utilization, and discuss problems in six categories: a lack of public awareness of the need for wetland protection; insufficient funding for wetland protection and management; an imperfect legal system to protect wetlands; insufficient wetland research; lack of coordination among agencies and unclear responsibilities; and undeveloped technologies related to wetland use and protection. The wise use of Chinese wetlands will require improvements in four main areas: increased wetland utilization research, scientific management of wetland utilization, improved laws and regulations to protect wetlands, and wider dissemination of wetland knowledge. Based on these categories, we propose a framework for the optimization of wetland use by industry to provide guidance for China and other countries that cannot sacrifice economic benefits to protect their wetlands.

  12. Sextant measures spacecraft altitude without gravitational reference

    Science.gov (United States)

    1966-01-01

    Horizon-sensing sextant measures the altitude of an orbiting spacecraft without gravitational reference by optically measuring the dip angle to the horizon along a line of sight in each of two planes. The sextant scans over a relatively limited field of view.

  13. High-altitude physiology: lessons from Tibet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Peter D.; Simonson, Tatum S.; Wei, Guan; Wagner, Harrieth; Wuren, Tanna; Yan, Ma; Qin, Ga; Ge, Rili

    2013-05-01

    Polycythemia is a universal lowlander response to altitude; healthy Andean high-altitude natives also have elevated [Hb]. While this may enhance O2 transport to tissues, studies have shown that acute isovolumic changes in [Hb] do not affect exercise capacity. Many high-altitude Tibetans have evolved sea-level values of [Hb], providing a natural opportunity to study this issue. In 21 young healthy male Tibetans with [Hb] between 15 and 23 g/dl, we measured VO2MAX and O2 transport capacity at 4200m. VO2MAX was higher when [Hb] was lower (Phigh altitude natives remain polycythemic with larger lungs and higher lung diffusing capacity, a smaller exercising AaPO2, and lower ventilation. The challenges now are (1) to understand the different adaptive pathways used by Andeans and Tibetans, and (2) to determine in Tibetans whether, during evolution, reduced [Hb] appeared first, causing compensatory cardiac and muscle adaptations, or if enhanced cardiac function and muscle O2 transport capacity appeared first, permitting secondary reduction in [Hb]. For (2), further research is necessary to determine the basis of enhanced cardiac function and muscle O2 transport, and identify molecular targets of evolution in heart and muscle. Putative mutations can then be timed and compared to appearance of those affecting [Hb].

  14. Dietary Recommendations for Cyclists during Altitude Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Michalczyk

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The concept of altitude or hypoxic training is a common practice in cycling. However, several strategies for training regimens have been proposed, like “live high, train high” (LH-TH, “live high, train low” (LH-TL or “intermittent hypoxic training” (IHT. Each of them combines the effect of acclimatization and different training protocols that require specific nutrition. An appropriate nutrition strategy and adequate hydration can help athletes achieve their fitness and performance goals in this unfriendly environment. In this review, the physiological stress of altitude exposure and training will be discussed, with specific nutrition recommendations for athletes training under such conditions. However, there is little research about the nutrition demands of athletes who train at moderate altitude. Our review considers energetic demands and body mass or body composition changes due to altitude training, including respiratory and urinary water loss under these conditions. Carbohydrate intake recommendations and hydration status are discussed in detail, while iron storage and metabolism is also considered. Last, but not least the risk of increased oxidative stress under hypoxic conditions and antioxidant supplementation suggestions are presented.

  15. Dietary Recommendations for Cyclists during Altitude Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalczyk, Małgorzata; Czuba, Miłosz; Zydek, Grzegorz; Zając, Adam; Langfort, Józef

    2016-01-01

    The concept of altitude or hypoxic training is a common practice in cycling. However, several strategies for training regimens have been proposed, like "live high, train high" (LH-TH), "live high, train low" (LH-TL) or "intermittent hypoxic training" (IHT). Each of them combines the effect of acclimatization and different training protocols that require specific nutrition. An appropriate nutrition strategy and adequate hydration can help athletes achieve their fitness and performance goals in this unfriendly environment. In this review, the physiological stress of altitude exposure and training will be discussed, with specific nutrition recommendations for athletes training under such conditions. However, there is little research about the nutrition demands of athletes who train at moderate altitude. Our review considers energetic demands and body mass or body composition changes due to altitude training, including respiratory and urinary water loss under these conditions. Carbohydrate intake recommendations and hydration status are discussed in detail, while iron storage and metabolism is also considered. Last, but not least the risk of increased oxidative stress under hypoxic conditions and antioxidant supplementation suggestions are presented. PMID:27322318

  16. The hydrological and geochemical isolation of a freshwater bog within a saline fen in north-eastern Alberta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.J. Scarlett

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In the oil sands development region near Fort McMurray, Alberta, wetlands cover ~62 % of the landscape, and ~95 % of these wetlands are peatlands. A saline fen was studied as a reference site for peatland reclamation. Despite highly saline conditions, a freshwater bog was observed in the path of local saline groundwater flow. The purpose of this study was to identify the hydrological controls that have allowed the development and persistence of a bog in this setting. The presence of bog vegetation and its dilute water chemistry suggest that saline groundwater from the fen rarely enters the bog, which functions predominantly as a groundwater recharge system. Chloride (Cl– and sodium (Na+ were the dominant ions in fen water, with concentrations averaging 5394 and 2307 mg L-1, respectively, while the concentrations in bog water were 5 and 4 mg L-1, respectively. These concentrations were reflected by salinity and electrical conductivity measurements, which in the fen averaged 9.3 ppt, and 15.8 mS cm-1, respectively, and in the bog averaged 0.1 ppt and 0.3 mS cm-1, respectively. A small ridge in the mineral substratum was found at the fen–bog margin, which created a persistent groundwater mound. Under the dry conditions experienced in early summer, groundwater flow was directed away from the bog at a rate of 14.6 mm day-1. The convex water table at the fen-bog margin impeded flow of saline water into the bog and instead directed it around the bog margin. However, the groundwater mound was eliminated during flooding in autumn, when the horizontal hydraulic gradient across the margin became negligible, suggesting the possibility of saline water ingress into the bog under these conditions.

  17. Quantifying Wetland Functions: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, K. W.; Rogers, J. S.; Hoffman, A. R.; Wu, C.; Hoopes, J. A.; Armstrong, D. E.

    2007-05-01

    Wetlands are reputed to reduce peak flows and improve water quality by trapping sediment and phosphorus. However, there are relatively few studies that quantify these wetland functions. This paper reports on a study of a 45-hectare wetland in southern Wisconsin. The wetland is traversed by a stream channel that drains a predominantly agricultural 17.4 km2 watershed. During the spring and summer of 2006, we collected stage data and water samples at stations upstream and downstream of the wetland, with the former accounting for 82% of the contributing area. Continuous measurements of water stage at these stations were used to construct a streamflow record. During storm events water samples were taken automatically at 2-hour intervals for the first 12 samples and 8-hour intervals for the next 12 samples. Samples were analyzed for total suspended solids, total phosphorus, and dissolved reactive phosphorus. Ten events were observed during the observation period; the two largest events were 1 to 2-year storms. One-dimensional unsteady flow routing was used to estimate the maximum extent of wetland inundation for each event. When normalized for flow volume, all peak flows were attenuated by the wetland, with the maximum attenuation corresponding to the intermediate events. The reduced attenuation of the larger events appears to be due to filling of storage, either due to antecedent conditions or the event itself. In the case of sediment, the amount leaving the wetland in the two largest storms, which accounted for 96% of the exported sediment during the period of observation, was twice the amount entering the wetland. The failure of the wetland to trap sediment is apparently due to the role of drainage ditches, which trap sediment during the wetland-filling phase and release it during drainage. The export of sediment during the largest events appears to result from remobilization of sediment deposited in the low-gradient stream channel during smaller events. This

  18. THEORY AND METHOD FOR WETLAND BOUNDARY DELINEATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Based on the analysis of the subjectivity of wetland boundary criteria and their causes at present, this paper suggested that, under the condition that the mechanism of wetland formation process has not been understood,"black box" method of System Theory can be used to delineate wetland boundaries scientifically. After analyzing the difference of system construction among aquatic habitats, wetlands and uplands, the lower limit of rooted plants was chosen as the lower boundary criterion of wetlands. Because soil diagnostic horizon is the result of the long-term interaction among all environments, and it is less responsive than vegetation to short-term change, soil diagnostic horizon was chosen as the indicator to delineate wetland upper boundary, which lies at the thinning-out point of soil diagnostic horizon. Case study indicated that it was feasible using the lower limit of rooted plants and the thinning-out point of soil diagnostic horizon as criteria to delineate the lower and upper boundaries of wetland. In the study area, the thinning-out line of albic horizon was coincident with the 55.74m contour line, the maximum horizonerror was less than lm, and the maximum vertical error less than 0.04m. The problem on wetland definition always arises on the boundaries. Having delineated wetland boundaries, wetlands can be defined as follows: wetlands are the transitional zones between uplands and deepwater habitats, they are a kind of azonal complex that are inundated or saturated by surface or ground water, with the lower boundary lying at the lower limit of rooted plants, and the upper boundary at the thinning-out line of upland soil diagnostic horizon.

  19. North American Wetlands and Mosquito Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabrielle E. Sakolsky-Hoopes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Wetlands are valuable habitats that provide important social, economic, and ecological services such as flood control, water quality improvement, carbon sequestration, pollutant removal, and primary/secondary production export to terrestrial and aquatic food chains. There is disagreement about the need for mosquito control in wetlands and about the techniques utilized for mosquito abatement and their impacts upon wetlands ecosystems. Mosquito control in wetlands is a complex issue influenced by numerous factors, including many hard to quantify elements such as human perceptions, cultural predispositions, and political climate. In spite of considerable progress during the last decades, habitat protection and environmentally sound habitat management still remain inextricably tied to politics and economics. Furthermore, the connections are often complex, and occur at several levels, ranging from local businesses and politicians, to national governments and multinational institutions. Education is the key to lasting wetlands conservation. Integrated mosquito abatement strategies incorporate many approaches and practicable options, as described herein, and need to be well-defined, effective, and ecologically and economically sound for the wetland type and for the mosquito species of concern. The approach will certainly differ in response to disease outbreaks caused by mosquito-vectored pathogens versus quality of life issues caused by nuisance-biting mosquitoes. In this contribution, we provide an overview of the ecological setting and context for mosquito control in wetlands, present pertinent information on wetlands mosquitoes, review the mosquito abatement options available for current wetlands managers and mosquito control professionals, and outline some necessary considerations when devising mosquito control strategies. Although the emphasis is on North American wetlands, most of the material is applicable to wetlands everywhere.

  20. Productivity of functional guilds of fishes in managed wetlands in coastal South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Kelly F.; Jennings, Cecil A.

    2014-01-01

    In coastal South Carolina, many wetlands are impounded and managed as migratory waterfowl habitat. Impoundment effects on fish production and habitat quality largely are unknown. We used the size-frequency method to estimate summer production of fish guilds in three impoundments along the Combahee River, South Carolina. We predicted that guild-specific production would vary with impoundment salinity, which ranged from 3 to 21 practical salinity units. We expected that marine species that use the estuary as nursery habitat would have greatest production in the impoundment with the highest salinity regime, and that species that inhabit the upper reaches of the estuary would have greatest production in the impoundment with the lowest salinity regime. Finally, we expected that estuarine species would be highly productive in all study impoundments, because these species can reproduce within these structures. We found that guild-specific productivity varied both among years and among impoundments, generally following salinity gradients, though to a lesser extent than expected. Our guild-specific estimates of fish productivity fell on the low end of the range of previously published estuarine fish production estimates. Additionally, we observed large mortality events in the study impoundments each summer. The results of our study indicate that during the summer, the study impoundments provided poor-quality fish habitat to all guilds.

  1. Sapflow and water use of freshwater wetland trees exposed to saltwater incursion in a tidally influenced South Carolina watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, K.W.; Duberstein, J.A.

    2010-01-01

    Sea-level rise and anthropogenic activity promote salinity incursion into many tidal freshwater forested wetlands. Interestingly, individual trees can persist for decades after salt impact. To understand why, we documented sapflow (Js), reduction in Js with sapwood depth, and water use (F) of baldcypress (Taxodium distichum (L.) Rich.) trees undergoing exposure to salinity. The mean Js of individual trees was reduced by 2.8 g H2O??m-2??s-1 (or by 18%) in the outer sapwood on a saline site versus a freshwater site; however, the smallest trees, present only on the saline site, also registered the lowest Js. Hence, tree size significantly influenced the overall site effect on Js. Trees undergoing perennial exposure to salt used greater relative amounts of water in outer sapwood than in inner sapwood depths, which identifies a potentially different strategy for baldcypress trees coping with saline site conditions over decades. Overall, individual trees used 100 kg H2O??day-1 on a site that remained relatively fresh versus 23.9 kg H2O??day-1 on the saline site. We surmise that perennial salinization of coastal freshwater forests forces shifts in individual-tree osmotic balance and water-use strategy to extend survival time on suboptimal sites, which further influences growth and morphology.

  2. Modeling of Soil Water and Salt Dynamics and Its Effects on Root Water Uptake in Heihe Arid Wetland, Gansu, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huijie Li

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In the Heihe River basin, China, increased salinity and water shortages present serious threats to the sustainability of arid wetlands. It is critical to understand the interactions between soil water and salts (from saline shallow groundwater and the river and their effects on plant growth under the influence of shallow groundwater and irrigation. In this study, the Hydrus-1D model was used in an arid wetland of the Middle Heihe River to investigate the effects of the dynamics of soil water, soil salinization, and depth to water table (DWT as well as groundwater salinity on Chinese tamarisk root water uptake. The modeled soil water and electrical conductivity of soil solution (ECsw are in good agreement with the observations, as indicated by RMSE values (0.031 and 0.046 cm3·cm−3 for soil water content, 0.037 and 0.035 dS·m−1 for ECsw, during the model calibration and validation periods, respectively. The calibrated model was used in scenario analyses considering different DWTs, salinity levels and the introduction of preseason irrigation. The results showed that (I Chinese tamarisk root distribution was greatly affected by soil water and salt distribution in the soil profile, with about 73.8% of the roots being distributed in the 20–60 cm layer; (II root water uptake accounted for 91.0% of the potential maximal value when water stress was considered, and for 41.6% when both water and salt stress were considered; (III root water uptake was very sensitive to fluctuations of the water table, and was greatly reduced when the DWT was either dropped or raised 60% of the 2012 reference depth; (IV arid wetland vegetation exhibited a high level of groundwater dependence even though shallow groundwater resulted in increased soil salinization and (V preseason irrigation could effectively increase root water uptake by leaching salts from the root zone. We concluded that a suitable water table and groundwater salinity coupled with proper irrigation

  3. Estimation of high altitude Martian dust parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabari, Jayesh; Bhalodi, Pinali

    2016-07-01

    Dust devils are known to occur near the Martian surface mostly during the mid of Southern hemisphere summer and they play vital role in deciding background dust opacity in the atmosphere. The second source of high altitude Martian dust could be due to the secondary ejecta caused by impacts on Martian Moons, Phobos and Deimos. Also, the surfaces of the Moons are charged positively due to ultraviolet rays from the Sun and negatively due to space plasma currents. Such surface charging may cause fine grains to be levitated, which can easily escape the Moons. It is expected that the escaping dust form dust rings within the orbits of the Moons and therefore also around the Mars. One more possible source of high altitude Martian dust is interplanetary in nature. Due to continuous supply of the dust from various sources and also due to a kind of feedback mechanism existing between the ring or tori and the sources, the dust rings or tori can sustain over a period of time. Recently, very high altitude dust at about 1000 km has been found by MAVEN mission and it is expected that the dust may be concentrated at about 150 to 500 km. However, it is mystery how dust has reached to such high altitudes. Estimation of dust parameters before-hand is necessary to design an instrument for the detection of high altitude Martian dust from a future orbiter. In this work, we have studied the dust supply rate responsible primarily for the formation of dust ring or tori, the life time of dust particles around the Mars, the dust number density as well as the effect of solar radiation pressure and Martian oblateness on dust dynamics. The results presented in this paper may be useful to space scientists for understanding the scenario and designing an orbiter based instrument to measure the dust surrounding the Mars for solving the mystery. The further work is underway.

  4. Pathology of high altitude pulmonary oedema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To describe autopsy findings in fatal cases of high altitude pulmonary oedema. Study Design: Descriptive study. Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out between 1999 and 2002 at an army field medical unit in Baltistan, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Rawalpindi and Army Medical College, Rawalpindi, Pakistan. Patients and Methods:Autopsies were performed in 17 fatal cases of High Altitude Pulmonary Edema (HAPE) occurring among soldiers serving in Siachen. Results:All cases were males with a mean age of 26.8 years (19-35). The mean altitude at which HAPE occurred was 5192 meters (2895-6492), and the mean duration of stay at these altitudes was 15.3 days (1-30). Eleven individuals had undergone proper acclimatization. The commonest clinical findings were cough (70%), dyspnoea (53%), nausea (47%), headache (41%), vomiting (35%), chest pain (35%) and tightness in chest (24%). Cyanosis and frothy secretions in the nostrils and mouth were present in all but one case. Mean combined weight of lungs was 1470 grams (1070-1810). There was marked congestion of outer and cut surfaces. Interstitial oedema was present in all cases. RBCs and leukocyte infiltrates were seen in 13 and alveolar hyaline membranes in 9 cases. Thrombi were seen in 2 cases. Cerebral oedema was present in 9 cases. Conclusion:HAPE can occur after more than two weeks of stay at high altitudes despite proper acclimatization. Concomitant cerebral oedema is frequently present. Our autopsy findings are consistent with what has been reported previously. (author)

  5. High altitude pulmonary edema among "Amarnath Yatris"

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    Parvaiz A Koul

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Annual pilgrimage (Yatra to the cave shrine of Shri Amarnath Ji′ is a holy ritual among the Hindu devotees of Lord Shiva. Located in the Himalayan Mountain Range (altitude 13,000 ft in south Kashmir, the shrine is visited by thousands of devotees and altitude sickness is reportedly common. Materials and Methods: More than 600,000 pilgrims visited the cave shrine in 2011 and 2012 with 239 recorded deaths. Thirty one patients with suspected altitude sickness were referred from medical centers en-route the cave to Sher-i-Kashmir Institute of Medical Sciences, a tertiary-care center in capital Srinagar (5,000 ft. The clinical features and the response to treatment were recorded. Results: Thirty-one patients (all lowlanders, 19 male; age 18-60 years, median 41 had presented with acute onset breathlessness of 1-4 days (median 1.9 d starting within 12-24 h of a rapid ascent; accompanied by cough (68%, headache (8%, dizziness and nausea (65%. Sixteen patients had associated encephalopathy. Clinical features on admission included tachypnea ( n = 31, tachycardia ( n = 23, bilateral chest rales ( n = 29, cyanosis ( n = 22 and grade 2-4 encephalopathy. Hypoxemia was demonstrable in 24 cases and bilateral infiltrates on radiologic imaging in 29. Ten patients had evidence of high-altitude cerebral edema. All patients were managed with oxygen, steroids, nifedipine, sildenafil and other supportive measures including invasive ventilation ( n = 3. Three patients died due to multiorgan dysfunction. Conclusions: Altitude sickness is common among Amaranath Yatris from the plains and appropriate educational strategies should be invoked for prevention and prompt treatment.

  6. Carbon stocks of tropical coastal wetlands within the karstic landscape of the Mexican Caribbean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fernanda Adame

    Full Text Available Coastal wetlands can have exceptionally large carbon (C stocks and their protection and restoration would constitute an effective mitigation strategy to climate change. Inclusion of coastal ecosystems in mitigation strategies requires quantification of carbon stocks in order to calculate emissions or sequestration through time. In this study, we quantified the ecosystem C stocks of coastal wetlands of the Sian Ka'an Biosphere Reserve (SKBR in the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. We stratified the SKBR into different vegetation types (tall, medium and dwarf mangroves, and marshes, and examined relationships of environmental variables with C stocks. At nine sites within SKBR, we quantified ecosystem C stocks through measurement of above and belowground biomass, downed wood, and soil C. Additionally, we measured nitrogen (N and phosphorus (P from the soil and interstitial salinity. Tall mangroves had the highest C stocks (987±338 Mg ha(-1 followed by medium mangroves (623±41 Mg ha(-1, dwarf mangroves (381±52 Mg ha(-1 and marshes (177±73 Mg ha(-1. At all sites, soil C comprised the majority of the ecosystem C stocks (78-99%. Highest C stocks were measured in soils that were relatively low in salinity, high in P and low in N∶P, suggesting that P limits C sequestration and accumulation potential. In this karstic area, coastal wetlands, especially mangroves, are important C stocks. At the landscape scale, the coastal wetlands of Sian Ka'an covering ≈172,176 ha may store 43.2 to 58.0 million Mg of C.

  7. Carbon stocks of tropical coastal wetlands within the karstic landscape of the Mexican Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adame, Maria Fernanda; Kauffman, J Boone; Medina, Israel; Gamboa, Julieta N; Torres, Olmo; Caamal, Juan P; Reza, Miriam; Herrera-Silveira, Jorge A

    2013-01-01

    Coastal wetlands can have exceptionally large carbon (C) stocks and their protection and restoration would constitute an effective mitigation strategy to climate change. Inclusion of coastal ecosystems in mitigation strategies requires quantification of carbon stocks in order to calculate emissions or sequestration through time. In this study, we quantified the ecosystem C stocks of coastal wetlands of the Sian Ka'an Biosphere Reserve (SKBR) in the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. We stratified the SKBR into different vegetation types (tall, medium and dwarf mangroves, and marshes), and examined relationships of environmental variables with C stocks. At nine sites within SKBR, we quantified ecosystem C stocks through measurement of above and belowground biomass, downed wood, and soil C. Additionally, we measured nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) from the soil and interstitial salinity. Tall mangroves had the highest C stocks (987±338 Mg ha(-1)) followed by medium mangroves (623±41 Mg ha(-1)), dwarf mangroves (381±52 Mg ha(-1)) and marshes (177±73 Mg ha(-1)). At all sites, soil C comprised the majority of the ecosystem C stocks (78-99%). Highest C stocks were measured in soils that were relatively low in salinity, high in P and low in N∶P, suggesting that P limits C sequestration and accumulation potential. In this karstic area, coastal wetlands, especially mangroves, are important C stocks. At the landscape scale, the coastal wetlands of Sian Ka'an covering ≈172,176 ha may store 43.2 to 58.0 million Mg of C. PMID:23457583

  8. Changes of Urban Wetland Landscape Pattern and Impacts of Urbanization on Wetland in Wuhan City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xuelei; NING Longmei; YU Jing; XIAO Rui; LI Tao

    2008-01-01

    In this study, remote sensing data of Wuhan City, Hubei Province, China in 1996-2001 were selected to ex-tract wetland landscape information. Several landscape indices were used to evaluate the changes of landscape patternwithin the five years, including patch number, patch density, patch fractal dimension, landscape diversity, dominance,evenness, and fragmentation indexes. Then, transformation probabilities of wetland landscapes into non-wetland land-scapes were calculated based on Markov Model, and on these grounds the relationship between changes of wetlandlandscape pattern and urban construction was analyzed. The results showed that fragmentation degree of all wetlandtypes increased, lake area declined, and dominance of natural wetland decreased. The reasons for these results weremainly because of urban construction. According to the features of abundant wetland in Wuhan City, we suggested thatprotection of wetland landscape should cooperate with urban construction, which means wetland should become im-portant part of urban landscape.

  9. Hydroclimate-driven changes in the landscape structure of the terminal lakes and wetlands of the China's Heihe River Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Shengchun; Xiao, Honglang; Peng, Xiaomei; Song, Xiang

    2015-01-01

    Changes in the landscape structure of terminal lakes and wetlands along inland rivers in arid areas are determined by the water balance in the river basins under the impacts of climate change and human activities. Studying the evolution of these landscapes and the mechanisms driving these changes is critical to the sustainable development of river basins. The terminal lakes and wetlands along the lower reaches of the Heihe River, an inland river in arid northwestern China, can be grouped into three types: runoff-recharged, groundwater-recharged, and precipitation-recharged. These water-recharge characteristics determine the degree to which the landscape structure of a terminal lake or wetland is impacted by climate change and human activities. An analysis of seven remote-sensing and hydroclimatic data sets for the Heihe River basin during the last 50 years indicates that hydrological changes in the basin caused by regional human activities were the primary drivers of the observed changes in the spatial and temporal landscape-structure patterns of the terminal lakes and wetlands of the Heihe River. In this warm, dry climatic context, the lakes and wetlands gradually evolved toward and maintained a landscape dominated by saline-alkaline lands and grasslands. PMID:25427825

  10. Mycelial bacteria of saline soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvyagintsev, D. G.; Zenova, G. M.; Oborotov, G. V.

    2008-10-01

    The actinomycetal complexes of saline soils comprise the representatives of the Streptomyces and Micromonospora genera, the number of which are hundreds and thousands of CFU/g soil. Complexes of mycelial bacteria in saline soils are poorer in terms of number (by 1-3 orders of magnitude) and taxonomic composition than the complexes of the zonal soil types. A specific feature of the actinomycetal complexes of saline soils is the predominance of halophilic, alkaliphilic, and haloalkaliphilic streptomycetes that well grow at pH 8-9 and concentrations of NaCl close to 5%. Actinomycetes in saline soils grow actively, and the length of their mycelium reaches 140 m in 1 gram of soil. The haloalkaliphilic streptomycetes grow fast and inhibit the formation of spores at pH 9 and high concentrations of salts (Na2SO4 and MgCl2, 5%) as compared to their behavior on a neutral medium with a salt concentration of 0.02%. They are characterized by the maximal radial growth rate of colonies on an alkaline medium with 5% NaCl.

  11. Effects of wetland management on carrying capacity of diving ducks and shorebirds in a coastal estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, L. Arriana; Takekawa, John Y.; Shinn, Joel; Graham, Tanya; Buffington, Kevin; Gustafson, K. Benjamin; Smith, Lacy M.; Spring, Sarah E.; Miles, A. Keith

    2014-01-01

    With global loss of natural wetlands, managed wetlands increasingly support energy requirements for wintering shorebirds and waterfowl. Despite numerous studies of avian bioenergetics in freshwater systems, less is known of the energetic capacity of estuarine systems. In San Francisco Bay, managed saline ponds converted from former commercial salt evaporation ponds form part of the largest wetland restoration project on the Pacific coast of North America. A daily-ration model was applied to assess carrying capacity for diving ducks and shorebirds during four winter seasons (2007–2010) in seasonal and circulation ponds, each in two salinity classes. Diving ducks comprised an estimated 35,450 ± 1,559 (x ± SE) in average years and 45,458 ± 1,653 in peak years with > 95% in circulation ponds. Shorebirds comprised 64,253 ± 14,838 (x ± SE) in average years and 108,171 ± 4,854 in peak years with > 64% in seasonal ponds. Macroinvertebrate energy density was highest in mesohaline (5–30 ppt) circulation ponds and lowest in seasonal ponds for both guilds. Energy requirements for diving ducks in mesohaline followed by low-hyperhaline (30–80 ppt) circulation ponds were mostly met by available prey energy. Available energy for shorebirds was substantially less than they required in seasonal ponds but exceeded their needs in mesohaline circulation ponds. Mesohaline circulation ponds supported 9,443 ± 1,649 (x ± SE) shorebird use-days·ha-1 of accessible habitat and 2,297 ± 402 diving duck use-days·ha-1 of accessible habitat, twice the capacity of low-hyperhaline circulation ponds and greater than five times that of seasonal ponds for both guilds. Our results indicated that reducing salinity to mesohaline levels and altering water depth to increase accessibility substantially increased energy available for these species in estuarine managed ponds.

  12. Bulk Moisture and Salinity Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurge, Mark; Monje, Oscar; Prenger, Jessica; Catechis, John

    2013-01-01

    Measurement and feedback control of nutrient solutions in plant root zones is critical to the development of healthy plants in both terrestrial and reduced-gravity environments. In addition to the water content, the amount of fertilizer in the nutrient solution is important to plant health. This typically requires a separate set of sensors to accomplish. A combination bulk moisture and salinity sensor has been designed, built, and tested with different nutrient solutions in several substrates. The substrates include glass beads, a clay-like substrate, and a nutrient-enriched substrate with the presence of plant roots. By measuring two key parameters, the sensor is able to monitor both the volumetric water content and salinity of the nutrient solution in bulk media. Many commercially available moisture sensors are point sensors, making localized measurements over a small volume at the point of insertion. Consequently, they are more prone to suffer from interferences with air bubbles, contact area of media, and root growth. This makes it difficult to get an accurate representation of true moisture content and distribution in the bulk media. Additionally, a network of point sensors is required, increasing the cabling, data acquisition, and calibration requirements. measure the dielectric properties of a material in the annular space of the vessel. Because the pore water in the media often has high salinity, a method to measure the media moisture content and salinity simultaneously was devised. Characterization of the frequency response for capacitance and conductance across the electrodes was completed for 2-mm glass bead media, 1- to 2-mm Turface (a clay like media), and 1- to 2-mm fertilized Turface with the presence of root mass. These measurements were then used to find empirical relationships among capacitance (C), the dissipation factor (D), the volumetric water content, and the pore water salinity.

  13. Resistance to Flow Through Riprian Wetlands

    OpenAIRE

    Hodges, Clayton Christopher

    1997-01-01

    Increasing interest in the role of wetlands in pollutant removal, flood plain management, and sedimentation in recent years has prompted research into hydraulic processes inherent to these systems. The research described in this thesis focuses on flow processes within ecosystems known as riparian wetlands. An attempt has been made to summarize existing research in this field to ensure that a ...

  14. 40 CFR 258.12 - Wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... means those areas that are defined in 40 CFR 232.2(r). ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Wetlands. 258.12 Section 258.12... SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Location Restrictions § 258.12 Wetlands. (a) New MSWLF units and...

  15. Wetlands as energy-dissipating systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokorný, Jan; Květ, Jan; Rejšková, Alžběta; Brom, Jakub

    2010-12-01

    Since wetlands are ecosystems that have an ample supply of water, they play an important role in the energy budgets of their respective landscapes due to their capacity to shift energy fluxes in favor of latent heat. Rates of evapotranspiration in wetlands are commonly as high as 6-15 mm day⁻¹, testifying to the large amount of energy that is dissipated through this process. Emergent or semi-emergent wetland macrophytes substantially influence the solar energy distribution due to their high capacity for transpiration. Wetland ecosystems in eutrophic habitats show a high primary production of biomass because of the highly efficient use of solar energy in photosynthesis. In wetlands associated with the slow decomposition of dead organic matter, such as oligotrophic marshes or fens and bogs, the accumulation of biomass is also high, in spite of the rather low primary production of biomass. Most of the energy exchange in water-saturated wetlands is, however, linked with heat balance, whereby the largest proportion of the incoming energy is dissipated during the process of evapotranspiration. An example is shown of energy fluxes during the course of a day in the wetland ecosystem of Mokré Louky (Wet Meadows) near Třeboň. The negative consequences of the loss of wetlands for the local and regional climate are discussed. PMID:21086105

  16. Why Are High-Altitude Natives So Strong at Altitude? Maximal Oxygen Transport to the Muscle Cell in Altitude Natives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundby, Carsten; Calbet, Jose A L

    2016-01-01

    In hypoxia aerobic exercise performance of high-altitude natives is suggested to be superior to that of lowlanders; i.e., for a given altitude natives are reported to have higher maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max). The likely basis for this is a higher pulmonary diffusion capacity, which in turn ensures higher arterial O2 saturation (SaO2) and therefore also potentially a higher delivery of O2 to the exercising muscles. This review focuses on O2 transport in high-altitude Aymara. We have quantified femoral artery O2 delivery, arterial O2 extraction and calculated leg VO2 in Aymara, and compared their values with that of acclimatizing Danish lowlanders. All subjects were studied at 4100 m. At maximal exercise SaO2 dropped tremendously in the lowlanders, but did not change in the Aymara. Therefore arterial O2 content was also higher in the Aymara. At maximal exercise however, fractional O2 extraction was lower in the Aymara, and the a-vO2 difference was similar in both populations. The lower extraction levels in the Aymara were associated with lower muscle O2 conductance (a measure of muscle diffusion capacity). At any given submaximal exercise intensity, leg VO2 was always of similar magnitude in both groups, but at maximal exercise the lowlanders had higher leg blood flow, and hence also higher maximum leg VO2. With the induction of acute normoxia fractional arterial O2 extraction fell in the highlanders, but remained unchanged in the lowlanders. Hence high-altitude natives seem to be more diffusion limited at the muscle level as compared to lowlanders. In conclusion Aymara preserve very high SaO2 during hypoxic exercise (likely due to a higher lung diffusion capacity), but the effect on VO2max is reduced by a lower ability to extract O2 at the muscle level. PMID:27343089

  17. Effect of acetazolamide on cytokines in rats exposed to high altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chang; Wang, Rong; Xie, Hua; Sun, Yuhuan; Tao, Rui; Liu, Wenqing; Li, Wenbin; Lu, Hui; Jia, Zhengping

    2016-07-01

    Acute mountain sickness (AMS) is a dangerous hypoxic illness that can affect humans who rapidly reach a high altitude above 2500m. In the study, we investigated the changes of cytokines induced by plateau, and the acetazolamide (ACZ) influenced the cytokines in rats exposed to high altitude. Wistar rats were divided into low altitude (Control), high altitude (HA), and high altitude+ACZ (22.33mg/kg, Bid) (HA+ACZ) group. The rats were acute exposed to high altitude at 4300m for 3days. The HA+ACZ group were given ACZ by intragastric administration. The placebo was equal volume saline. The results showed that hypoxia caused the heart, liver and lung damage, compared with the control group. Supplementation with ACZ significantly alleviated hypoxia-caused damage to the main organs. Compared with the HA group, the biochemical and blood gas indicators of the HA+ACZ group showed no difference, while some cytokines have significantly changed, such as activin A, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1, CD54), interleukin-1α,2 (IL-1α,2), l-selectin, monocyte chemotactic factor (MCP-1), CC chemokines (MIP-3α) and tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP-1). Then, the significant difference pro-inflammatory cytokines in protein array were chosen for further research. The protein and mRNA content of pro-inflammatory cytokines MCP-1, interleukin-1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), interferon-γ (IFN-γ) in rat lung were detected. The results demonstrated that the high altitude affected the body's physiological and biochemical parameters, but, ACZ did not change those parameters of the hypoxia rats. This study found that ACZ could decrease the content of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as MCP-1, IL-1β, TNF-α and IFN-γ in rat lungs, and, the lung injury in the HA+ACZ group reduced. The mechanism that ACZ protected hypoxia rats might be related to changes in cytokine content. The reducing of the pro-inflammatory cytokines in rat lung might be other

  18. Pesticide mass budget in a stormwater wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maillard, Elodie; Imfeld, Gwenaël

    2014-01-01

    Wetlands are reactive landscape zones that provide ecosystem services, including the improvement of water quality. Field studies distinguishing pesticide degradation from retention to evaluate the sink and source functions of wetlands are scarce. This study evaluated based on a complete mass budget the partitioning, retention, and degradation of 12 pesticides in water, suspended solids, sediments, and organisms in a wetland receiving contaminated runoff. The mass budget showed the following: (i) dissolved pesticides accounted for 95% of the total load entering the wetland and the pesticide partitioning between the dissolved phase and the suspended solids varied according to the molecules, (ii) pesticides accumulated primarily in the dithiocarbamates were degraded under oxic conditions in spring, whereas glyphosate and aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) degradation occurred under reducing conditions during the summer. The complete pesticide mass budget indicates the versatility of the pesticide sink and source functions of wetland systems. PMID:25003558

  19. Progress in Research of Chinese Wetland Parks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yichuan; LI Dongsheng; WANG Shanshan

    2008-01-01

    There has been a rapid development in the construction of wetland parks in China in recent years. This paper discussed the progress in the research of Chinese wetland parks that covered the aspects of wetland resources, landscape and enviroment. The function of wetland parks, the evaluation of landscape and the exploiting of resources; the landscape concept and landscape planning and design; the plant environment, the water environment and the recreation environment were all reviewed. The research of Chinese wetland parks started later but developed rapidly, having remarkable achievements in practice and functional studies, and there are still some shortcomings in the researches to be improved. At last, the key points which should be researched urgently in the future were discussed.

  20. INTEGRATING DESALINATION AND AGRICULTURAL SALINITY CONTROL ALTERNATIVES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The cost-effectiveness relationships for various agricultural and desalination alternatives for controlling salinity in irrigation return flows are developed. Selection of optimal salinity management strategies on a river basin scale is described as a problem of integrating optim...

  1. Experiences with Constructed Wetland Systems in Korea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kim Youngchul; Hwang Gilson; Lee Jin-Woo; Park Je-Chul; Kim Dong-Sup; Kang Min-Gi; Chang In-Soung

    2006-01-01

    In spite of the low temperature during the winter season and the high land environment, the wetland treatment system is gaining popularity in Korea because of its lower construction cost and simplicity in operation and maintenance.Many different types of wetland treatment systems have been built during the last 10 years, among which the free water surface wetland has been predominant. Most of the large-scale systems are government projects for improving the water quality of the streams flowing into the estuary dikes and reservoirs. The covering plants used in this system are different in different areas but cattails and reeds or their combinations are common. Constructed wetlands in Korea can be characterized by their shallow depths and short hydraulic residence times. There is no established flow pattern and configuration rules for constructing wetlands, but many efforts have been made with a view to improving their ecological function. Flow control is the most difficult problem in designing a riverbed or riparian wetland. There have been scores of flow rate control devices developed for wetlands, but none of them guarantee wetlands' safety against flooding. In earlier wetland construction, the building materials were mainly soil. Recently, strong and durable building materials such as rocks, gravel beds, concrete and steel are used at vulnerable places to protect them from erosion. Our investigation indicated that the wetland system would be an appropriate technology because it is not only cheaper to construct, but also requires less maintenance work. However, we suffer from the reduced effectiveness in performance during the winter. We need to evaluate the partial treatment accomplished during 6 to 7 months per year.

  2. BUFFER ZONE METHOD, LAND USE PLANNING AND CONSERVATION STRATEGIES ABOUT WETLANDS UNDER URBANIZATION PRESSURE IN TURKEY

    OpenAIRE

    Ergen, Baris

    2010-01-01

    Wetlands are special areas that they offer habitat for terrestrial and water life. Wetlands are nest sides also for amphibian, for this reason wetlands offer wide range diversity for species. Wetlands are also reproduction regions for birds. Wetlands have special importance for ecosystem because they obstruct erosion. Wetlands absorb contaminants from water therefore wetlands contribute to clean water and they offer more potable water. Wetlands obstruct waterflood. In that case wetlands must ...

  3. Pulmonary Function Parameters Changes at Different Altitudes in Healthy Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Ziaee

    2008-06-01

    It could be concluded that changes in some pulmonary ventilatory parameters were proportional to the magnitude of change in altitude during a high-altitude trek. These changes are significant at the beginning of ascending.

  4. On leadership and success in professional wetland science

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Society of Wetland Scientists and the wetland profession are fortunate to have an abundance of leaders. These leaders respond to the needs of the Society for guidance and direction. They also consistently advance wetland science and improve the quality of wetland management...

  5. 7 CFR 12.32 - Converted wetland identification criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Converted wetland identification criteria. 12.32 Section 12.32 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture HIGHLY ERODIBLE LAND AND WETLAND CONSERVATION Wetland Conservation § 12.32 Converted wetland identification criteria. (a) Converted...

  6. 44 CFR 10.14 - Flood plains and wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Executive Order 11988, Flood Plain Management, and Executive Order 11990, Protection of Wetlands (44 CFR... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Flood plains and wetlands. 10... Flood plains and wetlands. For any action taken by FEMA in a flood plain or wetland, the provisions...

  7. 7 CFR 1410.10 - Restoration of wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Restoration of wetlands. 1410.10 Section 1410.10... Restoration of wetlands. (a) An owner or operator who entered into a CRP contract on land that is suitable for restoration to wetlands or that was restored to wetlands while under such contract, may, if approved by...

  8. 7 CFR 12.30 - NRCS responsibilities regarding wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false NRCS responsibilities regarding wetlands. 12.30 Section 12.30 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture HIGHLY ERODIBLE LAND AND WETLAND CONSERVATION Wetland Conservation § 12.30 NRCS responsibilities regarding wetlands. (a) Technical...

  9. Hydrogeochemistry of groundwater in coastal wetlands: implications for coastal conservation in Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malcolm, R; Soulsby, C

    2001-01-29

    Groundwater in a shallow coastal aquifer in north east Scotland was monitored over the hydrological year October 1996-September 1997. Groundwater flow from inland areas sustained freshwater conditions in a dune-wetland complex of conservation importance. In particular, seasonal flooding of the coastal wetlands due to water table rise provided important roosting and breeding habitats for waterfowl. Hydrogeochemical analysis revealed that groundwater in the shallow sand aquifer was circum-neutral, and non-saline, despite being within 50 m of the sea and only 1 m above the mean high water mark. Calcium and HCO3 were the dominant cation and anion respectively, reflecting weathering processes in the aquifer. Use of the geochemical code NETPATH indicated that calcite weathering in shell fragments within the sand was the primary source of Ca and alkalinity generation. The concentrations of Na and Cl were also important, though these can be explained primarily by atmospheric inputs from precipitation. In detail, the spatial and temporal variation in groundwater chemistry was remarkably complex for what intuitively appeared a simple aquifer system. Temporal variations in groundwater chemistry mainly related to the seasonal event of groundwater recharge. Thus, the main period of rising groundwater levels resulted in a marked dilution of solutes in the aquifer, implying that water storage greatly increased in a relatively short period. A period of several weeks appeared to be required for dissolution processes to proceed to equilibrium. Spatial variation in groundwater chemistry appears to relate to the spatial distribution of geochemical processes in different hydrogeological units. Sulphate reduction, alkalinity generation and Fe precipitation appear to be locally important processes. The chemistry of groundwater maintains the wetland habitat by providing freshwater conditions that allow populations of various plant species to flourish. The potentially large recharge

  10. Saline water irrigation for crop production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salinity is one of agriculture's most complex production problems. Excessive salts from irrigation water or high water tables can severely limit crop production. Years of saline water irrigation on poorly drained soils can eventually make economic crop production impossible. About 10% of all land are affected by salinity problems. They occur in every continent in different proportions, more frequently in arid and semi-arid areas. This paper discusses a range of problems related to use of saline water for crop irrigation

  11. AVIRIS spectra of California wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Michael F.; Ustin, Susan L.; Klemas, Vytautas

    1988-01-01

    Spectral data gathered by the AVIRIS from wetlands in the Suisun Bay area of California on 13 October 1987 were analyzed. Spectra representing stands of numerous vegetation types (including Sesuvium verrucosum, Scirpus acutus and Scirpus californicus, Xanthium strumarium, Cynadon dactylon, and Distichlis spicata) and soil were isolated. Despite some defects in the data, it was possible to detect vegetation features such as differences in the location of the chlorophyll red absorption maximum. Also, differences in cover type spectra were evident in other spectral regions. It was not possible to determine if the observed features represent noise, variability in canopy architecture, or chemical constituents of leaves.

  12. Dust observations at orbital altitudes surrounding Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, L.; Weber, T. D.; Malaspina, D.; Crary, F.; Ergun, R. E.; Delory, G. T.; Fowler, C. M.; Morooka, M. W.; McEnulty, T.; Eriksson, A. I.; Andrews, D. J.; Horanyi, M.; Collette, A.; Yelle, R.; Jakosky, B. M.

    2015-11-01

    Dust is common close to the martian surface, but no known process can lift appreciable concentrations of particles to altitudes above ~150 kilometers. We present observations of dust at altitudes ranging from 150 to above 1000 kilometers by the Langmuir Probe and Wave instrument on the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution spacecraft. Based on its distribution, we interpret this dust to be interplanetary in origin. A comparison with laboratory measurements indicates that the dust grain size ranges from 1 to 12 micrometers, assuming a typical grain velocity of ~18 kilometers per second. These direct observations of dust entering the martian atmosphere improve our understanding of the sources, sinks, and transport of interplanetary dust throughout the inner solar system and the associated impacts on Mars’s atmosphere.

  13. The visual control of simulated altitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Walter W.; Bennett, C. Thomas; Tsang, Pamela S.; Phatak, Anil V.

    1987-01-01

    The ability of a subject flying an experimental flight to use the different sources of visual information by looking at the vertical tracking error was investigated using a 3 (altitude) x 3 (texture) x 2 (replication) factorial design. Each subject flew these 18 flights in the same partially counterbalanced order, constructed such that there was one flight at each of the three altitudes, and over each of the three surface textures within each successive set of three flights. The three ground-surface textures used consisted of meridian, latitudinal, and square textures described by Wolpert et al. (1983). The results showed that, in displays where only splay information was available, the subjects tended to confuse lateral motion with vertical.

  14. CT diagnosis of high altitude pulmonary edema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To explore the value of CT diagnosis of high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE). Methods: The CT findings in 16 patients unfit to high altitude were analyzed. Results: The findings on CT were as follows: (1) The early stage of HAPE showed ground glass opacity, most of which located at the superior segment and posterior basis segment of inferior lobes, with the right lung to occur earlier than that of the left lung. (2) The advanced stage showed shaggy opacity. (3) The late stage lesions developed to posterior and apical segment of the superior lobes, air bronchus sign could be seen on involved segments. (4) Right lung was more serious than left lung. Conclusion: CT was an ideal method to find HAPE. The accuracy of CT diagnosis in HAPE was 100%

  15. Dust observations at orbital altitudes surrounding Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, L; Weber, T D; Malaspina, D; Crary, F; Ergun, R E; Delory, G T; Fowler, C M; Morooka, M W; McEnulty, T; Eriksson, A I; Andrews, D J; Horanyi, M; Collette, A; Yelle, R; Jakosky, B M

    2015-11-01

    Dust is common close to the martian surface, but no known process can lift appreciable concentrations of particles to altitudes above ~150 kilometers. We present observations of dust at altitudes ranging from 150 to above 1000 kilometers by the Langmuir Probe and Wave instrument on the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution spacecraft. Based on its distribution, we interpret this dust to be interplanetary in origin. A comparison with laboratory measurements indicates that the dust grain size ranges from 1 to 12 micrometers, assuming a typical grain velocity of ~18 kilometers per second. These direct observations of dust entering the martian atmosphere improve our understanding of the sources, sinks, and transport of interplanetary dust throughout the inner solar system and the associated impacts on Mars's atmosphere. PMID:26542578

  16. HAWC - The High Altitude Water Cherenkov Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tepe, Andreas; HAWC Collaboration

    2012-07-01

    The high altitude water Cherenkov observatory (HAWC) is an instrument for the detection of high energy cosmic gamma-rays. Its predecessor Milagro has successfully proven that the water Cherenkov technology for gamma-ray astronomy is a useful technique. HAWC is currently under construction at Sierra Negra in Mexico at an altitude of 4100 m and will include several improvements compared to Milagro. Two complementary DAQ systems of the HAWC detector allow for the observation of a large fraction of the sky with a very high duty cycle and independent of environmental conditions. HAWC will observe the gamma-ray sky from about 100 GeV up to 100 TeV. Also the cosmic ray flux anisotropy on different angular length scales is object of HAWC science. Because of HAWC's large effective area and field of view, we describe its prospects to observe gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) as an example for transient sources.

  17. Determination of the health of Lunyangwa wetland using Wetland Classification and Risk Assessment Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanda, Elijah M. M.; Mamba, Bhekie B.; Msagati, Titus A. M.; Msilimba, Golden

    2016-04-01

    Wetlands are major sources of various ecological goods and services including storage and distribution of water in space and time which help in ensuring the availability of surface and groundwater throughout the year. However, there still remains a poor understanding of the range of values of water quality parameters that occur in wetlands either in its impacted state or under natural conditions. It was thus imperative to determine the health of Lunyangwa wetland in Mzuzu City in Malawi in order to classify and determine its state. This study used the Escom's Wetland Classification and Risk Assessment Index Field Guide to determine the overall characteristics of Lunyangwa wetland and to calculate its combined Wetland Index Score. Data on site information, field measurements (i.e. EC, pH, temperature and DO) and physical characteristics of Lunyangwa wetland were collected from March, 2013 to February, 2014. Results indicate that Lunyangwa wetland is a largely open water zone which is dominated by free-floating plants on the water surface, beneath surface and emergent in substrate. Furthermore, the wetland can be classified as of a C ecological category (score = 60-80%), which has been moderately modified with moderate risks of the losses and changes occurring in the natural habitat and biota in the wetland. It was observed that the moderate modification and risk were largely because of industrial, agricultural, urban/social catchment stressors on the wetland. This study recommends an integrated and sustainable management approach coupled with continuous monitoring and evaluation of the health of the wetland for all stakeholders in Mzuzu City. This would help to maintain the health of Lunyangwa wetland which is currently at risk of being further modified due to the identified catchment stressors.

  18. Spatiotemporal analysis of encroachment on wetlands: a case of Nakivubo wetland in Kampala, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isunju, John Bosco; Kemp, Jaco

    2016-04-01

    Wetlands provide vital ecosystem services such as water purification, flood control, and climate moderation among others, which enhance environmental quality, promote public health, and contribute to risk reduction. The biggest threat to wetlands is posed by human activities which transform wetlands, often for short-term consumptive benefits. This paper aimed to classify and map recent land cover and provide a multi-temporal analysis of changes from 2002 to 2014 in the Nakivubo wetland through which wastewater from Kampala city drains to Lake Victoria in Uganda. The paper contributes through spatially congruent change maps showing site-specific land cover conversions. In addition, it gives insight into what happened to the wetlands, why it happened, how the changes in the wetlands affect the communities living in them, and how the situation could be better managed or regulated in future. The analysis is based on very high resolution (50-62 cm) aerial photos and satellite imagery, focus group discussions, and key informant interviews. Overall, the analysis of losses and gains showed a 62 % loss of wetland vegetation between 2002 and 2014, mostly attributable to crop cultivation. Cultivation in the wetland buffering the lake shore makes it unstable to anchor. The 2014 data shows large portions of the wetland calved away by receding lake waves. With barely no wetland vegetation buffer around the lake, the heavily polluted wastewater streams will lower the quality of lake water. Furthermore, with increased human activities in the wetland, exposure to flooding and pollution will be likely to have a greater impact on the health and livelihoods of vulnerable communities. This calls for a multi-faceted approach, coordination of the various stakeholders and engagement of wetland-dependent communities as part of the solution, and might require zoning out the wetland and restricting certain activities to specific zones. PMID:26935734

  19. Predator foraging altitudes reveal the structure of aerial insect communities

    OpenAIRE

    Helms, Jackson A.; Aaron P. Godfrey; Tayna Ames; Bridge, Eli S.

    2016-01-01

    The atmosphere is populated by a diverse array of dispersing insects and their predators. We studied aerial insect communities by tracking the foraging altitudes of an avian insectivore, the Purple Martin (Progne subis). By attaching altitude loggers to nesting Purple Martins and collecting prey delivered to their nestlings, we determined the flight altitudes of ants and other insects. We then tested hypotheses relating ant body size and reproductive ecology to flight altitude. Purple Martins...

  20. The yak genome and adaptation to life at high altitude

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qiu, Qiang; Zhang, Guojie; Ma, Tao; Qian, Wubin; Wang, Junyi; Ye, Zhiqiang; Cao, Changchang; Hu, Quanjun; Kim, Jaebum; Larkin, Denis M; Auvil, Loretta; Capitanu, Boris; Ma, Jian; Lewin, Harris A; Qian, Xiaoju; Lang, Yongshan; Zhou, Ran; Wang, Lizhong; Wang, Kun; Xia, Jinquan; Liao, Shengguang; Pan, Shengkai; Lu, Xu; Hou, Haolong; Wang, Yan; Zang, Xuetao; Yin, Ye; Ma, Hui; Zhang, Jian; Wang, Zhaofeng; Zhang, Yingmei; Zhang, Dawei; Yonezawa, Takahiro; Hasegawa, Masami; Zhong, Yang; Liu, Wenbin; Zhang, Yan; Huang, Zhiyong; Zhang, Shengxiang; Long, Ruijun; Yang, Huanming; Lenstra, Johannes A; Cooper, David N; Wu, Yi; Wang, Jun; Shi, Peng; Wang, Jian; Liu, Jianquan

    2012-01-01

    Domestic yaks (Bos grunniens) provide meat and other necessities for Tibetans living at high altitude on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau and in adjacent regions. Comparison between yak and the closely related low-altitude cattle (Bos taurus) is informative in studying animal adaptation to high altitude...... important implications for understanding adaptation to high altitude in other animal species and for hypoxia-related diseases in humans....

  1. Is High Altitude Pulmonary Edema Relevant to Hawai‘i?

    OpenAIRE

    Cornell, Seth Lewis

    2014-01-01

    High altitude clinical syndromes have been described in the medical literature but may be under recognized in the state of Hawai‘i. As tourism increases, high altitude injuries may follow given the easy access to high altitude attractions. Visitors and clinicians should be aware of the dangers associated with the rapid ascent to high altitudes in the perceived comfort of a vehicle. This paper will review the basic pathophysiology, prevention, and treatment of the most serious of the high alti...

  2. Pulmonary embolism in young natives of high altitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Singhal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Thrombotic events are relatively common in high altitude areas and known to occur in young soldiers working at high altitude without usual risk factors associated with thrombosis at sea-level. However, till now, cases with thrombotic events were reported only in lowlanders staying at high altitude. These two cases of pulmonary embolism demonstrate that thrombotic events can occur in highlanders after a prolonged stay at the extreme altitude.

  3. Pulse oximetry reference values at high altitude.

    OpenAIRE

    Lozano, J.M.; Duque, O R; Buitrago, T; Behaine, S

    1992-01-01

    Pulse oximetry is becoming popular for measuring oxygen saturation of haemoglobin in paediatric patients. There are no reference values for children living at high altitudes, and the aim of this study was to determine the values of oxygen saturation of haemoglobin in healthy children in Bogota (2640 m above sea level). The saturation was determined in 189 children aged 5 days to 24 months with a Nellcor N10 oximeter. Mean values and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. Analysis of v...

  4. Cardiovascular Response to High Altitude Hypoxia

    OpenAIRE

    Manchanda, S C

    1984-01-01

    Normal and abnormal cardiovascular response to high altitude (HA) hypoxia were studied in 98 healthy subjects and in 15 patients with HA pulmonary oedema (HAPO) and acute mountain sickness (AMS) at an altitudeof 3,658 m. The healthy sea level (SL) residents showed marked blood volume changes during the first week with pulmonary hypotension and depression of left ventricular (LV) performance and physical work capacity (PWC). The HA natives, however, had better LV performance and PWC indicating...

  5. Magion-4 High-Altitude Cusp Study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Merka, J.; Šafránková, J.; Němeček, Z.; Šimůnek, Jiří

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 1-3 (2005), s. 57-69. ISSN 0169-3298 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA205/02/0947 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : cusp-like plasma * dipole tilt angle * high - altitude cusp * magnetopause * magnetopause * reconnection Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 0.975, year: 2005

  6. Is high-altitude mountaineering Russian roulette?

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng Edward K.

    2013-01-01

    Whether the nature of the risks associated with climbing high-altitude (8000 m) peaks is in some sense “controllable” is a longstanding debate in the mountaineering community. Well-known mountaineers David Roberts and Ed Viesturs explore this issue in their recent memoirs. Roberts views the primary risks as “objective” or uncontrollable, whereas Viesturs maintains that experience and attention to safety can make a significant difference. This study sheds light on the Roberts-Viesturs debate u...

  7. The High Altitude Water Cherenkov Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafa, Miguel; HAWC Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    The High Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) Observatory is a continuously operated, wide field of view experiment comprised of an array of 300 water Cherenkov detectors (WCDs) to study transient and steady emission of TeV gamma and cosmic rays. Each 200000 l WCD is instrumented with 4 PMTs providing charge and timing information. The array covers ~22000 m2 at an altitude of 4100 m a.s.l. inside the Pico de Orizaba national park in Mexico. The high altitude, large active area, and optical isolation of the PMTs allows us to reliably estimate the energy and determine the arrival direction of gamma and cosmic rays with significant sensitivity over energies from several hundred GeV to a hundred TeV. Continuously observing 2 / 3 of the sky every 24 h, HAWC plays a significant role as a survey instrument for multi-wavelength studies. The performance of HAWC makes possible the detection of both transient and steady emissions, the study of diffuse emission and the measurement of the spectra of gamma-ray sources at TeV energies. HAWC is also sensitive to the emission from GRBs above 100 GeV. I will highlight the results from the first year of operation of the full HAWC array, and describe the ongoing site work to expand the array by a factor of 4 to explore the high energy range.

  8. Low Taxon Richness of Bacterioplankton in High-Altitude Lakes of the Eastern Tibetan Plateau, with a Predominance of Bacteroidetes and Synechococcus spp.▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Xing, Peng; Hahn, Martin W.; Wu, Qinglong L.

    2009-01-01

    Plankton samples were collected from six remote freshwater and saline lakes located at altitudes of 3,204 to 4,718 m and 1,000 km apart within an area of ca. 1 million km2 on the eastern Tibetan Plateau to comparatively assess how environmental factors influence the diversity of bacterial communities in high-altitude lakes. The composition of the bacterioplankton was investigated by analysis of large clone libraries of 16S rRNA genes. Comparison of bacterioplankton diversities estimated for t...

  9. The wetland continuum: a conceptual framework for interpreting biological studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euliss, N.H., Jr.; LaBaugh, J.W.; Fredrickson, L.H.; Mushet, D.M.; Swanson, G.A.; Winter, T.C.; Rosenberry, D.O.; Nelson, R.D.

    2004-01-01

    We describe a conceptual model, the wetland continuum, which allows wetland managers, scientists, and ecologists to consider simultaneously the influence of climate and hydrologic setting on wetland biological communities. Although multidimensional, the wetland continuum is most easily represented as a two-dimensional gradient, with ground water and atmospheric water constituting the horizontal and vertical axis, respectively. By locating the position of a wetland on both axes of the continuum, the potential biological expression of the wetland can be predicted at any point in time. The model provides a framework useful in the organization and interpretation of biological data from wetlands by incorporating the dynamic changes these systems undergo as a result of normal climatic variation rather than placing them into static categories common to many wetland classification systems. While we developed this model from the literature available for depressional wetlands in the prairie pothole region of North America, we believe the concept has application to wetlands in many other geographic locations.

  10. The effect of altitude hypoxia on glucose homeostasis in men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, J J; Hansen, J M; Olsen, Niels Vidiendal;

    1997-01-01

    1. Exposure to altitude hypoxia elicits changes in glucose homeostasis with increases in glucose and insulin concentrations within the first few days at altitude. Both increased and unchanged hepatic glucose production (HGP) have previously been reported in response to acute altitude hypoxia...

  11. Nutritional Aspects of High Altitude and Snow Bound Areas

    OpenAIRE

    K. Sridharan; R. M. Rai

    1984-01-01

    The precise nutritional requirement of humans at high altitude area is not well defined. Further there are many conflicting reports on the effects of hypoxia on digestion, absorption and utilization of food at high altitude. In this review the nutritional requirements at high altitude and the effects of hypoxia on humans in relation to nutrition have been discussed.

  12. Nutritional Aspects of High Altitude and Snow Bound Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Sridharan

    1984-10-01

    Full Text Available The precise nutritional requirement of humans at high altitude area is not well defined. Further there are many conflicting reports on the effects of hypoxia on digestion, absorption and utilization of food at high altitude. In this review the nutritional requirements at high altitude and the effects of hypoxia on humans in relation to nutrition have been discussed.

  13. Carbon Sequestration in Mediterranean Tidal Wetlands: San Francisco Bay and the Ebro River Delta (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callaway, J.; Fennessy, S.; Ibanez, C.

    2013-12-01

    Tidal wetlands accumulate soil carbon at relatively rapid rates, in large part because they build soil to counteract increases in sea-level rise. Because of the rapid rates of carbon sequestration, there is growing interest in evaluating carbon dynamics in tidal wetlands around the world; however, few measurements have been completed for mediterranean-type tidal wetlands, which tend to have relatively high levels of soil salinity, likely affecting both plant productivity and decomposition rates. We measured sediment accretion and carbon sequestration rates at tidal wetlands in two mediterranean regions: the San Francisco Bay Estuary (California, USA) and the Ebro River Delta (Catalonia, Spain). Sampling sites within each region represented a range of conditions in terms of soil salinity and plant communities, and these sites serve as potential analogs for long-term carbon sequestration in restored wetlands, which could receive credits under emerging policies for carbon management. Within San Francisco Bay, we collected six sediment cores per site at four salt marshes and two brackish tidal wetlands (two transects with three stations per transect at each site) in order to identify spatial variation both within and among wetlands in the Estuary. At the Ebro Delta, individual sediment cores were collected across 14 tidal wetland sites, including salt and brackish marshes from impounded areas, river mouths, coastal lagoon, and open bay settings. Cores were collected to 50 cm, and cores were dated using 137Cs and 210Pb. Most sites within San Francisco accreted 0.3-0.5 cm/yr, with slightly higher rates of accretion at low marsh stations; accretions rates based on 137Cs were slightly higher than those based on 210Pb, likely because of the shorter time frame covered by 137Cs dating. Accretion rates from the Ebro Delta sites were similar although more variable, with rates based on 137Cs ranging from 0.1 to 0.9 cm/yr and reflecting the wide range of conditions and management

  14. On the relative roles of hydrology, salinity, temperature, and root productivity in controlling soil respiration from coastal swamps (freshwater)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, Ken W.; Whitbeck, Julie L.; Howard, Rebecca J.

    2012-01-01

    Background and aims Soil CO2 emissions can dominate gaseous carbon losses from forested wetlands (swamps), especially those positioned in coastal environments. Understanding the varied roles of hydroperiod, salinity, temperature, and root productivity on soil respiration is important in discerning how carbon balances may shift as freshwater swamps retreat inland with sea-level rise and salinity incursion, and convert to mixed communities with marsh plants. Methods We exposed soil mesocosms to combinations of permanent flooding, tide, and salinity, and tracked soil respiration over 2 1/2 growing seasons. We also related these measurements to rates from field sites along the lower Savannah River, Georgia, USA. Soil temperature and root productivity were assessed simultaneously for both experiments. Results Soil respiration from mesocosms (22.7-1678.2 mg CO2 m-2 h-1) differed significantly among treatments during four of the seven sampling intervals, where permanently flooded treatments contributed to low rates of soil respiration and tidally flooded treatments sometimes contributed to higher rates. Permanent flooding reduced the overall capacity for soil respiration as soils warmed. Salinity did reduce soil respiration at times in tidal treatments, indicating that salinity may affect the amount of CO2 respired with tide more strongly than under permanent flooding. However, soil respiration related greatest to root biomass (mesocosm) and standing root length (field); any stress reducing root productivity (incl. salinity and permanent flooding) therefore reduces soil respiration. Conclusions Overall, we hypothesized a stronger, direct role for salinity on soil respiration, and found that salinity effects were being masked by varied capacities for increases in respiration with soil warming as dictated by hydrology, and the indirect influence that salinity can have on plant productivity.

  15. The Aquarius Salinity Retrieval Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meissner, Thomas; Wentz, Frank; Hilburn, Kyle; Lagerloef, Gary; Le Vine, David

    2012-01-01

    The first part of this presentation gives an overview over the Aquarius salinity retrieval algorithm. The instrument calibration [2] converts Aquarius radiometer counts into antenna temperatures (TA). The salinity retrieval algorithm converts those TA into brightness temperatures (TB) at a flat ocean surface. As a first step, contributions arising from the intrusion of solar, lunar and galactic radiation are subtracted. The antenna pattern correction (APC) removes the effects of cross-polarization contamination and spillover. The Aquarius radiometer measures the 3rd Stokes parameter in addition to vertical (v) and horizontal (h) polarizations, which allows for an easy removal of ionospheric Faraday rotation. The atmospheric absorption at L-band is almost entirely due to molecular oxygen, which can be calculated based on auxiliary input fields from numerical weather prediction models and then successively removed from the TB. The final step in the TA to TB conversion is the correction for the roughness of the sea surface due to wind, which is addressed in more detail in section 3. The TB of the flat ocean surface can now be matched to a salinity value using a surface emission model that is based on a model for the dielectric constant of sea water [3], [4] and an auxiliary field for the sea surface temperature. In the current processing only v-pol TB are used for this last step.

  16. Construction and Protection of Qionghai Lake Wetland Ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    CHEN, Kaiwei

    2013-01-01

    Wetland is closely related to survival, reproduction and development of human beings. Due to population growth, industrialization, urbanization and agricultural modernization, wetland ecosystems are suffered from huge pressure of human society and the wetland ecological environment becomes extremely vulnerable. On the basis of analyzing current situations of Qionghai Lake wetland in Xichang City of Sichuan Province, this paper discussed the significance of Qionghai wetland construction and pr...

  17. The Legal Structure of Taiwan’s Wetland Conservation Act

    OpenAIRE

    Yi-Yuan Su

    2014-01-01

    In July of 2013, Taiwan passed its Wetland Conservation Act and will begin the implementation of the Act on 2 February 2015. With this Act, Taiwan has become the second Asian country to have specific legislation on wetland conservation and protection. This new law enables the society to achieve sustainable utilization on wetland ecological services. The core concepts of the Wetland Conversation Act include biological diversity conservation and wise use of wetland resources. Special political ...

  18. An analysis of palustrine forested wetland compensation effectiveness in Virginia

    OpenAIRE

    Atkinson, Robert B.

    1991-01-01

    Plans to construct a wetland to replace wetland losses has become a common feature of permit requests. The purpose of this project is to suggest a methodology for quantifying the effectiveness of palustrine forested wetland construction in Virginia. Wetlands constructed by ~ne Virginia Department of Transportation and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers were surveyed and Wagner Road constructed wetland in Petersburg, Virginia was selected as the primary study site. ...

  19. Optimization Analysis on Comprehensive Evaluation Index of Wetland Parks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanyan ZHANG; Fanlong KONG; Min XI; Yue LI

    2016-01-01

    Wetland park is an important mode of wetland protection, meanwhile, construction of comprehensive index system has become the hotspot and keystone of the researches on Wetland Parks. Basing on different development stages , this paper firstly divided the Wetland Parks into three categories, including the start-up stage, the development stage and the refinement stage. And then screened and identified the direction and keypoints of comprehensive evaluation for wetland parks in different development stages using expert scoring, questionnaire and analytic hierarchy process (AHP).

  20. Development and validation of a global dynamical wetlands extent scheme

    OpenAIRE

    Stacke, T.; Hagemann, S.

    2012-01-01

    In this study we present the development of the dynamical wetland extent scheme (DWES) and its validation against present day wetland observations. The DWES is a simple, global scale hydrological scheme that solves the water balance of wetlands and estimates their extent dynamically. The extent depends on the balance of water flows in the wetlands and the slope distribution within the grid cells. In contrast to most models, the DWES is not directly calibrated against wetland extent observatio...

  1. Development and evaluation of a global dynamical wetlands extent scheme

    OpenAIRE

    Stacke, T.; Hagemann, S.

    2012-01-01

    In this study we present the development of the dynamical wetland extent scheme (DWES) and evaluate its skill to represent the global wetland distribution. The DWES is a simple, global scale hydrological scheme that solves the water balance of wetlands and estimates their extent dynamically. The extent depends on the balance of water flows in the wetlands and the slope distribution within the grid cells. In contrast to most models, the DWES is not directly calibrated against wetland extent ob...

  2. Wetlands and Agriculture: Private Interests and Public Benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Heimlich, Ralph E.; Wiebe, Keith D.; Claassen, Roger; Gadsby, Dwight M.; House, Robert M.

    1998-01-01

    Society has recently increased the value it places on the services that wetlands provide, including water quality improvements, flood control, wildlife habitat, and recreation. However, owners of wetlands are often unable to profit from these services because the benefits created are freely enjoyed by many. This report examines differences between public and private incentives regarding wetlands. Federal wetland policy has shifted in recent decades--from encouraging wetland conversion to enco...

  3. Wetland Conversion: The Case of Backwater Reclamation in Kerala

    OpenAIRE

    Jeena T S

    2000-01-01

    Wetlands in their natural state bring substantial benefits to society. Nevertheless, there is growing concern over conversion of wetlands. This study examines the case of coastal wetland conversion in Kerala, known as backwater reclamation. The conversion of wetlands involves not only irreversibility in the environmental or ecological processes but also uncertainty. The study points to the need for incorporating the option value of wetlands in any cost - benefit calculation regarding the conv...

  4. Linking ecosystem processes to sustainable wetland management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euliss, Ned H.; Smith, Loren M.; Wilcox, Douglas A.; Browne, Bryant A.

    2009-01-01

    As a result of concern over problems associated with the future of managed wetlands in North America, nearly two dozen wetland scientists and managers met in February 2006 at Bosque del Apache National Wildlife Refuge in New Mexico and discussed a sustainable approach to wetland management. This approach links science with management by focusing on underlying wetland processes. From that meeting, several papers were developed and published in Wetlands to address these concerns (Euliss et al. 2008, Smith et al. 2008, Wilcox 2008). This article summarizes our first paper, Euliss et al. (2008), and a future Newsletter article will summarize Smith et al. (2008). Realization of the role that complex interactions play in maintaining ecosystems, coupled with increasing demands of humans for ecosystem services, has prompted much interest in ecosystem management. Not surprisingly, sustainability of ecosystems has become an explicitly stated goal of many natural resource agencies and, in some cases, has been legislatively mandated to ensure provision of resources for future generations. However, examples of sustainable ecosystem management are uncommon because management goals often focus on specific deliverables rather than processes that sustain ecosystems. This paper has three sections: (1) perspectives in which we provide a bit of history, (2), ecological consequences of a static view, and (3) suggestions to aid wetland managers link management goals with critical ecosystem processes responsible for provision of wetland services.

  5. Macroinvertebrate abundance, water chemistry, and wetland characteristics affect use of wetlands by avian species in Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longcore, J.R.; McAuley, D.G.; Pendleton, G.W.; Bennatti, C.R.; Mingo, T.M.; Stromborg, K.L.

    2006-01-01

    Our objective was to determine use by avian species (e.g., piscivores, marsh birds, waterfowl, selected passerines) of 29 wetlands in areas with low ( 5.51. All years combined use of wetlands by broods was greater on wetlands with pH 5.51 that supported 21.8% of the broods. High mean brood density was associated with mean number of Insecta per wetland. For lentic wetlands created by beaver, those habitats contained vegetative structure and nutrients necessary to provide cover to support invertebrate populations that are prey of omnivore and insectivore species. The fishless status of a few wetlands may have affected use by some waterfowl species and obligate piscivores.

  6. Wetlands, constructed wetlands and theirs role in wastewater treatment with principles and examples of using it in Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Nikolić Vladimir; Milićević Dragan; Milenković Slobodan

    2009-01-01

    Wetlands protection programs, as a relative new approach in surface water and ground-water protection The types of Wetlands, theirs mechanism of removal nutrients and other pollutants from water are shown in this work paper. Wetland restoration, the renewal of natural and historical wetlands that have been lost or degraded, is a growing activity. Constructed wetlands, as treatment systems that use natural processes, are very adequate and highly efficient, low cost way in wastewater treatment ...

  7. Impacts of agricultural use of the GaMampa wetland on the hydrology of the wetland and the Mohlapetsi River

    OpenAIRE

    Masiyandima, M.; Mc Cartney, M.; Fritsch, J M; D. Rollin

    2006-01-01

    Wetlands in southern Africa support the livelihoods of many poor people through agriculture for both food production and income. They are used to mitigate the problem of low crop yields associated with low rainfall and droughts. However, wetlands are complex and sensitive ecosystems, and they fulfill important environmental functions. Conversion of wetlands to agriculture has potential impacts not just within the wetland but also in downstream areas. While further development of wetlands f...

  8. The Wetland Restoration Site Selection Problem Under Wetland Mitigation Banking (WMB) in Minnesota

    OpenAIRE

    Boyer, Tracy A.

    2003-01-01

    A spatial economic model is developed to guide regulatory policy for wetland compensation under wetland mitigation banking in Minnesota. A binary integer-integer programming model identifies restoration sites based on their potential for environmental quality improvement. In contrast to results found in the application of reserve site selection for species preservation (Ando et al, 1998, Polasky et al, 2001), the unique homogeneity of wetland restoration sites in Minnesota and the inclusion o...

  9. Wetland Expansion on the Southern Edge of the West Siberian Sphagnum Wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peregon, A.

    2006-12-01

    The southern border of Vasyugan wetland was chosen to analyse the long term trend in organic carbon (peat) accumulation and wetland expansion processes. In our study, the comprehensive field (soil/peat and geobotanical) studies were conducted and the results were extrapolated using Landsat ETM+ satellite images. Two types of interaction (ecotones) between forest and wetland were revealed within the study area. Variations in the trend of peat accumulation were found in two types of ecotones, strongly affected by topography and chemical properties of the mineral subsoil of wetland basin. One ecotone is represented by a range of forest ecosystems on flat terrain, and differs from another by the absence of reed communities. Flat topography, coupled with loamy structure and poorness of the subsoil provide conditions for the "permanent" formation of wetlands in the forest ecotone. Progression of the Sphagnum wetlands toward the adjoining deciduous forests was confirmed by existence of the residual soils, recently covered by peat sediments. Another, forest-reeds ecotone is situated on the more uneven terrain providing the path for water flow from the periphery of wetland basin. This causes the recurrence of drying and wetting of upper peat layers, resulting in the fluctuation in the carbon-storage capability of the area and recurring peat degradation on the periphery of peatland basin. The reed ecosystems are the sure indicator of carbonates located close to the land surface. The high concentration of carbonates in subsoil inhibits the advance of Sphagnum mosses and subsequent expansion of wetlands (i.e. "intermittent" wetland formation). Finally, the forest wetland boundary areas on the satellite images were classified into different types of ecotones described earlier. The final layout, prepared in the scale of 1:200K, demonstrates the evident activity of the wetland expansion processes even in the relatively dry climate without excess of precipitation over evaporation

  10. Wetlands as energy-dissipating systems

    OpenAIRE

    Pokorný, J. (Jiří); Květ, J. (Jan); Rejšková, A.; Brom, J

    2010-01-01

    Since wetlands are ecosystems that have an ample supply of water, they play an important role in the energy budgets of their respective landscapes due to their capacity to shift energy fluxes in favor of latent heat. Rates of evapotranspiration in wetlands are commonly as high as 6-15 mm day-1, testifying to the large amount of energy that is dissipated through this process. Wetland ecosystems in eutrophic habitats show a high primary production of biomass because of the highly efficient use ...

  11. Application of EPA wetland research program approach to a floodplain wetland restoration assessment.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolka, R., K.; Trettin, C., C.; Nelson, E., A.; Barton, C., D.; Fletcher, D., E.

    2002-01-01

    Kolka, R.K., C.C. Trettin, E.A. Nelson, C.D. Barton, and D.E. Fletcher. 2002. Application of the EPA Wetland Research Program Approach to a floodplain wetland restoration assessment. J. Env. Monitoring & Restoration 1(1):37-51. Forested wetland restoration assessment is difficult because of the timeframe necessary for the development of a forest ecosystem. The development of a forested wetland ecosystem includes the recovery of hydrology, soils, vegetation, and faunal communities. To assess forested wetland restoration projects, measures need to be developed that are sensitive to early changes in community development and are predictive of future conditions. In this study we apply the EPS's Wetland Research Program's (WRP) approach to assess the recovery of two thermally altered riparian wetland systems in South Carolina. In one of the altered wetland systems, approximately 75% of the wetland was planted with bottomland tree seedlings in an effort to hasten recovery. Individual studies addressing hydrology, soils, vegetation, and faunal communities indicate variable recovery responses.

  12. Ecological observations of major Salicornia beds from highly saline coastal wetlands of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jagtap, T.G.; Bhosale, S.H.; Nagle, V.L.

    very low (0.08-0.1% dry weight) compared to sediments from the Gulf of Kutchchh (0.48-0.78% dry weight). Plant biomass, density, height, and frequency of occurrence in the more frequently inundated regions were greater than in the poorly or less...

  13. Dose-response of altitude training: how much altitude is enough?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Benjamin D; Stray-Gundersen, James

    2006-01-01

    Altitude training continues to be a key adjunctive aid for the training of competitive athletes throughout the world. Over the past decade, evidence has accumulated from many groups of investigators that the "living high--training low" approach to altitude training provides the most robust and reliable performance enhancements. The success of this strategy depends on two key features: 1) living high enough, for enough hours per day, for a long enough period of time, to initiate and sustain an erythropoietic effect of high altitude; and 2) training low enough to allow maximal quality of high intensity workouts, requiring high rates of sustained oxidative flux. Because of the relatively limited access to environments where such a strategy can be practically applied, numerous devices have been developed to "bring the mountain to the athlete," which has raised the key issue of the appropriate "dose" of altitude required to stimulate an acclimatization response and performance enhancement. These include devices using molecular sieve technology to provide a normobaric hypoxic living or sleeping environment, approaches using very high altitudes (5,500m) for shorter periods of time during the day, and "intermittent hypoxic training" involving breathing very hypoxic gas mixtures for alternating 5 minutes periods over the course of 60-90 minutes. Unfortunately, objective testing of the strategies employing short term (less than 4 hours) normobaric or hypobaric hypoxia has failed to demonstrate an advantage of these techniques. Moreover individual variability of the response to even the best of living high--training low strategies has been great, and the mechanisms behind this variability remain obscure. Future research efforts will need to focus on defining the optimal dosing strategy for these devices, and determining the underlying mechanisms of the individual variability so as to enable the individualized "prescription" of altitude exposure to optimize the performance of

  14. Development and testing of an index of biotic integrity based on submersed and floating vegetation and its application to assess reclamation wetlands in Alberta's oil sands area, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooney, Rebecca C; Bayley, Suzanne E

    2012-01-01

    We developed and tested a plant-based index of biological integrity (IBI) and used it to evaluate the existing reclamation wetlands in Alberta's oil sands mining region. Reclamation plans call for >15,000 ha of wetlands to be constructed, but currently, only about 25 wetlands are of suitable age for evaluation. Reclamation wetlands are typically of the shallow open water type and range from fresh to sub-saline. Tailings-contaminated wetlands in particular may have problems with hydrocarbon- and salt-related toxicity. From 60 initial candidate metrics in the submersed aquatic and floating vegetation communities, we selected five to quantify biological integrity. The IBI included two diversity-based metrics: the species richness of floating vegetation and the percent of total richness contributed by Potamogeton spp. It also included three relative abundance-based metrics: that of Ceratophyllum demersum, of floating leafed species and of alkali-tolerant species. We evaluated the contribution of nonlinear metrics to IBI performance but concluded that the correlation between IBI scores and wetland condition was not improved. The method used to score metrics had an influence on the IBI sensitivity. We conclude that continuous scoring relative to the distribution of values found in reference sites was superior. This scoring approach provided good sensitivity and resolution and was grounded in reference condition theory. Based on these IBI scores, both tailings-contaminated and tailings-free reclamation wetlands have significantly lower average biological integrity than reference wetlands (ANOVA: F(2,59) = 34.7, p = 0.000000000107). PMID:21484300

  15. High-altitude adaptations in vertebrate hemoglobins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weber, Roy E.

    2007-01-01

    ’s intrinsic O2-affinity and its allosteric interaction with cellular effectors (organic phosphates, protons and chloride). Whereas short-term altitudinal adaptations predominantly involve adjustments in allosteric interactions, long-term, genetically-coded adaptations typically involve changes in the....... Molecular heterogeneity (multiple isoHbs with differentiated oxygenation properties) can further broaden the range of physico-chemical conditions where Hb functions under altitudinal hypoxia. This treatise reviews the molecular and cellular mechanisms that adapt haemoglobin-oxygen affinities in mammals......, birds and ectothermic vertebrates at high altitude....

  16. Regression of altitude-produced cardiac hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sizemore, D. A.; Mcintyre, T. W.; Van Liere, E. J.; Wilson , M. F.

    1973-01-01

    The rate of regression of cardiac hypertrophy with time has been determined in adult male albino rats. The hypertrophy was induced by intermittent exposure to simulated high altitude. The percentage hypertrophy was much greater (46%) in the right ventricle than in the left (16%). The regression could be adequately fitted to a single exponential function with a half-time of 6.73 plus or minus 0.71 days (90% CI). There was no significant difference in the rates of regression for the two ventricles.

  17. High altitude balloon experiments at IIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Akshata; Sreejith, A. G.; Safonova, Margarita; Murthy, Jayant

    Recent advances in balloon experiments as well as in electronics have made it possible to fly scientific payloads at costs accessible to university departments. We have begun a program of high altitude ballooning at the Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Bengaluru. The primary purpose of this activity is to test low-cost ultraviolet (UV) payloads for eventual space flight, but we will also try scientific exploration of the phenomena occurring in the upper atmosphere, including sprites and meteorite impacts. We present the results of the initial experiments carried out at the CREST campus of IIA, Hosakote, and describe our plans for the future.

  18. Ion gun operations at high altitudes

    OpenAIRE

    Werner, Paul W.

    1988-01-01

    Experiments in charge control were conducted on the P78-2 (SCATHA) satellite as part of a program on spacecraft charging at high altitudes. Experiments with the SCATHA ion gun were monitored by charged particle detectors and the electric field experiment. It was found that the electric field experiment could be used to measure satellite potential during ion beam emission in sunlight and eclipse. Unneutralized ion beam emission in high energy (1-2 KeV) and high current (1-2 mA) modes resulted ...

  19. Seasonal variation in fishery diversity of some wetlands of the Salcete Taluka, Goa, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Fernandes, B.; Achuthankutty, C.T.

    Status of fishery potential of three coastal wetlands, Salcete Taluka viz. Betul Assolna Velim wetland, Loutolim Raia Ambora wetland and Curtorim Macazana wetland in relation to prevailing environmental parameters viz. surface water temperature, DO...

  20. Balancing the Needs of China's Wetland Conservation and Rice Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hongjun; Wang, Guoping; Lu, Xianguo; Jiang, Ming; Mendelssohn, Irving A

    2015-06-01

    China's rice policy for protecting paddy fields and constructing rice production bases is in conflict with its wetland conservation strategy. The policy will increase the rice planting area, the loss of remaining wetlands, and environmental pollution, with intensive application of fertilizers and heavy use of pesticides. The key to resolving this conflict is to bring rice production in compliance with wetland conservation and sustainable agriculture. An operational, sound regulatory program is needed to improve China's wetland conservation. Using wetland conservation in the US as an example, we argue that more effective technical guidelines for wetland inventory and monitoring are necessary to support the implementation of the regulatory program. Agricultural conservation programs are also needed to stop further wetland loss from agricultural usages. An ecoagricultural strategy and practice should be adopted for rice production to reduce pollution and loss of remaining wetlands. Agroecological engineering tools can be used to reduce the impacts of nutrient- and pesticide-enriched agricultural runoff to wetlands. PMID:25955310

  1. Feasibility of using geothermal effluents for waterfowl wetlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-09-01

    This project was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of using geothermal effluents for developing and maintaining waterfowl wetlands. Information in the document pertains to a seven State area the West where geothermal resources have development potential. Information is included on physiochemical characteristics of geothermal effluents; known effects of constituents in the water on a wetland ecosystem and water quality criteria for maintaining a viable wetland; potential of sites for wetland development and disposal of effluent water from geothermal facilities; methods of disposal of effluents, including advantages of each method and associated costs; legal and institutional constraints which could affect geothermal wetland development; potential problems associated with depletion of geothermal resources and subsidence of wetland areas; potential interference (adverse and beneficial) of wetlands with ground water; special considerations for wetlands requirements including size, flows, and potential water usage; and final conclusions and recommendations for suitable sites for developing demonstration wetlands.

  2. Inter-Annual Variability of Area-Scaled Gaseous Carbon Emissions from Wetland Soils in the Liaohe Delta, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Siyuan; Krauss, Ken W; Brix, Hans; Wei, Mengjie; Olsson, Linda; Yu, Xueyang; Ma, Xueying; Wang, Jin; Yuan, Hongming; Zhao, Guangming; Ding, Xigui; Moss, Rebecca F

    2016-01-01

    Global management of wetlands to suppress greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, facilitate carbon (C) sequestration, and reduce atmospheric CO2 concentrations while simultaneously promoting agricultural gains is paramount. However, studies that relate variability in CO2 and CH4 emissions at large spatial scales are limited. We investigated three-year emissions of soil CO2 and CH4 from the primary wetland types of the Liaohe Delta, China, by focusing on a total wetland area of 3287 km2. One percent is Suaeda salsa, 24% is Phragmites australis, and 75% is rice. While S. salsa wetlands are under somewhat natural tidal influence, P. australis and rice are managed hydrologically for paper and food, respectively. Total C emissions from CO2 and CH4 from these wetland soils were 2.9 Tg C/year, ranging from 2.5 to 3.3 Tg C/year depending on the year assessed. Primary emissions were from CO2 (~98%). Photosynthetic uptake of CO2 would mitigate most of the soil CO2 emissions, but CH4 emissions would persist. Overall, CH4 fluxes were high when soil temperatures were >18°C and pore water salinity <18 PSU. CH4 emissions from rice habitat alone in the Liaohe Delta represent 0.2% of CH4 carbon emissions globally from rice. With such a large area and interannual sensitivity in soil GHG fluxes, management practices in the Delta and similar wetlands around the world have the potential not only to influence local C budgeting, but also to influence global biogeochemical cycling. PMID:27501148

  3. Inter-Annual Variability of Area-Scaled Gaseous Carbon Emissions from Wetland Soils in the Liaohe Delta, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Siyuan; Krauss, Ken W.; Brix, Hans; Wei, Mengjie; Olsson, Linda; Yu, Xueyang; Ma, Xueying; Wang, Jin; Yuan, Hongming; Zhao, Guangming; Ding, Xigui; Moss, Rebecca F.

    2016-01-01

    Global management of wetlands to suppress greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, facilitate carbon (C) sequestration, and reduce atmospheric CO2 concentrations while simultaneously promoting agricultural gains is paramount. However, studies that relate variability in CO2 and CH4 emissions at large spatial scales are limited. We investigated three-year emissions of soil CO2 and CH4 from the primary wetland types of the Liaohe Delta, China, by focusing on a total wetland area of 3287 km2. One percent is Suaeda salsa, 24% is Phragmites australis, and 75% is rice. While S. salsa wetlands are under somewhat natural tidal influence, P. australis and rice are managed hydrologically for paper and food, respectively. Total C emissions from CO2 and CH4 from these wetland soils were 2.9 Tg C/year, ranging from 2.5 to 3.3 Tg C/year depending on the year assessed. Primary emissions were from CO2 (~98%). Photosynthetic uptake of CO2 would mitigate most of the soil CO2 emissions, but CH4 emissions would persist. Overall, CH4 fluxes were high when soil temperatures were >18°C and pore water salinity <18 PSU. CH4 emissions from rice habitat alone in the Liaohe Delta represent 0.2% of CH4 carbon emissions globally from rice. With such a large area and interannual sensitivity in soil GHG fluxes, management practices in the Delta and similar wetlands around the world have the potential not only to influence local C budgeting, but also to influence global biogeochemical cycling. PMID:27501148

  4. A Constructed Wetland: From Monitoring To Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowal, Dan

    1998-01-01

    Presents a water-quality monitoring project in a Denver school that has evolved into an experiment using a constructed wetland system to treat the acid-mine drainage from an abandoned gold mine. (PVD)

  5. Wetland State-and-Transition Model _Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A geodatabase containing the boundaries of semipermanently flooded wetlands sampled on 8 National Wildlife Refuges in 2014 and 2015. These stations are located in...

  6. Madison Wetlands District 1970 Narrative report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Madison Wetlands Management District outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1970 calendar year. The report begins by...

  7. Ridgefield - Wetland Invasive Plant Search and Control

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This project would expand survey, control, and monitoring efforts to detect new wetland invasive plant threats and reduce the accumulation of recently documented...

  8. Do Geographically Isolated Wetlands Influence Landscape Functions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landscape functions such as flow generation, nutrient and sediment retention, and biodiversity support depend on the exchange of solutes, particles, energy, and organisms between elements in hydrological and habitat networks. Wetlands are important network elements, providing hyd...

  9. NOAA C-CAP National Wetland Potential

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The probability rating which covers landcover mapping provides a continuum of wetness from dry to water. The layer is not a wetland classification but provides the...

  10. Ridgefield - Wetland Invasive Plant Search and Control

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This project would expand survey, control, and monitoring efforts to detect new wetland invasive plant threats and continue reduction of the accumulation of...

  11. Leopold Wetland Management District: Comprehensive Conservation Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This CCP articulates the management direction for the Leopold Wetland Management District for the next 15 years. Through goals, objectives, and strategies, this CCP...

  12. Litchfield Wetland Management District Habitat Management Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Litchfield Wetland Management District Habitat Management Plan provides a longterm vision and specific guidance on managing habitats for the resources of...

  13. Site specific agreement : Lake Mason Wetland

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The site-specific agreement describes purpose and scope of the partnership between Ducks Unlimited, Inc. and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to manage wetlands for...

  14. Windom Wetland Management District : Calendar Year 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Windom Wetland Management District summarizes activities during the 2008 calendar year. The report begins with an introduction to...

  15. Windom Wetland Management District : Calendar Year 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Windom Wetland Management District summarizes activities during the 2005 calendar year. The report begins with an introduction to...

  16. Windom Wetland Management District : Calendar Year 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Windom Wetland Management District summarizes activities during the 2006 calendar year. The report begins with an introduction to...

  17. Windom Wetland Management District : Fiscal Year 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Windom Wetland Management District summarizes activities during the 2000 fiscal year. The report begins with an introduction to the...

  18. Windom Wetland Management District : Fiscal Year 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Windom Wetland Management District summarizes activities during the 2002 fiscal year. The report begins with an introduction to the...

  19. Windom Wetland Management District : Calendar Year 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Windom Wetland Management District summarizes activities during the 2007 calendar year. The report begins with an introduction to...

  20. Windom Wetland Management District : Fiscal Year 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Windom Wetland Management District summarizes activities during the 2003 fiscal year. The report begins with an introduction to the...

  1. Windom Wetland Management District : Calendar Year 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Windom Wetland Management District summarizes activities during the 2004 calendar year. The report begins with an introduction to...

  2. Windom Wetland Management District : Fiscal Year 2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Windom Wetland Management District summarizes activities during the 2001 fiscal year. The report begins with an introduction to the...

  3. Great Smoky Mountains National Wetland Habitats

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This data set represents the extent, approximate location and type of wetlands and deepwater habitats in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park. These data...

  4. Management Plan Montezuma Wetlands Complex 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Montezuma Wetlands Complex Project MWC is a land conservation and management project jointly sponsored by the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service, New York State...

  5. Wetland Mitigation Monitoring at the Fernald Preserve - 13200

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Department of Energy is responsible for 7.2 hectares (17.8 acres) of mitigation wetland at the Fernald Preserve, Ohio. Remedial activities affected the wetlands, and mitigation plans were incorporated into site-wide ecological restoration planning. In 2008, the Fernald Natural Resource Trustees developed a comprehensive wetland mitigation monitoring approach to evaluate whether compensatory mitigation requirements have been met. The Fernald Preserve Wetland Mitigation Monitoring Plan provided a guideline for wetland evaluations. The Ohio Environmental Protection Agency (Ohio EPA) wetland mitigation monitoring protocols were adopted as the means for compensatory wetland evaluation. Design, hydrologic regime, vegetation, wildlife, and biogeochemistry were evaluated from 2009 to 2011. Evaluations showed mixed results when compared to the Ohio EPA performance standards. Results of vegetation monitoring varied, with the best results occurring in wetlands adjacent to forested areas. Amphibians, particularly ambystomatid salamanders, were observed in two areas adjacent to forested areas. Not all wetlands met vegetation performance standards and amphibian biodiversity metrics. However, Fernald mitigation wetlands showed substantially higher ratings compared to other mitigated wetlands in Ohio. Also, soil sampling results remain consistent with other Ohio mitigated wetlands. The performance standards are not intended to be 'pass/fail' criteria; rather, they are reference points for use in making decisions regarding future monitoring and maintenance. The Trustees approved the Fernald Preserve Wetland Mitigation Monitoring Report with the provision that long-term monitoring of the wetlands continues at the Fernald Preserve. (authors)

  6. Wetland Mitigation Monitoring at the Fernald Preserve - 13200

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powell, Jane [Fernald Preserve Site Manager, DOE Office of Legacy Management, Harrison, Ohio (United States); Bien, Stephanie; Decker, Ashlee; Homer, John [Environmental Scientist, S.M. Stoller Corporation, Harrison, Ohio (United States); Wulker, Brian [Intern, S.M. Stoller Corporation, Harrison, Ohio (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy is responsible for 7.2 hectares (17.8 acres) of mitigation wetland at the Fernald Preserve, Ohio. Remedial activities affected the wetlands, and mitigation plans were incorporated into site-wide ecological restoration planning. In 2008, the Fernald Natural Resource Trustees developed a comprehensive wetland mitigation monitoring approach to evaluate whether compensatory mitigation requirements have been met. The Fernald Preserve Wetland Mitigation Monitoring Plan provided a guideline for wetland evaluations. The Ohio Environmental Protection Agency (Ohio EPA) wetland mitigation monitoring protocols were adopted as the means for compensatory wetland evaluation. Design, hydrologic regime, vegetation, wildlife, and biogeochemistry were evaluated from 2009 to 2011. Evaluations showed mixed results when compared to the Ohio EPA performance standards. Results of vegetation monitoring varied, with the best results occurring in wetlands adjacent to forested areas. Amphibians, particularly ambystomatid salamanders, were observed in two areas adjacent to forested areas. Not all wetlands met vegetation performance standards and amphibian biodiversity metrics. However, Fernald mitigation wetlands showed substantially higher ratings compared to other mitigated wetlands in Ohio. Also, soil sampling results remain consistent with other Ohio mitigated wetlands. The performance standards are not intended to be 'pass/fail' criteria; rather, they are reference points for use in making decisions regarding future monitoring and maintenance. The Trustees approved the Fernald Preserve Wetland Mitigation Monitoring Report with the provision that long-term monitoring of the wetlands continues at the Fernald Preserve. (authors)

  7. Ascent schedules, acute altitude illness, and altitude acclimatization: Observations on the Yushu Earthquake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Tianyi; Hou Shike; Li Shuzhi; Li Wenxiang; Gen Deng

    2013-01-01

    During the Yushu Earthquake on April 14,2010,a large number of rescuers from sea level or lowlands ascended to the quake areas very rapidly or rapidly less than 24 h.However,Yushu Earthquake is the highest quake in the world at altitudes between 3750 m and 4878 m where is a serious hypoxic environment.A high incidence of acute altitude illness was found in the unacclimatized rescuers; the mountain rescue operation changed as "rescue the rescuers".Lesson from the Yushu Earthquake is that the occurrence of acute altitude illness may be closely related to the ascent schedules.This prompted us to study the relationship between ascent rate and the incidence and severity of acute altitude illness; five different groups were compared.The first group was 42 sea level male young soldiers who ascended to quake area very rapidly within 8 h at 4000 m; the second group was 48 sea level male young soldiers who ascended to 4000 m rapidly less than 18 h; the third group was 66 acclimatized medical workers from 2261 m who ascended to 4000 m rapidly within 12 h; the fourth group was 56 Tibetan medical workers from 2800 m who ascended to 4000 m rapidly within 8 h; the fifth group was 50 male sea level workers who ascended to 4000 m gradually over a period of 4 d.The results showed that the sea level rescuers ascended to 4000 m very rapidly or rapidly had the highest incidence of acute mountain sickness (AMS) with the greatest AMS scores and the lowest arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2) ; the sea level workers ascended to 4000 m gradually had moderate incidence of AMS with moderate AMS scores and SaO2 values; whereas the acclimatized and adapted rescuers had the lowest incidence of AMS,lowest AMS scores and higher SaO2; especially none AMS occurred in Tibetan rescuers.AMS score is inversely related to the ascent rate (r=-0.24,p<0.001).Additionally,acute altitude illness is significantly influenced by altitude acclimatization.The ascent rate is inversely related to

  8. Constructed wetlands for advanced treatment and reuse

    OpenAIRE

    Frazer-Williams, Ronnie

    2007-01-01

    Constructed wetland technology is gaining increasing attention as a low cost-efficient alternative to high-tech treatment systems for treating municipal and industrial wastewaters especially in small communities. However, its application for grey water reuse has been rarely investigated whilst performance for nutrients (N and P) still remains relatively poor. Pilot scale study was conducted in which three differently configured subsurface constructed wetlands: a horizontal f...

  9. Nitrifyers in constructed wetlands treating landfill leachates

    OpenAIRE

    Sundberg, Carina

    2008-01-01

    Landfill leachate is produced many years after a landfill site closes. Hence, treatment by “natural methods”, as e.g. constructed wetlands, with low management requirements is attractive. Constructed wetlands usually provide both shallow and deep areas with aerobic and anaerobic zones, which is suitable for nitrification followed by denitrification of the ammonium-rich leachates. Full-scale treatment systems are influenced by climatic variables that affect the microbial community. Also, the o...

  10. Projecting the Hydrologic Impacts of Climate Change on Montane Wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlet, Alan F.; Palen, Wendy J.; Lawler, Joshua J.; Halabisky, Meghan

    2015-01-01

    Wetlands are globally important ecosystems that provide critical services for natural communities and human society. Montane wetland ecosystems are expected to be among the most sensitive to changing climate, as their persistence depends on factors directly influenced by climate (e.g. precipitation, snowpack, evaporation). Despite their importance and climate sensitivity, wetlands tend to be understudied due to a lack of tools and data relative to what is available for other ecosystem types. Here, we develop and demonstrate a new method for projecting climate-induced hydrologic changes in montane wetlands. Using observed wetland water levels and soil moisture simulated by the physically based Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrologic model, we developed site-specific regression models relating soil moisture to observed wetland water levels to simulate the hydrologic behavior of four types of montane wetlands (ephemeral, intermediate, perennial, permanent wetlands) in the U. S. Pacific Northwest. The hybrid models captured observed wetland dynamics in many cases, though were less robust in others. We then used these models to a) hindcast historical wetland behavior in response to observed climate variability (1916–2010 or later) and classify wetland types, and b) project the impacts of climate change on montane wetlands using global climate model scenarios for the 2040s and 2080s (A1B emissions scenario). These future projections show that climate-induced changes to key driving variables (reduced snowpack, higher evapotranspiration, extended summer drought) will result in earlier and faster drawdown in Pacific Northwest montane wetlands, leading to systematic reductions in water levels, shortened wetland hydroperiods, and increased probability of drying. Intermediate hydroperiod wetlands are projected to experience the greatest changes. For the 2080s scenario, widespread conversion of intermediate wetlands to fast-drying ephemeral wetlands will likely reduce

  11. Projecting the Hydrologic Impacts of Climate Change on Montane Wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Se-Yeun; Ryan, Maureen E; Hamlet, Alan F; Palen, Wendy J; Lawler, Joshua J; Halabisky, Meghan

    2015-01-01

    Wetlands are globally important ecosystems that provide critical services for natural communities and human society. Montane wetland ecosystems are expected to be among the most sensitive to changing climate, as their persistence depends on factors directly influenced by climate (e.g. precipitation, snowpack, evaporation). Despite their importance and climate sensitivity, wetlands tend to be understudied due to a lack of tools and data relative to what is available for other ecosystem types. Here, we develop and demonstrate a new method for projecting climate-induced hydrologic changes in montane wetlands. Using observed wetland water levels and soil moisture simulated by the physically based Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrologic model, we developed site-specific regression models relating soil moisture to observed wetland water levels to simulate the hydrologic behavior of four types of montane wetlands (ephemeral, intermediate, perennial, permanent wetlands) in the U. S. Pacific Northwest. The hybrid models captured observed wetland dynamics in many cases, though were less robust in others. We then used these models to a) hindcast historical wetland behavior in response to observed climate variability (1916-2010 or later) and classify wetland types, and b) project the impacts of climate change on montane wetlands using global climate model scenarios for the 2040s and 2080s (A1B emissions scenario). These future projections show that climate-induced changes to key driving variables (reduced snowpack, higher evapotranspiration, extended summer drought) will result in earlier and faster drawdown in Pacific Northwest montane wetlands, leading to systematic reductions in water levels, shortened wetland hydroperiods, and increased probability of drying. Intermediate hydroperiod wetlands are projected to experience the greatest changes. For the 2080s scenario, widespread conversion of intermediate wetlands to fast-drying ephemeral wetlands will likely reduce

  12. A hybrid wetland map for China: A synergistic approach using census and spatially explicit datasets

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, K.; You, L.; Liu, J; Zhang, M

    2012-01-01

    Wetlands play important ecological, economic, and cultural roles in societies around the world. However, wetland degradation has become a serious ecological issue, raising the global sustainability concern. An accurate wetland map is essential for wetland management. Here we used a fuzzy method to create a hybrid wetland map for China through the combination of five existing wetlands datasets, including four spatially explicit wetland distribution data and one wetland census. Our results sho...

  13. A Hybrid Wetland Map for China: A Synergistic Approach Using Census and Spatially Explicit Datasets

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Kun; You, Liangzhi; Liu, Junguo; Zhang, Mingxiang

    2012-01-01

    Wetlands play important ecological, economic, and cultural roles in societies around the world. However, wetland degradation has become a serious ecological issue, raising the global sustainability concern. An accurate wetland map is essential for wetland management. Here we used a fuzzy method to create a hybrid wetland map for China through the combination of five existing wetlands datasets, including four spatially explicit wetland distribution data and one wetland census. Our results show...

  14. Identification and characterization of wetlands in the Bear Creek watershed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary objective of this study was to identify, characterize, and map the wetlands in the Bear Creek watershed. A preliminary wetland categorization system based on the Cowardin classification system (Cowardin et al. 1979) with additional site-specific topographic, vegetation, and disturbance characteristic modifiers was developed to characterize the type of wetlands that exist in the Bear Creek watershed. An additional objective was to detect possible relationships among site soils, hydrology, and the occurrence of wetlands in the watershed through a comparison of existing data with the field survey. Research needs are discussed in the context of wetland functions and values and regulatory requirements for wetland impact assessment and compensatory mitigation

  15. Research Status and Development Trend of Coastal Wetland Ecological Restoration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jian-lei; WANG Shu-bo

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, with the influenced by both man-made and natural factors. coastal wetlands sharp decline in the area, lack of resources, biological diversity declined, and the ecosystem function damaged. Through on current issues such as pollution and destruction of coastal wetlands analysis of coastal wetlands in research conducted a review and prospect of ecological restoration. So the protection and restoration of coastal wetlands should be brook no delay. The article based on the current pollution and destruction of the coastal wetlands analyses, and reviewed the current effective measures to restore coastal wetlands mainly in china and abroad.

  16. Identification and characterization of wetlands in the Bear Creek watershed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosensteel, B.A. [JAYCOR, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Trettin, C.C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1993-10-01

    The primary objective of this study was to identify, characterize, and map the wetlands in the Bear Creek watershed. A preliminary wetland categorization system based on the Cowardin classification system (Cowardin et al. 1979) with additional site-specific topographic, vegetation, and disturbance characteristic modifiers was developed to characterize the type of wetlands that exist in the Bear Creek watershed. An additional objective was to detect possible relationships among site soils, hydrology, and the occurrence of wetlands in the watershed through a comparison of existing data with the field survey. Research needs are discussed in the context of wetland functions and values and regulatory requirements for wetland impact assessment and compensatory mitigation.

  17. Interaction between continental and estuarine waters in the wetlands of the northern coastal plain of Samborombón Bay, Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Inland and estuarine water flows define wetland hydrology on the Samborombón Bay. • Hydrochemistry in shell-ridges and tidal plains is due to water–rock interaction. • Mixing, evaporation and halite dissolution determine salinity in marshes. • Water flow from the shell-ridges control the overall wetland water quality. • These wetlands are complex hydrological systems with vulnerable water resources. - Abstract: On the Samborombón Bay coastline, located in the Río de la Plata estuary in Buenos Aires province (Argentina), a complex hydrological system has developed at the interface between continental and estuarine water, where significant wetlands develop. The main hydrogeological units, namely the shell ridges, the tidal plain and the marsh areas, have been identified using geomorphological criteria. Water table, hydrochemical and isotopic data have been used to determine their hydrological features, as well as those of the streams and canals. Evaporation processes, in particular, have been considered when depicting chemical and isotopic changes in surface waters in streams and marsh areas. The shell ridges represent a hydrogeological unit in which rainwater is stored, constituting a lens-shaped freshwater aquifer. In this unit, just as in the tidal plain, carbonate dissolution and ion exchange are the main processes regulating water chemistry. On the other hand, in the marsh and surface waters, processes such as mixing with estuarine water and evaporation predominate. These processes control water fluxes and the salinity of the wetland areas and, consequently, their ability to preserve the existing biodiversity. This study shows the importance of knowledge of hydrochemical processes in any proposal concerning the management and preservation of this type of wetland

  18. Saline water irrigation of quinoa and chickpea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hirich, A.; Jelloul, A.; Choukr-Allah, R.;

    2014-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted in the south of Morocco to evaluate the response of chickpea and quinoa to different irrigation water salinity treatments (1, 4, 7 and 10 dS m-1 for chickpea and 1, 10, 20 and 30 dS m-1 for quinoa). Increasing salinity affected significantly (P < 0.05) seedling rate...... and height and caused delay and reduction in seed emergence, quinoa was shown to be more resistant than chickpea. Dry biomass, seed yield, harvest index and crop water productivity were affected significantly (P < 0.05) by salinity where increasing salinity level led to decrease in dry biomass, root...... volume and seed yield for both quinoa and chickpea while increasing salinity resulted in increase - in the case of quinoa - and decrease - in the case of chickpea - in harvest index and crop water productivity. Na+ and Na+/K+ ratio increased with increasing irrigation water salinity, while K+ content...

  19. Indicators of early successional trends in environmental condition and community function in constructed wetlands of the Athabasca Oilsands region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This presentation reported on a study that compared interannual environmental variation in post-mining Athabasca oil sands landscapes. In particular, it compared biological, ecotoxicological and carbon dynamic aspects of sixteen 5 to 30 year old wetlands with different ages, reclamation materials and stockpiled surface materials such as peat. In addition to determining carbon fluxes, standing stocks of hydrocarbons were measured along with organic substrate, bacterioplankton, phytoplankton, biofilm, macrophytes, litter, zoobenthos, and aquatic insect emergence. Gas fluxes, microbial, plant, zoobenthic, amphibian, and tree swallow nestling production, and stable isotope signatures were used to determine carbon pathways, fluxes and budgets. Coarse taxon richness in reference wetlands reached an asymptote in 5 to 7 years. Richness, composition and emergent plant cover of oilsands-affected wetlands converged over a 15 to 20 year period with reference wetland patterns. The development of emergent but not submergent plant cover and associated biota accelerated with the addition of peat. Water chemistry was found to be more important than sediment in terms of regulating submergent biological properties. The study showed that the most important regulator of community composition may be residual salinity. Compared to more temperate biomes, the successional trends were slower.

  20. Indicators of early successional trends in environmental condition and community function in constructed wetlands of the Athabasca Oilsands region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciborowski, J.; Kovalenko, K. [Windsor Univ., ON (Canada); Dixon, G.; Farwell, A. [Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada); Foote, L.; Mollard, F.; Roy, M. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada); Smits, J.; Turcotte, D. [Saskatchewan Univ., Saskatoon, SK (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This presentation reported on a study that compared interannual environmental variation in post-mining Athabasca oil sands landscapes. In particular, it compared biological, ecotoxicological and carbon dynamic aspects of sixteen 5 to 30 year old wetlands with different ages, reclamation materials and stockpiled surface materials such as peat. In addition to determining carbon fluxes, standing stocks of hydrocarbons were measured along with organic substrate, bacterioplankton, phytoplankton, biofilm, macrophytes, litter, zoobenthos, and aquatic insect emergence. Gas fluxes, microbial, plant, zoobenthic, amphibian, and tree swallow nestling production, and stable isotope signatures were used to determine carbon pathways, fluxes and budgets. Coarse taxon richness in reference wetlands reached an asymptote in 5 to 7 years. Richness, composition and emergent plant cover of oilsands-affected wetlands converged over a 15 to 20 year period with reference wetland patterns. The development of emergent but not submergent plant cover and associated biota accelerated with the addition of peat. Water chemistry was found to be more important than sediment in terms of regulating submergent biological properties. The study showed that the most important regulator of community composition may be residual salinity. Compared to more temperate biomes, the successional trends were slower.

  1. Inter-Annual Variability of Area-Scaled Gaseous Carbon Emissions from Wetland Soils in the Liaohe Delta, China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ye, Siyuan; Krauss, Ken W; Brix, Hans;

    2016-01-01

    scales are limited. We investigated three-year emissions of soil CO2 and CH4 from the primary wetland types of the Liaohe Delta, China, by focusing on a total wetland area of 3287 km2. One percent is Suaeda salsa, 24% is Phragmites australis, and 75% is rice. While S. salsa wetlands are under somewhat...... natural tidal influence, P. australis and rice are managed hydrologically for paper and food, respectively. Total C emissions from CO2 and CH4 from these wetland soils were 2.9 Tg C/year, ranging from 2.5 to 3.3 Tg C/year depending on the year assessed. Primary emissions were from CO2 (~98......%). Photosynthetic uptake of CO2 would mitigate most of the soil CO2 emissions, but CH4 emissions would persist. Overall, CH4 fluxes were high when soil temperatures were >18°C and pore water salinity rice habitat alone in the Liaohe Delta represent 0.2% of CH4 carbon emissions globally...

  2. Swine lagoon wastewater treatment in marsh-pond/floating wetland-marsh constructed wetland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constructed wetlands have been used effectively to reduce the mass loads of organic and nutrient components from swine anaerobic lagoons. Continuous marsh wetlands with gentle slope and intermittent flows seem to be the best for promoting oxidation and minimizing ammonia volatilization. However, the...

  3. WETLAND MORPHOLOGIC AND BIOGEOGRAPHIC INFLUENCES ON ALGAL RESPONSES TO NUTRIENT LOADING IN GREAT LAKES COASTAL WETLANDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    We are testing the influence of wetland morphology (protected vs. riverine) and biogeography (upper vs. lower Great Lakes) on algal responses to nutrients in Great Lakes Coastal wetlands. Principal components analysis using nutrient-specific GIS data was used to select sites wit...

  4. Design-a-wetland: a tool for generating and assessing constructed wetland designs for wastewater treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Full text: The hydrological cycle is a key cycle affected by current and predicted climate change. Wetlands are one of the key ecosystems within the hydrological cycle and could contribute significantly in facing the challenges of climate change, such as water shortage. The impact of wetlands on greenhouse gas emissions is much debated and, conversely, the impact of climate change on wetlands also raises many questions. There have been many attempts to harness and integrate the natural capacities of wetlands into constructed systems. These systems are especially designed for multiple purposes. They can be used for wastewater treatment and reuse, and have the potential to increase sustainability by changing land and water use practices. This project generates a 'Design-A-Wetland' prototype model, designed to facilitate decision-making in the creation of constructed wetlands. Constructed wetlands are specifically tailored to their end use; water treatment fish and fowl habitat, flood buffer zones, or sequestration of greenhouse gases. This project attempts to answer the following questions: Can a single integrated decision model be created for the design and assessment of artificial wetlands, provided either entry or exit standards are known and specified?; Can the elements of a system of interfacing the model with public consultation be specified?; The project identifies model schematics and lays the groundwork for modelling suited to the wide variety of inputs required for decision making

  5. A global algorithm for estimating Absolute Salinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. J. McDougall

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The International Thermodynamic Equation of Seawater – 2010 has defined the thermodynamic properties of seawater in terms of a new salinity variable, Absolute Salinity, which takes into account the spatial variation of the composition of seawater. Absolute Salinity more accurately reflects the effects of the dissolved material in seawater on the thermodynamic properties (particularly density than does Practical Salinity.

    When a seawater sample has standard composition (i.e. the ratios of the constituents of sea salt are the same as those of surface water of the North Atlantic, Practical Salinity can be used to accurately evaluate the thermodynamic properties of seawater. When seawater is not of standard composition, Practical Salinity alone is not sufficient and the Absolute Salinity Anomaly needs to be estimated; this anomaly is as large as 0.025 g kg−1 in the northernmost North Pacific. Here we provide an algorithm for estimating Absolute Salinity Anomaly for any location (x, y, p in the world ocean.

    To develop this algorithm, we used the Absolute Salinity Anomaly that is found by comparing the density calculated from Practical Salinity to the density measured in the laboratory. These estimates of Absolute Salinity Anomaly however are limited to the number of available observations (namely 811. In order to provide a practical method that can be used at any location in the world ocean, we take advantage of approximate relationships between Absolute Salinity Anomaly and silicate concentrations (which are available globally.

  6. Salinity gradient power: utilizing vapor pressure differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, M; Wick, G L; Isaacs, J D

    1979-10-26

    By utilizing the vapor pressure difference between high-salinity and lowsalinity wvater, one can obtain power from the gradients of salinity. This scheme eliminates the major problems associated with conversion methods in which membranes are used. The method we tested gave higher conversion efficiencies than membrane methods. Furthermore, hardware and techniques being developed for ocean thermal energy conversion may be applied to this approach to salinity gradient energy conversion. PMID:17809370

  7. Metrological traceability of oceanographic salinity measurement results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Seitz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Consistency of observed oceanographic salinity data is discussed with respect to contemporary metrological concepts. The claimed small uncertainty of salinity measurement results traceable to the conductivity ratio of a certified IAPSO Standard Seawater reference is not metrologically justified if results are compared on climatic time scales. This applies in particular to Practical Salinity SP, Reference Salinity SR, and the latest estimates of Absolute Salinity using the TEOS-10 formalism. On climate time scales an additional contribution to the uncertainty that is related to unknown property changes of the reference material must be accounted for. Moreover, when any of these measured or calculated quantity values is used to estimate Absolute Salinity of a seawater sample under investigation, another uncertainty contribution is required to quantify the accuracy of the equations relating the actually measured quantity to the Absolute Salinity. Without accounting for these additional uncertainties, such results cannot be used to estimate Absolute Salinity with respect to the International System of Units (SI, i.e. to the unit chosen for the mass fraction of dissolved material in the sample, which is "g kg−1". From a metrological point of view, such deficiencies in the calculations involving other quantities will produce SI-incompatible results. We outline how these problems can be overcome by linking salinity to primary SI measurement standards.

  8. Metrological traceability of oceanographic salinity measurement results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Seitz

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Consistency of observed oceanographic salinity data is discussed with respect to contemporary metrological concepts. The claimed small uncertainty of salinity measurement results traceable to the conductivity ratio of a certified IAPSO Standard Seawater reference is not metrologically justified if results are compared on climatic time scales. This applies in particular to Practical Salinity SP, Reference Salinity SR, and the latest estimates of Absolute Salinity using the TEOS-10 formalism. In climate time scales an additional contribution to the uncertainty that is related to unknown property changes of the reference material must be accounted for. Moreover, when any of these measured or calculated quantity values is used to estimate Absolute Salinity of a seawater sample under investigation, another uncertainty contribution is required to quantify the accuracy of the equations relating the actually measured quantity to the Absolute Salinity. Without accounting for these additional uncertainties, such results cannot be used to estimate Absolute Salinity with respect to the International System of Units (SI, i.e. to the unit chosen for the mass fraction of dissolved material in the sample, which is "g/kg". From a metrological point of view, such deficiencies in the calculations involving other quantities will produce SI-incompatible results. We outline how these problems can be overcome by linking salinity to primary SI measurement standards.

  9. Soil Salinity Mapping Using Multitemporal Landsat Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azabdaftari, A.; Sunar, F.

    2016-06-01

    Soil salinity is one of the most important problems affecting many areas of the world. Saline soils present in agricultural areas reduce the annual yields of most crops. This research deals with the soil salinity mapping of Seyhan plate of Adana district in Turkey from the years 2009 to 2010, using remote sensing technology. In the analysis, multitemporal data acquired from LANDSAT 7-ETM+ satellite in four different dates (19 April 2009, 12 October 2009, 21 March 2010, 31 October 2010) are used. As a first step, preprocessing of Landsat images is applied. Several salinity indices such as NDSI (Normalized Difference Salinity Index), BI (Brightness Index) and SI (Salinity Index) are used besides some vegetation indices such as NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index), RVI (Ratio Vegetation Index), SAVI (Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index) and EVI (Enhamced Vegetation Index) for the soil salinity mapping of the study area. The field's electrical conductivity (EC) measurements done in 2009 and 2010, are used as a ground truth data for the correlation analysis with the original band values and different index image bands values. In the correlation analysis, two regression models, the simple linear regression (SLR) and multiple linear regression (MLR) are considered. According to the highest correlation obtained, the 21st March, 2010 dataset is chosen for production of the soil salinity map in the area. Finally, the efficiency of the remote sensing technology in the soil salinity mapping is outlined.

  10. GlobWetland Africa: Implementing Sustainable Earth Observation Based Wetland Monitoring Capacity in Africa and Beyond

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tottrup, Christian; Riffler, Michael; Wang, Tiejun;

    Lack of data, appropriate information and challenges in human and institutional capacity put a serious constraint on effective monitoring and management of wetlands in Africa. Conventional data are often lacking in time or space, of poor quality or available at locations that are not necessarily...... in Africa has also traditionally been constrained either because of high costs or, especially in Equatorial Africa, owing to frequent cloud cover. To meet these challenges the European Space Agency has launched GlobWetland Africa as a major initiative to facilitate the exploitation of satellite...... observations for the conservation, wiseuse and effective management of wetlands in Africa and to provide African stakeholders with the necessary EO methods and tools to better fulfil their commitments and obligations towards the Ramsar Convention on Wetlands. The main objective of GlobWetland Africa (GW-A) is...

  11. Bronchial asthma: advice for patients traveling to high altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogo, Annalisa; Fiorenzano, Giuseppe

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the possibility of traveling to altitude for patients suffering from bronchial asthma. The mountain environment, the adaptations of the respiratory system to high altitude, the underlying patho-physiologies of asthma, and the recommendations for patients, according to altitude, are discussed. In summary, staying at low altitude has a significant beneficial effect for asthmatic patients, due to the reduction of airway inflammation and the lower response to bronchoconstrictor stimuli; for staying at moderate altitude, there is conflicting information and no clinical data; at high altitude, the environment seems beneficial for well-controlled asthmatics, but intense exercise and upper airway infections (frequent during trekking) can be additional risks and should be avoided. Further, in remote areas health facilities are often difficult to reach. PMID:19519226

  12. Development of an indicator to monitor mediterranean wetlands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Sanchez

    Full Text Available Wetlands are sensitive ecosystems that are increasingly subjected to threats from anthropogenic factors. In the last decades, coastal Mediterranean wetlands have been suffering considerable pressures from land use change, intensification of urban growth, increasing tourism infrastructure and intensification of agricultural practices. Remote sensing (RS and Geographic Information Systems (GIS techniques are efficient tools that can support monitoring Mediterranean coastal wetlands on large scales and over long periods of time. The study aims at developing a wetland indicator to support monitoring Mediterranean coastal wetlands using these techniques. The indicator makes use of multi-temporal Landsat images, land use reference layers, a 50m numerical model of the territory (NMT and Corine Land Cover (CLC for the identification and mapping of wetlands. The approach combines supervised image classification techniques making use of vegetation indices and decision tree analysis to identify the surface covered by wetlands at a given date. A validation process is put in place to compare outcomes with existing local wetland inventories to check the results reliability. The indicator´s results demonstrate an improvement in the level of precision of change detection methods achieved by traditional tools providing reliability up to 95% in main wetland areas. The results confirm that the use of RS techniques improves the precision of wetland detection compared to the use of CLC for wetland monitoring and stress the strong relation between the level of wetland detection and the nature of the wetland areas and the monitoring scale considered.

  13. Development of an indicator to monitor mediterranean wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Antonio; Abdul Malak, Dania; Guelmami, Anis; Perennou, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Wetlands are sensitive ecosystems that are increasingly subjected to threats from anthropogenic factors. In the last decades, coastal Mediterranean wetlands have been suffering considerable pressures from land use change, intensification of urban growth, increasing tourism infrastructure and intensification of agricultural practices. Remote sensing (RS) and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) techniques are efficient tools that can support monitoring Mediterranean coastal wetlands on large scales and over long periods of time. The study aims at developing a wetland indicator to support monitoring Mediterranean coastal wetlands using these techniques. The indicator makes use of multi-temporal Landsat images, land use reference layers, a 50m numerical model of the territory (NMT) and Corine Land Cover (CLC) for the identification and mapping of wetlands. The approach combines supervised image classification techniques making use of vegetation indices and decision tree analysis to identify the surface covered by wetlands at a given date. A validation process is put in place to compare outcomes with existing local wetland inventories to check the results reliability. The indicator´s results demonstrate an improvement in the level of precision of change detection methods achieved by traditional tools providing reliability up to 95% in main wetland areas. The results confirm that the use of RS techniques improves the precision of wetland detection compared to the use of CLC for wetland monitoring and stress the strong relation between the level of wetland detection and the nature of the wetland areas and the monitoring scale considered. PMID:25826210

  14. The physiology and biomechanics of avian flight at high altitude

    OpenAIRE

    Altshuler, Douglas L.; Dudley, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Many birds fly at high altitude, either during long-distance flights or by virtue of residence in high-elevation habitats. Among the many environmental features that vary systematically with altitude, five have significant consequences for avian flight performance: ambient wind speeds, air temperature, humidity, oxygen availability, and air density. During migratory flights, birds select flight altitudes that minimize energy expenditure via selection of advantageous tail- and cross-winds. Oxy...

  15. Work at high altitude and oxidative stress: antioxidant nutrients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askew, E W

    2002-11-15

    A significant portion of the world's geography lies above 10,000 feet elevation, an arbitrary designation that separates moderate and high altitude. Although the number of indigenous people living at these elevations is relatively small, many people travel to high altitude for work or recreation, exposing themselves to chronic or intermittent hypoxia and the associated risk of acute mountain sickness (AMS) and less frequently, high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE) and high altitude cerebral edema (HACE). The symptoms of AMS (headache, nausea, anorexia, fatigue, lassitude) occur in those who travel too high, too fast. Some investigators have linked the development of these symptoms with the condition of altered blood-brain barrier permeability, possibly related to hypoxia induced free radical formation. The burden of oxidative stress increases during the time spent at altitude and may even persist for some time upon return to sea level. The physiological and medical consequences of increased oxidative stress engendered by altitude is unclear; indeed, hypoxia is believed to be the trigger for the cascade of signaling events that ultimately leads to adaptation to altitude. These signaling events include the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that may elicit important adaptive responses. If produced in excess, however, these ROS may contribute to impaired muscle function and reduced capillary perfusion at altitude or may even play a role in precipitating more serious neurological and pulmonary crisis. Oxidative stress can be observed at altitude without strenuous physical exertion; however, environmental factors other than hypoxia, such as exercise, UV light exposure and cold exposure, can also contribute to the burden. Providing antioxidant nutrients via the diet or supplements to the diet can reduce oxidative stress secondary to altitude exposure. In summary, the significant unanswered question concerning altitude exposure and antioxidant supplementation is

  16. Altitude, Immigration and Suicide Rates: A Study from Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Selek, Salih

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the altitude, immigration and suicide rates association in Turkey. Methods Suicide and immigration rates of 81 provinces and their elevation data were obtained. Results There were not significant correlations between country elevation, immigration and mean suicide rate. Conclusion The findings of this study points out that altitude related hypoxia and suicide association may not be generalized and further research will be needed to clarify the effects of altitude on s...

  17. Genomic insights into adaptation to high-altitude environments

    OpenAIRE

    Cheviron, Z A; Brumfield, R. T.

    2011-01-01

    Elucidating the molecular genetic basis of adaptive traits is a central goal of evolutionary genetics. The cold, hypoxic conditions of high-altitude habitats impose severe metabolic demands on endothermic vertebrates, and understanding how high-altitude endotherms cope with the combined effects of hypoxia and cold can provide important insights into the process of adaptive evolution. The physiological responses to high-altitude stress have been the subject of over a century of research, and r...

  18. The effect of acetazolamide on breath holding at high altitude.

    OpenAIRE

    Morrissey, S. C.; Keohane, K.; Coote, J.H.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of altitude and acetazolamide on breath holding was studied in 20 individuals. Breath holding time was reduced progressively during ascent. There was an additional reduction in the acetazolamide group at low but not at high altitude. The initial difference between the two groups may have been related to a lower CSF pH when on acetazolamide. At high altitude the finding of similar breath holding times in the two groups may have been due to acclimatization in the placebo group.

  19. High-Altitude Illnesses: Physiology, Risk Factors, Prevention, and Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, Andrew T.

    2011-01-01

    High-altitude illnesses encompass the pulmonary and cerebral syndromes that occur in non-acclimatized individuals after rapid ascent to high altitude. The most common syndrome is acute mountain sickness (AMS) which usually begins within a few hours of ascent and typically consists of headache variably accompanied by loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, disturbed sleep, fatigue, and dizziness. With millions of travelers journeying to high altitudes every year and sleeping above 2,500 m, acute m...

  20. Plasticity of the muscle proteome to exercise at altitude

    OpenAIRE

    Flueck, Martin

    2009-01-01

    The ascent of humans to the summits of the highest peaks on Earth initiated a spurt of explorations into the physiological consequences of physical activity at altitude. The past three decades have demonstrated that the resetting of respiratory and cardiovascular control with chronic exposure to altitudes above 4000 m is accompanied by important structural-functional adjustments of skeletal muscle. The fully altitude-adapted phenotype preserves energy charge at reduced aerobic capacity throug...